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Sample records for paired comparison methodology

  1. Reducing the duration of paired-comparison experiments for visual quality assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantel, Claire; Forchhammer, Søren; Korhonen, Jari

    2013-01-01

    The subjective methodology of paired comparison is currently recognized as the most precise methodology. However, it is not widely used because it implies a larger number of assessments than other methodologies and therefore a longer test duration. In this paper we investigate how sorting algorit...

  2. Estimation of Disability Weights in the General Population of South Korea Using a Paired Comparison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minsu Ock

    Full Text Available We estimated the disability weights in the South Korean population by using a paired comparison-only model wherein 'full health' and 'being dead' were included as anchor points, without resorting to a cardinal method, such as person trade-off. The study was conducted via 2 types of survey: a household survey involving computer-assisted face-to-face interviews and a web-based survey (similar to that of the GBD 2010 disability weight study. With regard to the valuation methods, paired comparison, visual analogue scale (VAS, and standard gamble (SG were used in the household survey, whereas paired comparison and population health equivalence (PHE were used in the web-based survey. Accordingly, we described a total of 258 health states, with 'full health' and 'being dead' designated as anchor points. In the analysis, 4 models were considered: a paired comparison-only model; hybrid model between paired comparison and PHE; VAS model; and SG model. A total of 2,728 and 3,188 individuals participated in the household and web-based survey, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficients of the disability weights of health states between the GBD 2010 study and the current models were 0.802 for Model 2, 0.796 for Model 1, 0.681 for Model 3, and 0.574 for Model 4 (all P-values<0.001. The discrimination of values according to health state severity was most suitable in Model 1. Based on these results, the paired comparison-only model was selected as the best model for estimating disability weights in South Korea, and for maintaining simplicity in the analysis. Thus, disability weights can be more easily estimated by using paired comparison alone, with 'full health' and 'being dead' as one of the health states. As noted in our study, we believe that additional evidence regarding the universality of disability weight can be observed by using a simplified methodology of estimating disability weights.

  3. Estimation of Disability Weights in the General Population of South Korea Using a Paired Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ock, Minsu; Ahn, Jeonghoon; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Jo, Min-Woo

    2016-01-01

    We estimated the disability weights in the South Korean population by using a paired comparison-only model wherein 'full health' and 'being dead' were included as anchor points, without resorting to a cardinal method, such as person trade-off. The study was conducted via 2 types of survey: a household survey involving computer-assisted face-to-face interviews and a web-based survey (similar to that of the GBD 2010 disability weight study). With regard to the valuation methods, paired comparison, visual analogue scale (VAS), and standard gamble (SG) were used in the household survey, whereas paired comparison and population health equivalence (PHE) were used in the web-based survey. Accordingly, we described a total of 258 health states, with 'full health' and 'being dead' designated as anchor points. In the analysis, 4 models were considered: a paired comparison-only model; hybrid model between paired comparison and PHE; VAS model; and SG model. A total of 2,728 and 3,188 individuals participated in the household and web-based survey, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficients of the disability weights of health states between the GBD 2010 study and the current models were 0.802 for Model 2, 0.796 for Model 1, 0.681 for Model 3, and 0.574 for Model 4 (all P-valuesdisability weights in South Korea, and for maintaining simplicity in the analysis. Thus, disability weights can be more easily estimated by using paired comparison alone, with 'full health' and 'being dead' as one of the health states. As noted in our study, we believe that additional evidence regarding the universality of disability weight can be observed by using a simplified methodology of estimating disability weights.

  4. Estimation of Disability Weights in the General Population of South Korea Using a Paired Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ock, Minsu; Ahn, Jeonghoon; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Jo, Min-Woo

    2016-01-01

    We estimated the disability weights in the South Korean population by using a paired comparison-only model wherein ‘full health’ and ‘being dead’ were included as anchor points, without resorting to a cardinal method, such as person trade-off. The study was conducted via 2 types of survey: a household survey involving computer-assisted face-to-face interviews and a web-based survey (similar to that of the GBD 2010 disability weight study). With regard to the valuation methods, paired comparison, visual analogue scale (VAS), and standard gamble (SG) were used in the household survey, whereas paired comparison and population health equivalence (PHE) were used in the web-based survey. Accordingly, we described a total of 258 health states, with ‘full health’ and ‘being dead’ designated as anchor points. In the analysis, 4 models were considered: a paired comparison-only model; hybrid model between paired comparison and PHE; VAS model; and SG model. A total of 2,728 and 3,188 individuals participated in the household and web-based survey, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficients of the disability weights of health states between the GBD 2010 study and the current models were 0.802 for Model 2, 0.796 for Model 1, 0.681 for Model 3, and 0.574 for Model 4 (all P-valuesdisability weights in South Korea, and for maintaining simplicity in the analysis. Thus, disability weights can be more easily estimated by using paired comparison alone, with ‘full health’ and ‘being dead’ as one of the health states. As noted in our study, we believe that additional evidence regarding the universality of disability weight can be observed by using a simplified methodology of estimating disability weights. PMID:27606626

  5. Experimental congruence of interval scale production from paired comparisons and ranking for image evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, John C.; Babcock, Jason S.; Pelz, Jeff B.

    2003-12-01

    Image evaluation tasks are often conducted using paired comparisons or ranking. To elicit interval scales, both methods rely on Thurstone's Law of Comparative Judgment in which objects closer in psychological space are more often confused in preference comparisons by a putative discriminal random process. It is often debated whether paired comparisons and ranking yield the same interval scales. An experiment was conducted to assess scale production using paired comparisons and ranking. For this experiment a Pioneer Plasma Display and Apple Cinema Display were used for stimulus presentation. Observers performed rank order and paired comparisons tasks on both displays. For each of five scenes, six images were created by manipulating attributes such as lightness, chroma, and hue using six different settings. The intention was to simulate the variability from a set of digital cameras or scanners. Nineteen subjects, (5 females, 14 males) ranging from 19-51 years of age participated in this experiment. Using a paired comparison model and a ranking model, scales were estimated for each display and image combination yielding ten scale pairs, ostensibly measuring the same psychological scale. The Bradley-Terry model was used for the paired comparisons data and the Bradley-Terry-Mallows model was used for the ranking data. Each model was fit using maximum likelihood estimation and assessed using likelihood ratio tests. Approximate 95% confidence intervals were also constructed using likelihood ratios. Model fits for paired comparisons were satisfactory for all scales except those from two image/display pairs; the ranking model fit uniformly well on all data sets. Arguing from overlapping confidence intervals, we conclude that paired comparisons and ranking produce no conflicting decisions regarding ultimate ordering of treatment preferences, but paired comparisons yield greater precision at the expense of lack-of-fit.

  6. WTA estimates using the method of paired comparison: tests of robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia A. Champ; John B. Loomis

    1998-01-01

    The method of paired comparison is modified to allow choices between two alternative gains so as to estimate willingness to accept (WTA) without loss aversion. The robustness of WTA values for two public goods is tested with respect to sensitivity of theWTA measure to the context of the bundle of goods used in the paired comparison exercise and to the scope (scale) of...

  7. A Study on Visibility Estimation of Web-Safe Colors using Paired Comparison and Discriminant Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Daisuke; Saito, Keiichi; Notomi, Kazuhiro; Saito, Masao

    This paper presents the visibility ordering of several web safe colors. The research of web page visibility is important because of the rapid dissemination of the World Wide Web. The combination of a foreground color and a background color is an important factor in providing sufficient visibility. Therefore, the rating of color combination visibility is necessary when developing accessible web sites. In this study, the visibility of several web-safe color combinations was examined using psychological methodology, i.e., paired comparison. Eighteen chromatic and 3 achromatic web-safe colors were employed for visual stimuli. Twenty-eight subjects ranging from ages 21 to 75 were recruited, and all were with normal color sensation. They looked at two different colored characters simultaneously on the white background and were instructed to identify which one enabled them to see more clearly. In examining the relationship between the psychological rankings of the color combinations and the visual sensations, each color combination was first scored as to the visibility by Thurstone's paired comparison technique. Secondly, the visual sensation was deduced by applying Weber-Fechner's law to the luminance of the foreground colors. As results, the luminance of a foreground color influenced the visibility; however the visibility rating is difficult only using the luminance of web-safe colors. These indicate that the chromaticity and chroma saturation are necessary in rating of chromatic web-safe color visibility.

  8. An enquiry into the method of paired comparison: reliability, scaling, and Thurstone's Law of Comparative Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; George L. Peterson

    2009-01-01

    The method of paired comparisons is used to measure individuals' preference orderings of items presented to them as discrete binary choices. This paper reviews the theory and application of the paired comparison method, describes a new computer program available for eliciting the choices, and presents an analysis of methods for scaling paired choice data to...

  9. BAYESIAN ANALYSIS FOR THE PAIRED COMPARISON MODEL WITH ORDER EFFECTS (USING NON-INFORMATIVE PRIORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghausia Masood Gilani

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes it may be difficult for a panelist to rank or compare more than two objects or treatments at the same time. For this reason, paired comparison method is used. In this study, the Davidson and Beaver (1977 model for paired comparisons with order effects is analyzed through the Bayesian Approach. For this purpose, the posterior means and the posterior modes are compared using the noninformative priors.

  10. Comparison of economic evaluation methodology for the nuclear plant lifetime extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, T. H.; Jung, I. S.

    2003-01-01

    In connection with economic evaluation of NPP lifetime management, there are lots of methodologies such as present worth calculation, Levelized Unit Energy Cost (LUEC) calculation, and market benefit comparison methodology. In this paper, economic evaluation of NPP lifetime management was carried out by using these three methodologies, and the results of each was compared with the other methodologies. With these three methodologies, break even points of investment cost related to life extension of nuclear power plant were calculated. It was turned out to be as a analysis result that LUEC is more conservative than present worth calculation and that benefit comparison is more conservative than LUEC, which means that Market Benefit Comparison is the most conservative methodology, and which means base load demand of the future would be far more important than any other factors such as capacity factor, investment cost of life extension, and performance of replacing power plant

  11. Bayesian modeling to paired comparison data via the Pareto distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Abbas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A probabilistic approach to build models for paired comparison experiments based on the comparison of two Pareto variables is considered. Analysis of the proposed model is carried out in classical as well as Bayesian frameworks. Informative and uninformative priors are employed to accommodate the prior information. Simulation study is conducted to assess the suitablily and performance of the model under theoretical conditions. Appropriateness of fit of the is also carried out. Entire inferential procedure is illustrated by comparing certain cricket teams using real dataset.

  12. Innovation of Methods for Measurement and Modelling of Twisted Pair Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Cepa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to optimize a measurement methodology for the most accurate broadband modelling of characteristic impedance and other parameters for twisted pairs. Measured values and theirs comparison is presented in this article. Automated measurement facility was implemented at the Department of telecommunication of Faculty of electrical engineering of Czech technical university in Prague. Measurement facility contains RF switches allowing measurements up to 300 MHz or 1GHz. Measured twisted pair’s parameters can be obtained by measurement but for purposes of fundamental characteristics modelling is useful to define functions that model the properties of the twisted pair. Its primary and secondary parameters depend mostly on the frequency. For twisted pair deployment, we are interested in a frequency band range from 1 MHz to 100 MHz.

  13. Novel experimental methodology for the characterization of thermodynamic performance of advanced working pairs for adsorptive heat transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazzica, Andrea; Sapienza, Alessio; Freni, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel experimental protocol for the evaluation of the thermodynamic performance of working pairs for application in adsorption heat pumps and chillers. The proposed approach is based on the experimental measurements of the main thermo-physical parameters of adsorbent pairs, by means of a DSC/TG apparatus modified to work under saturated vapour conditions, able to measure the ads-/desorption isobars and heat flux as well as the adsorbent specific heat under real boundary conditions. Such kind of activity allows to characterize the thermodynamic performance of an adsorbent pair allowing the estimation of the thermal Coefficient Of Performance (COP) both for heating and cooling applications, only relying on experimental values. The experimental uncertainty of the method has been estimated to be around 2%, for the COP evaluation. In order to validate the proposed procedure, a first test campaign has been carried out on the commercial adsorbent material, AQSOA-Z02, produced by MPI (Mitsubishi Plastics Inc.), while water was used as refrigerant. The proposed experimental methodology will be applied on several other adsorbent materials, either already on the market or still under investigation, in order to get an easy and reliable method to compare thermodynamic performance of adsorptive working pairs

  14. Determination of subjective similarity for pairs of masses and pairs of clustered microcalcifications on mammograms: Comparison of similarity ranking scores and absolute similarity ratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Chisako; Li Qiang; Schmidt, Robert A.; Shiraishi, Junji; Suzuki, Kenji; Newstead, Gillian M.; Doi, Kunio

    2007-01-01

    The presentation of images that are similar to that of an unknown lesion seen on a mammogram may be helpful for radiologists to correctly diagnose that lesion. For similar images to be useful, they must be quite similar from the radiologists' point of view. We have been trying to quantify the radiologists' impression of similarity for pairs of lesions and to establish a ''gold standard'' for development and evaluation of a computerized scheme for selecting such similar images. However, it is considered difficult to reliably and accurately determine similarity ratings, because they are subjective. In this study, we compared the subjective similarities obtained by two different methods, an absolute rating method and a 2-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) method, to demonstrate that reliable similarity ratings can be determined by the responses of a group of radiologists. The absolute similarity ratings were previously obtained for pairs of masses and pairs of microcalcifications from five and nine radiologists, respectively. In this study, similarity ranking scores for eight pairs of masses and eight pairs of microcalcifications were determined by use of the 2AFC method. In the first session, the eight pairs of masses and eight pairs of microcalcifications were grouped and compared separately for determining the similarity ranking scores. In the second session, another similarity ranking score was determined by use of mixed pairs, i.e., by comparison of the similarity of a mass pair with that of a calcification pair. Four pairs of masses and four pairs of microcalcifications were grouped together to create two sets of eight pairs. The average absolute similarity ratings and the average similarity ranking scores showed very good correlations in the first study (Pearson's correlation coefficients: 0.94 and 0.98 for masses and microcalcifications, respectively). Moreover, in the second study, the correlations between the absolute ratings and the ranking scores were also

  15. International Comparisons: Issues of Methodology and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serova Irina A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the methodology and organization of statistical observation of the level of countries’ economic development. The theoretical basis of international comparisons is singled out and on its basis the comparative evaluation of inconsistency of theoretical positions and the reasons of differences of GDP growth is carried out. Based on the complexity of the formation of homogeneous data sets in order to obtain correct comparison results, a general scheme for the relationship between the theoretical base of international comparisons and PPP constraints is defined. The possibility of obtaining a single measurement of the indicators of national economies based on the existing sampling errors, measurement uncertainties and classification errors is considered. The emphasis is placed on combining the work using the ICP and CPI with the aim of achieving comparability of data in the territorial and temporal cross-section. Using the basic characteristics of sustainable economic growth, long-term prospects for changing the ranking positions of countries with different levels of income are determined. It is shown that the clarity and unambiguity of the theoretical provisions is the defining condition for the further process of data collection and formation of correct analytical conclusions.

  16. The Visual Analogue Scale for Rating, Ranking and Paired-Comparison (VAS-RRP): A new technique for psychological measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Yao-Ting; Wu, Jeng-Shin

    2018-04-17

    Traditionally, the visual analogue scale (VAS) has been proposed to overcome the limitations of ordinal measures from Likert-type scales. However, the function of VASs to overcome the limitations of response styles to Likert-type scales has not yet been addressed. Previous research using ranking and paired comparisons to compensate for the response styles of Likert-type scales has suffered from limitations, such as that the total score of ipsative measures is a constant that cannot be analyzed by means of many common statistical techniques. In this study we propose a new scale, called the Visual Analogue Scale for Rating, Ranking, and Paired-Comparison (VAS-RRP), which can be used to collect rating, ranking, and paired-comparison data simultaneously, while avoiding the limitations of each of these data collection methods. The characteristics, use, and analytic method of VAS-RRPs, as well as how they overcome the disadvantages of Likert-type scales, ranking, and VASs, are discussed. On the basis of analyses of simulated and empirical data, this study showed that VAS-RRPs improved reliability, response style bias, and parameter recovery. Finally, we have also designed a VAS-RRP Generator for researchers' construction and administration of their own VAS-RRPs.

  17. 4D Flexible Atom-Pairs: An efficient probabilistic conformational space comparison for ligand-based virtual screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The performance of 3D-based virtual screening similarity functions is affected by the applied conformations of compounds. Therefore, the results of 3D approaches are often less robust than 2D approaches. The application of 3D methods on multiple conformer data sets normally reduces this weakness, but entails a significant computational overhead. Therefore, we developed a special conformational space encoding by means of Gaussian mixture models and a similarity function that operates on these models. The application of a model-based encoding allows an efficient comparison of the conformational space of compounds. Results Comparisons of our 4D flexible atom-pair approach with over 15 state-of-the-art 2D- and 3D-based virtual screening similarity functions on the 40 data sets of the Directory of Useful Decoys show a robust performance of our approach. Even 3D-based approaches that operate on multiple conformers yield inferior results. The 4D flexible atom-pair method achieves an averaged AUC value of 0.78 on the filtered Directory of Useful Decoys data sets. The best 2D- and 3D-based approaches of this study yield an AUC value of 0.74 and 0.72, respectively. As a result, the 4D flexible atom-pair approach achieves an average rank of 1.25 with respect to 15 other state-of-the-art similarity functions and four different evaluation metrics. Conclusions Our 4D method yields a robust performance on 40 pharmaceutically relevant targets. The conformational space encoding enables an efficient comparison of the conformational space. Therefore, the weakness of the 3D-based approaches on single conformations is circumvented. With over 100,000 similarity calculations on a single desktop CPU, the utilization of the 4D flexible atom-pair in real-world applications is feasible. PMID:21733172

  18. Poverty Assessment in the Philippines and Indonesia: A Methodological Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    David, Isidoro P.; Asra, Abuzar; Virola, Romulo A.

    1997-01-01

    Existing official poverty statistics cannot be directly utilized for cross-country comparison. This paper illustrates why. It presents an assessment of poverty measurement in the Philippines and Indonesia by examining methodologies used and the disparity in their respective poverty statistics. A more comparable poverty estimates in these countries are provided.

  19. Molecular dynamics study of some non-hydrogen-bonding base pair DNA strands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Rakesh K.; Ojha, Rajendra P.; Tiwari, Gargi; Pandey, Vishnudatt; Mall, Vijaysree

    2018-05-01

    In order to elucidate the structural activity of hydrophobic modified DNA, the DMMO2-D5SICS, base pair is introduced as a constituent in different set of 12-mer and 14-mer DNA sequences for the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation in explicit water solvent. AMBER 14 force field was employed for each set of duplex during the 200ns production-dynamics simulation in orthogonal-box-water solvent by the Particle-Mesh-Ewald (PME) method in infinite periodic boundary conditions (PBC) to determine conformational parameters of the complex. The force-field parameters of modified base-pair were calculated by Gaussian-code using Hartree-Fock /ab-initio methodology. RMSD Results reveal that the conformation of the duplex is sequence dependent and the binding energy of the complex depends on the position of the modified base-pair in the nucleic acid strand. We found that non-bonding energy had a significant contribution to stabilising such type of duplex in comparison to electrostatic energy. The distortion produced within strands by such type of base-pair was local and destabilised the duplex integrity near to substitution, moreover the binding energy of duplex depends on the position of substitution of hydrophobic base-pair and the DNA sequence and strongly supports the corresponding experimental study.

  20. Quantification of the detriment and comparison of health risks. Methodological problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammet, H.

    1982-01-01

    Some of the methodological problems involved in the quantitative estimate of the health detriment of different energy sources and in risk comparison are described. First, the question of determining the detriment is discussed from the point of view of the distortions introduced in the quantification when dealing with risks for which the amount of information available varies widely. The main criteria applied to classifying types of detriment are then recalled. Finally, the problems involved in comparisons are outlined: spatial and temporal variations in the types of detriment, operation under normal and accident conditions, and the risks to the public and workers. (author)

  1. Strong pairing approximation in comparison with the exact solutions to the pairing Hamiltonian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lunyov A.V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of the Strong Pairing Approximation (SPA as a method with the exact particle number conservation are compared with those of the quasiparticle method (QM. It is shown that SPA comes to the same equations as QM for the gap parameter, chemical potential and one- and two-quasiparticle states. Calculations are performed for 14864Gd84 as an example, and compared with the exact solutions to the pairing Hamiltonian.

  2. A syntactical comparison between pair sentential calculus PSC and Gupta's definitional calculus Cn

    OpenAIRE

    石井,忠夫

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we will compare two logical systems PSC and Cn with a syntactical point of view. Because both notions of the pair-sentence with stage number in PSC and Gupta's sentence-definition with revision stage number in Cn are very similar, and both can deal with paradoxical sentences like a simple Liar sentence. His system was defined as a predicate calculus, but here we will introduce the propositional version of Cn for the comparison, and we had the following results: (1) C0 is a sublo...

  3. Lax pairs: a novel type of separability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fokas, A S

    2009-01-01

    An attempt is made to place into historical context the fundamental concept of Lax pairs. For economy of presentation, emphasis is placed on the effectiveness of Lax pairs for the analysis of integrable nonlinear evolution PDEs. It is argued that Lax pairs provide a deeper type of separability than the classical separation of variables. Indeed, it is shown that: (a) the solution of the Cauchy problem of evolution equations is based on the derivation of a nonlinear Fourier transform pair, and this is achieved by employing the spectral analysis of one of the two eigenvalue equations forming a Lax pair; thus, although this methodology still follows the reverent philosophy of the classical separation of variables and transform methods, it can be applied to a class of nonlinear PDEs. (b) The solution of initial-boundary-value problems of evolution equations is based on the simultaneous spectral analysis of both equations forming a Lax pair and hence, in a sense, it employs the synthesis instead of the separation of variables; this methodology does not have a direct classical analogue, however, it can be considered as the nonlinearization of a method which combines Green's function classical integral representations with an analogue of the method of images, but which are now formulated in the spectral (Fourier) instead of the physical space. In addition to presenting a general methodology for analysing initial- and initial-boundary-value problems for nonlinear integrable evolution equations in one and two spatial variables, recent progress is reviewed for the derivation and the solution of integrable nonlinear evolution PDEs formulated in higher than two spatial dimensions. (topical review)

  4. A Methodological Inter-Comparison of Gridded Meteorological Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, A. J.; Clark, M. P.; Longman, R. J.; Giambelluca, T. W.; Arnold, J.

    2017-12-01

    Here we present a gridded meteorology inter-comparison using the state of Hawaíi as a testbed. This inter-comparison is motivated by two general goals: 1) the broad user community of gridded observation based meteorological fields should be aware of inter-product differences and the reasons they exist, which allows users to make informed choices on product selection to best meet their specific application(s); 2) we want to demonstrate the utility of inter-comparisons to meet the first goal, yet highlight that they are limited to mostly generic statements regarding attribution of differences that limits our understanding of these complex algorithms and obscures future research directions. Hawaíi is a useful testbed because it is a meteorologically complex region with well-known spatial features that are tied to specific physical processes (e.g. the trade wind inversion). From a practical standpoint, there are now several monthly climatological and daily precipitation and temperature datasets available that are being used for impact modeling. General conclusions that have emerged are: 1) differences in input station data significantly influence product differences; 2) prediction of precipitation occurrence is crucial across multiple metrics; 3) derived temperature statistics (e.g. diurnal temperature range) may have large spatial differences across products; and 4) attribution of differences to methodological choices is difficult and may limit the outcomes of these inter-comparisons, particularly from a development viewpoint. Thus, we want to continue to move the community towards frameworks that allow for multiple options throughout the product generation chain and allow for more systematic testing.

  5. Zika detection: comparison of methodologies

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    Tatiana Elias Colombo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Many countries in the Americas have detected local transmission of multiple arboviruses that cause febrile illnesses. Therefore, laboratory testing has become an important tool for confirming the etiology of these diseases. The present study aimed to compare the sensitivity and specificity of three different Zika virus detection assays. One hundred serum samples from patients presenting with acute febrile symptoms were tested using a previously reported TaqMan® RT-qPCR assay. We used a SYBR® Green RT-qPCR and a conventional PCR methodologies to compare the results. Of the samples that were determined to be negative by the TaqMan® RT-qPCR assay, 100% (Kappa = 0.670 were also found to be negative by SYBR® Green RT-qPCR based on Tm comparison; however, 14% (Kappa = 0.035 were found to be positive by conventional PCR followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The differences between the ZIKV strains circulating worldwide and the low viremia period can compromise diagnostic accuracy and thereby the accuracy of outbreak data. Therefore, improved assays are required to improve the diagnosis and surveillance of arbovirus.

  6. Assessing the Accuracy of Generalized Inferences From Comparison Group Studies Using a Within-Study Comparison Approach: The Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaciw, Andrew P

    2016-06-01

    Various studies have examined bias in impact estimates from comparison group studies (CGSs) of job training programs, and in education, where results are benchmarked against experimental results. Such within-study comparison (WSC) approaches investigate levels of bias in CGS-based impact estimates, as well as the success of various design and analytic strategies for reducing bias. This article reviews past literature and summarizes conditions under which CGSs replicate experimental benchmark results. It extends the framework to, and develops the methodology for, situations where results from CGSs are generalized to untreated inference populations. Past research is summarized; methods are developed to examine bias in program impact estimates based on cross-site comparisons in a multisite trial that are evaluated against site-specific experimental benchmarks. Students in Grades K-3 in 79 schools in Tennessee; students in Grades 4-8 in 82 schools in Alabama. Grades K-3 Stanford Achievement Test (SAT) in reading and math scores; Grades 4-8 SAT10 reading scores. Past studies show that bias in CGS-based estimates can be limited through strong design, with local matching, and appropriate analysis involving pretest covariates and variables that represent selection processes. Extension of the methodology to investigate accuracy of generalized estimates from CGSs shows bias from confounders and effect moderators. CGS results, when extrapolated to untreated inference populations, may be biased due to variation in outcomes and impact. Accounting for effects of confounders or moderators may reduce bias. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. VerSi - A Methodology for a Comparison of Potential Repository Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hund, Wilhelm

    2010-09-01

    In the year 2000 the moratorium on the exploration of the Gorleben salt dome as a potential repository for all kinds of radioactive waste became effective as a result of the consensus agreement between the Federal Government and the utilities about phasing out nuclear energy in Germany. All exploration activities were interrupted for at maximum ten years to clarify conceptual and safety relevant questions. A new set of safety requirements for the final disposal of heat-generating radioactive waste in deep geological formations was established in July 2009 by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU). As the BMU intended to carry out a comparison of potential repository sites it was necessary to initiate the development of a methodology for the identification of the site with the highest level of safety. A comparison of different repository sites requires a tool ensuring most confident and objective criteria for the comparison, whereas up to present long-term safety analyses were focused on confirming the suitability of sites by meeting the protection objectives by the measures of dose and risk. Within the 2006 established project VerSi a methodology for comparing different sites in different host rocks will be developed on the basis of long-term safety analyses taking into account geoscientific databases, inventory of radioactive waste, waste containers, corresponding disposal concepts and the feasibility of appropriate backfilling and closure concepts. The development of the method is aiming at providing measures other than dose and risk for the evaluation of the level of safety. For testing the tools a HLW-repository hosted in a salt dome (Gorleben) will be compared with a generic HLW-repository in consolidated clay as a host rock. As until now in Germany no clay stone site has been investigated for hosting a HLW repository, the required data are transferred from international research projects and repository concepts

  8. A comparison of methodological guides for creating microregional strategies of Central European rural areas. Case study: Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Trojan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the complementarity of methodological guides dealing with microregional development in Central Europe. As an example, the Czech Republic framework has been selected. This study compares seven common methodologies written in Czech, which the author has divided into three groups, namely manual-like methodologies, semi-scientific texts and hybrid texts dealing with other complementary aspects. The result is a comparison of methodologies, their usage and implications for the practices of regional development. The paper also includes a brief analysis of sustainable development elements incorporated into the methodological texts. The final part outlines links to the four-capital model of regional development.

  9. Considerations on Velocities and Accelerations in Higher Pairs Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina-Carmen Ciornei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a method for finding the velocities and accelerations in the pairs from a mechanism with higher pairs in the case when the curvature radii of the curves achieving the higher pair are finite. There are obtained the characteristic equations of the motion in the higher pair for the case that one of the curves has zero curvature radius, condition characteristic to the knife edge follower. The relations are required to justify the difference between the particular cases of knife edge follower and flat face follower. The methodology is exemplified through an actual example.

  10. Comparison of split double and triple twists in pair figure skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Deborah L; Smith, Sarah L; Brown, Michele R; McCrory, Jean L; Munkasy, Barry A; Scheirman, Gary I

    2008-05-01

    In this study, we compared the kinematic variables of the split triple twist with those of the split double twist to help coaches and scientists understand these landmark pair skating skills. High-speed video was taken during the pair short and free programmes at the 2002 Salt Lake City Winter Olympics and the 2003 International Skating Union Grand Prix Finals. Three-dimensional analyses of 14 split double twists and 15 split triple twists from eleven pairs were completed. In spite of considerable variability in the performance variables among the pairs, the main difference between the split double twists and split triple twists was an increase in rotational rate. While eight of the eleven pairs relied primarily on an increased rotational rate to complete the split triple twist, three pairs employed a combined strategy of increased rotational rate and increased flight time due predominantly to delayed or lower catches. These results were similar to observations of jumps in singles skating for which the extra rotation is typically due to an increase in rotational velocity; increases in flight time come primarily from delayed landings as opposed to additional height during flight. Combining an increase in flight time and rotational rate may be a good strategy for completing the split triple twist in pair skating.

  11. Selection of candidate plus phenotypes of Jatropha curcas L. using method of paired comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, D.K. [Silviculture Division, Arid Forest Research Institute, P.O. Krishi Mandi, New Pali Road, Jodhpur 342005, Rajasthan (India)

    2009-03-15

    Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) is an oil bearing species with multiple uses and considerable potential as a biodiesel crop. The present communication deals with the method of selecting plus phenotypes of J. curcas for exploiting genetic variability for further improvement. Candidate plus tree selection is the first and most important stage in any tree improvement programme. The selection of candidate plus plants (CPPs) is based upon various important attributes associated with the species and their relative ranking. Relative preference between various traits and scoring for each trait has been worked out by using the method of paired comparisons for the selection of CPP in J. curcas L. The most important ones are seed and oil yields. (author)

  12. Comparison Of Irms Delhi Methodology With Who Methodology On Immunization Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Padam

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What are the merits of IRMS Model over WHO Model for Coverage Evaluation Survey? Which method is superior and appropriate for coverage evolution survey of immunization in our setting? Objective: To compare IRMS Delhi methodology with WHO methodology on Immunization Coverage. Study Design: Cross-Sectional Setting: Urban and Rural both. Participants: Mothers& Children Sample Size: 300 children between 1-2 years and 300 mothers in rural areas and 75 children and 75 mothers in urban areas. Study Variables: Rural, Urban, Cast-Group, Size of the stratum, Literacy, Sex and Cost effectiveness. Outcome Variables: Coverage level of immunization. Analysis: Routine Statistical Analysis. Results: IRMS developed methodology scores better rating over WHO methodology, especially when coverage evolution is attempted in medium size villages with existence of socio-economic seggregation-which remains the main characteristic of the Indian villages.

  13. Concept mapping methodology and community-engaged research: A perfect pairing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Lisa M; Jones, Jennifer R; Booth, Emily; Burke, Jessica G

    2017-02-01

    Concept mapping methodology as refined by Trochim et al. is uniquely suited to engage communities in all aspects of research from project set-up to data collection to interpreting results to dissemination of results, and an increasing number of research studies have utilized the methodology for exploring complex health issues in communities. In the current manuscript, we present the results of a literature search of peer-reviewed articles in health-related research where concept mapping was used in collaboration with the community. A total of 103 articles met the inclusion criteria. We first address how community engagement was defined in the articles and then focus on the articles describing high community engagement and the associated community outcomes/benefits and methodological challenges. A majority (61%; n=63) of the articles were classified as low to moderate community engagement and participation while 38% (n=39) of the articles were classified as high community engagement and participation. The results of this literature review enhance our understanding of how concept mapping can be used in direct collaboration with communities and highlights the many potential benefits for both researchers and communities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Knowledge Sharing through Pair Programming in Learning Environments: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, R. K.; Ahmed, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Agile software development is an iterative and incremental methodology, where solutions evolve from self-organizing, cross-functional teams. Pair programming is a type of agile software development technique where two programmers work together with one computer for developing software. This paper reports the results of the pair programming…

  15. Validation of a Crowdsourcing Methodology for Developing a Knowledge Base of Related Problem-Medication Pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, A B; Wright, A; Krousel-Wood, M; Thomas, E J; McCoy, J A; Sittig, D F

    2015-01-01

    Clinical knowledge bases of problem-medication pairs are necessary for many informatics solutions that improve patient safety, such as clinical summarization. However, developing these knowledge bases can be challenging. We sought to validate a previously developed crowdsourcing approach for generating a knowledge base of problem-medication pairs in a large, non-university health care system with a widely used, commercially available electronic health record. We first retrieved medications and problems entered in the electronic health record by clinicians during routine care during a six month study period. Following the previously published approach, we calculated the link frequency and link ratio for each pair then identified a threshold cutoff for estimated problem-medication pair appropriateness through clinician review; problem-medication pairs meeting the threshold were included in the resulting knowledge base. We selected 50 medications and their gold standard indications to compare the resulting knowledge base to the pilot knowledge base developed previously and determine its recall and precision. The resulting knowledge base contained 26,912 pairs, had a recall of 62.3% and a precision of 87.5%, and outperformed the pilot knowledge base containing 11,167 pairs from the previous study, which had a recall of 46.9% and a precision of 83.3%. We validated the crowdsourcing approach for generating a knowledge base of problem-medication pairs in a large non-university health care system with a widely used, commercially available electronic health record, indicating that the approach may be generalizable across healthcare settings and clinical systems. Further research is necessary to better evaluate the knowledge, to compare crowdsourcing with other approaches, and to evaluate if incorporating the knowledge into electronic health records improves patient outcomes.

  16. Validation of a Crowdsourcing Methodology for Developing a Knowledge Base of Related Problem-Medication Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, A.; Krousel-Wood, M.; Thomas, E. J.; McCoy, J. A.; Sittig, D. F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Clinical knowledge bases of problem-medication pairs are necessary for many informatics solutions that improve patient safety, such as clinical summarization. However, developing these knowledge bases can be challenging. Objective We sought to validate a previously developed crowdsourcing approach for generating a knowledge base of problem-medication pairs in a large, non-university health care system with a widely used, commercially available electronic health record. Methods We first retrieved medications and problems entered in the electronic health record by clinicians during routine care during a six month study period. Following the previously published approach, we calculated the link frequency and link ratio for each pair then identified a threshold cutoff for estimated problem-medication pair appropriateness through clinician review; problem-medication pairs meeting the threshold were included in the resulting knowledge base. We selected 50 medications and their gold standard indications to compare the resulting knowledge base to the pilot knowledge base developed previously and determine its recall and precision. Results The resulting knowledge base contained 26,912 pairs, had a recall of 62.3% and a precision of 87.5%, and outperformed the pilot knowledge base containing 11,167 pairs from the previous study, which had a recall of 46.9% and a precision of 83.3%. Conclusions We validated the crowdsourcing approach for generating a knowledge base of problem-medication pairs in a large non-university health care system with a widely used, commercially available electronic health record, indicating that the approach may be generalizable across healthcare settings and clinical systems. Further research is necessary to better evaluate the knowledge, to compare crowdsourcing with other approaches, and to evaluate if incorporating the knowledge into electronic health records improves patient outcomes. PMID:26171079

  17. Investigation of the paired-gear method in selectivity studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sistiaga, Manu; Herrmann, Bent; Larsen, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    was repeated throughout the eight cases in this investigation. When using the paired-gear method, the distribution of the estimated L50 and SR is wider; the distribution of the estimated split parameter has a higher variability than the true split; the estimated mean L50 and SR can be biased; the estimated...... recommend that the methodology used to obtain selectivity estimates using the paired-gear method be reviewed....

  18. An IP Framework for the Crew Pairing Problem Using Subsequence Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Matias Sevel; Lusby, Richard Martin; Ryan, David

    In this paper we consider an important problem for the airline industry. The widely studied crew pairing problem is typically formulated as a set partitioning problem and solved using the branch-and-price methodology. Here we develop a new integer programming framework, based on the concept...... of subsequence generation, for solving the set partitioning formulation. In subsequence generation one restricts the number of permitted subsequent flights, that a crew member can turn to after completing any particular flight. By restricting the number of subsequences, the number of pairings in the problem...... decreases. The aim is then to dynamically add attractive subsequences to the problem, thereby increasing the number of possible pairings and improving the solution quality. Encouraging results are obtained on 19 real-life instances supplied by Air New Zealand and show that the described methodology...

  19. Comparison of muon-pair production to the quark-antiquark annihilation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, G.E.; Anderson, K.J.; Coleman, R.N.; Karhi, K.P.; McDonald, K.T.; Newman, C.B.; Pilcher, J.E.; Rosenberg, E.I.; Sanders, G.H.; Smith, A.J.S.; Thaler, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    New data on muon-pair production at 225 GeV/c by π - , π + , and proton beams are analyzed with regard to the production mechanism. The observed spin alignment of the pair and the dependence of the cross section on beam-particle type are strong indications that the production is through electromagnetic quark-antiquark annihilation

  20. Prioritization methodology for chemical replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruit, Wendy; Goldberg, Ben; Schutzenhofer, Scott

    1995-01-01

    Since United States of America federal legislation has required ozone depleting chemicals (class 1 & 2) to be banned from production, The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and industry have been required to find other chemicals and methods to replace these target chemicals. This project was initiated as a development of a prioritization methodology suitable for assessing and ranking existing processes for replacement 'urgency.' The methodology was produced in the form of a workbook (NASA Technical Paper 3421). The final workbook contains two tools, one for evaluation and one for prioritization. The two tools are interconnected in that they were developed from one central theme - chemical replacement due to imposed laws and regulations. This workbook provides matrices, detailed explanations of how to use them, and a detailed methodology for prioritization of replacement technology. The main objective is to provide a GUIDELINE to help direct the research for replacement technology. The approach for prioritization called for a system which would result in a numerical rating for the chemicals and processes being assessed. A Quality Function Deployment (QFD) technique was used in order to determine numerical values which would correspond to the concerns raised and their respective importance to the process. This workbook defines the approach and the application of the QFD matrix. This technique: (1) provides a standard database for technology that can be easily reviewed, and (2) provides a standard format for information when requesting resources for further research for chemical replacement technology. Originally, this workbook was to be used for Class 1 and Class 2 chemicals, but it was specifically designed to be flexible enough to be used for any chemical used in a process (if the chemical and/or process needs to be replaced). The methodology consists of comparison matrices (and the smaller comparison components) which allow replacement technology

  1. Au pairs on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2016-01-01

    Ethnographers are increasingly making use of Facebook to acquire access and general acquaintance with their field of study. However, little has been written on how Facebook is used methodologically in research that does not have social media sites as the main focus of interest. This article argues...... the au pairs resist and embrace such dominant representations, and on how such representations are ascribed different meanings in the transnational social fields of which the migrant are a part. The article is based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted between 2010 and 2014 in Denmark, the Philippines...

  2. An Intelligent Model for Pairs Trading Using Genetic Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Feng; Hsu, Chi-Jen; Chen, Chi-Chung; Chang, Bao Rong; Li, Chen-An

    2015-01-01

    Pairs trading is an important and challenging research area in computational finance, in which pairs of stocks are bought and sold in pair combinations for arbitrage opportunities. Traditional methods that solve this set of problems mostly rely on statistical methods such as regression. In contrast to the statistical approaches, recent advances in computational intelligence (CI) are leading to promising opportunities for solving problems in the financial applications more effectively. In this paper, we present a novel methodology for pairs trading using genetic algorithms (GA). Our results showed that the GA-based models are able to significantly outperform the benchmark and our proposed method is capable of generating robust models to tackle the dynamic characteristics in the financial application studied. Based upon the promising results obtained, we expect this GA-based method to advance the research in computational intelligence for finance and provide an effective solution to pairs trading for investment in practice.

  3. Potential of mean force for ion pairs in non-aqueous solvents. Comparison of polarizable and non-polarizable MD simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odinokov, A. V.; Leontyev, I. V.; Basilevsky, M. V.; Petrov, N. Ch.

    2011-01-01

    Potentials of mean force (PMF) are calculated for two model ion pairs in two non-aqueous solvents. Standard non-polarizable molecular dynamics simulation (NPMD) and approximate polarizable simulation (PMD) are implemented and compared as tools for monitoring PMF profiles. For the polar solvent (dimethylsulfoxide, DMSO) the PMF generated in terms of the NPMD reproduces fairly well the refined PMD-PMF profile. For the non-polar solvent (benzene) the conventional NPMD computation proves to be deficient. The validity of the correction found in terms of the approximate PMD approach is verified by its comparison with the result of the explicit PMD computation in benzene. The shapes of the PMF profiles in DMSO and in benzene are quite different. In DMSO, owing to dielectric screening, the PMF presents a flat plot with a shallow minimum positioned in the vicinity of the van der Waals contact of the ion pair. For the benzene case, the observed minimum proves to be unexpectedly deep, which manifests the formation of a tightly-binded contact ion pair. This remarkable effect arises owing to the strong electrostatic interaction that is incompletely screened by a non-polar medium. The PMFs for the binary benzene/DMSO mixtures display intermediate behaviour depending on the DMSO content.

  4. Comparison of self-administration behavior and responsiveness to drug-paired cues in rats running an alley for intravenous heroin and cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zu-In; Wenzel, Jennifer; Baird, Rebeccah; Ettenberg, Aaron

    2011-04-01

    Evidence suggests that responsiveness to a drug-paired cue is predicted by the reinforcing magnitude of the drug during prior self-administration. It remains unclear, however, if this principle holds true when comparisons are made across drug reinforcers. The current study was therefore devised to test the hypothesis that differences in the animals' responsiveness to a cocaine- or heroin-paired cue presented during extinction would reflect differences in the patterns of prior cocaine and heroin runway self-administration. Rats ran a straight alley for single intravenous injections of either heroin (0.1 mg/kg/inj) or cocaine (1.0 mg/kg/inj) each paired with a distinct olfactory cue. Animals experienced 15 trials with each drug reinforcer in a counterbalanced manner. Start latencies, run times, and retreat behaviors (a form of approach-avoidance conflict) provided behavioral indices of the subjects' motivation to seek the reinforcer on each trial. Responsiveness to each drug-paired cue was assessed after 7, 14, or 21 days of non-reinforced extinction trials. Other animals underwent conditioned place preference (CPP) testing to ensure that the two drug reinforcers were capable of producing drug-cue associations. While both drugs produced comparable CPPs, heroin served as a stronger incentive stimulus in the runway as evidenced by faster start and run times and fewer retreats. In contrast, cocaine- but not heroin-paired cues produced increases in drug-seeking behavior during subsequent extinction trials. The subjects' responsiveness to drug-paired cues during extinction was not predicted by differences in the motivation to seek heroin versus cocaine during prior drug self-administration.

  5. Treatment of pairing correlations based on the equations of motion for zero-coupled pair operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreozzi, F.; Covello, A.; Gargano, A.; Ye, L.J.; Porrino, A.

    1985-01-01

    The pairing problem is treated by means of the equations of motion for zero-coupled pair operators. Exact equations for the seniority-v states of N particles are derived. These equations can be solved by a step-by-step procedure which consists of progressively adding pairs of particles to a core. The theory can be applied at several levels of approximation depending on the number of core states which are taken into account. Some numerical applications to the treatment of v = 0, v = 1, and v = 2 states in the Ni isotopes are performed. The accuracy of various approximations is tested by comparison with exact results. For the seniority-one and seniority-two problems it turns out that the results obtained from the first-order theory are very accurate, while those of higher order calculations are practically exact. Concerning the seniority-zero problem, a fifth-order calculation reproduces quite well the three lowest states

  6. A preliminary inter-centre comparison study for photon, thermal neutron and epithermal neutron responses of two pairs of ionisation chambers used for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, Antoaneta; Liu, Yuan-Hao; Wojnecki, Cecile; Green, Stuart; Nievaart, Sander; Ghani, Zamir; Moss, Ray

    2009-01-01

    The dual ionisation chamber technique is the recommended method for mixed field dosimetry of epithermal neutron beams. This paper presents initial data from an ongoing inter-comparison study involving two identical pairs of ionisation chambers used at the BNCT facilities of Petten, NL and of University of Birmingham, UK. The goal of this study is to evaluate the photon, thermal neutron and epithermal neutron responses of both pairs of TE(TE) (Exradin T2 type) and Mg(Ar) (Exradin M2 type) ionisation chambers in similar experimental conditions. At this stage, the work has been completed for the M2 type chambers and is intended to be completed for the T2 type chambers in the near future.

  7. Scenario development methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, T.; Hudson, J.; Stephansson, O.

    1994-11-01

    In the period 1981-1994, SKB has studied several methodologies to systematize and visualize all the features, events and processes (FEPs) that can influence a repository for radioactive waste in the future. All the work performed is based on the terminology and basic findings in the joint SKI/SKB work on scenario development presented in the SKB Technical Report 89-35. The methodologies studied are a) Event tree analysis, b) Influence diagrams and c) Rock Engineering Systems (RES) matrices. Each one of the methodologies is explained in this report as well as examples of applications. One chapter is devoted to a comparison between the two most promising methodologies, namely: Influence diagrams and the RES methodology. In conclusion a combination of parts of the Influence diagram and the RES methodology is likely to be a promising approach. 26 refs

  8. Menopause and Methodological Doubt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Menopause and methodological doubt begins by making a tongue-in-cheek comparison between Descartes' methodological doubt and the self-doubt that can arise around menopause. A hermeneutic approach is taken in which Cartesian dualism and its implications for the way women are viewed in society are examined, both through the experiences of women…

  9. A Comparison of the Safety Analysis Process and the Generation IV Proliferation Resistance/Physical Protection Assessment Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. A. Bjornard; M. D. Zentner

    2006-01-01

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) is a vehicle for the cooperative international development of future nuclear energy systems. The Generation IV program has established primary objectives in the areas of sustainability, economics, safety and reliability, and Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR and PP). In order to help meet the latter objective a program was launched in December 2002 to develop a rigorous means to assess nuclear energy systems with respect to PR and PP. The study of Physical Protection of a facility is a relatively well established methodology, but an approach to evaluate the Proliferation Resistance of a nuclear fuel cycle is not. This paper will examine the Proliferation Resistance (PR) evaluation methodology being developed by the PR group, which is largely a new approach and compare it to generally accepted nuclear facility safety evaluation methodologies. Safety evaluation methods have been the subjects of decades of development and use. Further, safety design and analysis is fairly broadly understood, as well as being the subject of federally mandated procedures and requirements. It is therefore extremely instructive to compare and contrast the proposed new PR evaluation methodology process with that used in safety analysis. By so doing, instructive and useful conclusions can be derived from the comparison that will help to strengthen the PR methodological approach as it is developed further. From the comparison made in this paper it is evident that there are very strong parallels between the two processes. Most importantly, it is clear that the proliferation resistance aspects of nuclear energy systems are best considered beginning at the very outset of the design process. Only in this way can the designer identify and cost effectively incorporate intrinsic features that might be difficult to implement at some later stage. Also, just like safety, the process to implement proliferation resistance should be a dynamic

  10. Methodological challenges in indirect treatment comparisons: spotlight on a recent comparison of long-acting injectable aripiprazole versus paliperidone palmitate in the treatment of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arun; Gopal, Srihari; Kim, Edward; Mathews, Maju; Kern-Sliwa, Jennifer; Turkoz, Ibrahim; Wooller, Annette; Berlin, Jesse

    2018-03-01

    In a recent study, an indirect treatment comparison was performed to examine the relative efficacy and tolerability of aripiprazole once monthly and paliperidone palmitate once monthly. The authors concluded that the results may suggest relative advantages for aripiprazole once monthly over paliperidone palmitate once monthly in the short-term treatment of schizophrenia. However, the validity of the study is compromised as an indirect treatment comparison using extant data may violate important assumptions. Other methodological issues identified further highlight the challenges of performing indirect treatment comparisons.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.

  11. Alignments of multi-quasiparticle bands and seniority-dependent reduced pairing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracoulis, G.D.

    1994-09-01

    Pairing correlations in multi-quasiparticle states in deformed nuclei are expected to be reduced because of blocking. New intrinsic states and their associated rotational bands have been identified allowing comparisons to be made as a function of seniority and between nuclei. The possible effects of the reduced pairing on the collective rotation, and its manifestation in terms of alignment, are discussed. 13 refs., 2 figs

  12. Pair truncation for rotational nuclei: j=17/2 model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halse, P.; Jaqua, L.; Barrett, B.R.

    1989-01-01

    The suitability of the pair condensate approach for rotational states is studied in a single j=17/2 shell of identical nucleons interacting through a quadrupole-quadrupole Hamiltonian. The ground band and a K=2 excited band are both studied in detail. A direct comparison of the exact states with those constituting the SD and SDG subspaces is used to identify the important degrees of freedom for these levels. The range of pairs necessary for a good description is found to be highly state dependent; S and D pairs are the major constituents of the low-spin ground-band levels, while G pairs are needed for those in the γ band. Energy spectra are obtained for each truncated subspace. SDG pairs allow accurate reproduction of the binding energy and K=2 excitation energy, but still give a moment of inertia which is about 30% too small even for the lowest levels

  13. Paired-eye comparison of medical therapies for glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred M Solish

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Alfred M Solish1,2, Friedericke James1, John G Walt3, Tina H Chiang31Southern California Glaucoma Consultants, Pasadena CA, USA; 2Jules Stein Eye Institute, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, 3Allergan Inc., Irvine, CA, USA Objective: To evaluate efficacy and patient preference retrospectively among intraocular pressure (IOP-lowering prostamide and prostaglandin medications in a real-world clinical setting.Methods: Chart review of patients with uncontrolled glaucoma or ocular hypertension seen at a private practice clinic (n = 55 who received bimatoprost 0.03% once daily in one eye and either travoprost 0.004% or latanoprost 0.005% once daily in the fellow eye. IOP was evaluated at the initial visit and at a follow-up visit scheduled 4–6 weeks later. At the follow-up visit, each patient discussed the clinical results with their physician, chose which medication they preferred to continue using, and were queried regarding the reason for their choice. This paired-eye comparison method is used routinely in clinical practice to assess clinical response and involve patients in decisions regarding treatment. Change in mean IOP from baseline and patient medication choice were the outcome measures.Results: Bimatoprost-treated eyes (n = 52 had a mean IOP reduction of 2.7 mmHg and travoprost-treated eyes (n = 47 had an average decrease of 1.7 mmHg (P = 0.230. Bimatoprost significantly reduced mean IOP (from 19.8 mmHg at baseline to 17.1 mmHg at follow-up, P < 0.0001, as did travoprost (from 19.4 mmHg at baseline to 17.7 mmHg at follow-up, P = 0.009. Latanoprost-treated eyes were excluded from the efficacy analysis due to small sample size (n = 5. For continued therapy, patients chose bimatoprost over travoprost by a factor of 2.4 to 1. Of the 15 patients who gave a reason for their choice, 80% said their decision was based primarily on IOP change.Conclusions: Bimatoprost and travoprost were efficacious in reducing IOP among patients with

  14. Large scale comparative codon-pair context analysis unveils general rules that fine-tune evolution of mRNA primary structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Moura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Codon usage and codon-pair context are important gene primary structure features that influence mRNA decoding fidelity. In order to identify general rules that shape codon-pair context and minimize mRNA decoding error, we have carried out a large scale comparative codon-pair context analysis of 119 fully sequenced genomes. METHODOLOGIES/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have developed mathematical and software tools for large scale comparative codon-pair context analysis. These methodologies unveiled general and species specific codon-pair context rules that govern evolution of mRNAs in the 3 domains of life. We show that evolution of bacterial and archeal mRNA primary structure is mainly dependent on constraints imposed by the translational machinery, while in eukaryotes DNA methylation and tri-nucleotide repeats impose strong biases on codon-pair context. CONCLUSIONS: The data highlight fundamental differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic mRNA decoding rules, which are partially independent of codon usage.

  15. Web Camera Based Eye Tracking to Assess Visual Memory on a Visual Paired Comparison Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas T. Bott

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Web cameras are increasingly part of the standard hardware of most smart devices. Eye movements can often provide a noninvasive “window on the brain,” and the recording of eye movements using web cameras is a burgeoning area of research.Objective: This study investigated a novel methodology for administering a visual paired comparison (VPC decisional task using a web camera.To further assess this method, we examined the correlation between a standard eye-tracking camera automated scoring procedure [obtaining images at 60 frames per second (FPS] and a manually scored procedure using a built-in laptop web camera (obtaining images at 3 FPS.Methods: This was an observational study of 54 clinically normal older adults.Subjects completed three in-clinic visits with simultaneous recording of eye movements on a VPC decision task by a standard eye tracker camera and a built-in laptop-based web camera. Inter-rater reliability was analyzed using Siegel and Castellan's kappa formula. Pearson correlations were used to investigate the correlation between VPC performance using a standard eye tracker camera and a built-in web camera.Results: Strong associations were observed on VPC mean novelty preference score between the 60 FPS eye tracker and 3 FPS built-in web camera at each of the three visits (r = 0.88–0.92. Inter-rater agreement of web camera scoring at each time point was high (κ = 0.81–0.88. There were strong relationships on VPC mean novelty preference score between 10, 5, and 3 FPS training sets (r = 0.88–0.94. Significantly fewer data quality issues were encountered using the built-in web camera.Conclusions: Human scoring of a VPC decisional task using a built-in laptop web camera correlated strongly with automated scoring of the same task using a standard high frame rate eye tracker camera.While this method is not suitable for eye tracking paradigms requiring the collection and analysis of fine-grained metrics, such as

  16. The energy return on energy investment (EROI) of photovoltaics: Methodology and comparisons with fossil fuel life cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raugei, Marco; Fullana-i-Palmer, Pere; Fthenakis, Vasilis

    2012-01-01

    A high energy return on energy investment (EROI) of an energy production process is crucial to its long-term viability. The EROI of conventional thermal electricity from fossil fuels has been viewed as being much higher than those of renewable energy life-cycles, and specifically of photovoltaics (PVs). We show that this is largely a misconception fostered by the use of outdated data and, often, a lack of consistency among calculation methods. We hereby present a thorough review of the methodology, discuss methodological variations and present updated EROI values for a range of modern PV systems, in comparison to conventional fossil-fuel based electricity life-cycles. - Highlights: ► We perform a review of the EROI methodology. ► We provide new calculations for PV compared to oil- and coal-based energy systems. ► If compared consistently, PV sits squarely in the same range of EROI as conventional fossil fuel life cycles.

  17. Butterflyfishes as a System for Investigating Pair Bonding

    KAUST Repository

    Nowicki, Jessica

    2017-11-14

    For many animals, affiliative relationships such as pair bonds form the foundation of society, and are highly adaptive. Animal systems amenable for comparatively studying pair bonding are important for identifying underlying biological mechanisms, but mostly exist in mammals. Better establishing fish systems will enable comparison of pair bonding mechanisms across taxonomically distant lineages that may reveal general underlying principles. We examined the utility of wild butterflyfishes (f: Chaetodontidae; g: Chaetodon) for comparatively studying pair bonding. Stochastic character mapping inferred that within the family, pairing is ancestral, with at least seven independent transitions to group formation and seven transition to solitary behavior from the late Miocene to recent. In six sympatric and wide-spread species representing a clade with one ancestrally reconstructed transition from paired to solitary grouping, we then verified social systems at Lizard Island, Australia. In situ observations confirmed that Chaetodon baronessa, C. lunulatus, and C. vagabundus are predominantly pair bonding, whereas C. rainfordi, C. plebeius, and C. trifascialis are predominantly solitary. Even in the predominantly pair bonding species, C. lunulatus, a proportion of adults (15 %) are solitary. Importantly, inter- and intra-specific differences in social systems do not co-vary with other previously established attributes (geographic occurrence, parental care, diet, or territoriality). Hence, the proposed butterflyfish populations are promising for comparative analyses of pair bonding and its mechanistic underpinnings. Avenues for further developing the system are proposed, including determining whether the utility of these species applies across their geographic disruptions.

  18. Assessing the worth of electric products and services in a new competitive marketplace: A review of market research methodologies and analytic tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosgrove, S.J.; Spitzer, L. [AUS Consultants, Media, PA (United States)

    1994-11-01

    As electric utilities move from a heavily regulated environment to less regulated, differently regulated, or competitive environment, the importance of determining the relative value of products and services. We begin by examining the traditional method of assessing importance, rating scales. Then we look at other methodologies, such as multiple paired comparisons, constant sum, regression techniques, and hypothetical choice models. After discussing these methodologies, we demonstrate how they can be applied. We conclude by providing a summary of methods for assessing the worth of electric products and services. For most marketing studies, several criteria or attributes are identified as having an impact on the customer`s evaluation of a product and service. These criteria usually involve several aspects of both the product and service attributes.

  19. An Ultrasound and Acoustic Study of Turkish Rounded/Unrounded Vowel Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radisic, Milica

    This dissertation grew out of a phonology course paper on the adaption of Turkish words in Serbian. The focus of the paper was on the Turkish vowels /m y oe/. Noticeably, in contrast to vowels /y oe/, the back vowel /m/ showed variable patterns of adaptation. The conclusion drawn from the paper was that the vowel /m/ was different from other vowels. Interestingly, the Turkish vowel inventory is a crowded vowel system with three rounded/unrounded vowel pairs, two front vowel pairs (/i y/ and /e oe/), and one back vowel pair (/m u/). And, while phonetic research has largely focused on front vowel pairs in other languages, I emphasize on the importance of the back vowel pair. The dissertation examines the phonetics of Turkish vowels to determine acoustic and articulatory properties of vowels produced in different contexts. Four experiments were done, two describing vowels in isolation and two describing vowels in four different consonantal contexts, based on place of articulation. First, I discuss the theory behind acoustics and articulation, by outlining theories of coarticulation and describing how the vowel /m/ differs from other vowels. Then, I present methodology used in the dissertation. Chapters 4 and 5 present results of articulation and acoustic experiments on vowels in isolation, while Chapter 6 and 7 present results of the articulation and acoustic experiments on vowels in consonantal contexts. Chapter 8 discusses the main findings. The study discovered that the three rounded/unrounded vowel pairs are true pairs, as they do not articulatorily differ much in tongue height and frontness. Since they differ most consistently in F2, this confirms the non-linear relationship between articulation and acoustics. Both high back vowels /m u/ are more prone to coarticulation in F2 than other vowels. Context variability, short duration, and absence of visual cues can explain why /m/ behaves like no other vowel in loanword adaptations. The dissertation enriches phonetic

  20. Sensitivity of Electron Transfer Mediated Decay to Ion Pairing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Marvin N; Richter, Clemens; Lugovoy, Evgeny; Seidel, Robert; Slavíček, Petr; Aziz, Emad F; Abel, Bernd; Winter, Bernd; Hergenhahn, Uwe

    2017-08-17

    Ion pairing in electrolyte solutions remains a topic of discussion despite a long history of research. Very recently, nearest-neighbor mediated electronic de-excitation processes of core hole vacancies (electron transfer mediated decay, ETMD) were proposed to carry a spectral fingerprint of local solvation structure and in particular of contact ion pairs. Here, for the first time, we apply electron-electron coincidence detection to a liquid microjet, and record ETMD spectra of Li 1s vacancies in aqueous solutions of lithium chloride (LiCl) in direct comparison to lithium acetate (LiOAc). A change in the ETMD spectrum dependent on the electrolyte anion identity is observed for 4.5 M salt concentration. We discuss these findings within the framework of the formation and presence of contact ion pairs and the unique sensitivity of ETMD spectroscopy to ion pairing.

  1. PCTFPeval: a web tool for benchmarking newly developed algorithms for predicting cooperative transcription factor pairs in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Fu-Jou; Chang, Hong-Tsun; Wu, Wei-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Computational identification of cooperative transcription factor (TF) pairs helps understand the combinatorial regulation of gene expression in eukaryotic cells. Many advanced algorithms have been proposed to predict cooperative TF pairs in yeast. However, it is still difficult to conduct a comprehensive and objective performance comparison of different algorithms because of lacking sufficient performance indices and adequate overall performance scores. To solve this problem, in our previous study (published in BMC Systems Biology 2014), we adopted/proposed eight performance indices and designed two overall performance scores to compare the performance of 14 existing algorithms for predicting cooperative TF pairs in yeast. Most importantly, our performance comparison framework can be applied to comprehensively and objectively evaluate the performance of a newly developed algorithm. However, to use our framework, researchers have to put a lot of effort to construct it first. To save researchers time and effort, here we develop a web tool to implement our performance comparison framework, featuring fast data processing, a comprehensive performance comparison and an easy-to-use web interface. The developed tool is called PCTFPeval (Predicted Cooperative TF Pair evaluator), written in PHP and Python programming languages. The friendly web interface allows users to input a list of predicted cooperative TF pairs from their algorithm and select (i) the compared algorithms among the 15 existing algorithms, (ii) the performance indices among the eight existing indices, and (iii) the overall performance scores from two possible choices. The comprehensive performance comparison results are then generated in tens of seconds and shown as both bar charts and tables. The original comparison results of each compared algorithm and each selected performance index can be downloaded as text files for further analyses. Allowing users to select eight existing performance indices and 15

  2. Methodological approaches to analysis of agricultural countermeasures on radioactive contaminated areas: Estimation of effectiveness and comparison of different alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yatsalo, B.I.; Hedemann Jensen, P.; Alexakhin, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    Methodological aspects of countermeasure analysis in the long-term period after a nuclear accident are discussed for agriculture countermeasures for illustrative purposes. The estimates of effectiveness fbr specific countermeasures as well as methods of justified action levels assessments...... and comparison of different alternatives (countermeasures) based on the use of several criteria are considered....

  3. Multi-pair states in electron–positron pair creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Wöllert

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultra strong electromagnetic fields can lead to spontaneous creation of single or multiple electron–positron pairs. A quantum field theoretical treatment of the pair creation process combined with numerical methods provides a description of the fermionic quantum field state, from which all observables of the multiple electron–positron pairs can be inferred. This allows to study the complex multi-particle dynamics of electron–positron pair creation in-depth, including multi-pair statistics as well as momentum distributions and spin. To illustrate the potential benefit of this approach, it is applied to the intermediate regime of pair creation between nonperturbative Schwinger pair creation and perturbative multiphoton pair creation where the creation of multi-pair states becomes nonnegligible but cascades do not yet set in. Furthermore, it is demonstrated how spin and helicity of the created electrons and positrons are affected by the polarization of the counterpropagating laser fields, which induce the creation of electron–positron pairs.

  4. Multi-pair states in electron–positron pair creation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wöllert, Anton, E-mail: woellert@mpi-hd.mpg.de; Bauke, Heiko, E-mail: heiko.bauke@mpi-hd.mpg.de; Keitel, Christoph H.

    2016-09-10

    Ultra strong electromagnetic fields can lead to spontaneous creation of single or multiple electron–positron pairs. A quantum field theoretical treatment of the pair creation process combined with numerical methods provides a description of the fermionic quantum field state, from which all observables of the multiple electron–positron pairs can be inferred. This allows to study the complex multi-particle dynamics of electron–positron pair creation in-depth, including multi-pair statistics as well as momentum distributions and spin. To illustrate the potential benefit of this approach, it is applied to the intermediate regime of pair creation between nonperturbative Schwinger pair creation and perturbative multiphoton pair creation where the creation of multi-pair states becomes nonnegligible but cascades do not yet set in. Furthermore, it is demonstrated how spin and helicity of the created electrons and positrons are affected by the polarization of the counterpropagating laser fields, which induce the creation of electron–positron pairs.

  5. Multi-pair states in electron–positron pair creation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wöllert, Anton; Bauke, Heiko; Keitel, Christoph H.

    2016-01-01

    Ultra strong electromagnetic fields can lead to spontaneous creation of single or multiple electron–positron pairs. A quantum field theoretical treatment of the pair creation process combined with numerical methods provides a description of the fermionic quantum field state, from which all observables of the multiple electron–positron pairs can be inferred. This allows to study the complex multi-particle dynamics of electron–positron pair creation in-depth, including multi-pair statistics as well as momentum distributions and spin. To illustrate the potential benefit of this approach, it is applied to the intermediate regime of pair creation between nonperturbative Schwinger pair creation and perturbative multiphoton pair creation where the creation of multi-pair states becomes nonnegligible but cascades do not yet set in. Furthermore, it is demonstrated how spin and helicity of the created electrons and positrons are affected by the polarization of the counterpropagating laser fields, which induce the creation of electron–positron pairs.

  6. Eliciting hyperparameters of prior distributions for the parameters of paired comparison models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Abbas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA In the study of paired comparisons (PC, items may be ranked or issues may be prioritized through subjective assessment of certain judges. PC models are developed and then used to serve the purpose of ranking. The PC models may be studied through classical or Bayesian approach. Bayesian inference is a modern statistical technique used to draw conclusions about the population parameters. Its beauty lies in incorporating prior information about the parameters into the analysis in addition to current information (i.e. data. The prior and current information are formally combined to yield a posterior distribution about the population parameters, which is the work bench of the Bayesian statisticians. However, the problems the Bayesians face correspond to the selection and formal utilization of prior distribution. Once the type of prior distribution is decided to be used, the problem of estimating the parameters of the prior distribution (i.e. elicitation still persists. Different methods are devised to serve the purpose. In this study an attempt is made to use Minimum Chi-square (hence forth MCS for the elicitation purpose. Though it is a classical estimation technique, but is used here for the election purpose. The entire elicitation procedure is illustrated through a numerical data set.

  7. Quantifying the FIR interaction enhancement in paired galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Cong; Sulentic, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    We studied the ''Catalogue of Isolated Pairs of Galaxies in the Northern Hemisphere'' by Karachentsev (1972) and a well matched comparison sample taken from the ''Catalogue of Isolated Galaxies'' by Karachentseva (1973) in order to quantify the enhanced FIR emission properties of interacting galaxies. 8 refs, 6 figs

  8. Vocabulary Learning in Collaborative Tasks: A Comparison of Pair and Small Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobao, Ana Fernández

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the opportunities that pair and small group interaction offer for collaborative dialogue and second language (L2) vocabulary learning. It compared the performance of the same collaborative writing task by learners working in groups of four (n = 60) and in pairs (n = 50), focusing on the occurrence of lexical language-related…

  9. Scaling Professional Problems of Teachers in Turkey with Paired Comparison Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Duygu ESEN

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, teachers’ professional problems was investigated and the significance level of them was measured with the paired comparison method. The study was carried out in survey model. The study group consisted of 484 teachers working in public schools which are accredited by Ministry of National Education (MEB in Turkey. “The Teacher Professional Problems Survey” developed by the researchers was used as a data collection tool. In data analysis , the scaling method with the third conditional equation of Thurstone’s law of comparative judgement was used. According to the results of study, the teachers’ professional problems include teacher training and the quality of teacher, employee rights and financial problems, decrease of professional reputation, the problems with MEB policies, the problems with union activities, workload, the problems with administration in school, physical conditions and the lack of infrastructure, the problems with parents, the problems with students. According to teachers, the most significant problem is MEB educational policies. This is followed by decrease of professional reputation, physical conditions and the lack of infrastructure, the problems with students, employee rights and financial problems, the problems with administration in school, teacher training and the quality of teacher, the problems with parents, workload, and the problems with union activities. When teachers’ professional problems were analyzed seniority variable, there was little difference in scale values. While the teachers with 0-10 years experience consider decrease of professional reputation as the most important problem, the teachers with 11-45 years experience put the problems with MEB policies at the first place.

  10. A COMPARISON OF PAIRS FIGURE SKATERS IN REPEATED JUMPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Sands

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Trends in pairs figure skating have shown that increasingly difficult jumps have become an essential aspect of high-level performance, especially in the latter part of a competitive program. We compared a repeated jump power index in a 60 s repeated jump test to determine the relationship of repeated jump test to competitive rank and to measure 2D hip, knee, and ankle angles and angular velocities at 0, 20, 40, and 60 s. Eighteen National Team Pairs Figure Skaters performed a 60 s repeated jump test on a large switch-mat with timing of flight and ground durations and digital video recording. Each 60-s period was divided into 6, 10-s intervals, with power indexes (W/kg calculated for each 10-s interval. Power index by 10-s interval repeated measures ANOVAs (RMANOVA showed that males exceeded females at all intervals, and the highest power index interval was during 10 to 20 s for both sexes. RMANOVAs of angles and angular velocities showed main effects for time only. Power index and jumping techniques among figure skaters showed rapid and steady declines over the test duration. Power index can predict approximately 50% of competitive rank variance, and sex differences in jumping technique were rare

  11. Exergetic and energetic comparison of LiCl-H_2O and LiBr-H_2O working pairs in a solar absorption cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellos, Evangelos; Tzivanidis, Christos; Antonopoulos, Kimon A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Two working pairs (LiCl-H_2O and LiBr-H_2O) are examined in a solar absorption chiller. • The examined single effect absorption chiller is driven by flat plate collectors. • The system is analyzed energetically and energetically for 3 ambient temperatures. • LiCl-H_2O performs better than LiBr-H_2O in all the examined cases. • The optimum operating temperature is lower for the case of pair LiCl-H_2O. - Abstract: The objective of this study is to investigate the use of an alternative working pair in a solar absorption cooling system. LiCl-H_2O is the new examined pair and it is compared energetically and exegetically with the conventional pair LiBr-H_2O, which is the most usual in air-conditioning applications. The simplest solar cooling system is analyzed in order to focus in the comparison between these working fluids. Specifically, flat plate collectors, coupled with a storage tank, feed the single effect absorption chiller which produces 250 kW cooling at 10 °C. The two pairs are examined parametrically for various heat source temperature levels and for three ambient temperature levels (25 °C, 30 °C and 35 °C). The minimization of the collecting area, which means maximum exergetic efficiency, is the optimization goal in every case. The final results show that LiCl-H_2O pair performs better in all cases by giving greater exergetic efficiency. More specifically, about 8% lower collecting area is required to cover the demanded cooling load with this working pair. Another interesting result is that the optimum heat source temperature for the LiCl-H_2O is roughly lower than the respective for the LiBr-H_2O. The system is analyzed in steady state with the commercial software Engineering Equator Solver (EES).

  12. How Many Alternatives Can Be Ranked? A Comparison of the Paired Comparison and Ranking Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ock, Minsu; Yi, Nari; Ahn, Jeonghoon; Jo, Min-Woo

    2016-01-01

    To determine the feasibility of converting ranking data into paired comparison (PC) data and suggest the number of alternatives that can be ranked by comparing a PC and a ranking method. Using a total of 222 health states, a household survey was conducted in a sample of 300 individuals from the general population. Each respondent performed a PC 15 times and a ranking method 6 times (two attempts of ranking three, four, and five health states, respectively). The health states of the PC and the ranking method were constructed to overlap each other. We converted the ranked data into PC data and examined the consistency of the response rate. Applying probit regression, we obtained the predicted probability of each method. Pearson correlation coefficients were determined between the predicted probabilities of those methods. The mean absolute error was also assessed between the observed and the predicted values. The overall consistency of the response rate was 82.8%. The Pearson correlation coefficients were 0.789, 0.852, and 0.893 for ranking three, four, and five health states, respectively. The lowest mean absolute error was 0.082 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.074-0.090) in ranking five health states, followed by 0.123 (95% CI 0.111-0.135) in ranking four health states and 0.126 (95% CI 0.113-0.138) in ranking three health states. After empirically examining the consistency of the response rate between a PC and a ranking method, we suggest that using five alternatives in the ranking method may be superior to using three or four alternatives. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Preliminary evidence suggests extra-pair mating in the endangered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study utilized four microsatellite genetic markers, originally developed for the African grey parrot. Parentage testing was undertaken using genotype comparisons with the dominant pair within the breeding group as well as auxiliary males where available. Although four markers were insufficient to provide conclusive ...

  14. A pair spectrometer for measuring multipolarities of energetic nuclear transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Gulyás, J.; Krasznahorkay, A.J.; Csatlós, M.; Csige, L.; Gácsi, Z.; Hunyadi, M.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Vitéz, A.; Tornyi, T.G.

    2016-02-01

    A multi-detector array has been designed and constructed for the simultaneous measurement of energy- and angular correlations of electron-positron pairs. Experimental results are obtained over a wide angular range for high-energy transitions in 16O, 12C and 8Be. A comparison with GEANT simulations demonstrates that angular correlations between 50 and 180 degrees of the electron-positron pairs in the energy range between 6 and 18 MeV can be determined with sufficient resolution and efficiency.

  15. Experimental Comparison of the Tribological Properties of Selected Surfaces Created by Thermal Spraying Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Tóth

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The scientific article titled “Experimental comparison of the tribological properties of selected surfaces created by thermal spraying technology” deals with the surface condition of selected pairs working within the mixed friction before and after experimental tests. Based on the chosen methodology, the experimental tests were performed on the Tribotestor M’06 testing machine. The ecological oil MOGUL HEES 46 (manufactured by Paramo was used as a lubricant. The tests were performed on selected material pairs. The first friction element was a shaft of steel 14 220. The second friction element was a steel plate of steel 11 373 with a friction surface created by two materials, i.e. CuSn10 and NP 40. The results are statistically elaborated and illustrated in figures and tables.

  16. Quantitative evaluation of pairs and RS steganalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ker, Andrew D.

    2004-06-01

    We give initial results from a new project which performs statistically accurate evaluation of the reliability of image steganalysis algorithms. The focus here is on the Pairs and RS methods, for detection of simple LSB steganography in grayscale bitmaps, due to Fridrich et al. Using libraries totalling around 30,000 images we have measured the performance of these methods and suggest changes which lead to significant improvements. Particular results from the project presented here include notes on the distribution of the RS statistic, the relative merits of different "masks" used in the RS algorithm, the effect on reliability when previously compressed cover images are used, and the effect of repeating steganalysis on the transposed image. We also discuss improvements to the Pairs algorithm, restricting it to spatially close pairs of pixels, which leads to a substantial performance improvement, even to the extent of surpassing the RS statistic which was previously thought superior for grayscale images. We also describe some of the questions for a general methodology of evaluation of steganalysis, and potential pitfalls caused by the differences between uncompressed, compressed, and resampled cover images.

  17. Comparison of microarray platforms for measuring differential microRNA expression in paired normal/cancer colon tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Callari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microarray technology applied to microRNA (miRNA profiling is a promising tool in many research fields; nevertheless, independent studies characterizing the same pathology have often reported poorly overlapping results. miRNA analysis methods have only recently been systematically compared but only in few cases using clinical samples. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the inter-platform reproducibility of four miRNA microarray platforms (Agilent, Exiqon, Illumina, and Miltenyi, comparing nine paired tumor/normal colon tissues. The most concordant and selected discordant miRNAs were further studied by quantitative RT-PCR. Globally, a poor overlap among differentially expressed miRNAs identified by each platform was found. Nevertheless, for eight miRNAs high agreement in differential expression among the four platforms and comparability to qRT-PCR was observed. Furthermore, most of the miRNA sets identified by each platform are coherently enriched in data from the other platforms and the great majority of colon cancer associated miRNA sets derived from the literature were validated in our data, independently from the platform. Computational integration of miRNA and gene expression profiles suggested that anti-correlated predicted target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs are commonly enriched in cancer-related pathways and in genes involved in glycolysis and nutrient transport. CONCLUSIONS: Technical and analytical challenges in measuring miRNAs still remain and further research is required in order to increase consistency between different microarray-based methodologies. However, a better inter-platform agreement was found by looking at miRNA sets instead of single miRNAs and through a miRNAs - gene expression integration approach.

  18. Abundance, distribution and diversity of gelatinous predators along the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge: A comparison of different sampling methodologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aino Hosia

    Full Text Available The diversity and distribution of gelatinous zooplankton were investigated along the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR from June to August 2004.Here, we present results from macrozooplankton trawl sampling, as well as comparisons made between five different methodologies that were employed during the MAR-ECO survey. In total, 16 species of hydromedusae, 31 species of siphonophores and four species of scyphozoans were identified to species level from macrozooplankton trawl samples. Additional taxa were identified to higher taxonomic levels and a single ctenophore genus was observed. Samples were collected at 17 stations along the MAR between the Azores and Iceland. A divergence in the species assemblages was observed at the southern limit of the Subpolar Frontal Zone. The catch composition of gelatinous zooplankton is compared between different sampling methodologies including: a macrozooplankton trawl; a Multinet; a ringnet attached to bottom trawl; and optical platforms (Underwater Video Profiler (UVP & Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV. Different sampling methodologies are shown to exhibit selectivity towards different groups of gelatinous zooplankton. Only ~21% of taxa caught during the survey were caught by both the macrozooplankton trawl and the Multinet when deployed at the same station. The estimates of gelatinous zooplankton abundance calculated using these two gear types also varied widely (1.4 ± 0.9 individuals 1000 m-3 estimated by the macrozooplankton trawl vs. 468.3 ± 315.4 individuals 1000 m-3 estimated by the Multinet (mean ± s.d. when used at the same stations (n = 6. While it appears that traditional net sampling can generate useful data on pelagic cnidarians, comparisons with results from the optical platforms suggest that ctenophore diversity and abundance are consistently underestimated, particularly when net sampling is conducted in combination with formalin fixation. The results emphasise the importance of considering

  19. Abundance, distribution and diversity of gelatinous predators along the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge: A comparison of different sampling methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenhaug, Tone; Baxter, Emily J.

    2017-01-01

    The diversity and distribution of gelatinous zooplankton were investigated along the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) from June to August 2004.Here, we present results from macrozooplankton trawl sampling, as well as comparisons made between five different methodologies that were employed during the MAR-ECO survey. In total, 16 species of hydromedusae, 31 species of siphonophores and four species of scyphozoans were identified to species level from macrozooplankton trawl samples. Additional taxa were identified to higher taxonomic levels and a single ctenophore genus was observed. Samples were collected at 17 stations along the MAR between the Azores and Iceland. A divergence in the species assemblages was observed at the southern limit of the Subpolar Frontal Zone. The catch composition of gelatinous zooplankton is compared between different sampling methodologies including: a macrozooplankton trawl; a Multinet; a ringnet attached to bottom trawl; and optical platforms (Underwater Video Profiler (UVP) & Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV)). Different sampling methodologies are shown to exhibit selectivity towards different groups of gelatinous zooplankton. Only ~21% of taxa caught during the survey were caught by both the macrozooplankton trawl and the Multinet when deployed at the same station. The estimates of gelatinous zooplankton abundance calculated using these two gear types also varied widely (1.4 ± 0.9 individuals 1000 m-3 estimated by the macrozooplankton trawl vs. 468.3 ± 315.4 individuals 1000 m-3 estimated by the Multinet (mean ± s.d.) when used at the same stations (n = 6). While it appears that traditional net sampling can generate useful data on pelagic cnidarians, comparisons with results from the optical platforms suggest that ctenophore diversity and abundance are consistently underestimated, particularly when net sampling is conducted in combination with formalin fixation. The results emphasise the importance of considering sampling methodology

  20. Abundance, distribution and diversity of gelatinous predators along the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge: A comparison of different sampling methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosia, Aino; Falkenhaug, Tone; Baxter, Emily J; Pagès, Francesc

    2017-01-01

    The diversity and distribution of gelatinous zooplankton were investigated along the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) from June to August 2004.Here, we present results from macrozooplankton trawl sampling, as well as comparisons made between five different methodologies that were employed during the MAR-ECO survey. In total, 16 species of hydromedusae, 31 species of siphonophores and four species of scyphozoans were identified to species level from macrozooplankton trawl samples. Additional taxa were identified to higher taxonomic levels and a single ctenophore genus was observed. Samples were collected at 17 stations along the MAR between the Azores and Iceland. A divergence in the species assemblages was observed at the southern limit of the Subpolar Frontal Zone. The catch composition of gelatinous zooplankton is compared between different sampling methodologies including: a macrozooplankton trawl; a Multinet; a ringnet attached to bottom trawl; and optical platforms (Underwater Video Profiler (UVP) & Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV)). Different sampling methodologies are shown to exhibit selectivity towards different groups of gelatinous zooplankton. Only ~21% of taxa caught during the survey were caught by both the macrozooplankton trawl and the Multinet when deployed at the same station. The estimates of gelatinous zooplankton abundance calculated using these two gear types also varied widely (1.4 ± 0.9 individuals 1000 m-3 estimated by the macrozooplankton trawl vs. 468.3 ± 315.4 individuals 1000 m-3 estimated by the Multinet (mean ± s.d.) when used at the same stations (n = 6). While it appears that traditional net sampling can generate useful data on pelagic cnidarians, comparisons with results from the optical platforms suggest that ctenophore diversity and abundance are consistently underestimated, particularly when net sampling is conducted in combination with formalin fixation. The results emphasise the importance of considering sampling methodology

  1. Comparison of fungal spores concentrations measured with wideband integrated bioaerosol sensor and Hirst methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, S.; Tormo-Molina, R.; Lemonis, N.; Clot, B.; O'Connor, D. J.; Sodeau, John R.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this work was to provide both a comparison of traditional and novel methodologies for airborne spores detection (i.e. the Hirst Burkard trap and WIBS-4) and the first quantitative study of airborne fungal concentrations in Payerne (Western Switzerland) as well as their relation to meteorological parameters. From the traditional method -Hirst trap and microscope analysis-, sixty-three propagule types (spores, sporangia and hyphae) were identified and the average spore concentrations measured over the full period amounted to 4145 ± 263.0 spores/m3. Maximum values were reached on July 19th and on August 6th. Twenty-six spore types reached average levels above 10 spores/m3. Airborne fungal propagules in Payerne showed a clear seasonal pattern, increasing from low values in early spring to maxima in summer. Daily average concentrations above 5000 spores/m3 were almost constant in summer from mid-June onwards. Weather parameters showed a relevant role for determining the observed spore concentrations. Coniferous forest, dominant in the surroundings, may be a relevant source for airborne fungal propagules as their distribution and predominant wind directions are consistent with the origin. The comparison between the two methodologies used in this campaign showed remarkably consistent patterns throughout the campaign. A correlation coefficient of 0.9 (CI 0.76-0.96) was seen between the two over the time period for daily resolutions (Hirst trap and WIBS-4). This apparent co-linearity was seen to fall away once increased resolution was employed. However at higher resolutions upon removal of Cladosporium species from the total fungal concentrations (Hirst trap), an increased correlation coefficient was again noted between the two instruments (R = 0.81 with confidence intervals of 0.74 and 0.86).

  2. Friedman’s Methodology: A Puzzle and A Proposal for Generating Useful Debates through Causal Comparisons (with a postscript on positive vs. normative theories)

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Haider

    2008-01-01

    Milton Friedman’s “The Methodology of Positive Economies” is still one of the most widely read pieces on economic methodology. One reason for this might be Friedman’s attractive proposal that economists use theories and hypotheses as pragmatic devices to summarize data and make predictions over the relevant range of observations. Logically, this should lead to a fair minded comparison among many contending theories. However, Friedman's actual examples and discussion of these examples raise a ...

  3. Comparison of methodologies estimating emissions of aircraft pollutants, environmental impact assessment around airports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurniawan, Jermanto S.; Khardi, S.

    2011-01-01

    Air transportation growth has increased continuously over the years. The rise in air transport activity has been accompanied by an increase in the amount of energy used to provide air transportation services. It is also assumed to increase environmental impacts, in particular pollutant emissions. Traditionally, the environmental impacts of atmospheric emissions from aircraft have been addressed in two separate ways; aircraft pollutant emissions occurring during the landing and take-off (LTO) phase (local pollutant emissions) which is the focus of this study, and the non-LTO phase (global/regional pollutant emissions). Aircraft pollutant emissions are an important source of pollution and directly or indirectly harmfully affect human health, ecosystems and cultural heritage. There are many methods to asses pollutant emissions used by various countries. However, using different and separate methodology will cause a variation in results, some lack of information and the use of certain methods will require justification and reliability that must be demonstrated and proven. In relation to this issue, this paper presents identification, comparison and reviews of some of the methodologies of aircraft pollutant assessment from the past, present and future expectations of some studies and projects focusing on emissions factors, fuel consumption, and uncertainty. This paper also provides reliable information on the impacts of aircraft pollutant emissions in short term and long term predictions.

  4. Comparison of methodological quality rating of systematic reviews on neuropathic pain using AMSTAR and R-AMSTAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosenovic, Svjetlana; Jelicic Kadic, Antonia; Vucic, Katarina; Markovina, Nikolina; Pieper, Dawid; Puljak, Livia

    2018-05-08

    Systematic reviews (SRs) in the field of neuropathic pain (NeuP) are increasingly important for decision-making. However, methodological flaws in SRs can reduce the validity of conclusions. Hence, it is important to assess the methodological quality of NeuP SRs critically. Additionally, it remains unclear which assessment tool should be used. We studied the methodological quality of SRs published in the field of NeuP and compared two assessment tools. We systematically searched 5 electronic databases to identify SRs of randomized controlled trials of interventions for NeuP available up to March 2015. Two independent reviewers assessed the methodological quality of the studies using the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) and the revised AMSTAR (R-AMSTAR) tools. The scores were converted to percentiles and ranked into 4 grades to allow comparison between the two checklists. Gwet's AC1 coefficient was used for interrater reliability assessment. The 97 included SRs had a wide range of methodological quality scores (AMSTAR median (IQR): 6 (5-8) vs. R-AMSTAR median (IQR): 30 (26-35)). The overall agreement score between the 2 raters was 0.62 (95% CI 0.39-0.86) for AMSTAR and 0.62 (95% CI 0.53-0.70) for R-AMSTAR. The 31 Cochrane systematic reviews (CSRs) were consistently ranked higher than the 66 non-Cochrane systematic reviews (NCSRs). The analysis of individual domains showed the best compliance in a comprehensive literature search (item 3) on both checklists. The results for the domain that was the least compliant differed: conflict of interest (item 11) was the item most poorly reported on AMSTAR vs. publication bias assessment (item 10) on R-AMSTAR. A high positive correlation between the total AMSTAR and R-AMSTAR scores for all SRs, as well as for CSRs and NCSRs, was observed. The methodological quality of analyzed SRs in the field of NeuP was not optimal, and CSRs had a higher quality than NCSRs. Both AMSTAR and R-AMSTAR tools produced comparable

  5. The role of familiarity in associative recognition of unitized compound word pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Fahad N; Hockley, William E

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of unitization and contribution of familiarity in the recognition of word pairs. Compound words were presented as word pairs and were contrasted with noncompound word pairs in an associative recognition task. In Experiments 1 and 2, yes-no recognition hit and false-alarm rates were significantly higher for compound than for noncompound word pairs, with no difference in discrimination in both within- and between-subject comparisons. Experiment 2 also showed that item recognition was reduced for words from compound compared to noncompound word pairs, providing evidence of the unitization of the compound pairs. A two-alternative forced-choice test used in Experiments 3A and 3B provided evidence that the concordant effect for compound word pairs was largely due to familiarity. A discrimination advantage for compound word pairs was also seen in these experiments. Experiment 4A showed that a different pattern of results is seen when repeated noncompound word pairs are compared to compound word pairs. Experiment 4B showed that memory for the individual items of compound word pairs was impaired relative to items in repeated and nonrepeated noncompound word pairs, and Experiment 5 demonstrated that this effect is eliminated when the elements of compound word pairs are not unitized. The concordant pattern seen in yes-no recognition and the discrimination advantage in forced-choice recognition for compound relative to noncompound word pairs is due to greater reliance on familiarity at test when pairs are unitized.

  6. Effective pair potentials for spherical nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Zon, Ramses

    2009-01-01

    An effective description for rigid spherical nanoparticles in a fluid of point particles is presented. The points inside the nanoparticles and the point particles are assumed to interact via spherically symmetric additive pair potentials, while the distribution of points inside the nanoparticles is taken to be spherically symmetric and smooth. The resulting effective pair interactions between a nanoparticle and a point particle, as well as between two nanoparticles, are then given by spherically symmetric potentials. If overlap between particles is allowed, as can occur for some forms of the pair potentials, the effective potential generally has non-analytic points. It is shown that for each effective potential the expressions for different overlapping cases can be written in terms of one analytic auxiliary potential. Even when only non-overlapping situations are possible, the auxiliary potentials facilitate the formulation of the effective potentials. Effective potentials for hollow nanoparticles (appropriate e.g. for buckyballs) are also considered and shown to be related to those for solid nanoparticles. For hollow nanoparticles overlap is more physical, since this covers the case of a smaller particle embedded in a larger, hollow nanoparticle. Finally, explicit expressions are given for the effective potentials derived from basic pair potentials of power law and exponential form, as well as from the commonly used London–van der Waals, Morse, Buckingham, and Lennard-Jones potentials. The applicability of the latter is demonstrated by comparison with an atomic description of nanoparticles with an internal face centered cubic structure

  7. Comparison of economic evaluation methodology between levelized method and the evaluation system in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shengli

    2005-01-01

    Different methodology would bring different results. This paper includes an introduction of levelized discounted generation cost methodology as well as that of Chinese system, respectively. In general, there have two key indices in Chinese evaluation system, they are generation cost and electricity sales price to the grid. This paper contains a description of cost breakdown and calculation procedure for each index. Comparison between these two methods and the primary differences are also included. For the first time, equations for calculating generation cost and selling price to the grid based on Chinese system have been derived, and its accuracy has been shown through running the special computer program. The two systems are quite different in many aspects. Firstly, levelized generation cost is always calculated with discounted method that excluded in Chinese system. Secondly, levelized generation cost is a single and constant value that would not change over the economic life while generation cost in Chinese system is estimated on a year by year base. Thirdly, the makeup of generation cost in Chinese system is different from that of levelized system since taxes and dividend share removed. Finally, the electricity sales price in Chinese system is more similar to levelized generation cost. (authors)

  8. Evaluation of users' satisfaction on pedestrian facilities using pair-wise comparison approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainol, R.; Ahmad, F.; Nordin, N. A.; Aripin, A. W. M.

    2014-02-01

    Global climate change issues demand people of the world to change the way they live today. Thus, current cities need to be redeveloped towards less use of carbon in their day to day operations. Pedestrianized environment is one of the approaches used in reducing carbon foot print in cities. Heritage cities are the first to be looked into since they were built in the era in which motorized vehicles were minimal. Therefore, the research explores users' satisfaction on assessment of physical attributes of pedestrianization in Melaka Historical City, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It aims to examine users' satisfaction on pedestrian facilities provided within the study area using pair wise questionnaire comparison approach. A survey of 200 respondents using random sampling was conducted in six different sites namely Jonker Street, Church Street, Kota Street, Goldsmith Street, Merdeka Street to Taming Sari Tower and Merdeka Street to River Cruise terminal. The survey consists of an assessment tool based on a nine-point scale of users' satisfaction level of pathway properties, zebra pedestrian crossing, street furniture, personal safety, adjacent to traffic flow, aesthetic and amenities. Analytical hierarchical process (AHP) was used to avoid any biasness in analyzing the data collected. Findings show that Merdeka Street to Taming Sari Tower as the street that scores the highest satisfaction level that fulfils all the required needs of a pedestrianized environment. Similar assessment elements can be used to evaluate existing streets in other cities and these criteria should also be used in planning for future cities.

  9. Parietal lesion effects on cued recall following pair associate learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zvi, Shir; Soroker, Nachum; Levy, Daniel A

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the involvement of the posterior parietal cortex in episodic memory in a lesion-effects study of cued recall following pair-associate learning. Groups of patients who had experienced first-incident stroke, generally in middle cerebral artery territory, and exhibited damage that included lateral posterior parietal regions, were tested within an early post-stroke time window. In three experiments, patients and matched healthy comparison groups executed repeated study and cued recall test blocks of pairs of words (Experiment 1), pairs of object pictures (Experiment 2), or pairs of object pictures and environmental sounds (Experiment 3). Patients' brain CT scans were subjected to quantitative analysis of lesion volumes. Behavioral and lesion data were used to compute correlations between area lesion extent and memory deficits, and to conduct voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. These analyses implicated lateral ventral parietal cortex, especially the angular gyrus, in cued recall deficits, most pronouncedly in the cross-modal picture-sound pairs task, though significant parietal lesion effects were also found in the unimodal word pairs and picture pairs tasks. In contrast to an earlier study in which comparable parietal lesions did not cause deficits in item recognition, these results indicate that lateral posterior parietal areas make a substantive contribution to demanding forms of recollective retrieval as represented by cued recall, especially for complex associative representations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Interactions in ion pairs of protic ionic liquids: Comparison with aprotic ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuzuki, Seiji; Shinoda, Wataru; Miran, Md. Shah; Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Yasuda, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    2013-01-01

    The stabilization energies for the formation (E form ) of 11 ion pairs of protic and aprotic ionic liquids were studied by MP2/6-311G ** level ab initio calculations to elucidate the difference between the interactions of ions in protic ionic liquids and those in aprotic ionic liquids. The interactions in the ion pairs of protic ionic liquids (diethylmethylammonium [dema] and dimethylpropylammonium [dmpa] based ionic liquids) are stronger than those of aprotic ionic liquids (ethyltrimethylammonium [etma] based ionic liquids). The E form for the [dema][CF 3 SO 3 ] and [dmpa][CF 3 SO 3 ] complexes (−95.6 and −96.4 kcal/mol, respectively) are significantly larger (more negative) than that for the [etma][CF 3 SO 3 ] complex (−81.0 kcal/mol). The same trend was observed for the calculations of ion pairs of the three cations with the Cl − , BF 4 − , TFSA − anions. The anion has contact with the N–H bond of the dema + or dmpa + cations in the most stable geometries of the dema + and dmpa + complexes. The optimized geometries, in which the anions locate on the counter side of the cations, are 11.0–18.0 kcal/mol less stable, which shows that the interactions in the ions pairs of protic ionic liquids have strong directionality. The E form for the less stable geometries for the dema + and dmpa + complexes are close to those for the most stable etma + complexes. The electrostatic interaction, which is the major source of the attraction in the ion pairs, is responsible for the directionality of the interactions and determining the magnitude of the interaction energy. Molecular dynamic simulations of the [dema][TFSA] and [dmpa][TFSA] ionic liquids show that the N–H bonds of the cations have contact with the negatively charged (oxygen and nitrogen) atoms of TFSA − anion, while the strong directionality of the interactions was not suggested from the simulation of the [etma][CF 3 SO 3 ] ionic liquid

  11. Pairing correlations. II. Microscopic analysis of odd-even mass staggering in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duguet, T.; Bonche, P.; Heenen, P.-H.; Meyer, J.

    2002-01-01

    The odd-even mass staggering in nuclei is analyzed in the context of self-consistent mean-field calculations, for spherical as well as for deformed nuclei. For these nuclei, the respective merits of the energy differences Δ (3) and Δ (5) to extract both the pairing gap and the time-reversal symmetry breaking effect at the same time are extensively discussed. The usual mass formula Δ (3) is shown to contain additional mean-field contributions when realistic pairing is used in the calculation. A simple tool is proposed in order to remove the time-reversal symmetry breaking effects from Δ (5) . Extended comparisons with the odd-even mass staggering obtained in the zero-pairing limit (schematic model and self-consistent calculations) show the nonperturbative contribution of pairing correlations on this observable

  12. Comparison of measurement methods with a mixed effects procedure accounting for replicated evaluations (COM3PARE): method comparison algorithm implementation for head and neck IGRT positional verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anuradha; Fuller, Clifton D; Rosenthal, David I; Thomas, Charles R

    2015-08-28

    Comparison of imaging measurement devices in the absence of a gold-standard comparator remains a vexing problem; especially in scenarios where multiple, non-paired, replicated measurements occur, as in image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). As the number of commercially available IGRT presents a challenge to determine whether different IGRT methods may be used interchangeably, an unmet need conceptually parsimonious and statistically robust method to evaluate the agreement between two methods with replicated observations. Consequently, we sought to determine, using an previously reported head and neck positional verification dataset, the feasibility and utility of a Comparison of Measurement Methods with the Mixed Effects Procedure Accounting for Replicated Evaluations (COM3PARE), a unified conceptual schema and analytic algorithm based upon Roy's linear mixed effects (LME) model with Kronecker product covariance structure in a doubly multivariate set-up, for IGRT method comparison. An anonymized dataset consisting of 100 paired coordinate (X/ measurements from a sequential series of head and neck cancer patients imaged near-simultaneously with cone beam CT (CBCT) and kilovoltage X-ray (KVX) imaging was used for model implementation. Software-suggested CBCT and KVX shifts for the lateral (X), vertical (Y) and longitudinal (Z) dimensions were evaluated for bias, inter-method (between-subject variation), intra-method (within-subject variation), and overall agreement using with a script implementing COM3PARE with the MIXED procedure of the statistical software package SAS (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA). COM3PARE showed statistically significant bias agreement and difference in inter-method between CBCT and KVX was observed in the Z-axis (both p - value<0.01). Intra-method and overall agreement differences were noted as statistically significant for both the X- and Z-axes (all p - value<0.01). Using pre-specified criteria, based on intra-method agreement, CBCT was deemed

  13. Young children’s learning of relational categories:multiple comparisons and their cognitive constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre eThibaut

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Relational categories are notoriously difficult to learn because they are not defined by intrinsic stable properties. We studied the impact of comparisons on relational concept learning with a novel word learning task in 42-month-old children. Capitalizing on Gentner et al. (2011, two, three or four pairs of stimuli were introduced with a novel relational word. In a given trial, the set of pairs was composed of either close or far pairs (e.g., close pair: knife1-watermelon, knife2-orange, knife3-slice of bread and knife4-meat; far pair: ax-evergreen tree, saw-log, cutter-cardboard and knife-slice of bread, for the cutter for relation. Close pairs (2 vs. 3 vs. 4 pairs led to random generalizations whereas comparisons with far pairs gave the expected relational generalization. The 3 pair case gave the best results. It is argued that far pairs promote deeper comparisons than close pairs. As shown by a control experiment, this was the case only when far pairs display well known associations.

  14. Full NLO massive gauge boson pair production at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Baglio, Julien; Weber, Marcus M

    2013-01-01

    Electroweak gauge boson pair production is a very important process at the LHC as it probes the non-abelian structure of electroweak interactions and is a background process for many searches. We present full next-to-leading order predictions for the production cross sections and distributions of on-shell massive gauge boson pair production in the Standard Model, including both QCD and electroweak corrections. The hierarchy between the ZZ, WW and WZ channels, observed in the transverse momentum distributions, will be analyzed. We will also present a comparison with experimental data for the total cross sections including a study of the theoretical uncertainties.

  15. Classical-quantum correspondence in electron-positron pair creation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chott, N. I.; Su, Q.; Grobe, R.

    2007-01-01

    We examine the creation of electron-positron pairs in a very strong force field. Using numerical solutions to quantum field theory we calculate the spatial and momentum probability distributions for the created particles. A comparison with classical mechanical phase space calculations suggests that despite the fully relativistic and quantum mechanical nature of the matter creation process, most aspects can be reproduced accurately in terms of classical mechanics

  16. Comparison of methodologies for TMY generation using 20 years data for Athens, Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argiriou, A.; Lykoudis, S.; Kontoyiannidis, S.; Balaras, C.A.; Asimakopoulos, D.; Petrakis, M.; Kassomenos, P. [National Observatory of Athens (Greece). Institute of Meteorology and Physics

    1999-05-01

    The need of accurate Test Reference Years (TRYs) for simulations has been well recognised over the years. Various methods for deriving TRYs have been developed, but their final results can be significantly different. In this paper, the major methodologies reported in literature were applied to 20-year hourly measurements of weather data from Athens, covering the period 1977 to 1996. Seventeen TRYs were produced in total. The basis to select the best performing TRY includes meteorological criteria (inherent in the selection process used by each method) and comparisons of results from various simulations for typical energy systems (i.e. a solar water heater, a building, a large scale solar heating system with interseasonal storage and a photovoltaic system). Based on the results of each simulation exercise, a scoring system was developed and applied. The best performing TRY was found to be the one produced by a modified Festa-Ratto method. (author)

  17. Shell-model calculations with a basis that contains correlated pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisson, J.P.; Silvestre-Brac, B.A.; Liotta, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    A method to solve the shell-model equations within a basis that contains correlated pairs of particles is presented. The method is illustrated for the three-identical-particle system. Applications in nuclei around 208 Pb are given and comparisons with both experimental data and other calculations are carried out. (Auth.)

  18. Time- and Space-Order Effects in Timed Discrimination of Brightness and Size of Paired Visual Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patching, Geoffrey R.; Englund, Mats P.; Hellstrom, Ake

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of both response probability and response time for testing models of choice, there is a dearth of chronometric studies examining systematic asymmetries that occur over time- and space-orders in the method of paired comparisons. In this study, systematic asymmetries in discriminating the magnitude of paired visual stimuli are…

  19. Nonlinear electrostatic structures in homogeneous and inhomogeneous pair-ion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, S.; Ur-Rehman, H.; Shah, A.; Haque, Q.

    2012-01-01

    The nonlinear electrostatic structures such as solitons, shocks were studied in homogeneous, unmagnetized pair-ion plasma. The dissipation in the system was taken through kinematic viscosities of both pair-ion species. The one dimensional (Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers) KdVB equation was derived using reductive perturbation method. The analytical solution of KdVB equation was obtained using tanh method. It was found that solitons and monotonic shocks structures were formed in such type of plasmas depending on the value of dissipation in the system. Both compressive and refractive structures of solitons and monotonic shocks were obtained depending on the temperatures of negative and positive ions. The oscillatory shock structures in pair-ion plasmas were also obtained and its necessary conditions of formation were discussed. The acoustic solitons were also investigated in inhomogeneous unmagnetized pair-ion plasmas. The Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) like equation with an additional term due to density gradients was obtained by employing the reductive perturbation technique. It was found that amplitude of both compressive and refractive solitons was found to be enhanced as the density gradient parameter was increased. The Landau damping rates of electrostatic ion waves were studied for non-Maxwellian or Lorentzian pair-ion plasmas. The Val sov equation was solved analytically for weak damping effects in pair-ion plasma. It was found that Landau damping rate of ion plasma wave was increased in Lorentzian case in comparison with Maxwellian pair-ion plasmas. The numerical results were obtained by taking into account the parameters of pair-ion plasmas produced in laboratory experiments in Japan. (orig./A.B.)

  20. The use of fracture mechanics methodologies for NDT results evaluation and comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reale, S.

    1995-01-01

    In the general frame of analysing the interactions amongst the information from non destructive evaluation (NDE) and the methodologies to assess the integrity of a defective structure (such as fracture mechanics), the aim of the paper is to analyse and compare, in terms of indices related to safety margins, NDE results from round robin testing trials to acheive assessments of capabilities and limitations.A structural integrity/fracture mechanics approach for evaluating and comparing results from non destructive techniques is presented. Safety factors can be associated to flaws detected and characterized by inspections (estimated flaws) and to flaws actually present (reference flaws). The mismatch between safety factors associated to estimated flaws and safety factors associated to reference flaws can be used to assess capabilities and limitations of procedures and techniques in use for inspections.As an example, to show how the above procedure is applied and its potential as a method of data evaluation and comparison, the NDE results produced by the PISC (project for the inspection of steel components) activity have been considered. (orig.)

  1. The Effects of Receptive and Productive Learning of Word Pairs on Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    English as a foreign language students in Japan learned target words in word pairs receptively and productively. Five aspects of vocabulary knowledge--orthography, association, syntax, grammatical functions, and meaning and form--were each measured by receptive and productive tests. The study uses an innovative methodology in that each target word…

  2. Quasars Probing Quasars. X. The Quasar Pair Spectral Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Joseph R.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Fumagalli, Michele; Myers, Adam D.; Bartle, Stephanie; Chehade, Ben; DiPompeo, Michael A.; Shanks, Tom; Lau, Marie Wingyee; Rubin, Kate H. R.

    2018-06-01

    The rare close projection of two quasars on the sky provides the opportunity to study the host galaxy environment of a foreground quasar in absorption against the continuum emission of a background quasar. For over a decade the “Quasars probing quasars” series has utilized this technique to further the understanding of galaxy formation and evolution in the presence of a quasar at z > 2, resolving scales as small as a galactic disk and from bound gas in the circumgalactic medium to the diffuse environs of intergalactic space. Presented here is the public release of the quasar pair spectral database utilized in these studies. In addition to projected pairs at z > 2, the database also includes quasar pair members at z useful for small-scale clustering studies. In total, the database catalogs 5627 distinct objects, with 4083 lying within 5‧ of at least one other source. A spectral library contains 3582 optical and near-infrared spectra for 3028 of the cataloged sources. As well as reporting on 54 newly discovered quasar pairs, we outline the key contributions made by this series over the last 10 years, summarize the imaging and spectroscopic data used for target selection, discuss the target selection methodologies, describe the database content, and explore some avenues for future work. Full documentation for the spectral database, including download instructions, is supplied at http://specdb.readthedocs.io/en/latest/.

  3. Molecular-Level Thermodynamic Switch Controls Chemical Equilibrium in Sequence-Specific Hydrophobic Interaction of 35 Dipeptide Pairs

    OpenAIRE

    Chun, Paul W.

    2003-01-01

    Applying the Planck-Benzinger methodology, the sequence-specific hydrophobic interactions of 35 dipeptide pairs were examined over a temperature range of 273–333 K, based on data reported by Nemethy and Scheraga in 1962. The hydrophobic interaction in these sequence-specific dipeptide pairs is highly similar in its thermodynamic behavior to that of other biological systems. The results imply that the negative Gibbs free energy change minimum at a well-defined stable temperature, 〈Ts〉, where t...

  4. Experimental investigation of quantum key distribution with position and momentum of photon pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, M.P.; Walborn, S.P.; Souto Ribeiro, P.H.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the utility of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations of the position and momentum of photon pairs from parametric down-conversion in the implementation of a secure quantum key distribution protocol. We show that security is guaranteed by the entanglement between down-converted pairs, and can be checked by either direct comparison of Alice and Bob's measurement results or evaluation of an inequality of the sort proposed by Mancini et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 120401 (2002)

  5. Neutrino-Pair Exchange Long-Range Force Between Aggregate Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Segarra, A.

    2016-01-01

    We study the long-range force arising between two neutral---of electric charge---aggregates of matter due to a neutrino-pair exchange, in the limit of zero neutrino mass. The conceptual basis for the construction of the effective potential comes from the coherent scattering amplitude at low values of t. This amplitude is obtained using the methodology of an unsubtracted dispersion relation in t at threshold for s, where (s, t) are the Lorentz invariant scattering variables. The ultraviolet be...

  6. A Comparison of Various Software Development Methodologies: Feasibility and Methods of Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Abou El-Seoud

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available System development methodologies which have being used in the academic and commercial environments during last two decades have advantages and disadvantages. Researchers had tried to identify objectives, scope …etc. of the methodologies by following different approaches. Each approach has its Limitation, specific interest, coverage …etc. In this paper, we tried to perform a comparative study of those methodologies which are popular and commonly used in banking and commercial environment. We tried in our study to determine objectives, scope, tools and other features of the methodologies. We also, tried to determine how and to what extent the methodologies incorporate the facilities such as project management, cost benefit analysis, documentation …etc. One of the most important aspects of our study was how to integrate the methodologies and develop a global methodology which covers the complete span of the software development life cycle? A prototype system which integrates the selected methodologies has been developed. The developed system helps analysts and designers how to choose suitable tools or to obtain guidelines on what to do in a particular situation. The prototype system has been tested during the development of a software for an ATM “Auto Teller Machine” by selecting and applying SASD methodology during software development. This resulted in the development of high quality and well documented software system.

  7. Digital database architecture and delineation methodology for deriving drainage basins, and a comparison of digitally and non-digitally derived numeric drainage areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupree, Jean A.; Crowfoot, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    The drainage basin is a fundamental hydrologic entity used for studies of surface-water resources and during planning of water-related projects. Numeric drainage areas published by the U.S. Geological Survey water science centers in Annual Water Data Reports and on the National Water Information Systems (NWIS) Web site are still primarily derived from hard-copy sources and by manual delineation of polygonal basin areas on paper topographic map sheets. To expedite numeric drainage area determinations, the Colorado Water Science Center developed a digital database structure and a delineation methodology based on the hydrologic unit boundaries in the National Watershed Boundary Dataset. This report describes the digital database architecture and delineation methodology and also presents the results of a comparison of the numeric drainage areas derived using this digital methodology with those derived using traditional, non-digital methods. (Please see report for full Abstract)

  8. Evaluation of users' satisfaction on pedestrian facilities using pair-wise comparison approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainol, R; Ahmad, F; Nordin, N A; Aripin, A W M

    2014-01-01

    Global climate change issues demand people of the world to change the way they live today. Thus, current cities need to be redeveloped towards less use of carbon in their day to day operations. Pedestrianized environment is one of the approaches used in reducing carbon foot print in cities. Heritage cities are the first to be looked into since they were built in the era in which motorized vehicles were minimal. Therefore, the research explores users' satisfaction on assessment of physical attributes of pedestrianization in Melaka Historical City, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It aims to examine users' satisfaction on pedestrian facilities provided within the study area using pair wise questionnaire comparison approach. A survey of 200 respondents using random sampling was conducted in six different sites namely Jonker Street, Church Street, Kota Street, Goldsmith Street, Merdeka Street to Taming Sari Tower and Merdeka Street to River Cruise terminal. The survey consists of an assessment tool based on a nine-point scale of users' satisfaction level of pathway properties, zebra pedestrian crossing, street furniture, personal safety, adjacent to traffic flow, aesthetic and amenities. Analytical hierarchical process (AHP) was used to avoid any biasness in analyzing the data collected. Findings show that Merdeka Street to Taming Sari Tower as the street that scores the highest satisfaction level that fulfils all the required needs of a pedestrianized environment. Similar assessment elements can be used to evaluate existing streets in other cities and these criteria should also be used in planning for future cities

  9. Pair distribution functions of carbonaceous solids, determined using energy filtered diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, T.C.; McCulloch, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The structures of various carbonaceous solids were investigated using energy filtered diffraction patterns collected in two dimensions using a Gatan Imaging Filter (GIF). In order to reduce multiple scattering and eliminate inelastic scattering effects, the diffraction patterns were filtered using an energy -selecting slit around the zero-loss peak. Software has been developed for the extraction of radially averaged pair distributions functions from the diffraction data. This entails finding the position of the un-scattered beam, radially averaging the two dimensional intensity distributions, calibrating the resulting one dimensional intensity profiles and finally normalising the data to obtain structure factors. Techniques for improving and assessing data quality, pertaining to the methodology used here, have also been explored. Structure factors and radial distribution functions generated using this analysis will be discussed and, for the commercial V25 glassy carbon samples, compared to previous, work of one of the authors'. In order to answer questions regarding multiple scattering effects and structural homogeneity of the samples, neutron scattering was performed on the Medium Resolution Powder Diffractometer (MRPD), at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology's (ANSTO) facility. A critical comparison of the neutron scattering and electron diffraction generated structure factors will be presented. Copyright (2002) Australian Society for Electron Microscopy Inc

  10. On the production of low-mass lepton pairs at large transverse momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurenche, P.; Baier, R.; Fontannaz, M.

    1988-03-01

    We relate the cross section for the production of low-mass lepton (Drell-Yan) pairs at large transverse momentum to the inclusive prompt (real) photon spectrum. The later one is then evaluated at second order in the QCD coupling constant α s ; predictions are obtained using next-to-leading order quark/gluon densities. Finally, a quantitative comparison with the recent pair data of the UA1 Collaboration is successfully performed. Therefore the considered process is conjectured as an extremely useful probe of the proton structure at small values of x

  11. Generalized pairing strategies-a bridge from pairing strategies to colorings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Győrffy Lajos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we define a bridge between pairings and colorings of the hypergraphs by introducing a generalization of pairs called t-cakes for t ∈ ℕ, t ≥ 2. For t = 2 the 2-cakes are the same as the well-known pairs of system of distinct representatives, that can be turned to pairing strategies in Maker-Breaker hypergraph games, see Hales and Jewett [12]. The two-colorings are the other extremity of t-cakes, in which the whole ground set of the hypergraph is one big cake that we divide into two parts (color classes. Starting from the pairings (2-cake placement and two-colorings we define the generalized t-cake placements where we pair p elements by q elements (p, q ∈ ℕ, 1 ≤ p, q < t, p + q = t.

  12. Exploring methodological frameworks for a mental task-based near-infrared spectroscopy brain-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyand, Sabine; Takehara-Nishiuchi, Kaori; Chau, Tom

    2015-10-30

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) enable users to interact with their environment using only cognitive activities. This paper presents the results of a comparison of four methodological frameworks used to select a pair of tasks to control a binary NIRS-BCI; specifically, three novel personalized task paradigms and the state-of-the-art prescribed task framework were explored. Three types of personalized task selection approaches were compared, including: user-selected mental tasks using weighted slope scores (WS-scores), user-selected mental tasks using pair-wise accuracy rankings (PWAR), and researcher-selected mental tasks using PWAR. These paradigms, along with the state-of-the-art prescribed mental task framework, where mental tasks are selected based on the most commonly used tasks in literature, were tested by ten able-bodied participants who took part in five NIRS-BCI sessions. The frameworks were compared in terms of their accuracy, perceived ease-of-use, computational time, user preference, and length of training. Most notably, researcher-selected personalized tasks resulted in significantly higher accuracies, while user-selected personalized tasks resulted in significantly higher perceived ease-of-use. It was also concluded that PWAR minimized the amount of data that needed to be collected; while, WS-scores maximized user satisfaction and minimized computational time. In comparison to the state-of-the-art prescribed mental tasks, our findings show that overall, personalized tasks appear to be superior to prescribed tasks with respect to accuracy and perceived ease-of-use. The deployment of personalized rather than prescribed mental tasks ought to be considered and further investigated in future NIRS-BCI studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Complementary Cohort Strategy for Multimodal Face Pair Matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yunlian; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Sun, Zhenan

    2016-01-01

    Face pair matching is the task of determining whether two face images represent the same person. Due to the limited expressive information embedded in the two face images as well as various sources of facial variations, it becomes a quite difficult problem. Towards the issue of few available images...... provided to represent each face, we propose to exploit an extra cohort set (identities in the cohort set are different from those being compared) by a series of cohort list comparisons. Useful cohort coefficients are then extracted from both sorted cohort identities and sorted cohort images...... for complementary information. To augment its robustness to complicated facial variations, we further employ multiple face modalities owing to their complementary value to each other for the face pair matching task. The final decision is made by fusing the extracted cohort coefficients with the direct matching...

  14. Comparative Studies: historical, epistemological and methodological notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Piovani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article some historical, epistemological and methodological issues related to comparative studies in the social sciences are addressed, with specific reference to the field of education. The starting point is a discussion of the meaning of comparison, its logical structure and its presence in science and in everyday life. It follows the presentation and critical appraisal of the perspectives regarding comparison as a scientific method. It is argued that, even rejecting this restrictive meaning of comparison as a method, there is some consensus on the specificity of comparative studies within the social sciences. And in relation to them, the article address in more detail those studies that can be defined as trans-contextual (cross-national and cross-cultural, with emphasis on the main methodological and technical challenges they face. The socio-historical comparative perspective, which has gained importance in recent years in the field of education, is also discussed.

  15. Electron-positron pair production by two identical photons in the nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, A.I.

    1977-01-01

    In the Born approximation of the perturbation theory considered is a nonlinear effect of the electron-positron pair production by two identical photons in the Coulomb field of an atomic nucleus. The kinematic version of identical photons is studied. All the particles are considered to be nonpolarized. The calculation of the differential probability of the effect has been carried out earlier by the Feynman method. The total probability of the effect in limiting energy ranges is determined by integrating the formulas of the pair component distribution over energies. The probabilities of the electron-positron pair production and fusion of two photons into one in the nucleus field have been compared for the case of identical quanta. From the comparison of the results of analyzing both the nonlinear effects it follows that in the high-energy range the electron-positron pair production by two identical photons in the nucleus field extremely predominates over the fusion of two photons into one photon in the same field

  16. Comparison versus reminding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullis, Jonathan G; Goldstone, Robert L

    2016-01-01

    Comparison and reminding have both been shown to support learning and transfer. Comparison is thought to support transfer because it allows learners to disregard non-matching features of superficially different episodes in order to abstract the essential structure of concepts. Remindings promote memory for the individual episodes and generalization because they prompt learners to retrieve earlier episodes during the encoding of later related episodes and to compare across episodes. Across three experiments, we compared the consequences of comparison and reminding on memory and transfer. Participants studied a sequence of related, but superficially different, proverb pairs. In the comparison condition, participants saw proverb pairs presented together and compared their meaning. In the reminding condition, participants viewed proverbs one at a time and retrieved any prior studied proverb that shared the same deep meaning as the current proverb. Experiment 1 revealed that participants in the reminding condition recalled more proverbs than those in the comparison condition. Experiment 2 showed that the mnemonic benefits of reminding persisted over a one-week retention interval. Finally, in Experiment 3, we examined the ability of participants to generalize their remembered information to new items in a task that required participants to identify unstudied proverbs that shared the same meaning as studied proverbs. Comparison led to worse discrimination between proverbs related to studied proverbs and proverbs unrelated to studied proverbs than reminding. Reminding supported better memory for individual instances and transfer to new situations than comparison.

  17. Matched-Pair Comparison of Radioembolization Plus Best Supportive Care Versus Best Supportive Care Alone for Chemotherapy Refractory Liver-Dominant Colorectal Metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidensticker, Ricarda, E-mail: ricarda.seidensticker@med.ovgu.de [Universitaetsklinikum Magdeburg, Klinik fuer Radiologie and Nuklearmedizin (Germany); Denecke, Timm [Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany); Kraus, Patrick; Seidensticker, Max; Mohnike, Konrad [Universitaetsklinikum Magdeburg, Klinik fuer Radiologie and Nuklearmedizin (Germany); Fahlke, Joerg [Universitaetsklinikum Magdeburg, Klinik fuer Allgemein-, Viszeral- und Gefaesschirurgie (Germany); Kettner, Erika [Klinik fuer Haematologie/Onkologie, Klinikum Magdeburg (Germany); Hildebrandt, Bert [Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany); Dudeck, Oliver; Pech, Maciej; Amthauer, Holger; Ricke, Jens [Universitaetsklinikum Magdeburg, Klinik fuer Radiologie and Nuklearmedizin (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate overall survival after radioembolization or best supportive care (BSC) in patients with chemotherapy-refractory liver-dominant metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Methods: This was a matched-pair comparison of patients who received radioembolization plus BSC or BSC alone for extensive liver disease. Twenty-nine patients who received radioembolization were retrospectively matched with a contemporary cohort of >500 patients who received BSC from 3 centers in Germany. Using clinical databases, patients were initially matched for prior treatments and tumor burden and then 29 patients were consecutively identified with two or more of four matching criteria: synchronous/metachronous metastases, tumor burden, increased ALP, and/or CEA >200 U/ml. Survival was calculated from date of progression before radioembolization or BSC by using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results: Of 29 patients in each study arm, 16 pairs (55.2%) matched for all four criteria, and 11 pairs (37.9%) matched three criteria. Patients in both groups had a similar performance status (Karnofsky index, median 80% [range, 60-100%]). Compared with BSC alone, radioembolization prolonged survival (median, 8.3 vs. 3.5 months; P < 0.001) with a hazard ratio of 0.3 (95% confidence interval, 0.16-0.55; P < 0.001) in a multivariate Cox proportional hazard model. Treatment-related adverse events following radioembolization included: grade 1-2 fatigue (n = 20, 69%), grade 1 abdominal pain/nausea (n = 14, 48.3%), and grade 2 gastrointestinal ulceration (n = 3, 10.3%). Three cases of grade 3 radiation-induced liver disease were symptomatically managed. Conclusions: Radioembolization offers a promising addition to BSC in treatment-refractory patients for whom there are limited options. Survival was prolonged and adverse events were generally mild-to-moderate in nature and manageable.

  18. Matched-Pair Comparison of Radioembolization Plus Best Supportive Care Versus Best Supportive Care Alone for Chemotherapy Refractory Liver-Dominant Colorectal Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidensticker, Ricarda; Denecke, Timm; Kraus, Patrick; Seidensticker, Max; Mohnike, Konrad; Fahlke, Jörg; Kettner, Erika; Hildebrandt, Bert; Dudeck, Oliver; Pech, Maciej; Amthauer, Holger; Ricke, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate overall survival after radioembolization or best supportive care (BSC) in patients with chemotherapy-refractory liver-dominant metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Methods: This was a matched-pair comparison of patients who received radioembolization plus BSC or BSC alone for extensive liver disease. Twenty-nine patients who received radioembolization were retrospectively matched with a contemporary cohort of >500 patients who received BSC from 3 centers in Germany. Using clinical databases, patients were initially matched for prior treatments and tumor burden and then 29 patients were consecutively identified with two or more of four matching criteria: synchronous/metachronous metastases, tumor burden, increased ALP, and/or CEA >200 U/ml. Survival was calculated from date of progression before radioembolization or BSC by using Kaplan–Meier analysis. Results: Of 29 patients in each study arm, 16 pairs (55.2%) matched for all four criteria, and 11 pairs (37.9%) matched three criteria. Patients in both groups had a similar performance status (Karnofsky index, median 80% [range, 60–100%]). Compared with BSC alone, radioembolization prolonged survival (median, 8.3 vs. 3.5 months; P < 0.001) with a hazard ratio of 0.3 (95% confidence interval, 0.16–0.55; P < 0.001) in a multivariate Cox proportional hazard model. Treatment-related adverse events following radioembolization included: grade 1–2 fatigue (n = 20, 69%), grade 1 abdominal pain/nausea (n = 14, 48.3%), and grade 2 gastrointestinal ulceration (n = 3, 10.3%). Three cases of grade 3 radiation-induced liver disease were symptomatically managed. Conclusions: Radioembolization offers a promising addition to BSC in treatment-refractory patients for whom there are limited options. Survival was prolonged and adverse events were generally mild-to-moderate in nature and manageable.

  19. Large sample NAA facility and methodology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, C.; Gugiu, D.; Barbos, D.; Datcu, A.; Aioanei, L.; Dobrea, D.; Taroiu, I. E.; Bucsa, A.; Ghinescu, A.

    2013-01-01

    A Large Sample Neutron Activation Analysis (LSNAA) facility has been developed at the TRIGA- Annular Core Pulsed Reactor (ACPR) operated by the Institute for Nuclear Research in Pitesti, Romania. The central irradiation cavity of the ACPR core can accommodate a large irradiation device. The ACPR neutron flux characteristics are well known and spectrum adjustment techniques have been successfully applied to enhance the thermal component of the neutron flux in the central irradiation cavity. An analysis methodology was developed by using the MCNP code in order to estimate counting efficiency and correction factors for the major perturbing phenomena. Test experiments, comparison with classical instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) methods and international inter-comparison exercise have been performed to validate the new methodology. (authors)

  20. English for au pairs the au pair's guide to learning English

    CERN Document Server

    Curtis, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    English for Au Pairs has interlinked stories about a group of au pairs new to England. Marta, an 18-year-old from Poland arrives in the UK to work as an au pair. Throughout her year-long stay she has many different experiences - some bad, some good - but with the support of her host family she finds new friends and improves her English. English for Au Pairs offers insight into the joys and difficulties of being an au pair while at the same time reinforcing English language learning through grammar explanations and exercises.

  1. Nuclear level densities with pairing and self-consistent ground-state shell effects

    CERN Document Server

    Arnould, M

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear level density calculations are performed using a model of fermions interacting via the pairing force, and a realistic single particle potential. The pairing interaction is treated within the BCS approximation with different pairing strength values. The single particle potentials are derived in the framework of an energy-density formalism which describes self-consistently the ground states of spherical nuclei. These calculations are extended to statistically deformed nuclei, whose estimated level densities include rotational band contributions. The theoretical results are compared with various experimental data. In addition, the level densities for several nuclei far from stability are compared with the predictions of a back-shifted Fermi gas model. Such a comparison emphasizes the possible danger of extrapolating to unknown nuclei classical level density formulae whose parameter values are tailored for known nuclei. (41 refs).

  2. Common methodological flaws in economic evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Michael; Sculpher, Mark

    2005-07-01

    Economic evaluations are increasingly being used by those bodies such as government agencies and managed care groups that make decisions about the reimbursement of health technologies. However, several reviews of economic evaluations point to numerous deficiencies in the methodology of studies or the failure to follow published methodological guidelines. This article, written for healthcare decision-makers and other users of economic evaluations, outlines the common methodological flaws in studies, focussing on those issues that are likely to be most important when deciding on the reimbursement, or guidance for use, of health technologies. The main flaws discussed are: (i) omission of important costs or benefits; (ii) inappropriate selection of alternatives for comparison; (iii) problems in making indirect comparisons; (iv) inadequate representation of the effectiveness data; (v) inappropriate extrapolation beyond the period observed in clinical studies; (vi) excessive use of assumptions rather than data; (vii) inadequate characterization of uncertainty; (viii) problems in aggregation of results; (ix) reporting of average cost-effectiveness ratios; (x) lack of consideration of generalizability issues; and (xi) selective reporting of findings. In each case examples are given from the literature and guidance is offered on how to detect flaws in economic evaluations.

  3. Therapeutic plasma exchange: a paired comparison of Fresenius AS104 vs. COBE Spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgstaler, E A; Pineda, A A

    2001-01-01

    For therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), continuous flow separators are known to be efficient as exemplified by Fresenius AS104 and COBE Spectra. The AS104 uses an interface monitoring system in the centrifuge during TPE, whereas Spectra uses computer algorithms to establish the plasma-cell interface. To determine the plasma collection efficiency (PLCE), anticoagulant (AC) volumes used, and platelets (PLT) lost of the AS104 and the Spectra, we performed a prospective paired comparison of 20 TPE (each machine). The study included 17 patients, 1.3 plasma volume exchanges (without AC), equal inlet rates, and AC ratio of 13:1. Processing times did not include reinfuse mode. Platelet loss was determined by sampling the collection bags. Inlet rates were between 60-110 ml/min. Diagnosis included peripheral neuropathies, TTP and cryoglobulinemia. The AS104 had significantly (P<0.0001) lower average whole blood processed (F:6,601 vs. S:8,584 ml), AC volume (F:532 vs. S:719 ml), and processing time (F:80 vs. S:102 minutes) than Spectra. The AS104 had significantly (P<0.0001) higher average plasma flow rates (F:53 vs. S:44 ml/minute), plasma collection efficiency (F:90 vs. S:69%), and platelet loss (F:2.0 vs. S:0.14 x 10(11) plt) than Spectra. Platelet loss correlated with inlet flow rate with the AS104 but not with the Spectra. The AS104 has a significantly higher collection efficiency than Spectra allowing it to remove the same amount of plasma in significantly less time, by processing significantly less blood, using significantly less AC, but removing significantly more platelets than Spectra. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Comparison of different "along the track" high resolution satellite stereo-pair for DSM extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos G.

    2013-10-01

    The possibility to create DEM from stereo pairs is based on the Pythagoras theorem and on the principles of photogrammetry that are applied to aerial photographs stereo pairs for the last seventy years. The application of these principles to digital satellite stereo data was inherent in the first satellite missions. During the last decades the satellite stereo-pairs were acquired across the track in different days (SPOT, ERS etc.). More recently the same-date along the track stereo-data acquisition seems to prevail (Terra ASTER, SPOT5 HRS, Cartosat, ALOS Prism) as it reduces the radiometric image variations (refractive effects, sun illumination, temporal changes) and thus increases the correlation success rate in any image matching.Two of the newest satellite sensors with stereo collection capability is Cartosat and ALOS Prism. Both of them acquire stereopairs along the track with a 2,5m spatial resolution covering areas of 30X30km. In this study we compare two different satellite stereo-pair collected along the track for DSM creation. The first one is created from a Cartosat stereopair and the second one from an ALOS PRISM triplet. The area of study is situated in Chalkidiki Peninsula, Greece. Both DEMs were created using the same ground control points collected with a Differential GPS. After a first control for random or systematic errors a statistical analysis was done. Points of certified elevation have been used to estimate the accuracy of these two DSMs. The elevation difference between the different DEMs was calculated. 2D RMSE, correlation and the percentile value were also computed and the results are presented.

  5. A comparison of generic drug prices in seven European countries: a methodological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Olivier J; Kanavos, Panos G

    2017-03-31

    Policymakers and researchers frequently compare the prices of medicines between countries. Such comparisons often serve as barometers of how pricing and reimbursement policies are performing. The aim of this study was to examine methodological challenges to comparing generic drug prices. We calculated all commonly used price indices based on 2013 IMS Health data on sales of 3156 generic drugs in seven European countries. There were large differences in generic drug prices between countries. However, the results varied depending on the choice of index, base country, unit of volume, method of currency conversion, and therapeutic category. The results also differed depending on whether one looked at the prices charged by manufacturers or those charged by pharmacists. Price indices are a useful statistical approach for comparing drug prices across countries, but researchers and policymakers should interpret price indices with caution given their limitations. Price-index results are highly sensitive to the choice of method and sample. More research is needed to determine the drivers of price differences between countries. The data suggest that some governments should aim to reduce distribution costs for generic drugs.

  6. A methodology for string resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karonis, N.T.

    1992-11-01

    In this paper we present a methodology, not a tool. We present this methodology with the intent that it be adopted, on a case by case basis, by each of the existing tools in EPICS. In presenting this methodology, we describe each of its two components in detail and conclude with an example depicting how the methodology can be used across a pair of tools. The task of any control system is to provide access to the various components of the machine being controlled, for example, the Advanced Photon Source (APS). By access, we mean the ability to monitor the machine's status (reading) as well as the ability to explicitly change its status (writing). The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is a set of tools, designed to act in concert, that allows one to construct a control system. EPICS provides the ability to construct a control system that allows reading and writing access to the machine. It does this through the notion of databases. Each of the components of the APS that is accessed by the control system is represented in EPICS by a set of named database records. Once this abstraction is made, from physical device to named database records, the process of monitoring and changing the state of that device becomes the simple process of reading and writing information from and to its associated named records

  7. Stereo pair design for cameras with a fovea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chettri, Samir R.; Keefe, Michael; Zimmerman, John R.

    1992-01-01

    We describe the methodology for the design and selection of a stereo pair when the cameras have a greater concentration of sensing elements in the center of the image plane (fovea). Binocular vision is important for the purpose of depth estimation, which in turn is important in a variety of applications such as gaging and autonomous vehicle guidance. We assume that one camera has square pixels of size dv and the other has pixels of size rdv, where r is between 0 and 1. We then derive results for the average error, the maximum error, and the error distribution in the depth determination of a point. These results can be shown to be a general form of the results for the case when the cameras have equal sized pixels. We discuss the behavior of the depth estimation error as we vary r and the tradeoffs between the extra processing time and increased accuracy. Knowing these results makes it possible to study the case when we have a pair of cameras with a fovea.

  8. Electron-positron pair production and bremsstrahlung at intermediate energies in the field of heavy atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.N.; Milstein, A.I.; Strakhovenko, V.M.; Schwartz, O.Ya.

    2006-01-01

    The Coulomb corrections (CC) to the processes of bremsstrahlung and pair production are investigated. The next-to-leading term in the high-energy asymptotics is found. This term becomes very essential in the region of intermediate energies. The influence of screening for CC is small for differential cross section, spectrum, and the total cross section of pair production. The same is true for the spectrum of bremsstrahlung, but not for the differential cross section, where the influence of screening can be very large. The corresponding screening corrections as well as the modification of the differential cross section of bremsstrahlung are found. A comparison of our results for the total cross section of pair production with the experimental data available is performed. This comparison has justified our analytical results and allowed to elaborate a simple ansatz for the next-to-leading correction. The influence of the electron beam shape on CC for bremsstrahlung is investigated. It turns out that the differential cross section is very sensitive to this shape

  9. An LWR design decision Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leahy, T.J.; Rees, D.C.; Young, J.

    1982-01-01

    While all parties involved in nuclear plant regulation endeavor to make decisions which optimize the considerations of plant safety and financial impacts, these decisions are generally made without the benefit of a systematic and rigorous approach to the questions confronting the decision makers. A Design Decision Methodology has been developed which provides such a systematic approach. By employing this methodology, which makes use of currently accepted probabilistic risk assessment techniques and cost estimation, informed decisions may be made against a background of comparisons between the relative levels of safety and costs associated with various design alternatives

  10. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes II: Foreground-Background Color Combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Andy T; Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando; Velasco, Carlos; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    People associate basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty) with specific colors (e.g., pink or red, green or yellow, black or purple, and white or blue). In the present study, we investigated whether a color bordered by another color (either the same or different) would give rise to stronger taste associations relative to a single patch of color. We replicate previous findings, highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. On occasion, color pairs were found to communicate taste expectations more consistently than were single color patches. Furthermore, and in contrast to a recent study in which the color pairs were shown side-by-side, participants took no longer to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors (they had taken twice as long to respond to the color pairs in the previous study). Possible reasons for these results are discussed, and potential applications for the results, and for the testing methodology developed, are outlined.

  11. Recent progress in ATLAS top pair cross-sections: from precision measurements to rare processes

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    High-precision top quark pair production cross-section measurements in proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV reach a precision of better than 4%, similar to that of recently achieved state-of-art NNLO+NNLL QCD calculations. These benchmark results can be used to extract physical parameters such as the top quark mass or constraints on new physics processes from the comparison between measurement and prediction. Inclusive, differential and fiducial cross section measurements for top pair production are also precision probes of QCD allowing to test latest Monte-Carlo generators. The large Run-1 data sample delivered by the LHC also allows the experiments to explore the production of top pair production in association with bosons.The seminar presents recent ATLAS results on cross-section measurements involving top quark pairs.

  12. Fingerprints of Both Watson-Crick and Hoogsteen Isomers of the Isolated (Cytosine-Guanine)H+ Pair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Ortiz, Andrés F; Rossa, Maximiliano; Berthias, Francis; Berdakin, Matías; Maitre, Philippe; Pino, Gustavo A

    2017-11-16

     Gas phase protonated guanine-cytosine (CGH + ) pair was generated using an electrospray ionization source from solutions at two different pH (5.8 and 3.2). Consistent evidence from MS/MS fragmentation patterns and differential ion mobility spectra (DIMS) point toward the presence of two isomers of the CGH + pair, whose relative populations depend strongly on the pH of the solution. Gas phase infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy in the 900-1900 cm -1 spectral range further confirms that the Watson-Crick isomer is preferentially produced (91%) at pH = 5.8, while the Hoogsteen isomer predominates (66%) at pH = 3.2). These fingerprint signatures are expected to be useful for the development of new analytical methodologies and to trigger isomer selective photochemical studies of protonated DNA base pairs.

  13. Establishing Equivalence: Methodological Progress in Group-Matching Design and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kover, Sara T.; Atwood, Amy K.

    2013-01-01

    This methodological review draws attention to the challenges faced by intellectual and developmental disabilities researchers in the appropriate design and analysis of group comparison studies. We provide a brief overview of matching methodologies in the field, emphasizing group-matching designs used in behavioral research on cognition and…

  14. Mahonian pairs

    OpenAIRE

    Sagan, Bruce E.; Savage, Carla D.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the notion of a Mahonian pair. Consider the set, P^*, of all words having the positive integers as alphabet. Given finite subsets S,T of P^*, we say that (S,T) is a Mahonian pair if the distribution of the major index, maj, over S is the same as the distribution of the inversion number, inv, over T. So the well-known fact that maj and inv are equidistributed over the symmetric group, S_n, can be expressed by saying that (S_n,S_n) is a Mahonian pair. We investigate various Mahonia...

  15. Seismic hazard analysis. A methodology for the Eastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernreuter, D L

    1980-08-01

    This report presents a probabilistic approach for estimating the seismic hazard in the Central and Eastern United States. The probabilistic model (Uniform Hazard Methodology) systematically incorporates the subjective opinion of several experts in the evaluation of seismic hazard. Subjective input, assumptions and associated hazard are kept separate for each expert so as to allow review and preserve diversity of opinion. The report is organized into five sections: Introduction, Methodology Comparison, Subjective Input, Uniform Hazard Methodology (UHM), and Uniform Hazard Spectrum. Section 2 Methodology Comparison, briefly describes the present approach and compares it with other available procedures. The remainder of the report focuses on the UHM. Specifically, Section 3 describes the elicitation of subjective input; Section 4 gives details of various mathematical models (earthquake source geometry, magnitude distribution, attenuation relationship) and how these models re combined to calculate seismic hazard. The lost section, Uniform Hazard Spectrum, highlights the main features of typical results. Specific results and sensitivity analyses are not presented in this report. (author)

  16. Comparison and combination of "direct" and fragment based local correlation methods: Cluster in molecules and domain based local pair natural orbital perturbation and coupled cluster theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yang; Becker, Ute; Neese, Frank

    2018-03-01

    Local correlation theories have been developed in two main flavors: (1) "direct" local correlation methods apply local approximation to the canonical equations and (2) fragment based methods reconstruct the correlation energy from a series of smaller calculations on subsystems. The present work serves two purposes. First, we investigate the relative efficiencies of the two approaches using the domain-based local pair natural orbital (DLPNO) approach as the "direct" method and the cluster in molecule (CIM) approach as the fragment based approach. Both approaches are applied in conjunction with second-order many-body perturbation theory (MP2) as well as coupled-cluster theory with single-, double- and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)]. Second, we have investigated the possible merits of combining the two approaches by performing CIM calculations with DLPNO methods serving as the method of choice for performing the subsystem calculations. Our cluster-in-molecule approach is closely related to but slightly deviates from approaches in the literature since we have avoided real space cutoffs. Moreover, the neglected distant pair correlations in the previous CIM approach are considered approximately. Six very large molecules (503-2380 atoms) were studied. At both MP2 and CCSD(T) levels of theory, the CIM and DLPNO methods show similar efficiency. However, DLPNO methods are more accurate for 3-dimensional systems. While we have found only little incentive for the combination of CIM with DLPNO-MP2, the situation is different for CIM-DLPNO-CCSD(T). This combination is attractive because (1) the better parallelization opportunities offered by CIM; (2) the methodology is less memory intensive than the genuine DLPNO-CCSD(T) method and, hence, allows for large calculations on more modest hardware; and (3) the methodology is applicable and efficient in the frequently met cases, where the largest subsystem calculation is too large for the canonical CCSD(T) method.

  17. Pairing Behavior of the Monogamous King Quail, Coturnix chinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Adkins-Regan

    Full Text Available Animals with socially monogamous mating systems are valuable for discovering proximate mechanisms of prosocial behavior and close social relationships. Especially powerful are comparisons between related species that differ in monogamous tendency. Birds are the most socially monogamous vertebrates. Thus far most research on mechanisms of pairing has used zebra finches, which do not have a relative with a different mating system, however. The goal of the experiments reported here was to develop a new comparative avian system by studying the pairing behavior of a reportedly strongly monogamous quail, the king quail (Coturnix chinensis, a species in the same clade as the less monogamous Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica, the subject of much prior research. In Experiment 1 male-female pairs of king quail housed together were initially avoidant or aggressive but most rapidly progressed to allopreening and huddling. A separation-reunion paradigm reliably elicited both of these behaviors in males that had cohabited for one week. In Experiment 2 the allopreening and huddling behavior of males in cohabiting pairs was highly selective, and a majority of the males were aggressive toward a familiar female that was not the cohabitation partner. In Experiment 3 males were separated from their female cohabitation partners for 9-10 weeks and then given two-choice tests. All but one male spent more time near an unfamiliar female, which may have reflected aggression and shows recognition of and memory for the past pairing experience. Thus king quail show robust, selective and easy to measure pairing behavior that can be reliably elicited with simple separation-reunion testing procedures. Copulation is rarely seen during tests. The behavior of king quail is a striking contrast to that of Japanese quail, providing a new comparative system for discovering mechanisms of behavior related to close social relationships and monogamy.

  18. Pairing Behavior of the Monogamous King Quail, Coturnix chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Animals with socially monogamous mating systems are valuable for discovering proximate mechanisms of prosocial behavior and close social relationships. Especially powerful are comparisons between related species that differ in monogamous tendency. Birds are the most socially monogamous vertebrates. Thus far most research on mechanisms of pairing has used zebra finches, which do not have a relative with a different mating system, however. The goal of the experiments reported here was to develop a new comparative avian system by studying the pairing behavior of a reportedly strongly monogamous quail, the king quail (Coturnix chinensis), a species in the same clade as the less monogamous Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), the subject of much prior research. In Experiment 1 male-female pairs of king quail housed together were initially avoidant or aggressive but most rapidly progressed to allopreening and huddling. A separation-reunion paradigm reliably elicited both of these behaviors in males that had cohabited for one week. In Experiment 2 the allopreening and huddling behavior of males in cohabiting pairs was highly selective, and a majority of the males were aggressive toward a familiar female that was not the cohabitation partner. In Experiment 3 males were separated from their female cohabitation partners for 9-10 weeks and then given two-choice tests. All but one male spent more time near an unfamiliar female, which may have reflected aggression and shows recognition of and memory for the past pairing experience. Thus king quail show robust, selective and easy to measure pairing behavior that can be reliably elicited with simple separation-reunion testing procedures. Copulation is rarely seen during tests. The behavior of king quail is a striking contrast to that of Japanese quail, providing a new comparative system for discovering mechanisms of behavior related to close social relationships and monogamy.

  19. A sensitive short read homology search tool for paired-end read sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techa-Angkoon, Prapaporn; Sun, Yanni; Lei, Jikai

    2017-10-16

    Homology search is still a significant step in functional analysis for genomic data. Profile Hidden Markov Model-based homology search has been widely used in protein domain analysis in many different species. In particular, with the fast accumulation of transcriptomic data of non-model species and metagenomic data, profile homology search is widely adopted in integrated pipelines for functional analysis. While the state-of-the-art tool HMMER has achieved high sensitivity and accuracy in domain annotation, the sensitivity of HMMER on short reads declines rapidly. The low sensitivity on short read homology search can lead to inaccurate domain composition and abundance computation. Our experimental results showed that half of the reads were missed by HMMER for a RNA-Seq dataset. Thus, there is a need for better methods to improve the homology search performance for short reads. We introduce a profile homology search tool named Short-Pair that is designed for short paired-end reads. By using an approximate Bayesian approach employing distribution of fragment lengths and alignment scores, Short-Pair can retrieve the missing end and determine true domains. In particular, Short-Pair increases the accuracy in aligning short reads that are part of remote homologs. We applied Short-Pair to a RNA-Seq dataset and a metagenomic dataset and quantified its sensitivity and accuracy on homology search. The experimental results show that Short-Pair can achieve better overall performance than the state-of-the-art methodology of profile homology search. Short-Pair is best used for next-generation sequencing (NGS) data that lack reference genomes. It provides a complementary paired-end read homology search tool to HMMER. The source code is freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/short-pair/ .

  20. Separation of amaranthine-type betacyanins by ion-pair high-speed countercurrent chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerz, Gerold; Gebers, Nadine; Szot, Dominika; Szaleniec, Maciej; Winterhalter, Peter; Wybraniec, Slawomir

    2014-05-30

    Betacyanins, red-violet plant pigments, were fractionated by ion-pair high-speed countercurrent chromatography (IP-HSCCC) from leaves extract of Iresine lindenii Van Houtte, an ornamental plant of the family Amaranthaceae. An HSCCC solvent system consisting of TBME-1-BuOH-ACN-H2O (1:3:1:5, v/v/v/v) was applied using ion-pair forming heptafluorobutyric acid (HFBA). Significantly different elution profiles of betacyanin diastereomeric pairs (derivatives based on betanidin and isobetanidin) observed in the HSCCC in comparison to HPLC systems indicate a complementarity of both techniques' fractionation capabilities. The numerous diastereomeric pairs can be selectively separated from each other using the HSCCC system simplifying the pigment purification process. Apart from the three well known highly abundant pigments (amaranthine, betanin and iresinin I) together with their isoforms, three new acylated (feruloylated and sinapoylated) betacyanins as well as known pigment hylocerenin (previously isolated from cacti fruits) were characterized in the plant for the first time and they are new for the whole Amaranthaceae family. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. How do colonial Eurasian Griffon Vultures prevent extra-pair mating?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Bertran

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In colonial breeding species, preventive measures to reduce the risks of extra-pair copulations (EPCs should reflect the actual risk perceived by males (e.g., proximity of neighbors, intrusions into the nest mainly during the fertile period. In colonial vultures, specific studies examining the preventive measures that minimize the risks of EPCs occurring within the competitive context of colonial breeding have not been conducted. Here we tested at Eurasian Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus nesting sites the intensity of paternity assurance behavior, shown as frequency and duration of within-pair copulations (WPCs, potential mate vigilance or nest attendance, and levels of aggressivity. This was measured according to the frequency of territorial intrusions and comparison of the fertile vs. the non-fertile period. Our findings suggest that the frequency of WPCs and their duration increased significantly during the presumed fertile period, regarded as the period when Griffon pairs spent significantly more time together at their nests. In addition, low levels of territorial intrusions were observed, an aggressive response of pairs towards intruders, and a relatively high presence of pairs at the nests during the fertile period. Thus, although nesting sites are subject to low exposure to EPC attempts, the increased frequency and duration of copulations during the fertile period suggests that, under pressure from the colonial breeding system, a higher rate of copulations is the most effective preventive mechanism against relative uncertainty of paternity.

  2. Pair correlations in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Yoshifumi

    2009-01-01

    Except for the closed shell nuclei, almost all nuclei are in the superconducting state at their ground states. This well-known pair correlation in nuclei causes various interesting phenomena. It is especially to be noted that the pair correlation becomes weak in the excited states of nuclei with high angular momentum, which leads to the pair phase transition to the normal state in the high spin limit. On the other hand, the pair correlation becomes stronger in the nuclei with lower nucleon density than in those with normal density. In the region of neutron halo or skin state of unstable nuclei, this phenomenon is expected to be further enhanced to be observed compared to the ground state of stable nuclei. An overview of those interesting aspects caused via the pair correlation is presented here in the sections titled 'pair correlations in ground states', pair correlations in high spin states' and 'pair correlations in unstable nuclei' focusing on the high spin state. (S. Funahashi)

  3. Variation in social systems within Chaetodon butterflyfishes, with special reference to pair bonding

    KAUST Repository

    Nowicki, Jessica P.

    2018-04-11

    For many animals, affiliative relationships such as pair bonds form the foundation of society and are highly adaptive. Animal systems amenable for comparatively studying pair bonding are important for identifying underlying biological mechanisms, but mostly exist in mammals. Better establishing fish systems will enable comparison of pair bonding mechanisms across taxonomically distant lineages that may reveal general underlying mechanistic principles. We examined the utility of wild butterflyfishes (f: Chaetodontidae; g: Chaetodon) for comparatively studying pair bonding. Using stochastic character mapping, we provide the first analysis of the evolutionary history of butterflyfish sociality, revealing that pairing is ancestral, with at least seven independent transitions to gregarious grouping and solitary behavior since the late Miocene. We then formally verified social systems in six sympatric and widespread species representing a clade with one ancestrally reconstructed transition from paired to solitary grouping at Lizard Island, Australia. In situ observations of the size, selective affiliation and aggression, fidelity, and sex composition of social groups confirmed that Chaetodon baronessa, C. lunulatus, and C. vagabundus are predominantly pair bonding, whereas C. rainfordi, C. plebeius, and C. trifascialis are predominantly solitary. Even in the predominantly pair bonding species, C. lunulatus, a proportion of adults (15%) are solitary. Importantly, inter- and intra-specific differences in social systems do not co-vary with other previously established attributes, including parental care. Hence, the proposed butterflyfish populations are promising for inter- and intra-species comparative analyses of pair bonding and its mechanistic underpinnings. Avenues for further developing the system are proposed, including determining whether the aforementioned utility of these species applies across their geographic disruptions.

  4. Experimental many-pairs nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Hou Shun; Cerè, Alessandro; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Cai, Yu; Sangouard, Nicolas; Scarani, Valerio; Kurtsiefer, Christian

    2017-08-01

    Collective measurements on large quantum systems together with a majority voting strategy can lead to a violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality. In the presence of many entangled pairs, this violation decreases quickly with the number of pairs and vanishes for some critical pair number that is a function of the noise present in the system. Here we show that a different binning strategy can lead to a more substantial Bell violation when the noise is sufficiently small. Given the relation between the critical pair number and the source noise, we then present an experiment where the critical pair number is used to quantify the quality of a high visibility photon pair source. Our results demonstrate nonlocal correlations using collective measurements operating on clusters of more than 40 photon pairs.

  5. Using Pair Wise Rankings in the Assessment of Adaptive Aiding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-22

    Christina Gruenwald 2 Matthew Middendorf 3 Chelsey Credlebaugh 4 Jonathan Mead 5 Scott Galster 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER H0DC...operator’s cognitive state. When a model detects the onset of cognitive overload, assistance could then be provided to the operator to help mitigate...in future research. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Man Machine State, Pair-wise Comparisons, Augmentation Evaluation, Task Analysis, Automation , Mental

  6. Au pair trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2015-01-01

    pair-sending families in the Philippines, this dissertation examines the long-term trajectories of these young Filipinas. It shows how the au pairs’ local and transnational family relations develop over time and greatly influence their life trajectories. A focal point of the study is how au pairs...... that Filipina au pairs see their stay abroad as an avenue of personal development and social recognition, I examine how the au pairs re-position themselves within their families at home through migration, and how they navigate between the often conflicting expectations of participation in the sociality......Since 2000, thousands of young Filipino migrants have come to Denmark as au pairs. Officially, they are there to “broaden their cultural horizons” by living temporarily with a Danish host family, but they also conduct domestic labor in exchange for food and money, which allows them to send...

  7. Assessing soundscape: Comparison between in situ and laboratory methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermida Cadena Luis Fernando

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of soundscape implies an interdisciplinary approach, where objective and subjective aspects are considered. For the subjective evaluation, in situ and laboratory methodologies are usually followed. Local observations allow the collection of information on the influence of different stimuli present in the environment, whereas laboratory tests present a determined quantity of controlled stimuli to the evaluator. The purpose of this work is to compare results from the different methodologies in order to understand their strengths and their weaknesses. Three urban parks in the city of Lisbon, Portugal, were evaluated. Fragments of binaural sound recordings collected in the parks were used in laboratory tests to compare with the responses in situ and of expert and nonexpert listeners. Statistically significant differences were found in several of the perceptual attributes under observation, which led to variation in the results of the main model’s components. The sound environments were found to be more pleasant and uneventful in situ than in the laboratory, a phenomenon possibly due to the influence of other stimuli such as visual in the process of assessment. The in situ tests allow a systemic and holistic evaluation of the environment under study,whereas the laboratory tests allow a specific and tightly targeted analysis of different component sound events. Therefore, the two methodologies can be useful in soundscape assessment depending on the specific application and needs. No differences were found in the assessment made by either experts or nonexperts.

  8. Vertical Footbridge Vibrations: The Response Spectrum Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgakis, Christos; Ingólfsson, Einar Thór

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a novel, accurate and readily codifiable methodology for the prediction of vertical footbridge response is presented. The methodology is based on the well-established response spectrum approach used in the majority of the world’s current seismic design codes of practice. The concept...... of a universally applicable reference response spectrum is introduced, from which the pedestrian-induced vertical response of any footbridge may be determined, based on a defined “event” and the probability of occurrence of that event. A series of Monte Carlo simulations are undertaken for the development...... period is introduced and its implication on the calculation of footbridge response is discussed. Finally, a brief comparison is made between the theoretically predicted pedestrian-induced vertical response of an 80m long RC footbridge (as an example) and actual field measurements. The comparison shows...

  9. Multiscale synchrony behaviors of paired financial time series by 3D multi-continuum percolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.; Wang, J.; Wang, B. T.

    2018-02-01

    Multiscale synchrony behaviors and nonlinear dynamics of paired financial time series are investigated, in an attempt to study the cross correlation relationships between two stock markets. A random stock price model is developed by a new system called three-dimensional (3D) multi-continuum percolation system, which is utilized to imitate the formation mechanism of price dynamics and explain the nonlinear behaviors found in financial time series. We assume that the price fluctuations are caused by the spread of investment information. The cluster of 3D multi-continuum percolation represents the cluster of investors who share the same investment attitude. In this paper, we focus on the paired return series, the paired volatility series, and the paired intrinsic mode functions which are decomposed by empirical mode decomposition. A new cross recurrence quantification analysis is put forward, combining with multiscale cross-sample entropy, to investigate the multiscale synchrony of these paired series from the proposed model. The corresponding research is also carried out for two China stock markets as comparison.

  10. Dislocation processes in quasicrystals-Kink-pair formation control or jog-pair formation control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Shin

    2005-01-01

    A computer simulation of dislocation in a model quasiperiodic lattice indicates that the dislocation feels a large Peierls potential when oriented in particular directions. For a dislocation with a high Peierls potential, the glide velocity and the climb velocity of the dislocation can be described almost in parallel in terms of the kink-pair formation followed by kink motion and the jog-pair formation followed by jog motion, respectively. The activation enthalpy of the kink-pair formation is the sum of the kink-pair formation enthalpy and the atomic jump activation enthalpy, while the activation enthalpy of the jog-pair formation involves the jog-pair enthalpy and the self-diffusion enthalpy. Since the kink-pair energy can be considerably larger than the jog-pair energy, the climb velocity can be faster than the glide velocity, so that the plastic deformation of quasicrystals can be brought not by dislocation glide but by dislocation climb at high temperatures

  11. Current State of Agile Methodologies Worldwide and in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Tománek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research paper is to compare the current state of agile methodologies in the world and in the Czech Republic. The comparison is executed as the comparative analysis of two publicly available researches conducted in 2013 and published in 2014. The comparison is further enriched by the results of the unpublished survey in the global logistics company which was conducted also in 2013. The potential trend for agile methodologies in the Czech Republic is also discussed with regard to the worldwide trend.

  12. Decision-making methodology for management of hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philbin, J.S.; Cranwell, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    A decision-making methodology is presented that combines systems and risk analysis techniques to evaluate hazardous waste management practices associated with DOE weapon production operations. The methodology provides a systematic approach to examining waste generation and waste handling practices in addition to the more visible disposal practices. Release-exposure scenarios for hazardous waste operations are identified and operational risk is determined. Comparisons may be made between existing and alternative waste management practices (and processes) on the basis of overall risk, cost and compliance with regulations. Managers can use this methodology to make and defend resource allocation decisions and to prioritize research needs

  13. Chest compression quality management and return of spontaneous circulation: a matched-pair registry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Roman-Patrik; Gräsner, Jan Thorsten; Seewald, Stephan; Lefering, Rolf; Weber, Thomas Peter; Van Aken, Hugo; Fischer, Matthias; Bohn, Andreas

    2012-10-01

    Investigating the effects of any intervention during cardiac arrest remains difficult. The ROSC after cardiac arrest score was introduced to facilitate comparison of rates of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) between different ambulance services. To study the influence of chest compression quality management (including training, real-time feedback devices, and debriefing) in comparison with conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), a matched-pair analysis was conducted using data from the German Resuscitation Registry, with the calculated ROSC after cardiac arrest score as the baseline. Matching for independent ROSC after cardiac arrest score variables yielded 319 matched cases from the study period (January 2007-March 2011). The score predicted a 45% ROSC rate for the matched pairs. The observed ROSC increased significantly with chest compression quality management, to 52% (P=0.013; 95% CI, 46-57%). No significant differences were seen in the conventional CPR group (47%; 95% CI, 42-53%). The difference between the observed ROSC rates was not statistically significant. Chest compression quality management leads to significantly higher ROSC rates than those predicted by the prognostic score (ROSC after cardiac arrest score). Matched-pair analysis shows that with conventional CPR, the observed ROSC rate was not significantly different from the predicted rate. Analysis shows a trend toward a higher ROSC rate for chest compression quality management in comparison with conventional CPR. It is unclear whether a single aspect of chest compression quality management or the combination of training, real-time feedback, and debriefing contributed to this result. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Numerical simulation methodologies for design and development of Diffuser-Augmented Wind Turbines – analysis and comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Lipian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Different numerical computation methods used to develop a methodology for fast, efficient, reliable design and comparison of Diffuser-Augmented Wind Turbine (DAWT geometries are presented. The demand for such methods is evident, following the multitude of geometrical parameters that influence the flow character through ducted turbines. The results of the Actuator Disk Model (ADM simulations will be confronted with a simulation method of higher order of accuracy, i.e. the 3D Fully-resolved Rotor Model (FRM in the rotor design point. Both will be checked for consistency with the experimental results measured in the wind tunnel at the Institute of Turbo-machinery (IMP, Lodz University of Technology (TUL. An attempt to find an efficient method (with a compromise between accuracy and design time for the flow analysis pertinent to the DAWT is a novel approach presented in this paper.

  15. Regional pressure and temperature variations across the injured human brain: comparisons between paired intraparenchymal and ventricular measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Charmaine; Shen, Liang

    2015-06-23

    Intraparenchymal, multimodality sensors are commonly used in the management of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). The 'gold standard', based on accuracy, reliability and cost for intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring is within the cerebral ventricle (external strain gauge). There are no standards yet for intracerebral temperature monitoring and little is known of temperature differences between brain tissue and ventricle. The aim of the study therefore was to determine pressure and temperature differences at intraparenchymal and ventricular sites during five days of continuous neuromonitoring. Patients with severe TBI requiring emergency surgery. patients who required ICP monitoring were eligible for recruitment. Two intracerebral probe types were used: a) intraventricular, dual parameter sensor (measuring pressure, temperature) with inbuilt catheter for CSF drainage: b) multiparameter intraparenchymal sensor measuring pressure, temperature and oxygen partial pressure. All sensors were inserted during surgery and under aseptic conditions. Seventeen patients, 12 undergoing neurosurgery (decompressive craniectomy n = 8, craniotomy n = 4) aged 21-78 years were studied. Agreement of measures for 9540 brain tissue-ventricular temperature 'pairs' and 10,291 brain tissue-ventricular pressure 'pairs' were determined using mixed model to compare mean temperature and pressure for longitudinal data. There was no significant overall difference for mean temperature (p = 0.92) or mean pressure readings (p = 0.379) between tissue and ventricular sites. With 95.8 % of paired temperature readings within 2SD (-0.4 to 0.4 °C) differences in temperature between brain tissue and ventricle were clinically insignificant. For pressure, 93.5 % of readings pairs fell within the 2SD range (-9.4756 to 7.8112 mmHg). However, for individual patients, agreement for mean tissue-ventricular pressure differences was poor on occasions. There is good overall agreement between paired

  16. Clock synchronization by remote detection of correlated photon pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Caleb; Lamas-Linares, AntIa; Kurtsiefer, Christian [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 (Singapore)], E-mail: christian.kurtsiefer@gmail.com

    2009-04-15

    In this study, we present an algorithm to detect the time and frequency differences of independent clocks based on observation of time-correlated photon pairs. This enables remote coincidence identification in entanglement-based quantum key distribution schemes without dedicated coincidence hardware, pulsed sources with a timing structure or very stable reference clocks. We discuss the method for typical operating conditions and show that the requirement for reference clock accuracy can be relaxed by about five orders of magnitude in comparison with previous schemes.

  17. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes II: Foreground–Background Color Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando; Velasco, Carlos; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    People associate basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty) with specific colors (e.g., pink or red, green or yellow, black or purple, and white or blue). In the present study, we investigated whether a color bordered by another color (either the same or different) would give rise to stronger taste associations relative to a single patch of color. We replicate previous findings, highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. On occasion, color pairs were found to communicate taste expectations more consistently than were single color patches. Furthermore, and in contrast to a recent study in which the color pairs were shown side-by-side, participants took no longer to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors (they had taken twice as long to respond to the color pairs in the previous study). Possible reasons for these results are discussed, and potential applications for the results, and for the testing methodology developed, are outlined. PMID:27708752

  18. AudioPairBank: Towards A Large-Scale Tag-Pair-Based Audio Content Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sager, Sebastian; Elizalde, Benjamin; Borth, Damian; Schulze, Christian; Raj, Bhiksha; Lane, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Recently, sound recognition has been used to identify sounds, such as car and river. However, sounds have nuances that may be better described by adjective-noun pairs such as slow car, and verb-noun pairs such as flying insects, which are under explored. Therefore, in this work we investigate the relation between audio content and both adjective-noun pairs and verb-noun pairs. Due to the lack of datasets with these kinds of annotations, we collected and processed the AudioPairBank corpus cons...

  19. The paired-domination and the upper paired-domination numbers of graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodzimierz Ulatowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we continue the study of paired-domination in graphs. A paired-dominating set, abbreviated PDS, of a graph \\(G\\ with no isolated vertex is a dominating set of vertices whose induced subgraph has a perfect matching. The paired-domination number of \\(G\\, denoted by \\(\\gamma_{p}(G\\, is the minimum cardinality of a PDS of \\(G\\. The upper paired-domination number of \\(G\\, denoted by \\(\\Gamma_{p}(G\\, is the maximum cardinality of a minimal PDS of \\(G\\. Let \\(G\\ be a connected graph of order \\(n\\geq 3\\. Haynes and Slater in [Paired-domination in graphs, Networks 32 (1998, 199-206], showed that \\(\\gamma_{p}(G\\leq n-1\\ and they determine the extremal graphs \\(G\\ achieving this bound. In this paper we obtain analogous results for \\(\\Gamma_{p}(G\\. Dorbec, Henning and McCoy in [Upper total domination versus upper paired-domination, Questiones Mathematicae 30 (2007, 1-12] determine \\(\\Gamma_{p}(P_n\\, instead in this paper we determine \\(\\Gamma_{p}(C_n\\. Moreover, we describe some families of graphs \\(G\\ for which the equality \\(\\gamma_{p}(G=\\Gamma_{p}(G\\ holds.

  20. Do individual females differ intrinsically in their propensity to engage in extra-pair copulations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Forstmeier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While many studies have investigated the occurrence of extra-pair paternity in wild populations of birds, we still know surprisingly little about whether individual females differ intrinsically in their principal readiness to copulate, and to what extent this readiness is affected by male attractiveness. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: To address this question I used captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata as a model system. I first measured female readiness to copulate when courted by a male for the first time in life. Second, I conducted choice-chamber experiments to assess the mating preferences of individual females prior to pair formation. I then paired females socially with a non-desired mate and once they had formed a stable pair bond, I observed the inclination of these females to engage in extra-pair copulations with various males. Females showing a high readiness to copulate when courted by a male for the first time in life were much more likely to engage in extra-pair copulations later in life than others. Male attractiveness, as measured in choice tests, was a useful predictor of whether females engaged in extra-pair copulations with these males, but, surprisingly, the attractiveness of a female's social partner had no effect on her fidelity. However, it remained unclear what made some males more attractive than others. Contrary to a widespread but rarely tested hypothesis, females did not preferentially copulate with males having a redder beak or singing at a higher rate. Rather it seemed that song rate was a confounding factor in choice-chamber experiments: song attracted the female's attention but did not increase the male's attractiveness as a copulation partner. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Intrinsic variation in female readiness to copulate as well as variation in the attractiveness of the extra-pair male but not the social partner decided the outcome of extra-pair encounters.

  1. Comparison between two methodologies for uniformity correction of extensive reference sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junior, Iremar Alves S.; Siqueira, Paulo de T.D.; Vivolo, Vitor; Potiens, Maria da Penha A.; Nascimento, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the procedures to obtain the uniformity correction factors for extensive reference sources proposed by two different methodologies. The first methodology is presented by the Good Practice Guide of Nº 14 of the NPL, which provides a numerical correction. The second one uses the radiation transport code, MCNP5, to obtain the correction factor. Both methods retrieve very similar corrections factor values, with a maximum deviation of 0.24%. (author)

  2. Base pair probability estimates improve the prediction accuracy of RNA non-canonical base pairs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F Sloma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of RNA tertiary structure from sequence is an important problem, but generating accurate structure models for even short sequences remains difficult. Predictions of RNA tertiary structure tend to be least accurate in loop regions, where non-canonical pairs are important for determining the details of structure. Non-canonical pairs can be predicted using a knowledge-based model of structure that scores nucleotide cyclic motifs, or NCMs. In this work, a partition function algorithm is introduced that allows the estimation of base pairing probabilities for both canonical and non-canonical interactions. Pairs that are predicted to be probable are more likely to be found in the true structure than pairs of lower probability. Pair probability estimates can be further improved by predicting the structure conserved across multiple homologous sequences using the TurboFold algorithm. These pairing probabilities, used in concert with prior knowledge of the canonical secondary structure, allow accurate inference of non-canonical pairs, an important step towards accurate prediction of the full tertiary structure. Software to predict non-canonical base pairs and pairing probabilities is now provided as part of the RNAstructure software package.

  3. Base pair probability estimates improve the prediction accuracy of RNA non-canonical base pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloma, Michael F; Mathews, David H

    2017-11-01

    Prediction of RNA tertiary structure from sequence is an important problem, but generating accurate structure models for even short sequences remains difficult. Predictions of RNA tertiary structure tend to be least accurate in loop regions, where non-canonical pairs are important for determining the details of structure. Non-canonical pairs can be predicted using a knowledge-based model of structure that scores nucleotide cyclic motifs, or NCMs. In this work, a partition function algorithm is introduced that allows the estimation of base pairing probabilities for both canonical and non-canonical interactions. Pairs that are predicted to be probable are more likely to be found in the true structure than pairs of lower probability. Pair probability estimates can be further improved by predicting the structure conserved across multiple homologous sequences using the TurboFold algorithm. These pairing probabilities, used in concert with prior knowledge of the canonical secondary structure, allow accurate inference of non-canonical pairs, an important step towards accurate prediction of the full tertiary structure. Software to predict non-canonical base pairs and pairing probabilities is now provided as part of the RNAstructure software package.

  4. Homeostasis of Complementary Pair Theory: Ecological Comparisons in Diverse Universal Design for Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianneo, Brittany

    2014-01-01

    Accommodation~assimilation relations were theorized by Kelso and Engstrom (2006) as independent and dependent complementary pairs. This study defined relationships between organisms that experienced complementary interactions of accommodation~assimilation in diverse ecologies designed with universal design for learning environments (UDLE) compared…

  5. Pair- ${v}$ -SVR: A Novel and Efficient Pairing nu-Support Vector Regression Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Pei-Yi

    This paper proposes a novel and efficient pairing nu-support vector regression (pair--SVR) algorithm that combines successfully the superior advantages of twin support vector regression (TSVR) and classical -SVR algorithms. In spirit of TSVR, the proposed pair--SVR solves two quadratic programming problems (QPPs) of smaller size rather than a single larger QPP, and thus has faster learning speed than classical -SVR. The significant advantage of our pair--SVR over TSVR is the improvement in the prediction speed and generalization ability by introducing the concepts of the insensitive zone and the regularization term that embodies the essence of statistical learning theory. Moreover, pair--SVR has additional advantage of using parameter for controlling the bounds on fractions of SVs and errors. Furthermore, the upper bound and lower bound functions of the regression model estimated by pair--SVR capture well the characteristics of data distributions, thus facilitating automatic estimation of the conditional mean and predictive variance simultaneously. This may be useful in many cases, especially when the noise is heteroscedastic and depends strongly on the input values. The experimental results validate the superiority of our pair--SVR in both training/prediction speed and generalization ability.This paper proposes a novel and efficient pairing nu-support vector regression (pair--SVR) algorithm that combines successfully the superior advantages of twin support vector regression (TSVR) and classical -SVR algorithms. In spirit of TSVR, the proposed pair--SVR solves two quadratic programming problems (QPPs) of smaller size rather than a single larger QPP, and thus has faster learning speed than classical -SVR. The significant advantage of our pair--SVR over TSVR is the improvement in the prediction speed and generalization ability by introducing the concepts of the insensitive zone and the regularization term that embodies the essence of statistical learning theory

  6. Report on Pairing-based Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Dustin; Peralta, Rene; Perlner, Ray; Regenscheid, Andrew; Roginsky, Allen; Chen, Lily

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes study results on pairing-based cryptography. The main purpose of the study is to form NIST's position on standardizing and recommending pairing-based cryptography schemes currently published in research literature and standardized in other standard bodies. The report reviews the mathematical background of pairings. This includes topics such as pairing-friendly elliptic curves and how to compute various pairings. It includes a brief introduction to existing identity-based encryption (IBE) schemes and other cryptographic schemes using pairing technology. The report provides a complete study of the current status of standard activities on pairing-based cryptographic schemes. It explores different application scenarios for pairing-based cryptography schemes. As an important aspect of adopting pairing-based schemes, the report also considers the challenges inherent in validation testing of cryptographic algorithms and modules. Based on the study, the report suggests an approach for including pairing-based cryptography schemes in the NIST cryptographic toolkit. The report also outlines several questions that will require further study if this approach is followed.

  7. Using proliferation assessment methodologies for Safeguards-by-Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Meer, K.; Rossa, R.; Turcanu, C.; Borella, A.

    2013-01-01

    MYRRHA, an accelerator driven system (ADS) is designed as a proton accelerator coupled to a liquid Pb-Bi spallation target, surrounded by a Pb-Bi cooled sub-critical neutron multiplying medium in a pool type configuration. An assessment based on three methodologies was made of the proliferation risks of the MYRRHA ADS in comparison with the BR2 MTR, an existing research reactor at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN. The used methodologies were the TOPS (Technical Opportunities to Increase the Proliferation Resistance of Nuclear Power Systems), the PR-PP and the INPRO methodologies. The various features of the methodologies are described and the results of the assessments are given and discussed. It is concluded that it would be useful to define one single methodology with two options to perform a quick and a more detailed assessment. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation

  8. A comparison of results of empirical studies of supplementary search techniques and recommendations in review methodology handbooks: a methodological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Chris; Booth, Andrew; Britten, Nicky; Garside, Ruth

    2017-11-28

    The purpose and contribution of supplementary search methods in systematic reviews is increasingly acknowledged. Numerous studies have demonstrated their potential in identifying studies or study data that would have been missed by bibliographic database searching alone. What is less certain is how supplementary search methods actually work, how they are applied, and the consequent advantages, disadvantages and resource implications of each search method. The aim of this study is to compare current practice in using supplementary search methods with methodological guidance. Four methodological handbooks in informing systematic review practice in the UK were read and audited to establish current methodological guidance. Studies evaluating the use of supplementary search methods were identified by searching five bibliographic databases. Studies were included if they (1) reported practical application of a supplementary search method (descriptive) or (2) examined the utility of a supplementary search method (analytical) or (3) identified/explored factors that impact on the utility of a supplementary method, when applied in practice. Thirty-five studies were included in this review in addition to the four methodological handbooks. Studies were published between 1989 and 2016, and dates of publication of the handbooks ranged from 1994 to 2014. Five supplementary search methods were reviewed: contacting study authors, citation chasing, handsearching, searching trial registers and web searching. There is reasonable consistency between recommended best practice (handbooks) and current practice (methodological studies) as it relates to the application of supplementary search methods. The methodological studies provide useful information on the effectiveness of the supplementary search methods, often seeking to evaluate aspects of the method to improve effectiveness or efficiency. In this way, the studies advance the understanding of the supplementary search methods. Further

  9. Possibilities of paired comparison of receptor binding parameters obtained in a single experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashilova, K.V.; Kiriakov, G.V.; Malin, K.M.; Rozhanets, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    The authors explore the use of comparing control and experimental groups on the basis of extrapolation parameters obtained from a single pair of experiments. One of the experiments study the parameters of specific binding of 3 H-D-ala-2-enkephelin-5-D-leucine in the striatum of different groups of rats. The analysis was done by the Cornish-Bowden method

  10. An approach to SOA development methodology: SOUP comparison with RUP and XP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Svanidzaitė

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Service oriented architecture (SOA is an architecture for distributed applications composed of distributed services with weak coupling that are designed to meet business requirements. One of the research priorities in the field of SOA is creating such software design and development methodology (SDDM that takes into account all principles of this architecture and allows for effective and efficient application development. A lot of investigation has been carried out to find out whether can one of popular SDDM, such as agile methodologies or RUP suits, be adapted for SOA or there is a need to create some new SOA-oriented SDDM. This paper compares one of SOA-oriented SDDM – SOUP – with RUP and XP methodologies. The aim is to find out whether the SOUP methodology is already mature enough to assure successful development of SOA applications. This aim is accomplished by comparing activities, artifacts of SOUP and RUP and emphasizing which XP practices are used in SOUP.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15181/csat.v2i1.77 

  11. Metal-mediated DNA base pairing: alternatives to hydrogen-bonded Watson-Crick base pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takezawa, Yusuke; Shionoya, Mitsuhiko

    2012-12-18

    With its capacity to store and transfer the genetic information within a sequence of monomers, DNA forms its central role in chemical evolution through replication and amplification. This elegant behavior is largely based on highly specific molecular recognition between nucleobases through the specific hydrogen bonds in the Watson-Crick base pairing system. While the native base pairs have been amazingly sophisticated through the long history of evolution, synthetic chemists have devoted considerable efforts to create alternative base pairing systems in recent decades. Most of these new systems were designed based on the shape complementarity of the pairs or the rearrangement of hydrogen-bonding patterns. We wondered whether metal coordination could serve as an alternative driving force for DNA base pairing and why hydrogen bonding was selected on Earth in the course of molecular evolution. Therefore, we envisioned an alternative design strategy: we replaced hydrogen bonding with another important scheme in biological systems, metal-coordination bonding. In this Account, we provide an overview of the chemistry of metal-mediated base pairing including basic concepts, molecular design, characteristic structures and properties, and possible applications of DNA-based molecular systems. We describe several examples of artificial metal-mediated base pairs, such as Cu(2+)-mediated hydroxypyridone base pair, H-Cu(2+)-H (where H denotes a hydroxypyridone-bearing nucleoside), developed by us and other researchers. To design the metallo-base pairs we carefully chose appropriate combinations of ligand-bearing nucleosides and metal ions. As expected from their stronger bonding through metal coordination, DNA duplexes possessing metallo-base pairs exhibited higher thermal stability than natural hydrogen-bonded DNAs. Furthermore, we could also use metal-mediated base pairs to construct or induce other high-order structures. These features could lead to metal-responsive functional

  12. Cooper Pairs in Insulators?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valles, James

    2008-01-01

    Nearly 50 years elapsed between the discovery of superconductivity and the emergence of the microscopic theory describing this zero resistance state. The explanation required a novel phase of matter in which conduction electrons joined in weakly bound pairs and condensed with other pairs into a single quantum state. Surprisingly, this Cooper pair formation has also been invoked to account for recently uncovered high-resistance or insulating phases of matter. To address this possibility, we have used nanotechnology to create an insulating system that we can probe directly for Cooper pairs. I will present the evidence that Cooper pairs exist and dominate the electrical transport in these insulators and I will discuss how these findings provide new insight into superconductor to insulator quantum phase transitions.

  13. A new purely growing instability in a strongly magnetized nonuniform pair plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Nitin; Shukla, P.K.

    2007-01-01

    It is shown that a strongly magnetized nonuniform electron-positron (hereafter referred to as e-p or pair) plasma is unstable against low-frequency (in comparison with the electron gyrofrequency) electrostatic oscillations. For this purpose, a dispersion relation is derived by using the Poisson equation as well as the electron and positron continuity equations with the guiding center drifts for the electron and positron fluids. The dispersion relation admits a purely growing instability in the presence of the equilibrium density and magnetic field inhomogeneities. Physically, instability arises because of the inhomogeneous magnetic field induced differential electron and positron density fluctuations, which do not keep in phase with the electrostatic potential arising from the charge separation in our nonuniform pair plasmas

  14. Proposed Methodology for Establishing Area of Applicability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadhead, B.L.; Hopper, C.M.; Parks, C.V.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the application of sensitivity and uncertainty (S/U) analysis methodologies to the data validation tasks of a criticality safety computational study. The S/U methods presented are designed to provide a formal means of establishing the area (or range) of applicability for criticality safety data validation studies. The development of parameters that are analogous to the standard trending parameters form the key to the technique. These parameters are the so-called D parameters, which represent the differences by energy group of S/U-generated sensitivity profiles, and c parameters, which are the k correlation coefficients, each of which give information relative to the similarity between pairs of selected systems. The use of a Generalized Linear Least-Squares Methodology (GLLSM) tool is also described in this paper. These methods and guidelines are also applied to a sample validation for uranium systems with enrichments greater than 5 wt %

  15. Charge Aspects of Composite Pair Superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Rebecca

    2014-03-01

    Conventional Cooper pairs form from well-defined electronic quasiparticles, making the internal structure of the pair irrelevant. However, in the 115 family of superconductors, the heavy electrons are forming as they pair and the internal pair structure becomes as important as the pairing mechanism. Conventional spin fluctuation mediated pairing cannot capture the direct transition from incoherent local moments to heavy fermion superconductivity, but the formation of composite pairs favored by the two channel Kondo effect can. These composite pairs are local d-wave pairs formed by two conduction electrons in orthogonal Kondo channels screening the same local moment. Composite pairing shares the same symmetries as magnetically mediated pairing, however, only composite pairing necessarily involves a redistribution of charge within the unit cell originating from the internal pair structure, both as a monopole (valence change) and a quadrupole effect. This redistribution will onset sharply at the superconducting transition temperature. A smoking gun test for composite pairing is therefore a sharp signature at Tc - for example, a cusp in the Mossbauer isomer shift in NpPd5Al2 or in the NQR shift in (Ce,Pu)CoIn5.

  16. Development and Current Status of Skull-Image Superimposition - Methodology and Instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Y

    1992-12-01

    This article presents a review of the literature and an evaluation on the development and application of skull-image superimposition technology - both instrumentation and methodology - contributed by a number of scholars since 1935. Along with a comparison of the methodologies involved in the two superimposition techniques - photographic and video - the author characterized the techniques in action and the recent advances in computer image superimposition processing technology. The major disadvantage of conventional approaches is its relying on subjective interpretation. Through painstaking comparison and analysis, computer image processing technology can make more conclusive identifications by direct testing and evaluating the various programmed indices. Copyright © 1992 Central Police University.

  17. Changes in latent fingerprint examiners' markup between analysis and comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulery, Bradford T; Hicklin, R Austin; Roberts, Maria Antonia; Buscaglia, JoAnn

    2015-02-01

    After the initial analysis of a latent print, an examiner will sometimes revise the assessment during comparison with an exemplar. Changes between analysis and comparison may indicate that the initial analysis of the latent was inadequate, or that confirmation bias may have affected the comparison. 170 volunteer latent print examiners, each randomly assigned 22 pairs of prints from a pool of 320 total pairs, provided detailed markup documenting their interpretations of the prints and the bases for their comparison conclusions. We describe changes in value assessments and markup of features and clarity. When examiners individualized, they almost always added or deleted minutiae (90.3% of individualizations); every examiner revised at least some markups. For inconclusive and exclusion determinations, changes were less common, and features were added more frequently when the image pair was mated (same source). Even when individualizations were based on eight or fewer corresponding minutiae, in most cases some of those minutiae had been added during comparison. One erroneous individualization was observed: the markup changes were notably extreme, and almost all of the corresponding minutiae had been added during comparison. Latents assessed to be of value for exclusion only (VEO) during analysis were often individualized when compared to a mated exemplar (26%); in our previous work, where examiners were not required to provide markup of features, VEO individualizations were much less common (1.8%). Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Risk assessment under deep uncertainty: A methodological comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shortridge, Julie; Aven, Terje; Guikema, Seth

    2017-01-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) has proven to be an invaluable tool for evaluating risks in complex engineered systems. However, there is increasing concern that PRA may not be adequate in situations with little underlying knowledge to support probabilistic representation of uncertainties. As analysts and policy makers turn their attention to deeply uncertain hazards such as climate change, a number of alternatives to traditional PRA have been proposed. This paper systematically compares three diverse approaches for risk analysis under deep uncertainty (qualitative uncertainty factors, probability bounds, and robust decision making) in terms of their representation of uncertain quantities, analytical output, and implications for risk management. A simple example problem is used to highlight differences in the way that each method relates to the traditional risk assessment process and fundamental issues associated with risk assessment and description. We find that the implications for decision making are not necessarily consistent between approaches, and that differences in the representation of uncertain quantities and analytical output suggest contexts in which each method may be most appropriate. Finally, each methodology demonstrates how risk assessment can inform decision making in deeply uncertain contexts, informing more effective responses to risk problems characterized by deep uncertainty. - Highlights: • We compare three diverse approaches to risk assessment under deep uncertainty. • A simple example problem highlights differences in analytical process and results. • Results demonstrate how methodological choices can impact risk assessment results.

  19. Development of Advanced Non-LOCA Analysis Methodology for Licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Chansu; Um, Kilsup; Choi, Jaedon

    2008-01-01

    KNF is developing a new design methodology on the Non-LOCA analysis for the licensing purpose. The code chosen is the best-estimate transient analysis code RETRAN and the OPR1000 is aimed as a target plant. For this purpose, KNF prepared a simple nodal scheme appropriate to the licensing analyses and developed the designer-friendly analysis tool ASSIST (Automatic Steady-State Initialization and Safety analysis Tool). To check the validity of the newly developed methodology, the single CEA withdrawal and the locked rotor accidents are analyzed by using a new methodology and are compared with current design results. Comparison results show a good agreement and it is concluded that the new design methodology can be applied to the licensing calculations for OPR1000 Non-LOCA

  20. Linear and nonlinear low-frequency electrostatic waves in a nonuniform pair-ion-dust magnetoplasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, H; Shukla, P K; Eliasson, B

    2008-01-01

    Linear and nonlinear properties of the low-frequency (in comparison with the ion gyrofrequency) electrostatic oscillations in pair-ion-dust magnetoplasma are presented. In the linear limit, the Shukla-Varma mode is coupled with the ion oscillations while the nonlinearly coupled modes appear in the form of a dipolar or a monopolar vortex

  1. Methodologies for Root Locus and Loop Shaping Control Design with Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopasakis, George

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes some basics for the root locus controls design method as well as for loop shaping, and establishes approaches to expedite the application of these two design methodologies to easily obtain control designs that meet requirements with superior performance. The two design approaches are compared for their ability to meet control design specifications and for ease of application using control design examples. These approaches are also compared with traditional Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) control in order to demonstrate the limitations of PID control. Robustness of these designs is covered as it pertains to these control methodologies and for the example problems.

  2. On the theory of electroproduction of small relative momentum nucleon pairs on atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagornyj, S.I.; Inopin, E.V.

    1979-01-01

    Problems concerning knocking-out of nucleon pairs from atomic nuclei by high-energy electrons are studied. Dependences of cross sections of different processes of the knocking-out on the nucleon relative momentum in a pair are considered. Probabilities of different processes of the knocking-out are compared. A comparison of probabilities of total and three-particle splittings of a 4 He nucleus is performed. On total splitting in the formation of the cross section energy dependence the levels of observable and non-observable subsystems shown to take place. It has been stated that the cross section cannot be increased at the expense of levels of both subsystems simultaneously

  3. Virtual particle-antiparticle pair formation by a scalar particle bound in an external Coulomb field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darewych, J.W.; Horbatsch, M.; Lev, B.I.; Shapoval, D.V.

    1995-01-01

    A Hamiltonian variational Fock-space method is used to describe scalar massive particles in an external Coulomb field with strength f=Zα. The use of an ansatz that includes a three-particle state in addition to a single-particle state built on the field-free vacuum enables one to highlight the role played by particle-antiparticle pair formation. Comparison is made with the Klein-Gordon equation in the Feshbach-Villars representation and it is shown explicitly how the virtual pair contribution corrects an O(f 5 ) deficiency present in the energy spectrum of the naive Schroedinger-type single-particle equation. ((orig.))

  4. Opera: reconstructing optimal genomic scaffolds with high-throughput paired-end sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Song; Sung, Wing-Kin; Nagarajan, Niranjan

    2011-11-01

    Scaffolding, the problem of ordering and orienting contigs, typically using paired-end reads, is a crucial step in the assembly of high-quality draft genomes. Even as sequencing technologies and mate-pair protocols have improved significantly, scaffolding programs still rely on heuristics, with no guarantees on the quality of the solution. In this work, we explored the feasibility of an exact solution for scaffolding and present a first tractable solution for this problem (Opera). We also describe a graph contraction procedure that allows the solution to scale to large scaffolding problems and demonstrate this by scaffolding several large real and synthetic datasets. In comparisons with existing scaffolders, Opera simultaneously produced longer and more accurate scaffolds demonstrating the utility of an exact approach. Opera also incorporates an exact quadratic programming formulation to precisely compute gap sizes (Availability: http://sourceforge.net/projects/operasf/ ).

  5. Watson-Crick base pairing controls excited-state decay in natural DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, Dominik B; Schlueter, Alexander; Carell, Thomas; Zinth, Wolfgang

    2014-10-13

    Excited-state dynamics are essential to understanding the formation of DNA lesions induced by UV light. By using femtosecond IR spectroscopy, it was possible to determine the lifetimes of the excited states of all four bases in the double-stranded environment of natural DNA. After UV excitation of the DNA duplex, we detected a concerted decay of base pairs connected by Watson-Crick hydrogen bonds. A comparison of single- and double-stranded DNA showed that the reactive charge-transfer states formed in the single strands are suppressed by base pairing in the duplex. The strong influence of the Watson-Crick hydrogen bonds indicates that proton transfer opens an efficient decay path in the duplex that prohibits the formation or reduces the lifetime of reactive charge-transfer states. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Evaluation of Spur Gear Pair on Tooth Root Bending Stress in Radial Misalignment Contact Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lias M.R.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the effects of radial misalignment contact on the tooth root bending stress values of spur gear pair during the gear meshing cycle. Radial misalignment (H is denoted as the deviation of the pinion nominal position with respect to the gear tooth along the pinion axis to the gear which happened from manufacturing assembly errors (AE. A model based on involute 3D parametric CAD geometry, of spur gear design ISO 6336:2006 is analysed with allowable AE values from minimum 10μm to maximum 40μm with Finite-Element Method (FEM model based methodology using a dynamics module from ANSYS. Main parameters of interest are the Tooth root bending stress (TRBS in H condition with AE along the critical region with respect to face width of pinion-gear section. A comparison between standard High point single tooth contact models (HPSTC to this model showed a good agreement that H with AE had great influence on TRBS as the values’ increase. Radial misalignment influence factor (RMIF was introduced as indication of TRBS values in consideration of H due to AE shows and inverted patterns higher for pinion, give a good justification that the pinion is weaker compared to the gear.

  7. Pair potentials in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faber, T.E.

    1980-01-01

    The argument which justifies the use of a pair potential to describe the structure-dependent term in the energy of liquid metals is briefly reviewed. Because there is an additional term in the energy which depends upon volume rather than structure, and because the pair potential itself is volume-dependent, the relationship between pair potential and observable properties such as pressure, bulk modulus and pair distribution function is more complicated for liquid metals than it is for molecular liquids. Perhaps for this reason, the agreement between pair potentials inferred from observable properties and pair potentials calculated by means of pseudo-potential theory is still far from complete. The pair potential concept is applicable only to simple liquid metals, in which the electron-ion interaction is weak. No attempt is made to discuss liquid transition and rare-earth metals, which are not simple in this sense. (author)

  8. Pairing correlations in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, C.V.K.

    1988-01-01

    There are many similarities between the properties of nucleons in nuclei and electrons in metals. In addition to the properties explainable in terms of independent particle motion, there are many important co-operative effects suggesting correlated motion. Pairing correlation which leads to superconductivity in metals and several important properties in nuclei , is an exmple of such correlations. An attempt has been made to review the effects of pairing correlations in nuclei. Recent indications of reduction in pairing correlations at high angular momenta is discussed. A comparision between pairing correlations in the cases of nuclei and electrons in metals is attempted. (author). 20 refs., 10 figs

  9. Intermittent pair-housing, pair relationship qualities, and HPA activity in adult female rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, Darcy L; Cassidy, Lauren C; Vandeleest, Jessica; Semple, Stuart; Barnard, Allison; Chun, Katie; Winkler, Sasha; McCowan, Brenda

    2018-05-02

    Laboratory rhesus macaques are often housed in pairs and may be temporarily or permanently separated for research, health, or management reasons. While both long-term social separations and introductions can stimulate a stress response that impacts inflammation and immune function, the effects of short-term overnight separations and whether qualities of the pair relationship mediate these effects are unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of overnight separations on the urinary cortisol concentration of 20 differentially paired adult female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) at the California National Primate Research Center. These females were initially kept in either continuous (no overnight separation) or intermittent (with overnight separation) pair-housing and then switched to the alternate pair-housing condition part way through the study. Each study subject was observed for 5 weeks, during which we collected measures of affiliative, aggressive, anxious, abnormal, and activity-state behaviors in both pair-housing conditions. Additionally, up to three urine samples were collected from each subject per week and assayed for urinary free cortisol and creatinine. Lastly, the behavioral observer scored each pair on four relationship quality attributes ("Anxious," "Tense," "Well-meshed," and "Friendly") using a seven-point scale. Data were analyzed using a generalized linear model with gamma distribution and an information theoretic approach to determine the best model set. An interaction between the intermittent pairing condition and tense pair adjective rating was in the top three models of the best model set. Dominance and rates of affiliation were also important for explaining urinary cortisol variation. Our results suggest that to prevent significant changes in HPA-axis activation in rhesus macaque females, which could have unintended effects on research outcomes, pairs with "Tense" relationships and overnight separations preventing tactile contact

  10. Quality of Life After Whole Pelvic Versus Prostate-Only External Beam Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer: A Matched-Pair Comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkawa, Michael; Piroth, Marc D.; Holy, Richard; Fischedick, Karin; Klotz, Jens; Szekely-Orban, Dalma; Eble, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Comparison of health-related quality of life after whole pelvic (WPRT) and prostate-only (PORT) external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A group of 120 patients (60 in each group) was surveyed prospectively before radiation therapy (RT) (time A), at the last day of RT (time B), at a median time of 2 months (time C) and >1 year after RT (time D) using a validated questionnaire (Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite). All patients were treated with 1.8- to 2.0-Gy fractions up to 70.2 to 72.0 Gy with or without WPRT up to 45 to 46 Gy. Pairs were matched according to the following criteria: age ± 5years, planning target volume ± 10 cc (considering planning target volume without pelvic nodes for WPRT patients), urinary/bowel/sexual function score before RT ± 10, and use of antiandrogens. Results: With the exception of prognostic risk factors, both groups were well balanced with respect to baseline characteristics. No significant differences were found with regard to urinary and sexual score changes. Mean bladder function scores reached baseline levels in both patient subgroups after RT. However, bowel function scores decreased significantly more for patients after WPRT than in those receiving PORT at all times (p once a day in 15% vs. 3%; p = 0.03), bloody stools (≥half the time in 7% vs. 0%; p = 0.04) and frequent bowel movements (>two on a typical day in 32% vs. 7%; p < 0.01) more often than did patients after PORT. Conclusion: In comparison to PORT, WPRT (larger bladder and rectum volumes in medium dose levels, but similar volumes in high dose levels) was associated with decreased bowel quality of life in the acute and chronic phases after treatment but remained without adverse long-term urinary effects.

  11. A methodological comparison of customer service analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Absher; Alan Graefe; Robert Burns

    2003-01-01

    Techniques used to analyze customer service data need to be studied. Two primary analysis protocols, importance-performance analysis (IP) and gap score analysis (GA), are compared in a side-by-side comparison using data from two major customer service research projects. A central concern is what, if any, conclusion might be different due solely to the analysis...

  12. Comparisons of perturbation and integral equation theories for the angular pair correlation function in molecular fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murad, S.; Gubbins, K.E.; Gray, C.G.

    1983-01-01

    We compare several recently proposed theories for the angular pair correlation function g(rω 1 ω 2 ), including first- and second-order perturbation theory (the u-expansion), a Pade approximant to this series, first-order f-expansion, the single superchain, generalized mean field, linearized hypernetted chain, and quadratic hypernetted chain approximations. Numerical results from these theories are compared with available computer simulation data for four model fluids whose intermolecular pair potential is of the form u 0 +usub(a), where u 0 is a hard-sphere of Lennard-Jones model, while usub(a) is a dipole-dipole or quadrupole-quadrupole interaction; we refer to these model fluids as HS+μμ, HS+QQ, LJ+μμ, and LJ+QQ. Properties studied include the angular pair correlation function and its spherical harmonic components, the thermodynamic properties, and the angular correlation parameters G 1 and G 2 that are related to the dielectric and Kerr constants. The second-order perturbation theory is superior to the integral equation theories for the thermodynamic harmonics of g(rω 1 ω 2 ) and for the thermodynamic properties themselves at moderate multipole strengths. For other harmonics and properties, the integral equation theories are better, with the quadratic hypernetted chain approximation being the best overall. (orig.)

  13. Schwinger pair creation of Kaluza-Klein particles: Pair creation without tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedmann, Tamar; Verlinde, Herman

    2005-01-01

    We study Schwinger pair creation of charged Kaluza-Klein (KK) particles from a static KK electric field. We find that the gravitational backreaction of the electric field on the geometry--which is incorporated via the electric KK-Melvin solution--prevents the electrostatic potential from overcoming the rest mass of the KK particles, thus impeding the tunneling mechanism which is often thought of as responsible for the pair creation. However, we find that pair creation still occurs with a finite rate formally similar to the classic Schwinger result, but via an apparently different mechanism, involving a combination of the Unruh effect and vacuum polarization due to the E-field

  14. A Methodology to Assess Ionospheric Models for GNSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira-Garcia, Adria; Juan, José Miguel; Sanz, Jaume; González-Casado, Guillermo; Ibánez, Deimos

    2015-04-01

    Testing the accuracy of the ionospheric models used in the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is a long-standing issue. It is still a challenging problem due to the lack of accurate enough slant ionospheric determinations to be used as a reference. The present study proposes a methodology to assess any ionospheric model used in satellite-based applications and, in particular, GNSS ionospheric models. The methodology complements other analysis comparing the navigation based on different models to correct the code and carrier-phase observations. Specifically, the following ionospheric models are assessed: the operational models broadcast in the Global Positioning System (GPS), Galileo and the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay System (EGNOS), the post-process Global Ionospheric Maps (GIMs) from different analysis centers belonging to the International GNSS Service (IGS) and, finally, a new GIM computed by the gAGE/UPC research group. The methodology is based in the comparison between the predictions of the ionospheric model with actual unambiguous carrier-phase measurements from a global distribution of permanent receivers. The differences shall be separated into the hardware delays (a receiver constant plus a satellite constant) per data interval, e.g., a day. The condition that these Differential Code Biases (DCBs) are commonly shared throughout the world-wide network of receivers and satellites provides a global character to the assessment. This approach generalizes simple tests based on double differenced Slant Total Electron Contents (STECs) between pairs of satellites and receivers on a much local scale. The present study has been conducted during the entire 2014, i.e., the last Solar Maximum. The seasonal and latitudinal structures of the results clearly reflect the different strategies used by the different models. On one hand, ionospheric model corrections based on a grid (IGS-GIMs or EGNOS) are shown to be several times better than the models

  15. Emerging Concepts and Methodologies in Cancer Biomarker Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meixia; Zhang, Jinxiang; Zhang, Lanjing

    2017-01-01

    Cancer biomarker discovery is a critical part of cancer prevention and treatment. Despite the decades of effort, only a small number of cancer biomarkers have been identified for and validated in clinical settings. Conceptual and methodological breakthroughs may help accelerate the discovery of additional cancer biomarkers, particularly their use for diagnostics. In this review, we have attempted to review the emerging concepts in cancer biomarker discovery, including real-world evidence, open access data, and data paucity in rare or uncommon cancers. We have also summarized the recent methodological progress in cancer biomarker discovery, such as high-throughput sequencing, liquid biopsy, big data, artificial intelligence (AI), and deep learning and neural networks. Much attention has been given to the methodological details and comparison of the methodologies. Notably, these concepts and methodologies interact with each other and will likely lead to synergistic effects when carefully combined. Newer, more innovative concepts and methodologies are emerging as the current emerging ones became mainstream and widely applied to the field. Some future challenges are also discussed. This review contributes to the development of future theoretical frameworks and technologies in cancer biomarker discovery and will contribute to the discovery of more useful cancer biomarkers.

  16. A comparison of transmission characteristics of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis between pair-housed and group-housed laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Ekelijn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human cases of bacterial gastro-enteritis are often caused by the consumption of eggs contaminated with Salmonella species, mainly Salmonella enterica serovar Enteriditis (Salmonella Enteritidis. To reduce human exposure, in several countries worldwide surveillance programmes are implemented to detect colonized layer flocks. The sampling schemes are based on the within-flock prevalence, and, as this changes over time, knowledge of the within-flock dynamics of Salmonella Enteritidis is required. Transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis has been quantified in pairs of layers, but the question is whether the dynamics in pairs is comparable to transmission in large groups, which are more representative for commercial layer flocks. The aim of this study was to compare results of transmission experiments between pairs and groups of laying hens. Experimental groups of either 2 or 200 hens were housed at similar densities, and 1 or 4 hens were inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis, respectively. Excretion was monitored by regularly testing of fecal samples for the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis. Using mathematical modeling, the group experiments were simulated with transmission parameter estimates from the pairwise experiments. Transmission of the bacteria did not differ significantly between pairs or groups. This finding suggests that the transmission parameter estimates from small-scale experiments might be extrapolated to the field situation.

  17. Pairing and deformation effects in nuclear excitation spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repko, A. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics, Bratislava (Slovakia); Kvasil, J. [Charles University, Institute of Particle and Nuclear Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Nesterenko, V.O. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation); State University ' ' Dubna' ' , Dubna (Russian Federation); Reinhard, P.G. [Universitaet Erlangen, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II, Erlangen (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    We investigate effects of pairing and of quadrupole deformation on two sorts of nuclear excitations, γ-vibrational K{sup π} = 2{sup +} states and dipole resonances (isovector dipole, pygmy, compression, toroidal). The analysis is performed within the quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA) based on the Skyrme energy functional using the Skyrme parametrization SLy6. Particular attention is paid to i) the role of the particle-particle (pp) channel in the residual interaction of QRPA, ii) comparison of volume pairing (VP) and surface pairing (SP), iii) peculiarities of deformation splitting in the various resonances. We find that the impact of the pp-channel on the considered excitations is negligible. This conclusion applies also to any other excitation except for the K{sup π} = 0{sup +} states. Furthermore, the difference between VP and SP is found small (with exception of peak height in the toroidal mode). In the low-energy isovector dipole (pygmy) and isoscalar toroidal modes, the branch K{sup π} = 1{sup -} is shown to dominate over the K{sup π} = 0{sup -} one in the range of excitation energy E < 8-10 MeV. The effect becomes impressive for the toroidal resonance whose low-energy part is concentrated in a high peak of almost pure K{sup π} = 1{sup -} nature. This peculiarity may be used as a fingerprint of the toroidal mode in future experiments. The interplay between pygmy, toroidal and compression resonances is discussed, the interpretation of the observed isoscalar giant dipole resonance is partly revised. (orig.)

  18. Excited cooper pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Arrietea, M. G.; Solis, M. A.; De Llano, M. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F (Mexico)

    2001-02-01

    Excited cooper pairs formed in a many-fermion system are those with nonzero total center-of mass momentum (CMM). They are normally neglected in the standard Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity for being too few compared with zero CMM pairs. However, a Bose-Einstein condensation picture requires both zero and nonzero CMM pairs. Assuming a BCS model interaction between fermions we determine the populations for all CMM values of Cooper pairs by actually calculating the number of nonzero-CMM pairs relative to that of zero-CMM ones in both 2D and 3D. Although this ratio decreases rapidly with CMM, the number of Cooper pairs for any specific CMM less than the maximum (or breakup of the pair) momentum turns out to be typically larger than about 95% of those with zero-CMM at zero temperature T. Even at T {approx}100 K this fraction en 2D is still as large as about 70% for typical quasi-2D cuprate superconductor parameters. [Spanish] Los pares de cooper excitados formados en un sistema de muchos electrones, son aquellos con momentos de centro de masa (CMM) diferente de cero. Normalmente estos no son tomados en cuenta en la teoria estandar de la superconductividad de Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) al suponer que su numero es muy pequeno comparados con los pares de centro de masa igual a cero. Sin embargo, un esquema de condensacion Bose-Einstein requiere de ambos pares, con CMM cero y diferente de cero. Asumiendo una interaccion modelo BCS entre los fermiones, determinamos la poblacion de pares cooper con cada uno de todos los posibles valores del CMM calculando el numero de pares con momentos de centro de masa diferente de cero relativo a los pares de CMM igual a cero, en 2D y 3D. Aunque esta razon decrece rapidamente con el CMM, el numero de pares de cooper para cualquier CMM especifico menor que el momento maximo (o rompimiento de par) es tipicamente mas grande que el 95% de aquellos con CMM cero. Aun a T {approx}100 K esta fraccion en 2D es

  19. Efficient genome editing by FACS enrichment of paired D10A Cas9 nickases coupled with fluorescent proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalappa, Ramu; Song, Myungjae; Chandrasekaran, Arun Pandian; Das, Soumyadip; Haq, Saba; Koh, Hyun Chul; Ramakrishna, Suresh

    2018-05-31

    Targeted genome editing by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR-Cas9) raised concerns over off-target effects. The use of double-nicking strategy using paired Cas9 nickase has been developed to minimize off-target effects. However, it was reported that the efficiency of paired nickases were comparable or lower than that of either corresponding nuclease alone. Recently, we conducted a systematic comparison of the efficiencies of several paired Cas9 with their corresponding Cas9 nucleases and showed that paired D10A Cas9 nickases are sometimes more efficient than individual nucleases for gene disruption. However, sometimes the designed paired Cas9 nickases exhibited significantly lower mutation frequencies than nucleases, hampering the generation of cells containing paired Cas9 nickase-induced mutations. Here we implemented IRES peptide-conjugation of fluorescent protein to Cas9 nickase and subjected for fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The sorted cell populations are highly enriched with cells containing paired Cas9 nickase-induced mutations, by a factor of up to 40-fold as compared with the unsorted population. Furthermore, gene-disrupted single cell clones using paired nickases followed by FACS sorting strategy were generated highly efficiently, without compromising with its low off-target effects. We envision that our fluorescent protein coupled paired nickase-mediated gene disruption, facilitating efficient and highly specific genome editing in medical research.

  20. Paired-pulse flash-visual evoked potentials: new methods revive an old test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantello, Roberto; Strigaro, Gionata; Prandi, Paolo; Varrasi, Claudia; Mula, Marco; Monaco, Francesco

    2011-08-01

    We aimed at reviving with modern technology the paired flash-visual evoked potential (F-VEP) testing of the visual system excitability. In the 1960s, methodological problems hindered this test, which was expected to provide important physiologic information. We studied 22 consenting healthy subjects (10 men). We recorded F-VEPs from electrodes over occipital and central brain regions. We delivered single flashes, mixed at random to flash pairs at the interstimulus interval (ISI) of 333, 125, 62.5, 50, 33, and 16.5 ms, (i.e. an internal frequency (IF) of 3, 8, 16, 20, 30, and 60 Hz). Recordings were performed with the subject's eyes closed and opened. The F-VEP was split into a "main complex" and an "afterdischarge", which we analyzed statistically in relation to the eye state (closed or open) and to the changes due to paired stimulation. The eye state affected the single F-VEP size, latency and shape significantly (p<0.05). On paired stimulation, the test (second) F-VEP exhibited significant (p<0.05), ISI-dependent size changes, such as a progressive decrease for ISIs from 62.5 to 16.5 ms (IFs of 16-60 Hz), whose timing/amount varied significantly (p<0.05) according to the eye state and to the F-VEP epoch considered. Suppression of the test F-VEP was never complete, even for the shortest ISI (ISI=16.5 ms, IF=60 Hz). The eye state (closed or open) must be considered meticulously when studying F-VEPs. F-VEP changes on paired stimulation express neural inhibition within the visual system, which can be depicted as ISI-dependent curves. Modern equipment and simplified measures render this an easy test, with statistical validity, providing specific information on the excitability properties of the visual system. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Methodology comparison for gamma-heating calculations in material-testing reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaire, M.; Vaglio-Gaudard, C.; Lyoussi, A. [CEA, DEN, DER, Cadarache F-13108 Saint Paul les Durance (France); Reynard-Carette, C. [Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, Universite de Toulon, IM2NP UMR 7334, 13397, Marseille (France)

    2015-07-01

    The Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) is a Material-Testing Reactor (MTR) under construction in the south of France at CEA Cadarache (French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission). It will typically host about 20 simultaneous irradiation experiments in the core and in the beryllium reflector. These experiments will help us better understand the complex phenomena occurring during the accelerated ageing of materials and the irradiation of nuclear fuels. Gamma heating, i.e. photon energy deposition, is mainly responsible for temperature rise in non-fuelled zones of nuclear reactors, including JHR internal structures and irradiation devices. As temperature is a key parameter for physical models describing the behavior of material, accurate control of temperature, and hence gamma heating, is required in irradiation devices and samples in order to perform an advanced suitable analysis of future experimental results. From a broader point of view, JHR global attractiveness as a MTR depends on its ability to monitor experimental parameters with high accuracy, including gamma heating. Strict control of temperature levels is also necessary in terms of safety. As JHR structures are warmed up by gamma heating, they must be appropriately cooled down to prevent creep deformation or melting. Cooling-power sizing is based on calculated levels of gamma heating in the JHR. Due to these safety concerns, accurate calculation of gamma heating with well-controlled bias and associated uncertainty as low as possible is all the more important. There are two main kinds of calculation bias: bias coming from nuclear data on the one hand and bias coming from physical approximations assumed by computer codes and by general calculation route on the other hand. The former must be determined by comparison between calculation and experimental data; the latter by calculation comparisons between codes and between methodologies. In this presentation, we focus on this latter kind of bias. Nuclear

  2. Mesoscopic pairing without superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Johannes

    2017-12-01

    We discuss pairing signatures in mesoscopic nanowires with a variable attractive pairing interaction. Depending on the wire length, density, and interaction strength, these systems realize a simultaneous bulk-to-mesoscopic and BCS-BEC crossover, which we describe in terms of the parity parameter that quantifies the odd-even energy difference and generalizes the bulk Cooper pair binding energy to mesoscopic systems. We show that the parity parameter can be extracted from recent measurements of conductance oscillations in SrTiO3 nanowires by Cheng et al. [Nature (London) 521, 196 (2015), 10.1038/nature14398], where it marks the critical magnetic field that separates pair and single-particle currents. Our results place the experiment in the fluctuation-dominated mesoscopic regime on the BCS side of the crossover.

  3. RHIC Data Correlation Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michnoff, R.; D'Ottavio, T.; Hoff, L.; MacKay, W.; Satogata, T.

    1999-01-01

    A requirement for RHIC data plotting software and physics analysis is the correlation of data from all accelerator data gathering systems. Data correlation provides the capability for a user to request a plot of multiple data channels vs. time, and to make meaningful time-correlated data comparisons. The task of data correlation for RHIC requires careful consideration because data acquisition triggers are generated from various asynchronous sources including events from the RHIC Event Link, events from the two Beam Sync Links, and other unrelated clocks. In order to correlate data from asynchronous acquisition systems a common time reference is required. The RHIC data correlation methodology will allow all RHIC data to be converted to a common wall clock time, while still preserving native acquisition trigger information. A data correlation task force team, composed of the authors of this paper, has been formed to develop data correlation design details and provide guidelines for software developers. The overall data correlation methodology will be presented in this paper

  4. Top quark pair production at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baernreuther, Peter

    2012-06-28

    One of the most interesting and manifold processes in the Standard Model of elementary particle physics is the top quark pair production. It enabled the discovery of the top quark at the Tevatron in 1995 and the determination of many of its properties. By means of a precise measurement and calculation of the cross section of top quark pair production it is possible to extract the top quark mass. Improvements in the gluon parton distribution functions (important for the Higgs boson production) or improvements in the prediction of the Higgs mass are also closely linked with the top quark pair production. Furthermore, the production process plays an important role in the discovery of new physics. On the one hand the top quark pair decays form the largest part of the background in many BSM models, on the other hand BSM physics can be detected directly in the decay process by investigating the charge symmetry or the invariant mass spectrum. At the LHC it will be possible for the first time to produce a large amount of top quarks; thereby the statistical errors of the observables will be strongly reduced. The enormous increase in the production rate has two reasons. On the one hand, the acceleration energy of the LHC (14 TeV and 7 TeV) is significantly greater than that of the Tevatron (1.96 Tev). This leads to an increase of the cross section by a factor of 100 ({proportional_to}7.3 pb at the Tevatron to {proportional_to}800 pb at 14 TeV LHC). On the other hand, the luminosity of the LHC outperforms the Tevatron by a factor of 10-100. The reduced experimental errors for the observables demand an improvement of the theoretical error. The experimental accuracy of the LHC and the great relevance of the process led to an intensive activity of different research groups in order to improve the calculation of the cross section of top quark pair production. This work presents for the first time a complete numerical result for the full NNLO correction for the top quark pair

  5. Top quark pair production at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baernreuther, Peter

    2012-01-01

    One of the most interesting and manifold processes in the Standard Model of elementary particle physics is the top quark pair production. It enabled the discovery of the top quark at the Tevatron in 1995 and the determination of many of its properties. By means of a precise measurement and calculation of the cross section of top quark pair production it is possible to extract the top quark mass. Improvements in the gluon parton distribution functions (important for the Higgs boson production) or improvements in the prediction of the Higgs mass are also closely linked with the top quark pair production. Furthermore, the production process plays an important role in the discovery of new physics. On the one hand the top quark pair decays form the largest part of the background in many BSM models, on the other hand BSM physics can be detected directly in the decay process by investigating the charge symmetry or the invariant mass spectrum. At the LHC it will be possible for the first time to produce a large amount of top quarks; thereby the statistical errors of the observables will be strongly reduced. The enormous increase in the production rate has two reasons. On the one hand, the acceleration energy of the LHC (14 TeV and 7 TeV) is significantly greater than that of the Tevatron (1.96 Tev). This leads to an increase of the cross section by a factor of 100 (∝7.3 pb at the Tevatron to ∝800 pb at 14 TeV LHC). On the other hand, the luminosity of the LHC outperforms the Tevatron by a factor of 10-100. The reduced experimental errors for the observables demand an improvement of the theoretical error. The experimental accuracy of the LHC and the great relevance of the process led to an intensive activity of different research groups in order to improve the calculation of the cross section of top quark pair production. This work presents for the first time a complete numerical result for the full NNLO correction for the top quark pair production in quark anti

  6. PandA : pairings and arithmetic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chuengsatiansup, C.; Naehrig, M.; Ribarski, P.; Schwabe, P.; Cao, Z.; Zhang, F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces PandA, a software framework for Pairings and Arithmetic. It is designed to bring together advances in the efficient computation of cryptographic pairings and the development and implementation of pairing-based protocols. The intention behind the PandA framework is to give

  7. Methodology for economic evaluation of software development projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witte, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Many oil and gas exploration and production companies develop computer software in-house or with contract programmers to support their exploration activities. Software development projects compete for funding with exploration and development projects, though most companies lack valid comparison measures for the two types of projects. This paper presents a methodology of pro form a cash flow analysis for software development proposals intended for internal use. This methodology, based on estimates of development and support costs, exploration benefits, and probability of successful development and implementation, can be used to compare proposed software development projects directly with competing exploration proposals

  8. A prioritization methodology to strategic planning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rondinelli Junior, Francisco; Cherif, Hadj Slimane

    2009-01-01

    In the process of formulation of a Strategic Plan, there is always a step that deals with choices among different options and strategies. To do that a prioritization methodology has to be applied in order to achieve the higher needs identified along the analysis and evaluation of problems. To assign priorities within a set of needs/problems of a strategic nature and identified within various areas of activity or different sectors, it is proposed a methodology that envisage the use of specific attributes for which a graded scale of values is established for each need/problem, which, at the end of the process, allows a quantitative comparison among them. The methodology presented in this paper was developed following an approach that has been used in many areas over the last 20 years by various public and private institutions, and also by international organizations involved in promotion and development work. (author)

  9. Filipino au pairs on the move

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2016-01-01

    Most Filipina au pairs in Denmark send remittances back home, and for many, au pairing forms part of longer-term migration trajectories. This article explores how Filipina au pairs try to carve out a future for themselves abroad. It shows that they navigate within tight webs of financial interdep......Most Filipina au pairs in Denmark send remittances back home, and for many, au pairing forms part of longer-term migration trajectories. This article explores how Filipina au pairs try to carve out a future for themselves abroad. It shows that they navigate within tight webs of financial...

  10. Evaluation of analytical performance based on partial order methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Lars; Bruggemann, Rainer; Kenessova, Olga; Erzhigitov, Erkin

    2015-01-01

    Classical measurements of performances are typically based on linear scales. However, in analytical chemistry a simple scale may be not sufficient to analyze the analytical performance appropriately. Here partial order methodology can be helpful. Within the context described here, partial order analysis can be seen as an ordinal analysis of data matrices, especially to simplify the relative comparisons of objects due to their data profile (the ordered set of values an object have). Hence, partial order methodology offers a unique possibility to evaluate analytical performance. In the present data as, e.g., provided by the laboratories through interlaboratory comparisons or proficiency testings is used as an illustrative example. However, the presented scheme is likewise applicable for comparison of analytical methods or simply as a tool for optimization of an analytical method. The methodology can be applied without presumptions or pretreatment of the analytical data provided in order to evaluate the analytical performance taking into account all indicators simultaneously and thus elucidating a "distance" from the true value. In the present illustrative example it is assumed that the laboratories analyze a given sample several times and subsequently report the mean value, the standard deviation and the skewness, which simultaneously are used for the evaluation of the analytical performance. The analyses lead to information concerning (1) a partial ordering of the laboratories, subsequently, (2) a "distance" to the Reference laboratory and (3) a classification due to the concept of "peculiar points". Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. MCNP and GADRAS Comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasky, Marc Louis; Myers, Steven Charles; James, Michael R.; Mayo, Douglas R.

    2016-01-01

    To facilitate the timely execution of System Threat Reviews (STRs) for DNDO, and also to develop a methodology for performing STRs, LANL performed comparisons of several radiation transport codes (MCNP, GADRAS, and Gamma-Designer) that have been previously utilized to compute radiation signatures. While each of these codes has strengths, it is of paramount interest to determine the limitations of each of the respective codes and also to identify the most time efficient means by which to produce computational results, given the large number of parametric cases that are anticipated in performing STR's. These comparisons serve to identify regions of applicability for each code and provide estimates of uncertainty that may be anticipated. Furthermore, while performing these comparisons, examination of the sensitivity of the results to modeling assumptions was also examined. These investigations serve to enable the creation of the LANL methodology for performing STRs. Given the wide variety of radiation test sources, scenarios, and detectors, LANL calculated comparisons of the following parameters: decay data, multiplicity, device (n,γ) leakages, and radiation transport through representative scenes and shielding. This investigation was performed to understand potential limitations utilizing specific codes for different aspects of the STR challenges.

  12. Pair production of heavy quarkonium and Bc(*) mesons at hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Rong; Zhang Yujie; Chao Kuangta

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the pair production of S-wave heavy quarkonium at the LHC in the color-singlet mechanism (CSM) and estimate the contribution from the gluon fragmentation process in the color-octet mechanism (COM) for comparison. With the matrix elements extracted previously in the leading-order calculations, the numerical results show that the production rates are quite large for the pair production processes at the LHC. The p t distribution of double J/ψ production in the CSM is dominant over that in the COM when p t is smaller than about 10 GeV. For the production of double Υ, the contribution of the COM is always larger than that in the CSM. The large differences in the theoretical predictions between the CSM and COM for the p t distributions in the large p t region are useful in clarifying the effects of COM on the quarkonium production. We also investigate the pair production of S-wave B c and B c * mesons, and the measurement of these processes is useful to test the CSM and extract the long-distance matrix elements for the B c and B c * mesons. Aside from numerical calculations, analytical expressions for the production differential cross sections of all these processes are also given.

  13. Collective neutrino-pair emission due to Cooper pairing of protons in superconducting neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leinson, L.B.

    2001-01-01

    The neutrino emission due to formation and breaking of Cooper pairs of protons in superconducting cores of neutron stars is considered with taking into account the electromagnetic coupling of protons to ambient electrons. It is shown that collective response of electrons to the proton quantum transition contributes coherently to the complete interaction with a neutrino field and enhances the neutrino-pair production. Our calculation shows that the contribution of the vector weak current to the ννbar emissivity of protons is much larger than that calculated by different authors without taking into account the plasma effects. Partial contribution of the pairing protons to the total neutrino radiation from the neutron star core is very sensitive to the critical temperatures for the proton and neutron pairing. We show domains of these parameters where the neutrino radiation, caused by a singlet-state pairing of protons is dominating

  14. Effects of Sleep on Word Pair Memory in Children – Separating Item and Source Memory Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Yi Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Word paired-associate learning is a well-established task to demonstrate sleep-dependent memory consolidation in adults as well as children. Sleep has also been proposed to benefit episodic features of memory, i.e., a memory for an event (item bound into the spatiotemporal context it has been experienced in (source. We aimed to explore if sleep enhances word pair memory in children by strengthening the episodic features of the memory, in particular. Sixty-one children (8–12 years studied two lists of word pairs with 1 h in between. Retrieval testing comprised cued recall of the target word of each word pair (item memory and recalling in which list the word pair had appeared in (source memory. Retrieval was tested either after 1 h (short retention interval or after 11 h, with this long retention interval covering either nocturnal sleep or daytime wakefulness. Compared with the wake interval, sleep enhanced separate recall of both word pairs and the lists per se, while recall of the combination of the word pair and the list it had appeared in remained unaffected by sleep. An additional comparison with adult controls (n = 37 suggested that item-source bound memory (combined recall of word pair and list is generally diminished in children. Our results argue against the view that the sleep-induced enhancement in paired-associate learning in children is a consequence of sleep specifically enhancing the episodic features of the memory representation. On the contrary, sleep in children might strengthen item and source representations in isolation, while leaving the episodic memory representations (item-source binding unaffected.

  15. Methodology for astronaut reconditioning research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, David J; Cook, Jonathan A

    2017-01-01

    Space medicine offers some unique challenges, especially in terms of research methodology. A specific challenge for astronaut reconditioning involves identification of what aspects of terrestrial research methodology hold and which require modification. This paper reviews this area and presents appropriate solutions where possible. It is concluded that spaceflight rehabilitation research should remain question/problem driven and is broadly similar to the terrestrial equivalent on small populations, such as rare diseases and various sports. Astronauts and Medical Operations personnel should be involved at all levels to ensure feasibility of research protocols. There is room for creative and hybrid methodology but careful systematic observation is likely to be more achievable and fruitful than complex trial based comparisons. Multi-space agency collaboration will be critical to pool data from small groups of astronauts with the accepted use of standardised outcome measures across all agencies. Systematic reviews will be an essential component. Most limitations relate to the inherent small sample size available for human spaceflight research. Early adoption of a co-operative model for spaceflight rehabilitation research is therefore advised. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. QSO Pairs across Active Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Several QSO pairs have been reported and their redshifts determined, where the two objects in each pair are located across an active galaxy. The usually accepted explanation of such occurrences is that the pair is ejected from the parent galaxy. Currently interpreted redshifted spectra for both the QSOs ...

  17. Comparison of Paired ROC Curves through a Two-Stage Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenbao; Park, Eunsik; Chang, Yuan-Chin Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) is a popularly used index when comparing two ROC curves. Statistical tests based on it for analyzing the difference have been well developed. However, this index is less informative when two ROC curves cross and have similar AUCs. In order to detect differences between ROC curves in such situations, a two-stage nonparametric test that uses a shifted area under the ROC curve (sAUC), along with AUCs, is proposed for paired designs. The new procedure is shown, numerically, to be effective in terms of power under a wide range of scenarios; additionally, it outperforms two conventional ROC-type tests, especially when two ROC curves cross each other and have similar AUCs. Larger sAUC implies larger partial AUC at the range of low false-positive rates in this case. Because high specificity is important in many classification tasks, such as medical diagnosis, this is an appealing characteristic. The test also implicitly analyzes the equality of two commonly used binormal ROC curves at every operating point. We also apply the proposed method to synthesized data and two real examples to illustrate its usefulness in practice.

  18. Isovector pairing in self-conjugate nuclei in a formalism of quartets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sambataro, M; Sandulescu, N

    2014-01-01

    The isovector proton-neutron pairing in self-conjugate nuclei is treated in a formalism of quartets. Quartets are four-body correlated structures built from two neutrons and two protons coupled to total isospin T = 0. The ground state of the isovector pairing Hamiltonian is described as a product of quartets. We review both the case in which the quartets are constrained to be all identical and the case in which they are allowed to be distinct from one another. The quality of the two approaches is tested by making comparisons with exact shell model calculations for N = Z nuclei with valence nucleons outside the 16 O, 40 Ca, and 100 Sn cores. We consider both spherical and axially deformed mean fields. Both approaches are found to be very accurate. In the applications to a deformed mean field, in particular, the formalism with distinct quartets gives rise to results which are basically exact

  19. Base pair mismatches and carcinogen-modified bases in DNA: an NMR study of G x T and G x O4meT pairing in dodecanucleotide duplexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalnik, M.W.; Kouchakdjian, M.; Li, B.F.L.; Swann, P.F.; Patel, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    High-resolution two-dimensional NMR studies have been completed on the self-complementary d(C-G-C-G-A-G-C-T-T-G-C-G) duplex (designated G x T 12-mer) and the self-complementary d(C-G-C-G-A-G-C-T-O 4 meT-G-C-G) duplex (designated G x O 4 meT 12-mer) containing G x T and G x O 4 meT pairs at identical positions four base pairs in from either end of the duplex. The exchangeable and nonexchangeable proton resonances have been assigned from an analysis of two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOESY) spectra for the G x T 12-mer and G x O 4 meT 12-mer duplexes in H 2 O and D 2 O solution. The guanosine and thymidine imino protons in the G x T mismatch resonate at 10.57 and 11.98 ppm, respectively, and exhibit a strong NOE between themselves and to imino protons of flanking base pairs in the G x T 12-mer duplex. The large upfield chemical shift of this proton relative to that of the imino proton resonance of G in the G x T mismatch or in G x C base pairs indicates that hydrogen bonding to O 4 meT is either very weak or absent. This guanosine imino proton has an NOE to the OCH 3 group of O 4 meT across the pair and NOEs to the imino protons of flanking base pairs. Taken together with data from the NMR of nonexchangeable protons, this shows that both G and O 4 meT have anti-glycosidic torsion angles and are stacked into the duplex. Comparison of the intensity of the NOEs between the guanosine imino proton and the OCH 3 of O 4 meT as well as other protons in its vicinity demonstrates that the OCH 3 group of O 4 meT adopts the syn orientation with respect to N3 of the methylated thymidine. The authors propose an alternate base pairing mode stabilized by one short hydrogen bond between the 2-amino group of guanosine and the 2-carbonyl group of O 4 met

  20. Calculations of energy levels and electromagnetic properties for tellurium pair isotopes, by unified method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, R.R.P.

    1988-01-01

    Calculations with the Unified Model (vibrator coupled to two particles), of the energy levels and the eletromagnetic properties have been performed and compared with the twelve pair isotopes from tellurium with A between 112 and 134. The results were analysed using as particles interaction: pairing and SDI (Surface Delta Interaction). The SDI and 3 fonons collective states were used in the fittings, and a syntematic comparison between the theoretical and experimental results was made. The dependence of the results with the model parameters was determined, through large variation sof them. Calculations using 4 fonons have been made, and the importance of the introduced variations in the results was discussed. Calculations have been made in the VAX Computer of the Pelletron at IFUSP. (author) [pt

  1. Optimal working pairs for solar adsorption cooling applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allouhi, A.; Kousksou, T.; Jamil, A.; El Rhafiki, T.; Mourad, Y.; Zeraouli, Y.

    2015-01-01

    This article suggests a detailed comparison of 7 working pairs intended for use in solar adsorption cooling systems. The performance analysis was based on two indicators: adsorption capacity and solar coefficient of performance. Based on a reformed form of the Dubinin–Astakhov equation, a 3D graph was constructed to show the adsorbate concentration in the appropriate adsorbent as a first step to determine the adsorption capacity. A MATLAB program was developed to solve the system equation to predict the solar coefficient of performance for a typical summer day in a Moroccan city Fez. It was found that maximal adsorption capacity is obtained by activated carbon fibre/methanol (0.3406 kg kg −1 ) followed by activated carbon/methanol (0.2565 kg kg −1 ) and activated carbon/ethanol (0.2008 kg kg −1 ). At a condenser temperature of 25 °C, with an adsorbent mass of 20 kg, and an integrated collector-reactor configuration, the couple silica gel/water for air conditioning purpose can reach an SCOP of 0.3843. Activated carbon fibre/methanol is the following more efficient couple and can be used in the different cooling applications with an SCOP ranging from 0.1726 to 0.3287. Furthermore, adequate indicators are evaluated addressing the economic, environmental and safe aspects associated with each working pair. - Highlights: • 7 working pairs intended for use in solar adsorption cooling systems are compared. • A MATLAB program is used to predict the solar coefficient of performance. • Maximal adsorption capacity is obtained by activated carbon fibre/methanol

  2. UV-vis, IR and 1H NMR spectroscopic studies and characterization of ionic-pair crystal violet-oxytetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Sandra; Soto, César; Toral, M. Inés

    2010-01-01

    The present study shows the formation and characterization of the ionic-pair between the antibiotic oxytetracycline and the dye crystal violet in ammonia solution pH 9.0 ± 0.2 extracted into chloroform. The characterization was demonstrated using UV-vis spectrophotometry, 1H NMR, measurement of relaxation times T1 and IR spectroscopy, using a comparison between the signals of individual pure compounds with the signals with the mixture CV-OTC in different alkaline media. The formation of ionic-pair was also corroborated by new signals and chemical shifts. (2D) NMR spectroscopy experiments show that the interaction is electrostatic.

  3. A configuration space of homologous proteins conserving mutual information and allowing a phylogeny inference based on pair-wise Z-score probabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Maréchal Eric; Ortet Philippe; Roy Sylvaine; Bastien Olivier

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Popular methods to reconstruct molecular phylogenies are based on multiple sequence alignments, in which addition or removal of data may change the resulting tree topology. We have sought a representation of homologous proteins that would conserve the information of pair-wise sequence alignments, respect probabilistic properties of Z-scores (Monte Carlo methods applied to pair-wise comparisons) and be the basis for a novel method of consistent and stable phylogenetic recon...

  4. Determination of the pairing-strength constants in the isovector plus isoscalar pairing case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, D.; Fellah, M.; Allal, N. H.

    2016-05-01

    A method for the determination of the pairing-strength constants, in the neutron-proton (n-p) isovector plus isoscalar pairing case, is proposed in the framework of the BCS theory. It is based on the fitting of these constants to reproduce the experimentally known pairing gap parameters as well as the root-mean-squared (r.m.s) charge radii values. The method is applied to some proton-rich even-even nuclei. The single-particle energies used are those of a deformed Woods-Saxon mean field. It is shown that the obtained value of the ratio GnpT=0/G npT=1 is of the same order as the ones, arbitrary chosen, of some previous works. The effect of the inclusion of the isoscalar n-p pairing in the r.m.s matter radii is then numerically studied for the same nuclei.

  5. Differences in methodologies used for externality assessment. Why are the numbers different?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, Lotte

    1999-06-01

    During the last few years, externalities related to power production technologies have been calculated making use of different methodologies. The external costs may turn out to be very different for the same fuel cycle depending on the methodology that has been used to assess the externalities. The report gives a review of different valuation issues, which are used in different externality studies and focuses on why the numbers often are different for the same fuel cycle, using different methodologies for assessment of the externalities. The review of externality valuation focuses in this report on the assessment of environmental externalities. Importance has been attached to health effects, as these are the dominating effects in the external costs. Other effects are only mentioned on a superior level. The report points out different parameters, which are important to consider when externalities estimated for the same fuel cycle in different studies are compared. 8 studies have been chosen for further analysis and comparison in order to show the variation in external costs. The comparison shows the importance of possessing knowledge of which kind of methodologies have been used, which impacts are included etc. to explain why the numbers vary so much in different studies for the same fuel cycle. As an example a comparison of the impacts and damage costs related to air emissions has been made for three studies using different methodologies. The external costs are estimated for the same reference plant using the dispersion models, dose-response functions, impacts and monetary values from the three studies. The estimates from the three studies are compared two and two, and a more detailed analysis is performed in relation to human health, which is the dominating impact in all externality studies. (au) EFP-97. 29 tabs., 12 ills., 34 refs.

  6. Differences in methodologies used for externality assessment. Why are the numbers different?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleisner, Lotte

    1999-06-01

    During the last few years, externalities related to power production technologies have been calculated making use of different methodologies. The external costs may turn out to be very different for the same fuel cycle depending on the methodology that has been used to assess the externalities. The report gives a review of different valuation issues, which are used in different externality studies and focuses on why the numbers often are different for the same fuel cycle, using different methodologies for assessment of the externalities. The review of externality valuation focuses in this report on the assessment of environmental externalities. Importance has been attached to health effects, as these are the dominating effects in the external costs. Other effects are only mentioned on a superior level. The report points out different parameters, which are important to consider when externalities estimated for the same fuel cycle in different studies are compared. 8 studies have been chosen for further analysis and comparison in order to show the variation in external costs. The comparison shows the importance of possessing knowledge of which kind of methodologies have been used, which impacts are included etc. to explain why the numbers vary so much in different studies for the same fuel cycle. As an example a comparison of the impacts and damage costs related to air emissions has been made for three studies using different methodologies. The external costs are estimated for the same reference plant using the dispersion models, dose-response functions, impacts and monetary values from the three studies. The estimates from the three studies are compared two and two, and a more detailed analysis is performed in relation to human health, which is the dominating impact in all externality studies. (au) EFP-97. 29 tabs., 12 ills., 34 refs

  7. New insights in the capability of climate models to simulate the impact of LUC based on temperature decomposition of paired site observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Broucke, Sam; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Davin, Edouard L.; Janssens, Ivan; Van Lipzig, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we present a new methodology for evaluating the biogeophysical impact of land use change (LUC) in regional climate models. For this, we use observational data from paired eddy covariance flux towers in Europe, representing a LUC from forest to open land (deforestation). Two model

  8. Analysis of electron pair production in the collision system Ar+KCl at 1.76 AGeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, Simon Martin

    2008-01-01

    The HADES-spectrometer at GSI is used to measure the production of the light vector mesons ρ, ω and φ at SIS energies. Therefore, the medium sized collision system Ar+KCl was measured at 1.76 AGeV kinetic energy of beam particles. In this system the density of particle tracks is much larger as compared to the formerly used collision system C+C, making it necessary to upgrade the data analysis. The previous method of hard-cuts - used for particle identification - was replaced by a newly developed multi-variate analysis based on an artificial neural network. This algorithm has the benefit, that it is more robust against fluctuations in one or more of the used detector observables. This increases the overall efficiency and purity of the analysis procedure. Furthermore, the reconstruction of particle tracks inside the HADES spectrometer is based on a few position information, only. During analysis of raw data, these information are combined to a artificially large manifold of tracks. This leads to the general problem that one has to select the maximum number of true physical tracks out of this set of tracks per event. A new method of track selection is used to filter the data not only to select single tracks, but also to identify electron pairs created during Dalitz-decay of π 0 mesons, which build the bulk of combinatorial background. The result of the analysis is an efficiency corrected invariant mass spectrum of electron pairs, normalized to the mean number of pions per event. The spectrum consists of more than 16,000 pairs with an invariant mass larger than 150 MeV. In total more than 150000 pairs were found. A first comparison with the spectra calculated by using the old analysis approach shows a 30% enhancement in yield of reconstructed electron pairs. A first comparison with a simple thermal model implemented by the Pluto event generator, opens the possibility to compare the measured pair yield of ω and φ mesons via m T -scaling with the yield of η mesons

  9. Affine pairings on ARM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acar, T.; Lauter, K.; Naehrig, M.; Shumow, D.

    2011-01-01

    Pairings on elliptic curves are being used in an increasing number of cryptographic applications on many different devices and platforms, but few performance numbers for cryptographic pairings have been reported on embedded and mobile devices. In this paper we give performance numbers for affine and

  10. Solutions of nuclear pairing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balantekin, A. B.; Pehlivan, Y.

    2007-01-01

    We give the exact solution of orbit dependent nuclear pairing problem between two nondegenerate energy levels using the Bethe ansatz technique. Our solution reduces to previously solved cases in the appropriate limits including Richardson's treatment of reduced pairing in terms of rational Gaudin algebra operators

  11. A philosophical analysis of the general methodology of qualitative research: a critical rationalist perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnick, Abraham

    2014-09-01

    Philosophical discussion of the general methodology of qualitative research, such as that used in some health research, has been inductivist or relativist to date, ignoring critical rationalism as a philosophical approach with which to discuss the general methodology of qualitative research. This paper presents a discussion of the general methodology of qualitative research from a critical rationalist perspective (inspired by Popper), using as an example mental health research. The widespread endorsement of induction in qualitative research is positivist and is suspect, if not false, particularly in relation to the context of justification (or rather theory testing) as compared to the context of discovery (or rather theory generation). Relativism is riddled with philosophical weaknesses and hence it is suspect if not false too. Theory testing is compatible with qualitative research, contrary to much writing about and in qualitative research, as theory testing involves learning from trial and error, which is part of qualitative research, and which may be the form of learning most conducive to generalization. Generalization involves comparison, which is a fundamental methodological requirement of any type of research (qualitative or other); hence the traditional grounding of quantitative and experimental research in generalization. Comparison--rather than generalization--is necessary for, and hence compatible with, qualitative research; hence, the common opposition to generalization in qualitative research is misdirected, disregarding whether this opposition's claims are true or false. In conclusion, qualitative research, similar to quantitative and experimental research, assumes comparison as a general methodological requirement, which is necessary for health research.

  12. Quantifying inbreeding avoidance through extra-pair reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jane M; Arcese, Peter; Keller, Lukas F; Germain, Ryan R; Duthie, A Bradley; Losdat, Sylvain; Wolak, Matthew E; Nietlisbach, Pirmin

    2015-01-01

    Extra-pair reproduction is widely hypothesized to allow females to avoid inbreeding with related socially paired males. Consequently, numerous field studies have tested the key predictions that extra-pair offspring are less inbred than females' alternative within-pair offspring, and that the probability of extra-pair reproduction increases with a female's relatedness to her socially paired male. However, such studies rarely measure inbreeding or relatedness sufficiently precisely to detect subtle effects, or consider biases stemming from failure to observe inbred offspring that die during early development. Analyses of multigenerational song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) pedigree data showed that most females had opportunity to increase or decrease the coefficient of inbreeding of their offspring through extra-pair reproduction with neighboring males. In practice, observed extra-pair offspring had lower inbreeding coefficients than females' within-pair offspring on average, while the probability of extra-pair reproduction increased substantially with the coefficient of kinship between a female and her socially paired male. However, simulations showed that such effects could simply reflect bias stemming from inbreeding depression in early offspring survival. The null hypothesis that extra-pair reproduction is random with respect to kinship therefore cannot be definitively rejected in song sparrows, and existing general evidence that females avoid inbreeding through extra-pair reproduction requires reevaluation given such biases. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. A risk-based sensor placement methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ronald W.; Kulesz, James J.

    2008-01-01

    A risk-based sensor placement methodology is proposed to solve the problem of optimal location of sensors to protect population against the exposure to, and effects of, known and/or postulated chemical, biological, and/or radiological threats. Risk is calculated as a quantitative value representing population at risk from exposure at standard exposure levels. Historical meteorological data are used to characterize weather conditions as the frequency of wind speed and direction pairs. The meteorological data drive atmospheric transport and dispersion modeling of the threats, the results of which are used to calculate risk values. Sensor locations are determined via an iterative dynamic programming algorithm whereby threats detected by sensors placed in prior iterations are removed from consideration in subsequent iterations. In addition to the risk-based placement algorithm, the proposed methodology provides a quantification of the marginal utility of each additional sensor. This is the fraction of the total risk accounted for by placement of the sensor. Thus, the criteria for halting the iterative process can be the number of sensors available, a threshold marginal utility value, and/or a minimum cumulative utility achieved with all sensors

  14. Synergy between pair coupled cluster doubles and pair density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garza, Alejandro J.; Bulik, Ireneusz W. [Department of Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77251-1892 (United States); Henderson, Thomas M. [Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77251-1892 (United States); Scuseria, Gustavo E. [Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77251-1892 (United States); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-01-28

    Pair coupled cluster doubles (pCCD) has been recently studied as a method capable of accounting for static correlation with low polynomial cost. We present three combinations of pCCD with Kohn–Sham functionals of the density and on-top pair density (the probability of finding two electrons on top of each other) to add dynamic correlation to pCCD without double counting. With a negligible increase in computational cost, these pCCD+DFT blends greatly improve upon pCCD in the description of typical problems where static and dynamic correlations are both important. We argue that—as a black-box method with low scaling, size-extensivity, size-consistency, and a simple quasidiagonal two-particle density matrix—pCCD is an excellent match for pair density functionals in this type of fusion of multireference wavefunctions with DFT.

  15. Secure pairing with biometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buhan, I.R.; Boom, B.J.; Doumen, J.M.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    Secure pairing enables two devices that share no prior context with each other to agree upon a security association, which they can use to protect their subsequent communication. Secure pairing offers guarantees of the association partner identity and it should be resistant to eavesdropping and to a

  16. Property (RD) for Hecke Pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirbisheh, Vahid

    2012-01-01

    As the first step towards developing noncommutative geometry over Hecke C ∗ -algebras, we study property (RD) (Rapid Decay) for Hecke pairs. When the subgroup H in a Hecke pair (G, H) is finite, we show that the Hecke pair (G, H) has (RD) if and only if G has (RD). This provides us with a family of examples of Hecke pairs with property (RD). We also adapt Paul Jolissant’s works in Jolissaint (J K-Theory 2:723–735, 1989; Trans Amer Math Soc 317(1):167–196, 1990) to the setting of Hecke C ∗ -algebras and show that when a Hecke pair (G, H) has property (RD), the algebra of rapidly decreasing functions on the set of double cosets is closed under holomorphic functional calculus of the associated (reduced) Hecke C ∗ -algebra. Hence they have the same K 0 -groups.

  17. Investigations into nuclear pairing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is divided in two main sections focusing on different aspects of collective nuclear behavior. In the first section, solutions are considered for the collective pairing Hamiltonian. In particular, an approximate solution at the critical point of the pairing transition from harmonic vibration (normal nuclear behavior) to deformed rotation (superconducting behavior) in gauge space is found by analytic solution of the Hamiltonian. The eigenvalues are expressed in terms of the zeros of Bessel functions of integer order. The results are compared to the pairing bands based on the Pb isotopes. The second section focuses on the experimental search for the Giant Pairing Vibration (GPV) in nuclei. After briefly describing the origin of the GPV, and the reasons that the state has remained unidentified, a novel idea for populating this state is presented. A recent experiment has been performed using the LIBERACE+STARS detector system at the 88-Inch Cyclotron of LBNL to test the idea. (Author)

  18. A natively paired antibody library yields drug leads with higher sensitivity and specificity than a randomly paired antibody library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Adam S; Bedinger, Daniel; Adams, Matthew S; Asensio, Michael A; Edgar, Robert C; Leong, Renee; Leong, Jackson; Mizrahi, Rena A; Spindler, Matthew J; Bandi, Srinivasa Rao; Huang, Haichun; Tawde, Pallavi; Brams, Peter; Johnson, David S

    2018-04-01

    Deep sequencing and single-chain variable fragment (scFv) yeast display methods are becoming more popular for discovery of therapeutic antibody candidates in mouse B cell repertoires. In this study, we compare a deep sequencing and scFv display method that retains native heavy and light chain pairing with a related method that randomly pairs heavy and light chain. We performed the studies in a humanized mouse, using interleukin 21 receptor (IL-21R) as a test immunogen. We identified 44 high-affinity binder scFv with the native pairing method and 100 high-affinity binder scFv with the random pairing method. 30% of the natively paired scFv binders were also discovered with the randomly paired method, and 13% of the randomly paired binders were also discovered with the natively paired method. Additionally, 33% of the scFv binders discovered only in the randomly paired library were initially present in the natively paired pre-sort library. Thus, a significant proportion of "randomly paired" scFv were actually natively paired. We synthesized and produced 46 of the candidates as full-length antibodies and subjected them to a panel of binding assays to characterize their therapeutic potential. 87% of the antibodies were verified as binding IL-21R by at least one assay. We found that antibodies with native light chains were more likely to bind IL-21R than antibodies with non-native light chains, suggesting a higher false positive rate for antibodies from the randomly paired library. Additionally, the randomly paired method failed to identify nearly half of the true natively paired binders, suggesting a higher false negative rate. We conclude that natively paired libraries have critical advantages in sensitivity and specificity for antibody discovery programs.

  19. Comparison of the ESTRO formalism for monitor unit calculation with a Clarkson based algorithm of a treatment planning system and a traditional ''full-scatter'' methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirotta, M.; Aquilina, D.; Bhikha, T.; Georg, D.

    2005-01-01

    The ESTRO formalism for monitor unit (MU) calculations was evaluated and implemented to replace a previous methodology based on dosimetric data measured in a full-scatter phantom. This traditional method relies on data normalised at the depth of dose maximum (z m ), as well as on the utilisation of the BJR 25 table for the conversion of rectangular fields into equivalent square fields. The treatment planning system (TPS) was subsequently updated to reflect the new beam data normalised at a depth z R of 10 cm. Comparisons were then carried out between the ESTRO formalism, the Clarkson-based dose calculation algorithm on the TPS (with beam data normalised at z m and z R ), and the traditional ''full-scatter'' methodology. All methodologies, except for the ''full-scatter'' methodology, separated head-scatter from phantom-scatter effects and none of the methodologies; except for the ESTRO formalism, utilised wedge depth dose information for calculations. The accuracy of MU calculations was verified against measurements in a homogeneous phantom for square and rectangular open and wedged fields, as well as blocked open and wedged fields, at 5, 10, and 20 cm depths, under fixed SSD and isocentric geometries for 6 and 10 MV. Overall, the ESTRO Formalism showed the most accurate performance, with the root mean square (RMS) error with respect to measurements remaining below 1% even for the most complex beam set-ups investigated. The RMS error for the TPS deteriorated with the introduction of a wedge, with a worse RMS error for the beam data normalised at z m (4% at 6 MV and 1.6% at 10 MV) than at z R (1.9% at 6 MV and 1.1% at 10 MV). The further addition of blocking had only a marginal impact on the accuracy of this methodology. The ''full-scatter'' methodology showed a loss in accuracy for calculations involving either wedges or blocking, and performed worst for blocked wedged fields (RMS errors of 7.1% at 6 MV and 5% at 10 MV). The origins of these discrepancies were

  20. Instability of vortex pair leapfrogging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tophøj, Laust; Aref, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Leapfrogging is a periodic solution of the four-vortex problem with two positive and two negative point vortices all of the same absolute circulation arranged as co-axial vortex pairs. The set of co-axial motions can be parameterized by the ratio 0 vortex pair sizes at the time when one...... pair passes through the other. Leapfrogging occurs for α > σ2, where is the silver ratio. The motion is known in full analytical detail since the 1877 thesis of Gröbli and a well known 1894 paper by Love. Acheson ["Instability of vortex leapfrogging," Eur. J. Phys.21, 269-273 (2000...... pairs fly off to infinity, and a "walkabout" mode, where the vortices depart from leapfrogging but still remain within a finite distance of one another. We show numerically that this transition is more gradual, a result that we relate to earlier investigations of chaotic scattering of vortex pairs [L...

  1. Pairing induced superconductivity in holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagrov, Andrey; Meszena, Balazs; Schalm, Koenraad

    2014-09-01

    We study pairing induced superconductivity in large N strongly coupled systems at finite density using holography. In the weakly coupled dual gravitational theory the mechanism is conventional BCS theory. An IR hard wall cut-off is included to ensure that we can controllably address the dynamics of a single confined Fermi surface. We address in detail the interplay between the scalar order parameter field and fermion pairing. Adding an explicitly dynamical scalar operator with the same quantum numbers as the fermion-pair, the theory experiences a BCS/BEC crossover controlled by the relative scaling dimensions. We find the novel result that this BCS/BEC crossover exposes resonances in the canonical expectation value of the scalar operator. This occurs not only when the scaling dimension is degenerate with the Cooper pair, but also with that of higher derivative paired operators. We speculate that a proper definition of the order parameter which takes mixing with these operators into account stays finite nevertheless.

  2. Comparison of two bond strength testing methodologies for bilayered all-ceramics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dundar, Mine; Ozcan, Mutlu; Gokce, Bulent; Comlekoglu, Erhan; Leite, Fabiola; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    Objectives. This study compared the shear bond strength (SBS) and microtensile (MTBS) testing methodologies for core and veneering ceramics in four types of all-ceramic systems. Methods. Four different ceramic veneer/core combinations, three of which were feldspathic and the other a fluor-apatite to

  3. [Paired kidneys in transplant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regueiro López, Juan C; Leva Vallejo, Manuel; Prieto Castro, Rafael; Anglada Curado, Francisco; Vela Jiménez, Francisco; Ruiz García, Jesús

    2009-02-01

    Many factors affect the graft and patient survival on the renal transplant outcome. These factors depend so much of the recipient and donor. We accomplished a study trying to circumvent factors that depend on the donor. We checked the paired kidneys originating of a same donor cadaver. We examined the risk factors in the evolution and follow-up in 278 couples of kidney transplant. We describe their differences, significance, the graft and patient survival, their functionality in 3 and 5 years and the risk factors implicated in their function. We study immunogenic and no immunogenic variables, trying to explain the inferior results in the grafts that are established secondly. We regroup the paired kidneys in those that they did not show paired initial function within the same couple. The results yield a discreet deterioration in the graft and patient survival for second group establish, superior creatinina concentration, without obtaining statistical significance. The Cox regression study establishes the early rejection (inferior to three months) and DR incompatibility values like risk factors. This model of paired kidneys would be able to get close to best-suited form for risk factors analysis in kidney transplant from cadaver donors, if more patients examine themselves in the same way. The paired kidneys originating from the same donor do not show the same function in spite of sharing the same conditions of the donor and perioperative management.

  4. Dual origin of pairing in nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idini, A. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics (Finland); Potel, G. [Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (United States); Barranco, F. [Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Fìsica Aplicada III (Spain); Vigezzi, E., E-mail: enrico.vigezzi@mi.infn.it [INFN Sezione di Milano (Italy); Broglia, R. A. [Università di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    The pairing correlations of the nucleus {sup 120}Sn are calculated by solving the Nambu–Gor’kov equations, including medium polarization effects resulting from the interweaving of quasiparticles, spin and density vibrations, taking into account, within the framework of nuclear field theory (NFT), processes leading to self-energy and vertex corrections and to the induced pairing interaction. From these results one can not only demonstrate the inevitability of the dual origin of pairing in nuclei, but also extract information which can be used at profit to quantitatively disentangle the contributions to the pairing gap Δ arising from the bare and from the induced pairing interaction. The first is the strong {sup 1}S{sub 0} short-range NN potential resulting from meson exchange between nucleons moving in time reversal states within an energy range of hundreds of MeV from the Fermi energy. The second results from the exchange of vibrational modes between nucleons moving within few MeV from the Fermi energy. Short- (v{sub p}{sup bare}) and long-range (v{sub p}{sup ind}) pairing interactions contribute essentially equally to nuclear Cooper pair stability. That is to the breaking of gauge invariance in open-shell superfluid nuclei and thus to the order parameter, namely to the ground state expectation value of the pair creation operator. In other words, to the emergent property of generalized rigidity in gauge space, and associated rotational bands and Cooper pair tunneling between members of these bands.

  5. Dual origin of pairing in nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idini, A.; Potel, G.; Barranco, F.; Vigezzi, E.; Broglia, R. A.

    2016-11-01

    The pairing correlations of the nucleus 120Sn are calculated by solving the Nambu-Gor'kov equations, including medium polarization effects resulting from the interweaving of quasiparticles, spin and density vibrations, taking into account, within the framework of nuclear field theory (NFT), processes leading to self-energy and vertex corrections and to the induced pairing interaction. From these results one can not only demonstrate the inevitability of the dual origin of pairing in nuclei, but also extract information which can be used at profit to quantitatively disentangle the contributions to the pairing gap Δ arising from the bare and from the induced pairing interaction. The first is the strong 1 S 0 short-range NN potential resulting from meson exchange between nucleons moving in time reversal states within an energy range of hundreds of MeV from the Fermi energy. The second results from the exchange of vibrational modes between nucleons moving within few MeV from the Fermi energy. Short- ( v p bare) and long-range ( v p ind) pairing interactions contribute essentially equally to nuclear Cooper pair stability. That is to the breaking of gauge invariance in open-shell superfluid nuclei and thus to the order parameter, namely to the ground state expectation value of the pair creation operator. In other words, to the emergent property of generalized rigidity in gauge space, and associated rotational bands and Cooper pair tunneling between members of these bands.

  6. Comparison of the sanitary effects of energy chains. Methodological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagnani, F.

    1979-01-01

    Beyond technical and economical matters, the development of an industrial technology involves more or less numerous indirect consequences. From this viewpoint, the author analysis the methodological problems raised in evaluating the sanitary and ecological problems of the different energy-producing lines and considers successively the matter of technical interdependences, protection and safety regulations and selection of sites, classification of risks and measuring problems in relation to sanitary effects [fr

  7. Evaluating municipal websites: A methodological comparison of three think-aloud variants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Haak, M.J.; de Jong, M.D.T.; Schellens, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Usability methods have received relatively little methodological attention within the field of E-Government. This paper aims to address this gap by reporting on a usability test of the municipal website of Deventer (the Netherlands), carried out by means of three variants of the think-aloud method

  8. Lewis pair polymerization by classical and frustrated Lewis pairs: Acid, base and monomer scope and polymerization mechanism

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yuetao

    2012-01-01

    Classical and frustrated Lewis pairs (LPs) of the strong Lewis acid (LA) Al(C 6F 5) 3 with several Lewis base (LB) classes have been found to exhibit exceptional activity in the Lewis pair polymerization (LPP) of conjugated polar alkenes such as methyl methacrylate (MMA) as well as renewable α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone (MBL) and γ-methyl- α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone (γ-MMBL), leading to high molecular weight polymers, often with narrow molecular weight distributions. This study has investigated a large number of LPs, consisting of 11 LAs as well as 10 achiral and 4 chiral LBs, for LPP of 12 monomers of several different types. Although some more common LAs can also be utilized for LPP, Al(C 6F 5) 3-based LPs are far more active and effective than other LA-based LPs. On the other hand, several classes of LBs, when paired with Al(C 6F 5) 3, can render highly active and effective LPP of MMA and γ-MMBL; such LBs include phosphines (e.g., P tBu 3), chiral chelating diphosphines, N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs), and phosphazene superbases (e.g., P 4- tBu). The P 4- tBu/Al(C 6F 5) 3 pair exhibits the highest activity of the LP series, with a remarkably high turn-over frequency of 9.6 × 10 4 h -1 (0.125 mol% catalyst, 100% MMA conversion in 30 s, M n = 2.12 × 10 5 g mol -1, PDI = 1.34). The polymers produced by LPs at RT are typically atactic (P γMMBL with ∼47% mr) or syndio-rich (PMMA with ∼70-75% rr), but highly syndiotactic PMMA with rr ∼91% can be produced by chiral or achiral LPs at -78 °C. Mechanistic studies have identified and structurally characterized zwitterionic phosphonium and imidazolium enolaluminates as the active species of the current LPP system, which are formed by the reaction of the monomer·Al(C 6F 5) 3 adduct with P tBu 3 and NHC bases, respectively. Kinetic studies have revealed that the MMA polymerization by the tBu 3P/ Al(C 6F 5) 3 pair is zero-order in monomer concentration after an initial induction period, and the polymerization

  9. Development of a commercial cigarette "market map" comparison methodology for evaluating new or non-conventional cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counts, M E; Hsu, F S; Tewes, F J

    2006-12-01

    A "market map" comparison methodology for cigarette smoke chemistry yields is presented. Federal Trade Commission machine-method smoke chemistry was determined for a range of filtered cigarettes from the US marketplace. These data were used to develop illustrative market maps for each smoke constituent as analytical tools for comparing new or non-conventional cigarettes to a sampling of the broader range of marketplace cigarettes. Each market map contained best-estimate "market-means," showing the relationship between commercial cigarette constituent and tar yields, and yield "market ranges" defined by prediction intervals. These market map means and ranges are the basis for comparing new cigarette smoke yields to those of conventional cigarettes. The potential utility of market maps for evaluating differences in smoke chemistry was demonstrated with 1R4F and 2R4F Kentucky reference cigarettes, an Accord cigarette, and an Advance cigarette. Conventional cigarette tobacco nicotine, nitrate, soluble ammonia, and tobacco specific nitrosamine levels are reported. Differences among conventional cigarette constituent yields at similar tar levels were explained in part by the chemical composition range of those cigarette tobaccos. The study also included a comparison of smoke constituent yields and in vitro smoke cytotoxicity and mutagenicity assay results for the 1R4F Kentucky reference cigarette and its replacement 2R4F. Significant smoke yield differences were noted for lead, NNK, and NNN. The majority of their smoke constituent yields were within the market range developed from the sampled conventional cigarettes. Within the sensitivity and specificity of the in vitro bioassays used, smoke toxic activity differences for the two reference cigarettes were not statistically significant. These results add to the limited information available for the 2R4F reference cigarette.

  10. DFT study on the attacking mechanisms of H and OH radicals to G-C and A-T base pairs in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okutsu, N.; Shimamura, K.; Shimizu, E.; Kurita, N., E-mail: kurita@cs.tut.ac.jp [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi, 441-8580 (Japan); Shulga, S. [Institute for Food Biotechnology and Genomics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine); Danilov, V. I. [Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2016-02-01

    To elucidate the effect of radicals on DNA base pairs, we investigated the attacking mechanism of OH and H radicals to the G-C and A-T base pairs, using the density functional theory (DFT) calculations in water approximated by the continuum solvation model. The DFT calculations revealed that the OH radical abstracts the hydrogen atom of a NH{sub 2} group of G or A base and induces a tautomeric reaction for an A-T base pair more significantly than for a G-C base pair. On the other hand, the H radical prefers to bind to the Cytosine NH{sub 2} group of G-C base pair and induce a tautomeric reaction from G-C to G*-C*, whose activation free energy is considerably small (−0.1 kcal/mol) in comparison with that (42.9 kcal/mol) for the reaction of an A-T base pair. Accordingly, our DFT calculations elucidated that OH and H radicals have a significant effect on A-T and G-C base pairs, respectively. This finding will be useful for predicting the effect of radiation on the genetic information recorded in the base sequences of DNA duplexes.

  11. DFT study on the attacking mechanisms of H and OH radicals to G-C and A-T base pairs in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okutsu, N.; Shimamura, K.; Shimizu, E.; Kurita, N.; Shulga, S.; Danilov, V. I.

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate the effect of radicals on DNA base pairs, we investigated the attacking mechanism of OH and H radicals to the G-C and A-T base pairs, using the density functional theory (DFT) calculations in water approximated by the continuum solvation model. The DFT calculations revealed that the OH radical abstracts the hydrogen atom of a NH 2 group of G or A base and induces a tautomeric reaction for an A-T base pair more significantly than for a G-C base pair. On the other hand, the H radical prefers to bind to the Cytosine NH 2 group of G-C base pair and induce a tautomeric reaction from G-C to G*-C*, whose activation free energy is considerably small (−0.1 kcal/mol) in comparison with that (42.9 kcal/mol) for the reaction of an A-T base pair. Accordingly, our DFT calculations elucidated that OH and H radicals have a significant effect on A-T and G-C base pairs, respectively. This finding will be useful for predicting the effect of radiation on the genetic information recorded in the base sequences of DNA duplexes

  12. Inter comparison of REPAS and APSRA methodologies for passive system reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solanki, R.B.; Krishnamurthy, P.R.; Singh, Suneet; Varde, P.V.; Verma, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing use of passive systems in the innovative nuclear reactors puts demand on the estimation of the reliability assessment of these passive systems. The passive systems operate on the driving forces such as natural circulation, gravity, internal stored energy etc. which are moderately weaker than that of active components. Hence, phenomenological failures (virtual components) are equally important as that of equipment failures (real components) in the evaluation of passive systems reliability. The contribution of the mechanical components to the passive system reliability can be evaluated in a classical way using the available component reliability database and well known methods. On the other hand, different methods are required to evaluate the reliability of processes like thermohydraulics due to lack of adequate failure data. The research is ongoing worldwide on the reliability assessment of the passive systems and their integration into PSA, however consensus is not reached. Two of the most widely used methods are Reliability Evaluation of Passive Systems (REPAS) and Assessment of Passive System Reliability (APSRA). Both these methods characterize the uncertainties involved in the design and process parameters governing the function of the passive system. However, these methods differ in the quantification of passive system reliability. Inter comparison among different available methods provides useful insights into the strength and weakness of different methods. This paper highlights the results of the thermal hydraulic analysis of a typical passive isolation condenser system carried out using RELAP mode 3.2 computer code applying REPAS and APSRA methodologies. The failure surface is established for the passive system under consideration and system reliability has also been evaluated using these methods. Challenges involved in passive system reliabilities are identified, which require further attention in order to overcome the shortcomings of these

  13. Neutron pair and proton pair transfer reactions between identical cores in the sulfur region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mermaz, M.C.

    1995-12-01

    Optical model and exact finite range distorted-wave Born approximation analyses were performed on neutron pair exchange between identical cores for 32 S and 34 S nuclei and on proton pair exchange between identical cores for 30 Si and 32 S. The extracted spectroscopic factors were compared with theoretical ones deduced from Hartree-Fock calculations on these pair of nuclei. The enhancement of the experimental cross sections with respect to the theoretical ones strongly suggests evidence for a nuclear Josephson effect. (author). 15 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Introduction of the hybcell-based compact sequencing technology and comparison to state-of-the-art methodologies for KRAS mutation detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zopf, Agnes; Raim, Roman; Danzer, Martin; Niklas, Norbert; Spilka, Rita; Pröll, Johannes; Gabriel, Christian; Nechansky, Andreas; Roucka, Markus

    2015-03-01

    The detection of KRAS mutations in codons 12 and 13 is critical for anti-EGFR therapy strategies; however, only those methodologies with high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy as well as the best cost and turnaround balance are suitable for routine daily testing. Here we compared the performance of compact sequencing using the novel hybcell technology with 454 next-generation sequencing (454-NGS), Sanger sequencing, and pyrosequencing, using an evaluation panel of 35 specimens. A total of 32 mutations and 10 wild-type cases were reported using 454-NGS as the reference method. Specificity ranged from 100% for Sanger sequencing to 80% for pyrosequencing. Sanger sequencing and hybcell-based compact sequencing achieved a sensitivity of 96%, whereas pyrosequencing had a sensitivity of 88%. Accuracy was 97% for Sanger sequencing, 85% for pyrosequencing, and 94% for hybcell-based compact sequencing. Quantitative results were obtained for 454-NGS and hybcell-based compact sequencing data, resulting in a significant correlation (r = 0.914). Whereas pyrosequencing and Sanger sequencing were not able to detect multiple mutated cell clones within one tumor specimen, 454-NGS and the hybcell-based compact sequencing detected multiple mutations in two specimens. Our comparison shows that the hybcell-based compact sequencing is a valuable alternative to state-of-the-art methodologies used for detection of clinically relevant point mutations.

  15. BATSE gamma-ray burst line search. 2: Bayesian consistency methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, D. L.; Ford, L. A.; Matteson, J. L.; Briggs, M.; Paciesas, W.; Pendleton, G.; Preece, R.; Palmer, D.; Teegarden, B.; Schaefer, B.

    1994-01-01

    We describe a Bayesian methodology to evaluate the consistency between the reported Ginga and Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) detections of absorption features in gamma-ray burst spectra. Currently no features have been detected by BATSE, but this methodology will still be applicable if and when such features are discovered. The Bayesian methodology permits the comparison of hypotheses regarding the two detectors' observations and makes explicit the subjective aspects of our analysis (e.g., the quantification of our confidence in detector performance). We also present non-Bayesian consistency statistics. Based on preliminary calculations of line detectability, we find that both the Bayesian and non-Bayesian techniques show that the BATSE and Ginga observations are consistent given our understanding of these detectors.

  16. Dynamical pairing correlations in rotating nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanski, Z.

    1985-01-01

    When the atomic nucleus rotates fast enough the static pair correlations may be destroyed. In this situation the pair-vibrations become an important manifestation of the short-range attractive pairing force. The influence of this effect on nuclear properties at high spin is discussed. (orig.)

  17. Pair creation at large inherent angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, P.; Tauchi, T.; Schroeder, D.V.

    1992-01-01

    In the next-generation linear colliders, the low-energy e + e - pairs created during the collision of high-energy e + e - beams would cause potential deleterious background problems to the detectors. At low collider energies, the pairs are made essentially by the incoherent process, where the pair is created by the interaction of beamstrahlung photons on the individual particles in the oncoming beam. This problem was first identified by Zolotarev, et al. At energies where the beamstrahlung parameter Υ lies approximately in the range 0.6 approx-lt Υ approx-lt 100, pair creation from the beamstrahlung photons is dominated by a coherent process, first noted by Chen. The seriousness of this pair creation problem lies in the transverse momenta that the pair particles carry when leaving the interaction point (IP) with large angles. Since the central issue is the transverse momentum for particles with large angles, the authors notice that there is another source for it. Namely, when the pair particles are created at low energies, the intrinsic angles of these pairs when produced may already be large. In this paper they reinvestigate the problem, following essentially the same equivalent photon approach, but with changes in specific details including the virtual photon spectrum. In addition, various assumptions are made more explicit. The formulas derived are then applied to the collider parameters designed by Palmer

  18. Radical-pair based avian magnetoreception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procopio, Maria; Ritz, Thorsten

    2014-03-01

    Behavioural experiments suggest that migratory birds possess a magnetic compass sensor able to detect the direction of the geomagnetic. One hypothesis for the basis of this remarkable sensory ability is that the coherent quantum spin dynamics of photoinduced radical pair reactions transduces directional magnetic information from the geomagnetic field into changes of reaction yields, possibly involving the photoreceptor cryptochrome in the birds retina. The suggested radical-pair based avian magnetoreception has attracted attention in the field of quantum biology as an example of a biological sensor which might exploit quantum coherences for its biological function. Investigations on such a spin-based sensor have focussed on uncovering the design features for the design of a biomimetic magnetic field sensor. We study the effects of slow fluctuations in the nuclear spin environment on the directional signal. We quantitatively evaluate the robustness of signals under fluctuations on a timescale longer than the lifetime of a radical pair, utilizing two models of radical pairs. Our results suggest design principles for building a radical-pair based compass sensor that is both robust and highly directional sensitive.

  19. Power of non-parametric linkage analysis in mapping genes contributing to human longevity in long-lived sib-pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Zhao, J H; Iachine, I

    2004-01-01

    This report investigates the power issue in applying the non-parametric linkage analysis of affected sib-pairs (ASP) [Kruglyak and Lander, 1995: Am J Hum Genet 57:439-454] to localize genes that contribute to human longevity using long-lived sib-pairs. Data were simulated by introducing a recently...... developed statistical model for measuring marker-longevity associations [Yashin et al., 1999: Am J Hum Genet 65:1178-1193], enabling direct power comparison between linkage and association approaches. The non-parametric linkage (NPL) scores estimated in the region harboring the causal allele are evaluated...... in case of a dominant effect. Although the power issue may depend heavily on the true genetic nature in maintaining survival, our study suggests that results from small-scale sib-pair investigations should be referred with caution, given the complexity of human longevity....

  20. Heteroditopic receptors for ion-pair recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Anna J; Beer, Paul D

    2012-05-21

    Ion-pair recognition is a new field of research emerging from cation and anion coordination chemistry. Specific types of heteroditopic receptor designs for ion pairs and the complexity of ion-pair binding are discussed to illustrate key concepts such as cooperativity. The importance of this area of research is reflected by the wide variety of potential applications of ion-pair receptors, including applications as membrane transport and salt solubilization agents and sensors. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Assessing Intimacy: The Pair Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Mark T.; Olson, David H.

    1981-01-01

    Personal Assessment of Intimacy in Relationships (PAIR) provides systematic information in five types of intimacy: emotional, social, sexual, intellectual and recreational. PAIR can be used with couples in marital therapy and enrichment groups. (Author)

  2. Asymmetries in heavy quark pair and dijet production at an EIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, Daniël [Van Swinderen Institute for Particle Physics and Gravity, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Mulders, Piet J. [Nikhef and Department of Physics and Astronomy, VU University Amsterdam,De Boelelaan 1081, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pisano, Cristian [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pavia,via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pavia,via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Zhou, Jian [School of physics, Key Laboratory of Particle Physics and Particle Irradiation (MOE),Shandong University,Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China); Nikhef and Department of Physics and Astronomy, VU University Amsterdam,De Boelelaan 1081, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-08-01

    Asymmetries in heavy quark pair and dijet production in electron-proton collisions allow studies of gluon TMDs in close analogy to studies of quark TMDs in semi-inclusive DIS. Here we present expressions for azimuthal asymmetries for both unpolarized and transversely polarized proton cases and consider the maximal asymmetries allowed. The latter are found to be rather sizeable, except in certain kinematic limits which are pointed out. In addition, we consider the small-x limit and expectations from a McLerran-Venugopalan model for unpolarized and linearly polarized gluons and from a perturbative, large transverse momentum calculation for the T-odd gluon TMDs. Comparison to related observables at RHIC and LHC is expected to provide valuable information about the process dependence of the gluon TMDs. In particular this will offer the possibility of a sign change test of the gluon Sivers TMD and two other T-odd gluon TMDs. This provides additional motivation for studies of azimuthal asymmetries in heavy quark pair and dijet production at a future Electron-Ion Collider.

  3. Development of a Long Term Cooling Analysis Methodology Using Rappel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. I.; Jeong, J. H.; Ban, C. H.; Oh, S. J.

    2012-01-01

    Since the revision of the 10CFR50.46 in 1988, which allowed BE (Best-Estimate) method in analyzing the safety performance of a nuclear power plant, safety analysis methodologies have been changed continuously from conservative EM (Evaluation Model) approaches to BE ones. In this context, LSC (Long-Term core Cooling) methodologies have been reviewed by the regulatory bodies of USA and Korea. Some non-conservatism and improperness of the old methodology have been identified, and as a result, USNRC suspended the approval of CENPD-254-P-A which is the old LSC methodology for CE-designed NPPs. Regulatory bodies requested to remove the non-conservatisms and to reflect system transient behaviors in all the LSC methodologies used. In the present study, a new LSC methodology using RELAP5 is developed. RELAP5 and a newly developed code, BACON (Boric Acid Concentration Of Nuclear power plant) are used to calculate the transient behavior of the system and the boric acid concentration, respectively. Full range of break spectrum is considered and the applicability is confirmed through plant demonstration calculations. The result shows a good comparison with the old-fashioned ones, therefore, the methodology could be applied with no significant changes of current LSC plans

  4. Methodology or method? A critical review of qualitative case study reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerida Hyett

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite on-going debate about credibility, and reported limitations in comparison to other approaches, case study is an increasingly popular approach among qualitative researchers. We critically analysed the methodological descriptions of published case studies. Three high-impact qualitative methods journals were searched to locate case studies published in the past 5 years; 34 were selected for analysis. Articles were categorized as health and health services (n=12, social sciences and anthropology (n=7, or methods (n=15 case studies. The articles were reviewed using an adapted version of established criteria to determine whether adequate methodological justification was present, and if study aims, methods, and reported findings were consistent with a qualitative case study approach. Findings were grouped into five themes outlining key methodological issues: case study methodology or method, case of something particular and case selection, contextually bound case study, researcher and case interactions and triangulation, and study design inconsistent with methodology reported. Improved reporting of case studies by qualitative researchers will advance the methodology for the benefit of researchers and practitioners.

  5. Methodology or method? A critical review of qualitative case study reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyett, Nerida; Kenny, Amanda; Dickson-Swift, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Despite on-going debate about credibility, and reported limitations in comparison to other approaches, case study is an increasingly popular approach among qualitative researchers. We critically analysed the methodological descriptions of published case studies. Three high-impact qualitative methods journals were searched to locate case studies published in the past 5 years; 34 were selected for analysis. Articles were categorized as health and health services (n=12), social sciences and anthropology (n=7), or methods (n=15) case studies. The articles were reviewed using an adapted version of established criteria to determine whether adequate methodological justification was present, and if study aims, methods, and reported findings were consistent with a qualitative case study approach. Findings were grouped into five themes outlining key methodological issues: case study methodology or method, case of something particular and case selection, contextually bound case study, researcher and case interactions and triangulation, and study design inconsistent with methodology reported. Improved reporting of case studies by qualitative researchers will advance the methodology for the benefit of researchers and practitioners. PMID:24809980

  6. The impact of methodology in innovation measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelmsen, L.; Bugge, M.; Solberg, E.

    2016-07-01

    Innovation surveys and rankings such as the Community Innovation Survey (CIS) and Innovation Union Scoreboard (IUS) have developed into influential diagnostic tools that are often used to categorize countries according to their innovation performance and to legitimise innovation policies. Although a number of ongoing processes are seeking to improve existing frameworks for measuring innovation, there are large methodological differences across countries in the way innovation is measured. This causes great uncertainty regarding a) the coherence between data from innovation surveys, b) actual innovativeness of the economy, and c) the validity of research based on innovation data. Against this background we explore empirically how different survey methods for measuring innovation affect reported innovation performance. The analysis is based on a statistical exercise comparing the results from three different methodological versions of the same survey for measuring innovation in the business enterprise sector in Norway. We find striking differences in reported innovation performance depending on how the surveys are carried out methodologically. The paper concludes that reported innovation performance is highly sensitive to and strongly conditioned by methodological context. This represents a need for increased caution and awareness around data collection and research based on innovation data, and not least in terms of aggregation of data and cross-country comparison. (Author)

  7. A Comparative Analysis of Two Software Development Methodologies: Rational Unified Process and Extreme Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rafael Borth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Software development methodologies were created to meet the great market demand for innovation, productivity, quality and performance. With the use of a methodology, it is possible to reduce the cost, the risk, the development time, and even increase the quality of the final product. This article compares two of these development methodologies: the Rational Unified Process and the Extreme Programming. The comparison shows the main differences and similarities between the two approaches, and highlights and comments some of their predominant features.

  8. High spin exotic states and new method for pairing energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molique, H.

    1996-01-01

    We present a new method called 'PSY-MB', initially developed in the framework of abstract group theory for the solution of the problem of strongly interacting multi-fermionic systems with particular to systems in an external rotating field. The validity of the new method (PSY-MB) is tested on model Hamiltonians. A detailed comparison between the obtained solutions and the exact ones is performed. The new method is used in the study of realistic nuclear Hamiltonians based on the Woods-Saxon potential within the cranking approximation to study the influence of residual monopole pairing interactions in the rare-earth mass region. In parallel with this new technique we present original results obtained with the Woods-Saxon mean-field and the self-consistent Hartree-Fock approximation in order to investigate such exotic effects as octupole deformations and hexadecapole C 4 -polarizing deformations in the framework of high-spin physics. By developing these three approaches in one single work we prepare the ground for the nuclear structure calculations of the new generation - where the residual two-body interactions are taken into account also in the weak pairing limit. (author)

  9. New quickest transient detection methodology. Nuclear engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xin; Jevremovic, Tatjana; Tsoukalas, Lefteri H.

    2003-01-01

    A new intelligent systems methodology for quickest online transient detection is presented. Based on information that includes, but is not limited to, statistical features, energy of frequency components and wavelet coefficients, the new methodology decides whether a transient has emerged. A fuzzy system makes the final decision, the membership functions of which are obtained by artificial neural networks and adjusted in an online manner. Comparisons are performed with conventional methods for transient detection using simulated and plant data. The proposed methodology could be useful in power plant operations, diagnostic and maintenance activities. It is also considered as a design tool for quick design modifications in a virtual design environment aimed at next generation University Research and Training Reactors (URTRs). (The virtual design environment is pursued as part of the Big-10 Consortium sponsored by the new Innovations in Nuclear Infrastructure and Education (INIE) program sponsored by the US Department of Energy.) (author)

  10. Systematic methodology for estimating direct capital costs for blanket tritium processing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology developed for estimating the relative capital costs of blanket processing systems. The capital costs of the nine blanket concepts selected in the Blanket Comparison and Selection Study are presented and compared

  11. Pairing field methods to improve inference in wildlife surveys while accommodating detection covariance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, John; McKinney, Shawn T; DePue, John E; Loftin, Cynthia S

    2017-10-01

    It is common to use multiple field sampling methods when implementing wildlife surveys to compare method efficacy or cost efficiency, integrate distinct pieces of information provided by separate methods, or evaluate method-specific biases and misclassification error. Existing models that combine information from multiple field methods or sampling devices permit rigorous comparison of method-specific detection parameters, enable estimation of additional parameters such as false-positive detection probability, and improve occurrence or abundance estimates, but with the assumption that the separate sampling methods produce detections independently of one another. This assumption is tenuous if methods are paired or deployed in close proximity simultaneously, a common practice that reduces the additional effort required to implement multiple methods and reduces the risk that differences between method-specific detection parameters are confounded by other environmental factors. We develop occupancy and spatial capture-recapture models that permit covariance between the detections produced by different methods, use simulation to compare estimator performance of the new models to models assuming independence, and provide an empirical application based on American marten (Martes americana) surveys using paired remote cameras, hair catches, and snow tracking. Simulation results indicate existing models that assume that methods independently detect organisms produce biased parameter estimates and substantially understate estimate uncertainty when this assumption is violated, while our reformulated models are robust to either methodological independence or covariance. Empirical results suggested that remote cameras and snow tracking had comparable probability of detecting present martens, but that snow tracking also produced false-positive marten detections that could potentially substantially bias distribution estimates if not corrected for. Remote cameras detected marten

  12. Incorporating stakeholders' preferences for ex ante evaluation of energy and climate policy interactions. Development of a Multi Criteria Analysis weighting methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grafakos, S.; Zevgolis, D.; Oikonomou, V.

    2008-03-01

    Evaluation of energy and climate policy interactions is a complex issue which has not been addressed systematically. Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) evaluation processes have been applied widely to different policy and decision cases as they have the ability to cope with high complexity, by structuring and analyzing the policy problem in a transparent and systematic way. Criteria weights elicitation techniques are developed within the framework of MCDA to integrate stakeholders' preferential information in the decision making and evaluation process. There are variant methods to determine criteria weights which can be used in various ways for different policy evaluation purposes. During decision making, policy makers and relevant stakeholders implicitly or explicitly express their relative importance between the evaluation criteria by assigning weighting factors to them. More particular, climate change policy problems lack a simple, transparent and structured way to incorporate stakeholders' views and values. In order to incorporate stakeholders' weighting preferences into an ex ante evaluation of climate change and energy policy instruments interaction, an integrative constructive weighting methodology has been developed. This paper presents the main characteristics of evaluation of energy and climate policy interactions, the reasoning behind the development of the weighting tool, its main theoretical and functional characteristics and the results of its application to obtain and incorporate stakeholders' preferences on energy and climate change policy evaluation criteria. The weighting method that has been elaborated and applied to derive stakeholders' preferences for criteria weights is a combination of pair wise comparisons and ratio importance weighting methods. Initially introduces the stakeholders to the evaluation process through a warming up holistic approach for ranking the criteria and then requires them to express their ratio relative importance

  13. Development of double-pair double difference location algorithm and its application to the regular earthquakes and non-volcanic tremors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H.; Zhang, H.

    2016-12-01

    Relocating high-precision earthquakes is a central task for monitoring earthquakes and studying the structure of earth's interior. The most popular location method is the event-pair double-difference (DD) relative location method, which uses the catalog and/or more accurate waveform cross-correlation (WCC) differential times from event pairs with small inter-event separations to the common stations to reduce the effect of the velocity uncertainties outside the source region. Similarly, Zhang et al. [2010] developed a station-pair DD location method which uses the differential times from common events to pairs of stations to reduce the effect of the velocity uncertainties near the source region, to relocate the non-volcanic tremors (NVT) beneath the San Andreas Fault (SAF). To utilize advantages of both DD location methods, we have proposed and developed a new double-pair DD location method to use the differential times from pairs of events to pairs of stations. The new method can remove the event origin time and station correction terms from the inversion system and cancel out the effects of the velocity uncertainties near and outside the source region simultaneously. We tested and applied the new method on the northern California regular earthquakes to validate its performance. In comparison, among three DD location methods, the new double-pair DD method can determine more accurate relative locations and the station-pair DD method can better improve the absolute locations. Thus, we further proposed a new location strategy combining station-pair and double-pair differential times to determine accurate absolute and relative locations at the same time. For NVTs, it is difficult to pick the first arrivals and derive the WCC event-pair differential times, thus the general practice is to measure station-pair envelope WCC differential times. However, station-pair tremor locations are scattered due to the low-precision relative locations. The ability that double-pair data

  14. Methodology for development of risk indicators for offshore platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeien, K.; Sklet, S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a generic methodology for development of risk indicators for petroleum installations and a specific set of risk indicators established for one offshore platform. The risk indicators should be used to control the risk during operation of platforms. The methodology is purely risk-based and the basis for development of risk indicators is the platform specific quantitative risk analysis (QRA). In order to identify high risk contributing factors, platform personnel are asked to assess whether and how much the risk influencing factors will change. A brief comparison of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for nuclear power plants and quantitative risk analysis (QRA) for petroleum platforms is also given. (au)

  15. Evaluation of safeguards procedures: a summary of a methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salisbury, J.D.; Savage, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    A methodology for the evaluation of safeguards procedures is described. As presently conceptualized, the methodology will consist of the following steps: (1) expansion of the general protection requirements that are contained in the NRC regulations into more detailed but still generic requirements for use at the working level; (2) development of techniques and formats for using the working-level requirements in an evaluation; (3) development of a technique for converting specific facility protection procedures into a format that will allow comparison with the working-level requirements; (4) development of an evaluation technique for comparing the facility protection procedures to determine if they meet the protection requirements

  16. Selective methodology of population dynamics for optimizing a multiobjective environment of job shop production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a methodology based on population genetics to improve the performance of two or more variables in job shop production systems. The methodology applies a genetic algorithm with special features in the individual selection when they pass from generation to generation. In comparison with the FIFO method, the proposed methodology showed better results in the variables makespan, idle time and energy cost. When compared with NSGA II, the methodology did not showed relevant differences in makespan and idle time; however better performance was obtained in energy cost and, especially, in the number of required iterations to get the optimal makespan.

  17. Renormalization-group improved fully differential cross sections for top pair production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broggio, A.; Papanastasiou, A.S.; Signer, A.; Zuerich Univ.

    2014-07-01

    We extend approximate next-to-next-to-leading order results for top-pair production to include the semi-leptonic decays of top quarks in the narrow-width approximation. The new hard-scattering kernels are implemented in a fully differential parton-level Monte Carlo that allows for the study of any IR-safe observable constructed from the momenta of the decay products of the top. Our best predictions are given by approximate NNLO corrections in the production matched to a fixed order calculation with NLO corrections in both the production and decay subprocesses. Being fully differential enables us to make comparisons between approximate results derived via different (PIM and 1PI) kinematics for arbitrary distributions. These comparisons reveal that the renormalization-group framework, from which the approximate results are derived, is rather robust in the sense that applying a realistic error estimate allows us to obtain a reliable prediction with a reduced theoretical error for generic observables and analysis cuts.

  18. Introduction and comparison of new EBSD post-processing methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Stuart I.; Nowell, Matthew M.; Lindeman, Scott P. [EDAX, 392 East 12300 South, Suite H, Draper, UT 84020 (United States); Camus, Patrick P. [EDAX, 91 McKee Drive, Mahwah, NJ 07430 (United States); De Graef, Marc [Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Material Science and Engineering, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Jackson, Michael A. [BlueQuartz Software, 400 S. Pioneer Blvd, Springboro, OH 45066 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) provides a useful means for characterizing microstructure. However, it can be difficult to obtain index-able diffraction patterns from some samples. This can lead to noisy maps reconstructed from the scan data. Various post-processing methodologies have been developed to improve the scan data generally based on correlating non-indexed or mis-indexed points with the orientations obtained at neighboring points in the scan grid. Two new approaches are introduced (1) a re-scanning approach using local pattern averaging and (2) using the multiple solutions obtained by the triplet indexing method. These methodologies are applied to samples with noise introduced into the patterns artificially and by the operational settings of the EBSD camera. They are also applied to a heavily deformed and a fine-grained sample. In all cases, both techniques provide an improvement in the resulting scan data, the local pattern averaging providing the most improvement of the two. However, the local pattern averaging is most helpful when the noise in the patterns is due to the camera operating conditions as opposed to inherent challenges in the sample itself. A byproduct of this study was insight into the validity of various indexing success rate metrics. A metric based given by the fraction of points with CI values greater than some tolerance value (0.1 in this case) was confirmed to provide an accurate assessment of the indexing success rate. - Highlights: • Re-indexing of saved EBSD patterns after neighbor pattern averaging can provide significant improvements on the indexing success rate particularly with noisy patterns. • Neighbor pattern averaging is most effective on patterns where noise is introduced by the camera operating conditions as opposed to inherent challenges presented by the sample itself. • Confidence Index based metrics are confirmed to generally provide accurate estimates of the indexing success rate albeit increasingly

  19. Stability of non-Watson-Crick G-A/A-G base pair in synthetic DNA and RNA oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yuko; Sone, Yumiko; Mizutani, Takaharu

    2004-03-01

    A non-Watson-Crick G-A/A-G base pair is found in SECIS (selenocysteine-insertion sequence) element in the 3'-untranslated region of Se-protein mRNAs and in the functional site of the hammerhead ribozyme. We studied the stability of G-A/A-G base pair (bold) in 17mer GT(U)GACGGAAACCGGAAC synthetic DNA and RNA oligonucleotides by thermal melting experiments and gel electrophoresis. The measured Tm value of DNA oligonucleotide having G-A/A-G pair showed an intermediate value (58 degrees C) between that of Watson-Crick G-C/C-G base pair (75 degrees C) and that of G-G/A-A of non-base-pair (40 degrees C). Similar thermal melting patterns were obtained with RNA oligonucleotides. This result indicates that the secondary structure of oligonucleotide having G-A/A-G base pair is looser than that of the G-C type Watson-Crick base pair. In the comparison between RNA and DNA having G-A/A-G base pair, the Tm value of the RNA oligonucleotide was 11 degrees C lower than that of DNA, indicating that DNA has a more rigid structure than RNA. The stained pattern of oligonucleotide on polyacrylamide gel clarified that the mobility of the DNA oligonucleotide G-A/A-G base pair changed according to the urea concentration from the rigid state (near the mobility of G-C/C-G oligonucleotide) in the absence of urea to the random state (near the mobility of G-G/A-A oligonucleotide) in 7 M urea. However, the RNA oligonucleotide with G-A/A-G pair moved at an intermediate mobility between that of oligonucleotide with G-C/C-G and of the oligonucleotide with G-G/A-A, and the mobility pattern did not depend on urea concentration. Thus, DNA and RNA oligonucleotides with the G-A/A-G base pair showed a pattern indicating an intermediate structure between the rigid Watson-Crick base pair and the random structure of non-base pair. RNA with G-A/A-G base pair has the intermediate structure not influenced by urea concentration. Finally, this study indicated that the intermediate rigidity imparted by Non

  20. On line filtering of events in an experiment dedicated to the production of massive muon pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froberger, J.P.

    1980-07-01

    The NA10 experiment is dedicated to the inclusive production of pairs of massive muons in hadronic collisions, particularly in pion-nucleon collisions. This experiment allows the testing of the Drell-Yan model that describes the production process. The detector is composed of 8 proportional multiwire chambers. This work presents the development of an algorithm able to filter and select adequate events from the data flowing from the detector. Simulations show that the program running on GESPRO system is able to compute the mass of the muon pairs and to take the decision to ban or not the event in less than 20 μs. In the first chapter the author describes the Drell-Yan model. The methodology to analyse data and select adequate events is given in the second chapter. The algorithm is developed in the third chapter and tested with simulations in the fourth chapter. (A.C.)

  1. Discontinuous Galerkin time-domain analysis of power/ground plate pairs with wave port excitation

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ping; Jiang, Li Jun; Bagci, Hakan

    2018-01-01

    In this work, a discontinuous Galerkin time-domain method is developed to analyze the power/ground plate pairs taking into account arbitrarily shaped antipads. To implement proper source excitations over the antipads, the magnetic surface current expanded by the electric eigen-modes supported by the corresponding antipad is employed as the excitation. For irregularly shaped antipads, the eigen-modes are obtained by numerical approach. Accordingly, the methodology for the S-parameter extraction is derived based on the orthogonal properties of the different modes. Based on the approach, the transformation between different modes can be readily evaluated.

  2. Discontinuous Galerkin time-domain analysis of power/ground plate pairs with wave port excitation

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ping

    2018-04-06

    In this work, a discontinuous Galerkin time-domain method is developed to analyze the power/ground plate pairs taking into account arbitrarily shaped antipads. To implement proper source excitations over the antipads, the magnetic surface current expanded by the electric eigen-modes supported by the corresponding antipad is employed as the excitation. For irregularly shaped antipads, the eigen-modes are obtained by numerical approach. Accordingly, the methodology for the S-parameter extraction is derived based on the orthogonal properties of the different modes. Based on the approach, the transformation between different modes can be readily evaluated.

  3. Theoretical and Methodological Aspects of Assessment of the Adaptation Potential of Personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesina Iryna M.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to development of theoretical and methodological recommendations with respect to assessment of the adaptation potential of employees as an important prerequisite of development of employees and ensuring competitiveness of an enterprise. It contains the author’s interpretation of the adaptation potential as a possibility of adjusting to the environment with the aim of achieving socio-economic goals of an enterprise. Adaptation potential is a property of a person as a performer of labour functions and ability to master new methods of work, adjustment to new labour conditions, processing of information and also a communicative property. At the same time adaptation potential is an aggregate of motivational, professional, information and integration components of a person. For assessing the adaptation potential it is proposed to combine 360 degrees method and method of paired comparison, which facilitates increase of trustworthiness of results. The author marks out some criteria of assessment of the adaptation potential: ratio of professional experience, ratio of official experience, ratio of efficiency of work, independence in mastering new methods of work, fast adjustment to new labour conditions, ability to quickly process big volumes of information, mobility, high level of productivity under different labour conditions, sharpness of wit in different production situations, ability to form interpersonal relations in a collective and psychological features.

  4. Pair shell model description of collective motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hsitseng; Feng Dahsuan

    1996-01-01

    The shell model in the pair basis has been reviewed with a case study of four particles in a spherical single-j shell. By analyzing the wave functions according to their pair components, the novel concept of the optimum pairs was developed which led to the proposal of a generalized pair mean-field method to solve the many-body problem. The salient feature of the method is its ability to handle within the framework of the spherical shell model a rotational system where the usual strong configuration mixing complexity is so simplified that it is now possible to obtain analytically the band head energies and the moments of inertia. We have also examined the effects of pair truncation on rotation and found the slow convergence of adding higher spin pairs. Finally, we found that when the SDI and Q .Q interactions are of equal strengths, the optimum pair approximation is still valid. (orig.)

  5. Some peculiarities of conjoined hadroproduction of standard Higgs boson and heavy quark pair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagdasaryan, A.S.; Egoryan, R.Sh.; Grigoryan, S.G.; Matinyan, S.G.

    1986-01-01

    A contribution to total cross section of conjoined hadroproduction of the H 0 -boson and the heavy quark pair Q and Q-bar (Q=c, b, t,...) from the H 0 -boson ''gluonic'' production diagrams (the so-called GGH-diagrams) is being discussed. A comparison is carried out between contributions to total cross sections from the GGH-diagrams and the H 0 -boson ''direct'' quark production diagrams (QH-diagrams). It is shown that with increasing M H the enhancement effect of the GGH contribution ''enters the game''

  6. Comparisons and Lessons Learned

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, PA; van der Voordt, Theo; Coenen, C; Sarasoja, AL; van der Voordt, DJM; Jensen, PA; Coenen, C

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To create an overview and evaluation of the achievements of the contributions in this book by identifying, summarising and discussing cross-cutting themes and essential learning points across the former chapters.
    Methodology: Based on a purposeful reading of all chapters comparisons are

  7. Topological Nodal Cooper Pairing in Doped Weyl Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Haldane, F. D. M.

    2018-02-01

    We generalize the concept of Berry connection of the single-electron band structure to that of a two-particle Cooper pairing state between two Fermi surfaces with opposite Chern numbers. Because of underlying Fermi surface topology, the pairing Berry phase acquires nontrivial monopole structure. Consequently, pairing gap functions have topologically protected nodal structure as vortices in the momentum space with the total vorticity solely determined by the pair monopole charge qp. The nodes of gap function behave as the Weyl-Majorana points of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes pairing Hamiltonian. Their relation with the connection patterns of the surface modes from the Weyl band structure and the Majorana surface modes inside the pairing gap is also discussed. Under the approximation of spherical Fermi surfaces, the pairing symmetry are represented by monopole harmonic functions. The lowest possible pairing channel carries angular momentum number j =|qp|, and the corresponding gap functions are holomorphic or antiholomorphic functions on Fermi surfaces. After projected on the Fermi surfaces with nontrivial topology, all the partial-wave channels of pairing interactions acquire the monopole charge qp independent of concrete pairing mechanism.

  8. Kramers Pairs in configuration interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avery, John Scales; Avery, James Emil

    2003-01-01

    The theory of symmetry-preserving Kramers pair creation operators is reviewed and formulas for applying these operators to configuration interaction calculations are derived. A new and more general type of symmetry-preserving pair creation operator is proposed and shown to commute with the total ...

  9. Pairing properties of realistic effective interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargano A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the pairing properties of an effective shell-model interaction defined within a model space outside 132Sn and derived by means of perturbation theory from the CD-Bonn free nucleon-nucleon potential. It turns out that the neutron pairing component of the effective interaction is significantly weaker than the proton one, which accounts for the large pairing gap difference observed in the two-valence identical particle nuclei 134Sn and 134Te. The role of the contribution arising from one particle-one hole excitations in determining the pairing force is discussed and its microscopic structure is also analyzed in terms of the multipole decomposition.

  10. Finding Maximal Pairs with Bounded Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Lyngsø, Rune B.; Pedersen, Christian N. S.

    1999-01-01

    . In this paper we present methods for finding all maximal pairs under various constraints on the gap. In a string of length n we can find all maximal pairs with gap in an upper and lower bounded interval in time O(n log n+z) where z is the number of reported pairs. If the upper bound is removed the time reduces...... to O(n+z). Since a tandem repeat is a pair where the gap is zero, our methods can be seen as a generalization of finding tandem repeats. The running time of our methods equals the running time of well known methods for finding tandem repeats....

  11. Measurements of air kerma index in computed tomography: a comparison among methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, T. C.; Mourao, A. P.; Da Silva, T. A.

    2016-10-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has become the most important and widely used technique for diagnosis purpose. As CT exams impart high doses to patients in comparison to other radiologist techniques, reliable dosimetry is required. Dosimetry in CT is done in terms of air kerma index in air or in a phantom measured by a pencil ionization chamber under a single X-ray tube rotation. In this work, a comparison among CT dosimetric quantities measured by an UNFORS pencil ionization chamber, MTS-N RADOS thermoluminescent dosimeters and GAFCHROMIC XR-CT radiochromic film was done. The three dosimetric systems were properly calibrated in X-ray reference radiations in a calibration laboratory. CT dosimetric quantities were measured in CT Bright Speed GE Medical Systems Inc., scanner in a PMMA trunk phantom and a comparison among the three dosimetric techniques was done. (Author)

  12. Measurements of air kerma index in computed tomography: a comparison among methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, T. C.; Mourao, A. P.; Da Silva, T. A., E-mail: alonso@cdtn.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Programa de Ciencia y Tecnicas Nucleares, Av. Pres. Antonio Carlos 6627, Pampulha, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    Computed tomography (CT) has become the most important and widely used technique for diagnosis purpose. As CT exams impart high doses to patients in comparison to other radiologist techniques, reliable dosimetry is required. Dosimetry in CT is done in terms of air kerma index in air or in a phantom measured by a pencil ionization chamber under a single X-ray tube rotation. In this work, a comparison among CT dosimetric quantities measured by an UNFORS pencil ionization chamber, MTS-N RADOS thermoluminescent dosimeters and GAFCHROMIC XR-CT radiochromic film was done. The three dosimetric systems were properly calibrated in X-ray reference radiations in a calibration laboratory. CT dosimetric quantities were measured in CT Bright Speed GE Medical Systems Inc., scanner in a PMMA trunk phantom and a comparison among the three dosimetric techniques was done. (Author)

  13. Effects of Worked Examples, Example-Problem Pairs, and Problem-Example Pairs Compared to Problem Solving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gog, Tamara; Kester, Liesbeth; Paas, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Van Gog, T., Kester, L., & Paas, F. (2010, August). Effects of worked examples, example-problem pairs, and problem-example pairs compared to problem solving. Paper presented at the Biannual EARLI SIG meeting of Instructional design and Learning and instruction with computers, Ulm, Germany.

  14. Study of electron pair production below the Z mass at the CERN anti pp collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alitti, J.; Ambrosini, G.; Ansari, R.; Autiero, D.; Bareyre, P.; Bertram, I.A.; Blaylock, G.; Bonamy, P.; Borer, K.; Bourliaud, M.; Buskulic, D.; Carboni, G.; Cavalli, D.; Cavasinni, V.; Cenci, P.; Chollet, J.C.; Conta, C.; Costa, G.; Costantini, F.; Cozzi, L.; Cravero, A.; Curatolo, M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; DelPrete, T.; DeWolf, R.S.; DiLella, L.; Ducros, Y.; Egan, G.F.; Einsweiler, K.F.; Esposito, B.; Fayard, L.; Federspiel, A.; Ferrari, R.; Fraternali, M.; Froidevaux, D.; Fumagalli, G.; Gaillard, J.M.; Gianotti, F.; Gildemeister, O.; Goessling, C.; Goggi, V.G.; Gruenendahl, S.; Hara, K.; Hellman, S.; Hrivnac, J.; Hufnagel, H.; Hugentobler, E.; Hultqvist, K.; Iacopini, E.; Incandela, J.; Jakobs, K.; Jenni, P.; Kluge, E.E.; Kurz, N.; Lami, S.; Lariccia, P.; Lefebvre, M.; Linssen, L.; Livan, M.; Lubrano, P.; Magneville, C.; Mandelli, L.; Mapelli, L.; Mazzanti, M.; Meier, K.; Merkel, B.; Meyer, J.P.; Moniez, M.; Moning, R.; Morganti, M.; Mueller, L.; Munday, D.J.; Nessi, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Onions, C.; Pal, T.; Parker, M.A.; Parrour, G.; Pastore, F.; Pennacchio, E.; Pentney, J.; Pepe, M.; Perini, L.; Petridou, C.; Petroff, P.; Plothow-Besch, H.; Polesello, G.; Poppleton, A.; Pretzl, K.; Primavera, M.; Punturo, M.; Repellin, J.P.; Rimoldi, A.; Sacchi, M.; Scampoli, P.; Schacher, J.; Schmidt, B.; Simak, V.; Singh, S.L.; Sondermann, V.; Spiwoks, R.; Stapnes, S.; Talamonti, C.; Tondini, F.; Tovey, S.N.; Tsesmelis, E.; Unal, G.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Vercesi, V.; Weidberg, A.R.; Wells, P.S.; White, T.O.; Wood, D.R.; Wotton, S.A.; Zaccone, H.; Zylberstein, A.

    1992-01-01

    Results on the cross section for the production of electron pairs in anti pp collisions at √s=630 GeV are presented. The measured value is σ=405±51 (syst.)±84(syst.) pb, in the variant mass interval 10 s 2 ) QCD contributions. The comparison of these data with those of lower energy experiments show approximate scaling as a function of the variable √τ=m/√s. (orig.)

  15. The Archaeoastronomy of Tomnaverie Recumbent Stone Circle: A Comparison of Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Henty

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The way we view the past is constantly modified by new evidence and methodological advances. Archaeological data is gleaned from the ground and archaeoastronomical evidence considers the use of the sky in relation to the archaeological record. Since the beginning of the 20th  century the two disciplines of archaeology and archaeoastronomy have flirted with one another but there has never been a satisfactory marriage. This paper looks at the Recumbent Stone Circles (RSCs of north-east Scotland to examine the methodologies, and compare the results, of both disciplines. The RSCs are a distinctive type of stone circle characterised by a large recumbent stone which is flanked on either side by a tall pillar. This recumbent arrangement is almost invariably located in the south-west of the circle. RSCs are generally located near the summits of low hills and enjoy clear horizon views. Over the years they have been the subject of extensive research. This research will be reviewed and Tomnaverie RSC will be singled out as a special case study to examine whether there still needs to be a divide between the disciplines.

  16. Effect of pairing on nuclear dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scamps, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Pairing correlations is an essential component for the description of the atomic nuclei. The effects of pairing on static property of nuclei are now well known. In this thesis, the effect of pairing on nuclear dynamics is investigated. Theories that includes pairing are benchmarked in a model case. The TDHF+BCS theory turns out to be a good compromise between the physics taken into account and the numerical cost. This TDHF+BCS theory was retained for realistic calculations. Nevertheless, the application of pairing in the BCS approximation may induce new problems due to (1) the particle number symmetry breaking, (2) the non-conservation of the continuity equation. These difficulties are analysed in detail and solutions are proposed. In this thesis, a 3 dimensional TDHF+BCS code is developed to simulate the nuclear dynamic. Applications to giant resonances show that pairing modify only the low lying peaks. The high lying collective components are only affected by the initial conditions. An exhaustive study of the giant quadrupole resonances with the TDHF+BCS theory is performed on more than 700 spherical or deformed nuclei. Is is shown that the TDHF+BCS theory reproduces well the collective energy of the resonance. After validation on the small amplitude limit problem, the approach was applied to study nucleon transfer in heavy ion reactions. A new method to extract transfer probabilities is introduced. It is demonstrated that pairing significantly increases the two-nucleon transfer probability. (author) [fr

  17. Investigation on the ion pair amphiphiles and their in vitro release of amantadine drug based on PLGA–PEG–PLGA gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiaoxia; Ji, Xiaoqing; Shi, Chunhuan; Liu, Jing; Wang, Haiyang; Luan, Yuxia

    2014-01-01

    The amantadine drug and oleic acid surfactant are used to form amantadine-based ion pair amphiphiles based on proton transfer reaction between the drug and the surfactant molecules. The ion pair amphiphiles are characterized by 1 H-nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Self-assembly properties of amantadine-based ion pair amphiphiles are studied by surface tension determination, transmission electron microscopy, zeta potential, and dynamic light scattering. The aggregation behavior studies indicate that the as-prepared ion pair amphiphiles can self-assemble into vesicles with the size of 200–300 nm in aqueous solution. The drug release results show that the amantadine release rate could be well controlled by incorporating the amantadine-based ion pair vesicles in poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid)-poly (ethylene glycol)-poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA–PEG–PLGA) copolymer hydrogel. The drug release from the AT–OA vesicle-loaded PLGA–PEG–PLGA hydrogel is significantly inhibited in comparison with the AT-loaded PLGA–PEG–PLGA hydrogel. The present work thus demonstrates that the vesicle-loaded hydrogel is a good candidate for the drug delivery system with long-term controlled drug release behavior

  18. Junctionless Cooper pair transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arutyunov, K. Yu., E-mail: konstantin.yu.arutyunov@jyu.fi [National Research University Higher School of Economics , Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics, 101000 Moscow (Russian Federation); P.L. Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems RAS , Moscow 119334 (Russian Federation); Lehtinen, J.S. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., Centre for Metrology MIKES, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Junctionless Cooper pair box. • Quantum phase slips. • Coulomb blockade and gate modulation of the Coulomb gap. - Abstract: Quantum phase slip (QPS) is the topological singularity of the complex order parameter of a quasi-one-dimensional superconductor: momentary zeroing of the modulus and simultaneous 'slip' of the phase by ±2π. The QPS event(s) are the dynamic equivalent of tunneling through a conventional Josephson junction containing static in space and time weak link(s). Here we demonstrate the operation of a superconducting single electron transistor (Cooper pair transistor) without any tunnel junctions. Instead a pair of thin superconducting titanium wires in QPS regime was used. The current–voltage characteristics demonstrate the clear Coulomb blockade with magnitude of the Coulomb gap modulated by the gate potential. The Coulomb blockade disappears above the critical temperature, and at low temperatures can be suppressed by strong magnetic field.

  19. Agroforestry practices, runoff, and nutrient loss: a paired watershed comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udawatta, Ranjith P; Krstansky, J John; Henderson, Gray S; Garrett, Harold E

    2002-01-01

    A paired watershed study consisting of agroforestry (trees plus grass buffer strips), contour strips (grass buffer strips), and control treatments with a corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotation was used to examine treatment effects on runoff, sediment, and nutrient losses. During the (1991-1997) calibration and subsequent three-year treatment periods, runoff was measured in 0.91- and 1.37-m H-flumes with bubbler flow meters. Composite samples were analyzed for sediment, total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), nitrate, and ammonium. Calibration equations developed to predict runoff, sediment, and nutrients losses explained 66 to 97% of the variability between treatment watersheds. The contour strip and agroforestry treatments reduced runoff by 10 and 1% during the treatment period. In both treatments, most runoff reductions occurred in the second and third years after treatment establishment. The contour strip treatment reduced erosion by 19% in 1999, while erosion in the agroforestry treatment exceeded the predicted loss. Treatments reduced TP loss by 8 and 17% on contour strip and agroforestry watersheds. Treatments did not result in reductions in TN during the first two years of the treatment period. The contour strip and agroforestry treatments reduced TN loss by 21 and 20%, respectively, during a large precipitation event in the third year. During the third year of treatments, nitrate N loss was reduced 24 and 37% by contour strip and agroforestry treatments. Contour strip and agroforestry management practices effectively reduced nonpoint-source pollution in runoff from a corn-soybean rotation in the clay pan soils of northeastern Missouri.

  20. Full top quark mass dependence in Higgs boson pair production at NLO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borowka, S.; Greiner, N. [Institute for Physics, Universität Zürich,Winterthurerstr.190, 8057 Zürich (Switzerland); Heinrich, G.; Jones, S.P.; Kerner, M.; Schlenk, J.; Zirke, T. [Max-Planck-Institute for Physics,Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany)

    2016-10-20

    We study the effects of the exact top quark mass-dependent two-loop corrections to Higgs boson pair production by gluon fusion at the LHC and at a 100 TeV hadron collider. We perform a detailed comparison of the full next-to-leading order result to various approximations at the level of differential distributions and also analyse non-standard Higgs self-coupling scenarios. We find that the different next-to-leading order approximations differ from the full result by up to 50 percent in relevant differential distributions. This clearly stresses the importance of the full NLO result.

  1. On the comparison of group performance with categorical data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Herrero

    Full Text Available There are many different evaluation problems that involve several groups (societies, firms or institutions whose members can be classified into ordered categories, pursuant to their characteristics or their achievements. This paper addresses these types of problems and provides an evaluation criterion based on the distribution of the agents across categories. The starting point is that of dominance relations in pair-wise comparisons. We say that group i dominates group j when the expected category of a member of i is higher than the expected category of a member of j. We introduce the notion of relative advantage of a group to extend this principle to multi-group comparisons and show that there is a unique evaluation function that ranks all groups consistently in terms of this criterion. This function associates to each evaluation problem the (unique dominant eigenvector of a matrix whose entries describe the dominance relations between groups in pair-wise comparisons. The working of the model is illustrated by means of three different applications.

  2. PAIR'14 / PAIR'15 STUDENT CONFERENCES ON PLANNING IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND ROBOTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Foreword

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dear Readerthe original idea of the student conference on “Planning in Artificial Intelligence and Robotics” (PAIR is to join young researchers from particular laboratories in Czech Republic, where planning problems are investigated from artificial intelligence (AI or robotics points of view. The first year of PAIR has been organized at the Dept. of Computer Science, Faculty Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in 2014.At PAIR 2014, laboratories from Prague and Brno were presented. In particular, students and researchers from Charles University, Czech Technical University in Prague, Brno University of Technology, and Central European Institute of Technology participated at the event. Beside an introduction of the particular research groups and their topics, students presented contributions on their current research results. Ten papers were presented on topics ranging from domain–independent planning, trajectory planning to applications for unmanned aerial and legged robots. This first event provides us an initial experience with the community of young researchers in Czech Republic that are working planning in robotic or AI. Based on the success of PAIR 2014, we decided to continue with our effort to establish a suitable fora for students that are geographically very close, but usually do not meet, because of participation on different Robotics and AI events.The second student conference on Planning in Artificial Intelligence and Robotics (PAIR 2015 successfully continues the tradition of the first year of the conference organized in Prague. This year, the conference was collocated with 10th anniversary of RoboTour contest in Písek. This format enable us to extend the impact of the PAIR conference and improve the visibility of the growing student community. The conference reached a good amount of interesting papers focused on image processing for mobile robots, swarm control, driving simulation, robot control, or domain

  3. Process perspective on image quality evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisti, Tuomas; Halonen, Raisa; Kokkonen, Anna; Weckman, Hanna; Mettänen, Marja; Lensu, Lasse; Ritala, Risto; Oittinen, Pirkko; Nyman, Göte

    2008-01-01

    The psychological complexity of multivariate image quality evaluation makes it difficult to develop general image quality metrics. Quality evaluation includes several mental processes and ignoring these processes and the use of a few test images can lead to biased results. By using a qualitative/quantitative (Interpretation Based Quality, IBQ) methodology, we examined the process of pair-wise comparison in a setting, where the quality of the images printed by laser printer on different paper grades was evaluated. Test image consisted of a picture of a table covered with several objects. Three other images were also used, photographs of a woman, cityscape and countryside. In addition to the pair-wise comparisons, observers (N=10) were interviewed about the subjective quality attributes they used in making their quality decisions. An examination of the individual pair-wise comparisons revealed serious inconsistencies in observers' evaluations on the test image content, but not on other contexts. The qualitative analysis showed that this inconsistency was due to the observers' focus of attention. The lack of easily recognizable context in the test image may have contributed to this inconsistency. To obtain reliable knowledge of the effect of image context or attention on subjective image quality, a qualitative methodology is needed.

  4. Ground Receiving Station Reference Pair Selection Technique for a Minimum Configuration 3D Emitter Position Estimation Multilateration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmalik Shehu Yaro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multilateration estimates aircraft position using the Time Difference Of Arrival (TDOA with a lateration algorithm. The Position Estimation (PE accuracy of the lateration algorithm depends on several factors which are the TDOA estimation error, the lateration algorithm approach, the number of deployed GRSs and the selection of the GRS reference used for the PE process. Using the minimum number of GRSs for 3D emitter PE, a technique based on the condition number calculation is proposed to select the suitable GRS reference pair for improving the accuracy of the PE using the lateration algorithm. Validation of the proposed technique was performed with the GRSs in the square and triangular GRS configuration. For the selected emitter positions, the result shows that the proposed technique can be used to select the suitable GRS reference pair for the PE process. A unity condition number is achieved for GRS pair most suitable for the PE process. Monte Carlo simulation result, in comparison with the fixed GRS reference pair lateration algorithm, shows a reduction in PE error of at least 70% for both GRS in the square and triangular configuration.

  5. Modernising educational programmes in ICT based on the Tuning methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bedny

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An analysis is presented of the experience of modernising undergraduate educational programs using the TUNING methodology, based on the example of the area of studies “Fundamental computer science and information technology” (FCSIT implemented at Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod (Russia. The algorithm for reforming curricula for the subject area of information technology in accordance with the TUNING methodology is explained. A comparison is drawn between the existing Russian and European standards in the area of ICT education, including the European e-Competence Framework, with the focus on relevant competences. Some guidelines for the preparation of educational programmes are also provided.

  6. Application of integrated fuzzy VIKOR & AHP methodology to contractor ranking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Rahim Ramezaniyan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Contractor selection is a critical activity, which plays an important role in the overall success of any construction project. The implementation of fuzzy multiple criteria decision attribute (MCDA in selecting contractors has the advantage of rendering subjective and implicit decision making more objective and transparent. An additional merit of fuzzy MCDA is the ability to accommodate quantitative and qualitative information. In this paper, an integrated VIKOR–AHP methodology is proposed to make a selection among the alternative contractors in one of Iranian construction industry projects. In the proposed methodology, the weights of the selection criteria are determined by fuzzy pairwise comparison matrices of AHP.

  7. Doctoral Program Selection Using Pairwise Comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadisina, Suresh K.; Bhasin, Vijay

    1989-01-01

    The application of a pairwise comparison methodology (Saaty's Analytic Hierarchy Process) to the doctoral program selection process is illustrated. A hierarchy for structuring and facilitating the doctoral program selection decision is described. (Author/MLW)

  8. Pairing gaps from nuclear mean-field models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, M.; Rutz, K.; Maruhn, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the pairing gap, a measure for nuclear pairing correlations, in chains of spherical, semi-magic nuclei in the framework of self-consistent nuclear mean-field models. The equations for the conventional BCS model and the approximate projection-before-variation Lipkin-Nogami method are formulated in terms of local density functionals for the effective interaction. We calculate the Lipkin-Nogami corrections of both the mean-field energy and the pairing energy. Various definitions of the pairing gap are discussed as three-point, four-point and five-point mass-difference formulae, averaged matrix elements of the pairing potential, and single-quasiparticle energies. Experimental values for the pairing gap are compared with calculations employing both a delta pairing force and a density-dependent delta interaction in the BCS and Lipkin-Nogami model. Odd-mass nuclei are calculated in the spherical blocking approximation which neglects part of the the core polarization in the odd nucleus. We find that the five-point mass difference formula gives a very robust description of the odd-even staggering, other approximations for the gap may differ from that up to 30% for certain nuclei. (orig.)

  9. Exploring Pair Programming Benefits for MIS Majors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April H. Reed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pair programming is a collaborative programming practice that places participants in dyads, working in tandem at one computer to complete programming assignments. Pair programming studies with Computer Science (CS and Software Engineering (SE majors have identified benefits such as technical productivity, program/design quality, academic performance, and increased satisfaction for their participants. In this paper, pair programming is studied with Management Information Systems (MIS majors, who (unlike CS and SE majors taking several programming courses typically take only one programming course and often struggle to develop advanced programming skills within that single course. The researchers conducted two pair programming experiments in an introductory software development course for MIS majors over three semesters to determine if pair programming could enhance learning for MIS students. The program results, researchers’ direct observations, and participants’ responses to a survey questionnaire were analyzed after each experiment. The results indicate that pair programming appears to be beneficial to MIS students’ technical productivity and program design quality, specifically the ability to create programs using high-level concepts. Additionally, results confirmed increased student satisfaction and reduced frustration, as the pairs worked collaboratively to produce a program while actively communicating and enjoying the process.

  10. Differential environmental factors in anorexia nervosa: a sibling pair study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, F; Troop, N A; Treasure, J L

    2000-06-01

    Previous studies have explored differences in psychosocial and familial factors between women who develop anorexia nervosa and those who do not. However, these studies have generally used between-group comparisons. This study looks at the environmental factors which may be antecedents of anorexia nervosa looking at sister pairs where one had anorexia nervosa and the other did not. A paired design was used to compare anorexic women with an unaffected sister on a number of background variables, including sibling interaction, parental care, peer group characteristics and other events unique to the individual. The Sibling Inventory of Differential Experience (SIDE) was used to determine non-shared environment. Out of an initial sample of 148 women with past or current anorexia nervosa, 28 were identified who had sisters with no reported history of eating disorders and who also consented to complete the questionnaire. Anorexic sisters perceived more maternal control and reported more antagonism towards and jealousy of their sisters than did unaffected sisters. In addition, anorexic women reported having had fewer friends and boyfriends than their sisters. These results confirm the perceived differences in background environment between women with and women without anorexia nervosa. These issues are discussed in relation to behavioural genetics, family dynamics and psychosexual development.

  11. Development of a simplified statistical methodology for nuclear fuel rod internal pressure calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyu Tae; Kim, Oh Hwan

    1999-01-01

    A simplified statistical methodology is developed in order to both reduce over-conservatism of deterministic methodologies employed for PWR fuel rod internal pressure (RIP) calculation and simplify the complicated calculation procedure of the widely used statistical methodology which employs the response surface method and Monte Carlo simulation. The simplified statistical methodology employs the system moment method with a deterministic statistical methodology employs the system moment method with a deterministic approach in determining the maximum variance of RIP. The maximum RIP variance is determined with the square sum of each maximum value of a mean RIP value times a RIP sensitivity factor for all input variables considered. This approach makes this simplified statistical methodology much more efficient in the routine reload core design analysis since it eliminates the numerous calculations required for the power history-dependent RIP variance determination. This simplified statistical methodology is shown to be more conservative in generating RIP distribution than the widely used statistical methodology. Comparison of the significances of each input variable to RIP indicates that fission gas release model is the most significant input variable. (author). 11 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  12. From determinism and probability to chaos: chaotic evolution towards philosophy and methodology of chaotic optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yan

    2015-01-01

    We present and discuss philosophy and methodology of chaotic evolution that is theoretically supported by chaos theory. We introduce four chaotic systems, that is, logistic map, tent map, Gaussian map, and Hénon map, in a well-designed chaotic evolution algorithm framework to implement several chaotic evolution (CE) algorithms. By comparing our previous proposed CE algorithm with logistic map and two canonical differential evolution (DE) algorithms, we analyse and discuss optimization performance of CE algorithm. An investigation on the relationship between optimization capability of CE algorithm and distribution characteristic of chaotic system is conducted and analysed. From evaluation result, we find that distribution of chaotic system is an essential factor to influence optimization performance of CE algorithm. We propose a new interactive EC (IEC) algorithm, interactive chaotic evolution (ICE) that replaces fitness function with a real human in CE algorithm framework. There is a paired comparison-based mechanism behind CE search scheme in nature. A simulation experimental evaluation is conducted with a pseudo-IEC user to evaluate our proposed ICE algorithm. The evaluation result indicates that ICE algorithm can obtain a significant better performance than or the same performance as interactive DE. Some open topics on CE, ICE, fusion of these optimization techniques, algorithmic notation, and others are presented and discussed.

  13. From Determinism and Probability to Chaos: Chaotic Evolution towards Philosophy and Methodology of Chaotic Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We present and discuss philosophy and methodology of chaotic evolution that is theoretically supported by chaos theory. We introduce four chaotic systems, that is, logistic map, tent map, Gaussian map, and Hénon map, in a well-designed chaotic evolution algorithm framework to implement several chaotic evolution (CE) algorithms. By comparing our previous proposed CE algorithm with logistic map and two canonical differential evolution (DE) algorithms, we analyse and discuss optimization performance of CE algorithm. An investigation on the relationship between optimization capability of CE algorithm and distribution characteristic of chaotic system is conducted and analysed. From evaluation result, we find that distribution of chaotic system is an essential factor to influence optimization performance of CE algorithm. We propose a new interactive EC (IEC) algorithm, interactive chaotic evolution (ICE) that replaces fitness function with a real human in CE algorithm framework. There is a paired comparison-based mechanism behind CE search scheme in nature. A simulation experimental evaluation is conducted with a pseudo-IEC user to evaluate our proposed ICE algorithm. The evaluation result indicates that ICE algorithm can obtain a significant better performance than or the same performance as interactive DE. Some open topics on CE, ICE, fusion of these optimization techniques, algorithmic notation, and others are presented and discussed. PMID:25879067

  14. From Determinism and Probability to Chaos: Chaotic Evolution towards Philosophy and Methodology of Chaotic Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Pei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present and discuss philosophy and methodology of chaotic evolution that is theoretically supported by chaos theory. We introduce four chaotic systems, that is, logistic map, tent map, Gaussian map, and Hénon map, in a well-designed chaotic evolution algorithm framework to implement several chaotic evolution (CE algorithms. By comparing our previous proposed CE algorithm with logistic map and two canonical differential evolution (DE algorithms, we analyse and discuss optimization performance of CE algorithm. An investigation on the relationship between optimization capability of CE algorithm and distribution characteristic of chaotic system is conducted and analysed. From evaluation result, we find that distribution of chaotic system is an essential factor to influence optimization performance of CE algorithm. We propose a new interactive EC (IEC algorithm, interactive chaotic evolution (ICE that replaces fitness function with a real human in CE algorithm framework. There is a paired comparison-based mechanism behind CE search scheme in nature. A simulation experimental evaluation is conducted with a pseudo-IEC user to evaluate our proposed ICE algorithm. The evaluation result indicates that ICE algorithm can obtain a significant better performance than or the same performance as interactive DE. Some open topics on CE, ICE, fusion of these optimization techniques, algorithmic notation, and others are presented and discussed.

  15. Materials selection as an interdisciplinary technical activity: basic methodology and case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ferrante

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The technical activity known as Materials Selection is reviewed in its concepts and methodologies. Objectives and strategies are briefly presented and two important features are introduced and discussed; (i Merit Indices: a combination of materials properties, which maximises the objectives chosen by the designer and (ii Materials Properties Maps: a bi-dimensional space whose coordinates are pairs of properties in which materials can be plotted and compared directly in terms of their merit indices. A general strategy for the deduction of these indices is explained and a formal methodology to establish a ranking of candidate materials when multiple constraints intervene is presented. Finally, two case studies are discussed in depth, one related to materials substitution in the context of mechanical design and a less conventional case linking material selection to physical comfort in the home furniture industry.

  16. Evaluation of dose from kV cone-beam computed tomography during radiotherapy: a comparison of methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, J.; Wilkinson, D.; Malaroda, A.; Metcalfe, P.

    2017-01-01

    Three alternative methodologies to the Computed-Tomography Dose Index for the evaluation of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography dose are compared, the Cone-Beam Dose Index, IAEA Human Health Report No. 5 recommended methodology and the AAPM Task Group 111 recommended methodology. The protocols were evaluated for Pelvis and Thorax scan modes on Varian® On-Board Imager and Truebeam kV XI imaging systems. The weighted planar average dose was highest for the AAPM methodology across all scans, with the CBDI being the second highest overall. A 17.96% and 1.14% decrease from the TG-111 protocol to the IAEA and CBDI protocols for the Pelvis mode and 18.15% and 13.10% decrease for the Thorax mode were observed for the XI system. For the OBI system, the variation was 16.46% and 7.14% for Pelvis mode and 15.93% to the CBDI protocol in Thorax mode respectively.

  17. A configuration space of homologous proteins conserving mutual information and allowing a phylogeny inference based on pair-wise Z-score probabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, Olivier; Ortet, Philippe; Roy, Sylvaine; Maréchal, Eric

    2005-03-10

    Popular methods to reconstruct molecular phylogenies are based on multiple sequence alignments, in which addition or removal of data may change the resulting tree topology. We have sought a representation of homologous proteins that would conserve the information of pair-wise sequence alignments, respect probabilistic properties of Z-scores (Monte Carlo methods applied to pair-wise comparisons) and be the basis for a novel method of consistent and stable phylogenetic reconstruction. We have built up a spatial representation of protein sequences using concepts from particle physics (configuration space) and respecting a frame of constraints deduced from pair-wise alignment score properties in information theory. The obtained configuration space of homologous proteins (CSHP) allows the representation of real and shuffled sequences, and thereupon an expression of the TULIP theorem for Z-score probabilities. Based on the CSHP, we propose a phylogeny reconstruction using Z-scores. Deduced trees, called TULIP trees, are consistent with multiple-alignment based trees. Furthermore, the TULIP tree reconstruction method provides a solution for some previously reported incongruent results, such as the apicomplexan enolase phylogeny. The CSHP is a unified model that conserves mutual information between proteins in the way physical models conserve energy. Applications include the reconstruction of evolutionary consistent and robust trees, the topology of which is based on a spatial representation that is not reordered after addition or removal of sequences. The CSHP and its assigned phylogenetic topology, provide a powerful and easily updated representation for massive pair-wise genome comparisons based on Z-score computations.

  18. A configuration space of homologous proteins conserving mutual information and allowing a phylogeny inference based on pair-wise Z-score probabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maréchal Eric

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Popular methods to reconstruct molecular phylogenies are based on multiple sequence alignments, in which addition or removal of data may change the resulting tree topology. We have sought a representation of homologous proteins that would conserve the information of pair-wise sequence alignments, respect probabilistic properties of Z-scores (Monte Carlo methods applied to pair-wise comparisons and be the basis for a novel method of consistent and stable phylogenetic reconstruction. Results We have built up a spatial representation of protein sequences using concepts from particle physics (configuration space and respecting a frame of constraints deduced from pair-wise alignment score properties in information theory. The obtained configuration space of homologous proteins (CSHP allows the representation of real and shuffled sequences, and thereupon an expression of the TULIP theorem for Z-score probabilities. Based on the CSHP, we propose a phylogeny reconstruction using Z-scores. Deduced trees, called TULIP trees, are consistent with multiple-alignment based trees. Furthermore, the TULIP tree reconstruction method provides a solution for some previously reported incongruent results, such as the apicomplexan enolase phylogeny. Conclusion The CSHP is a unified model that conserves mutual information between proteins in the way physical models conserve energy. Applications include the reconstruction of evolutionary consistent and robust trees, the topology of which is based on a spatial representation that is not reordered after addition or removal of sequences. The CSHP and its assigned phylogenetic topology, provide a powerful and easily updated representation for massive pair-wise genome comparisons based on Z-score computations.

  19. Magnetized pair Bose gas: relativistic superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daicic, J.; Frankel, N.E.; Kowalenko, V.

    1993-01-01

    The magnetized Bose gas at temperatures above pair threshold is investigated. New magnetization laws are obtained for a wide range of field strengths, and the gas is shown to exhibit the Meissner effect. Some related results for the Fermi gas, a relativistic paramagnet, are also discussed. It is concluded that the pair gases, through the interplay between pair creation, temperature, field strength, statistics and/in the case of fermions/spin, have remarkable magnetic properties. 14 refs

  20. Nuclear scissors mode with pairing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balbutsev, E. B.; Malov, L. A.; Schuck, P.; Urban, M.; Vinas, X.

    2008-01-01

    The coupled dynamics of the scissors mode and the isovector giant quadrupole resonance are studied using a generalized Wigner function moments method, taking into account pair correlations. Equations of motion for angular momentum, quadrupole moment, and other relevant collective variables are derived on the basis of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov equations. Analytical expressions for energy centroids and transition probabilities are found for the harmonic-oscillator model with the quadrupole-quadrupole residual interaction and monopole pairing force. Deformation dependences of energies and B(M1) values are correctly reproduced. The inclusion of pair correlations leads to a drastic improvement in the description of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the scissors mode.

  1. Pair housing for female longtailed and rhesus macaques in the laboratory: behavior in protected contact versus full contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kate C; Crockett, Carolyn M; Lee, Grace H; Oettinger, Brooke C; Schoof, Valérie; Thom, Jinhee P

    2012-01-01

    Pair housing for caged macaques in the laboratory generally allows unrestricted tactile contact but, less commonly, may involve limited contact via grooming-contact bars or perforated panels. The purpose of using this protected contact housing, which prevents entry into pair-mates' cages, typically is to accommodate research and management requirements. The study used behavioral data collected on 12 pairs of female longtailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) at the Washington National Primate Research Center and 7 pairs of female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) housed at the Tulane National Primate Research Center to assess the relative benefits of protected versus full protected contact. The study collected data in stable pairs housed first in protected contact followed by full contact. Species combined, the study found the presence of the panel was associated with lower levels of social grooming and higher levels of self-grooming, abnormal behavior, and tension-related behavior. Within species, only the protected- versus full-contact contrasts for abnormal and tension were statistically significant-and only for rhesus macaques. Results suggest that for female rhesus macaques, potential disadvantages or inconveniences of full contact should be balanced against the improved behavioral profile in comparison to protected contact. The use of protected contact among female longtailed macaques does not appear to require the same cost-benefit analysis. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  2. An Entropic Approach for Pair Trading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Yoshikawa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we derive the optimal boundary for pair trading. This boundary defines the points of entry into or exit from the market for a given stock pair. However, if the assumed model contains uncertainty, the resulting boundary could result in large losses. To avoid this, we develop a more robust strategy by accounting for the model uncertainty. To incorporate the model uncertainty, we use the relative entropy as a penalty function in the expected profit from pair trading.

  3. Joint sub-carrier pairing and resource allocation for cognitive networks with adaptive relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza; Bader, F.; Shaat, M.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2013-01-01

    Relayed transmission in a cognitive radio (CR) environment could be used to increase the coverage and capacity of communication system that benefits already from the efficient management of the spectrum developed by CR. Furthermore, there are many types of cooperative communications, including decode-and-forward (DAF) and amplify-and-forward (AAF). In this paper, these techniques are combined in an adaptive mode to benefit from its forwarding advantages; this mode is called adaptive relaying protocol (ARP). Moreover, this work focuses on the joint power allocation in a cognitive radio system in a cooperative mode that operates ARP in multi-carrier mode. The multi-carrier scenario is used in an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) mode, and the problem is formulated to maximize the end-to-end rate by searching the best power allocation at the transmitters. This work includes, besides the ARP model, a sub-carrier pairing strategy that allows the relays to switch to the best sub-carrier pairs to increase the throughput. The optimization problem is formulated and solved under the interference and power budget constraints using the sub-gradient algorithm. The simulation results confirm the efficiency of the proposed adaptive relaying protocol in comparison to other relaying techniques. The results show also the consequence of the choice of the pairing strategy. 2013 Stolojescu-Crisan and Isar; licensee Springer.

  4. Joint sub-carrier pairing and resource allocation for cognitive networks with adaptive relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza

    2013-11-09

    Relayed transmission in a cognitive radio (CR) environment could be used to increase the coverage and capacity of communication system that benefits already from the efficient management of the spectrum developed by CR. Furthermore, there are many types of cooperative communications, including decode-and-forward (DAF) and amplify-and-forward (AAF). In this paper, these techniques are combined in an adaptive mode to benefit from its forwarding advantages; this mode is called adaptive relaying protocol (ARP). Moreover, this work focuses on the joint power allocation in a cognitive radio system in a cooperative mode that operates ARP in multi-carrier mode. The multi-carrier scenario is used in an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) mode, and the problem is formulated to maximize the end-to-end rate by searching the best power allocation at the transmitters. This work includes, besides the ARP model, a sub-carrier pairing strategy that allows the relays to switch to the best sub-carrier pairs to increase the throughput. The optimization problem is formulated and solved under the interference and power budget constraints using the sub-gradient algorithm. The simulation results confirm the efficiency of the proposed adaptive relaying protocol in comparison to other relaying techniques. The results show also the consequence of the choice of the pairing strategy. 2013 Stolojescu-Crisan and Isar; licensee Springer.

  5. Alexander-equivalent Zariski pairs of irreducible sextics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eyral, Christophe; Oka, Mutsuo

    2009-01-01

    The existence of Alexander-equivalent Zariski pairs dealing with irreducible curves of degree 6 was proved by Degtyarev. However, no explicit example of such a pair is available (only the existence is known) in the literature. In this paper, we construct the first concrete example.......The existence of Alexander-equivalent Zariski pairs dealing with irreducible curves of degree 6 was proved by Degtyarev. However, no explicit example of such a pair is available (only the existence is known) in the literature. In this paper, we construct the first concrete example....

  6. Quality assessment of images displayed on LCD screen with local backlight dimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantel, Claire; Burini, Nino; Korhonen, Jari

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a subjective experiment collecting quality assessment of images displayed on a LCD with local backlight dimming using two methodologies: absolute category ratings and paired-comparison. Some well-known objective quality metrics are then applied to the stimuli and their respect...

  7. Municipal solid waste composition: Sampling methodology, statistical analyses, and case study evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Jensen, Morten Bang; Götze, Ramona

    2015-01-01

    Sound waste management and optimisation of resource recovery require reliable data on solid waste generation and composition. In the absence of standardised and commonly accepted waste characterisation methodologies, various approaches have been reported in literature. This limits both...... comparability and applicability of the results. In this study, a waste sampling and sorting methodology for efficient and statistically robust characterisation of solid waste was introduced. The methodology was applied to residual waste collected from 1442 households distributed among 10 individual sub......-areas in three Danish municipalities (both single and multi-family house areas). In total 17 tonnes of waste were sorted into 10-50 waste fractions, organised according to a three-level (tiered approach) facilitating,comparison of the waste data between individual sub-areas with different fractionation (waste...

  8. Proton-neutron correlations in a broken-pair model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akkermans, J.N.L.

    1981-01-01

    In this thesis nuclear-structure calculations are reported which were performed with the broken-pair model. The model which is developed, is an extension of existing broken-pair models in so far that it includes both proton and neutron valence pairs. The relevant formalisms are presented. In contrast to the number-non-conserving model, a proton-neutron broken-pair model is well suited to study the correlations which are produced by the proton-neutron interaction. It is shown that the proton-neutron force has large matrix elements which mix the proton- with neutron broken-pair configurations. This occurs especially for Jsup(PI)=2 + and 3 - pairs. This property of the proton-neutron force is used to improve the spectra of single-closed shell nuclei, where particle-hole excitations of the closed shell are a special case of broken-pair configurations. Using Kr and Te isotopes it is demonstrated that the proton-neutron force gives rise to correlated pair structures, which remain remarkably constant with varying nucleon numbers. (Auth.)

  9. Thermodynamics of pairing phase transition in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, Afaque; Ahmad, Shakeb

    2014-01-01

    The pairing gaps, pairing energy, heat capacity and entropy are calculated within BCS (Bardeen- Cooper-Schrieffer) based quasi particle approach, including thermal fluctuations on pairing field within pairing model for all nuclei (light, medium, heavy and super heavy nuclei). Quasi particles approach in BCS theory was introduced and reformulated to study various properties. For thermodynamic behavior of nuclei at finite temperatures, the anomalous averages of creation and annihilation operators are introduced. It is solved self consistently at finite temperatures to obtain BCS Hamiltonian. After doing unitary transformation, we obtained the Hamiltonian in the diagonal form. Thus, one gets temperature dependence gap parameter and pairing energy for nuclei. Moreover, the energy at finite temperatures is the sum of the condensation energy and the thermal energy of fermionic quasi particles. With the help of BCS Hamiltonian, specific heat, entropy and free energy are calculated for different nuclei. In this paper the gap parameter occupation number and pairing energy as a function of temperature which is important for all the light, medium, heavy and super heavy nuclei is calculated. Moreover, the various thermo dynamical quantities like specific heat, entropy and free energy is also obtained for different nuclei. Thus, the thermodynamics of pairing phase transition in nuclei is studied

  10. Left auditory cortex is involved in pairwise comparisons of the direction of frequency modulated tones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole eAngenstein

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating series of complex sounds like those in speech and music requires sequential comparisons to extract task-relevant relations between subsequent sounds. With the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study, we investigated whether sequential comparison of a specific acoustic feature within pairs of tones leads to a change in lateralized processing in the auditory cortex of humans. For this we used the active categorization of the direction (up versus down of slow frequency modulated (FM tones. Several studies suggest that this task is mainly processed in the right auditory cortex. These studies, however, tested only the categorization of the FM direction of each individual tone. In the present study we ask the question whether the right lateralized processing changes when, in addition, the FM direction is compared within pairs of successive tones. For this we use an experimental approach involving contralateral noise presentation in order to explore the contributions made by the left and right auditory cortex in the completion of the auditory task. This method has already been applied to confirm the right-lateralized processing of the FM direction of individual tones. In the present study, the subjects were required to perform, in addition, a sequential comparison of the FM-direction in pairs of tones. The results suggest a division of labor between the two hemispheres such that the FM direction of each individual tone is mainly processed in the right auditory cortex whereas the sequential comparison of this feature between tones in a pair is probably performed in the left auditory cortex.

  11. Model for pairing phase transition in atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiller, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Rekstad, J.; Siem, S.

    2002-01-01

    A model is developed which allows the investigation and classification of the pairing phase transition in atomic nuclei. The regions of the parameter space are discussed for which a pairing phase transition can be observed. The model parameters include number of particles, attenuation of pairing correlations with increasing seniority, single-particle level spacing, and pairing gap parameter

  12. Sex-specific differential survival of extra-pair and within-pair offspring in song sparrows, Melospiza melodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardell, Rebecca J; Arcese, Peter; Keller, Lukas F; Reid, Jane M

    2011-11-07

    It is widely hypothesized that the evolution of female extra-pair reproduction in socially monogamous species reflects indirect genetic benefits to females. However, a critical prediction of this hypothesis, that extra-pair young (EPY) are fitter than within-pair young (WPY), has rarely been rigorously tested. We used 18 years of data from free-living song sparrows, Melospiza melodia, to test whether survival through major life-history stages differed between EPY and WPY maternal half-siblings. On average, survival of hatched chicks to independence from parental care and recruitment, and their total lifespan, did not differ significantly between EPY and WPY. However, EPY consistently tended to be less likely to survive, and recruited EPY survived for significantly fewer years than recruited WPY. Furthermore, the survival difference between EPY and WPY was sex-specific; female EPY were less likely to survive to independence and recruitment and lived fewer years than female WPY, whereas male EPY were similarly or slightly more likely to survive and to live more years than male WPY. These data indicate that extra-pair paternity may impose an indirect cost on females via their female offspring and that sex-specific genetic, environmental or maternal effects may shape extra-pair reproduction.

  13. Practical methodological guide for hydrometric inter-laboratory organisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, David; Bertrand, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    Discharge measurements performed by the French governmental hydrometer team feed a national database. This data is available for general river flows knowkedge, flood forecasting, low water survey, statistical calculations flow, control flow regulatory and many other uses. Regularly checking the measurements quality and better quantifying its accuracy is therefore an absolute need. The practice of inter-laboratory comparison in hydrometry particularly developed during the last decade. Indeed, discharge measurement can not easily be linked to a standard. Therefore, on-site measurement accuracy control is very difficult. Inter-laboratory comparison is thus a practical solution to this issue. However, it needs some regulations in order to ease its practice and legitimize its results. To do so, the French government hydrometrics teams produced a practical methodological guide for hydrometric inter-laboratory organisation in destination of hydrometers community in view of ensure the harmonization of inter-laboratory comparison practices for different materials (ADCP, current meter on wadind rod or gauging van, tracer dilution, surface speed) and flow range (flood, low water). Ensure the results formalization and banking. The realisation of this practice guide is grounded on the experience of the governmental teams & their partners (or fellows), following existing approaches (Doppler group especially). The guide is designated to validate compliance measures and identify outliers : Hardware, methodological, environmental, or human. Inter-laboratory comparison provides the means to verify the compliance of the instruments (devices + methods + operators) and provides methods to determine an experimental uncertainty of the tested measurement method which is valid only for the site and the measurement conditions but does not address the calibration or periodic monitoring of the few materials. After some conceptual definitions, the guide describes the different stages of an

  14. Demographic mechanisms of inbreeding adjustment through extra-pair reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jane M; Duthie, A Bradley; Wolak, Matthew E; Arcese, Peter

    2015-07-01

    One hypothesis explaining extra-pair reproduction is that socially monogamous females mate with extra-pair males to adjust the coefficient of inbreeding (f) of extra-pair offspring (EPO) relative to that of within-pair offspring (WPO) they would produce with their socially paired male. Such adjustment of offspring f requires non-random extra-pair reproduction with respect to relatedness, which is in turn often assumed to require some mechanism of explicit pre-copulatory or post-copulatory kin discrimination. We propose three demographic processes that could potentially cause mean f to differ between individual females' EPO and WPO given random extra-pair reproduction with available males without necessarily requiring explicit kin discrimination. Specifically, such a difference could arise if social pairings formed non-randomly with respect to relatedness or persisted non-randomly with respect to relatedness, or if the distribution of relatedness between females and their sets of potential mates changed during the period through which social pairings persisted. We used comprehensive pedigree and pairing data from free-living song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) to quantify these three processes and hence investigate how individual females could adjust mean offspring f through instantaneously random extra-pair reproduction. Female song sparrows tended to form social pairings with unrelated or distantly related males slightly less frequently than expected given random pairing within the defined set of available males. Furthermore, social pairings between more closely related mates tended to be more likely to persist across years than social pairings between less closely related mates. However, these effects were small and the mean relatedness between females and their sets of potential extra-pair males did not change substantially across the years through which social pairings persisted. Our framework and analyses illustrate how demographic and social structuring within

  15. Dose-response curve for translocation frequency with single pair of painted chromosome. A comparison with dicentric and micronuclei frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatachalam, P.; Paul, S.F.D.; Mohankumar, M.N.; Prabhu, B.K.; Gajendiran, N.; Jeevanram, R.K

    2000-07-01

    A translocation dose-response curve using a single pair of painted chromosomes was constructed. The translocation frequencies observed at different doses were compared to those obtained for dicentrics (DC) and micronuclei (MN). The translocation and DC frequency followed the Poisson distribution and MN showed over-dispersion. The translocation and DC frequencies were nearly the same for each dose point. Micronuclei showed a comparatively lower frequency. The alpha/beta ratio for translocations (0.916) and DC (0.974) were comparable, whereas the value for MN (1.526) was much higher. The equal frequencies of translocations and DC observed for a given dose indicated that genomic translocation frequency estimated using a single pair of painted chromosomes provides a reliable and easy method to measure translocation frequency. (autho000.

  16. Dose-response curve for translocation frequency with single pair of painted chromosome. A comparison with dicentric and micronuclei frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatachalam, P.; Paul, S.F.D.; Mohankumar, M.N.; Prabhu, B.K.; Gajendiran, N.; Jeevanram, R.K.

    2000-01-01

    A translocation dose-response curve using a single pair of painted chromosomes was constructed. The translocation frequencies observed at different doses were compared to those obtained for dicentrics (DC) and micronuclei (MN). The translocation and DC frequency followed the Poisson distribution and MN showed over-dispersion. The translocation and DC frequencies were nearly the same for each dose point. Micronuclei showed a comparatively lower frequency. The alpha/beta ratio for translocations (0.916) and DC (0.974) were comparable, whereas the value for MN (1.526) was much higher. The equal frequencies of translocations and DC observed for a given dose indicated that genomic translocation frequency estimated using a single pair of painted chromosomes provides a reliable and easy method to measure translocation frequency. (author)

  17. Methodology of life cycle cost with risk expenditure for offshore process at conceptual design stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Kiil; Chang, Daejun; Chang, Kwangpil; Rhee, Taejin; Lee, In-Beum

    2011-01-01

    This study proposed a new LCC (life cycle cost) methodology with the risk expenditure taken into account for comparative evaluation of offshore process options at their conceptual design stage. The risk expenditure consisted of the failure risk expenditure and the accident risk expenditure. The former accounted for the production loss and the maintenance expense due to equipment failures while the latter reflected the asset damage and the fatality worth caused by disastrous accidents such as fire and explosion. It was demonstrated that the new LCC methodology was capable of playing the role of a process selection basis in choosing the best of the liquefaction process options including the power generation systems for a floating LNG (Liquefied natural gas) production facility. Without the risk expenditure, a simple economic comparison apparently favored the mixed refrigerant cycle which had the better efficiency. The new methodology with the risk expenditure, however, indicated that the nitrogen expansion cycle driven by steam turbines should be the optimum choice, mainly due to its better availability and safety. -- Highlights: → The study presented the methodology of the LCC with the risk expenditure for the conceptual design of offshore processes. → The proposed methodology demonstrated the applicability of the liquefaction unit with the power generation system of LNG FPSO. → Without the risk expenditure, a simple economic comparison apparently favored the mixed refrigerant cycle which had the better efficiency. → The new methodology indicated that the nitrogen expansion cycle driven by steam turbines is the optimum choice due to its better availability and safety.

  18. Effects of stimulus pair orientation and hand switching on reaction time estimates of interhemispheric transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc-Sirois, Yanick; Braun, Claude M J; Elie-Fortier, Jonathan

    2018-03-26

    Two behavioral estimates of interhemispheric transfer time, the crossed-uncrossed difference (CUD) and the unilateral field advantage (UFA), are thought to, respectively, index transfer of premotor and visual information across the corpus callosum in neurotypical participants. However, no attempt to manipulate visual and motor contingencies in a set of tasks while measuring the CUD and the UFA has yet been reported. In two go/no-go comparison experiments, stimulus pair orientations were manipulated. The hand of response changed after each correct response in the second, but not the first experiment. No correlation was found between the CUD and the UFA, supporting the hypothesis that these two measures index different types of information transfer across hemispheres. An effect of manipulation of stimulus pair orientation on UFAs was attributed to the homotopy of callosal fibers transferring visual information, while an effect of hand switching on CUDs was attributed mostly to spatial compatibility.

  19. PAIR PRODUCTION IN LOW-LUMINOSITY GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscibrodzka, M.; Gammie, C. F.; Dolence, J. C.; Shiokawa, H.

    2011-01-01

    Electron-positron pairs may be produced near accreting black holes by a variety of physical processes, and the resulting pair plasma may be accelerated and collimated into a relativistic jet. Here, we use a self-consistent dynamical and radiative model to investigate pair production by γγ collisions in weakly radiative accretion flows around a black hole of mass M and accretion rate M-dot . Our flow model is drawn from general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations, and our radiation field is computed by a Monte Carlo transport scheme assuming the electron distribution function is thermal. We argue that the pair production rate scales as r -6 M -1 M-dot 6 . We confirm this numerically and calibrate the scaling relation. This relation is self-consistent in a wedge in M, M-dot parameter space. If M-dot is too low the implied pair density over the poles of the black hole is below the Goldreich-Julian density and γγ pair production is relatively unimportant; if M-dot is too high the models are radiatively efficient. We also argue that for a power-law spectrum the pair production rate should scale with the observables L X ≡ X-ray luminosity and M as L 2 X M -4 . We confirm this numerically and argue that this relation likely holds even for radiatively efficient flows. The pair production rates are sensitive to black hole spin and to the ion-electron temperature ratio which are fixed in this exploratory calculation. We finish with a brief discussion of the implications for Sgr A* and M87.

  20. Constraining scalar resonances with top-quark pair production at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzosi, Diogo Buarque; Fabbri, Federica; Schumann, Steffen

    2018-03-01

    Constraints on models which predict resonant top-quark pair production at the LHC are provided via a reinterpretation of the Standard Model (SM) particle level measurement of the top-anti-top invariant mass distribution, m(t\\overline{t}) . We make use of state-of-the-art Monte Carlo event simulation to perform a direct comparison with measurements of m(t\\overline{t}) in the semi-leptonic channels, considering both the boosted and the resolved regime of the hadronic top decays. A simplified model to describe various scalar resonances decaying into top-quarks is considered, including CP-even and CP-odd, color-singlet and color-octet states, and the excluded regions in the respective parameter spaces are provided.

  1. Amyloid PET imaging in Alzheimer's disease: a comparison of three radiotracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landau, S.M.; Jagust, W.J. [University of California, Berkeley, Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Life Sciences Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Thomas, B.A. [University College London, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Thurfjell, L. [GE Healthcare, Uppsala (Sweden); Schmidt, M. [Janssen Pharmaceutica, NV, Beerse (Belgium); Margolin, R. [Janssen Alzheimer Immunotherapy, South San Francisco, CA (United States); Mintun, M.; Pontecorvo, M. [Avid Radiopharmaceuticals, Inc., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Baker, S.L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Life Sciences Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Collaboration: The Alzheimer' s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative

    2014-07-15

    The increasing use of amyloid PET in Alzheimer's disease research and clinical trials has motivated efforts to standardize methodology. We compared retention of the {sup 11}C radiotracer Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) and that of two {sup 18}F amyloid radiotracers (florbetapir and flutemetamol) using two study populations. We also examined the feasibility of converting between tracer-specific measures, using PiB as the common link between the two {sup 18}F tracers. One group of 40 subjects underwent PiB and flutemetamol imaging sessions and a separate group of 32 subjects underwent PiB and florbetapir imaging sessions. We compared cortical and white matter retention for each {sup 18}F tracer relative to that of PiB, as well as retention in several reference regions and image analysis methods. Correlations between tracer pairs were used to convert tracer-specific threshold values for amyloid positivity between tracers. Cortical retention for each pair of tracers was strongly correlated regardless of reference region (PiB-flutemetamol, ρ = 0.84-0.99; PiB-florbetapir, ρ = 0.83-0.97) and analysis method (ρ = 0.90-0.99). Compared to PiB, flutemetamol had higher white matter retention, while florbetapir had lower cortical retention. Two previously established independent thresholds for amyloid positivity were highly consistent when values were converted between tracer pairs. Despite differing white and grey matter retention characteristics, cortical retention for each {sup 18}F tracer was highly correlated with that of PiB, enabling conversion of thresholds across tracer measurement scales with a high level of internal consistency. Standardization of analysis methods and measurement scales may facilitate the comparison of amyloid PET data obtained using different tracers. (orig.)

  2. Pairing fluctuations in trapped Fermi gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viverit, Luciano; Bruun, Georg M.; Minguzzi, Anna; Fazio, Rosario

    2004-01-01

    We examine the contribution of pairing fluctuations to the superfluid order parameter for harmonically trapped atomic Fermi gases in the BCS regime. In the limit of small systems we consider, both analytically and numerically, their space and temperature dependence. We predict a parity effect, i.e., that pairing fluctuations show a maximum or a minimum at the center of the trap, depending on the value of the last occupied shell being even or odd. We propose to detect pairing fluctuations by measuring the density-density correlation function after a ballistic expansion of the gas

  3. Soliton pair creation at finite temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriev, D.Yu.; Rubakov, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    Creation of soliton-antisoliton pairs at finite temperature is considered within a (1+1)-dimensional model of a real scalar field. It is argued that at certain temperatures, the soliton pair creation in quantum theory can be investigated by studying classical field evolution in real time. The classical field equations are solved numerically, and the pair creation rate and average number of solitons are evaluated. No peculiar suppression of the rate is observed. Some results on the sphaleron transitions in (1+1)-dimensional abelian Higgs model are also presented. (orig.)

  4. Efficient Implementation of the Pairing on Mobilephones Using BREW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitomi, Motoi; Takagi, Tsuyoshi; Kiyomoto, Shinsaku; Tanaka, Toshiaki

    Pairing based cryptosystems can accomplish novel security applications such as ID-based cryptosystems, which have not been constructed efficiently without the pairing. The processing speed of the pairing based cryptosystems is relatively slow compared with the other conventional public key cryptosystems. However, several efficient algorithms for computing the pairing have been proposed, namely Duursma-Lee algorithm and its variant ηT pairing. In this paper, we present an efficient implementation of the pairing over some mobilephones. Moreover, we compare the processing speed of the pairing with that of the other standard public key cryptosystems, i. e. RSA cryptosystem and elliptic curve cryptosystem. Indeed the processing speed of our implementation in ARM9 processors on BREW achieves under 100 milliseconds using the supersingular curve over F397. In addition, the pairing is more efficient than the other public key cryptosystems, and the pairing can be achieved enough also on BREW mobilephones. It has become efficient enough to implement security applications, such as short signature, ID-based cryptosystems or broadcast encryption, using the pairing on BREW mobilephones.

  5. String pair production in non homogeneous backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolognesi, S. [Department of Physics “E. Fermi” University of Pisa, and INFN - Sezione di Pisa,Largo Pontecorvo, 3, Ed. C, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Rabinovici, E. [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem,91904 Jerusalem (Israel); Tallarita, G. [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales,Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Santiago 7941169 (Chile)

    2016-04-28

    We consider string pair production in non homogeneous electric backgrounds. We study several particular configurations which can be addressed with the Euclidean world-sheet instanton technique, the analogue of the world-line instanton for particles. In the first case the string is suspended between two D-branes in flat space-time, in the second case the string lives in AdS and terminates on one D-brane (this realizes the holographic Schwinger effect). In some regions of parameter space the result is well approximated by the known analytical formulas, either the particle pair production in non-homogeneous background or the string pair production in homogeneous background. In other cases we see effects which are intrinsically stringy and related to the non-homogeneity of the background. The pair production is enhanced already for particles in time dependent electric field backgrounds. The string nature enhances this even further. For spacial varying electrical background fields the string pair production is less suppressed than the rate of particle pair production. We discuss in some detail how the critical field is affected by the non-homogeneity, for both time and space dependent electric field backgrouds. We also comment on what could be an interesting new prediction for the small field limit. The third case we consider is pair production in holographic confining backgrounds with homogeneous and non-homogeneous fields.

  6. String pair production in non homogeneous backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolognesi, S.; Rabinovici, E.; Tallarita, G.

    2016-01-01

    We consider string pair production in non homogeneous electric backgrounds. We study several particular configurations which can be addressed with the Euclidean world-sheet instanton technique, the analogue of the world-line instanton for particles. In the first case the string is suspended between two D-branes in flat space-time, in the second case the string lives in AdS and terminates on one D-brane (this realizes the holographic Schwinger effect). In some regions of parameter space the result is well approximated by the known analytical formulas, either the particle pair production in non-homogeneous background or the string pair production in homogeneous background. In other cases we see effects which are intrinsically stringy and related to the non-homogeneity of the background. The pair production is enhanced already for particles in time dependent electric field backgrounds. The string nature enhances this even further. For spacial varying electrical background fields the string pair production is less suppressed than the rate of particle pair production. We discuss in some detail how the critical field is affected by the non-homogeneity, for both time and space dependent electric field backgrouds. We also comment on what could be an interesting new prediction for the small field limit. The third case we consider is pair production in holographic confining backgrounds with homogeneous and non-homogeneous fields.

  7. Nucleon-pair approximation to the nuclear shell model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Y.M., E-mail: ymzhao@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Arima, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Musashi Gakuen, 1-26-1 Toyotamakami Nerima-ku, Tokyo 176-8533 (Japan)

    2014-12-01

    Atomic nuclei are complex systems of nucleons–protons and neutrons. Nucleons interact with each other via an attractive and short-range force. This feature of the interaction leads to a pattern of dominantly monopole and quadrupole correlations between like particles (i.e., proton–proton and neutron–neutron correlations) in low-lying states of atomic nuclei. As a consequence, among dozens or even hundreds of possible types of nucleon pairs, very few nucleon pairs such as proton and neutron pairs with spin zero, two (in some cases spin four), and occasionally isoscalar spin-aligned proton–neutron pairs, play important roles in low-energy nuclear structure. The nucleon-pair approximation therefore provides us with an efficient truncation scheme of the full shell model configurations which are otherwise too large to handle for medium and heavy nuclei in foreseeable future. Furthermore, the nucleon-pair approximation leads to simple pictures in physics, as the dimension of nucleon-pair subspace is always small. The present paper aims at a sound review of its history, formulation, validity, applications, as well as its link to previous approaches, with the focus on the new developments in the last two decades. The applicability of the nucleon-pair approximation and numerical calculations of low-lying states for realistic atomic nuclei are demonstrated with examples. Applications of pair approximations to other problems are also discussed.

  8. Drift wave in pair-ion plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ion plasma are discussed. It is shown that the temperature and/or mass difference of both species could produce drift wave in a pair-ion plasma. The results are discussed in the context of the fullerene pair-ion plasma experiment.

  9. Economic Evaluation Methodology Review on KAERI's Recent Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jin Sam; Kim, Jee Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    In technology utilization, economics evaluation is helpful to R and D program managers by giving them economic information needed to improve the usefulness of their projects. Moreover it can help them to communicate to others participants keeping all of them value-oriented minded through the whole development process. In this context, KAERI(Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has been performed economic evaluation on recent some projects. So, in this study, it has been made brief reviews on KAERI's economic evaluation methodology to its recent some projects of which evaluation we engage in, especially PEFP(Proton Engineering frontier Project) and SMART(Small Medium advanced ReacTor): Methodology comparison and their pros and cons

  10. Network meta-analysis-highly attractive but more methodological research is needed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Sonal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Network meta-analysis, in the context of a systematic review, is a meta-analysis in which multiple treatments (that is, three or more are being compared using both direct comparisons of interventions within randomized controlled trials and indirect comparisons across trials based on a common comparator. To ensure validity of findings from network meta-analyses, the systematic review must be designed rigorously and conducted carefully. Aspects of designing and conducting a systematic review for network meta-analysis include defining the review question, specifying eligibility criteria, searching for and selecting studies, assessing risk of bias and quality of evidence, conducting a network meta-analysis, interpreting and reporting findings. This commentary summarizes the methodologic challenges and research opportunities for network meta-analysis relevant to each aspect of the systematic review process based on discussions at a network meta-analysis methodology meeting we hosted in May 2010 at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Since this commentary reflects the discussion at that meeting, it is not intended to provide an overview of the field.

  11. Interest and limits of the six sigma methodology in medical laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, Florian; Bouilloux, Jean-Pierre; Calendini, Ors'Anton; Chamard, Didier; Cornu, François

    2017-02-01

    The mandatory accreditation of clinical laboratories in France provides an incentive to develop real tools to measure performance management methods and to optimize the management of internal quality controls. Six sigma methodology is an approach commonly applied to software quality management and discussed in numerous publications. This paper discusses the primary factors that influence the sigma index (the choice of the total allowable error, the approach used to address bias) and compares the performance of different analyzers on the basis of the sigma index. Six sigma strategy can be applied to the policy management of internal quality control in a laboratory and demonstrates through a comparison of four analyzers that there is no single superior analyzer in clinical chemistry. Similar sigma results are obtained using approaches toward bias based on the EQAS or the IQC. The main difficulty in using the six sigma methodology lies in the absence of official guidelines for the definition of the total error acceptable. Despite this drawback, our comparison study suggests that difficulties with defined analytes do not vary with the analyzer used.

  12. Comparison of the COMRADEX-IV and AIRDOS-EPA methodologies for estimating the radiation dose to man from radionuclide releases to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.W.; Hoffman, F.O.; Dunning, D.E. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    This report presents a comparison between two computerized methodologies for estimating the radiation dose to man from radionuclide releases to the atmosphere. The COMRADEX-IV code was designed to provide a means of assessing potential radiological consequences from postulated power reactor accidents. The AIRDOS-EPA code was developed primarily to assess routine radionuclide releases from nuclear facilities. Although a number of different calculations are performed by these codes, three calculations are in common - atmospheric dispersion, estimation of internal dose from inhalation, and estimation of external dose from immersion in air containing gamma emitting radionuclides. The models used in these calculations were examined and found, in general, to be the same. Most differences in the doses calculated by the two codes are due to differences in values chosen for input parameters and not due to model differences. A sample problem is presented for illustration

  13. Micro Foundations for International Productivity Comparisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gersbach, Hans; Ark, Bart van

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and procedures of international comparisons of productivity levels for twelve manufacturing industries (producing food products, beer, soap and detergents, iron and steel, machine tools, various types of machinery, computers, audio and video equipment, industrial

  14. Drell-Yan lepton pair photoproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badalyan, R.G.; Grabskij, V.O.; Matinyan, S.G.

    1989-01-01

    The study of photon structure functions by spectra of massive lepton pairs (M l + l - ≥ 2 GeV) in photon fragmentation region in γp-interactions at high energies is suggested. In calculations of Drell-Yan lepton pair inclusive spectra in γp-interactions for photon structure functions there are used results obtained within QCD, data on γγ-interactions in e + e - → e + e - X on colliders as well as results from the analysis of vector meson non-diffractive photoproduction at high energies. It is shown that there exists a sufficienly wide kinematic region over variables X l + l - and M l + l - , wherein photon structure functions can be studied by spectra of Grell-Yan lepton pairs in the processes of their photoproduction. 31 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 tab

  15. Assessment of change in knowledge about research methods among delegates attending research methodology workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Manisha; Shah, Nehal; Navaid, Seema

    2018-01-01

    In an era of evidence based medicine research is an essential part of medical profession whether clinical or academic. A research methodology workshop intends to help participants, those who are newer to research field or those who are already doing empirical research. The present study was conducted to assess the changes in knowledge of the participants of a research methodology workshop through a structured questionnaire. With administrative and ethical approval, a four day research methodology workshop was planned. The participants were subjected to a structured questionnaire (pre-test) containing 20 multiple choice questions (Q1-Q 20) related to the topics to be covered in research methodology workshop before the commencement of the workshop and then subjected to similar posttest questionnaire after the completion of workshop. The mean values of pre and post-test scores were calculated and the results were analyzed and compared. Out of the total 153 delegates, 45(29 %) were males and 108 were (71 %) females. 92 (60%) participants consented to fill the pre-test questionnaire and 68 (44%) filled the post-test questionnaire. The mean Pre-test and post-test scores at 95% Confidence Interval were 07.62 (SD ±3.220) and 09.66 (SD ±2.477) respectively. The differences were found to be significant using Paired Sample T test ( P research methodology workshops. Participatory research methodology workshops are good methods of imparting knowledge, also the long term effects needs to be evaluated.

  16. NASA Electronic Publishing System: Cost/benefit Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuey, Richard C.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Scientific and Technical Information Office was assigned the responsibility to examine the benefits of the utilization of electronic printing and duplicating systems throughout NASA Installations and Headquarters. The subject of this report is the documentation of the methodology used in justifying the acquisition of the most cost beneficial solution for the printing and duplicating requirements of a duplicating facility that is contemplating the acquisition of an electronic printing and duplicating system. Four alternatives are presented with each alternative costed out with its associated benefits. The methodology goes a step further than just a cost benefit analysis through its comparison of risks associated with each alternative, sensitivity to number of impressions and productivity gains on the selected alternative and finally the return on investment for the selected alternative. The report can be used in conjunction with the two earlier reports, NASA-TM-106242 and TM-106510 in guiding others in determining the cost effective duplicating alternative.

  17. Pair production in small angle Bhabha scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbuzov, A.B.; Kuraev, Eh.A.; Merenkov, N.P.; Trentadue, L.

    1995-01-01

    The radiative corrections due to a pair production in the small angle high energy e + e - Bhabha scattering are considered. The corrections due to the production of virtual pairs as well as real soft and hard ones are calculated analytically. The collinear and semi-collinear kinematical regions of the hard pair production are taken into account. The results in the leading and next-to-leading logarithmic approximations provide the accuracy of Ο (0.1%). The results of numerical calculations show that the effects of pairs production are to be taken into account in the precise luminosity determination at LEP. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Effects of disorder on the electron pairing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oviedo-Roa, R.; Wang, C.; Navarro, O.

    1996-01-01

    The electron pairing in randomly disordered lattices is studied by using an attractive Hubbard model, and by mapping the many-body problem onto a tight-binding one in a higher dimensional space, where a diagonal disorder is considered within the coherent-potential approximation. The results show an enhancement of the pair-binding energy as the self-energy difference increases in a binary alloy A x B 1-x . This fact suggests that the pairing process is highly sensitive to the one-particle localization condition. A ground-state phase diagram for on-site interaction disorder shows regions where pairing is avoided for ordered diatomic systems but not for disordered case

  19. Variational study of the pair hopping model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazekas, P.

    1990-01-01

    We study the ground state of a Hamiltonian introduced by Kolb and Penson for modelling situations in which small electron pairs are formed. The Hamiltonian consists of a tight binding band term, and a term describing the nearest neighbour hopping of electron pairs. We give a Gutzwiller-type variational treatment, first with a single-parameter Ansatz treated in the single site Gutzwiller approximation, and then with more complicated trial wave functions, and an improved Gutzwiller approximation. The calculation yields a transition from a partially paired normal state, in which the spin susceptibility has a diminished value, into a fully paired state. (author). 16 refs, 2 figs

  20. Cross-continental comparison of national food consumption survey methods--a narrative review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food consumption surveys are performed in many countries. Comparison of results from those surveys across nations is difficult because of differences in methodological approaches. While consensus about the preferred methodology associated with national food consumption surveys is increasing, no in...

  1. Enhanced stability of bound pairs at nonzero lattice momenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornilovitch, Pavel

    2004-01-01

    A two-body problem on the square lattice is analyzed. The interaction potential consists of strong on-site repulsion and nearest-neighbor attraction. The exact pairing conditions are derived for s-, p-, and d-symmetric bound states. The pairing conditions are strong functions of the total pair momentum K. It is found that the stability of pairs increases with K. At weak attraction, the pairs do not form at the Γ point but stabilize at lattice momenta close to the Brillouin zone boundary. The phase boundaries in the momentum space, which separate stable and unstable pairs, are calculated. It is found that the pairs are formed easier along the (π,0) direction than along the (π,π) direction. This might lead to the appearance of 'hot pairing spots' on the K x and K y axes

  2. Nonrandom network connectivity comes in pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Z. Hoffmann

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Overrepresentation of bidirectional connections in local cortical networks has been repeatedly reported and is a focus of the ongoing discussion of nonrandom connectivity. Here we show in a brief mathematical analysis that in a network in which connection probabilities are symmetric in pairs, Pij = Pji, the occurrences of bidirectional connections and nonrandom structures are inherently linked; an overabundance of reciprocally connected pairs emerges necessarily when some pairs of neurons are more likely to be connected than others. Our numerical results imply that such overrepresentation can also be sustained when connection probabilities are only approximately symmetric.

  3. Defensive behavior associated with secretions from the prosternal paired glands of the larvae of Heliconius erato phyllis Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane de Oliveira Borges

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Defensive behavior associated with secretions from the prosternal paired glands of the larvae of Heliconius erato phyllis Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae. Our work presents for the first time, the defensive behavior associated with the release of the product of the prosternal paired glands of the larva of Heliconius erato phyllis Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae. The prosternal glands were first described for larvae of H. erato phyllis. They are formed by two types of glandular structures: the impair gland and the paired glands. The prosternal glands are located within the conical integumentary sac, which in turn is situated on the individual's prosternum. The main goal of this study is to analyze the existence of any secretion from the prosternal paired glands, and check the action mode of this secretion. The methodology used for chemical analysis of the glands included the aeration and, analysis in gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that the prosternal glands do not produce volatiles. Bioassays were conducted with simulated and natural attacks and revealed that the prosternal paired glands produce secretions of defense together with silk produced by labials glands as a defense strategy, described for the first time, against ants. The strategy consists in wrapping the ant with silk threads, the entire wrapped object moved to the end of the body, with the aid of the legs and prolegs, and possibly fixed in a nearby place. Evidence for the existence of a conical integumentary sac in larvae of other species and families of Lepidoptera allows us to propose the possibility of occurrence of prosternal paired glands with defensive function in these other groups as well.

  4. Comparison of SAND-II and FERRET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootan, D.W.; Schmittroth, F.

    1981-01-01

    A comparison was made of the advantages and disadvantages of two codes, SAND-II and FERRET, for determining the neutron flux spectrum and uncertainty from experimental dosimeter measurements as anticipated in the FFTF Reactor Characterization Program. This comparison involved an examination of the methodology and the operational performance of each code. The merits of each code were identified with respect to theoretical basis, directness of method, solution uniqueness, subjective influences, and sensitivity to various input parameters

  5. Methodological Considerations in Designing and Evaluating Animal-Assisted Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Cindy; Chur-Hansen, Anna

    2013-02-27

    This paper presents a discussion of the literature on animal-assisted interventions and describes limitations surrounding current methodological quality. Benefits to human physical, psychological and social health cannot be empirically confirmed due to the methodological limitations of the existing body of research, and comparisons cannot validly be made across different studies. Without a solid research base animal-assisted interventions will not receive recognition and acceptance as a credible alternative health care treatment. The paper draws on the work of four systematic reviews conducted over April-May 2009, with no date restrictions, focusing exclusively on the use of canine-assisted interventions for older people residing in long-term care. The reviews revealed a lack of good quality studies. Although the literature base has grown in volume since its inception, it predominantly consists of anecdotal accounts and reports. Experimental studies undertaken are often flawed in aspects of design, conduct and reporting. There are few qualitative studies available leading to the inability to draw definitive conclusions. It is clear that due to the complexities associated with these interventions not all weaknesses can be eliminated. However, there are basic methodological weaknesses that can be addressed in future studies in the area. Checklists for quantitative and qualitative research designs to guide future research are offered to help address methodological rigour.

  6. Becoming independent through au pair migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2015-01-01

    . This article argues that, despite this critique, au pairing does play an important formative role for young Filipinas because it opens up for experiences abroad that enable them to be recognised as independent adults in Philippine society. Rather than autonomy, however, au pairs define their independence...

  7. Pairing mechanism in oxide superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    A useful way to learn about the pairing mechanism that is responsible for high T c superconductivity is to study properties of model Hamiltonians on small systems. The goal is to find the simplest model that can describe the essential physics of high T c superconductivity. The authors have used Monte Carlo simulation and exact diagonalization techniques to study properties of systems of up to 64 sites. Their results show that spin fluctuations and other spin related mechanisms induced by a Hubbard on-site repulsion U are not likely to give rise to pairing, neither in one nor in multiple band models. In contrast, charge fluctuations in a model with both strong U and V (repulsion between Cu and O) are shown to give rise to pairing and it is suggested that this model provides a plausible mechanism for high T c superconductivity

  8. Comparison of the DOE and the EPA risk assessment methodologies and default parameters for the air exposure pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Z.; Eckart, R.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) each publish radiological health effects risk assessment methodologies. Those methodologies are in the form of computer program models or extensive documentation. This research paper compares the significant differences between the DOE and EPA methodologies and default parameters for the important air exposure pathway. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the fundamental differences in methodology and parameter values between the DOE and the EPA. This study reviewed the parameter values and default values that are utilized in the air exposure pathway and revealed the significant differences in risk assessment results when default values are used in the analysis of an actual site. The study details the sources and the magnitude of the parameter departures between the DOE and the EPA methodologies and their impact on dose or risk

  9. Methodology for Selecting Best Management Practices Integrating Multiple Stakeholders and Criteria. Part 1: Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Carvallo Aceves

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs could help re-establish the natural hydrological cycle of watersheds after urbanization, with each BMP presenting a different performance across a range of criteria (flood prevention, pollutant removal, etc.. Additionally, conflicting views from the relevant stakeholders may arise, resulting in a complex selection process. This paper proposes a methodology for BMP selection based on the application of multi-criteria decision aid (MCDA methods, integrating multiple stakeholder priorities and BMP combinations. First, in the problem definition, the MCDA methods, relevant criteria and design guidelines are selected. Next, information from the preliminary analysis of the watershed is used to obtain a list of relevant BMPs. The third step comprises the watershed modeling and analysis of the BMP alternatives to obtain performance values across purely objective criteria. Afterwards, a stakeholder analysis based on survey applications is carried out to obtain social performance values and criteria priorities. Then, the MCDA methods are applied to obtain the final BMP rankings. The last step considers the sensitivity analysis and rank comparisons in order to draw the final conclusions and recommendations. Future improvements to the methodology could explore inclusion of multiple objective analysis, and alternative means for obtaining social performance values.

  10. Frequent Pairs in Data Streams: Exploiting Parallelism and Skew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campagna, Andrea; Kutzkow, Konstantin; Pagh, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the Pair Streaming Engine (PairSE) that detects frequent pairs in a data stream of transactions. Our algorithm finds the most frequent pairs with high probability, and gives tight bounds on their frequency. It is particularly space efficient for skewed distribution of pair supports...... items mining in data streams. We show how to efficiently scale these approaches to handle large transactions. We report experimental results showcasing precision and recall of our method. In particular, we find that often our method achieves excellent precision, returning identical upper and lower...... bounds on the supports of the most frequent pairs....

  11. All paired up with no place to go: pairing, synapsis, and DSB formation in a balancer heterozygote.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei J Gong

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The multiply inverted X chromosome balancer FM7 strongly suppresses, or eliminates, the occurrence of crossing over when heterozygous with a normal sequence homolog. We have utilized the LacI-GFP: lacO system to visualize the effects of FM7 on meiotic pairing, synapsis, and double-strand break formation in Drosophila oocytes. Surprisingly, the analysis of meiotic pairing and synapsis for three lacO reporter couplets in FM7/X heterozygotes revealed they are paired and synapsed during zygotene/pachytene in 70%-80% of oocytes. Moreover, the regions defined by these lacO couplets undergo double-strand break formation at normal frequency. Thus, even complex aberration heterozygotes usually allow high frequencies of meiotic pairing, synapsis, and double-strand break formation in Drosophila oocytes. However, the frequencies of failed pairing and synapsis were still 1.5- to 2-fold higher than were observed for corresponding regions in oocytes with two normal sequence X chromosomes, and this effect was greatest near a breakpoint. We propose that heterozygosity for breakpoints creates a local alteration in synaptonemal complex structure that is propagated across long regions of the bivalent in a fashion analogous to chiasma interference, which also acts to suppress crossing over.

  12. Continuous vs. pulsating flow boiling. Part 2: Statistical comparison using response surface methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Elmegaard, Brian; Meyer, Knud Erik

    2016-01-01

    Response surface methodology is used to investigate an active method for flow boiling heat transfer enhancement by means of fluid flow pulsation. The flow pulsations are introduced by a flow modulating expansion device and compared with the baseline continuous flow provided by a stepper...

  13. Frustrated Lewis Pairs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 11. Frustrated Lewis Pairs : Enabling via inability. Sanjoy Mukherjee ... Author Affiliations. Sanjoy Mukherjee Pakkirisamy Thilagar1. Department of Inorgainic and Physical Chemistry Indian Institute of Science Bangalore 560 012, India.

  14. Development and implementation of real-time nucleic acid amplification for the detection of enterovirus infections in comparison to rapid culture of various clinical specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doornum, G J J; Schutten, Martin; Voermans, J; Guldemeester, G J J; Niesters, H G M

    2007-01-01

    Several real-time PCR and nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) primer pairs and a modified real-time PCR primer pair for the detection of enteroviruses were compared. The modified real-time PCR primer pair was evaluated on clinical samples in comparison with cell culture using the

  15. Cumulative approaches to track formation under swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation: Phenomenological correlation with formation energies of Frenkel pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespillo, M.L., E-mail: mcrespil@utk.edu [Centro de Microanálisis de Materiales, CMAM-UAM, Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Agulló-López, F., E-mail: fal@uam.es [Centro de Microanálisis de Materiales, CMAM-UAM, Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Zucchiatti, A. [Centro de Microanálisis de Materiales, CMAM-UAM, Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain)

    2017-03-01

    Highlights: • Extensive survey formation energies Frenkel pairs and electronic stopping thresholds. • Correlation: track formation thresholds and the energies for Frenkel pair formation. • Formation energies Frenkel pairs discussed in relation to the cumulative mechanisms. • Amorphous track formation mechanisms: defect accumulation models versus melting. • Advantages cumulative models to deal with new hot topics: nuclear-electronic synergy. - Abstract: An extensive survey for the formation energies of Frenkel pairs, as representative candidates for radiation-induced point defects, is presented and discussed in relation to the cumulative mechanisms (CM) of track formation in dielectric materials under swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation. These mechanisms rely on the generation and accumulation of point defects during irradiation followed by collapse of the lattice once a threshold defect concentration is reached. The physical basis of those approaches has been discussed by Fecht as a defect-assisted transition to an amorphous phase. Although a first quantitative analysis of the CM model was previously performed for LiNbO{sub 3} crystals, we have, here, adopted a broader phenomenological approach. It explores the correlation between track formation thresholds and the energies for Frenkel pair formation for a broad range of materials. It is concluded that the threshold stopping powers can be roughly scaled with the energies required to generate a critical Frenkel pair concentration in the order of a few percent of the total atomic content. Finally, a comparison with the predictions of the thermal spike model is discussed within the analytical Szenes approximation.

  16. Comparison exercise of probabilistic precursor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauchille, V.; Babst, S.

    2004-01-01

    From 2000 up to 2003, a comparison exercise concerning accident precursor programs was performed by IRSN, GRS, and NUPEC (Japan). The objective of this exercise was to compare the methodologies used to quantify conditional core damage probability related to incidents which can be considered as accident precursors. This exercise provided interesting results concerning the interpretation of such events. Generally, the participants identified similar scenarios of potential degradation. However, for several dominant sequences, differences in the results were noticed. The differences can be attributed to variations in the plant design, the strategy of management and in the methodological approach. For many reasons, comparison of human reliability analysis was difficult and perhaps another exercise in the future could provide more information about this subject. On the other hand, interesting outcomes have been obtained from the quantification of both common cause failures and potential common cause failures. (orig.)

  17. Asymmetric recombination and electron spin relaxation in the semiclassical theory of radical pair reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Alan M.; Manolopoulos, David E.; Hore, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    We describe how the semiclassical theory of radical pair recombination reactions recently introduced by two of us [D. E. Manolopoulos and P. J. Hore, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 124106 (2013)] can be generalised to allow for different singlet and triplet recombination rates. This is a non-trivial generalisation because when the recombination rates are different the recombination process is dynamically coupled to the coherent electron spin dynamics of the radical pair. Furthermore, because the recombination operator is a two-electron operator, it is no longer sufficient simply to consider the two electrons as classical vectors: one has to consider the complete set of 16 two-electron spin operators as independent classical variables. The resulting semiclassical theory is first validated by comparison with exact quantum mechanical results for a model radical pair containing 12 nuclear spins. It is then used to shed light on the spin dynamics of a carotenoid-porphyrin-fullerene triad containing considerably more nuclear spins which has recently been used to establish a “proof of principle” for the operation of a chemical compass [K. Maeda, K. B. Henbest, F. Cintolesi, I. Kuprov, C. T. Rodgers, P. A. Liddell, D. Gust, C. R. Timmel, and P. J. Hore, Nature (London) 453, 387 (2008)]. We find in particular that the intriguing biphasic behaviour that has been observed in the effect of an Earth-strength magnetic field on the time-dependent survival probability of the photo-excited C ·+ PF ·− radical pair arises from a delicate balance between its asymmetric recombination and the relaxation of the electron spin in the carotenoid radical

  18. Comparison study among methodologies of planar chromatography for radiochemical control of technetium-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, Elisiane de Godoy

    2012-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are substances that have radioisotopes in their composition. About 95% of the procedures performed in nuclear medicine use radiopharmaceuticals with diagnostic purposes, and the Lyophilized Reagents (LR) labeled with Technetium-99m ( 99 mTc), obtained from 99 Mo/ 99 mTc generator, are the most one used. Quality Control represents the set of assays to be performed to assure that the product is adequate to its purpose. An important feature to be evaluated in 99m Tc radiopharmaceuticals is the radiochemical purity (% RqP) to quantify free pertechnetate ( 99 mTcO 4 - ) and technetium colloidal (99mTcO 2 ) mainly by paper chromatography (PC), thin layer (TLC) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The objective of this work was to perform the comparison among the radiochemical control methodologies of LR labeled with 99m Tc, described in the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) and European Pharmacopoeia (EP) and those used by IPEN. 99m TcO 4 - eluate and DISIDA, DMSA, DTPA, EC, ECD, GHA, MIBI, MDP, PIRO, SAH and Sn Coloidal LR were provided by IPEN-CNEN/SP. TLC-cellulose, TLC-SG.TLC-SG reverse phase, HPTLC-cellulose, HPTLC-SG (Merck) and ITLC-SG (Pall Corporation), W1MM, W3MM, W17M e W31ET (Whatman) chromatographic plates were used. The measurement of the radioactivity was done in a Perkin Elmer Cobra D-5002 gamma counter. LR were labeled to obtain 55,0 MBq mL 1 (1,5 mCi mL 1 ) of final radioactive concentration. The % 99m TcO 4 - , % 99m TcO 2 and % RqP were determined up to 4 hour labeling. From 11 LR, only EC and GHA have no radiochemical control methods in USP and EP. In USP and/or EP, DTPA, MDP, PIRO, SAH and Sn Coloidal methods use ITLC-SG; IPEN uses this chromatography plate in DISIDA, EC, ECD, GHA, PIRO, MIBI and SAH. As ITLC-SG had been out of production (recommended in 40, 70 and 41% of the USP, EP and IPEN methodologies, respectively), it was necessary to search alternatives to replace ITLC-SG plate in the radiochemical control

  19. Paired Expression Analysis of Tumor Cell Surface Antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimas J. Orentas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Adoptive immunotherapy with antibody-based therapy or with T cells transduced to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs is useful to the extent that the cell surface membrane protein being targeted is not expressed on normal tissues. The most successful CAR-based (anti-CD19 or antibody-based therapy (anti-CD20 in hematologic malignancies has the side effect of eliminating the normal B cell compartment. Targeting solid tumors may not provide a similar expendable marker. Beyond antibody to Her2/NEU and EGFR, very few antibody-based and no CAR-based therapies have seen broad clinical application for solid tumors. To expand the way in which the surfaceome of solid tumors can be analyzed, we created an algorithm that defines the pairwise relative overexpression of surface antigens. This enables the development of specific immunotherapies that require the expression of two discrete antigens on the surface of the tumor target. This dyad analysis was facilitated by employing the Hotelling’s T-squared test (Hotelling–Lawley multivariate analysis of variance for two independent variables in comparison to a third constant entity (i.e., gene expression levels in normal tissues. We also present a unique consensus scoring mechanism for identifying transcripts that encode cell surface proteins. The unique application of our bioinformatics processing pipeline and statistical tools allowed us to compare the expression of two membrane protein targets as a pair, and to propose a new strategy based on implementing immunotherapies that require both antigens to be expressed on the tumor cell surface to trigger therapeutic effector mechanisms. Specifically, we found that, for MYCN amplified neuroblastoma, pairwise expression of ACVR2B or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK with GFRA3, GFRA2, Cadherin 24, or with one another provided the strongest hits. For MYCN, non-amplified stage 4 neuroblastoma, neurotrophic tyrosine kinase 1, or ALK paired with GFRA2, GFRA3, SSK

  20. On pair-absorption in intrinsic vapours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotop, R.; Niemax, K.; Schlueter, D.

    1982-01-01

    The bound-state pair-absorption bands Cs(6 2 S 1 sub(/) 2 ) + Cs(6 2 S 1 sub(/) 2 ) + hν → Cs(5 2 D 5 sub(/) 2 sub(,) 3 sub(/) 2 ) + Cs(6 2 P 1 sub(/) 2 ) and the K-K continuum-state pair-absorptions in the wavelength region 2.350 <= lambda <= 2.850 Angstroem have been investigated experimentally. In the case of the bound-state pair-absorption bands a theoretical approach for the absorption cross section at the band centre is given which is in good agreement with the experimental observation. Differences between our and the theoretical formulas given by the Stanford group are discussed. (orig.)

  1. Association between patellar cartilage defects and patellofemoral geometry: a matched-pair MRI comparison of patients with and without isolated patellar cartilage defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, Julian; Feucht, Matthias J; Bode, Gerrit; Dovi-Akue, David; Südkamp, Norbert P; Niemeyer, Philipp

    2016-03-01

    To compare the geometry of the patellofemoral joint on magnetic resonance images (MRI) between patients with isolated cartilage defects of the patella and a gender- and age-matched control group of patients without patellar cartilage defects. A total of 43 patients (17 female, 26 male) with arthroscopically verified grade III and IV patellar cartilage defects (defect group) were compared with a matched-pair control group of patients with isolated traumatic rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament without cartilage defects of the patellofemoral joint. Preoperative MRI images were analysed retrospectively with regard to patellar geometry (width, thickness, facet angle), trochlear geometry (dysplasia according to Dejour, sulcus angle, sulcus depth, lateral condyle index, trochlea facet asymmetry, lateral trochlea inclination) and patellofemoral alignment (tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance, patella height, lateral patella displacement, lateral patellofemoral angle, patella tilt, congruence angle). In addition to the comparison of group values, the measured values were compared to normal values reported in the literature, and the frequency of patients with pathologic findings was compared between both groups. The defect group demonstrated a significantly higher proximal chondral sulcus angle (p patellofemoral joint. In particular, a flat and shallow trochlea, trochlea dysplasia and patella alta seem to contribute to the development of patellar cartilage defects, which must be taken into consideration when planning to do surgical cartilage repair at the patella. III.

  2. Analyzing survival curves at a fixed point in time for paired and clustered right-censored data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Pei-Fang; Chi, Yunchan; Lee, Chun-Yi; Shyr, Yu; Liao, Yi-De

    2018-01-01

    In clinical trials, information about certain time points may be of interest in making decisions about treatment effectiveness. Rather than comparing entire survival curves, researchers can focus on the comparison at fixed time points that may have a clinical utility for patients. For two independent samples of right-censored data, Klein et al. (2007) compared survival probabilities at a fixed time point by studying a number of tests based on some transformations of the Kaplan-Meier estimators of the survival function. However, to compare the survival probabilities at a fixed time point for paired right-censored data or clustered right-censored data, their approach would need to be modified. In this paper, we extend the statistics to accommodate the possible within-paired correlation and within-clustered correlation, respectively. We use simulation studies to present comparative results. Finally, we illustrate the implementation of these methods using two real data sets. PMID:29456280

  3. Galactic Pairs in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-02-01

    In the spirit of Valentines Day, today well be exploring apparent pairs of galaxies in the distant, early universe. How can we tell whether these duos are actually paired galaxies, as opposed to disguised singles?Real Pair, or Trick of the Light?In the schematic timeline of the universe, the epoch of reionization is when the first galaxies and quasars began to form and evolve. [NASA]The statistics of merging galaxies throughout the universe reveal not only direct information about how galaxies interact, but also cosmological information about the structure of the universe. While weve observed many merging galaxy pairs at low redshift, however, its much more challenging to identify these duos in the early universe.A merging pair of galaxies at high redshift appears to us as a pair of unresolved blobs that lie close to each other in the sky. But spotting such a set of objects doesnt necessarily mean were looking at a merger! There are three possible scenarios to explain an observed apparent duo:Its a pair of galaxies in a stage of merger.Its a projection coincidence; the two galaxies arent truly near each other.Its a single galaxy being gravitationally lensed by a foreground object. This strong lensing produces the appearance of multiple galaxies.Hubble photometry of one of the three galaxy groups identified at z 8, with the galaxies in the image labeled with their corresponding approximate photometric redshifts. [Adapted from Chaikin et al. 2018]Hunting for Distant DuosIn a recent study led by Evgenii Chaikin (Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Russia), a team of scientists has explored the Hubble Ultra Deep Field in search ofhigh-redshift galaxies merging during the epoch of reionization, when the first galaxies formed and evolved.Using an approach called the dropout technique, which leverages the visibility of the galaxies in different wavelength filters, Chaikin and collaborators obtain approximate redshifts for an initial sample of 7

  4. Chemical profile of sugarcane spirits produced by double distillation methodologies in rectifying still

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ricardo Alcarde

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the chemical profile of sugarcane spirits produced by different double distillation methodologies in rectifying still. Fermented sugarcane juice was distilled in rectifying still according to three double distillation methodologies: the methodology used for cognac production; the methodology used for whisky production; and the 10-80-10 percentage composition methodology, referring to the volumes of head, heart and tail of the distillate fractions from the second distillation. For comparison purposes, a simple distilled spirit was also produced. The distillates were analyzed for concentrations of ethanol, copper, volatile acidity, furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural, aldehydes, esters, methanol and higher alcohols. The spirits were also evaluated on the sensory attributes of aroma, taste and preference. Compared to simple distillation, double distillation improved the chemical quality of the spirits, since it has reduced the concentrations of acids, aldehydes, esters, methanol, higher alcohols and, consequently, their coefficient of congeners. Regardless of the methodology employed, the double distillation improved the sensory quality of the spirits since they obtained higher sensory acceptance in relation to spirits produced by simple distillation. Among double distilled spirits, the one produced according to whisky methodology obtained the best scores from appraisers on the aroma and flavor parameters and it was also the most preferred.

  5. QUANTITATIVE ION-PAIR EXTRACTION OF 4(5)-METHYLIMIDAZOLE FROM CARAMEL COLOR AND ITS DETERMINATION BY REVERSED-PHASE ION-PAIR LIQUID-CHROMATOGRAPHY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mohens; Willumsen, Dorthe

    1981-01-01

    A procedure for quantitative ion-pair extraction of 4(5)-methylimidazole from caramel colour using bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid as ion-pairing agent has been developed. Furthermore, a reversed-phase ion-pair liquid chromatographic separation method has been established to analyse the content...

  6. Inter-ethnic variation of ocular traits-design and methodology of comparison study among American Caucasians, American Chinese and mainland Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan Dan; Huang, Guo Fu; He, Ming Guang; Wu, Ling Ling; Lin, Shan

    2011-03-01

    To summarize the design and methodology of a multi-center study. With the existed ethnic differences of glaucoma, this survey will explore the differences with regard to anterior and posterior ocular segment parameters between Caucasians and Chinese. In this study, four cohorts including American Caucasians and American Chinese from San Francisco, southern mainland Chinese from Guangzhou, and northern mainland Chinese from Beijing were prospectively enrolled for a series of eye examinations and tests from May 2008 to December 2010. A total of 120 subjects including 15 of each gender in each age decade from 40s to 70s were recruited for each group. Data of the following tests were collected: a questionnaire eliciting systemic and ocular disease history, blood pressure, presenting and best corrected visual acuity, auto-refraction, Goldmann applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, A-scan, anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT), ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), visual field (VF), Heidelberg retinal tomography (HRT), OCT for optic nerve, and digital fundus photography. this study will provide insights to the etiologies of glaucoma especially PACG through inter-ethnic comparisons of relevant ocular anatomic and functional parameters.

  7. EDF'S ''OMF-structures'' RI-ISI process: overview of the methodology, applications and comparison with the other existing RI-ISI initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codron, P.; Lauriot, B.; Dubreuil-Chambardel, A.

    2001-01-01

    The OMF-Structures process has been developed by EDF in order to optimise the maintenance of piping components. The principles of the OMF-Structures are consistent with the RCM concepts in EDF's OMF process (applied to active components). Several applications of this process have been performed. This paper also presents several applications which have been performed, notably on the AFW, RHR, and HPSI/LPSI systems of EDF's 900 MW PWR plants. These applications led to propose optimised preventive maintenance programs for these systems. These updated preventive maintenance programs confirmed and justified a large proportion of existing maintenance, despite some inspection tasks were suppressed and some inspection tasks were added. Globally, these new programs guarantee a better safety level, insuring that preventive maintenance is applied on piping segments where risks are concentrated. A comparative evaluation of the OMF-Structures process with the EPRI and WOG/ASME RI-ISI methodologies has been performed. This comparison demonstrated the consistence of the OMF-Structures principles and selection criteria with the other RI-ISI processes. (author)

  8. Cofiring versus biomass-fired power plants: GHG (Greenhouse Gases) emissions savings comparison by means of LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, F.; Royo, J.; Gomez, M.

    2011-01-01

    One way of producing nearly CO 2 free electricity is by using biomass as a combustible. In many cases, removal of CO 2 in biomass grown is almost the same as the emissions for the bioelectricity production at the power plant. For this reason, bioelectricity is generally considered CO 2 neutral. For large-scale biomass electricity generation two alternatives can be considered: biomass-only fired power plants, or cofiring in an existing coal power plant. Among other factors, two important aspects should be analyzed in order to choose between the two options. Firstly, which is the most appealing alternative if their Greenhouse Gases (GHG) Emissions savings are taken into account. Secondly, which biomass resource is the best, if the highest impact reduction is sought. In order to quantify all the GHG emissions related to each system, a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology has been performed and all the processes involved in each alternative have been assessed in a cradle-to-grave manner. Sensitivity analyses of the most dominant parameters affecting GHG emissions, and comparisons between the obtained results, have also been carried out.

  9. The Menopause Rating Scale (MRS scale: A methodological review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strelow Frank

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper compiles data from different sources to get a first comprehensive picture of psychometric and other methodological characteristics of the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS scale. The scale was designed and standardized as a self-administered scale to (a to assess symptoms/complaints of aging women under different conditions, (b to evaluate the severity of symptoms over time, and (c to measure changes pre- and postmenopause replacement therapy. The scale became widespread used (available in 10 languages. Method A large multinational survey (9 countries in 4 continents from 2001/ 2002 is the basis for in depth analyses on reliability and validity of the MRS. Additional small convenience samples were used to get first impressions about test-retest reliability. The data were centrally analyzed. Data from a postmarketing HRT study were used to estimate discriminative validity. Results Reliability measures (consistency and test-retest stability were found to be good across countries, although the sample size for test-retest reliability was small. Validity: The internal structure of the MRS across countries was astonishingly similar to conclude that the scale really measures the same phenomenon in symptomatic women. The sub-scores and total score correlations were high (0.7–0.9 but lower among the sub-scales (0.5–0.7. This however suggests that the subscales are not fully independent. Norm values from different populations were presented showing that a direct comparison between Europe and North America is possible, but caution recommended with comparisons of data from Latin America and Indonesia. But this will not affect intra-individual comparisons within clinical trials. The comparison with the Kupperman Index showed sufficiently good correlations, illustrating an adept criterion-oriented validity. The same is true for the comparison with the generic quality-of-life scale SF-36 where also a sufficiently close association

  10. A quality evaluation methodology of health web-pages for non-professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currò, Vincenzo; Buonuomo, Paola Sabrina; Onesimo, Roberta; de Rose, Paola; Vituzzi, Andrea; di Tanna, Gian Luca; D'Atri, Alessandro

    2004-06-01

    The proposal of an evaluation methodology for determining the quality of healthcare web sites for the dissemination of medical information to non-professionals. Three (macro) factors are considered for the quality evaluation: medical contents, accountability of the authors, and usability of the web site. Starting from two results in the literature the problem of whether or not to introduce a weighting function has been investigated. This methodology has been validated on a specialized information content, i.e., sore throats, due to the large interest such a topic enjoys with target users. The World Wide Web was accessed using a meta-search system merging several search engines. A statistical analysis was made to compare the proposed methodology with the obtained ranks of the sample web pages. The statistical analysis confirms that the variables examined (per item and sub factor) show substantially similar ranks and are capable of contributing to the evaluation of the main quality macro factors. A comparison between the aggregation functions in the proposed methodology (non-weighted averages) and the weighting functions, derived from the literature, allowed us to verify the suitability of the method. The proposed methodology suggests a simple approach which can quickly award an overall quality score for medical web sites oriented to non-professionals.

  11. KLIMAT 'Best practice' methodology; KLIMAT 'Best practice' metodikk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svanes, Erik; Moeller, Hanne

    2012-07-01

    This report summarizes the main lessons learned from the research The climate challenge of food products in a holistic environmental and life cycle perspective, abbreviated KLIMAT. This was a research project in the period 2009-2012, conducted by Oestfoldforskning with the assistance of researchers from UMB, SIK (Sweden), MTT (Finland) and Aalborg University (Denmark). The project was funded by the Norwegian Research Council and its partners BAMA, Coop Norway, Norway Group, Nortura and Tine. The main objective of the project was to develop a uniform and scientifically based methodology to quantify the carbon footprint of food products to allow a fair comparison of food crops climate performance. This report summarizes a number of recommendations with regard to methodological choices in the implementation of greenhouse trace analysis of foodstuffs. The recommendations are divided into system boundaries, functional unit, allocation, and data quality and data variability. During the project period, a number of national and international initiatives have been launched to develop the calculation methodology. Therefore the objective of creating a standardized methodology was adjusted to prepare input to the methodology in the form of articles and reports.(Author)

  12. Determining the number of kanbans for dynamic production systems: An integrated methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Uzun Araz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Just-in-time (JIT is a management philosophy that reduces the inventory levels and eliminates manufacturing wastes by producing only the right quantity at the right time. A kanban system is one of the key elements of JIT philosophy. Kanbans are used to authorize production and to control movement of materials in JIT systems. In Kanban systems, the efficiency of the manufacturing system depends on several factors such as number of kanbans, container size etc. Hence, determining the number of kanbans is a critical decision in Kanban systems. The aim of this study is to develop a methodology that can be used in order to determine the number of kanbans in a dynamic production environment. In this methodology, the changes in system state is monitored in real time manner, and the number of the kanbans are dynamically re-arranged. The proposed methodology integrates simulation, neural networks and Mamdani type fuzzy inference system. The methodology is modelled in simulation environment and applied on a hypothetic production system. We also performed several comparisons for different control policies to show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  13. Development of a methodology for doss assessment viewing the use of NORM on building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Antonio Fernando Costa de

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a methodology for estimating the radiological impact on man of the residues of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) that potentially can be used for the construction of homes and roads. Residues of this type, which are being produced in great quantities by the Brazilian mining industry, are typically deposited in non-appropriated conditions such that they may have a long-time adverse impact on the environment, and hence on man. A mathematical model was developed to calculate the doses resulting from the use of NORM residues, thus allowing a preliminary analysis of the possibility to recycle the residues. The model was used to evaluate the external dose due gamma radiation, the dose to skin caused by beta radiation, and the internal dose due to inhalation of radon and its decay products. The model was verified by comparisons with results of other studies about doses due to gamma and beta radiation from finite and infinite radioactive sources, with relatively good agreement. In order to validate the proposed methodology, a comparison was made against experimental results for a house constructed in accordance with CNEN regulations using building materials containing NORM residues. Comparisons were made of the dose due to gamma radiation and the radon concentration in the internal environment. Finally, the methodology was used also to estimate the dose caused by gamma radiation from a road constructed in the state of Rondonia, Brazil, which made use of another NORM residue. (author)

  14. Coherent pair creation from beam-beam interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Pisin.

    1989-09-01

    It has recently been recognized that in future linear colliders, there is a finite probability that the beamstrahlung photons will turn into e + e - pairs induced by the same beam-beam field, and this would potentially cause background problems. In this paper, we first review the probability of such a coherent pair creation process. It is seen that the constraint on the beamstrahlung parameter, Υ, is tight of these coherent pairs to be totally suppressed. We then point out that there exists a minimum energy for the pair-created particles, which scales as ∼1/5Υ. When combining this condition with the deflection angle for the low-energy particles, the constraint on the allowable Υ value is much relaxed. Finally, we calculate the effective cross section for producing the weak bosons by the low-energy e + e - pairs. It is shown that these cross sections are substantial for Υ > 1. We suggest that this effect can help to autoscan the particle spectrum in the high energy frontier. 10 refs., 2 figs

  15. Forecasting method for global radiation time series without training phase: Comparison with other well-known prediction methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voyant, Cyril; Motte, Fabrice; Fouilloy, Alexis; Notton, Gilles; Paoli, Christophe; Nivet, Marie-Laure

    2017-01-01

    Integration of unpredictable renewable energy sources into electrical networks intensifies the complexity of the grid management due to their intermittent and unforeseeable nature. Because of the strong increase of solar power generation the prediction of solar yields becomes more and more important. Electrical operators need an estimation of the future production. For nowcasting and short term forecasting, the usual technics based on machine learning need large historical data sets of good quality during the training phase of predictors. However data are not always available and induce an advanced maintenance of meteorological stations, making the method inapplicable for poor instrumented or isolated sites. In this work, we propose intuitive methodologies based on the Kalman filter use (also known as linear quadratic estimation), able to predict a global radiation time series without the need of historical data. The accuracy of these methods is compared to other classical data driven methods, for different horizons of prediction and time steps. The proposed approach shows interesting capabilities allowing to improve quasi-systematically the prediction. For one to 10 h horizons Kalman model performances are competitive in comparison to more sophisticated models such as ANN which require both consistent historical data sets and computational resources. - Highlights: • Solar radiation forecasting with time series formalism. • Trainless approach compared to machine learning methods. • Very simple method dedicated to solar irradiation forecasting with high accuracy.

  16. Seniority zero pair coupled cluster doubles theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, Tamar; Henderson, Thomas M.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.

    2014-01-01

    Coupled cluster theory with single and double excitations accurately describes weak electron correlation but is known to fail in cases of strong static correlation. Fascinatingly, however, pair coupled cluster doubles (p-CCD), a simplified version of the theory limited to pair excitations that preserve the seniority of the reference determinant (i.e., the number of unpaired electrons), has mean field computational cost and is an excellent approximation to the full configuration interaction (FCI) of the paired space provided that the orbital basis defining the pairing scheme is adequately optimized. In previous work, we have shown that optimization of the pairing scheme in the seniority zero FCI leads to a very accurate description of static correlation. The same conclusion extends to p-CCD if the orbitals are optimized to make the p-CCD energy stationary. We here demonstrate these results with numerous examples. We also explore the contributions of different seniority sectors to the coupled cluster doubles (CCD) correlation energy using different orbital bases. We consider both Hartree-Fock and Brueckner orbitals, and the role of orbital localization. We show how one can pair the orbitals so that the role of the Brueckner orbitals at the CCD level is retained at the p-CCD level. Moreover, we explore ways of extending CCD to accurately describe strongly correlated systems

  17. Odd-frequency pairing in superconducting heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golubov, A A [Faculty of Science and Technology and MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Tanaka, Y [Department of Applied Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya, 464-8603 (Japan); Asano, Y [Department of Applied Physics, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Tanuma, Y [Institute of Physics, Kanagawa University, 3-7-1, Rokkakubashi, Kanagawa-ku, Yokohama 221-8686 (Japan)], E-mail: a.golubov@utwente.nl

    2009-04-22

    We review the theory of odd-frequency pairing in superconducting heterostructures, where an odd-frequency pairing component is induced near interfaces. A general description of the superconducting proximity effect in a normal metal or a ferromagnet attached to an unconventional superconductor (S) is given within quasiclassical kinetic theory for various types of symmetry state in S. Various possible symmetry classes in a superconductor are considered which are consistent with the Pauli principle: even-frequency spin-singlet even-parity (ESE) state, even-frequency spin-triplet odd-parity (ETO) state, odd-frequency spin-triplet even-parity (OTE) state and odd-frequency spin-singlet odd-parity (OSO) state. As an example, we consider a junction between a diffusive normal metal (DN) and a p-wave superconductor (even-frequency spin-triplet odd-parity symmetry), where the pairing amplitude in DN belongs to an odd-frequency spin-triplet even-parity symmetry class. We also discuss the manifestation of odd-frequency pairing in conventional superconductor/normal (S/N) proximity systems and its relation to the classical McMillan-Rowell oscillations.

  18. Pulsational Pair-instability Model for Superluminous Supernova PTF12dam:Interaction and Radioactive Decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolstov, Alexey; Nomoto, Ken’ichi; Blinnikov, Sergei; Quimby, Robert [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Sorokina, Elena [Sternberg Astronomical Institute, M.V.Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Baklanov, Petr, E-mail: alexey.tolstov@ipmu.jp [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-01

    Being a superluminous supernova, PTF12dam can be explained by a {sup 56}Ni-powered model, a magnetar-powered model, or an interaction model. We propose that PTF12dam is a pulsational pair-instability supernova, where the outer envelope of a progenitor is ejected during the pulsations. Thus, it is powered by a double energy source: radioactive decay of {sup 56}Ni and a radiative shock in a dense circumstellar medium. To describe multicolor light curves and spectra, we use radiation-hydrodynamics calculations of the STELLA code. We found that light curves are well described in the model with 40 M {sub ⊙} ejecta and 20–40 M {sub ⊙} circumstellar medium. The ejected {sup 56}Ni mass is about 6 M {sub ⊙}, which results from explosive nucleosynthesis with large explosion energy (2–3)×10{sup 52} erg. In comparison with alternative scenarios of pair-instability supernova and magnetar-powered supernova, in the interaction model, all the observed main photometric characteristics are well reproduced: multicolor light curves, color temperatures, and photospheric velocities.

  19. e+e--pair production in Pb-Au collisions at 158 GeV per nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Agakichiev, G.; Bielcikova, J.; Baur, R.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Cherlin, A.; Damjanovic, S.; Drees, A.; Esumi, S.; Faschingbauer, U.; Fraenkel, Z.; Fuchs, Ch.; Gatti, E.; Glassel, P.; Hering, G.; de los Heros, C.P.; Holl, P.; Jung, Ch.; Lenkeit, B.; Marin, A.; Messer, F.; Messer, M.; Miskowiec, D.; Nix, O.; Panebrattsev, Yu.; Pfeiffer, A.; Rak, J.; Ravinovich, I.; Razin, S.; Rehak, P.; Richter, M.; Sampietro, M.; Sako, H.; Saveljic, N.; Schmitz, W.; Schukraft, J.; Seipp, W.; Shimanskiy, S.; Socol, E.; Specht, H.J.; Stachel, J.; Tel-Zur, G.; Tserruya, Itzhak; Ullrich, T.; Voigt, C.; Voloshin, S.; Weber, C.; Wessels, J.P.; Wienold, T.; Wurm, J.P.; Yurevich, V.; Fuchs, Ch.; Jung, Ch.; Panebrattsev, Yu.

    2005-01-01

    We present the combined results on electron-pair production in 158 GeV/n {Pb-Au} ($\\sqrt{s}$= 17.2 GeV) collisions taken at the CERN SPS in 1995 and 1996, and give a detailed account of the data analysis. The enhancement over the reference of neutral meson decays amounts to a factor of 2.31$\\pm0.19 (stat.)\\pm0.55 (syst.)\\pm0.69 (decays)$ for semi-central collisions (28% $\\sigma/\\sigma_{geo}$) when yields are integrated over $m>$ 200 MeV/$c^2$ in invariant mass. The measured yield, its stronger-than-linear scaling with $N_{ch}$, and the dominance of low pair $p_t$ strongly suggest an interpretation as {\\it thermal radiation} from pion annihilation in the hadronic fireball. The shape of the excess centring at $m\\approx$ 500 MeV/$c^2$, however, cannot be described without strong medium modifications of the $\\rho$ meson. The results are put into perspective by comparison to predictions from Brown-Rho scaling governed by chiral symmetry restoration, and from the spectral-function many-body treatment in which the a...

  20. Hadronic production of massive lepton pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, E.L.

    1982-12-01

    A review is presented of recent experimental and theoretical progress in studies of the production of massive lepton pairs in hadronic collisions. I begin with the classical Drell-Yan annihilation model and its predictions. Subsequently, I discuss deviations from scaling, the status of the proofs of factorization in the parton model, higher-order terms in the perturbative QCD expansion, the discrepancy between measured and predicted yields (K factor), high-twist terms, soft gluon effects, transverse-momentum distributions, implications for weak vector boson (W +- and Z 0 ) yields and production properties, nuclear A dependence effects, correlations of the lepton pair with hadrons in the final state, and angular distributions in the lepton-pair rest frame

  1. Learning preferences from paired opposite-based semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco de los Ríos, Camilo; Rodríguez, J. Tinguaro; Montero, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Preference semantics examine the meaning of the preference predicate, according to the way that alternatives can be understood and organized for decision making purposes. Through opposite-based semantics, preference structures can be characterized by their paired decomposition of preference...... on the character of opposition, the compound meaning of preference emerges from the fuzzy reinforcement of paired opposite concepts, searching for significant evidence for affirming dominance among the decision objects. Here we propose a general model for the paired decomposition of preference, examining its...

  2. Methodological and Reporting Quality of Comparative Studies Evaluating Health-Related Quality of Life of Colorectal Cancer Patients and Controls: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Carlos K H; Guo, Vivian Y W; Chen, Jing; Lam, Cindy L K

    2016-11-01

    Health-related quality of life is an important outcome measure in patients with colorectal cancer. Comparison with normative data has been increasingly undertaken to assess the additional impact of colorectal cancer on health-related quality of life. This review aimed to critically appraise the methodological details and reporting characteristics of comparative studies evaluating differences in health-related quality of life between patients and controls. A systematic search of English-language literature published between January 1985 and May 2014 was conducted through a database search of PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Medline. Comparative studies reporting health-related quality-of-life outcomes among patients who have colorectal cancer and controls were selected. Methodological and reporting quality per comparison study was evaluated based on a 11-item methodological checklist proposed by Efficace in 2003 and a set of criteria predetermined by reviewers. Thirty-one comparative studies involving >10,000 patients and >10,000 controls were included. Twenty-three studies (74.2%) originated from European countries, with the largest number from the Netherlands (n = 6). Twenty-eight studies (90.3%) compared the health-related quality of life of patients with normative data published elsewhere, whereas the remaining studies recruited a group of patients who had colorectal cancer and a group of control patients within the same studies. The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality-of-Life Questionnaire Core 30 was the most extensively used instrument (n = 16; 51.6%). Eight studies (25.8%) were classified as "probably robust" for clinical decision making according to the Efficace standard methodological checklist. Our further quality assessment revealed the lack of score differences reported (61.3%), contemporary comparisons (36.7%), statistical significance tested (38.7%), and matching of control group (58.1%), possibly leading to

  3. Observing Pair-Work Task in an English Speaking Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Achmad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on students’ pair-work interactions to develop their speaking skills in an ELT classroom which consisted of international learners. A number of 16 learners of intermediate proficiency with IELTS score band 5.5 were observed. The teacher had paired those he considered among them to be the more competent ones (hereafter, stronger with the less competent ones (hereafter, weaker; therefore, eight pairs were observed during the lesson. The task given to the students was to express ‘Agree and Disagree’ in the context of giving opinions related to social life. Based on the observations, the task was successfully implemented by six pairs; thus, the two others faced some problems. From the first pair, it was seen that the stronger student had intimated the weaker one into speaking during the task. The other pair, who was both of the same native, did not converse in English as expected and mostly used their native language to speak with one another presumably due to respect from the stronger student towards the weaker one. In situations like this, when pair-work becomes unproductive, rotating pairs is recommended to strengthen information sharing and assigning roles to avoid a student from taking over the activity from his or her pair. In conclusion, pairing international learners with mixed speaking proficiency by teachers must be conducted as effectively as possible by initially identifying their ability and learning culture to profoundly expand the students’ language resources.

  4. Pair-correlations in swimmer suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Sankalp; Subramanian, Ganesh

    2017-11-01

    Suspensions of rear-actuated swimming microorganisms, such as E.coli, exhibit several interesting phenomena including spontaneous pattern formation above a critical concentration, novel rheological properties, shear-induced concentration banding etc. Explanations based on mean-field theory are only qualitative, since interactions between swimmers are important for typical experimental concentrations. We analytically characterize the hydrodynamic pair-interactions in a quiescent suspension of slender straight swimmers. The pair-correlation, calculated at leading order by integrating the swimmer velocity disturbances along straight trajectories, decays as 1/r2 for r >> L (L being the swimmer size). This allows us to characterize both polar and nematic correlations in an interacting swimmer suspension. In the absence of correlations, the velocity covariance asymptotes from a constant for r > L, the latter being characteristic of a suspension of non-interacting point force-dipoles. On including correlations, the slow decay of the pair-orientation correlation leads to an additional contribution to the velocity covariance that diverges logarithmically with system size.

  5. Binaries and triples among asteroid pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravec, Petr; Scheirich, Peter; Kušnirák, Peter; Hornoch, Kamil; Galád, Adrián

    2015-08-01

    Despite major achievements obtained during the past two decades, our knowledge of the population and properties of small binary and multiple asteroid systems is still far from advanced. There is a numerous indirect evidence for that most small asteroid systems were formed by rotational fission of cohesionless parent asteroids that were spun up to the critical frequency presumably by YORP, but details of the process are lacking. Furthermore, as we proceed with observations of more and more binary and paired asteroids, we reveal new facts that substantially refine and sometimes change our understanding of the asteroid systems. One significant new finding we have recently obtained is that primaries of many asteroid pairs are actually binary or triple systems. The first such case found is (3749) Balam (Vokrouhlický, ApJL 706, L37, 2009). We have found 9 more binary systems among asteroid pairs within our ongoing NEOSource photometric project since October 2012. They are (6369) 1983 UC, (8306) Shoko, (9783) Tensho-kan, (10123) Fideoja, (21436) Chaoyichi, (43008) 1999 UD31, (44620) 1999 RS43, (46829) 1998 OS14 and (80218) 1999 VO123. We will review their characteristics. These paired binaries as we call them are mostly similar to binaries in the general ("background") population (of unpaired asteroids), but there are a few trends. The paired binaries tend to have larger secondaries with D_2/D_1 = 0.3 to 0.5 and they also tend to be wider systems with 8 of the 10 having orbital periods between 30 and 81 hours, than average among binaries in the general population. There may be also a larger fraction of triples; (3749) Balam is a confirmed triple, having a larger close and a smaller distant satellite, and (8306) Shoko and (10123) Fideoja are suspect triples as they show additional rotational lightcurve components with periods of 61 and 38.8 h that differ from the orbital period of 36.2 and 56.5 h, respectively. The unbound secondaries tend to be of the same size or

  6. Isovectorial pairing in solvable and algebraic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerma, Sergio; Vargas, Carlos E; Hirsch, Jorge G

    2011-01-01

    Schematic interactions are useful to gain some insight in the behavior of very complicated systems such as the atomic nuclei. Prototypical examples are, in this context, the pairing interaction and the quadrupole interaction of the Elliot model. In this contribution the interplay between isovectorial pairing, spin-orbit, and quadrupole terms in a harmonic oscillator shell (the so-called pairing-plus-quadrupole model) is studied by algebraic methods. The ability of this model to provide a realistic description of N = Z even-even nuclei in the fp-shell is illustrated with 44 Ti. Our calculations which derive from schematic and simple terms confirm earlier conclusions obtained by using realistic interactions: the SU(3) symmetry of the quadrupole term is broken mainly by the spin-orbit term, but the energies depends strongly on pairing.

  7. An approach to SOA development methodology: SOUP comparison with RUP and XP

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Svanidzaitė

    2014-01-01

    Service oriented architecture (SOA) is an architecture for distributed applications composed of distributed services with weak coupling that are designed to meet business requirements. One of the research priorities in the field of SOA is creating such software design and development methodology (SDDM) that takes into account all principles of this architecture and allows for effective and efficient application development. A lot of investigation has been carried out to find out whether can o...

  8. Cytoplasmic and Genomic Effects on Meiotic Pairing in Brassica Hybrids and Allotetraploids from Pair Crosses of Three Cultivated Diploids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Cheng; Ge, Xianhong; Gautam, Mayank; Kang, Lei; Li, Zaiyun

    2012-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization and allopolyploidization contribute to the origin of many important crops. Synthetic Brassica is a widely used model for the study of genetic recombination and “fixed heterosis” in allopolyploids. To investigate the effects of the cytoplasm and genome combinations on meiotic recombination, we produced digenomic diploid and triploid hybrids and trigenomic triploid hybrids from the reciprocal crosses of three Brassica diploids (B. rapa, AA; B. nigra, BB; B. oleracea, CC). The chromosomes in the resultant hybrids were doubled to obtain three allotetraploids (B. juncea, AA.BB; B. napus, AA.CC; B. carinata, BB.CC). Intra- and intergenomic chromosome pairings in these hybrids were quantified using genomic in situ hybridization and BAC-FISH. The level of intra- and intergenomic pairings varied significantly, depending on the genome combinations and the cytoplasmic background and/or their interaction. The extent of intragenomic pairing was less than that of intergenomic pairing within each genome. The extent of pairing variations within the B genome was less than that within the A and C genomes, each of which had a similar extent of pairing. Synthetic allotetraploids exhibited nondiploidized meiotic behavior, and their chromosomal instabilities were correlated with the relationship of the genomes and cytoplasmic background. Our results highlight the specific roles of the cytoplasm and genome to the chromosomal behaviors of hybrids and allopolyploids. PMID:22505621

  9. Pairing of heterochromatin in response to cellular stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Halim, H.I.; Mullenders, L.H.F.; Boei, J.J.W.A.

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported that exposure of human cells to DNA-damaging agents (X-rays and mitomycin C (MMC)) induces pairing of the homologous paracentromeric heterochromatin of chromosome 9 (9q12-13). Here, we show that UV irradiation and also heat shock treatment of human cells lead to similar effects. Since the various agents induce very different types and frequencies of damage to cellular constituents, the data suggest a general stress response as the underlying mechanism. Moreover, local UV irradiation experiments revealed that pairing of heterochromatin is an event that can be triggered without induction of DNA damage in the heterochromatic sequences. The repair deficient xeroderma pigmentosum cells (group F) previously shown to fail pairing after MMC displayed elevated pairing after heat shock treatment but not after UV exposure. Taken together, the present results indicate that pairing of heterochromatin following exposure to DNA-damaging agents is initiated by a general stress response and that the sensing of stress or the maintenance of the paired status of the heterochromatin might be dependent on DNA repair

  10. Applying distance-to-target weighing methodology to evaluate the environmental performance of bio-based energy, fuels, and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Martin; Patel, Martin; Heilmeier, Hermann; Bringezu, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    The enhanced use of biomass for the production of energy, fuels, and materials is one of the key strategies towards sustainable production and consumption. Various life cycle assessment (LCA) studies demonstrate the great potential of bio-based products to reduce both the consumption of non-renewable energy resources and greenhouse gas emissions. However, the production of biomass requires agricultural land and is often associated with adverse environmental effects such as eutrophication of surface and ground water. Decision making in favor of or against bio-based and conventional fossil product alternatives therefore often requires weighing of environmental impacts. In this article, we apply distance-to-target weighing methodology to aggregate LCA results obtained in four different environmental impact categories (i.e., non-renewable energy consumption, global warming potential, eutrophication potential, and acidification potential) to one environmental index. We include 45 bio- and fossil-based product pairs in our analysis, which we conduct for Germany. The resulting environmental indices for all product pairs analyzed range from -19.7 to +0.2 with negative values indicating overall environmental benefits of bio-based products. Except for three options of packaging materials made from wheat and cornstarch, all bio-based products (including energy, fuels, and materials) score better than their fossil counterparts. Comparing the median values for the three options of biomass utilization reveals that bio-energy (-1.2) and bio-materials (-1.0) offer significantly higher environmental benefits than bio-fuels (-0.3). The results of this study reflect, however, subjective value judgments due to the weighing methodology applied. Given the uncertainties and controversies associated not only with distance-to-target methodologies in particular but also with weighing approaches in general, the authors strongly recommend using weighing for decision finding only as a

  11. Application of decision-making methodology to certificate-of-need applications for CT scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottinger, H.W.; Shapiro, P.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a case study and application of decision-making methodology to two competing Certificate of Need (CON) applications for CT body scanners. We demonstrate the use of decision-making methodology by evaluating the CON applications. Explicit value judgements reflecting the monetary equivalent of the different categories of benefit are introduced to facilitate this comparison. The difference between the benefits (measured in monetary terms) and costs is called the net social value. Any alternative with positive net social value is judged economically justifiable, and the alternative with the greatest net social value is judged the most attractive. (orig.)

  12. High level waste repository site suitability criteria. Environmental impact statement methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    The approach (methodology) which has been developed for the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) is described. A suggested outline is presented for the High Level Waste Repository Site Suitability Criteria EIS together with a detailed description of the approach to be used in preparing the EIS. In addition, a methodology is presented by which the necessary cost/benefit/risk comparisons of alternative sets of site suitability criteria can be made. The TERA environmental research data bank, a computerized data bank which contained information on current and historical licensing activities for power plants was modified to include information on generic or programmatic EIS related issues. The content of the modified data bank was utilized to develop the EIS outline presented in this report. The report recommends that a modified matrix evaluation approach be used to make the cost/benefit/risk comparisons. The suggested matrix is designed to facilitate between criteria comparative analyses of economic, environmental, sociological and radiological risk factors. The quantitative compositing of dollar cost and benefits, environmental and sociological impacts, and radiological risks is to be performed using a semi-analytical, semi-visual procedure based on the concept of ''decision surfaces.''

  13. Paired receiver operating characteristic curves and the effect of history on radiographic interpretation: CT of the head as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, B.J.; Hanley, J.A.; Funkenstein, H.H.; Wallman, J.

    1983-01-01

    The use of a statistical technique for paired comparisons using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves is illustrated by studying the extent to which clinical history altered the interpretation of computed tomographic (CT) examinations of the head. Eighty-nine CT examinations of the head were presented in random order to four readers, first with minimum history (age and sex) and then several weeks later with complete neutrological history as of the time the CT examination had been obtained. Using a paired ROC analysis, a small but significant (p < .05) improvement was detected for the interpretations in the presence of complete history; for readings without history the average area was 94.4% and for readings with history it was 97.7%

  14. Twin photon pairs in a high-Q silicon microresonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Steven; Lu, Xiyuan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Jiang, Wei C. [Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Lin, Qiang, E-mail: qiang.lin@rochester.edu [Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)

    2015-07-27

    We report the generation of high-purity twin photon pairs through cavity-enhanced non-degenerate four-wave mixing (FWM) in a high-Q silicon microdisk resonator. Twin photon pairs are created within the same cavity mode and are consequently expected to be identical in all degrees of freedom. The device is able to produce twin photons at telecommunication wavelengths with a pair generation rate as large as (3.96 ± 0.03) × 10{sup 5} pairs/s, within a narrow bandwidth of 0.72 GHz. A coincidence-to-accidental ratio of 660 ± 62 was measured, the highest value reported to date for twin photon pairs, at a pair generation rate of (2.47 ± 0.04) × 10{sup 4} pairs/s. Through careful engineering of the dispersion matching window, we have reduced the ratio of photons resulting from degenerate FWM to non-degenerate FWM to less than 0.15.

  15. Separable pairing force for relativistic quasiparticle random-phase approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Yuan; Ma Zhongyu; Ring, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We have introduced a separable pairing force, which was adjusted to reproduce the pairing properties of the Gogny force in nuclear matter. This separable pairing force is able to describe in relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov (RHB) calculations the pairing properties in the ground state of finite nuclei on almost the same footing as the original Gogny interaction. In this work we investigate excited states using the Relativistic Quasiparticle Random-Phase Approximation (RQRPA) with the same separable pairing force. For consistency the Goldstone modes and the convergence with various cutoff parameters in this version of RQRPA are studied. The first excited 2 + states for the chain of Sn isotopes with Z=50 and the chain of isotones with N=82 isotones are calculated in RQRPA together with the 3 - states of Sn isotopes. By comparing our results with experimental data and with the results of the original Gogny force we find that this simple separable pairing interaction is very successful in depicting the pairing properties of vibrational excitations.

  16. ΛΛ pairing in NΛ composite matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigawa, Tomonori; Matsuzaki, Masayuki; Chiba, Satoshi

    2003-01-01

    ΛΛ pairing correlation in binary mixed matter of nucleons and lambdas is studied within the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov model. Λ hyperons to be paired up are immersed in background nucleons in normal state. A phenomenological ΛΛ interaction, which is derived relativistically from the Lagrangian of the system, is adopted to the gap equation. It is found that increasing the nucleon density makes the ΛΛ pairing gap suppressed. This result suggests a mechanism, specific to relativistic models, of its dependence on the nucleon density. (author)

  17. ΛΛ pairing in NΛ composite matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigawa, Tomonori; Matsuzaki, Masayuki; Chiba, Satoshi

    2002-01-01

    ΛΛ pairing correlation in binary mixed matter of nucleons and lambdas is studied within the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov model. Λ hyperons to be paired up are immersed in background nucleons in normal state. A phenomenological ΛΛ interaction, which is derived relativistically from the Lagrangian of the system, is adopted to the gap equation. It is found that increasing the nucleon density makes the ΛΛ pairing gap suppressed. This result suggests a mechanism, specific to relativistic models, of its dependence on the nucleon density. (author)

  18. Recoil effects in multiphoton electron-positron pair creation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajewska, K.; Kaminski, J. Z.

    2010-01-01

    Triply differential probability rates for electron-positron pair creation in laser-nucleus collisions, calculated within the S-matrix approach, are investigated as functions of the nuclear recoil. Pronounced enhancements of differential probability rates of multiphoton pair production are found for a nonzero momentum transfer from the colliding nucleus. The corresponding rates show a very dramatic dependence on the polarization of the laser field impinging on the nucleus; only for a linearly polarized light are the multiphoton rates for electron-positron pair production considerably large. We focus therefore on this case. Our numerical results for different geometries of the reaction particles demonstrate that, for the linearly polarized laser field of an infinite extent (which is a good approximation for femtosecond laser pulses), the pair creation is far more efficient if the nucleus is detected in the direction of the laser-field propagation. The corresponding angular distributions of the created particles show that the high-energy pairs are predominantly produced in the plane spanned by the polarization vector and the laser-field propagation direction, while the low-energy pairs are rather spread around the latter of the two directions. The enhancement of differential probability rates at each energy sector, defined by the four-momentum conservation relation, is observed with varying the energy of the produced particles. The total probability rates of pair production are also evaluated and compared with the corresponding results for the case when one disregards the recoil effect. A tremendous enhancement of the total probability rates of the electron-positron pair creation is observed if one takes into account the nuclear recoil.

  19. MAJOR-MERGER GALAXY PAIRS IN THE COSMOS FIELD—MASS-DEPENDENT MERGER RATE EVOLUTION SINCE z = 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, C. Kevin; Zhao, Yinghe; Gao, Y.; Scoville, N.; Capak, P.; Drory, N.

    2012-01-01

    We present results of a statistical study of the cosmic evolution of the mass-dependent major-merger rate since z = 1. A stellar mass limited sample of close major-merger pairs (the CPAIR sample) was selected from the archive of the COSMOS survey. Pair fractions at different redshifts derived using the CPAIR sample and a local K-band-selected pair sample show no significant variations with stellar mass. The pair fraction exhibits moderately strong cosmic evolution, with the best-fitting function of f pair = 10 –1.88(±0.03) (1 + z) 2.2(±0.2) . The best-fitting function for the merger rate is R mg (Gyr –1 ) = 0.053 × (M star /10 10.7 M ☉ ) 0.3 (1 + z) 2.2 /(1 + z/8). This rate implies that galaxies of M star ∼ 10 10 -10 11.5 M ☉ have undergone ∼0.5-1.5 major mergers since z = 1. Our results show that, for massive galaxies (M star ≥ 10 10.5 M ☉ ) at z ≤ 1, major mergers involving star-forming galaxies (i.e., wet and mixed mergers) can account for the formation of both ellipticals and red quiescent galaxies (RQGs). On the other hand, major mergers cannot be responsible for the formation of most low mass ellipticals and RQGs of M star ∼ 10.3 M ☉ . Our quantitative estimates indicate that major mergers have significant impact on the stellar mass assembly of the most massive galaxies (M star ≥ 10 11.3 M ☉ ), but for less massive galaxies the stellar mass assembly is dominated by the star formation. Comparison with the mass-dependent (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies ((U)LIRG) rates suggests that the frequency of major-merger events is comparable to or higher than that of (U)LIRGs.

  20. A methodology for the transfer of probabilities between accident severity categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitlow, J.D.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper will describe a methodology which has been developed to allow accident probabilities associated with one severity category scheme to be transferred to another severity category scheme, permitting some comparisons of different studies at the category level. In this methodology, the severity category schemes to be compared are mapped onto a common set of axes. The axes represent critical accident environments (e.g., impact, thermal, crush, puncture) and indicate the range of accident parameters from zero (no accident) to the most sever credible forces. The choice of critical accident environments for the axes depends on the package being transported and the mode of transportation. The accident probabilities associated with one scheme are then transferred to the other scheme. This transfer of category probabilities is based on the relationships of the critical accident parameters to probability of occurrence. The methodology can be employed to transfer any quantity between category schemes if the appropriate supporting information is available. (J.P.N.)

  1. Studies of base pair sequence effects on DNA solvation based on all-atom molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Surjit B; Mezei, Mihaly; Beveridge, David L

    2012-07-01

    Detailed analyses of the sequence-dependent solvation and ion atmosphere of DNA are presented based on molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on all the 136 unique tetranucleotide steps obtained by the ABC consortium using the AMBER suite of programs. Significant sequence effects on solvation and ion localization were observed in these simulations. The results were compared to essentially all known experimental data on the subject. Proximity analysis was employed to highlight the sequence dependent differences in solvation and ion localization properties in the grooves of DNA. Comparison of the MD-calculated DNA structure with canonical A- and B-forms supports the idea that the G/C-rich sequences are closer to canonical A- than B-form structures, while the reverse is true for the poly A sequences, with the exception of the alternating ATAT sequence. Analysis of hydration density maps reveals that the flexibility of solute molecule has a significant effect on the nature of observed hydration. Energetic analysis of solute-solvent interactions based on proximity analysis of solvent reveals that the GC or CG base pairs interact more strongly with water molecules in the minor groove of DNA that the AT or TA base pairs, while the interactions of the AT or TA pairs in the major groove are stronger than those of the GC or CG pairs. Computation of solvent-accessible surface area of the nucleotide units in the simulated trajectories reveals that the similarity with results derived from analysis of a database of crystallographic structures is excellent. The MD trajectories tend to follow Manning's counterion condensation theory, presenting a region of condensed counterions within a radius of about 17 A from the DNA surface independent of sequence. The GC and CG pairs tend to associate with cations in the major groove of the DNA structure to a greater extent than the AT and TA pairs. Cation association is more frequent in the minor groove of AT than the GC pairs. In general, the

  2. STUDI KOMPARATIF MODEL PEMBELAJARAN THINK PAIR SQUARE DAN THINK PAIR SHARE TERHADAP MOTIVASI DAN HASIL BELAJAR SISWA MAPEL TIK KELAS X SMA N 1 SUKASADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Deli Januartini

    2016-10-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study were to determine (1 the significant influence of the application of think pair square and think pair share learning model on student’s learning achievement, (2 better learning achievement between think pair square and think pair share learning model, (3 student’s motivation, (4 the student’s responses. The research was a quasi-experimental design experiment with post test only control group design. The population of study was all the students in grade X. The sample were as X1 class with the application of Think Pair Square learning model, X3 class with the application of Think Pair Share learning model, and X5 class with the application of Direct Instruction learning model. The data was collected by cognitive and psychomotor tests. The student’s learning achievement were analyzed by the prerequisite test with the results of the three groups at normal distribution and homogenous, and the hypothesis tested by One Way Anova which means there is a significant effect on the application of think pair square, think pair share, and direct instruction learning models. Then it was conducted a further test t-Scheffe with the results there are differences in the learning achievement between think pair square, think pair share, and direct instruction learning models. According to the average result we made a conclusion that Think Pair Square was better learning models with higher student’s learning achievement. The questionnaires results shows that Think Pair Square was very high positive response and very high learning motivation, Think Pair Share was high positive response and very high learning motivation.   Keywords :   Think Pair Square, Think Pair Share, Direct Instruction, learning achievement, learning motivation, and student response.

  3. Hadoop Cluster Deployment: A Methodological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Celso Messias Correia

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, data has been treated as a general problem because it just represents fractions of an event without any relevant purpose. However, the last decade has been just about information and how to get it. Seeking meaning in data and trying to solve scalability problems, many frameworks have been developed to improve data storage and its analysis. As a framework, Hadoop was presented as a powerful tool to deal with large amounts of data. However, it still causes doubts about how to deal with its deployment and if there is any reliable method to compare the performance of distinct Hadoop clusters. This paper presents a methodology based on benchmark analysis to guide the Hadoop cluster deployment. The experiments employed The Apache Hadoop and the Hadoop distributions of Cloudera, Hortonworks, and MapR, analyzing the architectures on local and on clouding—using centralized and geographically distributed servers. The results show the methodology can be dynamically applied on a reliable comparison among different architectures. Additionally, the study suggests that the knowledge acquired can be used to improve the data analysis process by understanding the Hadoop architecture.

  4. Polyfactorial corruption index in the Russian regions: methodology of estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina L. Sidorenko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to summarize criminological social and economic indicators of development of the Russian Federation subjects to identify and assess the hidden system dependencies between social indicators and levels of corruption to define the links between individual indicators and to develop the methodology of anticorruption ranking of the regions. Methods comparison analysis synthesis mathematical modeling correlation comparisons and extrapolation. Results in the work the author describes the methodology of the complex analysis of corruption in the Russian Federation subjects and elaborates forecasts for its development short term and medium term. Scientific novelty for the first time in domestic criminology the algorithm is proposed of studying and forecasting regional corruption on the basis of polyfactorial analysis of criminological social and political indicators. For profound and comprehensive study of the regional aspects of corruption a model was developed to monitor and forecast on the basis of measuring the polyfactorial corruption index PCI. PCI consists of two groups of parameters corruption potential of the region of the country CPR and corruption risk in the region CRR. Practical significance the research results can be used in the process of developing regional strategies of corruption counteraction as well as in adjustment of the existing methods of corruption prevention.

  5. Statistical mechanics of magnetized pair Fermi gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daicic, J.; Frankel, N.E.; Kowalenko, V.

    1993-01-01

    Following previous work on the magnetized pair Bose gas this contribution presents the statistical mechanics of the charged relativistic Fermi gas with pair creation in d spatial dimensions. Initially, the gas in no external fields is studied. As a result, expansions for the various thermodynamic functions are obtained in both the μ/m→0 (neutrino) limit, and about the point μ/m =1, where μ is the chemical potential. The thermodynamics of a gas of quantum-number conserving massless fermions is also discussed. Then a complete study of the pair Fermi gas in a homogeneous magnetic field, is presented investigating the behavior of the magnetization over a wide range of field strengths. The inclusion of pairs leads to new results for the net magnetization due to the paramagnetic moment of the spins and the diamagnetic Landau orbits. 20 refs

  6. Hot accretion disks with electron-positron pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, T.R.; Lightman, A.P.

    1989-01-01

    The hot thermal accretion disks of the 1970s are studied and consideration is given to the effects of electron-positron pairs, which were originally neglected. It is found that disks cooled by internally produced photons have a critical accretion rate above which equilibrium is not possible in a radial annulus centered around r = 10 GM/c-squared, where M is the mass of the central object. This confirms and extends previous work by Kusunose and Takahara. Above the critical rate, pairs are created more rapidly than they can be destroyed. Below the critical rate, there are two solutions to the disk structure, one with a high pair density and one with a low pair density. Depending on the strength of the viscosity, the critical accretion rate corresponds to a critical luminosity of about 3-10 percent of the Eddington limit. 32 refs

  7. Absorbed dose measurement by using tissue equivalent ionization chamber (pair ionization chamber) in the Yayoi reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasuga, N.; Okamura, K.; Terakado, T.; Mabuchi, Y.; Nakagawa, T.; Sukegawa, Toshio; Aizawa, C.; Saito, I.; Oka, Yoshiaki

    1998-01-01

    Each dose rate of neutron and gamma ray in the thermal column of the Yayoi reactor, in which an epithermal neutron field will be used for the boron neutron capture therapy, was measured by using a tissue equivalent ionization chamber and a graphite chamber. The tissue equivalent ionization chamber has some response to both neutron and gamma ray, but the graphite chamber has a few response to the neutron, so called pair ionization chamber method. The epithermal neutron fluxes of the thermal column were calculated by ANISN (one dimensional neutron-gamma transport code). A measured value for gamma dose rate by the pair ionization chamber agrees relevantly with a calculated result. For neutron dose rate, however, the measured value was too much small in comparison with the calculated result. The discrepancy between the measured value and the calculated result for neutron dose rate is discussed in detail in the report. (M. Suetake)

  8. Improving the clinical correlation of multiple sclerosis black hole volume change by paired-scan analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Roger C; Traboulsee, Anthony; Riddehough, Andrew; Li, David K B

    2012-01-01

    The change in T 1-hypointense lesion ("black hole") volume is an important marker of pathological progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). Black hole boundaries often have low contrast and are difficult to determine accurately and most (semi-)automated segmentation methods first compute the T 2-hyperintense lesions, which are a superset of the black holes and are typically more distinct, to form a search space for the T 1w lesions. Two main potential sources of measurement noise in longitudinal black hole volume computation are partial volume and variability in the T 2w lesion segmentation. A paired analysis approach is proposed herein that uses registration to equalize partial volume and lesion mask processing to combine T 2w lesion segmentations across time. The scans of 247 MS patients are used to compare a selected black hole computation method with an enhanced version incorporating paired analysis, using rank correlation to a clinical variable (MS functional composite) as the primary outcome measure. The comparison is done at nine different levels of intensity as a previous study suggests that darker black holes may yield stronger correlations. The results demonstrate that paired analysis can strongly improve longitudinal correlation (from -0.148 to -0.303 in this sample) and may produce segmentations that are more sensitive to clinically relevant changes.

  9. CCM key comparison CCM.D-K4 'Hydrometer'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorefice, S.; Becerra, L. O.; Lenard, E.; Lee, Y. J.; Lee, W. G.; Madec, T.; Meury, P. A.; Caceres, J.; Santos, C.; Vamossy, C.; Man, J.; Fen, K.; Toda, K.; Wright, J.; Bettin, H.; Toth, H.

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the comparison philosophy, methodology, analysis and the results of the designed CCM.D-K4 key comparison that covered the calibration of high resolution hydrometers for liquid and alcoholometers in the density range 600 kg/m3 to 2000 kg/m3 at the temperature of 20°C. The main purpose of this comparison was not only to evaluate the degree of equivalence in the calibration of high accuracy hydrometers between NMI participants, but also to link, were it is possible, the results of previous comparisons to Key Comparison Reference Values (KCRVs) of CCM.D-K4. Eleven NMI laboratories took part in the CCM.D-K4 divided in two groups (petals). With the CCM.D-K4 purpose, two similar sets consisting of three hydrometers for liquid density determinations and an alcoholometer were circulated to the NMI participants as a travelling standard in the time interval from January 2011 to April 2012. Twelve Key Comparison Reference Values (KCRVs) for each petal have been obtained at the density values related to the tested density marks of the transfer standards by the results of participants. The KCRVs and corresponding uncertainties were calculated by the weighted mean in the case of consistent results, otherwise the median was used. The degree of equivalence (DoE) with respect to the corresponding KCRV was determined for each participant and, in this particular comparison, the Weighted Least Squares (WLS) method was used to link the individual DoE of each participant by a continuous function. Significant drift of the transfer standards was not detected. This report also gives instructions on calculating pair-wise degrees of equivalence, with the addition of any information on correlations that may be necessary to estimate more accurately as well as the procedure for linking international comparisons to the CCM.D-K4. Finally an example of linkage to the CCM.D-K4 is given by dealing with the results of the bilateral comparison between INRiM and NMIA, which was

  10. Spectral analysis of atmospheric composition: application to surface ozone model–measurement comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Bowdalo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Models of atmospheric composition play an essential role in our scientific understanding of atmospheric processes and in providing policy strategies to deal with societally relevant problems such as climate change, air quality, and ecosystem degradation. The fidelity of these models needs to be assessed against observations to ensure that errors in model formulations are found and that model limitations are understood. A range of approaches are necessary for these comparisons. Here, we apply a spectral analysis methodology for this comparison. We use the Lomb–Scargle periodogram, a method similar to a Fourier transform, but better suited to deal with the gapped data sets typical of observational data. We apply this methodology to long-term hourly ozone observations and the equivalent model (GEOS-Chem output. We show that the spectrally transformed observational data show a distinct power spectrum with regimes indicative of meteorological processes (weather, macroweather and specific peaks observed at the daily and annual timescales together with corresponding harmonic peaks at one-half, one-third, etc., of these frequencies. Model output shows corresponding features. A comparison between the amplitude and phase of these peaks introduces a new comparison methodology between model and measurements. We focus on the amplitude and phase of diurnal and seasonal cycles and present observational/model comparisons and discuss model performance. We find large biases notably for the seasonal cycle in the mid-latitude Northern Hemisphere where the amplitudes are generally overestimated by up to 16 ppbv, and phases are too late on the order of 1–5 months. This spectral methodology can be applied to a range of model–measurement applications and is highly suitable for Multimodel Intercomparison Projects (MIPs.

  11. Adiabatic pair creation in heavy-ion and laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickl, P.; Durr, D.

    2008-01-01

    The planned generation of lasers and heavy-ion colliders renews the hope to see electron-positron pair creation in strong classical fields. This old prediction is usually referred to as spontaneous pair creation. We observe that both heavy-ion collisions and pair creation in strong laser fields, are instances of the theory of adiabatic pair creation. We shall present the theory, thereby correcting earlier results. We give the momentum distribution of created pairs in overcritical fields. We discuss carefully the proposed experimental verifications and conclude that pure laser-based experiments are highly questionable. We propose a new experiment, joining laser fields and heavy ions, which may be feasible with present-day technology and which may indeed verify the theoretical prediction of adiabatic pair creation. Our presentation relies on recent rigorous works in mathematical physics. (authors)

  12. Hormonal predictors of women's extra-pair vs. in-pair sexual attraction in natural cycles: Implications for extended sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebe, Nicholas M; Emery Thompson, Melissa; Gangestad, Steven W

    2016-02-01

    In naturally cycling women, Roney and Simmons (2013) examined hormonal correlates of their desire for sexual contact. Estradiol was positively associated, and progesterone negatively associated, with self-reported desire. The current study extended these findings by examining, within a sample of 33 naturally cycling women involved in romantic relationships, hormonal correlates of sexual attraction to or interests in specific targets: women's own primary partner or men other than women's primary partner. Women's sexual interests and hormone (estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone) levels were assessed at two different time points. Whereas estradiol levels were associated with relatively greater extra-pair sexual interests than in-pair sexual interests, progesterone levels were associated with relatively greater in-pair sexual interests. Both hormones specifically predicted in-pair sexual desire, estradiol negatively and progesterone positively. These findings have implications for understanding the function of women's extended sexuality - their sexual proceptivity and receptivity outside the fertile phase, especially during the luteal phase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Model evaluation methodology applicable to environmental assessment models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaeffer, D.L.

    1979-08-01

    A model evaluation methodology is presented to provide a systematic framework within which the adequacy of environmental assessment models might be examined. The necessity for such a tool is motivated by the widespread use of models for predicting the environmental consequences of various human activities and by the reliance on these model predictions for deciding whether a particular activity requires the deployment of costly control measures. Consequently, the uncertainty associated with prediction must be established for the use of such models. The methodology presented here consists of six major tasks: model examination, algorithm examination, data evaluation, sensitivity analyses, validation studies, and code comparison. This methodology is presented in the form of a flowchart to show the logical interrelatedness of the various tasks. Emphasis has been placed on identifying those parameters which are most important in determining the predictive outputs of a model. Importance has been attached to the process of collecting quality data. A method has been developed for analyzing multiplicative chain models when the input parameters are statistically independent and lognormally distributed. Latin hypercube sampling has been offered as a promising candidate for doing sensitivity analyses. Several different ways of viewing the validity of a model have been presented. Criteria are presented for selecting models for environmental assessment purposes

  14. Exclusive electroproduction of pion pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warkentin, N.; Schaefer, A.; Diehl, M.; Ivanov, D. Yu.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate electroproduction of pion pairs on the nucleon in the framework of QCD factorization for hard exclusive processes. We extend previous analyses by taking the hard-scattering coefficients at next-to-leading order in α s . The dynamics of the produced pion pair is described by two-pion distribution amplitudes, for which we perform a detailed theoretical and phenomenological analysis. In particular, we obtain constraints on these quantities by comparing our results with measurements of angular observables that are sensitive to the interference between two-pion production in the isoscalar and isovector channels. (orig.)

  15. Paired fuzzy sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez, J. Tinguaro; Franco de los Ríos, Camilo; Gómez, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we want to stress the relevance of paired fuzzy sets, as already proposed in previous works of the authors, as a family of fuzzy sets that offers a unifying view for different models based upon the opposition of two fuzzy sets, simply allowing the existence of different types...

  16. Detecting nonlocal Cooper pair entanglement by optical Bell inequality violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigg, Simon E.; Tiwari, Rakesh P.; Walter, Stefan; Schmidt, Thomas L. [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, 4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2015-07-01

    Based on the Bardeen Cooper Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity, the coherent splitting of Cooper pairs from a superconductor to two spatially separated quantum dots has been predicted to generate nonlocal pairs of entangled electrons. In order to test this hypothesis, we propose a scheme to transfer the spin state of a split Cooper pair onto the polarization state of a pair of optical photons. We show that the produced photon pairs can be used to violate a Bell inequality, unambiguously demonstrating the entanglement of the split Cooper pairs.

  17. Detecting nonlocal Cooper pair entanglement by optical Bell inequality violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Simon E.; Tiwari, Rakesh P.; Walter, Stefan; Schmidt, Thomas L.

    2015-03-01

    Based on the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory of superconductivity, the coherent splitting of Cooper pairs from a superconductor to two spatially separated quantum dots has been predicted to generate nonlocal pairs of entangled electrons. In order to test this hypothesis, we propose a scheme to transfer the spin state of a split Cooper pair onto the polarization state of a pair of optical photons. We show that the photon pairs produced can be used to violate a Bell inequality, unambiguously demonstrating the entanglement of the split Cooper pairs.

  18. Extensions of Bessel sequences to dual pairs of frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Kim, Hong Oh; Kim, Rae Young

    2013-01-01

    Tight frames in Hilbert spaces have been studied intensively for the past years. In this paper we demonstrate that it often is an advantage to use pairs of dual frames rather than tight frames. We show that in any separable Hilbert space, any pairs of Bessel sequences can be extended to a pair of...... be extended to a pair of dual frames. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....

  19. Assessing the Impact of Clothing and Individual Equipment (CIE) on Soldier Physical, Biomechanical, and Cognitive Performance Part 1: Test Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    29 during Soldier Equipment Configuration Impact on Performance: Establishing a Test Methodology for the...during ACSM’S resource manual for exercise testing and prescription Human Movement Science, 31(2), Proceedings of the 2016 American Biomechanics...Performance of Medium Rucksack Prototypes An investigation: Comparison of live-fire and weapon simulator test methodologies and the of three extremity armor

  20. Hydration of Watson-Crick base pairs and dehydration of Hoogsteen base pairs inducing structural polymorphism under molecular crowding conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Daisuke; Nakamura, Kaori; Tateishi-Karimata, Hisae; Ohmichi, Tatsuo; Sugimoto, Naoki

    2009-03-18

    It has been revealed recently that molecular crowding, which is one of the largest differences between in vivo and in vitro conditions, is a critical factor determining the structure, stability, and function of nucleic acids. However, the effects of molecular crowding on Watson-Crick and Hoogsteen base pairs remain unclear. In order to investigate directly and quantitatively the molecular crowding effects on base pair types in nucleic acids, we designed intramolecular parallel- and antiparallel-stranded DNA duplexes consisting of Hoogsteen and Watson-Crick base pairs, respectively, as well as an intramolecular parallel-stranded triplex containing both types of base pairs. Thermodynamic analyses demonstrated that the values of free energy change at 25 degrees C for Hoogsteen base-pair formations decreased from +1.45 +/- 0.15 to +1.09 +/- 0.13 kcal mol(-1), and from -1.89 +/- 0.13 to -2.71 +/- 0.11 kcal mol(-1) in the intramolecular duplex and triplex, respectively, when the concentration of PEG 200 (polyethylene glycol with average molecular weight 200) increased from 0 to 20 wt %. However, corresponding values for Watson-Crick formation in the duplex and triplex increased from -10.2 +/- 0.2 to -8.7 +/- 0.1 kcal mol(-1), and from -10.8 +/- 0.2 to -9.2 +/- 0.2 kcal mol(-1), respectively. Furthermore, it was revealed that the opposing effects of molecular crowding on the Hoogsteen and Watson-Crick base pairs were due to different behaviors of water molecules binding to the DNA strands.

  1. Dynamical nuclear safeguard investigations in nuclear materials using Analytic Pair Values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Tae-Ho

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The quantification of the safeguard is performed to enhance operation safety. → Newly introduced maximum pair values with multiplications are obtained by the AHP method. → The dynamical simulations are performed based on the energy policy aspect. → The comparisons using NSP are possible. → A better operation skill is developed. - Abstract: The operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs) has been investigated from the view point of safeguard assessment. The risk of terrorist attack on NPPs is one of the critical points in the secure plant operations. The basic event of the related incidents is quantified by the random sampling using a Monte-Carlo method. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is developed leading to the maximum pair values with multiplications which are decided by reactor characteristics. The matrix form analysis is compared with five NPP types of interest. Using a life cycle of 60 years, the range of the secure operation is between 0.020628 and 0.0212986, as relative numbers. This means the highest value in the range of secure power operation is about 1.043 times larger than the lowest one in this study. The consistency has the highest consistent values in the 24th and 54th years, as represented by C.I. (Consistency Index) and C.R. (Consistency Ratio). Finally, a nuclear safeguard protocol (NSP) is successfully constructed for the safe operation.

  2. Pulsar Pair Cascades in Magnetic Fields with Offset Polar Caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice K.; Muslimov, Alex G.

    2012-01-01

    Neutron star magnetic fields may have polar caps (PC) that are offset from the dipole axis, through field-line sweepback near the light cylinder or non-symmetric currents within the star. The effects of such offsets on electron-positron pair cascades are investigated, using simple models of dipole magnetic fields with small distortions that shift the PCs by different amounts or directions. Using a Monte Carlo pair cascade simulation, we explore the changes in the pair spectrum, multiplicity and energy flux across the PC, as well as the trends in pair flux and pair energy flux with spin-down luminosity, L(sub sd). We also give an estimate of the distribution of heating flux from returning positrons on the PC for different offsets. We find that even modest offsets can produce significant increases in pair multiplicity, especially for pulsars that are near or beyond the pair death lines for centered PCs, primarily because of higher accelerating fields. Pair spectra cover several decades in energy, with the spectral range of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) two orders of magnitude higher than for normal pulsars, and PC offsets allow significant extension of all spectra to lower pair energies. We find that the total PC pair luminosity L(sub pair) is proportional to L(sub sd), with L(sub pair) approximates 10(exp -3) L(sub sd) for normal pulsars and L(sub pair) approximates 10(exp -2) L(sub sd) for MSPs. Remarkably, the total PC heating luminosity for even large offsets increases by less than a factor of two, even though the PC area increases by much larger factors, because most of the heating occurs near the magnetic axis.

  3. Rating the methodological quality of single-subject designs and n-of-1 trials: introducing the Single-Case Experimental Design (SCED) Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Robyn L; McDonald, Skye; Perdices, Michael; Togher, Leanne; Schultz, Regina; Savage, Sharon

    2008-08-01

    Rating scales that assess methodological quality of clinical trials provide a means to critically appraise the literature. Scales are currently available to rate randomised and non-randomised controlled trials, but there are none that assess single-subject designs. The Single-Case Experimental Design (SCED) Scale was developed for this purpose and evaluated for reliability. Six clinical researchers who were trained and experienced in rating methodological quality of clinical trials developed the scale and participated in reliability studies. The SCED Scale is an 11-item rating scale for single-subject designs, of which 10 items are used to assess methodological quality and use of statistical analysis. The scale was developed and refined over a 3-year period. Content validity was addressed by identifying items to reduce the main sources of bias in single-case methodology as stipulated by authorities in the field, which were empirically tested against 85 published reports. Inter-rater reliability was assessed using a random sample of 20/312 single-subject reports archived in the Psychological Database of Brain Impairment Treatment Efficacy (PsycBITE). Inter-rater reliability for the total score was excellent, both for individual raters (overall ICC = 0.84; 95% confidence interval 0.73-0.92) and for consensus ratings between pairs of raters (overall ICC = 0.88; 95% confidence interval 0.78-0.95). Item reliability was fair to excellent for consensus ratings between pairs of raters (range k = 0.48 to 1.00). The results were replicated with two independent novice raters who were trained in the use of the scale (ICC = 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.73-0.95). The SCED Scale thus provides a brief and valid evaluation of methodological quality of single-subject designs, with the total score demonstrating excellent inter-rater reliability using both individual and consensus ratings. Items from the scale can also be used as a checklist in the design, reporting and critical

  4. On the combination of the Cooper pair and the Ogg pair in the high-Tc oxide superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Liyuan.

    1991-08-01

    In this paper it is argued that the superconductivity of the high-T c oxide superconductor (HTOS) can be explained by the combinating mechanism of the Cooper pair and the Ogg pair. The properties of the superconducting state of the HTOS have been calculated under this mechanism, and the theoretical results are overall consistent with the experiment. (author). 37 refs

  5. Matched-pair comparisons of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) versus surgery for the treatment of early stage non-small cell lung cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Binglan; Zhu, Fuping; Ma, Xuelei; Tian, Ye; Cao, Dan; Luo, Songe; Xuan, Yu; Liu, Lei; Wei, Yuquan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: A population-based matched-pair comparison was performed to compare the efficacy of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) versus surgery for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: All the eligible studies were searched by PubMed, Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. The meta-analysis was performed to compare odds ratios (OR) for overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), disease-free survival (DFS), local control (LC), and distant control (DC). Results: Six studies containing 864 matched patients were included in the meta-analysis. The surgery was associated with a better long-term OS in patients with early-stage NSCLC. The pooled OR and 95% confidence interval (CI) for 1-year, 3-year OS were 1.31 [0.90, 1.91] and 1.82 [1.38, 2.40], respectively. However, the difference in 1-year and 3-year CSS, DFS, LC and DC was not significant. Conclusions: This systematic review found a superior 3-year OS after surgery compared with SBRT, which supports the need to compare both treatments in large prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trials

  6. Methodology to estimate parameters of an excitation system based on experimental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saavedra-Montes, A.J. [Carrera 80 No 65-223, Bloque M8 oficina 113, Escuela de Mecatronica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellin (Colombia); Calle 13 No 100-00, Escuela de Ingenieria Electrica y Electronica, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Valle (Colombia); Ramirez-Scarpetta, J.M. [Calle 13 No 100-00, Escuela de Ingenieria Electrica y Electronica, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Valle (Colombia); Malik, O.P. [2500 University Drive N.W., Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2011-01-15

    A methodology to estimate the parameters of a potential-source controlled rectifier excitation system model is presented in this paper. The proposed parameter estimation methodology is based on the characteristics of the excitation system. A comparison of two pseudo random binary signals, two sampling periods for each one, and three estimation algorithms is also presented. Simulation results from an excitation control system model and experimental results from an excitation system of a power laboratory setup are obtained. To apply the proposed methodology, the excitation system parameters are identified at two different levels of the generator saturation curve. The results show that it is possible to estimate the parameters of the standard model of an excitation system, recording two signals and the system operating in closed loop with the generator. The normalized sum of squared error obtained with experimental data is below 10%, and with simulation data is below 5%. (author)

  7. Pair and single neutron transfer with Borromean 8He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemasson, A.; Navin, A.; Rejmund, M.; Keeley, N.; Zelevinsky, V.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Shrivastava, A.; Bazin, D.; Beaumel, D.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Chatterjee, A.; Gupta, D.; France, G. de; Jacquot, B.; Labiche, M.; Lemmon, R.; Nanal, V.; Nyberg, J.; Pillay, R.G.; Raabe, R.

    2011-01-01

    Direct observation of the survival of 199 Au residues after 2n transfer in the 8 He+ 197 Au system and the absence of the corresponding 67 Cu in the 8 He+ 65 Cu system at various energies are reported. The measurements of the surprisingly large cross sections for 199 Au, coupled with the integral cross sections for the various Au residues, is used to obtain the first model-independent lower limits on the ratio of 2n to 1n transfer cross sections from 8 He to a heavy target. A comparison of the transfer cross sections for 6,8 He on these targets highlights the differences in the interactions of these Borromean nuclei. These measurements for the most neutron-rich nuclei on different targets highlight the need to probe the reaction mechanism with various targets and represent an experimental advance towards understanding specific features of pairing in the dynamics of dilute nuclear systems.

  8. Antiepileptic drug use in seven electronic health record databases in Europe: a methodological comparison.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.C.H. de; Schuerch, M.; Vries, F. de; Hesse, U.; Oliva, B.; Huerta Alvarez, C.; Gil, M.; Requena, G.; Abajo, F.; Afonso, A.; Souverein, P.C.; Alvarez, Y.; Slattery, J.; Rottenkolber, M.; Schmiedl, S.; Dijk, L. van; Schlienger, R.; Reynolds, R.; Klungel, O.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The annual prevalence of antiepileptic drug (AED) prescribing reported in the literature differs considerably among European countries; this may be due to differences in type of data sources, time periods, population distributions, and methodology. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of

  9. Antiepileptic drug use in seven electronic health record databases in europe: A methodological comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Mark C.H.; Schuerch, Markus; De Vries, Frank; Hesse, Ulrik; Oliva, Belén; Alvarez, Consuelo Huerta; Gil, Miguel; Requena, Gema; Abajo, Francisco; Afonso, Ana; Souverein, Patrick C.; Alvarez, Yolanda; Slattery, Jim; Rottenkolber, Marietta; Schmiedl, Sven; Van Dijk, Liset; Schlienger, Raymond G.; Reynolds, Robert; Klungel, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    Background: The annual prevalence of antiepileptic drug (AED) prescribing reported in the literature differs considerably among European countries; this may be due to differences in type of data sources, time periods, population distributions, and methodology. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of

  10. Variation in adverse drug reactions listed in product information for antidepressants and anticonvulsants, between the USA and Europe: a comparison review of paired regulatory documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Victoria R; Liu, Kun; Peacock, Janet; Sauzet, Odile

    2016-03-20

    To compare consistency of adverse drug reaction (ADR) data in publicly available product information documents for brand drugs, between the USA and Europe. To assess the usefulness of information for prescribers and patients. A comparison review of product information documents for antidepressants and anticonvulsants concurrently marketed by the same pharmaceutical company in the USA and Europe. For each drug, data were extracted from the US Product Inserts and the European Summary of Product Characteristics documents between 09/2013 and 01/2015. Individuals contributing ADR information to product information documents. All ADRs reported in product information sections 5 and 6 (USA), and 4·4 and 4·8 (Europe). Twelve brand drugs--24 paired documents--were included. On average, there were 77 more ADRs reported in the USA compared with in the European product information document, with a median number of 201 ADRs (range: 65-425) and 114 (range: 56-265), respectively. More product information documents in the USA reported information on the source of evidence (10 vs 5) and risk (9 vs 5) for greater than 80% of ADRs included in the document. There was negligible information included regarding duration, severity, reversibility or recurrence of ADRs. On average, only 29% of ADR terms were reported in both paired documents. Product information documents contained a large number of ADRs, but lacked contextual data and information important to patients and prescribers, such as duration, severity and reversibility. The ADR profile was found to be inconsistently reported between the USA and Europe, for the same drug. Identifying, selecting, summarising and presenting multidimensional harm data should be underpinned by practical evidence-based guidelines. In order for prescribers to provide considered risk-benefit advice across competing drug therapies to patients, they need access to comprehensible and reliable ADR information. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited

  11. Finding faults: analogical comparison supports spatial concept learning in geoscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Benjamin D; Uttal, David H; Gentner, Dedre; Manduca, Cathy; Shipley, Thomas F; Sageman, Bradley

    2013-05-01

    A central issue in education is how to support the spatial thinking involved in learning science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). We investigated whether and how the cognitive process of analogical comparison supports learning of a basic spatial concept in geoscience, fault. Because of the high variability in the appearance of faults, it may be difficult for students to learn the category-relevant spatial structure. There is abundant evidence that comparing analogous examples can help students gain insight into important category-defining features (Gentner in Cogn Sci 34(5):752-775, 2010). Further, comparing high-similarity pairs can be especially effective at revealing key differences (Sagi et al. 2012). Across three experiments, we tested whether comparison of visually similar contrasting examples would help students learn the fault concept. Our main findings were that participants performed better at identifying faults when they (1) compared contrasting (fault/no fault) cases versus viewing each case separately (Experiment 1), (2) compared similar as opposed to dissimilar contrasting cases early in learning (Experiment 2), and (3) viewed a contrasting pair of schematic block diagrams as opposed to a single block diagram of a fault as part of an instructional text (Experiment 3). These results suggest that comparison of visually similar contrasting cases helped distinguish category-relevant from category-irrelevant features for participants. When such comparisons occurred early in learning, participants were more likely to form an accurate conceptual representation. Thus, analogical comparison of images may provide one powerful way to enhance spatial learning in geoscience and other STEM disciplines.

  12. Presentation of a methodology for measuring social acceptance of three hydrogen storage technologies and preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noirot, I.; Bigay, C. N.

    2005-07-01

    Hydrogen storage is a key technology for the extensive use of H2 as energy carrier. As none of the current technologies satisfies all of the hydrogen storage attributes required by manufacturers and end users, there is intense research works aiming at developing viable solutions. A broad objective of the StorHy European project is to provide technological storage solutions, which are attractive from an economical, environmental and safety point of view. A specific sub-project is dedicated to the comparison of three different potential storage technologies for transport applications (compressed gas, cryogenic liquid, solid media). This evaluation is carried out in a harmonised way, based on common tools and assessment strategies that could be useful for decision makers and stakeholders. The assessment is achieved in a 'sustainable development' spirit, taking into consideration the technical, environmental, economical, safety and social requirements. The latter ones have newly emerged in such evaluations, based on the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) approach, and would require to be further studied. Hydrogen acceptability studies have been conducted in previous projects. They have been reviewed by LBST in the AcceptH2 project Public acceptance of Hydrogen Transport Technologies : Analysis and comparisons of existing studies (www. accepth2. com - August 2003). During these hydrogen acceptance surveys, mainly fuel cell bus passengers from demonstration projects around the world have been questioned. The work presented in this paper goes further in the methodology refinement as it focuses on the evaluation of hydrogen storage solutions. It proposes a methodological tool for efficient social evaluation of new technologies and associated preliminary results concerning France. In a global approach to sustainable development, the CEA has developed a new methodology to evaluate its current research projects : Multicriteria Analysis for Sustainable Industrial

  13. Role of pn-pairs in nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, G.K.

    2003-01-01

    An α-cluster model of nuclear structure based on power of proton + neutron (pn)-pairs to bind themselves to α-clusters is proposed. The α-cluster is taken as the perfect condition of coupling of 2 pn- pairs, reminding complete electron shell in atomic physics. Pn-pairs create 2 other types of coupling of considerably less power between pn-pairs of nearby α-clusters ε α c and between pn-pair not bound into α-cluster with pn-pairs of nearby cluster ε pn c . Last two types of coupling are called covalent because of reminding similar electron coupling in chemistry. According the model nucleus is a liquid drop consisting of molecules, which are α-clusters, tied by covalent coupling with those ones which are in close vicinity. Then in case of even-even nuclei spin of the nucleus has to be zero I=0 + as sum of spinless particles. In case of nucleus has some nucleons (i) in intermolecular space, I=Σj i ; with taking into account that there is coupling of p and n in pn-pair. Therefore for 6 Li (1=0)I=2·1/2=1 + . The values ε α c , ε pn c and binding energy of the pn-pair itself ε pn have been estimated from analysis of binding energy of nuclei 6 Li, 10 B and 12 C. With the values the binding energy of the other nuclei with N=Z up to 58 Cu have been described with difference between experimental values and model ones in average less than 0.4 MeV. The structure reveals some regular forms, in which every cluster has reduced amount of covalent coupling, 3 or 4, and free pn-pair has 6 covalent coupling with 3 nearby clusters pn-pairs. Then the magic numbers are supposed to be the matter of geometry, when total amount of covalent couplings is optimal (minimal for the amount of clusters), α- clusters are placed in the same fixed distant from center of mass. It means that protons of the clusters can be considered as belonging to one shell. In the cluster model single particle effects have to be considered as single particle binding in one of the surface

  14. To pair or not to pair: Sources of social variability with white-faced saki monkeys (Pithecia pithecia) as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cynthia L

    2016-05-01

    Intraspecific variability in social systems is gaining increased recognition in primatology. Many primate species display variability in pair-living social organizations through incorporating extra adults into the group. While numerous models exist to explain primate pair-living, our tools to assess how and why variation in this trait occurs are currently limited. Here I outline an approach which: (i) utilizes conceptual models to identify the selective forces driving pair-living; (ii) outlines novel possible causes for variability in social organization; and (iii) conducts a holistic species-level analysis of social behavior to determine the factors contributing to variation in pair-living. A case study on white-faced sakis (Pithecia pithecia) is used to exemplify this approach. This species lives in either male-female pairs or groups incorporating "extra" adult males and/or females. Various conceptual models of pair-living suggest that high same-sex aggression toward extra-group individuals is a key component of the white-faced saki social system. Variable pair-living in white-faced sakis likely represents alternative strategies to achieve competency in this competition, in which animals experience conflicting selection pressures between achieving successful group defense and maintaining sole reproductive access to mates. Additionally, independent decisions by individuals may generate social variation by preventing other animals from adopting a social organization that maximizes fitness. White-faced saki inter-individual relationships and demographic patterns also lend conciliatory support to this conclusion. By utilizing both model-level and species-level approaches, with a consideration for potential sources of variation, researchers can gain insight into the factors generating variation in pair-living social organizations. © 2014 The Authors. American Journal of Primatology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. CsI Calorimeter for a Compton-Pair Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Eric J.

    We propose to build and test a hodoscopic CsI(Tl) scintillating-crystal calorimeter for a medium-energy γ-ray Compton and pair telescope. The design and technical approach for this calorimeter relies deeply on heritage from the Fermi LAT CsI Calorimeter, but it dramatically improves the low-energy performance of that design by reading out the scintillation light with silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs), making the technology developed for Fermi applicable in the Compton regime. While such a hodoscopic calorimeter is useful for an entire class of medium-energy γ-ray telescope designs, we propose to build it explicitly to support beam tests and balloon flight of the Proto-ComPair telescope, the development and construction of which was funded in a four-year APRA program beginning in 2015 ("ComPair: Steps to a Medium Energy γ-ray Mission" with PI J. McEnery of GSFC). That award did not include funding for its CsI calorimeter subsystem, and this proposal is intended to cover that gap. ComPair is a MIDEX-class instrument concept to perform a high-sensitivity survey of the γ-ray sky from 0.5 MeV to 500 MeV. ComPair is designed to provide a dramatic increase in sensitivity relative to previous instruments in this energy range (predominantly INTEGRAL/SPI and Compton COMPTEL), with the same transformative sensitivity increase - and corresponding scientific return- that the Fermi Large Area Telescope provided relative to Compton EGRET. To enable transformative science over a broad range of MeV energies and with a wide field of view, ComPair is a combined Compton telescope and pair telescope employing a silicon-strip tracker (for Compton scattering and pair conversion and tracking) and a solid-state CdZnTe calorimeter (for Compton absorption) and CsI calorimeter (for pair calorimetry), surrounded by a plastic scintillator anti-coincidence detector. Under the current proposal, we will complete the detailed design, assembly, and test of the CsI calorimeter for the risk

  16. Nonintrusive methodology for wellness baseline profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Danny Wen-Yaw; Tsai, Yuh-Show; Miaou, Shaou-Gang; Chang, Walter H.; Chang, Yaw-Jen; Chen, Shia-Chung; Hong, Y. Y.; Chyang, C. S.; Chang, Quan-Shong; Hsu, Hon-Yen; Hsu, James; Yao, Wei-Cheng; Hsu, Ming-Sin; Chen, Ming-Chung; Lee, Shi-Chen; Hsu, Charles; Miao, Lidan; Byrd, Kenny; Chouikha, Mohamed F.; Gu, Xin-Bin; Wang, Paul C.; Szu, Harold

    2007-04-01

    We develop an accumulatively effective and affordable set of smart pair devices to save the exuberant expenditure for the healthcare of aging population, which will not be sustainable when all the post-war baby boomers retire (78 millions will cost 1/5~1/4 GDP in US alone). To design an accessible test-bed for distributed points of homecare, we choose two exemplars of the set to demonstrate the possibility of translation of modern military and clinical know-how, because two exemplars share identically the noninvasive algorithm adapted to the Smart Sensor-pairs for the real world persistent surveillance. Currently, the standard diagnoses for malignant tumors and diabetes disorders are blood serum tests, X-ray CAT scan, and biopsy used sometime in the physical checkup by physicians as cohort-average wellness baselines. The loss of the quality of life in making second careers productive may be caused by the missing of timeliness for correct diagnoses and easier treatments, which contributes to the one quarter of human errors generating the lawsuits against physicians and hospitals, which further escalates the insurance cost and wasteful healthcare expenditure. Such a vicious cycle should be entirely eliminated by building an "individual diagnostic aids (IDA)," similar to the trend of personalized drug, developed from daily noninvasive intelligent databases of the "wellness baseline profiling (WBP)". Since our physiology state undulates diurnally, the Nyquist anti-aliasing theory dictates a minimum twice-a-day sampling of the WBP for the IDA, which must be made affordable by means of noninvasive, unsupervised and unbiased methodology at the convenience of homes. Thus, a pair of military infrared (IR) spectral cameras has been demonstrated for the noninvasive spectrogram ratio test of the spontaneously emitted thermal radiation from a normal human body at 37°C temperature. This invisible self-emission spreads from 3 microns to 12 microns of the radiation wavelengths

  17. Exploring Pair Programming Benefits for MIS Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongo, Tendai; Reed, April H.; O'Hara, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Pair programming is a collaborative programming practice that places participants in dyads, working in tandem at one computer to complete programming assignments. Pair programming studies with Computer Science (CS) and Software Engineering (SE) majors have identified benefits such as technical productivity, program/design quality, academic…

  18. Comparison of different methodologies for DNA extraction from Aegla longirostri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Vitor Trindade Bitencourt

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare some DNA extraction methodologies for Aegla longirostri. The protocols were based on the traditional phenol-chloroform DNA extraction methodology and using a commercial kit for DNA extraction. They differed in tissues used, the addition - or not - of beta-mercaptoethanol to the lysis buffer, times and methods for the animal's conservation (frozen, in ethanol or fresh. Individuals stored at -20°C for a long time supplied lower molecular weight DNA than those stored for a short time. The best yield for the specimens preserved in ethanol was obtained for 15 days storage in 95% ethanol. The kit resulted in a low quantity of high molecular weight DNA. The best protocol for DNA extraction from Aeglidae, and probably for other crustaceans should, therefore, utilize fresh specimens, with addition of beta-mercaptoethanol to the lysis buffer.Marcadores moleculares são ferramentas úteis para esclarecer dúvidas a respeito dos Aeglidae, único grupo de crustáceos Anomura de água doce. Essas técnicas dependem da obtenção de DNA de boa qualidade e sem contaminantes. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar algumas metodologias de extração de DNA de Aegla longirostri. Quatorze protocolos foram analisados, baseados na metodologia tradicional de extração de DNA com fenol-clorofórmio, exceto o protocolo K no qual se utilizou um Kit. Os procedimentos diferiram quanto aos tecidos utilizados e a adição de beta-mercaptoetanol ao tampão de lise. Avaliaram-se também diferentes tempos e maneiras de conservação. Indivíduos congelados apresentaram maior degradação do material obtido conforme o tempo em que ficaram congelados. Para os indivíduos conservados em álcool, aqueles mantidos em etanol 95% forneceram material de melhor qualidade. A utilização do Mini Kit resultou em uma quantidade muito pequena de DNA de alto peso molecular. O melhor protocolo para extração de DNA de Aeglidae utilizou músculos e br

  19. Morpholino spin-labeling for base-pair sequencing of a 3'-terminal RNA stem by proton homonuclear Overhauser enhancements: yeast ribosomal 5S RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.M.; Marshall, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    Base-pair sequences for 5S and 5.8S RNAs are not readily extracted from proton homonuclear nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE) connectivity experiments alone, due to extensive peak overlap in the downfield (11-15 ppm) proton NMR spectrum. In this paper, we introduce a new method for base-pair proton peak assignment for ribosomal RNAs, based upon the distance-dependent broadening of the resonances of base-pair protons spatially proximal to a paramagnetic group. Introduction of a nitroxide spin-label covalently attached to the 3'-terminal ribose provides an unequivocal starting point for base-pair hydrogen-bond proton NMR assignment. Subsequent NOE connectivities then establish the base-pair sequence for the terminal stem of a 5S RNA. Periodate oxidation of yeast 5S RNA, followed by reaction with 4-amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxy (TEMPO-NH2) and sodium borohydride reduction, produces yeast 5S RNA specifically labeled with a paramagnetic nitroxide group at the 3'-terminal ribose. Comparison of the 500-MHz 1H NMR spectra of native and 3'-terminal spin-labeled yeast 5S RNA serves to identify the terminal base pair (G1 . C120) and its adjacent base pair (G2 . U119) on the basis of their proximity to the 3'-terminal spin-label. From that starting point, we have then identified (G . C, A . U, or G . U) and sequenced eight of the nine base pairs in the terminal helix via primary and secondary NOE's

  20. Methodologic ramifications of paying attention to sex and gender differences in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Martin H; Smits, Kim M; Smits, Luc J

    2007-01-01

    Methodologic standards for studies on sex and gender differences should be developed to improve reporting of studies and facilitate their inclusion in systematic reviews. The essence of these studies lies within the concept of effect modification. This article reviews important methodologic issues in the design and reporting of pharmacogenetic studies. Differences in effect based on sex or gender should preferably be expressed in absolute terms (risk differences) to facilitate clinical decisions on treatment. Information on the distribution of potential effect modifiers or prognostic factors should be available to prevent a biased comparison of differences in effect between genotypes. Other considerations included the possibility of selective nonavailability of biomaterial and the choice of a statistical model to study effect modification. To ensure high study quality, additional methodologic issues should be taken into account when designing and reporting studies on sex and gender differences.

  1. Statistical deprojection of galaxy pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottale, Laurent; Chamaraux, Pierre

    2018-06-01

    Aims: The purpose of the present paper is to provide methods of statistical analysis of the physical properties of galaxy pairs. We perform this study to apply it later to catalogs of isolated pairs of galaxies, especially two new catalogs we recently constructed that contain ≈1000 and ≈13 000 pairs, respectively. We are particularly interested by the dynamics of those pairs, including the determination of their masses. Methods: We could not compute the dynamical parameters directly since the necessary data are incomplete. Indeed, we only have at our disposal one component of the intervelocity between the members, namely along the line of sight, and two components of their interdistance, i.e., the projection on the sky-plane. Moreover, we know only one point of each galaxy orbit. Hence we need statistical methods to find the probability distribution of 3D interdistances and 3D intervelocities from their projections; we designed those methods under the term deprojection. Results: We proceed in two steps to determine and use the deprojection methods. First we derive the probability distributions expected for the various relevant projected quantities, namely intervelocity vz, interdistance rp, their ratio, and the product rp v_z^2, which is involved in mass determination. In a second step, we propose various methods of deprojection of those parameters based on the previous analysis. We start from a histogram of the projected data and we apply inversion formulae to obtain the deprojected distributions; lastly, we test the methods by numerical simulations, which also allow us to determine the uncertainties involved.

  2. Analysis of Food Pairing in Regional Cuisines of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagler, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Any national cuisine is a sum total of its variety of regional cuisines, which are the cultural and historical identifiers of their respective regions. India is home to a number of regional cuisines that showcase its culinary diversity. Here, we study recipes from eight different regional cuisines of India spanning various geographies and climates. We investigate the phenomenon of food pairing which examines compatibility of two ingredients in a recipe in terms of their shared flavor compounds. Food pairing was enumerated at the level of cuisine, recipes as well as ingredient pairs by quantifying flavor sharing between pairs of ingredients. Our results indicate that each regional cuisine follows negative food pairing pattern; more the extent of flavor sharing between two ingredients, lesser their co-occurrence in that cuisine. We find that frequency of ingredient usage is central in rendering the characteristic food pairing in each of these cuisines. Spice and dairy emerged as the most significant ingredient classes responsible for the biased pattern of food pairing. Interestingly while individual spices contribute to negative food pairing, dairy products on the other hand tend to deviate food pairing towards positive side. Our data analytical study highlighting statistical properties of the regional cuisines, brings out their culinary fingerprints that could be used to design algorithms for generating novel recipes and recipe recommender systems. It forms a basis for exploring possible causal connection between diet and health as well as prospection of therapeutic molecules from food ingredients. Our study also provides insights as to how big data can change the way we look at food. PMID:26430895

  3. Analysis of Food Pairing in Regional Cuisines of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anupam; N K, Rakhi; Bagler, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Any national cuisine is a sum total of its variety of regional cuisines, which are the cultural and historical identifiers of their respective regions. India is home to a number of regional cuisines that showcase its culinary diversity. Here, we study recipes from eight different regional cuisines of India spanning various geographies and climates. We investigate the phenomenon of food pairing which examines compatibility of two ingredients in a recipe in terms of their shared flavor compounds. Food pairing was enumerated at the level of cuisine, recipes as well as ingredient pairs by quantifying flavor sharing between pairs of ingredients. Our results indicate that each regional cuisine follows negative food pairing pattern; more the extent of flavor sharing between two ingredients, lesser their co-occurrence in that cuisine. We find that frequency of ingredient usage is central in rendering the characteristic food pairing in each of these cuisines. Spice and dairy emerged as the most significant ingredient classes responsible for the biased pattern of food pairing. Interestingly while individual spices contribute to negative food pairing, dairy products on the other hand tend to deviate food pairing towards positive side. Our data analytical study highlighting statistical properties of the regional cuisines, brings out their culinary fingerprints that could be used to design algorithms for generating novel recipes and recipe recommender systems. It forms a basis for exploring possible causal connection between diet and health as well as prospection of therapeutic molecules from food ingredients. Our study also provides insights as to how big data can change the way we look at food.

  4. Single-flavour and two-flavour pairing in three-flavour quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alford, Mark G; Cowan, Greig A

    2006-01-01

    We study single-flavour quark pairing ('self-pairing') in colour-superconducting phases of quark matter, paying particular attention to the difference between scenarios where all three flavours undergo single-flavour pairing, and scenarios where two flavours pair with each other ('2SC' pairing) and the remaining flavour self-pairs. We perform our calculations in the mean-field approximation using a pointlike four-fermion interaction based on single gluon exchange. We confirm the result from previous weakly-coupled-QCD calculations that when all three flavours self-pair the favoured channel for each is colour-spin-locked (CSL) pseudoisotropic pairing. However, we find that when the up and down quarks undergo 2SC pairing, they induce a colour chemical potential that disfavours the CSL phase. The strange quarks then self-pair in a 'polar' channel that breaks rotational invariance, although the CSL phase may survive in a narrow range of densities

  5. Brain connectivity measures: computation and comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Aleksandar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article computation and comparison of causality measures which are used in determination of brain connectivity patterns is investigated. Main analyzed examples included published computation and comparisons of Directed Transfer Function ‐ DTF and Partial Directed Coherence ‐ PDC. It proved that serious methodology mistakes were involved in measure computations and comparisons. It is shown that the neighborhood of zero is of accented importance in such evaluations and that the issues of semantic stability have to be treated with more attention. Published results on the relationship of these two important measures are partly unstable with small changes of zero threshold and pictures of involved brain structures deduced from the cited articles have to be corrected. Analysis of the operators involved in evaluation and comparisons is given with suggestions for their improvement and complementary additional actions.

  6. Overdensity of galaxies in the environment of quasar pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrinelli, A.; Falomo, R.; Treves, A.; Scarpa, R.; Uslenghi, M.

    2018-03-01

    We report on a study of the galaxy environments of low redshift physical quasars pairs. We selected 20 pairs having projected separation Survey images, we evaluated the galaxy overdensity around these quasars in pairs and then compare it with that of a sample of isolated quasars with same redshift and luminosity. It is found that on average there is a systematic larger overdensity of galaxies around quasars in pairs with respect to that of isolated quasars. This may represent a significant link between nuclear activity and galaxy environment. However, at odds with that, the closest quasar pairs seem to inhabit poorer environments. Implications of present results and perspectives for future work are briefly discussed.

  7. Finding Question-Answer Pairs from Online Forums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Gao; Wang, Long; Lin, Chin-Yew

    2008-01-01

    Online forums contain a huge amount of valuable user generated content. In this paper we address the problem of extracting question-answer pairs from forums. Question-answer pairs extracted from forums can be used to help Question Answering services (e.g. Yahoo! Answers) among other applications...

  8. A New Secure Pairing Protocol using Biometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buhan, I.R.

    2008-01-01

    Secure Pairing enables two devices, which share no prior context with each other, to agree upon a security association that they can use to protect their subsequent communication. Secure pairing offers guarantees of the association partner identity and it should be resistant to eavesdropping or to a

  9. Instantons in lepton pair production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandenburg, A.; Ringwald, A.; Utermann, A.

    2006-05-01

    We consider QCD instanton-induced contributions to lepton pair production in hadron-hadron collisions. We relate these contributions to those known from deep inelastic scattering and demonstrate that they can be calculated reliably for sufficiently large momentum transfer. We observe that the instanton contribution to the angular distribution of the lepton pairs at finite momentum transfer strongly violates the Lam-Tung relation - a relation between coefficient functions of the angular distribution which is valid within the framework of ordinary perturbation theory. The drastic violation of this relation, as seen in experimental data, might be related to such instanton-induced effects. (Orig.)

  10. Comparison of methodologic quality and study/report characteristics between quantitative clinical nursing and nursing education research articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Barbara St Pierre; Nicholas, Jennifer; Kurrus, Jeffrey E

    2013-01-01

    To compare the methodologic quality and study/report characteristics between quantitative clinical nursing and nursing education research articles. The methodologic quality of quantitative nursing education research needs to advance to a higher level. Clinical research can provide guidance for nursing education to reach this level. One hundred quantitative clinical research articles from-high impact journals published in 2007 and 37 education research articles from high impact journals published in 2006 to 2007 were chosen for analysis. Clinical articles had significantly higher quality scores than education articles in three domains: number of institutions studied, type of data, and outcomes. The findings indicate three ways in which nursing education researchers can strengthen the methodologic quality of their quantitative research. With this approach, greater funding may be secured for advancing the science of nursing education.

  11. Monitoring and diagnosis for sensor fault detection using GMDH methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Iraci Martinez Pereira

    2006-01-01

    The fault detection and diagnosis system is an Operator Support System dedicated to specific functions that alerts operators to sensors and actuators fault problems, and guide them in the diagnosis before the normal alarm limits are reached. Operator Support Systems appears to reduce panels complexity caused by the increase of the available information in nuclear power plants control room. In this work a Monitoring and Diagnosis System was developed based on the GMDH (Group Method of Data Handling) methodology. The methodology was applied to the IPEN research reactor IEA-R1. The system performs the monitoring, comparing GMDH model calculated values with measured values. The methodology developed was firstly applied in theoretical models: a heat exchanger model and an IPEN reactor theoretical model. The results obtained with theoretical models gave a base to methodology application to the actual reactor operation data. Three GMDH models were developed for actual operation data monitoring: the first one using just the thermal process variables, the second one was developed considering also some nuclear variables, and the third GMDH model considered all the reactor variables. The three models presented excellent results, showing the methodology utilization viability in monitoring the operation data. The comparison between the three developed models results also shows the methodology capacity to choose by itself the best set of input variables for the model optimization. For the system diagnosis implementation, faults were simulated in the actual temperature variable values by adding a step change. The fault values correspond to a typical temperature descalibration and the result of monitoring faulty data was then used to build a simple diagnosis system based on fuzzy logic. (author)

  12. Phenomena, dynamics and instabilities of vortex pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, C H K; Asselin, D J; Leweke, T; Harris, D M

    2014-01-01

    Our motivation for studying the dynamics of vortex pairs stems initially from an interest in the trailing wake vortices from aircraft and the dynamics of longitudinal vortices close to a vehicle surface. However, our motivation also comes from the fact that vortex–vortex interactions and vortex–wall interactions are fundamental to many turbulent flows. The intent of the paper is to present an overview of some of our recent work concerning the formation and structure of counter-rotating vortex pairs. We are interested in the long-wave and short-wave three-dimensional instabilities that evolve for an isolated vortex pair, but also we would like to know how vortex pairs interact with a wall, including both two-dimensional interactions, and also the influence of the surface on the three-dimensional instabilities. The emphasis of this presentation is on physical mechanisms by which vortices interact with each other and with surfaces, principally from an experimental approach, but also coupled with analytical studies. (paper)

  13. Theoretical study of GC+/GC base pair derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Fancui; Wang Huanjie; Xu Weiren; Liu Chengbu

    2005-01-01

    The geometries of R (R=CH 3 , CH 3 O, F, NO 2 ) substituted GC base pair derivatives and their cations have been optimized at B3LYP/6-31G* level and the substituent effects on the neutral and cationic geometric structures and energies have been discussed. The inner reorganization energies of various base pair derivatives and the native GC base pair have been calculated to discuss the substituent effects on the reorganization energy. NBO (natural bond orbital) analysis has been carried out on both the neutral and the cationic systems to investigate the differences of the charge distributions and the electronic structures. The outcomes indicate that 8-CH 3 O-G:C has the greatest reorganization energy and 8-NO 2 -G:C has the least, while the other substituted base pairs have a reorganization energy close to that of G:C. The one charge is mostly localized on guanine part after ionization and as high as 0.95e. The bond distances of N1-N3'andN2-O2' in the cationic base pair derivatives shortened and that of O6-N4' elongated as compared with the corresponding bond distances of the neutral GC base pair derivatives

  14. A methodology for dosimetry audit of rotational radiotherapy using a commercial detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, Mohammad; Tsang, Yatman; Thomas, Russell A.S.; Gouldstone, Clare; Maughan, David; Snaith, Julia A.D.; Bolton, Steven C.; Nisbet, Andrew; Clark, Catharine H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a methodology for the use of a commercial detector array in dosimetry audits of rotational radiotherapy. Materials and methods: The methodology was developed as part of the development of a national audit of rotational radiotherapy. Ten cancer centres were asked to create a rotational radiotherapy treatment plan for a three-dimensional treatment-planning-system (3DTPS) test and audited. Phantom measurements using a commercial 2D ionisation chamber (IC) array were compared with measurements using 0.125 cm 3 IC, Gafchromic film and alanine pellets in the same plane. Relative and absolute gamma index (γ) comparisons were made for Gafchromic film and 2D-Array planes, respectively. Results: Comparisons between individual detectors within the 2D-Array against the corresponding IC and alanine measurement showed a statistically significant concordance correlation coefficient (both ρ c > 0.998, p < 0.001) with mean difference of −1.1 ± 1.1% and −0.8 ± 1.1%, respectively, in a high dose PTV. In the γ comparison between the 2D-Array and film it was that the 2D-Array was more likely to fail planes where there was a dose discrepancy due to the absolute analysis performed. Conclusions: It has been found that using a commercial detector array for a dosimetry audit of rotational radiotherapy is suitable in place of standard systems of dosimetry

  15. Two pairs of farnesyl phenolic enantiomers as natural nitric oxide inhibitors from Ganoderma sinense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Wang, Fei; Xu, Feng; Ding, Li-Qin; Zhang, Qian; Li, Hui-Xiang; Zhao, Feng; Wang, Li-Qing; Zhu, Li-Han; Chen, Li-Xia; Qiu, Feng

    2016-07-15

    Four new farnesyl phenolic compounds, ganosinensols A-D (1-4) were isolated from the 95% EtOH extract of the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma sinense. Two pairs of enantiomers, 1/2, and 3/4 were isolated by HPLC using a Daicel Chiralpak IE column. Their structures were elucidated from extensive spectroscopic analyses and comparison with literature data. The absolute configurations of 1-4 were assigned by ECD spectra. All of these isolated compounds showed potent inhibitory activity against LPS-induced nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophages, with IC50 values from 1.15 to 2.26μM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Challenges to the pair bond: neural and hormonal effects of separation and reunion in a monogamous primate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Hinde

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Social monogamy at its most basic is a group structure in which two adults form a unit and share a territory. However, many socially monogamous pairs display attachment relationships known as pair bonds, in which there is a mutual preference for the partner and distress upon separation. The neural and hormonal basis of this response to separation from the adult pair mate is under-studied. In this project, we examined this response in male titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus, a socially monogamous New World primate. Males underwent a baseline scan, a short separation (48 hours, a long separation (app. two weeks, a reunion with the female pair mate, and an encounter with a female stranger (with nine males completing all five conditions. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism was measured via positron emission tomography (PET imaging using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG co-registered with structural MRI, and region of interest analysis was carried out. In addition, plasma was collected and assayed for cortisol, oxytocin (OT, vasopressin (AVP, glucose, and insulin concentrations. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF was collected and assayed for OT and AVP. We used generalized estimating equations to examine significant changes from baseline. Short separations were characterized by decreases in FDG uptake, in comparison to baseline, in the lateral septum (LS, ventral pallidum (VP, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN, periaqueductal gray (PAG, and cerebellum, as well as increases in CSF OT, and plasma cortisol and insulin. Long separations differed from baseline in reduced FDG uptake in the central amygdala (CeA, reduced whole brain FDG uptake, increased CSF OT and increased plasma insulin. The response on encounter with a stranger female depended on whether or not the male had previously reproduced with his pair mate, suggesting that transitions to fatherhood contribute to the neurobiology underlying response to a novel female. Reunion with the partner

  17. Comparison of plant-specific probabilistic safety assessments and lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balfanz, H.P.; Berg, H.P.; Steininger, U.

    2001-01-01

    Probabilistic safety assessments (PSA) have been performed for all German nuclear power plants in operation. These assessments are mainly based on the recent German PSA guide and an earlier draft, respectively. However, comparison of these PSA show differences in the results which are discussed in this paper. Lessons learned from this comparison and further development of the PSA methodology are described. (orig.) [de

  18. Detecting nonlocal Cooper pair entanglement by optical Bell inequality violation

    OpenAIRE

    Nigg, Simon E.; Tiwari, Rakesh P.; Walter, Stefan; Schmidt, Thomas L.

    2014-01-01

    Based on the Bardeen Cooper Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity, the coherent splitting of Cooper pairs from a superconductor to two spatially separated quantum dots has been predicted to generate nonlocal pairs of entangled electrons. In order to test this hypothesis, we propose a scheme to transfer the spin state of a split Cooper pair onto the polarization state of a pair of optical photons. We show that the produced photon pairs can be used to violate a Bell inequality, unambiguo...

  19. Users of Virtual Reference Are More Satisfied with the Service They Receive than the Providers of that Service Think They Are. A Review of: Hansen, D., Johnson, M., Norton, E., & McDonough, A. (2009. Virtual provider pessimism: Analysing instant messaging reference encounters with the pair perception comparison method. Information Research, 14(4. Retrieved from http://informationr.net/ir/14-4/ paper416.html

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol D. Howe

    2011-06-01

    people they are helping judge them. Based on a review of the literature, the authors further note that both expert and novice reference providers experience such pessimism. The authors are hopeful that providers will view these results as evidence of their own competence during instant messaging reference transactions.The results of this study provide valuable information for training instant messaging providers. For example, the fact that providers thought users were less satisfied with the tempo of the reference transaction than they really were suggested to the authors that instant messaging providers need not be so concerned about giving a quick answer. An accurate answer is more desirable. In the same vein, providers thought that users were more concerned with spelling than they really were. Both of these cases, and others gleaned from the results, provide insight into what aspects of the reference transaction providers should spend their time and effort on.Finally, the authors introduced the pair perception comparison method to compare feedback from matched pairs on individual reference transactions, a methodology not used in any earlier studies. They deemed this method to be an effective way to uncover biases and false assumptions.

  20. Methodology applied to develop the DHIE: applied methodology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Herselman, Marlien

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This section will address the methodology that was applied to develop the South African Digital Health Innovation Ecosystem (DHIE). Each chapter under Section B represents a specific phase in the methodology....

  1. Biomolecule Analogues 2-Hydroxypyridine and 2-Pyridone Base Pairing on Ice Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubovič, Peter; Pysanenko, Andriy; Lengyel, Jozef; Nachtigallová, Dana; Fárník, Michal

    2016-07-14

    Ice nanoparticles (H2O)N, N ≈ 450 generated in a molecular beam experiment pick up individual gas phase molecules of 2-hydroxypyridine and 2-pyridone (HP) evaporated in a pickup cell at temperatures between 298 and 343 K. The mass spectra of the doped nanoparticles show evidence for generation of clusters of adsorbed molecules (HP)n up to n = 8. The clusters are ionized either by 70 eV electrons or by two photons at 315 nm (3.94 eV). The two ionization methods yield different spectra, and their comparison provides an insight into the neutral cluster composition, ionization and intracluster ion-molecule reactions, and cluster fragmentation. Quite a few molecules were reported not to coagulate on ice nanoparticles previously. The (HP)n cluster generation on ice nanoparticles represents the first evidence for coagulating of molecules and cluster formation on free ice nanoparticles. For comparison, we investigate the coagulation of HP molecules picked up on large clusters ArN, N ≈ 205, and also (HP)n clusters generated in supersonic expansions with Ar buffer gas. This comparison points to a propensity for the (HP)2 dimer generation on ice nanoparticles. This shows the feasibility of base pairing for model of biological molecules on free ice nanoparticles. This result is important for hypotheses of the biomolecule synthesis on ice grains in the space. We support our findings by theoretical calculations that show, among others, the HP dimer structures on water clusters.

  2. BEC-BCS crossover in a (p+ip)-wave pairing Hamiltonian coupled to bosonic molecular pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunning, Clare; Isaac, Phillip S.; Links, Jon; Zhao, Shao-You

    2011-01-01

    We analyse a (p+ip)-wave pairing BCS Hamiltonian, coupled to a single bosonic degree of freedom representing a molecular condensate, and investigate the nature of the BEC-BCS crossover for this system. For a suitable restriction on the coupling parameters, we show that the model is integrable and we derive the exact solution by the algebraic Bethe ansatz. In this manner we also obtain explicit formulae for correlation functions and compute these for several cases. We find that the crossover between the BEC state and the strong pairing p+ip phase is smooth for this model, with no intermediate quantum phase transition.

  3. Methodology for the integral comparison of nuclear reactors: selecting a reactor for Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes R, R.; Martin del Campo M, C.

    2006-01-01

    In this work it was built a methodology to compare nuclear reactors of third generation that can be contemplated for future electric planning in Mexico. This methodology understands the selection of the reactors to evaluate eliminating the reactors that still are not sufficiently mature at this time of the study. A general description of each reactor together with their main ones characteristic is made. It was carried out a study for to select the group of parameters that can serve as evaluation indicators, which are the characteristics of the reactors with specific values for each considered technology, and it was elaborated an evaluation matrix indicators including the reactors in the columns and those indicators in the lines. Since that none reactor is the best in all the indicators were necessary to use a methodology for multi criteria taking decisions that we are presented. It was used the 'Fuzzy Logic' technique, the which is based in those denominated diffuse groups and in a system of diffuse inference based on heuristic rules in the way 'If Then consequence> ', where the linguistic values of the condition and of the consequence is defined by diffuse groups, it is as well as the rules always they transform a diffuse group into another. Later on they combine all the diffuse outputs to create a single output and an inverse transformation is made that it transfers the output from the diffuse domain to the real one. They were carried out two studies one with the entirety of the indicators and another in which the indicators were classified in three approaches: the first one refers to indicators related with the planning of the plants inside the context of the general electric sector, the second approach includes indicators related with the characteristics of the fuel and the third it considers indicators related with the acting of the plant in safety and environmental impact. This second study allowed us to know the qualities of each reactor in each one of the

  4. Relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation with a separable pairing force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Yuan; Ma Zhongyu; Ring Peter

    2009-01-01

    In our previous work, we introduced a separable pairing force for relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov calculations. This force was adjusted to reproduce the pairing properties of the Gogny force in nuclear matter. By using the well known techniques of Talmi and Moshinsky it can be expanded in a series of separable terms and converges quickly after a few terms. It was found that the pairing properties can be depicted on almost the same footing as the original pairing interaction, not only in nuclear matter, but also in finite nuclei. In this study, we construct a relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation (RQRPA) with this separable pairing interaction and calculate the excitation energies of the first excited 2 + states and reduced B(E2; 0 + →2 + ) transition rates for a chain of Sn isotopes in RQRPA. Compared with the results of the full Gogny force, we find that this simple separable pairing interaction can describe the pairing properties of the excited vibrational states as well as the original pairing interaction. (authors)

  5. Pair Housing of Dairy Calves and Age at Pairing: Effects on Weaning Stress, Health, Production and Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Sarah L; Boyland, Natasha K; Mlynski, David T; James, Richard; Croft, Darren P

    2017-01-01

    The early social environment can influence the health and behaviour of animals, with effects lasting into adulthood. In Europe, around 60% of dairy calves are reared individually during their first eight weeks of life, while others may be housed in pairs or small groups. This study assessed the effects of varying degrees of social contact on weaning stress, health and production during pen rearing, and on the social networks that calves later formed when grouped. Forty female Holstein-Friesian calves were allocated to one of three treatments: individually housed (I, n = 8), pair-housed from day five (P5, n = 8 pairs), and pair-housed from day 28 (P28, n = 8 pairs). From day 48, calves were weaned by gradual reduction of milk over three days, and vocalisations were recorded as a measure of stress for three days before, during and after weaning. Health and production (growth rate and concentrate intakes) were not affected by treatment during the weaning period or over the whole study. Vocalisations were highest post-weaning, and were significantly higher in I calves than pair-reared calves. Furthermore, P28 calves vocalised significantly more than P5 calves. The social network of calves was measured for one month after all calves were grouped in a barn, using association data from spatial proximity loggers. We tested for week-week stability, social differentiation and assortment in the calf network. Additionally, we tested for treatment differences in: coefficient of variation (CV) in association strength, percentage of time spent with ex-penmate (P5 and P28 calves only) and weighted degree centrality (the sum of the strength of an individual's associations). The network was relatively stable from weeks one to four and was significantly differentiated, with individuals assorting based on prior familiarity. P5 calves had significantly higher CV in association strength than I calves in week one (indicating more heterogeneous social associations) but there were no

  6. Analysis of Food Pairing in Regional Cuisines of India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Jain

    Full Text Available Any national cuisine is a sum total of its variety of regional cuisines, which are the cultural and historical identifiers of their respective regions. India is home to a number of regional cuisines that showcase its culinary diversity. Here, we study recipes from eight different regional cuisines of India spanning various geographies and climates. We investigate the phenomenon of food pairing which examines compatibility of two ingredients in a recipe in terms of their shared flavor compounds. Food pairing was enumerated at the level of cuisine, recipes as well as ingredient pairs by quantifying flavor sharing between pairs of ingredients. Our results indicate that each regional cuisine follows negative food pairing pattern; more the extent of flavor sharing between two ingredients, lesser their co-occurrence in that cuisine. We find that frequency of ingredient usage is central in rendering the characteristic food pairing in each of these cuisines. Spice and dairy emerged as the most significant ingredient classes responsible for the biased pattern of food pairing. Interestingly while individual spices contribute to negative food pairing, dairy products on the other hand tend to deviate food pairing towards positive side. Our data analytical study highlighting statistical properties of the regional cuisines, brings out their culinary fingerprints that could be used to design algorithms for generating novel recipes and recipe recommender systems. It forms a basis for exploring possible causal connection between diet and health as well as prospection of therapeutic molecules from food ingredients. Our study also provides insights as to how big data can change the way we look at food.

  7. Amperean Pairing and the Pseudogap Phase of Cuprate Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Patrick A.

    2014-07-01

    The enigmatic pseudogap phase in underdoped cuprate high-Tc superconductors has long been recognized as a central puzzle of the Tc problem. Recent data show that the pseudogap is likely a distinct phase, characterized by a medium range and quasistatic charge ordering. However, the origin of the ordering wave vector and the mechanism of the charge order is unknown. At the same time, earlier data show that precursive superconducting fluctuations are also associated with this phase. We propose that the pseudogap phase is a novel pairing state where electrons on the same side of the Fermi surface are paired, in strong contrast with conventional Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory which pairs electrons on opposite sides of the Fermi surface. In this state the Cooper pair carries a net momentum and belongs to a general class called pair density wave. The microscopic pairing mechanism comes from a gauge theory formulation of the resonating valence bond (RVB) picture, where spinons traveling in the same direction feel an attractive force in analogy with Ampere's effects in electromagnetism. We call this Amperean pairing. Charge order automatically appears as a subsidiary order parameter even when long-range pair order is destroyed by phase fluctuations. Our theory gives a prediction of the ordering wave vector which is in good agreement with experiment. Furthermore, the quasiparticle spectrum from our model explains many of the unusual features reported in photoemission experiments. The Fermi arc, the unusual way the tip of the arc terminates, and the relation of the spanning vector of the arc tips to the charge ordering wave vector also come out naturally. Finally, we propose an experiment that can directly test the notion of Amperean pairing.

  8. Extending the magnetoelectric efficiency of an MFC/brass/NdFeB energy harvester by coupling a pair of movable magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Chung Ming; Wang, Ya

    2017-10-01

    In this letter, an MFC/brass/NdFeB tip magnet three-phase cantilever beam was coupled with a pair of movable magnets to harness energy from alternating magnetic fields. By coupling with a pair of moveable magnets, both bandwidth and magnetoelectric (ME) voltage coefficient (α\\text{V}) were largely increased by 25% and 87.5%, respectively, in comparison with the same harvester coupled with stationary magnets. Such improvements were attributed to magnetic energy introduced by the moving magnets. Experiments also revealed the boundary positions of external magnets (movable and stationary) where the repulsive magnetic forces jumped to the attractive ones, and the stiffness hardening switched to the softening process. These results provided a wide-band nonlinear approach to efficiently harvest/detect the low-frequency alternating magnetic field energies.

  9. Efficient and accurate local approximations to coupled-electron pair approaches: An attempt to revive the pair natural orbital method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neese, Frank; Wennmohs, Frank; Hansen, Andreas

    2009-03-21

    Coupled-electron pair approximations (CEPAs) and coupled-pair functionals (CPFs) have been popular in the 1970s and 1980s and have yielded excellent results for small molecules. Recently, interest in CEPA and CPF methods has been renewed. It has been shown that these methods lead to competitive thermochemical, kinetic, and structural predictions. They greatly surpass second order Moller-Plesset and popular density functional theory based approaches in accuracy and are intermediate in quality between CCSD and CCSD(T) in extended benchmark studies. In this work an efficient production level implementation of the closed shell CEPA and CPF methods is reported that can be applied to medium sized molecules in the range of 50-100 atoms and up to about 2000 basis functions. The internal space is spanned by localized internal orbitals. The external space is greatly compressed through the method of pair natural orbitals (PNOs) that was also introduced by the pioneers of the CEPA approaches. Our implementation also makes extended use of density fitting (or resolution of the identity) techniques in order to speed up the laborious integral transformations. The method is called local pair natural orbital CEPA (LPNO-CEPA) (LPNO-CPF). The implementation is centered around the concepts of electron pairs and matrix operations. Altogether three cutoff parameters are introduced that control the size of the significant pair list, the average number of PNOs per electron pair, and the number of contributing basis functions per PNO. With the conservatively chosen default values of these thresholds, the method recovers about 99.8% of the canonical correlation energy. This translates to absolute deviations from the canonical result of only a few kcal mol(-1). Extended numerical test calculations demonstrate that LPNO-CEPA (LPNO-CPF) has essentially the same accuracy as parent CEPA (CPF) methods for thermochemistry, kinetics, weak interactions, and potential energy surfaces but is up to 500

  10. Electron-positron pair production in Coulomb collisions at ultrarelativistic energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vane, C.R.; Datz, S.; Dittner, P.F.; Krause, H.F.; Bottcher, C.; Strayer, M.; Schuch, R.; Gao, H.; Hutton, R.

    1993-01-01

    We have measured angular and momentum distributions for electrons and positrons created as pairs in peripheral collisions of 6.4 TeV bare sulfur ions with fixed targets of Al, Pd, and Au. Singly- and doubly-differential cross sections have been determined for 1--17 MeV/c electrons and positrons detected independently and in coincidence as pairs. Integrated yields for pair production are found to vary as the square of the target nuclear charge. Relative angular and momentum differential cross sections are effectively target independent. Probability distributions for the pair total momentum, the positron fraction of the pair momentum, and the pair traverse momentum have been derived from the coincident electron-positron data

  11. Electron Waiting Times of a Cooper Pair Splitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walldorf, Nicklas; Padurariu, Ciprian; Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Flindt, Christian

    2018-02-01

    Electron waiting times are an important concept in the analysis of quantum transport in nanoscale conductors. Here we show that the statistics of electron waiting times can be used to characterize Cooper pair splitters that create spatially separated spin-entangled electrons. A short waiting time between electrons tunneling into different leads is associated with the fast emission of a split Cooper pair, while long waiting times are governed by the slow injection of Cooper pairs from a superconductor. Experimentally, the waiting time distributions can be measured using real-time single-electron detectors in the regime of slow tunneling, where conventional current measurements are demanding. Our work is important for understanding the fundamental transport processes in Cooper pair splitters and the predictions may be verified using current technology.

  12. Electron Waiting Times of a Cooper Pair Splitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walldorf, Nicklas; Padurariu, Ciprian; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2018-01-01

    Electron waiting times are an important concept in the analysis of quantum transport in nanoscale conductors. Here we show that the statistics of electron waiting times can be used to characterize Cooper pair splitters that create spatially separated spin-entangled electrons. A short waiting time...... between electrons tunneling into different leads is associated with the fast emission of a split Cooper pair, while long waiting times are governed by the slow injection of Cooper pairs from a superconductor. Experimentally, the waiting time distributions can be measured using real-time single......-electron detectors in the regime of slow tunneling, where conventional current measurements are demanding. Our work is important for understanding the fundamental transport processes in Cooper pair splitters and the predictions may be verified using current technology....

  13. Inhomogeneous ensembles of radical pairs in chemical compasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procopio, Maria; Ritz, Thorsten

    2016-11-01

    The biophysical basis for the ability of animals to detect the geomagnetic field and to use it for finding directions remains a mystery of sensory biology. One much debated hypothesis suggests that an ensemble of specialized light-induced radical pair reactions can provide the primary signal for a magnetic compass sensor. The question arises what features of such a radical pair ensemble could be optimized by evolution so as to improve the detection of the direction of weak magnetic fields. Here, we focus on the overlooked aspect of the noise arising from inhomogeneity of copies of biomolecules in a realistic biological environment. Such inhomogeneity leads to variations of the radical pair parameters, thereby deteriorating the signal arising from an ensemble and providing a source of noise. We investigate the effect of variations in hyperfine interactions between different copies of simple radical pairs on the directional response of a compass system. We find that the choice of radical pair parameters greatly influences how strongly the directional response of an ensemble is affected by inhomogeneity.

  14. Electron-positron pair production in inhomogeneous electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohlfürst, C.

    2015-01-01

    The process of electron-positron pair production is investigated within the phase-space Wigner formalism. The similarities between atomic ionization and pair production for homogeneous, but time-dependent linearly polarized electric fields are examined mainly in the regime of multiphoton absorption (field-dependent threshold, above-threshold pair production). Characteristic signatures in the particle spectra are identified (effective mass, channel closing). The non-monotonic dependence of the particle yield on the carrier frequency is discussed as well. The investigations are then extended to spatially inhomogeneous electric fields. New effects arising due to the spatial dependence of the effective mass are discussed in terms of a semi-classical interpretation. An increase in the normalized particle yield is found for various field configurations.Pair production in inhomogeneous electric and magnetic fields is also studied. The influence of a time-dependent spatially inhomogeneous magnetic field on the momentum spectrum and the particle yield is investigated. The Lorentz invariants are identified to be crucial in order to understand pair production by strong electric fields in the presence of strong magnetic fields. (author) [de

  15. An Improved Cambridge Filter Pad Extraction Methodology to Obtain More Accurate Water and “Tar” Values: In Situ Cambridge Filter Pad Extraction Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh David

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous investigations by others and internal investigations at Philip Morris International (PMI have shown that the standard trapping and extraction procedure used for conventional cigarettes, defined in the International Standard ISO 4387 (Cigarettes -- Determination of total and nicotine-free dry particulate matter using a routine analytical smoking machine, is not suitable for high-water content aerosols. Errors occur because of water losses during the opening of the Cambridge filter pad holder to remove the filter pad as well as during the manual handling of the filter pad, and because the commercially available filter pad holder, which is constructed out of plastic, may adsorb water. This results in inaccurate values for the water content, and erroneous and overestimated values for Nicotine Free Dry Particulate Matter (NFDPM. A modified 44 mm Cambridge filter pad holder and extraction equipment which supports in situ extraction methodology has been developed and tested. The principle of the in situ extraction methodology is to avoid any of the above mentioned water losses by extracting the loaded filter pad while kept in the Cambridge filter pad holder which is hermetically sealed by two caps. This is achieved by flushing the extraction solvent numerous times through the hermetically sealed Cambridge filter pad holder by means of an in situ extractor. The in situ methodology showed a significantly more complete water recovery, resulting in more accurate NFDPM values for high-water content aerosols compared to the standard ISO methodology. The work presented in this publication demonstrates that the in situ extraction methodology applies to a wider range of smoking products and smoking regimens, whereas the standard ISO methodology only applies to a limited range of smoking products and smoking regimens, e.g., conventional cigarettes smoked under ISO smoking regimen. In cases where a comparison of yields between the PMI HTP and

  16. Comparison of approximate formulas for decision levels and detection limits for paired counting with the exact results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, W.E.

    2005-01-01

    The exact probability density function for paired counting can be expressed in terms of modified Bessel functions of integral order when the expected blank count is known. Exact decision levels and detection limits can be computed in a straightforward manner. For many applications perturbing half-integer corrections to Gaussian distributions yields satisfactory results for decision levels. When there is concern about the uncertainty for the expected value of the blank count, a way to bound the errors of both types using confidence intervals for the expected blank count is discussed. (author)

  17. A Golub-Kahan-type reduction method for matrix pairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hochstenbach, M.E.; Reichel, L.; Yu, X.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a novel method for reducing a pair of large matrices {A;B} to a pair of small matrices {H;K}. The method is an extension of Golub-Kahan bidiagonalization to matrix pairs, and simplifies to the latter method when B is the identity matrix. Applications to Tikhonov regularization of large

  18. A Golub-Kahan-type reduction method for matrix pairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hochstenbach, M.E.; Reichel, L.; Yu, X.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a novel method for reducing a pair of large matrices {A,B} to a pair of small matrices {H,K}. The method is an extension of Golub–Kahan bidiagonalization to matrix pairs, and simplifies to the latter method when B is the identity matrix. Applications to Tikhonov regularization of large

  19. Comparison of risks due to HLW and SURF repositories in bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, M.S.Y.; Ortiz, N.R.; Wahi, K.K.

    1983-01-01

    A methodology was developed for use in the analysis of risks from geologic disposal of nuclear wastes. This methodology is applied to two conceptual nuclear waste repositories in bedded salt containing High-Level Waste (HLW) and Spent Un-Reprocessed Fuel (SURF), respectively. A comparison of the risk estimated from the HLW and SURF repositories is presented

  20. Extra-pair mating and evolution of cooperative neighbourhoods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrunn Eliassen

    Full Text Available A striking but unexplained pattern in biology is the promiscuous mating behaviour in socially monogamous species. Although females commonly solicit extra-pair copulations, the adaptive reason has remained elusive. We use evolutionary modelling of breeding ecology to show that females benefit because extra-pair paternity incentivizes males to shift focus from a single brood towards the entire neighbourhood, as they are likely to have offspring there. Male-male cooperation towards public goods and dear enemy effects of reduced territorial aggression evolve from selfish interests, and lead to safer and more productive neighbourhoods. The mechanism provides adaptive explanations for the common empirical observations that females engage in extra-pair copulations, that neighbours dominate as extra-pair sires, and that extra-pair mating correlates with predation mortality and breeding density. The models predict cooperative behaviours at breeding sites where males cooperate more towards public goods than females. Where maternity certainty makes females care for offspring at home, paternity uncertainty and a potential for offspring in several broods make males invest in communal benefits and public goods. The models further predict that benefits of extra-pair mating affect whole nests or neighbourhoods, and that cuckolding males are often cuckolded themselves. Derived from ecological mechanisms, these new perspectives point towards the evolution of sociality in birds, with relevance also for mammals and primates including humans.