WorldWideScience

Sample records for pairwise protein homology

  1. A configuration space of homologous proteins conserving mutual information and allowing a phylogeny inference based on pair-wise Z-score probabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Maréchal Eric; Ortet Philippe; Roy Sylvaine; Bastien Olivier

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Popular methods to reconstruct molecular phylogenies are based on multiple sequence alignments, in which addition or removal of data may change the resulting tree topology. We have sought a representation of homologous proteins that would conserve the information of pair-wise sequence alignments, respect probabilistic properties of Z-scores (Monte Carlo methods applied to pair-wise comparisons) and be the basis for a novel method of consistent and stable phylogenetic recon...

  2. A configuration space of homologous proteins conserving mutual information and allowing a phylogeny inference based on pair-wise Z-score probabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, Olivier; Ortet, Philippe; Roy, Sylvaine; Maréchal, Eric

    2005-03-10

    Popular methods to reconstruct molecular phylogenies are based on multiple sequence alignments, in which addition or removal of data may change the resulting tree topology. We have sought a representation of homologous proteins that would conserve the information of pair-wise sequence alignments, respect probabilistic properties of Z-scores (Monte Carlo methods applied to pair-wise comparisons) and be the basis for a novel method of consistent and stable phylogenetic reconstruction. We have built up a spatial representation of protein sequences using concepts from particle physics (configuration space) and respecting a frame of constraints deduced from pair-wise alignment score properties in information theory. The obtained configuration space of homologous proteins (CSHP) allows the representation of real and shuffled sequences, and thereupon an expression of the TULIP theorem for Z-score probabilities. Based on the CSHP, we propose a phylogeny reconstruction using Z-scores. Deduced trees, called TULIP trees, are consistent with multiple-alignment based trees. Furthermore, the TULIP tree reconstruction method provides a solution for some previously reported incongruent results, such as the apicomplexan enolase phylogeny. The CSHP is a unified model that conserves mutual information between proteins in the way physical models conserve energy. Applications include the reconstruction of evolutionary consistent and robust trees, the topology of which is based on a spatial representation that is not reordered after addition or removal of sequences. The CSHP and its assigned phylogenetic topology, provide a powerful and easily updated representation for massive pair-wise genome comparisons based on Z-score computations.

  3. A configuration space of homologous proteins conserving mutual information and allowing a phylogeny inference based on pair-wise Z-score probabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maréchal Eric

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Popular methods to reconstruct molecular phylogenies are based on multiple sequence alignments, in which addition or removal of data may change the resulting tree topology. We have sought a representation of homologous proteins that would conserve the information of pair-wise sequence alignments, respect probabilistic properties of Z-scores (Monte Carlo methods applied to pair-wise comparisons and be the basis for a novel method of consistent and stable phylogenetic reconstruction. Results We have built up a spatial representation of protein sequences using concepts from particle physics (configuration space and respecting a frame of constraints deduced from pair-wise alignment score properties in information theory. The obtained configuration space of homologous proteins (CSHP allows the representation of real and shuffled sequences, and thereupon an expression of the TULIP theorem for Z-score probabilities. Based on the CSHP, we propose a phylogeny reconstruction using Z-scores. Deduced trees, called TULIP trees, are consistent with multiple-alignment based trees. Furthermore, the TULIP tree reconstruction method provides a solution for some previously reported incongruent results, such as the apicomplexan enolase phylogeny. Conclusion The CSHP is a unified model that conserves mutual information between proteins in the way physical models conserve energy. Applications include the reconstruction of evolutionary consistent and robust trees, the topology of which is based on a spatial representation that is not reordered after addition or removal of sequences. The CSHP and its assigned phylogenetic topology, provide a powerful and easily updated representation for massive pair-wise genome comparisons based on Z-score computations.

  4. Perceptron learning of pairwise contact energies for proteins incorporating the amino acid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Muyoung; Kim, Suhkmann; Moon, Eun-Joung; Cheon, Mookyung; Chung, Kwanghoon; Chang, Iksoo

    2005-07-01

    Although a coarse-grained description of proteins is a simple and convenient way to attack the protein folding problem, the construction of a global pairwise energy function which can simultaneously recognize the native folds of many proteins has resulted in partial success. We have sought the possibility of a systematic improvement of this pairwise-contact energy function as we extended the parameter space of amino acids, incorporating local environments of amino acids, beyond a 20×20 matrix. We have studied the pairwise contact energy functions of 20×20 , 60×60 , and 180×180 matrices depending on the extent of parameter space, and compared their effect on the learnability of energy parameters in the context of a gapless threading, bearing in mind that a 20×20 pairwise contact matrix has been shown to be too simple to recognize the native folds of many proteins. In this paper, we show that the construction of a global pairwise energy function was achieved using 1006 training proteins of a homology of less than 30%, which include all representatives of different protein classes. After parametrizing the local environments of the amino acids into nine categories depending on three secondary structures and three kinds of hydrophobicity (desolvation), the 16290 pairwise contact energies (scores) of the amino acids could be determined by perceptron learning and protein threading. These could simultaneously recognize all the native folds of the 1006 training proteins. When these energy parameters were tested on the 382 test proteins of a homology of less than 90%, 370 (96.9%) proteins could recognize their native folds. We set up a simple thermodynamic framework in the conformational space of decoys to calculate the unfolded fraction and the specific heat of real proteins. The different thermodynamic stabilities of E.coli ribonuclease H (RNase H) and its mutants were well described in our calculation, agreeing with the experiment.

  5. Investigating homology between proteins using energetic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrabl, James O; Hilser, Vincent J

    2010-03-26

    Accumulated experimental observations demonstrate that protein stability is often preserved upon conservative point mutation. In contrast, less is known about the effects of large sequence or structure changes on the stability of a particular fold. Almost completely unknown is the degree to which stability of different regions of a protein is generally preserved throughout evolution. In this work, these questions are addressed through thermodynamic analysis of a large representative sample of protein fold space based on remote, yet accepted, homology. More than 3,000 proteins were computationally analyzed using the structural-thermodynamic algorithm COREX/BEST. Estimated position-specific stability (i.e., local Gibbs free energy of folding) and its component enthalpy and entropy were quantitatively compared between all proteins in the sample according to all-vs.-all pairwise structural alignment. It was discovered that the local stabilities of homologous pairs were significantly more correlated than those of non-homologous pairs, indicating that local stability was indeed generally conserved throughout evolution. However, the position-specific enthalpy and entropy underlying stability were less correlated, suggesting that the overall regional stability of a protein was more important than the thermodynamic mechanism utilized to achieve that stability. Finally, two different types of statistically exceptional evolutionary structure-thermodynamic relationships were noted. First, many homologous proteins contained regions of similar thermodynamics despite localized structure change, suggesting a thermodynamic mechanism enabling evolutionary fold change. Second, some homologous proteins with extremely similar structures nonetheless exhibited different local stabilities, a phenomenon previously observed experimentally in this laboratory. These two observations, in conjunction with the principal conclusion that homologous proteins generally conserved local stability, may

  6. Investigating homology between proteins using energetic profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James O Wrabl

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Accumulated experimental observations demonstrate that protein stability is often preserved upon conservative point mutation. In contrast, less is known about the effects of large sequence or structure changes on the stability of a particular fold. Almost completely unknown is the degree to which stability of different regions of a protein is generally preserved throughout evolution. In this work, these questions are addressed through thermodynamic analysis of a large representative sample of protein fold space based on remote, yet accepted, homology. More than 3,000 proteins were computationally analyzed using the structural-thermodynamic algorithm COREX/BEST. Estimated position-specific stability (i.e., local Gibbs free energy of folding and its component enthalpy and entropy were quantitatively compared between all proteins in the sample according to all-vs.-all pairwise structural alignment. It was discovered that the local stabilities of homologous pairs were significantly more correlated than those of non-homologous pairs, indicating that local stability was indeed generally conserved throughout evolution. However, the position-specific enthalpy and entropy underlying stability were less correlated, suggesting that the overall regional stability of a protein was more important than the thermodynamic mechanism utilized to achieve that stability. Finally, two different types of statistically exceptional evolutionary structure-thermodynamic relationships were noted. First, many homologous proteins contained regions of similar thermodynamics despite localized structure change, suggesting a thermodynamic mechanism enabling evolutionary fold change. Second, some homologous proteins with extremely similar structures nonetheless exhibited different local stabilities, a phenomenon previously observed experimentally in this laboratory. These two observations, in conjunction with the principal conclusion that homologous proteins generally conserved

  7. FastBLAST: homology relationships for millions of proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan N Price

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: All-versus-all BLAST, which searches for homologous pairs of sequences in a database of proteins, is used to identify potential orthologs, to find new protein families, and to provide rapid access to these homology relationships. As DNA sequencing accelerates and data sets grow, all-versus-all BLAST has become computationally demanding. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present FastBLAST, a heuristic replacement for all-versus-all BLAST that relies on alignments of proteins to known families, obtained from tools such as PSI-BLAST and HMMer. FastBLAST avoids most of the work of all-versus-all BLAST by taking advantage of these alignments and by clustering similar sequences. FastBLAST runs in two stages: the first stage identifies additional families and aligns them, and the second stage quickly identifies the homologs of a query sequence, based on the alignments of the families, before generating pairwise alignments. On 6.53 million proteins from the non-redundant Genbank database ("NR", FastBLAST identifies new families 25 times faster than all-versus-all BLAST. Once the first stage is completed, FastBLAST identifies homologs for the average query in less than 5 seconds (8.6 times faster than BLAST and gives nearly identical results. For hits above 70 bits, FastBLAST identifies 98% of the top 3,250 hits per query. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: FastBLAST enables research groups that do not have supercomputers to analyze large protein sequence data sets. FastBLAST is open source software and is available at http://microbesonline.org/fastblast.

  8. SVM-dependent pairwise HMM: an application to protein pairwise alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Gabriele; Raimondi, Daniele; Khan, Taushif; Lenaerts, Tom; Vranken, Wim F

    2017-12-15

    Methods able to provide reliable protein alignments are crucial for many bioinformatics applications. In the last years many different algorithms have been developed and various kinds of information, from sequence conservation to secondary structure, have been used to improve the alignment performances. This is especially relevant for proteins with highly divergent sequences. However, recent works suggest that different features may have different importance in diverse protein classes and it would be an advantage to have more customizable approaches, capable to deal with different alignment definitions. Here we present Rigapollo, a highly flexible pairwise alignment method based on a pairwise HMM-SVM that can use any type of information to build alignments. Rigapollo lets the user decide the optimal features to align their protein class of interest. It outperforms current state of the art methods on two well-known benchmark datasets when aligning highly divergent sequences. A Python implementation of the algorithm is available at http://ibsquare.be/rigapollo. wim.vranken@vub.be. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  9. HomPPI: a class of sequence homology based protein-protein interface prediction methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobbs Drena

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although homology-based methods are among the most widely used methods for predicting the structure and function of proteins, the question as to whether interface sequence conservation can be effectively exploited in predicting protein-protein interfaces has been a subject of debate. Results We studied more than 300,000 pair-wise alignments of protein sequences from structurally characterized protein complexes, including both obligate and transient complexes. We identified sequence similarity criteria required for accurate homology-based inference of interface residues in a query protein sequence. Based on these analyses, we developed HomPPI, a class of sequence homology-based methods for predicting protein-protein interface residues. We present two variants of HomPPI: (i NPS-HomPPI (Non partner-specific HomPPI, which can be used to predict interface residues of a query protein in the absence of knowledge of the interaction partner; and (ii PS-HomPPI (Partner-specific HomPPI, which can be used to predict the interface residues of a query protein with a specific target protein. Our experiments on a benchmark dataset of obligate homodimeric complexes show that NPS-HomPPI can reliably predict protein-protein interface residues in a given protein, with an average correlation coefficient (CC of 0.76, sensitivity of 0.83, and specificity of 0.78, when sequence homologs of the query protein can be reliably identified. NPS-HomPPI also reliably predicts the interface residues of intrinsically disordered proteins. Our experiments suggest that NPS-HomPPI is competitive with several state-of-the-art interface prediction servers including those that exploit the structure of the query proteins. The partner-specific classifier, PS-HomPPI can, on a large dataset of transient complexes, predict the interface residues of a query protein with a specific target, with a CC of 0.65, sensitivity of 0.69, and specificity of 0.70, when homologs of

  10. Chemical shift homology in proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potts, Barbara C.M.; Chazin, Walter J.

    1998-01-01

    The degree of chemical shift similarity for homologous proteins has been determined from a chemical shift database of over 50 proteins representing a variety of families and folds, and spanning a wide range of sequence homologies. After sequence alignment, the similarity of the secondary chemical shifts of C α protons was examined as a function of amino acid sequence identity for 37 pairs of structurally homologous proteins. A correlation between sequence identity and secondary chemical shift rmsd was observed. Important insights are provided by examining the sequence identity of homologous proteins versus percentage of secondary chemical shifts that fall within 0.1 and 0.3 ppm thresholds. These results begin to establish practical guidelines for the extent of chemical shift similarity to expect among structurally homologous proteins

  11. SFESA: a web server for pairwise alignment refinement by secondary structure shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jing; Pei, Jimin; Grishin, Nick V

    2015-09-03

    Protein sequence alignment is essential for a variety of tasks such as homology modeling and active site prediction. Alignment errors remain the main cause of low-quality structure models. A bioinformatics tool to refine alignments is needed to make protein alignments more accurate. We developed the SFESA web server to refine pairwise protein sequence alignments. Compared to the previous version of SFESA, which required a set of 3D coordinates for a protein, the new server will search a sequence database for the closest homolog with an available 3D structure to be used as a template. For each alignment block defined by secondary structure elements in the template, SFESA evaluates alignment variants generated by local shifts and selects the best-scoring alignment variant. A scoring function that combines the sequence score of profile-profile comparison and the structure score of template-derived contact energy is used for evaluation of alignments. PROMALS pairwise alignments refined by SFESA are more accurate than those produced by current advanced alignment methods such as HHpred and CNFpred. In addition, SFESA also improves alignments generated by other software. SFESA is a web-based tool for alignment refinement, designed for researchers to compute, refine, and evaluate pairwise alignments with a combined sequence and structure scoring of alignment blocks. To our knowledge, the SFESA web server is the only tool that refines alignments by evaluating local shifts of secondary structure elements. The SFESA web server is available at http://prodata.swmed.edu/sfesa.

  12. Improving prediction of heterodimeric protein complexes using combination with pairwise kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Peiying; Hayashida, Morihiro; Akutsu, Tatsuya; Vert, Jean-Philippe

    2018-02-19

    Since many proteins become functional only after they interact with their partner proteins and form protein complexes, it is essential to identify the sets of proteins that form complexes. Therefore, several computational methods have been proposed to predict complexes from the topology and structure of experimental protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. These methods work well to predict complexes involving at least three proteins, but generally fail at identifying complexes involving only two different proteins, called heterodimeric complexes or heterodimers. There is however an urgent need for efficient methods to predict heterodimers, since the majority of known protein complexes are precisely heterodimers. In this paper, we use three promising kernel functions, Min kernel and two pairwise kernels, which are Metric Learning Pairwise Kernel (MLPK) and Tensor Product Pairwise Kernel (TPPK). We also consider the normalization forms of Min kernel. Then, we combine Min kernel or its normalization form and one of the pairwise kernels by plugging. We applied kernels based on PPI, domain, phylogenetic profile, and subcellular localization properties to predicting heterodimers. Then, we evaluate our method by employing C-Support Vector Classification (C-SVC), carrying out 10-fold cross-validation, and calculating the average F-measures. The results suggest that the combination of normalized-Min-kernel and MLPK leads to the best F-measure and improved the performance of our previous work, which had been the best existing method so far. We propose new methods to predict heterodimers, using a machine learning-based approach. We train a support vector machine (SVM) to discriminate interacting vs non-interacting protein pairs, based on informations extracted from PPI, domain, phylogenetic profiles and subcellular localization. We evaluate in detail new kernel functions to encode these data, and report prediction performance that outperforms the state-of-the-art.

  13. Improving pairwise comparison of protein sequences with domain co-occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascuel, Olivier

    2018-01-01

    Comparing and aligning protein sequences is an essential task in bioinformatics. More specifically, local alignment tools like BLAST are widely used for identifying conserved protein sub-sequences, which likely correspond to protein domains or functional motifs. However, to limit the number of false positives, these tools are used with stringent sequence-similarity thresholds and hence can miss several hits, especially for species that are phylogenetically distant from reference organisms. A solution to this problem is then to integrate additional contextual information to the procedure. Here, we propose to use domain co-occurrence to increase the sensitivity of pairwise sequence comparisons. Domain co-occurrence is a strong feature of proteins, since most protein domains tend to appear with a limited number of other domains on the same protein. We propose a method to take this information into account in a typical BLAST analysis and to construct new domain families on the basis of these results. We used Plasmodium falciparum as a case study to evaluate our method. The experimental findings showed an increase of 14% of the number of significant BLAST hits and an increase of 25% of the proteome area that can be covered with a domain. Our method identified 2240 new domains for which, in most cases, no model of the Pfam database could be linked. Moreover, our study of the quality of the new domains in terms of alignment and physicochemical properties show that they are close to that of standard Pfam domains. Source code of the proposed approach and supplementary data are available at: https://gite.lirmm.fr/menichelli/pairwise-comparison-with-cooccurrence PMID:29293498

  14. The OGCleaner: filtering false-positive homology clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, M Stanley; Suvorov, Anton; Jensen, Nicholas O; Clement, Mark J; Snell, Quinn; Bybee, Seth M

    2017-01-01

    Detecting homologous sequences in organisms is an essential step in protein structure and function prediction, gene annotation and phylogenetic tree construction. Heuristic methods are often employed for quality control of putative homology clusters. These heuristics, however, usually only apply to pairwise sequence comparison and do not examine clusters as a whole. We present the Orthology Group Cleaner (the OGCleaner), a tool designed for filtering putative orthology groups as homology or non-homology clusters by considering all sequences in a cluster. The OGCleaner relies on high-quality orthologous groups identified in OrthoDB to train machine learning algorithms that are able to distinguish between true-positive and false-positive homology groups. This package aims to improve the quality of phylogenetic tree construction especially in instances of lower-quality transcriptome assemblies. https://github.com/byucsl/ogcleaner CONTACT: sfujimoto@gmail.comSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Optimal definition of inter-residual contact in globular proteins based on pairwise interaction energy calculations, its robustness, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fačkovec, Boris; Vondrášek, Jiří

    2012-10-25

    Although a contact is an essential measurement for the topology as well as strength of non-covalent interactions in biomolecules and their complexes, there is no general agreement in the definition of this feature. Most of the definitions work with simple geometric criteria which do not fully reflect the energy content or ability of the biomolecular building blocks to arrange their environment. We offer a reasonable solution to this problem by distinguishing between "productive" and "non-productive" contacts based on their interaction energy strength and properties. We have proposed a method which converts the protein topology into a contact map that represents interactions with statistically significant high interaction energies. We do not prove that these contacts are exclusively stabilizing, but they represent a gateway to thermodynamically important rather than geometry-based contacts. The process is based on protein fragmentation and calculation of interaction energies using the OPLS force field and relies on pairwise additivity of amino acid interactions. Our approach integrates the treatment of different types of interactions, avoiding the problems resulting from different contributions to the overall stability and the different effect of the environment. The first applications on a set of homologous proteins have shown the usefulness of this classification for a sound estimate of protein stability.

  16. MetaGO: Predicting Gene Ontology of Non-homologous Proteins Through Low-Resolution Protein Structure Prediction and Protein-Protein Network Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengxin; Zheng, Wei; Freddolino, Peter L; Zhang, Yang

    2018-03-10

    Homology-based transferal remains the major approach to computational protein function annotations, but it becomes increasingly unreliable when the sequence identity between query and template decreases below 30%. We propose a novel pipeline, MetaGO, to deduce Gene Ontology attributes of proteins by combining sequence homology-based annotation with low-resolution structure prediction and comparison, and partner's homology-based protein-protein network mapping. The pipeline was tested on a large-scale set of 1000 non-redundant proteins from the CAFA3 experiment. Under the stringent benchmark conditions where templates with >30% sequence identity to the query are excluded, MetaGO achieves average F-measures of 0.487, 0.408, and 0.598, for Molecular Function, Biological Process, and Cellular Component, respectively, which are significantly higher than those achieved by other state-of-the-art function annotations methods. Detailed data analysis shows that the major advantage of the MetaGO lies in the new functional homolog detections from partner's homology-based network mapping and structure-based local and global structure alignments, the confidence scores of which can be optimally combined through logistic regression. These data demonstrate the power of using a hybrid model incorporating protein structure and interaction networks to deduce new functional insights beyond traditional sequence homology-based referrals, especially for proteins that lack homologous function templates. The MetaGO pipeline is available at http://zhanglab.ccmb.med.umich.edu/MetaGO/. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Pareto optimal pairwise sequence alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRonne, Kevin W; Karypis, George

    2013-01-01

    Sequence alignment using evolutionary profiles is a commonly employed tool when investigating a protein. Many profile-profile scoring functions have been developed for use in such alignments, but there has not yet been a comprehensive study of Pareto optimal pairwise alignments for combining multiple such functions. We show that the problem of generating Pareto optimal pairwise alignments has an optimal substructure property, and develop an efficient algorithm for generating Pareto optimal frontiers of pairwise alignments. All possible sets of two, three, and four profile scoring functions are used from a pool of 11 functions and applied to 588 pairs of proteins in the ce_ref data set. The performance of the best objective combinations on ce_ref is also evaluated on an independent set of 913 protein pairs extracted from the BAliBASE RV11 data set. Our dynamic-programming-based heuristic approach produces approximated Pareto optimal frontiers of pairwise alignments that contain comparable alignments to those on the exact frontier, but on average in less than 1/58th the time in the case of four objectives. Our results show that the Pareto frontiers contain alignments whose quality is better than the alignments obtained by single objectives. However, the task of identifying a single high-quality alignment among those in the Pareto frontier remains challenging.

  18. Regulation of homologous recombination repair protein Rad51 by Ku70

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Liqing; Liu Qiang; Wang Yan; Xu Chang; Cao Jia; Fu Yue; Chen Fenghua; Fan Feiyue

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the regulative effect of non-homologous end joining (NHEJ)protein Ku70 on homologous recombination repair protein Rad51, and to investigate the synergistic mechanism of homologous recombination repair in combination with NHEJ. Methods: Observed Rad51 protein expression after transfect Ku70 small interfering RNA or Ku70 plasmid DNA into tumor cells using Western blot. Results: Expression of Rad51 was obviously reduced after pretreated with Ku70 small interfering RNA. And with the increasing expression of Ku70 protein after transfection of Ku70 plasmid DNA PGCsi3.0-hKu70 into tumor cell lines, the Rad51 protein expression was increased. Conclusion: Ku70 protein has regulating effect on gene expression of Rad51, and it might participate in the collaboration between homologous recombination repair and NHEJ. (authors)

  19. ProteinWorldDB: querying radical pairwise alignments among protein sets from complete genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Thomas Dan; Catanho, Marcos; Tristão, Cristian; Bezerra, Márcia; Fernandes, Renan Mathias; Elias, Guilherme Steinberger; Scaglia, Alexandre Capeletto; Bovermann, Bill; Berstis, Viktors; Lifschitz, Sergio; de Miranda, Antonio Basílio; Degrave, Wim

    2010-03-01

    Many analyses in modern biological research are based on comparisons between biological sequences, resulting in functional, evolutionary and structural inferences. When large numbers of sequences are compared, heuristics are often used resulting in a certain lack of accuracy. In order to improve and validate results of such comparisons, we have performed radical all-against-all comparisons of 4 million protein sequences belonging to the RefSeq database, using an implementation of the Smith-Waterman algorithm. This extremely intensive computational approach was made possible with the help of World Community Grid, through the Genome Comparison Project. The resulting database, ProteinWorldDB, which contains coordinates of pairwise protein alignments and their respective scores, is now made available. Users can download, compare and analyze the results, filtered by genomes, protein functions or clusters. ProteinWorldDB is integrated with annotations derived from Swiss-Prot, Pfam, KEGG, NCBI Taxonomy database and gene ontology. The database is a unique and valuable asset, representing a major effort to create a reliable and consistent dataset of cross-comparisons of the whole protein content encoded in hundreds of completely sequenced genomes using a rigorous dynamic programming approach. The database can be accessed through http://proteinworlddb.org

  20. Amino acid sequences of ribosomal proteins S11 from Bacillus stearothermophilus and S19 from Halobacterium marismortui. Comparison of the ribosomal protein S11 family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, M; Kimura, J; Hatakeyama, T

    1988-11-21

    The complete amino acid sequences of ribosomal proteins S11 from the Gram-positive eubacterium Bacillus stearothermophilus and of S19 from the archaebacterium Halobacterium marismortui have been determined. A search for homologous sequences of these proteins revealed that they belong to the ribosomal protein S11 family. Homologous proteins have previously been sequenced from Escherichia coli as well as from chloroplast, yeast and mammalian ribosomes. A pairwise comparison of the amino acid sequences showed that Bacillus protein S11 shares 68% identical residues with S11 from Escherichia coli and a slightly lower homology (52%) with the homologous chloroplast protein. The halophilic protein S19 is more related to the eukaryotic (45-49%) than to the eubacterial counterparts (35%).

  1. SANSparallel: interactive homology search against Uniprot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somervuo, Panu; Holm, Liisa

    2015-07-01

    Proteins evolve by mutations and natural selection. The network of sequence similarities is a rich source for mining homologous relationships that inform on protein structure and function. There are many servers available to browse the network of homology relationships but one has to wait up to a minute for results. The SANSparallel webserver provides protein sequence database searches with immediate response and professional alignment visualization by third-party software. The output is a list, pairwise alignment or stacked alignment of sequence-similar proteins from Uniprot, UniRef90/50, Swissprot or Protein Data Bank. The stacked alignments are viewed in Jalview or as sequence logos. The database search uses the suffix array neighborhood search (SANS) method, which has been re-implemented as a client-server, improved and parallelized. The method is extremely fast and as sensitive as BLAST above 50% sequence identity. Benchmarks show that the method is highly competitive compared to previously published fast database search programs: UBLAST, DIAMOND, LAST, LAMBDA, RAPSEARCH2 and BLAT. The web server can be accessed interactively or programmatically at http://ekhidna2.biocenter.helsinki.fi/cgi-bin/sans/sans.cgi. It can be used to make protein functional annotation pipelines more efficient, and it is useful in interactive exploration of the detailed evidence supporting the annotation of particular proteins of interest. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  2. Stringent homology-based prediction of H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hufeng; Gao, Shangzhi; Nguyen, Nam Ninh; Fan, Mengyuan; Jin, Jingjing; Liu, Bing; Zhao, Liang; Xiong, Geng; Tan, Min; Li, Shijun; Wong, Limsoon

    2014-04-08

    H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv protein-protein interaction (PPI) data are essential for understanding the infection mechanism of the formidable pathogen M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Computational prediction is an important strategy to fill the gap in experimental H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv PPI data. Homology-based prediction is frequently used in predicting both intra-species and inter-species PPIs. However, some limitations are not properly resolved in several published works that predict eukaryote-prokaryote inter-species PPIs using intra-species template PPIs. We develop a stringent homology-based prediction approach by taking into account (i) differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic proteins and (ii) differences between inter-species and intra-species PPI interfaces. We compare our stringent homology-based approach to a conventional homology-based approach for predicting host-pathogen PPIs, based on cellular compartment distribution analysis, disease gene list enrichment analysis, pathway enrichment analysis and functional category enrichment analysis. These analyses support the validity of our prediction result, and clearly show that our approach has better performance in predicting H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv PPIs. Using our stringent homology-based approach, we have predicted a set of highly plausible H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv PPIs which might be useful for many of related studies. Based on our analysis of the H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv PPI network predicted by our stringent homology-based approach, we have discovered several interesting properties which are reported here for the first time. We find that both host proteins and pathogen proteins involved in the host-pathogen PPIs tend to be hubs in their own intra-species PPI network. Also, both host and pathogen proteins involved in host-pathogen PPIs tend to have longer primary sequence, tend to have more domains, tend to be more hydrophilic, etc. And the protein domains from both

  3. Beauty is in the eye of the beholder: proteins can recognize binding sites of homologous proteins in more than one way.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliette Martin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms of protein-protein interaction is a fundamental problem with many practical applications. The fact that different proteins can bind similar partners suggests that convergently evolved binding interfaces are reused in different complexes. A set of protein complexes composed of non-homologous domains interacting with homologous partners at equivalent binding sites was collected in 2006, offering an opportunity to investigate this point. We considered 433 pairs of protein-protein complexes from the ABAC database (AB and AC binary protein complexes sharing a homologous partner A and analyzed the extent of physico-chemical similarity at the atomic and residue level at the protein-protein interface. Homologous partners of the complexes were superimposed using Multiprot, and similar atoms at the interface were quantified using a five class grouping scheme and a distance cut-off. We found that the number of interfacial atoms with similar properties is systematically lower in the non-homologous proteins than in the homologous ones. We assessed the significance of the similarity by bootstrapping the atomic properties at the interfaces. We found that the similarity of binding sites is very significant between homologous proteins, as expected, but generally insignificant between the non-homologous proteins that bind to homologous partners. Furthermore, evolutionarily conserved residues are not colocalized within the binding sites of non-homologous proteins. We could only identify a limited number of cases of structural mimicry at the interface, suggesting that this property is less generic than previously thought. Our results support the hypothesis that different proteins can interact with similar partners using alternate strategies, but do not support convergent evolution.

  4. CMsearch: simultaneous exploration of protein sequence space and structure space improves not only protein homology detection but also protein structure prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Xuefeng

    2016-06-15

    Motivation: Protein homology detection, a fundamental problem in computational biology, is an indispensable step toward predicting protein structures and understanding protein functions. Despite the advances in recent decades on sequence alignment, threading and alignment-free methods, protein homology detection remains a challenging open problem. Recently, network methods that try to find transitive paths in the protein structure space demonstrate the importance of incorporating network information of the structure space. Yet, current methods merge the sequence space and the structure space into a single space, and thus introduce inconsistency in combining different sources of information. Method: We present a novel network-based protein homology detection method, CMsearch, based on cross-modal learning. Instead of exploring a single network built from the mixture of sequence and structure space information, CMsearch builds two separate networks to represent the sequence space and the structure space. It then learns sequence–structure correlation by simultaneously taking sequence information, structure information, sequence space information and structure space information into consideration. Results: We tested CMsearch on two challenging tasks, protein homology detection and protein structure prediction, by querying all 8332 PDB40 proteins. Our results demonstrate that CMsearch is insensitive to the similarity metrics used to define the sequence and the structure spaces. By using HMM–HMM alignment as the sequence similarity metric, CMsearch clearly outperforms state-of-the-art homology detection methods and the CASP-winning template-based protein structure prediction methods.

  5. Evolutionary distance from human homologs reflects allergenicity of animal food proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, John A; Breiteneder, Heimo; Mills, E N Clare

    2007-12-01

    In silico analysis of allergens can identify putative relationships among protein sequence, structure, and allergenic properties. Such systematic analysis reveals that most plant food allergens belong to a restricted number of protein superfamilies, with pollen allergens behaving similarly. We have investigated the structural relationships of animal food allergens and their evolutionary relatedness to human homologs to define how closely a protein must resemble a human counterpart to lose its allergenic potential. Profile-based sequence homology methods were used to classify animal food allergens into Pfam families, and in silico analyses of their evolutionary and structural relationships were performed. Animal food allergens could be classified into 3 main families--tropomyosins, EF-hand proteins, and caseins--along with 14 minor families each composed of 1 to 3 allergens. The evolutionary relationships of each of these allergen superfamilies showed that in general, proteins with a sequence identity to a human homolog above approximately 62% were rarely allergenic. Single substitutions in otherwise highly conserved regions containing IgE epitopes in EF-hand parvalbumins may modulate allergenicity. These data support the premise that certain protein structures are more allergenic than others. Contrasting with plant food allergens, animal allergens, such as the highly conserved tropomyosins, challenge the capability of the human immune system to discriminate between foreign and self-proteins. Such immune responses run close to becoming autoimmune responses. Exploiting the closeness between animal allergens and their human homologs in the development of recombinant allergens for immunotherapy will need to consider the potential for developing unanticipated autoimmune responses.

  6. Protein remote homology detection based on bidirectional long short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shumin; Chen, Junjie; Liu, Bin

    2017-10-10

    Protein remote homology detection plays a vital role in studies of protein structures and functions. Almost all of the traditional machine leaning methods require fixed length features to represent the protein sequences. However, it is never an easy task to extract the discriminative features with limited knowledge of proteins. On the other hand, deep learning technique has demonstrated its advantage in automatically learning representations. It is worthwhile to explore the applications of deep learning techniques to the protein remote homology detection. In this study, we employ the Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory (BLSTM) to learn effective features from pseudo proteins, also propose a predictor called ProDec-BLSTM: it includes input layer, bidirectional LSTM, time distributed dense layer and output layer. This neural network can automatically extract the discriminative features by using bidirectional LSTM and the time distributed dense layer. Experimental results on a widely-used benchmark dataset show that ProDec-BLSTM outperforms other related methods in terms of both the mean ROC and mean ROC50 scores. This promising result shows that ProDec-BLSTM is a useful tool for protein remote homology detection. Furthermore, the hidden patterns learnt by ProDec-BLSTM can be interpreted and visualized, and therefore, additional useful information can be obtained.

  7. HOMOLOGY BETWEEN SEGMENTS OF HUMAN HEMOSTATIC PROTEINS AND PROTEINS OF VIRUSES WHICH CAUSE ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS OR DISEASES WITH SIMILAR SYMPTOMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Zhilinskaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To identify homologous segments of human hemostatic and viral proteins and to assess the role of human hemostatic proteins in viral replication. Materials and Methods: The following viruses were chosen for comparison: influenza B (B/Astrakhan/2/2017, coronaviruses (Hcov229E and SARS-Co, type 1 adenovirus (adenoid 71, measles (ICHINOSE-BA and rubella (Therien. The primary structures of viral proteins and 41 human hemostatic proteins were obtained from open–access www.ncbi.nlm.nih. gov and www.nextprot.org databases, respectively. Sequence homology was determined by comparing 12-amino-acid segments. Those sequences identical in ≥ 8 positions were considered homologous. Results: The analysis shows that viral proteins contain segments which mimic a number of human hemostatic proteins. Most of these segments, except those of adenovirus proteins, are homologous with coagulation factors. The increase in viral virulence, as in case of SARS-Co, correlates with an increased number of segments homologous with hemostatic proteins. Conclusion: Hemostasis plays an important role in viral replication and pathogenesis. The conclusion is consistent with the literature data about the relationship of hemostasis and inflammatory response to viral infections.

  8. Biochemical and Structural Analysis of Hormone-sensitive Lipase Homolog EstE7: Insight into the Stabilized Dimerization of HSL-Homolog Proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Ki Hyun; Park, Sung Ha; Lee, Won Ho; Hwang, Kwang Yeon

    2010-01-01

    Hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) plays a major role in energy homeostasis and lipid metabolism. Several crystal structures of HSL-homolog proteins have been identified, which has led to a better understanding of its molecular function. HSLhomolog proteins exit as both monomer and dimer, but the biochemical and structural basis for such oligomeric states has not been successfully elucidated. Therefore, we determined the crystal structure of HSL-homolog protein EstE7 from a metagenome library at 2.2 A resolution and characterized the oligomeric states of EstE7 both structurally and biochemically. EstE7 protein prefers the dimeric state in solution, which is supported by its higher enzymatic activity in the dimeric state. In the crystal form, EstE7 protein shows two-types of dimeric interface. Specifically, dimerization via the external β8-strand occurred through tight association between two pseudosymmetric folds via salt bridges, hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions. This dimer formation was similar to that of other HSL-homolog protein structures such as AFEST, BEFA, and EstE1. We anticipate that our results will provide insight into the oligomeric state of HSLhomolog proteins

  9. Membrane and Protein Interactions of the Pleckstrin Homology Domain Superfamily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Lenoir

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The human genome encodes about 285 proteins that contain at least one annotated pleckstrin homology (PH domain. As the first phosphoinositide binding module domain to be discovered, the PH domain recruits diverse protein architectures to cellular membranes. PH domains constitute one of the largest protein superfamilies, and have diverged to regulate many different signaling proteins and modules such as Dbl homology (DH and Tec homology (TH domains. The ligands of approximately 70 PH domains have been validated by binding assays and complexed structures, allowing meaningful extrapolation across the entire superfamily. Here the Membrane Optimal Docking Area (MODA program is used at a genome-wide level to identify all membrane docking PH structures and map their lipid-binding determinants. In addition to the linear sequence motifs which are employed for phosphoinositide recognition, the three dimensional structural features that allow peripheral membrane domains to approach and insert into the bilayer are pinpointed and can be predicted ab initio. The analysis shows that conserved structural surfaces distinguish which PH domains associate with membrane from those that do not. Moreover, the results indicate that lipid-binding PH domains can be classified into different functional subgroups based on the type of membrane insertion elements they project towards the bilayer.

  10. Membrane and Protein Interactions of the Pleckstrin Homology Domain Superfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Marc; Kufareva, Irina; Abagyan, Ruben; Overduin, Michael

    2015-10-23

    The human genome encodes about 285 proteins that contain at least one annotated pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. As the first phosphoinositide binding module domain to be discovered, the PH domain recruits diverse protein architectures to cellular membranes. PH domains constitute one of the largest protein superfamilies, and have diverged to regulate many different signaling proteins and modules such as Dbl homology (DH) and Tec homology (TH) domains. The ligands of approximately 70 PH domains have been validated by binding assays and complexed structures, allowing meaningful extrapolation across the entire superfamily. Here the Membrane Optimal Docking Area (MODA) program is used at a genome-wide level to identify all membrane docking PH structures and map their lipid-binding determinants. In addition to the linear sequence motifs which are employed for phosphoinositide recognition, the three dimensional structural features that allow peripheral membrane domains to approach and insert into the bilayer are pinpointed and can be predicted ab initio. The analysis shows that conserved structural surfaces distinguish which PH domains associate with membrane from those that do not. Moreover, the results indicate that lipid-binding PH domains can be classified into different functional subgroups based on the type of membrane insertion elements they project towards the bilayer.

  11. Metabolism of homologous and heterologous serum proteins in garter snakes (Thamnophis ordinoides)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leong, D.; Coe, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    The half-life (Tsub(1/2) of serum immunoglobulin (Ig) and albumin from snakes and mammals were determined in both garter snakes (Thamnophis ordinoides) and mice (Mus musculus). Metabolism of serum proteins in snakes was similar to mammalian protein metabolism in that homologous serum albumin had shorter Tsub(1/2) (16 days) than IgG (38 days). Also, reptilian and mammalian serum proteins had a relatively longer Tsub(1/2) when injected into closely related species. Thus mammalian serum Ig (rabbit gamma globulin (RGG)) had a shorter Tsub(1/2) (6.3 days) in snake than did homologous snake IgG (38 days), whereas in mice, RGG had a longer Tsub(1/2) (3.8 days) than snake Ig (0.9 days). Differences between metabolism of homologous and heterologous albumins were apparent only in snakes in which the Tsub(1/2) of homologous albumin was approximately 8-fold greater than mammalian albumin. These results indicate that metabolism of both Ig and albumin in snakes is regulated by specific receptors whereas albumin receptors have been difficult to demonstrate in mammals. The results of this study suggest that one of the factors determining the metabolism of a protein is its foreignness to the host perhaps because of receptor cross reactions. (author)

  12. Anti-HmuY antibodies specifically recognize Porphyromonas gingivalis HmuY protein but not homologous proteins in other periodontopathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Śmiga

    Full Text Available Given the emerging evidence of an association between periodontal infections and systemic conditions, the search for specific methods to detect the presence of P. gingivalis, a principal etiologic agent in chronic periodontitis, is of high importance. The aim of this study was to characterize antibodies raised against purified P. gingivalis HmuY protein and selected epitopes of the HmuY molecule. Since other periodontopathogens produce homologs of HmuY, we also aimed to characterize responses of antibodies raised against the HmuY protein or its epitopes to the closest homologous proteins from Prevotella intermedia and Tannerella forsythia. Rabbits were immunized with purified HmuY protein or three synthetic, KLH-conjugated peptides, derived from the P. gingivalis HmuY protein. The reactivity of anti-HmuY antibodies with purified proteins or bacteria was determined using Western blotting and ELISA assay. First, we found homologs of P. gingivalis HmuY in P. intermedia (PinO and PinA proteins and T. forsythia (Tfo protein and identified corrected nucleotide and amino acid sequences of Tfo. All proteins were overexpressed in E. coli and purified using ion-exchange chromatography, hydrophobic chromatography and gel filtration. We demonstrated that antibodies raised against P. gingivalis HmuY are highly specific to purified HmuY protein and HmuY attached to P. gingivalis cells. No reactivity between P. intermedia and T. forsythia or between purified HmuY homologs from these bacteria and anti-HmuY antibodies was detected. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that P. gingivalis HmuY protein may serve as an antigen for specific determination of serum antibodies raised against this bacterium.

  13. Uncoupling protein homologs may provide a link between mitochondria, metabolism and lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkow, Catherine A; Iser, Wendy B

    2006-05-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs), which dissipate the mitochondrial proton gradient, have the ability to decouple mitochodrial respiration from ATP production. Since mitochondrial electron transport is a major source of free radical production, it is possible that UCP activity might impact free radical production. Free radicals can react with and damage cellular proteins, DNA and lipids. Accumulated damage from oxidative stress is believed to be a major contributor to cellular decline during aging. If UCP function were to impact mitochondrial free radical production, then one would expect to find a link between UCP activity and aging. This theory has recently been tested in a handful of organisms whose genomes contain UCP1 homologs. Interestingly, these experiments indicate that UCP homologs can affect lifespan, although they do not support a simple relationship between UCP activity and aging. Instead, UCP-like proteins appear to have a variety of effects on lifespan, and on pathways implicated in lifespan regulation. One possible explanation for this complex picture is that UCP homologs may have tissue-specific effects that complicate their effects on aging. Furthermore, the functional analysis of UCP1 homologs is incomplete. Thus, these proteins may perform functions in addition to, or instead of, mitochondrial uncoupling. Although these studies have not revealed a clear picture of UCP effects on aging, they have contributed to the growing knowledge base for these interesting proteins. Future biochemical and genetic investigation of UCP-like proteins will do much to clarify their functions and to identify the regulatory networks in which they are involved.

  14. CMsearch: simultaneous exploration of protein sequence space and structure space improves not only protein homology detection but also protein structure prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Xuefeng; Lu, Zhiwu; Wang, Sheng; Jing-Yan Wang, Jim; Gao, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Protein homology detection, a fundamental problem in computational biology, is an indispensable step toward predicting protein structures and understanding protein functions. Despite the advances in recent decades on sequence alignment

  15. Protein homology model refinement by large-scale energy optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hahnbeom; Ovchinnikov, Sergey; Kim, David E; DiMaio, Frank; Baker, David

    2018-03-20

    Proteins fold to their lowest free-energy structures, and hence the most straightforward way to increase the accuracy of a partially incorrect protein structure model is to search for the lowest-energy nearby structure. This direct approach has met with little success for two reasons: first, energy function inaccuracies can lead to false energy minima, resulting in model degradation rather than improvement; and second, even with an accurate energy function, the search problem is formidable because the energy only drops considerably in the immediate vicinity of the global minimum, and there are a very large number of degrees of freedom. Here we describe a large-scale energy optimization-based refinement method that incorporates advances in both search and energy function accuracy that can substantially improve the accuracy of low-resolution homology models. The method refined low-resolution homology models into correct folds for 50 of 84 diverse protein families and generated improved models in recent blind structure prediction experiments. Analyses of the basis for these improvements reveal contributions from both the improvements in conformational sampling techniques and the energy function.

  16. Pairwise structure alignment specifically tuned for surface pockets and interaction interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Xuefeng

    2015-09-09

    To detect and evaluate the similarities between the three-dimensional (3D) structures of two molecules, various kinds of methods have been proposed for the pairwise structure alignment problem [6, 9, 7, 11]. The problem plays important roles when studying the function and the evolution of biological molecules. Recently, pairwise structure alignment methods have been extended and applied on surface pocket structures [10, 3, 5] and interaction interface structures [8, 4]. The results show that, even when there are no global similarities discovered between the global sequences and the global structures, biological molecules or complexes could share similar functions because of well conserved pockets and interfaces. Thus, pairwise pocket and interface structure alignments are promising to unveil such shared functions that cannot be discovered by the well-studied global sequence and global structure alignments. State-of-the-art methods for pairwise pocket and interface structure alignments [4, 5] are direct extensions of the classic pairwise protein structure alignment methods, and thus such methods share a few limitations. First, the goal of the classic protein structure alignment methods is to align single-chain protein structures (i.e., a single fragment of residues connected by peptide bonds). However, we observed that pockets and interfaces tend to consist of tens of extremely short backbone fragments (i.e., three or fewer residues connected by peptide bonds). Thus, existing pocket and interface alignment methods based on the protein structure alignment methods still rely on the existence of long-enough backbone fragments, and the fragmentation issue of pockets and interfaces rises the risk of missing the optimal alignments. Moreover, existing interface structure alignment methods focus on protein-protein interfaces, and require a "blackbox preprocessing" before aligning protein-DNA and protein-RNA interfaces. Therefore, we introduce the PROtein STucture Alignment

  17. Density parameter estimation for finding clusters of homologous proteins-tracing actinobacterial pathogenicity lifestyles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Röttger, Richard; Kalaghatgi, Prabhav; Sun, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Homology detection is a long-standing challenge in computational biology. To tackle this problem, typically all-versus-all BLAST results are coupled with data partitioning approaches resulting in clusters of putative homologous proteins. One of the main problems, however, has been widely neglecte...

  18. Refinement of homology-based protein structures by molecular dynamics simulation techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, H; Mark, AE

    The use of classical molecular dynamics simulations, performed in explicit water, for the refinement of structural models of proteins generated ab initio or based on homology has been investigated. The study involved a test set of 15 proteins that were previously used by Baker and coworkers to

  19. Metabolic network prediction through pairwise rational kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche-Lima, Abiel; Domaratzki, Michael; Fristensky, Brian

    2014-09-26

    Metabolic networks are represented by the set of metabolic pathways. Metabolic pathways are a series of biochemical reactions, in which the product (output) from one reaction serves as the substrate (input) to another reaction. Many pathways remain incompletely characterized. One of the major challenges of computational biology is to obtain better models of metabolic pathways. Existing models are dependent on the annotation of the genes. This propagates error accumulation when the pathways are predicted by incorrectly annotated genes. Pairwise classification methods are supervised learning methods used to classify new pair of entities. Some of these classification methods, e.g., Pairwise Support Vector Machines (SVMs), use pairwise kernels. Pairwise kernels describe similarity measures between two pairs of entities. Using pairwise kernels to handle sequence data requires long processing times and large storage. Rational kernels are kernels based on weighted finite-state transducers that represent similarity measures between sequences or automata. They have been effectively used in problems that handle large amount of sequence information such as protein essentiality, natural language processing and machine translations. We create a new family of pairwise kernels using weighted finite-state transducers (called Pairwise Rational Kernel (PRK)) to predict metabolic pathways from a variety of biological data. PRKs take advantage of the simpler representations and faster algorithms of transducers. Because raw sequence data can be used, the predictor model avoids the errors introduced by incorrect gene annotations. We then developed several experiments with PRKs and Pairwise SVM to validate our methods using the metabolic network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As a result, when PRKs are used, our method executes faster in comparison with other pairwise kernels. Also, when we use PRKs combined with other simple kernels that include evolutionary information, the accuracy

  20. Evolution of pH buffers and water homeostasis in eukaryotes: homology between humans and Acanthamoeba proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Abdul M; Zohaib, R; Tariq, S; Ahmad, H R

    2018-02-01

    This study intended to trace the evolution of acid-base buffers and water homeostasis in eukaryotes. Acanthamoeba castellanii  was selected as a model unicellular eukaryote for this purpose. Homologies of proteins involved in pH and water regulatory mechanisms at cellular levels were compared between humans and A. castellanii. Amino acid sequence homology, structural homology, 3D modeling and docking prediction were done to show the extent of similarities between carbonic anhydrase 1 (CA1), aquaporin (AQP), band-3 protein and H + pump. Experimental assays were done with acetazolamide (AZM), brinzolamide and mannitol to observe their effects on the trophozoites of  A. castellanii.  The human CA1, AQP, band-3 protein and H + -transport proteins revealed similar proteins in Acanthamoeba. Docking showed the binding of AZM on amoebal AQP-like proteins.  Acanthamoeba showed transient shape changes and encystation at differential doses of brinzolamide, mannitol and AZM.  Conclusion: Water and pH regulating adapter proteins in Acanthamoeba and humans show significant homology, these mechanisms evolved early in the primitive unicellular eukaryotes and have remained conserved in multicellular eukaryotes.

  1. A pairwise residue contact area-based mean force potential for discrimination of native protein structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezeshk Hamid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering energy function to detect a correct protein fold from incorrect ones is very important for protein structure prediction and protein folding. Knowledge-based mean force potentials are certainly the most popular type of interaction function for protein threading. They are derived from statistical analyses of interacting groups in experimentally determined protein structures. These potentials are developed at the atom or the amino acid level. Based on orientation dependent contact area, a new type of knowledge-based mean force potential has been developed. Results We developed a new approach to calculate a knowledge-based potential of mean-force, using pairwise residue contact area. To test the performance of our approach, we performed it on several decoy sets to measure its ability to discriminate native structure from decoys. This potential has been able to distinguish native structures from the decoys in the most cases. Further, the calculated Z-scores were quite high for all protein datasets. Conclusions This knowledge-based potential of mean force can be used in protein structure prediction, fold recognition, comparative modelling and molecular recognition. The program is available at http://www.bioinf.cs.ipm.ac.ir/softwares/surfield

  2. GraphAlignment: Bayesian pairwise alignment of biological networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolář Michal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With increased experimental availability and accuracy of bio-molecular networks, tools for their comparative and evolutionary analysis are needed. A key component for such studies is the alignment of networks. Results We introduce the Bioconductor package GraphAlignment for pairwise alignment of bio-molecular networks. The alignment incorporates information both from network vertices and network edges and is based on an explicit evolutionary model, allowing inference of all scoring parameters directly from empirical data. We compare the performance of our algorithm to an alternative algorithm, Græmlin 2.0. On simulated data, GraphAlignment outperforms Græmlin 2.0 in several benchmarks except for computational complexity. When there is little or no noise in the data, GraphAlignment is slower than Græmlin 2.0. It is faster than Græmlin 2.0 when processing noisy data containing spurious vertex associations. Its typical case complexity grows approximately as O(N2.6. On empirical bacterial protein-protein interaction networks (PIN and gene co-expression networks, GraphAlignment outperforms Græmlin 2.0 with respect to coverage and specificity, albeit by a small margin. On large eukaryotic PIN, Græmlin 2.0 outperforms GraphAlignment. Conclusions The GraphAlignment algorithm is robust to spurious vertex associations, correctly resolves paralogs, and shows very good performance in identification of homologous vertices defined by high vertex and/or interaction similarity. The simplicity and generality of GraphAlignment edge scoring makes the algorithm an appropriate choice for global alignment of networks.

  3. Evaluating the efficacy of a structure-derived amino acid substitution matrix in detecting protein homologs by BLAST and PSI-BLAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalin CW Goonesekere

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Nalin CW GoonesekereDepartment of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Northern iowa, Cedar Falls, IA, USAAbstract: The large numbers of protein sequences generated by whole genome sequencing projects require rapid and accurate methods of annotation. The detection of homology through computational sequence analysis is a powerful tool in determining the complex evolutionary and functional relationships that exist between proteins. Homology search algorithms employ amino acid substitution matrices to detect similarity between proteins sequences. The substitution matrices in common use today are constructed using sequences aligned without reference to protein structure. Here we present amino acid substitution matrices constructed from the alignment of a large number of protein domain structures from the structural classification of proteins (SCOP database. We show that when incorporated into the homology search algorithms BLAST and PSI-blaST, the structure-based substitution matrices enhance the efficacy of detecting remote homologs. Keywords: computational biology, protein homology, amino acid substitution matrix, protein structure

  4. Accurate protein structure modeling using sparse NMR data and homologous structure information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, James M; Sgourakis, Nikolaos G; Liu, Gaohua; Rossi, Paolo; Tang, Yuefeng; Mills, Jeffrey L; Szyperski, Thomas; Montelione, Gaetano T; Baker, David

    2012-06-19

    While information from homologous structures plays a central role in X-ray structure determination by molecular replacement, such information is rarely used in NMR structure determination because it can be incorrect, both locally and globally, when evolutionary relationships are inferred incorrectly or there has been considerable evolutionary structural divergence. Here we describe a method that allows robust modeling of protein structures of up to 225 residues by combining (1)H(N), (13)C, and (15)N backbone and (13)Cβ chemical shift data, distance restraints derived from homologous structures, and a physically realistic all-atom energy function. Accurate models are distinguished from inaccurate models generated using incorrect sequence alignments by requiring that (i) the all-atom energies of models generated using the restraints are lower than models generated in unrestrained calculations and (ii) the low-energy structures converge to within 2.0 Å backbone rmsd over 75% of the protein. Benchmark calculations on known structures and blind targets show that the method can accurately model protein structures, even with very remote homology information, to a backbone rmsd of 1.2-1.9 Å relative to the conventional determined NMR ensembles and of 0.9-1.6 Å relative to X-ray structures for well-defined regions of the protein structures. This approach facilitates the accurate modeling of protein structures using backbone chemical shift data without need for side-chain resonance assignments and extensive analysis of NOESY cross-peak assignments.

  5. AllerHunter: a SVM-pairwise system for assessment of allergenicity and allergic cross-reactivity in proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hon Cheng Muh

    Full Text Available Allergy is a major health problem in industrialized countries. The number of transgenic food crops is growing rapidly creating the need for allergenicity assessment before they are introduced into human food chain. While existing bioinformatic methods have achieved good accuracies for highly conserved sequences, the discrimination of allergens and non-allergens from allergen-like non-allergen sequences remains difficult. We describe AllerHunter, a web-based computational system for the assessment of potential allergenicity and allergic cross-reactivity in proteins. It combines an iterative pairwise sequence similarity encoding scheme with SVM as the discriminating engine. The pairwise vectorization framework allows the system to model essential features in allergens that are involved in cross-reactivity, but not limited to distinct sets of physicochemical properties. The system was rigorously trained and tested using 1,356 known allergen and 13,449 putative non-allergen sequences. Extensive testing was performed for validation of the prediction models. The system is effective for distinguishing allergens and non-allergens from allergen-like non-allergen sequences. Testing results showed that AllerHunter, with a sensitivity of 83.4% and specificity of 96.4% (accuracy = 95.3%, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve AROC = 0.928+/-0.004 and Matthew's correlation coefficient MCC = 0.738, performs significantly better than a number of existing methods using an independent dataset of 1443 protein sequences. AllerHunter is available at (http://tiger.dbs.nus.edu.sg/AllerHunter.

  6. Evaluating the efficacy of a structure-derived amino acid substitution matrix in detecting protein homologs by BLAST and PSI-BLAST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonesekere, Nalin Cw

    2009-01-01

    The large numbers of protein sequences generated by whole genome sequencing projects require rapid and accurate methods of annotation. The detection of homology through computational sequence analysis is a powerful tool in determining the complex evolutionary and functional relationships that exist between proteins. Homology search algorithms employ amino acid substitution matrices to detect similarity between proteins sequences. The substitution matrices in common use today are constructed using sequences aligned without reference to protein structure. Here we present amino acid substitution matrices constructed from the alignment of a large number of protein domain structures from the structural classification of proteins (SCOP) database. We show that when incorporated into the homology search algorithms BLAST and PSI-blast, the structure-based substitution matrices enhance the efficacy of detecting remote homologs.

  7. Clustering evolving proteins into homologous families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Cheong Xin; Mahbob, Maisarah; Ragan, Mark A

    2013-04-08

    Clustering sequences into groups of putative homologs (families) is a critical first step in many areas of comparative biology and bioinformatics. The performance of clustering approaches in delineating biologically meaningful families depends strongly on characteristics of the data, including content bias and degree of divergence. New, highly scalable methods have recently been introduced to cluster the very large datasets being generated by next-generation sequencing technologies. However, there has been little systematic investigation of how characteristics of the data impact the performance of these approaches. Using clusters from a manually curated dataset as reference, we examined the performance of a widely used graph-based Markov clustering algorithm (MCL) and a greedy heuristic approach (UCLUST) in delineating protein families coded by three sets of bacterial genomes of different G+C content. Both MCL and UCLUST generated clusters that are comparable to the reference sets at specific parameter settings, although UCLUST tends to under-cluster compositionally biased sequences (G+C content 33% and 66%). Using simulated data, we sought to assess the individual effects of sequence divergence, rate heterogeneity, and underlying G+C content. Performance decreased with increasing sequence divergence, decreasing among-site rate variation, and increasing G+C bias. Two MCL-based methods recovered the simulated families more accurately than did UCLUST. MCL using local alignment distances is more robust across the investigated range of sequence features than are greedy heuristics using distances based on global alignment. Our results demonstrate that sequence divergence, rate heterogeneity and content bias can individually and in combination affect the accuracy with which MCL and UCLUST can recover homologous protein families. For application to data that are more divergent, and exhibit higher among-site rate variation and/or content bias, MCL may often be the better

  8. Protein thermostability prediction within homologous families using temperature-dependent statistical potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Pucci

    Full Text Available The ability to rationally modify targeted physical and biological features of a protein of interest holds promise in numerous academic and industrial applications and paves the way towards de novo protein design. In particular, bioprocesses that utilize the remarkable properties of enzymes would often benefit from mutants that remain active at temperatures that are either higher or lower than the physiological temperature, while maintaining the biological activity. Many in silico methods have been developed in recent years for predicting the thermodynamic stability of mutant proteins, but very few have focused on thermostability. To bridge this gap, we developed an algorithm for predicting the best descriptor of thermostability, namely the melting temperature Tm, from the protein's sequence and structure. Our method is applicable when the Tm of proteins homologous to the target protein are known. It is based on the design of several temperature-dependent statistical potentials, derived from datasets consisting of either mesostable or thermostable proteins. Linear combinations of these potentials have been shown to yield an estimation of the protein folding free energies at low and high temperatures, and the difference of these energies, a prediction of the melting temperature. This particular construction, that distinguishes between the interactions that contribute more than others to the stability at high temperatures and those that are more stabilizing at low T, gives better performances compared to the standard approach based on T-independent potentials which predict the thermal resistance from the thermodynamic stability. Our method has been tested on 45 proteins of known Tm that belong to 11 homologous families. The standard deviation between experimental and predicted Tm's is equal to 13.6°C in cross validation, and decreases to 8.3°C if the 6 worst predicted proteins are excluded. Possible extensions of our approach are discussed.

  9. Synergistic interactions between RAD5, RAD16, and RAD54, three partially homologous yeast DNA repair genes each in a different repair pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glassner, B.J.; Mortimer, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    Considerable homology has recently been noted between the proteins encoded by the RAD5, RAD16 and RAD54 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These genes are members of the RAD6, RAD3 and RAD50 epistasis groups, respectively, which correspond to the three major DNA repair pathways in yeast. These proteins also share homology with other eucaryotic proteins, including those encoded by SNF2 and MO1 of yeast, brahma and lodestar of Drosophila and the human ERCC6 gene. The homology shares features with known helicases, suggesting a newly identified helicase subfamily. We have constructed a series of congenic single-, double- and triple-deletion mutants involving RAD5, RAD16 and RAD54 to examine the interactions between these genes. Each deletion mutation alone has only a moderate effect on survival after exposure to UV radiation. Each pairwise-double mutant exhibits marked synergism. The triple-deletion mutant displays further synergism. These results confirm the assignment of the RAD54 gene to the RAD50 epistasis group and suggest that the RAD16 gene plays a larger role in DNA repair after exposure to UV radiation than has been suggested previously. Additionally, the proteins encoded by RAD5, RAD16, and RAD54 may compete for the same substrate after damage induced by UV radiation, possibly at an early step in their respective pathways. 49 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Annotating Protein Functional Residues by Coupling High-Throughput Fitness Profile and Homologous-Structure Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yushen; Wu, Nicholas C; Jiang, Lin; Zhang, Tianhao; Gong, Danyang; Shu, Sara; Wu, Ting-Ting; Sun, Ren

    2016-11-01

    Identification and annotation of functional residues are fundamental questions in protein sequence analysis. Sequence and structure conservation provides valuable information to tackle these questions. It is, however, limited by the incomplete sampling of sequence space in natural evolution. Moreover, proteins often have multiple functions, with overlapping sequences that present challenges to accurate annotation of the exact functions of individual residues by conservation-based methods. Using the influenza A virus PB1 protein as an example, we developed a method to systematically identify and annotate functional residues. We used saturation mutagenesis and high-throughput sequencing to measure the replication capacity of single nucleotide mutations across the entire PB1 protein. After predicting protein stability upon mutations, we identified functional PB1 residues that are essential for viral replication. To further annotate the functional residues important to the canonical or noncanonical functions of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (vRdRp), we performed a homologous-structure analysis with 16 different vRdRp structures. We achieved high sensitivity in annotating the known canonical polymerase functional residues. Moreover, we identified a cluster of noncanonical functional residues located in the loop region of the PB1 β-ribbon. We further demonstrated that these residues were important for PB1 protein nuclear import through the interaction with Ran-binding protein 5. In summary, we developed a systematic and sensitive method to identify and annotate functional residues that are not restrained by sequence conservation. Importantly, this method is generally applicable to other proteins about which homologous-structure information is available. To fully comprehend the diverse functions of a protein, it is essential to understand the functionality of individual residues. Current methods are highly dependent on evolutionary sequence conservation, which is

  11. Activation of the polyomavirus enhancer by a murine activator protein 1 (AP1) homolog and two contiguous proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, M E; Piette, J; Yaniv, M; Tang, W J; Folk, W R

    1988-01-01

    The polyomavirus enhancer is composed of multiple DNA sequence elements serving as binding sites for proteins present in mouse nuclear extracts that activate transcription and DNA replication. We have identified three such proteins and their binding sites and correlate them with enhancer function. Mutation of nucleotide (nt) 5140 in the enhancer alters the binding site (TGACTAA, nt 5139-5145) for polyomavirus enhancer A binding protein 1 (PEA1), a murine homolog of the human transcription fac...

  12. Statistical physics of pairwise probability models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Roudi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Statistical models for describing the probability distribution over the states of biological systems are commonly used for dimensional reduction. Among these models, pairwise models are very attractive in part because they can be fit using a reasonable amount of data: knowledge of the means and correlations between pairs of elements in the system is sufficient. Not surprisingly, then, using pairwise models for studying neural data has been the focus of many studies in recent years. In this paper, we describe how tools from statistical physics can be employed for studying and using pairwise models. We build on our previous work on the subject and study the relation between different methods for fitting these models and evaluating their quality. In particular, using data from simulated cortical networks we study how the quality of various approximate methods for inferring the parameters in a pairwise model depends on the time bin chosen for binning the data. We also study the effect of the size of the time bin on the model quality itself, again using simulated data. We show that using finer time bins increases the quality of the pairwise model. We offer new ways of deriving the expressions reported in our previous work for assessing the quality of pairwise models.

  13. Protein homology network families reveal step-wise diversification of Type III and Type IV secretion systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duccio Medini

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available From the analysis of 251 prokaryotic genomes stored in public databases, the 761,260 deduced proteins were used to reconstruct a complete set of bacterial proteic families. Using the new Overlap algorithm, we have partitioned the Protein Homology Network (PHN, where the proteins are the nodes and the links represent homology relationships. The algorithm identifies the densely connected regions of the PHN that define the families of homologous proteins, here called PHN-Families, recognizing the phylogenetic relationships embedded in the network. By direct comparison with a manually curated dataset, we assessed that this classification algorithm generates data of quality similar to a human expert. Then, we explored the network to identify families involved in the assembly of Type III and Type IV secretion systems (T3SS and T4SS. We noticed that, beside a core of conserved functions (eight proteins for T3SS, seven for T4SS, a variable set of accessory components is always present (one to nine for T3SS, one to five for T4SS. Each member of the core corresponds to a single PHN-Family, while accessory proteins are distributed among different pure families. The PHN-Family classification suggests that T3SS and T4SS have been assembled through a step-wise, discontinuous process, by complementing the conserved core with subgroups of nonconserved proteins. Such genetic modules, independently recruited and probably tuned on specific effectors, contribute to the functional specialization of these organelles to different microenvironments.

  14. The PLAC1-homology region of the ZP domain is sufficient for protein polymerisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litscher Eveline S

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hundreds of extracellular proteins polymerise into filaments and matrices by using zona pellucida (ZP domains. ZP domain proteins perform highly diverse functions, ranging from structural to receptorial, and mutations in their genes are responsible for a number of severe human diseases. Recently, PLAC1, Oosp1-3, Papillote and CG16798 proteins were identified that share sequence homology with the N-terminal half of the ZP domain (ZP-N, but not with its C-terminal half (ZP-C. The functional significance of this partial conservation is unknown. Results By exploiting a highly engineered bacterial strain, we expressed in soluble form the PLAC1-homology region of mammalian sperm receptor ZP3 as a fusion to maltose binding protein. Mass spectrometry showed that the 4 conserved Cys residues within the ZP-N moiety of the fusion protein adopt the same disulfide bond connectivity as in full-length native ZP3, indicating that it is correctly folded, and electron microscopy and biochemical analyses revealed that it assembles into filaments. Conclusion These findings provide a function for PLAC1-like proteins and, by showing that ZP-N is a biologically active folding unit, prompt a re-evaluation of the architecture of the ZP domain and its polymers. Furthermore, they suggest that ZP-C might play a regulatory role in the assembly of ZP domain protein complexes.

  15. Structural and Sequence Similarities of Hydra Xeroderma Pigmentosum A Protein to Human Homolog Suggest Early Evolution and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurva Barve

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA is a protein that binds to damaged DNA, verifies presence of a lesion, and recruits other proteins of the nucleotide excision repair (NER pathway to the site. Though its homologs from yeast, Drosophila, humans, and so forth are well studied, XPA has not so far been reported from protozoa and lower animal phyla. Hydra is a fresh-water cnidarian with a remarkable capacity for regeneration and apparent lack of organismal ageing. Cnidarians are among the first metazoa with a defined body axis, tissue grade organisation, and nervous system. We report here for the first time presence of XPA gene in hydra. Putative protein sequence of hydra XPA contains nuclear localization signal and bears the zinc-finger motif. It contains two conserved Pfam domains and various characterized features of XPA proteins like regions for binding to excision repair cross-complementing protein-1 (ERCC1 and replication protein A 70 kDa subunit (RPA70 proteins. Hydra XPA shows a high degree of similarity with vertebrate homologs and clusters with deuterostomes in phylogenetic analysis. Homology modelling corroborates the very close similarity between hydra and human XPA. The protein thus most likely functions in hydra in the same manner as in other animals, indicating that it arose early in evolution and has been conserved across animal phyla.

  16. The K Domain Mediates Homologous and Heterologous Interactions Between FLC and SVP Proteins of Brassica juncea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Guanpeng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The transcription factors FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC and SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP can interact to form homologous and heterologous protein complexes that regulate flowering time in Brassica juncea Coss. (Mustard.Previous studies showed that protein interactions were mediated by the K domain, which contains the subdomains K1, K2 and K3. However, it remains unknown how the subdomains mediate the interactions between FLC and SVP. In the present study, we constructed several mutants of subdomains K1–K3 and investigated the mechanisms involved in the heterologous interaction of BjFLC/BjSVP and in the homologous interaction of BjFLC/BjFLC or BjSVP/BjSVP. Yeast two-hybrid and β-Galactosidase activity assays showed that the 19 amino acids of the K1 subdomain in BjSVP and the 17 amino acids of the K1 subdomain in BjFLC were functional subdomains that interact with each other to mediate hetero-dimerization. The heterologous interaction was enhanced by the K2 subdomain of BjSVP protein, but weakened by its interhelical domain L2. The heterologous interaction was also enhanced by the K2 subdomain of BjFLC protein, but weakened by its K3 subdomain. The homologous interaction of BjSVP was mediated by the full K-domain. However, the homologous interaction of BjFLC was regulated only by its K1 and weakened by its K2 and K3 subdomains. The results provided new insights into the interactions between FLC and SVP, which will be valuable for further studies on the molecular regulation mechanisms of the regulation of flowering time in B. juncea and other Brassicaceae.

  17. Cluster based on sequence comparison of homologous proteins of 95 organism species - Gclust Server | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us Gclust Server Cluster based on sequence comparison of homologous proteins of 95 organism spe...cies Data detail Data name Cluster based on sequence comparison of homologous proteins of 95 organism specie...istory of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Cluster based on sequence compariso

  18. Molecular cloning, sequence analysis and homology modeling of the first caudata amphibian antifreeze-like protein in axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Songyan; Gao, Jiuxiang; Lu, Yiling; Cai, Shasha; Qiao, Xue; Wang, Yipeng; Yu, Haining

    2013-08-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) refer to a class of polypeptides that are produced by certain vertebrates, plants, fungi, and bacteria and which permit their survival in subzero environments. In this study, we report the molecular cloning, sequence analysis and three-dimensional structure of the axolotl antifreeze-like protein (AFLP) by homology modeling of the first caudate amphibian AFLP. We constructed a full-length spleen cDNA library of axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). An EST having highest similarity (∼42%) with freeze-responsive liver protein Li16 from Rana sylvatica was identified, and the full-length cDNA was subsequently obtained by RACE-PCR. The axolotl antifreeze-like protein sequence represents an open reading frame for a putative signal peptide and the mature protein composed of 93 amino acids. The calculated molecular mass and the theoretical isoelectric point (pl) of this mature protein were 10128.6 Da and 8.97, respectively. The molecular characterization of this gene and its deduced protein were further performed by detailed bioinformatics analysis. The three-dimensional structure of current AFLP was predicted by homology modeling, and the conserved residues required for functionality were identified. The homology model constructed could be of use for effective drug design. This is the first report of an antifreeze-like protein identified from a caudate amphibian.

  19. Illustrating and homology modeling the proteins of the Zika virus [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Ekins

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Zika virus (ZIKV is a flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae, which is similar to dengue virus, yellow fever and West Nile virus. Recent outbreaks in South America, Latin America, the Caribbean and in particular Brazil have led to concern for the spread of the disease and potential to cause Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly. Although ZIKV has been known of for over 60 years there is very little in the way of knowledge of the virus with few publications and no crystal structures. No antivirals have been tested against it either in vitro or in vivo. ZIKV therefore epitomizes a neglected disease. Several suggested steps have been proposed which could be taken to initiate ZIKV antiviral drug discovery using both high throughput screens as well as structure-based design based on homology models for the key proteins. We now describe preliminary homology models created for NS5, FtsJ, NS4B, NS4A, HELICc, DEXDc, peptidase S7, NS2B, NS2A, NS1, E stem, glycoprotein M, propeptide, capsid and glycoprotein E using SWISS-MODEL. Eleven out of 15 models pass our model quality criteria for their further use. While a ZIKV glycoprotein E homology model was initially described in the immature conformation as a trimer, we now describe the mature dimer conformer which allowed the construction of an illustration of the complete virion. By comparing illustrations of ZIKV based on this new homology model and the dengue virus crystal structure we propose potential differences that could be exploited for antiviral and vaccine design. The prediction of sites for glycosylation on this protein may also be useful in this regard. While we await a cryo-EM structure of ZIKV and eventual crystal structures of the individual proteins, these homology models provide the community with a starting point for structure-based design of drugs and vaccines as well as a for computational virtual screening.

  20. Evaluating the efficacy of a structure-derived amino acid substitution matrix in detecting protein homologs by BLAST and PSI-BLAST

    OpenAIRE

    Goonesekere, Nalin CW

    2009-01-01

    Nalin CW GoonesekereDepartment of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Northern iowa, Cedar Falls, IA, USAAbstract: The large numbers of protein sequences generated by whole genome sequencing projects require rapid and accurate methods of annotation. The detection of homology through computational sequence analysis is a powerful tool in determining the complex evolutionary and functional relationships that exist between proteins. Homology search algorithms employ amino acid substitution ...

  1. Silencing the lettuce homologs of small rubber particle protein does not influence natural rubber biosynthesis in lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Romit; Qu, Yang; Ro, Dae-Kyun

    2015-05-01

    Natural rubber, cis-1,4-polyisoprene, is an important raw material in chemical industries, but its biosynthetic mechanism remains elusive. Natural rubber is known to be synthesized in rubber particles suspended in laticifer cells in the Brazilian rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). In the rubber tree, rubber elongation factor (REF) and its homolog, small rubber particle protein (SRPP), were found to be the most abundant proteins in rubber particles, and they have been implicated in natural rubber biosynthesis. As lettuce (Lactuca sativa) can synthesize natural rubber, we utilized this annual, transformable plant to examine in planta roles of the lettuce REF/SRPP homologs by RNA interference. Among eight lettuce REF/SRPP homologs identified, transcripts of two genes (LsSRPP4 and LsSRPP8) accounted for more than 90% of total transcripts of REF/SRPP homologs in lettuce latex. LsSRPP4 displays a typical primary protein sequence as other REF/SRPP, while LsSRPP8 is twice as long as LsSRPP4. These two major LsSRPP transcripts were individually and simultaneously silenced by RNA interference, and relative abundance, polymer molecular weight, and polydispersity of natural rubber were analyzed from the LsSRPP4- and LsSRPP8-silenced transgenic lettuce. Despite previous data suggesting the implications of REF/SRPP in natural rubber biosynthesis, qualitative and quantitative alterations of natural rubber could not be observed in transgenic lettuce lines. It is concluded that lettuce REF/SRPP homologs are not critically important proteins in natural rubber biosynthesis in lettuce. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Isolation and identification of the human homolog of a new p53-binding protein, Mdmx

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shvarts, A.; Bazuine, M.; Dekker, P.; Ramos, Y. F.; Steegenga, W. T.; Merckx, G.; van Ham, R. C.; van der Houven van Oordt, W.; van der Eb, A. J.; Jochemsen, A. G.

    1997-01-01

    We recently reported the identification of a mouse cDNA encoding a new p53-associating protein that we called Mdmx because of its structural similarity to Mdm2, a well-known p53-binding protein. Here we report the isolation of a cDNA encoding the human homolog of Mdmx. The ORF of the cDNA encodes a

  3. Classical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy by Transmission of H-Type Prion in Homologous Prion Protein Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andréoletti, Olivier; Lacroux, Caroline; Prieto, Irene; Lorenzo, Patricia; Larska, Magdalena; Baron, Thierry; Espinosa, Juan-Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and BSE-related disorders have been associated with a single major prion strain. Recently, 2 atypical, presumably sporadic forms of BSE have been associated with 2 distinct prion strains that are characterized mainly by distinct Western blot profiles of abnormal protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres), named high-type (BSE-H) and low-type (BSE-L), that also differed from classical BSE. We characterized 5 atypical BSE-H isolates by analyzing their molecular and neuropathologic properties during transmission in transgenic mice expressing homologous bovine prion protein. Unexpectedly, in several inoculated animals, strain features emerged that were highly similar to those of classical BSE agent. These findings demonstrate the capability of an atypical bovine prion to acquire classical BSE–like properties during propagation in a homologous bovine prion protein context and support the view that the epidemic BSE agent could have originated from such a cattle prion. PMID:21888788

  4. Annotating Protein Functional Residues by Coupling High-Throughput Fitness Profile and Homologous-Structure Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushen Du

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Identification and annotation of functional residues are fundamental questions in protein sequence analysis. Sequence and structure conservation provides valuable information to tackle these questions. It is, however, limited by the incomplete sampling of sequence space in natural evolution. Moreover, proteins often have multiple functions, with overlapping sequences that present challenges to accurate annotation of the exact functions of individual residues by conservation-based methods. Using the influenza A virus PB1 protein as an example, we developed a method to systematically identify and annotate functional residues. We used saturation mutagenesis and high-throughput sequencing to measure the replication capacity of single nucleotide mutations across the entire PB1 protein. After predicting protein stability upon mutations, we identified functional PB1 residues that are essential for viral replication. To further annotate the functional residues important to the canonical or noncanonical functions of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (vRdRp, we performed a homologous-structure analysis with 16 different vRdRp structures. We achieved high sensitivity in annotating the known canonical polymerase functional residues. Moreover, we identified a cluster of noncanonical functional residues located in the loop region of the PB1 β-ribbon. We further demonstrated that these residues were important for PB1 protein nuclear import through the interaction with Ran-binding protein 5. In summary, we developed a systematic and sensitive method to identify and annotate functional residues that are not restrained by sequence conservation. Importantly, this method is generally applicable to other proteins about which homologous-structure information is available.

  5. Pairwise contact energy statistical potentials can help to find probability of point mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, K M; Suvaithenamudhan, S; Parthasarathy, S; Selvaraj, S

    2017-01-01

    To adopt a particular fold, a protein requires several interactions between its amino acid residues. The energetic contribution of these residue-residue interactions can be approximated by extracting statistical potentials from known high resolution structures. Several methods based on statistical potentials extracted from unrelated proteins are found to make a better prediction of probability of point mutations. We postulate that the statistical potentials extracted from known structures of similar folds with varying sequence identity can be a powerful tool to examine probability of point mutation. By keeping this in mind, we have derived pairwise residue and atomic contact energy potentials for the different functional families that adopt the (α/β) 8 TIM-Barrel fold. We carried out computational point mutations at various conserved residue positions in yeast Triose phosphate isomerase enzyme for which experimental results are already reported. We have also performed molecular dynamics simulations on a subset of point mutants to make a comparative study. The difference in pairwise residue and atomic contact energy of wildtype and various point mutations reveals probability of mutations at a particular position. Interestingly, we found that our computational prediction agrees with the experimental studies of Silverman et al. (Proc Natl Acad Sci 2001;98:3092-3097) and perform better prediction than i Mutant and Cologne University Protein Stability Analysis Tool. The present work thus suggests deriving pairwise contact energy potentials and molecular dynamics simulations of functionally important folds could help us to predict probability of point mutations which may ultimately reduce the time and cost of mutation experiments. Proteins 2016; 85:54-64. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Scoring protein relationships in functional interaction networks predicted from sequence data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaston K Mazandu

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: The abundance of diverse biological data from various sources constitutes a rich source of knowledge, which has the power to advance our understanding of organisms. This requires computational methods in order to integrate and exploit these data effectively and elucidate local and genome wide functional connections between protein pairs, thus enabling functional inferences for uncharacterized proteins. These biological data are primarily in the form of sequences, which determine functions, although functional properties of a protein can often be predicted from just the domains it contains. Thus, protein sequences and domains can be used to predict protein pair-wise functional relationships, and thus contribute to the function prediction process of uncharacterized proteins in order to ensure that knowledge is gained from sequencing efforts. In this work, we introduce information-theoretic based approaches to score protein-protein functional interaction pairs predicted from protein sequence similarity and conserved protein signature matches. The proposed schemes are effective for data-driven scoring of connections between protein pairs. We applied these schemes to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteome to produce a homology-based functional network of the organism with a high confidence and coverage. We use the network for predicting functions of uncharacterised proteins. AVAILABILITY: Protein pair-wise functional relationship scores for Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain CDC1551 sequence data and python scripts to compute these scores are available at http://web.cbio.uct.ac.za/~gmazandu/scoringschemes.

  7. A discriminative method for family-based protein remote homology detection that combines inductive logic programming and propositional models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Juliana S; Carbone, Alessandra; Zaverucha, Gerson

    2011-03-23

    Remote homology detection is a hard computational problem. Most approaches have trained computational models by using either full protein sequences or multiple sequence alignments (MSA), including all positions. However, when we deal with proteins in the "twilight zone" we can observe that only some segments of sequences (motifs) are conserved. We introduce a novel logical representation that allows us to represent physico-chemical properties of sequences, conserved amino acid positions and conserved physico-chemical positions in the MSA. From this, Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) finds the most frequent patterns (motifs) and uses them to train propositional models, such as decision trees and support vector machines (SVM). We use the SCOP database to perform our experiments by evaluating protein recognition within the same superfamily. Our results show that our methodology when using SVM performs significantly better than some of the state of the art methods, and comparable to other. However, our method provides a comprehensible set of logical rules that can help to understand what determines a protein function. The strategy of selecting only the most frequent patterns is effective for the remote homology detection. This is possible through a suitable first-order logical representation of homologous properties, and through a set of frequent patterns, found by an ILP system, that summarizes essential features of protein functions.

  8. Origin and spread of photosynthesis based upon conserved sequence features in key bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Radhey S

    2012-11-01

    The origin of photosynthesis and how this capability has spread to other bacterial phyla remain important unresolved questions. I describe here a number of conserved signature indels (CSIs) in key proteins involved in bacteriochlorophyll (Bchl) biosynthesis that provide important insights in these regards. The proteins BchL and BchX, which are essential for Bchl biosynthesis, are derived by gene duplication in a common ancestor of all phototrophs. More ancient gene duplication gave rise to the BchX-BchL proteins and the NifH protein of the nitrogenase complex. The sequence alignment of NifH-BchX-BchL proteins contain two CSIs that are uniquely shared by all NifH and BchX homologs, but not by any BchL homologs. These CSIs and phylogenetic analysis of NifH-BchX-BchL protein sequences strongly suggest that the BchX homologs are ancestral to BchL and that the Bchl-based anoxygenic photosynthesis originated prior to the chlorophyll (Chl)-based photosynthesis in cyanobacteria. Another CSI in the BchX-BchL sequence alignment that is uniquely shared by all BchX homologs and the BchL sequences from Heliobacteriaceae, but absent in all other BchL homologs, suggests that the BchL homologs from Heliobacteriaceae are primitive in comparison to all other photosynthetic lineages. Several other identified CSIs in the BchN homologs are commonly shared by all proteobacterial homologs and a clade consisting of the marine unicellular Cyanobacteria (Clade C). These CSIs in conjunction with the results of phylogenetic analyses and pair-wise sequence similarity on the BchL, BchN, and BchB proteins, where the homologs from Clade C Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria exhibited close relationship, provide strong evidence that these two groups have incurred lateral gene transfers. Additionally, phylogenetic analyses and several CSIs in the BchL-N-B proteins that are uniquely shared by all Chlorobi and Chloroflexi homologs provide evidence that the genes for these proteins have also been

  9. A macrophage inflammatory protein homolog encoded by guinea pig cytomegalovirus signals via CC chemokine receptor 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penfold, Mark; Miao Zhenhua; Wang Yu; Haggerty, Shannon; Schleiss, Mark R.

    2003-01-01

    Cytomegaloviruses encode homologs of cellular immune effector proteins, including chemokines (CKs) and CK receptor-like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Sequence of the guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV) genome identified an open reading frame (ORF) which predicted a 101 amino acid (aa) protein with homology to the macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP) subfamily of CC (β) CKs, designated GPCMV-MIP. To assess functionality of this CK, recombinant GPCMV-MIP was expressed in HEK293 cells and assayed for its ability to bind to and functionally interact with a variety of GPCRs. Specific signaling was observed with the hCCR1 receptor, which could be blocked with hMIP -1α in competition experiments. Migration assays revealed that GPCMV-MIP was able to induce chemotaxis in hCCR1-L1.2 cells. Antisera raised against a GST-MIP fusion protein immunoprecipitated species of ∼12 and 10 kDa from GPCMV-inoculated tissue culture lysates, and convalescent antiserum from GPCMV-infected animals was immunoreactive with GST-MIP by ELISA assay. These results represent the first substantive in vitro characterization of a functional CC CK encoded by a cytomegalovirus

  10. Protein backbone angle restraints from searching a database for chemical shift and sequence homology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornilescu, Gabriel; Delaglio, Frank; Bax, Ad [National Institutes of Health, Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (United States)

    1999-03-15

    Chemical shifts of backbone atoms in proteins are exquisitely sensitive to local conformation, and homologous proteins show quite similar patterns of secondary chemical shifts. The inverse of this relation is used to search a database for triplets of adjacent residues with secondary chemical shifts and sequence similarity which provide the best match to the query triplet of interest. The database contains 13C{alpha}, 13C{beta}, 13C', 1H{alpha} and 15N chemical shifts for 20 proteins for which a high resolution X-ray structure is available. The computer program TALOS was developed to search this database for strings of residues with chemical shift and residue type homology. The relative importance of the weighting factors attached to the secondary chemical shifts of the five types of resonances relative to that of sequence similarity was optimized empirically. TALOS yields the 10 triplets which have the closest similarity in secondary chemical shift and amino acid sequence to those of the query sequence. If the central residues in these 10 triplets exhibit similar {phi} and {psi} backbone angles, their averages can reliably be used as angular restraints for the protein whose structure is being studied. Tests carried out for proteins of known structure indicate that the root-mean-square difference (rmsd) between the output of TALOS and the X-ray derived backbone angles is about 15 deg. Approximately 3% of the predictions made by TALOS are found to be in error.

  11. HHR23B, a human RAD23 homolog, stimulates XPC protein in nucleotide excision repair in vitro.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Sugasawa (Kaoru); C. Masutani (Chikahide); A. Uchida; T. Maekawa; P.J. van der Spek (Peter); D. Bootsma (Dirk); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); F. Hanaoka (Fumio)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractA protein complex which specifically complements defects of XP-C cell extracts in vitro was previously purified to near homogeneity from HeLa cells. The complex consists of two tightly associated proteins: the XPC gene product and HHR23B, one of two human homologs of the Saccharomyces

  12. Homology analyses of the protein sequences of fatty acid synthases from chicken liver, rat mammary gland, and yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Soo-Ik; Hammes, G.G.

    1989-01-01

    Homology analyses of the protein sequences of chicken liver and rat mammary gland fatty acid synthases were carried out. The amino acid sequences of the chicken and rat enzymes are 67% identical. If conservative substitutions are allowed, 78% of the amino acids are matched. A region of low homologies exists between the functional domains, in particular around amino acid residues 1059-1264 of the chicken enzyme. Homologies between the active sites of chicken and rat and of chicken and yeast enzymes have been analyzed by an alignment method. A high degree of homology exists between the active sites of the chicken and rat enzymes. However, the chicken and yeast enzymes show a lower degree of homology. The DADPH-binding dinucleotide folds of the β-ketoacyl reductase and the enoyl reductase sites were identified by comparison with a known consensus sequence for the DADP- and FAD-binding dinucleotide folds. The active sites of all of the enzymes are primarily in hydrophobic regions of the protein. This study suggests that the genes for the functional domains of fatty acid synthase were originally separated, and these genes were connected to each other by using different connecting nucleotide sequences in different species. An alternative explanation for the differences in rat and chicken is a common ancestry and mutations in the joining regions during evolution

  13. Pseudo inputs for pairwise learning with Gaussian processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Jensen, Bjørn Sand; Larsen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    We consider learning and prediction of pairwise comparisons between instances. The problem is motivated from a perceptual view point, where pairwise comparisons serve as an effective and extensively used paradigm. A state-of-the-art method for modeling pairwise data in high dimensional domains...... is based on a classical pairwise probit likelihood imposed with a Gaussian process prior. While extremely flexible, this non-parametric method struggles with an inconvenient O(n3) scaling in terms of the n input instances which limits the method only to smaller problems. To overcome this, we derive...... to other similar approximations that have been applied in standard Gaussian process regression and classification problems such as FI(T)C and PI(T)C....

  14. Structure based alignment and clustering of proteins (STRALCP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemla, Adam T.; Zhou, Carol E.; Smith, Jason R.; Lam, Marisa W.

    2013-06-18

    Disclosed are computational methods of clustering a set of protein structures based on local and pair-wise global similarity values. Pair-wise local and global similarity values are generated based on pair-wise structural alignments for each protein in the set of protein structures. Initially, the protein structures are clustered based on pair-wise local similarity values. The protein structures are then clustered based on pair-wise global similarity values. For each given cluster both a representative structure and spans of conserved residues are identified. The representative protein structure is used to assign newly-solved protein structures to a group. The spans are used to characterize conservation and assign a "structural footprint" to the cluster.

  15. Analysis of the role of the gene bipA, encoding the major endoplasmic reticulum chaperone protein in the secretion of homologous and heterologous proteins in black Aspergilli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, P.J.; Gemeren, I.A. van; Drint-Kuijvenhoven, J.; Hessing, J.G.M.; Muijlwijk van - Harteveld, G.M.; Beijersbergen, A.; Verrips, C.T.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den

    1998-01-01

    The function of the endoplasmic-reticulum-localized chaperone binding protein (BiP) in relation to protein secretion in filamentous fungi was studied. It was shown that the overproduction of several homologous and heterologous recombinant proteins by Aspergillus strains induces the expression of

  16. How to Choose the Suitable Template for Homology Modelling of GPCRs: 5-HT7 Receptor as a Test Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahaf, Nir; Pappalardo, Matteo; Basile, Livia; Guccione, Salvatore; Rayan, Anwar

    2016-09-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a super-family of membrane proteins that attract great pharmaceutical interest due to their involvement in almost every physiological activity, including extracellular stimuli, neurotransmission, and hormone regulation. Currently, structural information on many GPCRs is mainly obtained by the techniques of computer modelling in general and by homology modelling in particular. Based on a quantitative analysis of eighteen antagonist-bound, resolved structures of rhodopsin family "A" receptors - also used as templates to build 153 homology models - it was concluded that a higher sequence identity between two receptors does not guarantee a lower RMSD between their structures, especially when their pair-wise sequence identity (within trans-membrane domain and/or in binding pocket) lies between 25 % and 40 %. This study suggests that we should consider all template receptors having a sequence identity ≤50 % with the query receptor. In fact, most of the GPCRs, compared to the currently available resolved structures of GPCRs, fall within this range and lack a correlation between structure and sequence. When testing suitability for structure-based drug design, it was found that choosing as a template the most similar resolved protein, based on sequence resemblance only, led to unsound results in many cases. Molecular docking analyses were carried out, and enrichment factors as well as attrition rates were utilized as criteria for assessing suitability for structure-based drug design. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Tomato Cf resistance proteins mediate recognition of cognate homologous effectors from fungi pathogenic on dicots and monocots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; van den Burg, Harrold A; Okmen, Bilal; Beenen, Henriek G; van Liere, Sabine; Kema, Gert H J; de Wit, Pierre J G M

    2010-04-20

    Most fungal effectors characterized so far are species-specific and facilitate virulence on a particular host plant. During infection of its host tomato, Cladosporium fulvum secretes effectors that function as virulence factors in the absence of cognate Cf resistance proteins and induce effector-triggered immunity in their presence. Here we show that homologs of the C. fulvum Avr4 and Ecp2 effectors are present in other pathogenic fungi of the Dothideomycete class, including Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causal agent of black Sigatoka disease of banana. We demonstrate that the Avr4 homolog of M. fijiensis is a functional ortholog of C. fulvum Avr4 that protects fungal cell walls against hydrolysis by plant chitinases through binding to chitin and, despite the low overall sequence homology, triggers a Cf-4-mediated hypersensitive response (HR) in tomato. Furthermore, three homologs of C. fulvum Ecp2 are found in M. fijiensis, one of which induces different levels of necrosis or HR in tomato lines that lack or contain a putative cognate Cf-Ecp2 protein, respectively. In contrast to Avr4, which acts as a defensive virulence factor, M. fijiensis Ecp2 likely promotes virulence by interacting with a putative host target causing host cell necrosis, whereas Cf-Ecp2 could possibly guard the virulence target of Ecp2 and trigger a Cf-Ecp2-mediated HR. Overall our data suggest that Avr4 and Ecp2 represent core effectors that are collectively recognized by single cognate Cf-proteins. Transfer of these Cf genes to plant species that are attacked by fungi containing these cognate core effectors provides unique ways for breeding disease-resistant crops.

  18. AlignMe—a membrane protein sequence alignment web server

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Marcus; Staritzbichler, René; Khafizov, Kamil; Forrest, Lucy R.

    2014-01-01

    We present a web server for pair-wise alignment of membrane protein sequences, using the program AlignMe. The server makes available two operational modes of AlignMe: (i) sequence to sequence alignment, taking two sequences in fasta format as input, combining information about each sequence from multiple sources and producing a pair-wise alignment (PW mode); and (ii) alignment of two multiple sequence alignments to create family-averaged hydropathy profile alignments (HP mode). For the PW sequence alignment mode, four different optimized parameter sets are provided, each suited to pairs of sequences with a specific similarity level. These settings utilize different types of inputs: (position-specific) substitution matrices, secondary structure predictions and transmembrane propensities from transmembrane predictions or hydrophobicity scales. In the second (HP) mode, each input multiple sequence alignment is converted into a hydrophobicity profile averaged over the provided set of sequence homologs; the two profiles are then aligned. The HP mode enables qualitative comparison of transmembrane topologies (and therefore potentially of 3D folds) of two membrane proteins, which can be useful if the proteins have low sequence similarity. In summary, the AlignMe web server provides user-friendly access to a set of tools for analysis and comparison of membrane protein sequences. Access is available at http://www.bioinfo.mpg.de/AlignMe PMID:24753425

  19. The Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-Associated Protein SWIB5 Influences mtDNA Architecture and Homologous Recombination

    KAUST Repository

    Blomme, Jonas

    2017-04-19

    In addition to the nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplasts in plant cells also contain genomes. Efficient DNA repair pathways are crucial in these organelles to fix damage resulting from endogenous and exogenous factors. Plant organellar genomes are complex compared with their animal counterparts, and although several plant-specific mediators of organelle DNA repair have been reported, many regulators remain to be identified. Here, we show that a mitochondrial SWI/SNF (nucleosome remodeling) complex B protein, SWIB5, is capable of associating with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in Arabidopsis thaliana. Gainand loss-of-function mutants provided evidence for a role of SWIB5 in influencing mtDNA architecture and homologous recombination at specific intermediate-sized repeats both under normal and genotoxic conditions. SWIB5 interacts with other mitochondrial SWIB proteins. Gene expression and mutant phenotypic analysis of SWIB5 and SWIB family members suggests a link between organellar genome maintenance and cell proliferation. Taken together, our work presents a protein family that influences mtDNA architecture and homologous recombination in plants and suggests a link between organelle functioning and plant development.

  20. Limited tryptic proteolysis of the benzodiazepine binding proteins in different species reveals structural homologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, W; Lentes, K U; Schmitz, E; Propping, P; Hebebrand, J

    1988-12-01

    Peptide mapping can be used to elucidate further the structural similarities of the benzodiazepine binding proteins in different vertebrate species. Crude synaptic membrane preparations were photoaffinity-labeled with [3H]flunitrazepam and subsequently degraded with various concentrations of trypsin. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by fluorography allowed a comparison of the molecular weights of photolabeled peptides in different species. Tryptic degradation led to a common peptide of 40K in all species investigated, a finding indicating that the benzodiazepine binding proteins are structurally homologous in higher bony fishes and tetrapods.

  1. RYBP Is a K63-Ubiquitin-Chain-Binding Protein that Inhibits Homologous Recombination Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A.M. Ali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Ring1-YY1-binding protein (RYBP is a member of the non-canonical polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1, and like other PRC1 members, it is best described as a transcriptional regulator. However, several PRC1 members were recently shown to function in DNA repair. Here, we report that RYBP preferentially binds K63-ubiquitin chains via its Npl4 zinc finger (NZF domain. Since K63-linked ubiquitin chains are assembled at DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs, we examined the contribution of RYBP to DSB repair. Surprisingly, we find that RYBP is K48 polyubiquitylated by RNF8 and rapidly removed from chromatin upon DNA damage by the VCP/p97 segregase. High expression of RYBP competitively inhibits recruitment of BRCA1 repair complex to DSBs, reducing DNA end resection and homologous recombination (HR repair. Moreover, breast cancer cell lines expressing high endogenous RYBP levels show increased sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP inhibition. These data suggest that RYBP negatively regulates HR repair by competing for K63-ubiquitin chain binding. : Ali et al. find that RYBP binds K63-linked ubiquitin chains and is removed from DNA damage sites. This K63-ubiquitin binding allows RYBP to hinder the recruitment of BRCA1 and Rad51 to DNA double-strand breaks, thus inhibiting homologous recombination repair. Accordingly, cancer cells expressing high RYBP are more sensitive to DNA-damaging therapies. Keywords: DNA damage response, homologous recombination, ubiquitylation, RYBP, polycomb proteins, double-strand break repair, chromatin, histone modification

  2. PSI/TM-Coffee: a web server for fast and accurate multiple sequence alignments of regular and transmembrane proteins using homology extension on reduced databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floden, Evan W; Tommaso, Paolo D; Chatzou, Maria; Magis, Cedrik; Notredame, Cedric; Chang, Jia-Ming

    2016-07-08

    The PSI/TM-Coffee web server performs multiple sequence alignment (MSA) of proteins by combining homology extension with a consistency based alignment approach. Homology extension is performed with Position Specific Iterative (PSI) BLAST searches against a choice of redundant and non-redundant databases. The main novelty of this server is to allow databases of reduced complexity to rapidly perform homology extension. This server also gives the possibility to use transmembrane proteins (TMPs) reference databases to allow even faster homology extension on this important category of proteins. Aside from an MSA, the server also outputs topological prediction of TMPs using the HMMTOP algorithm. Previous benchmarking of the method has shown this approach outperforms the most accurate alignment methods such as MSAProbs, Kalign, PROMALS, MAFFT, ProbCons and PRALINE™. The web server is available at http://tcoffee.crg.cat/tmcoffee. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. Interaction and dynamics of homologous pairing protein 2 (HOP2) and DNA studied by MD simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moktan, Hem; Pezza, Roberto; Zhou, Donghua

    2015-03-01

    The homologous pairing protein 2 (Hop2) plays an important role in meiosis and DNA repair. Together with protein Mnd1, Hop2 enhances the strand invasion activity of recombinase Dmc1 by over 30 times, facilitating proper synapsis of homologous chromosomes. We recently determined the NMR structure of the N-terminal domain of Hop2 and proposed a model of Protein-DNA complex based on NMR chemical shift perturbations and mutagenesis studies (Moktan, J Biol Chem 2014 10.1074/jbc.M114.548180). However structure and dynamics of the complex have not been studied at the atomic level yet. Here, we used classical MD simulations to study the interactions between the N-terminal HOP2 and DNA. The simulated results indicate that helix3 (H3) interacts with DNA in major groove and wing1 (W1) interacts mostly in minor groove mainly via direct hydrogen bonds. Also it is found that binding leads to reduced fluctuations in both protein and DNA. Several water bridge interactions have been identified. The residue-wise contributions to the interaction energy were evaluated. Also the functional motion of the protein is analyzed using principal component analysis. The results confirmed the importance of H3 and W1 for the stability of the complex, which is consistent with our previous experimental studies.

  4. The cohesion protein SOLO associates with SMC1 and is required for synapsis, recombination, homolog bias and cohesion and pairing of centromeres in Drosophila Meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Rihui; McKee, Bruce D

    2013-01-01

    Cohesion between sister chromatids is mediated by cohesin and is essential for proper meiotic segregation of both sister chromatids and homologs. solo encodes a Drosophila meiosis-specific cohesion protein with no apparent sequence homology to cohesins that is required in male meiosis for centromere cohesion, proper orientation of sister centromeres and centromere enrichment of the cohesin subunit SMC1. In this study, we show that solo is involved in multiple aspects of meiosis in female Drosophila. Null mutations in solo caused the following phenotypes: 1) high frequencies of homolog and sister chromatid nondisjunction (NDJ) and sharply reduced frequencies of homolog exchange; 2) reduced transmission of a ring-X chromosome, an indicator of elevated frequencies of sister chromatid exchange (SCE); 3) premature loss of centromere pairing and cohesion during prophase I, as indicated by elevated foci counts of the centromere protein CID; 4) instability of the lateral elements (LE)s and central regions of synaptonemal complexes (SCs), as indicated by fragmented and spotty staining of the chromosome core/LE component SMC1 and the transverse filament protein C(3)G, respectively, at all stages of pachytene. SOLO and SMC1 are both enriched on centromeres throughout prophase I, co-align along the lateral elements of SCs and reciprocally co-immunoprecipitate from ovarian protein extracts. Our studies demonstrate that SOLO is closely associated with meiotic cohesin and required both for enrichment of cohesin on centromeres and stable assembly of cohesin into chromosome cores. These events underlie and are required for stable cohesion of centromeres, synapsis of homologous chromosomes, and a recombination mechanism that suppresses SCE to preferentially generate homolog crossovers (homolog bias). We propose that SOLO is a subunit of a specialized meiotic cohesin complex that mediates both centromeric and axial arm cohesion and promotes homolog bias as a component of chromosome

  5. α1B-Adrenergic Receptors Differentially Associate with Rab Proteins during Homologous and Heterologous Desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Badillo, Jean A.; Sánchez-Reyes, Omar B.; Alfonzo-Méndez, Marco A.; Romero-Ávila, M. Teresa; Reyes-Cruz, Guadalupe; García-Sáinz, J. Adolfo

    2015-01-01

    Internalization of G protein-coupled receptors can be triggered by agonists or by other stimuli. The process begins within seconds of cell activation and contributes to receptor desensitization. The Rab GTPase family controls endocytosis, vesicular trafficking, and endosomal fusion. Among their remarkable properties is the differential distribution of its members on the surface of various organelles. In the endocytic pathway, Rab 5 controls traffic from the plasma membrane to early endosomes, whereas Rab 4 and Rab 11 regulate rapid and slow recycling from early endosomes to the plasma membrane, respectively. Moreover, Rab 7 and Rab 9 regulate the traffic from late endosomes to lysosomes and recycling to the trans-Golgi. We explore the possibility that α1B-adrenergic receptor internalization induced by agonists (homologous) and by unrelated stimuli (heterologous) could involve different Rab proteins. This possibility was explored by Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) using cells coexpressing α1B-adrenergic receptors tagged with the red fluorescent protein, DsRed, and different Rab proteins tagged with the green fluorescent protein. It was observed that when α1B-adrenergic receptors were stimulated with noradrenaline, the receptors interacted with proteins present in early endosomes, such as the early endosomes antigen 1, Rab 5, Rab 4, and Rab 11 but not with late endosome markers, such as Rab 9 and Rab 7. In contrast, sphingosine 1-phosphate stimulation induced rapid and transient α1B-adrenergic receptor interaction of relatively small magnitude with Rab 5 and a more pronounced and sustained one with Rab 9; interaction was also observed with Rab 7. Moreover, the GTPase activity of the Rab proteins appears to be required because no FRET was observed when dominant-negative Rab mutants were employed. These data indicate that α1B-adrenergic receptors are directed to different endocytic vesicles depending on the desensitization type (homologous vs

  6. Statistical physics of pairwise probability models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roudi, Yasser; Aurell, Erik; Hertz, John

    2009-01-01

    (dansk abstrakt findes ikke) Statistical models for describing the probability distribution over the states of biological systems are commonly used for dimensional reduction. Among these models, pairwise models are very attractive in part because they can be fit using a reasonable amount of  data......: knowledge of the means and correlations between pairs of elements in the system is sufficient. Not surprisingly, then, using pairwise models for studying neural data has been the focus of many studies in recent years. In this paper, we describe how tools from statistical physics can be employed for studying...

  7. A PHF8 homolog in C. elegans promotes DNA repair via homologous recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changrim Lee

    Full Text Available PHF8 is a JmjC domain-containing histone demethylase, defects in which are associated with X-linked mental retardation. In this study, we examined the roles of two PHF8 homologs, JMJD-1.1 and JMJD-1.2, in the model organism C. elegans in response to DNA damage. A deletion mutation in either of the genes led to hypersensitivity to interstrand DNA crosslinks (ICLs, while only mutation of jmjd-1.1 resulted in hypersensitivity to double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs. In response to ICLs, JMJD-1.1 did not affect the focus formation of FCD-2, a homolog of FANCD2, a key protein in the Fanconi anemia pathway. However, the dynamic behavior of RPA-1 and RAD-51 was affected by the mutation: the accumulations of both proteins at ICLs appeared normal, but their subsequent disappearance was retarded, suggesting that later steps of homologous recombination were defective. Similar changes in the dynamic behavior of RPA-1 and RAD-51 were seen in response to DSBs, supporting a role of JMJD-1.1 in homologous recombination. Such a role was also supported by our finding that the hypersensitivity of jmjd-1.1 worms to ICLs was rescued by knockdown of lig-4, a homolog of Ligase 4 active in nonhomologous end-joining. The hypersensitivity of jmjd-1.1 worms to ICLs was increased by rad-54 knockdown, suggesting that JMJD-1.1 acts in parallel with RAD-54 in modulating chromatin structure. Indeed, the level of histone H3 Lys9 tri-methylation, a marker of heterochromatin, was higher in jmjd-1.1 cells than in wild-type cells. We conclude that the histone demethylase JMJD-1.1 influences homologous recombination either by relaxing heterochromatin structure or by indirectly regulating the expression of multiple genes affecting DNA repair.

  8. Schizosaccharomyces pombe Homologs of Human DJ-1 Are Stationary Phase-Associated Proteins That Are Involved in Autophagy and Oxidative Stress Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Su

    Full Text Available The Parkinson's disease protein DJ-1 is involved in various cellular functions including detoxification of dicarbonyl compounds, autophagy and oxidative stress response. DJ-1 homologs are widely found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, constituting a superfamily of proteins that appear to be involved in stress response. Schizosaccharomyces pombe contains six DJ-1 homologs, designated Hsp3101-Hsp3105 and Sdj1 (previously named SpDJ-1. Here we show that deletion of any one of these six genes somehow affects autophagy during prolonged stationary phase. Furthermore, deletions of each of these DJ-1 homologs result in reduced stationary phase survival. Deletion of sdj1 also increases the sensitivity of stationary-phase cells to oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 whereas overexpression of sdj1 has the opposite effect. Consistent with their role in stationary phase, expression of hsp3101, hsp3102, hsp3105 and sdj1, and to a lesser extent hsp3103 and hsp3104, is increased in stationary phase. The induction of hsp3101, hsp3102, hsp3105 and sdj1 involves the Sty1-regulated transcription factor Atf1 but not the transcription factor Pap1. Our results firmly establish that S. pombe homologs of DJ-1 are stationary-phase associated proteins and are likely involved in autophagy and antioxidant defense in stationary phase of S. pombe cells.

  9. Fast and accurate non-sequential protein structure alignment using a new asymmetric linear sum assignment heuristic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Peter; Pullan, Wayne; Yang, Yuedong; Zhou, Yaoqi

    2016-02-01

    The three dimensional tertiary structure of a protein at near atomic level resolution provides insight alluding to its function and evolution. As protein structure decides its functionality, similarity in structure usually implies similarity in function. As such, structure alignment techniques are often useful in the classifications of protein function. Given the rapidly growing rate of new, experimentally determined structures being made available from repositories such as the Protein Data Bank, fast and accurate computational structure comparison tools are required. This paper presents SPalignNS, a non-sequential protein structure alignment tool using a novel asymmetrical greedy search technique. The performance of SPalignNS was evaluated against existing sequential and non-sequential structure alignment methods by performing trials with commonly used datasets. These benchmark datasets used to gauge alignment accuracy include (i) 9538 pairwise alignments implied by the HOMSTRAD database of homologous proteins; (ii) a subset of 64 difficult alignments from set (i) that have low structure similarity; (iii) 199 pairwise alignments of proteins with similar structure but different topology; and (iv) a subset of 20 pairwise alignments from the RIPC set. SPalignNS is shown to achieve greater alignment accuracy (lower or comparable root-mean squared distance with increased structure overlap coverage) for all datasets, and the highest agreement with reference alignments from the challenging dataset (iv) above, when compared with both sequentially constrained alignments and other non-sequential alignments. SPalignNS was implemented in C++. The source code, binary executable, and a web server version is freely available at: http://sparks-lab.org yaoqi.zhou@griffith.edu.au. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Pairwise protein expression classifier for candidate biomarker discovery for early detection of human disease prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Parminder

    2012-08-01

    spectrometry data from “bottom up” proteomics methods, functionally related proteins/peptide pairs exhibiting co-ordinated changes expression profile are discovered, which represent a signature for patients progressing to various disease conditions. The method has been tested against clinical data from patients progressing to idiopthatic pneumonia syndrome (IPS following a bone marrow transplant. The data indicates that patients with improper regulation in the concentration of specific acute phase response proteins at the time of bone marrow transplant are highly likely to develop IPS within few weeks. The results lead to a specific set of protein pairs that can be efficiently verified by investigating the pairwise abundance change in independent cohorts using ELISA or targeted mass spectrometry techniques. This generalized classifier can be extended to other clinical problems in a variety of contexts.

  11. COGcollator: a web server for analysis of distant relationships between homologous protein families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibrova, Daria V; Konovalov, Kirill A; Perekhvatov, Vadim V; Skulachev, Konstantin V; Mulkidjanian, Armen Y

    2017-11-29

    The Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs) of proteins systematize evolutionary related proteins into specific groups with similar functions. However, the available databases do not provide means to assess the extent of similarity between the COGs. We intended to provide a method for identification and visualization of evolutionary relationships between the COGs, as well as a respective web server. Here we introduce the COGcollator, a web tool for identification of evolutionarily related COGs and their further analysis. We demonstrate the utility of this tool by identifying the COGs that contain distant homologs of (i) the catalytic subunit of bacterial rotary membrane ATP synthases and (ii) the DNA/RNA helicases of the superfamily 1. This article was reviewed by Drs. Igor N. Berezovsky, Igor Zhulin and Yuri Wolf.

  12. MIPS: a database for protein sequences, homology data and yeast genome information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewes, H W; Albermann, K; Heumann, K; Liebl, S; Pfeiffer, F

    1997-01-01

    The MIPS group (Martinsried Institute for Protein Sequences) at the Max-Planck-Institute for Biochemistry, Martinsried near Munich, Germany, collects, processes and distributes protein sequence data within the framework of the tripartite association of the PIR-International Protein Sequence Database (,). MIPS contributes nearly 50% of the data input to the PIR-International Protein Sequence Database. The database is distributed on CD-ROM together with PATCHX, an exhaustive supplement of unique, unverified protein sequences from external sources compiled by MIPS. Through its WWW server (http://www.mips.biochem.mpg.de/ ) MIPS permits internet access to sequence databases, homology data and to yeast genome information. (i) Sequence similarity results from the FASTA program () are stored in the FASTA database for all proteins from PIR-International and PATCHX. The database is dynamically maintained and permits instant access to FASTA results. (ii) Starting with FASTA database queries, proteins have been classified into families and superfamilies (PROT-FAM). (iii) The HPT (hashed position tree) data structure () developed at MIPS is a new approach for rapid sequence and pattern searching. (iv) MIPS provides access to the sequence and annotation of the complete yeast genome (), the functional classification of yeast genes (FunCat) and its graphical display, the 'Genome Browser' (). A CD-ROM based on the JAVA programming language providing dynamic interactive access to the yeast genome and the related protein sequences has been compiled and is available on request. PMID:9016498

  13. Intrinsic Pleckstrin Homology (PH) Domain Motion in Phospholipase C-β Exposes a Gβγ Protein Binding Site*

    OpenAIRE

    Kadamur, Ganesh; Ross, Elliott M.

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian phospholipase C-β (PLC-β) isoforms are stimulated by heterotrimeric G protein subunits and members of the Rho GTPase family of small G proteins. Although recent structural studies showed how Gαq and Rac1 bind PLC-β, there is a lack of consensus regarding the Gβγ binding site in PLC-β. Using FRET between cerulean fluorescent protein-labeled Gβγ and the Alexa Fluor 594-labeled PLC-β pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, we demonstrate that the PH domain is the minimal Gβγ binding region in...

  14. Pairwise Constraint-Guided Sparse Learning for Feature Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingxia; Zhang, Daoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Feature selection aims to identify the most informative features for a compact and accurate data representation. As typical supervised feature selection methods, Lasso and its variants using L1-norm-based regularization terms have received much attention in recent studies, most of which use class labels as supervised information. Besides class labels, there are other types of supervised information, e.g., pairwise constraints that specify whether a pair of data samples belong to the same class (must-link constraint) or different classes (cannot-link constraint). However, most of existing L1-norm-based sparse learning methods do not take advantage of the pairwise constraints that provide us weak and more general supervised information. For addressing that problem, we propose a pairwise constraint-guided sparse (CGS) learning method for feature selection, where the must-link and the cannot-link constraints are used as discriminative regularization terms that directly concentrate on the local discriminative structure of data. Furthermore, we develop two variants of CGS, including: 1) semi-supervised CGS that utilizes labeled data, pairwise constraints, and unlabeled data and 2) ensemble CGS that uses the ensemble of pairwise constraint sets. We conduct a series of experiments on a number of data sets from University of California-Irvine machine learning repository, a gene expression data set, two real-world neuroimaging-based classification tasks, and two large-scale attribute classification tasks. Experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed methods, compared with several established feature selection methods.

  15. GLASSgo – Automated and Reliable Detection of sRNA Homologs From a Single Input Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen C. Lott

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial small RNAs (sRNAs are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. The functional and evolutionary characterization of sRNAs requires the identification of homologs, which is frequently challenging due to their heterogeneity, short length and partly, little sequence conservation. We developed the GLobal Automatic Small RNA Search go (GLASSgo algorithm to identify sRNA homologs in complex genomic databases starting from a single sequence. GLASSgo combines an iterative BLAST strategy with pairwise identity filtering and a graph-based clustering method that utilizes RNA secondary structure information. We tested the specificity, sensitivity and runtime of GLASSgo, BLAST and the combination RNAlien/cmsearch in a typical use case scenario on 40 bacterial sRNA families. The sensitivity of the tested methods was similar, while the specificity of GLASSgo and RNAlien/cmsearch was significantly higher than that of BLAST. GLASSgo was on average ∼87 times faster than RNAlien/cmsearch, and only ∼7.5 times slower than BLAST, which shows that GLASSgo optimizes the trade-off between speed and accuracy in the task of finding sRNA homologs. GLASSgo is fully automated, whereas BLAST often recovers only parts of homologs and RNAlien/cmsearch requires extensive additional bioinformatic work to get a comprehensive set of homologs. GLASSgo is available as an easy-to-use web server to find homologous sRNAs in large databases.

  16. Measuring pair-wise molecular interactions in a complex mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Krishnendu; Varma, Manoj M.; Venkatapathi, Murugesan

    2016-03-01

    Complex biological samples such as serum contain thousands of proteins and other molecules spanning up to 13 orders of magnitude in concentration. Present measurement techniques do not permit the analysis of all pair-wise interactions between the components of such a complex mixture to a given target molecule. In this work we explore the use of nanoparticle tags which encode the identity of the molecule to obtain the statistical distribution of pair-wise interactions using their Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) signals. The nanoparticle tags are chosen such that the binding between two molecules conjugated to the respective nanoparticle tags can be recognized by the coupling of their LSPR signals. This numerical simulation is done by DDA to investigate this approach using a reduced system consisting of three nanoparticles (a gold ellipsoid with aspect ratio 2.5 and short axis 16 nm, and two silver ellipsoids with aspect ratios 3 and 2 and short axes 8 nm and 10 nm respectively) and the set of all possible dimers formed between them. Incident light was circularly polarized and all possible particle and dimer orientations were considered. We observed that minimum peak separation between two spectra is 5 nm while maximum is 184nm.

  17. Homology modeling, molecular docking and DNA binding studies of nucleotide excision repair UvrC protein from M. tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parulekar, Rishikesh S; Barage, Sagar H; Jalkute, Chidambar B; Dhanavade, Maruti J; Fandilolu, Prayagraj M; Sonawane, Kailas D

    2013-08-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a Gram positive, acid-fast bacteria belonging to genus Mycobacterium, is the leading causative agent of most cases of tuberculosis. The pathogenicity of the bacteria is enhanced by its developed DNA repair mechanism which consists of machineries such as nucleotide excision repair. Nucleotide excision repair consists of excinuclease protein UvrABC endonuclease, multi-enzymatic complex which carries out repair of damaged DNA in sequential manner. UvrC protein is a part of this complex and thus helps to repair the damaged DNA of M. tuberculosis. Hence, structural bioinformatics study of UvrC protein from M. tuberculosis was carried out using homology modeling and molecular docking techniques. Assessment of the reliability of the homology model was carried out by predicting its secondary structure along with its model validation. The predicted structure was docked with the ATP and the interacting amino acid residues of UvrC protein with the ATP were found to be TRP539, PHE89, GLU536, ILE402 and ARG575. The binding of UvrC protein with the DNA showed two different domains. The residues from domain I of the protein VAL526, THR524 and LEU521 interact with the DNA whereas, amino acids interacting from the domain II of the UvrC protein included ARG597, GLU595, GLY594 and GLY592 residues. This predicted model could be useful to design new inhibitors of UvrC enzyme to prevent pathogenesis of Mycobacterium and so the tuberculosis.

  18. A scalable pairwise class interaction framework for multidimensional classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arias, Jacinto; Gámez, Jose A.; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre

    2016-01-01

    We present a general framework for multidimensional classification that cap- tures the pairwise interactions between class variables. The pairwise class inter- actions are encoded using a collection of base classifiers (Phase 1), for which the class predictions are combined in a Markov random fie...

  19. Energetic frustrations in protein folding at residue resolution: a homologous simulation study of Im9 proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunxiang Sun

    Full Text Available Energetic frustration is becoming an important topic for understanding the mechanisms of protein folding, which is a long-standing big biological problem usually investigated by the free energy landscape theory. Despite the significant advances in probing the effects of folding frustrations on the overall features of protein folding pathways and folding intermediates, detailed characterizations of folding frustrations at an atomic or residue level are still lacking. In addition, how and to what extent folding frustrations interact with protein topology in determining folding mechanisms remains unclear. In this paper, we tried to understand energetic frustrations in the context of protein topology structures or native-contact networks by comparing the energetic frustrations of five homologous Im9 alpha-helix proteins that share very similar topology structures but have a single hydrophilic-to-hydrophobic mutual mutation. The folding simulations were performed using a coarse-grained Gō-like model, while non-native hydrophobic interactions were introduced as energetic frustrations using a Lennard-Jones potential function. Energetic frustrations were then examined at residue level based on φ-value analyses of the transition state ensemble structures and mapped back to native-contact networks. Our calculations show that energetic frustrations have highly heterogeneous influences on the folding of the four helices of the examined structures depending on the local environment of the frustration centers. Also, the closer the introduced frustration is to the center of the native-contact network, the larger the changes in the protein folding. Our findings add a new dimension to the understanding of protein folding the topology determination in that energetic frustrations works closely with native-contact networks to affect the protein folding.

  20. GPCR-SSFE: A comprehensive database of G-protein-coupled receptor template predictions and homology models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreuchwig Annika

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs transduce a wide variety of extracellular signals to within the cell and therefore have a key role in regulating cell activity and physiological function. GPCR malfunction is responsible for a wide range of diseases including cancer, diabetes and hyperthyroidism and a large proportion of drugs on the market target these receptors. The three dimensional structure of GPCRs is important for elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying these diseases and for performing structure-based drug design. Although structural data are restricted to only a handful of GPCRs, homology models can be used as a proxy for those receptors not having crystal structures. However, many researchers working on GPCRs are not experienced homology modellers and are therefore unable to benefit from the information that can be gleaned from such three-dimensional models. Here, we present a comprehensive database called the GPCR-SSFE, which provides initial homology models of the transmembrane helices for a large variety of family A GPCRs. Description Extending on our previous theoretical work, we have developed an automated pipeline for GPCR homology modelling and applied it to a large set of family A GPCR sequences. Our pipeline is a fragment-based approach that exploits available family A crystal structures. The GPCR-SSFE database stores the template predictions, sequence alignments, identified sequence and structure motifs and homology models for 5025 family A GPCRs. Users are able to browse the GPCR dataset according to their pharmacological classification or search for results using a UniProt entry name. It is also possible for a user to submit a GPCR sequence that is not contained in the database for analysis and homology model building. The models can be viewed using a Jmol applet and are also available for download along with the alignments. Conclusions The data provided by GPCR-SSFE are useful for investigating

  1. GPCR-SSFE: a comprehensive database of G-protein-coupled receptor template predictions and homology models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, Catherine L; Kreuchwig, Annika; Kleinau, Gunnar; Krause, Gerd

    2011-05-23

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) transduce a wide variety of extracellular signals to within the cell and therefore have a key role in regulating cell activity and physiological function. GPCR malfunction is responsible for a wide range of diseases including cancer, diabetes and hyperthyroidism and a large proportion of drugs on the market target these receptors. The three dimensional structure of GPCRs is important for elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying these diseases and for performing structure-based drug design. Although structural data are restricted to only a handful of GPCRs, homology models can be used as a proxy for those receptors not having crystal structures. However, many researchers working on GPCRs are not experienced homology modellers and are therefore unable to benefit from the information that can be gleaned from such three-dimensional models. Here, we present a comprehensive database called the GPCR-SSFE, which provides initial homology models of the transmembrane helices for a large variety of family A GPCRs. Extending on our previous theoretical work, we have developed an automated pipeline for GPCR homology modelling and applied it to a large set of family A GPCR sequences. Our pipeline is a fragment-based approach that exploits available family A crystal structures. The GPCR-SSFE database stores the template predictions, sequence alignments, identified sequence and structure motifs and homology models for 5025 family A GPCRs. Users are able to browse the GPCR dataset according to their pharmacological classification or search for results using a UniProt entry name. It is also possible for a user to submit a GPCR sequence that is not contained in the database for analysis and homology model building. The models can be viewed using a Jmol applet and are also available for download along with the alignments. The data provided by GPCR-SSFE are useful for investigating general and detailed sequence-structure-function relationships

  2. Dynamics of pairwise motions in the Cosmic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwing, Wojciech A.

    2016-10-01

    We present results of analysis of the dark matter (DM) pairwise velocity statistics in different Cosmic Web environments. We use the DM velocity and density field from the Millennium 2 simulation together with the NEXUS+ algorithm to segment the simulation volume into voxels uniquely identifying one of the four possible environments: nodes, filaments, walls or cosmic voids. We show that the PDFs of the mean infall velocities v 12 as well as its spatial dependence together with the perpendicular and parallel velocity dispersions bear a significant signal of the large-scale structure environment in which DM particle pairs are embedded. The pairwise flows are notably colder and have smaller mean magnitude in wall and voids, when compared to much denser environments of filaments and nodes. We discuss on our results, indicating that they are consistent with a simple theoretical predictions for pairwise motions as induced by gravitational instability mechanism. Our results indicate that the Cosmic Web elements are coherent dynamical entities rather than just temporal geometrical associations. In addition it should be possible to observationally test various Cosmic Web finding algorithms by segmenting available peculiar velocity data and studying resulting pairwise velocity statistics.

  3. Inferring Pairwise Interactions from Biological Data Using Maximum-Entropy Probability Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R Stein

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Maximum entropy-based inference methods have been successfully used to infer direct interactions from biological datasets such as gene expression data or sequence ensembles. Here, we review undirected pairwise maximum-entropy probability models in two categories of data types, those with continuous and categorical random variables. As a concrete example, we present recently developed inference methods from the field of protein contact prediction and show that a basic set of assumptions leads to similar solution strategies for inferring the model parameters in both variable types. These parameters reflect interactive couplings between observables, which can be used to predict global properties of the biological system. Such methods are applicable to the important problems of protein 3-D structure prediction and association of gene-gene networks, and they enable potential applications to the analysis of gene alteration patterns and to protein design.

  4. Scaffold protein enigma homolog 1 overcomes the repression of myogenesis activation by inhibitor of DNA binding 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatani, Miyuki [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Nagoya, 464-8106 (Japan); Ito, Jumpei [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Nagoya, 464-8106 (Japan); Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, 102-0083 (Japan); Koyama, Riko [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Nagoya, 464-8106 (Japan); Iijima, Masumi; Yoshimoto, Nobuo [The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka, 567-0047 (Japan); Niimi, Tomoaki [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Nagoya, 464-8106 (Japan); Kuroda, Shun' ichi [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Nagoya, 464-8106 (Japan); The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka, 567-0047 (Japan); Maturana, Andrés D., E-mail: maturana@agr.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Nagoya, 464-8106 (Japan)

    2016-05-27

    Enigma Homolog 1 (ENH1) is a scaffold protein for signaling proteins and transcription factors. Previously, we reported that ENH1 overexpression promotes the differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the role of ENH1 in the C2C12 cells differentiation remains elusive. ENH1 was shown to inhibit the proliferation of neuroblastoma cells by sequestering Inhibitor of DNA binding protein 2 (Id2) in the cytosol. Id2 is a repressor of basic Helix-Loop-Helix transcription factors activity and prevents myogenesis. Here, we found that ENH1 overcome the Id2 repression of C2C12 cells myogenic differentiation and that ENH1 overexpression promotes mice satellite cells activation, the first step toward myogenic differentiation. In addition, we show that ENH1 interacted with Id2 in C2C12 cells and mice satellite cells. Collectively, our results suggest that ENH1 plays an important role in the activation of myogenesis through the repression of Id2 activity. -- Highlights: •Enigma Homolog 1 (ENH1) is a scaffold protein. •ENH1 binds to inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (Id2) in myoblasts. •ENH1 overexpression overcomes the Id2's repression of myogenesis. •The Id2-ENH1 complex play an important role in the activation of myogenesis.

  5. Evolution of biological sequences implies an extreme value distribution of type I for both global and local pairwise alignment scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, Olivier; Maréchal, Eric

    2008-08-07

    Confidence in pairwise alignments of biological sequences, obtained by various methods such as Blast or Smith-Waterman, is critical for automatic analyses of genomic data. Two statistical models have been proposed. In the asymptotic limit of long sequences, the Karlin-Altschul model is based on the computation of a P-value, assuming that the number of high scoring matching regions above a threshold is Poisson distributed. Alternatively, the Lipman-Pearson model is based on the computation of a Z-value from a random score distribution obtained by a Monte-Carlo simulation. Z-values allow the deduction of an upper bound of the P-value (1/Z-value2) following the TULIP theorem. Simulations of Z-value distribution is known to fit with a Gumbel law. This remarkable property was not demonstrated and had no obvious biological support. We built a model of evolution of sequences based on aging, as meant in Reliability Theory, using the fact that the amount of information shared between an initial sequence and the sequences in its lineage (i.e., mutual information in Information Theory) is a decreasing function of time. This quantity is simply measured by a sequence alignment score. In systems aging, the failure rate is related to the systems longevity. The system can be a machine with structured components, or a living entity or population. "Reliability" refers to the ability to operate properly according to a standard. Here, the "reliability" of a sequence refers to the ability to conserve a sufficient functional level at the folded and maturated protein level (positive selection pressure). Homologous sequences were considered as systems 1) having a high redundancy of information reflected by the magnitude of their alignment scores, 2) which components are the amino acids that can independently be damaged by random DNA mutations. From these assumptions, we deduced that information shared at each amino acid position evolved with a constant rate, corresponding to the

  6. Functional and evolutionary characterization of Ohr proteins in eukaryotes reveals many active homologs among pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meireles, D A; Domingos, R M; Gaiarsa, J W; Ragnoni, E G; Bannitz-Fernandes, R; da Silva Neto, J F; de Souza, R F; Netto, L E S

    2017-08-01

    Ohr and OsmC proteins comprise two subfamilies within a large group of proteins that display Cys-based, thiol dependent peroxidase activity. These proteins were previously thought to be restricted to prokaryotes, but we show here, using iterated sequence searches, that Ohr/OsmC homologs are also present in 217 species of eukaryotes with a massive presence in Fungi (186 species). Many of these eukaryotic Ohr proteins possess an N-terminal extension that is predicted to target them to mitochondria. We obtained recombinant proteins for four eukaryotic members of the Ohr/OsmC family and three of them displayed lipoyl peroxidase activity. Further functional and biochemical characterization of the Ohr homologs from the ascomycete fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis Mf_1 (MfOhr), the causative agent of Black Sigatoka disease in banana plants, was pursued. Similarly to what has been observed for the bacterial proteins, we found that: (i) the peroxidase activity of MfOhr was supported by DTT or dihydrolipoamide (dithiols), but not by β-mercaptoethanol or GSH (monothiols), even in large excess; (ii) MfOhr displayed preference for organic hydroperoxides (CuOOH and tBOOH) over hydrogen peroxide; (iii) MfOhr presented extraordinary reactivity towards linoleic acid hydroperoxides (k=3.18 (±2.13)×10 8 M -1 s -1 ). Both Cys 87 and Cys 154 were essential to the peroxidase activity, since single mutants for each Cys residue presented no activity and no formation of intramolecular disulfide bond upon treatment with hydroperoxides. The pK a value of the Cys p residue was determined as 5.7±0.1 by a monobromobimane alkylation method. Therefore, eukaryotic Ohr peroxidases share several biochemical features with prokaryotic orthologues and are preferentially located in mitochondria. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Functional and evolutionary characterization of Ohr proteins in eukaryotes reveals many active homologs among pathogenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Meireles

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ohr and OsmC proteins comprise two subfamilies within a large group of proteins that display Cys-based, thiol dependent peroxidase activity. These proteins were previously thought to be restricted to prokaryotes, but we show here, using iterated sequence searches, that Ohr/OsmC homologs are also present in 217 species of eukaryotes with a massive presence in Fungi (186 species. Many of these eukaryotic Ohr proteins possess an N-terminal extension that is predicted to target them to mitochondria. We obtained recombinant proteins for four eukaryotic members of the Ohr/OsmC family and three of them displayed lipoyl peroxidase activity. Further functional and biochemical characterization of the Ohr homologs from the ascomycete fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis Mf_1 (MfOhr, the causative agent of Black Sigatoka disease in banana plants, was pursued. Similarly to what has been observed for the bacterial proteins, we found that: (i the peroxidase activity of MfOhr was supported by DTT or dihydrolipoamide (dithiols, but not by β-mercaptoethanol or GSH (monothiols, even in large excess; (ii MfOhr displayed preference for organic hydroperoxides (CuOOH and tBOOH over hydrogen peroxide; (iii MfOhr presented extraordinary reactivity towards linoleic acid hydroperoxides (k=3.18 (±2.13×108 M−1 s−1. Both Cys87 and Cys154 were essential to the peroxidase activity, since single mutants for each Cys residue presented no activity and no formation of intramolecular disulfide bond upon treatment with hydroperoxides. The pKa value of the Cysp residue was determined as 5.7±0.1 by a monobromobimane alkylation method. Therefore, eukaryotic Ohr peroxidases share several biochemical features with prokaryotic orthologues and are preferentially located in mitochondria. Keywords: Ohr/OsmC, Thiol-dependent peroxidases, Phylogeny

  8. Genetic interactions between the chromosome axis-associated protein Hop1 and homologous recombination determinants in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Simon David; Jarosinska, Olga Dorota; Lorenz, Alexander

    2018-03-17

    Hop1 is a component of the meiosis-specific chromosome axis and belongs to the evolutionarily conserved family of HORMA domain proteins. Hop1 and its orthologs in higher eukaryotes are a major factor in promoting double-strand DNA break formation and inter-homolog recombination. In budding yeast and mammals, they are also involved in a meiotic checkpoint kinase cascade monitoring the completion of double-strand DNA break repair. We used the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which lacks a canonical synaptonemal complex to test whether Hop1 has a role beyond supporting the generation of double-strand DNA breaks and facilitating inter-homolog recombination events. We determined how mutants of homologous recombination factors genetically interact with hop1, studied the role(s) of the HORMA domain of Hop1, and characterized a bio-informatically predicted interactor of Hop1, Aho1 (SPAC688.03c). Our observations indicate that in fission yeast, Hop1 does require its HORMA domain to support wild-type levels of meiotic recombination and localization to meiotic chromatin. Furthermore, we show that hop1∆ only weakly interacts genetically with mutants of homologous recombination factors, and in fission yeast likely has no major role beyond break formation and promoting inter-homolog events. We speculate that after the evolutionary loss of the synaptonemal complex, Hop1 likely has become less important for modulating recombination outcome during meiosis in fission yeast, and that this led to a concurrent rewiring of genetic pathways controlling meiotic recombination.

  9. Template-based protein-protein docking exploiting pairwise interfacial residue restraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xue, Li C; Garcia Lopes Maia Rodrigues, João; Dobbs, Drena; Honavar, Vasant; Bonvin, Alexandre M J J

    2016-01-01

    Although many advanced and sophisticatedab initioapproaches for modeling protein-protein complexes have been proposed in past decades, template-based modeling (TBM) remains the most accurate and widely used approach, given a reliable template is available. However, there are many different ways to

  10. Variation in the Subcellular Localization and Protein Folding Activity among Arabidopsis thaliana Homologs of Protein Disulfide Isomerase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christen Y. L. Yuen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs catalyze the formation, breakage, and rearrangement of disulfide bonds to properly fold nascent polypeptides within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Classical animal and yeast PDIs possess two catalytic thioredoxin-like domains (a, a′ and two non-catalytic domains (b, b′, in the order a-b-b′-a′. The model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, encodes 12 PDI-like proteins, six of which possess the classical PDI domain arrangement (AtPDI1 through AtPDI6. Three additional AtPDIs (AtPDI9, AtPDI10, AtPDI11 possess two thioredoxin domains, but without intervening b-b′ domains. C-terminal green fluorescent protein (GFP fusions to each of the nine dual-thioredoxin PDI homologs localized predominantly to the ER lumen when transiently expressed in protoplasts. Additionally, expression of AtPDI9:GFP-KDEL and AtPDI10: GFP-KDDL was associated with the formation of ER bodies. AtPDI9, AtPDI10, and AtPDI11 mediated the oxidative folding of alkaline phosphatase when heterologously expressed in the Escherichia coli protein folding mutant, dsbA−. However, only three classical AtPDIs (AtPDI2, AtPDI5, AtPDI6 functionally complemented dsbA−. Interestingly, chemical inducers of the ER unfolded protein response were previously shown to upregulate most of the AtPDIs that complemented dsbA−. The results indicate that Arabidopsis PDIs differ in their localization and protein folding activities to fulfill distinct molecular functions in the ER.

  11. Inter-homolog crossing-over and synapsis in Arabidopsis meiosis are dependent on the chromosome axis protein AtASY3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheen Ferdous

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study we have analysed AtASY3, a coiled-coil domain protein that is required for normal meiosis in Arabidopsis. Analysis of an Atasy3-1 mutant reveals that loss of the protein compromises chromosome axis formation and results in reduced numbers of meiotic crossovers (COs. Although the frequency of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs appears moderately reduced in Atasy3-1, the main recombination defect is a reduction in the formation of COs. Immunolocalization studies in wild-type meiocytes indicate that the HORMA protein AtASY1, which is related to Hop1 in budding yeast, forms hyper-abundant domains along the chromosomes that are spatially associated with DSBs and early recombination pathway proteins. Loss of AtASY3 disrupts the axial organization of AtASY1. Furthermore we show that the AtASY3 and AtASY1 homologs BoASY3 and BoASY1, from the closely related species Brassica oleracea, are co-immunoprecipitated from meiocyte extracts and that AtASY3 interacts with AtASY1 via residues in its predicted coiled-coil domain. Together our results suggest that AtASY3 is a functional homolog of Red1. Since studies in budding yeast indicate that Red1 and Hop1 play a key role in establishing a bias to favor inter-homolog recombination (IHR, we propose that AtASY3 and AtASY1 may have a similar role in Arabidopsis. Loss of AtASY3 also disrupts synaptonemal complex (SC formation. In Atasy3-1 the transverse filament protein AtZYP1 forms small patches rather than a continuous SC. The few AtMLH1 foci that remain in Atasy3-1 are found in association with the AtZYP1 patches. This is sufficient to prevent the ectopic recombination observed in the absence of AtZYP1, thus emphasizing that in addition to its structural role the protein is important for CO formation.

  12. Supplier Evaluation Process by Pairwise Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Kawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose to assess suppliers by using consistency-driven pairwise comparisons for tangible and intangible criteria. The tangible criteria are simpler to compare (e.g., the price of a service is lower than that of another service with identical characteristics. Intangible criteria are more difficult to assess. The proposed model combines assessments of both types of criteria. The main contribution of this paper is the presentation of an extension framework for the selection of suppliers in a procurement process. The final weights are computed from relative pairwise comparisons. For the needs of the paper, surveys were conducted among Polish managers dealing with cooperation with suppliers in their enterprises. The Polish practice and restricted bidding are discussed, too.

  13. Amblyomma americanum salivary gland homolog of nSec1 is essential for saliva protein secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, Shahid; Ramakrishnan, Vijay G.; Tucker, James S.; Essenberg, Richard C.; Sauer, John R.

    2004-01-01

    Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor proteins assemble in tight core complexes which promote fusion of carrier vesicles with target compartments. Members of this class of proteins are expressed in all eukaryotic cells and distributed in distinct subcellular compartments. All vesicle transport mechanisms known to date have an essential requirement for a member of the Sec1 protein family, including the nSec1 in regulated exocytosis. A homolog of nSec1 was cloned and sequenced from the salivary glands of partially fed female ticks. Double-stranded RNA was used to specifically reduce the amount of nSec1 mRNA and protein in female adult tick salivary glands. This reduction was accompanied by a decrease in anticoagulant protein release by the glands and by abnormalities in feeding by dsRNA treated ticks. We report the efficacy of double-stranded RNA-mediated interference in 'knocking down' nSec1 both in vivo and in vitro in tick salivary glands and the applicability of this technique for studying the mechanism of exocytosis in tick salivary glands

  14. INHIBITION OF THE DNA-BINDING ACTIVITY OF DROSOPHILA SUPPRESSOR OF HAIRLESS AND OF ITS HUMAN HOMOLOG, KBF2/RBP-J-KAPPA, BY DIRECT PROTEIN-PROTEIN INTERACTION WITH DROSOPHILA HAIRLESS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BROU, C; LOGEAT, F; LECOURTOIS, M; VANDEKERCKHOVE, Joël; KOURILSKY, P; SCHWEISGUTH, F; ISRAEL, A

    1994-01-01

    We have purified the sequence-specific DNA-binding protein KBF2 and cloned the corresponding cDNA, which is derived from the previously described RBP-J kappa gene, the human homolog of the Drosophila Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H)] gene. Deletion studies of the RBP-J kappa and Su(H) proteins allowed

  15. Prediction of homoprotein and heteroprotein complexes by protein docking and template-based modeling: A CASP-CAPRI experiment

    KAUST Repository

    Lensink, Marc F.; Velankar, Sameer; Kryshtafovych, Andriy; Huang, Shen-You; Schneidman-Duhovny, Dina; Sali, Andrej; Segura, Joan; Fernandez-Fuentes, Narcis; Viswanath, Shruthi; Elber, Ron; Grudinin, Sergei; Popov, Petr; Neveu, Emilie; Lee, Hasup; Baek, Minkyung; Park, Sangwoo; Heo, Lim; Rie Lee, Gyu; Seok, Chaok; Qin, Sanbo; Zhou, Huan-Xiang; Ritchie, David W.; Maigret, Bernard; Devignes, Marie-Dominique; Ghoorah, Anisah; Torchala, Mieczyslaw; Chaleil, Raphaë l A.G.; Bates, Paul A.; Ben-Zeev, Efrat; Eisenstein, Miriam; Negi, Surendra S.; Weng, Zhiping; Vreven, Thom; Pierce, Brian G.; Borrman, Tyler M.; Yu, Jinchao; Ochsenbein, Franç oise; Guerois, Raphaë l; Vangone, Anna; Rodrigues, Joã o P.G.L.M.; van Zundert, Gydo; Nellen, Mehdi; Xue, Li; Karaca, Ezgi; Melquiond, Adrien S.J.; Visscher, Koen; Kastritis, Panagiotis L.; Bonvin, Alexandre M.J.J.; Xu, Xianjin; Qiu, Liming; Yan, Chengfei; Li, Jilong; Ma, Zhiwei; Cheng, Jianlin; Zou, Xiaoqin; Shen, Yang; Peterson, Lenna X.; Kim, Hyung-Rae; Roy, Amit; Han, Xusi; Esquivel-Rodriguez, Juan; Kihara, Daisuke; Yu, Xiaofeng; Bruce, Neil J.; Fuller, Jonathan C.; Wade, Rebecca C.; Anishchenko, Ivan; Kundrotas, Petras J.; Vakser, Ilya A.; Imai, Kenichiro; Yamada, Kazunori; Oda, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Tsukasa; Tomii, Kentaro; Pallara, Chiara; Romero-Durana, Miguel; Jimé nez-Garcí a, Brian; Moal, Iain H.; Fé rnandez-Recio, Juan; Joung, Jong Young; Kim, Jong Yun; Joo, Keehyoung; Lee, Jooyoung; Kozakov, Dima; Vajda, Sandor; Mottarella, Scott; Hall, David R.; Beglov, Dmitri; Mamonov, Artem; Xia, Bing; Bohnuud, Tanggis; Del Carpio, Carlos A.; Ichiishi, Eichiro; Marze, Nicholas; Kuroda, Daisuke; Roy Burman, Shourya S.; Gray, Jeffrey J.; Chermak, Edrisse; Cavallo, Luigi; Oliva, Romina; Tovchigrechko, Andrey; Wodak, Shoshana J.

    2016-01-01

    We present the results for CAPRI Round 30, the first joint CASP-CAPRI experiment, which brought together experts from the protein structure prediction and protein-protein docking communities. The Round comprised 25 targets from amongst those submitted for the CASP11 prediction experiment of 2014. The targets included mostly homodimers, a few homotetramers, and two heterodimers, and comprised protein chains that could readily be modeled using templates from the Protein Data Bank. On average 24 CAPRI groups and 7 CASP groups submitted docking predictions for each target, and 12 CAPRI groups per target participated in the CAPRI scoring experiment. In total more than 9500 models were assessed against the 3D structures of the corresponding target complexes. Results show that the prediction of homodimer assemblies by homology modeling techniques and docking calculations is quite successful for targets featuring large enough subunit interfaces to represent stable associations. Targets with ambiguous or inaccurate oligomeric state assignments, often featuring crystal contact-sized interfaces, represented a confounding factor. For those, a much poorer prediction performance was achieved, while nonetheless often providing helpful clues on the correct oligomeric state of the protein. The prediction performance was very poor for genuine tetrameric targets, where the inaccuracy of the homology-built subunit models and the smaller pair-wise interfaces severely limited the ability to derive the correct assembly mode. Our analysis also shows that docking procedures tend to perform better than standard homology modeling techniques and that highly accurate models of the protein components are not always required to identify their association modes with acceptable accuracy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Prediction of homoprotein and heteroprotein complexes by protein docking and template-based modeling: A CASP-CAPRI experiment

    KAUST Repository

    Lensink, Marc F.

    2016-04-28

    We present the results for CAPRI Round 30, the first joint CASP-CAPRI experiment, which brought together experts from the protein structure prediction and protein-protein docking communities. The Round comprised 25 targets from amongst those submitted for the CASP11 prediction experiment of 2014. The targets included mostly homodimers, a few homotetramers, and two heterodimers, and comprised protein chains that could readily be modeled using templates from the Protein Data Bank. On average 24 CAPRI groups and 7 CASP groups submitted docking predictions for each target, and 12 CAPRI groups per target participated in the CAPRI scoring experiment. In total more than 9500 models were assessed against the 3D structures of the corresponding target complexes. Results show that the prediction of homodimer assemblies by homology modeling techniques and docking calculations is quite successful for targets featuring large enough subunit interfaces to represent stable associations. Targets with ambiguous or inaccurate oligomeric state assignments, often featuring crystal contact-sized interfaces, represented a confounding factor. For those, a much poorer prediction performance was achieved, while nonetheless often providing helpful clues on the correct oligomeric state of the protein. The prediction performance was very poor for genuine tetrameric targets, where the inaccuracy of the homology-built subunit models and the smaller pair-wise interfaces severely limited the ability to derive the correct assembly mode. Our analysis also shows that docking procedures tend to perform better than standard homology modeling techniques and that highly accurate models of the protein components are not always required to identify their association modes with acceptable accuracy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Homologous recombination in mammalian cells: effect of p53 and Bcl-2 proteins, replication inhibition and ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saintigny, Yannick

    1999-01-01

    The control of cell cycle, associated with the mechanisms of replication, DNA repair/recombination allows the cells to maintain their genetic integrity. The p53 protein ensures the control of G1/S transition. Its inactivation would allow to initial replication on damaged matrix and lead to the block of replication forks followed by DNA strand breaks, good substrates for recombination. This work shows that the expression of mutant p53 protein stimulates both spontaneous and radio-induced homologous recombination, independently of the control of cell cycle. Moreover, the use of a set of replication inhibitors show that inhibition of the replication elongation stimulates recombination more strongly than the initiation inhibition. Replication arrest by these inhibitors also significantly increases the number of DNA strand breaks. These results highlighted a point of action of p53 protein on the ultimate stages of the homologous recombination mechanism. Lastly, the expression of Bcl-2 protein inhibits apoptosis and increases survival, but specifically inhibits conservative recombination, after radiation as well as in absence of apoptotic stress. The extinction of this mechanism of DNA repair is associated with an increase of mutagenesis. Taken together, these results allow ta consider the maintenance of the genetic stability as a cellular network involving different pathways. A multiple stages model for tumoral progression can be deduced. (author) [fr

  18. Doctoral Program Selection Using Pairwise Comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadisina, Suresh K.; Bhasin, Vijay

    1989-01-01

    The application of a pairwise comparison methodology (Saaty's Analytic Hierarchy Process) to the doctoral program selection process is illustrated. A hierarchy for structuring and facilitating the doctoral program selection decision is described. (Author/MLW)

  19. Human Fanconi anemia monoubiquitination pathway promotes homologous DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Koji; Yang, Yun-Gui; Pierce, Andrew J; Taniguchi, Toshiyasu; Digweed, Martin; D'Andrea, Alan D; Wang, Zhao-Qi; Jasin, Maria

    2005-01-25

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a recessive disorder characterized by congenital abnormalities, progressive bone-marrow failure, and cancer susceptibility. Cells from FA patients are hypersensitive to agents that produce DNA crosslinks and, after treatment with these agents, have pronounced chromosome breakage and other cytogenetic abnormalities. Eight FANC genes have been cloned, and the encoded proteins interact in a common cellular pathway. DNA-damaging agents activate the monoubiquitination of FANCD2, resulting in its targeting to nuclear foci that also contain BRCA1 and BRCA2/FANCD1, proteins involved in homology-directed DNA repair. Given the interaction of the FANC proteins with BRCA1 and BRCA2, we tested whether cells from FA patients (groups A, G, and D2) and mouse Fanca-/- cells with a targeted mutation are impaired for this repair pathway. We find that both the upstream (FANCA and FANCG) and downstream (FANCD2) FA pathway components promote homology-directed repair of chromosomal double-strand breaks (DSBs). The FANCD2 monoubiquitination site is critical for normal levels of repair, whereas the ATM phosphorylation site is not. The defect in these cells, however, is mild, differentiating them from BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutant cells. Surprisingly, we provide evidence that these proteins, like BRCA1 but unlike BRCA2, promote a second DSB repair pathway involving homology, i.e., single-strand annealing. These results suggest an early role for the FANC proteins in homologous DSB repair pathway choice.

  20. Preference Learning and Ranking by Pairwise Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürnkranz, Johannes; Hüllermeier, Eyke

    This chapter provides an overview of recent work on preference learning and ranking via pairwise classification. The learning by pairwise comparison (LPC) paradigm is the natural machine learning counterpart to the relational approach to preference modeling and decision making. From a machine learning point of view, LPC is especially appealing as it decomposes a possibly complex prediction problem into a certain number of learning problems of the simplest type, namely binary classification. We explain how to approach different preference learning problems, such as label and instance ranking, within the framework of LPC. We primarily focus on methodological aspects, but also address theoretical questions as well as algorithmic and complexity issues.

  1. Genomic clustering and homology between HET-S and the NWD2 STAND protein in various fungal genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asen Daskalov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prions are infectious proteins propagating as self-perpetuating amyloid polymers. The [Het-s] prion of Podospora anserina is involved in a cell death process associated with non-self recognition. The prion forming domain (PFD of HET-s adopts a β-solenoid amyloid structure characterized by the two fold repetition of an elementary triangular motif. [Het-s] induces cell death when interacting with HET-S, an allelic variant of HET-s. When templated by [Het-s], HET-S undergoes a trans-conformation, relocates to the cell membrane and induces toxicity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, comparing HET-s homologs from different species, we devise a consensus for the HET-s elementary triangular motif. We use this motif to screen genomic databases and find a match to the N-terminus of NWD2, a STAND protein, encoded by the gene immediately adjacent to het-S. STAND proteins are signal transducing ATPases which undergo ligand-induced oligomerisation. Homology modelling predicts that the NWD2 N-terminal region adopts a HET-s-like fold. We propose that upon NWD2 oligomerisation, these N-terminal extensions adopt the β-solenoid fold and template HET-S to adopt the amyloid fold and trigger toxicity. We extend this model to a putative prion, the σ infectious element in Nectria haematococca, because the s locus controlling propagation of σ also encodes a STAND protein and displays analogous features. Comparative genomic analyses indicate evolutionary conservation of these STAND/prion-like gene pairs, identify a number of novel prion candidates and define, in addition to the HET-s PFD motif, two distinct, novel putative PFD-like motifs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We suggest the existence, in the fungal kingdom, of a widespread and evolutionarily conserved mode of signal transduction based on the transmission of an amyloid-fold from a NOD-like STAND receptor protein to an effector protein.

  2. Fast subcellular localization by cascaded fusion of signal-based and homology-based methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wei

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The functions of proteins are closely related to their subcellular locations. In the post-genomics era, the amount of gene and protein data grows exponentially, which necessitates the prediction of subcellular localization by computational means. Results This paper proposes mitigating the computation burden of alignment-based approaches to subcellular localization prediction by a cascaded fusion of cleavage site prediction and profile alignment. Specifically, the informative segments of protein sequences are identified by a cleavage site predictor using the information in their N-terminal shorting signals. Then, the sequences are truncated at the cleavage site positions, and the shortened sequences are passed to PSI-BLAST for computing their profiles. Subcellular localization are subsequently predicted by a profile-to-profile alignment support-vector-machine (SVM classifier. To further reduce the training and recognition time of the classifier, the SVM classifier is replaced by a new kernel method based on the perturbational discriminant analysis (PDA. Conclusions Experimental results on a new dataset based on Swiss-Prot Release 57.5 show that the method can make use of the best property of signal- and homology-based approaches and can attain an accuracy comparable to that achieved by using full-length sequences. Analysis of profile-alignment score matrices suggest that both profile creation time and profile alignment time can be reduced without significant reduction in subcellular localization accuracy. It was found that PDA enjoys a short training time as compared to the conventional SVM. We advocate that the method will be important for biologists to conduct large-scale protein annotation or for bioinformaticians to perform preliminary investigations on new algorithms that involve pairwise alignments.

  3. Pairwise Choice Markov Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Ragain, Stephen; Ugander, Johan

    2016-01-01

    As datasets capturing human choices grow in richness and scale---particularly in online domains---there is an increasing need for choice models that escape traditional choice-theoretic axioms such as regularity, stochastic transitivity, and Luce's choice axiom. In this work we introduce the Pairwise Choice Markov Chain (PCMC) model of discrete choice, an inferentially tractable model that does not assume any of the above axioms while still satisfying the foundational axiom of uniform expansio...

  4. Selecting numerical scales for pairwise comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    It is often desirable in decision analysis problems to elicit from an individual the rankings of a population of attributes according to the individual's preference and to understand the degree to which each attribute is preferred to the others. A common method for obtaining this information involves the use of pairwise comparisons, which allows an analyst to convert subjective expressions of preference between two attributes into numerical values indicating preferences across the entire population of attributes. Key to the use of pairwise comparisons is the underlying numerical scale that is used to convert subjective linguistic expressions of preference into numerical values. This scale represents the psychological manner in which individuals perceive increments of preference among abstract attributes and it has important implications about the distribution and consistency of an individual's preferences. Three popular scale types, the traditional integer scales, balanced scales and power scales are examined. Results of a study of 64 individuals responding to a hypothetical decision problem show that none of these scales can accurately capture the preferences of all individuals. A study of three individuals working on an actual engineering decision problem involving the design of a decay heat removal system for a nuclear fission reactor show that the choice of scale can affect the preferred decision. It is concluded that applications of pairwise comparisons would benefit from permitting participants to choose the scale that best models their own particular way of thinking about the relative preference of attributes.

  5. Inhibition of tumor metastasis by a growth factor receptor bound protein 2 Src homology 2 domain-binding antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giubellino, Alessio; Gao, Yang; Lee, Sunmin; Lee, Min-Jung; Vasselli, James R; Medepalli, Sampath; Trepel, Jane B; Burke, Terrence R; Bottaro, Donald P

    2007-07-01

    Metastasis, the primary cause of death in most forms of cancer, is a multistep process whereby cells from the primary tumor spread systemically and colonize distant new sites. Blocking critical steps in this process could potentially inhibit tumor metastasis and dramatically improve cancer survival rates; however, our understanding of metastasis at the molecular level is still rudimentary. Growth factor receptor binding protein 2 (Grb2) is a widely expressed adapter protein with roles in epithelial cell growth and morphogenesis, as well as angiogenesis, making it a logical target for anticancer drug development. We have previously shown that a potent antagonist of Grb2 Src homology-2 domain-binding, C90, blocks growth factor-driven cell motility in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo. We now report that C90 inhibits metastasis in vivo in two aggressive tumor models, without affecting primary tumor growth rate. These results support the potential efficacy of this compound in reducing the metastatic spread of primary solid tumors and establish a critical role for Grb2 Src homology-2 domain-mediated interactions in this process.

  6. ProDis-ContSHC: Learning protein dissimilarity measures and hierarchical context coherently for protein-protein comparison in protein database retrieval

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Gao, Xin; Wang, Quanquan; Li, Yongping

    2012-01-01

    Background: The need to retrieve or classify protein molecules using structure or sequence-based similarity measures underlies a wide range of biomedical applications. Traditional protein search methods rely on a pairwise dissimilarity

  7. Characterization of cDNA encoding human placental anticoagulant protein (PP4): Homology with the lipocortin family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundmann, U.; Abel, K.J.; Bohn, H.; Loebermann, H.; Lottspeich, F.; Kuepper, H.

    1988-01-01

    A cDNA library prepared from human placenta was screened for sequences encoding the placental protein 4 (PP4). PP4 is an anticoagulant protein that acts as an indirect inhibitor of the thromboplastin-specific complex, which is involved in the blood coagulation cascade. Partial amino acid sequence information from PP4-derived cyanogen bromide fragments was used to design three oligonucleotide probes for screening the library. From 10 6 independent recombinants, 18 clones were identified that hybridized to all three probes. These 18 recombinants contained cDNA inserts encoding a protein of 320 amino acid residues. In addition to the PP4 cDNA the authors identified 9 other recombinants encoding a protein with considerable similarity (74%) to PP4, which was termed PP4-X. PP4 and PP4-X belong to the lipocortin family, as judged by their homology to lipocortin I and calpactin I

  8. Arabidopsis mRNA polyadenylation machinery: comprehensive analysis of protein-protein interactions and gene expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Min

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The polyadenylation of mRNA is one of the critical processing steps during expression of almost all eukaryotic genes. It is tightly integrated with transcription, particularly its termination, as well as other RNA processing events, i.e. capping and splicing. The poly(A tail protects the mRNA from unregulated degradation, and it is required for nuclear export and translation initiation. In recent years, it has been demonstrated that the polyadenylation process is also involved in the regulation of gene expression. The polyadenylation process requires two components, the cis-elements on the mRNA and a group of protein factors that recognize the cis-elements and produce the poly(A tail. Here we report a comprehensive pairwise protein-protein interaction mapping and gene expression profiling of the mRNA polyadenylation protein machinery in Arabidopsis. Results By protein sequence homology search using human and yeast polyadenylation factors, we identified 28 proteins that may be components of Arabidopsis polyadenylation machinery. To elucidate the protein network and their functions, we first tested their protein-protein interaction profiles. Out of 320 pair-wise protein-protein interaction assays done using the yeast two-hybrid system, 56 (~17% showed positive interactions. 15 of these interactions were further tested, and all were confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and/or in vitro co-purification. These interactions organize into three distinct hubs involving the Arabidopsis polyadenylation factors. These hubs are centered around AtCPSF100, AtCLPS, and AtFIPS. The first two are similar to complexes seen in mammals, while the third one stands out as unique to plants. When comparing the gene expression profiles extracted from publicly available microarray datasets, some of the polyadenylation related genes showed tissue-specific expression, suggestive of potential different polyadenylation complex configurations. Conclusion An

  9. Evolution of biological sequences implies an extreme value distribution of type I for both global and local pairwise alignment scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maréchal Eric

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Confidence in pairwise alignments of biological sequences, obtained by various methods such as Blast or Smith-Waterman, is critical for automatic analyses of genomic data. Two statistical models have been proposed. In the asymptotic limit of long sequences, the Karlin-Altschul model is based on the computation of a P-value, assuming that the number of high scoring matching regions above a threshold is Poisson distributed. Alternatively, the Lipman-Pearson model is based on the computation of a Z-value from a random score distribution obtained by a Monte-Carlo simulation. Z-values allow the deduction of an upper bound of the P-value (1/Z-value2 following the TULIP theorem. Simulations of Z-value distribution is known to fit with a Gumbel law. This remarkable property was not demonstrated and had no obvious biological support. Results We built a model of evolution of sequences based on aging, as meant in Reliability Theory, using the fact that the amount of information shared between an initial sequence and the sequences in its lineage (i.e., mutual information in Information Theory is a decreasing function of time. This quantity is simply measured by a sequence alignment score. In systems aging, the failure rate is related to the systems longevity. The system can be a machine with structured components, or a living entity or population. "Reliability" refers to the ability to operate properly according to a standard. Here, the "reliability" of a sequence refers to the ability to conserve a sufficient functional level at the folded and maturated protein level (positive selection pressure. Homologous sequences were considered as systems 1 having a high redundancy of information reflected by the magnitude of their alignment scores, 2 which components are the amino acids that can independently be damaged by random DNA mutations. From these assumptions, we deduced that information shared at each amino acid position evolved with a

  10. Establishing homology between mitochondrial calcium uniporters, prokaryotic magnesium channels and chlamydial IncA proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andre; Vastermark, Ake; Saier, Milton H

    2014-08-01

    Mitochondrial calcium uniporters (MCUs) (TC no. 1.A.77) are oligomeric channel proteins found in the mitochondrial inner membrane. MCUs have two well-conserved transmembrane segments (TMSs), connected by a linker, similar to bacterial MCU homologues. These proteins and chlamydial IncA proteins (of unknown function; TC no. 9.B.159) are homologous to prokaryotic Mg(2+) transporters, AtpI and AtpZ, based on comparison scores of up to 14.5 sds. A phylogenetic tree containing all of these proteins showed that the AtpZ proteins cluster coherently as a subset within the large and diverse AtpI cluster, which branches separately from the MCUs and IncAs, both of which cluster coherently. The MCUs and AtpZs share the same two TMS topology, but the AtpIs have four TMSs, and IncAs can have either two (most frequent) or four (less frequent) TMSs. Binary alignments, comparison scores and motif analyses showed that TMSs 1 and 2 align with TMSs 3 and 4 of the AtpIs, suggesting that the four TMS AtpI proteins arose via an intragenic duplication event. These findings establish an evolutionary link interconnecting eukaryotic and prokaryotic Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) transporters with chlamydial IncAs, and lead us to suggest that all members of the MCU superfamily, including IncAs, function as divalent cation channels. © 2014 The Authors.

  11. The Role of Middlemen inEfficient and Strongly Pairwise Stable Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilles, R.P.; Chakrabarti, S.; Sarangi, S.; Badasyan, N.

    2004-01-01

    We examine the strong pairwise stability concept in network formation theory under collective network benefits.Strong pairwise stability considers a pair of players to add a link through mutual consent while permitting them to unilaterally delete any subset of links under their control.We examine

  12. Non-homologous isofunctional enzymes: a systematic analysis of alternative solutions in enzyme evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelchenko, Marina V; Galperin, Michael Y; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V

    2010-04-30

    Evolutionarily unrelated proteins that catalyze the same biochemical reactions are often referred to as analogous - as opposed to homologous - enzymes. The existence of numerous alternative, non-homologous enzyme isoforms presents an interesting evolutionary problem; it also complicates genome-based reconstruction of the metabolic pathways in a variety of organisms. In 1998, a systematic search for analogous enzymes resulted in the identification of 105 Enzyme Commission (EC) numbers that included two or more proteins without detectable sequence similarity to each other, including 34 EC nodes where proteins were known (or predicted) to have distinct structural folds, indicating independent evolutionary origins. In the past 12 years, many putative non-homologous isofunctional enzymes were identified in newly sequenced genomes. In addition, efforts in structural genomics resulted in a vastly improved structural coverage of proteomes, providing for definitive assessment of (non)homologous relationships between proteins. We report the results of a comprehensive search for non-homologous isofunctional enzymes (NISE) that yielded 185 EC nodes with two or more experimentally characterized - or predicted - structurally unrelated proteins. Of these NISE sets, only 74 were from the original 1998 list. Structural assignments of the NISE show over-representation of proteins with the TIM barrel fold and the nucleotide-binding Rossmann fold. From the functional perspective, the set of NISE is enriched in hydrolases, particularly carbohydrate hydrolases, and in enzymes involved in defense against oxidative stress. These results indicate that at least some of the non-homologous isofunctional enzymes were recruited relatively recently from enzyme families that are active against related substrates and are sufficiently flexible to accommodate changes in substrate specificity.

  13. In silico sequence analysis and homology modeling of predicted beta-amylase 7-like protein in Brachypodium distachyon L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERTUĞRUL FILIZ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Beta-amylase (β-amylase, EC 3.2.1.2 is an enzyme that catalyses hydrolysis of glucosidic bonds in polysaccharides. In this study, we analyzed protein sequence of predicted beta-amylase 7-like protein in Brachypodium distachyon. pI (isoelectric point value was found as 5.23 in acidic character, while the instability index (II was found as 50.28 with accepted unstable protein. The prediction of subcellular localization was revealed that the protein may reside in chloroplast by using CELLO v.2.5. The 3D structure of protein was performed using comparative homology modeling with SWISS-MODEL. The accuracy of the predicted 3D structure was checked using Ramachandran plot analysis showed that 95.4% in favored region. The results of our study contribute to understanding of β-amylase protein structure in grass species and will be scientific base for 3D modeling of beta-amylase proteins in further studies.

  14. Automatic Camera Calibration Using Multiple Sets of Pairwise Correspondences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Francisco; Barreto, Joao P; Boyer, Edmond

    2018-04-01

    We propose a new method to add an uncalibrated node into a network of calibrated cameras using only pairwise point correspondences. While previous methods perform this task using triple correspondences, these are often difficult to establish when there is limited overlap between different views. In such challenging cases we must rely on pairwise correspondences and our solution becomes more advantageous. Our method includes an 11-point minimal solution for the intrinsic and extrinsic calibration of a camera from pairwise correspondences with other two calibrated cameras, and a new inlier selection framework that extends the traditional RANSAC family of algorithms to sampling across multiple datasets. Our method is validated on different application scenarios where a lack of triple correspondences might occur: addition of a new node to a camera network; calibration and motion estimation of a moving camera inside a camera network; and addition of views with limited overlap to a Structure-from-Motion model.

  15. Adhesive proteins of stalked and acorn barnacles display homology with low sequence similarities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaimie-Leigh Jonker

    Full Text Available Barnacle adhesion underwater is an important phenomenon to understand for the prevention of biofouling and potential biotechnological innovations, yet so far, identifying what makes barnacle glue proteins 'sticky' has proved elusive. Examination of a broad range of species within the barnacles may be instructive to identify conserved adhesive domains. We add to extensive information from the acorn barnacles (order Sessilia by providing the first protein analysis of a stalked barnacle adhesive, Lepas anatifera (order Lepadiformes. It was possible to separate the L. anatifera adhesive into at least 10 protein bands using SDS-PAGE. Intense bands were present at approximately 30, 70, 90 and 110 kilodaltons (kDa. Mass spectrometry for protein identification was followed by de novo sequencing which detected 52 peptides of 7-16 amino acids in length. None of the peptides matched published or unpublished transcriptome sequences, but some amino acid sequence similarity was apparent between L. anatifera and closely-related Dosima fascicularis. Antibodies against two acorn barnacle proteins (ab-cp-52k and ab-cp-68k showed cross-reactivity in the adhesive glands of L. anatifera. We also analysed the similarity of adhesive proteins across several barnacle taxa, including Pollicipes pollicipes (a stalked barnacle in the order Scalpelliformes. Sequence alignment of published expressed sequence tags clearly indicated that P. pollicipes possesses homologues for the 19 kDa and 100 kDa proteins in acorn barnacles. Homology aside, sequence similarity in amino acid and gene sequences tended to decline as taxonomic distance increased, with minimum similarities of 18-26%, depending on the gene. The results indicate that some adhesive proteins (e.g. 100 kDa are more conserved within barnacles than others (20 kDa.

  16. The ubiquitin-homology protein, DAP-1, associates with tumor necrosis factor receptor (p60) death domain and induces apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, M L; Liou, H C

    1999-04-09

    The tumor necrosis factor receptor, p60 (TNF-R1), transduces death signals via the association of its cytoplasmic domain with several intracellular proteins. By screening a mammalian cDNA library using the yeast two-hybrid cloning technique, we isolated a ubiquitin-homology protein, DAP-1, which specifically interacts with the cytoplasmic death domain of TNF-R1. Sequence analysis reveals that DAP-1 shares striking sequence homology with the yeast SMT3 protein that is essential for the maintenance of chromosome integrity during mitosis (Meluh, P. B., and Koshland, D. (1995) Mol. Biol. Cell 6, 793-807). DAP-1 is nearly identical to PIC1, a protein that interacts with the PML tumor suppressor implicated in acute promyelocytic leukemia (Boddy, M. N., Howe, K., Etkin, L. D., Solomon, E., and Freemont, P. S. (1996) Oncogene 13, 971-982), and the sentrin protein, which associates with the Fas death receptor (Okura, T., Gong, L., Kamitani, T., Wada, T., Okura, I., Wei, C. F., Chang, H. M., and Yeh, E. T. (1996) J. Immunol. 157, 4277-4281). The in vivo interaction between DAP-1 and TNF-R1 was further confirmed in mammalian cells. In transient transfection assays, overexpression of DAP-1 suppresses NF-kappaB/Rel activity in 293T cells, a human kidney embryonic carcinoma cell line. Overexpression of either DAP-1 or sentrin causes apoptosis of TNF-sensitive L929 fibroblast cell line, as well as TNF-resistant osteosarcoma cell line, U2OS. Furthermore, the dominant negative Fas-associated death domain protein (FADD) protein blocks the cell death induced by either DAP-1 or FADD. Collectively, these observations highly suggest a role for DAP-1 in mediating TNF-induced cell death signaling pathways, presumably through the recruitment of FADD death effector.

  17. Contribution of the first K-homology domain of poly(C)-binding protein 1 to its affinity and specificity for C-rich oligonucleotides

    OpenAIRE

    Yoga, Yano M. K.; Traore, Daouda A. K.; Sidiqi, Mahjooba; Szeto, Chris; Pendini, Nicole R.; Barker, Andrew; Leedman, Peter J.; Wilce, Jacqueline A.; Wilce, Matthew C. J.

    2012-01-01

    Poly-C-binding proteins are triple KH (hnRNP K homology) domain proteins with specificity for single stranded C-rich RNA and DNA. They play diverse roles in the regulation of protein expression at both transcriptional and translational levels. Here, we analyse the contributions of individual αCP1 KH domains to binding C-rich oligonucleotides using biophysical and structural methods. Using surface plasmon resonance (SPR), we demonstrate that KH1 makes the most stable interactions with both RNA...

  18. The Inner Membrane Complex Sub-compartment Proteins Critical for Replication of the Apicomplexan Parasite Toxoplasma gondii Adopt a Pleckstrin Homology Fold*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkin, Michelle L.; Beck, Josh R.; Bradley, Peter J.; Boulanger, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, an apicomplexan parasite prevalent in developed nations, infects up to one-third of the human population. The success of this parasite depends on several unique structures including an inner membrane complex (IMC) that lines the interior of the plasma membrane and contains proteins important for gliding motility and replication. Of these proteins, the IMC sub-compartment proteins (ISPs) have recently been shown to play a role in asexual T. gondii daughter cell formation, yet the mechanism is unknown. Complicating mechanistic characterization of the ISPs is a lack of sequence identity with proteins of known structure or function. In support of elucidating the function of ISPs, we first determined the crystal structures of representative members TgISP1 and TgISP3 to a resolution of 2.10 and 2.32 Å, respectively. Structural analysis revealed that both ISPs adopt a pleckstrin homology fold often associated with phospholipid binding or protein-protein interactions. Substitution of basic for hydrophobic residues in the region that overlays with phospholipid binding in related pleckstrin homology domains, however, suggests that ISPs do not retain phospholipid binding activity. Consistent with this observation, biochemical assays revealed no phospholipid binding activity. Interestingly, mapping of conserved surface residues combined with crystal packing analysis indicates that TgISPs have functionally repurposed the phospholipid-binding site likely to coordinate protein partners. Recruitment of larger protein complexes may also be aided through avidity-enhanced interactions resulting from multimerization of the ISPs. Overall, we propose a model where TgISPs recruit protein partners to the IMC to ensure correct progression of daughter cell formation. PMID:24675080

  19. A predictive model of music preference using pairwise comparisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjørn Sand; Gallego, Javier Saez; Larsen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Music recommendation is an important aspect of many streaming services and multi-media systems, however, it is typically based on so-called collaborative filtering methods. In this paper we consider the recommendation task from a personal viewpoint and examine to which degree music preference can...... be elicited and predicted using simple and robust queries such as pairwise comparisons. We propose to model - and in turn predict - the pairwise music preference using a very flexible model based on Gaussian Process priors for which we describe the required inference. We further propose a specific covariance...

  20. Revisiting the classification of curtoviruses based on genome-wide pairwise identity

    KAUST Repository

    Varsani, Arvind; Martin, Darren Patrick; Navas-Castillo, Jesú s; Moriones, Enrique; Herná ndez-Zepeda, Cecilia; Idris, Ali; Murilo Zerbini, F.; Brown, Judith K.

    2014-01-01

    Members of the genus Curtovirus (family Geminiviridae) are important pathogens of many wild and cultivated plant species. Until recently, relatively few full curtovirus genomes have been characterised. However, with the 19 full genome sequences now available in public databases, we revisit the proposed curtovirus species and strain classification criteria. Using pairwise identities coupled with phylogenetic evidence, revised species and strain demarcation guidelines have been instituted. Specifically, we have established 77% genome-wide pairwise identity as a species demarcation threshold and 94% genome-wide pairwise identity as a strain demarcation threshold. Hence, whereas curtovirus sequences with >77% genome-wide pairwise identity would be classified as belonging to the same species, those sharing >94% identity would be classified as belonging to the same strain. We provide step-by-step guidelines to facilitate the classification of newly discovered curtovirus full genome sequences and a set of defined criteria for naming new species and strains. The revision yields three curtovirus species: Beet curly top virus (BCTV), Spinach severe surly top virus (SpSCTV) and Horseradish curly top virus (HrCTV). © 2014 Springer-Verlag Wien.

  1. Revisiting the classification of curtoviruses based on genome-wide pairwise identity

    KAUST Repository

    Varsani, Arvind

    2014-01-25

    Members of the genus Curtovirus (family Geminiviridae) are important pathogens of many wild and cultivated plant species. Until recently, relatively few full curtovirus genomes have been characterised. However, with the 19 full genome sequences now available in public databases, we revisit the proposed curtovirus species and strain classification criteria. Using pairwise identities coupled with phylogenetic evidence, revised species and strain demarcation guidelines have been instituted. Specifically, we have established 77% genome-wide pairwise identity as a species demarcation threshold and 94% genome-wide pairwise identity as a strain demarcation threshold. Hence, whereas curtovirus sequences with >77% genome-wide pairwise identity would be classified as belonging to the same species, those sharing >94% identity would be classified as belonging to the same strain. We provide step-by-step guidelines to facilitate the classification of newly discovered curtovirus full genome sequences and a set of defined criteria for naming new species and strains. The revision yields three curtovirus species: Beet curly top virus (BCTV), Spinach severe surly top virus (SpSCTV) and Horseradish curly top virus (HrCTV). © 2014 Springer-Verlag Wien.

  2. A restraint molecular dynamics and simulated annealing approach for protein homology modeling utilizing mean angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurer Till

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have developed the program PERMOL for semi-automated homology modeling of proteins. It is based on restrained molecular dynamics using a simulated annealing protocol in torsion angle space. As main restraints defining the optimal local geometry of the structure weighted mean dihedral angles and their standard deviations are used which are calculated with an algorithm described earlier by Döker et al. (1999, BBRC, 257, 348–350. The overall long-range contacts are established via a small number of distance restraints between atoms involved in hydrogen bonds and backbone atoms of conserved residues. Employing the restraints generated by PERMOL three-dimensional structures are obtained using standard molecular dynamics programs such as DYANA or CNS. Results To test this modeling approach it has been used for predicting the structure of the histidine-containing phosphocarrier protein HPr from E. coli and the structure of the human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (Ppar γ. The divergence between the modeled HPr and the previously determined X-ray structure was comparable to the divergence between the X-ray structure and the published NMR structure. The modeled structure of Ppar γ was also very close to the previously solved X-ray structure with an RMSD of 0.262 nm for the backbone atoms. Conclusion In summary, we present a new method for homology modeling capable of producing high-quality structure models. An advantage of the method is that it can be used in combination with incomplete NMR data to obtain reasonable structure models in accordance with the experimental data.

  3. Multiresolution persistent homology for excessively large biomolecular datasets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Kelin; Zhao, Zhixiong [Department of Mathematics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Wei, Guo-Wei, E-mail: wei@math.msu.edu [Department of Mathematics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2015-10-07

    Although persistent homology has emerged as a promising tool for the topological simplification of complex data, it is computationally intractable for large datasets. We introduce multiresolution persistent homology to handle excessively large datasets. We match the resolution with the scale of interest so as to represent large scale datasets with appropriate resolution. We utilize flexibility-rigidity index to access the topological connectivity of the data set and define a rigidity density for the filtration analysis. By appropriately tuning the resolution of the rigidity density, we are able to focus the topological lens on the scale of interest. The proposed multiresolution topological analysis is validated by a hexagonal fractal image which has three distinct scales. We further demonstrate the proposed method for extracting topological fingerprints from DNA molecules. In particular, the topological persistence of a virus capsid with 273 780 atoms is successfully analyzed which would otherwise be inaccessible to the normal point cloud method and unreliable by using coarse-grained multiscale persistent homology. The proposed method has also been successfully applied to the protein domain classification, which is the first time that persistent homology is used for practical protein domain analysis, to our knowledge. The proposed multiresolution topological method has potential applications in arbitrary data sets, such as social networks, biological networks, and graphs.

  4. The primary structure of rat liver ribosomal protein L37. Homology with yeast and bacterial ribosomal proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, A; McNally, J; Wool, I G

    1983-09-10

    The covalent structure of the rat liver 60 S ribosomal subunit protein L37 was determined. Twenty-four tryptic peptides were purified and the sequence of each was established; they accounted for all 111 residues of L37. The sequence of the first 30 residues of L37, obtained previously by automated Edman degradation of the intact protein, provided the alignment of the first 9 tryptic peptides. Three peptides (CN1, CN2, and CN3) were produced by cleavage of protein L37 with cyanogen bromide. The sequence of CN1 (65 residues) was established from the sequence of secondary peptides resulting from cleavage with trypsin and chymotrypsin. The sequence of CN1 in turn served to order tryptic peptides 1 through 14. The sequence of CN2 (15 residues) was determined entirely by a micromanual procedure and allowed the alignment of tryptic peptides 14 through 18. The sequence of the NH2-terminal 28 amino acids of CN3 (31 residues) was determined; in addition the complete sequences of the secondary tryptic and chymotryptic peptides were done. The sequence of CN3 provided the order of tryptic peptides 18 through 24. Thus the sequence of the three cyanogen bromide peptides also accounted for the 111 residues of protein L37. The carboxyl-terminal amino acids were identified after carboxypeptidase A treatment. There is a disulfide bridge between half-cystinyl residues at positions 40 and 69. Rat liver ribosomal protein L37 is homologous with yeast YP55 and with Escherichia coli L34. Moreover, there is a segment of 17 residues in rat L37 that occurs, albeit with modifications, in yeast YP55 and in E. coli S4, L20, and L34.

  5. ExoLocator--an online view into genetic makeup of vertebrate proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Aik Aun; Ogrizek-Tomas, Mario; Bulovic, Ana; Korpar, Matija; Gürler, Ece; Slijepcevic, Ivan; Šikic, Mile; Mihalek, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    ExoLocator (http://exolocator.eopsf.org) collects in a single place information needed for comparative analysis of protein-coding exons from vertebrate species. The main source of data--the genomic sequences, and the existing exon and homology annotation--is the ENSEMBL database of completed vertebrate genomes. To these, ExoLocator adds the search for ostensibly missing exons in orthologous protein pairs across species, using an extensive computational pipeline to narrow down the search region for the candidate exons and find a suitable template in the other species, as well as state-of-the-art implementations of pairwise alignment algorithms. The resulting complements of exons are organized in a way currently unique to ExoLocator: multiple sequence alignments, both on the nucleotide and on the peptide levels, clearly indicating the exon boundaries. The alignments can be inspected in the web-embedded viewer, downloaded or used on the spot to produce an estimate of conservation within orthologous sets, or functional divergence across paralogues.

  6. RPA homologs and ssDNA processing during meiotic recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Jonathan; Abby, Emilie; Livera, Gabriel; Martini, Emmanuelle

    2016-06-01

    Meiotic homologous recombination is a specialized process that involves homologous chromosome pairing and strand exchange to guarantee proper chromosome segregation and genetic diversity. The formation and repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) during meiotic recombination differs from those during mitotic recombination in that the homologous chromosome rather than the sister chromatid is the preferred repair template. The processing of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) formed on intermediate recombination structures is central to driving the specific outcomes of DSB repair during meiosis. Replication protein A (RPA) is the main ssDNA-binding protein complex involved in DNA metabolism. However, the existence of RPA orthologs in plants and the recent discovery of meiosis specific with OB domains (MEIOB), a widely conserved meiosis-specific RPA1 paralog, strongly suggest that multiple RPA complexes evolved and specialized to subdivide their roles during DNA metabolism. Here we review ssDNA formation and maturation during mitotic and meiotic recombination underlying the meiotic specific features. We describe and discuss the existence and properties of MEIOB and multiple RPA subunits in plants and highlight how they can provide meiosis-specific fates to ssDNA processing during homologous recombination. Understanding the functions of these RPA homologs and how they interact with the canonical RPA subunits is of major interest in the fields of meiosis and DNA repair.

  7. Bidirectional gene sequences with similar homology to functional proteins of alkane degrading bacterium pseudomonas fredriksbergensis DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megeed, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    The potential for two overlapping fragments of DNA from a clone of newly isolated alkanes degrading bacterium Pseudomonas frederiksbergensis encoding sequences with similar homology to two parts of functional proteins is described. One strand contains a sequence with high homology to alkanes monooxygenase (alkB), a member of the alkanes hydroxylase family, and the other strand contains a sequence with some homology to alcohol dehydrogenase gene (alkJ). Overlapping of the genes on opposite strands has been reported in eukaryotic species, and is now reported in a bacterial species. The sequence comparisons and ORFS results revealed that the regulation and the genes organization involved in alkane oxidation represented in Pseudomonas frederiksberghensis varies among the different known alkane degrading bacteria. The alk gene cluster containing homologues to the known alkane monooxygenase (alkB), and rubredoxin (alkG) are oriented in the same direction, whereas alcohol dehydrogenase (alkJ) is oriented in the opposite direction. Such genomes encode messages on both strands of the DNA, or in an overlapping but different reading frames, of the same strand of DNA. The possibility of creating novel genes from pre-existing sequences, known as overprinting, which is a widespread phenomenon in small viruses. Here, the origin and evolution of the gene overlap to bacteriophages belonging to the family Microviridae have been investigated. Such a phenomenon is most widely described in extremely small genomes such as those of viruses or small plasmids, yet here is a unique phenomenon. (author)

  8. Gene expression of a green fluorescent protein homolog as a host-specific biomarker of heat stress within a reef-building coral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Keune, C; Dove, S

    2008-01-01

    Recent incidences of mass coral bleaching indicate that major reef building corals are increasingly suffering thermal stress associated with climate-related temperature increases. The development of pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry has enabled rapid detection of the onset of thermal stress within coral algal symbionts, but sensitive biomarkers of thermal stress specific to the host coral have been slower to emerge. Differential display reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (DDRT-PCR) was used to produce fingerprints of gene expression for the reef-building coral Acropora millepora exposed to 33 degrees C. Changes in the expression of 23 out of 399 putative genes occurred within 144 h. Down-regulation of one host-specific gene (AmA1a) occurred within just 6 h. Full-length sequencing revealed the product of this gene to be an all-protein chromatophore (green fluorescent protein [GFP]-homolog). RT-PCR revealed consistent down-regulation of this GFP-homolog for three replicate colonies within 6 h at both 32 degrees C and 33 degrees C but not at lower temperatures. Down-regulation of this host gene preceded significant decreases in the photosynthetic activity of photosystem II (dark-adapted F (v)/F (m)) of algal symbionts as measured by PAM fluorometry. Gene expression of host-specific genes such as GFP-homologs may therefore prove to be highly sensitive indicators for the onset of thermal stress within host coral cells.

  9. Identification of Oxa1 Homologs Operating in the Eukaryotic Endoplasmic Reticulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Andrei Anghel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Members of the evolutionarily conserved Oxa1/Alb3/YidC family mediate membrane protein biogenesis at the mitochondrial inner membrane, chloroplast thylakoid membrane, and bacterial plasma membrane, respectively. Despite their broad phylogenetic distribution, no Oxa1/Alb3/YidC homologs are known to operate in eukaryotic cells outside the endosymbiotic organelles. Here, we present bioinformatic evidence that the tail-anchored protein insertion factor WRB/Get1, the “endoplasmic reticulum (ER membrane complex” subunit EMC3, and TMCO1 are ER-resident homologs of the Oxa1/Alb3/YidC family. Topology mapping and co-evolution-based modeling demonstrate that Get1, EMC3, and TMCO1 share a conserved Oxa1-like architecture. Biochemical analysis of human TMCO1, the only homolog not previously linked to membrane protein biogenesis, shows that it associates with the Sec translocon and ribosomes. These findings suggest a specific biochemical function for TMCO1 and define a superfamily of proteins—the “Oxa1 superfamily”—whose shared function is to facilitate membrane protein biogenesis.

  10. Beyond BLASTing: Tertiary and Quaternary Structure Analysis Helps Identify Major Vault Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Toni K.; Sutherland-Smith, Andrew J.; Penny, David

    2013-01-01

    We examine the advantages of going beyond sequence similarity and use both protein three-dimensional (3D) structure prediction and then quaternary structure (docking) of inferred 3D structures to help evaluate whether comparable sequences can fold into homologous structures with sufficient lateral associations for quaternary structure formation. Our test case is the major vault protein (MVP) that oligomerizes in multiple copies to form barrel-like vault particles and is relatively widespread among eukaryotes. We used the iterative threading assembly refinement server (I-TASSER) to predict whether putative MVP sequences identified by BLASTp and PSI Basic Local Alignment Search Tool are structurally similar to the experimentally determined rodent MVP tertiary structures. Then two identical predicted quaternary structures from I-TASSER are analyzed by RosettaDock to test whether a pair-wise association occurs, and hence whether the oligomeric vault complex is likely to form for a given MVP sequence. Positive controls for the method are the experimentally determined rat (Rattus norvegicus) vault X-ray crystal structure and the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) MVP sequence that forms experimentally observed vaults. These and two kinetoplast MVP structural homologs were predicted with high confidence value, and RosettaDock predicted that these MVP sequences would dock laterally and therefore could form oligomeric vaults. As the negative control, I-TASSER did not predict an MVP-like structure from a randomized rat MVP sequence, even when constrained to the rat MVP crystal structure (PDB:2ZUO), thus further validating the method. The protocol identified six putative homologous MVP sequences in the heterobolosean Naegleria gruberi within the excavate kingdom. Two of these sequences are predicted to be structurally similar to rat MVP, despite being in excess of 300 residues shorter. The method can be used generally to help test predictions of homology via

  11. Cloning, characterization, and heat stress-induced redistribution of a protein homologous to human hsp27 in the zebrafish Danio rerio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Li; Bryantsev, Anton L.; Chechenova, Maria B.; Shelden, Eric A.

    2005-01-01

    Hsp27 is a small heat shock protein (shsp) regulating stress tolerance and increasingly thought to play roles in tissue homeostasis and differentiation. The zebrafish Danio rerio is an important model for the study of developmental processes, but little is known regarding shsps in this animal. Here, we report the sequence, expression, regulation, and function of a zebrafish protein (zfHsp27) homologous to human Hsp27. zfHsp27 contains three conserved phosphorylatable serines and a cysteine important for regulation of apoptosis, but it lacks much of a C-terminal tail domain and shows low homology in two putative actin interacting domains that are features of mammalian Hsp27. zfHsp27 mRNA is most abundant in adult skeletal muscle and heart and is upregulated during early embryogenesis. zfHsp27 expressed in mammalian fibroblasts was phosphorylated in response to heat stress and anisomycin, and this phosphorylation was prevented by treatment with SB202190, an inhibitor of p38 MAPK. Expression of zfHsp27 and human Hsp27 in mammalian fibroblasts promoted a similar degree of tolerance to heat stress. zfHsp27 fusion proteins entered the nucleus and associated with the cytoskeleton of heat stressed cells in vitro and in zebrafish embryos. These results reveal conservation in regulation and function of mammalian and teleost Hsp27 proteins and define zebrafish as a new model for the study of Hsp27 function

  12. Unjamming in models with analytic pairwise potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooij, Stefan; Lerner, Edan

    2017-06-01

    Canonical models for studying the unjamming scenario in systems of soft repulsive particles assume pairwise potentials with a sharp cutoff in the interaction range. The sharp cutoff renders the potential nonanalytic but makes it possible to describe many properties of the solid in terms of the coordination number z , which has an unambiguous definition in these cases. Pairwise potentials without a sharp cutoff in the interaction range have not been studied in this context, but should in fact be considered to understand the relevance of the unjamming phenomenology in systems where such a cutoff is not present. In this work we explore two systems with such interactions: an inverse power law and an exponentially decaying pairwise potential, with the control parameters being the exponent (of the inverse power law) for the former and the number density for the latter. Both systems are shown to exhibit the characteristic features of the unjamming transition, among which are the vanishing of the shear-to-bulk modulus ratio and the emergence of an excess of low-frequency vibrational modes. We establish a relation between the pressure-to-bulk modulus ratio and the distance to unjamming in each of our model systems. This allows us to predict the dependence of other key observables on the distance to unjamming. Our results provide the means for a quantitative estimation of the proximity of generic glass-forming models to the unjamming transition in the absence of a clear-cut definition of the coordination number and highlight the general irrelevance of nonaffine contributions to the bulk modulus.

  13. Pairwise conjoint analysis of activity engagement choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Donggen; Oppewal, H.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2000-01-01

    Information overload is a well-known problem of conjoint choice models when respondents have to evaluate a large number of attributes and/or attribute levels. In this paper we develop an alternative conjoint modelling approach, called pairwise conjoint analysis. It differs from conventional conjoint

  14. PAIRWISE BLENDING OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CERTA, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate a mission scenario that uses pairwise and incidental blending of high level waste (HLW) to reduce the total mass of HLW glass. Secondary objectives include understanding how recent refinements to the tank waste inventory and solubility assumptions affect the mass of HLW glass and how logistical constraints may affect the efficacy of HLW blending

  15. In silico analysis of candidate proteins sharing homology with Streptococcus agalactiae proteins and their role in male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parida, Rajeshwari; Samanta, Luna

    2017-02-01

    Leukocytospermia is a physiologic condition defined as human semen with a leukocyte count of >1 x 10 6 cells/ml that is often correlated with male infertility. Moreover, bacteriospermia has been associated with leukocytospermia ultimately leading to male infertility. We have found that semen samples with >1 x 10 6 /ml leukocytes and/or bacteriospermia have oxidative predominance as evidenced by augmented protein carbonyl and lipid peroxidation status of the semen which is implicated in sperm dysfunction. It has been reported that Streptococcus agalactiae is present in bacteriospermic samples. Previous research has shown that human leukocyte antigen beta chain paralog (HLA-DRB) alleles interact best with the infected sperm cells rather than the non-infected cells. Little is known about the interaction of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) present on leukocytes with the sperm upon bacterial infection and how it induces an immunological response which we have addressed by epitope mapping. Therefore, we examined MHC class II derived bacterial peptides which might have human sperm-related functional aspects. Twenty-two S. agalactiae proteins were obtained from PUBMED protein database for our study. Protein sequences with more than two accession numbers were aligned using CLUSTAL Omega to check their conservation pattern. Each protein sequence was then analyzed for T-cell epitope prediction against HLA-DRB alleles using the immune epitope database (IEDB) analysis tool. Out of a plethora of peptides obtained from this analysis, peptides corresponding to proteins of interest such as DNA binding response regulator, hyaluronate lyase and laminin binding protein were screened against the human proteome using Blastp. Interestingly, we have found bacterial peptides sharing homology with human peptides deciphering some of the important sperm functions. Antibodies raised against these probable bacterial antigens of fertility will not only help us understand the mechanism of

  16. Searching remote homology with spectral clustering with symmetry in neighborhood cluster kernels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujjwal Maulik

    Full Text Available Remote homology detection among proteins utilizing only the unlabelled sequences is a central problem in comparative genomics. The existing cluster kernel methods based on neighborhoods and profiles and the Markov clustering algorithms are currently the most popular methods for protein family recognition. The deviation from random walks with inflation or dependency on hard threshold in similarity measure in those methods requires an enhancement for homology detection among multi-domain proteins. We propose to combine spectral clustering with neighborhood kernels in Markov similarity for enhancing sensitivity in detecting homology independent of "recent" paralogs. The spectral clustering approach with new combined local alignment kernels more effectively exploits the unsupervised protein sequences globally reducing inter-cluster walks. When combined with the corrections based on modified symmetry based proximity norm deemphasizing outliers, the technique proposed in this article outperforms other state-of-the-art cluster kernels among all twelve implemented kernels. The comparison with the state-of-the-art string and mismatch kernels also show the superior performance scores provided by the proposed kernels. Similar performance improvement also is found over an existing large dataset. Therefore the proposed spectral clustering framework over combined local alignment kernels with modified symmetry based correction achieves superior performance for unsupervised remote homolog detection even in multi-domain and promiscuous domain proteins from Genolevures database families with better biological relevance. Source code available upon request.sarkar@labri.fr.

  17. Unjamming in models with analytic pairwise potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, S.; Lerner, E.

    Canonical models for studying the unjamming scenario in systems of soft repulsive particles assume pairwise potentials with a sharp cutoff in the interaction range. The sharp cutoff renders the potential nonanalytic but makes it possible to describe many properties of the solid in terms of the

  18. Detecting remote sequence homology in disordered proteins: discovery of conserved motifs in the N-termini of Mononegavirales phosphoproteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Karlin

    Full Text Available Paramyxovirinae are a large group of viruses that includes measles virus and parainfluenza viruses. The viral Phosphoprotein (P plays a central role in viral replication. It is composed of a highly variable, disordered N-terminus and a conserved C-terminus. A second viral protein alternatively expressed, the V protein, also contains the N-terminus of P, fused to a zinc finger. We suspected that, despite their high variability, the N-termini of P/V might all be homologous; however, using standard approaches, we could previously identify sequence conservation only in some Paramyxovirinae. We now compared the N-termini using sensitive sequence similarity search programs, able to detect residual similarities unnoticeable by conventional approaches. We discovered that all Paramyxovirinae share a short sequence motif in their first 40 amino acids, which we called soyuz1. Despite its short length (11-16aa, several arguments allow us to conclude that soyuz1 probably evolved by homologous descent, unlike linear motifs. Conservation across such evolutionary distances suggests that soyuz1 plays a crucial role and experimental data suggest that it binds the viral nucleoprotein to prevent its illegitimate self-assembly. In some Paramyxovirinae, the N-terminus of P/V contains a second motif, soyuz2, which might play a role in blocking interferon signaling. Finally, we discovered that the P of related Mononegavirales contain similarly overlooked motifs in their N-termini, and that their C-termini share a previously unnoticed structural similarity suggesting a common origin. Our results suggest several testable hypotheses regarding the replication of Mononegavirales and suggest that disordered regions with little overall sequence similarity, common in viral and eukaryotic proteins, might contain currently overlooked motifs (intermediate in length between linear motifs and disordered domains that could be detected simply by comparing orthologous proteins.

  19. Modeling Non-homologous End Joining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfeng

    2013-01-01

    Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is the dominant DNA double strand break (DSB) repair pathway and involves several NHEJ proteins such as Ku, DNA-PKcs, XRCC4, Ligase IV and so on. Once DSBs are generated, Ku is first recruited to the DNA end, followed by other NHEJ proteins for DNA end processing and ligation. Because of the direct ligation of break ends without the need for a homologous template, NHEJ turns out to be an error-prone but efficient repair pathway. Some mechanisms have been proposed of how the efficiency of NHEJ repair is affected. The type of DNA damage is an important factor of NHEJ repair. For instance, the length of DNA fragment may determine the recruitment efficiency of NHEJ protein such as Ku [1], or the complexity of the DNA breaks [2] is accounted for the choice of NHEJ proteins and subpathway of NHEJ repair. On the other hand, the chromatin structure also plays a role of the accessibility of NHEJ protein to the DNA damage site. In this talk, some mathematical models of NHEJ, that consist of series of biochemical reactions complying with the laws of chemical reaction (e.g. mass action, etc.), will be introduced. By mathematical and numerical analysis and parameter estimation, the models are able to capture the qualitative biological features and show good agreement with experimental data. As conclusions, from the viewpoint of modeling, how the NHEJ proteins are recruited will be first discussed for connection between the classical sequential model [4] and recently proposed two-phase model [5]. Then how the NHEJ repair pathway is affected, by the length of DNA fragment [6], the complexity of DNA damage [7] and the chromatin structure [8], will be addressed

  20. A Comparative Study of Pairwise Learning Methods Based on Kernel Ridge Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Michiel; Pahikkala, Tapio; Airola, Antti; De Baets, Bernard; Waegeman, Willem

    2018-06-12

    Many machine learning problems can be formulated as predicting labels for a pair of objects. Problems of that kind are often referred to as pairwise learning, dyadic prediction, or network inference problems. During the past decade, kernel methods have played a dominant role in pairwise learning. They still obtain a state-of-the-art predictive performance, but a theoretical analysis of their behavior has been underexplored in the machine learning literature. In this work we review and unify kernel-based algorithms that are commonly used in different pairwise learning settings, ranging from matrix filtering to zero-shot learning. To this end, we focus on closed-form efficient instantiations of Kronecker kernel ridge regression. We show that independent task kernel ridge regression, two-step kernel ridge regression, and a linear matrix filter arise naturally as a special case of Kronecker kernel ridge regression, implying that all these methods implicitly minimize a squared loss. In addition, we analyze universality, consistency, and spectral filtering properties. Our theoretical results provide valuable insights into assessing the advantages and limitations of existing pairwise learning methods.

  1. The Escherichia coli thioredoxin homolog YbbN/Trxsc is a chaperone and a weak protein oxidoreductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Thérèse; Malki, Abderrahim; Kern, Renée; Abdallah, Jad; Richarme, Gilbert

    2006-05-12

    Escherichia coli contains two thioredoxins, Trx1 and Trx2, and a thioredoxin-like protein, YbbN, which presents a strong homology in its N-terminal part with thioredoxin 1 and 2. YbbN, however, does not possess the canonical Cys-x-x-Cys active site of thioredoxins, but instead a Ser-x-x-Cys site. In addition to Cys-38, located in the SxxC site, it contains a second cysteine, Cys-63, close to Cys-38 in the 3D model. Cys-38 and Cys-63 undergo an oxidoreduction process, suggesting that YbbN functions with two redox cysteines. Accordingly, YbbN catalyzes the oxidation of reduced RNase and the isomerization of scrambled RNase. Moreover, upon oxidation, its oligomeric state changes from dimers to tetramers and higher oligomers. YbbN also possesses chaperone properties, promoting protein folding after urea denaturation and forming complexes with unfolded proteins. This is the first biochemical characterization of a member of the YbbN class of bacterial thioredoxin-like proteins, and in vivo experiments will allow to determine the importance of its redox and chaperone properties in the cellular physiology.

  2. Autonomously folding protein fragments reveal differences in the energy landscapes of homologous RNases H.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E Rosen

    Full Text Available An important approach to understanding how a protein sequence encodes its energy landscape is to compare proteins with different sequences that fold to the same general native structure. In this work, we compare E. coli and T. thermophilus homologs of the protein RNase H. Using protein fragments, we create equilibrium mimics of two different potential partially-folded intermediates (I(core and I(core+1 hypothesized to be present on the energy landscapes of these two proteins. We observe that both T. thermophilus RNase H (ttRNH fragments are folded and have distinct stabilities, indicating that both regions are capable of autonomous folding and that both intermediates are present as local minima on the ttRNH energy landscape. In contrast, the two E. coli RNase H (ecRNH fragments have very similar stabilities, suggesting that the presence of additional residues in the I(core+1 fragment does not affect the folding or structure as compared to I(core. NMR experiments provide additional evidence that only the I(core intermediate is populated by ecRNH. This is one of the biggest differences that has been observed between the energy landscapes of these two proteins. Additionally, we used a FRET experiment in the background of full-length ttRNH to specifically monitor the formation of the I(core+1 intermediate. We determine that the ttRNH I(core+1 intermediate is likely the intermediate populated prior to the rate-limiting barrier to global folding, in contrast to E. coli RNase H for which I(core is the folding intermediate. This result provides new insight into the nature of the rate-limiting barrier for the folding of RNase H.

  3. The Escherichia coli thioredoxin homolog YbbN/Trxsc is a chaperone and a weak protein oxidoreductase.

    OpenAIRE

    Caldas , Thérèse; Malki , Abderrahim; Kern , Renée; Abdallah , Jad; Richarme , Gilbert

    2006-01-01

    Escherichia coli contains two thioredoxins, Trx1 and Trx2, and a thioredoxin-like protein, YbbN, which presents a strong homology in its N-terminal part with thioredoxin 1 and 2. YbbN, however, does not possess the canonical Cys-x-x-Cys active site of thioredoxins, but instead a Ser-x-x-Cys site. In addition to Cys-38, located in the SxxC site, it contains a second cysteine, Cys-63, close to Cys-38 in the 3D model. Cys-38 and Cys-63 undergo an oxidoreduction process, suggesting that YbbN func...

  4. Eps homology domain endosomal transport proteins differentially localize to the neuromuscular junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mate Suzanne E

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recycling of endosomes is important for trafficking and maintenance of proteins at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ. We have previously shown high expression of the endocytic recycling regulator Eps15 homology domain-containing (EHD1 proteinin the Torpedo californica electric organ, a model tissue for investigating a cholinergic synapse. In this study, we investigated the localization of EHD1 and its paralogs EHD2, EHD3, and EHD4 in mouse skeletal muscle, and assessed the morphological changes in EHD1−/− NMJs. Methods Localization of the candidate NMJ protein EHD1 was assessed by confocal microscopy analysis of whole-mount mouse skeletal muscle fibers after direct gene transfer and immunolabeling. The potential function of EHD1 was assessed by specific force measurement and α-bungarotoxin-based endplate morphology mapping in EHD1−/− mouse skeletal muscle. Results Endogenous EHD1 localized to primary synaptic clefts of murine NMJ, and this localization was confirmed by expression of recombinant green fluorescent protein labeled-EHD1 in murine skeletal muscle in vivo. EHD1−/− mouse skeletal muscle had normal histology and NMJ morphology, and normal specific force generation during muscle contraction. The EHD 1–4 proteins showed differential localization in skeletal muscle: EHD2 to muscle vasculature, EHD3 to perisynaptic regions, and EHD4 to perinuclear regions and to primary synaptic clefts, but at lower levels than EHD1. Additionally, specific antibodies raised against mammalian EHD1-4 recognized proteins of the expected mass in the T. californica electric organ. Finally, we found that EHD4 expression was more abundant in EHD1−/− mouse skeletal muscle than in wild-type skeletal muscle. Conclusion EHD1 and EHD4 localize to the primary synaptic clefts of the NMJ. Lack of obvious defects in NMJ structure and muscle function in EHD1−/− muscle may be due to functional compensation by other EHD paralogs.

  5. Power and sample-size estimation for microbiome studies using pairwise distances and PERMANOVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brendan J; Gross, Robert; Bittinger, Kyle; Sherrill-Mix, Scott; Lewis, James D; Collman, Ronald G; Bushman, Frederic D; Li, Hongzhe

    2015-08-01

    The variation in community composition between microbiome samples, termed beta diversity, can be measured by pairwise distance based on either presence-absence or quantitative species abundance data. PERMANOVA, a permutation-based extension of multivariate analysis of variance to a matrix of pairwise distances, partitions within-group and between-group distances to permit assessment of the effect of an exposure or intervention (grouping factor) upon the sampled microbiome. Within-group distance and exposure/intervention effect size must be accurately modeled to estimate statistical power for a microbiome study that will be analyzed with pairwise distances and PERMANOVA. We present a framework for PERMANOVA power estimation tailored to marker-gene microbiome studies that will be analyzed by pairwise distances, which includes: (i) a novel method for distance matrix simulation that permits modeling of within-group pairwise distances according to pre-specified population parameters; (ii) a method to incorporate effects of different sizes within the simulated distance matrix; (iii) a simulation-based method for estimating PERMANOVA power from simulated distance matrices; and (iv) an R statistical software package that implements the above. Matrices of pairwise distances can be efficiently simulated to satisfy the triangle inequality and incorporate group-level effects, which are quantified by the adjusted coefficient of determination, omega-squared (ω2). From simulated distance matrices, available PERMANOVA power or necessary sample size can be estimated for a planned microbiome study. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Molecular cloning of the gene for the human placental GTP-binding protein Gp (G25K): Identification of this GTP-binding protein as the human homolog of the yeast cell-division-cycle protein CDC42

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinjo, K.; Koland, J.G.; Hart, M.J.; Narasimhan, V.; Cerione, R.A.; Johnson, D.I.; Evans, T.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have isolated cDNA clones from a human placental library that code for a low molecular weight GTP-binding protein originally designated G p (also called G25K). This identification is based on comparisons with the available peptide sequences for the purified human G p protein and the use of two highly specific anti-peptide antibodies. The predicted amino acid sequence of the protein is very similar to those of various members of the ras superfamily of low molecular weight GTP-binding proteins, including the N-, Ki-, and Ha-ras proteins (30-35% identical), the rho proteins and the rac proteins. The highest degree of sequence identity (80%) is found with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell division-cycle protein CDC42. The human placental gene, which they designate CDC42Hs, complements the cdc42-1 mutation in S. cerevisiae, which suggests that this GTP-binding protein is the human homolog of the yeast protein

  7. Characterization of a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase homolog from maize roots showing light-regulated gravitropism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y. T.; Hidaka, H.; Feldman, L. J.

    1996-01-01

    Roots of many species respond to gravity (gravitropism) and grow downward only if illuminated. This light-regulated root gravitropism is phytochrome-dependent, mediated by calcium, and inhibited by KN-93, a specific inhibitor of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II). A cDNA encoding MCK1, a maize homolog of mammalian CaMK, has been isolated from roots of maize (Zea mays L.). The MCK1 gene is expressed in root tips, the site of perception for both light and gravity. Using the [35S]CaM gel-overlay assay we showed that calmodulin-binding activity of the MCK1 is abolished by 50 microM KN-93, but binding is not affected by 5 microM KN-93, paralleling physiological findings that light-regulated root gravitropism is inhibited by 50 microM KN-93, but not by 5 microM KN-93. KN-93 inhibits light-regulated gravitropism by interrupting transduction of the light signal, not light perception, suggesting that MCK1 may play a role in transducing light. This is the first report suggesting a physiological function for a CaMK homolog in light signal transduction.

  8. The Surface Layer Homology Domain-Containing Proteins of Alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4 Play an Important Role in Alkaline Adaptation via Peptidoglycan Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujinami, Shun; Ito, Masahiro

    2018-01-01

    It is well known that the Na + cycle and the cell wall are essential for alkaline adaptation of Na + -dependent alkaliphilic Bacillus species. In Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4, surface layer protein A (SlpA), the most abundant protein in the surface layer (S-layer) of the cell wall, is involved in alkaline adaptation, especially under low Na + concentrations. The presence of a large number of genes that encode S-layer homology (SLH) domain-containing proteins has been suggested from the genome sequence of B. pseudofirmus OF4. However, other than SlpA, the functions of SLH domain-containing proteins are not well known. Therefore, a deletion mutant of the csaB gene, required for the retention of SLH domain-containing proteins on the cell wall, was constructed to investigate its physiological properties. The csaB mutant strain of B. pseudofirmus OF4 had a chained morphology and alkaline sensitivity even under a 230 mM Na + concentration at which there is no growth difference between the parental strain and the slpA mutant strain. Ultra-thin section transmission electron microscopy showed that a csaB mutant strain lacked an S-layer part, and its peptidoglycan (PG) layer was disturbed. The slpA mutant strain also lacked an S-layer part, although its PG layer was not disturbed. These results suggested that the surface layer homology domain-containing proteins of B. pseudofirmus OF4 play an important role in alkaline adaptation via peptidoglycan synthesis.

  9. Neural network and SVM classifiers accurately predict lipid binding proteins, irrespective of sequence homology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiarizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Moradi-Shahrbabak, Mohammad; Ebrahimi, Mansour; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil

    2014-09-07

    Due to the central roles of lipid binding proteins (LBPs) in many biological processes, sequence based identification of LBPs is of great interest. The major challenge is that LBPs are diverse in sequence, structure, and function which results in low accuracy of sequence homology based methods. Therefore, there is a need for developing alternative functional prediction methods irrespective of sequence similarity. To identify LBPs from non-LBPs, the performances of support vector machine (SVM) and neural network were compared in this study. Comprehensive protein features and various techniques were employed to create datasets. Five-fold cross-validation (CV) and independent evaluation (IE) tests were used to assess the validity of the two methods. The results indicated that SVM outperforms neural network. SVM achieved 89.28% (CV) and 89.55% (IE) overall accuracy in identification of LBPs from non-LBPs and 92.06% (CV) and 92.90% (IE) (in average) for classification of different LBPs classes. Increasing the number and the range of extracted protein features as well as optimization of the SVM parameters significantly increased the efficiency of LBPs class prediction in comparison to the only previous report in this field. Altogether, the results showed that the SVM algorithm can be run on broad, computationally calculated protein features and offers a promising tool in detection of LBPs classes. The proposed approach has the potential to integrate and improve the common sequence alignment based methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assembly and dynamics of the bacteriophage T4 homologous recombination machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrical Scott W

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Homologous recombination (HR, a process involving the physical exchange of strands between homologous or nearly homologous DNA molecules, is critical for maintaining the genetic diversity and genome stability of species. Bacteriophage T4 is one of the classic systems for studies of homologous recombination. T4 uses HR for high-frequency genetic exchanges, for homology-directed DNA repair (HDR processes including DNA double-strand break repair, and for the initiation of DNA replication (RDR. T4 recombination proteins are expressed at high levels during T4 infection in E. coli, and share strong sequence, structural, and/or functional conservation with their counterparts in cellular organisms. Biochemical studies of T4 recombination have provided key insights on DNA strand exchange mechanisms, on the structure and function of recombination proteins, and on the coordination of recombination and DNA synthesis activities during RDR and HDR. Recent years have seen the development of detailed biochemical models for the assembly and dynamics of presynaptic filaments in the T4 recombination system, for the atomic structure of T4 UvsX recombinase, and for the roles of DNA helicases in T4 recombination. The goal of this chapter is to review these recent advances and their implications for HR and HDR mechanisms in all organisms.

  11. Extracellular acidification activates ovarian cancer G-protein-coupled receptor 1 and GPR4 homologs of zebra fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochimaru, Yuta [Laboratory of Cell Signaling Regulation, Department of Life Sciences, School of Agriculture, Meiji University, Kawasaki 214-8571 (Japan); Azuma, Morio [Laboratory of Regulatory Biology, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Oshima, Natsuki; Ichijo, Yuta; Satou, Kazuhiro [Laboratory of Cell Signaling Regulation, Department of Life Sciences, School of Agriculture, Meiji University, Kawasaki 214-8571 (Japan); Matsuda, Kouhei [Laboratory of Regulatory Biology, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Asaoka, Yoichi; Nishina, Hiroshi [Department of Developmental and Regenerative Biology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Nakakura, Takashi [Department of Anatomy, Graduate School of Medicine, Teikyo University, 2-11-1 Kaga Itabashi-Ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan); Mogi, Chihiro; Sato, Koichi; Okajima, Fumikazu [Laboratory of Signal Transduction, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, Maebashi 371-8512 (Japan); Tomura, Hideaki, E-mail: tomurah@meiji.ac.jp [Laboratory of Cell Signaling Regulation, Department of Life Sciences, School of Agriculture, Meiji University, Kawasaki 214-8571 (Japan)

    2015-02-20

    Mammalian ovarian G-protein-coupled receptor 1 (OGR1) and GPR4 are identified as a proton-sensing G-protein-coupled receptor coupling to multiple intracellular signaling pathways. In the present study, we examined whether zebra fish OGR1 and GPR4 homologs (zOGR1 and zGPR4) could sense protons and activate the multiple intracellular signaling pathways and, if so, whether the similar positions of histidine residue, which is critical for sensing protons in mammalian OGR and GPR4, also play a role to sense protons and activate the multiple signaling pathways in the zebra fish receptors. We found that extracellular acidic pH stimulated CRE-, SRE-, and NFAT-promoter activities in zOGR1 overexpressed cells and stimulated CRE- and SRE- but not NFAT-promoter activities in zGPR4 overexpressed cells. The substitution of histidine residues at the 12th, 15th, 162th, and 264th positions from the N-terminal of zOGR1 with phenylalanine attenuated the proton-induced SRE-promoter activities. The mutation of the histidine residue at the 78th but not the 84th position from the N-terminal of zGPR4 to phenylalanine attenuated the proton-induced SRE-promoter activities. These results suggest that zOGR1 and zGPR4 are also proton-sensing G-protein-coupled receptors, and the receptor activation mechanisms may be similar to those of the mammalian receptors. - Highlights: • Zebra fish OGR1 and GPR4 homologs (zOGR1, zGPR4) are proton-sensing receptors. • The signaling pathways activated by zOGR1 and zGPR4 are different. • Histidine residues critical for sensing protons are conserved.

  12. Pairwise Comparison and Distance Measure of Hesitant Fuzzy Linguistic Term Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Chen Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A hesitant fuzzy linguistic term set (HFLTS, allowing experts using several possible linguistic terms to assess a qualitative linguistic variable, is very useful to express people’s hesitancy in practical decision-making problems. Up to now, a little research has been done on the comparison and distance measure of HFLTSs. In this paper, we present a comparison method for HFLTSs based on pairwise comparisons of each linguistic term in the two HFLTSs. Then, a distance measure method based on the pairwise comparison matrix of HFLTSs is proposed, and we prove that this distance is equal to the distance of the average values of HFLTSs, which makes the distance measure much more simple. Finally, the pairwise comparison and distance measure methods are utilized to develop two multicriteria decision-making approaches under hesitant fuzzy linguistic environments. The results analysis shows that our methods in this paper are more reasonable.

  13. Novel protein interactions with an actin homolog (MreB) of Helicobacter pylori determined by bacterial two-hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda Gurrola, Reyna Cristina; Fu, Yajuan; Rodríguez Luna, Isabel Cristina; Benítez Cardoza, Claudia Guadalupe; López López, María de Jesús; López Vidal, Yolanda; Gutíerrez, Germán Rubén Aguilar; Rodríguez Pérez, Mario A; Guo, Xianwu

    2017-08-01

    The bacterium Helicobacter pylori infects more than 50% of the world population and causes several gastroduodenal diseases, including gastric cancer. Nevertheless, we still need to explore some protein interactions that may be involved in pathogenesis. MreB, an actin homolog, showed some special characteristics in previous studies, indicating that it could have different functions. Protein functions could be realized via protein-protein interactions. In the present study, the MreB protein from H. pylori 26695 fused with two tags 10×His and GST in tandem was overexpressed and purified from Escherchia coli. The purified recombinant protein was used to perform a pull-down assay with H. pylori 26695 cell lysate. The pulled-down proteins were identified by mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF), in which the known important proteins related to morphogenesis were absent but several proteins related to pathogenesis process were observed. The bacterial two-hybrid system was further used to evaluate the protein interactions and showed that new interactions of MreB respectively with VacA, UreB, HydB, HylB and AddA were confirmed but the interaction MreB-MreC was not validated. These results indicated that the protein MreB in H. pylori has a distinct interactome, does not participate in cell morphogenesis via MreB-MreC but could be related to pathogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Bensmail, Halima; Gao, Xin

    2012-11-19

    Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods. To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods. The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications.

  15. SDT: a virus classification tool based on pairwise sequence alignment and identity calculation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brejnev Muhizi Muhire

    Full Text Available The perpetually increasing rate at which viral full-genome sequences are being determined is creating a pressing demand for computational tools that will aid the objective classification of these genome sequences. Taxonomic classification approaches that are based on pairwise genetic identity measures are potentially highly automatable and are progressively gaining favour with the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV. There are, however, various issues with the calculation of such measures that could potentially undermine the accuracy and consistency with which they can be applied to virus classification. Firstly, pairwise sequence identities computed based on multiple sequence alignments rather than on multiple independent pairwise alignments can lead to the deflation of identity scores with increasing dataset sizes. Also, when gap-characters need to be introduced during sequence alignments to account for insertions and deletions, methodological variations in the way that these characters are introduced and handled during pairwise genetic identity calculations can cause high degrees of inconsistency in the way that different methods classify the same sets of sequences. Here we present Sequence Demarcation Tool (SDT, a free user-friendly computer program that aims to provide a robust and highly reproducible means of objectively using pairwise genetic identity calculations to classify any set of nucleotide or amino acid sequences. SDT can produce publication quality pairwise identity plots and colour-coded distance matrices to further aid the classification of sequences according to ICTV approved taxonomic demarcation criteria. Besides a graphical interface version of the program for Windows computers, command-line versions of the program are available for a variety of different operating systems (including a parallel version for cluster computing platforms.

  16. Pairwise Trajectory Management (PTM): Concept Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kenneth M.; Graff, Thomas J.; Chartrand, Ryan C.; Carreno, Victor; Kibler, Jennifer L.

    2017-01-01

    Pairwise Trajectory Management (PTM) is an Interval Management (IM) concept that utilizes airborne and ground-based capabilities to enable the implementation of airborne pairwise spacing capabilities in oceanic regions. The goal of PTM is to use airborne surveillance and tools to manage an "at or greater than" inter-aircraft spacing. Due to the precision of Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) information and the use of airborne spacing guidance, the PTM minimum spacing distance will be less than distances a controller can support with current automation systems that support oceanic operations. Ground tools assist the controller in evaluating the traffic picture and determining appropriate PTM clearances to be issued. Avionics systems provide guidance information that allows the flight crew to conform to the PTM clearance issued by the controller. The combination of a reduced minimum distance and airborne spacing management will increase the capacity and efficiency of aircraft operations at a given altitude or volume of airspace. This paper provides an overview of the proposed application, description of a few key scenarios, high level discussion of expected air and ground equipment and procedure changes, overview of a potential flight crew human-machine interface that would support PTM operations and some initial PTM benefits results.

  17. Fast and accurate estimation of the covariance between pairwise maximum likelihood distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Gil

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pairwise evolutionary distances are a model-based summary statistic for a set of molecular sequences. They represent the leaf-to-leaf path lengths of the underlying phylogenetic tree. Estimates of pairwise distances with overlapping paths covary because of shared mutation events. It is desirable to take these covariance structure into account to increase precision in any process that compares or combines distances. This paper introduces a fast estimator for the covariance of two pairwise maximum likelihood distances, estimated under general Markov models. The estimator is based on a conjecture (going back to Nei & Jin, 1989 which links the covariance to path lengths. It is proven here under a simple symmetric substitution model. A simulation shows that the estimator outperforms previously published ones in terms of the mean squared error.

  18. Fast and accurate estimation of the covariance between pairwise maximum likelihood distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Pairwise evolutionary distances are a model-based summary statistic for a set of molecular sequences. They represent the leaf-to-leaf path lengths of the underlying phylogenetic tree. Estimates of pairwise distances with overlapping paths covary because of shared mutation events. It is desirable to take these covariance structure into account to increase precision in any process that compares or combines distances. This paper introduces a fast estimator for the covariance of two pairwise maximum likelihood distances, estimated under general Markov models. The estimator is based on a conjecture (going back to Nei & Jin, 1989) which links the covariance to path lengths. It is proven here under a simple symmetric substitution model. A simulation shows that the estimator outperforms previously published ones in terms of the mean squared error.

  19. Homotopic Chain Maps Have Equal s-Homology and d-Homology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Z. Kazemi-Baneh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The homotopy of chain maps on preabelian categories is investigated and the equality of standard homologies and d-homologies of homotopic chain maps is established. As a special case, if X and Y are the same homotopy type, then their nth d-homology R-modules are isomorphic, and if X is a contractible space, then its nth d-homology R-modules for n≠0 are trivial.

  20. A new black Aspergillus species, A. vadensis, is a promising host for homologous and heterologous protein production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vries, R.P.; Burgers, K.; van de Vondervoort, P.J.I

    2004-01-01

    A new species of the group of black aspergilli, Aspergillus vadensis, was analyzed for its potential as a host for homologous and heterologous protein production. Unlike the other black aspergilli, this strain does not acidify the culture medium when nitrate is the nitrogen source and only produces...... very low levels of extracellular proteases, mainly serine metalloproteases. The stability of A. tubingensis feruloyl esterase A (FaeA) was compared upon production in wild-type A. vadensis, A. tubingensis, and an A. niger strain in which the three main protease-encoding genes were disrupted....... The production of FaeA in A. vadensis resulted in larger amounts of intact protein than production in A. tubingensis and was similar to production in an A. niger protease disruptant, confirming in vivo the low proteolytic activity of A. vadensis. The protoplast formation and transformation efficiencies of A...

  1. Pair-Wise Trajectory Management-Oceanic (PTM-O) . [Concept of Operations—Version 3.9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kenneth M.

    2014-01-01

    This document describes the Pair-wise Trajectory Management-Oceanic (PTM-O) Concept of Operations (ConOps). Pair-wise Trajectory Management (PTM) is a concept that includes airborne and ground-based capabilities designed to enable and to benefit from, airborne pair-wise distance-monitoring capability. PTM includes the capabilities needed for the controller to issue a PTM clearance that resolves a conflict for a specific pair of aircraft. PTM avionics include the capabilities needed for the flight crew to manage their trajectory relative to specific designated aircraft. Pair-wise Trajectory Management PTM-Oceanic (PTM-O) is a regional specific application of the PTM concept. PTM is sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Concept and Technology Development Project (part of NASA's Airspace Systems Program). The goal of PTM is to use enhanced and distributed communications and surveillance along with airborne tools to permit reduced separation standards for given aircraft pairs, thereby increasing the capacity and efficiency of aircraft operations at a given altitude or volume of airspace.

  2. Stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein desaturase from higher plants is structurally unrelated to the animal and fungal homologs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanklin, J.; Somerville, C.

    1991-01-01

    Stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein (ACP) desaturase was purified to homogeneity from avocado mesocarp, and monospecific polyclonal antibodies directed against the protein were used to isolate full-length cDNA clones from Ricinus communis (castor) seed and Cucumis sativus (cucumber). The nucleotide sequence of the castor clone pRCD1 revealed an open reading frame of 1.2 kilobases encoding a 396-amino acid protein of 45 kDa. The cucumber clone pCSD1 encoded a homologous 396-amino acid protein with 88% amino acid identity to the castor clone. Expression of pRCD1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in the accumulation of a functional stearoyl-ACP desaturase, demonstrating that the introduction of this single gene product was sufficient to confer soluble desaturase activity to yeast. There was a 48-residue region of 29% amino acid sequence identity between residues 53 and 101 of the castor desaturase and the proximal border of the dehydratase region of the fatty acid synthase from yeast. Stearoyl-ACP mRNA was present at substantially higher levels in developing seeds than in leaf and root tissue, suggesting that expression of the Δ 9 desaturase is developmentally regulated

  3. Monitoring Replication Protein A (RPA) dynamics in homologous recombination through site-specific incorporation of non-canonical amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Nilisha; Origanti, Sofia; Davenport, Eric Parker; Gandhi, Disha; Kaniecki, Kyle; Mehl, Ryan A; Greene, Eric C; Dockendorff, Chris; Antony, Edwin

    2017-09-19

    An essential coordinator of all DNA metabolic processes is Replication Protein A (RPA). RPA orchestrates these processes by binding to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and interacting with several other DNA binding proteins. Determining the real-time kinetics of single players such as RPA in the presence of multiple DNA processors to better understand the associated mechanistic events is technically challenging. To overcome this hurdle, we utilized non-canonical amino acids and bio-orthogonal chemistry to site-specifically incorporate a chemical fluorophore onto a single subunit of heterotrimeric RPA. Upon binding to ssDNA, this fluorescent RPA (RPAf) generates a quantifiable change in fluorescence, thus serving as a reporter of its dynamics on DNA in the presence of multiple other DNA binding proteins. Using RPAf, we describe the kinetics of facilitated self-exchange and exchange by Rad51 and mediator proteins during various stages in homologous recombination. RPAf is widely applicable to investigate its mechanism of action in processes such as DNA replication, repair and telomere maintenance. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  4. Identification of novel putative-binding proteins for cellular prion protein and a specific interaction with the STIP1 homology and U-Box-containing protein 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, Ana Paula Lappas; Richter, Larissa Morato Luciani; Atherino, Mariana Campos; Beirão, Breno Castello Branco; Fávaro, Celso; Costa, Michele Dietrich Moura; Zanata, Silvio Marques; Malnic, Bettina; Mercadante, Adriana Frohlich

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Prion diseases involve the conversion of the endogenous cellular prion protein, PrPC, into a misfolded infectious isoform, PrPSc. Several functions have been attributed to PrPC, and its role has also been investigated in the olfactory system. PrPC is expressed in both the olfactory bulb (OB) and olfactory epithelium (OE) and the nasal cavity is an important route of transmission of diseases caused by prions. Moreover, Prnp−/− mice showed impaired behavior in olfactory tests. Given the high PrPC expression in OE and its putative role in olfaction, we screened a mouse OE cDNA library to identify novel PrPC-binding partners. Ten different putative PrPC ligands were identified, which were involved in functions such as cellular proliferation and apoptosis, cytoskeleton and vesicle transport, ubiquitination of proteins, stress response, and other physiological processes. In vitro binding assays confirmed the interaction of PrPC with STIP1 homology and U-Box containing protein 1 (Stub1) and are reported here for the first time. Stub1 is a co-chaperone with ubiquitin E3-ligase activity, which is associated with neurodegenerative diseases characterized by protein misfolding and aggregation. Physiological and pathological implications of PrPC-Stub1 interaction are under investigation. The PrPC-binding proteins identified here are not exclusive to the OE, suggesting that these interactions may occur in other tissues and play general biological roles. These data corroborate the proposal that PrPC is part of a multiprotein complex that modulates several cellular functions and provide a platform for further studies on the physiological and pathological roles of prion protein. PMID:26237451

  5. Robust Subjective Visual Property Prediction from Crowdsourced Pairwise Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yanwei; Hospedales, Timothy M; Xiang, Tao; Xiong, Jiechao; Gong, Shaogang; Wang, Yizhou; Yao, Yuan

    2016-03-01

    The problem of estimating subjective visual properties from image and video has attracted increasing interest. A subjective visual property is useful either on its own (e.g. image and video interestingness) or as an intermediate representation for visual recognition (e.g. a relative attribute). Due to its ambiguous nature, annotating the value of a subjective visual property for learning a prediction model is challenging. To make the annotation more reliable, recent studies employ crowdsourcing tools to collect pairwise comparison labels. However, using crowdsourced data also introduces outliers. Existing methods rely on majority voting to prune the annotation outliers/errors. They thus require a large amount of pairwise labels to be collected. More importantly as a local outlier detection method, majority voting is ineffective in identifying outliers that can cause global ranking inconsistencies. In this paper, we propose a more principled way to identify annotation outliers by formulating the subjective visual property prediction task as a unified robust learning to rank problem, tackling both the outlier detection and learning to rank jointly. This differs from existing methods in that (1) the proposed method integrates local pairwise comparison labels together to minimise a cost that corresponds to global inconsistency of ranking order, and (2) the outlier detection and learning to rank problems are solved jointly. This not only leads to better detection of annotation outliers but also enables learning with extremely sparse annotations.

  6. Theory of pairwise lesion interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harder, Dietrich; Virsik-Peuckert, Patricia; Bartels, Ernst

    1992-01-01

    A comparison between repair time constants measured both at the molecular and cellular levels has shown that the DNA double strand break is the molecular change of key importance in the causation of cellular effects such as chromosome aberrations and cell inactivation. Cell fusion experiments provided the evidence that it needs the pairwise interaction between two double strand breaks - or more exactly between the two ''repair sites'' arising from them in the course of enzymatic repair - to provide the faulty chromatin crosslink which leads to cytogenetic and cytolethal effects. These modern experiments have confirmed the classical assumption of pairwise lesion interaction (PLI) on which the models of Lea and Neary were based. It seems worthwhile to continue and complete the mathematical treatment of their proposed mechanism in order to show in quantitative terms that the well-known fractionation, protraction and linear energy transfer (LET) irradiation effects are consequences of or can at least be partly attributed to PLI. Arithmetic treatment of PLI - a second order reaction - has also the advantage of providing a prerequisite for further investigations into the stages of development of misrepair products such as chromatin crosslinks. It has been possible to formulate a completely arithmetic theory of PLI by consequently applying three biophysically permitted approximations - pure first order lesion repair kinetics, dose-independent repair time constants and low yield of the ionization/lesion conversion. The mathematical approach will be summarized here, including several formulae not elaborated at the time of previous publications. We will also study an application which sheds light on the chain of events involved in PLI. (author)

  7. Chlamydia trachomatis protein CT009 is a structural and functional homolog to the key morphogenesis component RodZ and interacts with division septal plane localized MreB

    OpenAIRE

    Kemege, Kyle E.; Hickey, John M.; Barta, Michael L.; Wickstrum, Jason; Balwalli, Namita; Lovell, Scott; Battaile, Kevin P.; Hefty, P. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Cell division in Chlamydiae is poorly understood as apparent homologs to most conserved bacterial cell division proteins are lacking and presence of elongation (rod shape) associated proteins indicate non-canonical mechanisms may be employed. The rod-shape determining protein MreB has been proposed as playing a unique role in chlamydial cell division. In other organisms, MreB is part of an elongation complex that requires RodZ for proper function. A recent study reported that the protein enco...

  8. Direct association between the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase and the Src homology 2-containing adapter protein Grb7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, A; Liu, X; Dixon, J E; Di Fiore, P P; Dixit, V M

    1996-05-03

    Adapter proteins containing Src homology 2 (SH2) domains link transmembrane receptor protein-tyrosine kinases to downstream signal transducing molecules. A family of SH2 containing adapter proteins including Grb7 and Grb10 has been recently identified. We had previously shown that Grb10 associates with Ret via its SH2 domain in an activation-dependent manner (Pandey, A., Duan, H., Di Fiore, P.P., and Dixit, V.M. (1995) J. Biol, Chem. 270, 21461-21463). We now demonstrate that the related adapter molecule Grb7 also associates with Ret in vitro and in vivo, and that the binding of the SH2 domain of Grb7 to Ret is direct. This binding is dependent upon Ret autophosphorylation since Grb7 is incapable of binding a kinase-defective mutant of Ret. Thus two members of the Grb family, Grb7 and Grb10, likely relay signals emanating from Ret to other, as yet, unidentified targets within the cell.

  9. Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2012-11-19

    Background: Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods.Results: To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods.Conclusion: The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications. 2012 Wang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  10. Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Bensmail, Halima; Gao, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods.Results: To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods.Conclusion: The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications. 2012 Wang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  11. Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods. Results To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods. Conclusion The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications.

  12. A decomposition of pairwise continuity via ideals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahes Wari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce and study the notions of (i, j - regular - ℐ -closed sets, (i, j - Aℐ -sets, (i, j - ℐ -locally closed sets, p- Aℐ -continuous functions and p- ℐ -LC-continuous functions in ideal bitopological spaces and investigate some of their properties. Also, a new decomposition of pairwise continuity is obtained using these sets.

  13. Modeling Expressed Emotions in Music using Pairwise Comparisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens; Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Jensen, Bjørn Sand

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a two-alternative forced-choice experimental paradigm to quantify expressed emotions in music using the two wellknown arousal and valence (AV) dimensions. In order to produce AV scores from the pairwise comparisons and to visualize the locations of excerpts in the AV space, we...

  14. Divergent Roles of RPA Homologs of the Model Archaeon Halobacterium salinarum in Survival of DNA Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jessica J; Gygli, Patrick E; McCaskill, Julienne; DeVeaux, Linda C

    2018-04-20

    The haloarchaea are unusual in possessing genes for multiple homologs to the ubiquitous single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB or replication protein A, RPA) found in all three domains of life. Halobacterium salinarum contains five homologs: two are eukaryotic in organization, two are prokaryotic and are encoded on the minichromosomes, and one is uniquely euryarchaeal. Radiation-resistant mutants previously isolated show upregulation of one of the eukaryotic-type RPA genes. Here, we have created deletions in the five RPA operons. These deletion mutants were exposed to DNA-damaging conditions: ionizing radiation, UV radiation, and mitomycin C. Deletion of the euryarchaeal homolog, although not lethal as in Haloferax volcanii , causes severe sensitivity to all of these agents. Deletion of the other RPA/SSB homologs imparts a variable sensitivity to these DNA-damaging agents, suggesting that the different RPA homologs have specialized roles depending on the type of genomic insult encountered.

  15. Homological stabilizer codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Jonas T., E-mail: jonastyleranderson@gmail.com

    2013-03-15

    In this paper we define homological stabilizer codes on qubits which encompass codes such as Kitaev's toric code and the topological color codes. These codes are defined solely by the graphs they reside on. This feature allows us to use properties of topological graph theory to determine the graphs which are suitable as homological stabilizer codes. We then show that all toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. We show that the topological color codes and toric codes correspond to two distinct classes of graphs. We define the notion of label set equivalencies and show that under a small set of constraints the only homological stabilizer codes without local logical operators are equivalent to Kitaev's toric code or to the topological color codes. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that Kitaev's toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that toric codes and color codes correspond to homological stabilizer codes on distinct graphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find and classify all 2D homological stabilizer codes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find optimal codes among the homological stabilizer codes.

  16. An HMM posterior decoder for sequence feature prediction that includes homology information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Käll, Lukas; Krogh, Anders Stærmose; Sonnhammer, Erik L. L.

    2005-01-01

    Motivation: When predicting sequence features like transmembrane topology, signal peptides, coil-coil structures, protein secondary structure or genes, extra support can be gained from homologs. Results: We present here a general hidden Markov model (HMM) decoding algorithm that combines probabil......Motivation: When predicting sequence features like transmembrane topology, signal peptides, coil-coil structures, protein secondary structure or genes, extra support can be gained from homologs. Results: We present here a general hidden Markov model (HMM) decoding algorithm that combines......://phobius.cgb.ki.se/poly.html . An implementation of the algorithm is available on request from the authors....

  17. Caffeine suppresses homologous recombination through interference with RAD51-mediated joint molecule formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelensky, Alex N.; Sanchez, Humberto; Ristic, Dejan; Vidic, Iztok; van Rossum-Fikkert, Sari E.; Essers, Jeroen; Wyman, Claire; Kanaar, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Caffeine is a widely used inhibitor of the protein kinases that play a central role in the DNA damage response. We used chemical inhibitors and genetically deficient mouse embryonic stem cell lines to study the role of DNA damage response in stable integration of the transfected DNA and found that caffeine rapidly, efficiently and reversibly inhibited homologous integration of the transfected DNA as measured by several homologous recombination-mediated gene-targeting assays. Biochemical and structural biology experiments revealed that caffeine interfered with a pivotal step in homologous recombination, homologous joint molecule formation, through increasing interactions of the RAD51 nucleoprotein filament with non-homologous DNA. Our results suggest that recombination pathways dependent on extensive homology search are caffeine-sensitive and stress the importance of considering direct checkpoint-independent mechanisms in the interpretation of the effects of caffeine on DNA repair. PMID:23666627

  18. NGF-Dependent neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells overexpressing the Src homology 2-domain protein shb requires activation of the Rap1 pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, L.; Annerén, C.; Reedquist, K. A.; Bos, J. L.; Welsh, M.

    2000-01-01

    The Src homology 2 (SH2) domain adaptor protein Shb has been shown to transmit NGF- and FGF-2-dependent differentiation signals in PC12 cells. To study if this involves signaling through the small GTPase Rap1, Rap1 activity was assessed in Shb-overexpressing PC12 cells. We demonstrate that NGF and

  19. Structural modelling and comparative analysis of homologous, analogous and specific proteins from Trypanosoma cruzi versus Homo sapiens: putative drug targets for chagas' disease treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriles, Priscila V S Z; Guimarães, Ana C R; Otto, Thomas D; Miranda, Antonio B; Dardenne, Laurent E; Degrave, Wim M

    2010-10-29

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiological agent of Chagas' disease, an endemic infection that causes thousands of deaths every year in Latin America. Therapeutic options remain inefficient, demanding the search for new drugs and/or new molecular targets. Such efforts can focus on proteins that are specific to the parasite, but analogous enzymes and enzymes with a three-dimensional (3D) structure sufficiently different from the corresponding host proteins may represent equally interesting targets. In order to find these targets we used the workflows MHOLline and AnEnΠ obtaining 3D models from homologous, analogous and specific proteins of Trypanosoma cruzi versus Homo sapiens. We applied genome wide comparative modelling techniques to obtain 3D models for 3,286 predicted proteins of T. cruzi. In combination with comparative genome analysis to Homo sapiens, we were able to identify a subset of 397 enzyme sequences, of which 356 are homologous, 3 analogous and 38 specific to the parasite. In this work, we present a set of 397 enzyme models of T. cruzi that can constitute potential structure-based drug targets to be investigated for the development of new strategies to fight Chagas' disease. The strategies presented here support the concept of structural analysis in conjunction with protein functional analysis as an interesting computational methodology to detect potential targets for structure-based rational drug design. For example, 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase (EC 1.3.1.34) and triacylglycerol lipase (EC 3.1.1.3), classified as analogous proteins in relation to H. sapiens enzymes, were identified as new potential molecular targets.

  20. Recovery of deficient homologous recombination in Brca2-depleted mouse cells by wild-type Rad51 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shauna A; Roques, Céline; Magwood, Alissa C; Masson, Jean-Yves; Baker, Mark D

    2009-02-01

    The BRCA2 tumor suppressor is important in maintaining genomic stability. BRCA2 is proposed to control the availability, cellular localization and DNA binding activity of the central homologous recombination protein, RAD51, with loss of BRCA2 resulting in defective homologous recombination. Nevertheless, the roles of BRCA2 in regulating RAD51 and how other proteins implicated in RAD51 regulation, such as RAD52 and RAD54 function relative to BRCA2 is not known. In this study, we tested whether defective homologous recombination in Brca2-depleted mouse hybridoma cells could be rectified by expression of mouse Rad51 or the Rad51-interacting mouse proteins, Rad52 and Rad54. In the Brca2-depleted cells, defective homologous recombination can be restored by over-expression of wild-type mouse Rad51, but not mouse Rad52 or Rad54. Correction of the homologous recombination defect requires Rad51 ATPase activity. A sizeable fraction ( approximately 50%) of over-expressed wild-type Rad51 is nuclear localized. The restoration of homologous recombination in the presence of a low (i.e., non-functional) level of Brca2 by wild-type Rad51 over-expression is unexpected. We suggest that Rad51 may access the nuclear compartment in a Brca2-independent manner and when Rad51 is over-expressed, the normal requirement for Brca2 control over Rad51 function in homologous recombination is dispensable. Our studies support loss of Rad51 function as a critical underlying factor in the homologous recombination defect in the Brca2-depleted cells.

  1. Double Strand Break Repair, one mechanism can hide another: Alternative non-homologous end joining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rass, E.; Grabarz, A.; Bertrand, P.; Lopez, B.S.

    2012-01-01

    DNA double strand breaks are major cytotoxic lesions encountered by the cells. They can be induced by ionizing radiation or endogenous stress and can lead to genetic instability. Two mechanisms compete for the repair of DNA double strand breaks: homologous recombination and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Homologous recombination requires DNA sequences homology and is initiated by single strand resection. Recently, advances have been made concerning the major steps and proteins involved in resection. NHEJ, in contrast, does not require sequence homology. The existence of a DNA double strand break repair mechanism, independent of KU and ligase IV, the key proteins of the canonical non homologous end joining pathway, has been revealed lately and named alternative non homologous end joining. The hallmarks of this highly mutagenic pathway are deletions at repair junctions and frequent use of distal micro-homologies. This mechanism is also initiated by a single strand resection of the break. The aim of this review is firstly to present recent data on single strand resection, and secondly the alternative NHEJ pathway, including a discussion on the fidelity of NHEJ. Based on current knowledge, canonical NHEJ does not appear as an intrinsically mutagenic mechanism, but in contrast, as a conservative one. The structure of broken DNA ends actually dictates the quality repair of the alternative NHEJ and seems the actual responsible for the mutagenesis attributed beforehand to the canonical NHEJ. The existence of this novel DNA double strand breaks repair mechanism needs to be taken into account in the development of radiosensitizing strategies in order to optimise the efficiency of radiotherapy. (authors)

  2. Multi-template homology based structure prediction and molecular docking studies of protein ‘L’ of Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayasree Ganugapati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ebola is one of the most dangerous pathogenic RNA virus that causes severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and is considered to be a threat to humanity. The RNA genome of EBOV encodes seven proteins viz., glycoprotein (GP, nucleoprotein (NP, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (protein ‘L’, VP35, VP30, VP40 andVP24. The objective of the present study is to find a suitable inhibitor for protein ‘L’. The large structural protein ‘L’, is made up of 2212 amino acid residues. This protein works as an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp and a methyl transferase. It is carried by the virus during the infection as the host mechanisms cannot be used to transcribe the –ss RNA genome of the virus. As the protein is crucial for the replication of the viral genome and no other host enzyme can perform the same function, this viral protein ‘L’ was considered as a potential drug target to design inhibitors. The 3D structure of protein ‘L’ is not available to date. This is a limitation in understanding the protein's function. Hence, the present work is aimed at predicting the first homology-based model of protein ‘L’ and elucidating the function by providing insight into the molecular details of the protein. As there is no drug available for the treatment of EBOV infection our findings play a crucial a role to identify an inhibitor of the protein ‘L’ of EBOV. HTS against ZINC database resulted in identification of few possible inhibitors. Molecular docking studies resulted in finding a suitable inhibitor for protein ‘L’.

  3. Power and sample-size estimation for microbiome studies using pairwise distances and PERMANOVA

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Brendan J.; Gross, Robert; Bittinger, Kyle; Sherrill-Mix, Scott; Lewis, James D.; Collman, Ronald G.; Bushman, Frederic D.; Li, Hongzhe

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: The variation in community composition between microbiome samples, termed beta diversity, can be measured by pairwise distance based on either presence–absence or quantitative species abundance data. PERMANOVA, a permutation-based extension of multivariate analysis of variance to a matrix of pairwise distances, partitions within-group and between-group distances to permit assessment of the effect of an exposure or intervention (grouping factor) upon the sampled microbiome. Within-...

  4. Pairwise Trajectory Management (PTM): Concept Description and Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kenneth M.; Graff, Thomas J.; Carreno, Victor; Chartrand, Ryan C.; Kibler, Jennifer L.

    2018-01-01

    Pairwise Trajectory Management (PTM) is an Interval Management (IM) concept that utilizes airborne and ground-based capabilities to enable the implementation of airborne pairwise spacing capabilities in oceanic regions. The goal of PTM is to use airborne surveillance and tools to manage an "at or greater than" inter-aircraft spacing. Due to the accuracy of Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) information and the use of airborne spacing guidance, the minimum PTM spacing distance will be less than distances a controller can support with current automation systems that support oceanic operations. Ground tools assist the controller in evaluating the traffic picture and determining appropriate PTM clearances to be issued. Avionics systems provide guidance information that allows the flight crew to conform to the PTM clearance issued by the controller. The combination of a reduced minimum distance and airborne spacing management will increase the capacity and efficiency of aircraft operations at a given altitude or volume of airspace. This document provides an overview of the proposed application, a description of several key scenarios, a high level discussion of expected air and ground equipment and procedure changes, a description of a NASA human-machine interface (HMI) prototype for the flight crew that would support PTM operations, and initial benefits analysis results. Additionally, included as appendices, are the following documents: the PTM Operational Services and Environment Definition (OSED) document and a companion "Future Considerations for the Pairwise Trajectory Management (PTM) Concept: Potential Future Updates for the PTM OSED" paper, a detailed description of the PTM algorithm and PTM Limit Mach rules, initial PTM safety requirements and safety assessment documents, a detailed description of the design, development, and initial evaluations of the proposed flight crew HMI, an overview of the methodology and results of PTM pilot training

  5. LZW-Kernel: fast kernel utilizing variable length code blocks from LZW compressors for protein sequence classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatov, Gleb; Bauwens, Bruno; Kertész-Farkas, Attila

    2018-05-07

    Bioinformatics studies often rely on similarity measures between sequence pairs, which often pose a bottleneck in large-scale sequence analysis. Here, we present a new convolutional kernel function for protein sequences called the LZW-Kernel. It is based on code words identified with the Lempel-Ziv-Welch (LZW) universal text compressor. The LZW-Kernel is an alignment-free method, it is always symmetric, is positive, always provides 1.0 for self-similarity and it can directly be used with Support Vector Machines (SVMs) in classification problems, contrary to normalized compression distance (NCD), which often violates the distance metric properties in practice and requires further techniques to be used with SVMs. The LZW-Kernel is a one-pass algorithm, which makes it particularly plausible for big data applications. Our experimental studies on remote protein homology detection and protein classification tasks reveal that the LZW-Kernel closely approaches the performance of the Local Alignment Kernel (LAK) and the SVM-pairwise method combined with Smith-Waterman (SW) scoring at a fraction of the time. Moreover, the LZW-Kernel outperforms the SVM-pairwise method when combined with BLAST scores, which indicates that the LZW code words might be a better basis for similarity measures than local alignment approximations found with BLAST. In addition, the LZW-Kernel outperforms n-gram based mismatch kernels, hidden Markov model based SAM and Fisher kernel, and protein family based PSI-BLAST, among others. Further advantages include the LZW-Kernel's reliance on a simple idea, its ease of implementation, and its high speed, three times faster than BLAST and several magnitudes faster than SW or LAK in our tests. LZW-Kernel is implemented as a standalone C code and is a free open-source program distributed under GPLv3 license and can be downloaded from https://github.com/kfattila/LZW-Kernel. akerteszfarkas@hse.ru. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics Online.

  6. CPHmodels-3.0--remote homology modeling using structure-guided sequence profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Lundegaard, Claus; Lund, Ole

    2010-01-01

    CPHmodels-3.0 is a web server predicting protein 3D structure by use of single template homology modeling. The server employs a hybrid of the scoring functions of CPHmodels-2.0 and a novel remote homology-modeling algorithm. A query sequence is first attempted modeled using the fast CPHmodels-2.......0 profile-profile scoring function suitable for close homology modeling. The new computational costly remote homology-modeling algorithm is only engaged provided that no suitable PDB template is identified in the initial search. CPHmodels-3.0 was benchmarked in the CASP8 competition and produced models.......3 A. These performance values place the CPHmodels-3.0 method in the group of high performing 3D prediction tools. Beside its accuracy, one of the important features of the method is its speed. For most queries, the response time of the server is...

  7. Homology modeling and virtual screening to discover potent inhibitors targeting the imidazole glycerophosphate dehydratase protein in Staphylococcus xylosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing-Ru; Wang, Xiao-Ting; Hao, Mei-Qi; Zhou, Yong-Hui; Cui, Wen-Qiang; Xing, Xiao-Xu; Xu, Chang-Geng; Bai, Jing-Wen; Li, Yan-Hua

    2017-11-01

    The imidazole glycerophosphate dehydratase (IGPD) protein is a therapeutic target for herbicide discovery. It is also regarded as a possible target in Staphylococcus xylosus (S. xylosus) for solving mastitis in the dairy cow. The 3D structure of IGPD protein is essential for discovering novel inhibitors during high-throughput virtual screening. However, to date, the 3D structure of IGPD protein of S. xylosus has not been solved. In this study, a series of computational techniques including homology modeling, Ramachandran Plots, and Verify 3D were performed in order to construct an appropriate 3D model of IGPD protein of S. xylosus. Nine hits were identified from 2500 compounds by docking studies. Then, these 9 compounds were first tested in vitro in S. xylosus biofilm formation using crystal violet staining. One of the potential compounds, baicalin was shown to significantly inhibit S. xylosus biofilm formation. Finally, the baicalin was further evaluated, which showed better inhibition of biofilm formation capability in S. xylosus by scanning electron microscopy. Hence, we have predicted the structure of IGPD protein of S. xylosus using computational techniques. We further discovered the IGPD protein was targeted by baicalin compound which inhibited the biofilm formation in S. xylosus. Our findings here would provide implications for the further development of novel IGPD inhibitors for the treatment of dairy mastitis.

  8. Homology-guided mutational analysis reveals the functional requirements for antinociceptive specificity of collapsin response mediator protein 2-derived peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutal, Aubin; Li, Wennan; Wang, Yue; Ju, Weina; Luo, Shizhen; Cai, Song; François-Moutal, Liberty; Perez-Miller, Samantha; Hu, Jackie; Dustrude, Erik T; Vanderah, Todd W; Gokhale, Vijay; Khanna, May; Khanna, Rajesh

    2017-02-05

    N-type voltage-gated calcium (Ca v 2.2) channels are critical determinants of increased neuronal excitability and neurotransmission accompanying persistent neuropathic pain. Although Ca v 2.2 channel antagonists are recommended as first-line treatment for neuropathic pain, calcium-current blocking gabapentinoids inadequately alleviate chronic pain symptoms and often exhibit numerous side effects. Collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) targets Ca v 2.2 channels to the sensory neuron membrane and allosterically modulates their function. A 15-amino-acid peptide (CBD3), derived from CRMP2, disrupts the functional protein-protein interaction between CRMP2 and Ca v 2.2 channels to inhibit calcium influx, transmitter release and acute, inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Here, we have mapped the minimal domain of CBD3 necessary for its antinociceptive potential. Truncated as well as homology-guided mutant versions of CBD3 were generated and assessed using depolarization-evoked calcium influx in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons, binding between CRMP2 and Ca v 2.2 channels, whole-cell voltage clamp electrophysiology and behavioural effects in two models of experimental pain: post-surgical pain and HIV-induced sensory neuropathy induced by the viral glycoprotein 120. The first six amino acids within CBD3 accounted for all in vitro activity and antinociception. Spinal administration of a prototypical peptide (TAT-CBD3-L5M) reversed pain behaviours. Homology-guided mutational analyses of these six amino acids identified at least two residues, Ala1 and Arg4, as being critical for antinociception in two pain models. These results identify an antinociceptive scaffold core in CBD3 that can be used for development of low MW mimetics of CBD3. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. Homology modeling and protein engineering of alkane monooxygenase in Burkholderia thailandensis MSMB121: in silico insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Chakresh Kumar; Gupta, Money; Prasad, Yamuna; Wadhwa, Gulshan; Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar

    2014-07-01

    The degradation of hydrocarbons plays an important role in the eco-balancing of petroleum products, pesticides and other toxic products in the environment. The degradation of hydrocarbons by microbes such as Geobacillus thermodenitrificans, Burkhulderia, Gordonia sp. and Acinetobacter sp. has been studied intensively in the literature. The present study focused on the in silico protein engineering of alkane monooxygenase (ladA)-a protein involved in the alkane degradation pathway. We demonstrated the improvement in substrate binding energy with engineered ladA in Burkholderia thailandensis MSMB121. We identified an ortholog of ladA monooxygenase found in B. thailandensis MSMB121, and showed it to be an enzyme involved in an alkane degradation pathway studied extensively in Geobacillus thermodenitrificans. Homology modeling of the three-dimensional structure of ladA was performed with a crystal structure (protein databank ID: 3B9N) as a template in MODELLER 9v11, and further validated using PROCHECK, VERIFY-3D and WHATIF tools. Specific amino acids were substituted in the region corresponding to amino acids 305-370 of ladA protein, resulting in an enhancement of binding energy in different alkane chain molecules as compared to wild protein structures in the docking experiments. The substrate binding energy with the protein was calculated using Vina (Implemented in VEGAZZ). Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the dynamics of different alkane chain molecules inside the binding pockets of wild and mutated ladA. Here, we hypothesize an improvement in binding energies and accessibility of substrates towards engineered ladA enzyme, which could be further facilitated for wet laboratory-based experiments for validation of the alkane degradation pathway in this organism.

  10. The Protein Model Portal

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Konstantin; Kiefer, Florian; Kopp, J?rgen; Battey, James N. D.; Podvinec, Michael; Westbrook, John D.; Berman, Helen M.; Bordoli, Lorenza; Schwede, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    Structural Genomics has been successful in determining the structures of many unique proteins in a high throughput manner. Still, the number of known protein sequences is much larger than the number of experimentally solved protein structures. Homology (or comparative) modeling methods make use of experimental protein structures to build models for evolutionary related proteins. Thereby, experimental structure determination efforts and homology modeling complement each other in the exploratio...

  11. Revision of Begomovirus taxonomy based on pairwise sequence comparisons

    KAUST Repository

    Brown, Judith K.; Zerbini, F. Murilo; Navas-Castillo, Jesú s; Moriones, Enrique; Ramos-Sobrinho, Roberto; Silva, José C. F.; Fiallo-Olivé , Elvira; Briddon, Rob W.; Herná ndez-Zepeda, Cecilia; Idris, Ali; Malathi, V. G.; Martin, Darren P.; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael; Ueda, Shigenori; Varsani, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    Viruses of the genus Begomovirus (family Geminiviridae) are emergent pathogens of crops throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. By virtue of having a small DNA genome that is easily cloned, and due to the recent innovations in cloning and low-cost sequencing, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of available begomovirus genome sequences. Even so, most of the available sequences have been obtained from cultivated plants and are likely a small and phylogenetically unrepresentative sample of begomovirus diversity, a factor constraining taxonomic decisions such as the establishment of operationally useful species demarcation criteria. In addition, problems in assigning new viruses to established species have highlighted shortcomings in the previously recommended mechanism of species demarcation. Based on the analysis of 3,123 full-length begomovirus genome (or DNA-A component) sequences available in public databases as of December 2012, a set of revised guidelines for the classification and nomenclature of begomoviruses are proposed. The guidelines primarily consider a) genus-level biological characteristics and b) results obtained using a standardized classification tool, Sequence Demarcation Tool, which performs pairwise sequence alignments and identity calculations. These guidelines are consistent with the recently published recommendations for the genera Mastrevirus and Curtovirus of the family Geminiviridae. Genome-wide pairwise identities of 91 % and 94 % are proposed as the demarcation threshold for begomoviruses belonging to different species and strains, respectively. Procedures and guidelines are outlined for resolving conflicts that may arise when assigning species and strains to categories wherever the pairwise identity falls on or very near the demarcation threshold value.

  12. Revision of Begomovirus taxonomy based on pairwise sequence comparisons

    KAUST Repository

    Brown, Judith K.

    2015-04-18

    Viruses of the genus Begomovirus (family Geminiviridae) are emergent pathogens of crops throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. By virtue of having a small DNA genome that is easily cloned, and due to the recent innovations in cloning and low-cost sequencing, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of available begomovirus genome sequences. Even so, most of the available sequences have been obtained from cultivated plants and are likely a small and phylogenetically unrepresentative sample of begomovirus diversity, a factor constraining taxonomic decisions such as the establishment of operationally useful species demarcation criteria. In addition, problems in assigning new viruses to established species have highlighted shortcomings in the previously recommended mechanism of species demarcation. Based on the analysis of 3,123 full-length begomovirus genome (or DNA-A component) sequences available in public databases as of December 2012, a set of revised guidelines for the classification and nomenclature of begomoviruses are proposed. The guidelines primarily consider a) genus-level biological characteristics and b) results obtained using a standardized classification tool, Sequence Demarcation Tool, which performs pairwise sequence alignments and identity calculations. These guidelines are consistent with the recently published recommendations for the genera Mastrevirus and Curtovirus of the family Geminiviridae. Genome-wide pairwise identities of 91 % and 94 % are proposed as the demarcation threshold for begomoviruses belonging to different species and strains, respectively. Procedures and guidelines are outlined for resolving conflicts that may arise when assigning species and strains to categories wherever the pairwise identity falls on or very near the demarcation threshold value.

  13. Induction of homologous recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J R; Moore, P D

    1988-09-01

    We have investigated the effects of UV irradiation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in order to distinguish whether UV-induced recombination results from the induction of enzymes required for homologous recombination, or the production of substrate sites for recombination containing regions of DNA damage. We utilized split-dose experiments to investigate the induction of proteins required for survival, gene conversion, and mutation in a diploid strain of S. cerevisiae. We demonstrate that inducing doses of UV irradiation followed by a 6 h period of incubation render the cells resistant to challenge doses of UV irradiation. The effects of inducing and challenge doses of UV irradiation upon interchromosomal gene conversion and mutation are strictly additive. Using the yeast URA3 gene cloned in non-replicating single- and double-stranded plasmid vectors that integrate into chromosomal genes upon transformation, we show that UV irradiation of haploid yeast cells and homologous plasmid DNA sequences each stimulate homologous recombination approximately two-fold, and that these effects are additive. Non-specific DNA damage has little effect on the stimulation of homologous recombination, as shown by studies in which UV-irradiated heterologous DNA was included in transformation/recombination experiments. We further demonstrate that the effect of competing single- and double-stranded heterologous DNA sequences differs in UV-irradiated and unirradiated cells, suggesting an induction of recombinational machinery in UV-irradiated S. cerevisiae cells.

  14. Absence of SUN-domain protein Slp1 blocks karyogamy and switches meiotic recombination and synapsis from homologs to sister chromatids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasnier, Christelle; de Muyt, Arnaud; Zhang, Liangran; Tessé, Sophie; Kleckner, Nancy E.; Zickler, Denise; Espagne, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Karyogamy, the process of nuclear fusion is required for two haploid gamete nuclei to form a zygote. Also, in haplobiontic organisms, karyogamy is required to produce the diploid nucleus/cell that then enters meiosis. We identify sun like protein 1 (Slp1), member of the mid–Sad1p, UNC-84–domain ubiquitous family, as essential for karyogamy in the filamentous fungus Sordaria macrospora, thus uncovering a new function for this protein family. Slp1 is required at the last step, nuclear fusion, not for earlier events including nuclear movements, recognition, and juxtaposition. Correspondingly, like other family members, Slp1 localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and also to its extensions comprising the nuclear envelope. Remarkably, despite the absence of nuclear fusion in the slp1 null mutant, meiosis proceeds efficiently in the two haploid “twin” nuclei, by the same program and timing as in diploid nuclei with a single dramatic exception: the normal prophase program of recombination and synapsis between homologous chromosomes, including loading of recombination and synaptonemal complex proteins, occurs instead between sister chromatids. Moreover, the numbers of recombination-initiating double-strand breaks (DSBs) and ensuing recombinational interactions, including foci of the essential crossover factor Homo sapiens enhancer of invasion 10 (Hei10), occur at half the diploid level in each haploid nucleus, implying per-chromosome specification of DSB formation. Further, the distribution of Hei10 foci shows interference like in diploid meiosis. Centromere and spindle dynamics, however, still occur in the diploid mode during the two meiotic divisions. These observations imply that the prophase program senses absence of karyogamy and/or absence of a homolog partner and adjusts the interchromosomal interaction program accordingly. PMID:25210014

  15. A family of cell-adhering peptides homologous to fibrinogen C-termini

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy-Beladev, Liron; Levdansky, Lilia; Gaberman, Elena; Friedler, Assaf; Gorodetsky, Raphael

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Cell-adhesive sequences homologous to fibrinogen C-termini exist in other proteins. → The extended homologous cell-adhesive C-termini peptides family is termed Haptides. → In membrane-like environment random coiled Haptides adopt a helical conformation. → Replacing positively charged residues with alanine reduces Haptides activity. -- Abstract: A family of cell-adhesive peptides homologous to sequences on different chains of fibrinogen was investigated. These homologous peptides, termed Haptides, include the peptides Cβ, preCγ, and CαE, corresponding to sequences on the C-termini of fibrinogen chains β, γ, and αE, respectively. Haptides do not affect cell survival and rate of proliferation of the normal cell types tested. The use of new sensitive assays of cell adhesion clearly demonstrated the ability of Haptides, bound to inert matrices, to mediate attachment of different matrix-dependent cell types including normal fibroblasts, endothelial, and smooth muscle cells. Here we present new active Haptides bearing homologous sequences derived from the C-termini of other proteins, such as angiopoietin 1 and 2, tenascins C and X, and microfibril-associated glycoprotein-4. The cell adhesion properties of all the Haptides were found to be associated mainly with their 11 N-terminal residues. Mutated preCγ peptides revealed that positively charged residues account for their attachment effect. These results suggest a mechanism of direct electrostatic interaction of Haptides with the cell membrane. The extended Haptides family may be applied in modulating adhesion of cells to scaffolds for tissue regeneration and for enhancement of nanoparticulate transfection into cells.

  16. Homologs of the Acinetobacter baumannii AceI transporter represent a new family of bacterial multidrug efflux systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Karl A; Liu, Qi; Henderson, Peter J F; Paulsen, Ian T

    2015-02-10

    Multidrug efflux systems are a major cause of resistance to antimicrobials in bacteria, including those pathogenic to humans, animals, and plants. These proteins are ubiquitous in these pathogens, and five families of bacterial multidrug efflux systems have been identified to date. By using transcriptomic and biochemical analyses, we recently identified the novel AceI (Acinetobacter chlorhexidine efflux) protein from Acinetobacter baumannii that conferred resistance to the biocide chlorhexidine, via an active efflux mechanism. Proteins homologous to AceI are encoded in the genomes of many other bacterial species and are particularly prominent within proteobacterial lineages. In this study, we expressed 23 homologs of AceI and examined their resistance and/or transport profiles. MIC analyses demonstrated that, like AceI, many of the homologs conferred resistance to chlorhexidine. Many of the AceI homologs conferred resistance to additional biocides, including benzalkonium, dequalinium, proflavine, and acriflavine. We conducted fluorimetric transport assays using the AceI homolog from Vibrio parahaemolyticus and confirmed that resistance to both proflavine and acriflavine was mediated by an active efflux mechanism. These results show that this group of AceI homologs represent a new family of bacterial multidrug efflux pumps, which we have designated the proteobacterial antimicrobial compound efflux (PACE) family of transport proteins. Bacterial multidrug efflux pumps are an important class of resistance determinants that can be found in every bacterial genome sequenced to date. These transport proteins have important protective functions for the bacterial cell but are a significant problem in the clinical setting, since a single efflux system can mediate resistance to many structurally and mechanistically diverse antibiotics and biocides. In this study, we demonstrate that proteins related to the Acinetobacter baumannii AceI transporter are a new class of multidrug

  17. Pleckstrin Homology Domain Diffusion in Dictyostelium Cytoplasm Studied Using Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, Ruchira; Hink, Mark A.; Bosgraaf, Leonard; Haastert, Peter J.M. van; Visser, Antonie J.W.G.

    2004-01-01

    The translocation of pleckstrin homology (PH) domain-containing proteins from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane plays an important role in the chemotaxis mechanism of Dictyostelium cells. The diffusion of three PH domain-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions (PH2-GFP, PH10-GFP, and PH-CRAC

  18. Pleckstrin homology domain diffusion in Dictyostelium cytoplasm studied using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruchira, A.; Hink, M.A.; Bosgraaf, L.; Haastert, van P.J.M.; Visser, A.J.W.G.

    2004-01-01

    The translocation of pleckstrin homology (PH) domain-containing proteins from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane plays an important role in the chemotaxis mechanism of Dictyostelium cells. The diffusion of three PH domain-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions (PH2-GFP, PH10-GFP, and PH-CRAC

  19. Inhibitory Effect of Berberine on Zeste Homolog 2 (Ezh2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    homolog 2 (Ezh2) expressions in KYSE450 human esophageal cancer cells. Methods: ... of the AXL receptor kinase. The results of ... effects of estrogen receptor antagonists on ..... protein EZH2 is involved in progression of prostate cancer.

  20. Structural analysis of human complement protein H: homology with C4b binding protein, beta 2-glycoprotein I, and the Ba fragment of B2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten; Wetsel, R A; Tack, B F

    1986-01-01

    We report here a partial primary structure for human complement protein H. Tryptic peptides comprising 27% of the H molecule were isolated by conventional techniques and were sequenced (333 amino acid residues). Several mixed-sequence oligonucleotide probes were constructed, based on the peptide...... sequence data, and were used to screen a human liver cDNA library. The largest recombinant plasmid (pH1050), which hybridized with two probes, was further characterized. The cDNA insert of this plasmid contained coding sequence (672 bp) for 224 amino acids of H. The 3' end of this clone had...... a polyadenylated tail preceded by a polyadenylation recognition site (ATTAAA) and a 3'-untranslated region (229 bp). Four regions of internal homology, each about 60 amino acids in length, were observed in the derived protein sequence from this cDNA clone, and a further seven from the tryptic peptide sequences...

  1. Evaluation of multiple protein docking structures using correctly predicted pairwise subunits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esquivel-Rodríguez Juan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many functionally important proteins in a cell form complexes with multiple chains. Therefore, computational prediction of multiple protein complexes is an important task in bioinformatics. In the development of multiple protein docking methods, it is important to establish a metric for evaluating prediction results in a reasonable and practical fashion. However, since there are only few works done in developing methods for multiple protein docking, there is no study that investigates how accurate structural models of multiple protein complexes should be to allow scientists to gain biological insights. Methods We generated a series of predicted models (decoys of various accuracies by our multiple protein docking pipeline, Multi-LZerD, for three multi-chain complexes with 3, 4, and 6 chains. We analyzed the decoys in terms of the number of correctly predicted pair conformations in the decoys. Results and conclusion We found that pairs of chains with the correct mutual orientation exist even in the decoys with a large overall root mean square deviation (RMSD to the native. Therefore, in addition to a global structure similarity measure, such as the global RMSD, the quality of models for multiple chain complexes can be better evaluated by using the local measurement, the number of chain pairs with correct mutual orientation. We termed the fraction of correctly predicted pairs (RMSD at the interface of less than 4.0Å as fpair and propose to use it for evaluation of the accuracy of multiple protein docking.

  2. BETASCAN: probable beta-amyloids identified by pairwise probabilistic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen W Bryan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Amyloids and prion proteins are clinically and biologically important beta-structures, whose supersecondary structures are difficult to determine by standard experimental or computational means. In addition, significant conformational heterogeneity is known or suspected to exist in many amyloid fibrils. Recent work has indicated the utility of pairwise probabilistic statistics in beta-structure prediction. We develop here a new strategy for beta-structure prediction, emphasizing the determination of beta-strands and pairs of beta-strands as fundamental units of beta-structure. Our program, BETASCAN, calculates likelihood scores for potential beta-strands and strand-pairs based on correlations observed in parallel beta-sheets. The program then determines the strands and pairs with the greatest local likelihood for all of the sequence's potential beta-structures. BETASCAN suggests multiple alternate folding patterns and assigns relative a priori probabilities based solely on amino acid sequence, probability tables, and pre-chosen parameters. The algorithm compares favorably with the results of previous algorithms (BETAPRO, PASTA, SALSA, TANGO, and Zyggregator in beta-structure prediction and amyloid propensity prediction. Accurate prediction is demonstrated for experimentally determined amyloid beta-structures, for a set of known beta-aggregates, and for the parallel beta-strands of beta-helices, amyloid-like globular proteins. BETASCAN is able both to detect beta-strands with higher sensitivity and to detect the edges of beta-strands in a richly beta-like sequence. For two proteins (Abeta and Het-s, there exist multiple sets of experimental data implying contradictory structures; BETASCAN is able to detect each competing structure as a potential structure variant. The ability to correlate multiple alternate beta-structures to experiment opens the possibility of computational investigation of prion strains and structural heterogeneity of amyloid

  3. Direct Involvement of Retinoblastoma Family Proteins in DNA Repair by Non-homologous End-Joining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Cook

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Deficiencies in DNA double-strand break (DSB repair lead to genetic instability, a recognized cause of cancer initiation and evolution. We report that the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (RB1 is required for DNA DSB repair by canonical non-homologous end-joining (cNHEJ. Support of cNHEJ involves a mechanism independent of RB1’s cell-cycle function and depends on its amino terminal domain with which it binds to NHEJ components XRCC5 and XRCC6. Cells with engineered loss of RB family function as well as cancer-derived cells with mutational RB1 loss show substantially reduced levels of cNHEJ. RB1 variants disabled for the interaction with XRCC5 and XRCC6, including a cancer-associated variant, are unable to support cNHEJ despite being able to confer cell-cycle control. Our data identify RB1 loss as a candidate driver of structural genomic instability and a causative factor for cancer somatic heterogeneity and evolution.

  4. A role for the malignant brain tumour (MBT domain protein LIN-61 in DNA double-strand break repair by homologous recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas M Johnson

    Full Text Available Malignant brain tumour (MBT domain proteins are transcriptional repressors that function within Polycomb complexes. Some MBT genes are tumour suppressors, but how they prevent tumourigenesis is unknown. The Caenorhabditis elegans MBT protein LIN-61 is a member of the synMuvB chromatin-remodelling proteins that control vulval development. Here we report a new role for LIN-61: it protects the genome by promoting homologous recombination (HR for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs. lin-61 mutants manifest numerous problems associated with defective HR in germ and somatic cells but remain proficient in meiotic recombination. They are hypersensitive to ionizing radiation and interstrand crosslinks but not UV light. Using a novel reporter system that monitors repair of a defined DSB in C. elegans somatic cells, we show that LIN-61 contributes to HR. The involvement of this MBT protein in HR raises the possibility that MBT-deficient tumours may also have defective DSB repair.

  5. Mapping monomeric threading to protein-protein structure prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerler, Aysam; Govindarajoo, Brandon; Zhang, Yang

    2013-03-25

    The key step of template-based protein-protein structure prediction is the recognition of complexes from experimental structure libraries that have similar quaternary fold. Maintaining two monomer and dimer structure libraries is however laborious, and inappropriate library construction can degrade template recognition coverage. We propose a novel strategy SPRING to identify complexes by mapping monomeric threading alignments to protein-protein interactions based on the original oligomer entries in the PDB, which does not rely on library construction and increases the efficiency and quality of complex template recognitions. SPRING is tested on 1838 nonhomologous protein complexes which can recognize correct quaternary template structures with a TM score >0.5 in 1115 cases after excluding homologous proteins. The average TM score of the first model is 60% and 17% higher than that by HHsearch and COTH, respectively, while the number of targets with an interface RMSD benchmark proteins. Although the relative performance of SPRING and ZDOCK depends on the level of homology filters, a combination of the two methods can result in a significantly higher model quality than ZDOCK at all homology thresholds. These data demonstrate a new efficient approach to quaternary structure recognition that is ready to use for genome-scale modeling of protein-protein interactions due to the high speed and accuracy.

  6. DipoCoup: A versatile program for 3D-structure homology comparison based on residual dipolar couplings and pseudocontact shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meiler, Jens; Peti, Wolfgang; Griesinger, Christian

    2000-01-01

    A program, DipoCoup, is presented that allows to search the protein data bank for proteins which have a three dimensional fold that is at least partially homologous to a protein under investigation. The three dimensional homology search uses secondary structure alignment based on chemical shifts and dipolar couplings or pseudocontact shifts for the three dimensional orientation of secondary structure elements. Moreover, the program offers additional tools for handling and analyzing dipolar couplings

  7. Resolving RAD51C function in late stages of homologous recombination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Sergey G

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract DNA double strand breaks are efficiently repaired by homologous recombination. One of the last steps of this process is resolution of Holliday junctions that are formed at the sites of genetic exchange between homologous DNA. Although various resolvases with Holliday junctions processing activity have been identified in bacteriophages, bacteria and archaebacteria, eukaryotic resolvases have been elusive. Recent biochemical evidence has revealed that RAD51C and XRCC3, members of the RAD51-like protein family, are involved in Holliday junction resolution in mammalian cells. However, purified recombinant RAD51C and XRCC3 proteins have not shown any Holliday junction resolution activity. In addition, these proteins did not reveal the presence of a nuclease domain, which raises doubts about their ability to function as a resolvase. Furthermore, oocytes from infertile Rad51C mutant mice exhibit precocious separation of sister chromatids at metaphase II, a phenotype that reflects a defect in sister chromatid cohesion, not a lack of Holliday junction resolution. Here we discuss a model to explain how a Holliday junction resolution defect can lead to sister chromatid separation in mouse oocytes. We also describe other recent in vitro and in vivo evidence supporting a late role for RAD51C in homologous recombination in mammalian cells, which is likely to be resolution of the Holliday junction.

  8. VITAL NMR: using chemical shift derived secondary structure information for a limited set of amino acids to assess homology model accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brothers, Michael C.; Nesbitt, Anna E.; Hallock, Michael J. [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Department of Chemistry (United States); Rupasinghe, Sanjeewa G. [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Department of Cell and Developmental Biology (United States); Tang Ming [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Department of Chemistry (United States); Harris, Jason; Baudry, Jerome [University of Tennessee, Department of Biochemistry, Cellular and Molecular Biology (United States); Schuler, Mary A. [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Department of Cell and Developmental Biology (United States); Rienstra, Chad M., E-mail: rienstra@illinois.edu [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Homology modeling is a powerful tool for predicting protein structures, whose success depends on obtaining a reasonable alignment between a given structural template and the protein sequence being analyzed. In order to leverage greater predictive power for proteins with few structural templates, we have developed a method to rank homology models based upon their compliance to secondary structure derived from experimental solid-state NMR (SSNMR) data. Such data is obtainable in a rapid manner by simple SSNMR experiments (e.g., {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C 2D correlation spectra). To test our homology model scoring procedure for various amino acid labeling schemes, we generated a library of 7,474 homology models for 22 protein targets culled from the TALOS+/SPARTA+ training set of protein structures. Using subsets of amino acids that are plausibly assigned by SSNMR, we discovered that pairs of the residues Val, Ile, Thr, Ala and Leu (VITAL) emulate an ideal dataset where all residues are site specifically assigned. Scoring the models with a predicted VITAL site-specific dataset and calculating secondary structure with the Chemical Shift Index resulted in a Pearson correlation coefficient (-0.75) commensurate to the control (-0.77), where secondary structure was scored site specifically for all amino acids (ALL 20) using STRIDE. This method promises to accelerate structure procurement by SSNMR for proteins with unknown folds through guiding the selection of remotely homologous protein templates and assessing model quality.

  9. VITAL NMR: Using Chemical Shift Derived Secondary Structure Information for a Limited Set of Amino Acids to Assess Homology Model Accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brothers, Michael C [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Nesbitt, Anna E [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Hallock, Michael J [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Rupasinghe, Sanjeewa [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Tang, Ming [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Harris, Jason B [ORNL; Baudry, Jerome Y [ORNL; Schuler, Mary A [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Rienstra, Chad M [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

    2011-01-01

    Homology modeling is a powerful tool for predicting protein structures, whose success depends on obtaining a reasonable alignment between a given structural template and the protein sequence being analyzed. In order to leverage greater predictive power for proteins with few structural templates, we have developed a method to rank homology models based upon their compliance to secondary structure derived from experimental solid-state NMR (SSNMR) data. Such data is obtainable in a rapid manner by simple SSNMR experiments (e.g., (13)C-(13)C 2D correlation spectra). To test our homology model scoring procedure for various amino acid labeling schemes, we generated a library of 7,474 homology models for 22 protein targets culled from the TALOS+/SPARTA+ training set of protein structures. Using subsets of amino acids that are plausibly assigned by SSNMR, we discovered that pairs of the residues Val, Ile, Thr, Ala and Leu (VITAL) emulate an ideal dataset where all residues are site specifically assigned. Scoring the models with a predicted VITAL site-specific dataset and calculating secondary structure with the Chemical Shift Index resulted in a Pearson correlation coefficient (-0.75) commensurate to the control (-0.77), where secondary structure was scored site specifically for all amino acids (ALL 20) using STRIDE. This method promises to accelerate structure procurement by SSNMR for proteins with unknown folds through guiding the selection of remotely homologous protein templates and assessing model quality.

  10. ProDis-ContSHC: learning protein dissimilarity measures and hierarchical context coherently for protein-protein comparison in protein database retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingyan; Gao, Xin; Wang, Quanquan; Li, Yongping

    2012-05-08

    The need to retrieve or classify protein molecules using structure or sequence-based similarity measures underlies a wide range of biomedical applications. Traditional protein search methods rely on a pairwise dissimilarity/similarity measure for comparing a pair of proteins. This kind of pairwise measures suffer from the limitation of neglecting the distribution of other proteins and thus cannot satisfy the need for high accuracy of the retrieval systems. Recent work in the machine learning community has shown that exploiting the global structure of the database and learning the contextual dissimilarity/similarity measures can improve the retrieval performance significantly. However, most existing contextual dissimilarity/similarity learning algorithms work in an unsupervised manner, which does not utilize the information of the known class labels of proteins in the database. In this paper, we propose a novel protein-protein dissimilarity learning algorithm, ProDis-ContSHC. ProDis-ContSHC regularizes an existing dissimilarity measure dij by considering the contextual information of the proteins. The context of a protein is defined by its neighboring proteins. The basic idea is, for a pair of proteins (i, j), if their context N(i) and N(j) is similar to each other, the two proteins should also have a high similarity. We implement this idea by regularizing dij by a factor learned from the context N(i) and N(j).Moreover, we divide the context to hierarchial sub-context and get the contextual dissimilarity vector for each protein pair. Using the class label information of the proteins, we select the relevant (a pair of proteins that has the same class labels) and irrelevant (with different labels) protein pairs, and train an SVM model to distinguish between their contextual dissimilarity vectors. The SVM model is further used to learn a supervised regularizing factor. Finally, with the new Supervised learned Dissimilarity measure, we update the Protein Hierarchial

  11. Chemical Shift Assignments of the C-terminal Eps15 Homology Domain-3 EH Domain*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Steve; Sorgen, Paul L.

    2013-01-01

    The C-terminal Eps15 homology (EH) domain 3 (EHD3) belongs to a eukaryotic family of endocytic regulatory proteins and is involved in the recycling of various receptors from the early endosome to the endocytic recycling compartment or in retrograde transport from the endosomes to the Golgi. EH domains are highly conserved in the EHD family and function as protein-protein interaction units that bind to Asn-Pro-Phe (NPF) motif-containing proteins. The EH domain of EHD1 was the first C-terminal EH domain from the EHD family to be solved by NMR. The differences observed between this domain and proteins with N-terminal EH domains helped describe a mechanism for the differential binding of NPF-containing proteins. Here, structural studies were expanded to include the EHD3 EH domain. While the EHD1 and EHD3 EH domains are highly homologous, they have different protein partners. A comparison of these structures will help determine the selectivity in protein binding between the EHD family members and lead to a better understanding of their unique roles in endocytic regulation. PMID:23754701

  12. Defining a similarity threshold for a functional proteinsequence pattern: The signal peptide cleavage site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik; Engelbrecht, Jacob; von Heijne, Gunnar

    1996-01-01

    When preparing data sets of amino acid or nucleotide sequences it is necessary to exclude redundant or homologous sequences in order to avoid overestimating the predictive performance of an algorithm. For some time methods for doing this have been available in the area of protein structure...... prediction. We have developed a similar procedure based on pair-wise alignments for sequences with functional sites. We show how a correlation coefficient between sequence similarity and functional homology can be used to compare the efficiency of different similarity measures and choose a nonarbitrary...

  13. Evolution of plant virus movement proteins from the 30K superfamily and of their homologs integrated in plant genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mushegian, Arcady R., E-mail: mushegian2@gmail.com [Division of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, VA 22230 (United States); Elena, Santiago F., E-mail: sfelena@ibmcp.upv.es [Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Plantas, CSIC-UPV, 46022 València (Spain); The Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, NM 87501 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Homologs of Tobacco mosaic virus 30K cell-to-cell movement protein are encoded by diverse plant viruses. Mechanisms of action and evolutionary origins of these proteins remain obscure. We expand the picture of conservation and evolution of the 30K proteins, producing sequence alignment of the 30K superfamily with the broadest phylogenetic coverage thus far and illuminating structural features of the core all-beta fold of these proteins. Integrated copies of pararetrovirus 30K movement genes are prevalent in euphyllophytes, with at least one copy intact in nearly every examined species, and mRNAs detected for most of them. Sequence analysis suggests repeated integrations, pseudogenizations, and positive selection in those provirus genes. An unannotated 30K-superfamily gene in Arabidopsis thaliana genome is likely expressed as a fusion with the At1g37113 transcript. This molecular background of endopararetrovirus gene products in plants may change our view of virus infection and pathogenesis, and perhaps of cellular homeostasis in the hosts. - Highlights: • Sequence region shared by plant virus “30K” movement proteins has an all-beta fold. • Most euphyllophyte genomes contain integrated copies of pararetroviruses. • These integrated virus genomes often include intact movement protein genes. • Molecular evidence suggests that these “30K” genes may be selected for function.

  14. A Temperature-Independent Cold-Shock Protein Homolog Acts as a Virulence Factor in Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbank, Lindsey P; Stenger, Drake C

    2016-05-01

    Xylella fastidiosa, causal agent of Pierce's disease (PD) of grapevine, is a fastidious organism that requires very specific conditions for replication and plant colonization. Cold temperatures reduce growth and survival of X. fastidiosa both in vitro and in planta. However, little is known regarding physiological responses of X. fastidiosa to temperature changes. Cold-shock proteins (CSP), a family of nucleic acid-binding proteins, act as chaperones facilitating translation at low temperatures. Bacterial genomes often encode multiple CSP, some of which are strongly induced following exposure to cold. Additionally, CSP contribute to the general stress response through mRNA stabilization and posttranscriptional regulation. A putative CSP homolog (Csp1) with RNA-binding activity was identified in X. fastidiosa Stag's Leap. The csp1 gene lacked the long 5' untranslated region characteristic of cold-inducible genes and was expressed in a temperature-independent manner. As compared with the wild type, a deletion mutant of csp1 (∆csp1) had decreased survival rates following cold exposure and salt stress in vitro. The deletion mutant also was significantly less virulent in grapevine, as compared with the wild type, in the absence of cold stress. These results suggest an important function of X. fastidiosa Csp1 in response to cellular stress and during plant colonization.

  15. Tracing the Evolutionary History of the CAP Superfamily of Proteins Using Amino Acid Sequence Homology and Conservation of Splice Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Anup; Chandler, Douglas E

    2017-10-01

    Proteins of the CAP superfamily play numerous roles in reproduction, innate immune responses, cancer biology, and venom toxicology. Here we document the breadth of the CAP (Cysteine-RIch Secretory Protein (CRISP), Antigen 5, and Pathogenesis-Related) protein superfamily and trace the major events in its evolution using amino acid sequence homology and the positions of exon/intron borders within their genes. Seldom acknowledged in the literature, we find that many of the CAP subfamilies present in mammals, where they were originally characterized, have distinct homologues in the invertebrate phyla. Early eukaryotic CAP genes contained only one exon inherited from prokaryotic predecessors and as evolution progressed an increasing number of introns were inserted, reaching 2-5 in the invertebrate world and 5-15 in the vertebrate world. Focusing on the CRISP subfamily, we propose that these proteins evolved in three major steps: (1) origination of the CAP/PR/SCP domain in bacteria, (2) addition of a small Hinge domain to produce the two-domain SCP-like proteins found in roundworms and anthropoids, and (3) addition of an Ion Channel Regulatory domain, borrowed from invertebrate peptide toxins, to produce full length, three-domain CRISP proteins, first seen in insects and later to diversify into multiple subtypes in the vertebrate world.

  16. Using structure to explore the sequence alignment space of remote homologs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuziemko, Andrew; Honig, Barry; Petrey, Donald

    2011-10-01

    Protein structure modeling by homology requires an accurate sequence alignment between the query protein and its structural template. However, sequence alignment methods based on dynamic programming (DP) are typically unable to generate accurate alignments for remote sequence homologs, thus limiting the applicability of modeling methods. A central problem is that the alignment that is "optimal" in terms of the DP score does not necessarily correspond to the alignment that produces the most accurate structural model. That is, the correct alignment based on structural superposition will generally have a lower score than the optimal alignment obtained from sequence. Variations of the DP algorithm have been developed that generate alternative alignments that are "suboptimal" in terms of the DP score, but these still encounter difficulties in detecting the correct structural alignment. We present here a new alternative sequence alignment method that relies heavily on the structure of the template. By initially aligning the query sequence to individual fragments in secondary structure elements and combining high-scoring fragments that pass basic tests for "modelability", we can generate accurate alignments within a small ensemble. Our results suggest that the set of sequences that can currently be modeled by homology can be greatly extended.

  17. Whole Protein Native Fitness Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraggi, Eshel; Kloczkowski, Andrzej

    2013-03-01

    Protein structure prediction can be separated into two tasks: sample the configuration space of the protein chain, and assign a fitness between these hypothetical models and the native structure of the protein. One of the more promising developments in this area is that of knowledge based energy functions. However, standard approaches using pair-wise interactions have shown shortcomings demonstrated by the superiority of multi-body-potentials. These shortcomings are due to residue pair-wise interaction being dependent on other residues along the chain. We developed a method that uses whole protein information filtered through machine learners to score protein models based on their likeness to native structures. For all models we calculated parameters associated with the distance to the solvent and with distances between residues. These parameters, in addition to energy estimates obtained by using a four-body-potential, DFIRE, and RWPlus were used as training for machine learners to predict the fitness of the models. Testing on CASP 9 targets showed that our method is superior to DFIRE, RWPlus, and the four-body potential, which are considered standards in the field.

  18. Pythoscape: a framework for generation of large protein similarity networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Alan E; Babbitt, Patricia C

    2012-11-01

    Pythoscape is a framework implemented in Python for processing large protein similarity networks for visualization in other software packages. Protein similarity networks are graphical representations of sequence, structural and other similarities among proteins for which pairwise all-by-all similarity connections have been calculated. Mapping of biological and other information to network nodes or edges enables hypothesis creation about sequence-structure-function relationships across sets of related proteins. Pythoscape provides several options to calculate pairwise similarities for input sequences or structures, applies filters to network edges and defines sets of similar nodes and their associated data as single nodes (termed representative nodes) for compression of network information and output data or formatted files for visualization.

  19. Identification and Partial Characterization of Potential FtsL and FtsQ Homologs of Chlamydia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scot P Ouellette

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia is amongst the rare bacteria that lack the critical cell division protein FtsZ. By annotation, Chlamydia also lacks several other essential cell division proteins including the FtsLBQ complex that links the early (e.g. FtsZ and late (e.g. FtsI/Pbp3 components of the division machinery. Here, we report chlamydial FtsL and FtsQ homologs. Ct271 aligned well with E. coli FtsL and shared sequence homology with it, including a predicted leucine-zipper like motif. Based on in silico modeling, we show that Ct764 has structural homology to FtsQ in spite of little sequence similarity. Importantly, ct271/ftsL and ct764/ftsQ are present within all sequenced chlamydial genomes and are expressed during the replicative phase of the chlamydial developmental cycle, two key characteristics for a chlamydial cell division gene. GFP-Ct764 localized to the division septum of dividing transformed chlamydiae, and, importantly, over-expression inhibited chlamydial development. Using a bacterial two-hybrid approach, we show that Ct764 interacted with other components of the chlamydial division apparatus. However, Ct764 was not capable of complementing an E. coli FtsQ depletion strain in spite of its ability to interact with many of the same division proteins as E. coli FtsQ, suggesting that chlamydial FtsQ may function differently. We previously proposed that Chlamydia uses MreB and other rod-shape determining proteins as an alternative system for organizing the division site and its apparatus. Chlamydial FtsL and FtsQ homologs expand the number of identified chlamydial cell division proteins and suggest that Chlamydia has likely kept the late components of the division machinery while substituting the Mre system for the early components.

  20. Pure homology of algebraic varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Andrzej

    2003-01-01

    We show that for a complete complex algebraic variety the pure component of homology coincides with the image of intersection homology. Therefore pure homology is topologically invariant. To obtain slightly more general results we introduce "image homology" for noncomplete varieties.

  1. Determinants of sovereign debt yield spreads under EMU: Pairwise approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazlioglu, S.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at providing an empirical analysis of long-term determinants of sovereign debt yield spreads under European EMU (Economic and Monetary Union) through pairwise approach within panel framework. Panel gravity models are increasingly used in the cross-market correlation literature while

  2. Lectures on functor homology

    CERN Document Server

    Touzé, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    This book features a series of lectures that explores three different fields in which functor homology (short for homological algebra in functor categories) has recently played a significant role. For each of these applications, the functor viewpoint provides both essential insights and new methods for tackling difficult mathematical problems. In the lectures by Aurélien Djament, polynomial functors appear as coefficients in the homology of infinite families of classical groups, e.g. general linear groups or symplectic groups, and their stabilization. Djament’s theorem states that this stable homology can be computed using only the homology with trivial coefficients and the manageable functor homology. The series includes an intriguing development of Scorichenko’s unpublished results. The lectures by Wilberd van der Kallen lead to the solution of the general cohomological finite generation problem, extending Hilbert’s fourteenth problem and its solution to the context of cohomology. The focus here is o...

  3. p53 regulates the repair of DNA double-strand breaks by both homologous and non-homologous recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willers, H.; Powell, S.N.; Dahm-Daphi, J.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: p53 is known to suppress spontaneous homologous recombination (HR), while its role in non-homologous recombination (NHR) remains to be clarified. Here, we sought to determine the influence of p53 on the repair of chromosomal double-strand breaks (DSBs) by HR or NHR using specially designed recombination substrates that integrate into the genome. Isogenic mouse fibroblast pairs with or without expression of exogenous p53 protein were utilized. A reporter plasmid carrying a mutated XGPRT gene was chromosomally integrated and DSBs were generated within the plasmid by the I-SceI endonuclease. Subsequent homology-mediated repair from an episomal donor resulted in XGPRT reconstitution and cellular resistance to a selection antibiotic. Analogously, the repair of chromosomal I-SceI breaks by NHR using another novel reporter plasmid restored XGPRT translation. For p53-null cells, the mean frequency of I-SceI break repair via HR was 5.5 x 10 -4 . The p53-Val135 mutant, which previously has been shown to suppress spontaneous HR by 14-fold employing the same cell system and reporter gene, only caused a 2- to 3-fold suppression of break-induced HR. In contrast, a dramatic effect of p53 on repair via NHR was found. Preliminary sequence analysis indicated that there was at least a 1000-fold reduction of illegitimate repair events resulting in loss of sequence at the break sites. The observed effects were mediated by p53 mutants defective in regulation of the cell-cycle and apoptosis. The main findings were: (1) p53 virtually blocked illegitimate rejoining of chromosomal ends. (2) The suppression of homologous DSB repair was less pronounced than the inhibition of spontaneous HR. We hypothesize that p53 allows to a certain extent error-free homology-dependent repair to proceed, while blocking error-prone NHR. The data support and extent a previous model, in which p53 maintains genomic stability by regulating recombination independently of its transactivation function

  4. Classification between normal and tumor tissues based on the pair-wise gene expression ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yap, YeeLeng; Zhang, XueWu; Ling, MT; Wang, XiangHong; Wong, YC; Danchin, Antoine

    2004-01-01

    Precise classification of cancer types is critically important for early cancer diagnosis and treatment. Numerous efforts have been made to use gene expression profiles to improve precision of tumor classification. However, reliable cancer-related signals are generally lacking. Using recent datasets on colon and prostate cancer, a data transformation procedure from single gene expression to pair-wise gene expression ratio is proposed. Making use of the internal consistency of each expression profiling dataset this transformation improves the signal to noise ratio of the dataset and uncovers new relevant cancer-related signals (features). The efficiency in using the transformed dataset to perform normal/tumor classification was investigated using feature partitioning with informative features (gene annotation) as discriminating axes (single gene expression or pair-wise gene expression ratio). Classification results were compared to the original datasets for up to 10-feature model classifiers. 82 and 262 genes that have high correlation to tissue phenotype were selected from the colon and prostate datasets respectively. Remarkably, data transformation of the highly noisy expression data successfully led to lower the coefficient of variation (CV) for the within-class samples as well as improved the correlation with tissue phenotypes. The transformed dataset exhibited lower CV when compared to that of single gene expression. In the colon cancer set, the minimum CV decreased from 45.3% to 16.5%. In prostate cancer, comparable CV was achieved with and without transformation. This improvement in CV, coupled with the improved correlation between the pair-wise gene expression ratio and tissue phenotypes, yielded higher classification efficiency, especially with the colon dataset – from 87.1% to 93.5%. Over 90% of the top ten discriminating axes in both datasets showed significant improvement after data transformation. The high classification efficiency achieved suggested

  5. A high-affinity inhibitor of yeast carboxypeptidase Y is encoded by TFS1 and shows homology to a family of lipid binding proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, A W; Svendsen, I; Sørensen, S O

    1998-01-01

    signals for transport into the endoplasmic reticulum. Surprisingly, Ic is encoded by TFS1, which has previously been isolated as a high-copy suppressor of cdc25-1. CDC25 encodes the putative GTP exchange factor for Ras1p/Ras2p in yeast. In an attempt to rationalize this finding, we looked...... degree of specificity, showing a 200-fold higher Ki toward a carboxypeptidase from Candida albicans which is highly homologous to carboxypeptidase Y. The TFS1 gene product shows extensive similarity to a class of proteins termed "21-23-kDa lipid binding proteins", members of which are found in several...

  6. GmGBP1, a homolog of human ski interacting protein in soybean, regulates flowering and stress tolerance in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yanwei

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SKIP is a transcription cofactor in many eukaryotes. It can regulate plant stress tolerance in rice and Arabidopsis. But the homolog of SKIP protein in soybean has been not reported up to now. Results In this study, the expression patterns of soybean GAMYB binding protein gene (GmGBP1 encoding a homolog of SKIP protein were analyzed in soybean under abiotic stresses and different day lengths. The expression of GmGBP1 was induced by polyethyleneglycol 6000, NaCl, gibberellin, abscisic acid and heat stress. GmGBP1 had transcriptional activity in C-terminal. GmGBP1 could interact with R2R3 domain of GmGAMYB1 in SKIP domain to take part in gibberellin flowering pathway. In long-day (16 h-light condition, transgenic Arabidopsis with the ectopic overexpression of GmGBP1 exhibited earlier flowering and less number of rosette leaves; Suppression of AtSKIP in Arabidopsis resulted in growth arrest, flowering delay and down-regulation of many flowering-related genes (CONSTANS, FLOWERING LOCUS T, LEAFY; Arabidopsis myb33 mutant plants with ectopic overexpression of GmGBP1 showed the same flowering phenotype with wild type. In short-day (8 h-light condition, transgenic Arabidopsis plants with GmGBP1 flowered later and showed a higher level of FLOWERING LOCUS C compared with wild type. When treated with abiotic stresses, transgenic Arabidopsis with the ectopic overexpression of GmGBP1 enhanced the tolerances to heat and drought stresses but reduced the tolerance to high salinity, and affected the expressions of several stress-related genes. Conclusions In Arabidopsis, GmGBP1 might positively regulate the flowering time by affecting CONSTANS, FLOWERING LOCUS T, LEAFY and GAMYB directly or indirectly in photoperiodic and gibberellin pathways in LDs, but GmGBP1 might represse flowering by affecting FLOWERING LOCUS C and SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE in autonomous pathway in SDs. GmGBP1 might regulate the activity of ROS-eliminating to improve the

  7. SCPS: a fast implementation of a spectral method for detecting protein families on a genome-wide scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paccanaro Alberto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important problem in genomics is the automatic inference of groups of homologous proteins from pairwise sequence similarities. Several approaches have been proposed for this task which are "local" in the sense that they assign a protein to a cluster based only on the distances between that protein and the other proteins in the set. It was shown recently that global methods such as spectral clustering have better performance on a wide variety of datasets. However, currently available implementations of spectral clustering methods mostly consist of a few loosely coupled Matlab scripts that assume a fair amount of familiarity with Matlab programming and hence they are inaccessible for large parts of the research community. Results SCPS (Spectral Clustering of Protein Sequences is an efficient and user-friendly implementation of a spectral method for inferring protein families. The method uses only pairwise sequence similarities, and is therefore practical when only sequence information is available. SCPS was tested on difficult sets of proteins whose relationships were extracted from the SCOP database, and its results were extensively compared with those obtained using other popular protein clustering algorithms such as TribeMCL, hierarchical clustering and connected component analysis. We show that SCPS is able to identify many of the family/superfamily relationships correctly and that the quality of the obtained clusters as indicated by their F-scores is consistently better than all the other methods we compared it with. We also demonstrate the scalability of SCPS by clustering the entire SCOP database (14,183 sequences and the complete genome of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (6,690 sequences. Conclusions Besides the spectral method, SCPS also implements connected component analysis and hierarchical clustering, it integrates TribeMCL, it provides different cluster quality tools, it can extract human-readable protein

  8. SCPS: a fast implementation of a spectral method for detecting protein families on a genome-wide scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepusz, Tamás; Sasidharan, Rajkumar; Paccanaro, Alberto

    2010-03-09

    An important problem in genomics is the automatic inference of groups of homologous proteins from pairwise sequence similarities. Several approaches have been proposed for this task which are "local" in the sense that they assign a protein to a cluster based only on the distances between that protein and the other proteins in the set. It was shown recently that global methods such as spectral clustering have better performance on a wide variety of datasets. However, currently available implementations of spectral clustering methods mostly consist of a few loosely coupled Matlab scripts that assume a fair amount of familiarity with Matlab programming and hence they are inaccessible for large parts of the research community. SCPS (Spectral Clustering of Protein Sequences) is an efficient and user-friendly implementation of a spectral method for inferring protein families. The method uses only pairwise sequence similarities, and is therefore practical when only sequence information is available. SCPS was tested on difficult sets of proteins whose relationships were extracted from the SCOP database, and its results were extensively compared with those obtained using other popular protein clustering algorithms such as TribeMCL, hierarchical clustering and connected component analysis. We show that SCPS is able to identify many of the family/superfamily relationships correctly and that the quality of the obtained clusters as indicated by their F-scores is consistently better than all the other methods we compared it with. We also demonstrate the scalability of SCPS by clustering the entire SCOP database (14,183 sequences) and the complete genome of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (6,690 sequences). Besides the spectral method, SCPS also implements connected component analysis and hierarchical clustering, it integrates TribeMCL, it provides different cluster quality tools, it can extract human-readable protein descriptions using GI numbers from NCBI, it interfaces with

  9. Two zebrafish G2A homologs activate multiple intracellular signaling pathways in acidic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichijo, Yuta; Mochimaru, Yuta [Laboratory of Cell Signaling Regulation, Department of Life Sciences, School of Agriculture, Meiji University, Kawasaki 214-8571 (Japan); Azuma, Morio [Laboratory of Regulatory Biology, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, University of Toyama, 3190-Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Satou, Kazuhiro; Negishi, Jun [Laboratory of Cell Signaling Regulation, Department of Life Sciences, School of Agriculture, Meiji University, Kawasaki 214-8571 (Japan); Nakakura, Takashi [Department of Anatomy, Graduate School of Medicine, Teikyo University, 2-11-1 Itabashi-Ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan); Oshima, Natsuki [Laboratory of Cell Signaling Regulation, Department of Life Sciences, School of Agriculture, Meiji University, Kawasaki 214-8571 (Japan); Mogi, Chihiro; Sato, Koichi [Laboratory of Signal Transduction, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, Maebashi 371-8512 (Japan); Matsuda, Kouhei [Laboratory of Regulatory Biology, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, University of Toyama, 3190-Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Okajima, Fumikazu [Laboratory of Signal Transduction, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, Maebashi 371-8512 (Japan); Tomura, Hideaki, E-mail: tomurah@meiji.ac.jp [Laboratory of Cell Signaling Regulation, Department of Life Sciences, School of Agriculture, Meiji University, Kawasaki 214-8571 (Japan)

    2016-01-01

    Human G2A is activated by various stimuli such as lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), 9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (9-HODE), and protons. The receptor is coupled to multiple intracellular signaling pathways, including the G{sub s}-protein/cAMP/CRE, G{sub 12/13}-protein/Rho/SRE, and G{sub q}-protein/phospholipase C/NFAT pathways. In the present study, we examined whether zebrafish G2A homologs (zG2A-a and zG2A-b) could respond to these stimuli and activate multiple intracellular signaling pathways. We also examined whether histidine residue and basic amino acid residue in the N-terminus of the homologs also play roles similar to those played by human G2A residues if the homologs sense protons. We found that the zG2A-a showed the high CRE, SRE, and NFAT activities, however, zG2A-b showed only the high SRE activity under a pH of 8.0. Extracellular acidification from pH 7.4 to 6.3 ameliorated these activities in zG2A-a-expressing cells. On the other hand, acidification ameliorated the SRE activity but not the CRE and NFAT activities in zG2A-b-expressing cells. LPC or 9-HODE did not modify any activity of either homolog. The substitution of histidine residue at the 174{sup th} position from the N-terminus of zG2A-a to asparagine residue attenuated proton-induced CRE and NFAT activities but not SRE activity. The substitution of arginine residue at the 32nd position from the N-terminus of zG2A-a to the alanine residue also attenuated its high and the proton-induced CRE and NFAT activities. On the contrary, the substitution did not attenuate SRE activity. The substitution of the arginine residue at the 10th position from the N-terminus of zG2A-b to the alanine residue also did not attenuate its high or the proton-induced SRE activity. These results indicate that zebrafish G2A homologs were activated by protons but not by LPC and 9-HODE, and the activation mechanisms of the homologs were similar to those of human G2A. - Highlights: • Zebrafish two G2A homologs are proton

  10. Detection of protein-protein interactions by ribosome display and protein in situ immobilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mingyue; Liu, Hong; Turner, Martin; Taussig, Michael J

    2009-12-31

    We describe a method for identification of protein-protein interactions by combining two cell-free protein technologies, namely ribosome display and protein in situ immobilisation. The method requires only PCR fragments as the starting material, the target proteins being made through cell-free protein synthesis, either associated with their encoding mRNA as ribosome complexes or immobilised on a solid surface. The use of ribosome complexes allows identification of interacting protein partners from their attached coding mRNA. To demonstrate the procedures, we have employed the lymphocyte signalling proteins Vav1 and Grb2 and confirmed the interaction between Grb2 and the N-terminal SH3 domain of Vav1. The method has promise for library screening of pairwise protein interactions, down to the analytical level of individual domain or motif mapping.

  11. Insight into the intermolecular recognition mechanism between Keap1 and IKKβ combining homology modelling, protein-protein docking, molecular dynamics simulations and virtual alanine mutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Yu Jiang

    Full Text Available Degradation of certain proteins through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is a common strategy taken by the key modulators responsible for stress responses. Kelch-like ECH-associated protein-1(Keap1, a substrate adaptor component of the Cullin3 (Cul3-based ubiquitin E3 ligase complex, mediates the ubiquitination of two key modulators, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 and IκB kinase β (IKKβ, which are involved in the redox control of gene transcription. However, compared to the Keap1-Nrf2 protein-protein interaction (PPI, the intermolecular recognition mechanism of Keap1 and IKKβ has been poorly investigated. In order to explore the binding pattern between Keap1 and IKKβ, the PPI model of Keap1 and IKKβ was investigated. The structure of human IKKβ was constructed by means of the homology modeling method and using reported crystal structure of Xenopus laevis IKKβ as the template. A protein-protein docking method was applied to develop the Keap1-IKKβ complex model. After the refinement and visual analysis of docked proteins, the chosen pose was further optimized through molecular dynamics simulations. The resulting structure was utilized to conduct the virtual alanine mutation for the exploration of hot-spots significant for the intermolecular interaction. Overall, our results provided structural insights into the PPI model of Keap1-IKKβ and suggest that the substrate specificity of Keap1 depend on the interaction with the key tyrosines, namely Tyr525, Tyr574 and Tyr334. The study presented in the current project may be useful to design molecules that selectively modulate Keap1. The selective recognition mechanism of Keap1 with IKKβ or Nrf2 will be helpful to further know the crosstalk between NF-κB and Nrf2 signaling.

  12. Design principles for cancer therapy guided by changes in complexity of protein-protein interaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzekry, Sebastian; Tuszynski, Jack A; Rietman, Edward A; Lakka Klement, Giannoula

    2015-05-28

    The ever-increasing expanse of online bioinformatics data is enabling new ways to, not only explore the visualization of these data, but also to apply novel mathematical methods to extract meaningful information for clinically relevant analysis of pathways and treatment decisions. One of the methods used for computing topological characteristics of a space at different spatial resolutions is persistent homology. This concept can also be applied to network theory, and more specifically to protein-protein interaction networks, where the number of rings in an individual cancer network represents a measure of complexity. We observed a linear correlation of R = -0.55 between persistent homology and 5-year survival of patients with a variety of cancers. This relationship was used to predict the proteins within a protein-protein interaction network with the most impact on cancer progression. By re-computing the persistent homology after computationally removing an individual node (protein) from the protein-protein interaction network, we were able to evaluate whether such an inhibition would lead to improvement in patient survival. The power of this approach lied in its ability to identify the effects of inhibition of multiple proteins and in the ability to expose whether the effect of a single inhibition may be amplified by inhibition of other proteins. More importantly, we illustrate specific examples of persistent homology calculations, which correctly predict the survival benefit observed effects in clinical trials using inhibitors of the identified molecular target. We propose that computational approaches such as persistent homology may be used in the future for selection of molecular therapies in clinic. The technique uses a mathematical algorithm to evaluate the node (protein) whose inhibition has the highest potential to reduce network complexity. The greater the drop in persistent homology, the greater reduction in network complexity, and thus a larger

  13. Modeling Human Serum Albumin Tertiary Structure to Teach Upper-Division Chemistry Students Bioinformatics and Homology Modeling Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, Dus?an; Zlatovic´, Mario

    2015-01-01

    A homology modeling laboratory experiment has been developed for an introductory molecular modeling course for upper-division undergraduate chemistry students. With this experiment, students gain practical experience in homology model preparation and assessment as well as in protein visualization using the educational version of PyMOL…

  14. Top-Down-Assisted Bottom-Up Method for Homologous Protein Sequencing: Hemoglobin from 33 Bird Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Laskay, Ünige A.; Vilcins, Inger-Marie E.; Barbour, Alan G.; Wysocki, Vicki H.

    2015-11-01

    Ticks are vectors for disease transmission because they are indiscriminant in their feeding on multiple vertebrate hosts, transmitting pathogens between their hosts. Identifying the hosts on which ticks have fed is important for disease prevention and intervention. We have previously shown that hemoglobin (Hb) remnants from a host on which a tick fed can be used to reveal the host's identity. For the present research, blood was collected from 33 bird species that are common in the U.S. as hosts for ticks but that have unknown Hb sequences. A top-down-assisted bottom-up mass spectrometry approach with a customized searching database, based on variability in known bird hemoglobin sequences, has been devised to facilitate fast and complete sequencing of hemoglobin from birds with unknown sequences. These hemoglobin sequences will be added to a hemoglobin database and used for tick host identification. The general approach has the potential to sequence any set of homologous proteins completely in a rapid manner.

  15. ProDis-ContSHC: Learning protein dissimilarity measures and hierarchical context coherently for protein-protein comparison in protein database retrieval

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2012-05-08

    Background: The need to retrieve or classify protein molecules using structure or sequence-based similarity measures underlies a wide range of biomedical applications. Traditional protein search methods rely on a pairwise dissimilarity/similarity measure for comparing a pair of proteins. This kind of pairwise measures suffer from the limitation of neglecting the distribution of other proteins and thus cannot satisfy the need for high accuracy of the retrieval systems. Recent work in the machine learning community has shown that exploiting the global structure of the database and learning the contextual dissimilarity/similarity measures can improve the retrieval performance significantly. However, most existing contextual dissimilarity/similarity learning algorithms work in an unsupervised manner, which does not utilize the information of the known class labels of proteins in the database.Results: In this paper, we propose a novel protein-protein dissimilarity learning algorithm, ProDis-ContSHC. ProDis-ContSHC regularizes an existing dissimilarity measure dij by considering the contextual information of the proteins. The context of a protein is defined by its neighboring proteins. The basic idea is, for a pair of proteins (i, j), if their context N (i) and N (j) is similar to each other, the two proteins should also have a high similarity. We implement this idea by regularizing dij by a factor learned from the context N (i) and N (j). Moreover, we divide the context to hierarchial sub-context and get the contextual dissimilarity vector for each protein pair. Using the class label information of the proteins, we select the relevant (a pair of proteins that has the same class labels) and irrelevant (with different labels) protein pairs, and train an SVM model to distinguish between their contextual dissimilarity vectors. The SVM model is further used to learn a supervised regularizing factor. Finally, with the new Supervised learned Dissimilarity measure, we update

  16. Protein structure recognition: From eigenvector analysis to structural threading method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Haibo

    In this work, we try to understand the protein folding problem using pair-wise hydrophobic interaction as the dominant interaction for the protein folding process. We found a strong correlation between amino acid sequence and the corresponding native structure of the protein. Some applications of this correlation were discussed in this dissertation include the domain partition and a new structural threading method as well as the performance of this method in the CASP5 competition. In the first part, we give a brief introduction to the protein folding problem. Some essential knowledge and progress from other research groups was discussed. This part include discussions of interactions among amino acids residues, lattice HP model, and the designablity principle. In the second part, we try to establish the correlation between amino acid sequence and the corresponding native structure of the protein. This correlation was observed in our eigenvector study of protein contact matrix. We believe the correlation is universal, thus it can be used in automatic partition of protein structures into folding domains. In the third part, we discuss a threading method based on the correlation between amino acid sequence and ominant eigenvector of the structure contact-matrix. A mathematically straightforward iteration scheme provides a self-consistent optimum global sequence-structure alignment. The computational efficiency of this method makes it possible to search whole protein structure databases for structural homology without relying on sequence similarity. The sensitivity and specificity of this method is discussed, along with a case of blind test prediction. In the appendix, we list the overall performance of this threading method in CASP5 blind test in comparison with other existing approaches.

  17. Protein Structure Recognition: From Eigenvector Analysis to Structural Threading Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Haibo [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    In this work, they try to understand the protein folding problem using pair-wise hydrophobic interaction as the dominant interaction for the protein folding process. They found a strong correlation between amino acid sequences and the corresponding native structure of the protein. Some applications of this correlation were discussed in this dissertation include the domain partition and a new structural threading method as well as the performance of this method in the CASP5 competition. In the first part, they give a brief introduction to the protein folding problem. Some essential knowledge and progress from other research groups was discussed. This part includes discussions of interactions among amino acids residues, lattice HP model, and the design ability principle. In the second part, they try to establish the correlation between amino acid sequence and the corresponding native structure of the protein. This correlation was observed in the eigenvector study of protein contact matrix. They believe the correlation is universal, thus it can be used in automatic partition of protein structures into folding domains. In the third part, they discuss a threading method based on the correlation between amino acid sequences and ominant eigenvector of the structure contact-matrix. A mathematically straightforward iteration scheme provides a self-consistent optimum global sequence-structure alignment. The computational efficiency of this method makes it possible to search whole protein structure databases for structural homology without relying on sequence similarity. The sensitivity and specificity of this method is discussed, along with a case of blind test prediction. In the appendix, they list the overall performance of this threading method in CASP5 blind test in comparison with other existing approaches.

  18. Protein Structure Recognition: From Eigenvector Analysis to Structural Threading Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haibo Cao

    2003-01-01

    In this work, they try to understand the protein folding problem using pair-wise hydrophobic interaction as the dominant interaction for the protein folding process. They found a strong correlation between amino acid sequences and the corresponding native structure of the protein. Some applications of this correlation were discussed in this dissertation include the domain partition and a new structural threading method as well as the performance of this method in the CASP5 competition. In the first part, they give a brief introduction to the protein folding problem. Some essential knowledge and progress from other research groups was discussed. This part includes discussions of interactions among amino acids residues, lattice HP model, and the design ability principle. In the second part, they try to establish the correlation between amino acid sequence and the corresponding native structure of the protein. This correlation was observed in the eigenvector study of protein contact matrix. They believe the correlation is universal, thus it can be used in automatic partition of protein structures into folding domains. In the third part, they discuss a threading method based on the correlation between amino acid sequences and ominant eigenvector of the structure contact-matrix. A mathematically straightforward iteration scheme provides a self-consistent optimum global sequence-structure alignment. The computational efficiency of this method makes it possible to search whole protein structure databases for structural homology without relying on sequence similarity. The sensitivity and specificity of this method is discussed, along with a case of blind test prediction. In the appendix, they list the overall performance of this threading method in CASP5 blind test in comparison with other existing approaches

  19. Improved scFv Anti-HIV-1 p17 Binding Affinity Guided from the Theoretical Calculation of Pairwise Decomposition Energies and Computational Alanine Scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panthip Tue-ngeun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational approaches have been used to evaluate and define important residues for protein-protein interactions, especially antigen-antibody complexes. In our previous study, pairwise decomposition of residue interaction energies of single chain Fv with HIV-1 p17 epitope variants has indicated the key specific residues in the complementary determining regions (CDRs of scFv anti-p17. In this present investigation in order to determine whether a specific side chain group of residue in CDRs plays an important role in bioactivity, computational alanine scanning has been applied. Molecular dynamics simulations were done with several complexes of original scFv anti-p17 and scFv anti-p17mutants with HIV-1 p17 epitope variants with a production run up to 10 ns. With the combination of pairwise decomposition residue interaction and alanine scanning calculations, the point mutation has been initially selected at the position MET100 to improve the residue binding affinity. The calculated docking interaction energy between a single mutation from methionine to either arginine or glycine has shown the improved binding affinity, contributed from the electrostatic interaction with the negative favorably interaction energy, compared to the wild type. Theoretical calculations agreed well with the results from the peptide ELISA results.

  20. Ectopic expression of RNF168 and 53BP1 increases mutagenic but not physiological non-homologous end joining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Dali; Callén, Elsa; Pegoraro, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) formed during S phase are preferentially repaired by homologous recombination (HR), whereas G1 DSBs, such as those occurring during immunoglobulin class switch recombination (CSR), are repaired by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). The DNA damage response proteins ...

  1. Competition between replicative and translesion polymerases during homologous recombination repair in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Kane

    Full Text Available In metazoans, the mechanism by which DNA is synthesized during homologous recombination repair of double-strand breaks is poorly understood. Specifically, the identities of the polymerase(s that carry out repair synthesis and how they are recruited to repair sites are unclear. Here, we have investigated the roles of several different polymerases during homologous recombination repair in Drosophila melanogaster. Using a gap repair assay, we found that homologous recombination is impaired in Drosophila lacking DNA polymerase zeta and, to a lesser extent, polymerase eta. In addition, the Pol32 protein, part of the polymerase delta complex, is needed for repair requiring extensive synthesis. Loss of Rev1, which interacts with multiple translesion polymerases, results in increased synthesis during gap repair. Together, our findings support a model in which translesion polymerases and the polymerase delta complex compete during homologous recombination repair. In addition, they establish Rev1 as a crucial factor that regulates the extent of repair synthesis.

  2. Amino acid sequences mediating vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 binding to integrin alpha 4: homologous DSP sequence found for JC polyoma VP1 coat protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Andrew Meyer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The JC polyoma viral coat protein VP1 was analyzed for amino acid sequences homologies to the IDSP sequence which mediates binding of VLA-4 (integrin alpha 4 to vascular cell adhesion molecule 1. Although the full sequence was not found, a DSP sequence was located near the critical arginine residue linked to infectivity of the virus and binding to sialic acid containing molecules such as integrins (3. For the JC polyoma virus, a DSP sequence was found at residues 70, 71 and 72 with homology also noted for the mouse polyoma virus and SV40 virus. Three dimensional modeling of the VP1 molecule suggests that the DSP loop has an accessible site for interaction from the external side of the assembled viral capsid pentamer.

  3. Molecular mechanism of protein assembly on DNA double-strand breaks in the non-homologous end-joining pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Ken-ichi; Morotomi-Yano, Keiko; Adachi, Noritaka; Akiyama, Hidenori

    2009-01-01

    Non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) is the major repair pathway for DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in mammalian species. Upon DSB induction, a living cell quickly activates the NHEJ pathway comprising of multiple molecular events. However, it has been difficult to analyze the initial phase of DSB responses in living cells, primarily due to technical limitations. Recent advances in real-time imaging and site-directed DSB induction using laser microbeam allow us to monitor the spatiotemporal dynamics of NHEJ factors in the immediate-early phase after DSB induction. These new approaches, together with the use of cell lines deficient in each essential NHEJ factor, provide novel mechanistic insights into DSB recognition and protein assembly on DSBs in the NHEJ pathway. In this review, we provide an overview of recent progresses in the imaging analyses of the NHEJ core factors. These studies strongly suggest that the NHEJ core factors are pre-assembled into a large complex on DSBs prior to the progression of the biochemical reactions in the NHEJ pathway. Instead of the traditional step-by-step assembly model from the static view of NHEJ, a novel model for dynamic protein assembly in the NHEJ pathway is proposed. This new model provides important mechanistic insights into the protein assembly at DSBs and the regulation of DSB repair. (author)

  4. Cloning, expression, and homology modeling of GroEL protein from Leptospira interrogans serovar autumnalis strain N2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajaseenivasan, Kalimuthusamy; Shanmughapriya, Santhanam; Velineni, Sridhar; Artiushin, Sergey C; Timoney, John F

    2011-10-01

    Leptospirosis is an infectious bacterial disease caused by Leptospira species. In this study, we cloned and sequenced the gene encoding the immunodominant protein GroEL from L. interrogans serovar Autumnalis strain N2, which was isolated from the urine of a patient during an outbreak of leptospirosis in Chennai, India. This groEL gene encodes a protein of 60 kDa with a high degree of homology (99% similarity) to those of other leptospiral serovars. Recombinant GroEL was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Immunoblot analysis indicated that the sera from confirmed leptospirosis patients showed strong reactivity with the recombinant GroEL while no reactivity was observed with the sera from seronegative control patient. In addition, the 3D structure of GroEL was constructed using chaperonin complex cpn60 from Thermus thermophilus as template and validated. The results indicated a Z-score of -8.35, which is in good agreement with the expected value for a protein. The superposition of the Ca traces of cpn60 structure and predicted structure of leptospiral GroEL indicates good agreement of secondary structure elements with an RMSD value of 1.5 Å. Further study is necessary to evaluate GroEL for serological diagnosis of leptospirosis and for its potential as a vaccine component. Copyright © 2011 Beijing Genomics Institute. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pairwise harmonics for shape analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Youyi

    2013-07-01

    This paper introduces a simple yet effective shape analysis mechanism for geometry processing. Unlike traditional shape analysis techniques which compute descriptors per surface point up to certain neighborhoods, we introduce a shape analysis framework in which the descriptors are based on pairs of surface points. Such a pairwise analysis approach leads to a new class of shape descriptors that are more global, discriminative, and can effectively capture the variations in the underlying geometry. Specifically, we introduce new shape descriptors based on the isocurves of harmonic functions whose global maximum and minimum occur at the point pair. We show that these shape descriptors can infer shape structures and consistently lead to simpler and more efficient algorithms than the state-of-the-art methods for three applications: intrinsic reflectional symmetry axis computation, matching shape extremities, and simultaneous surface segmentation and skeletonization. © 2012 IEEE.

  6. Prefiltering Model for Homology Detection Algorithms on GPU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retamosa, Germán; de Pedro, Luis; González, Ivan; Tamames, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Homology detection has evolved over the time from heavy algorithms based on dynamic programming approaches to lightweight alternatives based on different heuristic models. However, the main problem with these algorithms is that they use complex statistical models, which makes it difficult to achieve a relevant speedup and find exact matches with the original results. Thus, their acceleration is essential. The aim of this article was to prefilter a sequence database. To make this work, we have implemented a groundbreaking heuristic model based on NVIDIA's graphics processing units (GPUs) and multicore processors. Depending on the sensitivity settings, this makes it possible to quickly reduce the sequence database by factors between 50% and 95%, while rejecting no significant sequences. Furthermore, this prefiltering application can be used together with multiple homology detection algorithms as a part of a next-generation sequencing system. Extensive performance and accuracy tests have been carried out in the Spanish National Centre for Biotechnology (NCB). The results show that GPU hardware can accelerate the execution times of former homology detection applications, such as National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), Basic Local Alignment Search Tool for Proteins (BLASTP), up to a factor of 4.

  7. Homologous Recombination in Protozoan Parasites and Recombinase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A. Kelso

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Homologous recombination (HR is a DNA double-strand break (DSB repair pathway that utilizes a homologous template to fully repair the damaged DNA. HR is critical to maintain genome stability and to ensure genetic diversity during meiosis. A specialized class of enzymes known as recombinases facilitate the exchange of genetic information between sister chromatids or homologous chromosomes with the help of numerous protein accessory factors. The majority of the HR machinery is highly conserved among eukaryotes. In many protozoan parasites, HR is an essential DSB repair pathway that allows these organisms to adapt to environmental conditions and evade host immune systems through genetic recombination. Therefore, small molecule inhibitors, capable of disrupting HR in protozoan parasites, represent potential therapeutic options. A number of small molecule inhibitors were identified that disrupt the activities of the human recombinase RAD51. Recent studies have examined the effect of two of these molecules on the Entamoeba recombinases. Here, we discuss the current understandings of HR in the protozoan parasites Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Plasmodium, and Entamoeba, and we review the small molecule inhibitors known to disrupt human RAD51 activity.

  8. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 with improved proof-reading enhances homology-directed repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Inui, Tomoko; Takahashi, Gou; Hsu, Szuyin; Miyaoka, Yuichiro

    2018-05-18

    Genome editing using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) predominantly induces non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), which generates random insertions or deletions, whereas homology-directed repair (HDR), which generates precise recombination products, is useful for wider applications. However, the factors that determine the ratio of HDR to NHEJ products after CRISPR/Cas9 editing remain unclear, and methods by which the proportion of HDR products can be increased have not yet been fully established. We systematically analyzed the HDR and NHEJ products after genome editing using various modified guide RNAs (gRNAs) and Cas9 variants with an enhanced conformational checkpoint to improve the fidelity at endogenous gene loci in HEK293T cells and HeLa cells. We found that these modified gRNAs and Cas9 variants were able to enhance HDR in both single-nucleotide substitutions and a multi-kb DNA fragment insertion. Our results suggest that the original CRISPR/Cas9 system from the bacterial immune system is not necessarily the best option for the induction of HDR in genome editing and indicate that the modulation of the kinetics of conformational checkpoints of Cas9 can optimize the HDR/NHEJ ratio.

  9. Using structure to explore the sequence alignment space of remote homologs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Kuziemko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Protein structure modeling by homology requires an accurate sequence alignment between the query protein and its structural template. However, sequence alignment methods based on dynamic programming (DP are typically unable to generate accurate alignments for remote sequence homologs, thus limiting the applicability of modeling methods. A central problem is that the alignment that is "optimal" in terms of the DP score does not necessarily correspond to the alignment that produces the most accurate structural model. That is, the correct alignment based on structural superposition will generally have a lower score than the optimal alignment obtained from sequence. Variations of the DP algorithm have been developed that generate alternative alignments that are "suboptimal" in terms of the DP score, but these still encounter difficulties in detecting the correct structural alignment. We present here a new alternative sequence alignment method that relies heavily on the structure of the template. By initially aligning the query sequence to individual fragments in secondary structure elements and combining high-scoring fragments that pass basic tests for "modelability", we can generate accurate alignments within a small ensemble. Our results suggest that the set of sequences that can currently be modeled by homology can be greatly extended.

  10. Mod two homology and cohomology

    CERN Document Server

    Hausmann, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    Cohomology and homology modulo 2 helps the reader grasp more readily the basics of a major tool in algebraic topology. Compared to a more general approach to (co)homology this refreshing approach has many pedagogical advantages: It leads more quickly to the essentials of the subject, An absence of signs and orientation considerations simplifies the theory, Computations and advanced applications can be presented at an earlier stage, Simple geometrical interpretations of (co)chains. Mod 2 (co)homology was developed in the first quarter of the twentieth century as an alternative to integral homology, before both became particular cases of (co)homology with arbitrary coefficients. The first chapters of this book may serve as a basis for a graduate-level introductory course to (co)homology. Simplicial and singular mod 2 (co)homology are introduced, with their products and Steenrod squares, as well as equivariant cohomology. Classical applications include Brouwer's fixed point theorem, Poincaré duality, Borsuk-Ula...

  11. The Three-Dimensional Solution Structure of the Src Homology Domain-2 of the Growth Factor Receptor-Bound Protein-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senior, Mary M.; Frederick, Anne F.; Black, Stuart; Murgolo, Nicholas J.; Perkins, Louise M.; Wilson, Oswald; Snow, Mark E.; Wang Yusen

    1998-01-01

    A set of high-resolution three-dimensional solution structures of the Src homology region-2 (SH2) domain of the growth factor receptor-bound protein-2 was determined using heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy. The NMR data used in this study were collected on a stable monomeric protein solution that was free of protein aggregates and proteolysis. The solution structure was determined based upon a total of 1439 constraints, which included 1326 nuclear Overhauser effect distance constraints, 70 hydrogen bond constraints, and 43 dihedral angle constraints. Distance geometry-simulated annealing calculations followed by energy minimization yielded a family of 18 structures that converged to a root-mean-square deviation of 1.09 A for all backbone atoms and 0.40 A for the backbone atoms of the central β-sheet. The core structure of the SH2 domain contains an antiparallel β-sheet flanked by two parallel α-helices displaying an overall architecture that is similar to other known SH2 domain structures. This family of NMR structures is compared to the X-ray structure and to another family of NMR solution structures determined under different solution conditions

  12. New acute transforming feline retovirus with fms homology specifies a C-terminally truncated version of the c-fms protein that is different from SM-feline sarcoma virus v-fms protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besmer, P.; Lader, E.; George, P.C.; Bergold, P.J.; Qui, F.; Zuckerman, E.E.; Hardy, W.D.

    1986-01-01

    The HZ5-feline sarcoma virus (FeSV) is a new acute transforming feline retrovirus which was isolated from a multicentric fibrosarcoma of a domestic cat. The HZ5-FeSV transforms fibroblasts in vitro and is replication defective. A biologically active integrated HZ5-FeSV provirus was molecularly cloned from cellular DNA of HZ5-FeSV-infected FRE-3A rat cells. The HZ5-FeSV has oncogene homology with the fms sequences of the SM-FeSV. The genome organization of the 8.6-kilobase HZ5-FeSV provirus is 5' Δgag-fms-Δpol-Δenv 3'. The HZ5- and SM-FeSVs display indistinguishable in vitro transformation characteristics, and the structures of the gag-fms transforming genes in the two viruses are very similar. In the HZ5-FeSV and the SM-FeSV, identical c-fms and feline leukemia virus p10 sequences form the 5' gag-fms junction. With regard to v-fms the two viruses are homologous up to 11 amino acids before the C terminus of the SM-FeSV v-fms protein. In HZ5-FeSV a segment of 362 nucleotides then follows before the 3' recombination site with feline leukemia virus pol. The new 3' v-fms sequence encodes 27 amino acids before reaching a TGA termination signal. The relationship of this sequence with the recently characterized human c-fms sequence has been examined. The 3' HZ5-FeSV v-fms sequence is homologous with 3' c-fms sequences. A frameshift mutation (11-base-pair deletion) was found in the C-terminal fms coding sequence of the HZ5-FeSV. As a result, the HZ5-FeSV v-fms protein is predicted to be a C-terminally truncated version of c-fms. This frameshift mutation may determine the oncogenic properties of v-fms in the HZ5-FeSV

  13. New acute transforming feline retovirus with fms homology specifies a C-terminally truncated version of the c-fms protein that is different from SM-feline sarcoma virus v-fms protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmer, P.; Lader, E.; George, P.C.; Bergold, P.J.; Qui, F.; Zuckerman, E.E.; Hardy, W.D.

    1986-10-01

    The HZ5-feline sarcoma virus (FeSV) is a new acute transforming feline retrovirus which was isolated from a multicentric fibrosarcoma of a domestic cat. The HZ5-FeSV transforms fibroblasts in vitro and is replication defective. A biologically active integrated HZ5-FeSV provirus was molecularly cloned from cellular DNA of HZ5-FeSV-infected FRE-3A rat cells. The HZ5-FeSV has oncogene homology with the fms sequences of the SM-FeSV. The genome organization of the 8.6-kilobase HZ5-FeSV provirus is 5' ..delta..gag-fms-..delta..pol-..delta..env 3'. The HZ5- and SM-FeSVs display indistinguishable in vitro transformation characteristics, and the structures of the gag-fms transforming genes in the two viruses are very similar. In the HZ5-FeSV and the SM-FeSV, identical c-fms and feline leukemia virus p10 sequences form the 5' gag-fms junction. With regard to v-fms the two viruses are homologous up to 11 amino acids before the C terminus of the SM-FeSV v-fms protein. In HZ5-FeSV a segment of 362 nucleotides then follows before the 3' recombination site with feline leukemia virus pol. The new 3' v-fms sequence encodes 27 amino acids before reaching a TGA termination signal. The relationship of this sequence with the recently characterized human c-fms sequence has been examined. The 3' HZ5-FeSV v-fms sequence is homologous with 3' c-fms sequences. A frameshift mutation (11-base-pair deletion) was found in the C-terminal fms coding sequence of the HZ5-FeSV. As a result, the HZ5-FeSV v-fms protein is predicted to be a C-terminally truncated version of c-fms. This frameshift mutation may determine the oncogenic properties of v-fms in the HZ5-FeSV.

  14. A computational approach to discovering the functions of bacterial phytochromes by analysis of homolog distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamparter Tilman

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytochromes are photoreceptors, discovered in plants, that control a wide variety of developmental processes. They have also been found in bacteria and fungi, but for many species their biological role remains obscure. This work concentrates on the phytochrome system of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a non-photosynthetic soil bacterium with two phytochromes. To identify proteins that might share common functions with phytochromes, a co-distribution analysis was performed on the basis of protein sequences from 138 bacteria. Results A database of protein sequences from 138 bacteria was generated. Each sequence was BLASTed against the entire database. The homolog distribution of each query protein was then compared with the homolog distribution of every other protein (target protein of the same species, and the target proteins were sorted according to their probability of co-distribution under random conditions. As query proteins, phytochromes from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Deinococcus radiodurans and Synechocystis PCC 6803 were chosen along with several phytochrome-related proteins from A. tumefaciens. The Synechocystis photosynthesis protein D1 was selected as a control. In the D1 analyses, the ratio between photosynthesis-related proteins and those not related to photosynthesis among the top 150 in the co-distribution tables was > 3:1, showing that the method is appropriate for finding partner proteins with common functions. The co-distribution of phytochromes with other histidine kinases was remarkably high, although most co-distributed histidine kinases were not direct BLAST homologs of the query protein. This finding implies that phytochromes and other histidine kinases share common functions as parts of signalling networks. All phytochromes tested, with one exception, also revealed a remarkably high co-distribution with glutamate synthase and methionine synthase. This result implies a general role of

  15. echinus, required for interommatidial cell sorting and cell death in the Drosophila pupal retina, encodes a protein with homology to ubiquitin-specific proteases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorski Sharon M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Programmed cell death is used to remove excess cells between ommatidia in the Drosophila pupal retina. This death is required to establish the crystalline, hexagonal packing of ommatidia that characterizes the adult fly eye. In previously described echinus mutants, interommatidial cell sorting, which precedes cell death, occurred relatively normally. Interommatidial cell death was partially suppressed, resulting in adult eyes that contained excess pigment cells, and in which ommatidia were mildly disordered. These results have suggested that echinus functions in the pupal retina primarily to promote interommatidial cell death. Results We generated a number of new echinus alleles, some likely null mutants. Analysis of these alleles provides evidence that echinus has roles in cell sorting as well as cell death. echinus encodes a protein with homology to ubiquitin-specific proteases. These proteins cleave ubiquitin-conjugated proteins at the ubiquitin C-terminus. The echinus locus encodes multiple splice forms, including two proteins that lack residues thought to be critical for deubiquitination activity. Surprisingly, ubiquitous expression in the eye of versions of Echinus that lack residues critical for ubiquitin specific protease activity, as well as a version predicted to be functional, rescue the echinus loss-of-function phenotype. Finally, genetic interactions were not detected between echinus loss and gain-of-function and a number of known apoptotic regulators. These include Notch, EGFR, the caspases Dronc, Drice, Dcp-1, Dream, the caspase activators, Rpr, Hid, and Grim, the caspase inhibitor DIAP1, and Lozenge or Klumpfuss. Conclusion The echinus locus encodes multiple splice forms of a protein with homology to ubiquitin-specific proteases, but protease activity is unlikely to be required for echinus function, at least when echinus is overexpressed. Characterization of likely echinus null alleles and genetic interactions

  16. Construction of Lactococcus lactis expressing secreted and anchored Eimeria tenella 3-1E protein and comparison of protective immunity against homologous challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chunli; Zhang, Lili; Gao, Mingyang; Ma, Dexing

    2017-07-01

    Two novel plasmids pTX8048-SP-Δ3-1E and pTX8048-SP-NAΔ3-1E-CWA were constructed. The plasmids were respectively electrotransformed into L. lactis NZ9000 to generate strain of L. lactis/pTX8048-SP-Δ3-1E in which 3-1E protein was expressed in secretion, and L. lactis/pTX8048-SP-NAΔ3-1E-CWA on which 3-1E protein was covalently anchored to the surface of bacteria cells. The expression of target proteins were examined by Western blot. The live lactococci expressing secreted 3-1E protein, anchored 3-1E protein, and cytoplasmic 3-1E protein was administered orally to chickens respectively, and the protective immunity and efficacy were compared by animal experiment. The results showed oral immunization to chickens with recombinant lactococci expressing anchored 3-1E protein elicited high 3-1E-specific serum IgG, increased high proportion of CD4 + and CD8α + cells in spleen, alleviated average lesion score in cecum, decreased the oocyst output per chicken compared to lactococci expressing cytoplasmic or secreted 3-1E protein. Taken together, these findings indicated the surface anchored Eimeria protein displayed by L. lacits can induce protective immunity and partial protection against homologous infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Scalable Bayesian nonparametric measures for exploring pairwise dependence via Dirichlet Process Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, Sarah; Holmes, Chris C; Nieto-Barajas, Luis E

    2016-11-16

    In this article we propose novel Bayesian nonparametric methods using Dirichlet Process Mixture (DPM) models for detecting pairwise dependence between random variables while accounting for uncertainty in the form of the underlying distributions. A key criteria is that the procedures should scale to large data sets. In this regard we find that the formal calculation of the Bayes factor for a dependent-vs.-independent DPM joint probability measure is not feasible computationally. To address this we present Bayesian diagnostic measures for characterising evidence against a "null model" of pairwise independence. In simulation studies, as well as for a real data analysis, we show that our approach provides a useful tool for the exploratory nonparametric Bayesian analysis of large multivariate data sets.

  18. A gradient approximation for calculating Debye temperatures from pairwise interatomic potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.P.

    1975-09-01

    A simple gradient approximation is given for calculating the effective Debye temperature of a cubic crystal from central pairwise interatomic potentials. For examples of the Morse potential applied to cubic metals the results are in generally good agreement with experiment. (author)

  19. AHM1, a Novel Type of Nuclear Matrix–Localized, MAR Binding Protein with a Single AT Hook and a J Domain–Homologous Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisawa, Gaku; Han-yama, Atsushi; Moda, Ichiro; Tamai, Atsushi; Iwabuchi, Masaki; Meshi, Tetsuo

    2000-01-01

    Interactions between the nuclear matrix and special regions of chromosomal DNA called matrix attachment regions (MARs) have been implicated in various nuclear functions. We have identified a novel protein from wheat, AT hook–containing MAR binding protein1 (AHM1), that binds preferentially to MARs. A multidomain protein, AHM1 has the special combination of a J domain–homologous region and a Zn finger–like motif (a J-Z array) and an AT hook. For MAR binding, the AT hook at the C terminus was essential, and an internal portion containing the Zn finger–like motif was additionally required in vivo. AHM1 was found in the nuclear matrix fraction and was localized in the nucleoplasm. AHM1 fused to green fluorescent protein had a speckled distribution pattern inside the nucleus. AHM1 is most likely a nuclear matrix component that functions between intranuclear framework and MARs. J-Z arrays can be found in a group of (hypothetical) proteins in plants, which may share some functions, presumably to recruit specific Hsp70 partners as co-chaperones. PMID:11041885

  20. An Approach for Zika Virus Inhibition Using Homology Structure of the Envelope Protein

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fernando, S.; Fernando, T.; Štefánik, M.; Eyer, Luděk; Růžek, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 12 (2016), s. 801-806 ISSN 1073-6085 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Zika virus * homology model * druggability * drug discovery Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.634, year: 2016

  1. APOLLO: a quality assessment service for single and multiple protein models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Eickholt, Jesse; Cheng, Jianlin

    2011-06-15

    We built a web server named APOLLO, which can evaluate the absolute global and local qualities of a single protein model using machine learning methods or the global and local qualities of a pool of models using a pair-wise comparison approach. Based on our evaluations on 107 CASP9 (Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction) targets, the predicted quality scores generated from our machine learning and pair-wise methods have an average per-target correlation of 0.671 and 0.917, respectively, with the true model quality scores. Based on our test on 92 CASP9 targets, our predicted absolute local qualities have an average difference of 2.60 Å with the actual distances to native structure. http://sysbio.rnet.missouri.edu/apollo/. Single and pair-wise global quality assessment software is also available at the site.

  2. A snapshot of the physical and functional wiring of the Eps15 homology domain network in the nematode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsushima, Hanako; Malabarba, Maria Grazia; Confalonieri, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Protein interaction modules coordinate the connections within and the activity of intracellular signaling networks. The Eps15 Homology (EH) module, a protein-protein interaction domain that is a key feature of the EH-network, was originally identified in a few proteins involved in endocytosis and...

  3. Bistability, non-ergodicity, and inhibition in pairwise maximum-entropy models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Vahid; Porta Mana, PierGianLuca; Grün, Sonja; Helias, Moritz

    2017-10-01

    Pairwise maximum-entropy models have been used in neuroscience to predict the activity of neuronal populations, given only the time-averaged correlations of the neuron activities. This paper provides evidence that the pairwise model, applied to experimental recordings, would produce a bimodal distribution for the population-averaged activity, and for some population sizes the second mode would peak at high activities, that experimentally would be equivalent to 90% of the neuron population active within time-windows of few milliseconds. Several problems are connected with this bimodality: 1. The presence of the high-activity mode is unrealistic in view of observed neuronal activity and on neurobiological grounds. 2. Boltzmann learning becomes non-ergodic, hence the pairwise maximum-entropy distribution cannot be found: in fact, Boltzmann learning would produce an incorrect distribution; similarly, common variants of mean-field approximations also produce an incorrect distribution. 3. The Glauber dynamics associated with the model is unrealistically bistable and cannot be used to generate realistic surrogate data. This bimodality problem is first demonstrated for an experimental dataset from 159 neurons in the motor cortex of macaque monkey. Evidence is then provided that this problem affects typical neural recordings of population sizes of a couple of hundreds or more neurons. The cause of the bimodality problem is identified as the inability of standard maximum-entropy distributions with a uniform reference measure to model neuronal inhibition. To eliminate this problem a modified maximum-entropy model is presented, which reflects a basic effect of inhibition in the form of a simple but non-uniform reference measure. This model does not lead to unrealistic bimodalities, can be found with Boltzmann learning, and has an associated Glauber dynamics which incorporates a minimal asymmetric inhibition.

  4. Extension of Pairwise Broadcast Clock Synchronization for Multicluster Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce W. Suter

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Time synchronization is crucial for wireless sensor networks (WSNs in performing a number of fundamental operations such as data coordination, power management, security, and localization. The Pairwise Broadcast Synchronization (PBS protocol was recently proposed to minimize the number of timing messages required for global network synchronization, which enables the design of highly energy-efficient WSNs. However, PBS requires all nodes in the network to lie within the communication ranges of two leader nodes, a condition which might not be available in some applications. This paper proposes an extension of PBS to the more general class of sensor networks. Based on the hierarchical structure of the network, an energy-efficient pair selection algorithm is proposed to select the best pairwise synchronization sequence to reduce the overall energy consumption. It is shown that in a multicluster networking environment, PBS requires a far less number of timing messages than other well-known synchronization protocols and incurs no loss in synchronization accuracy. Moreover, the proposed scheme presents significant energy savings for densely deployed WSNs.

  5. A sensitive short read homology search tool for paired-end read sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techa-Angkoon, Prapaporn; Sun, Yanni; Lei, Jikai

    2017-10-16

    Homology search is still a significant step in functional analysis for genomic data. Profile Hidden Markov Model-based homology search has been widely used in protein domain analysis in many different species. In particular, with the fast accumulation of transcriptomic data of non-model species and metagenomic data, profile homology search is widely adopted in integrated pipelines for functional analysis. While the state-of-the-art tool HMMER has achieved high sensitivity and accuracy in domain annotation, the sensitivity of HMMER on short reads declines rapidly. The low sensitivity on short read homology search can lead to inaccurate domain composition and abundance computation. Our experimental results showed that half of the reads were missed by HMMER for a RNA-Seq dataset. Thus, there is a need for better methods to improve the homology search performance for short reads. We introduce a profile homology search tool named Short-Pair that is designed for short paired-end reads. By using an approximate Bayesian approach employing distribution of fragment lengths and alignment scores, Short-Pair can retrieve the missing end and determine true domains. In particular, Short-Pair increases the accuracy in aligning short reads that are part of remote homologs. We applied Short-Pair to a RNA-Seq dataset and a metagenomic dataset and quantified its sensitivity and accuracy on homology search. The experimental results show that Short-Pair can achieve better overall performance than the state-of-the-art methodology of profile homology search. Short-Pair is best used for next-generation sequencing (NGS) data that lack reference genomes. It provides a complementary paired-end read homology search tool to HMMER. The source code is freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/short-pair/ .

  6. Functional Coverage of the Human Genome by Existing Structures, Structural Genomics Targets, and Homology Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The bias in protein structure and function space resulting from experimental limitations and targeting of particular functional classes of proteins by structural biologists has long been recognized, but never continuously quantified. Using the Enzyme Commission and the Gene Ontology classifications as a reference frame, and integrating structure data from the Protein Data Bank (PDB, target sequences from the structural genomics projects, structure homology derived from the SUPERFAMILY database, and genome annotations from Ensembl and NCBI, we provide a quantified view, both at the domain and whole-protein levels, of the current and projected coverage of protein structure and function space relative to the human genome. Protein structures currently provide at least one domain that covers 37% of the functional classes identified in the genome; whole structure coverage exists for 25% of the genome. If all the structural genomics targets were solved (twice the current number of structures in the PDB, it is estimated that structures of one domain would cover 69% of the functional classes identified and complete structure coverage would be 44%. Homology models from existing experimental structures extend the 37% coverage to 56% of the genome as single domains and 25% to 31% for complete structures. Coverage from homology models is not evenly distributed by protein family, reflecting differing degrees of sequence and structure divergence within families. While these data provide coverage, conversely, they also systematically highlight functional classes of proteins for which structures should be determined. Current key functional families without structure representation are highlighted here; updated information on the "most wanted list" that should be solved is available on a weekly basis from http://function.rcsb.org:8080/pdb/function_distribution/index.html.

  7. A Relative-Localization Algorithm Using Incomplete Pairwise Distance Measurements for Underwater Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kae Y. Foo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The task of localizing underwater assets involves the relative localization of each unit using only pairwise distance measurements, usually obtained from time-of-arrival or time-delay-of-arrival measurements. In the fluctuating underwater environment, a complete set of pair-wise distance measurements can often be difficult to acquire, thus hindering a straightforward closed-form solution in deriving the assets' relative coordinates. An iterative multidimensional scaling approach is presented based upon a weighted-majorization algorithm that tolerates missing or inaccurate distance measurements. Substantial modifications are proposed to optimize the algorithm, while the effects of refractive propagation paths are considered. A parametric study of the algorithm based upon simulation results is shown. An acoustic field-trial was then carried out, presenting field measurements to highlight the practical implementation of this algorithm.

  8. Role of teh Rad52 Amino-terminal DNA Binding Activity in DNA Strand Capture in Homologous Recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Idina; Hallwyl, Swee Chuang Lim; Seong, Changhyun

    2009-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad52 protein promotes homologous recombination by nucleating the Rad51 recombinase onto replication protein A-coated single-stranded DNA strands and also by directly annealing such strands. We show that the purified rad52-R70A mutant protein, with a compromised amino-ter...

  9. Prokaryotic homologs of Argonaute proteins are predicted to function as key components of a novel system of defense against mobile genetic elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Oost John

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In eukaryotes, RNA interference (RNAi is a major mechanism of defense against viruses and transposable elements as well of regulating translation of endogenous mRNAs. The RNAi systems recognize the target RNA molecules via small guide RNAs that are completely or partially complementary to a region of the target. Key components of the RNAi systems are proteins of the Argonaute-PIWI family some of which function as slicers, the nucleases that cleave the target RNA that is base-paired to a guide RNA. Numerous prokaryotes possess the CRISPR-associated system (CASS of defense against phages and plasmids that is, in part, mechanistically analogous but not homologous to eukaryotic RNAi systems. Many prokaryotes also encode homologs of Argonaute-PIWI proteins but their functions remain unknown. Results We present a detailed analysis of Argonaute-PIWI protein sequences and the genomic neighborhoods of the respective genes in prokaryotes. Whereas eukaryotic Ago/PIWI proteins always contain PAZ (oligonucleotide binding and PIWI (active or inactivated nuclease domains, the prokaryotic Argonaute homologs (pAgos fall into two major groups in which the PAZ domain is either present or absent. The monophyly of each group is supported by a phylogenetic analysis of the conserved PIWI-domains. Almost all pAgos that lack a PAZ domain appear to be inactivated, and the respective genes are associated with a variety of predicted nucleases in putative operons. An additional, uncharacterized domain that is fused to various nucleases appears to be a unique signature of operons encoding the short (lacking PAZ pAgo form. By contrast, almost all PAZ-domain containing pAgos are predicted to be active nucleases. Some proteins of this group (e.g., that from Aquifex aeolicus have been experimentally shown to possess nuclease activity, and are not typically associated with genes for other (putative nucleases. Given these observations, the apparent extensive

  10. WEBnm@ v2.0: Web server and services for comparing protein flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Sandhya P; Fuglebakk, Edvin; Hollup, Siv M; Skjærven, Lars; Cragnolini, Tristan; Grindhaug, Svenn H; Tekle, Kidane M; Reuter, Nathalie

    2014-12-30

    Normal mode analysis (NMA) using elastic network models is a reliable and cost-effective computational method to characterise protein flexibility and by extension, their dynamics. Further insight into the dynamics-function relationship can be gained by comparing protein motions between protein homologs and functional classifications. This can be achieved by comparing normal modes obtained from sets of evolutionary related proteins. We have developed an automated tool for comparative NMA of a set of pre-aligned protein structures. The user can submit a sequence alignment in the FASTA format and the corresponding coordinate files in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) format. The computed normalised squared atomic fluctuations and atomic deformation energies of the submitted structures can be easily compared on graphs provided by the web user interface. The web server provides pairwise comparison of the dynamics of all proteins included in the submitted set using two measures: the Root Mean Squared Inner Product and the Bhattacharyya Coefficient. The Comparative Analysis has been implemented on our web server for NMA, WEBnm@, which also provides recently upgraded functionality for NMA of single protein structures. This includes new visualisations of protein motion, visualisation of inter-residue correlations and the analysis of conformational change using the overlap analysis. In addition, programmatic access to WEBnm@ is now available through a SOAP-based web service. Webnm@ is available at http://apps.cbu.uib.no/webnma . WEBnm@ v2.0 is an online tool offering unique capability for comparative NMA on multiple protein structures. Along with a convenient web interface, powerful computing resources, and several methods for mode analyses, WEBnm@ facilitates the assessment of protein flexibility within protein families and superfamilies. These analyses can give a good view of how the structures move and how the flexibility is conserved over the different structures.

  11. MollDE: a homology modeling framework you can click with.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canutescu, Adrian A; Dunbrack, Roland L

    2005-06-15

    Molecular Integrated Development Environment (MolIDE) is an integrated application designed to provide homology modeling tools and protocols under a uniform, user-friendly graphical interface. Its main purpose is to combine the most frequent modeling steps in a semi-automatic, interactive way, guiding the user from the target protein sequence to the final three-dimensional protein structure. The typical basic homology modeling process is composed of building sequence profiles of the target sequence family, secondary structure prediction, sequence alignment with PDB structures, assisted alignment editing, side-chain prediction and loop building. All of these steps are available through a graphical user interface. MolIDE's user-friendly and streamlined interactive modeling protocol allows the user to focus on the important modeling questions, hiding from the user the raw data generation and conversion steps. MolIDE was designed from the ground up as an open-source, cross-platform, extensible framework. This allows developers to integrate additional third-party programs to MolIDE. http://dunbrack.fccc.edu/molide/molide.php rl_dunbrack@fccc.edu.

  12. Evolutionary origin and divergence of GnIH and its homologous peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Osugi, Tomohiro

    2009-03-01

    Probing undiscovered hypothalamic neuropeptides that play important roles in the regulation of pituitary function in vertebrates is essential for the progress of neuroendocrinology. In 2000, we discovered a novel hypothalamic dodecapeptide inhibiting gonadotropin release in quail and termed it gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH). GnIH acts on the pituitary and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons in the hypothalamus via a novel G protein-coupled receptor for GnIH to inhibit gonadal development and maintenance by decreasing gonadotropin release and synthesis. Similar findings were observed in other avian species. Thus, GnIH is a key factor controlling avian reproduction. To give our findings a broader perspective, we also found GnIH homologous peptides in the hypothalamus of other vertebrates, such as mammals, reptiles, amphibians and teleosts. GnIH and its homologs share a common C-terminal LPXRFamide (X=L or Q) motif. A mammalian GnIH homolog also inhibited gonadotropin release in mammals like the GnIH action in birds. In contrast to higher vertebrates, hypophysiotropic activities of GnIH homologs were different in lower vertebrates. To clarify the evolutionary origin of GnIH and its homologs, we further sought to identify novel LPXRFamide peptides from the brain of sea lamprey and hagfish, two extant groups of the oldest lineage of vertebrates, Agnatha. In these agnathans, LPXRFamide peptide and its cDNA were identified only from the brain of hagfish. Based on these findings over the past decade, this paper summarizes the evolutionary origin and divergence of GnIH and its homologous peptides.

  13. Analysis of the expression level and methylation of tumor protein p53, phosphatase and tensin homolog and mutS homolog 2 in N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced thymic lymphoma in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Xueyun; Li, Zhenkun; Zhang, Shuangyue; Li, Changlong; Guo, Meng; Lu, Jing; Lv, Jianyi; Du, Xiaoyan; Chen, Zhenwen

    2017-10-01

    Tumorigenesis is often caused by somatic mutation or epigenetic changes in genes that regulate aspects of cell death, proliferation and survival. Although the functions of multiple tumor suppressor genes have been well studied in isolation, how these genes cooperate during the progression of a single tumor remains unclear in numerous cases. The present study used N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), one of the most potent mutagenic nitrosourea compounds, to induce thymic lymphoma in C57BL/6J mice. Subsequently, the protein expression levels of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), transformation protein 53 and mutS homolog 2 (MSH2) were evaluated concomitantly in the thymus, liver, kidney and spleen of MNU-treated mice by western blotting. To determine whether changes in expression level were due to aberrant epigenetic regulation, the present study further examined the methylation status of each gene by MassARRAY analysis. During the tumorigenesis process of an MNU-induced single thymic lymphoma, the expression level of PTEN was revealed to be reduced in thymic lymphoma samples but not in normal or non-tumor thymus tissue samples. Furthermore, a marked reduction of P53 expression levels were demonstrated in thymic lymphomas and spleens with a metastatic tumor. Conversely, MSH2 upregulation was identified only in liver, kidney, and spleen samples that were infiltrated by thymic lymphoma cells. Furthermore, the present study revealed that a number of 5'-C-phosphate-G-3' sites located in the promoter of aberrantly expressed genes had significantly altered methylation statuses. These results improve the understanding of the course of mutagen-induced cancer, and highlight that epigenetic regulation may serve an important function in cancer.

  14. Regulation of Homologous Recombination by SUMOylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinela da Silva, Sonia Cristina

    factors such as the homologous recombination (HR) machinery. HR constitutes the main DSB repair pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and despite being largely considered an error-free process and essential for genome stability, uncontrolled recombination can lead to loss of heterozygosity, translocations......, deletions, and genome rearrangements that can lead to cell death or cancer in humans. The post-translational modification by SUMO (small ubiquitinlike modifier) has proven to be an important regulator of HR and genome integrity, but the molecular mechanisms responsible for these roles are still unclear....... In this study I present new insights for the role of SUMOylation in regulating HR by dissecting the role of SUMO in the interaction between the central HR-mediator protein Rad52 and its paralogue Rad59 and the outcome of recombination. This data provides evidence for the importance of SUMO in promoting protein...

  15. The endless tale of non-homologous end-joining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weterings, Eric; Chen, David J

    2008-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are introduced in cells by ionizing radiation and reactive oxygen species. In addition, they are commonly generated during V(D)J recombination, an essential aspect of the developing immune system. Failure to effectively repair these DSBs can result in chromosome breakage, cell death, onset of cancer, and defects in the immune system of higher vertebrates. Fortunately, all mammalian cells possess two enzymatic pathways that mediate the repair of DSBs: homologous recombination and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). The NHEJ process utilizes enzymes that capture both ends of the broken DNA molecule, bring them together in a synaptic DNA-protein complex, and finally repair the DNA break. In this review, all the known enzymes that play a role in the NHEJ process are discussed and a working model for the co-operation of these enzymes during DSB repair is presented.

  16. HAL-2 promotes homologous pairing during Caenorhabditis elegans meiosis by antagonizing inhibitory effects of synaptonemal complex precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weibin; Miley, Natasha; Zastrow, Michael S; MacQueen, Amy J; Sato, Aya; Nabeshima, Kentaro; Martinez-Perez, Enrique; Mlynarczyk-Evans, Susanna; Carlton, Peter M; Villeneuve, Anne M

    2012-01-01

    During meiosis, chromosomes align with their homologous pairing partners and stabilize this alignment through assembly of the synaptonemal complex (SC). Since the SC assembles cooperatively yet is indifferent to homology, pairing and SC assembly must be tightly coordinated. We identify HAL-2 as a key mediator in this coordination, showing that HAL-2 promotes pairing largely by preventing detrimental effects of SC precursors (SYP proteins). hal-2 mutants fail to establish pairing and lack multiple markers of chromosome movement mediated by pairing centers (PCs), chromosome sites that link chromosomes to cytoplasmic microtubules through nuclear envelope-spanning complexes. Moreover, SYP proteins load inappropriately along individual unpaired chromosomes in hal-2 mutants, and markers of PC-dependent movement and function are restored in hal-2; syp double mutants. These and other data indicate that SYP proteins can impede pairing and that HAL-2 promotes pairing predominantly but not exclusively by counteracting this inhibition, thereby enabling activation and regulation of PC function. HAL-2 concentrates in the germ cell nucleoplasm and colocalizes with SYP proteins in nuclear aggregates when SC assembly is prevented. We propose that HAL-2 functions to shepherd SYP proteins prior to licensing of SC assembly, preventing untimely interactions between SC precursors and chromosomes and allowing sufficient accumulation of precursors for rapid cooperative assembly upon homology verification.

  17. The Fanconi anemia group A protein modulates homologous repair of DNA double-strand breaks in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun-Gui; Herceg, Zdenko; Nakanishi, Koji; Demuth, Ilja; Piccoli, Colette; Michelon, Jocelyne; Hildebrand, Gabriele; Jasin, Maria; Digweed, Martin; Wang, Zhao-Qi

    2005-10-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) cells exhibit hypersensitivity to DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs) and high levels of chromosome instability. FA gene products have been shown to functionally or physically interact with BRCA1, RAD51 and the MRE11/RAD50/NBS1 complex, suggesting that the FA complex may be involved in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Here, we have investigated specifically the function of the FA group A protein (FANCA) in the repair of DSBs in mammalian cells. We show that the targeted deletion of Fanca exons 37-39 generates a null for Fanca in mice and abolishes ubiquitination of Fancd2, the downstream effector of the FA complex. Cells lacking Fanca exhibit increased chromosomal aberrations and attenuated accumulation of Brca1 and Rad51 foci in response to DNA damage. The absence of Fanca greatly reduces gene-targeting efficiency in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and compromises the survival of fibroblast cells in response to ICL agent treatment. Fanca-null cells exhibit compromised homology-directed repair (HDR) of DSBs, particularly affecting the single-strand annealing pathway. These data identify the Fanca protein as an integral component in the early step of HDR of DSBs and thereby minimizing the genomic instability.

  18. Productive Homologous and Non-homologous Recombination of Hepatitis C Virus in Cell Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Ping; Mikkelsen, Lotte S.; Gottwein, Judith M.; Bukh, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Genetic recombination is an important mechanism for increasing diversity of RNA viruses, and constitutes a viral escape mechanism to host immune responses and to treatment with antiviral compounds. Although rare, epidemiologically important hepatitis C virus (HCV) recombinants have been reported. In addition, recombination is an important regulatory mechanism of cytopathogenicity for the related pestiviruses. Here we describe recombination of HCV RNA in cell culture leading to production of infectious virus. Initially, hepatoma cells were co-transfected with a replicating JFH1ΔE1E2 genome (genotype 2a) lacking functional envelope genes and strain J6 (2a), which has functional envelope genes but does not replicate in culture. After an initial decrease in the number of HCV positive cells, infection spread after 13–36 days. Sequencing of recovered viruses revealed non-homologous recombinants with J6 sequence from the 5′ end to the NS2–NS3 region followed by JFH1 sequence from Core to the 3′ end. These recombinants carried duplicated sequence of up to 2400 nucleotides. HCV replication was not required for recombination, as recombinants were observed in most experiments even when two replication incompetent genomes were co-transfected. Reverse genetic studies verified the viability of representative recombinants. After serial passage, subsequent recombination events reducing or eliminating the duplicated region were observed for some but not all recombinants. Furthermore, we found that inter-genotypic recombination could occur, but at a lower frequency than intra-genotypic recombination. Productive recombination of attenuated HCV genomes depended on expression of all HCV proteins and tolerated duplicated sequence. In general, no strong site specificity was observed. Non-homologous recombination was observed in most cases, while few homologous events were identified. A better understanding of HCV recombination could help identification of natural recombinants

  19. The N-terminal sequence of ribosomal protein L10 from the archaebacterium Halobacterium marismortui and its relationship to eubacterial protein L6 and other ribosomal proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijk, J; van den Broek, R; Nasiulas, G; Beck, A; Reinhardt, R; Wittmann-Liebold, B

    1987-08-01

    The amino-terminal sequence of ribosomal protein L10 from Halobacterium marismortui has been determined up to residue 54, using both a liquid- and a gas-phase sequenator. The two sequences are in good agreement. The protein is clearly homologous to protein HcuL10 from the related strain Halobacterium cutirubrum. Furthermore, a weaker but distinct homology to ribosomal protein L6 from Escherichia coli and Bacillus stearothermophilus can be detected. In addition to 7 identical amino acids in the first 36 residues in all four sequences a number of conservative replacements occurs, of mainly hydrophobic amino acids. In this common region the pattern of conserved amino acids suggests the presence of a beta-alpha fold as it occurs in ribosomal proteins L12 and L30. Furthermore, several potential cases of homology to other ribosomal components of the three ur-kingdoms have been found.

  20. Profiling cellular protein complexes by proximity ligation with dual tag microarray readout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Maria; Nong, Rachel Yuan; Ericsson, Olle; Pardali, Katerina; Landegren, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    Patterns of protein interactions provide important insights in basic biology, and their analysis plays an increasing role in drug development and diagnostics of disease. We have established a scalable technique to compare two biological samples for the levels of all pairwise interactions among a set of targeted protein molecules. The technique is a combination of the proximity ligation assay with readout via dual tag microarrays. In the proximity ligation assay protein identities are encoded as DNA sequences by attaching DNA oligonucleotides to antibodies directed against the proteins of interest. Upon binding by pairs of antibodies to proteins present in the same molecular complexes, ligation reactions give rise to reporter DNA molecules that contain the combined sequence information from the two DNA strands. The ligation reactions also serve to incorporate a sample barcode in the reporter molecules to allow for direct comparison between pairs of samples. The samples are evaluated using a dual tag microarray where information is decoded, revealing which pairs of tags that have become joined. As a proof-of-concept we demonstrate that this approach can be used to detect a set of five proteins and their pairwise interactions both in cellular lysates and in fixed tissue culture cells. This paper provides a general strategy to analyze the extent of any pairwise interactions in large sets of molecules by decoding reporter DNA strands that identify the interacting molecules.

  1. Mammalian Sir2 homolog SIRT3 regulates global mitochondrial lysine acetylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombard, David B; Alt, Frederick W; Cheng, Hwei-Ling

    2007-01-01

    Homologs of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sir2 protein, sirtuins, promote longevity in many organisms. Studies of the sirtuin SIRT3 have so far been limited to cell culture systems. Here, we investigate the localization and function of SIRT3 in vivo. We show that endogenous mouse SIRT3 is a solubl...

  2. Mmu-miR-615-3p regulates lipoapoptosis by inhibiting C/EBP homologous protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Miyamoto

    Full Text Available Lipoapoptosis occurring due to an excess of saturated free fatty acids such as palmitate is a key pathogenic event in the initiation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Palmitate loading of cells activates the endoplasmic reticulum stress response, including induction of the proapoptotic transcription factor C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP. Furthermore, the loss of microRNAs is implicated in regulating apoptosis under conditions of endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress. The aim of this study was to identify specific microRNAs regulating CHOP expression during palmitate-induced ER stress. Five microRNAs were repressed under palmitate-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress conditions in hepatocyte cell lines (miR-92b-3p, miR-328-3p, miR-484, miR-574-5p, and miR-615-3p. We identified miR-615-3p as a candidate microRNA which was repressed by palmitate treatment and regulated CHOP protein expression, by RNA sequencing and in silico analyses, respectively. There is a single miR-615-3p binding site in the 3'untranslated region (UTR of the Chop transcript. We characterized this as a functional binding site using a reporter gene-based assay. Augmentation of miR-615-3p levels, using a precursor molecule, repressed CHOP expression; and under these conditions palmitate- or tunicamycin-induced cell death were significantly reduced. Our results suggest that palmitate-induced apoptosis requires maximal expression of CHOP which is achieved via the downregulation of its repressive microRNA, miR-615-3p. We speculate that enhancement of miR-615-3p levels may be of therapeutic benefit by inhibiting palmitate-induced hepatocyte lipoapoptosis.

  3. Discovery of a Dipeptide Epimerase Enzymatic Function Guided by Homology Modeling and Virtual Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyanaraman, C.; Imker, H; Fedorov, A; Fedorov, E; Glasner, M; Babbitt, P; Almo, S; Gerlt, J; Jacobson, M

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a computational approach to aid the assignment of enzymatic function for uncharacterized proteins that uses homology modeling to predict the structure of the binding site and in silico docking to identify potential substrates. We apply this method to proteins in the functionally diverse enolase superfamily that are homologous to the characterized L-Ala-D/L-Glu epimerase from Bacillus subtilis. In particular, a protein from Thermotoga martima was predicted to have different substrate specificity, which suggests that it has a different, but as yet unknown, biological function. This prediction was experimentally confirmed, resulting in the assignment of epimerase activity for L-Ala-D/L-Phe, L-Ala-D/L-Tyr, and L-Ala-D/L-His, whereas the enzyme is annotated incorrectly in GenBank as muconate cycloisomerase. Subsequently, crystal structures of the enzyme were determined in complex with three substrates, showing close agreement with the computational models and revealing the structural basis for the observed substrate selectivity.

  4. Evaluation of homologous, heterologous, and affinity conjugates for the serodiagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, D A O; Vitaliano, S N; Mineo, T W P; Ferreira, R A; Bevilacqua, E; Mineo, J R

    2005-10-01

    Use of serological tests in the diagnosis of infectious diseases in wild animals has several limitations, primarily the difficulty of obtaining species-specific reagents. Wild canids, such as maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus), are highly predisposed to infection by Toxoplasma gondii and, to a lesser extent, to Neospora caninum. The aim of the present study was to evaluate homologous, heterologous, and affinity conjugates in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and indirect fluorescent antibody tests (IFATs) for detecting immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies against T. gondii and N. caninum in maned wolves. Serum samples were obtained from 59 captive animals in Brazil and tested by ELISA for T. gondii serology and IFAT for N. caninum serology using 3 different enzymatic and fluorescent conjugates: homologous (guinea pig anti-maned wolf IgG-peroxidase and -fluorescein isothiocyanate [FITC]), heterologous (rabbit anti-dog IgG-peroxidase and -FITC), and affinity (protein A-peroxidase and -FITC). Seropositivity to T. gondii was comparable among the homologous (69.5%), heterologous (74.6%), and affinity (71.2%) enzymatic conjugates. A significant positive correlation was found between the antibody levels determined by the 3 enzymatic conjugates. The highest mean antibody levels (ELISA index = 4.5) were observed with the protein A-peroxidase conjugate. The same seropositivity to N. caninum (8.5%) was found with the homologous and heterologous fluorescent conjugates, but protein A-FITC was not able to detect or confirm any positive samples with homologous or heterologous conjugates. Our results demonstrate that homologous, heterologous, and affinity conjugates might be used in ELISA for serological assays of T. gondii in wild canids, whereas for N. caninum infection, only the homologous or heterologous fluorescent conjugates have been shown to be useful.

  5. Living network meta-analysis compared with pairwise meta-analysis in comparative effectiveness research: empirical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakopoulou, Adriani; Mavridis, Dimitris; Furukawa, Toshi A; Cipriani, Andrea; Tricco, Andrea C; Straus, Sharon E; Siontis, George C M; Egger, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine whether the continuous updating of networks of prospectively planned randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (“living” network meta-analysis) provides strong evidence against the null hypothesis in comparative effectiveness of medical interventions earlier than the updating of conventional, pairwise meta-analysis. Design Empirical study of the accumulating evidence about the comparative effectiveness of clinical interventions. Data sources Database of network meta-analyses of RCTs identified through searches of Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews until 14 April 2015. Eligibility criteria for study selection Network meta-analyses published after January 2012 that compared at least five treatments and included at least 20 RCTs. Clinical experts were asked to identify in each network the treatment comparison of greatest clinical interest. Comparisons were excluded for which direct and indirect evidence disagreed, based on side, or node, splitting test (Pmeta-analysis. The frequency and time to strong evidence was compared against the null hypothesis between pairwise and network meta-analyses. Results 49 comparisons of interest from 44 networks were included; most (n=39, 80%) were between active drugs, mainly from the specialties of cardiology, endocrinology, psychiatry, and rheumatology. 29 comparisons were informed by both direct and indirect evidence (59%), 13 by indirect evidence (27%), and 7 by direct evidence (14%). Both network and pairwise meta-analysis provided strong evidence against the null hypothesis for seven comparisons, but for an additional 10 comparisons only network meta-analysis provided strong evidence against the null hypothesis (P=0.002). The median time to strong evidence against the null hypothesis was 19 years with living network meta-analysis and 23 years with living pairwise meta-analysis (hazard ratio 2.78, 95% confidence interval 1.00 to 7.72, P=0.05). Studies directly comparing

  6. SURF'S UP! – Protein classification by surface comparisons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2006-12-12

    Dec 12, 2006 ... Large-scale genome sequencing and structural genomics projects generate numerous sequences and structures for 'hypothetical' proteins without functional characterizations. Detection of homology to experimentally characterized proteins can provide functional clues, but the accuracy of homology-based ...

  7. Arabidopsis KHZ1 and KHZ2, two novel non-tandem CCCH zinc-finger and K-homolog domain proteins, have redundant roles in the regulation of flowering and senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zongyun; Jia, Jianheng; Yan, Xiaoyuan; Shi, Huiying; Han, Yuzhen

    2017-12-01

    The two novel CCCH zinc-finger and K-homolog (KH) proteins, KHZ1 and KHZ2, play important roles in regulating flowering and senescence redundantly in Arabidopsis. The CCCH zinc-finger proteins and K-homolog (KH) proteins play important roles in plant development and stress responses. However, the biological functions of many CCCH zinc-finger proteins and KH proteins remain uncharacterized. In Arabidopsis, KHZ1 and KHZ2 are characterized as two novel CCCH zinc-finger and KH domain proteins which belong to subfamily VII in CCCH family. We obtained khz1, khz2 mutants and khz1 khz2 double mutants, as well as overexpression (OE) lines of KHZ1 and KHZ2. Compared with the wild type (WT), the khz2 mutants displayed no defects in growth and development, and the khz1 mutants were slightly late flowering, whereas the khz1 khz2 double mutants showed a pronounced late flowering phenotype. In contrast, artificially overexpressing KHZ1 and KHZ2 led to the early flowering. Consistent with the late flowering phenotype, the expression of flowering repressor gene FLC was up-regulated, while the expression of flowering integrator and floral meristem identity (FMI) genes were down-regulated significantly in khz1 khz2. In addition, we also observed that the OE plants of KHZ1 and KHZ2 showed early leaf senescence significantly, whereas the khz1 khz2 double mutants showed delayed senescence of leaf and the whole plant. Both KHZ1 and KHZ2 were ubiquitously expressed throughout the tissues of Arabidopsis. KHZ1 and KHZ2 were localized to the nucleus, and possessed both transactivation activities and RNA-binding abilities. Taken together, we conclude that KHZ1 and KHZ2 have redundant roles in the regulation of flowering and senescence in Arabidopsis.

  8. CPHmodels-3.0--remote homology modeling using structure-guided sequence profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten; Lundegaard, Claus; Lund, Ole; Petersen, Thomas Nordahl

    2010-07-01

    CPHmodels-3.0 is a web server predicting protein 3D structure by use of single template homology modeling. The server employs a hybrid of the scoring functions of CPHmodels-2.0 and a novel remote homology-modeling algorithm. A query sequence is first attempted modeled using the fast CPHmodels-2.0 profile-profile scoring function suitable for close homology modeling. The new computational costly remote homology-modeling algorithm is only engaged provided that no suitable PDB template is identified in the initial search. CPHmodels-3.0 was benchmarked in the CASP8 competition and produced models for 94% of the targets (117 out of 128), 74% were predicted as high reliability models (87 out of 117). These achieved an average RMSD of 4.6 A when superimposed to the 3D structure. The remaining 26% low reliably models (30 out of 117) could superimpose to the true 3D structure with an average RMSD of 9.3 A. These performance values place the CPHmodels-3.0 method in the group of high performing 3D prediction tools. Beside its accuracy, one of the important features of the method is its speed. For most queries, the response time of the server is web server is available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/CPHmodels/.

  9. Image ranking in video sequences using pairwise image comparisons and temporal smoothing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burke, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to predict the importance of an image is highly desirable in computer vision. This work introduces an image ranking scheme suitable for use in video or image sequences. Pairwise image comparisons are used to determine image ‘interest...

  10. Stabilizing salt-bridge enhances protein thermostability by reducing the heat capacity change of unfolding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ho Chan

    Full Text Available Most thermophilic proteins tend to have more salt bridges, and achieve higher thermostability by up-shifting and broadening their protein stability curves. While the stabilizing effect of salt-bridge has been extensively studied, experimental data on how salt-bridge influences protein stability curves are scarce. Here, we used double mutant cycles to determine the temperature-dependency of the pair-wise interaction energy and the contribution of salt-bridges to ΔC(p in a thermophilic ribosomal protein L30e. Our results showed that the pair-wise interaction energies for the salt-bridges E6/R92 and E62/K46 were stabilizing and insensitive to temperature changes from 298 to 348 K. On the other hand, the pair-wise interaction energies between the control long-range ion-pair of E90/R92 were negligible. The ΔC(p of all single and double mutants were determined by Gibbs-Helmholtz and Kirchhoff analyses. We showed that the two stabilizing salt-bridges contributed to a reduction of ΔC(p by 0.8-1.0 kJ mol⁻¹ K⁻¹. Taken together, our results suggest that the extra salt-bridges found in thermophilic proteins enhance the thermostability of proteins by reducing ΔC(p, leading to the up-shifting and broadening of the protein stability curves.

  11. Identification of three homologous latex-clearing protein (lcp) genes from the genome of Streptomyces sp. strain CFMR 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanthini, Jayaram; Ong, Su Yean; Sudesh, Kumar

    2017-09-10

    Rubber materials have greatly contributed to human civilization. However, being a polymeric material does not decompose easily, it has caused huge environmental problems. On the other hand, only few bacteria are known to degrade rubber, with studies pertaining them being intensively focusing on the mechanism involved in microbial rubber degradation. The Streptomyces sp. strain CFMR 7, which was previously confirmed to possess rubber-degrading ability, was subjected to whole genome sequencing using the single molecule sequencing technology of the PacBio® RS II system. The genome was further analyzed and compared with previously reported rubber-degrading bacteria in order to identify the potential genes involved in rubber degradation. This led to the interesting discovery of three homologues of latex-clearing protein (Lcp) on the chromosome of this strain, which are probably responsible for rubber degrading activities. Genes encoding oxidoreductase α-subunit (oxiA) and oxidoreductase β-subunit (oxiB) were also found downstream of two lcp genes which are located adjacent to each other. In silico analysis reveals genes that have been identified to be involved in the microbial degradation of rubber in the Streptomyces sp. strain CFMR 7. This is the first whole genome sequence of a clear-zone-forming natural rubber- degrading Streptomyces sp., which harbours three Lcp homologous genes with the presence of oxiA and oxiB genes compared to the previously reported Gordonia polyisoprenivorans strain VH2 (with two Lcp homologous genes) and Nocardia nova SH22a (with only one Lcp gene). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Dynamics of pairwise entanglement between two Tavis-Cummings atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jinliang; Song Heshan

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the time evolution of pairwise entanglement between two Tavis-Cummings atoms for various entangled initial states, including pure and mixed states. We find that the phenomenon of entanglement sudden death behaviors is distinct in the evolution of entanglement for different initial states. What deserves mentioning here is that the initial portion of the excited state in the initial state is responsible for the sudden death of entanglement, and the degree of this effect also depends on the initial states

  13. A human protein interaction network shows conservation of aging processes between human and invertebrate species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Bell

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We have mapped a protein interaction network of human homologs of proteins that modify longevity in invertebrate species. This network is derived from a proteome-scale human protein interaction Core Network generated through unbiased high-throughput yeast two-hybrid searches. The longevity network is composed of 175 human homologs of proteins known to confer increased longevity through loss of function in yeast, nematode, or fly, and 2,163 additional human proteins that interact with these homologs. Overall, the network consists of 3,271 binary interactions among 2,338 unique proteins. A comparison of the average node degree of the human longevity homologs with random sets of proteins in the Core Network indicates that human homologs of longevity proteins are highly connected hubs with a mean node degree of 18.8 partners. Shortest path length analysis shows that proteins in this network are significantly more connected than would be expected by chance. To examine the relationship of this network to human aging phenotypes, we compared the genes encoding longevity network proteins to genes known to be changed transcriptionally during aging in human muscle. In the case of both the longevity protein homologs and their interactors, we observed enrichments for differentially expressed genes in the network. To determine whether homologs of human longevity interacting proteins can modulate life span in invertebrates, homologs of 18 human FRAP1 interacting proteins showing significant changes in human aging muscle were tested for effects on nematode life span using RNAi. Of 18 genes tested, 33% extended life span when knocked-down in Caenorhabditis elegans. These observations indicate that a broad class of longevity genes identified in invertebrate models of aging have relevance to human aging. They also indicate that the longevity protein interaction network presented here is enriched for novel conserved longevity proteins.

  14. Pairwise NMR experiments for the determination of protein backbone dihedral angle Φ based on cross-correlated spin relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hideo; Shimada, Ichio

    2007-01-01

    Novel cross-correlated spin relaxation (CCR) experiments are described, which measure pairwise CCR rates for obtaining peptide dihedral angles Φ. The experiments utilize intra-HNCA type coherence transfer to refocus 2-bond J NCα coupling evolution and generate the N (i)-C α (i) or C'(i-1)-C α (i) multiple quantum coherences which are required for measuring the desired CCR rates. The contribution from other coherences is also discussed and an appropriate setting of the evolution delays is presented. These CCR experiments were applied to 15 N- and 13 C-labeled human ubiquitin. The relevant CCR rates showed a high degree of correlation with the Φ angles observed in the X-ray structure. By utilizing these CCR experiments in combination with those previously established for obtaining dihedral angle Ψ, we can determine high resolution structures of peptides that bind weakly to large target molecules

  15. Simultaneous-Fault Diagnosis of Gas Turbine Generator Systems Using a Pairwise-Coupled Probabilistic Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixin Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A reliable fault diagnostic system for gas turbine generator system (GTGS, which is complicated and inherent with many types of component faults, is essential to avoid the interruption of electricity supply. However, the GTGS diagnosis faces challenges in terms of the existence of simultaneous-fault diagnosis and high cost in acquiring the exponentially increased simultaneous-fault vibration signals for constructing the diagnostic system. This research proposes a new diagnostic framework combining feature extraction, pairwise-coupled probabilistic classifier, and decision threshold optimization. The feature extraction module adopts wavelet packet transform and time-domain statistical features to extract vibration signal features. Kernel principal component analysis is then applied to further reduce the redundant features. The features of single faults in a simultaneous-fault pattern are extracted and then detected using a probabilistic classifier, namely, pairwise-coupled relevance vector machine, which is trained with single-fault patterns only. Therefore, the training dataset of simultaneous-fault patterns is unnecessary. To optimize the decision threshold, this research proposes to use grid search method which can ensure a global solution as compared with traditional computational intelligence techniques. Experimental results show that the proposed framework performs well for both single-fault and simultaneous-fault diagnosis and is superior to the frameworks without feature extraction and pairwise coupling.

  16. Comparison of the ligand binding properties of two homologous rat apocellular retinol-binding proteins expressed in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, M S; Locke, B; Yang, N C; Li, E; Gordon, J I

    1988-11-25

    . Finally, neither all-trans-retinol nor retinoic acid bound to E. coli-derived rat intestinal fatty acid-binding protein, a homologous protein whose tertiary structure is known. Together, the data suggest that these three family members have acquired unique functional capabilities.

  17. Cloning and homologic analysis of Tpn I gene in silkworm Bombyx ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cloning and homologic analysis of Tpn I gene in silkworm Bombyx mori. Y Zhao, Yao Q, X Tang, Q Wang, H Yin, Z Hu, J Lu, K Chen. Abstract. The troponin complex is composed of three subunits, Troponin C (the calcium sensor component) and Troponin T and I (structural proteins). Tpn C is encoded by multiple genes in ...

  18. Functions and structures of eukaryotic recombination proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Tomoko

    1994-01-01

    We have found that Rad51 and RecA Proteins form strikingly similar structures together with dsDNA and ATP. Their right handed helical nucleoprotein filaments extend the B-form DNA double helixes to 1.5 times in length and wind the helix. The similarity and uniqueness of their structures must reflect functional homologies between these proteins. Therefore, it is highly probable that similar recombination proteins are present in various organisms of different evolutional states. We have succeeded to clone RAD51 genes from human, mouse, chicken and fission yeast genes, and found that the homologues are widely distributed in eukaryotes. The HsRad51 and MmRad51 or ChRad51 proteins consist of 339 amino acids differing only by 4 or 12 amino acids, respectively, and highly homologous to both yeast proteins, but less so to Dmcl. All of these proteins are homologous to the region from residues 33 to 240 of RecA which was named ''homologous core. The homologous core is likely to be responsible for functions common for all of them, such as the formation of helical nucleoprotein filament that is considered to be involved in homologous pairing in the recombination reaction. The mouse gene is transcribed at a high level in thymus, spleen, testis, and ovary, at lower level in brain and at a further lower level in some other tissues. It is transcribed efficiently in recombination active tissues. A clear functional difference of Rad51 homologues from RecA was suggested by the failure of heterologous genes to complement the deficiency of Scrad51 mutants. This failure seems to reflect the absence of a compatible partner, such as ScRad52 protein in the case of ScRad51 protein, between different species. Thus, these discoveries play a role of the starting point to understand the fundamental gene targeting in mammalian cells and in gene therapy. (J.P.N.)

  19. GapMis: a tool for pairwise sequence alignment with a single gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Tomás; Frousios, Kimon; Iliopoulos, Costas S; Park, Kunsoo; Pissis, Solon P; Tischler, German

    2013-08-01

    Pairwise sequence alignment has received a new motivation due to the advent of recent patents in next-generation sequencing technologies, particularly so for the application of re-sequencing---the assembly of a genome directed by a reference sequence. After the fast alignment between a factor of the reference sequence and a high-quality fragment of a short read by a short-read alignment programme, an important problem is to find the alignment between a relatively short succeeding factor of the reference sequence and the remaining low-quality part of the read allowing a number of mismatches and the insertion of a single gap in the alignment. We present GapMis, a tool for pairwise sequence alignment with a single gap. It is based on a simple algorithm, which computes a different version of the traditional dynamic programming matrix. The presented experimental results demonstrate that GapMis is more suitable and efficient than most popular tools for this task.

  20. Conservation and diversification of Msx protein in metazoan evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hirokazu; Kamiya, Akiko; Ishiguro, Akira; Suzuki, Atsushi C; Saitou, Naruya; Toyoda, Atsushi; Aruga, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Msx (/msh) family genes encode homeodomain (HD) proteins that control ontogeny in many animal species. We compared the structures of Msx genes from a wide range of Metazoa (Porifera, Cnidaria, Nematoda, Arthropoda, Tardigrada, Platyhelminthes, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Annelida, Echiura, Echinodermata, Hemichordata, and Chordata) to gain an understanding of the role of these genes in phylogeny. Exon-intron boundary analysis suggested that the position of the intron located N-terminally to the HDs was widely conserved in all the genes examined, including those of cnidarians. Amino acid (aa) sequence comparison revealed 3 new evolutionarily conserved domains, as well as very strong conservation of the HDs. Two of the three domains were associated with Groucho-like protein binding in both a vertebrate and a cnidarian Msx homolog, suggesting that the interaction between Groucho-like proteins and Msx proteins was established in eumetazoan ancestors. Pairwise comparison among the collected HDs and their C-flanking aa sequences revealed that the degree of sequence conservation varied depending on the animal taxa from which the sequences were derived. Highly conserved Msx genes were identified in the Vertebrata, Cephalochordata, Hemichordata, Echinodermata, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, and Anthozoa. The wide distribution of the conserved sequences in the animal phylogenetic tree suggested that metazoan ancestors had already acquired a set of conserved domains of the current Msx family genes. Interestingly, although strongly conserved sequences were recovered from the Vertebrata, Cephalochordata, and Anthozoa, the sequences from the Urochordata and Hydrozoa showed weak conservation. Because the Vertebrata-Cephalochordata-Urochordata and Anthozoa-Hydrozoa represent sister groups in the Chordata and Cnidaria, respectively, Msx sequence diversification may have occurred differentially in the course of evolution. We speculate that selective loss of the conserved domains in Msx family

  1. Locating one pairwise interaction: Three recursive constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J. Colbourn

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In a complex component-based system, choices (levels for components (factors may interact tocause faults in the system behaviour. When faults may be caused by interactions among few factorsat specific levels, covering arrays provide a combinatorial test suite for discovering the presence offaults. While well studied, covering arrays do not enable one to determine the specific levels of factorscausing the faults; locating arrays ensure that the results from test suite execution suffice to determinethe precise levels and factors causing faults, when the number of such causes is small. Constructionsfor locating arrays are at present limited to heuristic computational methods and quite specific directconstructions. In this paper three recursive constructions are developed for locating arrays to locateone pairwise interaction causing a fault.

  2. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the human calcineurin homologous protein CHP2 bound to the cytoplasmic region of the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Ammar, Youssef; Takeda, Soichi; Sugawara, Mitsuaki; Miyano, Masashi; Mori, Hidezo; Wakabayashi, Shigeo

    2005-01-01

    Crystallization of the human CHP2–NHE1 binding domain complex. Calcineurin homologous protein (CHP) is a Ca 2+ -binding protein that directly interacts with and regulates the activity of all plasma-membrane Na + /H + -exchanger (NHE) family members. In contrast to the ubiquitous isoform CHP1, CHP2 is highly expressed in cancer cells. To understand the regulatory mechanism of NHE1 by CHP2, the complex CHP2–NHE1 (amino acids 503–545) has been crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as precipitant. The crystals diffract to 2.7 Å and belong to a tetragonal space group, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 49.96, c = 103.20 Å

  3. Geometric homology revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Ruffino, Fabio Ferrari

    2013-01-01

    Given a cohomology theory, there is a well-known abstract way to define the dual homology theory using the theory of spectra. In [4] the author provides a more geometric construction of the homology theory, using a generalization of the bordism groups. Such a generalization involves in its definition the vector bundle modification, which is a particular case of the Gysin map. In this paper we provide a more natural variant of that construction, which replaces the vector bundle modification wi...

  4. Geometric measure of pairwise quantum discord for superpositions of multipartite generalized coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daoud, M.; Ahl Laamara, R.

    2012-01-01

    We give the explicit expressions of the pairwise quantum correlations present in superpositions of multipartite coherent states. A special attention is devoted to the evaluation of the geometric quantum discord. The dynamics of quantum correlations under a dephasing channel is analyzed. A comparison of geometric measure of quantum discord with that of concurrence shows that quantum discord in multipartite coherent states is more resilient to dissipative environments than is quantum entanglement. To illustrate our results, we consider some special superpositions of Weyl–Heisenberg, SU(2) and SU(1,1) coherent states which interpolate between Werner and Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger states. -- Highlights: ► Pairwise quantum correlations multipartite coherent states. ► Explicit expression of geometric quantum discord. ► Entanglement sudden death and quantum discord robustness. ► Generalized coherent states interpolating between Werner and Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger states

  5. Geometric measure of pairwise quantum discord for superpositions of multipartite generalized coherent states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daoud, M., E-mail: m_daoud@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University Ibnou Zohr, Agadir (Morocco); Ahl Laamara, R., E-mail: ahllaamara@gmail.com [LPHE-Modeling and Simulation, Faculty of Sciences, University Mohammed V, Rabat (Morocco); Centre of Physics and Mathematics, CPM, CNESTEN, Rabat (Morocco)

    2012-07-16

    We give the explicit expressions of the pairwise quantum correlations present in superpositions of multipartite coherent states. A special attention is devoted to the evaluation of the geometric quantum discord. The dynamics of quantum correlations under a dephasing channel is analyzed. A comparison of geometric measure of quantum discord with that of concurrence shows that quantum discord in multipartite coherent states is more resilient to dissipative environments than is quantum entanglement. To illustrate our results, we consider some special superpositions of Weyl–Heisenberg, SU(2) and SU(1,1) coherent states which interpolate between Werner and Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger states. -- Highlights: ► Pairwise quantum correlations multipartite coherent states. ► Explicit expression of geometric quantum discord. ► Entanglement sudden death and quantum discord robustness. ► Generalized coherent states interpolating between Werner and Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger states.

  6. HHR23A, a human homolog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad23, regulates xeroderma pigmentosum C protein and is required for nucleotide excision repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Hui-Chuan; Hsieh, Yi-Hsuan; Huang, Yu-Hsin; Shen, Fan-Ching; Tsai, Han-Ni; Tsai, Jui-He; Lai, Yu-Ting; Wang, Yu-Ting; Chuang, Woei-Jer; Huang, Wenya

    2005-01-01

    HHR23A and hHR23B are the human homologs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad23. hHR23B is associated with the nucleotide excision repair (NER) factor xeroderma pigmentosum C (XPC) protein and is required for global genome repair. The function of hHR23A is not yet clear. In this study, the potential function of the hHR23A protein was investigated using RNA interference techniques. The hHR23A knock-down (KD) construct diminished the RNA level of hHR23A protein by approximately 60%, and it did not interfere with expression of the hHR23B gene. Based on Southwestern immunoblot and host-cell reactivation assays, hHR23A KD cells were found to be deficient in DNA repair activity against the DNA damage caused by UVC irradiation. In these hHR23A KD cells, the XPC gene was not normally induced by UVC irradiation, indicating that the hHR23A protein is involved in NER through regulation of the DNA damage recognition protein XPC. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that hHR23A was associated with a small portion of hHR23B and the majority of p53 protein, indicating that hHR23A regulates the function of XPC by its association with the NER activator p53

  7. Function of Rad51 paralogs in eukaryotic homologous recombinational repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, N.; Skowronek, K.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Homologous recombinational repair (HRR) is an important mechanism for maintaining genetic integrity and cancer prevention by accurately repair of DNA double strand breaks induced by environmental insults or occurred in DNA replication. A critical step in HRR is the polymerization of Rad51 on single stranded DNA to form nuclear protein filaments, the later conduct DNA strand paring and exchange between homologous strands. A number of proteins, including replication protein A (RPA), Rad52 and Rad51 paralogs, are suggested to modulate or facilitate the process of Rad51 filament formation. Five Rad51 paralogs, namely XRCC2, XRCC3, Rad51B, Rad51C and Rad51D have been identified in eucaryotic cells. These proteins show distant protein sequence identity to Rad51, to yeast Rad51 paralogs (Rad55 and Rad57) and to each other. Hamster or chicken mutants of Rad51 paralogs exhibit hypersensitivity to a variety of DNA damaging agents, especially cross-linking agents, and are defective in assembly of Rad51 onto HRR site after DNA damage. Recent data from our and other labs showed that Rad51 paralogs constitute two distinct complexes in cell extracts, one contains XRCC2, Rad51B, Rad51C and Rad51D, and the other contains Rad51C and XRCC3. Rad51C is involved in both complexes. Our results also showed that XRCC3-Rad51C complex interacts with Rad51 in vivo. Furthermore, overexpression of Rad52 can partially suppress the hypersensitivity of XRCC2 mutant irs1 to ionizing radiation and corrected the defects in Rad51 focus formation. These results suggest that XRCC2 and other Rad51 paralogs play a mediator function to Rad51 in the early stage of HRR

  8. Intrinsic Pleckstrin Homology (PH) Domain Motion in Phospholipase C-β Exposes a Gβγ Protein Binding Site*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadamur, Ganesh

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian phospholipase C-β (PLC-β) isoforms are stimulated by heterotrimeric G protein subunits and members of the Rho GTPase family of small G proteins. Although recent structural studies showed how Gαq and Rac1 bind PLC-β, there is a lack of consensus regarding the Gβγ binding site in PLC-β. Using FRET between cerulean fluorescent protein-labeled Gβγ and the Alexa Fluor 594-labeled PLC-β pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, we demonstrate that the PH domain is the minimal Gβγ binding region in PLC-β3. We show that the isolated PH domain can compete with full-length PLC-β3 for binding Gβγ but not Gαq, Using sequence conservation, structural analyses, and mutagenesis, we identify a hydrophobic face of the PLC-β PH domain as the Gβγ binding interface. This PH domain surface is not solvent-exposed in crystal structures of PLC-β, necessitating conformational rearrangement to allow Gβγ binding. Blocking PH domain motion in PLC-β by cross-linking it to the EF hand domain inhibits stimulation by Gβγ without altering basal activity or Gαq response. The fraction of PLC-β cross-linked is proportional to the fractional loss of Gβγ response. Cross-linked PLC-β does not bind Gβγ in a FRET-based Gβγ-PLC-β binding assay. We propose that unliganded PLC-β exists in equilibrium between a closed conformation observed in crystal structures and an open conformation where the PH domain moves away from the EF hands. Therefore, intrinsic movement of the PH domain in PLC-β modulates Gβγ access to its binding site. PMID:27002154

  9. Transcription patterns of genes encoding four metallothionein homologs in Daphnia pulex exposed to copper and cadmium are time- and homolog-dependent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asselman, Jana; Shaw, Joseph R.; Glaholt, Stephen P.; Colbourne, John K.; De Schamphelaere, Karel A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Transcription patterns of 4 metallothionein isoforms in Daphnia pulex. •Under cadmium and copper stress these patterns are time-dependent. •Under cadmium and copper stress these patterns are homolog-dependent. •The results stress the complex regulation of metallothioneins. -- Abstract: Metallothioneins are proteins that play an essential role in metal homeostasis and detoxification in nearly all organisms studied to date. Yet discrepancies between outcomes of chronic and acute exposure experiments hamper the understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of their isoforms following metal exposure. Here, we investigated transcriptional differences among four identified homologs (mt1–mt4) in Daphnia pulex exposed across time to copper and cadmium relative to a control. Transcriptional upregulation of mt1 and mt3 was detected on day four following exposure to cadmium, whereas that of mt2 and mt4 was detected on day two and day eight following exposure to copper. These results confirm temporal and metal-specific differences in the transcriptional induction of genes encoding metallothionein homologs upon metal exposure which should be considered in ecotoxicological monitoring programs of metal-contaminated water bodies. Indeed, the mRNA expression patterns observed here illustrate the complex regulatory system associated with metallothioneins, as these patterns are not only dependent on the metal, but also on exposure time and the homolog studied. Further phylogenetic analysis and analysis of regulatory elements in upstream promoter regions revealed a high degree of similarity between metallothionein genes of Daphnia pulex and Daphnia magna, a species belonging to the same genus. These findings, combined with a limited amount of available expression data for D. magna metallothionein genes, tentatively suggest a potential generalization of the metallothionein response system between these Daphnia species

  10. Transcription patterns of genes encoding four metallothionein homologs in Daphnia pulex exposed to copper and cadmium are time- and homolog-dependent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asselman, Jana, E-mail: jana.asselman@ugent.be [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Shaw, Joseph R.; Glaholt, Stephen P. [The School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN (United States); Colbourne, John K. [School of Biosciences, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom); De Schamphelaere, Karel A.C. [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •Transcription patterns of 4 metallothionein isoforms in Daphnia pulex. •Under cadmium and copper stress these patterns are time-dependent. •Under cadmium and copper stress these patterns are homolog-dependent. •The results stress the complex regulation of metallothioneins. -- Abstract: Metallothioneins are proteins that play an essential role in metal homeostasis and detoxification in nearly all organisms studied to date. Yet discrepancies between outcomes of chronic and acute exposure experiments hamper the understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of their isoforms following metal exposure. Here, we investigated transcriptional differences among four identified homologs (mt1–mt4) in Daphnia pulex exposed across time to copper and cadmium relative to a control. Transcriptional upregulation of mt1 and mt3 was detected on day four following exposure to cadmium, whereas that of mt2 and mt4 was detected on day two and day eight following exposure to copper. These results confirm temporal and metal-specific differences in the transcriptional induction of genes encoding metallothionein homologs upon metal exposure which should be considered in ecotoxicological monitoring programs of metal-contaminated water bodies. Indeed, the mRNA expression patterns observed here illustrate the complex regulatory system associated with metallothioneins, as these patterns are not only dependent on the metal, but also on exposure time and the homolog studied. Further phylogenetic analysis and analysis of regulatory elements in upstream promoter regions revealed a high degree of similarity between metallothionein genes of Daphnia pulex and Daphnia magna, a species belonging to the same genus. These findings, combined with a limited amount of available expression data for D. magna metallothionein genes, tentatively suggest a potential generalization of the metallothionein response system between these Daphnia species.

  11. Protein sequence comparison and protein evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, W.R. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1995-12-31

    This tutorial was one of eight tutorials selected to be presented at the Third International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology which was held in the United Kingdom from July 16 to 19, 1995. This tutorial examines how the information conserved during the evolution of a protein molecule can be used to infer reliably homology, and thus a shared proteinfold and possibly a shared active site or function. The authors start by reviewing a geological/evolutionary time scale. Next they look at the evolution of several protein families. During the tutorial, these families will be used to demonstrate that homologous protein ancestry can be inferred with confidence. They also examine different modes of protein evolution and consider some hypotheses that have been presented to explain the very earliest events in protein evolution. The next part of the tutorial will examine the technical aspects of protein sequence comparison. Both optimal and heuristic algorithms and their associated parameters that are used to characterize protein sequence similarities are discussed. Perhaps more importantly, they survey the statistics of local similarity scores, and how these statistics can both be used to improve the selectivity of a search and to evaluate the significance of a match. They them examine distantly related members of three protein families, the serine proteases, the glutathione transferases, and the G-protein-coupled receptors (GCRs). Finally, the discuss how sequence similarity can be used to examine internal repeated or mosaic structures in proteins.

  12. Homologous Recombination—Experimental Systems, Analysis and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzminov, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    Homologous recombination is the most complex of all recombination events that shape genomes and produce material for evolution. Homologous recombination events are exchanges between DNA molecules in the lengthy regions of shared identity, catalyzed by a group of dedicated enzymes. There is a variety of experimental systems in E. coli and Salmonella to detect homologous recombination events of several different kinds. Genetic analysis of homologous recombination reveals three separate phases of this process: pre-synapsis (the early phase), synapsis (homologous strand exchange) and post-synapsis (the late phase). In E. coli, there are at least two independent pathway of the early phase and at least two independent pathways of the late phase. All this complexity is incongruent with the originally ascribed role of homologous recombination as accelerator of genome evolution: there is simply not enough duplication and repetition in enterobacterial genomes for homologous recombination to have a detectable evolutionary role, and therefore not enough selection to maintain such a complexity. At the same time, the mechanisms of homologous recombination are uniquely suited for repair of complex DNA lesions called chromosomal lesions. In fact, the two major classes of chromosomal lesions are recognized and processed by the two individual pathways at the early phase of homologous recombination. It follows, therefore, that homologous recombination events are occasional reflections of the continual recombinational repair, made possible in cases of natural or artificial genome redundancy. PMID:26442506

  13. Solving Classification Problems for Large Sets of Protein Sequences with the Example of Hox and ParaHox Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie D. Hueber

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic methods are key to providing models for how a given protein family evolved. However, these methods run into difficulties when sequence divergence is either too low or too high. Here, we provide a case study of Hox and ParaHox proteins so that additional insights can be gained using a new computational approach to help solve old classification problems. For two (Gsx and Cdx out of three ParaHox proteins the assignments differ between the currently most established view and four alternative scenarios. We use a non-phylogenetic, pairwise-sequence-similarity-based method to assess which of the previous predictions, if any, are best supported by the sequence-similarity relationships between Hox and ParaHox proteins. The overall sequence-similarities show Gsx to be most similar to Hox2–3, and Cdx to be most similar to Hox4–8. The results indicate that a purely pairwise-sequence-similarity-based approach can provide additional information not only when phylogenetic inference methods have insufficient information to provide reliable classifications (as was shown previously for central Hox proteins, but also when the sequence variation is so high that the resulting phylogenetic reconstructions are likely plagued by long-branch-attraction artifacts.

  14. Saccharomyces cerevisiae SSB1 protein and its relationship to nucleolar RNA-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, A Y; Clark, M W; Gilbert, M; Oehm, A; Campbell, J L

    1987-08-01

    To better define the function of Saccharomyces cerevisiae SSB1, an abundant single-stranded nucleic acid-binding protein, we determined the nucleotide sequence of the SSB1 gene and compared it with those of other proteins of known function. The amino acid sequence contains 293 amino acid residues and has an Mr of 32,853. There are several stretches of sequence characteristic of other eucaryotic single-stranded nucleic acid-binding proteins. At the amino terminus, residues 39 to 54 are highly homologous to a peptide in calf thymus UP1 and UP2 and a human heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein. Residues 125 to 162 constitute a fivefold tandem repeat of the sequence RGGFRG, the composition of which suggests a nucleic acid-binding site. Near the C terminus, residues 233 to 245 are homologous to several RNA-binding proteins. Of 18 C-terminal residues, 10 are acidic, a characteristic of the procaryotic single-stranded DNA-binding proteins and eucaryotic DNA- and RNA-binding proteins. In addition, examination of the subcellular distribution of SSB1 by immunofluorescence microscopy indicated that SSB1 is a nuclear protein, predominantly located in the nucleolus. Sequence homologies and the nucleolar localization make it likely that SSB1 functions in RNA metabolism in vivo, although an additional role in DNA metabolism cannot be excluded.

  15. Statistical alignment: computational properties, homology testing and goodness-of-fit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hein, J; Wiuf, Carsten; Møller, Martin

    2000-01-01

    The model of insertions and deletions in biological sequences, first formulated by Thorne, Kishino, and Felsenstein in 1991 (the TKF91 model), provides a basis for performing alignment within a statistical framework. Here we investigate this model.Firstly, we show how to accelerate the statistical...... alignment algorithms several orders of magnitude. The main innovations are to confine likelihood calculations to a band close to the similarity based alignment, to get good initial guesses of the evolutionary parameters and to apply an efficient numerical optimisation algorithm for finding the maximum...... analysis.Secondly, we propose a new homology test based on this model, where homology means that an ancestor to a sequence pair can be found finitely far back in time. This test has statistical advantages relative to the traditional shuffle test for proteins.Finally, we describe a goodness-of-fit test...

  16. Two homologous genes, DCW1 (YKL046c) and DFG5, are essential for cell growth and encode glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane proteins required for cell wall biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagaki, Hiroshi; Wu, Hong; Shimoi, Hitoshi; Ito, Kiyoshi

    2002-11-01

    The cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae consists of glucan, chitin and various kinds of mannoproteins. Major parts of mannoproteins are synthesized as glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins and are then transferred to cell wall beta-1,6-glucan. A glycosyltransferase has been hypothesized to catalyse this transfer reaction. A database search revealed that the products of YKL046c and DFG5 are homologous to bacterial mannosidase. These genes are homologous to each other and have primary structures characteristic of GPI-anchored proteins. Although single disruptants of ykl046c and dfg5 were viable, ykl046cDelta was hypersensitive to a cell wall-digesting enzyme (zymolyase), suggesting that this gene is involved in cell wall biosynthesis. We therefore designated this gene as DCW1 (defective cell wall). A double disruptant of dcw1 and dfg5 was synthetically lethal, indicating that the functions of these gene products are redundant, and at least one of them is required for cell growth. Cells deficient in both Dcw1p and Dfg5p were round and large, had cell walls that contained an increased amount of chitin and secreted a major cell wall protein, Cwp1p, into the medium. Biochemical analyses showed that epitope-tagged Dcw1p is an N-glycosylated, GPI-anchored membrane protein and is localized in the membrane fraction including the cell surface. These results suggest that both Dcw1p and Dfg5p are GPI-anchored membrane proteins and are required for normal biosynthesis of the cell wall.

  17. Lectures on homology with internal symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solovyov, Yu.

    1993-09-01

    Homology with internal symmetries is a natural generalization of cyclic homology introduced, independently, by Connes and Tsygan, which has turned out to be a very useful tool in a number of problems of algebra, geometry topology, analysis and mathematical physics. It suffices to say cycling homology and cohomology are successfully applied in the index theory of elliptic operators on foliations, in the description of the homotopy type of pseudoisotopy spaces, in the theory of characteristic classes in algebraic K-theory. They are also applied in noncommutative differential geometry and in the cohomology of Lie algebras, the branches of mathematics which brought them to life in the first place. Essentially, we consider dihedral homology, which was successfully applied for the description of the homology type of groups of homeomorphisms and diffeomorphisms of simply connected manifolds. (author). 27 refs

  18. On the calculation of x-ray scattering signals from pairwise radial distribution functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Asmus Ougaard; Biasin, Elisa; Haldrup, Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    We derive a formulation for evaluating (time-resolved) x-ray scattering signals of solvated chemical systems, based on pairwise radial distribution functions, with the aim of this formulation to accompany molecular dynamics simulations. The derivation is described in detail to eliminate any possi...

  19. Compositional Homology and Creative Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Tedesco

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of homology is the most solid theoretical basis elaborated by the morphological thinking during its history. The enucleation of some general criteria for the interpretation of homology is today a fundamental tool for life sciences, and for restoring their own opening to the question of qualitative innovation that arose so powerfully in the original Darwinian project. The aim of this paper is to verify the possible uses of the concept of compositional homology in order to provide of an adequate understanding of the dynamics of creative thinking.

  20. Rational Homological Stability for Automorphisms of Manifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grey, Matthias

    In this thesis we prove rational homological stability for the classifying spaces of the homotopy automorphisms and block di↵eomorphisms of iterated connected sums of products of spheres of a certain connectivity.The results in particular apply to the manifolds       Npg,q  = (#g(Sp x Sq)) - int...... with coefficients in the homology of the universal covering, which is studied using rational homology theory. The result for the block di↵eomorphisms is deduced from the homological stability for the homotopy automorphisms upon using Surgery theory. Themain theorems of this thesis extend the homological stability...

  1. Functional region prediction with a set of appropriate homologous sequences-an index for sequence selection by integrating structure and sequence information with spatial statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The detection of conserved residue clusters on a protein structure is one of the effective strategies for the prediction of functional protein regions. Various methods, such as Evolutionary Trace, have been developed based on this strategy. In such approaches, the conserved residues are identified through comparisons of homologous amino acid sequences. Therefore, the selection of homologous sequences is a critical step. It is empirically known that a certain degree of sequence divergence in the set of homologous sequences is required for the identification of conserved residues. However, the development of a method to select homologous sequences appropriate for the identification of conserved residues has not been sufficiently addressed. An objective and general method to select appropriate homologous sequences is desired for the efficient prediction of functional regions. Results We have developed a novel index to select the sequences appropriate for the identification of conserved residues, and implemented the index within our method to predict the functional regions of a protein. The implementation of the index improved the performance of the functional region prediction. The index represents the degree of conserved residue clustering on the tertiary structure of the protein. For this purpose, the structure and sequence information were integrated within the index by the application of spatial statistics. Spatial statistics is a field of statistics in which not only the attributes but also the geometrical coordinates of the data are considered simultaneously. Higher degrees of clustering generate larger index scores. We adopted the set of homologous sequences with the highest index score, under the assumption that the best prediction accuracy is obtained when the degree of clustering is the maximum. The set of sequences selected by the index led to higher functional region prediction performance than the sets of sequences selected by other sequence

  2. Structural characterization of respiratory syncytial virus fusion inhibitor escape mutants: homology model of the F protein and a syncytium formation assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, Craig J.; Cameron, Rachel; Lawrence, Lynne J.; Lin Bo; Lowe, Melinda; Luttick, Angela; Mason, Anthony; McKimm-Breschkin, Jenny; Parker, Michael W.; Ryan, Jane; Smout, Michael; Sullivan, Jayne; Tucker, Simon P.; Young, Paul R.

    2003-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a ubiquitous human pathogen and the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants. Infection of cells and subsequent formation of syncytia occur through membrane fusion mediated by the RSV fusion protein (RSV-F). A novel in vitro assay of recombinant RSV-F function has been devised and used to characterize a number of escape mutants for three known inhibitors of RSV-F that have been isolated. Homology modeling of the RSV-F structure has been carried out on the basis of a chimera derived from the crystal structures of the RSV-F core and a fragment from the orthologous fusion protein from Newcastle disease virus (NDV). The structure correlates well with the appearance of RSV-F in electron micrographs, and the residues identified as contributing to specific binding sites for several monoclonal antibodies are arranged in appropriate solvent-accessible clusters. The positions of the characterized resistance mutants in the model structure identify two promising regions for the design of fusion inhibitors

  3. A pragmatic pairwise group-decision method for selection of sites for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutbi, I.I.

    1987-01-01

    A pragmatic pairwise group-decision approach is applied to compare two regions in order to select the more suitable one for construction of nulcear power plants in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The selection methodology is based on pairwise comparison by forced choice. The method facilitates rating of the regions or sites using simple calculations. Two regions, one close to Dhahran on the Arabian Gulf and another close to Jeddah on the Red Sea, are evaluated. No specific site in either region is considered at this stage. The comparison is based on a set of selection criteria which include (i) topography, (ii) geology, (iii) seismology, (iv) meteorology, (v) oceanography, (vi) hydrology and (vii) proximetry to oil and gas fields. The comparison shows that the Jeddah region is more suitable than the Dhahran region. (orig.)

  4. Document Level Assessment of Document Retrieval Systems in a Pairwise System Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Prabha; Ravana, Sri Devi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The use of averaged topic-level scores can result in the loss of valuable data and can cause misinterpretation of the effectiveness of system performance. This study aims to use the scores of each document to evaluate document retrieval systems in a pairwise system evaluation. Method: The chosen evaluation metrics are document-level…

  5. Endogenous hepatitis C virus homolog fragments in European rabbit and hare genomes replicate in cell culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Silva

    Full Text Available Endogenous retroviruses, non-retroviral RNA viruses and DNA viruses have been found in the mammalian genomes. The origin of Hepatitis C virus (HCV, the major cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma in humans, remains unclear since its discovery. Here we show that fragments homologous to HCV structural and non-structural (NS proteins present in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus and hare (Lepus europaeus genomes replicate in bovine cell cultures. The HCV genomic homolog fragments were demonstrated by RT-PCR, PCR, mass spectrometry, and replication in bovine cell cultures by immunofluorescence assay (IFA and immunogold electron microscopy (IEM using specific MAbs for HCV NS3, NS4A, and NS5 proteins. These findings may lead to novel research approaches on the HCV origin, genesis, evolution and diversity.

  6. Phenylbutyrate inhibits homologous recombination induced by camptothecin and methyl methanesulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Gitte S; Germann, Susanne M; Westergaard, Tine; Lisby, Michael

    2011-08-01

    Homologous recombination is accompanied by extensive changes to chromatin organization at the site of DNA damage. Some of these changes are mediated through acetylation/deacetylation of histones. Here, we show that recombinational repair of DNA damage induced by the anti-cancer drug camptothecin (CPT) and the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) is blocked by sodium phenylbutyrate (PBA) in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In particular, PBA suppresses CPT- and MMS-induced genetic recombination as well as DNA double-strand break repair during mating-type interconversion. Treatment with PBA is accompanied by a dramatic reduction in histone H4 lysine 8 acetylation. Live cell imaging of homologous recombination proteins indicates that repair of CPT-induced DNA damage is redirected to a non-recombinogenic pathway in the presence of PBA without loss in cell viability. In contrast, the suppression of MMS-induced recombination by PBA is accompanied by a dramatic loss in cell viability. Taken together, our results demonstrate that PBA inhibits DNA damage-induced homologous recombination likely by mediating changes in chromatin acetylation. Moreover, the combination of PBA with genotoxic agents can lead to different cell fates depending on the type of DNA damage inflicted. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Intrinsic Pleckstrin Homology (PH) Domain Motion in Phospholipase C-β Exposes a Gβγ Protein Binding Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadamur, Ganesh; Ross, Elliott M

    2016-05-20

    Mammalian phospholipase C-β (PLC-β) isoforms are stimulated by heterotrimeric G protein subunits and members of the Rho GTPase family of small G proteins. Although recent structural studies showed how Gαq and Rac1 bind PLC-β, there is a lack of consensus regarding the Gβγ binding site in PLC-β. Using FRET between cerulean fluorescent protein-labeled Gβγ and the Alexa Fluor 594-labeled PLC-β pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, we demonstrate that the PH domain is the minimal Gβγ binding region in PLC-β3. We show that the isolated PH domain can compete with full-length PLC-β3 for binding Gβγ but not Gαq, Using sequence conservation, structural analyses, and mutagenesis, we identify a hydrophobic face of the PLC-β PH domain as the Gβγ binding interface. This PH domain surface is not solvent-exposed in crystal structures of PLC-β, necessitating conformational rearrangement to allow Gβγ binding. Blocking PH domain motion in PLC-β by cross-linking it to the EF hand domain inhibits stimulation by Gβγ without altering basal activity or Gαq response. The fraction of PLC-β cross-linked is proportional to the fractional loss of Gβγ response. Cross-linked PLC-β does not bind Gβγ in a FRET-based Gβγ-PLC-β binding assay. We propose that unliganded PLC-β exists in equilibrium between a closed conformation observed in crystal structures and an open conformation where the PH domain moves away from the EF hands. Therefore, intrinsic movement of the PH domain in PLC-β modulates Gβγ access to its binding site. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Calcineurin B homologous protein 3 negatively regulates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3 phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Soushi; Nakamura, Tomoe Y; Wakabayashi, Shigeo

    2015-07-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a leading cause of serious heart diseases. Although many signaling molecules are involved in hypertrophy, the functions of some proteins in this process are still unknown. Calcineurin B homologous protein 3 (CHP3)/tescalcin is an EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding protein that is abundantly expressed in the heart; however, the function of CHP3 is unclear. Here, we aimed to identify the cardiac functions of CHP3. CHP3 was expressed in hearts at a wide range of developmental stages and was specifically detected in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) but not in cardiac fibroblasts in culture. Moreover, knockdown of CHP3 expression using adenoviral-based RNA interference in NRVMs resulted in enlargement of cardiomyocyte size, concomitant with increased expression of a pathological hypertrophy marker ANP. This same treatment elevated glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3α/β) phosphorylation, which is known to inhibit GSK3 function. In contrast, CHP3 overexpression blocked the insulin-induced phosphorylation of GSK3α/β without affecting the phosphorylation of Akt, which is an upstream kinase of GSK3α/β, in HEK293 cells, and it inhibited both IGF-1-induced phosphorylation of GSK3β and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in NRVMs. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that GSK3β interacted with CHP3. However, a Ca(2+)-binding-defective mutation of CHP3 (CHP3-D123A) also interacted with GSK3β and had the same inhibitory effect on GSK3α/β phosphorylation, suggesting that the action of CHP3 was independent of Ca(2+). These findings suggest that CHP3 functions as a novel negative regulator of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via inhibition of GSK3α/β phosphorylation and subsequent enzymatic activation of GSK3α/β. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Contribution of the first K-homology domain of poly(C)-binding protein 1 to its affinity and specificity for C-rich oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoga, Yano M K; Traore, Daouda A K; Sidiqi, Mahjooba; Szeto, Chris; Pendini, Nicole R; Barker, Andrew; Leedman, Peter J; Wilce, Jacqueline A; Wilce, Matthew C J

    2012-06-01

    Poly-C-binding proteins are triple KH (hnRNP K homology) domain proteins with specificity for single stranded C-rich RNA and DNA. They play diverse roles in the regulation of protein expression at both transcriptional and translational levels. Here, we analyse the contributions of individual αCP1 KH domains to binding C-rich oligonucleotides using biophysical and structural methods. Using surface plasmon resonance (SPR), we demonstrate that KH1 makes the most stable interactions with both RNA and DNA, KH3 binds with intermediate affinity and KH2 only interacts detectibly with DNA. The crystal structure of KH1 bound to a 5'-CCCTCCCT-3' DNA sequence shows a 2:1 protein:DNA stoichiometry and demonstrates a molecular arrangement of KH domains bound to immediately adjacent oligonucleotide target sites. SPR experiments, with a series of poly-C-sequences reveals that cytosine is preferred at all four positions in the oligonucleotide binding cleft and that a C-tetrad binds KH1 with 10 times higher affinity than a C-triplet. The basis for this high affinity interaction is finally detailed with the structure determination of a KH1.W.C54S mutant bound to 5'-ACCCCA-3' DNA sequence. Together, these data establish the lead role of KH1 in oligonucleotide binding by αCP1 and reveal the molecular basis of its specificity for a C-rich tetrad.

  10. Prediction of Antimicrobial Peptides Based on Sequence Alignment and Support Vector Machine-Pairwise Algorithm Utilizing LZ-Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yi Ng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns an attempt to establish a new method for predicting antimicrobial peptides (AMPs which are important to the immune system. Recently, researchers are interested in designing alternative drugs based on AMPs because they have found that a large number of bacterial strains have become resistant to available antibiotics. However, researchers have encountered obstacles in the AMPs designing process as experiments to extract AMPs from protein sequences are costly and require a long set-up time. Therefore, a computational tool for AMPs prediction is needed to resolve this problem. In this study, an integrated algorithm is newly introduced to predict AMPs by integrating sequence alignment and support vector machine- (SVM- LZ complexity pairwise algorithm. It was observed that, when all sequences in the training set are used, the sensitivity of the proposed algorithm is 95.28% in jackknife test and 87.59% in independent test, while the sensitivity obtained for jackknife test and independent test is 88.74% and 78.70%, respectively, when only the sequences that has less than 70% similarity are used. Applying the proposed algorithm may allow researchers to effectively predict AMPs from unknown protein peptide sequences with higher sensitivity.

  11. Homology in Electromagnetic Boundary Value Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellikka Matti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss how homology computation can be exploited in computational electromagnetism. We represent various cellular mesh reduction techniques, which enable the computation of generators of homology spaces in an acceptable time. Furthermore, we show how the generators can be used for setting up and analysis of an electromagnetic boundary value problem. The aim is to provide a rationale for homology computation in electromagnetic modeling software.

  12. PDZ Protein Regulation of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Trafficking and Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Henry A; Ferguson, Stephen S G

    2015-10-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) contribute to the regulation of every aspect of human physiology and are therapeutic targets for the treatment of numerous diseases. As a consequence, understanding the myriad of mechanisms controlling GPCR signaling and trafficking is essential for the development of new pharmacological strategies for the treatment of human pathologies. Of the many GPCR-interacting proteins, postsynaptic density protein of 95 kilodaltons, disc large, zona occludens-1 (PDZ) domain-containing proteins appear most abundant and have similarly been implicated in disease mechanisms. PDZ proteins play an important role in regulating receptor and channel protein localization within synapses and tight junctions and function to scaffold intracellular signaling protein complexes. In the current study, we review the known functional interactions between PDZ domain-containing proteins and GPCRs and provide insight into the potential mechanisms of action. These PDZ domain-containing proteins include the membrane-associated guanylate-like kinases [postsynaptic density protein of 95 kilodaltons; synapse-associated protein of 97 kilodaltons; postsynaptic density protein of 93 kilodaltons; synapse-associated protein of 102 kilodaltons; discs, large homolog 5; caspase activation and recruitment domain and membrane-associated guanylate-like kinase domain-containing protein 3; membrane protein, palmitoylated 3; calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase; membrane-associated guanylate kinase protein (MAGI)-1, MAGI-2, and MAGI-3], Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulatory factor proteins (NHERFs) (NHERF1, NHERF2, PDZ domain-containing kidney protein 1, and PDZ domain-containing kidney protein 2), Golgi-associated PDZ proteins (Gα-binding protein interacting protein, C-terminus and CFTR-associated ligand), PDZ domain-containing guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) 1 and 2, regulator of G protein signaling (RGS)-homology-RhoGEFs (PDZ domain-containing RhoGEF and

  13. Acetylcholine Receptor: Complex of Homologous Subunits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery, Michael A.; Hunkapiller, Michael W.; Strader, Catherine D.; Hood, Leroy E.

    1980-06-01

    The acetylcholine receptor from the electric ray Torpedo californica is composed of five subunits; two are identical and the other three are structurally related to them. Microsequence analysis of the four polypeptides demonstrates amino acid homology among the subunits. Further sequence analysis of both membrane-bound and Triton-solubilized, chromatographically purified receptor gave the stoichiometry of the four subunits (40,000:50,000:60,000:65,000 daltons) as 2:1:1:1, indicating that this protein is a pentameric complex with a molecular weight of 255,000 daltons. Genealogical analysis suggests that divergence from a common ancestral gene occurred early in the evolution of the receptor. This shared ancestry argues that each of the four subunits plays a functional role in the receptor's physiological action.

  14. Homologous series of induced early mutants in indican rice. Pt.1. The production of homologous series of early mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiulan; Yang Hefeng; He Zhentian; Han Yuepeng; Liu Xueyu

    1999-01-01

    The percentage of homologous series of early mutants induced from the same Indican rice variety were almost the same (1.37%∼1.64%) in 1983∼1993, but the ones from the different eco-typical varieties were different. The early variety was 0.73%, the mid variety was 1.51%, and the late variety was 1.97%. The percentage of homologous series of early mutants from the varieties with the same pedigree and relationship were similar, but the one from the cog nation were lower than those from distant varieties. There are basic laws and characters in the homologous series of early mutants: 1. The inhibited phenotype is the basic of the homologous series of early mutants; 2. The production of the homologous series of early mutants is closely related with the growing period of the parent; 3. The parallel mutation of the stem and leaves are simultaneously happened with the variation of early or late maturing; 4. The occurrence of the homologous series of early mutants is in a state of imbalance. According to the law of parallel variability, the production of homologous series of early mutants can be predicted as long as the parents' classification of plant, pedigree and ecological type are identified. Therefore, the early breeding can be guided by the law of homologous series of early mutants

  15. Proteomic Analysis of Pathogenic Fungi Reveals Highly Expressed Conserved Cell Wall Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Champer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We are presenting a quantitative proteomics tally of the most commonly expressed conserved fungal proteins of the cytosol, the cell wall, and the secretome. It was our goal to identify fungi-typical proteins that do not share significant homology with human proteins. Such fungal proteins are of interest to the development of vaccines or drug targets. Protein samples were derived from 13 fungal species, cultured in rich or in minimal media; these included clinical isolates of Aspergillus, Candida, Mucor, Cryptococcus, and Coccidioides species. Proteomes were analyzed by quantitative MSE (Mass Spectrometry—Elevated Collision Energy. Several thousand proteins were identified and quantified in total across all fractions and culture conditions. The 42 most abundant proteins identified in fungal cell walls or supernatants shared no to very little homology with human proteins. In contrast, all but five of the 50 most abundant cytosolic proteins had human homologs with sequence identity averaging 59%. Proteomic comparisons of the secreted or surface localized fungal proteins highlighted conserved homologs of the Aspergillus fumigatus proteins 1,3-β-glucanosyltransferases (Bgt1, Gel1-4, Crf1, Ecm33, EglC, and others. The fact that Crf1 and Gel1 were previously shown to be promising vaccine candidates, underlines the value of the proteomics data presented here.

  16. Structural profiles of human miRNA families from pairwise clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczkowski, Bogumil; Þórarinsson, Elfar; Reiche, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    secondary structure already predicted, little is known about the patterns of structural conservation among pre-miRNAs. We address this issue by clustering the human pre-miRNA sequences based on pairwise, sequence and secondary structure alignment using FOLDALIGN, followed by global multiple alignment...... of obtained clusters by WAR. As a result, the common secondary structure was successfully determined for four FOLDALIGN clusters: the RF00027 structural family of the Rfam database and three clusters with previously undescribed consensus structures. Availability: http://genome.ku.dk/resources/mirclust...

  17. Interactive roles of Ras, insulin receptor substrate-1, and proteins with Src homology-2 domains in insulin signaling in Xenopus oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, L M; Hausdorff, S F; Myers, M G; White, M F; Birnbaum, M J; Kahn, C R

    1994-11-04

    Insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) serves as the major immediate substrate of insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 receptors and following tyrosine phosphorylation binds to specific Src homology-2 (SH2) domain-containing proteins including the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase and GRB2, a molecule believed to link IRS-1 to the Ras pathway. To investigate how these SH2-containing signaling molecules interact to regulate insulin/IGF-1 action, IRS-1, glutathione S-transferase (GST)-SH2 domain fusion proteins and Ras proteins were microinjected into Xenopus oocytes. We found that pleiotropic insulin actions are mediated by IRS-1 through two independent, but convergent, pathways involving PI 3-kinase and GRB2. Thus, microinjection of GST-fusion proteins of either p85 or GRB2 inhibited IRS-1-dependent activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) and S6 kinases and oocyte maturation, although only the GST-SH2 of p85 reduced insulin-stimulated PI 3-kinase activation. Co-injection of a dominant negative Ras (S17N) with IRS-1 inhibited insulin-stimulated MAP and S6 kinase activation. Micro-injection of activated [Arg12,Thr59]Ras increased basal MAP and S6 kinase activities and sensitized the oocytes to insulin-stimulated maturation without altering insulin-stimulated PI 3-kinase. The Ras-enhanced oocyte maturation response, but not the elevated basal level of MAP and S6 kinase, was partially blocked by the SH2-p85, but not SH2-GRB2. These data strongly suggest that IRS-1 can mediate many of insulin's actions on cellular enzyme activation and cell cycle progression requires binding and activation of multiple different SH2-domain proteins.

  18. Purification, crystallization, small-angle X-ray scattering and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the SH2 domain of the Csk-homologous kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, Natalie J.; Gorman, Michael A.; Dobson, Renwick C. J.; Parker, Michael W.; Mulhern, Terrence D.

    2011-01-01

    The Src-homology 2 (SH2) domain of Csk-family protein tyrosine kinases acts as a conformational switch to regulate their catalytic activity, which in turn promotes the inhibition of their proto-oncogenic targets, the Src-family kinases. Here, the expression, purification, small-angle X-ray scattering and preliminary diffraction analysis of the SH2 domain of the Csk-homologous kinase is reported. The C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) and Csk-homologous kinase (CHK) are endogenous inhibitors of the proto-oncogenic Src family of protein tyrosine kinases (SFKs). Phosphotyrosyl peptide binding to their Src-homology 2 (SH2) domains activates Csk and CHK, enhancing their ability to suppress SFK signalling; however, the detailed mechanistic basis of this activation event is unclear. The CHK SH2 was expressed in Escherichia coli and the purified protein was characterized as monomeric by synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering in-line with size-exclusion chromatography. The CHK SH2 crystallized in 0.2 M sodium bromide, 0.1 M bis-Tris propane pH 6.5 and 20% polyethylene glycol 3350 and the best crystals diffracted to ∼1.6 Å resolution. The crystals belonged to space group P2, with unit-cell parameters a = 25.8, b = 34.6, c = 63.2 Å, β = 99.4°

  19. DNA double strand break repair in mammalian cells: role of MRE11 and BLM proteins at the initiation of Non Homologous End Joining (NHEJ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabarz, Anastazja

    2011-01-01

    DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are highly cytotoxic lesions, which can lead to genetic rearrangements. Two pathways are responsible for repairing these lesions: homologous recombination (HR) and non homologous end joining (NHEJ). In our laboratory, an intrachromosomal substrate has been established in order to measure the efficiency and the fidelity of NHEJ in living cells (Guirouilh-Barbat 2004). This approach led us to identify a KU-independent alternative pathway, which uses micro homologies in the proximity of the junction to accomplish repair - the alternative NHEJ (Guirouilh-Barbat 2004, Guirouilh-Barbat et Rass 2007). The goal of my thesis consisted in identifying and characterising major actors of this pathway. In the absence of KU, alternative NHEJ would be initiated by ssDNA resection of damaged ends. We showed that the nuclease activity of MRE11 is necessary for this mechanism. MRE11 overexpression leads to a two fold stimulation of NHEJ efficiency, while the extinction of MRE11 by siRNA results in a two fold decrease. Our results demonstrate that the proteins RAD50 and CtIP act in the same pathway as MRE11. Moreover, in cells deficient for XRCC4, MIRIN - an inhibitor of the MRN complex - leads to a decrease in repair efficiency, implicating MRE11 in alternative NHEJ. We also showed that MRE11 can act in an ATM-dependent and independent manner (Rass et Grabarz Nat Struct Mol Biol 2009). The initiation of break resection needs to be pursued by a more extensive degradation of DNA, which is accomplished in yeast by the proteins Exo1 and Sgs1/Dna2. In human cells, in vitro studies have recently proposed a similar model of a two-step break resection. We chose to elucidate the role of one of the human homologs of Sgs1 - the RecQ helicase BLM - in the resection process. Our experiments show, that he absence of BLM decreases the efficiency of end joining by NHEJ, accompanied by an increase in error-prone events, especially long-range deletions (≥200 nt). This

  20. Identification of a serine proteinase homolog (Sp-SPH) involved in immune defense in the mud crab Scylla paramamosain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiu-xia; Liu, Hai-peng; Chen, Rong-yuan; Shen, Kai-li; Wang, Ke-jian

    2013-01-01

    Clip domain serine proteinase homologs are involved in many biological processes including immune response. To identify the immune function of a serine proteinase homolog (Sp-SPH), originally isolated from hemocytes of the mud crab, Scylla paramamosain, the Sp-SPH was expressed recombinantly and purified for further studies. It was found that the Sp-SPH protein could bind to a number of bacteria (including Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio fluvialis, Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio parahemolyticus), bacterial cell wall components such as lipopolysaccharide or peptidoglycan (PGN), and β-1, 3-glucan of fungus. But no direct antibacterial activity of Sp-SPH protein was shown by using minimum inhibitory concentration or minimum bactericidal concentration assays. Nevertheless, the Sp-SPH protein was found to significantly enhance the crab hemocyte adhesion activity (paired t-test, Pparahemolyticus which were both recognized by Sp-SPH protein, if pre-incubated with Sp-SPH protein, respectively. Whereas, the crabs died much faster when challenged with Vibrio alginolyiicus, a pathogenic bacterium not recognized by Sp-SPH protein, compared to those of crabs challenged with A. hydrophila or V. parahemolyticus when pre-coated with Sp-SPH protein. Taken together, these data suggested that Sp-SPH molecule might play an important role in immune defense against bacterial infection in the mud crab S. paramamosain.

  1. SECRET domain of variola virus CrmB protein can be a member of poxviral type II chemokine-binding proteins family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonets, Denis V; Nepomnyashchikh, Tatyana S; Shchelkunov, Sergei N

    2010-10-27

    Variola virus (VARV) the causative agent of smallpox, eradicated in 1980, have wide spectrum of immunomodulatory proteins to evade host immunity. Recently additional biological activity was discovered for VARV CrmB protein, known to bind and inhibit tumour necrosis factor (TNF) through its N-terminal domain homologous to cellular TNF receptors. Besides binding TNF, this protein was also shown to bind with high affinity several chemokines which recruit B- and T-lymphocytes and dendritic cells to sites of viral entry and replication. Ability to bind chemokines was shown to be associated with unique C-terminal domain of CrmB protein. This domain named SECRET (Smallpox virus-Encoded Chemokine Receptor) is unrelated to the host proteins and lacks significant homology with other known viral chemokine-binding proteins or any other known protein. De novo modelling of VARV-CrmB SECRET domain spatial structure revealed its apparent structural homology with cowpox virus CC-chemokine binding protein (vCCI) and vaccinia virus A41 protein, despite low sequence identity between these three proteins. Potential ligand-binding surface of modelled VARV-CrmB SECRET domain was also predicted to bear prominent electronegative charge which is characteristic to known orthopoxviral chemokine-binding proteins. Our results suggest that SECRET should be included into the family of poxviral type II chemokine-binding proteins and that it might have been evolved from the vCCI-like predecessor protein.

  2. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the human calcineurin homologous protein CHP2 bound to the cytoplasmic region of the Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger NHE1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Ammar, Youssef [Department of Molecular Physiology, National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Fujishiro-dai 5-7-1, Suita, Osaka 565-8565 (Japan); Takeda, Soichi [Department of Cardiac Physiology, National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Fujishiro-dai 5-7-1, Suita, Osaka 565-8565 (Japan); Sugawara, Mitsuaki; Miyano, Masashi [Structural Biophysics Laboratory, RIKEN Harima Institute at SPring-8, Kouto, Mikazuki, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Mori, Hidezo [Department of Cardiac Physiology, National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Fujishiro-dai 5-7-1, Suita, Osaka 565-8565 (Japan); Wakabayashi, Shigeo, E-mail: wak@ri.ncvc.go.jp [Department of Molecular Physiology, National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Fujishiro-dai 5-7-1, Suita, Osaka 565-8565 (Japan)

    2005-10-01

    Crystallization of the human CHP2–NHE1 binding domain complex. Calcineurin homologous protein (CHP) is a Ca{sup 2+}-binding protein that directly interacts with and regulates the activity of all plasma-membrane Na{sup +}/H{sup +}-exchanger (NHE) family members. In contrast to the ubiquitous isoform CHP1, CHP2 is highly expressed in cancer cells. To understand the regulatory mechanism of NHE1 by CHP2, the complex CHP2–NHE1 (amino acids 503–545) has been crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as precipitant. The crystals diffract to 2.7 Å and belong to a tetragonal space group, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 49.96, c = 103.20 Å.

  3. Analysis of Geographic and Pairwise Distances among Chinese Cashmere Goat Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jian-Bin; Wang, Fan; Lang, Xia; Zha, Xi; Sun, Xiao-Ping; Yue, Yao-Jing; Feng, Rui-Lin; Yang, Bo-Hui; Guo, Jian

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the geographic and pairwise distances of nine Chinese local Cashmere goat populations through the analysis of 20 microsatellite DNA markers. Fluorescence PCR was used to identify the markers, which were selected based on their significance as identified by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG). In total, 206 alleles were detected; the average allele number was 10.30; the polymorphism i...

  4. Chromosome painting reveals asynaptic full alignment of homologs and HIM-8-dependent remodeling of X chromosome territories during Caenorhabditis elegans meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabeshima, Kentaro; Mlynarczyk-Evans, Susanna; Villeneuve, Anne M

    2011-08-01

    During early meiotic prophase, a nucleus-wide reorganization leads to sorting of chromosomes into homologous pairs and to establishing associations between homologous chromosomes along their entire lengths. Here, we investigate global features of chromosome organization during this process, using a chromosome painting method in whole-mount Caenorhabditis elegans gonads that enables visualization of whole chromosomes along their entire lengths in the context of preserved 3D nuclear architecture. First, we show that neither spatial proximity of premeiotic chromosome territories nor chromosome-specific timing is a major factor driving homolog pairing. Second, we show that synaptonemal complex-independent associations can support full lengthwise juxtaposition of homologous chromosomes. Third, we reveal a prominent elongation of chromosome territories during meiotic prophase that initiates prior to homolog association and alignment. Mutant analysis indicates that chromosome movement mediated by association of chromosome pairing centers (PCs) with mobile patches of the nuclear envelope (NE)-spanning SUN-1/ZYG-12 protein complexes is not the primary driver of territory elongation. Moreover, we identify new roles for the X chromosome PC (X-PC) and X-PC binding protein HIM-8 in promoting elongation of X chromosome territories, separable from their role(s) in mediating local stabilization of pairing and association of X chromosomes with mobile SUN-1/ZYG-12 patches. Further, we present evidence that HIM-8 functions both at and outside of PCs to mediate chromosome territory elongation. These and other data support a model in which synapsis-independent elongation of chromosome territories, driven by PC binding proteins, enables lengthwise juxtaposition of chromosomes, thereby facilitating assessment of their suitability as potential pairing partners.

  5. Orientation-dependent backbone-only residue pair scoring functions for fixed backbone protein design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordner Andrew J

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Empirical scoring functions have proven useful in protein structure modeling. Most such scoring functions depend on protein side chain conformations. However, backbone-only scoring functions do not require computationally intensive structure optimization and so are well suited to protein design, which requires fast score evaluation. Furthermore, scoring functions that account for the distinctive relative position and orientation preferences of residue pairs are expected to be more accurate than those that depend only on the separation distance. Results Residue pair scoring functions for fixed backbone protein design were derived using only backbone geometry. Unlike previous studies that used spherical harmonics to fit 2D angular distributions, Gaussian Mixture Models were used to fit the full 3D (position only and 6D (position and orientation distributions of residue pairs. The performance of the 1D (residue separation only, 3D, and 6D scoring functions were compared by their ability to identify correct threading solutions for a non-redundant benchmark set of protein backbone structures. The threading accuracy was found to steadily increase with increasing dimension, with the 6D scoring function achieving the highest accuracy. Furthermore, the 3D and 6D scoring functions were shown to outperform side chain-dependent empirical potentials from three other studies. Next, two computational methods that take advantage of the speed and pairwise form of these new backbone-only scoring functions were investigated. The first is a procedure that exploits available sequence data by averaging scores over threading solutions for homologs. This was evaluated by applying it to the challenging problem of identifying interacting transmembrane alpha-helices and found to further improve prediction accuracy. The second is a protein design method for determining the optimal sequence for a backbone structure by applying Belief Propagation

  6. A water market simulator considering pair-wise trades between agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huskova, I.; Erfani, T.; Harou, J. J.

    2012-04-01

    In many basins in England no further water abstraction licences are available. Trading water between water rights holders has been recognized as a potentially effective and economically efficient strategy to mitigate increasing scarcity. A screening tool that could assess the potential for trade through realistic simulation of individual water rights holders would help assess the solution's potential contribution to local water management. We propose an optimisation-driven water market simulator that predicts pair-wise trade in a catchment and represents its interaction with natural hydrology and engineered infrastructure. A model is used to emulate licence-holders' willingness to engage in short-term trade transactions. In their simplest form agents are represented using an economic benefit function. The working hypothesis is that trading behaviour can be partially predicted based on differences in marginal values of water over space and time and estimates of transaction costs on pair-wise trades. We discuss the further possibility of embedding rules, norms and preferences of the different water user sectors to more realistically represent the behaviours, motives and constraints of individual licence holders. The potential benefits and limitations of such a social simulation (agent-based) approach is contrasted with our simulator where agents are driven by economic optimization. A case study based on the Dove River Basin (UK) demonstrates model inputs and outputs. The ability of the model to suggest impacts of water rights policy reforms on trading is discussed.

  7. Coevolution study of mitochondria respiratory chain proteins: toward the understanding of protein--protein interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Ge, Yan; Wu, Jiayan; Xiao, Jingfa; Yu, Jun

    2011-05-20

    Coevolution can be seen as the interdependency between evolutionary histories. In the context of protein evolution, functional correlation proteins are ever-present coordinated evolutionary characters without disruption of organismal integrity. As to complex system, there are two forms of protein--protein interactions in vivo, which refer to inter-complex interaction and intra-complex interaction. In this paper, we studied the difference of coevolution characters between inter-complex interaction and intra-complex interaction using "Mirror tree" method on the respiratory chain (RC) proteins. We divided the correlation coefficients of every pairwise RC proteins into two groups corresponding to the binary protein--protein interaction in intra-complex and the binary protein--protein interaction in inter-complex, respectively. A dramatical discrepancy is detected between the coevolution characters of the two sets of protein interactions (Wilcoxon test, p-value = 4.4 × 10(-6)). Our finding reveals some critical information on coevolutionary study and assists the mechanical investigation of protein--protein interaction. Furthermore, the results also provide some unique clue for supramolecular organization of protein complexes in the mitochondrial inner membrane. More detailed binding sites map and genome information of nuclear encoded RC proteins will be extraordinary valuable for the further mitochondria dynamics study. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Living network meta-analysis compared with pairwise meta-analysis in comparative effectiveness research: empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakopoulou, Adriani; Mavridis, Dimitris; Furukawa, Toshi A; Cipriani, Andrea; Tricco, Andrea C; Straus, Sharon E; Siontis, George C M; Egger, Matthias; Salanti, Georgia

    2018-02-28

    To examine whether the continuous updating of networks of prospectively planned randomised controlled trials (RCTs) ("living" network meta-analysis) provides strong evidence against the null hypothesis in comparative effectiveness of medical interventions earlier than the updating of conventional, pairwise meta-analysis. Empirical study of the accumulating evidence about the comparative effectiveness of clinical interventions. Database of network meta-analyses of RCTs identified through searches of Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews until 14 April 2015. Network meta-analyses published after January 2012 that compared at least five treatments and included at least 20 RCTs. Clinical experts were asked to identify in each network the treatment comparison of greatest clinical interest. Comparisons were excluded for which direct and indirect evidence disagreed, based on side, or node, splitting test (Pmeta-analyses were performed for each selected comparison. Monitoring boundaries of statistical significance were constructed and the evidence against the null hypothesis was considered to be strong when the monitoring boundaries were crossed. A significance level was defined as α=5%, power of 90% (β=10%), and an anticipated treatment effect to detect equal to the final estimate from the network meta-analysis. The frequency and time to strong evidence was compared against the null hypothesis between pairwise and network meta-analyses. 49 comparisons of interest from 44 networks were included; most (n=39, 80%) were between active drugs, mainly from the specialties of cardiology, endocrinology, psychiatry, and rheumatology. 29 comparisons were informed by both direct and indirect evidence (59%), 13 by indirect evidence (27%), and 7 by direct evidence (14%). Both network and pairwise meta-analysis provided strong evidence against the null hypothesis for seven comparisons, but for an additional 10 comparisons only network meta-analysis provided

  9. Pairwise correlations via quantum discord and its geometric measure in a four-qubit spin chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Baset A. Mohamed

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic of pairwise correlations, including quantum entanglement (QE and discord (QD with geometric measure of quantum discord (GMQD, are shown in the four-qubit Heisenberg XX spin chain. The results show that the effect of the entanglement degree of the initial state on the pairwise correlations is stronger for alternate qubits than it is for nearest-neighbor qubits. This parameter results in sudden death for QE, but it cannot do so for QD and GMQD. With different values for this entanglement parameter of the initial state, QD and GMQD differ and are sensitive for any change in this parameter. It is found that GMQD is more robust than both QD and QE to describe correlations with nonzero values, which offers a valuable resource for quantum computation.

  10. Functional Analysis of Homologous Recombination Repair Proteins HerA and NurA in the Thermophile Sulfolobus islandicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Qihong

    A number of DNA lesions are generated in each cell every day, among which double-stranded breaks (DSBs) constitute one of the most detrimental types of DNA damage. DSBs lead to genome instability, cell death, or even tumorigenesis in human, if not repaired timely. Two main pathways are known...... in the S/G2 phase of the cell cycle are preferentially repaired by HRR pathway, while NHEJ is the favorate pathway to repair DSBs in the G1 phase. Bacteria encode multiple pathways for DSB repair, including RecBCD, the primary HR pathway, SbcC-SbcD, and one backup system, RecFOR. In eukaryotes, the HRR...... pathway is mediated by Mre11-Rad50, homologs of bacterial SbcD-SbcC. However, numerous proteins and multiple layers of regulation exist to ensure these repair pathways are accurate and restricted to the appropriate cellular contexts, making many important mechanistic details poorly understood...

  11. Extraction of tacit knowledge from large ADME data sets via pairwise analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Christopher E; Chang, George; Kauffman, Gregory W

    2011-06-15

    Pharmaceutical companies routinely collect data across multiple projects for common ADME endpoints. Although at the time of collection the data is intended for use in decision making within a specific project, knowledge can be gained by data mining the entire cross-project data set for patterns of structure-activity relationships (SAR) that may be applied to any project. One such data mining method is pairwise analysis. This method has the advantage of being able to identify small structural changes that lead to significant changes in activity. In this paper, we describe the process for full pairwise analysis of our high-throughput ADME assays routinely used for compound discovery efforts at Pfizer (microsomal clearance, passive membrane permeability, P-gp efflux, and lipophilicity). We also describe multiple strategies for the application of these transforms in a prospective manner during compound design. Finally, a detailed analysis of the activity patterns in pairs of compounds that share the same molecular transformation reveals multiple types of transforms from an SAR perspective. These include bioisosteres, additives, multiplicatives, and a type we call switches as they act to either turn on or turn off an activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Colored Kauffman homology and super-A-polynomials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawata, Satoshi; Ramadevi, P.; Zodinmawia

    2014-01-01

    We study the structural properties of colored Kauffman homologies of knots. Quadruple-gradings play an essential role in revealing the differential structure of colored Kauffman homology. Using the differential structure, the Kauffman homologies carrying the symmetric tensor products of the vector representation for the trefoil and the figure-eight are determined. In addition, making use of relations from representation theory, we also obtain the HOMFLY homologies colored by rectangular Young tableaux with two rows for these knots. Furthermore, the notion of super-A-polynomials is extended in order to encompass two-parameter deformations of PSL(2,ℂ) character varieties

  13. Automated Protein Structure Modeling with SWISS-MODEL Workspace and the Protein Model Portal

    OpenAIRE

    Bordoli, Lorenza; Schwede, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Comparative protein structure modeling is a computational approach to build three-dimensional structural models for proteins using experimental structures of related protein family members as templates. Regular blind assessments of modeling accuracy have demonstrated that comparative protein structure modeling is currently the most reliable technique to model protein structures. Homology models are often sufficiently accurate to substitute for experimental structures in a wide variety of appl...

  14. t2prhd: a tool to study the patterns of repeat evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pénzes Zsolt

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The models developed to characterize the evolution of multigene families (such as the birth-and-death and the concerted models have also been applied on the level of sequence repeats inside a gene/protein. Phylogenetic reconstruction is the method of choice to study the evolution of gene families and also sequence repeats in the light of these models. The characterization of the gene family evolution in view of the evolutionary models is done by the evaluation of the clustering of the sequences with the originating loci in mind. As the locus represents positional information, it is straightforward that in the case of the repeats the exact position in the sequence should be used, as the simple numbering according to repeat order can be misleading. Results We have developed a novel rapid visual approach to study repeat evolution, that takes into account the exact repeat position in a sequence. The "pairwise repeat homology diagram" visualizes sequence repeats detected by a profile HMM in a pair of sequences and highlights their homology relations inferred by a phylogenetic tree. The method is implemented in a Perl script (t2prhd available for downloading at http://t2prhd.sourceforge.net and is also accessible as an online tool at http://t2prhd.brc.hu. The power of the method is demonstrated on the EGF-like and fibronectin-III-like (Fn-III domain repeats of three selected mammalian Tenascin sequences. Conclusion Although pairwise repeat homology diagrams do not carry all the information provided by the phylogenetic tree, they allow a rapid and intuitive assessment of repeat evolution. We believe, that t2prhd is a helpful tool with which to study the pattern of repeat evolution. This method can be particularly useful in cases of large datasets (such as large gene families, as the command line interface makes it possible to automate the generation of pairwise repeat homology diagrams with the aid of scripts.

  15. Schizosaccharomyces pombe Mms1 channels repair of perturbed replication into Rhp51 independent homologous recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejrup-Hansen, Rasmus; Mizuno, Ken'Ichi; Miyabe, Izumi

    2011-01-01

    -like protein, Rtt101/Cul8, a potential paralog of Cullin 4. We performed epistasis analysis between ¿mms1 and mutants of pathways with known functions in genome integrity, and measured the recruitment of homologous recombination proteins to blocked replication forks and recombination frequencies. We show that......-specific replication fork barrier and that, in a ¿mms1 strain, Rad22(Rad52) and RPA recruitment to blocked forks are reduced, whereas Rhp51 recruitment is unaffected. In addition, Mms1 appears to specifically promote chromosomal rearrangements in a recombination assay. These observations suggest that Mms1 acts...... is particularly important when a single strand break is converted into a double strand break during replication. Genetic data connect Mms1 to a Mus81 and Rad22(Rad52) dependent, but Rhp51 independent, branch of homologous recombination. This is supported by results demonstrating that Mms1 is recruited to a site...

  16. A decline in transcript abundance for Heterodera glycines homologs of Caenorhabditis elegans uncoordinated genes accompanies its sedentary parasitic phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Overall Christopher C

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode [SCN], the major pathogen of Glycine max (soybean, undergoes muscle degradation (sarcopenia as it becomes sedentary inside the root. Many genes encoding muscular and neuromuscular components belong to the uncoordinated (unc family of genes originally identified in Caenorhabditis elegans. Previously, we reported a substantial decrease in transcript abundance for Hg-unc-87, the H. glycines homolog of unc-87 (calponin during the adult sedentary phase of SCN. These observations implied that changes in the expression of specific muscle genes occurred during sarcopenia. Results We developed a bioinformatics database that compares expressed sequence tag (est and genomic data of C. elegans and H. glycines (CeHg database. We identify H. glycines homologs of C. elegans unc genes whose protein products are involved in muscle composition and regulation. RT-PCR reveals the transcript abundance of H. glycines unc homologs at mobile and sedentary stages of its lifecycle. A prominent reduction in transcript abundance occurs in samples from sedentary nematodes for homologs of actin, unc-60B (cofilin, unc-89, unc-15 (paromyosin, unc-27 (troponin I, unc-54 (myosin, and the potassium channel unc-110 (twk-18. Less reduction is observed for the focal adhesion complex gene Hg-unc-97. Conclusion The CeHg bioinformatics database is shown to be useful in identifying homologs of genes whose protein products perform roles in specific aspects of H. glycines muscle biology. Our bioinformatics comparison of C. elegans and H. glycines genomic data and our Hg-unc-87 expression experiments demonstrate that the transcript abundance of specific H. glycines homologs of muscle gene decreases as the nematode becomes sedentary inside the root during its parasitic feeding stages.

  17. Cytokine-like factor-1, a novel soluble protein, shares homology with members of the cytokine type I receptor family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elson, G C; Graber, P; Losberger, C; Herren, S; Gretener, D; Menoud, L N; Wells, T N; Kosco-Vilbois, M H; Gauchat, J F

    1998-08-01

    In this report we describe the identification, cloning, and expression pattern of human cytokine-like factor 1 (hCLF-1) and the identification and cloning of its murine homologue. They were identified from expressed sequence tags using amino acid sequences from conserved regions of the cytokine type I receptor family. Human CLF-1 and murine CLF-1 shared 96% amino acid identity and significant homology with many cytokine type I receptors. CLF-1 is a secreted protein, suggesting that it is either a soluble subunit within a cytokine receptor complex, like the soluble form of the IL-6R alpha-chain, or a subunit of a multimeric cytokine, e.g., IL-12 p40. The highest levels of hCLF-1 mRNA were observed in lymph node, spleen, thymus, appendix, placenta, stomach, bone marrow, and fetal lung, with constitutive expression of CLF-1 mRNA detected in a human kidney fibroblastic cell line. In fibroblast primary cell cultures, CLF-1 mRNA was up-regulated by TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IFN-gamma. Western blot analysis of recombinant forms of hCLF-1 showed that the protein has the tendency to form covalently linked di- and tetramers. These results suggest that CLF-1 is a novel soluble cytokine receptor subunit or part of a novel cytokine complex, possibly playing a regulatory role in the immune system and during fetal development.

  18. Hierarchical ordering with partial pairwise hierarchical relationships on the macaque brain data sets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woosang Lim

    Full Text Available Hierarchical organizations of information processing in the brain networks have been known to exist and widely studied. To find proper hierarchical structures in the macaque brain, the traditional methods need the entire pairwise hierarchical relationships between cortical areas. In this paper, we present a new method that discovers hierarchical structures of macaque brain networks by using partial information of pairwise hierarchical relationships. Our method uses a graph-based manifold learning to exploit inherent relationship, and computes pseudo distances of hierarchical levels for every pair of cortical areas. Then, we compute hierarchy levels of all cortical areas by minimizing the sum of squared hierarchical distance errors with the hierarchical information of few cortical areas. We evaluate our method on the macaque brain data sets whose true hierarchical levels are known as the FV91 model. The experimental results show that hierarchy levels computed by our method are similar to the FV91 model, and its errors are much smaller than the errors of hierarchical clustering approaches.

  19. Role of nitric oxide and flavohemoglobin homolog genes in Aspergillus nidulans sexual development and mycotoxin production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavohemoglobins are widely distributed proteins in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, conferring resistance against nitrosative stress. In the present study we investigated the role of two flavohemoglobin homologous genes, fhbA and fhbB, in morphogenesis and in the production of the mycotox...

  20. Solvent Effects on Protein Folding/Unfolding

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, A. E.; Hillson, N.; Onuchic, J. N.

    Pressure effects on the hydrophobic potential of mean force led Hummer et al. to postulate a model for pressure denaturation of proteins in which denaturation occurs by means of water penetration into the protein interior, rather than by exposing the protein hydrophobic core to the solvent --- commonly used to describe temperature denaturation. We study the effects of pressure in protein folding/unfolding kinetics in an off-lattice minimalist model of a protein in which pressure effects have been incorporated by means of the pair-wise potential of mean force of hydrophobic groups in water. We show that pressure slows down the kinetics of folding by decreasing the reconfigurational diffusion coefficient and moves the location of the folding transition state.

  1. Direct Single-Molecule Observation of Mode and Geometry of RecA-Mediated Homology Search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andrew J; Endo, Masayuki; Hobbs, Jamie K; Wälti, Christoph

    2018-01-23

    Genomic integrity, when compromised by accrued DNA lesions, is maintained through efficient repair via homologous recombination. For this process the ubiquitous recombinase A (RecA), and its homologues such as the human Rad51, are of central importance, able to align and exchange homologous sequences within single-stranded and double-stranded DNA in order to swap out defective regions. Here, we directly observe the widely debated mechanism of RecA homology searching at a single-molecule level using high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) in combination with tailored DNA origami frames to present the reaction targets in a way suitable for AFM-imaging. We show that RecA nucleoprotein filaments move along DNA substrates via short-distance facilitated diffusions, or slides, interspersed with longer-distance random moves, or hops. Importantly, from the specific interaction geometry, we find that the double-stranded substrate DNA resides in the secondary DNA binding-site within the RecA nucleoprotein filament helical groove during the homology search. This work demonstrates that tailored DNA origami, in conjunction with HS-AFM, can be employed to reveal directly conformational and geometrical information on dynamic protein-DNA interactions which was previously inaccessible at an individual single-molecule level.

  2. Chromosome Painting Reveals Asynaptic Full Alignment of Homologs and HIM-8–Dependent Remodeling of X Chromosome Territories during Caenorhabditis elegans Meiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabeshima, Kentaro; Mlynarczyk-Evans, Susanna; Villeneuve, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    During early meiotic prophase, a nucleus-wide reorganization leads to sorting of chromosomes into homologous pairs and to establishing associations between homologous chromosomes along their entire lengths. Here, we investigate global features of chromosome organization during this process, using a chromosome painting method in whole-mount Caenorhabditis elegans gonads that enables visualization of whole chromosomes along their entire lengths in the context of preserved 3D nuclear architecture. First, we show that neither spatial proximity of premeiotic chromosome territories nor chromosome-specific timing is a major factor driving homolog pairing. Second, we show that synaptonemal complex-independent associations can support full lengthwise juxtaposition of homologous chromosomes. Third, we reveal a prominent elongation of chromosome territories during meiotic prophase that initiates prior to homolog association and alignment. Mutant analysis indicates that chromosome movement mediated by association of chromosome pairing centers (PCs) with mobile patches of the nuclear envelope (NE)–spanning SUN-1/ZYG-12 protein complexes is not the primary driver of territory elongation. Moreover, we identify new roles for the X chromosome PC (X-PC) and X-PC binding protein HIM-8 in promoting elongation of X chromosome territories, separable from their role(s) in mediating local stabilization of pairing and association of X chromosomes with mobile SUN-1/ZYG-12 patches. Further, we present evidence that HIM-8 functions both at and outside of PCs to mediate chromosome territory elongation. These and other data support a model in which synapsis-independent elongation of chromosome territories, driven by PC binding proteins, enables lengthwise juxtaposition of chromosomes, thereby facilitating assessment of their suitability as potential pairing partners. PMID:21876678

  3. SECRET domain of variola virus CrmB protein can be a member of poxviral type II chemokine-binding proteins family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shchelkunov Sergei N

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variola virus (VARV the causative agent of smallpox, eradicated in 1980, have wide spectrum of immunomodulatory proteins to evade host immunity. Recently additional biological activity was discovered for VARV CrmB protein, known to bind and inhibit tumour necrosis factor (TNF through its N-terminal domain homologous to cellular TNF receptors. Besides binding TNF, this protein was also shown to bind with high affinity several chemokines which recruit B- and T-lymphocytes and dendritic cells to sites of viral entry and replication. Ability to bind chemokines was shown to be associated with unique C-terminal domain of CrmB protein. This domain named SECRET (Smallpox virus-Encoded Chemokine Receptor is unrelated to the host proteins and lacks significant homology with other known viral chemokine-binding proteins or any other known protein. Findings De novo modelling of VARV-CrmB SECRET domain spatial structure revealed its apparent structural homology with cowpox virus CC-chemokine binding protein (vCCI and vaccinia virus A41 protein, despite low sequence identity between these three proteins. Potential ligand-binding surface of modelled VARV-CrmB SECRET domain was also predicted to bear prominent electronegative charge which is characteristic to known orthopoxviral chemokine-binding proteins. Conclusions Our results suggest that SECRET should be included into the family of poxviral type II chemokine-binding proteins and that it might have been evolved from the vCCI-like predecessor protein.

  4. A member of a new plant gene family encoding a meprin and TRAF homology (MATH) domain-containing protein is involved in restriction of long distance movement of plant viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosson, Patrick; Sofer, Luc; Schurdi-Levraud, Valérie

    2010-01-01

    Restriction of long distance movement of several potyviruses in Arabidopsis thaliana is controlled by at least three dominant restricted TEV movement (RTM) genes, named RTM1, RTM2 and RTM3 and acts as a non-conventional resistance. RTM1 encodes a protein belonging to the jacalin family and RTM2 encodes a protein which has similarities to small heat shock proteins. The recent cloning of RTM3 which encodes a protein belonging to an unknown protein family of 29 members that has a meprin and TRAF homology (MATH) domain in its N-terminal region and a coiled-coil (CC) domain at its C-terminal end is an important breakthrough for a better understanding of this resistance process. Not only the third gene involved in this resistance has been identified and has allowed revealing a new gene family in plant but the discovery that the RTM3 protein interacts directly with RTM1 strongly suggests that the RTM proteins form a multimeric complex. However, these data also highlight striking similarities of the RTM resistance with the well known R-gene mediated resistance. PMID:20930558

  5. Differential protein expression in alligator leukocytes in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Mark; Kinney, Clint; Sanders, Paige

    2009-12-01

    Blood was collected from three juvenile alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) before, and again 24h after, injection with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The leukocytes were collected from both samples, and the proteins were extracted. Each group of proteins was labeled with a different fluorescent dye and the differences in protein expression were analyzed by two dimensional differential in-gel expressions (2D-DIGE). The proteins which appeared to be increased or decreased by treatment with LPS were selected and analyzed by MALDI-TOF to determine mass and LC-MS/MS to acquire the partial protein sequences. The peptide sequences were compared to the NCBI protein sequence database to determine homology with other sequences from other species. Several proteins of interest appeared to be increased upon LPS stimulation. Proteins with homology to human transgelin-2, fish glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, amphibian α-enolase, alligator lactate dehydrogenase, fish ubiquitin-activating enzyme, and fungal β-tubulin were also increased after LPS injection. Proteins with homology to fish vimentin 4, murine heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A3, and avian calreticulin were found to be decreased in response to LPS. In addition, five proteins, four of which were up-regulated (827, 560, 512, and 650%) and one that exhibited repressed expression (307%), did not show homology to any protein in the database, and thus may represent newly discovered proteins. We are using this biochemical approach to isolate and characterize alligator proteins with potential relevant immune function.

  6. Nonparametric predictive pairwise comparison with competing risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coolen-Maturi, Tahani

    2014-01-01

    In reliability, failure data often correspond to competing risks, where several failure modes can cause a unit to fail. This paper presents nonparametric predictive inference (NPI) for pairwise comparison with competing risks data, assuming that the failure modes are independent. These failure modes could be the same or different among the two groups, and these can be both observed and unobserved failure modes. NPI is a statistical approach based on few assumptions, with inferences strongly based on data and with uncertainty quantified via lower and upper probabilities. The focus is on the lower and upper probabilities for the event that the lifetime of a future unit from one group, say Y, is greater than the lifetime of a future unit from the second group, say X. The paper also shows how the two groups can be compared based on particular failure mode(s), and the comparison of the two groups when some of the competing risks are combined is discussed

  7. The Drosophila HEM-2/NAP1 homolog KETTE controls axonal pathfinding and cytoskeletal organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, T; Leifker, K; Klämbt, C

    2000-04-01

    In Drosophila, the correct formation of the segmental commissures depends on neuron-glial interactions at the midline. The VUM midline neurons extend axons along which glial cells migrate in between anterior and posterior commissures. Here, we show that the gene kette is required for the normal projection of the VUM axons and subsequently disrupts glial migration. Axonal projection defects are also found for many other moto- and interneurons. In addition, kette affects the cell morphology of mesodermal and epidermal derivatives, which show an abnormal actin cytoskeleton. The KETTE protein is homologous to the transmembrane protein HEM-2/NAP1 evolutionary conserved from worms to vertebrates. In vitro analysis has shown a specific interaction of the vertebrate HEM-2/NAP1 with the SH2-SH3 adapter protein NCK and the small GTPase RAC1, which both have been implicated in regulating cytoskeleton organization and axonal growth. Hypomorphic kette mutations lead to axonal defects similar to mutations in the Drosophila NCK homolog dreadlocks. Furthermore, we show that kette and dock mutants genetically interact. NCK is thought to interact with the small G proteins RAC1 and CDC42, which play a role in axonal growth. In line with these observations, a kette phenocopy can be obtained following directed expression of mutant DCDC42 or DRAC1 in the CNS midline. In addition, the kette mutant phenotype can be partially rescued by expression of an activated DRAC1 transgene. Our data suggest an important role of the HEM-2 protein in cytoskeletal organization during axonal pathfinding.

  8. Identification of a Serine Proteinase Homolog (Sp-SPH) Involved in Immune Defense in the Mud Crab Scylla paramamosain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiu-xia; Liu, Hai-peng; Chen, Rong-yuan; Shen, Kai-li; Wang, Ke-jian

    2013-01-01

    Clip domain serine proteinase homologs are involved in many biological processes including immune response. To identify the immune function of a serine proteinase homolog (Sp-SPH), originally isolated from hemocytes of the mud crab, Scylla paramamosain, the Sp-SPH was expressed recombinantly and purified for further studies. It was found that the Sp-SPH protein could bind to a number of bacteria (including Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio fluvialis, Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio parahemolyticus), bacterial cell wall components such as lipopolysaccharide or peptidoglycan (PGN), and β-1, 3-glucan of fungus. But no direct antibacterial activity of Sp-SPH protein was shown by using minimum inhibitory concentration or minimum bactericidal concentration assays. Nevertheless, the Sp-SPH protein was found to significantly enhance the crab hemocyte adhesion activity (paired t-test, Pparahemolyticus which were both recognized by Sp-SPH protein, if pre-incubated with Sp-SPH protein, respectively. Whereas, the crabs died much faster when challenged with Vibrio alginolyiicus, a pathogenic bacterium not recognized by Sp-SPH protein, compared to those of crabs challenged with A. hydrophila or V. parahemolyticus when pre-coated with Sp-SPH protein. Taken together, these data suggested that Sp-SPH molecule might play an important role in immune defense against bacterial infection in the mud crab S. paramamosain. PMID:23724001

  9. The S-layer homology domain-containing protein SlhA from Paenibacillus alvei CCM 2051(T) is important for swarming and biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janesch, Bettina; Koerdt, Andrea; Messner, Paul; Schäffer, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Swarming and biofilm formation have been studied for a variety of bacteria. While this is well investigated for Gram-negative bacteria, less is known about Gram-positive bacteria, including Paenibacillus alvei, a secondary invader of diseased honeybee colonies infected with Melissococcus pluton, the causative agent of European foulbrood (EFB). Paenibacillus alvei CCM 2051(T) is a Gram-positive bacterium which was recently shown to employ S-layer homology (SLH) domains as cell wall targeting modules to display proteins on its cell surface. This study deals with the newly identified 1335-amino acid protein SlhA from P. alvei which carries at the C‑terminus three consecutive SLH-motifs containing the predicted binding sequences SRGE, VRQD, and LRGD instead of the common TRAE motif. Based on the proof of cell surface location of SlhA by fluorescence microscopy using a SlhA-GFP chimera, the binding mechanism was investigated in an in vitro assay. To unravel a putative function of the SlhA protein, a knockout mutant was constructed. Experimental data indicated that one SLH domain is sufficient for anchoring of SlhA to the cell surface, and the SLH domains of SlhA recognize both the peptidoglycan and the secondary cell wall polymer in vitro. This is in agreement with previous data from the S-layer protein SpaA, pinpointing a wider utilization of that mechanism for cell surface display of proteins in P. alvei. Compared to the wild-type bacterium ΔslhA revealed changed colony morphology, loss of swarming motility and impaired biofilm formation. The phenotype was similar to that of the flagella knockout Δhag, possibly due to reduced EPS production influencing the functionality of the flagella of ΔslhA. This study demonstrates the involvement of the SLH domain-containing protein SlhA in swarming and biofilm formation of P. alvei CCM 2051(T).

  10. The S-layer homology domain-containing protein SlhA from Paenibacillus alvei CCM 2051(T is important for swarming and biofilm formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Janesch

    Full Text Available Swarming and biofilm formation have been studied for a variety of bacteria. While this is well investigated for Gram-negative bacteria, less is known about Gram-positive bacteria, including Paenibacillus alvei, a secondary invader of diseased honeybee colonies infected with Melissococcus pluton, the causative agent of European foulbrood (EFB.Paenibacillus alvei CCM 2051(T is a Gram-positive bacterium which was recently shown to employ S-layer homology (SLH domains as cell wall targeting modules to display proteins on its cell surface. This study deals with the newly identified 1335-amino acid protein SlhA from P. alvei which carries at the C‑terminus three consecutive SLH-motifs containing the predicted binding sequences SRGE, VRQD, and LRGD instead of the common TRAE motif. Based on the proof of cell surface location of SlhA by fluorescence microscopy using a SlhA-GFP chimera, the binding mechanism was investigated in an in vitro assay. To unravel a putative function of the SlhA protein, a knockout mutant was constructed. Experimental data indicated that one SLH domain is sufficient for anchoring of SlhA to the cell surface, and the SLH domains of SlhA recognize both the peptidoglycan and the secondary cell wall polymer in vitro. This is in agreement with previous data from the S-layer protein SpaA, pinpointing a wider utilization of that mechanism for cell surface display of proteins in P. alvei. Compared to the wild-type bacterium ΔslhA revealed changed colony morphology, loss of swarming motility and impaired biofilm formation. The phenotype was similar to that of the flagella knockout Δhag, possibly due to reduced EPS production influencing the functionality of the flagella of ΔslhA.This study demonstrates the involvement of the SLH domain-containing protein SlhA in swarming and biofilm formation of P. alvei CCM 2051(T.

  11. PairWise Neighbours database: overlaps and spacers among prokaryote genomes

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    Garcia-Vallvé Santiago

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although prokaryotes live in a variety of habitats and possess different metabolic and genomic complexity, they have several genomic architectural features in common. The overlapping genes are a common feature of the prokaryote genomes. The overlapping lengths tend to be short because as the overlaps become longer they have more risk of deleterious mutations. The spacers between genes tend to be short too because of the tendency to reduce the non coding DNA among prokaryotes. However they must be long enough to maintain essential regulatory signals such as the Shine-Dalgarno (SD sequence, which is responsible of an efficient translation. Description PairWise Neighbours is an interactive and intuitive database used for retrieving information about the spacers and overlapping genes among bacterial and archaeal genomes. It contains 1,956,294 gene pairs from 678 fully sequenced prokaryote genomes and is freely available at the URL http://genomes.urv.cat/pwneigh. This database provides information about the overlaps and their conservation across species. Furthermore, it allows the wide analysis of the intergenic regions providing useful information such as the location and strength of the SD sequence. Conclusion There are experiments and bioinformatic analysis that rely on correct annotations of the initiation site. Therefore, a database that studies the overlaps and spacers among prokaryotes appears to be desirable. PairWise Neighbours database permits the reliability analysis of the overlapping structures and the study of the SD presence and location among the adjacent genes, which may help to check the annotation of the initiation sites.

  12. Pairwise comparisons and visual perceptions of equal area polygons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamic, P; Babiy, V; Janicki, R; Kakiashvili, T; Koczkodaj, W W; Tadeusiewicz, R

    2009-02-01

    The number of studies related to visual perception has been plentiful in recent years. Participants rated the areas of five randomly generated shapes of equal area, using a reference unit area that was displayed together with the shapes. Respondents were 179 university students from Canada and Poland. The average error estimated by respondents using the unit square was 25.75%. The error was substantially decreased to 5.51% when the shapes were compared to one another in pairs. This gain of 20.24% for this two-dimensional experiment was substantially better than the 11.78% gain reported in the previous one-dimensional experiments. This is the first statistically sound two-dimensional experiment demonstrating that pairwise comparisons improve accuracy.

  13. Randomized Approaches for Nearest Neighbor Search in Metric Space When Computing the Pairwise Distance Is Extremely Expensive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lusheng; Yang, Yong; Lin, Guohui

    Finding the closest object for a query in a database is a classical problem in computer science. For some modern biological applications, computing the similarity between two objects might be very time consuming. For example, it takes a long time to compute the edit distance between two whole chromosomes and the alignment cost of two 3D protein structures. In this paper, we study the nearest neighbor search problem in metric space, where the pair-wise distance between two objects in the database is known and we want to minimize the number of distances computed on-line between the query and objects in the database in order to find the closest object. We have designed two randomized approaches for indexing metric space databases, where objects are purely described by their distances with each other. Analysis and experiments show that our approaches only need to compute O(logn) objects in order to find the closest object, where n is the total number of objects in the database.

  14. OCCURRENCE OF SMALL HOMOLOGOUS AND COMPLEMENTARY FRAGMENTS IN HUMAN VIRUS GENOMES AND THEIR POSSIBLE ROLE

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    E. P. Kharchenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With computer analysis occurrence of small homologous and complementary fragments (21 nucleotides in length has been studied in genomes of 14 human viruses causing most dangerous infections. The sample includes viruses with (+ and (– single stranded RNA and DNA-containing hepatitis A virus. Analysis of occurrence of homologous sequences has shown the existence two extreme situations. On the one hand, the same virus contains homologous sequences to almost all other viruses (for example, Ebola virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus, and mumps virus, and numerous homologous sequences to the same other virus (especially in severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus to Dengue virus and in Ebola virus to poliovirus. On the other hand, there are rare occurrence and not numerous homologous sequences in genomes of other viruses (rubella virus, hepatitis A virus, and hepatitis B virus. Similar situation exists for occurrence of complementary sequences. Rubella virus, the genome of which has the high content of guanine and cytosine, has no complementary sequences to almost all other viruses. Most viruses have moderate level of occurrence for homologous and complementary sequences. Autocomplementary sequences are numerous in most viruses and one may suggest that the genome of single stranded RNA viruses has branched secondary structure. In addition to possible role in recombination among strains autocomplementary sequences could be regulators of translation rate of virus proteins and determine its optimal proportion in virion assembly with genome and mRNA folding. Occurrence of small homologous and complementary sequences in RNA- and DNA-containing viruses may be the result of multiple recombinations in the past and the present and determine their adaptation and variability. Recombination may take place in coinfection of human and/or common hosts. Inclusion of homologous and complementary sequences into genome could not

  15. Predicting community composition from pairwise interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Jonathan; Higgins, Logan; Gore, Jeff

    The ability to predict the structure of complex, multispecies communities is crucial for understanding the impact of species extinction and invasion on natural communities, as well as for engineering novel, synthetic communities. Communities are often modeled using phenomenological models, such as the classical generalized Lotka-Volterra (gLV) model. While a lot of our intuition comes from such models, their predictive power has rarely been tested experimentally. To directly assess the predictive power of this approach, we constructed synthetic communities comprised of up to 8 soil bacteria. We measured the outcome of competition between all species pairs, and used these measurements to predict the composition of communities composed of more than 2 species. The pairwise competitions resulted in a diverse set of outcomes, including coexistence, exclusion, and bistability, and displayed evidence for both interference and facilitation. Most pair outcomes could be captured by the gLV framework, and the composition of multispecies communities could be predicted for communities composed solely of such pairs. Our results demonstrate the predictive ability and utility of simple phenomenology, which enables accurate predictions in the absence of mechanistic details.

  16. FBH1 helicase disrupts RAD51 filaments in vitro and modulates homologous recombination in mammalian cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simandlova, Jitka; Zagelbaum, Jennifer; Payne, Miranda J

    2013-01-01

    Efficient repair of DNA double strand breaks and interstrand cross-links requires the homologous recombination (HR) pathway, a potentially error-free process that utilizes a homologous sequence as a repair template. A key player in HR is RAD51, the eukaryotic ortholog of bacterial RecA protein. RAD......51 can polymerize on DNA to form a nucleoprotein filament that facilitates both the search for the homologous DNA sequences and the subsequent DNA strand invasion required to initiate HR. Because of its pivotal role in HR, RAD51 is subject to numerous positive and negative regulatory influences...... filaments on DNA through its ssDNA translocase function. Consistent with this, a mutant mouse embryonic stem cell line with a deletion in the FBH1 helicase domain fails to limit RAD51 chromatin association and shows hyper-recombination. Our data are consistent with FBH1 restraining RAD51 DNA binding under...

  17. The structure of pairwise correlation in mouse primary visual cortex reveals functional organization in the absence of an orientation map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denman, Daniel J; Contreras, Diego

    2014-10-01

    Neural responses to sensory stimuli are not independent. Pairwise correlation can reduce coding efficiency, occur independent of stimulus representation, or serve as an additional channel of information, depending on the timescale of correlation and the method of decoding. Any role for correlation depends on its magnitude and structure. In sensory areas with maps, like the orientation map in primary visual cortex (V1), correlation is strongly related to the underlying functional architecture, but it is unclear whether this correlation structure is an essential feature of the system or arises from the arrangement of cells in the map. We assessed the relationship between functional architecture and pairwise correlation by measuring both synchrony and correlated spike count variability in mouse V1, which lacks an orientation map. We observed significant pairwise synchrony, which was organized by distance and relative orientation preference between cells. We also observed nonzero correlated variability in both the anesthetized (0.16) and awake states (0.18). Our results indicate that the structure of pairwise correlation is maintained in the absence of an underlying anatomical organization and may be an organizing principle of the mammalian visual system preserved by nonrandom connectivity within local networks. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Protein docking prediction using predicted protein-protein interface

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    Li Bin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many important cellular processes are carried out by protein complexes. To provide physical pictures of interacting proteins, many computational protein-protein prediction methods have been developed in the past. However, it is still difficult to identify the correct docking complex structure within top ranks among alternative conformations. Results We present a novel protein docking algorithm that utilizes imperfect protein-protein binding interface prediction for guiding protein docking. Since the accuracy of protein binding site prediction varies depending on cases, the challenge is to develop a method which does not deteriorate but improves docking results by using a binding site prediction which may not be 100% accurate. The algorithm, named PI-LZerD (using Predicted Interface with Local 3D Zernike descriptor-based Docking algorithm, is based on a pair wise protein docking prediction algorithm, LZerD, which we have developed earlier. PI-LZerD starts from performing docking prediction using the provided protein-protein binding interface prediction as constraints, which is followed by the second round of docking with updated docking interface information to further improve docking conformation. Benchmark results on bound and unbound cases show that PI-LZerD consistently improves the docking prediction accuracy as compared with docking without using binding site prediction or using the binding site prediction as post-filtering. Conclusion We have developed PI-LZerD, a pairwise docking algorithm, which uses imperfect protein-protein binding interface prediction to improve docking accuracy. PI-LZerD consistently showed better prediction accuracy over alternative methods in the series of benchmark experiments including docking using actual docking interface site predictions as well as unbound docking cases.

  19. Protein docking prediction using predicted protein-protein interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Kihara, Daisuke

    2012-01-10

    Many important cellular processes are carried out by protein complexes. To provide physical pictures of interacting proteins, many computational protein-protein prediction methods have been developed in the past. However, it is still difficult to identify the correct docking complex structure within top ranks among alternative conformations. We present a novel protein docking algorithm that utilizes imperfect protein-protein binding interface prediction for guiding protein docking. Since the accuracy of protein binding site prediction varies depending on cases, the challenge is to develop a method which does not deteriorate but improves docking results by using a binding site prediction which may not be 100% accurate. The algorithm, named PI-LZerD (using Predicted Interface with Local 3D Zernike descriptor-based Docking algorithm), is based on a pair wise protein docking prediction algorithm, LZerD, which we have developed earlier. PI-LZerD starts from performing docking prediction using the provided protein-protein binding interface prediction as constraints, which is followed by the second round of docking with updated docking interface information to further improve docking conformation. Benchmark results on bound and unbound cases show that PI-LZerD consistently improves the docking prediction accuracy as compared with docking without using binding site prediction or using the binding site prediction as post-filtering. We have developed PI-LZerD, a pairwise docking algorithm, which uses imperfect protein-protein binding interface prediction to improve docking accuracy. PI-LZerD consistently showed better prediction accuracy over alternative methods in the series of benchmark experiments including docking using actual docking interface site predictions as well as unbound docking cases.

  20. In vivo blunt-end cloning through CRISPR/Cas9-facilitated non-homologous end-joining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisinger, Jonathan M.; Turan, Sören; Hernandez, Sophia; Spector, Laura P.; Calos, Michele P.

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system facilitates precise DNA modifications by generating RNA-guided blunt-ended double-strand breaks. We demonstrate that guide RNA pairs generate deletions that are repaired with a high level of precision by non-homologous end-joining in mammalian cells. We present a method called knock-in blunt ligation for exploiting these breaks to insert exogenous PCR-generated sequences in a homology-independent manner without loss of additional nucleotides. This method is useful for making precise additions to the genome such as insertions of marker gene cassettes or functional elements, without the need for homology arms. We successfully utilized this method in human and mouse cells to insert fluorescent protein cassettes into various loci, with efficiencies up to 36% in HEK293 cells without selection. We also created versions of Cas9 fused to the FKBP12-L106P destabilization domain in an effort to improve Cas9 performance. Our in vivo blunt-end cloning method and destabilization-domain-fused Cas9 variant increase the repertoire of precision genome engineering approaches. PMID:26762978

  1. On (co)homology of Frobenius Poisson algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Can; Van Oystaeyen, Fred; ZHANG, Yinhuo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study Poisson (co)homology of a Frobenius Poisson algebra. More precisely, we show that there exists a duality between Poisson homology and Poisson cohomology of Frobenius Poisson algebras, similar to that between Hochschild homology and Hochschild cohomology of Frobenius algebras. Then we use the non-degenerate bilinear form on a unimodular Frobenius Poisson algebra to construct a Batalin-Vilkovisky structure on the Poisson cohomology ring making it into a Batalin-Vilkovisk...

  2. Use of λgt11 to isolate genes for two pseudorabies virus glycoproteins with homology to herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus glycoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovskis, E.A.; Timmins, J.G.; Post, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    A library of pseudorabies virus (PRV) DNA fragments was constructed in the expression cloning vector λgt11. The library was screened with antisera which reacted with mixtures of PRV proteins to isolate recombinant bacteriophages expressing PRV proteins. By the nature of the λgt11 vector, the cloned proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli as β-galactosidase fusion proteins. The fusion proteins from 35 of these phages were purified and injected into mice to raise antisera. The antisera were screened by several different assays, including immunoprecipitation of [ 14 C]glucosamine-labeled PRV proteins. This method identified phages expressing three different PRV glycoproteins: the secreted glycoprotein, gX; gI; and a glycoprotein that had not been previously identified, which we designate gp63. The gp63 and gI genes map adjacent to each other in the small unique region of the PRV genome. The DNA sequence was determined for the region of the genome encoding gp63 and gI. It was found that gp63 has a region of homology with a herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) protein, encoded by US7, and also with varicella-zoster virus (VZV) gpIV. The gI protein sequence has a region of homology with HSV-1 gE and VZV gpI. It is concluded that PRV, HSV, and VZV all have a cluster of homologous glycoprotein genes in the small unique components of their genomes and that the organization of these genes is conserved

  3. Practical method for targeted disruption of cilia-related genes by using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated, homology-independent knock-in system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Yohei; Michisaka, Saki; Nozaki, Shohei; Funabashi, Teruki; Hirano, Tomoaki; Takei, Ryota; Nakayama, Kazuhisa

    2017-04-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system has revolutionized genome editing in virtually all organisms. Although the CRISPR/Cas9 system enables the targeted cleavage of genomic DNA, its use for gene knock-in remains challenging because levels of homologous recombination activity vary among various cells. In contrast, the efficiency of homology-independent DNA repair is relatively high in most cell types. Therefore the use of a homology-independent repair mechanism is a possible alternative for efficient genome editing. Here we constructed a donor knock-in vector optimized for the CRISPR/Cas9 system and developed a practical system that enables efficient disruption of target genes by exploiting homology-independent repair. Using this practical knock-in system, we successfully disrupted genes encoding proteins involved in ciliary protein trafficking, including IFT88 and IFT20, in hTERT-RPE1 cells, which have low homologous recombination activity. The most critical concern using the CRISPR/Cas9 system is off-target cleavage. To reduce the off-target cleavage frequency and increase the versatility of our knock-in system, we constructed a universal donor vector and an expression vector containing Cas9 with enhanced specificity and tandem sgRNA expression cassettes. We demonstrated that the second version of our system has improved usability. © 2017 Katoh et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  4. Animal Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC channels appear to be homologous to and derived from the ubiquitous cation diffusion facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamang Dorjee G

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antigen stimulation of immune cells triggers Ca2+ entry through Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC channels, promoting an immune response to pathogens. Defects in a CRAC (Orai channel in humans gives rise to the hereditary Severe Combined Immune Deficiency (SCID syndrome. We here report results that define the evolutionary relationship of the CRAC channel proteins of animals, and the ubiquitous Cation Diffusion Facilitator (CDF carrier proteins. Findings CDF antiporters derived from a primordial 2 transmembrane spanner (TMS hairpin structure by intragenic triplication to yield 6 TMS proteins. Four programs (IC/GAP, GGSEARCH, HMMER and SAM were evaluated for identifying sequence similarity and establishing homology using statistical means. Overall, the order of sensitivity (similarity detection was IC/GAP = GGSEARCH > HMMER > SAM, but the use of all four programs was superior to the use of any two or three of them. Members of the CDF family appeared to be homologous to members of the 4 TMS Orai channel proteins. Conclusions CRAC channels derived from CDF carriers by loss of the first two TMSs of the latter. Based on statistical analyses with multiple programs, TMSs 3-6 in CDF carriers are homologous to TMSs 1-4 in CRAC channels, and the former was the precursor of the latter. This is an unusual example of how a functionally and structurally more complex protein may have predated a simpler one.

  5. Relative K-homology and normal operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manuilov, Vladimir; Thomsen, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    -term exact sequence which generalizes the excision six-term exact sequence in the first variable of KK-theory. Subsequently we investigate the relative K-homology which arises from the group of relative extensions by specializing to abelian $C^*$-algebras. It turns out that this relative K-homology carries...

  6. Peptide Mimicrying Between SARS Coronavirus Spike Protein and Human Proteins Reacts with SARS Patient Serum

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    K.-Y. Hwa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular mimicry, defined as similar structures shared by molecules from dissimilar genes or proteins, is a general strategy used by pathogens to infect host cells. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS is a new human respiratory infectious disease caused by SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV. The spike (S protein of SARS-CoV plays an important role in the virus entry into a cell. In this study, eleven synthetic peptides from the S protein were selected based on its sequence homology with human proteins. Two of the peptides D07 (residues 927–937 and D08 (residues 942–951 were recognized by the sera of SARS patients. Murine hyperimmune sera against these peptides bound to proteins of human lung epithelial cells A549. Another peptide D10 (residues 490–502 stimulated A549 to proliferate and secrete IL-8. The present results suggest that the selected S protein regions, which share sequence homology with human proteins, may play important roles in SARS-CoV infection.

  7. Computational identification of strain-, species- and genus-specific proteins

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    Thiagarajan Rathi

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of unique proteins at different taxonomic levels has both scientific and practical value. Strain-, species- and genus-specific proteins can provide insight into the criteria that define an organism and its relationship with close relatives. Such proteins can also serve as taxon-specific diagnostic targets. Description A pipeline using a combination of computational and manual analyses of BLAST results was developed to identify strain-, species-, and genus-specific proteins and to catalog the closest sequenced relative for each protein in a proteome. Proteins encoded by a given strain are preliminarily considered to be unique if BLAST, using a comprehensive protein database, fails to retrieve (with an e-value better than 0.001 any protein not encoded by the query strain, species or genus (for strain-, species- and genus-specific proteins respectively, or if BLAST, using the best hit as the query (reverse BLAST, does not retrieve the initial query protein. Results are manually inspected for homology if the initial query is retrieved in the reverse BLAST but is not the best hit. Sequences unlikely to retrieve homologs using the default BLOSUM62 matrix (usually short sequences are re-tested using the PAM30 matrix, thereby increasing the number of retrieved homologs and increasing the stringency of the search for unique proteins. The above protocol was used to examine several food- and water-borne pathogens. We find that the reverse BLAST step filters out about 22% of proteins with homologs that would otherwise be considered unique at the genus and species levels. Analysis of the annotations of unique proteins reveals that many are remnants of prophage proteins, or may be involved in virulence. The data generated from this study can be accessed and further evaluated from the CUPID (Core and Unique Protein Identification system web site (updated semi-annually at http://pir.georgetown.edu/cupid. Conclusion CUPID

  8. Roles of Rad51 protein in homologous recombination in mammalian cells: relation with repair, replication and cell cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, S.

    2001-01-01

    Homologous recombination (HR) is a fundamental process, allowing a faithful repair. In mammalian, MmRAD51, which is the homologue of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ScRAD51 key protein for HR, is an essential gene. This work is based on the characterisation of viable hyper and hypo-recombinant cell lines specifically affected in the Rad51 pathway. By expressing wild type and dominant negative forms of MmRad51, we demonstrated that Rad51 pathway participates to the repair by HR to induced DNA damages. However, inhibition of the Rad 51 pathway does not affect cell viability, spontaneously or after irradiation, whereas, radiation induced HR is inhibited. In the presence of DNA damages during late S and G2/M phase, inhibition of Rad51 pathway induced chromosomal aberrations, leading to a transient arrest in mitosis. This arrest is associated with an increased of cell death. However, a fraction of cells can escape from this transient arrest by forming tetraploid cells, associated with an absence of chromalid separation. Thus, in response to impaired Rad51 pathway, mitotic checkpoints seems to play an essential role. In line with this, we showed that the essential function of Rad51 is p53-dependent, which is in agreement with the role of p53 in tetraploidy inhibition. Our results suggest that the Rad51 protein could participate to the control of mitotic checkpoints and thus to the maintenance of genetic stability. This function could involve other Rad51 partners such as the tumour suppressors BRCA1, BRCA2 and p53. (author) [fr

  9. Recruitment of RecA homologs Dmc1p and Rad51p to the double-strand break repair site initiated by meiosis-specific endonuclease VDE (PI-SceI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Tomoyuki; Ohya, Yoshikazu

    2006-02-01

    During meiosis, VDE (PI-SceI), a homing endonuclease in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, introduces a double-strand break (DSB) at its recognition sequence and induces homologous recombinational repair, called homing. Meiosis-specific RecA homolog Dmc1p, as well as mitotic RecA homolog Rad51p, acts in the process of meiotic recombination, being required for strand invasion and exchange. In this study, recruitment of Dmc1p and Rad51p to the VDE-induced DSB repair site is investigated by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. It is revealed that Dmc1p and Rad51p are loaded to the repair site in an independent manner. Association of Rad51p requires other DSB repair proteins of Rad52p, Rad55p, and Rad57p, while loading of Dmc1p is facilitated by the different protein, Sae3p. Absence of Tid1p, which can bind both RecA homologs, appears specifically to cause an abnormal distribution of Dmc1p. Lack of Hop2, Mnd1p, and Sae1p does not impair recruitment of both RecA homologs. These findings reveal the discrete functions of each strand invasion protein in VDE-initiated homing, confirm the similarity between VDE-initiated homing and Spo11p-initiated meiotic recombination, and demonstrate the availability of VDE-initiated homing for the study of meiotic recombination.

  10. Unveiling novel RecO distant orthologues involved in homologous recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Marsin

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The generation of a RecA filament on single-stranded DNA is a critical step in homologous recombination. Two main pathways leading to the formation of the nucleofilament have been identified in bacteria, based on the protein complexes mediating RecA loading: RecBCD (AddAB and RecFOR. Many bacterial species seem to lack some of the components involved in these complexes. The current annotation of the Helicobacter pylori genome suggests that this highly diverse bacterial pathogen has a reduced set of recombination mediator proteins. While it is now clear that homologous recombination plays a critical role in generating H. pylori diversity by allowing genomic DNA rearrangements and integration through transformation of exogenous DNA into the chromosome, no complete mediator complex is deduced from the sequence of its genome. Here we show by bioinformatics analysis the presence of a RecO remote orthologue that allowed the identification of a new set of RecO proteins present in all bacterial species where a RecR but not RecO was previously identified. HpRecO shares less than 15% identity with previously characterized homologues. Genetic dissection of recombination pathways shows that this novel RecO and the remote RecB homologue present in H. pylori are functional in repair and in RecA-dependent intrachromosomal recombination, defining two initiation pathways with little overlap. We found, however, that neither RecOR nor RecB contributes to transformation, suggesting the presence of a third, specialized, RecA-dependent pathway responsible for the integration of transforming DNA into the chromosome of this naturally competent bacteria. These results provide insight into the mechanisms that this successful pathogen uses to generate genetic diversity and adapt to changing environments and new hosts.

  11. Dualities in persistent (co)homology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Silva, Vin; Morozov, Dmitriy; Vejdemo-Johansson, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    We consider sequences of absolute and relative homology and cohomology groups that arise naturally for a filtered cell complex. We establish algebraic relationships between their persistence modules, and show that they contain equivalent information. We explain how one can use the existing algorithm for persistent homology to process any of the four modules, and relate it to a recently introduced persistent cohomology algorithm. We present experimental evidence for the practical efficiency of the latter algorithm

  12. Bacteroides fragilis Enterotoxin Induces Formation of Autophagosomes in Endothelial Cells but Interferes with Fusion with Lysosomes for Complete Autophagic Flux through a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-, AP-1-, and C/EBP Homologous Protein-Dependent Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Su Hyuk; Jeon, Jong Ik; Myung, Hyun Soo; Kim, Young-Jeon; Kim, Jung Mogg

    2017-10-01

    Bacteroides fragilis enterotoxin (BFT), a virulence factor of enterotoxigenic B. fragilis (ETBF), plays an essential role in mucosal inflammation. Although autophagy contributes to the pathogenesis of diverse infectious diseases, little is known about autophagy in ETBF infection. This study was conducted to investigate the role of BFT in the autophagic process in endothelial cells (ECs). Stimulation of human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs) with BFT increased light chain 3 protein II (LC3-II) conversion from LC3-I and protein expression of p62, Atg5, and Atg12. In addition, BFT-exposed ECs showed increased indices of autophagosomal fusion with lysosomes such as LC3-lysosome-associated protein 2 (LAMP2) colocalization and the percentage of red vesicles monitored by the expression of dual-tagged LC3B. BFT also upregulated expression of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), and inhibition of CHOP significantly increased indices of autophagosomal fusion with lysosomes. BFT activated an AP-1 transcription factor, in which suppression of AP-1 activity significantly downregulated CHOP and augmented autophagosomal fusion with lysosomes. Furthermore, suppression of Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) significantly inhibited the AP-1 and CHOP signals, leading to an increase in autophagosomal fusion with lysosomes in BFT-stimulated ECs. These results suggest that BFT induced accumulation of autophagosomes in ECs, but activation of a signaling pathway involving JNK, AP-1, and CHOP may interfere with complete autophagy. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Identification and characterization of insect-specific proteins by genome data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Terry

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insects constitute the vast majority of known species with their importance including biodiversity, agricultural, and human health concerns. It is likely that the successful adaptation of the Insecta clade depends on specific components in its proteome that give rise to specialized features. However, proteome determination is an intensive undertaking. Here we present results from a computational method that uses genome analysis to characterize insect and eukaryote proteomes as an approximation complementary to experimental approaches. Results Homologs in common to Drosophila melanogaster, Anopheles gambiae, Bombyx mori, Tribolium castaneum, and Apis mellifera were compared to the complete genomes of three non-insect eukaryotes (opisthokonts Homo sapiens, Caenorhabditis elegans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This operation yielded 154 groups of orthologous proteins in Drosophila to be insect-specific homologs; 466 groups were determined to be common to eukaryotes (represented by three opisthokonts. ESTs from the hemimetabolous insect Locust migratoria were also considered in order to approximate their corresponding genes in the insect-specific homologs. Stress and stimulus response proteins were found to constitute a higher fraction in the insect-specific homologs than in the homologs common to eukaryotes. Conclusion The significant representation of stress response and stimulus response proteins in proteins determined to be insect-specific, along with specific cuticle and pheromone/odorant binding proteins, suggest that communication and adaptation to environments may distinguish insect evolution relative to other eukaryotes. The tendency for low Ka/Ks ratios in the insect-specific protein set suggests purifying selection pressure. The generally larger number of paralogs in the insect-specific proteins may indicate adaptation to environment changes. Instances in our insect-specific protein set have been arrived at through

  14. Activities of wildtype and mutant p53 in suppression of homologous recombination as measured by a retroviral vector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xiongbin; Lozano, Guillermina; Donehower, Lawrence A.

    2003-01-01

    DNA repair of double strand breaks, interstrand DNA cross-links, and other types of DNA damage utilizes the processes of homologous recombination and non-homologous end joining to repair the damage. Aberrant homologous recombination is likely to be responsible for a significant fraction of chromosomal deletions, duplications, and translocations that are observed in cancer cells. To facilitate measurement of homologous recombination frequencies in normal cells, mutant cells, and cancer cells, we have developed a high titer retroviral vector containing tandem repeats of mutant versions of a GFP-Zeocin resistance fusion gene and an intact neomycin resistance marker. Recombination between the tandem repeats regenerates a functional GFP-Zeo R marker that can be easily scored. This retroviral vector was used to assess homologous recombination frequencies in human cancer cells and rodent fibroblasts with differing dosages of wild type or mutant p53. Absence of wild type p53 stimulated spontaneous and ionizing radiation-induced homologous recombination, confirming previous studies. Moreover, p53 +/- mouse fibroblasts show elevated levels of homologous recombination compared to their p53 +/+ counterparts following retroviral vector infection, indicating that p53 is haploinsufficient for suppression of homologous recombination. Transfection of vector-containing p53 null Saos-2 cells with various human cancer-associated p53 mutants revealed that these altered p53 proteins retain some recombination suppression function despite being totally inactive for transcriptional transactivation. The retroviral vector utilized in these studies may be useful in performing recombination assays on a wide array of cell types, including those not readily transfected by normal vectors

  15. Polypyrimidine Tract Binding Protein Homologs from Arabidopsis Are Key Regulators of Alternative Splicing with Implications in Fundamental Developmental Processes[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühl, Christina; Stauffer, Eva; Kahles, André; Wagner, Gabriele; Drechsel, Gabriele; Rätsch, Gunnar; Wachter, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) generates transcript variants by variable exon/intron definition and massively expands transcriptome diversity. Changes in AS patterns have been found to be linked to manifold biological processes, yet fundamental aspects, such as the regulation of AS and its functional implications, largely remain to be addressed. In this work, widespread AS regulation by Arabidopsis thaliana Polypyrimidine tract binding protein homologs (PTBs) was revealed. In total, 452 AS events derived from 307 distinct genes were found to be responsive to the levels of the splicing factors PTB1 and PTB2, which predominantly triggered splicing of regulated introns, inclusion of cassette exons, and usage of upstream 5′ splice sites. By contrast, no major AS regulatory function of the distantly related PTB3 was found. Dependent on their position within the mRNA, PTB-regulated events can both modify the untranslated regions and give rise to alternative protein products. We find that PTB-mediated AS events are connected to diverse biological processes, and the functional implications of selected instances were further elucidated. Specifically, PTB misexpression changes AS of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR6, coinciding with altered rates of abscisic acid–dependent seed germination. Furthermore, AS patterns as well as the expression of key flowering regulators were massively changed in a PTB1/2 level-dependent manner. PMID:23192226

  16. Validation-driven protein-structure improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touw, W.G.

    2016-01-01

    High-quality protein structure models are essential for many Life Science applications, such as protein engineering, molecular dynamics, drug design, and homology modelling. The WHAT_CHECK model validation project and the PDB_REDO model optimisation project have shown that many structure models in

  17. Protein: MPB2 [TP Atlas

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MPB2 Ubiquitin ligases STUB1 CHIP STUB1 E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase CHIP Antigen NY...-CO-7, CLL-associated antigen KW-8, Carboxy terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein, STIP1 homology and U box-containing pr

  18. Genetic battle between Helicobacter pylori and humans. The mechanism underlying homologous recombination in bacteria, which can infect human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, Katsuhiro; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2014-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative pathogenic bacterium that colonises the human stomach. The chronic infection it causes results in peptic ulcers and gastric cancers. H. pylori can easily establish a chronic infection even if the immune system attacks this pathogen with oxidative stress agents and immunoglobulins. This is attributed to bacterial defence mechanisms against these stresses. As a defence mechanism against oxidative stresses, in bacterial genomes, homologous recombination can act as a repair pathway of DNA's double-strand breaks (DSBs). Moreover, homologous recombination is also involved in the antigenic variation in H. pylori. Gene conversion alters genomic structures of babA and babB (encoding outer membrane proteins), resulting in escape from immunoglobulin attacks. Thus, homologous recombination in bacteria plays an important role in the maintenance of a chronic infection. In addition, H. pylori infection causes DSBs in human cells. Homologous recombination is also involved in the repair of DSBs in human cells. In this review, we describe the roles of homologous recombination with an emphasis on the maintenance of a chronic infection. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. dyschronic, a Drosophila homolog of a deaf-blindness gene, regulates circadian output and Slowpoke channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E C Jepson

    Full Text Available Many aspects of behavior and physiology are under circadian control. In Drosophila, the molecular clock that regulates rhythmic patterns of behavior has been extensively characterized. In contrast, genetic loci involved in linking the clock to alterations in motor activity have remained elusive. In a forward-genetic screen, we uncovered a new component of the circadian output pathway, which we have termed dyschronic (dysc. dysc mutants exhibit arrhythmic locomotor behavior, yet their eclosion rhythms are normal and clock protein cycling remains intact. Intriguingly, dysc is the closest Drosophila homolog of whirlin, a gene linked to type II Usher syndrome, the leading cause of deaf-blindness in humans. Whirlin and other Usher proteins are expressed in the mammalian central nervous system, yet their function in the CNS has not been investigated. We show that DYSC is expressed in major neuronal tracts and regulates expression of the calcium-activated potassium channel SLOWPOKE (SLO, an ion channel also required in the circadian output pathway. SLO and DYSC are co-localized in the brain and control each other's expression post-transcriptionally. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate they form a complex, suggesting they regulate each other through protein-protein interaction. Furthermore, electrophysiological recordings of neurons in the adult brain show that SLO-dependent currents are greatly reduced in dysc mutants. Our work identifies a Drosophila homolog of a deaf-blindness gene as a new component of the circadian output pathway and an important regulator of ion channel expression, and suggests novel roles for Usher proteins in the mammalian nervous system.

  20. Probing dark energy models with extreme pairwise velocities of galaxy clusters from the DEUS-FUR simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouillot, Vincent R.; Alimi, Jean-Michel; Corasaniti, Pier-Stefano; Rasera, Yann

    2015-06-01

    Observations of colliding galaxy clusters with high relative velocity probe the tail of the halo pairwise velocity distribution with the potential of providing a powerful test of cosmology. As an example it has been argued that the discovery of the Bullet Cluster challenges standard Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model predictions. Halo catalogues from N-body simulations have been used to estimate the probability of Bullet-like clusters. However, due to simulation volume effects previous studies had to rely on a Gaussian extrapolation of the pairwise velocity distribution to high velocities. Here, we perform a detail analysis using the halo catalogues from the Dark Energy Universe Simulation Full Universe Runs (DEUS-FUR), which enables us to resolve the high-velocity tail of the distribution and study its dependence on the halo mass definition, redshift and cosmology. Building upon these results, we estimate the probability of Bullet-like systems in the framework of Extreme Value Statistics. We show that the tail of extreme pairwise velocities significantly deviates from that of a Gaussian, moreover it carries an imprint of the underlying cosmology. We find the Bullet Cluster probability to be two orders of magnitude larger than previous estimates, thus easing the tension with the ΛCDM model. Finally, the comparison of the inferred probabilities for the different DEUS-FUR cosmologies suggests that observations of extreme interacting clusters can provide constraints on dark energy models complementary to standard cosmological tests.

  1. Chlamydia trachomatis protein CT009 is a structural and functional homolog to the key morphogenesis component RodZ and interacts with division septal plane localized MreB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemege, Kyle E; Hickey, John M; Barta, Michael L; Wickstrum, Jason; Balwalli, Namita; Lovell, Scott; Battaile, Kevin P; Hefty, P Scott

    2015-02-01

    Cell division in Chlamydiae is poorly understood as apparent homologs to most conserved bacterial cell division proteins are lacking and presence of elongation (rod shape) associated proteins indicate non-canonical mechanisms may be employed. The rod-shape determining protein MreB has been proposed as playing a unique role in chlamydial cell division. In other organisms, MreB is part of an elongation complex that requires RodZ for proper function. A recent study reported that the protein encoded by ORF CT009 interacts with MreB despite low sequence similarity to RodZ. The studies herein expand on those observations through protein structure, mutagenesis and cellular localization analyses. Structural analysis indicated that CT009 shares high level of structural similarity to RodZ, revealing the conserved orientation of two residues critical for MreB interaction. Substitutions eliminated MreB protein interaction and partial complementation provided by CT009 in RodZ deficient Escherichia coli. Cellular localization analysis of CT009 showed uniform membrane staining in Chlamydia. This was in contrast to the localization of MreB, which was restricted to predicted septal planes. MreB localization to septal planes provides direct experimental observation for the role of MreB in cell division and supports the hypothesis that it serves as a functional replacement for FtsZ in Chlamydia. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Chlamydia trachomatis protein CT009 is a structural and functional homolog to the key morphogenesis component RodZ and interacts with division septal plane localized MreB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemege, Kyle E.; Hickey, John M.; Barta, Michael L.; Wickstrum, Jason; Balwalli, Namita; Lovell, Scott; Battaile, Kevin P.; Hefty, P. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cell division in Chlamydiae is poorly understood as apparent homologs to most conserved bacterial cell division proteins are lacking and presence of elongation (rod shape) associated proteins indicate non-canonical mechanisms may be employed. The rod-shape determining protein MreB has been proposed as playing a unique role in chlamydial cell division. In other organisms, MreB is part of an elongation complex that requires RodZ for proper function. A recent study reported that the protein encoded by ORF CT009 interacts with MreB despite low sequence similarity to RodZ. The studies herein expand on those observations through protein structure, mutagenesis, and cellular localization analyses. Structural analysis indicated that CT009 shares high level of structural similarity to RodZ, revealing the conserved orientation of two residues critical for MreB interaction. Substitutions eliminated MreB protein interaction and partial complementation provided by CT009 in RodZ deficient E. coli. Cellular localization analysis of CT009 showed uniform membrane staining in Chlamydia. This was in contrast to the localization of MreB, which was restricted to predicted septal planes. MreB localization to septal planes provides direct experimental observation for the role of MreB in cell division and supports the hypothesis that it serves as a functional replacement for FtsZ in Chlamydia. PMID:25382739

  3. Exact p-values for pairwise comparison of Friedman rank sums, with application to comparing classifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisinga, R.N.; Heskes, T.M.; Pelzer, B.J.; Grotenhuis, H.F. te

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Friedman rank sum test is a widely-used nonparametric method in computational biology. In addition to examining the overall null hypothesis of no significant difference among any of the rank sums, it is typically of interest to conduct pairwise comparison tests. Current approaches to

  4. Homology modeling of Homo sapiens lipoic acid synthase: Substrate docking and insights on its binding mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, Ezhilarasi; Hassan, Sameer; Hanna, Luke Elizabeth; Padmalayam, Indira; Rajaram, Rama; Viswanathan, Vijay

    2017-05-07

    Lipoic acid synthase (LIAS) is an iron-sulfur cluster mitochondrial enzyme which catalyzes the final step in the de novo pathway for the biosynthesis of lipoic acid, a potent antioxidant. Recently there has been significant interest in its role in metabolic diseases and its deficiency in LIAS expression has been linked to conditions such as diabetes, atherosclerosis and neonatal-onset epilepsy, suggesting a strong inverse correlation between LIAS reduction and disease status. In this study we use a bioinformatics approach to predict its structure, which would be helpful to understanding its role. A homology model for LIAS protein was generated using X-ray crystallographic structure of Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1 (PDB ID: 4U0P). The predicted structure has 93% of the residues in the most favour region of Ramachandran plot. The active site of LIAS protein was mapped and docked with S-Adenosyl Methionine (SAM) using GOLD software. The LIAS-SAM complex was further refined using molecular dynamics simulation within the subsite 1 and subsite 3 of the active site. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report a reliable homology model of LIAS protein. This study will facilitate a better understanding mode of action of the enzyme-substrate complex for future studies in designing drugs that can target LIAS protein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A local homology theory for linearly compact modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Tu Cuong; Tran Tuan Nam

    2004-11-01

    We introduce a local homology theory for linearly modules which is in some sense dual to the local cohomology theory of A. Grothendieck. Some basic properties of local homology modules are shown such as: the vanishing and non-vanishing, the noetherianness of local homology modules. By using duality, we extend some well-known results in theory of local cohomology of A. Grothendieck. (author)

  6. The Epstein-Barr virus BFRF1 and BFLF2 proteins interact and coexpression alters their cellular localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake, Cathleen M.; Hutt-Fletcher, Lindsey M.

    2004-01-01

    The BFRF1 protein of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a recently identified membrane protein that is the homolog of the alphaherpesvirus UL34 gene product. We report here that a yeast two-hybrid screen identified the BFLF2 gene product, a homolog of alphaherpesvirus UL31, as a protein that interacts with BFRF1. Expression of BFLF2 in mammalian cells revealed a protein of approximately 28 kDa that associated with BFRF1 in a noncovalently linked complex. When expressed alone, the BFRF1 protein was found in the cytoplasm and perinuclear region. BFLF2 was found diffusely in the nucleus in the absence of BFRF1, but coexpression of BFRF1 and BFLF2 resulted in colocalization of the two proteins at the nuclear rim. These data recapitulate the behavior of the alphaherpesvirus homologs of BFRF1 and BFLF2 and suggest that functional as well as structural and positional homology may be conserved

  7. The Nance-Horan syndrome protein encodes a functional WAVE homology domain (WHD) and is important for co-ordinating actin remodelling and maintaining cell morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Simon P; Coccia, Margherita; Tang, Hao R; Kanuga, Naheed; Machesky, Laura M; Bailly, Maryse; Cheetham, Michael E; Hardcastle, Alison J

    2010-06-15

    Nance-Horan syndrome (NHS) is an X-linked developmental disorder, characterized by bilateral congenital cataracts, dental anomalies, facial dysmorphism and mental retardation. Null mutations in a novel gene, NHS, cause the syndrome. The NHS gene appears to have multiple isoforms as a result of alternative transcription, but a cellular function for the NHS protein has yet to be defined. We describe NHS as a founder member of a new protein family (NHS, NHSL1 and NHSL2). Here, we demonstrate that NHS is a novel regulator of actin remodelling and cell morphology. NHS localizes to sites of cell-cell contact, the leading edge of lamellipodia and focal adhesions. The N-terminus of isoforms NHS-A and NHS-1A, implicated in the pathogenesis of NHS, have a functional WAVE homology domain that interacts with the Abi protein family, haematopoietic stem/progenitor cell protein 300 (HSPC300), Nap1 and Sra1. NHS knockdown resulted in the disruption of the actin cytoskeleton. We show that NHS controls cell morphology by maintaining the integrity of the circumferential actin ring and controlling lamellipod formation. NHS knockdown led to a striking increase in cell spreading. Conversely, ectopic overexpression of NHS inhibited lamellipod formation. Remodelling of the actin cytoskeleton and localized actin polymerization into branched actin filaments at the plasma membrane are essential for mediating changes in cell shape, migration and cell contact. Our data identify NHS as a new regulator of actin remodelling. We suggest that NHS orchestrates actin regulatory protein function in response to signalling events during development.

  8. The Nance–Horan syndrome protein encodes a functional WAVE homology domain (WHD) and is important for co-ordinating actin remodelling and maintaining cell morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Simon P.; Coccia, Margherita; Tang, Hao R.; Kanuga, Naheed; Machesky, Laura M.; Bailly, Maryse; Cheetham, Michael E.; Hardcastle, Alison J.

    2010-01-01

    Nance–Horan syndrome (NHS) is an X-linked developmental disorder, characterized by bilateral congenital cataracts, dental anomalies, facial dysmorphism and mental retardation. Null mutations in a novel gene, NHS, cause the syndrome. The NHS gene appears to have multiple isoforms as a result of alternative transcription, but a cellular function for the NHS protein has yet to be defined. We describe NHS as a founder member of a new protein family (NHS, NHSL1 and NHSL2). Here, we demonstrate that NHS is a novel regulator of actin remodelling and cell morphology. NHS localizes to sites of cell–cell contact, the leading edge of lamellipodia and focal adhesions. The N-terminus of isoforms NHS-A and NHS-1A, implicated in the pathogenesis of NHS, have a functional WAVE homology domain that interacts with the Abi protein family, haematopoietic stem/progenitor cell protein 300 (HSPC300), Nap1 and Sra1. NHS knockdown resulted in the disruption of the actin cytoskeleton. We show that NHS controls cell morphology by maintaining the integrity of the circumferential actin ring and controlling lamellipod formation. NHS knockdown led to a striking increase in cell spreading. Conversely, ectopic overexpression of NHS inhibited lamellipod formation. Remodelling of the actin cytoskeleton and localized actin polymerization into branched actin filaments at the plasma membrane are essential for mediating changes in cell shape, migration and cell contact. Our data identify NHS as a new regulator of actin remodelling. We suggest that NHS orchestrates actin regulatory protein function in response to signalling events during development. PMID:20332100

  9. Loss of Ubr2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, leads to chromosome fragility and impaired homologous recombinational repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Yan; Kwon, Yong Tae; An, Jee Young; Eller, Danny; Tsai, S.-C.; Diaz-Perez, Silvia; Troke, Joshua J.; Teitell, Michael A.; Marahrens, York

    2006-01-01

    The N-end rule pathway of protein degradation targets proteins with destabilizing N-terminal residues. Ubr2 is one of the E3 ubiquitin ligases of the mouse N-end rule pathway. We have previously shown that Ubr2 -/- male mice are infertile, owing to the arrest of spermatocytes between the leptotene/zygotene and pachytene of meiosis I, the failure of chromosome pairing, and subsequent apoptosis. Here, we report that mouse fibroblast cells derived from Ubr2 -/- embryos display genome instability. The frequency of chromosomal bridges and micronuclei were much higher in Ubr2 -/- fibroblasts than in +/+ controls. Metaphase chromosome spreads from Ubr2 -/- cells revealed a high incidence of spontaneous chromosomal gaps, indicating chromosomal fragility. These fragile sites were generally replicated late in S phase. Ubr2 -/- cells were hypersensitive to mitomycin C, a DNA cross-linking agent, but displayed normal sensitivity to gamma-irradiation. A reporter assay showed that Ubr2 -/- cells are significantly impaired in the homologous recombination repair of a double strand break. In contrast, Ubr2 -/- cells appeared normal in an assay for non-homologous end joining. Our results therefore unveil the role of the ubiquitin ligase Ubr2 in maintaining genome integrity and in homologous recombination repair

  10. Loss of Ubr2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, leads to chromosome fragility and impaired homologous recombinational repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, Yan [Department of Human Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Kwon, Yong Tae [Center for Pharmacogenetics and Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); An, Jee Young [Center for Pharmacogenetics and Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Eller, Danny [Department of Human Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Tsai, S.-C. [Department of Human Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Diaz-Perez, Silvia [Department of Human Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Troke, Joshua J. [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Teitell, Michael A. [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Marahrens, York [Department of Human Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)]. E-mail: ymarahrens@mednet.ucla.edu

    2006-04-11

    The N-end rule pathway of protein degradation targets proteins with destabilizing N-terminal residues. Ubr2 is one of the E3 ubiquitin ligases of the mouse N-end rule pathway. We have previously shown that Ubr2{sup -/-} male mice are infertile, owing to the arrest of spermatocytes between the leptotene/zygotene and pachytene of meiosis I, the failure of chromosome pairing, and subsequent apoptosis. Here, we report that mouse fibroblast cells derived from Ubr2{sup -/-} embryos display genome instability. The frequency of chromosomal bridges and micronuclei were much higher in Ubr2{sup -/-} fibroblasts than in +/+ controls. Metaphase chromosome spreads from Ubr2{sup -/-} cells revealed a high incidence of spontaneous chromosomal gaps, indicating chromosomal fragility. These fragile sites were generally replicated late in S phase. Ubr2{sup -/-} cells were hypersensitive to mitomycin C, a DNA cross-linking agent, but displayed normal sensitivity to gamma-irradiation. A reporter assay showed that Ubr2{sup -/-} cells are significantly impaired in the homologous recombination repair of a double strand break. In contrast, Ubr2{sup -/-} cells appeared normal in an assay for non-homologous end joining. Our results therefore unveil the role of the ubiquitin ligase Ubr2 in maintaining genome integrity and in homologous recombination repair.

  11. Homologous recombination mediates functional recovery of dysferlin deficiency following AAV5 gene transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E Grose

    Full Text Available The dysferlinopathies comprise a group of untreatable muscle disorders including limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B, Miyoshi myopathy, distal anterior compartment syndrome, and rigid spine syndrome. As with other forms of muscular dystrophy, adeno-associated virus (AAV gene transfer is a particularly auspicious treatment strategy, however the size of the DYSF cDNA (6.5 kb negates packaging into traditional AAV serotypes known to express well in muscle (i.e. rAAV1, 2, 6, 8, 9. Potential advantages of a full cDNA versus a mini-gene include: maintaining structural-functional protein domains, evading protein misfolding, and avoiding novel epitopes that could be immunogenic. AAV5 has demonstrated unique plasticity with regards to packaging capacity and recombination of virions containing homologous regions of cDNA inserts has been implicated in the generation of full-length transcripts. Herein we show for the first time in vivo that homologous recombination following AAV5.DYSF gene transfer leads to the production of full length transcript and protein. Moreover, gene transfer of full-length dysferlin protein in dysferlin deficient mice resulted in expression levels sufficient to correct functional deficits in the diaphragm and importantly in skeletal muscle membrane repair. Intravascular regional gene transfer through the femoral artery produced high levels of transduction and enabled targeting of specific muscle groups affected by the dysferlinopathies setting the stage for potential translation to clinical trials. We provide proof of principle that AAV5 mediated delivery of dysferlin is a highly promising strategy for treatment of dysferlinopathies and has far-reaching implications for the therapeutic delivery of other large genes.

  12. Ultrafast Proton Shuttling in Psammocora Cyan Fluorescent Protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennis, J.T.M.; van Stokkum, I.H.M.; Peterson, D.S.; Pandit, A.; Wachter, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    Cyan, green, yellow, and red fluorescent proteins (FPs) homologous to green fluorescent protein (GFP) are used extensively as model systems to study fundamental processes in photobiology, such as the capture of light energy by protein-embedded chromophores, color tuning by the protein matrix, energy

  13. Bacteriophage T5 encodes a homolog of the eukaryotic transcription coactivator PC4 implicated in recombination-dependent DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigemann, Birthe; Schulz, Annina; Werten, Sebastiaan

    2013-11-15

    The RNA polymerase II cofactor PC4 globally regulates transcription of protein-encoding genes through interactions with unwinding DNA, the basal transcription machinery and transcription activators. Here, we report the surprising identification of PC4 homologs in all sequenced representatives of the T5 family of bacteriophages, as well as in an archaeon and seven phyla of eubacteria. We have solved the crystal structure of the full-length T5 protein at 1.9Å, revealing a striking resemblance to the characteristic single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding core domain of PC4. Intriguing novel structural features include a potential regulatory region at the N-terminus and a C-terminal extension of the homodimerisation interface. The genome organisation of T5-related bacteriophages points at involvement of the PC4 homolog in recombination-dependent DNA replication, strongly suggesting that the protein corresponds to the hitherto elusive replicative ssDNA-binding protein of the T5 family. Our findings imply that PC4-like factors intervene in multiple unwinding-related processes by acting as versatile modifiers of nucleic acid conformation and raise the possibility that the eukaryotic transcription coactivator derives from ancestral DNA replication, recombination and repair factors. © 2013.

  14. Mutagenic Organized Recombination Process by Homologous IN vivo Grouping (MORPHING) for directed enzyme evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Perez, David; Molina-Espeja, Patricia; Garcia-Ruiz, Eva; Alcalde, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Approaches that depend on directed evolution require reliable methods to generate DNA diversity so that mutant libraries can focus on specific target regions. We took advantage of the high frequency of homologous DNA recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to develop a strategy for domain mutagenesis aimed at introducing and in vivo recombining random mutations in defined segments of DNA. Mutagenic Organized Recombination Process by Homologous IN vivo Grouping (MORPHING) is a one-pot random mutagenic method for short protein regions that harnesses the in vivo recombination apparatus of yeast. Using this approach, libraries can be prepared with different mutational loads in DNA segments of less than 30 amino acids so that they can be assembled into the remaining unaltered DNA regions in vivo with high fidelity. As a proof of concept, we present two eukaryotic-ligninolytic enzyme case studies: i) the enhancement of the oxidative stability of a H2O2-sensitive versatile peroxidase by independent evolution of three distinct protein segments (Leu28-Gly57, Leu149-Ala174 and Ile199-Leu268); and ii) the heterologous functional expression of an unspecific peroxygenase by exclusive evolution of its native 43-residue signal sequence.

  15. Conservation of a proteinase cleavage site between an insect retrovirus (gypsy) Env protein and a baculovirus envelope fusion protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, Margot N.; Rohrmann, George F.

    2004-01-01

    The predicted Env protein of insect retroviruses (errantiviruses) is related to the envelope fusion protein of a major division of the Baculoviridae. The highest degree of homology is found in a region that contains a furin cleavage site in the baculovirus proteins and an adjacent sequence that has the properties of a fusion peptide. In this investigation, the homologous region in the Env protein of the gypsy retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster (DmegypV) was investigated. Alteration of the predicted DmegypV Env proteinase cleavage site from RIAR to AIAR significantly reduced cleavage of Env in both Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf-9) and D. melanogaster (S2) cell lines. When the predicted DmegypV Env cleavage site RIAR was substituted for the cleavage sequence RRKR in the Lymantria dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus fusion protein (LD130) sequence, cleavage of the hybrid LD130 molecules still occurred, although at a reduced level. The conserved 21-amino acid sequence just downstream of the cleavage site, which is thought to be the fusion peptide in LD130, was also characterized. When this sequence from DmegypV Env was substituted for the homologous sequence in LD130, cleavage still occurred, but no fusion was observed in either cell type. In addition, although a DmegypV-Env-green fluorescent protein construct localized to cell membranes, no cell fusion was observed

  16. HIV Genome-Wide Protein Associations: a Review of 30 Years of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The HIV genome encodes a small number of viral proteins (i.e., 16), invariably establishing cooperative associations among HIV proteins and between HIV and host proteins, to invade host cells and hijack their internal machineries. As a known example, the HIV envelope glycoprotein GP120 is closely associated with GP41 for viral entry. From a genome-wide perspective, a hypothesis can be worked out to determine whether 16 HIV proteins could develop 120 possible pairwise associations either by physical interactions or by functional associations mediated via HIV or host molecules. Here, we present the first systematic review of experimental evidence on HIV genome-wide protein associations using a large body of publications accumulated over the past 3 decades. Of 120 possible pairwise associations between 16 HIV proteins, at least 34 physical interactions and 17 functional associations have been identified. To achieve efficient viral replication and infection, HIV protein associations play essential roles (e.g., cleavage, inhibition, and activation) during the HIV life cycle. In either a dispensable or an indispensable manner, each HIV protein collaborates with another viral protein to accomplish specific activities that precisely take place at the proper stages of the HIV life cycle. In addition, HIV genome-wide protein associations have an impact on anti-HIV inhibitors due to the extensive cross talk between drug-inhibited proteins and other HIV proteins. Overall, this study presents for the first time a comprehensive overview of HIV genome-wide protein associations, highlighting meticulous collaborations between all viral proteins during the HIV life cycle. PMID:27357278

  17. Nonstructural 3 Protein of Hepatitis C Virus Modulates the Tribbles Homolog 3/Akt Signaling Pathway for Persistent Viral Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Si C.; Pham, Tu M.; Nguyen, Lam N.; Park, Eun-Mee; Lim, Yun-Sook

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection often causes chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and ultimately hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the mechanisms underlying HCV-induced liver pathogenesis are still not fully understood. By transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis, we recently identified host genes that were significantly differentially expressed in cell culture-grown HCV (HCVcc)-infected cells. Of these, tribbles homolog 3 (TRIB3) was selected for further characterization. TRIB3 was initially identified as a binding partner of protein kinase B (also known as Akt). TRIB3 blocks the phosphorylation of Akt and induces apoptosis under endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress conditions. HCV has been shown to enhance Akt phosphorylation for its own propagation. In the present study, we demonstrated that both mRNA and protein levels of TRIB3 were increased in the context of HCV replication. We further showed that promoter activity of TRIB3 was increased by HCV-induced ER stress. Silencing of TRIB3 resulted in increased RNA and protein levels of HCV, whereas overexpression of TRIB3 decreased HCV replication. By employing an HCV pseudoparticle entry assay, we further showed that TRIB3 was a negative host factor involved in HCV entry. Both in vitro binding and immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that HCV NS3 specifically interacted with TRIB3. Consequently, the association of TRIB3 and Akt was disrupted by HCV NS3, and thus, TRIB3-Akt signaling was impaired in HCV-infected cells. Moreover, HCV modulated TRIB3 to promote extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, activator protein 1 (AP-1) activity, and cell migration. Collectively, these data indicate that HCV exploits the TRIB3-Akt signaling pathway to promote persistent viral infection and may contribute to HCV-mediated pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE TRIB3 is a pseudokinase protein that acts as an adaptor in signaling pathways for important cellular processes. So far, the functional involvement of

  18. Identification of a serine proteinase homolog (Sp-SPH involved in immune defense in the mud crab Scylla paramamosain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-xia Zhang

    Full Text Available Clip domain serine proteinase homologs are involved in many biological processes including immune response. To identify the immune function of a serine proteinase homolog (Sp-SPH, originally isolated from hemocytes of the mud crab, Scylla paramamosain, the Sp-SPH was expressed recombinantly and purified for further studies. It was found that the Sp-SPH protein could bind to a number of bacteria (including Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio fluvialis, Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio parahemolyticus, bacterial cell wall components such as lipopolysaccharide or peptidoglycan (PGN, and β-1, 3-glucan of fungus. But no direct antibacterial activity of Sp-SPH protein was shown by using minimum inhibitory concentration or minimum bactericidal concentration assays. Nevertheless, the Sp-SPH protein was found to significantly enhance the crab hemocyte adhesion activity (paired t-test, P<0.05, and increase phenoloxidase activity if triggered by PGN in vitro (paired t-test, P<0.05. Importantly, the Sp-SPH protein was demonstrated to promote the survival rate of the animals after challenge with A. hydrophila or V. parahemolyticus which were both recognized by Sp-SPH protein, if pre-incubated with Sp-SPH protein, respectively. Whereas, the crabs died much faster when challenged with Vibrio alginolyiicus, a pathogenic bacterium not recognized by Sp-SPH protein, compared to those of crabs challenged with A. hydrophila or V. parahemolyticus when pre-coated with Sp-SPH protein. Taken together, these data suggested that Sp-SPH molecule might play an important role in immune defense against bacterial infection in the mud crab S. paramamosain.

  19. Induction of the unfolded protein response by cigarette smoke is primarily an activating transcription factor 4-C/EBP homologous protein mediated process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraghty P

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Patrick Geraghty, Alison Wallace, Jeanine M D'ArmientoDepartment of Medicine, Divisions of Molecular and Pulmonary Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USAPurpose: Cigarette smoke is the major risk factor associated with the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Recent studies propose a link between endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and emphysema, demonstrated by increased ER stress markers under smoking conditions. Here, we investigate whether cigarette smoke-induced ER stress is cell specific and correlates with acute and chronic cigarette smoke exposure.Methods: Gene and protein expression changes in human primary lung cell cultures following cigarette smoke extract (CSE exposure were monitored by qPCR and Western blot analysis. Mice and guinea pigs were exposed to cigarette smoke and ER stress markers examined in whole lung homogenates. Inflammatory cells from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of 10 days smoke exposed mice were also examined.Results: Cigarette smoke induced a trend increase in the ER stress response through an activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4 mediated induction of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP in primary small airway epithelial cells. Bronchial epithelial cells and macrophages responded similarly to CSE. Wild-type mice and guinea pigs exposed to acute levels of cigarette smoke exhibited increased levels of CHOP but not at significant levels. However, after long-term chronic cigarette smoke exposure, CHOP expression was reduced. Interestingly, inflammatory cells from smoke exposed mice had a significant increase in CHOP/ATF4 expression.Conclusion: A trend increase in CHOP levels appear in multiple human lung cell types following acute cigarette smoke exposure in vitro. In vivo, inflammatory cells, predominately macrophages, demonstrate significant cigarette smoke-induced ER stress. Early induction of CHOP in cigarette smoke may play a pivotal role in early

  20. The antifungal properties of a 2S albumin-homologous protein from passion fruit seeds involve plasma membrane permeabilization and ultrastructural alterations in yeast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agizzio, Ana Paula; Da Cunha, Maura; Carvalho, André O; Oliveira, Marco Antônio; Ribeiro, Suzanna F F; Gomes, Valdirene M

    2006-10-01

    Different types of antimicrobial proteins were purified from plant seeds, including chitinases, β-1,3-glucanases, defensins, thionins, lipid transfer proteins and 2S albumins. It has become clear that these groups of proteins play an important role in the protection of plants from microbial infection. Recent results from our laboratory have shown that the defense-related proteins from passion fruit seeds, named Pf1 and Pf2 (which show sequence homology with 2S albumins), inhibit fungal growth and glucose-stimulated acidification of the medium by Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. The aim of this study was to determine whether 2S albumins from passion fruit seeds induce plasma membrane permeabilization and cause morphological alterations in yeast cells. Initially, we used an assay based on the uptake of SYTOX Green, an organic compound that fluoresces upon interaction with nucleic acids and penetrates cells with compromised plasma membranes, to investigate membrane permeabilization in S. cerevisiae cells. When viewed with a confocal laser microscope, S. cervisiae cells showed strong SYTOX Green fluorescence in the cytosol, especially in the nuclei. 2S albumins also inhibited glucose-stimulated acidification of the medium by S. cerevisiae cells, which indicates a probable impairment of fungal metabolism. The microscopical analysis of the yeast cells treated with 2S albumins demonstrated several morphological alterations in cell shape, cell surface, cell wall and bud formation, as well as in the organization of intracellular organelles. Copyright © 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Statistical Inference for Porous Materials using Persistent Homology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Chul [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Heath, Jason E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mitchell, Scott A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-12-01

    We propose a porous materials analysis pipeline using persistent homology. We rst compute persistent homology of binarized 3D images of sampled material subvolumes. For each image we compute sets of homology intervals, which are represented as summary graphics called persistence diagrams. We convert persistence diagrams into image vectors in order to analyze the similarity of the homology of the material images using the mature tools for image analysis. Each image is treated as a vector and we compute its principal components to extract features. We t a statistical model using the loadings of principal components to estimate material porosity, permeability, anisotropy, and tortuosity. We also propose an adaptive version of the structural similarity index (SSIM), a similarity metric for images, as a measure to determine the statistical representative elementary volumes (sREV) for persistence homology. Thus we provide a capability for making a statistical inference of the uid ow and transport properties of porous materials based on their geometry and connectivity.

  2. Genomes2Drugs: identifies target proteins and lead drugs from proteome data.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toomey, David

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genome sequencing and bioinformatics have provided the full hypothetical proteome of many pathogenic organisms. Advances in microarray and mass spectrometry have also yielded large output datasets of possible target proteins\\/genes. However, the challenge remains to identify new targets for drug discovery from this wealth of information. Further analysis includes bioinformatics and\\/or molecular biology tools to validate the findings. This is time consuming and expensive, and could fail to yield novel drugs if protein purification and crystallography is impossible. To pre-empt this, a researcher may want to rapidly filter the output datasets for proteins that show good homology to proteins that have already been structurally characterised or proteins that are already targets for known drugs. Critically, those researchers developing novel antibiotics need to select out the proteins that show close homology to any human proteins, as future inhibitors are likely to cross-react with the host protein, causing off-target toxicity effects later in clinical trials. METHODOLOGY\\/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To solve many of these issues, we have developed a free online resource called Genomes2Drugs which ranks sequences to identify proteins that are (i) homologous to previously crystallized proteins or (ii) targets of known drugs, but are (iii) not homologous to human proteins. When tested using the Plasmodium falciparum malarial genome the program correctly enriched the ranked list of proteins with known drug target proteins. CONCLUSIONS\\/SIGNIFICANCE: Genomes2Drugs rapidly identifies proteins that are likely to succeed in drug discovery pipelines. This free online resource helps in the identification of potential drug targets. Importantly, the program further highlights proteins that are likely to be inhibited by FDA-approved drugs. These drugs can then be rapidly moved into Phase IV clinical studies under \\'change-of-application\\' patents.

  3. Genomes2Drugs: identifies target proteins and lead drugs from proteome data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Toomey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome sequencing and bioinformatics have provided the full hypothetical proteome of many pathogenic organisms. Advances in microarray and mass spectrometry have also yielded large output datasets of possible target proteins/genes. However, the challenge remains to identify new targets for drug discovery from this wealth of information. Further analysis includes bioinformatics and/or molecular biology tools to validate the findings. This is time consuming and expensive, and could fail to yield novel drugs if protein purification and crystallography is impossible. To pre-empt this, a researcher may want to rapidly filter the output datasets for proteins that show good homology to proteins that have already been structurally characterised or proteins that are already targets for known drugs. Critically, those researchers developing novel antibiotics need to select out the proteins that show close homology to any human proteins, as future inhibitors are likely to cross-react with the host protein, causing off-target toxicity effects later in clinical trials. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To solve many of these issues, we have developed a free online resource called Genomes2Drugs which ranks sequences to identify proteins that are (i homologous to previously crystallized proteins or (ii targets of known drugs, but are (iii not homologous to human proteins. When tested using the Plasmodium falciparum malarial genome the program correctly enriched the ranked list of proteins with known drug target proteins. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Genomes2Drugs rapidly identifies proteins that are likely to succeed in drug discovery pipelines. This free online resource helps in the identification of potential drug targets. Importantly, the program further highlights proteins that are likely to be inhibited by FDA-approved drugs. These drugs can then be rapidly moved into Phase IV clinical studies under 'change-of-application' patents.

  4. Analysis of Geographic and Pairwise Distances among Chinese Cashmere Goat Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Bin Liu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the geographic and pairwise distances of nine Chinese local Cashmere goat populations through the analysis of 20 microsatellite DNA markers. Fluorescence PCR was used to identify the markers, which were selected based on their significance as identified by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO and the International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG. In total, 206 alleles were detected; the average allele number was 10.30; the polymorphism information content of loci ranged from 0.5213 to 0.7582; the number of effective alleles ranged from 4.0484 to 4.6178; the observed heterozygosity was from 0.5023 to 0.5602 for the practical sample; the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.5783 to 0.6464; and Allelic richness ranged from 4.7551 to 8.0693. These results indicated that Chinese Cashmere goat populations exhibited rich genetic diversity. Further, the Wright’s F-statistics of subpopulation within total (FST was 0.1184; the genetic differentiation coefficient (GST was 0.0940; and the average gene flow (Nm was 2.0415. All pairwise FST values among the populations were highly significant (p<0.01 or p<0.001, suggesting that the populations studied should all be considered to be separate breeds. Finally, the clustering analysis divided the Chinese Cashmere goat populations into at least four clusters, with the Hexi and Yashan goat populations alone in one cluster. These results have provided useful, practical, and important information for the future of Chinese Cashmere goat breeding.

  5. K-homology and K-cohomology constructions of relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Sattar, A. Dabbour; Bayoumy, F.M.

    1990-08-01

    One of the important homology (cohomology) theories, based on systems of covering of the space, is the homology (cohomology) theory of relations. In the present work, by using the idea of K-homology and K-cohomology groups different varieties of the Dowker's theory are introduced and studied. These constructions are defined on the category of pairs of topological spaces and over a pair of coefficient groups. (author). 14 refs

  6. Comprehensive Analysis of Homologous Proteins for Specific Drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... minimize drug failures by predicting drug efficacy and toxicity. One of the most important pathogenic bacterium is Aeromonas species which causes tissue damage, acute gastroenteritis and neonatal septicemia. Bacterial proteins are the ultimate target to inhibit their growth and these are the executors of cellular function.

  7. Homologous human milk supplement for very low birth weight preterm infant feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grance, Thayana Regina de Souza; Serafin, Paula de Oliveira; Thomaz, Débora Marchetti Chaves; Palhares, Durval Batista

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a homologous human milk supplement for very low-birth weight infant feeding, using an original and simplified methodology, to know the nutritional composition of human milk fortified with this supplement and to evaluate its suitability for feeding these infants. METHODS: For the production and analysis of human milk with the homologous additive, 25 human milk samples of 45mL underwent a lactose removal process, lyophilization and then were diluted in 50mL of human milk. Measurements of lactose, proteins, lipids, energy, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and osmolality were performed. RESULTS: The composition of the supplemented milk was: lactose 9.22±1.00g/dL; proteins 2.20±0.36g/dL; lipids 2.91±0.57g/dL; calories 71.93±8.69kcal/dL; osmolality 389.6±32.4mOsmol/kgH2O; sodium 2.04±0.45mEq/dL; potassium 1.42±0.15mEq/dL; calcium 43.44±2.98mg/dL; and phosphorus 23.69±1.24mg/dL. CONCLUSIONS: According to the nutritional contents analyzed, except for calcium and phosphorus, human milk with the proposed supplement can meet the nutritional needs of the very low-birth weight preterm infant. PMID:25662564

  8. Homologous human milk supplement for very low birth weight preterm infant feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayana Regina de Souza Grance

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To develop a homologous human milk supplement for very low-birth weight infant feeding, using an original and simplified methodology, to know the nutritional composition of human milk fortified with this supplement and to evaluate its suitability for feeding these infants. METHODS: For the production and analysis of human milk with the homologous additive, 25 human milk samples of 45mL underwent a lactose removal process, lyophilization and then were diluted in 50mL of human milk. Measurements of lactose, proteins, lipids, energy, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and osmolality were performed. RESULTS: The composition of the supplemented milk was: lactose 9.22±1.00g/dL; proteins 2.20±0.36g/dL; lipids 2.91±0.57g/dL; calories 71.93±8.69kcal/dL; osmolality 389.6±32.4mOsmol/kgH2O; sodium 2.04±0.45mEq/dL; potassium 1.42±0.15mEq/dL; calcium 43.44±2.98mg/dL; and phosphorus 23.69±1.24mg/dL. CONCLUSIONS: According to the nutritional contents analyzed, except for calcium and phosphorus, human milk with the proposed supplement can meet the nutritional needs of the very low-birth weight preterm infant.

  9. Pea VEGETATIVE2 Is an FD Homolog That Is Essential for Flowering and Compound Inflorescence Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussmilch, Frances C; Berbel, Ana; Hecht, Valérie; Vander Schoor, Jacqueline K; Ferrándiz, Cristina; Madueño, Francisco; Weller, James L

    2015-04-01

    As knowledge of the gene networks regulating inflorescence development in Arabidopsis thaliana improves, the current challenge is to characterize this system in different groups of crop species with different inflorescence architecture. Pea (Pisum sativum) has served as a model for development of the compound raceme, characteristic of many legume species, and in this study, we characterize the pea VEGETATIVE2 (VEG2) locus, showing that it is critical for regulation of flowering and inflorescence development and identifying it as a homolog of the bZIP transcription factor FD. Through detailed phenotypic characterizations of veg2 mutants, expression analyses, and the use of protein-protein interaction assays, we find that VEG2 has important roles during each stage of development of the pea compound inflorescence. Our results suggest that VEG2 acts in conjunction with multiple FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) proteins to regulate expression of downstream target genes, including TERMINAL FLOWER1, LEAFY, and MADS box homologs, and to facilitate cross-regulation within the FT gene family. These findings further extend our understanding of the mechanisms underlying compound inflorescence development in pea and may have wider implications for future manipulation of inflorescence architecture in related legume crop species. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  10. Evolution and virulence contributions of the autotransporter proteins YapJ and YapK of Yersinia pestis CO92 and their homologs in Y. pseudotuberculosis IP32953.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Jonathan D; Temple, Brenda R S; Miller, Virginia L

    2012-10-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, evolved from the gastrointestinal pathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Both species have numerous type Va autotransporters, most of which appear to be highly conserved. In Y. pestis CO92, the autotransporter genes yapK and yapJ share a high level of sequence identity. By comparing yapK and yapJ to three homologous genes in Y. pseudotuberculosis IP32953 (YPTB0365, YPTB3285, and YPTB3286), we show that yapK is conserved in Y. pseudotuberculosis, while yapJ is unique to Y. pestis. All of these autotransporters exhibit >96% identity in the C terminus of the protein and identities ranging from 58 to 72% in their N termini. By extending this analysis to include homologous sequences from numerous Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis strains, we determined that these autotransporters cluster into a YapK (YPTB3285) class and a YapJ (YPTB3286) class. The YPTB3286-like gene of most Y. pestis strains appears to be inactivated, perhaps in favor of maintaining yapJ. Since autotransporters are important for virulence in many bacterial pathogens, including Y. pestis, any change in autotransporter content should be considered for its impact on virulence. Using established mouse models of Y. pestis infection, we demonstrated that despite the high level of sequence identity, yapK is distinct from yapJ in its contribution to disseminated Y. pestis infection. In addition, a mutant lacking both of these genes exhibits an additive attenuation, suggesting nonredundant roles for yapJ and yapK in systemic Y. pestis infection. However, the deletion of the homologous genes in Y. pseudotuberculosis does not seem to impact the virulence of this organism in orogastric or systemic infection models.

  11. Repeat-swap homology modeling of secondary active transporters: updated protocol and prediction of elevator-type mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Jaque, Ariela; Fenollar-Ferrer, Cristina; Kaufmann, Desirée; Forrest, Lucy R

    2015-01-01

    Secondary active transporters are critical for neurotransmitter clearance and recycling during synaptic transmission and uptake of nutrients. These proteins mediate the movement of solutes against their concentration gradients, by using the energy released in the movement of ions down pre-existing concentration gradients. To achieve this, transporters conform to the so-called alternating-access hypothesis, whereby the protein adopts at least two conformations in which the substrate binding sites are exposed to one or other side of the membrane, but not both simultaneously. Structures of a bacterial homolog of neuronal glutamate transporters, GltPh, in several different conformational states have revealed that the protein structure is asymmetric in the outward- and inward-open states, and that the conformational change connecting them involves a elevator-like movement of a substrate binding domain across the membrane. The structural asymmetry is created by inverted-topology repeats, i.e., structural repeats with similar overall folds whose transmembrane topologies are related to each other by two-fold pseudo-symmetry around an axis parallel to the membrane plane. Inverted repeats have been found in around three-quarters of secondary transporter folds. Moreover, the (a)symmetry of these systems has been successfully used as a bioinformatic tool, called "repeat-swap modeling" to predict structural models of a transporter in one conformation using the known structure of the transporter in the complementary conformation as a template. Here, we describe an updated repeat-swap homology modeling protocol, and calibrate the accuracy of the method using GltPh, for which both inward- and outward-facing conformations are known. We then apply this repeat-swap homology modeling procedure to a concentrative nucleoside transporter, VcCNT, which has a three-dimensional arrangement related to that of GltPh. The repeat-swapped model of VcCNT predicts that nucleoside transport also

  12. Repeat-swap homology modeling of secondary active transporters: updated protocol and prediction of elevator-type mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eFenollar Ferrer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Secondary active transporters are critical for neurotransmitter clearance and recycling during synaptic transmission and uptake of nutrients. These proteins mediate the movement of solutes against their concentration gradients, by using the energy released in the movement of ions down pre-existing concentration gradients. To achieve this, transporters conform to the so-called alternating-access hypothesis, whereby the protein adopts at least two conformations in which the substrate binding sites are exposed to either the outside or inside of the membrane, but not both simultaneously. Structures of a bacterial homolog of neuronal glutamate transporters, GltPh, in several different conformational states have revealed that the protein structure is asymmetric in the outward- and inward-open states, and that the conformational change connecting them involves a elevator-like movement of a substrate binding domain across the membrane. The structural asymmetry is created by inverted-topology repeats, i.e., structural repeats with similar overall folds whose transmembrane topologies are related to each other by two-fold pseudo-symmetry around an axis parallel to the membrane plane. Inverted repeats have been found in around three-quarters of secondary transporter folds. Moreover, the (asymmetry of these systems has been successfully used as a bioinformatic tool, called repeat-swap modeling to predict structural models of a transporter in one conformation using the known structure of the transporter in the complementary conformation as a template. Here, we describe an updated repeat-swap homology modeling protocol, and calibrate the accuracy of the method using GltPh, for which both inward- and outward-facing conformations are known. We then apply this repeat-swap homology modeling procedure to a concentrative nucleoside transporter, VcCNT, which has a three-dimensional arrangement related to that of GltPh. The repeat-swapped model of VcCNT predicts that

  13. Multiscale analysis of nonlinear systems using computational homology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konstantin Mischaikow; Michael Schatz; William Kalies; Thomas Wanner

    2010-05-24

    This is a collaborative project between the principal investigators. However, as is to be expected, different PIs have greater focus on different aspects of the project. This report lists these major directions of research which were pursued during the funding period: (1) Computational Homology in Fluids - For the computational homology effort in thermal convection, the focus of the work during the first two years of the funding period included: (1) A clear demonstration that homology can sensitively detect the presence or absence of an important flow symmetry, (2) An investigation of homology as a probe for flow dynamics, and (3) The construction of a new convection apparatus for probing the effects of large-aspect-ratio. (2) Computational Homology in Cardiac Dynamics - We have initiated an effort to test the use of homology in characterizing data from both laboratory experiments and numerical simulations of arrhythmia in the heart. Recently, the use of high speed, high sensitivity digital imaging in conjunction with voltage sensitive fluorescent dyes has enabled researchers to visualize electrical activity on the surface of cardiac tissue, both in vitro and in vivo. (3) Magnetohydrodynamics - A new research direction is to use computational homology to analyze results of large scale simulations of 2D turbulence in the presence of magnetic fields. Such simulations are relevant to the dynamics of black hole accretion disks. The complex flow patterns from simulations exhibit strong qualitative changes as a function of magnetic field strength. Efforts to characterize the pattern changes using Fourier methods and wavelet analysis have been unsuccessful. (4) Granular Flow - two experts in the area of granular media are studying 2D model experiments of earthquake dynamics where the stress fields can be measured; these stress fields from complex patterns of 'force chains' that may be amenable to analysis using computational homology. (5) Microstructure

  14. Multiscale analysis of nonlinear systems using computational homology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konstantin Mischaikow, Rutgers University/Georgia Institute of Technology, Michael Schatz, Georgia Institute of Technology, William Kalies, Florida Atlantic University, Thomas Wanner,George Mason University

    2010-05-19

    This is a collaborative project between the principal investigators. However, as is to be expected, different PIs have greater focus on different aspects of the project. This report lists these major directions of research which were pursued during the funding period: (1) Computational Homology in Fluids - For the computational homology effort in thermal convection, the focus of the work during the first two years of the funding period included: (1) A clear demonstration that homology can sensitively detect the presence or absence of an important flow symmetry, (2) An investigation of homology as a probe for flow dynamics, and (3) The construction of a new convection apparatus for probing the effects of large-aspect-ratio. (2) Computational Homology in Cardiac Dynamics - We have initiated an effort to test the use of homology in characterizing data from both laboratory experiments and numerical simulations of arrhythmia in the heart. Recently, the use of high speed, high sensitivity digital imaging in conjunction with voltage sensitive fluorescent dyes has enabled researchers to visualize electrical activity on the surface of cardiac tissue, both in vitro and in vivo. (3) Magnetohydrodynamics - A new research direction is to use computational homology to analyze results of large scale simulations of 2D turbulence in the presence of magnetic fields. Such simulations are relevant to the dynamics of black hole accretion disks. The complex flow patterns from simulations exhibit strong qualitative changes as a function of magnetic field strength. Efforts to characterize the pattern changes using Fourier methods and wavelet analysis have been unsuccessful. (4) Granular Flow - two experts in the area of granular media are studying 2D model experiments of earthquake dynamics where the stress fields can be measured; these stress fields from complex patterns of 'force chains' that may be amenable to analysis using computational homology. (5) Microstructure

  15. Persistent homology of complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, Danijela; Maletić, Slobodan; Rajković, Milan

    2009-01-01

    Long-lived topological features are distinguished from short-lived ones (considered as topological noise) in simplicial complexes constructed from complex networks. A new topological invariant, persistent homology, is determined and presented as a parameterized