WorldWideScience

Sample records for pakistan ni okeru

  1. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system (survey of the coal utilization in Pakistan); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Pakistan ni okeru sekitan riyo gaikyo chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This paper made a literature survey, hearing survey, site survey/study on the coal in Pakistan such as the coal utilization system and the environmental situation, etc., and aimed at pre-examination for the survey of the introduction of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system to be planned in Pakistan in the future. The examination, data collection and preparation were conducted in terms of the following items: the structure of coal consumption in energy supply, structure of coal consumption, mainly of domestic brown coal consumption, the situation of coal utilization by industry and by region, environmental problems caused by coal utilization such as air pollution, the trend of policies of environmental regulation, etc. The literature on the following was obtained and surveyed: the situation of economy/energy in Pakistan, coal utilization technology by industrial field, and environmental protection technology. The hearing survey was made to institutions concerned, corporation groups and men of learning and experience. Site surveys were conducted for the typically selected coal utilization equipment and existing environmental protection equipment. 66 figs., 56 tabs.

  2. FY 2000 report on the basic survey to promote Joint Implementation, etc. Environmental improvement and energy conservation measures in Pakistan Steel, a state-run enterprise in Pakistan; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Pakistan koku kokuei Pakistan Steel ni okeru kankyo kaizen sho energy taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the state-run plant of Pakistan Steel in Pakistan, an investigational study was conducted on energy conservation and reduction in greenhouse effect gas emission. In the project, energy conservation technology on the following was tried to be introduced: coke oven coal moisture control (CMC) equipment, sintering cooler waste heat recovery equipment, blast furnace hot stove waste heat recovery equipment, blast furnace pulverized coal injection (PCI) equipment, blast furnace top pressure recovery turbine (TRT) equipment, and hot strip mill heating furnace regenerative type burner equipment. Further, in the project on environmental improvement, studies were made on coke oven environmental improvement and blast furnace cast house dust collection. The results of the study indicated that economical effects of the energy conservation project were considered as low because the unit price of energy of Pakistan Steel is low. However, substitution of the low-priced domestic coal for the imported coal has a good effect, and energy conservation in the TRT power generation and by the regenerative type burner produces a highly economical effect. Therefore, Pakistan Steel also agrees to positively promote the project. Moreover, concerning the environmental improvement project, it was considered that the necessity of the project is high in the relation of the coke oven aimed at reducing emissions of toxic substances. (NEDO)

  3. Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    In contrast to India, Pakistan is many years away from becoming a commercial nuclear supplier. Pakistan's nuclear technology and industrial base is dwarfed by India's, and even by those of smaller Asian nations such as South Korea and Taiwan. In the face of an embargo by advanced suppliers, Pakistan is still struggling to attract bids to supply equipment for the Chashma nuclear power project---some twenty years after starting the Karachi nuclear power plant (KANUPP), Pakistan's first and only power reactor import to date. This paper focuses on four sets of questions about Pakistan that could shape its potential role as a future nuclear supplier: transactions in the international nuclear market; structure of decision making in nuclear affairs; norms that guide its domestic and international nuclear policies; and capabilities for nuclear export

  4. Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    This information sheet about Pakistan, by the U.S. State Dept., summarizes its geography, political history, government, economy and international relations. Pakistan, lying on the Arabian Sea between Iran and India, and neighboring Afghanistan and China, has been independent from British control since 1947. Her people, 98 million, come from several Indo-European ethnic groups, but are 97% Muslim. Most live in the fertile Indus river valley; 53% work in agriculture; 13% in industry; mean per capita income is $331. The infant mortality rate is about 119/1000; life expectancy around 51 years. The country is endowed with resources, besides farmland, of oil, gas, coal, iron and hydroelectric power. It produces cotton, rice, fruits and vegetables as well for export. Pakistan's history is filled with strife, armed or political, marked by the independence of East Pakistan, now Bangladesh, in 1970, and rivalry for power by military and democratic factions, ending with a real election of Benazir Bhutto in 1986. Despite basic resources and a net export of food and textiles, the country has a significant debt and runs a deficit, and supports a rapidly growing young population (3.1% growth rate). Pakistan partakes in a complicated net of international relations due to the alignment of countries on her borders. Religious and ethnic conflicts with India, ideological difficulties and millions of refugees flowing from Afghanistan, but good relations with Iran and China make up this pattern.

  5. Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Pakistan's background notes which profile the population, geography, government, and the economy contain a capsule of selected country statistics and a descriptive text. Pakistan has 117 million people distributed at 134/sq km with a growth rate of 3%. The major cities are Islamabad, Rawalpindi, Karachi, Lahore, and Faisalabad. Ethnic groups include the Punjabi, Sindhi, Pathan, Baluch, and Huhajirs. 97% are Muslim. Urdu is the official language, but 65% speak Punjabi, 11% Sindhi, and 24% other languages. 26% are literate. Infant mortality is 109/1000. 54% are involved in agriculture, 33% services, and 13% in industry. A parliamentary democracy was established in 1947 with an executive, legislative, and judicial branch of government. The Islamic Democratic Alliance is the most important national party. Voting rights are for those 21 years. Seats are reserved for non-Muslims. There are 4 political subdivisions. Gross national product (GNP) was $43 billion in 1990. The economic growth rate is 5% and 2%/capita. The natural resources are arable land, natural gas, petroleum, coal, iron ore, and hydropower potential. Agricultural products include wheat, cotton, rice, and sugarcane. Industry includes textiles, fertilizer, steel products, food processing, and oil and gas products. Major trade partners are Japan, the US, the United Kingdom, and Saudi Arabia. Economic aid was $36 billion between 1947-85, of which the US contributed 3 billion between 1981-87. Major donors are id entified. The population concentration is around Karachi. Political unrest has prevailed for 26 years and includes the creation of Bangladesh in 1970 from East Pakistan. Pakistan is considered to have the resources and entrepreneurial skills to develop economically rapidly. Defense strength is characterized as the world's 11th largest. Pakistan is nonaligned, but a member of the Organization of the Islamic Conference and the UN. Relations with India have been difficult. There is a desire for a stable

  6. Improvement of magnetic properties of Fe-50mass%Ni in MIM process; MIM process ni okeru Fe-50mass%Ni no jiki tokusei kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, H. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Fujita, S. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Fujita, M.; Ninomiya, R. [Mitsuikinzoku Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-12-15

    Metal injection molding (MIM) process is hoped to be one of processing for required to more complicated parts of magnetic components. In this study, the effect of different types of powders (prealloyed and mixed elemental powders) on the magnetic properties of permalloy (Fe-50mass%Ni) through the MIM technique was investigated. Approximately 94% of theoretical density was obtained by using the prealloyed powder, and the retained carbon and oxygen contents were controlled to be low. On the other hand, 96% of theoretical density was obtained by using the mixed elemental powder, but the magnetic properties were inferior to that of prealloyed powder's because of high retained oxygen content. By using the carbonyl Fe powder with high carbon, the retained oxygen and carbon content could be controlled to be low, resulting in the improved magnetic properties. (author)

  7. Catalytic technology in the energy/environment field. Utilization of catalyst in coal pyrolysis and gasification processes; Energy kankyo bun`ya ni okeru shokubai gijutsu. Sekitan no netsubunkai oyobi gas ka ni okeru shokubai no riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Y. [Tohoku University, Institute for Chemical Reaction Science (Japan)

    1998-05-20

    This review article focuses on the utilization of several catalysts during coal pyrolysis and gasification. In situ or off line catalytic upgrading of volatile matters during pyrolysis of low rank coals is carried out in pressurized H2 with different reactors to produce BTX (benzene, toluene and xylene). When NiSO4 and Ni(OH)2 are used in the hydropyrolysis of Australian brown coal using an entrained bed reactor with two separated reaction zones, BTX yield reaches 18-23%. MS-13X zeolite and USY zeolite mixed with Al2O3 are effective for producing BTX with powder-particle fluidized bed and two-stage reactors, respectively. Catalytic gasification is described from a standpoint of direct production of SNG(CH4) from coal and steam. When K2CO3 and Ni are compared for this purpose, Ni catalyst is more suitable at low temperatures of 500-600degC, where CH4 formation is thermodynamically favorable. Fe and Ca catalysts can successfully be prepared from inexpensive raw materials and are rather active for steam gasification at {>=}700degC. The use of upgrading and gasification catalysts is discussed in terms of preparation, performance, life and recovery. 27 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Effects of solvent and catalysts on the hydrogenolysis of alkylnaphthalenes; Alkylnaphthalene no suisoka bunkai ni okeru yobai to shokubai no koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futamura, S. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Catalytic effects of metal and carbon materials, which promote hydrogen transfer from hydrogen donor solvents, are investigated during hydrogenolysis of benzyl-1-methylnaphthalenes (BMN) selected as a hydrogen acceptor. For the isomer distribution of BMN after the reaction, almost the same molecular ratio before the reaction was obtained independent of the presence of catalysts. Selectivity of position during the addition of hydrogen atoms from tetralin was not found. For the reaction of BMN in tetralin, 1-methylnaphthalene and toluene were obtained as products, but the formation of benzylnaphthalene was not found. As for the nuclear hydride of BMN, the trace amount formation was confirmed by gas chromatography. For the hydrogen transfer from tetralin progressed catalytically, it was found that the nuclear of naphthalene can not be hydrogenated easily. This was considered to be due to the obstruction of hydrogen transfer from tetralin by the strong adsorption of BMN on the Ni surface. 1 ref., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  9. Characterization of the various catalyst for solvent hydrogenation at 1t/d PSU; 1t/d PSU ni okeru kakushu yozai suisoka shokubai no seino hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakebayashi, H.; Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Aihara, Y.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Performance of various catalysts for hydrogenation of recycle solvent was evaluated for the operation of NEDOL process 1 t/d process supporting unit (PSU). Distillate between 220 and 538{degree}C derived from the liquefaction of Tanito Harum coal was used as recycle solvent. Deactivation behaviors of catalysts were compared using a prediction equation of catalyst life, by which aromatic carbon index (fa) after hydrogenation can be determined from the fa of recycle oil before hydrogenation, reaction temperature, and total hydrogenation time. Total hydrogenation time satisfying the {Delta}fa, 0.05 before and after hydrogenation were 8,000, 4,000, and 2,000 hours for NiMo-based catalysts C, A, and B, respectively. Catalyst C showed the longest life. Used catalysts were also characterized. The catalyst C showed larger mean pore size than those of the others, which resulted in the longer life due to the delay of pore blockage. From measurements by XPS and EPMA, relative atomic concentration of carbon increased remarkably after the use for all of catalysts, which was considered to be due to the adhesion of hydrocarbons. Increase of metal atoms, such as Fe and Cr, was also observed due to the contamination of entrainment residues. Deactivation of catalysts was caused by the adhesion of hydrocarbons, and metallic compounds, such as Fe and Cr. 3 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  10. Improvement of the detection limits in radio-frequency-powered glow discharge optical emission spectrometry associated with bias-current conduction method; Jiko bias denryu donyuho ni yoru koshuha glow hoden hakko bunseki ni okeru kenshutsu genkai no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagatsuma, K. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Research Institute for Materials

    1999-01-01

    A d.c. bias current driven by the self-bias voltage which is conducted through the r.f.-powered glow discharge plasma varies the emission characteristics drastically, leading to improvement of the detection power in the optical emission spectrometry. By conducting the bias currents of 20-30 mA, the emission intensities of the atomic resonance lines were 10-20 times larger than those obtained with conventional r.t.- powered plasmas. The detection limits for determination of alloyed elements in the re-based binary alloy samples were estimated to be l.6 x 10{sup -3}% Cr for CrI 425.43nm, 7 x 10{sup -4}% Mn for MnI 403.10nm, 1.9>10{sup -3}% Cu for CuI 327.40nm, 1.1 x 10{sup -3}% Al for AlI 396.16nm, and 6.6 x 10{sup -3}% Ni for NiI 352.45 nm. (author)

  11. Pakistan. Spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, M

    1985-01-01

    Focus in this discussion of Pakistan is on demographic factors, the issue of ethnic versus national solidarity, and economic and social development. The population was estimated at 99.2 million in 1985. The birthrate was 43/1000 in 1984 and the deaths were 15/1000. The infant mortality rate is 105 infant deaths/1000 live births, and life expectancy at birth is 51 years. In 1983 the gross national product per capita was US$390. The population of Pakistan is concentrated around Karachi on the Arabian Sea and in the crescent formed by Lahore, Rawalpindi, and Peshawar. Pakistan was a British colony, part of the Indian subcontinent until partition in 1947, when Britain gave Pakistan and India their freedom. Pakistan is not a theocracy, but the military government turns to traditional Islam for affirmation of its authority. Its martial law regime, established in 1977, is headed by President Ziaul Haq. The issue of ethnic versus national solidarity has been a problem since independence. Bengali-speaking East Pakistanis felt they did not have equal power in their country whose official language was Urdu and whose capital was in West Pakistan. East and West Pakistan ended up in armed conflict with the formation of Bangladesh in 1971 as the result. Regional and ethnic conflict is exacerbated by the low rate of literacy and the low status of certain ethnic groups in Pakistan. In addition, Pakistan suffers problems typical of many developing nations: a low per capita income, a large and growing population, and a highly stratified traditional society. In 1981 doctors, engineers, and craftsmen were in short supply, but there was a surplus of 300,000 agricultural workers. Agriculture makes up 30% of the GNP and employs 55% of the work force. In Pakistan's 6th Five Year Plan, initiated in July 1983, the government acknowledged for the 1st time the extremely poor conditions for women as indicated by literacy, health, and fertility. The total fertility rate is 6.4 average births

  12. Application of plasma sprayed ceramic coatings to the base materials of the rotating disk in the centrifugal atomization process. Enshinryoku funmuho ni okeru kaiten enban eno ceramic yosha himaku no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, T; Okimoto, K [Government Industrial Research Inst., Kyushu, Tosu, Saga (Japan); Yasutake, R [Koeiseiko Co. Ltd., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1992-07-08

    Applicability of the ceramic coating on the rotating disk was studied. In regard to the synthesis of Cu-based rapidly solidified powders, centrifugal atomization with molten Cu-24.6Sn was carried out using rotating disks sprayed with four kinds of sprayed ceramic coatings. It was found that atomization of Al203-40%TiO2 sprayed coating has been the best, and the yield ratio has been about 60 %. The melt temperature in case of Fe-based rapidly solidified metal powders, has risen above 1600[degree]C, and the required conditions for rotating disk have been very difficult to meet. The reason for it is thought that there has also been limitations regarding the functions of the characteristics like heat transfer, heat capacity, etc. Fe-24Cr-5Ni-1Mo 2 phase stainless steel powder has shown the most suitable trend among the seven kinds of disk materials examined for ZrO2 ceramic sprayed coatings. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Progress in photometry. Sokko ni okeru saikinno shinpo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krochmann, J

    1991-07-01

    A recent progress in photometry was summarized. As to photometric error, photometric head, luminous intensity, luminous flux, and lighting system, a present situation was introduced. Was described the error in photometry using a silicon photodiode, which became in a level of 0.1% by the self-calibration. Also were illustrated the photometric heads for evaluating spatial luminous intensities, the detector for ratio temperature measurement needed for calibration of a normal standard light source, the filter-type monochromator for measuring a difference of spectral response, and the solar battery for reference which can correct the photometer used for the long period in the field. A measurement of high-speed photocurrent was shown, in which the resolving power of 10{sup {minus}14}ampere (10{sup {minus}6}lux) can be achieved. A goniophotometer for luminous flux measurement was also introduced. Furthermore, the stimulation direct-reading colorimeter, the reflectance and transmission measuring apparatus, the illumination meter with a remote control transmitter, the diffuse reflectance measuring apparatus, and the daylight factor measuring apparatus were illustrated. 14 refs., 11 figs.

  14. How Pakistan Works

    OpenAIRE

    Lieven, Anatol; Global Policy Institute

    2008-01-01

    The title for this essay comes from the fact that contrary to the general Western perception, Pakistan does actually work as a country, not as well as many, but better than some; and that it is in no immediate danger of collapse, except as a result of misguided and reckless US policies. Pakistan is in many ways surprisingly tough as a state and political society. The loss of Bangladesh in 1971 does not set a precedent for present-day Pakistan. The Pakistan of 1947-71, two regions with very di...

  15. Energy dynamics of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhar, M.I.; Sultan, A.; Nouman, A.; Javed, A.

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes energy requirements of Pakistan and the rate at which these requirements are increasing. Various energy sources in Pakistan are analyzed and their potentials and limitations are presented. Global trends suggest that the world will depend more on renewable energy resources in the future. So Pakistan should also consider these sources. The way this situation is handled will have a great effect on the future development of Pakistan. The worst and best case scenarios are presented. Solutions to the problem and some methods to deal with the situation are also suggested with keeping 2025 in view. (author)

  16. Moral Education in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Shafiqua

    1980-01-01

    This report describes formal and informal methods of moral education operative in Pakistan. The nation's Islamic environment is explained; school policy, objectives, and practices are outlined; and informal moral education efforts through the mass media are noted. Problems in moral education in Pakistan and proposals for the future are discussed.…

  17. Study of street-blockades caused by a large earthquake; Daishinsaiji ni okeru doro heisoku ni knsuru kenkyu (Hanshin Awaji daishinsai ni okeru jittai bunseki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imaizumi, K. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Asami, Y. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-09-30

    The Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake caused great damage to roads. Not only on highways, but even in regional communities, a considerable number of streets became unusable because of falls of buildings, etc. to roads and occurrence of bumps. It provided obstacles in refuge and rescue activities. In building cities preparing for earthquake in future, it is important to re-evaluate how to make the road network including narrow streets. Therefore, paying attention to the physical distance of the roads in earthquake and the number of the points which people cannot reach, clarified was the relation between those phenomena and the characteristics of towns/roads which the region has. As an example of Higashinada-ward, Kobe-city, this report analyzed the data on the actual state from the aspects written below which become especially important in actions taken immediately after earthquake, and described the information/knowledge obtained therefrom: (1) difference in arrival distance between usually and in earthquake in case of walking from residence place to refuge place; (2) state of occurrence of the points where people cannot reach in going to hospitals by ambulance. (NEDO)

  18. Detection of vehicle crossing path at intersection; Mitoshi no yoi kosaten ni okeru deaigashira jiko ni tsuite (Ibarakiken ni okeru jiko tahatsu zone no tokucho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, K; Uchida, N; Katayama, T [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    An investigation was excuted to understand the actual state of accidents happened at intersections where there were no constructive obstacles in field of view. First, the aspects of fatal accidents are described under the basis of the data published by the police of Ibaraki prefecture. Then it is shown that there are at least 336 intersections where the accidents happened in the last two years. It is also clarified that many dangerous zones were located in line along rivers. The authors stress that it is urgent to inform the existence of dangerous zones to prevent the accidents. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Pakistan and the bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalilzad, Z.

    1980-01-01

    Pakistan is thought to be the next candidate for the nuclear club. A civilian program inevitably greatly reduces the incremental time and cost for further steps that might be taken toward military uses. Pakistani leaders realized that a civilian nuclear program could bring their country close to a nuclear weapons capability, and that emphasis on the non-military importance and economic necessity of certain civilian technologies can provide a cover for essentially military programs. In 1975, Pakistan announced its energetic nuclear plan for the remainder of this century, in which it called for the installation of a 600-MW reactor in 1980 and 10 more reactors in the decade following. In 1976, Pakistan signed an agreement with France for the purchase of a nuclear reprocessing facility. With reprocessing and testing and construction of the non-nuclear parts of nuclear devices a nonweapon state can come anywhere from a few hours to a few days within putting a nuclear device together, depending on the technical capabilities of the countries concerned. But, Pakistan's interest in reprocessing has been taken as a serious indicator of a desire to be able to produce nuclear weapons. The effects and the impact of 1974 Indian explosion on Pakistan are examined. If India's 1974 explosion results in the production of nuclear weapons, Pakistan will probably follow suit. Pakistan has refused to become a party to the Partial Test Ban and the Non-Proliferation Treatly. 28 references

  20. Gravitational observation in central Hokkaido; Hokkaido chuobu ni okeru juryoku sokutei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, Y; Makino, M [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    To compile a base map of gravity in Hokkaido, gravity was measured in central Hokkaido where gravity data are absent. Gravity anomaly was made clear in this region. Survey area was 87 km in the east-west and 224 km in the north-south. A topographic map with a scale of 25,000:1 was initially used for determining location and altitude of gravity measuring points. Since the GPS survey was found to be very useful for gravitational observation in the region of Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake in 1995, the GPS has been used in this survey from 1996. Based on new measurements at 2,148 points in addition to existing points, Bouguer anomaly map was made, and density distribution of surface layer of the crust was estimated. As a result, the gravity anomaly pattern in the north-south direction and gravity anomaly in basins and volcanoes were made clear. Quantitative analysis is to be conducted using these gravity data. Using these gravity data, the density distribution of surface layer of the crust was estimated. This distribution agreed well with the geological map in this region. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Study on the time-domain electromagnetic responses; TDEM ho ni okeru denji oto ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguchi, K; Endo, M [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering

    1997-05-27

    With an objective to perform three-dimensional analysis with high accuracy in using the electromagnetic exploration method, characteristics in electromagnetic response were analyzed, and conditions for acquiring necessary data were discussed. The discussion defined a parameter called `response anomaly` which uses response from media to standardize response only from substances with abnormal resistivity. The receivers were located uniformly on the same plane, and the response anomaly was derived from electromagnetic response from each of the three horizontal and vertical components at each receiving point, which was expressed as a contour map. The parameter for the abnormal body was consisted of location and resistivity contrast with media. Discussions using the contour map were given on the response when these factors for the parameter were varied. As a result, it was found that the response anomaly appears in the form that reflects the abnormal body, and the response anomaly of the horizontal component is superior in terms of being large. It was also referred that, as a requirement for the abnormal body which gives larger impact from the electromagnetic response, the abnormal body should have lower resistivity than that in the media, and resistivity contrast with the media should be greater. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Global environmental problems in the electric industry. Denki jigyo ni okeru chikyu kankyo mondai ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugi, T [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan)

    1992-09-30

    Since the electric industry has grappled with a prevention of the environmental pollution such as the air pollution and water contamination as a forerunner in case of construction and operation of the power facilities, and at the same time has conducted actively the environmental conservation countermeasures, it has consequently achieved the environmental conservation level as a top level in the world. On the other hand, as for the emission quantity of CO2 relating to the earth warming, the power field occupies about one fourth of total Japan. Therefore the electric industry should aim at the electric energy supply considering the influence on the environment, such as the power supply structure to restrain CO2 emission as less as possible, higher efficiency of equipments, higher efficiency of energy utilization by using the unused energy and so forth. In addition to it, the consumer side should aim at the social structure with a recycle type such as saving resources and saving energy, and aim at changeover of life style. It is hoped to conduct the overall measure including the items mentioned above. In this report, the recent trend of earth enviromental problems, grappling with the environmental problems as a forerunner such as the prevention measure of air pollution in the thermal power plant, etc., and the correspondence to the earth warming problems are outlined. 11 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Pakistan's Domestic Political Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kronstadt, K. A

    2005-01-01

    .... The September 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States and Musharraf's ensuing withdrawal of support for the Afghan Taliban regime, however, had the effect of greatly reducing Pakistan's international isolation...

  4. Pakistan's Afghanistan Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hussain, Khawar

    2005-01-01

    .... Since 1947 both countries have interfered in each other's domestic affairs. The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan forced Pakistan to wage a proxy war in Afghanistan, garnering the support of Western and Arab allies...

  5. Empowering growth in Pakistan?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A. Siegmann (Karin Astrid); H. Majid (Hadia)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractPakistan's Vision 2025 connects a policy commitment to greater gender equality with inclusive growth. It prioritises a "good quality of life and high living standard for all citizens across regions, gender" and to "achieve an annual average growth rate of 7 to 8 per cent that is

  6. Afghan refugees in Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exterkate, M.

    2003-01-01

    Against the background of the changing situation in Afghanistan, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) requested NIDI in the beginning of 2002 to conduct a rapid survey among Afghan refugees living in Pakistan. It's purpose was to assess the demographic and socio-economic

  7. Pakistan's Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kerr, Paul; Nikitin, Mary B

    2007-01-01

    Pakistan's nuclear arsenal consists of approximately 60 nuclear warheads. Pakistan continues fissile material production for weapons, and is adding to its weapons production facilities and delivery vehicles...

  8. Determinants of Poverty in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Huma Yousaf; Imran Ali

    2014-01-01

    This research discusses impact of macroeconomic variables on poverty in Pakistan. In this article five variables are used and two models are run. The ordinary least squares approach is applied. In first model we check the impact of budget deficit, government expenditure and unemployment on poverty in Pakistan. Budget deficit and government expenditure shows negative relationship with poverty in Pakistan while unemployment has positive relationship with poverty. In second model we check the im...

  9. Country watch: Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, K; Agha, S

    1999-01-01

    In Pakistan, which has a high fertility rate, affordable prices of condoms and family planning services attract low-income residents. This was shown by the two projects: the condom distribution scheme and the family planning franchise. A condom social marketing (CSM) program started by Population Services International (PSI) increased contraceptive use in urban areas and sold low-priced condoms. However, in 1991 the price doubled in order to recover the costs, which resulted in a decline in sales. Thus, in 1995 PSI and Social Marketing Pakistan franchised the Green Star project that aimed to raise the quality of private sector family planning clinics serving low-income women and to increase the availability and use of female-controlled contraception. By 1996, the CSM project was selling over 80 million condoms annually.

  10. Soil degradation in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper diagnoses the issues involved behind the current state, usage, interactions and linkages in the soils in Pakistan. The condition of soils is deteriorating due to developmental and environmental factors such as soil degradation, water pollution, fauna degeneration etc. Issues, problems and constraints faced in the management and usage of soils are diagnosed at different levels in the ecosystems predominant in Pakistan. The research questions propose effective solutions, types of instruments, methods or processes to resolve the issues within the various areas or ecosystems in the most sustainable and effective manner [23]. Biological solutions and methods can be applied at the sub-system level by private individuals or communities at a lower cost, and at a more localized level than engineering methods. Engineering methods may be suited for interventions at a system level rather than at a sub-system level; but even at this level they will be complementary with biological methods. (author)

  11. DIGITAL PAKISTAN: OPPORTUNITIES & CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Muhammad Kundi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available IT has revolutionized the social and organizational life around the globe. Given the newness of IT as a technology, there is a lot of potential that needs to be explored. It is however, argued that as IT can revolutionize the economic development, by the same coin, although its mismanagement in adoption process can end up in problems or even straight failure of the technology at the business-end. This study was conducted with reference to opportunities and challenges in the IT adoption process in Pakistan. The aim of the study was to point out the barriers that are impeding the country’s computerization process in order to provide facts to the policy makers for smooth computerization. The primary data collected through structured questionnaires was analyzed and tested through correlation, regressions analysis and t-test. Out of 10 hypotheses, 3 were accepted while in the rest null hypotheses were not substantiated. Based on primary and secondary data analysis this study has found that all independent bureaucratic, political, education and social and cultural variables are mutually correlated and have significant impact on shaping and reshaping of IT in Pakistan, while the Pakistan IT policy is inconsistent, administrative machinery attitude is negative and non cooperative, procedures are cumbersome and implementation is weak and ineffective, not to mention the lack of IT knowledge on the bureaucratic side. The political environment is instable and law and order is worse which is discouraging the investment. Moreover, physical and legal infrastructure is insufficient and the country is lacking good quality IT professionals. IT organization alignment is another serious issue in Pakistan. However, government incentives and growing interest from the private sector indicate positive attitude towards computerization of the country.

  12. DIGITAL PAKISTAN: OPPORTUNITIES & CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Muhammad Kundi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT IT has revolutionized the social and organizational life around the globe. Given the newness of IT as a technology, there is a lot of potential that needs to be explored. It is however, argued that as IT can revolutionize the economic development, by the same coin, although its mismanagement in adoption process can end up in problems or even straight failure of the technology at the business-end. This study was conducted with reference to opportunities and challenges in the IT adoption process in Pakistan. The aim of the study was to point out the barriers that are impeding the country’s computerization process in order to provide facts to the policy makers for smooth computerization. The primary data collected through structured questionnaires was analyzed and tested through correlation, regressions analysis and t-test. Out of 10 hypotheses, 3 were accepted while in the rest null hypotheses were not substantiated. Based on primary and secondary data analysis this study has found that all independent bureaucratic, political, education and social and cultural variables are mutually correlated and have significant impact on shaping and reshaping of IT in Pakistan, while the Pakistan IT policy is inconsistent, administrative machinery attitude is negative and non cooperative, procedures are cumbersome and implementation is weak and ineffective, not to mention the lack of IT knowledge on the bureaucratic side. The political environment is instable and law and order is worse which is discouraging the investment. Moreover, physical and legal infrastructure is insufficient and the country is lacking good quality IT professionals. IT organization alignment is another serious issue in Pakistan. However, government incentives and growing interest from the private sector indicate positive attitude towards computerization of the country.

  13. Nuclear power in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, Z.H.; Qureshi, I.H.

    2005-01-01

    Pakistan started its nuclear power program by installing a 137 M We Canadian Deuterium Reactor (Candu) at Karachi in 1971 which became operational in 1972. The post-contract technical support for the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) was withdrawn by Canada in 196 as a consequence of Indian nuclear device test in 1974. In spite of various difficulties PAEC resolved to continue to operate KANUPP and started a process for the indigenous fabrication of spare parts and nuclear fuel. The first fuel bundle fabricated in Pakistan was loaded in the core in 1980. Since then KANUPP has been operating on the indigenously fabricated fuel. The plant computer systems and the most critical instrumentation and Control system were also replaced with up-to date technology. In 2002 KANUPP completed its original design life of 30 year. A program for the life extension of the plant had already been started. The second nuclear power plant of 300 M We pressurized water reactor purchased from China was installed in Chashma in 1997, which started commercial operations in 2001. Another unit of 300 M We will be installed at Chashma in near future. These nuclear power plants have been operating under IAEA safeguards agreements. PAEC through the long-term performance of the two power plants has demonstrated its competence to safely and successfully operate and maintain nuclear power plants. Pakistan foresees an increasingly important and significant share of nuclear power in the energy sector. The Government has recently allocated a share of 8000 MWe for nuclear energy in the total energy scenario of Pakistan by the year 2025. (author)

  14. Palliative care in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Robyna Irshad

    2017-01-01

    Pakistan is a developing country of South East Asia, with all the incumbent difficulties currently being faced by the region. Insufficient public healthcare facilities, poorly regulated private health sector, low budgetary allocation for health, improper priority setting while allocating limited resources, have resulted essentially in an absence of palliative care from the healthcare scene. Almost 90% of healthcare expenditure is out of the patient's pocket with more than 45% of population living below the poverty line. All these factors have a collective potential to translate into an end-of-life care disaster as a large percentage of population is suffering from chronic debilitating/terminal diseases. So far, such a disaster has not materialised, the reason being a family based culture emphasising the care of the sick and old at home, supported by religious teachings. This culture is not limited to Pakistan but subsists in the entire sub-continent, where looking after the sick/elderly at home is considered to be the duty of the younger generation. With effects of globalisation, more and more older people are living alone and an increasing need for palliative care is being realised. However, there does not seem to be any plan on the part of the public or private sectors to initiate palliative care services. This paper seeks to trace the social and cultural perspectives in Pakistan with regards to accessing palliative care in the context of healthcare facilities available.

  15. Biogas technology in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.

    1997-02-01

    Although biomethanation is a mature technology its implementation is paradoxically only partly a success in Pakistan. Biogas plants on family farms can be economical but seldom are so in Pakistan. Either the investment cost has been high or satisfactory performance of the process could not be maintained or in some case for a short period of time only. It is, however, concluded that biogas plants, if correctly operated and maintained, may prove to be appropriate to the technical abilities and economic capacity of Pakistani farmers. It can get a change to be disseminated in rural areas. Biogas technology is appropriate to the ecological and economic demands of the future. With the potential from existing cattle population only, 3 to 4 million family size biogas plants may be installed in Pakistan which can substitute of considerable part of rural fuel wood demand for their daily household energy requirements. A large amount of dung is burnt every year by households which if put in the biogas plant, may provide a considerable amount of energy along with organic fertilizer could be saved from being burned at the same time. On the basis of available data from the livestock excluding agriculture residue (50% collectivity-1991), in terms of fuel substitution, this would be equivalent to 1200 million litres of kerosene at worth economic value of 9021 million rupees saving in the form of gas and 821 million rupees as additional fertilizer value annually. (LN)

  16. A Qualitative Study from Pakistan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To explore medical practitioners' perceptions towards irrational malaria treatment practices in Pakistan. Methods: A qualitative study was designed to explore the perceptions of medical practitioners regarding antimalarial prescribing practices in two major cities of Pakistan, namely, Islamabad (national capital) and ...

  17. The vespid fauna of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafi, Muhammad Ather; Carpenter, James M; Qasim, Muhammad; Shehzad, Anjum; Zia, Ahmed; Khan, Muhammad Rafique; Mastoi, Muhammad Ishaque; Naz, Falak; Ilyas, Muhammad; Shah, Mazafar; Bhatti, Abdul Rauf

    2017-12-04

    This study provides the first annotated check list of the Vespidae of Pakistan. It is based on the National Insect Museum collection and various studies in Pakistan. Among 105 identified taxa, 77 species and 28 subspecies are recorded in the four subfamilies Eumeninae, Masarinae, Polistinae and Vespinae. Three new records for the fauna of Pakistan are added, namely Anterhynchium mellyi, Antepipona ovalis and Eumenes coronatus coronatus. Among the total, 12 species/subspecies are endemic to Pakistan, namely Ancistrocerus pakistanus, Antepipona luteipes, Antodynerus flavescens karachiensis, Celonites nursei, Cyrtolabulus karachiensis, Eustenancistrocerus (Parastenancistrocerus) baluchistanensis, Katamenes dimidiatus watsoni, Knemodynerus lahorensis, Leptochilus (Neoleptochilus) hina, Leptochilus (Neoleptochilus) mirificus, Leptochilus (Neoleptochilus) umerolatus and Tachyancistrocerus pakistanus. Antepipona varentzowi (Morawitz, 1896) and Polistes rothneyi quatei van der Vecht, 1968 were incorrectly reported from Pakistan.

  18. Highest priority in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adil, E

    1968-01-01

    Responding to the challenge posed by its population problem, Pakistan's national leadership gave the highest priority to family planning in its socioeconomic development plan. In Pakistan, as elsewhere in the world, the first family planning effort originated in the private sector. The Family Planning Association of Pakistan made a tentative beginning in popularizing family planning in the country. Some clinics were opened and some publicity and education were undertaken to emphasize the need for family limitation. It was recognized soon that the government needed to assume the primarily responsibility if family planning efforts were to be successful. For the 1st plan period, 1955-60, about $10 million was allocated by the central government in the social welfare sector for voluntary family planning. The level of support continued on the same basis during the 2nd plan, 1960-65, but has been raised 4-fold in the 1965-70 scheme of family planning. Pakistan's Family Planning Association continues to play vital collaborative roles in designing and pretesting of prototype publicity material, involvement of voluntary social workers, and functional research in the clinical and public relations fields. The real breakthrough in the program came with the 3rd 5-year plan, 1965-70. High priority assigned to family planning is reflected by the total initial budget of Rs.284 million (about $60,000,000) for the 5-year period. Current policy is postulated on 6 basic assumptions: family planning efforts need to be public relations-oriented; operations should be conducted through autonomous bodies with decentralized authority at all tiers down to the grassroots level, for expeditious decision making; monetary incentives play an important role; interpersonal motivation in terms of life experience of the clientele through various contacts, coupled with mass media for publicity, can produce a sociological breakthrough; supplies and services in all related disciplines should be

  19. Nuclear minerals in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansoor, M.

    2005-01-01

    Strategic importance of Nuclear Minerals was recognized during early formative years of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, and prospecting for uranium was started in Dera Ghazi Khan in collaboration with the Geological Survey of Pakistan (GSP) as early as 1961. Later, the responsibility for countrywide surveys and exploration was fully entrusted with PAEC and in this respect a Directorate of Nuclear Minerals(DNM) was established in 1966 at Lahore. Later, DNM was shifted to the Atomic Energy Centre (AEC), Lahore building and renamed as Atomic Energy Minerals Centre. It has state-of-the-art Chemistry, Mineralogy, Remote Sensing and Electronics Laboratories and an Ore Processing Pilot Plant. The Centre has Prospecting, Exploration, Geophysics, Geochemistry, Geo-tectonics, Mining and Drilling Sections. Regional Offices have been established to facilitate work at Karachi, Quetta and Peshawar. Siwaliks were recognized as a favorable geological formation of prime importance. Sandstone-shale sequence of Siwaliks Formation is exposed in all provinces of Pakistan and in Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), broadly categorized into Rajanpur-Dera Ghazi Khan, Bannu Basin-Kohat Plateau and Potwar-AJK zones. Baghalchur, Nangar Nai and Taunsa uranium deposits have been discovered in the Rajanpur- D.G. Khan Zone. Qabul Khel and Shanawah Uranium deposits have been discovered in the Shanawah-Kohat Plateau Zone. Prospection and exploration is in progress. The first uranium mine was opened at Baghalchur, and uranium mill was established at D.G Khan in 1977-78 all by indigenous effort. The uranium mine was the most advanced and mechanized mine of that time in the country. Later, a second uranium mine was opened at Qabul Khel in 1992, which was based on a new and advanced in situ leach technology, developed to suit local geological and ore zone parameters. Mining of Nanganai and Taunsa Deposits was started respectively in 1996 and 2002, and is also based on in situ leach technology which is

  20. Coal development potential in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, M N; Pelofsky, A H [eds.

    1986-01-01

    A total of 48 papers were presented, and covered the following topics: the current situation in Pakistan with respect to development and utilization of coal resources; the policies that have been responsible for the development and utilization of coal resources in Pakistan; coal development and utilization in other developing nations e.g. Indonesia, Greece, Philippines, China, Thailand and Haiti; and technological developments in coal exploration; extraction, handling, transport and utilization which could accelerate future development of Pakistan's coal resources. Specific subjects covered include the use of coal in the cement industry of Pakistan; the production of briquettes for domestic use, development and training of personnel for the coal industry; and sources of finance for coal development projects. Particular emphasis is given throughout the conference to the Lakhra coal mine/power plant project which aims to develop and effectively utilize the lignite reserves of Sind Province. 47 papers have been abstracted separately.

  1. Predicting Bankruptcy in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul RASHID

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the financial ratios that are most significant in bankruptcy prediction for the non-financial sector of Pakistan based on a sample of companies which became bankrupt over the time period 1996-2006. Twenty four financial ratios covering four important financial attributes, namely profitability, liquidity, leverage, and turnover ratios, were examined for a five-year period prior bankruptcy. The discriminant analysis produced a parsimonious model of three variables viz. sales to total assets, EBIT to current liabilities, and cash flow ratio. Our estimates provide evidence that the firms having Z-value below zero fall into the “bankrupt” whereas the firms with Z-value above zero fall into the “non-bankrupt” category. The model achieved 76.9% prediction accuracy when it is applied to forecast bankruptcies on the underlying sample.

  2. Annual energy review-1996; 1996 nen ni okeru juyona energy kankei jiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-20

    This paper reviews the important items concerned with energy in 1996. Primary energy supply sums to 529times10{sup 13}kcal increasing by 2.4% over last year. The growth rates of demand over last year are 2.5% in industry use, 3.7% in transport use, 3.7% in home use, and 1.3% in business use. On R & D trend of use technologies of energy resources, the following are described: (1) Petroleum: resource exploitation, transport, stock, refining, and petrochemistry, (2) Coal: resource exploitation, coal structure and property, processing, transport, liquefaction, gasification, carbonization, tar industry, carbon industry, and coal ash utilization, (3) Natural gas: resource exploitation, transport, storage, and conversion technology, (4) Natural energy: hydraulic, solar, geothermal, wind power, oceanic and biomass energies, and (5) Others: waste resources, hydrogen and alcohol. On R & D trend of energy conversion technology, combustion theory, boiler, engine, thermal energy system, and high-efficiency power generation technology are described. Environmental problems and their protective technologies are also described

  3. Drop behavior in acoustic standing waves; Teizaihachu ni okeru ekiteki no kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamimura, H. [National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan); Yamanaka, T. [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    When new materials, such as those for space shuttles, are developed, it is necessary to hold then in a non-contacting manner. Described herein is behavior of drops in a holding device which utilizes acoustic radiation pressure. When an object sufficiently small as compared with wavelength of a sound wave is placed in acoustic standing waves, it is subjected to acoustic radiation pressure. Chandrasekahr developed the theory on the stability of a rotating drop by equating the entire mechanical energy of a drop with its surface energy. This theory, based on the assumption of symmetric surface energy, is incapable of theoretically dealing with multi-lobed waves evolved by surface tension. In this study, multi-lobed waves excited by sound waves in a rotating drop are analytically found without assuming symmetry of drop surface energy. The multi-lobe waves are first found on the assumption that the acoustic radiation pressure around a drop is constant. Then, the effects of the deformed drop on the radiation pressure around the drop are considered. In addition, the equation for the relationship between the radiation pressure and a drop that becomes oblate due to the radiation pressure is obtained. The theoretically derived results by this equation are in good agreement with the observed results by the ground and flight tests. 17 refs., 18 figs.

  4. Human physiology and psychology in space flight; Uchu hiko ni okeru ningen no seiri to shinri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murai, T. [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-10-05

    Human beings' adaptation to space and the effects on them of a prolonged stay in space are discussed. Some effects may be detrimental to crewmen even when they are medically judged as 'normal' and 'adaptable.' Bone deliming, muscular atrophy, and hypodynamia may be physiologically 'normal' and 'adaptable' in the zero-gravity environment where no strength is required to hold a position or attitude, and they will not cause any serious problems if crewmen are to stay in the zero-gravity environment permanently. Astronauts work on conditions that they return to the earth, however, and they have to stand on their own legs when back on the ground. Such being the case, they in the space vehicle are forced to make efforts at having their bone density and muscular strength sustained. It is inevitable for a space station to be a closed, isolated system, and the crewmen have to live in multinational, multicultural, and multilingual circumstances in case the flight is an international project. They will be exposed to great social and psychological stresses, and their adaptability to such stresses presents an important task. (NEDO)

  5. Refraction experiment in the Kobe-Hanshin area; Kobe Hanshin kan ni okeru kussetsuho tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koketsu, K [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Earthquake Research Institute

    1996-05-01

    The refraction experiments were conducted to investigate the underground structures reaching the basement by analyzing the results of the artificial earthquakes the explosion earthquake research group produced in City of Kobe and the Hanshin District on December 12 to 15, 1995. Considering that noise level can exceed 1 mkine in an urban area even in the mid-night, the courses of traverse were drawn focusing on Points S2 through S4 and U1. The earthquake waves from Points S2 through S4 are generally low in amplitude. However, the major components of the signals have a dominant frequency exceeding 10Hz, which makes them distinguishable from urban noise having a lower frequency, contrary to the previous indication that such a low-amplitude wave might not be distinguishable. On the other hand, the signals from the explosion at Point 4 in Awaji Island cannot be distinguished in the urban area, even on the nearby course of traverse D. At present, the analytical group is organized to read various phases running and analyze the P-velocity structures. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Rear impact whiplash neck injury reduction technology; Jidosha komen shototsu ni okeru muchiuchisho teigen gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Y.; Ichikawa, H.; Kayama, O. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    Even though whiplash neck injuries suffered in low-speed rear impacts are one of the major concern in traffic accidents, the mechanism of the injuries is not fully understood at present. Hence, the countermeasures have not been clear, yet. The bio-mechanical research was done to understand the injuries and three different modes of occupant's motion related to the mechanism were found. Based on this research, Nissan Active Head Restraint has been developed to reduce whiplash neck injuries in low-speed rear impacts. (author)

  7. Volatiles production from the coking of coal; Sekitan no netsubunkai ni okeru kihatsubun seisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Y.; Saito, H.; Inaba, A. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    In order to simplify the coke manufacturing process, a coke production mechanism in coal pyrolysis was discussed. Australian bituminous coal which can produce good coke was used for the discussion. At a temperature raising rate of 50{degree}C per minute, coal weight loss increases monotonously. However, in the case of 3{degree}C, the weight loss reaches a peak at a maximum ultimate temperature of about 550{degree}C. The reaction mechanism varies with the temperature raising rates, and in the case of 50{degree}C per minute, volatiles other than CO2 and propane increased. Weight loss of coal at 3{degree}C per minute was caused mainly by methane production at 550{degree}C or lower. When the temperature is raised to 600{degree}C, tar and CO2 increased, and so did the weight loss. Anisotropy was discerned in almost of all coke particles at 450{degree}C, and the anisotropy became remarkable with increase in the maximum ultimate temperature. Coke and volatiles were produced continuously at a temperature raising rate of 50{degree}C per minute, and at 3{degree}C per minute, the production of the coke and volatiles progressed stepwise as the temperature has risen. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Autosolvent effect of bitumen in thermal cracking; Netsubunkai hanno ni okeru bitumen no jiko yobai koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikuni, M.; Sato, M.; Hattori, H. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology; Nagaishi, H.; Sasaki, M.; Yoshida, T. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Tar sand bitumen is petroleum-based ultra-heavy oil, and has a great amount of reserve like coal. However, there are still a lot of problems for its highly effective utilization. This paper discusses whether the light components in bitumen show independent behavior during the thermal cracking of heavy components, or not. Solvent effect and reaction mechanism during the thermal cracking are also derived from the change of their chemical structures. Athabasca tar sand bitumen was separated into light and heavy fractions by vacuum distillation based on D-1660 of ASTM. Mixtures of the both fractions at various ratios were used as samples. Negative effect of the light fraction on cracking of the heavy fraction was observed with dealkylation and paraffin formation Polymerization of the dealkylated light fraction to the heavy fraction was suggested due to lack of hydrogen in the thermal cracking under nitrogen atmosphere, which resulted in the formation of polymer. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Dissipative structure of mechanically stimulated reaction; Kikaiteki reiki hanno ni okeru san`itsu kozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hida, M. [Okayama Univ., Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-12-20

    Recently various studies have been conducted concerning the state changes of materials obtained through mechanical alloying (MA) or mechano-chemical (MC) processing. What is noticeable is the quasi-steady state of almost all the materials obtained through various processes including MA and MC, and that the super cooling, supersaturating and high residue distortion realized under unbalanced conditions have not been clarified. In other words, the tracing capability to the external binding conditions is low. In this report, the appearance of the high temperature phase and high pressure phase obtained through MA or MC processing, the forming of amorphous, the mesomerism of the amorphous materials, the interesting phenomena generated by combination between the mechanical disturbance and chemical reactions were discussed with concrete examples, and a steady dissipative organization theory was approached from the viewpoint of dissipative structure development which is equal to the forming process of the quasi-steady phase. 34 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Development of a platoon driving AHS; AHS jikkensha ni okeru gunsoko seigyo no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seto, Y; Inoue, H [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Nissan and the Public Work Research Institute of the Ministry of Construction are developing an Automated Highway System. We are investigating a longitudinal control system in AHS. In this paper, a vehicle control method using two actuators an engine and a brake, is described. Experimental and simulated results are shown. A Platoon driving control method using road-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-vehicle communication is described. And the influence of the communication on the control performance is shown by experiments and simulation. The effects of the communication device and control device mentioned above are verified by experimental results in an AHS field test conducted in September 1996 on a dosed highway. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Revised design calculations of lift systems; Elevator no setsubi keikaku ni okeru kotsu keisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, T.; Komaya, K. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    For sufficient transportation capacity and passengers comfort and convenience, it is very important to design the suitable lift systems (e.g., the appropriate number of cages, velocity, capacity etc.) using a model which describes real elevator movements. The procedure used in conventional design calculations for office buildings is to determine the transportation capacity for the up-peak traffic situation using a simple passengers arrival model. This paper presents a new design calculations using balanced traffic model, which can deal with the elevator movements considering passengers arrival rate. As some performance indexes to evaluate the quality of service can be calculated by using this model, lift system designers can determine the appropriate lift facilities as to satisfy their goals. The validity of the proposed model is also shown by comparing with the measured data in real lift systems. 6 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Prospect of concrete technology; Kenchiku ni okeru korekarano konkurito gijutsu no tenbo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Tadahiko [Shimizu Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-10-10

    The privatization of state-owned companies, the abolition of the protectionism to domestic industries and the market liberalization, deregulation to the economic activities or movement to abolition of regulation were concretely made a start. Moreover, the reform of the social life was also requested with an increasing of international global environmental preservation. These reform influences in the construction industry have been affected and could not ignored in consideration of the development in the 21st century. In this paper, the summary of reform in development, construction industry; especially the correspondence in the construction industry and the relation to concrete technology from now were described. Especially, concerning establishment of concrete technology, it was given as the construction of the safe and comfortable space, highly production technical development, countermeasures to resource-saving and environmental preservation, search of new concrete materials, development of the renewal technology and correspondence to large project. (NEDO)

  13. Advanced technology trend survey of micromachines in Europe; Oshu ni okeru micromachine sentan gijutsu doko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    In this research survey, the development trend of micromachine technology in Europe was surveyed, development level of micromachine technology of European companies was grasped, and practical application fields of their target were investigated. Technology development level of private companies in Japan`s national projects and practical application fields of Japan`s target were arranged. Trends of micromachine technology development are compared between Japanese companies and European companies. Among micromachine technology development projects in Europe, ``8520 MUST`` is a part of the ESPRIT Project. About 40,000 companies among about 170,000 companies in whole Europe are relating to the MUST Project. The main fields include the manufacturing technology, process control of machines, technology of safety, sensor technology in environmental fields, and automotive technology. The marketing fields of application include the automobile, military technology, home automation, industrial process, medical technology, environmental technology, and games. The results can be compared with the direction of research and development in Japan. 22 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Freezing process in unsaturated packed beds; Fuhowa ryushi sonai ni okeru suibun toketsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akahori, M; Aoki, K; Hattori, M [Nagaoka University of Technology, Niigata (Japan); Tani, T [Oji Paper Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-04-25

    The freezing process in unsaturated packed beds has been investigated experimentally and theoretically. Water transport to the frozen front plays an important part on freezing. The rate of the absorption of water into frozen layer depended on the freezing heat flux and the water saturation at the freezing front. As a result, ice content in the frozen layer was related to the rate of the absorption of water and the freezing heat flux. A one-dimensional freezing model in unsaturated packed beds has been presented, accounting for the water transport. The predicted water saturation and temperature distributions in the body and the thickness of frozen layer were compared with the experimental results using a porous bed composed of glass beads. 12 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  15. High resolution CSMT method for shallow structure; Senjo ochi ni okeru kobunkaino denjiho tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, K; Takasugi, S [GERD Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Inazaki, S [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Sasaki, Y

    1997-10-22

    Electromagnetic exploration methods and seismic reflection methods are conducted for the study of applicability of geophysical exploration to shallow layer geological survey. In the study, four north-south traverse lines are set in 400mtimes200m grassland. Tensor type CSMT methods are employed, a CSMT method using 96kHz-1kHz artificial magnetic fields and an MT method using 1kHz-10kHz natural magnetic fields, for the determination of resistivity distribution in the ground. Distributed in the site are a surface layer composed of gravel-containing sand and silt, andesitic fractured lava, and massive andesite, and the exploration reaches several tens of meters below the surface. The results of CSMT measurements are found to be in agreement with reflection profiles acquired simultaneously with these CSMT measurements. It is found, furthermore, that CSMT profiles help identify reflection waveforms in a domain where reflection is obscure. It is also found that electromagnetic methods are effective in fault logging because they are very sensitive to porosity, or the amount of pore water, which is higher in a domain with subsurface cracks than in the neighborhood without cracks. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  16. Earthquake ground motion research in Sapporo city; Sapporoshi ni okeru jishindo no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasatani, T [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    The Research Group on Earthquake Ground Motion in Sapporo City established in May 1996 has inaugurated collection of information on ground structures and observations of strong earthquakes in Sapporo City. The Research Group on Earthquake Ground Motion in Sapporo City has carried out geological investigations, electric logging and PS logging to date in three boring holes each with a depth of about 100 m, 200 m and 600 m. According to the result of the logging in the new Ishikari Bay port (600-m deep hole), the S-wave velocity has increased slowly as it starts from the ground surface to greater depths, but showed no noticeable velocity boundaries in this range of the depth. The Sapporo municipal office has drilled three observation wells (500-m deep) for the purpose of determining focal points of microtremors directly under the city area. Hole-bottom observation has been inaugurated since the beginning of this year. According to comparison of the results of loggings at great depths, a depth at which the S-wave velocity reaches about 700 m/s becomes greater toward the sea area. The result of calculations on amplification characteristics of the SH wave on rock beds revealed that a seismic wave of about 0.5 Hz is amplified by a little more than two times. 1 ref., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Effect of fluid-filled boreholes on resistivity tomography; Hiteiko tomography ni okeru konaisui no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Y [DIA Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Theoretical discussions were given on the effect of fluid-filled boreholes on resistivity tomography. The discussions performed incorporation of earth resistance as a method to consider borehole diameters in an FEM calculation using wire elements. The numerical experiment conducted a simulation on the following two objects: resistivity tomography in a horizontal multi-layer structure consisted of layers with resistivity ranging from 10 to 10000 ohm-m, and a model with a slanted low resistivity band existing in a background of 5000 ohm-m. As a result of the discussions, it was made clear that the effect of the boreholes can be corrected by giving earth resistance between the wire elements and natural ground. An improved potential calculating program indicated that the effect of the fluid-filled boreholes in the resistivity tomography generates false images with high resistivity along the bores if the resistivity has high contrast. Incorporating the wire elements into an inverse analysis model reduces the false images and improves the accuracy. 1 ref., 12 figs.

  18. Source inversion in the full-wave tomography; Full wave tomography ni okeru source inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, T [DIA Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    In order to consider effects of characteristics of a vibration source in the full-wave tomography (FWT), a study has been performed on a method to invert vibration source parameters together with V(p)/V(s) distribution. The study has expanded an analysis method which uses as the basic the gradient method invented by Tarantola and the partial space method invented by Sambridge, and conducted numerical experiments. The experiment No. 1 has performed inversion of only the vibration source parameters, and the experiment No. 2 has executed simultaneous inversion of the V(p)/V(s) distribution and the vibration source parameters. The result of the discussions revealed that and effective analytical procedure would be as follows: in order to predict maximum stress, the average vibration source parameters and the property parameters are first inverted simultaneously; in order to estimate each vibration source parameter at a high accuracy, the property parameters are fixed, and each vibration source parameter is inverted individually; and the derived vibration source parameters are fixed, and the property parameters are again inverted from the initial values. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Materials and joining technologies of commercial jet plane. Jet ryokyakuki ni okeru zairyo to setsugo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hira, H; Yoshino, Y [Kawasaki Heavy Industries,Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1993-12-05

    The present report explained light weight and high strength materials which are strong against the corrosion and fatigue, and economical. Also explained were their joining technologies for the commercial jet plane production. Resin composites are acceleratedly used as light weight and high strength materials. Fiber to be used is heightened in strength by replacing the glassfiber by the hybrid and carbon fiber. As measures against the drop in both strength around the drilled holes, and compressive strength due to the separation between layers and dehumidification, which drop is a defect generated in the composite, improving measures are taken such as enlargement of allowable strain by carbon fiber of a medium elastic modulus, use of resin base hardly degraded by the dehumidification and diffusion of high toughness resin. Metallic materials are also heightened in characteristics. For the joining technologies, measures are progressively taken against the strength damage around the drilled holes and electric corrosion by fasteners in the composite. Also for the tightening of metallic materials, the fatigue strength is designed to be heightened by the introduction of compressive residual stress. Both thermal degradation and stress in the hardening process must be taken into consideration for the structure use adhesives which are mainly of an epoxy system. The corrosion control is indispensable at the time of etching for the metallic adhesion. The welding was also explained. 16 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Subjects of the energy industry under yen appreciation; Endakaka ni okeru energy sangyo no kadai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This paper studied effects of yen appreciation on the Japanese economy and changes in energy demand when assuming the medium-term yen appreciation trend, and subjects in the energy industry. The paper also refers to the trend of the Asian material industry largely influencing the energy supply/demand, the risk hedge problem of the exchange, and international cooperation and business development of the energy industry. The energy industry is extremely high in public interest and is rice of the industry. Therefore, the development of the business has focused on the domestic market. However, such a recognition is forced to be changed by waves of the worldwide deregulation. Discussions on foreign/domestic price differences caused by high yen and a series of deregulation policy in the energy industry affected thereby may be concrete signs. The subject in the energy industry under the yen appreciation is that the energy industry will be close to common sense in general industrial circles and change to an industry which is strong and internationally competitive enough to brave the exchange variation. 101 refs., 104 figs., 31 tabs.

  1. Effect of fall wind on wind power generation; Furyoku hatsuden ni okeru dashikaze no koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, H [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Wind conditions in Arakawa Town, Niigata Prefecture, were surveyed by anemometers and anemoscopes installed at 3 different points, and the data are analyzed to develop the prediction model for investigating possibility of introduction of wind mills there. Outlined herein is power generated by fall wind by comparing predicted power availability with the actual results. In order to investigate possibility of power generation by fall wind, the wind conditions and power availability are simulated using the observed wind condition data. Predicted wind velocity involves a large error at a point where frequency of prevailing wind direction is high, and direction in which average wind velocity is high coincides with direction in which land is slanted at a high slope. Fall wind occurs locally for geographical reasons. Location of the wind mill must be carefully considered, because it is complex, although potentially gives a larger quantity of power. A wind mill of 400kW can produce power of around 600MWh annually, when it is located at the suited site confirmed by the wind condition analysis results. 6 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Preventive measures of water pollution in China; Chugoku ni okeru suishitsu odaku boshi taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Y.; Huang, X.

    1996-01-10

    This paper describes the progress and the major results of research and development on technologies and measures to prevent water pollution in China. Tests and researches have been performed on an upward anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), a vertical baffled anaerobic sludge blanket, two-phase anaerobic digestion, and an anaerobic fluidized bed. When anaerobically digested sludge and aerobic active sludge are inoculated in the UASB, particle-shaped sludge was formed well in both sludges. This technology has begun to be used in breweries and citric acid factories. With anaerobic treatment of waste water containing sulfate, the sulfate was recovered as sulfur by using the first and second phases. Research and development is being progressed on the oxidation ditch technology as an improved version of the active sludge method. In a pilot test of a soil treatment system and a stabilization pond treatment system as alternative technology for the active sludge method, the BOD in the treated water was found 2.5 mg{times}1/l. Attentions are drawn on primary treatment, a living organism contact oxidation method, and a continuous filtration treatment process as technologies to turn polluted water into resources. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  3. Automobile industry and globalization in Asian market; Asia ni okeru jidosha sangyo to globalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    Asian countries are now attracting attention of automobile manufacturers of the world for their capabilities of buying, producing, and assembling of automobiles, and producing and supplying of parts, which means that the Asian market is now exposed to globalization. As for the automobile and part manufacturers of Japan, in the presence of economic depression lingering in Asia affecting motorization and rapid changes in the circumstances Japan`s automobile industry finds itself under, are pressed to work out new strategies as a member of the Asian community. A panel discussion of the same name as the subject held in 1997 won favor as a fine initiative to suitably cope with the difficult situation. Useful suggestions and proposals were made concerning the panel discussion, calling the event a new type of round-table talks well responding to the rapid changes in the world economy since 1997, by learned and experienced people, the government offices concerned, staffers of manufacturers in charge of overseas marketing, and international information analysts. They related to the current state and tasks of automobile manufacturing in Asia, trends of regulations and standardization, rolls of technical assistance and the Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan, Ltd., expressed from a wide angle covering various problems relative to environmental protection, safety, etc. (NEDO)

  4. Characteristics of microtremors in Hanshin area; Hanshin chiiki ni okeru bido no kihon tokusei nitsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, H; Suzuki, K; Yamanaka, H; Seo, K [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    To increase general understandings of fundamental characteristics of microtremors in Hanshin area, microtremors have been observed at Sumiyoshi River-side, Rokko Island, and Nishinomiya. Relations were discussed among the stability of predominant period, successive fluctuation and meteorological conditions. For the analysis, cosine-type taper was conducted before and after 10% of the observed records, and Fourier spectrum was calculated by smoothing using Parzen window with a band width 0.3 Hz. Geometrical mean of two components was used as a horizontal component. At the observation points except Sumiyoshi River-side, predominance in the short period side was not distinct, and was not stable due to the successive fluctuation of predominant period. However, there was less successive fluctuation of spectrum ratio between different two points in the band with period more than 1 sec. Since there was a close correlation between the successive fluctuation in this band and the wind velocity or air pressure, the microtremors in this band was affected by a single vibration source. Ground characteristics could be illustrated by the averages of ratio against base points of moving observation. 14 refs.

  5. Magnetic prospecting in Kaibuki-yama ancient tomb; Kaibukiyama kofun ni okeru zenjiryoku sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishitani, T [Akita University, Akita (Japan). Mining College

    1996-10-01

    Kaibuki-yama ancient tomb located in Kumeda, Kishiwada City, Osaka has a square shape in the front and an orbicular shape in the rear, which was considered to be made in the 4th century. This ancient tomb has a total length about 135 m, a diameter of orbicular shape in the rear about 82 m, and a height about 9 m, which is a symbolical existence of the Kumeda ancient tombs. Stone chamber and stone casket made of Sanbagawa crystalline schist or rhyolitic-andesitic tuff are expected in this tomb. Magnetic prospecting in this study is accompanied with this survey. A differential type proton magnetometer was used for the measurements, which were conducted using meshes with 1 m edges. A pair of distinct positive and negative magnetic anomalies were observed in the center of orbicular shape in the rear. This coincides with a location of main body buried, which is archaeologically estimated. The magnetic anomaly might be caused by the article buried in the tomb, such as ironware, based on the measurement of magnetic intensity. From the calculated values of magnetic anomaly using a model, the buried article with magnetic anomaly was considered to have a size with length of 1 m, width of 0.1 m, and height of 0.2m. The negative magnetic anomaly could not be explained only by this. It is necessary to consider the other reasons. 8 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Detailed seismic intensity in Morioka area; Moriokashi ni okeru shosai shindo bunpu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T; Yamamoto, H; Settai, H [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yamada, T [Obayashi Road Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    To reveal a seismic intensity distribution in individual areas, a large-scale detailed seismic intensity survey was conducted in Morioka City through questionnaire, as to the Hokkaido Toho-oki (HE) earthquake occurred on October 4, 1994 with a record of seismic intensity 4 at Morioka, and the Sanriku Haruka-oki (SH) earthquake occurred on December 28, 1994 with a record of seismic intensity 5 at Morioka. A relationship was also examined between the seismic intensity distribution and the properties of shallow basement in Morioka City. The range of seismic intensity was from 2.9 to 4.6 and the difference was 1.7 in the case of HE earthquake, and the range was from 3.1 to 5.0 and the difference was 1.9 in the case of SH earthquake. There were large differences in the seismic intensity at individual points. Morioka City has different geological structures in individual areas. There were differences in the S-wave velocity in the surface layer ranging from 150 to 600 m/sec, which were measured using a plate hammering seismic source at 76 areas in Morioka City. These properties of surface layers were in harmony with the seismic intensity distribution obtained from the questionnaire. For the observation of short frequency microtremors at about 490 points in the city, areas with large amplitudes, mean maximum amplitudes of vertical motion components more than 0.1 mkine were distributed in north-western region and a part of southern region. 4 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Array TDEM survey at the Yufuin fault; Yufuin danso ni okeru array shiki TDEM tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogi, T [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Tanaka, Y; Fukuda, Y [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Science; Jomori, N [Chiba Electric Research Institute Co., Chiba (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    The array arrangement of receivers was studied to improve the resolution of LOTEM (long offset transient electromagnetics) survey. To eliminate the effect of underground structure from a source to a receiving point, continuous array arrangement from a source site is desirable. The survey at the Yufuin fault was carried out by arranging TEM receivers at intervals of 100m from the source. Since the synchronization between transmitting and receiving points by high-precision clock is essential, an amplifier for a flux gate magnetometer capable of measuring at four points at the same time was used. In the south plateau of the Yufuin basin, a relatively high resistivity stratum more than several tens ohm m exists at depth less than several hundreds meter, and a low resistivity stratum less than 10 ohm m exists under that. Those boundary depth increases toward the north up to 950m, and the depth subsequently decreases toward the north until the low resistivity stratum disappears. In addition, the uniform stratum of 1000m deep continues toward the north. Such precise resistivity structure around the fault was obtained by dense arrangement of measuring points. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Survey of Joint Implementation activities in China; Chugoku ni okeru kyodo jisshi katsudo kanren chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    It is a large task for Japan to positively promote the Joint Implementation activities related to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Rapid increase in the emission of greenhouse-effect gases, especially CO2, is predicted in China with remarkable economic growth and population of 1.2 billion. It is essential to promote the Joint Implementation activities in China. In this survey, framework, organization, problems and tasks were investigated to effectively promote the Joint Implementation activities in China. Construction of framework for the real Joint Implementation activities has been proposed. Current problems for promoting the Joint Implementation activities in China are that the distinct guideline for the Joint Implementation is not established in the government, that the receiving system including receiving, planning and arranging sections is not established, and that the burden problems for the costs of project evaluation, data acquisition, monitoring, and verification are not solved. 5 refs., 21 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Applications of thermal spraying for automotive parts. Jidosha ni okeru yosha no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, K [Toyota Motor Co. Ltd., Aichi (Japan)

    1992-10-31

    Application of thermal spraying for automotive parts is described. Outlines of the spraying types that are materialized recently, like 'gel-double spraying of turbo-compressor housing part' and 'iron alloy spraying to outer portion of valve lifter made with Al alloy', are introduced. Gel-double spraying technology is widely used in the jet engine of aeroplane, however its use in automotive turbo was difficult from the reason like quality assurance relating to continuous production of automotives. As a result of the research and development based on the above reasons, a low speed torque is confirmed by the formation of gel-double spray layer. Spraying to the outer part of the valve lifter made from Al alloy is cited as the best example of thermal spraying. Relation between flying speed of spraying particles and degree of flattening, etc., relating to the conformity of adhesion power of coated layer, is explained. Further research topics are given as; improvement of spraying efficiency, improvement of resistance of spraying equipments, unification of equipments standards, quantification of spray coatings, design of spray materials, etc. 9 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Industrialization, urbanization and demographic change in England; Igirisu ni okeru kogyoka toshika to jinko mondai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasumoto, M. [Komazawa University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Economics

    1994-12-15

    In order to study the effects of progress in industrialization and urbanization on societies and economy, analyses were performed on the northern England in the period of the Industrial Revolution. The rapid expansion of the city of Leeds in the 1780`s and on had brought about the increase in employment opportunities in the suburban farming villages, as well as drop in matrimonial age in agricultural and coal mine workers, and the rapid population increase. Housing conditions for those workers who had flown into the city from agricultural villages in a large number were of very poor quality, and their living standard was low. More than half of the patients visiting the charity hospital in Leeds City came from the urban area, with industrial accidents such as injuries in young workers noticed remarkably high. Many women were included in them, from which the progress in mechanization of the textile industry in Leeds and its surrounding areas can well be imagined. The attributes of households, families, and population were divided into diverse structures and hierarchies, according to the residential construction form and work income earner rates in family constituting members were also various. The development urbanization and industrialization had given diversified effects on households, families, population, and life cycles in city dwellers through changes in housing environments. 2 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  11. Load averaging system for co-generation plant; Jikayo hatsuden setsubi ni okeru fuka heijunka system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Y. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-07-30

    MAZDA Motor Corp. planed the construction of a 20.5MW co-generation plant in 1991 for responding to an increase in power demand due to expansion of the Hofu factory. On introduction of this co-generation plant, it was decided that the basic system would adopt the following. (1) A circulating fluidized bed boiler which can be operated by burning multiple kinds of fuels with minimum environmental pollution. (2) A heat accumulation system which can be operated through reception of a constant power from electric power company despite a sudden and wide range change in power demand. (3) A circulating-water exchange heat recovery system which recovers exhaust heat of the turbine plant as the hot water to be utilized for heating and air-conditioning of the factory mainly in winter. Power demand in MAZDA`s Hofu factory changes 15% per minute within a maximum range from 20MW to 8MW. This change is difficult to be followed even by an oil burning boiler excellent in load follow-up. The circulating Fluidized bed boiler employed this time is lower in the follow-up performance than the oil boiler. For the newly schemed plant, however, load averaging system named a heat accumulation system capable of responding fully to the above change has been developed. This co-generation plant satisfied the official inspection before commercial operation according the Ministerial Ordinance in 1993. Since then, with regard to the rapid load following, which was one of the initial targets, operation is now performed steadily. This paper introduces an outline of the system and operation conditions. 10 refs.

  12. Alternative disinfection technology for water purification systems; Josui shori ni okeru enso daitai shodoku gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizawa, T. [The Institute of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-09-10

    This paper describes chlorination substituting disinfection technologies used in water purification systems. Chloramine treatment is regarded as effective in reducing trihalomethane (THM). Chlorine is injected in the initial stage in the form of free chlorine to disinfect pathogenic microorganisms in a short time, which is then added with ammonia to convert it into chloramine for further utilization. Chlorine dioxide has not been used in Japan, but introduced in Europe and America to treat THM. Ozone has the strongest oxidizing power, and is used for disinfection, virus inactivation, decomposition of THM precursors, and removal of fungus odor. The ozone treatment will produce aldehyde if an organic matter is present, but aldehyde can be removed by treatment using organismic activated carbon. Ultraviolet ray treatment has an advantage of being difficult of producing byproducts. This system was experimentally compared with free chlorine treatment on disinfection effect, mutagenicity, suppression of producing THM byproducts, and odor removal. In order to assure reliability of microorganismic and chemical safety in tap water supply systems, assurance by considering the entire system is important, not only by operating the disinfection units, but also combining such physical water purifying technologies as coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, and membrane treatment. The use of chlorine substituting disinfectants is also a part of the conception. 6 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Noise and vibration improvement technologies for engines; Engine ni okeru soon shindo kaizen gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzuoka, H.; Maeda, R. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-02-01

    This is an outline of recent measurement and simulation technology for reduction of engine noise and vibration. We can recognize correct phenomenon by visualization of noise and vibration phenomena using new measurement technology. And we can create optimum countermeasures using new simulation technology In this report, examples of application of these technology in the development of NEO-DI engines are provided. (author)

  14. Visualization techniques in diesel engine research. Diesel Engine kenkyu ni okeru kashika gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komori, M.; Tsujimura, K. (New ACE., Tsukuba (Japan))

    1993-04-01

    In order to grasp the phenomena actually occurring in the combustion chamber for improving the combustion and for reducing the exhaust gas emission of the diesel engines, the visualization techniques are becoming to be essential and indispensable. The authors have observed the spray and combustion, when proceeding the combustion improvement by the high pressure injection, and then have performed the image processing and simulation calculation based on them. The high pressure injection devices used for the experiment are the intensifier type and accumulator type which can generate the injection pressure more than 200MPa, and both of them are the electronic controlled hydraulic drive type, and are driven separately from the engine. Since it was found that the analysis of high pressure injection by the hologram is limited in the conditions, as for the spray, the spray analysis was performed by the transmitted light attenuation method and laser sheet method. As for the combustion, the engine for observing the combustion was trially made, and then the combustion state was observed by the high speed photograph. Furthermore, the flame temperature analysis by the image processing using the combustion photograph and the analysis of flow and turbulence of the flame were carried out. 9 refs., 16 figs.

  15. Reliability of soldered joints for automotive electronic devices; Denso buhin ni okeru handa setsugo no shinraisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kita, T; Mukaibo, N; Ando, K; Moriyama, M [Honda R and D Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Concerning the tin and lead eutectic solder, we have evaluated the reliability of three factors of intermetallic compound layer, creep and vibration which cause solder degradation. First, the stress factor was extracted from investigating the mechanism of degradation, and the best acceleration test method was fixed. Next, the acceleration test was executed to find the stress dependency and the tendency of solder degradation was modeled numerically. While the environmental stress frequency was obtained and they were put together by using a minor method, which enabled us to predict the life span of solder on the market with precision. 5 refs., 13 figs.

  16. Laser cutting system in bridge fabricating line; Kyoryo seisaku line ni okeru laser no setsudan system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitaguchi, Y.; Yokotani, K. [Hitachi Zosen Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1994-11-01

    This paper describes the laser cutting system established at a new advanced plant that was constructed by Hitachi Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., Ltd. in 1993. At the plant, the cutting line consists of four NC cutting lines: the plasma cutting machine, gas cutting machine, frame planer, and laser cutting machine. The laser cutting machine is used to cut complex shapes of relatively thin (6 - 16 mm) materials with high accuracy. The machine consists of a 3 kW CO2 laser oscillator mounted gantry type NC cutter and a slat conveyor of about 30 m long, with the maximum cutting width of 3.6 m. The NC cutting machine is provided with the automatic printing function using NC data, marking function, scheduled operation function, steel plate detector, and coordinate rotation function, etc. These functions enable unattended operation of the machine to cut multiple materials. This NC laser cutting line has the same performance data collection function for data during the operating time as other production lines. Therefore, the NC laser cutting line can be subjected to the realtime centralized control together with the other lines. All these technologies have provided high accuracy and efficiency for production as well as an environment in which many female operators can successfully work. 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Mechatronization of rotating machines in plant; Plant ni okeru kaiten kikai no mechatronics ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, H. [Chiyoda Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1993-10-01

    This paper introduces mechatronization of rotating machines in a plant, with application examples of electronic governors as the main subject. For centrifugal compressors, design and fabrication of anti surging control system have become possible by using a programmable logic controller (PLC) and a distributed control system (DCS) with fine scanning time. An electronic governor for turbine control has been added with a function to control amount of power generated by a motive force recovery device in a flowing catalytic cracking equipment by means of an expander inlet valve. This has made possible to operate the motive force recovery device automatically even under a low load operation. With an electronic governor to control supply and receipt amount of steam to and from an existing plant, the governor valve opening angles were so controlled that actual steam header pressure matches the setting, whereas the steam has become possible to be utilized without waste under normal operation. Operation of a comprehensive compressor/turbine monitoring system on DCS, operation of centrifugal compressors of two casings by using electromagnetic bearings, and motor speed control with use of an inverter heve also become possible. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Bio-desulfurization technology in Japan; Wagakuni ni okeru baio datsuryu gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruhashi, K. [Petroleum Energy Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    A bio-reaction of microbes (catalytic reaction by an enzyme) is characterized in that the reaction is carried out at a normal temperature and under a normal pressure and has particularly high specificity with respect to substrate (reactant). It is considered that a low loading process of environment harmony type can be constructed by applying the bio-reaction in petroleum refinery process. CO{sub 2} exhaust and energy consumption in the bio-desulfurization (BDS) is estimated to be 70 to 80% lower than those in hydrodesulfurization (HDS). The bio-technologies that can be applied to the petroleum refinery process include, for example, desulfurization, demetallation, dewaxing, denitration, cracking and so on. In this paper, the present state of bio-desulphurization technology is introduced. Particularly, as the research results in Japan, acquirement of mesophile R.erythropolis KA2-5-1 strain, thermophile Paenibacillus sp. A11-2 strain whose optimum temperature is 50 degrees C, BT degradation fungus Rhodococcus sp. T09 and the like are introduced. (NEDO)

  19. Crew training on FMPT and IML-2 mission; FMPT/IML-2 ni okeru tojoin kunren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, T.; Takahashi, S. [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-05

    This paper introduces a summary of astronaut trainings on FMPT (first material experiment)/IML-2 (second international micro gravity laboratory). The trainings are divided into a training to board on a space shuttle (MIT for mission independent training) and a training to bring the mission to success (MDT for mission dependent training). The paper describes devices used in the training conducted in the FMPT/IML-2. The training using devices equivalent to those used in the flight includes attachment and removal of cartridge for an electric oven, melting samples in an image furnace, affixing electrodes for detecting signals from living organisms, microscopic photographing of cell cultivation experiments, and hormone injection into newts. The training equipment that simulates functions consists mainly of a simulator that only simulates movements and indications. Simulations were also carried out on an electric migration device and an incubator. The training equipment that simulates shapes include an image oven, a refrigerator, and light sensitive plate for radiation measurement. The experiment operation procedure manual and the time line may be referred to as those that reflect results of the training. 2 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Present status of geothermal power development in Kyushu; Kyushu ni okeru chinetsu hatsuden no genjo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyoshi, M. [Kyushu Electric Power Co. Inc., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1997-10-20

    The present situation was introduced of the geothermal power generation in Kyushu. In Kyushu, where there are lots of volcanos and abundant geothermal resources, the geothermal exploration has been made since long ago. Three non-utility use units at three geothermal power generation points and six commercial use units at five points are now in operation in Kyushu. The total output is approximately 210 MW, about 40% of the domestic geothermal power generation. At Otake and Hacchobaru geothermal power plants, the Kyushu Electric Power Company made the geothermal resource exploration through the installation/operation of power generation facilities. At the Otake power plant, a geothermal water type single flashing system was adopted first in the country because of its steam mixed with geothermal water. At the Hacchobaru power plant, adopted were a two-phase flow transportation system and a double flashing system in which the geothermal water separated from primary steam by separator is more reduced in pressure to take out secondary steam. Yamakawa, Ogiri and Takigami power plants are all for the joint exploration. Geothermal developers drill steam wells and generate steam, and the Kyushu Electric Power Company buys the steam and uses it for power generation. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Natural disasters in the Shikoku district. 1. ; Landslide. Shikoku ni okeru shizen saigai. 1. ; Chisuberi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yatabe, R [Ehime Univ., Ehime (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1991-09-25

    There are more than ten thousand places in Japan which are in danger of landsliding, and they are mostly distributed in Hokuriku and Shikoku districts. Shikoku is a district which suffers many typhoon disasters, and the rate of ground disasters among the typhoon disasters has been getting higher in recent years. Reports are made on the general characteristics and soil mechanical properties of fractured zone landslides, which are the majority of landslides occurred in the Shikoku district. Most of the landslides in the Shikoku district occurred in Sanbagawa zone, south of the central tectonic line, and little landslides occurred in the granite zone in the Inland Sea area. Although rocks in landslided areas are fractured, little progress is observed for clay formation. The scales of the landslides are from several tens of meters to over 1km, with the average of about 20m, in length and from 200 to 300m in width. Although some of them have the depth of more than 50m, the average is about 20m. Descriptions are made on the relationship between the movement of landslide and rainfall, strength constants of cohesive soil in the slid strata, and the variance in the dynamic constants of cohesive soil in the slid strata. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Biomethylation in the natural environment: a review; Shizen kankyo ni okeru biomethylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, H. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan); Fatoki, O. [University of Fort Hare, (South Africa)

    1997-09-25

    This paper explains mechanism of biomethylation of such elements important in environmental science as As, Hg, Sn and Pb, and its significance in the environmental science. Biomethylation is a process to bond methyl group directly to metals by actions of living organisms, which is occurring widely in the natural environment. Addition of methyl group onto metallic elements has a high possibility of changing their chemical and physical properties and increasing their movability, thus affecting the geochemical circulation. Particularly, such elements are important for the environmental science as As, Hg, Sn, Pb, Se, Te, Ge, Sb, P, S, and Cl. Deposits in water zones which have been regarded previously as final settling places for heavy metals are active media for anaerobic bacteria which can cause methylation. Important molecules involving in methylation are S-acenosylmethionine (SAM) and methylcobalamin which is a derivative of vitamin B12. The SAM is regarded as sulfonium salt, and the methyl group is transferred as a carbocationic intermediate. 106 refs.

  3. Education for hydraulics and pneumatics in Nihon University; Nihon Daigaku ni okeru yukuatsu kyoiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouchi, M. [Nihon Univ., Chiba (Japan). Coll. of Industrial Technology

    2000-03-15

    Described herein is education of hydraulics and pneumatics in Nihon University. Department of Mechanical Engineering of Faculty of Production Engineering has been holding up the educational aims of bringing up engineers and researchers who have ability and intelligence to cope with internationalization and contribute to society, and of bringing about creativity, among others. Control equipment is an optional subject for the sophomore class in the second semester, and is centered by mechatronics, including hydraulic and pneumatic control systems and equipment. The related subjects include fluid dynamics, control engineering, system controlling, hydraulic machines, robotics and automobile engineering. The drill course includes disassembling and assembling gear pumps, drills on pneumatic devices, system behavior and mechatronics, experiments on fan and hydraulic control circuits and on servo mechanisms, and machinery designs and drawings. Seminars are led by full-time or part-time lecturers for the themes related to hydraulic power. Many students are interested in hydraulic and pneumatic themes for their graduation theses, because of their relations with control, environments, energy saving and so on. We are now in the age of composite technologies, and hydraulic power basics are prerequisite for engineers, and important for education of students. (NEDO)

  4. Welding mechanization in shipyard CIM; Zosen ni okeru yosetsu no jidoka robot ka CIM ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, T. [Hitachi Zosen Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-12-01

    This paper explains development and examples of application of automated welding devices from a viewpoint of an element technology constituting computer integrated manufacturing (CIM), based on the history of modernization of shipyards that has been achieved to date. In the first step of promoting the modernization, elevating cutting accuracy in the uppermost stream process was thought a starting point of rationalization. What have been achieved therefrom are adoption of the most advanced NC plasma cutting machine, and improvement in the computer aided system for the cutting machines. In addition, a twenty-electrode line welder has been developed, which does not create angle deformation in welding longerons, and can be operated even by unskilled workers. The welder has successfully realized a construction method in which robots can be applied more easily. Further developments have been made on a robot to weld cells, advanced CAD/CAM operation techniques which are linked with data from design, an automatic one-side welding device which can achieve a speed 2.5 times greater than by conventional devices, and an automation device for three-dimensionally bent blocks, whose automation has been regarded difficult. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Mechanized and robotized welding in shipbuilding; Zosen ni okeru yosetsu no jidoka robot ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanda, Y. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-01

    Large-scale ships such as VLCC are built at the Kure No.1 Works of IHI (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industry). This paper introduces current status of mechanized and robotized welding at the works. For the sub-assembly with short weld length and horizontal fillet, simplified automatic welders are used in which mag-welding method using CO2 is adopted. The frequent wound welding of member ends can be automatically conducted using welders developed by IHI. In the large-scale assembly processes, remarkable rationalization and highly accurate assembly of flat plate welding have been promoted. Tankers, container ships, and bulk carriers can be treated at the same time. Teaching times of welding robots can be greatly reduced by a technique called parametric treatment. In the future, it is essential to enhance the accuracy of members by introducing the laser cutting during machining processes. Completely self-type mechanization is required as well as large-output laser welding and sensor technology. 3 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Refractories for steelmaking in Japan; Seikoyo taikabutsu no genjo (Nippon ni okeru seikoyo taikabutsu no hensen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, S. [Kurosaki Refractories Co. Ltd., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes changes and the current state of refractories for steel making in Japan. Refractories used for torpedo cars have undergone material improvement and diagnostic technology progress in alumina-SiC-C brick that serve in extending life and reducing unit requirement in furnace materials. The improvement and progress have been achieved under diversification in the methods of preliminary treatment of molten pig iron. In refractories for converters, the MgO-C brick had epoch-making improvement in life because of its excellent spalling and corrosion resistance resulting in expansion of its use. Refractories for iron ladles have been changed largely keeping the pace with progress in steelmaking technologies. Attempts have been made from using acidic refractories including zircon brick material to applying neutral and basic bricks. On the other hand, application of monolithic materials has begun, which has led to realizing the totally monolithic lining together with the progress in the repairing technologies including spraying. Plate materials for sliding gate nozzle to control flow rate of molten steel from an iron ladle now use Al2O3-C as the mainstream after having gone through a number of improvements. Alumina graphite material is used as the mainstream for immersion nozzles and shrouds which are important for continuous casting. 57 refs., 37 figs., 19 tabs.

  7. Recent trend in construction materials field. Kenzai bun[prime]ya ni okeru saikin no doko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tominaga, M [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1992-09-01

    The Japanese construction industry, the construction market and the technical trend of construction materials made by Kawasaki Steel Group were described. The roles of the steel industry in the construction material market are to increase the ratio of steel used in construction, to manufacture steel products of high value added and to develop new applications. Appearance and good design are required to provide for the construction materials made of processed steel in addition to the necessary functions. In the construction material market, qualitative changes in needs are taking place, such as labor saving shortening of construction period and simplification of construction management. Kawasaki Steel Group intends to expand the integrated business such as system building, external wall materials for buildings made of metals, highly corrosion resistant stainless steel for metallic roof field, and roof materials of the heat insulation, good appearance and horizontally covering type based on the overall business strategy. In addition, Kawasaki Steel Group is expanding the Kawasaki Design Steel Plaza and its construction material research laboratory to cope with the trend of diversified functions and design of construction goods and of making kinds of construction material much more and to develop more rational construction techniques. 1 ref., 8 figs.

  8. Consideration on extradosed prestressed concrete road bridge; Dorokyo ni okeru daihenshin PC keburu kyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, A.; Honma, A. [Japan Highway Public Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-31

    The details of the investigation on the Odawara Blue Way Bridge for which extradosed type is employed are provided, and a report is made about the situation of the study on the future construction of the 2nd Tomei-Meishin Expressway. The extradosed PC bridge is considered to have intermediate structural characteristics of those of the conventional beam bridge and PC cable stayed bridge, and is expected to be applied to bridges having approximately from 100 to 200m span. The features of the extradosed PC bridge is outlined. Approximately 1/35 beam height on the intermediate support and 1/10 main tower height against the center span are considered to be proper. PC steel products can be used efficiently because stress fluctuation of diagonals and the load sharing rate of the diagonal member are less than those of the PC cable stayed bridge and safety factor similar to that of general internal cable can be adopted. Construction works for the main tower and the diagonal member are easy due to low height of the main tower, and the bridge is advantageous also in the maintenance control because no beam is required. 5 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Modern techniques in prestressed concrete cable-stayed bridges. Puresutoresuto concrete shachokyo ni okeru atarashii gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, A. (Kobe Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1994-03-31

    Because the prestressed concrete (PC) cable-stayed bridges combine the distinctive features such as a rationality of the structure or a structural beauty, it will not stay on a development of the technologies to make them longer and larger, and a rationalization of the execution, an investigation from various aspects such as the scenery design, material selection, pursuit of new structure and so forth will become necessary. In a main meeting, 15 volumes of paper on the most advanced technologies of PC cable-stayed bridges were presented. The presentations from Japan were 11 volumes, and occupied about 70%, and therefore a high interest to the PC cable-stayed bridges in Japan was inferred. In the presentation from Japan, there were many relevancies of the important study themes which would become a foundation for a development of PC cable-stayed bridges in the future, like ones that an improvement effect of dynamic behavior such as the aseismatic property, wind endurance and so forth was made as an objective, ones that a safety evaluation at an ultimate state as the oblique member anchoring part, main tower or entire structure was related, ones that a construction of the various control systems when the cable-stayed bridges were executed was concerned and so forth. 23 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Hybrid structure in civil engineering construction.; Doboku bun`ya ni okeru fukugo kozo.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, S. [Yokohama National Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-03-30

    The structure of steel-concrete hybrid structure which is recently attracting attention is outlined quoting some examples. The effects of steel-concrete hybrid structure are classified according to the characteristics. The Normandie Bridge completed in January this year near the mouth of the Seine River in France is a cable stayed bridge with the world largest span, and it has a hybrid structure of ingeniously combined steel and concrete. The Dole Bridge in France is a hybrid bridge with 7 continuous spans having steel corrugated sheets in the web. Hybrid structure has come to be applied to many structures other than the superstructure works of bridges. The substructures of bridges are applied to immersed tunnels, and the usefulness has come to be recognized widely. The features of hybrid structure can contribute well to the reinforcement of existing structures. In addition, adoption of hybrid structure has been studied as the best method for repairing and reinforcing structures damaged by earthquakes. 8 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Methods for PCO2 measurement in coral reef. Sangosho ni okeru PCO2 no genba sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitano, H; Saito, H; Mito, A; Tamura, N; Takahashi, C [National Research Laboratory of Metrology, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1993-05-01

    This paper introduces an instrument to measure CO2 partial pressure in sea water being developed for coral reef site measurements. The instrument uses a method that sea water is contacted with a gaseous phase via a gaseous body permeating membrane, and CO2 partial pressure in the gaseous phase is measured when CO2s in the sea water and the gaseous phase have reached a dissolution equilibrium, using an adequate analyzer. The gaseous body permeating membrane uses a material with high CO2 permeation rates, such as porous polytetrafluoroethylene. The paper describes a system that applies a gaschromatograph process to analyzing CO2 in the gaseous phase, and an automatic measuring system that utilizes a non-discrete infrared densitometer. Basic experiments are being carried out that are intended to develop a CO2 partial pressure sensor using optic fibers. This is a device to measure CO2 concentration in sea water, in which fluorescent coloring aqueous solution is contacted with sea water via a gaseous body permeation membrane, and change in fluorescence intensity in the said solution as a result of CO2 melting into it from sea water is utilized. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Natural gas distribution system for Peninsular Malaysia. Malaysia ni okeru toshi gas jigyo no sosetsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, T [Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1993-03-30

    Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. established in 1992 Gas Malaysia Sdn. Bhd, a joint venture company with investments from the Malaysia side, and begun full-fledged activities for supplying natural gas in Peninsular Malaysia. This paper explains the summary of the project. With a background of affluent resources including natural gas reserve of 1.9 trillion m[sup 3] as of 1992, Malaysia is promoting various projects to diversify and refine local energy consumption patterns and improve petroleum exporting capacity. The said joint venture project is one of the international bids executed by the national petroleum company, Petronas, in which Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. and Mitsui and Co., Ltd. were selected as their partner. The company business includes supply and sales of petroleum, as well as construction of pipelines to support the former activities. Engineers have been either stationed or sent to the country as technical cooperation including necessary technical transfer. This project is highly significant in terms of contributing to growth of economy in both countries and to solving global environmental problems. 6 figs.

  13. Study of heavy trace metals in some medicinal-herbal plants of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, M.I.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents heavy trace metals analysis in some widely used medicinal- herbal plants of Pakistan by using Inductively Coupled Plasma. Because these commonly used medicinal- herbal plants from Pakistan are being specifically utilized for the treatment of various diseases, so samples of medicinal-herbal plants were collected from open market and from the fields. Collected samples were digested and analyzed for their nutritional trace metals (Pb, Cd, Fe, Zn, Ni, Cu and Mn) composition and then the results obtained were compared to international and national standards as required by World Health Organizations. The deficiency or excess of the samples for essential trace metals are reported. (author)

  14. Professor Tariq Solaija, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Photo 01: Dr Austin Ball, CMS Deputy Technical Coordinator, discussing a section of CMS with Mr Tariq Solaija, National Centre of Physics, Pakistan, in charge of Pakistan's contribution to the Muon detector (Resistive Plate Chambers). Photo 02: Dr Austin Ball, CMS Deputy Technical Coordinator (right) presents neutron absorber panels for the CMS detector to (right-to-left) Mr Syed Shaukat Hasan, Minister Technical, Pakistan Mission in Geneva; Mr Tariq Solaija, National Centre of Physics, Pakistan and Dr Diether Blechschmidt, Non-Member States Relations, CERN. Photo 03: Mr Syed Shaukat Hasan, Minister Technical, Pakistan Mission in Geneva; Mr Tariq Solaija, National Centre of Physics, Pakistan; Dr Diether Blechschmidt, Non-Member States Relations, CERN and Austin Ball, CMS Deputy Technical Coordinator (right) looking up to the CMS detector. Photo 04: Mr Syed Shaukat Hasan, Minister Technical, Pakistan Mission in Geneva; Mr Tariq Solaija, National Centre of Physics, Pakistan listen to a presentation of the CMS d...

  15. U.S. Arms Sales to Pakistan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grimmett, Richard F

    2008-01-01

    This report briefly reviews the issue of U.S. arms sales to Pakistan. It provides background details regarding recent major weapons transactions between the United States and Pakistan, as well as the rationale given for such sales...

  16. U.S. Arms Sales to Pakistan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grimmett, Richard F

    2007-01-01

    This report briefly reviews the issue of U.S. arms sales to Pakistan. It provides background details regarding recent major weapons transactions between the United States and Pakistan, as well as the rationale given for such sales...

  17. CERN and Pakistan consolidate their partnership

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During the President of Pakistan's visit to CERN, the Laboratory and Pakistan decided to strengthen their collaboration. The President of Pakistan, Pervez Musharraf, the Chairman of PAEC, Parvez Butt, and CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar, exchange congratulations following the signing of the letter of intent to strengthen partnership between CERN and Pakistan.The President of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Pervez Musharraf, during his speech in the Council Chamber. The President of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, General Pervez Musharraf, visited CERN on 27 January this year, accompanied by an important delegation of five ministers from the Pakistani Government, the Chairman of Pakistan's Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), Parvez Butt, and an eminent former Chairman of the Commission, Ishfaq Ahmad, who pioneered cooperation with CERN. Welcomed by CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar, the President visited the CMS experiment to which Pakistan is making a substantial contribution. The presidential pa...

  18. Pakistan's Madrassas -- Weapons of Mass Instruction?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, Paul M

    2007-01-01

    .... The madrassas are not unique to Pakistan, but are found throughout the Muslim world. However, Pakistan is a particularly interesting case since it was the staging ground for the CIA-led opposition to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan...

  19. Challenges and Opportunities for Libraries in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Shafiq UR, Rehman; Pervaiz, Ahmad

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: This paper, based on review of literature, observation, and informal conversations, discusses various challenges regarding finance, collection development, ICTs, human resources, library education, library association and research & development faced by library profession in Pakistan. The opportunities to meet these challenges have also been explored. Keywords: Library challenges and opportunities (Pakistan); Librarianship (Pakistan); Library issues; Library profession in Pa...

  20. The Pakistan Experiment and the Language Issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schendel, W.; Guhathakurta, M.; van Schendel, W.

    2013-01-01

    The partition of 1947 created two new independent states, India and Pakistan. The eastern part of Bengal joined Pakistan. Pakistan was a highly ambitious experiment in twentieth-century state making. And yet, from the beginning the state was beset with enormous challenges. This excerpt from a recent

  1. Pakistan's Approach Towards Cem-Bio Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M. A.; Iqbal, J.

    2007-01-01

    Pakistan ratified the BWC and CWC as a non-possessive state at that time when international environment were fraught with uncertainties about Chem-Bio threat. The geographical location of Pakistan faces a serious multidimensional WMD threat which includes threat from, non-state actors and her neighbours especially after declaration of chemical weapons during process of ratification of CWC. Pakistan never pursued such chem-bio program with the aim to use it as a mean of deterrence in overall context of security policy and always encouraged any move regarding strengthening of national/international institutional efforts to counter potential misuse of chem-bio technology. Pakistan's position has consistently been positive, pragmatic and supportive. For better implementation of BWC and CWC in Pakistan, comprehensive policies have been formulated and National Authority has been established to work as National point of contact on CWC affairs. Pakistan CWC Act 2000, Pakistan Bio Safety Rules 2005 and Pakistan Export Control Act 2004 are the evidences of Pakistan's sincerity to the implementation of CWC and BWC. Pakistan has declared 15 industries involved with chemicals, out of which 06 have already been inspected by OPCW Inspectors. Pakistan has declared its national protective program and pursuing all possible measures to enhance the national capacity and potential to guard against chem-bio threats. Pakistan has proved that it is committed to the principles of disarmament, which could serve as confidence building measures and may help reducing distrust and regional tension.(author)

  2. Investigations on steel slag re-utilization in developing countries; Hatten tojokoku ni okeru tekko slag sairiyo ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In order to promote steel slag re-utilization in developing countries, a possibility was presented for technical cooperation to India, Indonesia and Thailand upon putting the status of slag utilization in Japan into order. Blast furnace slag produced in Japan (having a re-utilization rate of 95%) is re-utilized and processed as cement aggregates and road beds, and converter slag as civil engineering materials and ores. Steel making slag (having a re-utilization rate of 80%) is re-utilized as road, processing and civil engineering materials. Since the steel making slag faces intensifying competition with ash made by incinerating construction and general wastes, it is important to improve its price competitiveness or mixed utilization with other materials. Re-utilization has not advanced to a recognizable level in developing countries because of having no difficulty for availability of lands for wastes. However, growth of full-scale steel industries and elevation in tendency of environment preservation now urge increase in the slag re-utilization rate. Required to achieve the goal would include wider use of re-utilization technologies, quality control on slag, joint use of facilities to produce re-utilization products, and governmental assistance on burdens of transportation cost. Assistance from Japan is expected to help meet these requirements. 25 figs., 31 tabs.

  3. On noise, traffic and factory vibrations in Akita city; Akitashi ni okeru soon oyobi kotsu kojo shindo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogoshi, M; Kikuchi, T; Morino, T; Sannohe, M [Akita University, Akita (Japan). College of Education

    1996-05-01

    Noise and vibration were measured in Akita City. In 1994, noise and traffic-caused vibration were measured along the trunk lines and other roads across the entire Akita City area. In 1995, the effort centered on the Ibarashima manufacturing quarters, the important source of noise and vibration in Akita city. The general-purpose noise meter LA-220S was used to measure noise and the vibration level meter VR-5100 was used to measure vibration. The results of noise measurement carried out at 122 points in Akita City indicated that the noise level was high along Route 7, Route 13, and the southern line belonging to the newly built national highway, marking the highest of approximately 74dB. As compared with the measurement made in 1968, the value was higher by 3-13dB. A roughly similar trend was seen in vibration. The noise level measurement of 1995 accomplished at 100 points in the vicinity of Ibarashima district indicated that the factories were responsible for high levels of noise and vibration. It was found that the levels lowered in proportion to the increase in the distance from the factories. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Elevator group control during morning rush-hours; Erebeta gun kanri ni okeru shukkinji unten ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hikita, S. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Komaya, K. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Industrial Electronics and Systems Lab.

    1995-11-30

    In a high-rising building, a group control system is indispensable which controls elevators systematically in order to improve efficiency of transportation. The group control and supervision are divided into two kinds namely the allocated control and the operation control. The former is the control to determine the optimal elevator which is to respond to a call of an individual passenger and the latter is the control to determine the operational practice as an elevator group in response to changes of the macroscopic traffic flows which are repeated periodically like morning rush hours or a lunch time. In this article, the meaning of the operation during morning rush hours has been discussed, the effect of the operation during the rush hours has been verified through simulation, and as a result, it has been verified that the determination of number of elevator cages to be arranged by the number of passengers (in particular the number of passengers from the main floor) is not necessarily related to improvement of total transportation efficiency. Besides, after analyzing the behavior of the group of elevators under the morning rush hour operation, the new index for determination of the optimal number of elevator cages at the main floor has been established, a new practice for determining the number of cages to be arranged based on the above has been proposed, and its effect has been verified. 7 refs., 10 figs.

  5. Subjects on geochemical technology for geothermal power plant. Chinetsu hatsudensho ni okeru kagaku kanri gijutsu ni kansuru shomondai. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirowatari, K [Kyushu Electric Power Co. Ltd., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1991-04-30

    This paper introduces the following technologies and countermeasures found to be successful in solving geochemical problems relating to the maintenance and management of geothermal power plants belonging to Kyushu Electric Power Co., Ltd. In controlling condensate properties,curtailment of pH fluctuation range by changing the injection point of NaOH,inactivation of sulphur bacteria by using chloramphenicol and prevention of slime loading of the condenser strainer by running of the cooling tower without make-up water were achieved. In the environmental countermeasures,it was concluded that Fe-ion injection method was most effective to remove As out of waste hot waters which are all reinjected into the underground formation now. By understanding the characteristics of the well eruption fluids,the attenuation mechanism of steam producing wells could be estimated, which were interference,re-eruption and degradation of the reservoir temperature caused by the reinjected hot waters. And the problems associated with the attenuation of steam producing wells have been solved fundamentally by taking proper countermeasures to eliminate the influence of reinjected hot waters. The atteunuation of reinjection well was found to be caused dominantly by silica loading at the permeable zone of wellbore and to be effectively solved by high temperature reinjection of the waste hot waters, controlling of temp. degradation of hot waters to be reinjected and prevention of air mixing. After applying proper countermeasures, the attunuation rate of the reinjection well has been fairly improved. 13 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Measurement of organic carbon quantity at chemoautorophic bacterium; Kagaku dokuritsu eiyo saikin ni okeru yuki tansoryo no sokutei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuda, I; Kato, K; Nozaki, K [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan); Kurokawa, K [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Described herein is the method for analyzing quantity of organic carbon synthesized by chemoautotrophic bacterium. It is based on the combustion-infrared spectroscopy, which is normally adopted for quantitative analysis of organic carbon. The problems involved in the measurement of organic compounds synthesized by iron-oxidizing bacteria are noise by culture medium components, aging of gas analyzer and contamination with organic compounds from a silicon plug. The measures taken in this study against these problems include comparison of the results with a medium containing iron-oxidizing bacteria with those with a medium free of these bacteria, calibration with the standard solution for each measurement, and replacement of a silicone plug by a silicon cap. Organic carbon is measured by a TOC-5000 analyzer equipped with an automatic sample feeder ASI-5000. Biomass density is determined by the MPN method. It is confirmed that organic carbon quantity is almost in proportion to biomass density, a phenomenon which can be used to determine organic carbon quantity. 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Pakistan liberalises the petroleum sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    With the independence of the Indian sub-continent, Pakistan was declared a Dominion on 14 August 1947. Following political turbulence, East Pakistan declared itself an independent state, Bangladesh in December 1971. Although Pakistan has some coal, oil, natural gas and hydroelectricity (the huge Tarbela Dam on the Indus) it is an importer of energy. Many of the population of 90 million live in the 44000 villages only about half of which have mains electricity supplies. About 85 percent of the energy consumption in rural areas is provided by non-commercial sources such as dung and firewood. To replace these non-commercial fuels, even with considerable increases in energy efficiency, would mean a trebling of the present levels of burning kerosine and gas oil consumption. (?)

  8. Eradication of dracunculiasis from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, D R; Azam, M; Ruiz-Tiben, E; Kappus, K D

    1995-09-02

    In 1986 the World Health Organization targeted dracunculiasis (Guinea-worm disease), which seriously impairs socioeconomic development in 16 African countries, India, Pakistan, and Yemen, to be eradicated globally. The target date for eradication by the end of 1995 was established in 1991. Pakistan eradicated dracunculiasis from the country in October, 1993, after a national campaign which began in 1987 with a nationwide village-by-village search for cases. The infection, which is transmitted by drinking water from ponds containing infected water fleas, was eradicated by using health education, cloth filters, and the cyclopsicide, temephos; and in the later stages, by case containment. Methods pioneered in Pakistan's National Guinea Worm Eradication Program are now being applied in remaining endemic countries.

  9. Energy policy formulation for Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaz, T.

    1981-01-01

    Pakistan is a low income, low energy consumption country. In view of the close interdependence between economic growth and energy consumption, she will need increasing energy supplies in order to maintain her economic growth. This paper develops an energy sector optimization model for the Pakistan economy, which consists of production models for five energy industries, ie oil, gas, coal, electricity (including electricity generated in nuclear power plants) and non-commercial fuels. The model is first used to forecast energy balances for the period 1975 - 2006. The model is then employed to formulate a long-term comprehensive energy policy for Pakistan. Finally the suggested policy is compared with the current official energy programme. (author)

  10. Keen foreign interest in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, D.

    1997-01-01

    Despite a reputation for political and economic instability, Pakistan continues to attract keen attention from the world's major oil and gas companies. Interest is not just confined to the potentially profitable upstream exploration and prospecting industry but also to downstream refining and distribution, where significant multi-million dollar projects are planned to meet the country's insatiable demand for petroleum products. (Author)

  11. Surgery, public health, and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Syed Nabeel; McQueen, K A Kelly

    2011-12-01

    Surgical healthcare is rapidly gaining recognition as a major public health issue. Surgical disparities are large, with poorest populations receiving the least amount of emergency and essential surgical care. In light of recent evidence, developing countries, such as Pakistan, must acknowledge surgical disease as a major public health issue and prioritize research and intervention accordingly. We review information from various sources and describe the current situation of surgical health care in Pakistan and highlight areas of neglect. Pakistan suffers an annual deficit of 17 million surgeries. Surgical disease kills more people than infectious diseases inclusive of tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, diarrheal disease, and childhood infections. The incidence of trauma and maternal mortality ratio are staggeringly high. There is a severe dearth of surgical and anesthesia-related epidemiological data. Important information that would help to drive policy and planning is not available. Corruption and neglect have led to a dilapidated health care infrastructure. Surgical care is largely inaccessible to the poor, especially those living in rural areas. The country faces a dearth of healthcare professionals, especially paramedics, anesthetists, and surgeons. Unsafe surgery and anesthesia poses a significant risk to patients. There is no national policy on surgical illness and the preventive aspects of surgery are nonexistent. Consistent with other underdeveloped countries, surgical care in Pakistan is dismal. Neglecting surgery and safe anesthesia has led to countless deaths and disability. Physicians, researchers, policy makers, and the government health care system must engage and commit to provide access to emergency, essential, and safe surgical care.

  12. Pakistan : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2000-01-01

    This report analyzes Pakistan's procurement system, and presents an extensive set of recommendations for strengthening same. It reviews the legal, and regulatory framework, as well as the mandatory registration and/or pre-qualification of suppliers, and contractors, and negotiation practices, and, analyzes bidding document issues for recommendation. Human resources development, auditing pr...

  13. Evaluating Insects as Bioindicators of Heavy Metal Contamination and Accumulation near Industrial Area of Gujrat, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Azam, Iqra; Afsheen, Sumera; Zia, Ahmed; Javed, Muqaddas; Saeed, Rashid; Sarwar, Muhammad Kaleem; Munir, Bushra

    2015-01-01

    To study the accumulation and contamination of heavy metals (i.e., Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn) in soil, air, and water, few insect species were assayed as ecological indicators. Study area comes under industrial zone of district Gujrat of Punjab, Pakistan. Insects used as bioindicators included a libellulid dragonfly (Crocothemis servilia), an acridid grasshopper (Oxya hyla hyla), and a nymphalid butterfly (Danaus chrysippus) near industrial zone of Gujrat. Accumulation of Cd was highest in insec...

  14. Reforms for competitive markets in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, Nadeem; Ahmed, Vaqar; Shahid, Sana

    2011-01-01

    While Pakistan has taken several steps to promote competition in its markets, further reforms are required in improving domestic commerce, agricultural markets and industries. With increasing risks and cost of doing business due to deteriorating law and order situation as well as massive energy shortages, Pakistan needs to compensate its entrepreneurs and investors by enhancing its investment and business climate. By adopting certain administrative and legal reforms, Pakistan can considerably...

  15. Energy - efficient buildings in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohail, M.; Qureshi, M.U.D.

    2011-01-01

    Pakistan is one of the countries with the highest energy consumption for domestic use. Annual energy consumption by the domestic sector is 45.9 % of the total, while the industrial sector, consumes about 27.5%. About half of the total energy consumed is used in buildings and/or heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) and lighting appliances. The energy consumed for the same purposes in China and UK is 25 to 30 % and 40 %, respectively, even in extreme weather conditions. Energy deficiency in Pakistan is approximately 5,000 MWe, which results in worst load-shedding in summers and, lately, even in winters. Building new energy sources like dams, coal power plants and renewable energy power projects are some possible solutions, but these are time taking and need at least 2 to 6 years to complete, depending upon the nature of the project. Fast development of energy-efficient buildings is, therefore, necessary to deal with exacerbating energy-crisis and related environmental impact in Pakistan. Innovations in the prevailing building-design will help the country in reducing the energy burden. These innovations may include improved architectural designs, energy-efficient building materials, electrical appliances and implementation of building energy-efficiency codes. In 1987, the National Energy Conservation Centre (ENERCON), was established under Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, with the aim to build awareness among the masses for energy conservation, and to make policies regarding energy-conservation structures in the country. But no policy regarding building energy codes has been introduced by ENERCON till now. In collaboration with Pakistan Engineering Council (PEC), ENERCON has recently finalized the Building Energy Code of Pakistan Energy Provisions 2011 for which statutory notification is under process for necessary amendment in the building by-laws. The implementation of this Energy Code will result in 25 to 30 % of energy savings in the

  16. Study on the optimal control of the ground thermal storage system in the greenhouse. Part 4; Onshitsu ni okeru taiyo energy dochu chikunetsu system ni okeru saiteki seigyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, M [Sanko Air Conditioning Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Nakahara, N [Kanagawa University, Yokohama (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Three types of weight in both energy saving and optimum room temperature environment were changed to obtain the optimal control solution of the ground thermal storage system in a greenhouse. The relation diagram between the optimal solution of a performance function, and the state constraints and control function constraints was created in consideration of the energy term in a control function value area and the room temperature environment. As a result, the whole image of the performance function could be grasped in consideration of the energy term with inequality constraints and the room temperature environmental term in this study. The rate of a weighting factor in the performance function significantly influences the optimal solution. The influence on the optimal solution also changes when the optimal room temperature schedule differs. The influence that three types of rising algorithm exert on the convergence and converging speed was investigated. Superiority or inferiority occurs according to the space properties of a performance function. A zigzag method is most disadvantageous. The constraints can be converged to the optimal solution using an SUMT outer point method irrespective of the initial value. 6 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. NGO field workers in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Haroon SIDDIQUE

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available NGOs came into the society in their present form after World War II and more precisely in 1960s. Before that also different forms of philanthropy existed. Like elsewhere in the world, in Pakistan also state and the market were the two sectors catering for different needs of the people. When foreign funding started coming into the poor countries, the channel of NGOs was considered more appropriate including the fact they had roots in the society and the benefit could reach the far flung areas. NGO field workers are the real actors in the NGOs’ activities but sadly the NGOs those raise the slogans of working for the destitute do not bother to facilitate the NGO field workers. Eventually the NGO field workers are facing problems of job insecurity, poor salary structure, unhealthy working environment and even harassment especially in case of women NGO field workers in Pakistan

  18. Pakistan energy : open for business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This paper looks at the Pakistan government's policy on energy. Existing problems within the energy sector are highlighted and the new liberal Petroleum Policy examined. Foreign investment is seen as key to the success of this policy in order to exploit the petroleum and natural gas reserves as yet untapped. The exploitation of indigenous sources is particularly important in the light of increasing energy demand and foreign exchange debts. (UK)

  19. China-Pakistan Economic Corridor.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyce, Tucker [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    International trade and related economic activities in Central and South Asia are increasing as developing economies, particularly India and Pakistan, grow. China continues to emerge as a major regional and global power and has embarked upon numerous regional economic and political initiatives . A major development is the China - Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), a host of infrastructure and trade projects worth over 40 billion American dollars . This report analyzes CPEC a nd its potential regional effects, including the trade security implications of the port and land infrastructure developments . As trade increase s in the reg ion and the major CPEC infrastructure projects are completed, there will be numerous implications on trade security and geopolitics within South Asia. CPEC projects uniquely intersect numerous regional situations, including territorial disputes in Kashmir, the Afghanistan/Pakistan border, and Chinese foreign policy a mbitions. A nuanced understanding of these effects can influence future policy adjustments in this region . The views expressed in this report are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the position of Sandia National Laboratories or the author's current and past institutions.

  20. Toward an Innovation Policy for Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Speakman, John; Afzal, Kiran; Yuge, Yasuhiko; Hanna, James

    2012-01-01

    This policy paper aims to assist policy makers, as they develop the Pakistan Innovation Policy, with an independent assessment of where Pakistan stands now, an international perspective on policy priorities, a review of policy options and some implementation and institutional perspectives. The paper begins with a review of the key lessons of international experience together with a study of ...

  1. English-Teaching Institutions in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Tariq

    2001-01-01

    Discusses English medium teaching in Pakistan and suggests that at the moment it is an elitist preserve and a stumbling block for Pakistanis not taught through English. Indicates that exposing other students to English could counteract growing cultural and religious intolerance in Pakistan. (Author/VWL)

  2. Higher Education and Women's Empowerment in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Samina; Courtney, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarises the findings of a 2005 doctoral study by Malik which explored to what extent participation in higher education offers empowerment to women in Pakistan. A survey instrument was used to question female faculty members and female students from 10 public universities in Pakistan; 1290 students and 290 faculty members responded.…

  3. Hope or Despair? Learning in Pakistan's Primary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Donald P.; Reimers, Fernando

    This book reports on the research findings of the Pakistan Study, a collaboration between the Harvard Institute for International Development and other organizations in Pakistan. The focus is primarily on what affects student learning in Pakistan's government-sponsored primary schools. Chapter 1 discusses primary schools in Pakistan and the…

  4. Pakistan strong industrial base urged for economic progress

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    A conference organized by Pakistan Nuclear Society urged that Pakistan should develop a strong industrial base and capability to export equipment for economic progress. The chairmen of PAEC pointed out that Pakistan is already showing remarkable progress in export of science-related equipment to CERN. He also asked scientists to wage a war against Pakistans inability to acquire indigenous technology (1 page).

  5. Health risks associated with heavy metals in the drinking water of Swat, northern Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yonglong; Khan, Hizbullah; Zakir, Shahida; Ihsanullah; Khan, Sardar; Khan, Akbar Ali; Wei, Luo; Wang, Tieyu

    2013-10-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals such as Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were investigated in drinking water sources (surface and groundwater) collected from Swat valley, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The potential health risks of heavy metals to the local population and their possible source apportionment were also studied. Heavy metal concentrations were analysed using atomic absorption spectrometer and compared with permissible limits set by Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization. The concentrations of Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb were higher than their respective permissible limits, while Cu, Mn and Zn concentrations were observed within their respective limits. Health risk indicators such as chronic daily intake (CDI) and health risk index (HRI) were calculated for adults and children separately. CDIs and HRIs of heavy metals were found in the order of Cr > Mn > Ni > Zn > Cd > Cu > Pb and Cd > Ni > Mn > Cr > Cu > Pb > Zn, respectively. HRIs of selected heavy metals in the drinking water were less than 1, indicating no health risk to the local people. Multivariate and univariate statistical analyses showed that geologic and anthropogenic activities were the possible sources of water contamination with heavy metals in the study area.

  6. Mobile Application Testing in Pakistan: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Saqib

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Research regarding MAT (Mobile Application Testing in Pakistan is hard to discover and to the best of our knowledge, no work has been done in surveying MAT in Pakistan. In this work, we have examined the current trend and status of MAT in Pakistan. Main objective was to investigate to what extent MAT is currently applied in Pakistan software companies and what experience the companies have with using MAT. Furthermore, efforts were made to find out what testers think about MAT, e.g. issue, advantages and disadvantages of MAT, what factors affects MAT and how they plan to improve MAT. In order to achieve our objectives, we used a comprehensive online survey so we converted our research questions into correspondence survey questions. We served a questionnaire of the survey to 66 testing relevant officials of leading software companies in different cities of Pakistan to develop a model study about general trend and status of MAT which can be generalized all over Pakistan. We received 56 replies in total after over 2 months. After that, we used SPSS tool to analyze the replies of this questionnaire. Cross-Tabulation Analysis and Pearson Chi-square tests have been computed to examine the results. We found some interesting results on current status and practice of MAT in Pakistan software companies.

  7. China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC): Benefits For Pakistan And Comparison With Suez And Panama Canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    ECONOMIC CORRIDOR (CPEC): BENEFITS FOR PAKISTAN AND COMPARISON WITH SUEZ AND PANAMA CANALS by Hanif Ullah Khan December 2017 Thesis...DATE December 2017 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CHINA PAKISTAN ECONOMIC CORRIDOR (CPEC): BENEFITS FOR...The China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is part of China’s “One Belt, One Road” initiative and joins two major economic corridors: The Silk Road

  8. Pakistan's Nuclear programme for peaceful purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilali, A.Z.

    1994-01-01

    Pakistan's nuclear programme is peaceful purposes and as the foregoing analysis shows, it is essential for its economic development. Nuclear power provides affordable energy for development of Pakistan economy and for meeting the minimum requirements of the people. Growing conventional energy requirements reflect Pakistan's expanding industrial demand for energy intensive appliances. Prospects for developing domestic sources of oil, natural gas, coal and hydro power are limited and the search for natural resources is slow due to lack of foreign aid and capital. Nuclear technology is an immensely powerful factor in the achievement of socio-economic development and elimination of poverty. (Orig./A.B.)

  9. Polyester projects for India, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, R.

    1993-01-01

    India's Indo Rama Synthetics (Bombay) is planning a $186-million integrated polyester fiber and filament complex at Nagpur, Maharashtra. The complex will have annual capacities for 38,000 m.t. of polyester chips by polycondensation, 25,000 m.t. of polyester staple fiber, and 12,000 m.t. of polyester blended yarn. The company is negotiating with the main world suppliers of polycondensation technology. The first stage of the project is slated to begin production by the end of this year and be fully completed by 1994. In Pakistan, National Fibers Ltd. (PNF; Karachi) has signed a deal with Zimmer (Frankfurt) for technology, procurement, construction, and support work to expand polyester staple fiber capacity from 14,000 m.t./year to 52,000 m.t./year. The technology involves a continuous polymerization process. The project also calls for improvements to PNF's existing batch plant. It is scheduled for completion by the end of 1994. Total cost of the project is estimated at Rs1.745 billion ($70 million), out of which the foreign exchange component is Rs1.05 billion. The Islamic Development Bank (Jeddah; Saudi Arabia) has already approved a $27-million slice of the financing, while the balance of the foreign exchange loan is being arranged through suppliers credit. Local currency loans will be provided by other financial institutions in Pakistan

  10. Gender and Violence in Urban Pakistan

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-02-02

    Feb 2, 2014 ... This report is the final output of the Safe and Inclusive Cities Programme ... urban working class neighborhoods of Karachi and Rawalpindi-‐Islamabad. ...... In Chapter 3, we discuss Pakistan's urban environment policy and ...

  11. Public Accountability Institutions in Pakistan and their ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Mobile Nav Footer Links ... It is expected that the research will provide insight into the relationship between public accountability, macroeconomic ... Date de début ... Public accountability institutions of Pakistan & their macro economic impacts.

  12. Population and population policy in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldin, W P

    1963-02-01

    Pakistan is a divided country with different religious groups represented. Since independence in 1941, the Muslim population has increased more rapidly than the Hindu population, the West Pakistan population more rapidly and steadily than the East Pakistan population. In the late 1950s the Pakistan government initiated a family planning program. The program has trained medical and paramedical personnel in family planning, added family planning services to existing medical centers, planned for a National Research Institute of Family Planning, employed mobile units to reach outlying areas, conducted limited clinical studies on some contraceptives, and used mass media advertising. Only India and Japan are doing more with government-sponsored family planning. A weak organizational structure and an inadequate number of trained personnel are the main weakness of the program. It is too early to assess the success of the program. A 10-point reduction in annual birth rates will be considered successful.

  13. Pakistan | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    For example, research in the Hindu Kush-Himalayas identified solutions to conserve soil ... This network specializes in applied research that connects economic and ... Groundbreaking research in Pakistan includes a study showing how the ...

  14. Violence and vulnerabilities: Afghans in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaa Alimia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Given that the majority of Afghans who live in Pakistan today are unlikely to return to Afghanistan, more needs to be done to address their vulnerabilities and protect them from harassment and violence.

  15. Prime Minister of Pakistan visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2016-01-01

    On Saturday, 23 January 2016, CERN welcomed Mr Muhammad Nawaz Sharif, Prime Minister of Pakistan.   From left to right: Minister of Finance Mr Mohammad Ishaq Dar, Prime Minister of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Muhammad Nawaz Sharif, CERN Director-General Fabiola Gianotti and CMS national contact physicist Hafeez Hoorani. Mr Muhammad Nawaz Sharif arrived at Point 5 in Cessy, where he was welcomed onto French soil by the sous-préfet of Cessy, Stéphane Donnot, and, representing CERN, Director-General Fabiola Gianotti, Directors Eckhard Elsen and Charlotte Warakaulle, and Rüdiger Voss, the adviser for relations with Pakistan. It was the first visit by a head of government of Pakistan since the country became CERN's latest Associate Member State in July 2015. The Prime Minister then had the opportunity to visit the CMS underground experimental area accompanied by the CMS Spokesperson, Tiziano Camporesi, and the CMS collaboration’...

  16. Pakistan's Madrassas -- Weapons of Mass Instruction?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, Paul M

    2007-01-01

    .... During this period, from 1979-1989, the CIA worked closely with Pakistan's ISI to provide arms and training to holy warriors or mujahideen who crossed the border into Afghanistan to engage Soviet troops...

  17. Lagunenud valitsusega Pakistan vaevleb kriisis / Sandra Maasalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maasalu, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 27. aug. 2008, lk. 7. Pakistani valitsuse lagunemisest, kui endine peaminister Navaz Sharif oma parteiga koalitsioonist lahkus. Vt. samas: Pakistani ahistavad separatistid ja majanduse allakäik. Kaart: Pakistan

  18. Reforming mysticism: Sindhi separatist intellectuals in Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkaaik, O.; Marsden, M.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Anthropology, Islam, and Pakistan / Magnus Marsden -- Of children and jinns : an enquiry into an unexpected friendship during uncertain times / Naveeda Khan -- The modern businessman and the Pakistani saint : the interpenetration of worlds / Katherine P. Ewing -- Islamic influences on

  19. Adopting Cloud Computing in the Pakistan Navy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    making. In the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks and following the U.S. invasions of Iraq and Afghanistan, Pakistan joined the Global War on Terror. Since...6,000 casualties were from the military forces. The Pakistan Navy, which is a medium to smaller size force, is fighting this war on multiple fronts...disaster, complete loss of data and infrastructure may occur. Trojan Horses and Malware Emails containing Trojan horses and other malware from

  20. Modelling the Demand for Money in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Qayyum, Abdul

    2005-01-01

    The study estimates the dynamic demand for money (M2) function in Pakistan by employing cointegration analysis and error correction mechanism. The parameters of preferred model are found to be super-exogenous for the relevant class of interventions. It is found that the rate of inflation is an important determinant of money demand in Pakistan. The analysis reveals that the rates of interest, market rate, and bond yield are important for the long-run money demand behaviour. Since the preferred...

  1. Analysis of india and Pakistan's nuclear capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhimin

    1999-07-01

    The development and capacity of both India and Pakistan's nuclear weapons are described in production of weapon-grade materials, nuclear testing, weaponization engineering and delivery systems. India is capable of designing and manufacturing both small yield tactic nuclear weapons and big yield strategic ones and also possesses the technique to design and manufacture H-bombs. Weapon-grade plutonium constitutes the primary fission material for India's nuclear weapon and it has plutonium enough to make 70 to 100 nuclear weapons. India can also produce some tritium. India has already possessed delivery systems but it has not yet mounted nuclear warheads on its ballistic missiles even though its missiles, which India has already owned or is under development, have the ability to carry nuclear warheads. Pakistan also has the ability to make both tactic nuclear weapons and strategic ones. With its weapon-grade uranium, 20 to 30 nuclear weapons can be made. Besides the uranium production facility. Pakistan also has the facility to produce tritium. It is supposed that Pakistan has the ability to carry nuclear weapons with airplane, but it has a long way to go if it wants to mount nuclear weapon, especially bit yield ones, on its own missile. As a whole, India's nuclear force is stronger than Pakistan's, and its development far more advanced than Pakistan's

  2. Heavy metal contamination in vegetables grown in Rawalpindi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, W.; Ahmed, A.; Ahmad, A.; Randhawa, M.A.; Ahmad, R.; Khalid, N.

    2012-01-01

    Copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) contents of various vegetables (bitter melon, tomato, eggplant, lettuce, cucumber and bell pepper) produced in Rawalpindi, Pakistan was determined using Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). These plants are the basis of human nutrition in the study area. All vegetables grown at sewage water by farmers showed the highest contamination of heavy metals, followed by local market, Progressive farmers and hydroponic plant. The concentration ranges in mg/kg were (1.45 -2.55) for Cd, (3.10 to 4.92) Cr, (12.15- 20.50) Cu, (25.00-51.00) for Fe, (7.80 to 15.60) for Mn, (10.16 to 15.42) for Ni, (2.12 to 5.41) Pb and (16.58 to 24.08) for zinc. The contamination was above the Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs), set out by WHO. Irregular trends in concentration were also observed in vegetables obtained from local market, progressive farmers and hydroponic plant. (author)

  3. Strengthening Regulatory Competence in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadiq, M.

    2016-01-01

    Capacity building of Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority is considered an essential element in pursuit of its vision to become a world class regulatory body. Since its inception in 2001, PNRA has continuously endeavoured to invest in its people, develop training infrastructure and impart sound knowledge and professional skills with the aim to improve its regulatory effectiveness. The use of nuclear and radioactive material in Pakistan has increased manifold in recent years, thus induction of more manpower was needed for regulatory oversight. PNRA adopted two pronged approach for meeting the manpower demand (a) employment of university graduates through fast track recruitment drive and (b) induction of graduates by offering fellowships for Master degree programs. Although, the newly employed staff was selected on the basis of their excellent academic qualifications in basic and applied sciences, but they required rigorous knowledge and skills in regulatory perspectives. In order to implement a structured training program, PNRA conducted Training Needs Assessment (TNA) and identified competency gaps of the regulatory staff in legal, technical, regulatory practice and behavioural domains. PNRA took several initiatives for capacity building which included establishment of a training centre for sustainability of trainings, initiation of a fellowship scheme for Master program, attachment of staff at local institutes for on-the-job training and placement at foreign regulatory bodies and organizations for technical development with the assistance of IAEA. The above strategies have been very beneficial in competence building of the PNRA staff to perform all regulatory activities indigenously for nuclear power plants, research reactors and radiation facilities. Provision of vibrant technical support to IAEA and Member States in various programs by PNRA is a landmark of these competence development efforts. This paper summarizes PNRA initiatives and the International Atomic

  4. Solid waste management - Pakistan's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.

    2003-01-01

    The discipline of 'Solid Waste Management' is as old as human civilization itself. The problem had been felt when the human beings commenced living together in the form of communities. The situation got worsened with ever-increasing population and growing industrialization. The developed nations have endeavored to tackle the issue of the industrial and municipal wastes according to the principles of engineering and environment. Most of the developing countries have not dealt with the 'Third Pollution' in the eco-friendly manner. Ironically Pakistan is facing this serious menace because of ever-expanding population (2.2% per annum) and ill management of the wastes and effluents being generated from multifarious activities. These pollutants are degrading the land, air and water resources at alarming rates. In Pakistan about 7,250 tonnes of solid waste is generated per day. Of this quantity only 60-70% is collected and the remaining quantity is allowed to burn indiscriminately or decay in situ. Unfortunately the industrial waste, animal dung and hospital waste are allowed to mix with the municipal waste, which adds to inefficiency of the existing 'Solid Waste Management System'. Scores of faecal, fly, rodent and mosquito born diseases are caused due to open dumping of the waste besides aesthetic impairment of the surroundings. None of the scientifically recognized methods of disposal is practiced. It is not based on administrative, financial, environmental and technical consideration. There is dire necessity of educating the masses to adopt clean habits and resort to generation of minimum waste. Further, nothing is waste as the so-called 'waste material' is the raw material after reuse and recycling for another process. (author)

  5. Current uranium activities in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghal, M.Y.

    2001-01-01

    The rocks of Siwaliks group in Pakistan, extending from Kashmir in the east through Potwar Plateau, Bannu Basin and Sulaiman range up to the Arabian Sea in the west have been extensively explored for uranium. The Dhok Pathan Formation, which is younger member of the middle Siwaliks has been aeroradiometrically surveyed and extensively prospected on foot. A large number of anomalies were encountered in Kashmir, Potwar Plateau, Bannu Basin and Sulaiman range. While exploratory work in Sulaiman range and Bannu Basin yielded a few workable deposits, none of the anomalous areas yielded an ore grade concentration in Potwar Plateau. As conventional exploration activities in Potwar Plateau did not yield any ore grade concentration therefore a resource potential evaluation programme through geological modeling was started under the guidance of an IAEA expert. The volcanic material found in the middle Siwaliks is considered to be the main source of uranium and siliceous cement in the sandstones. These findings have considerably increased uranium potential in Siwaliks. The tectonic deformation during and after the deposition of Siwaliks is considered to be the main reason for mobilization of uranium, while permeability barriers and upward movement of oil products may provide trappings for the mobilized uranium. Through this survey south western part of Potwar Plateau being relatively less deformed is considered to provide conducive environments for concentration of uranium. Low grade uranium concentrations have also been discovered in carbonatites in northern part of Pakistan. Preliminary exploration in Sallai Patti carbonatite through drilling supplemented by trenching, pitting and aditing, subsurface continuation of surface concentrations has been confirmed. The ore contains about 200 ppm of uranium and 3 to 4% phosphate in addition to magnetite, rare metals and rare earths. It has been demonstrated on laboratory/pilot scale that the concentrations of uranium and phosphate

  6. Formation of secondary products in water purification. ; Toxicological evaluation of mutagenic chlorination by-products during drinking water treatment. Josui shori ni okeru fukuseiseibutsu. ; Josui shori ni okeru hen'i genseibusshitsu no dokusei hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamuro, K [Setsunan Univ., Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences; Sayato, Y [Setsunan Univ., Osaka (Japan)

    1993-12-10

    The biological effects of acute toxicity, chronic toxicity, carcinogenicity, etc. of chlorination by-products detected in drinking water in Japan are discussed. The biological effects of representative chlorination by-products such as trihalomethane, haloacetic acid, haloaldehyde, haloacetonitrile, chlorophenol, chloropicrin, etc. as well as the evaluation of mutagenicity in drinking water purification process, for which Ames Salmonella/microsome assay is used for safety evaluation of drinking water, are discussed. The extent of the contribution of mutagenicity of chlorination disinfection by-products to the mutagenicity of drinking water is investigated. It must be admitted that biological evaluation of the safety of water quality is impossible currently by using only the known chemical substances contained in drinking water. The effects of chlorination and ozone treatment which are often applied to drinking water treatment are different each other. 58 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  7. 3D seismic survey in Honjo, Akita. Problems and struggles in acquisition and processing; Akitaken Honjo koku ni okeru sanjigen jishin tansa. Genba sagyo to data shori ni okeru mondaiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imahori, S; Kotera, Y; Nakanishi, T [Japan Energy Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    Honjo mining area where investigations are conducted is hilly and has a complicated terrain with gas pipes buried in the ground just under the access road disabling the proper positioning of shock-generating large excavators or vibrators. Auger`s shallow hole shooting method is used in this survey to execute blastings at 639 points. In this method using charge depths of 4m, different from the conventional method using deeper charge depths (20-25m), surface waves prevail in the shot records giving rise to a new problem of removing them in the stage of data processing. The 2D filter that is a powerful tool in 2D data processing is not available in a 3D-survey where the tracing intervals are irregular in the shot records. In the effort of this time, a window length as a parameter in the direction of time is specified, and the F-X dip filtering method is employed in which any event that linearly continues beyond a certain number of traces in the said window is eliminated as a linear noise. It is recommended that the weighting function be changed in the direction of space since surface wave velocities are different at different locations. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. Unusual rainfall shift during monsoon period of 2010 in Pakistan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Floods due to “blocking event” in the jet stream during 2010 caused intense rainfall and flash floods in northern Pakistan which resulted to riverine flooding in southern Pakistan. In the beginning of July 2010, changes in summer monsoon rainfall patterns caused the most severe flooding in Pakistan history. Process control ...

  9. Privatisation electric power sector in Pakistan: some important issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafoor, A.; Weiss, J.

    1998-01-01

    This discussion paper highlights important issues relating to the privatisation of Pakistan's electric power sector. Salient features of the electric power sector in Pakistan, factors affecting the economic performance of this sector, the partial privatisation policy adopted by Pakistan, ongoing private power projects, and current privatisation policy are examined. The arguments for competition are raised, and alternative policy reforms the are considered

  10. Fault analysis in the very shallow seismic reflection method; Gokusenso jishin hanshaho ni okeru danso kaiseki. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagumo, S; Muraoka, S; Kaida, Y; Takahashi, T [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    To effectively use the very shallow seismic reflection for active fault survey, a method has been investigated by which fault structures can be appropriately reconstructed from the fault information detected in the original records. The first step of reconstructing the fault system from the travel time reflection curve was to grasp an outline of fault structure from the patterns of travel time curve observed in the original record. For the very shallow seismic reflection method, especially, the low velocity layers in a shallow part succeeding from the ground surface made the issue complicated. Then, the travel time reflection curves were calculated in the case of existing several horizontal reflection surfaces in the surface layer. The constant values, mean velocities to the depth at individual reflection surfaces were used for the approximation of velocities. The outline of fault structure was grasped from the observation of original record. Then, the structure was reconstructed from the travel time curves. When the mean velocity in the medium was known, reconstruction of the feature of reflection surfaces from the travel time curves could be determined by simple mapping. When the mean velocity was unknown, it was calculated using the reciprocal travel time from the common reflection surface for individual reflection surfaces. 7 figs.

  11. Transition of wind power utilization technology in the 20th century; 20 seiki ni okeru furyoku riyo gijutsu no hensen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushiyama, I. [Ashikaga Inst. of Tech., Tochigi (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    Windmills are one of the oldest prime movers and have been used for more than 700 years in Europe. The transition from low speed windmills for grain grinding and water pumping to high speed wind turbines for electric power generation had occurred at the end of 19{sup th} century. This paper, at first, reviews the windmill technologies and the researchers before 20th century. Then describes the back ground of how the wind power generator has existed and how the four pioneers developed their wind power generator. The historical developments of windmills to wind turbines in this century are studied focusing mainly on Danish activities. Then, the effort of the development of large wind turbine such as Smith-Putnum's first MW machine in U.S.A. and other mammoth machine concept are introduced. The new concept machines such as Savonius and Darrieus wind turbines in 1920s to 1930s are also explained. Finally, the novel technologies of wind turbine covering larger machines, variable speed generators, special wing sections for wind turbines, theoretical analysis method of wind turbine performance, offshore wind turbines, and wind turbine control technologies are stated. (author)

  12. Phosphorus and nitrogen removal in waste water at small factory. Shokibo jigyosho ni okeru haisuichu no rin chisso shori gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirai, M. (National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1994-05-25

    For the purpose of preventing closed waters from eutrophicating, COD regulations and nitrogen and phosphorus waste water regulations are executed in Japan, but practically applicable techniques for this purpose are a few. Concerning technology for removing nitrogen and phosphorus in waste water, this paper describes the actual situation of two industries, electroplating and alumite processing, and applicable techniques. Among various nitrogen removal methods, the biological treatment method has been used practically in many cases and is applicable to practical use. While there are many kinds of physical and chemical treatment methods, applicable methods are limited. In removing nitrogen, the coagulating sedimentation method with Ca salt, Al salt and Fe salt is effective generally for orthophosphate. At electroplating factories, various forms of phosphorus and nitrogen compounds are used as plating chemicals. In treating waste water containing phosphorus, the coagulating sedimentation method is used most frequently. The oxidation + coagulating sedimentation method, the autolysis + oxidation coagulation method, and the evaporation method are effected, though the examples of their implementation are small in number. 15 tabs.

  13. Fresh Vegetables in the food service Industry its purchasing system; Gaishoku sangyo ni okeru seisen seikabutsu no chotatsu shisutemu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, K. [Food Service Industry Survey and Research Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-09-05

    The environment which surrounds production, distribution, consumption of vegetables changes. A demand for the business a household economy demand of vegetables stagnates by the increase of eating out and lunches demand in the food consumption as a long-term tendency, and the tendency as vigorousness continues. In addition, a demand for domestic organic and special cultivation vegetables from the increase of the healthy and safe orientation of the consumer heightens. In this paper, what kind of new movement occurs in environmental change which surrounds these vegetables is arranged. (NEDO)

  14. Roles of major organizations in EC for decision making. EC no ishi kettei ni okeru shuyo kikan no yakuwari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, M.

    1992-12-01

    This paper considers authorization powers held by the major organizations in the EC, with the Maastricht Treaty kept in mind. One of the objectives of establishing the EC is to harmonize and develop the economic activities in the community on the whole, and promote making closer the relations among the member nations. The EC's supernationality has two aspects: finances (using financial sources from externally common tariffs as the EC's independent financial resources) and legislations (member nations delegating their own powers to the international organization). Organizations involving in the EC legislations are the European Assembly, the board of ministers, and the EC Committee. The Assembly has deciding powers at high levels on the EC budget decision, as well as vetoing power on the budget. The board of ministers is provided with deciding powers to assure achievement of the objectives defined in the official requirements. The Committee has a supernational character that each committee member can act independently free from being subjected to orders from his or her native country. Practically, however, the authorization relationship among the organizations has confrontations over the interests of the organizations and member nations. There have been such movements in this situation as the Luxemburg compromises, actions at the agricultural ministers meeting, and preparation of the unified European protocol. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. 1000m depth boring at Inagawa, Hyogo prefecture. 1. Overviews; Hyogoken Inagawamachi ni okeru 1000m boring chosa. 1. Gaiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, T; Kusunose, K; Cho, A; Tosha, T [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Kiyama, T; Yamada, F [Mitsui Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Aizawa, T [Sancoh Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Various field experiments were carried out using a 1000m deep borehole at Inagawa town, about 10km north of the focus of the Hanshin-Awaji Great Earthquake and directly above the area where shallow earthquake activities have intermittently occurred. These experiments included stress measurement by hydraulic fracturing, hydrophone-aided VSP, permeability tests and observation of various types of logging. The laboratory experiments were also carried out, including measurement of various properties and stresses of the core samples. The stress-depth relationship, determined by the hydraulic fracturing method, shows that the stress gradient well coincides with the Western Japan standard at a depth up to 700m, whereas it is approximately twice as high as the standard at a depth of 946m, at which core disking and borehole break-out are clearly observed, and hence stresses conceivably concentrate locally. Orientation of the maximum horizontal compressive stress is E-W at a depth of around 600m, but greatly changes to NNW-SSE at a deeper position. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Magnetic constraints of basement structure offshore of western Kyushu, Japan; Kyushu seiho kaiiki ni okeru jiki ijo no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuma, S; Nakatsuka, T [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Ishihara, T [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes the results from the qualitative analysis of magnetic anomalies offshore of western Kyushu and from an analysis by a three-dimensional two-layer model inversion. The analysis ranged from Kyushu on the east to Jeju Island on the west and from the southern part of the Korean Peninsula on the north to Tanegashima and Yakushima Islands on the south, namely, the area of 580km from east to west and 580km from south to north. The analytical data used was Magnetic Anomaly Map of Asia (GSJ and CCOP, 1994). In the qualitative analysis, a pseudogravity anomaly map and a pole gravity anomaly map were prepared from the total magnetic force anomaly map by means of a frequency filter operation. As a result, it was noted that two distinctive magnetic high belts existed in the margin of the Tunghai Shelf, extending from the sea area to the west of the Nansei Islands continuously to NNE, and being distributed transversely through the Goto sedimentary basin. Additionally, in the inversion analysis, it was demonstrated that the magnetic basement became shallow at the margin of the Tunghai Shelf north of latitude 31 degrees north, extending nearly in the NNE direction through west of the Goto Islands, west of Tsushima Island, and continuing to the southern coast of the Korean Peninsula. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Remote reference processing in MT survey using GPS clock; MT ho ni okeru GPS wo mochiita jikoku doki system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, K; Inoue, J; Takasugi, S [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kosuge, S [DRICO Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    A report is given about the application of a synchronizing system using clock signals from GPS satellites to a remote reference method which is a technique to reject noise from the MT method. This system uses the C/A code out of the L1 band waves from NAVSTAR/GPS satellites. The new system was operated in MT method-using investigations conducted at China Peninsula, Aichi Prefecture, and Izu Peninsula, Shizuoka Prefecture, with the reference points placed several 100km away in Iwate Prefecture on both occasions. It was found as the result that it is basically possible to catch signals from the GPS at any place, that the signals are accurate enough to be applied to time synchronization for the MT method, and that the signals assure a far remote reference method with a separation of several 100km between the sites involved. The referencing process at high frequencies whose feasibility had been doubted proved a success when highly correlated signals were exchanged between two stations over a distance of several 100km. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  18. MT2-D inversion analysis in Kakkonda geothermal field; Kakkonda chinetsu chiiki ni okeru MT ho nijigen kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, K; Takasugi, S [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Miyazaki, S [Japan Metals and Chemicals Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Uchida, T [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Data, collected from an MT method-assisted survey conducted in the Kakkonda geothermal region in 1987, was re-examined, and a new structure was found. The review was carried out by use of a 2D analysis in the TM mode. According to the 1D analysis of 1987 and the geological data gathered then, it is estimated that the resistivity structure of this region runs in the northwest-southeast direction. A northeast-southwest traverse line was set for this analysis, orthogonal to the strike, and the impedance at each observation spot was caused to rotate to this direction across the whole range of frequency. Furthermore, in 1994-95, surveys were conducted using arrayed CSMT/MT methods. All these sum up to indicate that a high-resistivity region extends northwest in the southwestern part of the Kakkonda river but that there exists a low-resistivity region of several 10 Ohm m centering about the B traverse line. The high-resistivity region deep in the ground being the target of excavation in the Kakkonda region, to collect knowledge about this high-resistivity is important, and here the effectiveness of the 2d analysis has been verified. 5 refs., 11 figs.

  19. Results of cultivation experiment at clean farm (vegetable plant). 1. Clean farm (yasai kojo) ni okeru saibai jikken kekka. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyaishi, T; Kawagishi, K; Matsuzaki, O; Nakahara, M [Kyushu Electric Power Co. Ltd., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1991-03-31

    This paper reports a summary of the facilities in an experimental plant constructed by the Kyushu Electric Power Company in 1988, and a result of experiments on cultivating salad and lettuce. The plant has environmentally controlled cultivating rooms of solar beam combined type and totally artificial light type, each having a floor area of 50 m {sup 2}, disposed with cultivating stages divided into three divisions of seedling culture, growth, and forced culture, nutritious liguid feeding devices of circulation type, and air conditioning equipment. The paper describes results of the tests aimed at realizing an increase in yield and profit, an optimum cultivating system, and economic facilities at the vegetable plant. Included in the tests are that (a) four kinds of salads and five kinds lettuce were selected for cultivation to decide most suitable kinds, based on literature survey and preliminary experiments; (b) varying the environmental conditions for the culture, such as temperature, radiating condition, concentration of the nutritious liquid, and concentration of carbon dioxide, conditions optimum or suitable for the plant growth were selected; (c) the plant was compared with glass green houses with respect to the required cultivating period of time, vitamin C content and color tones of the products; (d) the solar beam combined type room and the totally artificial light rooms were compared with respect to power consumption and heat capacity that passes through the cultivation room walls, and the latter was concluded being superior in economics and stability. 12 refs., 37 figs., 30 tabs.

  20. On-line sensor technology for food manufacturing industry. Shokuhin bun prime ya ni okeru on-line sensor gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komiya, K. (Ajinomoto Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-08-05

    This paper introduced the sensor technology for food manufacturing industry. If sugar concentration in main raw material is too high in the amino acid fermentation, control of the concentration is required because fungi growth is inhibited. A controlling method for sugar concentration was developed by using the correlation between consumption of NH {sub 3} for pH adjustment and sugar consumption in place of conventional analyzing method and was introduced in the gulutamic acid fermantation. BOD sensor was developed to enable the selective measurement of organic substances which can be processed by organisms, and measuring time was shortened from previous five days to 30 minutes. Since many organics absorb infrared ray, near infrared analysis is suitable for food analysis and on-line analysis has high possibility. When this method is applied to measure moisture in fishes and meats, continuous measurement can be made nondestructively and without contacting, and further the precision is {plus minus} 0.1%. Simultaneous multi-composition analyses are carried out by continuous spectrum and near infrared method using higher rate scanning. Sensor development for taste and smell has started. 10 refs., 4 figs., 4 refs.

  1. Treatability evaluation of membrane technique by virus. Maku shori ni okeru shorisei hyoka to shite no virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, K. (Tokyo Metropolitan Research Lab. of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-08-10

    Concerning a high level treating method of regeneration of sewage water, there are methods of coagulation/precipitation, sand filtering and ozone treatment in addition to the conventional active sludge method. However, none of these methods are perfect from the viewpoint of virus. A film treating method to remove micro-organisms in water is twofold, i.e., microfiltration and reverse osmosis. For such filter treatments, polio virus is most suited as an experimental index for conducting an assessment of the treating ability of viruses. The reasons are as follows: 1. It is the smallest virus among the viruses which are mixed in the water systems. 2. Polio virus is always detected in the study of actual conditions of the viruses contained in the sewage waters. 3. It involves less danger in handling because there are vaccines which are made less poisonous. 4. Separation and quantification of viruses is easily conducted by means of cultured cells. 8 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  2. Studies on energy system for an energy-saving society; Sho energy gata shakai ni okeru energy system kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The system to which new energy technology and energy saving technology were introduced was constructed for case studies of urban areas including core cities and the peripheral areas, and the quantitative analysis was conducted on environmental effects, etc. In the energy supply system model, the following element technologies were all considered: cogeneration system, sewage water heat, river water heat, the photovoltaic power generation, energy storage/heat storage/cold heat storage, adsorption type refrigerator, etc. Also considered were power interchange between clusters, system power buying/power selling, heat interchange or no heat interchange, etc. As a result, it was found that when constructing the energy system which synthetically takes into account thermoelectric ratios, rates of simultaneous loads, ratios of daytime/nighttime in the energy supply and demand in the urban area, the energy saving effect multiplicatively increases, and the energy system using cogeneration and unused energy such as refuse and sewage in the urban area and river water brings an energy saving effect of 32% especially in the concentrated cluster. 83 figs., 45 tabs.

  3. Studies on reactivity of coal surfaces at low temperature; Teion ni okeru sekitan hyomen no hannosei no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, H.; Kaiho, M.; Yamada, O.; Soneda, Y.; Kobayashi, M.; Makino, M. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    With an objective to learn reactivity of coal at its surface, surfaces of oxidized coal samples were investigated. Miike coal was oxidized by using {sup 18}O2 in a closed loop system. As the reaction progresses, proportion of CO2 including isotopes increased rapidly as a result of oxidation of CO sites existing in the coal and the newly generated C{sup 18}O sites. The oxidizing reaction progressed via oxygen adsorbing sites generated near the surface, and oxygen containing groups. An FT-IR analysis estimated the depth of the oxidized layer to be 10{mu}m or less from particle surface. The oxidized coal was pulverized to see its surface condition. Functional groups introduced by the oxidation enter into the vicinity of the surface in a form to desorb as CO. CO2 is trapped in inner pores. The coal surface was observed by using an atomic force microscope. No observable openings in the pore structure were discerned on the surface before the oxidation, and the structure agrees with a closed pore model. Surface image oxidized in-situ by oxygen for one hour had slight roundness, which led to a supposition of structural change, and changes in the functional group and adsorption species. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Change of unit skeletons during an artificial coalification; Jinko sekitanka katei ni okeru tan`i kokkaku kozo no henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Y.; Miki, Y.; Hayamizu, K. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan); Okada, K. [Coal Mining Research Center, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, Y. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    In order to obtain knowledge about formation and growth of condensed ring structure in a coalification process, discussions were given on product skeleton structure by using hydrogenation and hydrocracking of heated cellulose. In underwater heating of cellulose, reaction of dehydration has occurred at 200{degree}C or lower, that of decarbonation at 250{degree}C or higher, and that of demethanizing at 300{degree}C, resulting in production of a dark-brown coal-like substance. The substance has lower H/C value and higher O/C value than coal. As the underwater heating temperature rises, the hydrogenation reactivity of the heated substance decreases, and so does the ratio of conversion into toluene solubles. These phenomena are related to strength of cross-linking bond between unit skeleton structures. A substance heated at an underwater heating temperature of 200{degree}C turns toluene-soluble almost completely even during the hydrogenation reaction (350{degree}C for 2 hours), but the soluble product decreases at underwater heating temperatures of 250 and 300{degree}C. However, soluble product of more than 90% was obtained when hydrocracking (at 425{degree}C for one hour) was performed. The toluene-soluble product in the heated substance is only 50% when the underwater heating temperature reaches 350{degree}C even if the hydrocracking is carried out. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  5. R and D contract management systems in the USA; Beikoku ni okeru R and D contract kanri system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    Outlined herein are the US Government's R and D contract management, which is considered to have greatly contributed to promotion of innovation in the USA. The procedures for the R and D contracts are managed through the mechanisms of the (government procurement), following the FAR (Federal Acquisition Regulations) that govern the government procurement rules. The procedural flow includes planning, public announcement of inviting the application documents, examination of the applications, negotiations, granting the fund, project management, suspension of the project and completion of the project. The audition sometimes takes several years to complete. The staff managing the individual contract is fairly specialized, and a team consisting of several professionals is responsible for each project. The substantial lifetime training systems the contract officers can receive are established. The alternative contract system encourages the applications from consortiums, and private enterprises frequently tie up with academic organizations to apply for the funds. Granting the funds to consortiums have many advantages, e.g., cost sharing and technological transfer. (NEDO)

  6. Introduction of research and development in Image Information Science Laboratory; Image joho kagaku kenkyusho ni okeru kenkyu kaihatsu no shokai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-10

    This paper introduces research and development at the Image Information Science Laboratory. This is a joint industry-university research institution for the purpose of making a computer recognize human non-language information, expressing and transmitting it, with the research conducted at two centers, Kanto and Kansai. The following studies are being made at the Kansai research center: man/machine interface making natural communication possible between a man and a machine, with emphasis placed on visual information; sensing technology for measuring human activity, technology for analyzing/forming human sensitivity, and technology of expression; technology by which a work is done by a computer in place of a man and reproduced on the computer, with the skill transferred to a man; and development of a spatial expression media system such as a three-dimensional display device. The Tokyo research center is participating in the following projects: committee for promoting joint industry-university research and development of virtual reality (VR); joint industry-university research, development and implementation project of advanced VR; survey on physiological psychological effect in VR system and the like; and research and development of human media. (NEDO)

  7. Improvement of vehicle stability in cornering on uneven road; Akuro senkaiji ni okeru sharyo no anzensei kojo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobimatsu, K; Harada, M; Harada, H [National Defense Academy, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The active control of vehicle suspensions and rear wheel steering systems in turning on uneven roads is analyzed by means of LQR control theory, assuming that cornering forces depend on tire normal loads in addition to tire slip angles. The authors quantitatively investigated the effectiveness of the integrated control of the active suspension and the rear wheel steering, comparing the contributions of each individual system. Furthermore, in this paper, the role of the chassis control and driver control are studied in order to improve the stability of vehicle motion disturbed by the road surface. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Simulation of speed control in acceleration mode of a heavy duty vehicle; Ogatasha no kasokuji ni okeru shasoku seigyo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, S; Ukawa, H [Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Sanada, K; Kitagawa, A [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A control law of speed of a heavy duty vehicle in acceleration mode is presented, which is an extended version of a control law in deceleration mode proposed by the authors. The control law is based on constant acceleration strategy. Using the control law, target velocity and target distance can be performed. Both control laws for acceleration and deceleration mode can be represented by a unified mathematical formulae. Some simulation results are shown to demonstrate the control performance. 7 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Measurement improvements of heat flux probes for internal combustion engine; Nainen kikan ni okeru netsuryusokukei no kaihatsu to kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajima, H; Tasaka, H [Miyazaki University, Miyazaki (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In heat flux measurement in engines, material properties of a heat flux probe and numerical prediction of those influence have been discussed rather than practical measurement accuracy. This study featured the process for the quantitative examination of heat flux probes. Although the process required direct comparison among all the probes and additional measurements in a constant volume bomb, precision of heat flux measurement was greatly improved so that the essential characteristics of heat transfer in engines can be detected. 9 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Status of the superconductive Maglev program in the United States; Amerika ni okeru chodendo jiki fujo tetsudo keikaku no genjo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osaki, H [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-07-25

    In the United States, high speed transportation plan was approved in 1965, and research and development of the superconductive magnetically levitated system (Maglev) became active. Although research and development for design, construction, and test for 500km/h Maglev were started in 1974, the federal government ordered to stop in 1975 all the development projects of high speed transportation traffic systems, and the activity slowed down very much as compared with those in Japan, Germany, and other countries. In 1990, the National Maglev Initiative (NMI) project was established. The feature which is different from those of Japanese and German systems is 0.16g and larger acceleration, which allows to shorten the transit time between stations. Development plan for Maglev prototype was approved officially in November, 1991. Features of levitation, guidance, propulsion as well as the carriage lineup of the 4 systems conceptually designed in the NMI project are introduced. 22 refs., 4 figs., 57 tabs.

  11. Impedance frequency characteristics of the MAGLEV power feeding circuit; Jiki fujoshiki tetsudo ni okeru kidenkei no inpidansu shuhasu tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ema, S [Numazu College of Technology, Shizuoka (Japan); Ajiki, K [Railway Technical Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1993-09-20

    In connection with the impedance frequency characteristics of the coils for propulsion and the power feeding circuit of the magnetically levitated train (MAGLEV), the inverted L circuit and T circuit as equivalent circuits for the coil for propulsion and for the power feeding, respectively, are proposed and analyzed. The simulated result and the result of measurement reported by now are in good agreement, the measured values and calculated values being almost equal in both the characteristics of the coils for propulsion and those of the power feeding circuit. The validity of the two equivalent circuits are clarified, and the frequency characteristics are verified theoretically. The impedance frequency characteristics of the coils for propulsion which are peculiar to MAGLEV are investigated with the power feeding circuit consisting of the power feeding line and propulsion coils. Lastly, simulation is carried out for the coils for propulsion with several hundred propulsion coils and for the power feeding system assuming the commercial line. As a result, it is found that the antiresonant frequencies are decreased to about one tenth in both of the characteristics. 11 refs., 18 figs.

  12. Technology for emission control in internal combustion engines; Kakushu nainen kikan ni okeru hai gas joka gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shioji, M. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    Described herein are emission control technology and exhaust gas cleaning measures for internal combustion engines. Gas turbines burn relatively high-quality fuels, such as natural gas, kerosene, diesel oil and gas oil, where the major concerns are to reduce NOx and dust emissions. The NOx abatement techniques fall into two general categories; wet processes which inject water or steam, and dry processes which depend on improved combustion. Power generation and cogeneration which burn natural gas adopt lean, premixed combustion and two-stage combustion as the major approaches. Low-speed, large-size diesel engines, which realize very high thermal efficiency, discharge high concentrations of NOx. Delayed fuel injection timing is the most easy NOx abatement technique to meet the related regulations, but is accompanied by decreased fuel economy. Use of water-emulsified fuel, water layer injection and multi-port injection can reduce NOx emissions without decreasing fuel economy, depending on optimization methods adopted. Automobile gasoline engines are required to further clean exhaust gases by catalystic systems. 9 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Trend of advanced technology of micromachines in the USA; Beikoku ni okeru micro machine sentan gijutsu doko chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In this research, the data of advanced technology of micromachines in the USA have been searched, collected, and arranged from the US patent information, technical journal information, and newspaper and general journal information. According to demand, the main undertaking information was interviewed from well-informed persons. The data were compiled as advanced technology trend of micromachines in the USA. Sensors are remarkably predominant in the elemental technology. There are also important topics in the fields of actuators, motors, lenses, devices, and structures. On the other hand, materials, etchings, packages, motive powers, and softwares are also important elemental technology in spite of their less information. From the viewpoint of usage, detection systems are remarkably predominant. Then, robots, processing systems, optics, analysis systems, motive power systems, medical systems, and acoustic systems are also important. From the viewpoint of industrial sector, the environmental items are predominant. Automobiles, medical treatments, and information communications follow the above. When new relationships to the secondary usage and tertiary usage are not found, it would be rather hard to express such a technology development trend more clearly.

  14. Earthquake resistant measures of existing structures by TRTA; Eidan chikatetsu ni okeru kisetsu doboku kozobutsu no taishin taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, N.

    1997-08-10

    Seismic countermeasures for the existing structures are introduced on the main item: reinforcement of open-cut tunnel RC center pillars as well as on reinforcement of rigid frame viaduct pillars and installation of a device for prevention of viaduct falling. First, for reinforcing open-cut tunnel center pillars, design was devised so as to be suitable to construction environment in the subway yard. Important reinforcement materials are steel and filling materials; SS and a self-leveling material for building construction were chosen. The following construction work procedures are explained based on the actual construction: removal of interior materials of existing pillars and measurement of the actual size, high pressure water washing, steel plate fabrication, plate delivery to the yard, installation of steel plates, filler filling, painting. Next, on reinforcement of viaduct pillars on the ground, the reinforcement design concept is basically same as in the open-cut tunnel. Points of difference in design and construction are explained. On the countermeasure for prevention of viaduct falling for girder bridges without the falling prevention, countermeasure investigation and design work or installation work are being carried out. Seismic resistance evaluation and design of existing bridges, and construction work are explained. 13 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Microbiological indicators for evaluating treatability on water purification process. Josui shori ni okeru shorisei hyoka kara mita biseibutsu shihyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichikawa, H [Kanagawa Prefectural Government Public Enterprise Egency Water Works Bureau, Kanagawa (Japan). Tanigahara Purification Plant

    1990-08-10

    This report describes the historical procedure of a bacterial test for a certain respective bacteria, and also describes the removal of micro-organisms by a water treatment and treatment with disinfectants. The disinfection is made mainly on basis of foreign literature. This is because there exist few literature published in Japan. In a good sense, this is because of the Japanese habit of drinking raw water which has contributed to high level of facilities and the maintenance. If seen from a different viewpoint, the prsent concern is concentrated to a contamination of the underground water by organic solvent and the counter measure against such minute quantity of organic chemicals as trihalomethane and the agricultural chemicals in the golf courses. From the consumers {prime} standpoint, these are of the level of problems that only one affected person increases per year for 100,000 inhabitants even if they continue to drink such drinking waters continuously through their life years. The reality is that it is remote from the realities in life. 37 refs., 9 tabs.

  16. Problems in green improvement projects in recent city planning. Kinnen no toshi keikaku ni okeru ryokuchi keikaku eno kadai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funabiki, T. (Ministry of Construction, Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-08-06

    The present city plans are questioned on the formation of a good city environment, improvement of mansion/building supply, due to the new city problems on the Tokyo concentration and re-increase of the land value recently. Based on the discussion of the central city planning council, various improvement of the system were made by government. As a structure plan of the city, the green area plan that the balance between the urban land use and the national land use is distributed, must be included. As the problem of the green area plan on the system of city plan, this paper explained the distinguish between city area and city adjustment area, the green master plan about the green area preservation in long time, the green area system corresponded to the policy for realizing the plan of preserving the green area mainly, and the park work and green area policy corresponded to the policy for realizing the plan of creating the green area.

  17. Performance of miniature electromagnetic pump at liquid nitrogen temperature; Kogata deji ponpu no ekitai chiso ondo ni okeru seino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagashima, K.; Herai, T. [Railway Technical Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-11-10

    Though it cools the radiant heat shield board of superconducting magnet for levitation system railway by the liquid nitrogen, the piping on the shield board must be made to circulate the refrigerant in order to maintain the large area, which covers superconducting coil at the uniform temperature. Though as a circulating pump, it had developed thermal pumps using the heater and systems using natural circulation, etc. until now, it examined circulation performance of liquid nitrogen using the electromagnetic pump that here, it was small, and that to do the operation is sure. (NEDO)

  18. Ignition processes in the refuse bed of a refuse incineration plant. Gomi shokyakuro ni okeru gomi sonai no chakka katei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goromaru, T; Onishi, K; Iwakawa, N; Yoshikuni, N [Fukuoka Univ., Fukuoka, (Japan)

    1990-03-01

    The ignition process was studied in this paper, which was particularly connected with the drying process of refuse in the statical characteristics of refuse incinerators. Because of variety in refuse forms to be supplied to the incinerators, a physical model was composed, assuming that refuse was the layers of piled up refuse elements with uniform forms, and the ignition curves of the layers were drawn on the basis of the above model after a mathematical model was formed. The upper part of the curves was altered so that it suits to actual endothermic and heat velocity distribution on the assumption of temperature distribution in the incinerators at their inlet side. No particular alteration was made in their middle part, then the ignition curves were changed to almost straight lines inclined downward. Unburnt and refuse under firing were wrapped by ash and uncombustibles, so the lower part of the curves was only studied as a imaginary solid model by the two methods of finite element method and simple analytical one, and conversion was made into equivalent reduction in combustion temperature. 15 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Estimation of the thermal stress in the coke layer. Kanryu katei ni okeru kokusu sonai netsuoryoku no suisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Takatsoshi; Yoshino, Hiroyuki; Saito, Shozaburo; Otani, Shigemori [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1989-12-20

    Fissures which are formed in coke ovens are an important factor which exerts influences not only on the quality of coke but also on consumed energy such as thermal transfer. An estimation method of thermal stress distribution in the coke layer which is important to determine these fissures was, therefore, proposed, and the propriety of the method was demonstrated in comparison with the experiment results by X-ray computerized tomography. In the analysis model, heat fluxes from the upper part of the carbonization room and from the heating wall were regarded the same, and the temperature field was obtained by formulating the non-steady heat conduction equation to the finite element method by Galerkin scheme. The stress field was presumed to be an elastic flat field, and it was formulated to the finite element method by the incremental theory. Following investigation results were obtained and thus the propriety of this method was demonstrated. The formation position of principal tensile stress calculated and the formation position of fissures observed by X-ray computerized tomography had a corresponding relation. According to the calculation, with the increase of heating rate, principal tensile stress was increased; and that accounted for experiment results. Estimated results of thermal stress in the layer varied depending on the coal's value of property of the matter. 8 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Consideration on characteristics of faults distributed at around Fujigawa river mouth; Fujigawa kako shuhen ni okeru danso kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwashita, A; Misawa, Y [Tokai University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    From the sonic prospecting on the ground, it was confirmed that faults distributed in the inner part of Suruga Bay extend near the Fujigawa river mouth. While, faults in the sea bottom were found by the sonic prospecting using a single air-gun. However, continuity of faults running from the land to the sea has not been reported. This paper describes the continuity of Fujigawa fault system running from the land to the sea around Fujigawa river mouth along the subduction zone of Philippine Sea Plate using single air-gun seismic reflection records. Locations of the faults can be expressed as fracture information of linearment obtained from the satellite remote sensing images, which agreed well with those found by the Active Fault Research Association. As a result of the image processing, they agreed distinctly with the topography of Fujigawa fault system. Thus, much more accurate analysis can be performed by comparing the regional information by the remote sensing with the sonic seismic reflection profiles. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Subsurface displacement of the Tachikawa fault; Tachikawa danso no chika shinbu ni okeru danso hen`i

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, K; Kano, N; Kiguchi, T; Tanaka, A [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Sato, H [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Earthquake Research Institute

    1997-10-22

    Seismic exploration using the reflection method was carried out at the central section of the Tachikawa fault located in the western part of the Musashino high plain spreading over Tokyo and Saitama Prefectures. The course of traverse was set on a road running in the east to west direction, which crosses the running direction of the Tachikawa fault in Sunagawa, Tachikawa City by about 65 degrees. The area near the course of traverse is a terraced alluvial fan, with the nature of its surface soil consisted of a gravelly bed of the Quaternary period. In order to identify the fault structure in detail, the focal point interval was set to 5 m, being half of the vibration receiving point interval of 10 m. The CMP was defined at a 2.5-m interval rather than a 5-m interval. The S/N ratio of the derived data was found not good. This is because of scattering of seismic energy into the gravelly bed with a thickness of about 100m in the shallow portion and because of noise from passing vehicles. The data processing was applied with correlation, geometry, static correction, velocity analysis and CMP polymerization to have prepared a preliminary CMP polymerization time cross section. As a result, it was elucidated that the Tachikawa fault forms a bend zone or a crush zone under the ground, and continues down to a great depth at a high angle. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Fault analysis in the very shallow seismic reflection method. Part 3. Migration; Gokusenso hanshaho ni okeru danso kaiseki. 3. Migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagumo, S; Muraoka, S; Takahashi, T [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Concerning the analysis of data obtained by the seismic reflection method, migration in the very shallow layer is discussed. When the dip angle of the reflection plane involved is disclosed by DMO conversion, the amount of migration (travelling sideways) can be calculated by use of simple geometrical formulas though on the presumption that the sector velocity is constant. Categorized into this technique are such methods as DMO conversion migration, direct dip migration, F-K method, and finite difference method. This means that waveforms are not damaged by migration processing although elongation occurs due to time base conversion. When it is taken into account that waveform distortion is generally grave in the migration related methods widely in use, this feature has to be said valuable in holding information on faults. This is especially advantageous in the very shallow layer because the amount of migration is proportionally larger when the level is deeper and, in addition, migration processing is useful when it is necessary to know more accurately the character of the fault plane. 8 figs.

  3. Water monitoring and its information management system in China; Chugoku ni okeru suishitsu monitoring to joho kanri system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quan, H.

    1996-01-10

    This paper summarizes the water monitoring system (WMS) in China applied mainly to surface water and operated within the competence of the Environmental Protection Agency. The WMS consists of a national water monitoring network and a water information system that monitors surface water periodically. The WMS comprises water monitoring stations classified from class 1 to class 4, which are located in 2,222 locations. Stations from class 1 to class 3 are operated by using computers, but class 4 stations are still incapable to use floppy disks to perform information transmission. When an information management system is completed at the China-Japan Friendship Environmental Protection Center being constructed by gratis assistance from the Japanese Government, transmission of water quality data will become possible by means of the cable line system in addition to the table system and the floppy system. The water quality data are published to general people in the forms of Chinese gazette for the environmental conditions, the environment yearbook, and the reports on environmental quality. However, the more important is to publish more publications to make people aware of the actual state of water pollution and have them cooperate in environment preservation. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Hydrogenolysis reactions characteristics of deashed coal under low temperature; Teionka ni okeru dakkai shoritan no suisoka bunkai hanno tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owada, T.; Mashimo, K.; Wainai, T. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Science and Technology

    1996-10-28

    In relation to coal liquefaction, the effect of inorganic minerals on liquefaction reactivity and the effect of hydrofluoric acid (HF) treatment on organic molecular structure of coals were studied by demineralization of low-rank coals in HCl or HF solution. In experiment, Taiheiyo coal specimen was deashed in HCl solution at 25-70{degree}C for 6 hours while agitating, and in addition, deashed in HF solution. Hydrogenolysis of the deashed coal specimen was conducted using tetralin or methylnaphthalene as solvent under initial hydrogen pressure of 1.96MPa at reaction temperature of 693K for 60min. The experimental results are as follows. The ash content of Taiheiyo coal hardly offers catalysis in hydrogenolysis reaction. Carboxyl group increases in demineralization of coal because of breakage of bridged bonds. Organic structure of coal changes by demineralization in dense HF solution. Change in organic structure of coal by demineralization in dense HF solution is dependent on treatment temperature. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Analysis of flame propagation phenomenon in simplified stratified charge conditions; Tanjunkasareta sojo kyukiba ni okeru kaen denpa gensho no kansatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriyoshi, Y; Morikawa, H [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Kamimoto, T [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Since the local inhomogeneity of mixture concentration inside the cylinder affects the combustion characteristics, a basic research on combustion phenomenon in stratified charge conditions is required. The authors have made experiments with a constant-volume chamber, which can simulate an idealized stratified charge field by using a removable partition, to obtain the combustion characteristics. Also, numerical calculations are made using some combustion models. As a result, the important feature that the combustion speed is faster in stratified condition than in homogeneous condition can be predicted by the two-step reaction model. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Analysis of fuel spray characteristics for premixed lean diesel combustion; Kihaku yokongo diesel kikan ni okeru nenryo funmu kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, S; Harada, a; Miyamoto, T; Akagawa, H; Tsujimura, K

    1997-10-01

    Premixed lean diesel combustion (PREDIC) makes it possible to achieve low NOx emission. It is an important factor to make the homogeneous spray formation for PREDIC. In this paper presents I the effect of the spray dispersion on emission characteristic were analyzed with the spray observation and engine test. Pintle type nozzle, which has different feature from orifice type nozzle, are used to form the hollow cone spray. As a result, the pintle type nozzle having grooves to generate the swirl flow, makes the reduced penetration in comparison with the hole nozzle under low ambient gas pressure. And it could improve THC, CO emissions at low NOx emission condition. 7 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Power feeding to terminal devices in optical subscriber network; Hikari fuaiba tsushin ni okeru tanmatsu kiki eno kyuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, M

    1998-09-01

    This paper outlines present state of the feeding system in the light access system in consideration of backup in case of home power failure. In the optical communication, equipment with bilateral conversion function for light and electricity has to be installed both on communication service side and home side. Outline of the light access system and equipment requiring backup are shown. The following items are explained: main types of the light access system, such as FTTC (fiber to the curb), FTTP (fiber to the pole), FTTH (fiber to the home) and HFC (hybrid fiber coax), and the feeding system; problems on feeding system for the light access system. Key elements of ONU (optical network unit) for FTTH and construction of the ONU power source are illustrated. The ONU power source is composed of a backup power supply unit and main body supply unit. Backup power is indispensable to the ONU and analog telephones: output is supplied by the backup batteries in power failure. For miniaturization of the backup power source, power supply circuits and backup batteries have to be miniaturized simultaneously. History of miniaturization is explained on the experimental models. 6 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Possibility of EV with solar cells on the new traffic system; Shinkotsu system ni okeru solar car no kanosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, I; Kojima, S [Meiji University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    A possibility of a new traffic system was studied for a solar car which is light in weight, small in size and low in speed (cruising speed: 20 km/h) and does not need so much power because of the use for short distance. In the new traffic system, people travel short distance in city by solar car, and use trains for travel between cities. By installing solar cells on roofs, etc. of houses and buildings such as garages around stations, power needed for solar car and incidentally required can be supplied. Assuming the short distance transportation, the car is for one person with a height of luggage space of 70cm, mean length of 165cm, and floor height of 50cm above the ground. In case that the power generation by solar cells (256.5W) is at maximum with no shading during travel on conditions of load weight of 10kg, personnel weight of 70kg, and total weight of 250kg, it was found that solar cells can supply 89% of the required output under test road travel at speed of 20 km/h. A viability of the solar car proposed here is great. A possibility at the time of mode road travel is also studied. 10 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Equalizing effect of the fluctuation in areal irradiance; Chiikinai ni okeru shugo nissha no hendo yokusei koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minowa, J; Kurokawa, K [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Otani, K; Tsuda, I; Sakuta, K [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Aggravation in electric power quality is concerned because of irregular output power caused by a large number of photovoltaic power generation systems connected with the power grids. However, averaging of the irregularity may be expected in a wide area due to time-based shift in cloud movements. In order to identify this effect, insolation data were measured in terms of planes at multiple points in the city of Tsukuba to discuss the fluctuation equalizing effect. The system is composed of nine instruments to measure insolation plane characteristics, nine terminal station units, and a base station unit. The insolation data express the horizontal plane insolation intensity at a sampling interval of one minute. Insolation fluctuation (standard deviation of insolation fluctuation components) was defined as an index of the insolation fluctuation. Based on the index, an averaging effect when the photovoltaic systems are installed in a number of locations was considered by using statistic estimation. As a result, the averaging effect was obtained even in an area with a radius of several kilometers. In addition, the measurement data revealed that there is an upper limit in the effect depending on the number of system installation. It was also made clear that the data are affected by distances to connect the photovoltaic power generation systems with each other and by climatic conditions. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Water quality and water pollution sources in Poyang lake, China; Poyang ko ni okeru suishitsu chosa to odakugen kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, M. [Shin-Nippon Meteorological and Oceanographical Consultant Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-01-10

    This paper summarizes the current status of water quality and pollution sources in Poyang Lake in China. The lake is located in Chianghsi Province of China, and a largest fresh water lake in China that flows out into the Yangtze river. The basin is surrounded by mountains on three sides and faces the Yangtze on one side, whereas the plains formed by the lake and the rivers flowing in extends in the center of the basin. The plains around the lake has the city of Nanchang, the capital of the province, the city of Jiujiang (both cities have a population of about 4 million, respectively), and four other cities with a size of one million people including Jingdezhen. Water supply system in the basin is used in a 37% area of the urban areas, and no sewage facilities of whatsoever are available as of 1991. The lake has COD of about 3 mg{times}1/l. No severe pollution by organic matters is seen. While the T-P concentration is at a high level, PO4-P is low. Majority of phosphorus flowing into the basin exists in the form trapped in soil particles. In order to maintain the current water quality in the future, waste water treatment is required in the basin. Construction of an oxidation pond in the vast land exposed during the drought period is a measure that can be tackled relatively easily. 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  11. Study of evaluation for grouting effect in a borehole; Yakueki chunyu koka hyoka gijutsu ni okeru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, H; Matsuo, T [Fukuoka Municipal Transportation Bureau, Fukuoka (Japan); Yamauchi, Y; Imanishi, H [Osaka Soil Test, Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    For the foundation improvement works by grouting in a borehole, evaluation of grouting effect is one of the most important management items. The grouting design and works are sometimes reconsidered depending on the evaluation of grouting effect during the test injection. The purpose of the evaluation of grouting effect is to grasp the range of improvement and consolidation after the injection, and to judge and estimate the strength and permeability of the consolidation part. This paper describes the judgment method of the strength using PS logging results and borehole televiewer (BHTV) logging results. The reflection intensity (Ir) by the BHTV logging increased after the grouting, which showed a same tendency as that using S-wave and P-wave velocities (Vs and Vp) before and after the grouting. This was considered to demonstrate the grouting effect. A relation was obtained between the Vs, Vp and Ir before and after the grouting, which was expressed by following equation. Ir=0.143{times}Vs-70=0.093{times}Vp-110. The relation with the dynamic elastic coefficient (Ed) was also obtained as follow; Ir=0.0013{times}Ed. 9 figs.

  12. Seismic reflection survey in Omama fan area, Gunma prefecture; Gunma Omama senjochi ni okeru hanshaho jishin tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, K; Kano, N; Yokokura, T; Kiguchi, T; Yokota, T; Matsushima, J [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Seismic reflection survey was performed for the Medial Tectonic Line, an important geological tectonic line in the Kanto plains, at Kushibiki district, Saitama prefecture in the north-western part of the Kanto plains. It was estimated that movements of the basement were different in the individual sides of the active fault. In this study, the seismic reflection survey was performed at the Omama fan area, Gunma prefecture, which is located at the north-eastern extension of the Kushibiki plateau, to grasp the structure of basement to the depth of about 1.0 s of return travel time, and the upper sediments. Two traverse lines passing Ota city, Kiryu city, and Nitta town were used. Southern part of the traverse line-1 was in the bottom land in the middle of Tone river, and northern part was in the Omama fan area. The ground surface along the traverse line was flat. Hachioji heights are the heights elongating in the NW-SE direction and having relative height of 100 to 200 m against the surrounding plain. Another traverse line-2 was set on the steep slope having relative height more than 100 m. The Brute stack time section of each traverse line was characterized by the gradient reflection surface AA of the traverse line-1. It was suggested that the AA or intermittent parts of reflection surfaces deeper than AA may relate to the tectonic lines in the more ancient geological ages. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Accuracy of FEM 3-D modeling in the electromagnetic methods; Denjiho ni okeru FEM 3 jigen modeling no seido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Y [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-01

    Analytical methods considering 3-D resistivity distribution, in particular, finite element method (FEM) were studied to improve the reliability of electromagnetic exploration. Integral equation, difference calculus, FEM and hybrid method are generally used as computational 3-D modeling method. FEM is widely used in various fields because FEM can easily handle complicated shapes and boundaries. However, in electromagnetic method, the assumption of continuous electric field is pointed out as important problem. The normal (orthogonal) component of current density should be continuous at the boundary between media with different conductivities, while this means that the normal component of electric field is discontinuous. In FEM, this means that current channeling is not properly considered, resulting in poor accuracy. Unless this problem is solved, FEM modeling is not practical. As one of the solutions, it is promising to specifically incorporate interior boundary conditions into element equation. 4 refs., 11 figs.

  14. Relation between frequency of seismic wave and resolution of tomography; Danseiha tomography kaiseki ni okeru shuhasu to bunkaino no kankei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, M; Watanabe, T; Ashida, Y; Sassa, K [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-05-27

    With regard to the elastic wave exploration, discussions have been given on the relationship between frequency and resolution in P-wave velocity tomography using the initial travel time. The discussions were carried out by using a new analysis method which incorporates the concept of Fresnel volume into tomography analysis. The following two arrangements were used in the calculation: a cross hole arrangement, in which seismic source and vibration receiving points were arranged so as to surround the three directions of a region extending 250 m in the horizontal direction and 500 m in the vertical direction, and observation is performed between two wells, and a permeation VSP arrangement in which the seismic source is installed on the ground surface and receiving points installed in wells. Restructuring was performed on the velocity structure by using a total of 819 observation travel times. This method has derived results of the restructuring according to frequencies of the seismic source used for the exploration. The resolution shown in the result of the restructuring has become higher as elastic waves with higher frequency are used, and the size of the structure identified from the restructuring result has decreased. This fact reveals that sufficient considerations must be given on frequencies of elastic waves used according to size of objects to be explored. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Magnetic susceptibility measurements in Yellowstone National Park, USA; Beikoku Yellowstone kokuritsu koen ni okeru genchi jikaritsu sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuma, S [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    For the purpose of interpreting data of the aeromagnetic anomalies in Yellowstone National Park in the U.S.A., in-situ magnetization intensity measurements have been carried out in 1994 and 1995 on geological outcrops of rocks in that area. Comparisons and discussions were given on the measurement results, and existing rock magnetic data and aeromagnetic anomaly data available for the area. Outside the Yellowstone caldera, part of granitic gneisses among the Precambrian granitic gneisses and crystalline schists distributed to the north has an abnormally high magnetization intensity of 1 {times} 10 {sup -2} SI. This could be a powerful anomaly source for the high magnetic anomaly in this area. Paleogene volcanic rocks distributed widely in the eastern part of the park also have magnetization intensity as high as 1 {times} 10 {sup -2} SI or higher, which are also thought a powerful anomaly source in this area. Part of Pleistocene basalts which are exposed partially in the western part of the park has also very high magnetization intensity at 1 {times} 10 {sup -2} SI or higher. This suggests correlation with the magnetic anomaly in the east-west direction distributed in this area. Quaternary rhyolites are more magnetic than Quaternary welded tuffs, which should give greater effects to the magnetic anomaly. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Fault analysis in the very shallow seismic reflection method. 2; Gokusenso hanshaho ni okeru danso kaiseki. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagumo, S; Muraoka, S; Takahashi, T [Oyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    Fault analysis is required in addition to the ordinary process of structural analysis (CDP stacking) for the examination of discontinuity in the reflection horizon in question. The fault shape restoration principle is that the reflection point of a reflection wave observed at a certain receiving point is on an ellipse with the shock point and receiving point at its focal points and that the sum of the distances between the reflection point and the focal points is equal to the reflection wave propagation time. The DMO velocity is worked out by calculation using the positive travel time and inverse travel time from the common reflection surface. When the reflection surface is inclined by {theta}, the average interval velocity/cos{theta} is called the DMO velocity. When the reflection surface inclination and the average interval velocities are determined separately in this way, the position of the reflection point may be worked out, and this enables the calculation of the amount of migration (lateral movement). The reflection wave lineups carried by the original record are picked up one by one, and the average interval velocities are treated very prudently. After such a basic DMO conversion treatment, the actualities of the fault are described fairly correctly. 3 figs.

  17. Shallow seismic reflection prospecting in Hachiro-kata reclaimed land; Hachirogata kantakuchi ni okeru senbu hanshaho jishin tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitsunezaki, C; Fukutome, T; Matsumoto, S; Noda, K; Sato, T [Akita University, Akita (Japan). Mining College; Hayashi, H; Ishii, E; Yamanaka, Y; Matsuno, K; Mikuni, S [Suncoh Consultant Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    Along the Japan Sea coast in Akita Prefecture and in the vicinity, there exist active fault groups, such as the Kitayuri thrust fault group in the south and Noshiro thrust fault group in the north. It is estimated that there is another fault, running from Akita City located between the above-said two thrust fault groups into the Hachiro-kata reclaimed land, roughly connecting the two thrust fault groups. This third fault is supposed to be related to the hypocenter of Tencho Earthquake of 830, but its location and structural configuration are not known, and it is not known whether it is an active fault, either. Investigations are conducted using S- and P-waves. The greatest problem in the use of P-waves is that there exists a layer in which signal attenuation is high and transmission is anomalously slow. This problem is ascribed to the layer pore water rendered unsaturated though slightly by the inclusion of air bubbles, and is explained for the most part by the White model. A survey using S-waves is advantageous in that it does not experience no difficulty of this kind. In the P-wave cross section, a structure supposed to be an inversion layer is observed at a level deeper than 200m. In the case of the S-wave method, more details of the shallow structure will be available when the degree of CMP stacking is augmented as usual. 2 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  18. 3D seismic experiment in difficult area in Japan; Kokunai nanchiiki ni okeru sanjigen jishin tansa jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minegishi, M; Nakagami, K; Tanaka, H [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1997-05-27

    Difficult area in this context means an exploration-difficult area supposed to store oil/gas but retarded in exploration for the lack of knowledge about the geological structure due to poor quality of available seismic survey records. Discussed in this paper is a survey conducted into an area covering the southern part of Noshiro-shi, Akita-ken, and Yamamoto-cho, Yamamoto-gun, Akita-ken. An area size suitable for data collection at a target depth of 2500m is determined using an interpretation structure compiled on the basis of available well data and 2D seismic survey data. The plan for siting shock points and receiving points is modified case by case as restrictive factors come to the surface (resulting from the complicated hilly terrain, presence of pipes for agricultural water, etc.). The peculiarities of seismic waves in the terrain are studied through the interpretation of the available well data and 2D seismic survey data for the construction of a 3D velocity model for the confirmation of the appropriateness of the plan for siting shock points and receiving points. Efforts are exerted through enhanced coordination with the contractor to acquire data so that a technologically best design may be won within the limits of the budget. The quality of the data obtained from this experiment is in general better than those obtained from previous experiments, yet many problems remain to be settled in future studies about exploration-difficult areas. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Deep sedimentary structure model beneath the Osaka plain; Osaka heiya ni okeru shinbu chika kozo no model ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyakoshi, K; Kagawa, T; Echigo, T [Osaka Soil Test, Osaka (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    Restructuring was carried out on a sedimentary basin structure model of the Osaka plain including Osaka Bay by using newly obtained underground structural data. After the Hygoken-nanbu Earthquake of 1995, a large number of underground structure investigations have been performed in Osaka Bay and urban areas of Kobe and Osaka. However, very few surveys have been done in areas peripheral to Osaka Prefecture, such as the Ikoma area. Therefore, an attempt has been made to increase the number of measuring points to acquire underground structural data of these areas. Estimation of basic rock depths has utilized the dominant cycles in H/V spectra obtained from micro vibration survey, and good correlation of the base rock depths derived by a refraction exploration and a deep-bed boring investigation. With regard to bed division and P- and S- wave velocities in sedimentary beds in the Osaka sedimentary basin, an underground structure model was prepared, which was divided into four beds according to the refraction exploration and the micro vibration investigation. Data obtained by using this model agreed well with depth data acquired from physical exploration and other types of investigations. However, no good agreement was recognized in the data for such areas where the basic depth changes abruptly as the Rokko fault and the Osaka bay fault. 6 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Cracking control in mass concrete for three gorges dam; Sankyo damu ni okeru masu konkurito no hibiware yokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, CHuanying

    1999-09-10

    The provisional cofferdam work of the mainstream of Three Gorges Dam project was successfully finished on November 8, 1997. Now, the work enters its second stage, and the placing of large-scale concrete was started. The total quantity of concrete used in this project reaches 15.00 million m{sup 3}. Inhibition of dam concrete cracking is an important subject. In order to manufacture concrete with good crack-resistance, cements, fly ashes, aggregates and blending agents are strictly selected; and hydration-generating heat is reduced by means of strict temperature control, precooling of aggregates, reduction of placing temperature and concrete temperature in mixers, and the like. As a consequence of maintaining the highest temperature value in concrete blocks to be lower than a predetermined value, harmful cracks can be prevented from occurring when the temperature in the dam lowers. (NEDO)

  1. Appearance of rapid carbon on hydrogasification of coal; Suiten gas ka ni okeru kokassei tanso no hatsugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soneda, Y.; Makino, M. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)9] Xu, W. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1998-09-20

    The technology of hydrogasification of coal now under development under a State project aims to produce light oil as well as methane-rich high calorie gas through the direct reaction between coal and hydrogen, and is expected to deal with the difficult natural gas demand/supply relationship anticipated for the future. Although it is mandatory to fully understand the reaction between coal and hydrogen for the completion of this technology, yet there are many tasks to be fulfilled. One of the tasks is the elucidation of the behavior of what is named rapid carbon that appears upon the rapid heating of coal in a high-pressure hydrogen environment. In this paper, some interesting findings about the appearance of rapid carbon are reported. When coal is placed in such an environment, volatile components are lost first of all and then the active carbon reaction occurs. When the behavior of active carbon in the reaction is observed, it is found that active carbon is not so small in quantity, and the result of observation of its appearance and deactivation during the reaction justifies an inference that the reaction is regarded as one of the primary reactions in the process of hydrogasification. Accordingly, systematic studies of its physical and chemical features from various viewpoints are necessary. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Cut down the peak daytime demand for electricity at the residence; Jutaku ni okeru denryoku fuka heijunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, O. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-09-05

    For leveling of power load in small-scale buildings and houses, a test house with actual size was constructed in order to examine soil heat storage system using photovoltaic power generation system and nighttime power. A hundred of polycrystal silicone solar cells with about 5 kW and twenty of amorphous ones were fixed on the roof, to connect with commercial power source by the system interconnection having inverse power flow. For leveling of power load in the periods of heating and cooling, soil heat storage system was applied using nighttime power. Pipes for circulating cooling and heating water were embedded. Heat pump was operated only in the time zone of nighttime power, to obtain cooling and heating source for fan coil unit in the daytime. The sold power was larger than purchased power under continuous cooling condition for twelve hours in summer. Since cooling load was supplied from nighttime power with lower price, there was a large peak cut effect in the daytime. As a result of the tests using a house with actual size, the system was found to be applied practically both in summer and in winter. Effectiveness of peak cut of power load in summer was also provided. 7 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Noise and vibration reduction technology in hybrid vehicle development; Hybrid sha kaihatsu ni okeru shindo soon teigen gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioa, T.; Sugita, H. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Accomplishing both environmental protection and good NVH performance has become a significant task in automotive development The first-in-the-world hybrid passenger car of mass production. 'Prius', has achieved superior NV performance compared with conventional vehicles with a 1.5-liter engine along with 50% reduction of fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions. low HC, CO and NO{sub x} emissions. This paper describes NV reduction technology for solving problems peculiar to the hybrid vehicle such as engine start/stop vibration, drone noise at low engine speed and motor/generator noise and vibration. It also mentions application technology of low rolling resistance tires with light weight wheels and recycled material for sound proofing. (author)

  4. Issues on the energy industry under the yen appreciation; Endakaka ni okeru energy sangyo no kadai. Yoyakuban

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    A tendency toward the rapid yen appreciation since spring 1995 has affected various fields of the economic society of Japan. From a broader view, it is discussed whether the Japanese economic system itself is right or wrong, and that the post-war economic system and regulation system should be largely reviewed. In a short term, the yen appreciation largely affects the export industry and is markedly influential to macro economy. At present, the yen is not as high as that in 1995, but a lot of economists assume a tendency toward medium- and long-term yen appreciation. Therefore, this paper analyzed what kinds of influences the exchange fluctuation brings to the Japanese economy and energy supply/demand. It was clarified what kinds of problems will appear in the energy industry, in particular, on the assumption that the yen will keep high in medium- and long-term. The report consists of parts 1 and 2. Described were `Simulational analysis of yen appreciation` in Part 1 and `Yen appreciation and international issues` in Part 2. 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Future vision of advanced telecommunication networks for electric utilities; Denki jigyo ni okeru joho tsushin network no shorai vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonaru, S.; Ono, K.; Sakai, S.; Kawai, Y.; Tsuboi, A. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Manabe, S. [Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Kagawa (Japan); Miki, Y. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1995-06-01

    The vision of an advanced information system is proposed to cope with the future social demand and business environmental change in electric utilities. At the large turning point such as drastic reconsideration of Electricity Utilities Industry Law, further improvement of efficiency and cost reduction are requested as well as business innovation such as proposal of a new business policy. For that purpose utilization of information and its technology is indispensable, and use of multimedia and common information in organization are the future direction for improving information basis. Consequently, free information networks without any limitation due to person and media are necessary, and the following are important: high-speed, high-frequency band, digital, easily connectable and multimedia transmission lines, and cost reduction and high reliability of networks. Based on innovation of information networks and the clear principle on advanced information system, development of new applications by multimedia technologies, diffusion of communication terminals, and promotion of standardization are essential. 60 refs., 30 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Performance of 3KW laser in cutting industry. Yodan gyokai ni okeru 3KW reza no koyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kita, H.; Miyaji, T.

    1993-11-01

    Recently, as the CO2 laser oscillator requires bigger power output, steel plates to be cut with a laser cutting machine have become thick plates with thickness of 12mm or more and the size of the plate which can be cut has become from the standard size of 4 inch by 8 inch or 5 inch by 10 inch to a big size of more than several meters because of introduction of the gantry type. In this article, the CO2 laser cutting machine introduced to Komatsu Shearing Co. and its operating conditions are introduced and the trends of powerful laser cutting machines in the cutting industry in the future are predicted. Laser cutting makes high cutting quality, but its device and running costs becomes high. For adopting a laser cutting machine, such items have been individually examined that no bitter work is involved in cutting, no skill is needed, no strain is formed during the press work in the succeeding process and the yield is high (95%), and a Komatsu laser cutting machine has been introduced. As a result, it has been found that the machine can produce a product of higher quality than shearing. Hereafter, this machine will further be used for manufacturing parts of construction machines, etc. for which high accuracy and high quality are demanded. 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Feasibility study on introducing new energy systems into Asian villages; Asia sonraku ni okeru shin energy donyu kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For improvement of living standards in unelectrified areas of Asia, the feasibility of new energy power generation systems was surveyed. The degree of electrification of local areas is different every country, and Thailand is ahead of other countries, while Laos and Cambodia are most unelectrified. Power supply of 100W/house seems to be adequate for local areas because of weather condition, housing situation and life-style. Economic support and education on electricity are necessary for poor areas. Although needs for new energy is increasing, the priority is given to industrial and urbanized areas because of cost and investment effects, and remote areas are dependent on grant- in-aid. Resources of photovoltaic, wind power and micro- hydraulic energies are abundant, however, selection of energy and verification of its usability are important, and the local energy density maps were thus prepared. In introduction of new energy, after selection of energy suitable for an area concerned, such geographical and social conditions should be surveyed as road condition, water rights, land utilization, economic support system, policy and intention of inhabitants. 76 refs., 68 figs., 91 tabs.

  8. Measurement results of BHTV logging at the geothermal well. 1; Chinetsusei ni okeru BHTV kenso no sokutei kekka. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, S. [Geophysical Surveying and Consulting Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Nakanishi, S.; Shimizu, I. [Electric Power Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    In association with excavation of the No. 135 steam producing well in the Onikubi geothermal power plant in Miyagi Prefecture, shapes of production zones and drilling-induced fracture (DIF) were acquired from the borehole televiewer (BHTV) data. The BHTV logging shoots sound waves onto well walls of wells filled with fluid and detects the reflection waves to investigate the state of the well walls. Vertical fracture with opening lengths from 2 to 3 m were found at depths of about 1232 m and 1312 m. Water run-off has occurred at a depth of about 1312 m during the excavation, to which these vertical fractures might have contributed possibly. In depths of about 1232 m and 1312 m, fractures inclining toward north-east direction and south-west direction are predominant. Some fractures in the depth of about 1333 m incline toward east-south-east direction and west-north-west direction. Fracture inclination azimuth in all of the present logging sections is predominantly in north-east direction and south-west direction. When the DIF is considered to show the maximum compression azimuth, the earth`s crust stress azimuth is generally in east-west direction, which crosses slightly obliquely with the running direction of the predominant fracture in this well. 1 ref., 7 figs.

  9. Making of composite type energy introduction models in cities; Toshi ni okeru fukugogata energy donyu model no sakusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The paper made and studied simulation models in case of introducing new energy of composite type to cities. In the study, using a standard composition unit of city as a cluster, the compositional element was divided into 25 cells, which were divided into the residence superiority cell and the business superiority cell. The residence superiority cell was divided into highrise and lowrise. The calculation program is to simulate effects of introducing new energy such as the photovoltaic power generation, solar energy utilization, waste power generation, cogeneration, and unused energy like river water and waste water. Using the program, the analysis of sensitivity was conducted concerning how the outputs will change according to differences in energy consuming composition in the urban area. The calculation was conducted concerning local cities of the warm area, local cities of the cold area, local cities of the subtropical area, residence/working-place neighboring core cities in the warm area, central areas of large cities of the warm area, and new towns of the warm area. 28 figs., 27 tabs.

  10. Natural disasters in the Shikoku district. 2. ; Slope failures and rockfalls. Shikoku ni okeru shizen saigai. 2. ; Dosha saigai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagami, T [Tokushima Univ., Tokushima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1991-09-25

    Although landslide, slope failure, debris flow, rock fall, etc. are included in disasters caused by earth and sand, this report focuses only on slope failures. It is very difficult to discuss various soil engineering problems concerning earth and sand disasters in the Shikoku district from dynamic aspect. Therefore, this report is made focusing on perfunctory classification. As regards slope failures, there are natural and embankment (artificial) slope failures, but only natural slope failures are discussed in this report. The numbers of annually investigated areas in 4 prefectures in the Shikoku district and frequencies of failures for each geological group are tabulated for explanation. Transverse shape figure, longitudinal section, slope of ground level, land form where surface water and ground water tend to concentrate, etc. can be considered as factors for the occurrence of landslides. The relationship between those topographical factors and the frequency of failure occurrence is investigated. Failure of cut slope and the relation between rainfall and slope failure are outlined. Examples of rock fall disasters are introduced to point out the difficulty in predicting the occurrence of rock falls. 12 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Unsteady performance of a cavitating hydrofoil in stall conditions. Shissoku jotai ni okeru yokukei no hiteijo tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogata, H. (Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)); Ito, Y. (Hachinoe Institutea of Technology, Aomori (Japan)); Oba, R. (Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute of Fluid Science); Sunayama, Y.; Abe, J. (Suzuki Co. Ltd., Shizuoka (Japan))

    1991-11-25

    To elucidate the unsteady performance of cavitating hydrofoils in a stall condition, this paper describes a survey on unsteady conditions without cavitations and stall conditions as to their characteristics from a cavitation to a supercavitation, lift and drag. Flows with cavitations were also analyzed. As a result of comparing also data for the subcavitation regions, it was found that a large-scale vortex generation on the hydrofoil back-pressure plane in near stall condition has a close relation with the changes in lifts and drags or the cavitation breakdown. The experiment used a testing water tank of circulation flow type having a rectangular measuring cross section (70 mm in width and 190 mm in height), and the hydrofoil specimens of two-dimensional symmetric type with a chord length of 70 mm and an aspect ratio of 1.0. The test condition used a cavitation coefficient of 0.18-6.33 (from a supercavitation to non-cavitation). A numerical analysis proved that the power spectra around the hydrofoils having no cavitations agreed with the experimental results, and verified the reasonability of the application. 18 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Education for hydraulics and pneumatics in Nara National College of Technology; Nara Kogyo Koto Senmon Gakko ni okeru yukuatsu kyoiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Y. [Nara Technical Coll., Nara (Japan)

    2000-03-15

    In the electronic control engineering course, basic knowledge is taught for mechanics, electronics/electricity, control, robotics, information processing, etc., with the purpose of bringing up practical mechatronics engineers, and then, training is conducted so that the students are able to deal with these subjects comprehensively. In the subject of hydraulics and pneumatics for the special course, a lecture on hydraulic and pneumatic control is given in the second year, where structures of hydraulic and pneumatic actuators are explained as well as the principle of operation and the control method. As the related experiment, measurement of liquid viscosity coefficient and flow measurement by a Venturi tube are carried out in the fourth year of the regular course. In addition, carried out in the fifth year are the measurement of stress by trailing velocity distribution of an object and the measurement of pressure distribution around a column. As a subject for graduation theses, a mobile carrier for welfare nursing is being developed using a pneumatic actuator. Development of a suitable actuator is also being developed simultaneously. In the education of electronic control engineering, it is essential to give the students understanding of hydraulic and pneumatic actuator control centering on the role of mechatronics. (NEDO)

  13. Treatment of waste water miscible cutting fluids in automobile manufacturing; Jidosha kogyo ni okeru suiyosei sessakuyuzai no haieki shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, H. [Yushiro Chemical Industry Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    Water-soluble cutting fluids are able to be used for several months to several years if the proper periodical management is carried out. However, the used solution should be treated as waste water when the function-recovery thereof becomes remarkable difficult. On this occasion, the treated solution (drainage) ought to meet the environmental standards prescribed for the purpose of protecting globe environment. Many cases in Japan are that the strict rules are set by each urban and rural prefectures addition to the government ordinance. For carrying out the treatment of waste water efficiently, it is necessary to construct the treating system by mastering the characteristics of waste water and selecting the most suitable one from numerous treating methods. In this paper, after the description on the water-polluting substances and drainage standards, the general treating method of waste water miscible cutting fluids is described. Finally, the concrete cases with respect to the treatment of waste water treatment in automobile manufacturing factories are introduced. 5 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Role of ventilation systems in the prevention of hospital infection; Innai kansen boshi ni okeru kanki system no yakuwari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayliffe, G.

    1996-05-05

    This paper investigates and considers the actual state of hospital infection. The 80% or more of surgical wound infection is self-infection, for which the factor is the microorganisms that exist in a surgical wound at the completion of an operation. Airborne infection is generally due to staphylococcus aureus. There rarely is a bacteria carrier, and the germ is dispersed from him in some instances. Staphylococcus epidermis sticks to prosthesis, propagates and causes wound infection in rare occasions. Clostridium perfringens and escherichia coli also sometimes cause self-infection from wound. An ordinary plenum ventilation system is less effective for the prevention of wound infection. A remarkable example for reduction in infection is the employment of an ultra clean air system in joint replacement operations, showing reduction in joint septicemic infection from 1.5 to 0.3%. A vertical air flow system may be effectively employed in an operation room for the purpose of improving the air stream. No interrelation exists between the total number of indoor bacteria and infection without staphylococcus aureus. A person infected by methicillin-resistant staphylococcus has to be isolated into a unit. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. Unit operation in food manufacturing and processing. Shokuhin seizo/kako ni okeru tan'i sosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuno, R. (Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Aguriculture)

    1993-09-05

    Processed foods must be produced in mass, cheap and safe and should be suitable for the delicate taste of human being. Food tastes are effected by an outlook on human attitude, and the surrounding environment. And these factors are reflected to unit operation in food manufacturing and processing and it is clarified that there are many technical difficulties. The characteristics of unit operation for food manufacturing and processing are that the food materials are a multicomponent system, moreover, a very small amount of aroma components, taste components, vitamin, physiologically activation materials and so on are more important than the main components, and also inapplicable of the model centering to the most quantitative component. The purpose of unit operation in food manufacturing and processing is to produce the properties of matter matching to human sense, and therefore there are many problems left unsolved. The development of analytical technology also has an influence on manufacturing and processing technology. Consequently, food manufacturing and processing technology must be based on general science. It is necessary to develop unit operation with an understanding of mutual effect between food and human body.

  16. Buckling model of longitudinal reinforcing bars under reverse cyclic load; Koban kurikaeshi kajuka ni okeru chukin no zakutsu model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murayama, Y.; Suda, K.; Ichinomiya, T.; Shinbo, H. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-10-31

    For RC (reinforced concrete) columns such as towers of long-span cable-stayed bridges or high-rise piers, there is desired development of an analytical method including a method of arranging reinforcing bars for increasing their ductility against strong earthquake motion. For this, it is necessary to investigate their characteristics after their being rendered to maximum load and their final states, and hence there must be newly investigated the properties of a plastic hinge formed on the bottom of the column, particularly determination of the buckling point of reinforcing bars and a hysteresis model after the buckling. In this study, there is developed a direct method of measuring the stress of reinforcing bars embedded in a model specimen which is conventionally difficult to be measured, and there is investigated the stress-strain hysteresis of the bars before and after the buckling thereof. The principle of the method of measuring the stress is such that only a local minimum portion of objective reinforcing bars is rendered to rf quenching, and a distortion gauge is sticked to the center of the quenching. This is based upon a fact that that portion keeps a linear relationship between the stress and the strain even if a host material is yielded. On the basis of an experimental result, a mechanism of buckling of these bars is clarified and a buckling model of the reinforcing bars at the plastic hinge. 6 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Roles played by coral reef ecosystems in mitigating global warming. Ondanka taisaku ni okeru sangosho no igi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komiyama, H [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1993-05-01

    This Paper describes briefly a question of whether growing coral reefs could be an effective means to fix CO2 in sea water in order to mitigate global warming: Growing coral reefs could be a promising method from the following three views: Photosynthesis performed by diverse ecosystems that constitute coral reefs is thought to excel calcification (accompanying CO2 discharge from sea to the atmosphere); corals all over the world would fix CO2 at an annual rate of several hundred million tons; and no much energies are consumed to fix CO2. However, these favorable views depend upon another condition that a time period for the CO2 fixation is not too short (a measure for the time being is 100 years or longer). Elucidating where organic matters generated by the photosynthesis would go is an important question to meet this requirement. The paper indicates that measuring nitrogen and phosphor balances in addition to carbon balance is effective for measuring ratio of a net photosynthesis rate to the calcification rate. 4 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  18. How to evaluate the carbon cycle in coral-reef ecosystems. Sangosho ni okeru sanso junkan kenkyu no kadai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamuro, M [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1993-05-01

    This paper describes problems concerning carbon balance and nutrient salt in coral reefs. Coral reefs fix CO2 in two forms of organic matters and calcium carbonates. It is reported that 10% of organic matters fixed by photosynthesis may either be buried in deposits on coral reefs or flow out into open seas. Quantification of the carbon balance in coral reefs has a problem of handling organic matters in calcium carbonate skeletons as products, and a problem related to evaluation of organic matters flown out from ecological systems. Corals provide, through building foundations at shallow depths, living organisms carrying out photosynthesis with locations abundant in quantity of light. Coral reefs are thought to accumulate nutrients in their skeletons or in the foundations for deposits. They would hold nitrogen in them through nitrogen fixation, and maintain phosphor production at high levels by retaining nitrogen-to-phosphor ratio which is relatively lower than in other ecological systems. Coral reefs provide foundations to transparent sea water with extremely small amount of phytoplankton, and favorable environment for large-size animals and algae. 21 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Chaos in power: Pakistan's electricity crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessides, Ioannis N.

    2013-01-01

    Pakistan is facing a severe electricity crisis due to a persistent and widening gap between demand and available system generating capacity. The worsening of power shortages has become a major political issue, reflecting the hardships for individuals and businesses. It threatens to undermine the credibility and legitimacy of government and to further stress the social fabric of the country. The power crisis did not emerge suddenly. It is the direct result of imprudent and reckless energy policies over the last three decades. These policies have impeded the development of cheap and abundant domestic energy sources. They have also resulted in very inefficient fuel-mix choices, compromising energy and economic security. Pakistan's energy bankruptcy is ultimately due to massive institutional and governance failure. This paper analyzes the problems confronting Pakistan's electricity sector and identifies the key elements of a potential policy response to address the country's severe power crisis. - Highlights: ► We analyze the structure, conduct, and performance of Pakistan's electricity sector. ► The causes and economic impacts of Pakistan's electricity shortages are analyzed. ► We identify the potential policy response to the power crisis

  20. Pakistan mental health country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Salman; Saeed, Khalid; Rana, Mowaddat Hussain; Mubbashar, Malik Hussain; Jenkins, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    The Republic of Pakistan is a South East Asian country with a population of over 140.7 million. Its population is fast growing and the majority (70%) live in rural areas with a feudal or tribal value system. The economy is dependent on agriculture and 35% of the population live below the poverty line. Islam is the main religion and 'mental illnesses' are stigmatized and widely perceived to have supernatural causes. The traditional healers along with psychiatric services are the main mental health service providers. The number of trained mental health professionals is small as compared to the population demands and specialist services are virtually non-existent. Lack of data on prevalence of various mental illnesses and monitory constraints are the major hurdles in the development of mental health services. A number of innovative programmes to develop indigenous models of care like the 'Community Mental Health Programme' and 'Schools Mental Health Programme' have been developed. These programmes have been found effective in reducing stigma and increase awareness of mental illness amongst the adults and children living in rural areas. Efforts by the government and mental health professionals have led to the implementation of a 'National Mental Health Policy' and 'Mental Health Act' in 2001. These aim at integrating mental health services with the existing health services, improving mental health care delivery and safeguarding the rights of mentally ill people. A favourable political will and the help of international institutions like the World Health Organization are required to achieve these aims.

  1. Determination of toxic metals in different brand of chocolates and candies, marketed in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalbani, N.; Kazi, T.G.; Afridi, H.I.; Arain, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    In present study three toxic metals, cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) were determined in chocolates and candy samples available in local markets of Hyderabad, Pakistan. Concentrations of understudy toxic metals (TMs) were determined by electro thermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) prior to microwave assisted acid digestion. Validation of the methodology was performed by standard addition method and conventional acid digestion on electric hot plate to obtained TMs concentration, for comparative purpose to obtain results within the 95% confidence level. No significant differences were observed for TMs obtained from both methods (P 0.05). The concentration of Cd, Ni and Pb were observed in chocolates and candy samples is ranged as of 0.099 - 0.353, 1.45 - 4.33 and 1.11 - 2.48 mu g/g, respectively. The results indicated that cocoa-based chocolates have higher contents of TMs than milk- based chocolates and candies. (author)

  2. Evaluating Insects as Bioindicators of Heavy Metal Contamination and Accumulation near Industrial Area of Gujrat, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Iqra; Afsheen, Sumera; Zia, Ahmed; Javed, Muqaddas; Saeed, Rashid; Sarwar, Muhammad Kaleem; Munir, Bushra

    2015-01-01

    To study the accumulation and contamination of heavy metals (i.e., Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn) in soil, air, and water, few insect species were assayed as ecological indicators. Study area comes under industrial zone of district Gujrat of Punjab, Pakistan. Insects used as bioindicators included a libellulid dragonfly (Crocothemis servilia), an acridid grasshopper (Oxya hyla hyla), and a nymphalid butterfly (Danaus chrysippus) near industrial zone of Gujrat. Accumulation of Cd was highest in insect species followed by Cu, Cr, Zn, and Ni at p Lepidoptera. The total metal concentrations in insects were pointed significantly higher at sites S3 (Mid of HalsiNala), S9 (End of HalsiNala), and S1 (Start of HalsiNala), whereas lowest value was detected at site S6 (Kalra Khasa) located far from industrial area. HACA indicates that these insect groups are potential indicators of metal contamination and can be used in biomonitoring.

  3. Pakistan and Antarctic research - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizvi, S.H.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes the significance of Antarctica and the necessity of conducting scientific research for the understanding of the global environment and through various environmental processes operative in Antarctica. The paper presents a review of the Pakistan's activities and research interests in Antarctica focussing on the salient features of the Pakistan's Antarctic Research Programme and objectives. It summarises the significance of Antarctica, Antarctic Research and the interests of the world in Antarctica and international co-operation for Antarctic Research. The paper also highlights the philosophy of Antarctic Science and provides some guidelines for the development of Antarctic Research programmes for Pakistan and for the newcomers in Antarctica particularly for the developing countries. (author)

  4. Development of agriculture biotechnology in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Yusuf

    2007-01-01

    Agriculture plays an important role in the national economy of Pakistan, where most of the rapidly increasing population resides in rural areas and depends on agriculture for subsistence. Biotechnology has considerable potential for promoting the efficiency of crop improvement, food production, and poverty reduction. Use of modern biotechnology started in Pakistan since 1985. Currently, there are 29 biotech centers/institutes in the country. However, few centers have appropriate physical facilities and trained manpower to develop genetically modified (GM) crops. Most of the activities have been on rice and cotton, which are among the top 5 crops of Pakistan. Biotic (virus/bacterial/insect) and abiotic (salt) resistant and quality (male sterility) genes have already been incorporated in some crop plants. Despite acquiring capacity to produce transgenic plants, no GM crops, either produced locally or imported, have been released in the country. Pakistan is signatory to the World Trade Organization, Convention on Biological Diversity, and Cartagena protocols. Several legislations under the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights have been promulgated in the country. National Biosafety Guidelines have been promulgated in April 2005. The Plant Breeders Rights Act, Amendment in Seed Act-1976, and Geographical Indication for Goods are still passing through discussion, evaluation, and analysis phases. Meanwhile, an illegal GM crop (cotton) has already sneaked into farmer's field. Concerted and coordinated efforts are needed among various ministries for implementation of regulation and capacity building for import/export and local handling of GM crops. Pakistan could easily benefit from the experience of Asian countries, especially China and India, where conditions are similar and the agriculture sector is almost like that of Pakistan. Thus, the exchange of information and experiences is important among these nations.

  5. Analysis of Milk Marketing Chain – Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Zia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available With an estimated annual milk production of approximately 29 million tonnes in 2004-2005, Pakistan is one of the world’s top milk producers. The competitiveness of Milk Marketing Chains in Pakistan was studied, including constraints and opportunities. The study also includes unprecendented legal research on the government’s role vis a vis the private sector contribution. Buffaloes and cows are the main source of milk production, with an estimated 67% of the milk being produced by buffaloes and 30% by cows.

  6. India-Pakistan: nuclear stability and diplomacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Rajesh Kumar

    2005-01-01

    The conceptual discourse, contributed to in the main by Western scholars, on the security and strategic stability of new nuclear weapon states like India and Pakistan seems alarmist. In reality, however, India and Pakistan have been mutually deliberating on various aspects of nuclear confidence-building measures (CBMs). This article is an effort to identify the issues of nuclear security concerns in two spheres - academic and policy formulations. The emphasis is more on the nuclear thinking of the two countries and the diplomatic challenges ahead particularly on the nuclear CBMs. (author)

  7. CHALLENGES AFFECTING THE TOURISM INDUSTRY IN PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Munawar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to conduct to find the challenges faced by tourism industry in Pakistan. Tourism plays vital role in economic growth of a country. The countries of world, where there is nothing for tourists or traders are lagging behind from other nations of the world. Pakistan is one of those countries which rich in historical places, natural beauty, and uniqueness in handmade items and also of green forests. Present study was conducted to find the challenges being faced by to...

  8. Results of mitigation studies from Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    At the international level, Pakistan's contractual obligations to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) include the preparation of a greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions abatement program, a national communication on climate change, and the formulation of a least-cost GHG abatement action plan and strategy. Pakistan ratified the UNFCCC in June 1994. The ratification of the Convention has lead to the undertaking of activities such as the Asia Least-cost Greenhouse Gas Abatement Strategy (ALGAS) Project, which aims to build capacity in Asian countries in the preparation of GHG inventories and mitigation programs. (au)

  9. Canadian firms hear pitch from Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, A.

    2000-12-11

    A high Pakistani government official recently paid a visit to Canadian resource exploration and investment companies to assure them that Pakistan is open for business. The government is carrying through a massive privatization campaign and is about to finalize a Canadian government-sponsored regulatory agency modeled on Alberta's Energy and Utilities Board; a further indication of a more secure environment for private sector investment. The Pakistani government intends to privatize all formerly government-owned exploration and production companies and sell up to 51 per cent of each company. The delegation hopes to entice Husky Oil, Talisman Energy, Bow Valley Industries, Enbridge Pipelines and BC Gas to look closely at the potential in Pakistan. With a domestic market of 142 million and energy-hungry neighbours on all sides who are willing to buy any oil or gas that Pakistan can produce, and total proven recoverable reserves estimated at 643 million barrels, with remaining recoverable reserves of 240 million barrels, the prospects for a healthy oil and natural gas industry in Pakistan are very good, indeed. On the gas side, about 24 Tcf of gas remains of the 40 Tcf discovered. Pakistan currently exports 10,000 barrels of waxy crude each day which their refineries can't handle. The remainder of domestic production is consumed locally, but it satisfies only about 20 per cent of the nation's current needs. The balance is imported from Saudi Arabia, Iran and the United Arab Emirates. All natural gas produced within Pakistan is consumed domestically, but currently only 16 per cent of the population has access to natural gas. Since October 1999, 33 new wells have been drilled resulting in some excellent discoveries. These will add about one bcf of gas to the current average daily production of 2.3 bcf. Despite the good prospects and the appeal of the privatization plan, Pakistan remains a hard sell. The risk of political unrest and deadly violence is high

  10. Air quality monitoring in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghauri, B.; Lodhi, A.

    2005-01-01

    Clean air is an important prerequisite for sustainable economic development and is a basic requirement for human health and welfare. The baseline information helps the policy maker in decision making and future planning such as industrial and economic development, establishment and implementation of environmental guidelines etc. Pakistan is a developing country and is confronted with a number of severe environmental problems, such as degradation of natural resources, industrial and vehicle related pollution, degradation of human health etc. SUPARCO has conducted a year long (2003-2004) baseline air quality study in the major urban areas of the country including Karachi, Lahore, Quetta, Rawalpindi, Islamabad and Peshawar in collaboration with ENERCON/ UNDP. The objectives of this study were to establish baseline levels and behavior of ambient airborne pollutants in urban centers with temporal and spatial parameters. Our study reveals that the maximum concentrations of CO were observed at Quetta (38 ppm) while other pollutants like SO/sub 2/, (52.5 ppb), NO/sub x/ (60.75 ppb), and 03 (44.8) were higher at Lahore compared to other urban areas of the country like Karachi, Peshawar etc. Maximum levels of all these pollutants were found in summer months. Comparatively lower concentrations of these pollutants were observed in Islamabad/Rawalpindi including CO (13.6 ppm), NO/sub x/ (41 ppb), SO/sub 2/ (32 ppb) and 03 (24.7 ppb). The maximum Particulate (TSP) and PM 10 levels were observed at Lahore (990,372 micro g/m3), Karachi (410, 306 micro g/m3), and in Quetta (778, 290 micro g/m3) etc. Airborne trace/ toxic metals including Pb, along with noise level were also determined. The existing levels of these pollutants were correlated with meteorological data (temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction) to assess the pollutant dispersion, as well as source apportionment. A data bank of the study will be prepared for air pollution impact studies. (author)

  11. Comparison of heavy metal contamination during the last decade along the coastal sediment of Pakistan: Multiple pollution indices approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saher, Noor Us; Siddiqui, Asmat Saleem

    2016-04-15

    Heavy metals concentrations (Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Co, Pb, and Cd) were scrutinized during two monitoring years (2001 and 2011) in the coastal sediment of Pakistan. The status of metal contamination in coastal sediment was interpreted using sediment quality guidelines, and single and combined metal pollution indices. Ni, Cr, and Cd were recognized for their significant (p<0.05) intensification in the sediment during the last decade. Sediment quality guidelines recognized the frequent adverse biological effect of Ni and the occasional adverse biological effect of Cu, Cr, Pb and Cd. Single metal pollution indices (Igeo, EF, CF, and ER) revealed that sediment pollution is predominantly caused by Pb and Cd. Low to moderate contamination was appraised along the coast by multi-metal pollution indices (CD and PERI). Correlation study specifies that heavy metals were presented diverse affiliations and carriers for distribution in the sediment during the last decade. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prospects of solar desalination in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saif-ur-Rehman, M; Bhatti, M R; Malik, M A

    1973-01-01

    This paper deals with the present state-of-the-art of solar desalination and evaluates the possibility of using solar stills in Pakistan. Along with the world survey of solar desalination units a brief description of the process and solar still is described. The areas of prospective users, i.e., having acute shortage of freshwater, even for drinking, are outlined.

  13. Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Zia

    2014-05-01

    India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future.

  14. Status of Project Management Education in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Faisal Manzoor; Tipu, Syed Awais Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Emerging contractual delivery systems, collaborative partnerships, new management initiatives, and global product markets require professionals and students to have a broader awareness of construction methods and project management issues. This paper presents the state of the project management education in Pakistan. The analysis is based on…

  15. A review of the AEC in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faruqui, A.M.

    1972-01-01

    In September this year the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission completed six years of working with nuclear energy. Its expansion in all fields, both in research and practical application, has shown remarkable progress. This outline has been specially written by Mr. Akhtar Mahmud Faruqui, Director, Scientific Information and Public Relations, PAEC. (author)

  16. Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mian, Zia [Program on Science and Global Security, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey (United States)

    2014-05-09

    India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future.

  17. Nuclear programs in India and Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mian, Zia

    2014-01-01

    India and Pakistan launched their respective nuclear programs in the 1940s and 1950s with considerable foreign technical support, especially from the United States Atoms for Peace Program. The technology and training that was acquired served as the platform for later nuclear weapon development efforts that included nuclear weapon testing in 1974 and in 1998 by India, and also in 1998 by Pakistan - which had illicitly acquired uranium enrichment technology especially from Europe and received assistance from China. As of 2013, both India and Pakistan were continuing to produce fissile material for weapons, in the case of India also for nuclear naval fuel, and were developing a diverse array of ballistic and cruise missiles. International efforts to restrain the South Asian nuclear build-up have been largely set aside over the past decade as Pakistani support became central for the U.S. war in Afghanistan and as U.S. geopolitical and economic interests in supporting the rise of India, in part as a counter to China, led to India being exempted both from U.S non-proliferation laws and international nuclear trade guidelines. In the absence of determined international action and with Pakistan blocking the start of talks on a fissile material cutoff treaty, nuclear weapon programs in South Asia are likely to keep growing for the foreseeable future

  18. The Economics of Dowry Payments in Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, K.S.

    2000-01-01

    Although there are numerous studies of the dowry phenomenon in India, research pertaining to the custom in the rest of South Asia is sparse.The aim of this paper is to study dowry payments in Pakistan.Several interpretations for dowry are distinguished using a simple theoretical framework and the

  19. Soccer Ball Production for Nike in Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A. Siegmann (Karin Astrid)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis paper looks at how Nike’s soccer ball suppliers (previous and current) in Sialkot (Pakistan) fare in relation to the company’s code of ethics. While minimum required working conditions are implemented, the criteria for social and environmental compliance are not met with. The

  20. Peace Education in Pakistan. Special Report 400

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Zahid Shahab

    2017-01-01

    With an eye to the theory that radicalization is a function of social and political marginalization more than of economic poverty, this report examines a cross-section of peace education initiatives in Pakistan. It relies on data collected through interviews with program teachers and students when possible. Funded by the United States Institute of…

  1. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia: Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-15

    though it Hussain for his choice of candidates. All they hope for is will remain in the background. Its workers may be asked that their absentee ’pir...do not have an Pakistan they are not in visible chains except millions of infected and utterly uninfected sector in the government bonded labour

  2. An overview of poultry industry in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, J; Rabbani, I; Aslam, S; Ahmad, H A

    2015-12-01

    The poultry sector is an important and vibrant segment of agriculture in Pakistan with a significant contribution to the national GDP (1.3%). Commercial poultry production in Pakistan started in the 1960's and has been providing a significant portion of daily proteins to the Pakistani population ever since. During its evolution the industry enjoyed promotional policies of the Government, but has faced several challenges such as disease outbreaks and retail price fluctuations. Despite its important role in the country's economy, not a single scientific study is available on its evolutionary history. The data available in this regard are scattered and lack reliability. This review is an effort to encompass the history of the overall growth of the poultry industry in Pakistan, its present status (2012 statistics) and future directions and challenges. This article may serve as the basic source of information on Pakistan's poultry industry achievements. It will also guide poultry experts and policy makers for developing strategic planning for further growth of the industry.

  3. COST OF PRIMARY HEALTH CARE IN PAKISTAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Muhammad Ashar; Gul, Wahid; Iqbal, Saleem Perwaiz; Abrejo, Farina

    2015-01-01

    Detailed cost analysis is an important tool for review of health policy and reforms. We provide an estimate of cost of service and its detailed breakup on out-door patient visits (OPV) to basic health units (BHU) in Pakistan. Six BHUs were randomly selected from each of the five districts in Khyber Pukhtonkhawa (KPK) and two agencies in Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) of Pakistan for this study. Actual expenditure data and utilization data in the year 2005-06 of 42 BHUs was collected from selected district health offices in KPK and FATA. Costs were estimated for outpatient visits to BHUs. Perspective on cost estimates was district-based health planning and management of BHUs. Average recurring cost was PKR.245 (USD 4.1) per OPV to BHU. Staff salaries constituted 90% of recurrent cost. On the average there were 16 OPV per day to the BHUs. CONCLUDION: Recurrent cost per OPV has doubled from the previous estimates of cost of OPV in Baluchistan. The estimated recurrent cost was six times higher than average consultation charges with the private general practitioner (GP) in the country (i.e., PKR 50/ GP consultation). Performance of majority of the BHUs was much lower than the performance target (50 patients per day) set in the sixth five-year plan of the government of Pakistan. The Government of Pakistan may use these analyses to revisit the performance target, staffinL and location of BHUs.

  4. The Talibanisation of society in Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breman, J.

    2012-01-01

    Abandoned by their government, the poor of Pakistan have turned to the Taliban and other fundamentalist groups for support and solace. At the same time, a growing pressure for emancipation presses against fundamentalism. Which force will triumph? A report based on travel in rural Sindh.

  5. Mass burden and estimated flux of heavy metals in Pakistan coast: sedimentary pollution and eco-toxicological concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Usman; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Mehmood, Ch Tahir; Sánchez-García, Laura; Khalid, Azeem; Chaudhry, Muhammad Jamshed Iqbal

    2015-03-01

    Heavy-metal contamination in coastal areas poses a serious threat to aquatic life and public health due to their high toxicity and bio-accumulation potential. In the present study, levels of different heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Co, Pb, Zn, and Mn), their spatial distribution, geochemical status, and enrichment indices (Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Co, Pb, Zn) were investigated in the sediment samples from 18 coastal sites of Pakistan. The analyses of coastal sediments indicated the presence of heavy metals in order such as Cr > Zn > Cu > Pb > Ni > Mn > Co > Cd. Geo-accumulation index (I geo), enrichment factor (EF), and contamination factor (CF) showed diverse range in heavy-metal enrichment site by site. Pollution load index (PLI) has shown that average pollution load along the entire coastal belt was not significant. Based on the mean effect range medium quotient, coastal sediments of Pakistan had 21% probability of toxicity. The estimated sedimentary load of selected heavy metals was recorded in the range of 0.3-44.7 g/cm(2)/year, while the depositional flux was in the range of 0.07-43.5 t/year. Heavy-metal inventories of 9.8 × 10(2)-3.8 × 10(5) t were estimated in the coastal sediments of Pakistan. The enrichment and contamination factors (EF and CF) suggested significant influence of anthropogenic and industrial activities along the coastal belt of Pakistan.

  6. Aid cutoff threatens condom program in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, T

    1991-01-01

    The Pressler Amendment, a law prohibiting US assistance to any country that does not sign the UN Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, is forcing USAID to shut down its highly successful Social Marketing of Contraceptives (SMC) program in Pakistan. Adopted in 1985, the amendment calls for an end of funding for projects in Pakistan as of fiscal year 1991, since the country has refused to sign the treaty. Only previously committed funds have kept SMC running, but it may soon have a close shop. The cutoff comes at an especially inopportune time--just when SMC had begun to make an impact. Introduced 5 years ago, Sathi condoms (the project's main product) account for 2/3 of all condoms used in Pakistan. Sales jumped from 30 million in 1978 to 74 million last year. SMC administrators explain that the country has a vast potential for social marketing. But because of the cutoff in aid, the program will exhaust its supply of condoms by March 1992. The end of the SMC program will mean a serious setback for Pakistan, which already has the 2nd largest population in southern Asia, and which has double the fertility of the most populous country in the region, India. Only 7% of the women in Pakistan rely on a modern method of contraception, compared to 42% in India and 26% in Bangladesh. USAID officials explain that the organization is working with the Pakistani government to find ways to continue funding the program after US funds run out. They add that this development will provide Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif an opportunity to demonstrate his stated commitment to curb population growth.

  7. Report on an investigation into heat pumps in China in fiscal 1995; 1995 nendo Chugoku ni okeru heat pump system ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The paper surveyed the present status, the status of spread, and the technical development of the technology of heat pumps for residential and industrial uses in China. Main examples of installation of heat pumps are cited below: steam drive absorption type refrigerators in Beijing; sea water heat source turbo heat pumps in Qingdao; hot water drive absorption type refrigerators in Beijing; oil-fueled absorption type water cooling and heating appliances in Beijing; ice latent heat storage airconditioning systems using electrically-driven screw chiller in Beijing; temperature rising systems using electrically-driven heat pump of the solar energy utilization warm water swimming pool in Guangdong Province; cooling water supply using waste heat utilization absorption type refrigerator of the alcohol plant in Shandong Province; timber drying systems using electrically-driven heat pump, and marine product cultivation systems in Quangdong Province; distillation systems using steam turbine heat pump in Jiangxi Province. The demand for heat pumps is expected to be 20 million units under the 9th 5-year plan, and the development of equipment is thought to go toward promotion of energy conservation, low noise, multi-type or multi-functional air conditioning equipment, and computer use. 137 figs., 40 tabs.

  8. Pseudo-random data acquisition geometry in 3D seismic survey; Sanjigen jishin tansa ni okeru giji random data shutoku reiauto ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minegishi, M; Tsuburaya, Y [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1996-10-01

    Influence of pseudo-random geometry on the imaging for 3D seismic exploration data acquisition has been investigate using a simple model by comparing with the regular geometry. When constituting wave front by the interference of elemental waves, pseudo-random geometry data did not always provide good results. In the case of a point diffractor, the imaging operation, where the constituted wave front was returned to the point diffractor by the interference of elemental waves for the spatial alias records, did not always give clear images. In the case of multi point diffractor, good images were obtained with less noise generation in spite of alias records. There are a lot of diffractors in the actual geological structures, which corresponds to the case of multi point diffractors. Finally, better images could be obtained by inputting records acquired using the pseudo-random geometry rather than by inputting spatial alias records acquired using the regular geometry. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Fiscal 1999 survey report. Survey of leading countries' approaches to biomass energy development; 1999 nendo shuyokoku ni okeru biomass energy kaihatsu eno torikumi ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The survey aims to help Japan deliberate its future biomass energy development strategy including the course Japan is to follow in its research and development of biomass energy by clarifying leading countries' approaches to the subject matter and trends of their research and development efforts in this connection. The states of biomass energy development in the U.S. and Europe are reported. In the U.S., President Clinton issued Executive Order 13134 on August 12, 1999, regarding bio-based products and bioenergy development. In this country, bioenergy and bio-based production technologies have developed to reach a stage where business pays, and commercial plants are in service. The U.S. Administration mentions as a strategy the efficient development of the bioenergy industry. In Europe, where resources are versatile and local, it is difficult to assess the economy of scale, and small-scale development efforts are being accumulated. Practical technologies under development mostly involve direct combustion. European measures are similar to U.S. measures in that such political goals as local development and employment promotion are firmly woven into them. (NEDO)

  10. Basic studies on application of vegetable factory in Tohoku region; Tohoku chiho ni okeru yasai kojo no jitsuyoka ni kansuru kiso kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okano, T; Terazoe, H; Shoji, K; Nakaya, K [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Tanaka, M; Miura, K [Tohoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Sendai (Japan)

    1995-08-01

    To construct vegetable factories in the Touhoku region, items of information have been collected with respect to items to be cultured and market conditions. Experimental discussions have also been given on new culture items and methods for utilizing snow. Using the results of investigations on the market conditions and weather environments, the following three kinds of spicy vegetables were selected: water cress which grows in about 46 culture days after seeding and in about 36 days by herbaceous cutting to a harvest of about 700 g/m{sup 2}, green perilla which grows in about 85 culture days to a number of salable leaves of 100 per stock, with an average leaf area of about 55 cm{sup 2}, and trefoil which grows in about 56 culture days to a harvest of about 5100 g/m{sup 2}. According to a storage experiment using snow, lettuce packed with snow in a box retained at a temperature of 5{degree}C and a humidity of 100%, pre-cooled for one day and then stored for six days in a refrigerator at 5{degree}C presented very little decrease in fresh weight and no decrease in freshness. The same result was obtained also for the Sunny Lettuce. 9 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs.

  11. Research on adoption of graphic processing system into electric power facilities operation management. Denryoku setsubi kanri gyomu ni okeru zukei shori system no tekiyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jitsubuchi, Yoshiyasu; Uryu, Kenji; Terasaki, Naoaki (Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc., Fukuoka (Japan))

    1989-03-30

    In the technical department of electric power companies, there are innumerable single line diagram, machinery arrangement plan and other facilities drawings. Based on those drawings, facilities planning, work design, construction plan, maintenance and management data, etc. are made, for which making heightening is desired in efficiency of drawing filing management. Therefore, research was made on the adoption of CAD technology through modeling power transmission line, and power generating and transforming station operation management. First for the application of power transmission facilities, the power transmission line plan and facilities information were planned to be unified in management. Ie., the power transmission line plan and profile being shown on the display, symbols of steel towers, cable lines, etc. were further picked by mouth to easily substantiate the facilities. While image input and CAD of drawing were made in combined treatment. Then for the application to the power generating and transforming facilities, the single line diagram and facilities information were unified in management, together with demonstration of data interchangeability among different kinds of CAD system. 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. Basic survey on the residence using hybrid energy in snowy cold regions; Sekisetsu kanreichi ni okeru hybrid energy katsuyogata jutaku nado ni kansuru kiso chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The conceptual model and feasibility of the hybrid energy system for residences and public facilities in snowy cold regions were studied. Based on the existing data, the existing and available amounts of natural energy and unused energy in the target area, Sapporo were estimated. Based on the predicted energy demands of 4 kinds of building models, the energy systems for such models were studied. The use of the following energies was considered: photovoltaic power generation and solar heat for all the models, household sewage energy for the multiple-dwelling house model, and wind power generation for the public facility model. The annual energy balance was calculated to evaluate it. The use of additional commercial electricity was necessary, while surplus solar heat energy was found in summer which can push up the self-sufficiency rates of the residence and public facility models to 70% and 44%, respectively. The multiple- dwelling house model which can use a large amount of household sewage energy could utilize 80% of new energy, while the other 3 models utilized only 60-70% of that. 81 figs., 42 tabs.

  13. Study on recent research trends in the chemical fields; Kagaku bun`ya ni okeru saikin no kenkyu doko ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This research is conducted to search study themes of chemistry expected towards the 21st century. The complex compound in the fundamental chemistry field and the bio-medical materials in the applied chemistry field are taken up. Bio-medical materials are used for the restoration, rehabilitation, and treatment of the organ and the improvement of its functions. For implants such as hearts, anti-thrombin and anti-calcium precipitation effects and high endurance are required. In this field, special copolymers and bio-membrane-emulating surfaces are studied. For artificial organs, hybrid type materials combining cells, and physiologically active and artificial materials are also studied. There are studies on the missile therapy of drugs and DDS (drug delivery system). The complex compounds contain metallic elements, such as Fe, Mn, Co and Cu, and groups known as ligands which combine these metal elements. They can have a variety of stereo-structures and physical properties. They also exhibit a diversity of functions including electron donor bonding, molecular recognition, chemical substitution, and pharmaceutical activity. These features open up a promising potential for their prospective use as physiologically active substances, cancerostats, new materials, artificial photosynthesis, memory elements, and complex catalysts. 88 refs., 35 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Study on the impact assessment for the life cycle assessment (LCA); Kankyo fuka bunseki ni okeru impact assessment ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the impact assessment which is an important step for LCA. For classification of the impact assessment, the existing literature was reviewed and a skeleton for the classification was proposed. The weighting factors for nine selected impact categories, which were used to calculate environmental load point (ELP) for the valuation, were obtained for two overseas groups, i.e., students of Amsterdam University and SETAC Europe members. It was found that the former provided the similar trends to general Japanese, however that the latter gave high weighting in the global warming and depletion of ozone layer. The ELP was proposed and applied to automatic washing machine, coffee maker, waste incineration power generation system, and co-generation system. As a result, its effectiveness was demonstrated. This report also describes problems for the LCA of thermal and material recycling of PS trays. 99 refs., 96 figs., 73 tabs.

  15. Questionnaire investigation for the earthquake in Honjo city and Yazawa city, Akita Prefecture; Jishin ni kansuru ishiki chosa (Akitaken Honjoshi oyobi Yuzawashi ni okeru anketo kara)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogoshi, M [Akita University, Akita (Japan). College of Education; Kabutoya, S

    1996-05-01

    Consciousness for the earthquake was investigated by questionnaire surveys made in Honjo City and Yuzawa City, Akita Pref. in October 1995 twelve years after the Nihonkai Chubu Earthquake (M=7.7) in May 1983. The survey was conducted in terms of 27 items including personality, memory, knowledge/interest, psychology/action, mental attitude/preparations, wishes for researchers and administration, etc. Also included were the items on the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake and the earthquake blank areas. The number of distributed questionnaires and the recovery rate of them are 1500 and 79.2% in Honjo City, and 1700 and 84.7% in Yuzawa City. From the survey, it was found that people have a lot of knowledge of and high interest in the earthquake and well remember it, and a lot of people know of tsunami, liquefaction phenomena, and the earthquake blank area. Further, they are afraid of earthquakes and think of their actions to be taken in case of earthquake. However, most people are little prepared for earthquakes. Important future subjects were suggested for the study of disaster prevention measures. 13 figs.

  16. Analysis of the pressure response of high angle multiple (HAM) fractures intersecting a welbore; Kokeisha multi fracture (HAM) kosei ni okeru atsuryoku oto kaiseki ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ujo, S; Osato, K [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Arihara, N [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); Schroeder, R

    1996-05-01

    This paper reports pressure response analysis on wells piercing a high angle multi (HAM) fracture model. In this model which is defined on a three-dimensional space, a plurality of slanted fractures intersect with wells at high angles (however, intersection of fractures with each other is not considered). With respect to the pressure response analysis method using this model, the paper presents a basic differential equation on pressure drawdown and boundary conditions in the wells taking flows in the fractures pseudo-linear, as well as external boundary conditions in calculation regions (a reservoir spreads to an infinite distance, and its top and bottom are closed by non-water permeating beds). The paper also indicates that results of calculating a single vertical fracture model and a slanted fracture model by using a numerical computation program (MULFRAC) based on the above equations agree well respectively with the existing calculation results (calculations performed by Erlougher and Cinco et al). 5 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Effect of low oxygen partial pressure to the bumblebee respiration; Naruhanabachi ni okeru taikichu sanso bun'atsu henka no kokyu ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komai, Y. [Japan Science and Technology Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-06-25

    Insects augment oxygen supply using convective transport during flight in two ways: with deforming tracheae by surrounding muscles movement (muscle pumping) and with contracting air sacs by exoskeleton movement (abdominal or thoracic pumping). However, because induced flow inside tracheae is difficult to measure, it is not known how the convective transport actually contributes. By comparison between direct measurement of oxygen partial pressure in a flight muscle based on electrochemical method and flight/ventilation activities in a bumblebee, Bumbus hypocrita hypocruta, a method was developed for estimating gas transport efficiency. Oxygen partial pressure, P{sub 02}, in the bee periodically fluctuated with discontinuous abdominal movement in normal air. While the P{sub 02} strongly varied among individuals in normal air, the P{sub 02} took a unique value in oxygen poor air ({<=}8%). By enhancing ventilation, the bee could respire in an oxygen poor atmosphere up to 2%. Furthermore, the bee could fly in an atmosphere of 6%, in which the P{sub 02} decreased to 0.7%. Estimated efficiency of the gas transport increases with atmospheric oxygen concentration decreases. (author)

  18. Study of installation of PV systems at campus; Campus ni okeru taiyoko hatsuden donyu ni kansuru kenkyu (taiyo denchi nomi wo secchishita baai no yobi kento)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuboi, N.; Tanaka, H.; Okumiya, M. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    In terms of energy consumption, environmentality and economical efficiency in the case of installing the photovoltaic power system on the rooftop of the university campus, a comparative study was conducted with other power generation systems. As objects to be comparatively studied, selected were the all-electric type centralized space heating/cooling system, cogeneration system, nighttime heat storage system and centralized system with solar cells installed. The panel area of the PV system is 10,000m{sup 2} on the rooftop and 7,000{sup 2} on the outer wall. About data on solar radiation, average values obtained in Nagoya were used. Assessment was made in terms of energy consumption amount at the time of operation, system COP, emission amounts of CO2, NOx and SOx at the time of manufacturing and operation, initial cost, running cost, etc. As a result of the study, an effect of reducing global warming gas was admitted in the PV system. However, the initial cost of the solar cell panel was high, and the life cycle cost of the PV system was lower than other systems. 1 ref., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Starting and stopping control on power conditioner in photovoltaic power system; Taiyoko hatsuden system ni okeru power conditioner no kido teishi seigyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, M.; Ishihara, Y.; Todaka, T.; Harada, K. [Doshisha University, Kyoto (Japan); Oshiro, H.; Nakamura, H. [Japan Quality Assurance Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Studies are made about the control of the power conditioner over the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) function in a photovoltaic power generation system. The analysis is conducted by means of computer simulation into the effect of a start/stop function added to the control of MPPT and the effect on the generation of power of the setting of parameters in the start/stop function. The reduction in output power due to difference between the actual operation point and the optimum operation point is evaluated by use of a load matching correction factor. In this simulation, it is assumed that the solar cell array consists of 13 rows in 5 parallel columns, is capable of a normal output of 3.149kW, has a panel tilted at 30 degrees, and faces due south. The power conditioner is assumed to be a system rated at 3kVA, equipped with system interconnection and back flow features. As a result, it is learned that the stop voltage should be set at 180V or lower and the steady voltage near 185.5V for a good result and that there is not much need after all for the start/stop technique. 2 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Coal liquefaction in early stage of NEDOL process 1t/d PSU; 1t/d PSU ni okeru ekika shoki hanno ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, K.; Kawabata, M.; Mochizuki, M.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    To investigate the behavior of coal liquefaction reaction in early stage as a part of studies on the coal liquefaction characteristics using NEDOL process 1 t/d process supporting unit (PSU), coal slurry sample was taken from the outlet of slurry preheater located in the upflow of liquefaction reactors, and was tested. Tanito Harum coal was used for liquefaction. Preheater was operated under the condition of pressure of 170 kg/cm{sup 2}, gas flow rate of 64 Nm{sup 3}/hr, and at temperature up to 410{degree}C at the outlet, in response to the standard test condition. The slurry sample was discharged into a high temperature separator with temperature of 250{degree}C. Liquefaction was not proceeded at the outlet of preheater. Solid residue yielded around 80%, and liquid yielded around 15%. Gases, CO and CO2, and water yielded also small amount around 3%. The solid sample contained much IOM fraction (tetrahydrofuran-insoluble and ash), and the liquid contained much heavy oil fraction. Hydrogenation was not proceeded, and the hydrogen consumption was very low showing below one-tenth of that at the usual operation. Hydrogen sulfide gas was formed at early stage, which suggested that the change of iron sulfide catalyst occur at early stage of liquefaction. 1 ref., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Investigation of the deposit formation in pipelines connecting liquefaction reactors; 1t/d PSU ni okeru ekika hanno tokan fuchakubutsu no seisei yoin ni kansuru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Y.; Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Mochizuki, M.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    The liquefaction reaction system of an NEDOL process coal liquefaction 1t/d PSU was opened and checked to investigate the cause of the rise of differential pressure between liquefaction reactors of the PSU. The liquefaction test at a coal concentration of 50 wt% using Tanito Harum coal was conducted, and it was found that the differential pressure between reactors was on the increase. By the two-phase flow pressure loss method, deposition thickness of deposit in pipelines was estimated at 4.4mm at the time of end operation, which agreed with a measuring value obtained from a {gamma} ray. The rise of differential pressure was caused by deposit formation in pipelines connecting reactors. The main component of the deposit is calcite (CaCO3 60-70%) and is the same as the usual one. It is also the same type as the deposit on the reactor wall. Ca in coal ash is concerned with this. To withdraw solid matters deposited in the reactor, there are installed pipelines for the withdrawal at the reactor bottom. The solid matters are regularly purged by reverse gas for prevention of clogging. As the frequency of purge increases, the deposit at the reactor bottom decreases, but the deposit attaches strongly to pipelines connecting reactors. It is presumed that this deposit is what Ca to be discharged out of the system as a form of deposition solid matter naturally in the Ca balance precipitated as calcite in the pipeline connecting the reactor. 3 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Experimental study of exhaust noise generated by pulsating flow downstream of pipe end; Myakudoryu ni yori yukisareru kantanbu karyu ni okeru haiki soon no jikkenteki kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashiyama, J; Iwamoto, J [Tokyo Denki University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A experimental study was carried out for the emissoin of the exhaust noise from an open end of the pipe generated by the pulsating flow in the pipe. The pressure histories along the pipe, the exhaust noise and visualized the flow field downstream of the pipe end were obtained. And a characteristic of frequency for the exhaust noise was examined, using Wigner distribution (WD). A relation between the pulsating flow in the pipe and the exhaust noise was important for understanding the mechanism of the exhaust noise generation. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Fiscal 1994 survey report. Survey of recent trends in CFC phaseout measures overseas; 1994 nendo shogaikoku ni okeru freon taisaku saishin doko ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Technical literature is referred to for the survey of recent trends in CFC (chlorofluorocarbon) phaseout in various countries overseas. The European Union will totally abolish CFC by the end of 1994 while other developed countries will totally abolish the same by the end of 1995 in compliance with the Montreal protocol. Many of the developing countries are actively striving to reduce CFC use with the help of the Multilateral Fund of Montreal. China and India have production facilities in themselves, and have not announced a phaseout program. There is a proposition for accelerating the regulation of HCFCs (hydrochlorofluorocarbons), but reliable substitutes for them are not yet available and their ozone layer restoring capability if used will be slight. It is feared that such will on the contrary retard CFC phaseout in developing countries. Accordingly, any abrupt acceleration of CFC phaseout implementation is inappropriate. Introduced in this report as fluorine-containing greenhouse gas-related information are a summary of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the history of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change activities. According to an American survey, the aluminum industry emits 30,000 tons of CF{sub 4} and C{sub 2}F{sub 6}, and the semiconductor manufacturing industry 2,000-3,000 tons. As for SF{sub 6}, 5,000-8,000 tons are emitted mainly by the power industry. Measures for inhibiting them are being taken. (NEDO)

  4. On the VPP and current administrative strategies of US OSHA; Beikoku OSHA ni okeru jishuteki anzen eisei kanri program (VPP) oyobi saikin no seisaku doko ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanayasu, S [Research Inst. of Industrial Safety, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-02-15

    This paper describes VPP (Voluntary Protection Programs) and current administrative strategies of US Department of Labor, OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration). Although VPP is conducted by the Federal Government or the state governments with original VPP, it is properly a voluntary program in which entrepreneurs independently participate. OSHA inspects the content and execution condition of every program based on a VPP standard, and after certifying a business establishment satisfying the standard as excellent one, OSHA excludes it from inspection objects for a certain period. After such a period, reinspection and renewal are repeated. This system is derived from that a voluntary program proposed by constructor of Calif. in 1978 was markedly effective to protect workers from damages. Safety and health problem includes various keywords such as internationalization, new technology, risk assessment, process control, self responsibility, information opening, and diverse policies. Although uniform regal safety and health measures are important, promotion and establishment of activities by workers and entrepreneurs themselves in a field are also important. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Study of the influence of microgravity on the biological cells and molecular level; Seitai saibo bunshi level ni okeru bisho juryoku no eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The shape of osteoblast, gene appearance, gene of rice blast, cellular fusion of plants, gravity acceptance mechanism of unicellular organisms, and physiological and immunity functions of mice were investigated under the microgravity condition. The influence of gravity on the vital reaction and the influence of microgravity on the crystallization of vital substances were also investigated. For the observation of osteoblast, the fluorescence dye reacted with Ca was well taken in the cells. The microgravity affected the stability of rice blast, but hardly affected the protoplast culture of mushroom. The reaction of ciliate against the gravity related to the specific gravity difference between cells and outer liquid. The level of adrenaline in blood of mice increased during the drop. The moving speed of trigger waves of chemical parallel slit formed at the BZ reaction under the microgravity became 60% to 80% of that on the ground. In the case of crystallization at the deposition agent concentration of 1% to 4%, the turbidity showing the degree of crystallization changed complicatedly. Nine processes of crystal growth were recognized. 21 refs., 55 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Results of photovoltaic power generation system operation in Tokyo Electric Power Company; Tokyo Denryoku ni okeru taiyoko hatsuden setsubi no unten jisseki ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, H; Itokawa, K [Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A report was made on the measurement of data and the results of the analysis at 14 sites of photovoltaic power generation facilities operated under system interconnection by Tokyo Electric Power Company. This type of system is provided in 40 sites as of the end of fiscal 1995, generating 479kw. The items measured were the generated electric energy at all 14 sites, and the quantity of solar radiation, outside air temperature, panel temperature, etc., at limited sites; and the capacity of each equipment, azimuth and inclination of the panel were also recorded simultaneously. Hourly values were used for the analysis. Five minute values were utilized, however, in the examination of the cause of lowered output and in the situation recognition of the influence of the shade or the change of weather. The utilization factor of the facilities was in the average 10.8% in fiscal 1994 and 10.7% in fiscal 1995. The factor decreased slightly unless the panel azimuth faced due south. The utilization factor at the panel inclination of 35 degrees and 45 degrees showed both 10.4% through the year making no difference. The system seemed to show no overwhelming possibilities in coping with electric power demand. The reason was that deviation existed for 2 hours or so in the peak and that reliability was low as basic power facilities. However, it was determined that the system be continuously examined in future. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Formation of secondary products in water purification. ; Charactarization of chlorination by-products. Josui shori ni okeru fukuseiseibutsu. ; Enso shori ni yoru shodoku fukuseiseibutsu no seisei tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizawa, T [The Inst. of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan)

    1993-12-10

    Chlorination of drinking water is an inevitable process for the purification of drinking water. It has been made clear that injected free chlorine reacts with organic matter in water to produce chlorinated by-products. Many of those compounds are toxic, and studies have been made on the international water quality standard. Water quality standard has been revised also in Japan. The sources of organic matter which is the cause for production of chlorinated by-products vary according to the kinds and conditions of the water source for drinking water. Removal of precursors in the original water, removal of by-products, and change in the disinfection system with alternate disinfectant for chlorine are among the measures for decreasing chlorinated by-products at water purification plants, but the first one is employed as the basis method. It is expected that more severe regulation may be imposed on the quality of the water source for drinking water, and more strict oxidation and disinfection systems is inevitable for water management based on the new water quality standard. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Electrolyte loss mechanism of molten carbonate fuel cells. 1; Yoyu tansan`engata nenryo denchi ni okeru denkaishitsu loss kiko ni tsuite. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonai, A; Murata, K [Toshiba Research and Development Center, Kawasaki (Japan)

    1993-11-01

    During a single-cell disassembly test of molten carbonate fuel cells having been operated for 90 hours to 5500 hours, correlativity was discovered between decrease in the retained amount of electrolyte due to decrease in pore capacity of electrodes and electrolyte plates and the electrolyte loss. The electrolyte loss amount cannot be explained with the conventional mechanisms, thereby a new model was proposed. The cathode has shown very little change in the capacity change in pores with diameters smaller than 2 {mu}m per unit area. The anode has remained almost constant after 1000 hours, but the electrolyte plates have shown remarkable decrease. Therefore, it is possible to estimate that the electrolyte plates should have been the major cause for the electrolyte loss. The result of measuring the electrolyte loss amount agreed well with that estimated using pore capacity curves. This fact suggests that the electrolyte loss can be explained by a new mechanism that hypothesizes the existence of a largest size of retaining pores that can support carbonates and defines that the electrolyte loss is generated from decrease in the pore capacity. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Mean ascending velocity of powder entrained by gas in a packed bed; Juten sonai ni okeru kiryu ni dohansareru funtai no heikin josho sokudo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ariyama, T; Sato, M; Asakawa, Y [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-01-20

    For the purpose of clarifying the behavior of fine particles entrained by upward gas in the packed bed like in a blast furnace, the mean ascending velocity of powder in the packed bed was measured by the residence time distribution of the tracer powder. According the results, it was found that the measured velocity was lower than the values predicted by the successive collision model of fine particles. The difference is considered to be caused by the stagnant zone of fine particles on the packed materials, and this behavior was confirmed by the observation in the two dimensional experimental apparatus. Namely, the dynamic hold-up of powder in the packed bed was composed of the particles entrained by the upward gas and the stagnant particles on the packed material, and the latter part was successively renewed by the powder carried by gas. Then, on the basis of the above results, the relation between stagnant time and local ascending velocity were experimentally correlated with solid-gas loading ratio, and it was found that there exists a certain relation among them. The model proposed by these experiments enabled to calculate the mean ascending velocity of powder in the packed bed. 6 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  10. MT survey in the Minaminoshiro oil field; Minaminoshiro chiiki ni okeru MT ho ni yoru sekiyu tanko (sanjigen MT ho chosa no kento). 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, K; Minegishi, M [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1997-10-22

    Preliminary experiment, investigation, and study are conducted prior to an experimental 3-D MT (magnetotelluric) survey planned to be carried out in the Minaminoshiro district, Akita Prefecture. In the preliminary investigation, MT measurements were performed at nine locations. It was anticipated that national highways, waste treatment plants, high-voltage power lines, and railways in presence in the district would act as noise sources. Although the impact of such noise was detected in the single site treatment result, yet it was found that it would be mostly eliminated by use of the remote reference treatment. It was learned that the resistivity structure in this district was quite low in contrast or 1 ohm/m against 30 ohm/m, but the result of 3-D model calculation indicated that a sufficient analysis would be possible even in such a low contrast case. Furthermore, as the result of the study of the density of observation stations in the magnetic field, it was found that changes in the response of magnetic field to the resistivity structure would be approximately 2% at the maximum and that the ill effect on the result of measurement would be of the negligible magnitude even when a single magnetic field observation station is deployed against plural electric field observation stations. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  11. High resolution aeromagnetic and radiometric survey in the Hokusatsu district, Japan; Hokusatsu Kushikino chiiki ni okeru kobunkaino kuchu jiki hoshano tansa kekka ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hishida, H; Yoshioka, K [Metal Mining Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    In FY 1996, aeromagnetic and radiometric survey was performed in the whole area of Hokusatsu district using a helicopter fixed with a stinger mount system with high density 200 m line spacing at low altitude of 80 m, which was the first in Japan. Based on the existing geological maps, Landsat TM data and radiometric data, lithologies and geological structures were extracted in response to individual magnetic characteristics in the whole magnetic map. Obtained geological characteristics are as follows. Straight magnetic anomalies suggested volcanic lava flows. Isolated ring-shaped magnetic anomalies suggested intrusive rocks. Ring-shaped weak magnetic anomalies suggested the centers of volcanoes. Wide range intense magnetic anomalies were caused by deep intrusive rocks. Wide range weak magnetic anomalies were caused by dissipation of magnetite due to hydrothermal alteration. Faults and fracture zones were recognized as linear configurations of magnetic anomaly and divided magnetic anomalies. Based on these results, local geological structures, hydrothermal alterations, and mineralization of known ore deposits were interpreted. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Study of the heat island phenomenon in large cities and the measures to prevent it; Daitoshi ni okeru heat island gensho to sono taisaku ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasaki, T.; Ishitani, H.; Matsuhashi, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-01-30

    The paper made an analysis of the heat island phenomenon in the Kanto area using 3-D numerical analysis models and a study on the effectiveness of the measures to prevent it. The models are composed of advection/diffusion models of heat/steam in the wind-velocity field and atmospheric air, heat diffusion models in the underground and undersea, and heat balance models on the ground surface and sea surface. In the calculation, a simulation was conducted of the case of taking the following three measures: the case where the exhaust heat was reduced 30% in the assumed typical day of summer; the case where the heat volume of buildings/trunk roads was reduced; the case where the evaporation efficiency of buildings/trunk roads was raised. The result of the study was as follows: The reduction effect of the exhaust heat is totally large, but precisely observing, some meshes contrarily showed rises in temperature in the suburbs. Also in the case of reducing the heat volume, the same phenomenon occurred, but the effect was large in the center of a city. It was found that the effect was unexpectedly large in the case of increasing the evaporation efficiency. 7 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Study of hydrocarbon emission in small direct injection engines; Kogata DI diesel kikan ni okeru teifukaji HC haishutsu ni kansuru kiso kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsurushima, T; Zhang, L; Ueda, T; Fujino, R; Yokota, K [Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The cause of unburned hydrocarbon emission in small DI diesel engines at light load was studied. An optically accessible engine which was enabled to visualize the squish area was used to investigate the behavior of spray, mixture distribution and so on. Based on these observations and engine tests, the factors such as the direct impingement of liquid phase fuel spray to the combustion chamber wall the unevenness of fuel spray among holes and spreading of the fuel droplets, mixture and flame to the squish area were supposed to be the cause of forming HC emission. 18 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Study on soot particle formation and oxidation in DI diesel engine; Chokufunshiki diesel kikan ni okeru susu ryushi no seicho sanka ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurata, K; Senda, J; Fujimoto, H [Doshisha University, Kyoto (Japan); Asai, G [Yanmar Diesel Engine Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    To clarify soot formation and oxidation process in diesel combustion, the natural emission of OH radical and the flame temperature were obtained in the combustion chamber of D.I. diesel engine. Further, soot were detected by LII (Laser Induced Incandescence) and LIS (Laser Induced Scattering) technique to assess the relative soot diameter and its number density. OH emission and flame temperature were compared with data of soot diameter and number- density. The results show that : (1) OH emission has relation to flame temperature. (2) OH emission arises latter than soot emission, because early soot at early combustion consume OH to oxidate. (3) As soon as it is ignited, soot particles are formed in the region of low temperature. 6 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Optimization of performance and energy efficiency for series hybrid commuter-car; Series hybrid hoshiki no commuter car ni okeru doryoku seino to energy koritsu ni kansuru kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashida, M; Narusawa, K [Traffic Safety and Nuisance Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal a proper power system for a miniature vehicle called as `Commuter-car` for short trips in urban areas. Two types of simulated series hybrid commuter-cars were set on bench test systems. In order to have sufficient performance and energy saving, combination of electric motor and reduction gear. regenerative break efficiency and generator power supplying were considered by transient driving experiments. Further, estimation of primary energy consumption of the commuter-car was tried. 7 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Effect of separation and drainage of condensate on dehumidification in a refrigerated dryer; Reito joshitsuki ni okeru gyoshukusui bunri/haishutsu noryoku no joshitsu seino ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, H.; Ichinose, T. [SMC Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Tanzawa, Y.; Hashizume, T. [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Science and Engineering Research Lab.

    1995-11-15

    The representative refrigerated dryer as the compressed air dryers is one in which air was cooled at rather low temperature by working medium of refrigerators, and the dew point was decreased with increase of pressure, and air with low relative humility called as the dried air was obtained again by heating. In this paper, for clarifying effect of separation and drainage of condensate on dehumidification in a refrigerated dryer in relation to shape of a main cooler and a precool-reheater and air temperature of each part, calculation and experimental investigation were conducted. In a refrigerated dryer, condensate happened in the precool part of a precool-reheater and a main cooler, and this would give rise to reduce of separation and drainage of condensate and increase of thermal loads of each heat exchange, and would made dehumidification low. For a fact that decrease of separation and drainage of condensate in a main cooler would bring out heat conduction with phase change in the reheating part of a precool-reheater, it has a profitable side, but it is not desirable for ability of dryers. 6 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Investigational study on the development, production and wide spread of welfare apparatus in north Europe; Hokuo ni okeru fukushi yogu no kaihatsu seisan fukyu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    For the purpose of grasping the present situation of the development/production/spread of welfare apparatus in north Europe, an investigation was conducted paying visits to Sweden and Denmark. Basically in the Swedish policy for handicapped persons, disablement is defined not only as features which belong to each individual, but as problems arising when the environment surrounding each individual touches one another. Moreover, characteristics of their policies on welfare apparatus are that major welfare apparatus can be provided for the disabled free of charge, and that the government and public organs play a major role in each step of the development, evaluation, distribution and provision of welfare apparatus. Features of the market of welfare apparatus are that users and buyers of the apparatus are different persons, that a public corporation called SUB participates in determining selling prices, etc., and that the market reflects needs and requests from users comparatively naturally. The needs for welfare apparatus at the Research Institute of Handicapped Persons are grasped through opinion exchanges with groups of handicapped persons or information exchanges with the technical aid center. 3 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  18. Fixed position holding control for self-propulsion barges under disturbance condition; Gairanka ni okeru jiko baji no teiten hoji seigyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kijima, K; Murata, W; Furukawa, Y [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-04-10

    In direct hoisting work in suspension bridge construction, since a cable crane directly hoists a bridge beam block put on a barge on the sea, precise fixed position holding function is required for a barge. The control system was then designed on the basis of an ILQ control theory, and the effect of change in time constant as design parameter on fixed position holding performance was studied. In addition, the critical disturbance for fixed position holding control was studied through numerical simulation under various disturbance conditions using the above designed control system. As a result, in the design of control systems on the basis of an ILQ control theory, the precise control system could be designed by diminishing, in particular, the time constant for state variable around a z axis among time constants according to the extent of disturbance. The control performance was largely affected by response delay period from sensing of disturbance to beginning of control. 3 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Investigation into the analysis method of total ecobalance in chemical industry products. 3; Kagaku kogyo seihin ni okeru total eko balance no bunseki shuho ni kansuru chosa. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing a total life-cycle ecobalance analysis (LCA) method, the paper studied making of a general computer program for chemical industry products. The study has been made on general-purpose plastics (PET/PSP (polystyrene paper)) since fiscal 1993 aiming at making the CO2 emission computing program covering the entire process of production from extraction of raw materials through waste disposal. In fiscal 1995, the following were conducted for enhancement of generalization of the method: expansion of environmental load items and increase in validity of the concept, and expansion of database. Notice was taken of not only CO2 but SOx, NOx and water quality load items. The survey was made on the recycling situation in Japan and abroad and the PET recycling plant , and environmental load item data are collected to expand database. The program was verified by analyzing an example of reusing PET bottle to carpet, and one-step development can be made toward the establishment of the method. Moreover, an analysis was made for the environmental assessment of the related programs abroad, and a tentative original plan can be proposed for the standardization of environmental load analysis and the integrated assessment method. 39 refs., 130 figs., 76 tabs.

  20. Survey on a possibility of geothermal utilization in Tomakomai City; 1980 nendo Tomakomaishi ni okeru chinetsu riyo kanosei ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-11-01

    This paper describes a possibility of geothermal utilization in Tomakomai City. The Tomakomai area has an extremely great amount of hot water existing in deep layers, leading to a consideration that it is very highly possible to develop the hot water. As seen from the underground structure and ground temperature gradient in the Tomakomai sedimentary basin, the development depth would be considerably great, being assumed to be about 2,000 meters. The acquisition amount per well is estimated 100 m{sup 3}/hour or more at 65 degrees C. Rise in petroleum price in the future is an unavoidable fate, hence geothermal water utilization has a fully bright future. The water has relatively low temperature, and is effective for use in room heating, hot water supply, and agricultural and livestock industries. It is worth considering utilization as a local energy system. It has also large secondary effects. According to the latest trial calculation, the unit price for hot water for room heating and hot water supply would be 10 to 20 yen per 1,000 kilo-calories. If the same amount of hot water should be supplied from a boiler, fossil fuel of 20,470 kl/year would be required. If converted by using a kerosene price of 75 yen per liter, the cost would be 1.3 billion 35 million yen, comparatively higher than the geothermal water utilization. (NEDO)

  1. Investigational study of the CO2 balance in high temperature CO2 separation technology; Nisanka tanso koon bunri gijutsu ni okeru CO2 balance ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    An investigational study was conducted to clarify the adaptable environment and effectivity of technologies of high temperature separation/recovery/reutilization of CO2. In the study, data collection, arrangement and comparison were made of various separation technologies such as the membrane method, absorption method, adsorption method, and cryogenic separation method. With the LNG-fired power generation as an example, the adaptable environment and effectivity were made clear by making models by a process simulator, ASPEN PLUS. Moreover, using this simulator, effects of replacing the conventional steam reforming of hydrocarbon with the CO2 reforming were made clear with the methanol synthesis as an example. As to the rock fixation treatment of high temperature CO2, collection/arrangement were made of the data on the fixation treatment of the CO2 separated at high temperature into basic rocks such as peridotite and serpentinite in order to clarify the adaptable environment and effectivity of the treatment. Besides, a potentiality of the fixation to concrete waste was made clear. 57 refs., 57 figs., 93 tabs.

  2. Disinfectants used in medal field and problems caused from their use. Igaku ryoiki ni okeru sakkinzai to sorera shiyo ni yoru mondaiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuda, K; Watabe, S [Yokohama City University, Yokohama (Japan). School of Medicine

    1994-04-05

    This paper describes typical anti-microorganism chemicals used in hospitals, and touches on measures against intra-hospital infection. Killing microorganisms reliably by using a high-pressure steam sterilization method is the best means for medical devices and apparatuses. However, there are high-priced medical devices that cannot withstand such a method and require other processes according to the situations, such as gas sterilization and alcohol disinfection. In addition to such sterilization methods as using heat, alcohols, and gases, methods that have been developed recently may include the following: use of Bronopol (an antiseptic) and anti-mold agents that have electronphilic functional groups, disinfectants using metal ions from silver, zinc and copper, and other materials. The problem of intra-hospital infection is caused typically by MRSA, hepatitis virus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Preventive measures require good knowledge about their infection courses and disinfecting technologies, as well as an attention not to cause change in the ecology as a result of using excessively strong chemicals. 18 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  3. Analysis of flow and turbulence in high pressure spray by image processing technique. Gazo shori ni yoru koatsu funmunai ni okeru ryudo to midare no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, I. (Japan Automobile Research Institute, Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)); Nishida, M.; Nakahira, T.; Komori, M.; Tsujimura, K.

    1992-07-01

    The image processing technique (reported previously) developed for analyzing combustion in a diesel engine was applied to measuring flow and turbulent intensity in a high pressure spray. Copper vapor laser beam in a sheet form with a thickness of 0.2 mm was injected into the cross section of a spray center in a container. Photographs of the scattered lights of the beam is converted into digital values and analyzed using an image processing equipment. With the laser light emitting frequency set to 20 KHz at a maximum, the flow velocity is measured from changes in photographic image density in two subsequent photographs, and the turbulence intensity from changes in brightness intensity. As a result, it was clarified that the flow velocity and the turbulence intensity in the spray cross section increase with raising the spray pressure. Further discussions are being made on the measuring method, including changes in the image brightness associated with entrance and exit of spray particulates into the laser beam sheet, and effects of the laser beam sheet thickness on the measurements of the turbulence intensity. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Study of fuel spray characteristics for premixed lean diesel combustion; Kihaku yokongo diesel kikan ni okeru nenryo funmu keisei ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, S.; Miyamoto, T.; Harada, A.; Akagawa, H.; Tsujimura, K. [New ACE Institute Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    A study is being made on premixed lean diesel combustion (PREDIC) by means of early fuel injection in diesel engines. The PREDIC makes it possible to largely reduce NOx emission, but has such problems as ignition control and increase in THC and CO generation. In order to clarify the relationship between fuel spray characteristics in the PREDIC and properties of gas mixture and exhausts, the present study has investigated spread and internal structure of the spray by means of spray observation experiment using a pintle swirl nozzle. Based on the result therefrom, simulations were used to investigate effects of spatial dispersion characteristics of the spray on properties of the gas mixture and exhausts before ignition. The pintle swirl nozzle forms conical spray having an air layer inside the spray, where penetration is suppressed even under low atmospheric pressure. By forming hollow spray or solid spray in the conical spray, a possibility was indicated that equivalent ratio distribution of the gas mixture can be controlled and NO emission may be reduced. 8 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Survey on the scrap iron and steel recycling in Thailand and Indonesia; Hatten tojokoku (Tai Indonesia) ni okeru tetsu scrap saiseiyo ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the survey results of the scrap iron and steel recycling industries in Thailand and Indonesia. The purpose of this survey is to extract problems obstructing the scrap iron and steel recycling, to recognize the present situation and predict the future situation, and to examine the possibility of international cooperation. As a result of the survey, it was found that the quality of scrap collected in the domestic market is poor as it contains too many impurities for it to be utilized for the manufacture of many higher quality iron and steel products. The actual quantity of domestically collected scrap is too low to support the expected growth in demand in each nation. Current environmental management practices are largely concerned with the construction of wastewater treatment facilities and the extraction of furnace dust. However, the lack of enforcement of environmental regulations does not encourage companies to implement sound environmental practices. Neither government actively promotes and investigates iron and steel recycling in the domestic, commercial or industrial sectors. Collaboration with overseas nations having more advanced iron and steel industries could be helpful to the scrap recycling industry in both nations. 6 figs., 21 tabs.

  6. Results of geophysical survey on Hanaore-fault in the Kyoto urban area; Butsuri tansa ni yoru Kyoto shigaichi ni okeru Hanaore danso chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioka, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Echigo, T. [Osaka Soil Test, Osaka (Japan); Toshioka, T.; Matsubara, Y. [Oyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    This paper reports results of gravity survey and seismic survey using the shallow bed reflection method to identify distribution of the Hanaore fault in the Kyoto urban area. In the gravity survey, level differential structure caused by the fault was identified as an abrupt change in Bouger anomalous values. The continuity therefrom made the estimation possible on existence and positions of such faults as the Hanaore fault belonging to the Hanaore fault system, the Shishigaya fault, the Kaguraoka fault, and the Okazaki fault. The estimation as a result of the gravity survey include the following findings: the Hanaore fault runs from south of the Yoshidayama in the south-north direction; the distribution of the Okazaki fault has a level differential structure falling on the east side; the structure shows low Bouger anomaly distribution; and this area forms a rift valley belt. In the seismic survey using the shallow bed reflection method, no distinct reflection plane considered as the basement was verified because of influence from urban area noise. However, it was possible to estimate such an underground structure as a monoclinal fold from shapes of the reflection plane and the distribution depths. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Study on the effect of measurement points upon reduced added mass matrix; Shukusho fuka shitsuryo matrix ni okeru kansokuten no eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funaki, T.; Hayashi, S. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of engineering

    1996-12-31

    It is known in estimating vibration characteristics of a ship that fluid range affects largely a structure. A parameter calculation was performed on node vibration in the vertical direction of a rotating elliptic body such as a ship to investigate the effect of an arranging method of the measurement points upon the result of the analysis. As a result, it is thought that equivalent interval arrangement of 21 measurement points would be sufficient in a lower order side mode of vibrations with less than four nodes. An analysis of calculations performed by arranging measurement points in experimental measurement points revealed that analysis accuracy would not increase even if the number of measurement points is increased if it is done so without considering rotation vector. An experiment was carried out with the number of measurement points increased to verify the above fact, with which the analysis was verified correct. Therefore, as has been forecasted in the previous report, the cause for the analysis accuracy deterioration in a high order mode may be estimated as the effect of the rotation vector. However, since it is not the situation that an analysis considering the rotation vector has been conducted, it cannot be concluded yet that the effect of the rotation vector is the sole cause. 4 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Survey of the trend of technical development and industrial policies in Asian countries; Asia shokoku ni okeru gijutsu kaihatsu no doko to sangyo gijutsu seisaku ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    A sharp rise in industrial productivity in Asia countries indicates a rising level of R and D technology. Since Japan has not clearly grasped the R and D ability in these countries, it has not given appropriate personnel/material R and D support to them. Therefore, for the purpose of exactly grasping the R and D ability of Asian countries (Korea, Taiwan, the Philippines, Indonesia and India) and studying an effective and appropriate method for R and D cooperation, a survey was conducted of R and D potentials in Asia and R and D support policies of the countries. As a result of the survey, the following are taken up as items to be considered: promotion of exchanges between Tsukuba, etc. in Japan and research/university towns and science parks being constructed in lots of countries, participation of private companies in high-tech joint work in cooperation with Japan, sending information from Japan using internet, etc. and exact grasp of needs at partner side, cooperation given to new comers without asking for research results (use of OB researchers, etc.) 25 refs., 39 figs., 59 tabs.

  9. Pitting corrosion of copper in aqueous solutions containing phosphonic acid as an inhibitor. Hosuhon san wo inhibita toshite fukumu suiyoekichu ni okeru do no koshiku ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Y. (Muroran Univ., Hokkaido (Japan). Graduate School); Seri, O.; Tagashira, K. (Muroran Univ., Hokkaido (Japan)); Nagata, K. (Sumitomo Light Metal Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Technical Research Lab.)

    1993-09-15

    Phosphonic acid-based inhibitors that are poured into cooling water for copper-tube circulation systems for open heat-accumulators were studied on their influence on pitting corrosion of copper. Amino trimethylene phosphonic acid (ATMP) dissolved into distilled water to 50 ppm was used for the immersion corrosion test. The corrosion-proof effect of additives such as ZnSO4, benzotriazole (BTA) was tested too. 0.5 mm thick phosphate-treated copper plates with a hole of 5 mm in diameter were used as test specimens. Pitting corrosion on the copper plate occurred when ATMP, BTA and ZnSO4 coexisted. It was proved that SO4 [sup 2-] is essential since Na2SO4 in stead of ZnSO4 induced also corrosion. The pitting took place when 0.6 ppm or more of SO4 [sup 2-] was present in a BTA-added ATMP solution. It was observed that the pitting is prone to occur with increase of SO4 [sup 2-] and the number of pitting increases. The following relationship is established when pitting corrosion occurs; E[sub b] [le] E[sub corr], where the former is a potential value at which current density shows a steep increase and the latter is an average value of spontaneous electrode potential showing a plateau. 8 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Analysis method on the factors of slope disaster occurring place with its application. Shamen saigai hassei chiten ni okeru soin bunseki no ichishuho to oyosei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setojima, M [Kokusai Kogyo Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Shiraishi, K [Public works Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1992-06-10

    A proposal is made on a method to analyze a slope disaster in detail from a viewpoint of ''where the disaster occurred'' (to analyze in a line pattern the apertures of a collapse and main scarps in a land slide). Methodological emphasis was placed on superimposing aerial photograph images taken before and after a disaster over imaged information on factors based on land conditions including topographical characteristics. Applicability of this method was discussed using a landslide location in Niigata Prefecture as an example. This paper describes the result of tb discussion by the following items: Imaging the aerial photographs and correcting their geometrical distortion; extracting items of line-pattern information from the aerial photographs and classifying the land coverage; and analyzing factors of causing the landslide using an image superimposing process. The papers also mentioned a view that this method may be applied effectively on disasters occurring on ground surface. 11 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Design and construction of landslide preventive construction at Yamasubara hydroelectric power plant site. Yamasubata hatsudensho chiten ni okeru jisuberi taisaku koji no sekkei seko ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takase, H; Ito, M; Sakata, M [The Kyushu Electric Power Co. Inc., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1993-07-30

    This paper reports the design and construction of landslide preventive construction at the site of the Yamasubara hydroelectric power plant (with a maximum output of 40,700 kW) and the result of slope stability verification after completion of the construction. The moderate slope on top of the primary slide has sands presumed to be colluvial deposit distributed with a depth of 10 m or more, where occurrence of a secondary slip was feared as triggered by the primary slide. The power plant protective constructions consisted of concrete walls to protect the entire power plant including buildings, and falling stone protective fences installed around the surge tanks. The temporary measures were so set that groundwater levels are lowered to a level that can assure the slide safety factor of 1.0 or more by means of drain boring using the down-the-hole hammer type. The permanent protective construction used rock anchors that are superior in constructability and economy. The stability of sliding slope faces was verified to confirm effects of the protective constructions. The verification included observations of groundwater level behavior, water well-up from drain holes, and movements in the slopes. The result showed that the protective constructions have give sufficient effects. Continued slope stability control is important. 16 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. On the muscle activity control in the hierarchy motor systems. Hierarchy undo system ni okeru kin no kassei seigyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiba, M.; Miyamoto, Y. (Osaka Industrial University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-10-31

    Excitory impulses for motor systems are controlled by the psychophysiological nervous systems in the body either autonomically or voluntarily. Involved in the voluntary control loop are motor cortex, basal gangalia, thalamus, cerebellum, etc. The purpose of this study is to confirm whether it is possible to reduce or emphasize the muscle contraction voluntarily through electromyogram (EMG) feedback training. EMG can indicate the excitory impulses of motor units. In the experiments, electrodes were placed on the skin above muscles. A significant reduction effect was observed for subjects trained in relaxation of the forehead musculature through EMG feedback. Results of the experiments suggested that biofeedback training for relaxation of the forehead tensional muscle might be effective in eliminating muscle contraction, and that feedback training for activation of damaged muscles might be effective in emphasizing muscle contraction. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  13. Studies on the friction and wear properties of synchronizer rings and gear cones; Shinkuro kiko ni okeru masatsu mamo tokusei ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, K; Kunoki, T [COSMO Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The influence of materials of synchronizer rings, automotive gear oils and sulfur-phosphorus EP additives on the friction and wear properties of synchromesh system was studied by using a synchromesh friction tester. As a result, the durability was decreased by using the synchronizer ring made of copper alloys. The initial friction performance estimated by using the synchronizer ring made of resin have influence on EP additives, in particular some kinds of phosphorus type additives. 3 refs., 12 figs.

  14. FY1995 study on objective measurement of mental stress caused by operation; 1995 nendo kiki sosa ni okeru seishinteki fuka no kyakkanteki keisoku gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The task with operating highly functional and intelligent machines, is supposed to cause the mental stress such as tension, anxiety or fear, owing to the operation itself and movement of the machines. The purpose of the project is to establish the physiological sensing technique in objective measurement of the various mental stress caused by the operation or the movement of machines, aiming at designing the optimal interfaces in man-machine system. Subjective quantities and physiological responses are measured, under the stresser of five different conditions, such as a monotonous task, a task which causes tension, and a motion of a robot which causes fear. BP, ECG, and are measured as Physiological items. More precisely, the variation in systolic pressure, RRI of heartbeat or LF/HF value obtained by its spectrum analysis, and the power spectrum of a wave or CNV area derived from spectrum analysis of EGG, are obtained for each item. The results of the experiment show that subjective responses such as irritation, tension and concentration due to the increase of the task load, and fear caused by the movement of machines, are able to be measured by physiological responses such as BP, ECG and EEG. (NEDO)

  15. Study on the effect of measurement points upon reduced added mass matrix; Shukusho fuka shitsuryo matrix ni okeru kansokuten no eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funaki, T; Hayashi, S [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of engineering

    1997-12-31

    It is known in estimating vibration characteristics of a ship that fluid range affects largely a structure. A parameter calculation was performed on node vibration in the vertical direction of a rotating elliptic body such as a ship to investigate the effect of an arranging method of the measurement points upon the result of the analysis. As a result, it is thought that equivalent interval arrangement of 21 measurement points would be sufficient in a lower order side mode of vibrations with less than four nodes. An analysis of calculations performed by arranging measurement points in experimental measurement points revealed that analysis accuracy would not increase even if the number of measurement points is increased if it is done so without considering rotation vector. An experiment was carried out with the number of measurement points increased to verify the above fact, with which the analysis was verified correct. Therefore, as has been forecasted in the previous report, the cause for the analysis accuracy deterioration in a high order mode may be estimated as the effect of the rotation vector. However, since it is not the situation that an analysis considering the rotation vector has been conducted, it cannot be concluded yet that the effect of the rotation vector is the sole cause. 4 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Towards balanced development in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatt, G

    1992-01-01

    Pakistan is a country whose economic growth is surprising in light of its social indicators. The aim of this article is to examine why conditions are such and to develop a framework for understanding the issues as an aid to redesigning policies. 5 sections are devoted to a summary of the main findings, the diagnosis of development and the impact on social sectors, a proposal for balanced development, and implications for policy changes. A sound macro economic context is needed with reforms economically in price and incentive systems, institutionally, and in the law and order sector. Public administration needs to be improved and individual opportunities need to be expanded. Internal security needs to be secured, so that law and order are restored. Economic growth has been high between 1960 and 1988, due to exploitation of natural resources and cheap unskilled labor, expansion of irrigated land, and growth of the unregulated informal sector. The major constraints on economic growth will come from a lack of fiscal discipline. 40% of government revenues are consumed by the military and 20% for servicing debt. Other constraints are the population growth rate in excess of 3%/year, an urban bias in allocation of resources, neglected primary education, and gender bias in education. There has been little incentive for provincial governments to balance budgets, and civil service has become disorganized. Balanced development entails recognizing human capital, natural resources, and infrastructure; accepting the status quo; and creating and maintaining an institutional framework to correct market failures and promote individual opportunities. The environmental polluter must pay. Income must be increased through higher wages, increasing the demand for labor, and transfers to households in the form of food rations, schooling, and medical care. Investment in women will increase household earnings, and improve living conditions and the health of themselves and their children

  17. A review of Human Biomonitoring studies of trace elements in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Amir; Arshad, Jahanzaib

    2016-11-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) measures the concentration levels of substances or their metabolites in human body fluids and tissues. HBM of dose and biochemical effect monitoring is an effective way of measuring human exposure to chemical substances. Many countries have conducted HBM studies to develop a data base for many chemicals including trace metals of health concern for their risk assessment and risk management. However, in Pakistan, HBM program on large scale for general population does not exist at present or in the past has been reported. Various individual HBM studies have been reported on the assessment of trace elements (usually heavy metals) from Pakistan; most of them are epidemiological cross sectional surveys. In this current review we tried to develop a data base of HBM studies of trace elements namely arsenic, cadmium, copper, chromium, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, and zinc in biological fluids (blood, urine) and tissues (hair, nails) in general population of Pakistan. Studies from all available sources have been explored, discussed and presented in the form of tables and figures. The results of these studies were critically compared with large scale HBM programs of other countries, (US & European communities etc). It was observed from the present study that the most of the toxic metals in biological fluids/tissues in general population of Pakistan, have higher background values comparatively. For example the mean values of toxic metals like As, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb in blood of general population were found as 2.08 μg/L, 4.24 μg/L, 60.5 μg/L, 1.95 μg/L, 198 μg/L respectively. Similarly, the urine mean values of 67.6 μg/L, 3.2 μg/L, 16.4 μg/L, 6.2 μg/L and 86.5 μg/L were observed for As, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ni hombres ni mujeres providenciales

    OpenAIRE

    Montaño Virreira, Sonia

    2000-01-01

    Debo advertir a la y el lector de este texto que lo que a continuación se presenta no es, ni de lejos, una propuesta realista, si por ella entendemos la traducción, enclave mujer, de las actuales tendencias de liderazgo político vigentes en la región. Por el contrario, intento argumentaren favor de un liderazgo que supere el caudillismo como estilo y se aproxime al máximo hacia el respeto de las formas, entendiendo que sin ellas no es posible construir la democracia. Para hacerlo reviso rápid...

  19. Determination of macro and micronutrients and nutritional prospects of six vegetable species of Mardan, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sami, F.; Shinwari, Z.K.

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess the nutritional an d mineral composition of selected vegetables, which are commonly used as food in Pakistan. Abel moschus esculentus, Solanum melongena , Cucurbita moschata, Allium sativum, Momordica charantia and Portulaca oleracea were collected form Mardan (Pakistan) and subjected to nutrient analysis. Nutrient analysis (total proteins, fats, carbohydrates, ash, energy value and moisture contents) of vegetable species were determined according to AOAC methods. Macro viz. calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), sodium (Na), and phosphorus (P) and micro viz. iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and selenium (Se) elements were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrometric method. The moisture (wet and dry basis), ash, fats, fibers, proteins, energy value (305.9 - 382.6 Kcal/100 g) and carbohydrates of these vegetable species were found in the range of 62.9 - 92.7, 5.4-7.7, 3.1 - 23.1, 0.3-8.3, 10.2-22.5, 7.7 - 16.9, and 51.3 - 80.2% respectively. The micronutrients including Fe, Zn, Mn, and Cu were found to be in the range, 6.2-24.1, 0.2-11.7, 0.6-16.7, and 0.1-70 ppm respectively. The results of macronutrients obtained having values of Ca (90-1850 ppm), Mg (94-571 ppm), K (2078-4010 ppm), Na (2-170 ppm), and P (250-1532 ppm) respectively. The quantity of Ni and Se were found negligible in these vegetables. The results indicate that all these vegetables have the potential to provide essential nutrients to the human beings. Momordica charantia and Allium sativum were found to be a good source of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, hence capable of providing energy to the consumer. Both these species were found significantly useful in terms of minerals sources, particularly Ni, K, P, Zn, Cu, and Mn. (author)

  20. Ethnic Separatism in Pakistan as a Threat to Regional Security

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Isaevich Khahkhanov

    2015-01-01

    At present ethnic separatism is shown in various regions practically on all continents and it is the same serious call of the international stability and safety, as religious extremism and drugs. Ethnic separatism is shown and in the Southern Asia, particularly, in India, Pakistan, Sri - Lanka, leading to terrorism acts and a numerous death. The author analyzes sources and the reasons of ethnic separatism in Pakistan. Author marks that the basis for statehood of Pakistan while independence de...

  1. Counterinsurgency and Counterterrorism: Sharing Experiences in Afghanistan and Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Galasz; Syed, Mahroona Hussain; Vestenskov, David

    This study has been undertaken as the first ever joint research publication between defence institutions in Denmark and Pakistan. Given the development in international security politics in the last few years, it is fair to argue that both Denmark and Pakistan are at a point where future security...... from Afghanistan and Pakistan with the objective of promoting sustainable regional peace building and developing military and civilian cooperation strategies for counterinsurgency and counterterrorism....

  2. Viable circumstances for financial negotiations in Pakistan contracting process

    OpenAIRE

    Nazir, Ejaz; Nadeem, Faisal

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In Pakistan, competitive forms of procurement include only two-step sealed bidding. In the United States, negotiated procurement falls under competitive forms of procurement. Pakistan established the Pakistan Procurement Regulatory Authority (PPRA) in 2002 on the recommendations of the World Bank and enacted PPRA rules in 2004 based on the 1994 UNCITRAL model procurement law. The purpose of PPRA rules in 2004 was twofold: First, it imp...

  3. Pakistan/USAID to start CSM project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Pakistan, with the assistance of funds for the US Agency for International Development (USAID), is about to start its novel approach to contraceptive social marketing (CSM). This new effort suggests a marked policy shift on the part of the Pakistan government toward intensifying its family planning activities. The program will be government-operated and supported by AID over the next 5 years with $20 million, more than double the cost of similar CSM projects elswhere. Distribution of a condom on a pilot project basis is expected to begin by December 1984. Sales of a low-dose oral contraceptive (OC) could begin in test market areas by mid-1985, with national launching of both products tentatively scheduled for January 1986. The Pakistan/USAID agreement represents the 1st time since the formation of India's Nirodh project in the late 1960s that a CSM program is being established without the involvement of either an international social marketing contractor or a country's family planning association. The Pakistan CSM program will be managed by a policy board composed of representatives from the government's Ministries of Planning, Health and Education; a resident advisor from USAID; and a local company responsible for product marketing and distribution. The approach has received a skeptical response among international social marketing experts about the program's chances for success. Their doubts extend to 2 other aspects of the proposed design: an official of the Ministry of Planning's Population and Welfare Division expects the CSM program to generate sufficient revenues to cover all operating costs following the 5-year subsidy period, while also providing attractive profit margins for the marketing/distribution company; and the government prohibits mass media advertising of contraceptives. According to AID, the issue of mass media contraceptive advertising has not yet been resolved, and a national survey will be conducted to determine what communication needs are

  4. Sociopolitical adjustment among Afghan refugees in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centlivres, P; Centlivres-demont, M

    1987-01-01

    Although international organizations and Pakistanis expect Afghans to act like true refugees--dependent, obedient, and grateful--Afghans consider themselves as temporary exiles who, in protest against an anti-Islamic government, found temporary refuge in Pakistan; or as soldiers in the holy wars who temporarily use their Islamic neighbor as a base before returning to fight in Afghanistan. Conforming to this concept and to these objectives, the refugees seek to preserve a certain autonomy and to lean towards forms of organization which are derived either from their traditional social structure, or as is more common now, from the ideology of the Islamic movements. One can understand that this situation may cause many misunderstandings, especially with international organizations which finance and supervise aid to the Afghan refugees in Pakistan. As for anthropologists, it is necessary to go beyond known concepts, to relativize familiar models and to act on changes which have come about in the structures and ideology of the Afghan people.

  5. Weighted Complex Network Analysis of Pakistan Highways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Tariq Mohmand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure and properties of public transportation networks have great implications in urban planning, public policies, and infectious disease control. This study contributes a weighted complex network analysis of travel routes on the national highway network of Pakistan. The network is responsible for handling 75 percent of the road traffic yet is largely inadequate, poor, and unreliable. The highway network displays small world properties and is assortative in nature. Based on the betweenness centrality of the nodes, the most important cities are identified as this could help in identifying the potential congestion points in the network. Keeping in view the strategic location of Pakistan, such a study is of practical importance and could provide opportunities for policy makers to improve the performance of the highway network.

  6. Pakistan research reactor and its utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal Hussain Qureshi; Naeem Ahmad Khan.

    1983-01-01

    The 5 MW enriched uranium fuelled, light water moderated and cooled Pakistan Research reactor became critical on 21st December, 1965 and was taken to full power on 22nd June, 1966. Since then is has been operated for about 23000 hours till 30th June, 1983 without any major break down. It has been used for the studies of neutron cross-sections, nuclear structure, fission physics, structure of material, radiation damage in crystals and semiconductors, studies of geological, biological and environmental samples by neutron activation techniques, radioisotope production, neutron radiography and for training of scientists, engineers and technicians. In the paper we have described briefly the facility of Pakistan Research Reactor and the major work carried around it during the last decade. (author)

  7. Solar Energy: Topographical Asset for Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervez Hameed Shaikh; Faheemullah Shaikh; Mushtaq Mirani

    2013-01-01

    The primary energy supply of Pakistan in the financial year 2009-10 was 63.088 million tonnes of oil equivalent (MTOE). Globally, renewable energies generation is around (19%) [1]. Pakistan has a yearly average solar energy shining potential of about 19 Mega Joules per square meter, with 7.6 hours per day with an average solar radiation of 5-7 kW h/(m 2 day). An alarming stage for the government to take serious steps to tackle energy demand, in vision to inclining oil markets, depletion of gas reserves, huge electricity demand and supply gap, lessening of forest reserves, calamity (floods, heavy rainfalls, earth quakes, melting of glaciers etc.), Kyoto bindings etc. All these factors are indicating for the transition towards renewable energy technologies. (authors)

  8. Pakistan's experience in transfer of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Khan, Nunir

    1977-01-01

    Of all technologies, nuclear technology is perhaps the most interdisciplinary in character as it encompasses such varied fields as nuclear physics, reactor physics, mechanical, electrical electronics controls, metallurgical and even civil and geological engineering. When we speak of transfer of acquisition of nuclear technology we imply cumulative know-how in many fields, most of which are not nuclear per se but are essential for building the necessry infrastructure and back-up facilities for developing and implementing any nuclear energy program. In Pakistan, efforts on utilization of nuclear energy for peaceful applications were initiated about twenty years ago. During these years stepwise development of nuclear technology has taken place. The experience gained by Pakistan so far in transfer of nuclear technology is discussed. Suggestions have been made for continuing the transfer of this most essential technology from the advanced to the developing countries while making sure that necessary safeguard requirements are fullfilled

  9. India-Pakistan: Contours of Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devika Mittal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Even after about 70 years of separation, India and Pakistan continue to live in the prison of the past. The rhetoric of partition is still alive in the memory of the people of both the countries. They have constructed fixed, unchanging and competing images for each other. While Pakistan became an Islamic Republic, India adopted secularism, thereby, negating the two-nation theory. The ‘differences’ along with memories of partition has made Indian and Pakistani to remain in permanent hostile situation. The leaders of the two countries try to settle their disputes but fails because of lack of support from their social and political institutions. Since its coming into power in 2014, the NDA government under the Indian Prime Minister, Mr. Narendra Modi has managed to engage the Pakistani establishment, despite many problems between the two countries. This article tries to highlight upon the contours of relationships post-2014.

  10. Testing the Conditional Convergence Hypothesis for Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Ahmad Jan (Corresponding Author

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates for the existence or non-existence of conditional convergence across the provinces of Pakistan. The annual output data from 1973 to 2000 is pooled for the four Pakistani provinces. The cross-sectional specific effects, the time specific effects, the manufacturing output, and the structural variable for aggregate supply or production shocks are used to control the different steady state levels of per capita incomes of thedifferent provinces. The equation for conditional convergence is estimated through generalized least squares (GLS method, after controlling for the different steady states of the provinces. The result shows that the provinces of Pakistan converge to their own respective steady states with a convergence speed of 11% per annum. At the same time manufacturing output is also statistically significant and positively affects the economic growth in the provinces. However the structural variable is not statistically significant.

  11. Donation of CERN computing equipment to Pakistan

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2015-01-01

    An official ceremony marking the eighth donation of CERN computing equipment to an outside institute, this time a university in Pakistan, took place on Monday, 2 March.     From left to right: Sajjad Mohsin, Dean at the COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General, S. M. Junaid Zaidi, Rector of CIIT, Aumair Qayyum (CIIT) and Syed Ali Zahir Bukhari (CIIT).   On this occasion, 224 servers and 30 network hubs were donated to the CIIT (COMSATS Institute of Information Technology) in Islamabad, Pakistan, where they will be used by scientists working on the LHC’s ALICE experiment. For several years now, CERN has regularly donated computing equipment that no longer meets its highly specific requirements but is still more than adequate for less exacting environments. To date, a total of 1,149 servers and 79 hubs have been donated to eight countries, namely Bulgaria, Egypt, Ghana, Morocco, the Philippines, Senegal, Serbia and now P...

  12. Pakistan: A Nation at War with Itself

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    boundaries in India.13 As a recent Rand Corporation report argued, “the Use of militant groups, including the Taliban, has remained an important instrument...government at Dhaka in East Pakistan. Pakistan’s experiments with democracy have been marked by a “multi- layered trajectory of contrasts and...protect the city by destroying a large number of bridges on the canal that surrounded it. The Indian strategy of expanding the war beyond Kashmir was

  13. Sources of Income Inequality in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    HANS DE KRUIJK

    1987-01-01

    In a paper presented at the 1985 Conference of this Society [Kruijk and Leeuwen (1985)] we described some structural changes in poverty and income inequality in Pakistan during the 1970s. All inequality measures and poverty indicators pointed to the conclusion that poverty has declined while at the same time inequality has increased. Htlwever, the paper did not go deep enough into the reasons why inequality has increased. It did appear that neither the urban/rural distinction nor interprovinc...

  14. Ethno-botanical studies from northern Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, S.; Afzal, N.

    2009-01-01

    In this research paper efforts have been made to document the ethno-botanical knowledge of important plant species found in Northern Pakistan. It includes Thandiani, Galiat, Kaghan, Swat, Buner, Dir, Chitral and Northern Areas of Pakistan. The area has many climatic and vegetation zones or biomes. Locals residing in mountainous areas belonging to various ethnic groups are traditionally utilizing plants over many generations; these ethnic groups have their distinct life style, belief, traditions and cultural heritage. Plant collection and data regarding traditional uses in various areas of Northern Pakistan has been done periodically in different flowering /fruiting seasons. Locals of old age belonging to various ethnic groups were personally interviewed for establishing uses of plants. Photography is done for easy identification and habitat recognition. Collected plant specimens and seeds were preserved. Plant species were dried, mounted, identified and authenticated. Seventy six species were known to have traditional and ethno botanical uses. Plants have been utilized for many generations. Ethnic groups have distinct life style and have different economic uses for these plants. Due to unsustainable exploitation of natural habitats scarcity of drug plants has occurred. As consequence some species are depleting and may become extinct in near future, e. g. Morchella esculenta, Colchicum lueteum and Viola serpens are just a few of these. Although some sporadic information is available about the flora of this region but very little documented record of the ethno-botanically important plants has been established. It is expected that this research paper will be beneficial for students, researchers, farmers, foresters and general public. On the basis of data obtained it is concluded that ethno-botanical Flora of Northern Pakistan is quite rich and is diverse, due to the difference in altitude, climate and other topographic conditions. (author)

  15. Water quality issues and status in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahlown, M.A.; Tahir, M. A.; Ashraf, M.

    2005-01-01

    Per capita water availability in Pakistan has dropped drastically during the last fifty years. Recent extended droughts have further aggravated the situation. In order to meet the shortage and crop water requirements, groundwater is being used extensively in the Indus Basin. Groundwater is also the main source of water for drinking and industrial uses. This increased pressure on groundwater has lowered the water table in many cities. It is reported that water table has dropped by more than 3 m in many cities. This excessive use of groundwater has seriously affected the quality of groundwater and has increased the incidences of water-borne diseases many folds. A recent water quality study has shown that out of 560,000 tube wells of Indus Basin, about 70 percent are pumping sodic water. The use of sodic water has in turn affected the soil health and crop yields. This situation is being further aggravated due to changes in climate and rainfall patterns. To monitor changes in surface and groundwater quality and groundwater levels, Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources has undertaken a countrywide programme of water quality monitoring. This programme covers twenty-one cities from the four provinces, five rivers, 10 storage reservoirs and lakes and two main drains of Pakistan. Under this programme a permanent monitoring network is established from where water samples are collected and analyzed once every year. The collected water samples are analyzed for aesthetic, chemical and bacteriological parameters to determine their suitability for agricultural, domestic and industrial uses. The results of the present study indicate serious contamination in many cities. Excessive levels of arsenic, fluoride and sodium have been detected in many cities. This paper highlights the major water quality issues and briefly presents the preliminary results of the groundwater analysis for major cities of Pakistan. (author)

  16. Industrial Competitiveness of Pakistan (2000-10)

    OpenAIRE

    A. R. Kemal

    2007-01-01

    Though Pakistan’s exports have increased significantly, analyses have shown that Pakistan’s industrial competitiveness is limited to a narrow range of products. This paper looks at the factors affecting Pakistan’s competitiveness ranking and relates these various factors to trends in Pakistan’s total factor productivity. In addition to looking at the components of Pakistan’s competitiveness ranking, this paper details the steps required for Pakistan to increase its global industrial competiti...

  17. Child Malnutrition in Pakistan: Evidence from Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asim, Muhammad; Nawaz, Yasir

    2018-01-01

    Pakistan has one of the highest prevalences of child malnutrition as compared to other developing countries. This narrative review was accomplished to examine the published empirical literature on children’s nutritional status in Pakistan. The objectives of this review were to know about the methodological approaches used in previous studies, to assess the overall situation of childhood malnutrition, and to identify the areas that have not yet been studied. This study was carried out to collect and synthesize the relevant data from previously published papers through different scholarly database search engines. The most relevant and current published papers between 2000–2016 were included in this study. The research papers that contain the data related to child malnutrition in Pakistan were assessed. A total of 28 articles was reviewed and almost similar methodologies were used in all of them. Most of the researchers conducted the cross sectional quantitative and descriptive studies, through structured interviews for identifying the causes of child malnutrition. Only one study used the mix method technique for acquiring data from the respondents. For the assessment of malnutrition among children, out of 28 papers, 20 used the World Health Organization (WHO) weight for age, age for height, and height for weight Z-score method. Early marriages, large family size, high fertility rates with a lack of birth spacing, low income, the lack of breast feeding, and exclusive breastfeeding were found to be the themes that repeatedly emerged in the reviewed literature. There is a dire need of qualitative and mixed method researches to understand and have an insight into the underlying factors of child malnutrition in Pakistan. PMID:29734703

  18. Fiscal Imbalances, Poverty and Inequality in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Irfan Ullah - Naimatullah Baber

    2014-01-01

    This paper has analyzed the fiscal imbalances, poverty and inequality with relevance to Pakistan. We use time series data from 1981 to 2010 and employ Autoregressive Distributed Lag Model (ARDL) to cointegration for estimation. The empirical findings suggest that fiscal deficits increase the poverty level and provide biases for inequality. Since deficit is financed through money supply, government debt and indirect taxes which threaten the purchasing power of the poor and drag them towards po...

  19. The Status of Women Physicists in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnain, Aziz Fatima; Islam, Jabeen

    2009-04-01

    A significant number of women physicists work in high-ranking positions in the universities and research institutes of Pakistan; however, the number of women is much lower compared with men. We surveyed these women about the challenges they faced in the workplace and the pace of their progress and scientific work in a male-dominant society. We also surveyed girls' attitudes toward studying physics at the graduate and undergraduate levels.

  20. Diversity of edible mushrooms in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultana, K.; Shinwari, Z.K.; Iftikhar, F.

    2007-01-01

    Fifty six edible species of mushrooms are reported from Pakistan including four from Balochistan, three from Sindh, five from Punjab and 44 from NWFP and Azad Kashmir. Some of species being commercially exploited in the world are Agaricus bisporus, Auricularia spp. Coprinus comatus, Flammulina vellutipes, Lentinus edodes, Phellorina inquinans, Pleurotus ostreatus, Stropharia rugosoannulata, Volvariella volvacea. Because of over collection, urbanization and deforestation, some of species are threatened of extinction. (author)

  1. Gender Disparity in Education Enrollment in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Shakil Quayes; Richard David Ramsey

    2015-01-01

    The paper examines the determinants of school enrollment in Pakistan. The likelihood of school enrollment is estimated using separate logistic regression models for three different age groups. The empirical results indicate severe gender disparity in school enrollment across all age groups, particularly among the older age groups. Although the rate of school enrollment is positively associated with household income, the gender disparity actually deteriorates with an increase in household inco...

  2. Measuring Money Demand Function in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Shahid; Ali, Umbreen; Dawood, Mamoon

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the factors such as interest rate, GDP per capita, exchange rate, fiscal deficit, urban and rural population to determine money demand function for Pakistan over the period from 1972-2013. We use ARDL Bound Testing approach in order to test long run relation between money demand and its factors whereas both long and short run coefficients will be found using similar approach. The results show that real interest rate exerts significant and negative effect upon money dem...

  3. Taxation, Fiscal Deficit and Inflation in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ghulam Rasool Madni

    2014-01-01

    Fiscal policy has more controversial debate regarding its effectiveness on different macroeconomic activities of an economy. Taxation and government expenditure are two main instruments of fiscal policy. This paper is aimed to analyze and update the effects of different instruments of fiscal policy on inflation in Pakistan economy. The data time span for this study is 1979-2013. The impact of fiscal policy on inflation is analyzed by utilizing the Bounds testing procedure and ARDL approach of...

  4. Impediments Of Green Marketing In Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Siddique, Muhammad; Hayat, Khizer; Akbar, Irfan; Cheema, Khaliq Ur Rehman

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates different factors and the impact of these factors on adoption of green marketing in Pakistan. Motivational factors which are legislation, competitiveness, and ethical reasoning. Company features in which company size, internationalization, position in value chain, managerial attitude, and strategic attitude fall. Some external factors like geographical location and industrial factors also have effects on green marketing adoption. The last factor in our study is stakeho...

  5. The Role of Nuclear Power in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvez, A.; Iqleem, J.

    2002-01-01

    Although the energy and electricity demand in Pakistan have been steadily growing, the per capita electricity consumption at around 300 kWh is still rather small when compared to most countries. The current installed capacity is around 17,700 MW with fossil fuels providing nearly two-third of this capacity, hydro a little less than one-third and nuclear around 2.5%. A major fraction of the oil used in Pakistan has to be imported while hydro remains subject to seasonal changes. The next 20 year projections point to a serious electrical energy generation shortfall even when the contribution from indigenous gas, coal, and hydro is increased optimistically. It is estimated that a deficit of some 3000-5000 MW may exist which will have to be met from an alternate energy resource like nuclear. Two small nuclear power plants (KANUPP, a 137 MWe CANDU which has been operating safely for nearly three decades, and CHASNUPP, the newly built 325 MWe PWR supplied by China) are already on-line. KANUPP has essentially been operated without any vendor support thanks to a systematic self-reliance program. The experience gained through procuring, operating and maintaining these power plants, coupled with the need to meet the projected electrical energy shortfall which cannot be met through conventional resources, makes nuclear a very viable option, and Pakistan an ideal case to study the current and future role of nuclear in a developing country with medium sized grid. This paper will describe an overview of the experience of development of nuclear power in Pakistan. Future strategies, which involve negotiating a case for nuclear with the energy policy makers, interacting with the vendor on matters of obtaining new plants, and increasing self-reliance in the area of nuclear power technology, will also be discussed. (author)

  6. Makran Mountain Range, Iran and Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The long folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Ranges of Iran and Pakistan (26.0N, 63.0E) illustrate the classical Trellis type of drainage pattern, common in this region. The Dasht River and its tributaries is the principal drainage network for this area. To the left, the continental drift of the northward bound Indian sub-continent has caused the east/west parallel ranges to bend in a great northward arc.

  7. The Future of US-Pakistan Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    occupied by roughly 71 million Punjabis , comprising 75% of its total population.9 The Sindh, more varied in population than the Punjab, contains...is the fact that over 20 languages are spoken in Pakistan. The most common are: Punjabi (48% of the population), Sindhi (12%), and Urdu – which is...include: Siraiki, which is a Punjabi variant (10%), Pakhtu or Pashton (8%), Balochi (3%), Hindko (2%), Brahuci (1%), other languages (8%).13 This language

  8. Child Malnutrition in Pakistan: Evidence from Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan has one of the highest prevalences of child malnutrition as compared to other developing countries. This narrative review was accomplished to examine the published empirical literature on children’s nutritional status in Pakistan. The objectives of this review were to know about the methodological approaches used in previous studies, to assess the overall situation of childhood malnutrition, and to identify the areas that have not yet been studied. This study was carried out to collect and synthesize the relevant data from previously published papers through different scholarly database search engines. The most relevant and current published papers between 2000–2016 were included in this study. The research papers that contain the data related to child malnutrition in Pakistan were assessed. A total of 28 articles was reviewed and almost similar methodologies were used in all of them. Most of the researchers conducted the cross sectional quantitative and descriptive studies, through structured interviews for identifying the causes of child malnutrition. Only one study used the mix method technique for acquiring data from the respondents. For the assessment of malnutrition among children, out of 28 papers, 20 used the World Health Organization (WHO weight for age, age for height, and height for weight Z-score method. Early marriages, large family size, high fertility rates with a lack of birth spacing, low income, the lack of breast feeding, and exclusive breastfeeding were found to be the themes that repeatedly emerged in the reviewed literature. There is a dire need of qualitative and mixed method researches to understand and have an insight into the underlying factors of child malnutrition in Pakistan.

  9. Determinants of Currency Depreciation in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, Saif Ullah

    2014-01-01

    The loss of value of currency of any country with respect to foreign currencies like US $ is called Currency depreciation. Since 2008, Pakistani Rupee depreciates extensively which created many problems and hinders economic growth of country. The main reason behind this sharp decline is bad economic condition, terrorism, law and order situation, decrease in foreign portfolio investment and bad performance of stock market in Pakistan. The purpose of this research study is to analyze impact of...

  10. Assistance to Brazil, Pakistan and Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-04-15

    IAEA's technical assistance programme for the current year includes aid to atomic energy projects in Brazil, Pakistan and Thailand. It is proposed to establish a radiation measurement service in Brazil where radioactive isotopes are finding increasing use in medicine, industry and research. The assistance to be provided by IAEA will consist of equipment for the proposed service, and experts who would give courses in their respective specializations and co-operate in the testing of equipment, initiation of measurements and organization of working plans. The Agency is putting three specialists at the disposal of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission: one of them an expert on research reactors, another on radioisotopes and irradiation by gamma rays, and the third on health physics. The Pakistan Government has decided to set up an Institute of Nuclear Research and Reactor Technology, where it is planned to install a reactor with a power level of 1 MW to be increased later to 5 MW. The main purposes of the reactor project will be: training on reactor operation and reactor physics; training and research in neutron physics; research on radiation physics and nuclear chemistry; production of radioisotopes; biological research on the effects of radiation; radiation protection and shielding, and research in nuclear engineering and metallurgy. Under a third project, IAEA has sent an expert to Thailand to assist in the development of the medical applications of radioisotopes, particularly in diagnosis and clinical research

  11. Microbial contaminants in Pakistan: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maida Kanwal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide contamination of surface waters with microbial pathogens is of substantial health concern. These contaminants are usually transmitted by improper sanitation measures, unsafe waste disposal, excretions from patients, and physical contacts, i.e., sexual and nonsexual. Majority of these microbial pathogens have been categorized into three classes, i.e., bacteria, viruses and protozoa. Pakistan, being a developing country, is facing a noteworthy threat due to microbial contamination. In Pakistan, bacterial contaminants are reported extensively followed by viral and protozoa contaminants. The health issues associated with bacterial population includes dysentery, abdominal pain, headache, diarrhea etc.; and usually includes faecal and total coliforms, E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Campylobacter. The cases related to viral contamination are lesser but chronic and evidenced the presence of HCV, HAV, HEV viruses causing hepatitis, and other hepatic disorders. Lastly, the health impacts associated with protozoans are least reported; and a number of diseases such as giardia, cryptosporidium and toxoplasma have been linked with this class of contaminants. The current review compiles information of these biological contaminants along with their health issues in Pakistan. Moreover, potential sources and fate of microbial contaminants are also discussed.

  12. Flood forecasting and warning systems in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali Awan, Shaukat

    2004-01-01

    Meteorologically, there are two situations which may cause three types of floods in Indus Basin in Pakistan: i) Meteorological Situation for Category-I Floods when the seasonal low is a semi permanent weather system situated over south eastern Balochistan, south western Punjab, adjoining parts of Sindh get intensified and causes the moisture from the Arabian Sea to be brought up to upper catchments of Chenab and Jhelum rivers. (ii) Meteorological Situation for Category-11 and Category-111 Floods, which is linked with monsoon low/depression. Such monsoon systems originate in Bay of Bengal region and then move across India in general west/north westerly direction arrive over Rajasthan or any of adjoining states of India. Flood management in Pakistan is multi-functional process involving a number of different organizations. The first step in the process is issuance of flood forecast/warning, which is performed by Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD) utilizing satellite cloud pictures and quantitative precipitation measurement radar data, in addition to the conventional weather forecasting facilities. For quantitative flood forecasting, hydrological data is obtained through the Provincial Irrigation Department and WAPDA. Furthermore, improved rainfall/runoff and flood routing models have been developed to provide more reliable and explicit flood information to a flood prone population.(Author)

  13. Assistance to Brazil, Pakistan and Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    IAEA's technical assistance programme for the current year includes aid to atomic energy projects in Brazil, Pakistan and Thailand. It is proposed to establish a radiation measurement service in Brazil where radioactive isotopes are finding increasing use in medicine, industry and research. The assistance to be provided by IAEA will consist of equipment for the proposed service, and experts who would give courses in their respective specializations and co-operate in the testing of equipment, initiation of measurements and organization of working plans. The Agency is putting three specialists at the disposal of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission: one of them an expert on research reactors, another on radioisotopes and irradiation by gamma rays, and the third on health physics. The Pakistan Government has decided to set up an Institute of Nuclear Research and Reactor Technology, where it is planned to install a reactor with a power level of 1 MW to be increased later to 5 MW. The main purposes of the reactor project will be: training on reactor operation and reactor physics; training and research in neutron physics; research on radiation physics and nuclear chemistry; production of radioisotopes; biological research on the effects of radiation; radiation protection and shielding, and research in nuclear engineering and metallurgy. Under a third project, IAEA has sent an expert to Thailand to assist in the development of the medical applications of radioisotopes, particularly in diagnosis and clinical research

  14. Potential of solar home systems in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, M.; Harijan, K.; Uqaili, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    About 68% of the population of Pakistan resides in rural areas. Most of the rural households have no access to electricity and meet lighting requirements through kerosene which is a major source of indoor air pollution and other environmental and health hazards. Rural villages are scattered over a large area and located far from the main electric grids. They have low population density and requires small load. About 67% of the conventional electricity in Pakistan is generated from fossil fuels with 51% and 16% share of gas and oil respectively. The indigenous reserves of oil and gas are limited and the country heavily depends on imported oil. The oil import bill is a serious strain on the country's economy. The combustion of fossil fuels also causes serious environmental pollution. The conventional power is even not sufficient for meeting the growing demand of electricity from the existing customers. Further more the extension of existing centralized grid system to far away from grid line rural areas with very low population density and small-scattered loads are economically and technically unfeasible. Hence there are remote chances of getting grid connection to most of the rural population in the near future. This whole situation requires urgent measures on priority basis for the development of indigenous, environment friendly, renewable energy sources such as solar energy. This paper presents the assessment of potential of solar home systems (SHS) for rural electrification in Pakistan. The country lies in an excellent solar belt range and receives 16-21 MJ/m 2 per day of solar radiation as an annual mean value, with 19 MJ/m 2 per day over most areas of the country. It is estimated that about 7 million households in Pakistan do not have access to electricity (in 2004). Assuming that about 50% of the households in rural areas without electricity today would be electrified up to 2010, and only 25% of the remaining households could afford and would be willing to pay

  15. Perceptions of Hospital Pharmacist's Role in Pakistan's Healthcare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate hospital pharmacists' perception of their current clinical role in Pakistan's healthcare system. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study in a population that consisted of hospital pharmacists in Islamabad, Faisalabad and Lahore which are three cities in Punjab State, Pakistan. A sample of 116 ...

  16. Teaching Human Rights through Global Education to Teachers in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadruddin, Munir Moosa

    2017-01-01

    Pakistan is home to religious and cultural ideologies that greatly support the values of human rights. Nevertheless, the multilayered philosophies of human rights in Pakistan have at times heightened clashes and bred a culture of tension among higher education learners. Ideological filters in national education policies have removed human rights…

  17. On 25 January Pervez Musharraf, president of Pakistan, visited CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The President of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, General Pervez Musharraf, welcomed by CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar. The president is accompanied by an important delegation of five ministers from the Pakistani Government, the Chairman of Pakistan's Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), Parvez Butt, and an eminent former Chairman of the Commission, Ishfaq Ahmad, who pioneered cooperation with CERN.

  18. Deconstructive Pedagogy and Ideological Demystification in Post-Colonial Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Asma; Malik, Samina

    2016-01-01

    With post-colonial Pakistan inheriting the British colonial ideological and governmental apparatus, the English literature curriculum implemented at the university level in Pakistan carried the interpellatory baggage of its colonial past. Our interdisciplinary exploration focuses on using deconstructive pedagogy to demystify and subvert the…

  19. Women's Right to Land in Pakistan | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Women's Right to Land in Pakistan. Unequal access to land is a systemic barrier to gender equality in Pakistan, one that is both a cause and an effect of women's marginalization. Yet, the amount of research on how many women own land and how many control land is negligible. This project will examine the reasons for ...

  20. Trends, Issues and Challenges in English Language Education in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Fauzia

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to critically examine the trends, issues and challenges in policy and practice of English language education in Pakistan. This is done first by historically reviewing the English language education policies since Pakistan's independence in 1947, looking particularly at policy objectives, implementation strategies and outcomes, and…

  1. Women's status and children's food security in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Guha-Khasnobis, Basudeb; Hazarika, Gautam

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the role of women’s intra-household status relative to men in children’s food security in Pakistan. Data from the 1991 Pakistan Integrated Household Survey (PIHS) yield a measure of evidence of a positive relation between women’s intra-household status and children’s food security.

  2. Women's Perspectives of Peace: Unheard Voices from Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Zehra

    2013-01-01

    Pakistan is currently impacted by rampant terrorism and is simultaneously grappling with intrastate ethnic and sectarian violence. The focus of this dissertation was on examining grassroots Pakistani women's perspectives on peace and women's contributions to peace in Pakistan. The study was centered on grassroots women because their voices remain…

  3. Assessment Drives Student Learning: Evidence for Summative Assessment from Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Rashida; Zahoor, Mahrukh; Zahoor, Mahwish

    2017-01-01

    Research studies from various parts of the world indicate that university students find research methodology courses among the most difficult subjects to grasp. Students in Pakistan display similar attitudes towards learning of research. Those of us who teach research at the institutions of higher learning in Pakistan continuously hear students…

  4. Heavy metal contamination and accumulation in soil and wild plant species from industrial area of Islamabad, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, R.N.; Husain, S.Z.; Nazir, I.

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to assess total contents of 6 toxic metals viz., Pb, Cu, Zn, Co, Ni, and Cr in the soil and plant samples of 16 plant species collected from industrial zone of Islamabad, Pakistan. The concentration, transfer and accumulation of metals from soil to roots and shoots was evaluated in terms of Biological Concentration Factor (BCF), Translocation Factor (TF) and Bioaccumulation Coefficient (BAC). Total metal concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu, Co, Ni, and Cr in soils varied between 2.0-29.0, 61.9-172.6, 8.9 to 357.4, 7.3-24.7, 41.4-59.3, and 40.2-927.2 mg/kg. Total metal concentrations pattern in roots were: Cu>Cr>Zn>Ni>Pb>Co. Grasses showed relatively higher total Zn concentration. Accumulation of Cu was highest in shoots followed by Zn, Cr, Pb, Co and Ni. None of plant species were identified as hyper accumulator; however, based on BCFs, TFs, and BACs values, most of the studied species have potential for phyto stabilization and phyto extraction. Parthenium hysterophoirus L., and Amaranthus viridis L., is suggested for phytoextraction of Pb and Ni, whereas, Partulaca oleracea L., Brachiaria reptans (L.) Gard. and Hubb., Solanum nigrum L., and Xanthium stromarium L., for hytostabilization of soils contaminated with Pb and Cu. (author)

  5. Environmental geochemistry of acid mine drainage water at Indus coal mine at Lakhra, Sindh Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, I.; Shah, M.T.

    2000-01-01

    The annual coal production of Pakistan is about 3,637, 825 tones which is about 6% of the country's energy resources, out of this 1,241, 965 tones of coal was produced/ mined from the Lakhra coal field, District Dadu, Sindh which after the Thar coal field is the second largest coal field of Pakistan. At this coal field more than 58 mining companies are engaged in exploring the hidden wealth of the country. The problem of acid mine drainage, is caused by the passage or seepage of water, through mines where iron disulfides, usually pyrites, are exposed to the oxidizing action of water, air and bacteria, is the main problem faced by the mining companies. The geochemical analysis of acid mine drainage water collected from Indus coal mine no. 6 shows that beside its higher pH, total Dissolved Solids and Sulfates, it also posses higher amount of heavy metals like Cd, Cu, Pb, Co, Ni and Fe. This acid mine drainage water not only damages the mine structures but is also harmful to soil and ecology. (author)

  6. Minerals and nutritional composition of camel (camelus dromedarius) meat in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhmud, T.; Rehman, R.; Anwar, J.; Ali, S.

    2011-01-01

    The quality of camel meat has received little attention so far in Pakistan. It is nutritionally as good as that of the major sources of red or white meat. Camel is a desert animal but is not less than other red meat animals (beef, lamb and goat) in its composition. The proximate composition, fatty acid profile and mineral contents of the local camel (Camelus dromedarius) meat have been investigated. It contained 72.03 +- 0.014% water, 4.45 +- 0.011% ash, 5.79 +- 0.012% fat and 66.42 +- 0.534% protein. It has been found that camel meat has relatively more moisture, less fat, less ash and similar protein content than that of beef, lamb and goat [1]. It has similar mineral composition (Na, K, Ca, Fe, Zn, P, Mg, Cd, Cr, Co, Mo, Ni, and Pb) to beef except for sodium. Fatty acid profile for camel meat oil showed high content of palmitic acid and oleic acid. These two fatty acids are essential in human nutrition. In view of the above, it is possible that camel meat could make a greater contribution to the growing need for meat in developing countries like Pakistan. (author)

  7. Multivariate statistical techniques for the evaluation of surface water quality of the Himalayan foothills streams, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Riffat Naseem; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar

    2017-10-01

    Himalayan foothills streams, Pakistan play an important role in living water supply and irrigation of farmlands; thus, the water quality is closely related to public health. Multivariate techniques were applied to check spatial and seasonal trends, and metals contamination sources of the Himalayan foothills streams, Pakistan. Grab surface water samples were collected from different sites (5-15 cm water depth) in pre-washed polyethylene containers. Fast Sequential Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Varian FSAA-240) was used to measure the metals concentration. Concentrations of Ni, Cu, and Mn were high in pre-monsoon season than the post-monsoon season. Cluster analysis identified impaired, moderately impaired and least impaired clusters based on water parameters. Discriminant function analysis indicated spatial variability in water was due to temperature, electrical conductivity, nitrates, iron and lead whereas seasonal variations were correlated with 16 physicochemical parameters. Factor analysis identified municipal and poultry waste, automobile activities, surface runoff, and soil weathering as major sources of contamination. Levels of Mn, Cr, Fe, Pb, Cd, Zn and alkalinity were above the WHO and USEPA standards for surface water. The results of present study will help to higher authorities for the management of the Himalayan foothills streams.

  8. Characteristics of the first recorded spider (Arthropoda: Arachnida fauna from Sheringal, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Khan Perveen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The spiders (order: Aranae are an important environmental indicator and play a significant role as predators in biological control of the most of the key insect pests. The present study was conducted to establish the characteristics of the first recorded spider fauna from Sheringal, Dir Upper (DU, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP, Pakistan during June 2013-July 2014. Their 10 species belong to 7 families, and 10 genera (nt=123: total; ni=77: identified; nui=46: unidentified were recorded in the 6 quadrates, i.e., Daramdala, Doki, Guryaal, Samang, Shahoor and Sia-Sheringal of Sheringal. The largest family was Lycosidae (wolf spiders with respect to size and numbers of specimens collected (n=20, which contained Arctosa littorali Simon, 1897; Hippasa partita Takidar, 1970; Pardosa distincta Backwall, 1867, while the smallest family was Gnphosidae (ground spiders (n=3 with Gnaphosa eucalyptus Ghafoor and Beg, 2002; while other families Sparassidae (huntsman spiders (n=19 Halconia insignis Thorell, 1836, and Isopeda tuhogniga Barrion and Litsinger, 1995, Opilionidae (harvestmen spiders (n=12 Hadrobunus grandis Sundevall, 1833; Pholcidae (cellar spider (n=10 have Crossopriza lyoni Blackwall, 1867; Hersiliidae (two-tailed spiders (n=6 is having Harsilia savignyi Lucas, 1836; (n=5 with Araneus diadematus Clerck, 1757 were recorded. It was concluded that 50% of the spiders collected from the study area were venomous. A detail study is required for further exploration of spider fauna of Sheringal, KP, Pakistan with special reference to their taxonomical, physiological and ecological characteristics.

  9. Environmental laws in Pakistan with case la w analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    Laws of Nature should be respected in the interest of the human race. It is very hard to go against them. Doing so will only result in the subsequent devastation of this earth and its inhabitants. The literal meaning of environment is 'life around us in which we all exist'. The word environment caught world attention after various protest and demonstrations by environmentalists' during the early 70s. Issues like Deforestation, Industrialization and Pollution in the urban cities of Pakistan are constantly increasing and are affecting the quality of life significantly. Increasing drudgeries regarding environmental issues have forced governing bodies and jurists to take some pragmatic action in the form of environmental laws. The legislature, executive and judiciary of Pakistan have yet not adequately and effectively realized this hard fact. It is also aggravating that the courts of law are reluctant to take a stand on this hard-core issue of environmental protection and preservation. The era from 1983 to 1997 appears to be the period of heightened environmental awareness in Pakistan. The very first Environmental Protection Ordinance 1983 was promulgated in this period, which laid the foundation stone of a new environmental legal system for Pakistan. A campaign started which worked hard for the enactment of Environmental Protection Act, 1997. This Act is not the last step but the best prevailing and available remedy for environment control in Pakistan. This research paper aims to analyze the development of environmental laws in Pakistan, important environmental statutes enacted in Pakistan, implementation and enforcement mechanisms contained in the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act, 1997, environmental treaties effective for Pakistan, public interest litigation, judicial activism, conclusions and suggestions. Specific emphasis will be on case law and the interpretation of environmental issues by the Pakistani Courts. In the end the repercussions of environment

  10. Heavy metals pollution in the eastern part of Peshawar metropolis, north Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamidullah, S.; Saifullah; Shah, M.T.

    1997-01-01

    Heavy metals are considered one of the harmful substances threatening the environment in the modern industrialised world. Peshawar city, the capital of NWFP, is one of the metropolises of Pakistan, facing a tremendous environmental chaos due to pollution from extensive vehicular examinations and small and large industrial installation in the city. Heavy metal including Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn, Fe an Pb have dangerously polluted the atmosphere and sewerage system of Peshawar city and its suburbs. Both stationary and mobile sources can be named as responsible for this pollution. Traffic mobility is considered as playing a major role in keeping the metals constantly in air is a better sorting agent than water. The mobility path of these heavy metals from ground surface thorough sewerage system, to Shahalam river has been traced. (author)

  11. Export boost of Textile Industry of Pakistan by availing EU’s GSP Plus

    OpenAIRE

    Wagan, Shah Mehmood

    2015-01-01

    Pakistan is commonly known as agriculture based economy where vast areas of cultivated lands are producing cotton. This enabled to establish and flourish textile industries in Pakistan, therefore Pakistan is vital part of cheap and quality based textile products exporting country. Recently Pakistan is granted European Union's Generalised Scheme of Preferences (GSP) Plus status as a year from January 2014 by European Union because of that Pakistan's Textile exports surged to $14.22 billion in ...

  12. Stressors affecting nursing students in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, R; Rehman, S; Ali, P A

    2017-12-01

    To determine factors contributing to stress experienced by preregistration nursing students in Pakistan, using the Stressors in Nursing Students scale. The aim was to explore the psychometric properties of this instrument and to investigate the effect of a range of demographic variables on the perception of stressors in nursing students. Nursing is a stressful profession, and nursing students may experience more stress due to competing demands and challenges of nursing education, assessment, placements and worries about employment prospects. In this cross-sectional survey, data from 726 nursing students from 11 schools of nursing in Karachi, Pakistan, were collected using a questionnaire. Data were analysed using descriptive as well inferential statistics. An exploratory factor analysis was also conducted. There was no apparent factor structure to the Stressors in Nursing Students scale, unlike in previous studies. The total score on the Stressors in Nursing Students scale was related to gender with males scoring higher. The score generally increased over 4 years of the programme, and students in private schools of nursing scored higher than those in public schools of nursing. Nursing students in Pakistan do not appear to differentiate between different stressors, and this may be due to cultural differences in the students and to the structure of the programme and the articulation between the academic and clinical aspects. Likewise, cultural reasons may account for differences between stress experienced by male and female students. The fact that scores on the Stressors in Nursing Students scale increased over 4 years of the programme and males scored higher than females should alert nursing schools and policymakers related to nursing education and workforce to pay attention to prevent attrition from nursing programmes. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.

  13. Wind energy potential in Peshawar, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasir, S.M.; Raza, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    Hourly wind data at Peshawar airport, received from the Headquarters, Pakistan Air Force, has been used to determine the diurnal variations, speed duration and speed frequency curves. The applicability of Weibull distribution is then tested over probability density function, which shows that weibull distribution fits the wind data satisfactorily and with a good precision, provided the observations of calm spells are omitted. Our analysis shows that monthly mean wind speed and wind power varies from 0.6 to 2.0 m/s and 0.2 to 4.0 wm-2, respectively, giving fair prospects for wind owe applications over the summer months. (author)

  14. Pollen Flora of Pakistan-LXV, berberidaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perveen, A.

    2010-01-01

    Pollen morphology of 12 species representing 2 genera of the family Berberidaceae from Pakistan has been examined by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains usually radially symmetrical, iso polar or apolar, spheroidal or sub-prolate, spiroaperturate rarely colpate (3- more), sexine thicker than nexine. Tectal surface mostly foveolate-fossulate or sub-psilate, often rugulate - reticulate. On the basis of apertutal types and exine ornamentation four distinct pollen types are recognized, viz., Berberis calliobotrys-type, Berberis jaeschkeana-type, Berberis kunawurensis-type and Epimedium elatum-type. (author)

  15. Status and outlook of solar energy use in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, U.K.

    2003-01-01

    Pakistan is an energy deficient country, where a large fraction of the population still does not have access to modern day energy services such as electricity. This is due to very limited fossil fuel resources and poor economy, which restrains the import of fossil fuels on a large scale. To overcome energy shortage, Pakistan needs to develop its indigenous energy resources like hydropower, solar and wind. Pakistan lies in an area of one of the highest solar insolation in the world. This vast potential can be exploited to produce electricity, which could be provided to off-grid communities in the northern hilly area and the southern and western deserts. Applications other than electricity production such as solar water heaters and solar cookers also have vast applications. All this will help in both reducing the import of fossil fuels and dependency of people on fuel wood, which in turn will provide some respite for the dwindling forest reserves of Pakistan. Accordingly, the status and outlook of solar energy use in Pakistan is discussed in this paper. In addition, the role of R and D organizations in the promotion of solar energy technologies in Pakistan is also presented including a description of some proposed projects. It is concluded that the current infrastructure has not been able to advance the status of solar energy of Pakistan. Significant efforts are needed to effectively utilize this cheap renewable energy source. (author)

  16. Study on climate control of dwellings using underground air tunnel in the cold region. Part 1. Cooling performance of the underground air tunnel connected to a small-scaled test house; Kanreichi ni okeru chika air tunnel ni yoru junetsukankyo kaizen ni kansuru kenkyu. 1. Shokibo shiken kaoku ni okeru kaki no ryobo seino hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miki, Y; Sanji, H; Ito, J; Komoda, T; Mitsuoka, K; Mogami, S [Kitami Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Underground air tunnel is provided for cooling an experimentally built small house and the cooling performance is examined at Kitami Institute of Technology, Hokkaido. The house is provided with 120mm-thick layers of insulating material under the floor and inside the side walls and partitioning walls. The windows are equipped with blinds, with reed screens positioned outside to cover the windows. The air tunnel is a hard vinyl chloride tube, 200mm in internal diameter. It is buried 4.5m deep in the ground, and extends as long as 27m. A filter-provided 72W blower installed at the tunnel outlet is driven to force air through. As for the natural soil temperature in summer, it is found variable between 7.2 and 8.5degC. As the result of the experiment, it is found that thanks to the underground tunnel the room temperature is kept below 27degC even when the maximum temperature in the daytime is 30degC or higher provided the air flow is appropriately regulated. In this experiment, the maximum rate of instantaneously removed heat is approximately 2.5 times higher than the values in other previously reported experiments. The daily coefficient of performance is 6.5-11.1, again higher than the previously reported values. Different from application in warm regions, the effect of rise in the surrounding soil temperature on the cooling performance is not so conspicuous. 3 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Credit where credit is due: Pakistan?s role in reducing the global burden of reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH)

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaffar, Abdul; Qazi, Shamim; Shah, Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Factors contributing to Pakistan?s poor progress in reducing reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH) include its low level of female literacy, gender inequity, political challenges, and extremism along with its associated relentless violence; further, less than 1% of Pakistan?s GDP is allocated to the health sector. However, despite these disadvantages, Pakistani researchers have been able to achieve positive contributions towards RMNCH-related global knowledge and evidence ...

  18. Kyoto protocol and its implementation in pakistan: hurdles and expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, S.; Sher, H.A.; Qureshi, S.A

    2010-01-01

    In 1997 Kyoto protocol was adopted at the third session of Conference of the parties of UNFCC in Kyoto, Japan. This protocol restricts the industrialized countries and those in transition to a market economy agreed to limit or reduce their emissions. In Pakistan the government is also taking steps to reduce the pollution. This paper discusses the possible low carbon emitting electricity generation options by keeping in view the current energy scenario of Pakistan and the new energy policy announced by the Government of Pakistan for renewable energy promotion. (author)

  19. Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty: options before nuclear Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattanaik, Smruti S.

    1998-01-01

    The post-nuclear period has rendered Pakistan's strategic calculations more vulnerable. The decision to go nuclear after seventeen days of debate have started proving costly to Pakistan. This is revealed by the economic crisis resulting out of the foreign currency shortage, leading the country to default on the payment of debts. The pressure imposed by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank and their patrons to sign the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) have exposed Pakistan's economic vulnerability. Under this growing pressure, many have started questioning the decision to go nuclear

  20. EARLIEST TRIASSIC CONODONTS FROM CHITRAL, NORTHERNMOST PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA CRISTINA PERRI

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Extensive tracts of very shallow water carbonates in the valleys of the Yarkhun and Mastuj rivers of Chitral (northernmost Pakistan previously though to be Permian (or Cretaceous are shown by conodonts from two horizons in sequences 110 km apart—near Torman Gol (Mastuj valley and near Sakirmul (upper Yarkhun valley—to include earliest Triassic (Scythian—Induan horizons. Both faunas have Isarcicella staeschei Dai & Zhang, Is. lobata Perri, Is. turgida (Kozur et al. and Hindeodus parvus (Kozur & Pjatakova, whereas Is. Isarcica (Huckriede has been recognised only in the Torman Gol occurrence. The presence, respectively, of Is. staeschei in the Sakirmul and Is. isarcica in the Torman Gol occurrences, allows discrimination of the staeschei and isarcica zones respectively the third and the fourth conodont biozones of the Early Triassic conodont biozonation of Perri (in Perri & Farabegoli 2003. Such faunas, consisting mainly of isarcicellids and hindeodids but lacking gondolellids, are characteristic of restricted sea environments across the Permian–Triassic boundary and in the earliest Triassic in other Tethyan areas. The conodont faunas from these two occurrences are remarkably similar, nearly contemporaneous, and indicate shallow water biofacies. They are inferred to equate with the Ailak Dolomite, a sequence of Late Permian–?Late Triassic dolostones discriminated farther up the Yarkhun valley and extending eastwards into the upper Hunza region of northernmost Pakistan. The Zait Limestone and Sakirmul carbonate sequence are consistent with extension of the previously inferred Triassic carbonate platform at least 110 km farther to the SW than previously supposed.

  1. Terrorism in Pakistan: a behavioral sciences perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizami, Asad Tamizuddin; Rana, Mowadat Hussain; Hassan, Tariq Mahmood; Minhas, Fareed Aslam

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the behavioral science perspectives of terrorism in Pakistan. It can be argued that Pakistan has gained worldwide attention for "terrorism" and its role in the "war against terrorism". The region is well placed geopolitically for economic successes but has been plagued by terrorism in various shapes and forms. A behavioral sciences perspective of terrorism is an attempt to explain it in this part of the world as a complex interplay of historical, geopolitical, anthropological and psychosocial factors and forces. Drawing from theories by Western scholars to explain the behavioral and cognitive underpinnings of a terrorist mind, the authors highlight the peculiarities of similar operatives at individual and group levels. Thorny issues related to the ethical and human right dimensions of the topic are visited from the unique perspective of a society challenged by schisms and divergence of opinions at individual, family, and community levels. The authors have attempted to minimize the political descriptions, although this cannot be avoided entirely, because of the nature of terrorism. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Root cause of waterborne diseases in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashml, H.N.; Ghumman, A.R.; Malik, N.E.

    2005-01-01

    The waterborne diseases are increasing rapidly at an alarming rate in Pakistan due to poor sanitation and unsafe drinking water supplies. This study shows that about 25 percent of all the illnesses in Lahore are due to severe cases of waterborne diseases. Unhygienic sanitation system is the root cause for this scenario. Drinking water, samples were collected from different zones of the city to find out the root cause of waterborne diseases. The samples from the distribution system serving 'Kachi Abbadies' (Underdeveloped areas) were much more contaminated, may be due to non-chlorination as compared to the water which is regularly chlorinated in posh areas of the city. Contribution of soakage pits in groundwater contamination is more significant at shallow depths. From the laboratory results it is clear that water distribution in underdeveloped areas of the city is highly contaminated and ground water available at shallow depth is also infected by microbial activities. Data collected from the different hospitals to investigate the problem shows that waterborne diseases vary their trend seasonally. Here in Pakistan, rainy season (July-August) reveals maximum number of cases of waterborne diseases. Proper sanitation and water supply systems are more essential to control the influence of waterborne diseases within the country. It is strongly recommended that reputable ways of communications are urgently required to highlight the diseases related to unsafe drinking water. (author)

  3. NKM Perspectives of Nuclear Education in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, R.; Jaffar, G.; Haq, S. M. Z.; Khosa, S. U.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), Karachi Institute of Power Engineering (KINPOE) and CHASNUPP Centre for Nuclear Training (CHASCENT) are the main institutes providing for the nuclear skilled man power demands of the country’s nuclear technology program. The PIEAS is a public sector university and offers M.Sc. and Ph.D. programmes in nuclear science and technology. The CHASCENT is the training institute which focuses on the training programmes for nuclear power, while the KINPOE offers Master programme in nuclear power engineering, post graduate training programme (PGTP) and Post Diploma Training Program (PDTP) related to nuclear power engineering and technology. The nuclear education programmes and other relevant NKM activities at PIEAS, KINPOE and CHASCENT play a key role in the information management, human resource and competence management. This paper presents the NKM perspective of nuclear education in Pakistan, its continuation and enhancement for the expanding nuclear power programme to meet the country’s energy demands. (author

  4. The Debt Overhang Hypothesis: Evidence from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Muhammad Imran

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the debt overhang hypothesis for Pakistan in the period 1960-2007. The study examines empirically the dynamic behaviour of GDP, debt services, the employed labour force and investment using the time series concepts of unit roots, cointegration, error correlation and causality. Our findings suggest that debt-servicing has a negative impact on the productivity of both labour and capital, and that in turn has adversely affected economic growth. By severely constraining the ability of the country to service debt, this lends support to the debt-overhang hypothesis in Pakistan. The long run relation between debt services and economic growth implies that future increases in output will drain away in form of high debt service payments to lender country as external debt acts like a tax on output. More specifically, foreign creditors will benefit more from the rise in productivity than will domestic producers and labour. This suggests that domestic labour and capital are the ultimate losers from this heavy debt burden.

  5. Pakistan's nuclear programme: a net assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tertrais, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Pakistan may have about 100 nuclear weapons and about 200 ballistic missiles (partly for conventional use) and shows all signs of expanding its nuclear force. In the past decade, a robust set of institutions and procedures has been put into place, aimed at preventing the unauthorized use, theft or sale of nuclear weapons, materials, or technology. There is no doubt that the Pakistan military has been taking nuclear security very seriously - first and foremost because it is in its own interest - and does that in a very professional way. This analysis argues that the main risks today are not those of 'weapons falling into the wrong hands' and even less an 'Islamist takeover of the country'. They are risks of deliberate use and perhaps partial loss of control of the nuclear complex in wartime; and low-level leaks of expertise or materials, or a radiological incident in peace time. On the longer run, a weakening of State authority over the territory and a failure of governance, or of a radicalization of current policies towards the West, should not be discounted. (author)

  6. Priorities for toxic wastewater management in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, A. [Sustainable Development Policy Institute, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    1996-12-31

    This study assesses the number of industries in Pakistan, the total discharge of wastewater, the biological oxygen demand (BOD) load, and the toxicity of the wastewater. The industrial sector is a major contributor to water pollution, with high levels of BOD, heavy metals, and toxic compounds. Only 30 industries have installed water pollution control equipment, and most are working at a very low operational level. Priority industrial sectors for pollution control are medium- to large-scale textile industries and small-scale tanneries and electroplating industries. Each day the textile industries discharge about 85,000 m{sup 3} of wastewater with a high BOD, while the electroplating industries discharge about 23,000 m{sup 3} of highly toxic and hazardous wastewater. Various in-plant modifications can reduce wastewater discharges. Economic incentives, like tax rebates, subsidies, and soft loans, could be an option for motivating medium- to large-scale industries to control water pollution. Central treatment plants may be constructed for treating wastewater generated by small-scale industries. The estimated costs for the treatment of textile and electroplating wastewater are given. The legislative structure in Pakistan is insufficient for control of industrial pollution; not only do existing laws need revision, but more laws and regulations are needed to improve the state of affairs, and enforcement agencies need to be strengthened. 15 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

  7. Commercialization of irradiated foods in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.

    2001-01-01

    Preservation of food by gamma radiation is technically feasible and economically viable under conditions existing in Pakistan. To educate the consumers, programme for dissemination of information regarding food irradiation was implemented to educate the consumers. Test marketing of irradiated products was carried out for 5-6 years and more than 8 tons of irradiated vegetables were sold to consumers who were briefed about the advantages of radiation technology. A number of condiments including pepper and chillies were irradiated on a large scale (more than 10 tons) at the Pakistan Radiation Service (PARAS) during the years 1996-1998. Comprehensive Harmonised food irradiation regulations, covering all foods in seven classes, were approved in 1996. The charges for irradiating various food commodities ranged from US$19.71/ton potatoes (0.10 kGy) to US$38.32/ton for spices (10.0 kGy). Once the techno-economic feasibility is demonstrated, huge post-harvest losses of different food commodities can be avoided. This will make the country not only self-sufficient in food, but with enough surplus for export. (author)

  8. Political determinants of Health: Lessons for Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooma, Rashid; Sabatinelli, Guido

    2014-05-01

    There is much concern about the capacity of the health system of Pakistan to meet its goals and obligations. Historically, the political thrust has been absent from the health policy formulation and this is reflected in the low and stagnant public allocations to health. Successive political leaderships have averred from considering healthcare is a common good rather than a market commodity and health has not been recognized as a constitutional right. Over 120 of world's nation states have accepted health as a constitutional right but the 1973 Constitution of Pakistan does not mandate health or education as a fundamental right and the recently adopted 18th constitutional amendment missed the opportunity to extend access to primary health care as an obligation of the State. It is argued in this communication that missing from the calculations of policy formulation and agenda setting is the political benefits of providing health and other social services to underserved populations. Across the developing world, many examples are presented of governments undertaking progressive health reforms that bring services where none existed and subsequently reaping electoral benefit. The political determinant of healthcare will be realized when the political leaders of poorly performing countries can be convinced that embracing distributive policies and successfully bringing healthcare to the poor can be major factors in their re-elections.

  9. Health risk assessment from contaminated foodstuffs: a field study in chromite mining-affected areas northern Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawab, Javed; Li, Gang; Khan, Sardar; Sher, Hassan; Aamir, Muhammad; Shamshad, Isha; Khan, Anwarzeb; Khan, Muhammad Amjad

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the potential health risk associated with toxic metals in contaminated foodstuffs (fruits, vegetables, and cereals) collected from various agriculture fields present in chromite mining-affected areas of mafic and ultramafic terrains (northern Pakistan). The concentrations of Cr, Ni, Zn, Cd, and Pb were quantified in both soil and food samples. The soil samples were highly contaminated with Cr (320 mg/kg), Ni (108 mg/kg), and Cd (2.55 mg/kg), which exceeded their respective safe limits set by FAO/WHO. Heavy metal concentrations in soil were found in the order of Cr>Ni>Pb>Zn>Cd and showed significantly (p pollution load index (PLI) value was observed greater than three indicating high level of contamination in the study area. The concentrations of Cr (1.80-6.99 mg/kg) and Cd (0.21-0.90 mg/kg) in foodstuffs exceeded their safe limits, while Zn, Pb, and Ni concentrations were observed within their safe limits. In all foodstuffs, the selected heavy metal concentrations were accumulated significantly (p 1 for children and can pose potential health threats for local inhabitants. Graphical Abstract Heavy metals released from chromite mining lead to soil and foodstuff contamination and human health risk.

  10. Measuring and Bridging the Gender Digital Divide in Rural Pakistan ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Measuring and Bridging the Gender Digital Divide in Rural Pakistan ... to critically examining the gender-specific aspects of ICT use and its impact on development in ... In partnership with UNESCO's Organization for Women in Science for the ...

  11. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Nighat Jahan

    2016-11-01

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) has significantly reduced the worldwide incidence of poliomyelitis. However, polio remains endemic in Pakistan which poses a threat to the success of the GPEI. Issues faced by Pakistan relate to politics, terrorism, war, natural disasters, funding constraints, misconceptions and inadequate infrastructure. These contribute in hampering the aims of the GPEI and allow the deadly poliovirus to maintain its reservoir in Pakistan. Until polio is completely eradicated, all countries remain at risk of its re-emergence and this is of grave concern as potentially it could reverse the polio-free certified status of a whole World Health Organisation (WHO) region. With the increase in global travel and international migration, even the smallest potential risk should not be taken lightly. Recommendations are made to help to improve the state of polio in Pakistan to make full use of the GPEI investment and move towards a polio-free world.

  12. Gender, vulnerability, and violence in urban Pakistan | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-09-30

    Sep 30, 2016 ... SERIES: IMPACT STORIES | SAFE AND INCLUSIVE CITIES ... and violence in urban Pakistan (PDF, 198KB) and about the Safe and Inclusive Cities initiative. ... Economic growth is driving population growth in Indian cities, ...

  13. All projects related to pakistan | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... (the system that transfers financial resources from one level of government to ... TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Social Policy and Development Centre (SPDC) ... the Effect of Skills Training on Women's Economic Opportunities in Pakistan.

  14. Child Labor in Pakistan: A Study of the Lahore Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mian Aftab

    1991-01-01

    Child labor is exceptionally extensive in Pakistan. An interview survey in the Lahore area documented the magnitude, causes, and effects of child labor. Steps for fighting this problem are recommended. (BC)

  15. Climate Change Adaptation, Water, and Food Security in Pakistan ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Climate Change Adaptation, Water, and Food Security in Pakistan ... those living in the Indus floodplains or on the edges of its deserts - received little attention. ... farmers' decision-making in water stressed regions, and the wider political and ...

  16. All projects related to Pakistan | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In both India and Pakistan, recent policy changes in the fiscal transfer system (the ... the Social Policy and Development Centre's (SPDC) role as a credible public ... How can populations become resilient to climate change while pursuing ...

  17. Leader Development Process in Pakistan Army at the Tactical Level

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nawaz, Amer

    2004-01-01

    .... up to a maximum of seven years of service. It analyzes the present leader development process of Pakistan Army to see its effectiveness to train leaders at the tactical level to perform effectively in future...

  18. All projects related to Pakistan | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... Far East Asia, South Asia, Laos, Malaysia, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Japan ... South Asian Network for Development and Environmental Economics ... Environmental Degradation, Social Marginalization and the Dynamics of ...

  19. All projects related to Pakistan | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Bringing Women's Voices into the Mainstream: A Media Research Fellowship on ... Pakistan, with the world's sixth largest population, is part of a region that is notorious for its social and gender inequities. ... Program: Maternal and Child Health.

  20. Gender and violence in urban Pakistan | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... and media might change and reduce violence in urban Pakistan; and, ... to detail social capital (collective benefits) and violent spaces in communities. ... seeks to identify the most effective strategies for addressing these challenges in Latin ...

  1. Going Tactical: Pakistan's Nuclear Posture and Implications for Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Feroz Hassan

    2015-09-01

    For decades, the Asian security environment has been characterized by multiple strategic rivalries with cascading effects. Due to its competition with China, India modernizes its armed forces, thus reinforcing its conventional advantage over Pakistan. In the subcontinent, geography, military imbalance, the legacy of past conflicts and infiltration of extremist groups considerably weaken strategic stability. To strengthen its deterrent capability against its stronger neighbour, Pakistan faces significant challenges in developing a conventional response to perceived threats from India. Islamabad thus committed to a 'full spectrum' build-up of its nuclear forces, which includes the development of tactical nuclear weapons. As Cold War experience informs, far from simply strengthening its deterrent vis-a-vis India, this move poses numerous operational dilemmas for Pakistan. The ongoing regional quantitative and qualitative arms race combines with continued political tensions between India and Pakistan to create a worrying strategic dynamic in South Asia. (author)

  2. U.S. Provides Support During Pakistan Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Relief Continues in Pakistan U.S. Helicopters, Cargo Planes Continue Aid U.S., Pakistani Forces History Frequently Asked Questions Available jobs with DOD Top Issues Targeted Operations Against ISIL

  3. An AOGCM based assessment of interseasonal variability in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmat, U.; Athar, H.; Nabeel, A.; Latif, M.

    2018-01-01

    The interseasonal variability of two basic climatic parameters (precipitation and temperature) is assessed, over vulnerable and data sparse region of Pakistan (23° to 37°N and 60° to 75°E), for two Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 3 (CMIP3) based Atmospheric-Oceanic General Circulation Model (AOGCM) versions: CM2.0 and CM2.1 by Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL), and two CMIP5 based AOGCM versions: CM2p1 and CM3.0. A recent historical 50-year period (1951-2000) is analyzed and compared with APHRODITE for precipitation and National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) re-analysis based gridded datasets for temperature for the following four seasons: DJF, MAM, JJA, and SON. The study area is divided into three regions: all Pakistan, northern Pakistan, and southern Pakistan. The interseasonal variability of the precipitation and the temperature are derived from all three (five) runs of CM2.0 (CM2.1) and from all ten (five) runs of CM 2p1 (CM3.0). The bias, root mean square error (RMSE), one-sigma standard deviation (SD) and correlation coefficient (CC) are used as assessing metrics. The following individual runs have positive CC with respect to APHRODITE at ≤1% Confidence Level (CL). On seasonal basis for CMIP5 based GFDL models during DJF: CM2p1R5 (for all Pakistan), CM2p1R5 (for northern Pakistan), and during MAM: CM2p1R5 (for southern Pakistan; this run has the lowest centered RMSE of 0.11 mm/day), whereas on annual basis: CM3.0R3 (for all Pakistan). However, out of these four runs, only CM2p1 (for southern Pakistan) has SD Pakistan has SD Pakistan, in respective seasons. A variance based bias adjustment when applied displays considerable interseasonal bias reduction both in precipitation and temperature in long term mean with no change in trend.

  4. Pattern of demand for children in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, T

    1992-01-01

    The study aim was to determine the pattern of demand for children and to suggest ways to introduce the idea of a small-family norm and reduce the unmet need for contraception in Pakistan. The concept of demand for children included the wantedness of the last birth and the timing of the next birth and changed with stage in reproductive life cycle. Data were obtained from the Pakistan Contraception Prevalence Survey of 1984/85. Pakistan's strong patriarchal system emphasized rapid achievement of first pregnancy in order to assure the perpetuation of the lineage. Female status, even with advanced education, emphasized fecundity and producing a male heir. The birthing pattern among rural and urban lower-class women is to bear 3-4 children early in marriage. Evidence from prior surveys showed that educated women plan for a delay in second birth. Of the 6655 ever pregnant and nonsterilized women, about 48% of currently married women desired discontinuation of childbearing. 18% desired a delay of childbearing by 2 years and 10% desired no more children after a last undesired pregnancy. Unmet need was estimated at 17% of all women in the sample. Women desiring no more children were primarily older with 6-8 prior births. Indirect fertility estimates were generated by using Arriaga's techniques for stages of family formation. The resulting estimates showed that higher-parity women desiring no more children still had 2 more children, which was evidence of unmet need. Those desiring more children had higher fertility than those not desiring more children. These women also showed different patterns in their total demand for children, ideal family size, currently living children, and desire for their next birth. Ideal size tended to rise over the length of a marriage, which may mean that women with growing families may justify unwanted fertility. Duration of marriage was viewed as a reasonable indicator of need for fertility control and the concomitant need for outreach

  5. Remittances, inequality and poverty in Pakistan: macro and microeconomic Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Mazhar Yasin MUGHAL; Amar Iqbal ANWAR

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of remittance incidence on inequality and poverty in Pakistan. Using the 2005-06 and 2007-08 Household Integrated Economic Survey data, we find that remittances substantially lower the poverty headcount, as well as the depth and severity of poverty. Foreign remittances have also a beneficial effect on economic inequality in Pakistan. The contribution of foreign remittances in poverty alleviation and inequality reduction is much stronger than that of internal remi...

  6. Increasing Global Competitiveness: A Case for the Pakistan Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Shamyla Chaudry

    2007-01-01

    The issue of global competitiveness is critical for developing countries. This paper looks at the drivers that influence industrial competitiveness and provides a comparison of these drivers for Pakistan, India and China. The analysis shows that Pakistan lags behind China and India in most of the main components of the industrial competitiveness index. The analysis also presents a series of micro and macro level policy recommendations aimed at increasing Pakistan’s industrial competitiveness.

  7. Impact of Fiscal Variables on Economic Development of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaheer Khan KAKAR

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine the impact of the fiscal variables on economic growth in Pakistan using time series data for the period 1980-2009. Cointegration and error correction techniques are used for this analysis and Granger causality test is used to determine the direction of causality. This study will provide help in determining the importance of fiscal policy for the development of Pakistan.

  8. Tax Revenue, Stock Market and Economic Growth of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Irfan Javaid Attari; Roshaiza Taha; Muhammad Imran Farooq

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of capital market and fiscal policy influences in determining the nexus of economic growth in Pakistan from July 2003 to July 2012. The authors utilize ADF unit root test, Johansen Cointegration test, VECM test, Granger causality test and variance decomposition analysis to test the relationship among tax revenue, stock market and economic growth in Pakistan. Granger causality analysis is used to answer questions whether “Does tax revenue cau...

  9. 136 Tax Revenue, Stock Market and Economic Growth of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Irfan Javaid Attari; Roshaiza Taha; Muhammad Imran Farooq

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of capital market and fiscal policy influences in determining the nexus of economic growth in Pakistan from July 2003 to July 2012. The authors utilize ADF unit root test, Johansen Cointegration test, VECM test, Granger causality test and variance decomposition analysis to test the relationship among tax revenue, stock market and economic growth in Pakistan. Granger causality analysis is used to answer questions whether “Does ...

  10. What Drives Pakistan’s Interest in Afghanistan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    producing a most concerning external security threat to Pakistan and has the propensity to lead to greater regional destabilization or worst case, all out...foundation shaky. The historical autocratic rule associated with Afghanistan and three decades of war have bred a political cynicism between the two...operatives within both nations, further complicating their political-military relationship in Pakistan and Kabul’s trust towards its neighbor. These

  11. Gender Inequality and Trade Liberalization: A Case Study of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Naeem; Hyder, Kalim

    2006-01-01

    The main focus of this study is to explore the impact of trade liberalization on gender inequalities in Pakistan. The overall gender inequality based on three dimensions, including labour market, education and health facilities are analyzed in this paper using data from 1973 to 2005. Exports and imports to GDP ratio, per capita GDP, and number of girls’ school to number of boys’ school ratio are identified as important determinants of overall gender inequality in Pakistan and gender inequalit...

  12. China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC): Challenges and the Way Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Report-30.pdf. 21 2001.105 The agreements included cooperation in tourism , economic, and technical initiatives; a lease on the Saindak gold and...access to cotton, bed linens, agricultural produce, marble, sporting goods, and raw materials from Pakistan and provided Pakistan with access to...will help boost the tourism sector as 185 Nazir, “Macro and Micro Dividends of CPEC.” 186 Esteban

  13. Child health inequalities and its dimensions in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaza, Fowad; Mustafa, Tajammal; Awan, Rabia

    2015-01-01

    Poverty and inequality in health is pervasive in Pakistan. The provisions and conditions of health are very dismal. A significant proportion of the population (16.34%) of Pakistan is under 5 years, but Pakistan is in the bottom 5% of countries in the world in terms of spending on health and education. It is ranked the lowest in the world with sub-Sahara Africa in terms of child health equality. The objective of this study was to examine child health inequalities in Pakistan. We analyzed data from Pakistan Integrated Household Survey/Household Integrated Economic Survey 2001-2002, collected by the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, Government of Pakistan. Coverage of diarrhea and immunization were used as indicators of child health. Stata 11.0 was used for data analysis. Descriptive statistics including frequency distribution and proportions for categorical variables and mean for continuous variables were computed. Children under 5 years of age account for about 16.34% of the total population, 11.76% (2.5 million) of whom suffered from diarrhea in 1-month. The average duration of a diarrheal episode was 7 days. About 72% of the children who had diarrhea lived in a house without pipe-borne water supply. Around 22% children who had diarrhea had no advice or treatment. More than one-third of the households had no toilet in the house, and only 29% of the households were connected with pipe-borne drinking water. About 7.73% (1.6 million) children had never been immunized. The main reason for nonimmunization was parents' lack of knowledge and of immunization. Child health inequalities in Pakistan are linked with several factors such as severe poverty, illiteracy, lack of knowledge, and awareness of child healthcare, singularly inadequate provision of health services, and poor infrastructure.

  14. Child health inequalities and its dimensions in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fowad Murtaza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Poverty and inequality in health is pervasive in Pakistan. The provisions and conditions of health are very dismal. A significant proportion of the population (16.34% of Pakistan is under 5 years, but Pakistan is in the bottom 5% of countries in the world in terms of spending on health and education. It is ranked the lowest in the world with sub-Sahara Africa in terms of child health equality. The objective of this study was to examine child health inequalities in Pakistan. Materials and Methods: We analyzed data from Pakistan Integrated Household Survey/Household Integrated Economic Survey 2001-2002, collected by the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, Government of Pakistan. Coverage of diarrhea and immunization were used as indicators of child health. Stata 11.0 was used for data analysis. Descriptive statistics including frequency distribution and proportions for categorical variables and mean for continuous variables were computed. Results: Children under 5 years of age account for about 16.34% of the total population, 11.76% (2.5 million of whom suffered from diarrhea in 1-month. The average duration of a diarrheal episode was 7 days. About 72% of the children who had diarrhea lived in a house without pipe-borne water supply. Around 22% children who had diarrhea had no advice or treatment. More than one-third of the households had no toilet in the house, and only 29% of the households were connected with pipe-borne drinking water. About 7.73% (1.6 million children had never been immunized. The main reason for nonimmunization was parents′ lack of knowledge and of immunization. Conclusion: Child health inequalities in Pakistan are linked with several factors such as severe poverty, illiteracy, lack of knowledge, and awareness of child healthcare, singularly inadequate provision of health services, and poor infrastructure.

  15. Yesterday's, today's and tomorrow's nuclear tests of India and Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, M.; Le Guelte, G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the historical aspects that led India and Pakistan to develop nuclear weapons and to perform nuclear weapon tests: weapons acquisition: today's military capacity, help from foreign countries; motivations: nuclear programs, geo-political aspects; results and potentialities; consequences for the non-proliferation systems and for the cut-off convention and test-ban treaties; and the geo-strategic consequences of todays's military nuclear capacity of India and Pakistan. (J.S.)

  16. Renewable energy resources in Pakistan: status, potential and information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides some details regarding the characteristic properties, potential and assessment of renewable energy compared with other forms of energy sources. It gives status of renewable energy sources in Pakistan. It also lights about the agencies providing technical information regarding renewable energy in Pakistan as well as suggestions and recommendations for the development of these resources, and over view the present status of renewable energy sources. (author)

  17. Spectrum of perforation peritonitis in Pakistan: 300 cases Eastern experience

    OpenAIRE

    Ur-Rahman Shafiq; Malik Faiza; Afridi Shahida; Shamim Shahid; Samo Khursheed A

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Perforation peritonitis is the most common surgical emergency encountered by the surgeons all over the world as well in Pakistan. The spectrum of etiology of perforation peritonitis in tropical countries continues to differ from its western counter part. This study was conducted at Dow University of health sciences and Civil Hospital Karachi (DUHS & CHK) Pakistan, designed to highlight the spectrum of perforation peritonitis in the East and to improve its outcome. Methods ...

  18. An Analysis of Multi-dimensional Gender Inequality in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Hamid; Aisha M. Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Women make almost half of the population of Pakistan. They also contribute significantly to economic and social growth. However, in developing countries like Pakistan, women usually suffer from multidimensional inequality of opportunities leading to multidimensional poverty. The dimensions of family, women identity, health, education and women access to economic resources and employment contribute significantly to the discrimination of women. The provision of more opportunities to women in th...

  19. Fertility Decline in Pakistan 1980-2006 : A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    Pakistan was selected as a case study because of its estimated 40 percent decline in fertility between 1980 and 2006. Pakistan's high fertility rate began to decline gradually after the late 1980s and has continued to fall since then, though progress has been uneven and there have been signs of a slowdown in recent years. Unlike the other four case study countries (Algeria, Botswana, Iran,...

  20. Modelling Exchange Rate Volatility by Macroeconomic Fundamentals in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Munazza Jabeen; Saud Ahmad Khan

    2014-01-01

    What drives volatility in foreign exchange market in Pakistan? This paper undertakes an analysis of modelling exchange rate volatility in Pakistan by potential macroeconomic fundamentals well-known in the economic literature. For this, monthly data on Pak Rupee exchange rates in the terms of major currencies (US Dollar, British Pound, Canadian Dollar and Japanese Yen) and macroeconomics fundamentals is taken from April, 1982 to November, 2011. The results show thatthe PKR-USD exchange rate vo...

  1. Analysis of misoprostol and chlorhexidine policy gains in Pakistan: the advocacy experience of Mercy Corps Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Zahida; Cutherell, Andrea; Noor, Arif; Naureen, Farah; Norman, Jennifer

    2015-11-25

    While Pakistan has made progress toward achieving Millennium Development Goal 5 for maternal health, it is unlikely to achieve the target; further, it is also not on track for Millennium Development Goal 4 regarding child health. Two low-cost, temperature stable and life-saving drugs, misoprostol and chlorhexidine, can respectively avert maternal and newborn deaths, and are particularly pertinent for poor and marginalized areas which bear the brunt of maternal and newborn deaths in Pakistan. In response, Mercy Corps led focused advocacy efforts to promote changes in policies, protocols, and regulatory environments for misoprostol (2012-2014) and for chlorhexidine (2014). These short-duration advocacy projects facilitated significant policy gains, such as inclusion of misoprostol and chlorhexidine into province-specific essential drug lists, development and endorsement of clinical protocols for the two drugs by provincial health departments, inclusion of misoprostol into pre-service training curriculum for several health cadres, and application for registration of chlorhexidine (at the concentration required for newborn care) by two pharmaceutical companies. These results were achieved by a consultative and evidence-based process which generated feedback from community members, program implementers, and policymakers, and ultimately put the government in the driver's seat to facilitate change. Community Action Dialogue forums were linked with provincial-level Technical Working Groups and Provincial Steering Committees, who passed on endorsed recommendations to the Health Secretary. The key factors which facilitated change were the identification of champions within the provincial health departments, prioritization of relationship building and follow-up, focus on concrete advocacy aims rather than broad objectives, and the use of multi-stakeholder forums to secure an enabling environment for the policy changes to take root. While these advocacy initiatives resulted in

  2. Stem cell research in pakistan; past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahra, Sayeda Anum; Muzavir, Sayed Raheel; Ashraf, Sadia; Ahmad, Aftab

    2015-05-01

    Stem cells have proved to have great therapeutic potential as stem cell treatment is replacing traditional ways of treatment in different disorders like cancer, aplastic anemia, stroke, heart disorders. The developed and developing countries are investing differently in this area of research so research output and clinical translation of research greatly vary among developed and developing countries. Present study was done to investigate the current status of stem cells research in Pakistan and ways to improve it. Many advanced countries (USA, UK and Canada etc.) are investing heavily in stem cell research and treatment. Different developing countries like Iran, Turkey and India are also following the developed countries and investing a lot in stem cells research. Pakistan is also making efforts in establishing this field to get desired benefits but unfortunately the progress is at very low pace. If Government plays an active role along with private sector, stem cell research in Pakistan can be boosted up. The numbers of publications from Pakistan are very less compared to developed and neighboring countries and Pakistan also has very less number of institutes working in this area of research. Stem cells research is at its initial stages in Pakistan and there is great need to bring Government, academia and industry together so they could make serious efforts to promote research in this very important field. This will help millions of patients suffering from incurable disorders and will also reduce economic loss.

  3. Enhancement of safety at nuclear facilities in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.A.; Hayat, T.; Azhar, W.

    2006-01-01

    Pakistan is benefiting from nuclear technology mostly in health and energy sectors as well as agriculture and industry and has an impeccable safety record. At the national level uses of nuclear technology started in 1955 resulting in the operation of Karachi Radioisotope Center, Karachi, in December 1960. Pakistan Nuclear Safety Committee (PNSC) was formulated in 1964 with subsequent promulgation of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) Ordinance in 1965 to cope with the anticipated introduction of a research reactor, namely PARR-I, and a nuclear power plant, namely KANUPP. Since then Pakistan's nuclear program has expanded to include numerous nuclear facilities of varied nature. This program has definite economic and social impacts by producing electricity, treating and diagnosing cancer patients, and introducing better crop varieties. Appropriate radiation protection includes a number of measures including database of sealed radiation sources at PAEC operated nuclear facilities, see Table l, updated during periodic physical verification of these sources, strict adherence to the BSS-115, IAEA recommended enforcement of zoning at research reactors and NPPs, etc. Pakistan is party to several international conventions and treaties, such as Convention of Nuclear Safety and Early Notification, to improve and enhance safety at its nuclear facilities. In addition Pakistan generally and PAEC particularly believes in a blend of prudent regulations and good/best practices. This is described in this paper. (Author)

  4. Assessment of groundwater quality in the coastal area of Sindh province, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Aamir; Khan, Moazzam Ali; Schilling, Janpeter; Shaukat, S Shahid; Shahab, Shoaib

    2016-02-01

    Groundwater is a highly important resource, especially for human consumption and agricultural production. This study offers an assessment of groundwater quality in the coastal areas of Sindh province in Pakistan. Fifty-six samples of groundwater were taken at depths ranging from 30 to 50 m. Bacteriological and physico-chemical analyses were performed using the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. These were supplemented with expert interviews and observations to identify the usage of water and potential sources of pollution. The quality of the groundwater was found to be unsuitable for human consumption, despite being used for this purpose. The concentrations of sulfate and phosphate were well within the tolerance limits. Most critical were the high levels of organic and fecal pollution followed by turbidity and salinity. Metal concentrations (As, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were also determined, and Ni and Pb strongly exceeded health standards. The study stresses the need for significant improvements of the irrigation, sanitation, and sewage infrastructure.

  5. Evaluating Insects as Bioindicators of Heavy Metal Contamination and Accumulation near Industrial Area of Gujrat, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqra Azam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the accumulation and contamination of heavy metals (i.e., Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn in soil, air, and water, few insect species were assayed as ecological indicators. Study area comes under industrial zone of district Gujrat of Punjab, Pakistan. Insects used as bioindicators included a libellulid dragonfly (Crocothemis servilia, an acridid grasshopper (Oxya hyla hyla, and a nymphalid butterfly (Danaus chrysippus near industrial zone of Gujrat. Accumulation of Cd was highest in insect species followed by Cu, Cr, Zn, and Ni at p<0.05. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HACA was carried out to study metal accumulation level in all insects. Correlation and regression analysis confirmed HACA observations and declared concentration of heavy metals above permissible limits. Metal concentrations in insects were significantly higher near industries and nallahs in Gujrat and relatively higher concentrations of metals were found in Orthoptera than Odonata and Lepidoptera. The total metal concentrations in insects were pointed significantly higher at sites S3 (Mid of HalsiNala, S9 (End of HalsiNala, and S1 (Start of HalsiNala, whereas lowest value was detected at site S6 (Kalra Khasa located far from industrial area. HACA indicates that these insect groups are potential indicators of metal contamination and can be used in biomonitoring.

  6. Acidic surface functional groups and mineral elements in Lakra coal (Sindh, Pakistan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, K.; Ishaq, M.; Ahjmad, I.; Shakirullah, M.; Haider, S.

    2010-01-01

    Surface acidity of virgin coal (Lakra Sindh, Pakistan) and variously extracted/leached coal samples with HNO/sub 3/ NaOH, and KMnO/sub 4/, were investigated by aqueous potentiometric titration employing KOH as a titrant. The titration curve of virgin coal showed that its surface might contain carboxylic, carbonyl, phenolic and other weak acidic functional groups such as enols and C-H bond. The titration curves of leached coal samples showed inflections at pH 4-11, being not similar the inflections of carboxylic groups. This inflection might be given by functional groups like CO/sub 2/, phenolic, enols and C-H. Mineral matter such as Fe, K, Zn, Mn and Ni were determined in the ash of coal by atomic absorption spectrophotometer and was found that Fe (3104 micro g/g) in the highest and Ni (36.05 micro g/g) in the lowest quantity is present in virgin coal sample. (author)

  7. Metal accumulation in a potential winter vegetable mustard (Brassica campestris L.) irrigated with different types of waters in Punjab, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Z. I.; Ahmad, K.; Yasmeen, S.; Ashfaq, A.

    2016-01-01

    Considering the harmful effects of metal-enriched vegetables a comprehensive study was conducted to appraise the extent of accumulation of different metals in mustard (Brassica campestris L.). The vegetable was treated with ground water, sewage water and canal water irrigation in areas of Punjab, Pakistan. Metals and metalloids observed in all three sites treated with sewage, canal and ground water were As, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Mo, Se and Zn were observed in the sites treated with ground, sewage and canal waters as well as the vegetable grown therein. The metal concentration observed in water samples was: Fe>Zn >Pb> Ni> Mo> Cu> As> Se, the order in the soil was: As >Pb> Fe > Ni > Mo > Cu > Zn > Se, while the order in the vegetable was: Zn > Fe> Cu> Ni> Mo>Pb> As> Se. The values of bio-concentration factor varied from 0.09-15.47 mg kg-1. Correlation was positively significant for Brassica campestris and soil except Ni and Se which showed positive non significant correlation. Pollution load index was observed to be in the following order: As >Pb> Ni > Mo >Fe > Cu > Se > Zn in the sites GWI, CWI and CWI. Fe and Zn (0.169) showed highest value of daily intake of metal (DIM), while Se (0.003) showed lowest value in crop of all three sites GWI, CWI and CWI. The health risk index and EF ranged from 0.24-69.86 mg day/sup -1/and 0.134-14.12 mg day/sup -1/, respectively. Overall, the vegetable treated with sewage water may have considerable impact on food quality and in turn on the health of people consuming it. (author)

  8. Pollen flora of pakistan-lxxi. rosaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perveen, A.; Qaiser, M.

    2014-01-01

    Pollen morphology of 50 species representing 17 genera of the family Rosaceae i.e., Alchemilla, Argimonia, Cotoneaster, Crataegus, Duchesnea, Fragaria, Eriybotyra, Filipandula, Geum, Malus, Prunus, Potentilla, Pyrus , Rosa, Sibbaldia, Sorbaria and Sorbus has been studied from Pakistan by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains are usually free, radially symmetrical, isopolar, prolate-spheroidal to subprolate or oblate-spheroidal rarely perprolate, tricolporate rarely tricolpate. Tectum mostly coarsely-finely striate, rarely striate-rugulate, scabrate or spinulose often reticulate. Rosaceae is more or less eurypalynous family. Significant variation is found in P/E ratio, shape and exine ornamentation and on the basis of these characters family has been divided into seven pollen types viz., Agrimonia eupatoria-type, Alchemilla ypsilotoma-type, Cotoneaster affinis-type, Fragaria nubicola-type, Geum roylei-type, Malus pumila-type, Potentilla pamirica-type. Pollen data is useful at specific and generic level. (author)

  9. Sustainable water resources management in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, A.H.

    2005-01-01

    Total river discharge in Pakistan in summer season vary from 3 thousand to 34 thousand cusses (100 thousand Cusses to 1,200 thousand Cusses) and can cause tremendous loss to human lives, crops and property, this causes the loss of most of the flood water in the lower Indus plains to the sea. Due to limited capacity of storage at Tarbela and Mangla Dams on river Indus and Jhelum, with virtually no control on Chenab, Ravi and Sutlej, devastating problems are faced between July and October in the event of excessive rainfall in the catchments. Due to enormous amounts of sediments brought in by the feeding rivers, the three major reservoirs -Tarbela, Mangla and Chashma will lose their storage capacity, by 25 % by the end of the year 2010, which will further aggravate the water-availability situation in Pakistan. The quality of water is also deteriorating due to urbanization and industrialization and agricultural developments. On the Environmental Front the main problems are water-logging and salinity, salt-imbalance, and increasing pollution of water-bodies. World's largest and most integrated system of irrigation was installed almost a hundred years ago and now its efficiency has been reduced to such an extent that more than 50 per cent of the irrigation-water is lost in transit and during application. On the other side, there are still not fully exploited water resources for example groundwater, the alluvial plains of Pakistan are blessed with extensive unconfined aquifer, with a potential of over 50 MAF, which is being exploited to an extent of about 38 MAF by over 562,000 private and 10,000 public tube-wells. In case of Balochistan, out of a total available potential of about 0.9 MAF of groundwater, over 0.5 MAF are already being utilized, but there by leaving a balance of about 0.4 MAF that can still be utilized. Future water resources management strategies should includes starting a mass-awareness campaign on a marshal scale in rural and urban areas to apply water

  10. Management of drinking water quality in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Drinking water quality in both urban and rural areas of Pakistan is not being managed properly. Results of various investigations provide evidence that most of the drinking water supplies are faecally contaminated. At places groundwater quality is deteriorating due to the naturally occurring subsoil contaminants, or by anthropogenic activities. The poor bacteriological quality of drinking water has frequently resulted in high incidence of water borne diseases while subsoil contaminants have caused other ailments to consumers. This paper presents a detailed review of drinking water quality in the country and the consequent health impacts. It identifies various factors contributing to poor water quality and proposes key actions required to ensure safe drinking water supplies to consumers. (author)

  11. Stability of Money Demand Function in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon Sarwar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The role, which money demand function plays in monetary policy formulation has attracted a lot of research studies to analyze this macroeconomic phenomenon. In the wake of current global and local economic and political upheavals, it is imperative to revisit the stability of money demand function. The study used the time series data and applied latest econometric techniques to find out the long run and short run money demand relationship. Moreover, all the three official monetary aggregates were used for finding out the most stable monetary demand relationship, which could provide correct signals for monetary policy formulation. The study found that broader monetary aggregate (M2 was the proper aggregate, which provided stable money demand function for Pakistan. The real GDP was positively related to the demand for real balances, while opportunity cost of money was negatively related. The study found that the role of financial innovation, in explaining the demand for money warrants attention in formulating monetary policy.

  12. Environmental impact of climate change in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.; Raja, I.A.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change results in the increase or decrease in temperature and rainfall. These have significant impact on environment - impinge agricultural crop yields, affect human health, cause changes to forests and other ecosystems, and even impact our energy supply. Climate change is a global phenomenon and its impact can be observed on Pakistan's economy and environment. This paper contains details concerning the climate change and environmental impacts. It takes into account current and projected key vulnerabilities, prospects for adaptation, and the relationships between climate change mitigation and environment. The purpose of the study is to devise national policies and incentive systems combined with national level capacity-building programs to encourage demand-oriented conservation technologies. Recommendations are also made to abate the climate change related issues in country. (author)

  13. Barcoding of fresh water fishes from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Asma; Iqbal, Asad; Akhtar, Rehan; Rizwan, Muhammad; Amar, Ali; Qamar, Usman; Jahan, Shah

    2016-07-01

    DNA bar-coding is a taxonomic method that uses small genetic markers in organisms' mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA) for identification of particular species. It uses sequence diversity in a 658-base pair fragment near the 5' end of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene as a tool for species identification. DNA barcoding is more accurate and reliable method as compared with the morphological identification. It is equally useful in juveniles as well as adult stages of fishes. The present study was conducted to identify three farm fish species of Pakistan (Cyprinus carpio, Cirrhinus mrigala, and Ctenopharyngodon idella) genetically. All of them belonged to family cyprinidae. CO1 gene was amplified. PCR products were sequenced and analyzed by bioinformatic software. Conspecific, congenric, and confamilial k2P nucleotide divergence was estimated. From these findings, it was concluded that the gene sequence, CO1, may serve as milestone for the identification of related species at molecular level.

  14. Pakistan prevalence survey in acute pharyngitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathi, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the prevalence of Group A beta haemolytic Streptococcus in patients with acute pharyngitis and correlation of Modified Centor Score and Rapid Antigen Detection Test. Methods: The multi-centre, prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted in 8 major cities of Pakistan between June 2012 and February 2013, and comprised patients presenting with acute pharyngitis. The subjects were above 3 years of age presenting to primary care physician with sore throat, temperature over 100.4 (degree) F, tonsillar exudates and/or cervical adenopathy (duration of symptoms 4. Conclusion: The prevalence of Group A beta haemolytic Streptococcus as a cause of acute pharyngitis was 25.3%. Modified Centor Score had a strong positive correlation with Rapid Antigen Detection Test in identifying Group A beta haemolytic Streptococcus as a cause of acute pharyngitis. (author)

  15. Trends in complete denture impressions in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vohra, F.; Rashid, H.; Hanif, A.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple materials and techniques have been reported for complete denture impressions in literature. The aim of the study was to assess the trends in complete denture impression materials and techniques among general dental practitioners (GDP) and specialists (SP) in Pakistan. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, self-designed-structured questionnaires were distributed among 500 dentists in Pakistan. The three-part questionnaire enquired about the demographic features, preferred impression materials, impression techniques and related procedures commonly used in their clinical practice. A comparison between the responses of SP and GDP was also drawn. Frequency distribution and Chi-square test were performed to compare the responses. Results: A total of 294 questionnaires were completed at a response rate of 58.8%. 75% of GDP used alginate for primary impressions and 66% of SP preferred impression compound for the same. A majority of both SP and GDP favoured the used of custom trays (SP 81%, GDP 85%) and selective pressure technique (SP 84%, GDP 53%) for final impression. However, 85% of GDP used zinc-oxide eugenol and 62% of SP favoured elastomeric materials for the same. Most of the SP and GDP used chemical cured resin custom trays (SP 54%, GDP 75%), however, 86% of SP used spaced trays and almost 60% of GDP preferred close-fitting trays. Conclusions: The practice of GDP and SP with regards to CD impression materials and techniques differed significantly. Continued education and training for GDP and SP with respect to procedures and techniques related to CD is recommended. (author)

  16. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals and metalloids in luffa (luffa cylindrica l.) irrigated with domestic wastewater in jhang, pakistan: a prospect for human nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khani, Z.I.; Ahmad, K.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, 12 heavy metals (Cr, Mn, Ni, Cd, Co, Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, Se, As, and Mo) were assessed in a potential vegetable Luffa cylindrica. The vegetable was collected randomly from two different sites located at Jhang, Punjab Pakistan. The analyses of variance of data collected from soil showed non-significant effect on Se, Zn, As, Cr, Ni, Mo and Pb while significant effect on Fe, Co, Mn, Cu and Cd metals. Concentrations of all 12 heavy metals in the soil samples were low at sampling site-I as compared to those at site-II except Ni. These concentrations were found below the safe limits except that of Cd. At site-I, the concentrations recorded for different heavy metals were: As > Fe > Pb > Mn > Cd > Co > Cu > Mo > Zn > Ni > Se > Cr while at site-II were: As > Fe > Mn > Pb > Co > Cd > Cu > Mo > Zn > Ni > Se > Cr. Enrichment co-efficient of Cr was higher which showed that root of luffa plant accumulated more Cr concentration from the contaminated soil. The order of enrichment co-efficient was recorded at site-I as: Cr > Zn > Mn > Cu > Fe > Ni > Mo > Pb > As > Se > Co > Cd, and at site-II Cr > Zn > Mn > Ni > Cu > Fe > Mo > Pb > Se > As > Co > Cd. The transfer co-efficient of Mn was higher which indicates that more contents of Mn were transferred from roots to upper edible part. The order of transfer co-efficient at site-I was: Ni > Se > Mo > Cr > Zn > Fe > Mn > Cd > Pb > As > Cu > Co and at site-II was Mn > Zn > As > Fe > Pb > Se > Cd > Co > Mo > Cu > Ni > Cr. Correlation analysis showed that Mn, Se, Co, Cd, Ni, Mo and Pb had positive non-significant correlation, whereas a negative and non-significant correlation for Zn, As, Fe and Cr. The order of pollution load index at site-I was Cd > Mo > Se > Pb > Cu > Co > As > Fe > Mn > Ni > Zn > Cr and at site-II: Cd > Mo > Se > Pb > Cu > Co > As > Fe > Mn > Ni > Zn > Cr. Overall, at both sites, lowest concentration of Cr and highest of As were observed which need substantial awareness. Health risk index depends on

  17. Spatio-temporal variations of b-value in and around north Pakistan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    around Pakistan improved in the early 1960s, after the establishment of World .... Hazard Assessment Programme (GSHAP; Zhang et al. ..... zoning and development of design spectra for Peshawar ... Pakistan; Graphic Publishers. Kearey P ...

  18. 75 FR 67015 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee And Migration Needs Resulting From Flooding InPakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... September 3, 2010 Unexpected Urgent Refugee And Migration Needs Resulting From Flooding InPakistan... humanitarian needs resulting from recent devastating flooding in Pakistan. You are authorized and directed to...

  19. Landslide inventory and susceptibility modelling using geospatial tools, in Hunza-Nagar valley, northern Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bacha, Alam Sher; Shafique, Muhammad; van der Werff, H.M.A.

    2018-01-01

    A comprehensive landslide inventory and susceptibility maps are prerequisite for developing and implementing landslide mitigation strategies. Landslide susceptibility maps for the landslides prone regions in northern Pakistan are rarely available. The Hunza-Nagar valley in northern Pakistan is known

  20. On 25 January Pervez Musharraf, president of Pakistan, visited CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Pervez Musharraf, president of Pakistan, visited CERN with five government ministers, Parvez Butt, president of Pakistan's Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), and an eminent former president of the Commission, Ishfaq Ahmad, who pioneered co-operation with CERN.The President of Pakistan, Pervez Musharraf, the Chairman of PAEC, Parvez Butt, and CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar, exchange congratulations following the signing of the letter of intent to strengthen partnership between CERN and Pakistan.

  1. Estimation of Import and Export demand Functions Using Bilateral Trade Data ___ the case of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Jahanzaib Haider; Muhammad Afzal; Farah Riaz

    2011-01-01

    We estimated the import and export elasticities of Pakistan trade with traditional trade partners and some Asian countries to see the dynamics of Pakistan trade from 1973 to 2008. OLS results suggest that income is the principal determinant of exports and imports. Pakistan exports are cointegrated with Japan and USA while the imports are cointegrated with UAE and USA. Pakistan imports and exports are cointegrated with Bangladesh and Sri Lanka but not with India and China. Income and exchange ...

  2. Contribution of wind energy to future electricity requirements of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harijan, K.; Uqaili, M. A.; Memon, M.

    2007-01-01

    Pakistan is an energy deficit country. About half of the country's population has no access to electricity and per capita supply is only 520 kWh. About 67% of the conventional electricity is generated from fossil fuels with 51% and 16% share of gas and oil respectively. It has been projected that electricity demand in Pakistan would increase at an average annual growth rate of 5% to 12% under different scenarios. The indigenous reserves of oil and gas are limited and the country heavily depends on imported oil. The oil import bill is a serious strain on the country's economy and has been deteriorating the balance of payment situation. Pakistan is becoming increasingly more dependent on a few sources of supply and its energy security often hangs on the fragile threat of imported oil that is subject to supply disruptions and price volatility. The production and consumption of fossil fuels also adversely affects the quality of the environment due to indiscriminate release of toxic substances. Pakistan spends huge amount on the degradation of the environment. This shows that Pakistan must develop alternate, indigenous and environment friendly energy resources such as wind energy to meet its future electricity requirements. This paper presents an overview of wind power generation potential and assessment of its contribution to future electricity requirements of Pakistan under different policy scenarios. The country has about 1050 km long coastline. The technical potential of centralized grid connected wind power and wind home systems in the coastal area of the country has been estimated as about 484 TWh and 0.135 TWh per year respectively. The study concludes that wind power could meet about 20% to 50% of the electricity demand in Pakistan by the year 2030. The development and utilization of wind power would reduce the pressure on oil imports, protect the environment from pollution and improve the socio-economic conditions of the people

  3. An evaluation of current EIA system in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, I.A.; Romano, R.R.

    2004-01-01

    The challenge of reducing poverty and increasing economic growth has often led Pakistan to overlook environmental sustainability. Consequently, Pakistan, is suffering from severe environmental problems. This has spurred an increasing demand for and effective Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) System with environmental management tools and techniques that can help the country to adequately diagnose their risks and suggest mitigation options. In the past few years Pakistan has begun implementing EIA' s as a preventive tool. However, given the judiciary, institutional and structural predicament, the outcome of the EIA process has resulted in great disparities. Given the growing regional environmental problems it is now a priority to seek an effective EIA systems, principles, and procedures in the country. This paper seeks to distinguish the Pakistan EIA strengths and weaknesses; it also focuses on identifying common positive and negative characteristics of the Pakistan EIA system. Furthermore, differences between the interested parties of the EIA system in the country were evaluated via a survey to ensure a good understanding of the factors of a comprehensive and effective EIA system. Analytical comparisons were made among the different interested parties of the EIA system in Pakistan. Statistical methods were used to analyze the data received and recommendations were made based on the outcome of the data results. These results will assist: (i) Pakistan to improve its EIA system (ii) other South Asian countries which may have a similar EIA systems in developing policy, planning and reforms and (iii) International organizations that work or invest in the region to enhance the attainment of environ- mental protection objectives on a broader, more cost effective, and realistic scale than current practices. (author)

  4. On 25 January Pervez Musharraf, president of Pakistan, visited CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    CERN consolidates links with Pakistan. Pervez Musharraf, president of Pakistan, visited CERN with five government ministers, Parvez Butt, president of Pakistan's Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), and an eminent former president of the Commission, Ishfaq Ahmad, who pioneered co-operation with CERN

  5. Development of hydroponic system using agricultural waste. 2. Utilization of ozone for sterilization of nutrient solution; Suiko saibai ni okeru haikibutsu riyo gijutsu no kaihatsu. 2. Ozone ni yoru baiyoeki sakkin ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terazoe, H; Yoshihara, T; Nakaya, K [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-08-01

    Discussions were given on a sterilizing effect of ozone on Fusarium bacteria in hydroponic culture, and its effect on components in the culture solution. In an experiment, dry air with O3 concentration of 3.5 ppm was sent into aqueous solution inoculated with Fusarium bacteria at a flow rate of 5 liters per minute. The Fusarium bacteria was sterilized nearly completely in about five minutes. No change was observed in pH, EC and dissolved oxygen concentration of the O3-treated culture solution. However, iron and manganese among the soluble components have been oxidized by O3 and precipitated, hence these components must be added after the O3 treatment. In spinach culture performed on a culture medium inoculated with Fusarium bacteria, ozone water containing dissolved O3 at 0.8 ppm was flown into a urethane foam medium and vegetable roots. This treatment has resulted in reduction of the number of strains occurred with a wilt symptom below that in the section flown with distilled water. The spinach has grown normally without showing an effect of the ozone water. 15 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. FY1998 research report on the basic research on geothermal district heating in Kamchatka, Russia; 1998 nendo Roshia Renpo Kamchatka shu ni okeru chinetsu riyo ni yoru chiiki danbo ni kansuru kiso chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    Petropavlovsk-Kamchatky (P-K) city in Kamchatka, Russia is operating hot-water district heating using heavy oil boilers and waste hot water of thermal power plants as heat sources. Feasibility study was made on district heating using natural geothermal hot water and/or geothermal heat pump systems as heat sources of hot water supply for reduction of greenhouse effect gas emission. Among 3 areas including geothermal hot water, use of hot water in K area was impossible because of lower temperature and less spring water. Use of hot water in P and UP areas was impossible as primary hot water because of temperature drop to 64 degrees C during hot water supply toward P-K city. The building heating operation test was carried out using the geothermal heat pump system installed in a newly drilled heat exchange well of 100m deep. As a result, sufficient heat recovery was achieved for heating. If all of 49 boiler houses for heating are replaced with such geothermal heat pump systems, CO{sub 2} reduction was estimated to be 520,000t/y. (NEDO)

  7. Survey on research environment for young researchers in the U.S.. What attractive environment is for young researchers; Beikoku ni okeru wakate kenkyusha no kenkyu kankyo ni kansuru chosa. Wakate kenkyusha ni totte miryokutekina kankyo towa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-28

    A survey was conducted on 'what attractive research environment is for young researchers' as a theme. The young researchers are referred to as those who are registered on a master's or doctor's degree courses and what is called postdoctoral scholars who received a doctor's degree. In the survey, a few common comments were seen in over interviews on the U.S. research environment. The comments were such that, needless to say, subsidies are indispensable for researches but economic aspects of treatment are not necessarily satisfactory, that the research environment is generally good, allowing freedom in research, and that results tend to be achieved by providing a subsidy for experienced knowledgeable researchers rather than directly subsidizing young researchers with a large sum, while programs with individuality such as a fellowship are desired more. It is apparent that the interests of postdoctoral scholars are economic stability; in fact, uneasiness and dissatisfaction in the status and the treatment are pointed out in a survey by the U.S. Science Academy. (NEDO)

  8. Characteristic analysis of methane-gas generation by oxidizing heat of stored coal and hold ventilation control; Sekitan unpansen ni okeru sanka hatsunetsu ni yoru methane gas hassei to sonai kankyo seigyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuchi, N; Nakashima, T [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Kudo, S

    1999-12-31

    A demand of coal shows the tendency in the increase worldwide, with this, the marine transportation of the coal gradually increases, and the collier has also enlarged. The traffic pattern of coal is mainly the bulk transportation. In this transportation system, by the oxidation exothermic reaction of the coal, methane gas is produced, simultaneously the coal quality such as coking property or heat quantity is decreased and sometimes spontaneous ignition is caused. Therefore, it is necessary to equip with a ventilator to control the concentration of methane gas and to avoid the self heating of the coal. In this study, the quantity of methane-gas produced by heating coal using an electric furnace was measured and the experiment to investigate the temperature dependency of the methane-gas generated from the coal was conducted. By using the result of the measurement, the quantity of methane-gas produced from the coal stored in the hold of a coal cargo was estimated. And, the mathematical analyses on the changing degree depend on the times of a temperature in the hold under navigation, a concentration of oxygen and a concentration of methane-gas, were conducted. 11 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Estimation of overprotection region on the painted steel plate under impressed-current cathodic protection. Gaibu dengenho ni yoru inkyoku boshoku ka no toso kohan ni okeru kaboshoku iki ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwata, M.; Huang, Y.; Fujimoto, Y. (Hiroshima Univ., hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1992-09-04

    Painting and cathodic protection are used in combination as a corrosion resisting measure for ship hull. n analytic method which uses the boundary element method for protection electric field by impressed-current method is proposed to show that rational determination is possible for the arrangement and current of the anode, and the arrangement and set voltage of the reference electrode used to control the current. However, repetitive calculation is necessary until overprotection voltage disappears from the surface of the painted steel plate while giving optional insulated area because the insulated area of adequate dimension is unknown. To decrease the number of this repetitive calculation, a study is made on a method of estimating the magnitude of the insulated area to be input as the initial value in the electric field analysis by the boundary element method. Although the insulated area has been empirically obtained, such formurization may be useful for automatic optimization using a computer of the location and number of anode, anode current, arrangement and set voltage of the reference electrode, magnitude of the insulated area, etc. in the impressed-current cathodic protection system. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  10. CFD prediction of heat island formation on growing Asian cities. Effect of urbanization in Shanghai; Kyodaikasuru Asia no toshi ni okeru heat island keisei ni kansuru CFD yosoku. Shanghai no toshika ga oyobosu eikyo ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojima, T.; Murakami, S. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science; Mitsumoto, K. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering

    1997-10-01

    Study is conducted of the effect of change in land use and increase in artificial exhaust heat on heat island formation in Shanghai. Concerning the land use distribution in Shanghai, a point sampling survey was conducted in the 1930s using topographic charts, when the area was broken down into building-occupied region, paddy field, bare ground, and waters. In the 1990s, thanks to data from satellites, high-density and low-density urban regions have added. Calculation for Shanghai is performed, based on the rate of increase in Tokyo`s population and data predicted for Shanghai`s population, on the assumption that Shanghai`s population in the 2050s will grow 2.3 times larger than it is in the 1990s. The prediction thus produced indicates that the urban area in Shanghai in the 2050s will be as large as that of the present-day Tokyo that covers a 50km zone. Heat island formation prediction for Shanghai is worked out using computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-aided simulation. According to the prediction, while the maximum temperature in the 1930s was 29.6degC or 4degC higher than in the suburbs, it is 33.2degC or 7.6deg higher in the 1990s, and will be 34.4degC or 8.6degC higher in the 2050s. 16 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Relationship between the electric resistivity and the rain fall in discontinuity zone of rock slope by the continuous measurement; Renzoku tokei ni yoru ganban shamen no furenzokutaibu ni okeru mikake hiteiko henka to kou tono kankei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusumi, H; Nishida, K [Kansai University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Nakamura, M [Newjec Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    The relationship between change in resistivity and rainfall was studied by continuously measuring resistivities of fracture zone and stratum boundary along the measuring line of 95m long from the top to bottom of rock slope. The measurement field was located on a hill of 150-200m high at the northern part of Arima-Takatsuki tectonic line. Electrodes of 30m in maximum measuring depth were arranged at 289 points by dipole-dipole method. Resistivity was continuously measured at time intervals of 6 hours. Apparent resistivity was hardly affected by rainfall at points with less infiltration of stormwater from the ground surface, while it decreased by rainfall at points on fracture zone, stratum boundary or bleeding channel. The change rate of apparent resistivity could be approximated with the exponential function of rainfall. In such case, the apparent resistivity under most dried condition at the concerned point should be used as reference maximum apparent resistivity. The change rate of apparent resistivity due to rainfall in fracture zone reflects infiltration of stormwater, suggesting to be useful for disaster prevention of slopes. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Actual conditions of energy management in office buildings; Results of quetionaire inquiry about load leveling. Gyomu yo biru ni okeru energy kanri no jittai ni tsuite; Fuka heijunka ni kakawaru anketo chosa kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okubo, Katsuhiko (The Inst. of Applied Energy, Tokyo, (Japan))

    1989-07-20

    The electric power demand in Japan is increasing, and it is expected that annual load factor shows decreasing tendency. All electric power companies endeavor to improve load leveling than as it was, and intend to introduce direct saving system to control the loading equipments of consumers as well as indirect control such as midnight power system. Therefore, quetionaire inquiry about this new system was made for business power consumers in which power there are much difference in consumed power between day and night and much efficacy for power saving. As the results of the inquiry, it was understood that equipment of automatic or remote control for loading equipments were already introduced by many consumers and adoption of airconditioners controlled at every floor or every room is increased. So, about the control of the equipments in cosumers a method is also required so that electric power companies shall control the maximum demand by consumers and selection of control equipments are left on consumers' decision and judgment, and it is considered to be important that control by electric power companies shall not only turn on or off switchs but also realize convenience and economy of consumers. 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Girl child marriage and its effect on fertility in Pakistan: findings from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2006-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muazzam; Muazzam, Sana; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Raj, Anita

    2014-04-01

    Child marriage (before 18 years) is prevalent in Pakistan, which disproportionately affects young girls in rural, low income and low education households. Our study aims to determine the association between early marriage and high fertility and poor fertility health indicators among young women in Pakistan beyond those attributed to social vulnerabilities. Nationally representative data from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2006-2007, a cross-sectional observational survey, were limited to ever-married women aged 20-24 years (n = 1,560; 15% of 10,023) to identify differences in poor fertility outcomes [high fertility (three or more childbirths); rapid repeat childbirth (marriage. Associations between child marriage and fertility outcomes were assessed by calculating adjusted odds ratios (AORs) using logistic regression models after controlling for demographics, social equity indicators (education, wealth index, rural residence), contraception use, marriage duration and culture-specific factors (husband's desire for more children, son preference). Overall, 50% of ever-married women aged 20-24 years in Pakistan were married before the age of 18 years. Girl child marriage was significantly (p marriage was significantly associated with high fertility (AOR 6.62; 95% CI 3.53-12.43), rapid repeat childbirth (AOR 2.88; 95% CI 1.83-4.54), unwanted pregnancy (AOR 2.90; 95% CI 1.75-4.79), and pregnancy termination (AOR 1.75; 95% CI 1.10-2.78). Girl child marriage affects half of all ever-married women aged 20-24 years in Pakistan, and increases their risk for high fertility and poor fertility health indicators, highlighting the need of increasing the age of marriage among women in Pakistan. Efforts to eliminate girl child marriage by strict law enforcement, promoting civil, sexual and reproductive health rights for women can help eliminate girl child marriage in Pakistan.

  14. Ethnic Separatism in Pakistan as a Threat to Regional Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Isaevich Khahkhanov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available At present ethnic separatism is shown in various regions practically on all continents and it is the same serious call of the international stability and safety, as religious extremism and drugs. Ethnic separatism is shown and in the Southern Asia, particularly, in India, Pakistan, Sri - Lanka, leading to terrorism acts and a numerous death. The author analyzes sources and the reasons of ethnic separatism in Pakistan. Author marks that the basis for statehood of Pakistan while independence declaration was not ethnic, but cultural and religious factors, which already contained potential separatism. Article tells us about modern manifestation of ethnic separatism in Pakistan. In particular, the author describes sources, the reasons and manifestations of separatism of Pushtuns and Beludzhy. According to the author, separatism of Beludzhy and Pushtuns is the specific danger not only to integrity of Pakistan. This can lead in the long term to disintegration of the state that is fraught with serious consequences for stability and safety not only for the Southern Asia, but also for other regions nearby Russia.

  15. Institutional determinants of power sector reform in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, Kafait; Arentsen, Maarten J.; Lovett, Jon C.

    2017-01-01

    The electricity supply sector in Pakistan has performed poorly in recent years. Reforms were introduced in the mid-1990s to improve the sector, but progressed slowly with no significant impacts on pre-reform performance. This study uses new institutional economics as a theoretical basis to elucidate reasons for the failure of power sector reforms in Pakistan to make improvements. Interviews with 23 experts using Q-methodology generated 215 statements that were used as a Q concourse. Of these, 51 statements were selected for the Q sample and ranked by 34 respondents depending on their importance. Analysis revealed four important discourses on the determinants of power sector reform failure in Pakistan. These included weak governance structure, country and sectoral endowments, inefficient regulator and unspecified political institutions or unfriendly political contexts. The study recommends establishment of institutions that support a market based power supply sector and improvements to the contractual arrangements between stakeholders to reduce opportunistic behaviour. - Highlights: • This study utilizes New Institutional Approach to study power sector reforms in Pakistan. • Work of Douglass North and Oliver Williamson help create analytical frame. • Q methodology helps overcome data limitations. • Results reveal institutional aspects as important for poor performance of reforms. • Study suggests policy recommendations to improve institutional environment and governance of power sector in Pakistan.

  16. 136 Tax Revenue, Stock Market and Economic Growth of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irfan Javaid Attari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of capital market and fiscal policy influences in determining the nexus of economic growth in Pakistan from July 2003 to July 2012. The authors utilize ADF unit root test, Johansen Cointegration test, VECM test, Granger causality test and variance decomposition analysis to test the relationship among tax revenue, stock market and economic growth in Pakistan. Granger causality analysis is used to answer questions whether “Does tax revenue cause the economic growth?” or “Does tax revenue cause the capital market?”. The results demonstrate that there is a bidirectional casualty between tax revenue and economic growth; and a unidirectional causality from capital market to tax revenue. The estimated result shows that growth of Pakistan economy is strongly contributed from the high collection of direct tax revenue and the development of financial market activity. The findings of this paper have important implications to current and potential investors in Pakistan economy to understand the economic condition of Pakistan and to assist them in making their investment decision.

  17. Forecasting electricity consumption in Pakistan: the way forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Anwar; Rahman, Muhammad; Memon, Junaid Alam

    2016-01-01

    Growing shortfall of electricity in Pakistan affects almost all sectors of its economy. For proper policy formulation, it is imperative to have reliable forecasts of electricity consumption. This paper applies Holt-Winter and Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models on time series secondary data from 1980 to 2011 to forecast total and component wise electricity consumption in Pakistan. Results reveal that Holt-Winter is the appropriate model for forecasting electricity consumption in Pakistan. It also suggests that electricity consumption would continue to increase throughout the projected period and widen the consumption-production gap in case of failure to respond the issue appropriately. It further reveals that demand would be highest in the household sector as compared to all other sectors and the increase in the energy generation would be less than the increase in total electricity consumption throughout the projected period. The study discuss various options to reduce the demand-supply gap and provide reliable electricity to different sectors of the economy. - Highlights: • We forecast total and component wise electricity consumption for Pakistan. • Electricity shortfall in Pakistan will increase in future if same situation exists. • Various options exist to cope with the electricity crisis in the country. • Holt-winter model gives best forecasts for electricity consumption in the country.

  18. Ensuring Sustainable Development through Urban Planning in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Qasim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Urban planning includes land use management and environmental change. It makes arrangement for community facilities and services. Since, sustainable development has been included as a vital end product of all planning goals it also provides for balanced use of land, housing and transportation and better quality of life. Present urban planning in Pakistan is not ensuring sustainable development in Pakistan. This is tested through the case study of master planning in Rawalpindi and its implementation through housing schemes in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Large portions of provisions of master plans are not implemented. This paper explains how the urban planning will be made enabled to ensure sustainable development in Pakistan. Six numbers of housing schemes and two squatter settlements have been surveyed through questionnaires, secondary data, the opinions of the experts from related fields and site observations. Amenities and social services at far distance, very less green area, Less quantity and bad quality of water, absence of comprehensive solid waste management and sewage disposal system and nontreatment of solid waste, effluent and sewage, prevalent unhygienic conditions and air and water pollution are the existing factors effecting the sustainability. There is a need to revisit the urban planning and a comprehensive Urban and Environment Planning Law at national level and at provincial level is recommended to enable the urban planning to ensure the sustainable development in Pakistan

  19. Ensuring sustainable development through urban planing in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qasim, M.; Zaidi, S.S.U.

    2013-01-01

    Urban planning includes land use management and environmental change. It makes arrangement for community facilities and services. Since, sustainable development has been included as a vital end product of all planning goals it also provides for balanced use of land, housing and transportation and better quality of life. Present urban planning in Pakistan is not ensuring sustainable development in Pakistan. This is tested through the case study of master planning in Rawalpindi and its implementation through housing schemes in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Large portions of provisions of master plans are not implemented. This paper explains how the urban planning will be made enabled to ensure sustainable development in Pakistan. Six numbers of housing schemes and two squatter settlements have been surveyed through questionnaires, secondary data, the opinions of the experts from related fields and site observations. Amenities and social services at far distance, very less green area, Less quantity and bad quality of water, absence of comprehensive solid waste management and sewage disposal system and non- treatment of solid waste, effluent and sewage, prevalent unhygienic conditions and air and water pollution are the existing factors effecting the sustainability. There is a need to revisit the urban planning and a comprehensive Urban and Environment Planning Law at national level and at provincial level is recommended to enable the urban planning to ensure the sustainable development in Pakistan. (author)

  20. The context and limitations of female sterilization services in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Adnan Ahmad; Khan, Ayesha; Abbas, Khadija; Tirmizi, Syed Farhan Ali; ul Islam, Zia

    2013-04-01

    Female sterilization has long been the most popular method of family planning (FP) in Pakistan, and yet most public health experts feel it contributes little to controlling family size or to population welfare. We used Pakistan Demographic Health Survey (PDHS) data to understand the role female sterilization plays in the overall context of FP in Pakistan. We performed a secondary analysis of data from the PDHS 1990-1 and 2006-7 to study factors that lead to sterilization and trends in the use of the procedure. In addition, census data were multiplied by proportions from PDHS data to estimate the number of women availing sterilization services. Around 1.9 million women in Pakistan are currently sterilized--up from 0.55 million in 1990-1, and around 173,867 undergo the procedure, annually. Women usually receive sterilization after 30 years of age (mean = 39) and after six children. The probability of sterilization increases with age, family size, and urban residence, and is unaffected by poverty, province of residence, or the woman or her husband's education. Most sterilizationis conducted in public sector facilities. Sterilization in Pakistan may be common, but occurs too late to have any significant effect on family size or benefit public health. Future avenues to make this option more useful to women and society would be to improve the repertoire and access and quality of FP services that are available, and to address governance issues that limit the performance and utility of government facilities.

  1. The impact of indigenous culture on female leadership in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafta Manzoor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Digging into the experiences of thirty working women, this study examined the barriers imposed by indigenous culture of Pakistan impose on these women. The study followed a qualitative research approach with phenomenological theoretical framework. Fifteen females were interviewed from urban areas and fifteen from rural areas to draw a holistic picture of indigenous culture of Pakistan and its effect on career progress of females. From the data collected, seven categories were initially developed through open coding, followed by three clusters through axial coding and lastly the study created a theoretical framework through selective coding. Findings of the study indicated that indigenous culture strongly affects the career success of working women in Pakistan. The study concluded that indigenous culture of Pakistan puts taboos on females in the form of family behavior, expectations, and the structurally enforced inferior status of females which affects their leadership skills negatively and restricts their career growth. The study concluded that indigenous culture affects career progress of females in negative way and although efforts have been done to give women equal rights in Pakistan, these efforts will become more meaningful if general perception of society about women and their role starts to change which will require awareness programs and cooperation from academic institutions and policy makers.

  2. Decay of 57Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Scardino, A.M. dos.

    1987-01-01

    The decay of 57 Ni to 57 Co was studied by gamma ray spectroscopy using both singles and coincidence spectra. The sources were obtained with the 58 Ni (Y,n) 57 Ni reaction. Natural metallic nickel was irradiated in the bremsstrahluhng beam of the linear accelerator of the Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo with 30 MeV electrons. The singles espectra were taken with 104 cc HPGe detector and the coincidences espectra with 27 and 53cc Ge(Li) and 104 cc. HPGe detectors. The energies of transitions that follow the 57 Ni decay were measured using 56 Co as standard (which was obtained by (Y,np) reaction in 58 Ni) and taking into account the cascade cross-over relations. (author) [pt

  3. Renewable energy in Pakistan: opportunities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, I.A.; Khalil, M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Most of the countries around the world have realized that the key to attaining and maintaining prosperity and sovereignty is having independence and self-reliance in access to and subsequent use of energy. To address the global challenges, the energy system needs to undergo a transformation from fossil-fuels to renewable energy and energy efficient technologies. Pakistan has a huge potential for harnessing renewable energy and its share in the electricity mix has to be increased to achieve energy security. Security issues and circular debt in the country are the key challenges that need to be addressed to promote on-grid renewable energy through private sector. Around 38 % of the total Pakistani population remains without access to electricity. Fifty four per cent of the rural population currently has no access to electricity, forcing them to live a sub-standard life of poverty and social inequity. Microfinance and other innovative financial tools need to be evolved to promote rural electrification through renewable energies. (author)

  4. Role Of The Army In Modern Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Viktorovich Vorobiev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the political development of the country in the modern period. Special attention is paid to the position of the army and its role in the Pakistani society. The article explores in detail the processes of gradual distancing of the army from politics and strengthening of civil society institutions. It is the first time in the Pakistani history that the civilian government managed to complete its full five-year constitutional term. Meanwhile, the country has been advancing on the path to democracy even after the elections 2013: a new civilian government has been formed in Pakistan. As compared with the previous phases of the country's development, the status of the army has considerably changed, evolved from "guiding force" to "shadow" guarantee of democratic development. The process has been largely encouraged by popular among officers feeling of tiredness: many of them are not ready to take power into their own hands and committed to their strictly constitutional duties. Despite this recent positive trend, the army continues to enjoy great authority in the society, often brokers political crisis and helps civilian authorities in settling such pressing problems as, for example, fight against extremism. The military will exert influence on government unless civil authorities are able to resist the current challenges and settle the actual problems. The role of "power broker" fully serves the interests of the top army brass.

  5. ROLE OF THE ARMY IN MODERN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Viktorovich Vorobiev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the political development of the country in the modern period. Special attention is paid to the position of the army and its role in the Pakistani society. The article explores in detail the processes of gradual distancing of the army from politics and strengthening of civil society institutions. It is the first time in the Pakistani history that the civilian government managed to complete its full five-year constitutional term. Meanwhile, the country has been advancing on the path to democracy even after the elections 2013: a new civilian government has been formed in Pakistan. As compared with the previous phases of the country's development, the status of the army has considerably changed, evolved from "guiding force" to "shadow" guarantee of democratic development. The process has been largely encouraged by popular among officers feeling of tiredness: many of them are not ready to take power into their own hands and committed to their strictly constitutional duties. Despite this recent positive trend, the army continues to enjoy great authority in the society, often brokers political crisis and helps civilian authorities in settling such pressing problems as, for example, fight against extremism. The military will exert influence on government unless civil authorities are able to resist the current challenges and settle the actual problems. The role of "power broker" fully serves the interests of the top army brass.

  6. Factors Affecting Sugarcane Production in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Nazir

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify the factors affecting sugarcane production in Pakistan. Data were collected from 387 sugarcane growers from Sindh, Punjab and NWFP province. Data were collected during the period 2007-08. The study reveals that the costs of inputs of sugarcane i.e. urea, DAP, FYM, land preparation, seed and its application, weeding and cost of irrigation were the important factors which influenced on the returns of sugarcane growers. The effectiveness was examined by using the Cobb-Douglas production function; MVP and allocative efficiency were calculated. The coefficient of multiple determinations R2 was 0.9249, which indicated that 92% variation in the cost of inputs was explained by all explanatory variables and the adjusted R2 was 92%. The F-value was 666.94 and was highly significant at 5% level of significance, indicating that the regression model was well fitted. The high prices of inputs, low price of output, delay in payments and lack of scientific knowledge were the major problems in sugarcane production. In order to enhance the productivity of sugarcane in the country, government should solve the identified problems to increase the income of sugarcane growers.

  7. Epidemiology of HIV infection in Northern Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, W.U.Z.; Malik, I.A.; Hassan, Z.U.; Hannan, A.; Ahmad, M.

    1993-01-01

    At the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, facilities for HIV screening are available since 1987. So far, 54, 170 individuals have been tested. These included 48235 blood donors, 3369 persons proceeding abroad, 561 patients of venereal diseases, 350 Lymphoma cases, 21 deportees from the UAE, 460 clinically suspected cases of AIDS, 735 persons who were worried about HIV infection and 439 family members of HIV positive cases. A total of 30 cases were positive for anti-HIV on a strict protocol, which included screening tests followed by confirmatory tests including Western blot for HIV antibodies. The mode of HIV transmission was ascertained after a detailed history of all seropostive cases. It was found that in 24 cases the virus was acquired through sexual contact with high risk persons, which was homosexual in 3, heterosexual in 17, and bisexual in 4 cases. In 4 cases, the infection was acquired through blood transfusion, one child was infected through breast feeding, whereas only in one case the exact mode of HIV transmission was unclear. Out of 30 HIV positive cases, only three cases acquired the disease within Pakistan, 20 had acquired HIV infection during their stay in the Gulf states, while few cases had it from other countries (Saudi Arabia 1, Greece 1, France 2, S E Asia 3). (author)

  8. Taxation, Fiscal Deficit and Inflation in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Rasool Madni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal policy has more controversial debate regarding its effectiveness on different macroeconomic activities of an economy. Taxation and government expenditure are two main instruments of fiscal policy. This paper is aimed to analyze and update the effects of different instruments of fiscal policy on inflation in Pakistan economy. The data time span for this study is 1979-2013. The impact of fiscal policy on inflation is analyzed by utilizing the Bounds testing procedure and ARDL approach of co-integration which is a better estimation technique for small sample size. It is found that investment negatively and significantly affect the inflation rate. The outcomes of the study show that both types of taxes (direct and indirect are causing to increase the inflation level while fiscal deficit is also one of the reasons to increase the inflation in the country. The study proposed that government should decrease the level of expenditure to reduce the level of fiscal deficit and investment have to be promoted to decrease the inflation in the country. Furthermore, it is also suggested to decrease the level of taxation for controlling inflation.

  9. Geomorphological hazards in Swat valley, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usman, A.

    1999-01-01

    This study attempts to describe, interpret and analyze, in depth, the varied geomorphological hazards and their impacts prevailing in the swat valley locate in the northern hilly and mountainous regions of Pakistan. The hills and mountains re zones of high geomorphological activity with rapid rates of weathering, active tectonic activities, abundant precipitation, rapid runoff and heavy sediment transport. Due to the varied topography, lithology, steep slope, erodible soil, heavy winter snowfall and intensive rainfall in the spring and summer seasons, several kinds of geomorphological hazards, such as geomorphic gravitational hazards, Fluvial hazards, Glacial hazards, Geo tectonic hazards, are occurring frequently in swat valley. Amongst them, geomorphic gravitational hazards, such as rock fall rock slide, debris slide mud flow avalanches, are major hazards in mountains and hills while fluvial hazards and sedimentation are mainly confined to the alluvial plain and lowlands of the valley. The Getechtonic hazards, on the other hand, have wide spread distribution in the valley the magnitude and occurrence of each king of hazard is thus, varied according to intensity of process and physical geographic environment. This paper discusses the type distribution and damage due to the various geomorphological hazards and their reduction treatments. The study would to be of particular importance and interest to both natural and social scientists, as well as planner, environmentalists and decision-makers for successful developmental interventions in the region. (author)

  10. Corporate Governance and Environmental Reporting in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Rafique

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the present study is to investigate the association between environmental reporting and corporate governance traits in Pakistan. The prior studies related to the association between environmental disclosure and corporate governance characteristics show fickle findings. This study fills the gap by using cross sectional data of 100 randomly selected firms registered at Karachi Stock Exchange for the year 2015. The results of the present research showed a positive association between the level of environmental disclosure and fraction of independent directors on the board. Negative relationship was found between environmental disclosure and institutional investors. The result shows a positive association between the level of environmental reporting and board size. It confirms a positive association. The analysis revealed a lack of association between level of environmental reporting and fraction of female directors on a board. In case of control variables, positive relationship was found between firms profitability and level of environmental disclosure, whereas, no correlation was found between firm size and the level of environmental reporting. Moreover, the results of incremental regression indicate that ownership concentration is the most important independent variable among all the independent variables in the model.

  11. Mr. Ansar Shamsi, Member Finance, Mr. Malik Adalat Khan, Director Finance, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    Photo 01: Mr Ansar Shamsi, Member Finance, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (centre), visiting the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter in building 191 with, from left to right, Mr Syed Shaukat Hussain, Pakistan Mission in Geneva and Dr Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesperson. Photo 02: Mr Ansar Shamsi, Member Finance, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (2nd form left), visiting the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter in building 191 with, from left to right, Mr Syed Shaukat Hussain, Pakistan Mission in Geneva; Dr Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesperson; Dr David Jacobs and Dr Philip Bryant, Joint Pakistan-CERN Committee.

  12. Pakistan stepping up expansion of refining, transportation sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Pakistan is taking steps to speed expansion of its refining and oil transportation infrastructure. While the country has made significant progress toward energy self-efficiency by boosting oil and gas production it still must modernize and expand an aging, inadequate refining sector to meet rapidly growing demand for refined products. Pakistan's government has disclosed plans to build two refineries in the country, one at Rawalpindi near a string of recent oil discoveries, the other somewhere in the southern part of the country, likely Karachi. At the same time, efforts are proceeding to upgrade Pakistan's refineries. In addition, Pakistani state companies continue to press joint ventures in refining and marketing with foreign companies and expand downstream ties with neighbors that are key oil and gas exporters

  13. Satellite Monitoring of Pakistan's Rockslide-Dammed Lake Gojal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargel, Jeffrey S.; Leonard, Gregory; Crippen, Robert E.; Delaney, Keith B.; Evans, Stephen G.; Schneider, Jean

    2010-10-01

    On 4 January 2010, a rockslide 1200 meters long, 350 meters wide, and 125 meters high dammed the Hunza River in Attabad, northern Pakistan, and formed Lake Gojal. The initial mass movement of rock killed 20 people and submerged several villages and 22 kilometers of the strategic Karakoram Highway linking Pakistan and China. Tens of thousands of people were displaced or cut off from overland connection with the rest of the country. On 29 May, the lake overflow began to pour through a spillway excavated by Pakistani authorities. On approximately 20 July, the lake attained a maximum depth of 119 meters and a torrent at least 9 meters deep issued over the spillway, according to Pakistan's National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA). To date, the natural dam is holding and eroding slowly. However, the threat of a catastrophic outburst flood remains.

  14. Pakistan - Nuclear power for GHG mitigation and sustainable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Mohammad; Jalal, A.I.; Mumtaz, A.; Latif, M.

    2000-01-01

    Although Pakistan's contribution to global GHG emissions is very small (currently only 0.3% of world-wide emissions), it shares with the world community the concerns of climate change due to the build-up of GHGs. Pakistan is committed to co-operating with global efforts to avert the potential threat of global warming and is already working towards its own socio-economic development in a sustainable manner. However, due to the country's limited technical and financial capabilities, its efforts are diluted and limited to only high priority areas of national interest. There is a large potential for expanding these efforts, if the necessary technical and financial support can be made available, and such an expansion would contribute significantly to the collective global objective of sustainable development. One such step is the reduction of GHG emissions from Pakistan's power sector by introducing advanced cleaner technologies. Nuclear power is one such technology

  15. An evaluation of wind energy potential at Kati Bandar, Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullah, Irfan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, NWFP University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar (Pakistan); Chaudhry, Qamar-uz-Zaman [Pakistan Meteorological Department, Sector H-8/2, Islamabad (Pakistan); Chipperfield, Andrew J. [Computational Engineering and Design Group, School of Engineering Sciences, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-15

    As a developing nation of energy-starved people, Pakistan urgently needs new sources of affordable, clean energy. Wind energy is potentially attractive because of its low environmental impact and sustainability. This work aims to investigate the wind power production potential of sites in south-eastern Pakistan. Wind speed data measured over a one-year period at a typical site on the south-east coast of Pakistan are presented. Frequency distributions of wind speed and wind power densities at three heights, seasonal variations of speed, and estimates of power likely to be produced by commercial turbines are included. The site investigated is found to be a class 4 wind power site with annual average wind speed of 7.16 m/s and power density of 414 W/m{sup 2} at 50 m height. The site is, therefore, likely to be suitable for wind farms as well as small, stand-alone systems. (author)

  16. Pakistan flood damage mapped by UNOSAT at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2010-01-01

    As the waters recede, the Pakistan floods are attracting less attention in the world's media. But at the CERN-based headquarters of UNOSAT, the UN Institute for Training and Research Operational Satellite Application Programme, mapping the damage caused by the floods remains the top priority as the “emergency phase” is only now beginning to level off.   Flood analysis in Pakistan from 28 July to 16 September 2010. Credits: © UNOSAT UNOSAT uses impartial, objective data to assess the specifics of a disaster: What surface area has the flood covered? How many bridges and roads have been destroyed? How many areas are impenetrable? Although there are statistical answers to these questions, UNOSAT’s assessment of the damage caused by the Pakistan floods can be simply described in one word: catastrophic. The images used by UNOSAT are taken from a variety of different sources – commercial and scientific. Once a satellite takes an image, the owne...

  17. Bridging exchange bias effect in NiO and Ni(core)@NiO(shell) nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldi-Montes, Natalia, E-mail: nataliarin@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain); Gorria, Pedro [Departamento de Física & IUTA, EPI, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33203 Gijón (Spain); Martínez-Blanco, David [Servicios Científico-Técnicos, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33006 Oviedo (Spain); Fuertes, Antonio B. [Instituto Nacional del Carbón, CSIC, E-33080 Oviedo (Spain); Fernández Barquín, Luis [CITIMAC, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cantabria, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Puente-Orench, Inés [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza and Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Blanco, Jesús A. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain)

    2016-02-15

    Among all bi-magnetic core(transition metal)@shell(transition metal oxide) nanoparticles (NPs), Ni@NiO ones show an onset temperature for the exchange bias (EB) effect far below the Néel temperature of bulk antiferromagnetic NiO. In this framework, the role played by the magnetism of NiO at the nanoscale is investigated by comparing the microstructure and magnetic properties of NiO and Ni@NiO NPs. With the aim of bridging the two systems, the diameter of the NiO NPs (~4 nm) is chosen to be comparable to the shell thickness of Ni@NiO ones (~2 nm). The EB effect in Ni@NiO NPs is attributed to the exchange coupling between the core and the shell, with an interfacial exchange energy of ΔE~0.06 erg cm{sup −2}, thus comparable to previous reports on Ni/NiO interfaces both in thin film and NP morphologies. In contrast, the EB detected in NiO NPs is explained in a picture where uncompensated spins located on a magnetically disordered surface shell are exchange coupled to the antiferromagnetic core. In all the studied NPs, the variation of the EB field as a function of temperature is described according to a negative exponential law with a similar decay constant, yielding a vanishing EB effect around T~40–50 K. In addition, the onset temperature for the EB effect in both NiO and Ni@NiO NPs seems to follow a universal dependence with the NiO crystallite size. - Highlights: • Comparison of the exchange bias effect in NiO and Ni(core)@NiO(shell) nanoparticles. • Universal temperature dependence of the exchange bias effect. • Suggested similar physical origin of the effect in both systems. • Size and crystallinity of the NiO shell hold the key for exchange bias properties.

  18. Regression in polio eradication in Pakistan: A national tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwal, Sumaira; Hussain, Abrar; Mannan, Shazia; Perveen, Shazia

    2016-03-01

    Polio is one out of 200 infections results to lasting paralysis, usually in the legs. The year 2014 has been the saddest year for the Pakistan when the World was about to eliminate Polio from all over the World. In year 1994 Pakistan took the initiative to eliminate Polio from the country. The efforts were going well until 2005, when Pakistan was on the wedge to overcome the Disease. The hopes were high that soon Pakistan will become a polio-virus-free country, but the drone strikes in FATA and the rise of different militant groups as a reaction of the drone attacks in FATA made it difficult for the health workers to continue their vaccination campaigns in these areas. However various factors ruined the efforts made to eradicate Polio. In Pakistan, polio is widespread to three sections. These are Karachi, Quetta block (Quetta, Pishin and Killah Abdullah district) and FATA and Peshawar district. Numerous things are accountable for polio flourishing in these regions. These comprise near to the ground socioeconomic rank of the families, not having the knowledge concerning hazard caused by polio and disinformation by limited significant people concerning how polio vaccines fabricate damage. In 2014, only 3 countries in the world remain polio-endemic: Nigeria, Pakistan and Afghanistan. From year 2012-2014 the number of registered Polio cases is on rise contrary to rest of the other two Polio-endemic countries. In spite of the extensive work done by Polio workers the number of Polio cases has broken the 16 year record. The situation is getting worse because it can also be threatening to the rest of the World.

  19. Prevalence of congenital heart disease in rural communities of pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizvi, S.F.U.; Mustafa, G.; Khan, M.A.; Kundi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Prevalence of congenital heart disease (CHD) is well established in most of the developed countries, where childbirth is obligatory in hospital and allied facilities. In rural Pakistan the situation is reverse, where most of deliveries take place in homes by traditional birth attendants' therefor true prevalence of CHD in our population is unknown. in rural Pakistan almost 80% children are born at home hence the figures are unknown. This study was designed, to determine the prevalence of congenital heart disease in rural Pakistan. Methods: During a cross-sectional survey of rural population belonging to major ethnic groups living in three provinces of Pakistan to determine the prevalence of rheumatic heart disease (RHD), CHD rates were calculated as a sub study. Nine thousand four hundred and seventy-six (9476) subjects of all ages were screened using cluster sampling technique. Socio-demographic variables were recorded. Auscultation and short physical examination performed for initial screening and final diagnosis was confirmed on M-mode/2D/Doppler. Results: Thirty two patients had RHD, 25 Patients identified with CHD and another 7 patients had mixed CHD and RHD. Overall prevalence for CHD was 3.4/1000. The commonest lesion was Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) 40%, Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) 35%, Aortic Stenosis (AS) 10%, Atrio Ventricular Septal Defect (AVSD) 5%. Conclusion: This is the first study to report CHD prevalence from multiethnic representative sample from rural communities of Pakistan. Apparently CHD rate seems less compared with facility based data because records of still stillbirths are not available and autopsies are not performed as routine. Very high infant mortality from rural areas of Pakistan also favours high prevalence for CHD; however these figures represent an overall picture of CHD in a community where medical facilities are lacking. (author)

  20. Psychiatry in Pakistan: 1947-2006: a new balance sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadit, Amin A Muhammad

    2007-09-01

    This review deals with the evolution of psychiatry in Pakistan since its inception in 1947. It describes the situation of psychiatric services, education and research through the years 1947-2006, presenting a picture of existing mental health scenario, suggesting the ways for improvement and comment on possible future developments. It concludes with the prediction of a revolutionary change in the current shape of psychiatry throughout the world and especially in Pakistan whereby psychiatry will change to organic-based discipline of a wider "Neurosciences".

  1. Igniting Paths of Reconciliation between Afghanistan and Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestenskov, David

    the external and internal factors affecting the security situation, thereby attempting to explain the current low level of trust between Afghanistan and Pakistan. All these perspectives present an intriguing puzzle that seeks to identify present challenges and opportunities on the table for both states......This report is based on the seminar: “Mutual Trust Building and Reconciliation in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Beyond” organized by the Royal Danish Defence College in Copenhagen, October 2016. The report includes perspectives by the speakers of the seminar and their attribution to understand...

  2. Understanding the Appeal of the Taliban in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Manzar Abbas Zaidi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article briefly explores the economics of the "Talibanization" of Pakistan within descriptive and contextual paradigms, while attempting to find a best solution to counter rising militancy in the context of realities facing the population on the ground. One such solution is the National Pakistani Counter Terrorism and Extremism Strategy (NACTES, designed to curb Taliban financing in Pakistan. The strategy is being drafted by National Counter Terrorism Authority (NACTA, the nascent homeland security coordination body set up by the state as the primary public organ entrusted with counterterrorism, counter-extremism, and de-radicalization efforts of the state.

  3. A situational analysis of HIV and AIDS in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwar Muhammad

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract HIV (Human immunodeficiency virus transmission has been reduced by protected sex and screening of blood products and other body fluids in the developed countries. It has been reported that Pakistan is at high risk of HIV/AIDS infection but presently the prevalence rate is considerably low. The number of reported cases of HIV/AIDS in Pakistan has been continuously increasing since 1987. By 2010 the total number of registered cases has reached to 6000 and this figure is on the rise with the passage of time. Some serious strategies must be implemented to control this deadly disease.

  4. Status and potential of nuclear energy in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.M.; Jalal, A.I.

    1991-01-01

    Pakistan is an energy resource deficient country which is heavily dependent on imported energy, while its per capita energy consumption level is still very low. Energy and electricity needs have been growing rapidly and these trends are expected to continue. Pakistan needs to make use of nuclear power on a large scale. This paper discusses the limitations of indigenous energy resources in coping with the future requirements of electricity and compares the cost economics of nuclear power with that of electricity generation based on imported oil and coal. It then describes the efforts being made in the country to make use of nuclear power in a self-reliant manner. (author)

  5. Proceedings of Seminar on Emerging Environmental Issues in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhami, M.S.I.; Anees, S.

    1999-01-01

    The seminar on emerging environmental issues in Pakistan was held from December 5-7, 1998, in Islamabad, Pakistan. The nature and magnitude of environmental contamination, and who is exposed to it, depend not only on scientific and technological factors but also reflect economic, political, social and many other influences. In the process of creating social and economic benefits to society, industrial production generates hazardous waste and chemical contaminants that impact negatively on quality of life. The main emphases in this proceedings are on different type pollution and their impacts on humane life. (A.B.)

  6. Sources of fluoride pollution in Kasur district, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.H.; Haq, M.M.I.

    2005-01-01

    Serious bone problems were reported in certain localities in Pakistan due to contamination of drinking water by fluoride pollution. Against WHO recommended threshold limit of 0.7 mg/L, about 40 mg/L of fluoride is determined by ion chromatographic technique of HPLC. The compositions of pollutants were investigated in the present study by examination the chemical and mineralogical studies of water and soil samples. It is found that main problem in Manga Mandi area of District Kasur, was caused due to the decomposition of phosphorus containing minerals in soil under acidic conditions. The other sources of fluoride contamination in different areas of Pakistan is being investigated. (author)

  7. OpenNI cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Falahati, Soroush

    2013-01-01

    This is a Cookbook with plenty of practical recipes enriched with explained code and relevant screenshots to ease your learning curve. If you are a beginner or a professional in NIUI and want to write serious applications or games, then this book is for you. Even OpenNI 1 and OpenNI 1.x programmers who want to move to new versions of OpenNI can use this book as a starting point. This book uses C++ as the primary language but there are some examples in C# and Java too, so you need to have about a basic working knowledge of C or C++ for most cases.

  8. Report on results of research. Basic studies on characteristics of coal char gasification under pressure; Sekitan char no kaatsuka ni okeru gas ka tokuseino kiso kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This paper explains basic studies on characteristics of coal char gasification under pressure. Hydro-gasification of coal needs as a gasifying agent a large amount of hydrogen, which is effectively produced by the water gasification of exhaust unreacted residual char. In fiscal 1975, gasification was tested on Taiheiyo coal carbonized char by an atmospheric fluidized gasifier of 28 mm bore. In fiscal 1976, experiment was conducted under pressure by fully improving the auxiliary safety equipment. The char and gas yield increased with higher pressure in pressurized carbonization by an autoclave. In fiscal 1977, clinker was successfully prevented by using quartz sand for a fluidized medium. In fiscal 1978, two-stage continuous gasification was examined. In fiscal 1979, correlation was determined between operation factors such as gasification pressure, temperature, etc., and clinker formation/char reactivity. An experiment was conducted for particle pop-out using a pressurized fluidized bed of 100 mm inner diameter, with the pop-out quantity found to be proportional to the 0.38th power of a pressure. A high pressure fluidized gasifier was built having a char processing capacity of 1 t/day, 20 atmospheric pressure, and an inner diameter of 100 mm. In fiscal 1980, this device was continuously operated, elucidating problems for the practicability. (NEDO)

  9. Method to evaluate stress and deformation of small-sized buried pipe induced by wheel loads. Shokokei maisetsukan no rinkaju ni okeru oryoku henkei hyokaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Y.; Kataoka, T.; Kokusho, T.; Yoshida, Y. (Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-03-21

    In order to establish a practical method to evaluate safety of buried pipes, which were generally used as cable-protection pipes, at shallow depth and under vehicle loads, a series of experiments and analyses were performed. Based on the results, a simplified method to evaluate stress and deformation of the buried pipes in pavement were proposed. In the experiments, hard PVC pipes, light steel conduit pipes, and corrugated hard PE pipes in nominal diameters from 75 to 200 mm were applied as specimens for representative flexible pipes, and field load tests in actual size as well as laboratory load tests using soil vessels were carried out. The calculated results by the proposed method were compared to the experimental results, finding that the calculated values gave a satisfactory agreement with measured values which were obtained by the field tests. As a result, it was confirmed that the practical method to evaluate circumferential stresses at the top of pipes and flat-deflection ratios of small-sized buried Pipes induced by wheel loads under various conditions were presented. 20 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Fiscal 2000 survey report. Survey of DSM status in Europe centering about thermal storage; 2000 nendo Oshu ni okeru chikunetsu wo chushin to shita DSM jokyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    In search of measures for popularizing thermal storage technology in Japan, investigations were conducted into the conditions of electric power and the state of DSM (demand side management) in Italy, Spain, Portugal, and Greece whose climate is similar to Japan's. The results of the effort were edited and classified into six items, which are (1) power conditions, (2) DSM status, (3) popularity of thermal storage, (4) merits of thermal storage, (5) measures for thermal storage popularization, and (6) propositions to Japan. In all the countries, the power demand peak has shifted to the summer season or the difference in demand for power between summer and winter has decreased and, except in the case of Greece, the load factor has increased, these due to the increase in demand for power for cooling equipment. In Greece, the load factor has decreased since the peak shifted to summer. In every country, the rate schedule based on season of the year and time of the day is treated as a basic incentive for DSM. Except in Greece, there is no summer demand suppression type DSM menu and efforts are being exerted rather to have loads built in off-peak time zones. As for thermal storage systems in use, they are mostly of the ice-aided type. Those in the residential/commercial sector are on the increase, and it is estimated that 50% of ice thermal storage systems will be found in this sector in 2000. (NEDO)

  11. Wind power development field test project at Okkobe-cho. Close survey on wind conditions; Okkobecho ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    A survey was made on regional wind conditions on the assumption that a wind power generator was installed around Okkobe Rakuno-no-oka, Okkobe-cho, Monbetsu-gun, Hokkaido. The survey period was one year from Oct., 1998 to Sept., 1999. The observations were carried out on the average wind velocity, average wind direction, standard deviation of velocity, and the maximum instantaneous wind velocity. With a fixed point observation at 20 m above ground, and with the minimum observation time unit of 10 minutes, an average value during the 10 minutes was determined as the measurement of each category. However, the maximum instantaneous wind velocity was determined on the measurement with the minimum observation time unit of 2 seconds. The average wind velocity was 4.8 m/s, the maximum wind velocity during the period was 29.9 m/s, the prevailing wind direction was WSW (17.1%), the wind axis was WSW-ENE, and the total occurrence rate of wind direction was 51.1%. The intensity of turbulence was 0.19 at a wind velocity of 2.0 m/s or above and was 0.16 at 4.0 m/s or above. An estimated annual operation rate of a windmill was 59-77% using the rated value of a 150 kW, 300 kW and 750 kW class windmills. (NEDO)

  12. Wind power development field test project at Hirashima, Sakito-cho. Detailed wind characteristics survey; Sakitocho Hirashima ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    A detailed wind characteristics survey was conducted at Hirashima, Sakito-cho, Nishisonogi-gun, Nagasaki Prefecture, on the assumption that a wind power generation system would be constructed. The survey was a 1-year project from October 1998 through September 1999, and wind characteristics such as the average wind speed, average wind direction, standard deviation of wind velocity, and the maximum instantaneous wind speed were observed. The observation point was fixed at 20m above ground, the minimum time unit for observation was 10 minutes, and the 10-minute average value was defined as the measured value. For the maximum instantaneous wind speed, the minimum time unit for observation was set to be 2 seconds. The yearly average wind speed was 7.1m/s and the maximum wind speed in the period was 37m/s. Winds came prevalently from N (13.9%), and then from NNE (13.3%), NW (12.2%), and NE (10.7%). The total wind direction occurrence rate involving the 4 directions was 50.1%. Turbulence intensity was 0.14 at wind speed 2.0m/s or more and 0.12 at wind speed 4.0m/s or more. Estimated wind turbine yearly operating factors of 77-87% were obtained using rated values of a 150kW, 300kW, and 750kW-class wind turbines. (NEDO)

  13. Wind power development field test project at Maruyama-machi. Close survey on wind conditions; Maruyamamachi ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    A survey was made on wind conditions in Maruyama-machi, Awa-gun, Chiba prefecture, on the assumption that a wind power generation system was installed therein. The survey period was one year from Oct., 1998 to Sept., 1999. The observations were carried out on the average wind velocity, average wind direction, standard deviation of velocity, and the maximum instantaneous wind velocity. With a fixed point observation at 20 m above ground, and with the minimum observation time unit of 10 minutes, an average value during the 10 minutes was determined as the measurement of each category. However, the maximum instantaneous wind velocity was determined on the measurement with the minimum observation time unit of 2 seconds. The average annual wind velocity was 3.5 m/s, the maximum wind velocity during the period was 27 m/s, and the wind axis was WSW-ENE, with the total occurrence rate of the wind direction 44.1%. The intensity of turbulence was 0.23 at a wind velocity of 2.0 m/s or above and was 0.22 at 4.0 m/s or above. An estimated annual operation rate of a windmill was 40-60% using the rated value of a 150 kW, 300 kW and 750 kW class windmills. (NEDO)

  14. Wind power development field test project at Ashibe-cho. Detailed wind characteristics survey; Ashibecho ni okeru furyoku kaihatsu field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    A detailed wind characteristics survey was conducted at Ashibe-cho, Iki-gun, Nagasaki Prefecture, on the assumption that a wind power generation system would be constructed. The survey was a 1-year project from October 1998 through September 1999, and wind characteristics such as the average wind speed, average wind direction, standard deviation of wind velocity, and the maximum instantaneous wind speed were observed. The observation point was fixed at 20m above ground, the minimum time unit for observation was 10 minutes, and the 10-minute average value was defined as the measured value. For the maximum instantaneous wind speed, the minimum time unit for observation was set to be 2 seconds. The yearly average wind speed was 5.8m/s and the maximum wind speed in the period was 35m/s. Winds came from the prevailing direction of NE (21.3%), and then from NNE (14.7%) and ENE (7.9%). The wind axis was in the NE-SW direction, and the total wind direction occurrence rate from the 6 directions was 60.2%. Turbulence intensity was 0.19 at wind speed 2.0m/s or more and 0.17 at wind speed 4.0m/s or more. Estimated wind turbine yearly operating factors of 66-84% were obtained using rated values of a 150kW, 300kW, and 750kW-class wind turbines. (NEDO)

  15. Wind energy technology : from the past to the future; 20 seiki ni okeru furyoku riyo gijutsu no henkan. Furyoku hatsuden : kako kara mirai e

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushiyama, I. [Ashikaga Institute of Technology, Tochigi (Japan)

    2000-01-20

    Windmills are one of the oldest prime movers and have been used for more than 700 years in Europe. The transition from low speed windmills for grain grinding and water pumping to high speed wind turbines for electric power generation had occurred at first, reviews the windmill technologies and the researchers before 20{sup th} century. Then describes the back ground of how the wind power generator has existed and how the four pioneers developed their wind power generator. The historical developments of windmills to wind turbines in this century are studied focusing mainly on Danish activities. Then, the effort of the development of large wind turbine such as Smith-Putnum's first MW machine in U.S.A. and other mammoth machine concept are introduced. The new concept machines such as Savonius and Darrieus wind turbines in 1920s to 1930s are also explained. Finally, the novel technologies of wind turbine covering larger machines, variable speed generators, special wing sections for wind turbines, theoretical analysis method of wind turbine performance, offshore wind turbines, and wind turbine control technologies are stated. (author)

  16. Visualization and image analysis of dynamic stall phenomenon for a Darrieus wind turbine; Darrieus fusha ni okeru doteki shissoku gensho no kashika to gazo kaisekini kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujisawa, N.; Shibuya, S.; Takano, T. [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan)

    1999-10-25

    The flow field around a Darrieus wind turbine is studied by flow visualization and PIV measurement in a rotating frame of reference to understand the unsteady nature of dynamic stall appearing at low tip-speed ratios. The qualitative nature of the dynamic stall observed by the flow visualization using dye injection technique is quantitatively reproduced in the instantaneous velocity distributions around the blade measured by PIV technique. These results indicate that two pairs of stall vortices are generated in one cycle of the turbine rotation and they grow in size as the tip-speed ratio decreases. The mechanism of the dynamic stall is found to be due to the flow separation over the suction side of the blade followed by the generation of in-flow motion from the pressure side to the suction side of the blade through the trailing edge. (author)

  17. Prevention of condenser tubes corroson from polluted sea wtaer at Saijo thermal power station. Saijo hatsudensho ni okeru fukusuiki kan no boshoku taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, T.; Sato, N.; Ito, M. (Shikoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Kagawa (Japan))

    1991-03-15

    After the oil shock, Saijou thermal power station converted its energy source into coal to diversify the power source. With rising operation rate at the plant after fuel conversion, leaky condenser tubes have increased. Such leakage concentrated especially in new 70/30 cupro-nickel tubes equipped in air cooling zones of the condenser. This report investigates the cause of this leakage and describes the study results on the corrosion prevention. Consequently, following two measures were taken: a measure to prevent local erosion of aluminum brass pipes by means of preventing inflow of foreign materials such as seashells; a measure to prevent corrosion of 70/30 cupro-nickel sulfide by strengthening the injection of ferrous sulfate and by test loading of coated tubes. As a result, no sea water was leaked. Moreover, it was found through the eddy current examination that sulfide corrosion of the new 70/30 cupro-nickel tubes was reduced by iron coat and the rate of losing its thickness decreased remarkably. 1 ref., 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Analysis of the membrane fouling on cross-flow ultrafiltration and microfiltration of soy sauce lees; Shoyuhiireden no kurosuforo roka ni okeru fauringu no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukakwa, T. [Kikkoman Corporation, Chiba (Japan); Kobayashi, H.; Kokubo, K.; Watanabe, A. [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan). Graduate School of Science and Technology

    2000-05-10

    Although since the 1980's Japanese soy sauce manufactures have developed cross-flow membrane filtration systems to recover soy sauce from its lees, the mechanisms by which the membrane fouls during filtration have not been theoretically discussed. Calculated flux declines using a theoretical equation developed for cross-flow cake filtration were compared against experimental results involving the filtration of soy sauce lees using polysulfone ultrafiltration and micro filtration membranes. Membrane fouling due to the deposition and intrusion of soy sauce lees was evaluated from the hydraulic resistances of the membrane and the cake layer. Calculated flux declines with time agree with the experimental results. Specific resistance of the cake layer which is an adjustable parameter of the equation, decreases with increasing cross-flow velocity. Hydraulic resistance exhibited by the membranes is independent of feed flow velocity. However, the resistance of the cake layers decreases with increasing cross-flow velocity. This corresponds to the steady-state flux increase. In conclusion, the main cause of fouling in the filtration of soy sauce lees is cake layer formation. By using the cake filtration model for cross-flow, the flux decline with time during the filtration is capable of being predicted. (author)

  19. Fiscal 1992 report. Overseas surveys out of surveys for coal hydrogasification technology development; 1992 nendo sekitan suiten gaska gijutsu kaihatsu chosa ni okeru kaigai chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-01

    As part of the coal hydrogasification technology development survey project, overseas surveys were carried out as in the preceding fiscal year. With an emphasis placed on the process materials and resources, and on product utilization technologies, surveys and studies were conducted about the trends of development of coal and natural gas resources, and information was collected on energy-related matters in Indonesia and Australia. The need of hydrogasification technology was investigated from the viewpoint of natural resources. Moreover, Japanese engineers were dispatched to APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Conference) New Energy Seminar, Indonesia. Visits were made for information on the natural gas resources at an LNG base in East Kalimantan, Indonesia; coal gasification, energy, and others at CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization), Australia; coal bed and methane resources at Warren Center, University of Sydney, Australia; coal bed and methane resources at the Brisbane office, Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Company, Inc.; and coal resources at coal mines of Idemitsu South Queensland Coal Pty Ltd. (NEDO)

  20. Cooperative measurements of microtremors in the north-eastern region of Nishinomiya city, Hyogo Pref.; Nishinomiyashi hokutobu ni okeru joji bido no godo kansoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiguma, T; Matsuzawa, H [Saitama University, Saitama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Sawada, Y; Tazawa, Y [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    For the purpose of generally grasping space distribution of ground vibration characteristics, cooperative measurements were conducted in a wide area, mainly in the area stricken by the M7 earthquake. Forty-five organs such as governmental institutes, universities, and private company institutes participated in the measurements which were conducted at 1967 measuring points. The area which the author is in charge is an area from the north of Nishinomiya City to the south of Takarazuka City. The area is relatively far from the hypocenter area, but the magnitude is 7 there and damage was concentrated. The measurements were made by each independent team from August 29 to September 1, 1995. As a result of spectral measurements of NS, EW and UD components, conspicuous peaks were seen in an extent of 1.5 sec. cycle in almost all measuring points and components. Further, in spectra of horizontal motion components of A measuring point group, conspicuous peaks were seen in an extent of 0.15-0.5 sec. cycle, and in those in B and C measuring point groups, in an extent of 0.35-0.5 sec. cycle. In upper/lower motion components, conspicuous peaks were seen in an extent of 0.3 sec. cycle in A measuring point group. 4 figs.

  1. Application of streaming potential method for detection of fractures in granitic rock; Kamaishi kozan ni okeru ryutai ryudo den`iho tekiyo shiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negi, T; Yokoi, K; Yoneda, Y [Nittetsu Mining Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Senba, T [Power Reactor and Nuclear fuel Development Corporation, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Measurements were made using the streaming potential method for the purpose of investigating the expansion of hydration cracks, direction of their propagation, and the chaining of cracked surfaces, in the granitic rock. Tests were conducted by use of a bore hole in the gallery wall. The bore hole yielded approximately 400 liters of water per minute, the bore hole was closed and then opened, and the change with the passage of time in the spontaneous potential (SP) on the gallery wall was measured. At a spot 31.2m from the mine entrance, the SP dropped by 15mV simultaneously with the opening of the bore hole, and rose by 14mV simultaneously with the closure of the same. The phenomenon was true for other locations, that is, for the section from the mine entrance to a spot 9.0m therefrom, and for a section beginning at 15.0m and ending at 19.2m therefrom. No change in the SP was observed in a group of cracks with water springing out of the gallery roof, beginning at a point 40m and ending at a point 54m from the mine entrance. The result suggests the possible application of the streaming potential method to the investigation of cracks. 1 ref., 10 figs.

  2. 2D resistivity survey in complex geological structure area. Application to the volcanic area; Fukuzatsuna chishitsu kozo chiiki ni okeru hiteiko nijigen tansa. Kazangan chiiki deno tekiorei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asakawa, S; Ikuma, T; Tanifuji, R [DIA Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Introduced herein is an application of 2D resistivity survey to a volcanic rock area where the survey result is difficult to interpret because of its complex geological structure. In a dam site survey, main problems involve the permeability of water through faults and weathered, altered zones. At this site, a 2D resistivity survey was conducted, a 2D geological structure was deduced from the resistivity section, and the result was examined. It was found that resistivity distribution was closely related to hydrographic factors, but no obvious correlation was detected between rock classes and R, Q, and D. In conducting investigations into a section planned for a highway tunnel, it was learned that the problem was a volcanic ash layer to collapse instantly upon absorbing water, and the distribution of the ash layer, not to be disclosed by boring, was subjected to a 2D resistivity survey. The survey was conducted into the structure above where the tunnel would run, and further into the face, and studies were made about what layer was reflected by the resistivity distribution obtained by analysis. The result of the analysis agreed with the details of the layer that was disclosed afterward. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Application of geophysical methods to investigation of old castle, especially of the moat; Joshi no chosa ni okeru butsuri tansa no tekiyo (horiato no tansa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, A; Karube, F; Kobayashi, M; Toge, M [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    An explanation is made about the application of geophysical methods to the investigation of the ruins of old castles especially of their moats. Techniques currently in use for exploration of the ruins of castles are mainly underground radar exploration and electric exploration. The underground radar method sends electromagnetic waves through the ground and receives the reflection for a high-precision exploration of the layers shallow in the ground. Therefore, this method is suitable for probing the ruins of castles relatively shallow in the flat land, hills, and mountains. The electric method (resistivity image method) do the probing by use of the two-electrode arrangement, performs inverse analysis on the basis of the obtained data for the determination of the underground resistivity distribution, and displays the distribution in an image easy to read. This method, when there is a great separation between the two electrodes, explores relatively deep into the ground. Thanks to this feature, this method is effective in probing relatively wide and deep ruins of moats, that is, the ruins of moats of castles built in later years, especially of those then filled with water. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Travel time and ray path computation in 2D-heterogeneous structures; Fukinshitsu kozo ni okeru jishinha soji oyobi hasen no atarashii keisan hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujie, G; Kasahara, J; Sato, T; Mochizuki, K [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Earthquake Research Institute

    1996-05-01

    Methods were studied for determining the initial travel time and ray paths with stability when an non-linear travel time inversion is performed in an inhomogeneous structure. The travel time calculation was based on Faria and Stoffa`s method. First, the 2-dimension space was sectioned by grids, and `slowness` was assigned to all the lattice points. Starting from the vibration source, travel time at each lattice point is sequentially calculated. This method calculates travel time for any structure without breakup. In this study, an algorithm more sophisticated than the method of Faria, et al., was developed, and the improvement of travel time calculation accuracy led to the accurate determination of the direction of incidence into the lattice points during the initial motion. The calculation of ray paths was effected by tracing back from the receiving points the incidence into the lattice points or by following back the ray paths to the vibration source. This method performs stable calculation for a heavily inhomogeneous structure and, with the algorithm being simple, do the parallel programming as well. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Flow characteristic of Hijiori HDR reservoir from circulation test in 1991; Koon tantai Hijiori jikkenjo ni okeru senbu choryuso shiken (1991 nendo) kekka to ryudo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiga, T; Hyodo, M; Shinohara, N; Takasugi, S [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    This paper reports one example of flow analyses on a circulation test carried out in fiscal 1991 at the Hijiori hot dry rock experimental field (Yamagata Prefecture). A fluid circulation model was proposed to simulate an HDR circulation system for a shallow reservoir (at a depth of about 1800 m) demonstrated in the circulation test by using an electric circuit network (which expresses continuity impedance in resistance and fluid storage in capacitance). Storage capacity of the reservoir was estimated by deriving time constant of the system from data of time-based change in reservoir pressure associated with transition phenomena during the circulation test. The storage capacity was estimated separately by dividing change of storage in the reservoir by change in the reservoir pressure. To derive the storage in the reservoir, a method to calculate non-recovered flows in the circulation test was utilized. The results of evaluating the reservoir capacity in the shallow reservoir using the above two independent methods were found substantially consistent. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Flow characteristics of Hijiori HDR reservoir form circulation test in 1995; Koon tantai Hijiori jikkenjo ni okeru shinbu choryuso yobi junkan shiken (1995 nendo) kekka to ryudo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukushima, N; Hyodo, M; Shinohara, N; Takasugi, S [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    This paper reports the result of a preliminary circulation test conducted in fiscal 1995 on a deep reservoir (at a depth of about 2200 m) in the Hijiori hot dry rock experimental field. One water injection well and two production wells were drilled to constitute a circulation loop, to which the circulation test was performed to investigate the flow characteristics thereof. The result revealed the following matters: total amount of injected water of 51500 m{sup 3} resulted in a total fluid recovery rate of about 40%; as a result of well stimulation given twice during the initial stage of the water injection, the continuity impedance in the vicinity of the injection well decreased largely (however, the continuity improvement upon the second attempt was considerably inferior to that from the first attempt); and increase in the water injection amount does not necessarily lead to increase in the production amount. The paper describes additionally that it is extremely difficult to interpret non-linearity between the injection and production amounts by using a model prepared previously with a main objective to analyze the Hijiori HDR circulation system. 1 ref., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Magnetotelluric investigation in and around southern part of Hidaka metamorphic belt in Hokkaido, Japan; Hidaka henseitai nanbuiki ni okeru MT kansoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, H; Utsugi, M; Hirano, K; Doi, T; Nishida, Y; Arita, K [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    An MT observation was conducted in the Hidaka district, Hokkaido, for the estimation of the 2D resistivity structure in the southern part of the metamorphic belt, when frequencies of the VLF, ELF, and ULF bands were used. An approximately 42km-long traverse line was set to cross the Hidaka metamorphic belt from east to west. As for the observation points, 48 VLF points, 16 ELF points, and 4 ULF points were provided. During the data processing, impedance tensor was calculated in the frequency domain for the determination of the apparent resistivity relative to frequency and the phase difference. As the result, it was found that there is a fairly large resistivity gap between observation spots MNS and KWR and that the boundary corresponds to the Hidaka metamorphic belt, that the metamorphic belt that is reflected as a conspicuous high-resistivity layer in the VLF-, ELF-MT slopes down toward the east and has a distribution as deep as 10km in the vicinity of observation point KWR, that this high-resistivity layer sandwiches a low-resistivity layer at a depth of 5-7km, and that on the east side of the metamorphic belt there is a medium-resistivity layer creeping under the belt from the east side toward the west side. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Succession of benthos and nutrient removal rate in the hydroponic culture system; Shokubutsu suiko saibaikei ni okeru konken seibutsu no henka to eiyoen no jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizaki, M [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Nakazato, H [Biox Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-08-10

    Such nutrients as nitrogen and phosphorus discharged into lakes and rivers can cause organic contamination as a result of eutrophication in water areas if they are left as they are. However, they can be re-utilized as resources if they are utilized more effectively. This paper reports a hydroponic organism filtering method as a promising method of utilization thereof. It also explains transition in organism phase in rhizosphere and a water purification experiment. Such suspended matters as phytoplanktons in raw water are filtered and captured by roots of plants; such small animals as tendipedidae and physia live symbiotically in the rhizosphere; their excrements and nutrients are absorbed into and utilized by plants; and coexistence is made possible between diverse water-front environments including terrestrial systems and diverse living organisms. Cresson cultivation, observation on transition in the benthos composition, and a lake water purification experiment were carried out at the Kasumigaura Lake experimental facility. Various findings were acquired such that, in order to attain diverse coexistences including those with natural enemies and well-ventilated environments, a water channel of larger than a certain size is required. Results were also obtained that can be expected as an effective technique that may be used in public water areas. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Relationship between herbicide's fate of the river flowing into lake Teganuma and its molecular structure. Teganuma ryunyu kasen ni okeru josozai no dotai to bunshi kozo no kankei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, J [Nishi Tokyo University, Yamanashi (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering; Ogura, N [Tokyo University o Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    1994-04-10

    Environmental profiles of agricultural chemicals in a river flowing into Lake Teganuma were surveyed. Their dissolution and adsorption were investigated by using indoor experiments, and their behaviors were discussed from a viewpoint of molecular structure in the compounds. The herbicides detected in the river contained CNP and Benthiocarb were at high concentration at the time of spraying, but decreased sharply thereafter. The CNP had lower concentration than Benthiocarb in the river, indicating little amount flowing out from paddy fields. These differences in the environmental profiles should be attributable to natures of the herbicides. An indoor experiment has revealed that Benthiocarb has lower solubility and higher absorption strength than CNP. It was found with respect to the chemical structures that polarity increases if hetero atoms and hydrophilic substituents exist in moleculars; the solubility of Benthiocarb grows higher than that of hydrocarbons; and adsorption power relates to the area of contact with absorbing media, and absorption rate relates to the solubility, absorption power, and three-dimensional structure. 23 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Analysis of output characteristics of PV modules under natural sunlight; Shizen taiyokoka ni okeru taiyo denchi module shutsuryoku tokusei no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murai, Y.; Igari, S. [Japan Quality Assurance of Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    The paper measured current/voltage characteristics of various PV modules under natural light and analyzed various characteristics such as generated output and module power generation efficiency. In the experiment, installing various PV modules at the solar techno center located at north latitude 34.7deg and east longitude 137.6deg, measurement was made by I-V curve tracer, pyranometer, and thermocouple buried on the module back. As a result, the following were confirmed: As to the monthly mean power generation efficiency, the crystalline system is lowest in summer and highest in winter, and the amorphous system highest in summer and lowest in winter. Concerning the power generation efficiency and illuminance, the gap of power generation efficiency between at high illuminance and at low illuminance is large in the crystalline system and small in amorphous system. Relating to the azimuth angle of module installation and the generated output, the installation inclined 15deg angle west in summer and 15deg angle east in fall/winter generates more power in the crystalline system. On the contrary, the installation on the south face generates more power in the amorphous system. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Application of on-line near-infrared analyzer to process control in fermentation plant; Hakko plant no unten kanri ni okeru kinsekigai bunsekikei no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OKayasu, S.; Kitayama, M.; Miyashiro, S. [Ajinomoto Co. Inc. Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-09-10

    Aiming for stable operation and rationalization of a fermentation plant, a near-infrared analyzer was introduced into the on-line analyzing system of the fermentation process. An on-line sampling system with a deforming apparatus was applied to a fermenter in a commercial scale plant. A new efficient method for obtaining highly accurate calibration curves of the near-infrared analyzer was presented. The established method for on-line determination of the main components in the fermentation medium for amino acid production was applied to a real-time measurement system in a commercial fermentation plant. The pattern of sugar concentration change was successfully obtained on a real-time basis. The system was partially incorporated into operation control, even if there was room for improvement of analytical accuracy in response to raw material differences in each lot. 9 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Corrosion characteristics of thermal sprayed coating of stainless alloys in chloride solution; Taishoku gokin yosha himaku no enkabutsu yoekichu ni okeru fushoku tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, T. [Ajinomoto Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Ishikawa, K. [Tokyo Metallikon Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kitamura, Y. [Kitamura Technical Consultant Office, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1994-12-15

    With an objective to develop a thermal sprayed coating of environment interruption type that can be sprayed at sites, electrochemical discussions, SEM observation, and EPMA surface analysis were performed on corrosion characteristics in chloride solution of coatings of SUS 304, 316 and Hastelloy C thermally sprayed onto test pieces made of structural steel SS400, as well as the effect of improvement in corrosion resistance by means of a coating reforming treatment. The following conclusions were obtained: the degradation in corrosion resistance of the coatings is attributable to increase in anodic solubility due to appearance of innumerable crevices as a result of deposited particles forming porous structure and due to drop of Cr content in the matrix caused by generation of oxides on the surface of the crevices, by which the corrosion progresses in the form of crevice corrosion; and denseness of the passive coating is lost on the surface of the deposited particles, accelerating the cathodic reaction. A suitable means that could be used practically in chloride solution would be a method to use a material with less crevice susceptibility such as Hastelloy C as a base material, and seal the crevice structure with epoxy resin, etc. 7 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Development of high field magnets at the National Research Institute for Metals. Kinzoku zairyo gijutsu kenkyusho ni okeru kojikai magnet gun no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyoshi, T.; Inoue, K.; Maeda, H. (National Research Inst. for Metals, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1993-06-20

    Sinece 1988, the Scince and Technology Agency has initiated the superconductor multicore project, which has a purpose of the versatile study on the high temperature superconducting materials of the oxide series. The National Research Institute for Metals is in charge of 5 cores out of them, and in the performance evaluation core which is one of them, the development of each kind of the high field magnets is being advanced for evaluating the characteristics under the high magnetic field. As the magnets, including the 40T class hybrid magnet which generates the steady state magnetic field of 40T, the superconducting magnet of 20T with a large diameter which generates the magnetic field over 20T with a superconductor, the condenser bank system for the pulse magnet to generate the pulse magnetic field up to 80T, and the ultra-precise magnet system which generates the magnetic field with a high uniformity will be consolidated. Keeping pace with a removal of the National Research Institute for Metals to Tsukuba, the construction of the strong magnetic field station is being advanced in the Sakura area. These several kinds of magnets are scheduled to be used in turn for the international joint study. 33 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Report on field test project for wind power development at Nagashima-cho. Detailed wind characteristics survey; Nagashimacho ni okeru furyoku field test jigyo (fukyo seisa) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    A detailed wind characteristics survey was conducted to study the feasibility of a wind power generation system for Nagashima-cho, Izumi-gun, Kagoshima Prefecture. Observation instruments were installed at the top of a hill approximately 80m above the sea level situated to the northwest of the Nagashima-cho town hall and, in the period October 1998 through September 1999, data were collected at a point 20m above ground, such as the average wind speed and direction, wind velocity standard deviation, and the maximum instantaneous wind velocity. The data were analyzed, and findings were obtained, as mentioned below. The annual average wind speed was 5.0m, strong in winter and weak in summer. The annual wind direction occurrence rate was 61.8%, turbulence intensity was 0.17 at wind speeds of 4m/s and more, these not presenting any particular problem. Wind energy density was 148W/m{sup 2}. Both wind speed conditions and energy density were slightly lower than the reference levels indicated for evaluation. Studies were made on the assumption that three classes of wind turbines (150, 300, and 750kW) would be introduced, and then it was found that both operating factors and facility availability rates exceeded the required levels. Since there were no detrimental factors in the surrounding conditions, it was concluded that possibilities were high that wind power generation at the site would be practical. (NEDO)

  15. Effect of total pressure on sulfur capture of Ca-ion exchanged coal; Kaatsu jokenka ni okeru Ca-tanjitan no datsuryu koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, S.; Benjamin, G.; Abe, H.; Harano, A.; Takarada, T. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    In relation to coal gasification and combustion under high pressure as highly efficient coal utilization, the effect of total pressure and sintering on the SO2 capture ability of Ca-ion exchanged coal and other desulfurizing agents were studied. In experiment, specimens were filled into a small pressurized reactor to heat them under high-pressure N2 atmosphere. After the completion of combustion reaction of char at 850{degree}C, SO2, CO2 and CO gases were measured at an outlet while flowing SO2/N2. As the experimental result, all of the S content in Ca-ion exchanged coal was not absorbed by Ca content in coal during pyrolysis and combustion, resulting in discharge of 36% of the S content. Since Ca-ion exchanged coal is fast in combustion reaction, most of the S content was desulfurized by coal ash. The ash content yielded from Ca-ion exchanged coal was more excellent in SO2 capture ability than limestone even under higher pressure. In the case of CO2 partial pressure lower than equilibrium CO2 pressure for CaCO3 decomposition, the capture ability decreased with an increase in total pressure, while in higher CO2 partial pressure, it was improved. 1 ref., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Change in surface characteristics of coal in upgrading of low-rank coals; Teihin`itan kaishitsu process ni okeru sekitan hyomen seijo no henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oki, A.; Xie, X.; Nakajima, T.; Maeda, S. [Kagoshima University, Kagoshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    With an objective to learn mechanisms in low-rank coal reformation processes, change of properties on coal surface was discussed. Difficulty in handling low-rank coal is attributed to large intrinsic water content. Since it contains highly volatile components, it has a danger of spontaneous ignition. The hot water drying (HWD) method was used for reformation. Coal which has been dry-pulverized to a grain size of 1 mm or smaller was mixed with water to make slurry, heated in an autoclave, cooled, filtered, and dried in vacuum. The HWD applied to Loy Yang and Yallourn coals resulted in rapid rise in pressure starting from about 250{degree}C. Water content (ANA value) absorbed into the coal has decreased largely, with the surface made hydrophobic effectively due to high temperature and pressure. Hydroxyl group and carbonyl group contents in the coal have decreased largely with rising reformation treatment temperature (according to FT-IR measurement). Specific surface area of the original coal of the Loy Yang coal was 138 m{sup 2}/g, while it has decreased largely to 73 m{sup 2}/g when the reformation temperature was raised to 350{degree}C. This is because of volatile components dissolving from the coal as tar and blocking the surface pores. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Formation of N2 in the fixed-bed pyrolysis of low rank coals and the mechanisms; Koteisho netsubunkai ni okeru teitankatan kara no N2 no sisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Z.; Otsuka, Y. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science

    1996-10-28

    In order to establish coal NOx preventive measures, discussions were given on formation of N2 in the fixed-bed pyrolysis of low rank coals and the mechanisms thereof. Chinese ZN coal and German RB coal were used for the discussions. Both coals do not produce N2 at 600{degree}C, and the main product is volatile nitrogen. Conversion into N2 does not depend on heating rates, but increases linearly with increasing temperature, and reaches 65% to 70% at 1200{degree}C. In contrast, char nitrogen decreases linearly with the temperature. More specifically, these phenomena suggest that the char nitrogen or its precursor is the major supply source of N2. When mineral substances are removed by using hydrochloric acid, their catalytic action is lost, and conversion into N2 decreases remarkably. Iron existing in ion-exchanged condition in low-rank coal is reduced and finely diffused into metallic iron particles. The particles react with heterocyclic nitrogen compounds and turn into iron nitride. A solid phase reaction mechanism may be conceived, in which N2 is produced due to decomposition of the iron nitride. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Coal conversion rate in 1t/d PSU liquefaction reactor; 1t/d PSU ekika hannoto ni okeru sekitan tenka sokudo no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, K.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    To investigate the coal liquefaction characteristics, coal slurry samples were taken from the outlets of the reactors and slurry preheater of NEDOL process 1 t/d process supporting unit (PSU), and were analyzed. Tanito Harum coal was used for liquefaction, and the slurry was prepared with recycle solvent. Liquefaction was performed using synthetic iron sulfide catalyst at reaction temperatures, 450 and 465{degree}C. Solubility of various solid samples was examined against n-hexane, toluene, and tetrahydrofuran (THF). When considering the decrease of IMO (THF-insoluble and ash) as a characteristic of coal conversion reaction, around 20% at the outlet of the slurry preheater, around 70% within the first reactor, and several percents within the successive second and third reactors were converted against supplied coal. Increase of reaction temperature led to the increase of evaporation of oil fraction, which resulted in the decrease of actual slurry flow rate and in the increase of residence time. Thus, the conversion of coal was accelerated by the synergetic effect of temperature and time. Reaction rate constant of the coal liquefaction was around 2{times}10{sup -1} [min{sup -1}], which increased slightly with increasing the reaction temperature from 450 to 465{degree}C. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Effect of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide on initial stage of coal liquefaction in tetralin; Sekitan ekika shoki katei ni okeru io to ryuka suiso no hatasu yakuwari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakada, M. [Government Industrial Research Institute, Kyushu, Saga (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    It is well known that the solubilization of coal can be accelerated by adding sulfur or hydrogen sulfide during direct liquefaction of difficult coals. From the studies of authors on the coal liquefaction under the conditions at rather low temperatures between 300 and 400{degree}C, liquefaction products with high quality can be obtained by suppressing the aromatization of naphthene rings, but it was a problem that the reaction rate is slow. For improving this point, results obtained by changing solvents have been reported. In this study, to accelerate the liquefaction reaction, Illinois No.6 coal was liquefied in tetralin at temperature range from 300 to 400{degree}C by adding a given amount of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide at the initial stage of liquefaction. The addition of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide provided an acceleration effect of liquefaction reaction at temperature range between 300 and 400{degree}C. The addition of sulfur or hydrogen sulfide at 400{degree}C increased the oil products. At 370 and 400{degree}C, the liquid yield by adding sulfur was slightly higher than that by adding hydrogen sulfide, unexpectedly. The effects of sulfur and hydrogen sulfide were reversed when increasing the hydrogen pressure. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Conversion of char nitrogen to N2 under incomplete combustion conditions; Fukanzen nensho jokenka ni okeru char chuchisso no N2 eno tenka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Q.; Yamauchi, A.; Oshima, Y.; Wu, Z.; Otsuka, Y. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science

    1996-10-28

    The effect of combustion conditions on conversion of char nitrogen to N2 was studied in the combustion experiment of char obtained by pyrolysis of coal. Char specimen was prepared by holding ZN coal of Chinese lignite in Ar atmosphere at 1123K for one hour. A batch scale quartz-made fluidized bed reactor was used for combustion experiment. After the specimen was fluidized in reaction gas, it was rapidly heated to start combustion reaction. CO, CO2 and N2 in produced gases were online measured by gas chromatography (GC). As the experimental result, under the incomplete combustion condition where a large amount of CO was produced by consuming almost all of O2, no NOx and N2O produced from char were found, and almost all of N-containing gas was N2. At the final stage of combustion, pyridinic-N disappeared completely, and pyrrolic-N decreased, while O-containing nitrogen complexes became a main component. It was thus suggested that O-containing nitrogen complexes are playing the role of intermediate product in combustion reaction. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.