WorldWideScience

Sample records for paint sludge deactivation

  1. A study of paint sludge deactivation by pyrolysis reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muniz L.A.R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of large quantities of paint sludge is a serious environmental problem. This work evaluates the use of pyrolysis reaction as a process for deactivating paint sludge that generates a combustible gas phase, a solvent liquid phase and an inert solid phase. These wastes were classified into three types: water-based solvent (latex resin and solvents based on their resins (alkyd and polyurethane. An electrically heated stainless steel batch reactor with a capacity of 579 mL and a maximum pressure of 30 atm was used. Following the reactor, a flash separator, which was operated at atmospheric pressure, partially condensed and separated liquid and gas products. Pressure and temperature were monitored on-line by a control and data acquisition system, which adjusted the heating power supplied to the pyrolysis reactor. Reactions followed an experimental design with two factors (reaction time and temperature and three levels (10, 50 and 90 minutes; 450, 550 and 650degreesC. The response variables were liquid and solid masses and net heat of combustion. The optimal operational range for the pyrolysis process was obtained for each response variable. A significant reduction in total mass of solid waste was obtained.

  2. A review on paint sludge from automotive industries: Generation, characteristics and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihoglu, Guray; Salihoglu, Nezih Kamil

    2016-03-15

    The automotive manufacturing process results in the consumption of several natural sources and the generation of various types of wastes. The primary source of hazardous wastes at an automotive manufacturing plant is the painting process, and the major waste fraction is paint sludge, which is classified with EU waste code of 080113* implying hazardous characteristics. The amount of the paint sludge generated increases every year with the worldwide increase in the car production. The characteristics of the paint sludge, which mainly designate the management route, are mainly determined by the type of the paint used, application technique employed, and the chemicals applied such as flocculants, detackifiers, pH boosters, antifoam agents, and biocides as well as the dewatering techniques preferred. Major routes for the disposal of the paint sludges are incineration as hazardous waste or combustion at cement kilns. Because of high dissolved organic carbon content of the paint, the paint sludge cannot be accepted by landfills according to European Union Legislations. More investigations are needed in the field of paint sludge recycling such as recycling it as a new paint or as other formulations, or making use of the sludge for the production of construction materials. Research on the applicability of the paint sludge in composting and biogasification can also be useful. Ongoing research is currently being conducted on new application techniques to increase the effectiveness of paint transfer, which helps to prevent the generation of paint sludge. Advancements in paint and coating chemistry such as the reduction in the coating layers with its thickness also help to decrease the level of paint sludge generation. Investigations on the effects of the chemicals on the recycling potential of paint sludges and consideration of these effects by the chemical manufacturer companies would be extremely important. This review presents the formation of paint sludge, the factors

  3. Application of automotive paint sludge in the production of white ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praxedes, P.B.; Ponte, H.A.; Mymrine, V.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Paint wastes of an automotive industry were evaluated in terms of their chemical and mineralogical characteristics in order to analyse its potential use as a reinforcing agent in white ceramic. Both kaolin and sludge paint were analysed using the techniques of XRF, XRD, SEM, EDS. In order to understand the behaviour of the sludge during firing, TGA and DTA analysis were done. Samples containing kaolin and 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 (wt.%) sludge paint were prepared. The ceramics were compacted at 10MPa and sintered at 1000 °C, 1200 °C, 1250 °C and 1300 °C. Water absorption, linear shrinkage and flexural strength were the mechanical properties evaluated in the samples. The experimental results showed that the samples with lagers amounts of sludge performed better or similar to the samples that only contained kaolin. The insertion of 8 (wt.%) of sludge in the specimen increased flexural strength in 63%. (author)

  4. Composting of waste paint sludge containing melamine resin as affected by nutrients and gypsum addition and microbial inoculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Yongqiang; Chen Liming; Gao Lihong; Michel, Frederick C.; Wan Caixia; Li Yebo; Dick, Warren A.

    2012-01-01

    Melamine formaldehyde resins have hard and durable properties and are found in many products, including automobile paints. These resins contain high concentrations of nitrogen and, if properly composted, can yield valuable products. We evaluated the effects of starter compost, nutrients, gypsum and microbial inoculation on composting of paint sludge containing melamine resin. A bench-scale composting experiment was conducted at 55 °C for 91 days and then at 30 °C for an additional 56 days. After 91 days, the composts were inoculated with a mixed population of melamine-degrading microorganisms. Melamine resin degradation after the entire 147 days of composting varied between 73 and 95% for the treatments with inoculation of microorganisms compared to 55–74% for the treatments without inoculation. Degradation was also enhanced by nutrients and gypsum additions. Our results infer that large scale composting of melamine resins in paint sludge is possible. - Highlights: ► Melamine resin in waste paint sludges could be efficiently composted at bench scale. ► Melamine resin degradation after 147 days of composting was 73–95% complete. ► Nutrients, gypsum and melamine-degrading microorganisms increased composting rate. ► Melamine degradation products first increased and then decreased in the compost. ► Final compost was enriched in nitrogen and other essential plant nutrients. - Melamine resin in waste paint sludges was efficiently composted at bench scale, with finished composts having low levels of heavy metals and enriched in plant nutrients.

  5. Painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2012-01-01

    and discursive battles over the essentially self-reflective question of “What is painting?” Over the last decades it has also become an intermedial laboratory in which artists experiment with developing a connective aesthetic in the interface between painting and other media. Accordingly, it is has become...

  6. Accelerating deactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FISHBACK, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    In recent years, the focus of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex has shifted from defense production to facility stabilization, decommissioning, and environmental restoration. This shift from production to cleanup requires a parallel shift from operations-focused management to project-focused management for an efficient facility deactivation. In the operation-focused management organization, activities are planned and executed based on production goals and are typically repetitive and cyclic. In the project-focused management environment, activities are based on a defined scope/end objective, start date, and completion date. Since the workforce used to perform production operations is also usually relied onto perform facility deactivation, it is important to shift from an operations management approach to a project management approach. It is best if the transition is accomplished quickly so the project can move forward and workers don't spend a lot of energy anticipating change. Therefore, it is essential that managers, planners, and other workers understand the key elements associated with planning a deactivation project. This paper describes a planning approach that has been used successfully to plan deactivation projects consistent with the requirements provided in DOE Order 430.1A Life Cycle Asset Management and the companion Deactivation Implementation Guide, G430. 1A-3, while exceeding schedule expectations and reducing costs. Although the planning of a deactivation project closely mirrors the classic project planning for construction projects, there are unique variations associated with facility deactivation. The key elements of planning a deactivation project are discussed relative to scope, schedule, and cost. Management tools such as project metrics and histograms are discussed as desired outputs from the planning process. In addition, lessons learned from planning deactivation projects across the DOE complex are discussed relative to making the

  7. ALARA review for the deactivation of 105-N Lift Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nellesen, A.L.

    1997-01-01

    This ALARA review provides a description of the engineering and administrative controls used to manage personnel exposure and to control contamination levels and airborne radioactivity concentrations, while removing water, sludge, stabilizing surfaces, and all other associated work involved in the deactivation of the 105-N Lift Station. The lift station was used as a sump and received contaminated water from the 105-N Fuel Storage Basin weirs and contaminated drains in the 105-N Building. During operation water from the lift station was pumped to the 1310-N and 1325-N cribs. Deactivation of the lift station is a critical step in completing the deactivation of N-Area

  8. LMR deactivation information exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guttenberg, S.

    1998-01-01

    This report contains vugraphs of presentations given at the meeting. The topics covered include the following: FFTF Deactivation Strategy; Sodium Drain and Disposition; Sodium Processing; and Fuel Storage and Disposition

  9. Deactivation of Building 7602

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yook, H.R.; Barnett, J.R.; Collins, T.L.

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has sponsored research and development programs in Building 7602 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 1984. This work focused on development of advanced technology for processing nuclear fuels. Building 7602 was used for engineering-scale tests using depleted and natural uranium to simulate the nuclear fuel. In April 1994 the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) sent supplemental FY 1994 guidance to ORNL stating that in FY 1995 and beyond, Building 7602 is considered surplus to NE programs and missions and shall be shut down (deactivated) and maintained in a radiologically and industrially safe condition with minimal surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M). DOE-NE subsequently provided FY 1995 funding to support the deactivation activities. Deactivation of Building 7602 was initiated on October 1, 1994. The principal activity during the first quarter of FY 1995 was removal of process materials (chemicals and uranium) from the systems. The process systems were operated to achieve chemical solution concentrations needed for reuse or disposal of the solutions prior to removal of the materials from the systems. During this phase of deactivation the process materials processed and removed were: (1) Uranyl nitrate solution 30,178 L containing 4490 kg of uranium; (2) Nitric acid (neutralized) 9850 L containing less than 0.013 kg of uranium; (3) Organic solution 3346 L containing 265 kg of uranium; (4) Uranium oxide powder 95 kg; and (5) Miscellaneous chemicals. At the end of December 1994, the process systems and control systems were shut down and deactivated. Disposition of the process materials removed from the process systems in Building 7602 proved to be the most difficult part of the deactivation. An operational stand down and funding reductions at Y-12 prevented planned conversion of the uranyl nitrate solution to depleted uranium oxide powder. This led to disposal of the uranyl nitrate solution as waste

  10. PFP deactivation project management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogen, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    This document identifies the overall approach for deactivation of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Complex, excluding the vaults, and includes a draft set of End Point Criteria for all buildings being deactivated

  11. Rupture loop annex ion exchange RLAIX vault deactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, J.E.; Harris, D.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    This engineering report documents the deactivation, stabilization and final conditions of the Rupture Loop Annex Ion Exchange (RLAIX) Vault located northwest of the 309 Building`s Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR). Twelve ion exchange columns, piping debris, and column liquid were removed from the vault, packaged and shipped for disposal. The vault walls and floor were decontaminated, and portions of the vault were painted to fix loose contamination. Process piping and drains were plugged, and the cover blocks and rain cover were installed. Upon closure,the vault was empty, stabilized, isolated.

  12. N Reactor Deactivation Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, J.L.

    1993-12-01

    This N Reactor Deactivation Program Plan is structured to provide the basic methodology required to place N Reactor and supporting facilities · in a radiologically and environmentally safe condition such that they can be decommissioned at a later date. Deactivation will be in accordance with facility transfer criteria specified in Department of Energy (DOE) and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) guidance. Transition activities primarily involve shutdown and isolation of operational systems and buildings, radiological/hazardous waste cleanup, N Fuel Basin stabilization and environmental stabilization of the facilities. The N Reactor Deactivation Program covers the period FY 1992 through FY 1997. The directive to cease N Reactor preservation and prepare for decommissioning was issued by DOE to WHC on September 20, 1991. The work year and budget data supporting the Work Breakdown Structure in this document are found in the Activity Data Sheets (ADS) and the Environmental Restoration Program Baseline, that are prepared annually

  13. Implementing RCRA during facility deactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebaron, G.J.

    1997-01-01

    RCRA regulations require closure of permitted treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) facilities within 180 days after cessation of operations, and this may essentially necessitate decommissioning to complete closure. A more cost effective way to handle the facility would be to significantly reduce the risk to human health and the environment by taking it from its operational status to a passive, safe, inexpensive-to-maintain surveillance and maintenance condition (deactivation) prior to decommissioning. This paper presents an innovative approach to the cost effective deactivation of a large, complex chemical processing facility permitted under RCRA. The approach takes into account risks to the environment posed by this facility in comparison to risks posed by neighboring facilities at the site. The paper addresses the manner in which: 1) stakeholders and regulators were involved; 2) identifies a process by which the project proceeds and regulators and stakeholders were involved; 3) end points were developed so completion of deactivation was clearly identified at the beginning of the project, and 4) innovative practices were used to deactivate more quickly and cost effectively

  14. F-Canyon Sludge Physical Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M. R.; Hansen, P. R.; Fink, S. D.

    2005-01-01

    The Site Deactivation and Decommissioning (SDD) Organization is evaluating options to disposition the 800 underground tanks (including removal of the sludge heels from these tanks). To support this effort, DandD requested assistance from Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel to determine the pertinent physical properties to effectively mobilize the sludge from these tanks (Tanks 804, 808, and 809). SDD provided SRNL with samples of the sludge from Tanks 804, 808, and 809. The authors measured the following physical properties for each tank: particle settling rate, shear strength (i.e., settled solids yield stress), slurry rheology (i.e., yield stress and consistency), total solids concentration in the sludge, soluble solids concentration of the sludge, sludge density, and particle size distribution

  15. Radiation induced deactivation, post deactivation of horse radish peroxidase, glucose oxidase and the protective effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Min; Zhong Qun; Chen Yiqing; Ha Hongfei

    1993-01-01

    In order to check the fact if the radiation induced post deactivation are possessed by all the enzymes, the radiation effects of horse radish peroxidase (HRP) and glucose oxidase (GOD) were investigated. It was found that in dilute aqueous solution the irradiated HRP has the post deactivation also. The effects of absorbed dose, initial HRP concentration in solution, atmosphere, temperature and additives (three kinds of complex agents: EDTA, CDTA and D) on the post deactivation of HRP were investigated. The regularity of post deactivation of HRP is similar with the catalase. Oxygen in enzyme samples is necessary for the post deactivation. 5 x 10 -3 mol/l of the three additives could control the phenomenon efficiently. Of course, the radiation deactivation of HRP was given as well. In the case of GOD the post deactivation was not found, although it's radiation deactivation is serious. It means that the radiation induced post deactivation is not a common phenomenon for all enzymes

  16. Painting models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baart, F.; Donchyts, G.; van Dam, A.; Plieger, M.

    2015-12-01

    The emergence of interactive art has blurred the line between electronic, computer graphics and art. Here we apply this art form to numerical models. Here we show how the transformation of a numerical model into an interactive painting can both provide insights and solve real world problems. The cases that are used as an example include forensic reconstructions, dredging optimization, barrier design. The system can be fed using any source of time varying vector fields, such as hydrodynamic models. The cases used here, the Indian Ocean (HYCOM), the Wadden Sea (Delft3D Curvilinear), San Francisco Bay (3Di subgrid and Delft3D Flexible Mesh), show that the method used is suitable for different time and spatial scales. High resolution numerical models become interactive paintings by exchanging their velocity fields with a high resolution (>=1M cells) image based flow visualization that runs in a html5 compatible web browser. The image based flow visualization combines three images into a new image: the current image, a drawing, and a uv + mask field. The advection scheme that computes the resultant image is executed in the graphics card using WebGL, allowing for 1M grid cells at 60Hz performance on mediocre graphic cards. The software is provided as open source software. By using different sources for a drawing one can gain insight into several aspects of the velocity fields. These aspects include not only the commonly represented magnitude and direction, but also divergence, topology and turbulence .

  17. Kinetic Analysis of Char Thermal Deactivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zolin, Alfredo; Jensen, Anker; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2001-01-01

    and demineralized Dietz from USA, and two alternative fuels, Danish leached straw and petroleum coke, were used in the experiments. The coal chars from demineralized Dietz, Illinois no. 6, and Cerrejon deactivate readily, whereas petroleum coke and Blair Athol show a relative high resistance to deactivation....... Leached straw deactivates significantly, but maintains at any heat-treatment temperature a higher reactivity than the other chars. The inertinite-rich coal Blair Athol is more resistant to deactivation than two vitrinite-rich coals of the same ASTM rank, Cerrejon and Illinois no. 6. Cerrejon and Illinois...

  18. Information Subsystem of Shadow Economy Deactivation

    OpenAIRE

    Filippova, Tatyana V.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents information subsystem of shadow economy deactivation aimed at minimizing negative effects caused by its reproduction. In Russia, as well as in other countries, efficient implementation of the suggested system of shadow economy deactivation can be ensured by the developed information subsystem.

  19. Data quality objectives for PUREX deactivation flushing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    This Data Quality Objection (DQO) defines the sampling and analysis requirements necessary to support the deactivation of the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) facility vessels that are regulated by WAC 173-303. Specifically, sampling and analysis requirements are identified for the flushing operations that are a major element of PUREX deactivation

  20. PUREX Plant deactivation mission analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, D.P.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the PUREX Deactivation Project mission analysis is to define the problem to be addressed by the PUREX mission, and to lay the ground work for further system definition. The mission analysis is an important first step in the System Engineering (SE) process. This report presents the results of the PUREX Deactivation Project mission analysis. The purpose of the PUREX Deactivation Project is to prepare PUREX for Decontamination and Decommissioning within a five year time frame. This will be accomplished by establishing a passively safe and environmentally secure configuration of the PUREX Plant, that can be preserved for a 10-year horizon. During deactivation, appropriate portions of the safety envelop will be maintained to ensure deactivation takes place in a safe and regulatory compliant manner

  1. PUREX Deactivation Health and Safety documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, E.N. III.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the PUREX Deactivation Project is to establish a passively safe and environmentally secure configuration of PUREX at the Hanford Site, and to preserve that configuration for a 10-year horizon. The 10-year horizon is used to predict future maintenance requirements and represents they typical time duration expended to define, authorize, and initiate the follow-on Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) activities. This document was prepared to increase attention to worker safety issues during the deactivation project and, as such, identifies the documentation and programs associated with PUREX Deactivation Health and Safety

  2. PUREX Deactivation Health and Safety documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodd, E.N. III

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the PUREX Deactivation Project is to establish a passively safe and environmentally secure configuration of PUREX at the Hanford Site, and to preserve that configuration for a 10-year horizon. The 10-year horizon is used to predict future maintenance requirements and represents they typical time duration expended to define, authorize, and initiate the follow-on Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) activities. This document was prepared to increase attention to worker safety issues during the deactivation project and, as such, identifies the documentation and programs associated with PUREX Deactivation Health and Safety.

  3. 308 Building deactivation function analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, D.P.

    1995-09-01

    The document contains the functions, function definitions, function interfaces, function interface definitions, Input Computer Automated Manufacturing Definition (IDEFO) diagrams, and a function hierarchy chart that describes what needs to be performed to deactivate the 308 Building

  4. PUREX Plant deactivation function analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, D.P.

    1995-09-01

    The document contains the functions, function definitions, function interfaces, function interface definitions, Input Computer Automated Manufacturing Definition (IDEFO) diagrams, and a function hierarchy chart that describe what needs to be performed to deactivate PUREX

  5. 309 Building deactivation function analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, D.P.

    1995-09-01

    The document contains the functions, function definitions, function interfaces, function interface definitions, Input Computer Automated Manufacturing Definition (IDEFO) diagrams, and a function hierarchy chart that describe what needs to be performed to deactivate the 309 Building

  6. N Area Post-Deactivation ALARA Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nellesen, A. L.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides information about a wide range of radiological work activities at the N Area Deactivation Project. The report is divided into sections that are based on specific N Area scopes of work. Each section contains specific information that was of significant radiological importance in completing N Area Deactivation work. The information presented in this report may be applicable and beneficial to similar projects throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex, and in commercial industry

  7. Egyptian Tomb Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Liesa

    1999-01-01

    Provides an activity where sixth-grade students replicated the Egyptian art form of tomb painting. Explains that the students researched information about Egyptian culture and history in order to familiarize themselves with Egyptian wall-painting style. Discusses the process of creating tomb paintings in detail. (CMK)

  8. UO3 deactivation end point criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanski, L.D.

    1994-01-01

    The UO 3 Deactivation End Point Criteria are necessary to facilitate the transfer of the UO 3 Facility from the Office of Facility Transition and Management (EM-60) to the office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40). The criteria were derived from a logical process for determining end points for the systems and spaces at the UO 3 , Facility based on the objectives, tasks, and expected future uses pertinent to that system or space. Furthermore, the established criteria meets the intent and supports the draft guidance for acceptance criteria prepared by EM-40, open-quotes U.S. Department of Energy office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) Decontamination and Decommissioning Guidance Document (Draft).close quotes For the UO 3 Facility, the overall objective of deactivation is to achieve a safe, stable and environmentally sound condition, suitable for an extended period, as quickly and economically as possible. Once deactivated, the facility is kept in its stable condition by means of a methodical surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M) program, pending ultimate decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D). Deactivation work involves a range of tasks, such as removal of hazardous material, elimination or shielding of radiation fields, partial decontamination to permit access for inspection, installation of monitors and alarms, etc. it is important that the end point of each of these tasks be established clearly and in advance, for the following reasons: (1) End points must be such that the central element of the deactivation objective - to achieve stability - is unquestionably achieved. (2) Much of the deactivation work involves worker exposure to radiation or dangerous materials. This can be minimized by avoiding unnecessary work. (3) Each task is, in effect, competing for resources with other deactivation tasks and other facilities. By assuring that each task is appropriately bounded, DOE's overall resources can be used most fully and effectively

  9. Sulfur deactivation of fatty ester hydrogenolysis catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brands, D.S.; U-A-Sai, G.; Poels, E.K.; Bliek, A. [Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-08-15

    Trace organosulfur compounds present as natural impurities in oleochemical feedstocks may lead to activation of copper-containing catalysts applied for hydrogenolysis of esters toward fatty alcohols. In this paper, the sulfur deactivation of Cu/SiO{sub 2} and Cu/ZnO/SiO{sub 2} catalysts was studied in the liquid-phase hydrogenolysis of methyl palmitate. The rate of deactivation is fast and increases as a function of the sulfur-containing compound present: octadecanethiol {approx} dihexadecyl disulfide < benzyl isothiocyanate < methyl p-toluene sulfonate < dihexadecyl sulfide < dibenzothiophene. The rapid deactivation is caused by the fact that sulfur is quantitatively removed from the reaction mixture and because mainly surface sulfides are formed under hydrogenolysis conditions. The life time of a zinc-promoted catalyst is up to two times higher than that of the Cu/SiO{sub 2} catalyst, most likely due to zinc surface sulfide formation. The maximum sulfur coverage obtained after full catalyst deactivation with dibenzothiophene and dihexadecyl sulfide--the sulfur compounds that cause the fastest deactivation--may be as low as 0.07. This is due to the fact that decomposition of these compounds as well as the hydrogenolysis reaction itself proceeds on ensembles of copper atoms. Catalyst regeneration studies reveal that activity cannot be regained by reduction or combined oxidation/reduction treatments. XRD, TPR, and TPO results confirm that no distinct bulk copper or zinc sulfide or sulfate phases are present.

  10. Deactivating a major nuclear fuels reprocessing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBaron, G.J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes three key processes used in deactivating the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Facility, a large, complex nuclear reprocessing facility, 15 months ahead of schedule and $77 million under budget. The organization was reengineered to refine its business processes and more effectively organize around the deactivation work scope. Multi-disciplined work teams were formed to be self-sufficient and empowered to make decisions and perform work. A number of benefits were realized by reengineering. A comprehensive process to develop end points which clearly identified specific results and the post-project facility configuration was developed so all areas of a facility were addressed. Clear and specific end points allowed teams to focus on completing deactivation activities and helped ensure there were no unfulfilled end-of-project expectations. The RCRA regulations require closure of permitted facilities within 180 days after cessation of operations which may essentially necessitate decommissioning. A more cost effective approach was adopted which significantly reduced risk to human health and the environment by taking the facility to a passive, safe, inexpensive-to-maintain surveillance and maintenance condition (deactivation) prior to disposition. PUREX thus became the first large reprocessing facility with active TSD [treatment, storage, and disposal] units to be deactivated under the RCRA regulations

  11. Metal-deactivating additives for liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boneva, M.I. [Institute of Organic Chemistry, Sofia (Bulgaria); Ivanov, S.K.; Kalitchin, Z.D. [SciBulCom, Ltd., Sofia (Bulgaria); Tanielyan, S.K. [Seton Hall Univ., South Orange, NJ (United States); Terebenina, A.; Todorova, O.I. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-05-01

    The metal-deactivating and the antioxidant properties of 1-phenyl-3-methylpyrazolone-5 derivatives have been investigated both in the model reaction of low temperature oxidation of ethylbenzene and in gasoline oxidation. The study of the ability of these derivatives to reduce the catalytic effect of copper naphthenate demonstrates that they are promising as metal deactivating additives for light fuels. Some of the pyrazolone compounds appear to be of special interest for the long-term storage of liquid fuels due to their action as multifunctional inhibitors.

  12. Deactivation, Decontamination and Decommissioning Project Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, David Shane; Webber, Frank Laverne

    2001-07-01

    This report is a compilation of summary descriptions of Deactivation, Decontamination and Decommissioning, and Surveillance and Maintenance projects planned for inactive facilities and sites at the INEEL from FY-2002 through FY-2010. Deactivations of contaminated facilities will produce safe and stable facilities requiring minimal surveillance and maintenance pending further decontamination and decommissioning. Decontamination and decommissioning actions remove contaminated facilities, thus eliminating long-term surveillance and maintenance. The projects are prioritized based on risk to DOE-ID, the public, and the environment, and the reduction of DOE-ID mortgage costs and liability at the INEEL.

  13. Selectively strippable paint schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R.; Thumm, D.; Blackford, Roger W.

    1993-03-01

    In order to meet the requirements of more environmentally acceptable paint stripping processes many different removal methods are under evaluation. These new processes can be divided into mechanical and chemical methods. ICI has developed a paint scheme with intermediate coat and fluid resistant polyurethane topcoat which can be stripped chemically in a short period of time with methylene chloride free and phenol free paint strippers.

  14. Deactivation completed at historic Hanford Fuels Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, M.S.

    1994-03-01

    This report discusses deactivation work which was completed as of March 31, 1994 at the 308 Fuels Development Laboratory (FDL) at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The decision to deactivate the structure, formerly known as the Plutonium Fabrication Pilot Plant (PFPP), was driven by a 1980s Department of Energy (DOE) decision that plutonium fuels should not be fabricated in areas near the Site`s boundaries, as well as by changing facility structural requirements. Inventory transfer has been followed by the cleanout and stabilization of plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) and enriched uranium oxide (UO{sub 2}) residues and powders in the facility`s equipment and duct work. The Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington state, was one of America`s primary arsenals of nuclear defense production for nearly 50 years beginning in World War II. Approximately 53 metric tons of weapons grade plutonium, over half of the national supply and about one quarter of the world`s supply, were produced at Hanford between 1944 and 1989. Today, many Site buildings are undergoing deactivation, a precursor phase to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). The primary difference between the two activities is that equipment and structural items are not removed or torn down in deactivation. However, utilities are disconnected, and special nuclear materials (SNM) as well as hazardous and pyrophoric substances are removed from structures undergoing this process.

  15. Deactivation completed at historic Hanford Fuels Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.S.

    1994-03-01

    This report discusses deactivation work which was completed as of March 31, 1994 at the 308 Fuels Development Laboratory (FDL) at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The decision to deactivate the structure, formerly known as the Plutonium Fabrication Pilot Plant (PFPP), was driven by a 1980s Department of Energy (DOE) decision that plutonium fuels should not be fabricated in areas near the Site's boundaries, as well as by changing facility structural requirements. Inventory transfer has been followed by the cleanout and stabilization of plutonium oxide (PuO 2 ) and enriched uranium oxide (UO 2 ) residues and powders in the facility's equipment and duct work. The Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington state, was one of America's primary arsenals of nuclear defense production for nearly 50 years beginning in World War II. Approximately 53 metric tons of weapons grade plutonium, over half of the national supply and about one quarter of the world's supply, were produced at Hanford between 1944 and 1989. Today, many Site buildings are undergoing deactivation, a precursor phase to decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D). The primary difference between the two activities is that equipment and structural items are not removed or torn down in deactivation. However, utilities are disconnected, and special nuclear materials (SNM) as well as hazardous and pyrophoric substances are removed from structures undergoing this process

  16. Deactivation and regeneration of refinery catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.

    1979-08-01

    A discussion covers the mechanisms of catalyst aging, poisoning, coke deposition, and metals deposition; feedstock pretreatment to extend catalyst life; the effects of operating conditions; the effects of catalyst composition and structure on its stability; nonchemical deactivation processes; and methods of catalyst regeneration, including coke burn-off and solvent extraction.

  17. 308 Building deactivation mission analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, D.P.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of the 308 Building (Fuels Development Laboratory) Deactivation Project mission analysis. Hanford systems engineering (SE) procedures call for a mission analysis. The mission analysis is an important first step in the SE process. The functions and requirements to successfully accomplish this mission, the selected alternatives and products will later be defined using the SE process

  18. 309 Building deactivation mission analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, D.P.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of the 309 Building (Plutonium Fuels Utilization Program) Deactivation Project mission analysis. Hanford systems engineering (SE) procedures call for a mission analysis. The mission analysis is an important first step in the SE process. The functions and requirements to successfully accomplish this mission, the selected alternatives and products will later be defined using the SE process

  19. The Approach of Emotional Deactivation of Prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Jean-Nil

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the approach of emotional deactivation is to help students reduce the prejudice they may feel towards diverse social groups. Be those groups homosexuals, people living with a disability or immigrants, the victims of prejudice are invited to come into classrooms and to confront the preconceptions that students have in their respect.…

  20. Oil-based paint poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paint - oil-based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  1. Painting for protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepto, G.G.C.

    1981-01-01

    Despite the use of special alloys, paint is still the most economical and practical method of protecting steel. Chlorinated rubber resin based paint systems are shown to be satisfactory in areas requiring decontamination as well as for outside exposed areas of nuclear power plants. (author)

  2. Chromosome painting in plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schubert, I.; Fransz, P.F.; Fuchs, J.; Jong, de J.H.

    2001-01-01

    The current 'state-of-art' as to chromosome painting in plants is reviewed. We define different situations described as painting so far: i) Genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) with total genomic DNA to distinguish alien chromosomes on the basis of divergent dispersed repeats, ii) 'Chromosomal in

  3. Application of extended Kalman filter to identification of enzymatic deactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminal, G; Lafuente, J; López-Santín, J; Poch, M; Solà, C

    1987-02-01

    A recursive estimation scheme, the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) technique, was applied to study enzymatic deactivation in the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated cellulose using a model previously developed by the authors. When no deactivation model was assumed, the results showed no variation with time for all the model parameters except for the maximum rate of cellobiose-to-glucose conversion (r'(m)).The r'(m) variation occurred in two zones with a grace period. A new model of enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated cellulose deactivation was proposed and validated showing better behavior than the old deactivation model. This approach allows one to study enzyme deactivation without additional experiments and within operational conditions.

  4. The nonadiabatic deactivation paths of pyrrole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbatti, Mario; Vazdar, Mario; Aquino, Adelia J. A.; Eckert-Maksic, Mirjana; Lischka, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) calculations have been performed for pyrrole with the aim of providing an explanation for the experimentally observed photochemical deactivation processes. Potential energy curves and minima on the crossing seam were determined using the analytic MRCI gradient and nonadiabatic coupling features of the COLUMBUS program system. A new deactivation mechanism based on an out-of-plane ring deformation is presented. This mechanism directly couples the charge transfer 1 ππ* and ground states. It may be responsible for more than 50% of the observed photofragments of ππ*-excited pyrrole. The ring deformation mechanism should act complementary to the previously proposed NH-stretching mechanism, thus offering a more complete interpretation of the pyrrole photodynamics

  5. Paint and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of paints used for industry, the arts, and hobbies. Years ago, lead and mercury were used in ... high amounts of toluene – higher exposure than a hobby or professional painter would likely have. I work ...

  6. Sludge busters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichon, Max

    2010-01-01

    Full text: A few years ago, For Earth developed low energy sub-surface aeration systems to increase the biological activity in the wastewater sludge ponds. Then came the idea to introduce probiotic bacteria to really ramp up the process, which promises massive time and cost savings in sludge management. Increasing the volumes of specific bacteria reactivates the sludge, accelerating biological nutrient removal in general and, by tailoring the bacteria, targeting specific organic waste types. The technology is already running at more than 30 councils across NSW and in some commercial settings, such as dairy farms. Shane McKibbin, GM of For Earth, said the 'Probiotic, Low Energy Aeration System' offers considerable upside. “The cost savings have been enormous with some councils, including the work done at Woolgoolga Water Reclamation Plant at Coffs Harbour,” he said. Sludge settling in wastewater treatment plant lagoons is typically pumped out, centrifuged to remove water and then landfilled. In Woolgoolga's case that process was costing Coffs Harbour Water $150 a cubic metre; McKibbin said they've slashed that to a measly $5 a cubic metre. An array of 'industrial air stones' is dropped 1m below the surface to create an oxygenated blanket across the surface, overcoming the tendency of sludge ponds to stagnate. The key though is floating probiotic dosing lines across the surface, which kick-starts the probiotics process. “Previously, some operators just wanted to throw it on with a bucket, so the bacteria would get thrown into one corner of the pond. But since we introduced the dosing system it has really improved the overall performance,” said McKibbin.The dosing pump system automatically applies the bacteria into the dosing line according to a specified program, ensuring the probiotics are spread out across the pond and across the week. “I would say it improves and accelerates the result by 30 per cent,” he adds. “The biggest problem was that

  7. Sludge busters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichon, Max

    2010-07-15

    Full text: A few years ago, For Earth developed low energy sub-surface aeration systems to increase the biological activity in the wastewater sludge ponds. Then came the idea to introduce probiotic bacteria to really ramp up the process, which promises massive time and cost savings in sludge management. Increasing the volumes of specific bacteria reactivates the sludge, accelerating biological nutrient removal in general and, by tailoring the bacteria, targeting specific organic waste types. The technology is already running at more than 30 councils across NSW and in some commercial settings, such as dairy farms. Shane McKibbin, GM of For Earth, said the 'Probiotic, Low Energy Aeration System' offers considerable upside. “The cost savings have been enormous with some councils, including the work done at Woolgoolga Water Reclamation Plant at Coffs Harbour,” he said. Sludge settling in wastewater treatment plant lagoons is typically pumped out, centrifuged to remove water and then landfilled. In Woolgoolga's case that process was costing Coffs Harbour Water $150 a cubic metre; McKibbin said they've slashed that to a measly $5 a cubic metre. An array of 'industrial air stones' is dropped 1m below the surface to create an oxygenated blanket across the surface, overcoming the tendency of sludge ponds to stagnate. The key though is floating probiotic dosing lines across the surface, which kick-starts the probiotics process. “Previously, some operators just wanted to throw it on with a bucket, so the bacteria would get thrown into one corner of the pond. But since we introduced the dosing system it has really improved the overall performance,” said McKibbin.The dosing pump system automatically applies the bacteria into the dosing line according to a specified program, ensuring the probiotics are spread out across the pond and across the week. “I would say it improves and accelerates the result by 30 per cent,” he adds. “The biggest problem was that

  8. Sunlight technologies for photochemical deactivation of organic pollutants in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acher, A.; Fischer, E.; Tornheim, R. [The Volcani Center, Inst. of Soils and Water, Bet Dagan (Israel); Manor, Y. [Sheba Medical Center, Central Virology Lab., Ramat Gan (Israel)

    1997-12-31

    Sensitized-photochemical oxidation methods aimed at use in water treatment technologies for deactivation of biotic (microorganisms) and/or of xenobiotic (pesticides) pollutants in water were developed using global solar radiation or concentrated sunlight (up to 250 suns). The solar global radiation was used either for detoxification of industrial waste water from a pesticide factory to allow their discharge into the urban sewer, or for disinfection of domestric effluents to be used in crop irrigation. The disinfection process was eventually carried out in an experimental pilot-scale plant, capable of disinfection up to 50 m{sup 3}/h of effluent supplied by an activated sludge sewage treatment plant located in Tel-Aviv area. The treated effluents did not show any regrowth of the microorganisms during 7 days. The solar concentrated radiation experiments performed using facilities of the Sun Tower of The Weizman Institute of Science, Rehovot. The concentrated sunlight was provided by different combination of several computer controlled heliostates, up to 8, that track the sun and focus the received sunlight onto the target situated on the roof of the sun-tower. The sunlight intensities measured on the target reached up to 200 kW/m{sup 2}. The experiments were performed either batch- or continuous-wise. The water-samples exposed to disinfection were the above effluent, filtered and supplemented with vaccine strain poliovirus or with different concentrations of an industrial potential pollutant (bromacil), MB 2 mg/L and two concentrations of dissolved oxygen (8.0 or 40.0 mg O{sub 2}/L). An exposure time of 2-3 seconds at 150 kW/m{sup 2} was decreased the microorganisms alive (counts) by five orders of magnitude. A comparison between the two above water treatment technologies is presented. (orig./SR)

  9. Landscape Painting. Rewriting Painting in the Postmedium Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal, Nissim

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Is landscape painting still relevant today? To answer this question the article examines the work of the contemporary artist Yehudit Sasportas. Sasporas offers a unique kind of written-drawn landscape painting that moves between the manual and the mechanical. The theoretical perspectives from which it is approached are taken, among others, from Plato, Heidegger and Derrida on the issue of writing. Sasportas painting, which may be characterized as "painting under erasure" or "Landscape Painting", serves as a key to understanding the status of painting as a relevant medium, not because it defines medium according to the modernist Greenbergian formula, but because it enables an understanding of painting as a field that exists in a variety of media. Painting as a field, in Sasportas's art, works and lives within various techniques and materials, even when it includes within itself a melancholic mark indicating doubt about its own relevance.

  10. Antioxidant Deactivation on Graphenic Nanocarbon Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xinyuan [ORNL; Sen, Sujat [Brown University; Liu, Jingyu [Brown University; Kulaots, Indrek [Brown University; Geohegan, David B [ORNL; Kane, Agnes [Brown University; Puretzky, Alexander A [ORNL; Rouleau, Christopher M [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Palmore, G. Tayhas R. [Brown University; Hurt, Robert H. [Brown University

    2011-01-01

    This article reports a direct chemical pathway for antioxidant deactivation on the surfaces of carbon nanomaterials. In the absence of cells, carbon nanotubes are shown to deplete the key physiological antioxidant glutathione (GSH) in a reaction involving dissolved dioxygen that yields the oxidized dimer, GSSG, as the primary product. In both chemical and electrochemical experiments, oxygen is only consumed at a significant steady-state rate in the presence of both nanotubes and GSH. GSH deactivation occurs for single- and multi-walled nanotubes, graphene oxide, nanohorns, and carbon black at varying rates that are characteristic of the material. The GSH depletion rates can be partially unified by surface area normalization, are accelerated by nitrogen doping, and suppressed by defect annealing or addition of proteins or surfactants. It is proposed that dioxygen reacts with active sites on graphenic carbon surfaces to produce surface-bound oxygen intermediates that react heterogeneously with glutathione to restore the carbon surface and complete a catalytic cycle. The direct catalytic reaction between nanomaterial surfaces and antioxidants may contribute to oxidative stress pathways in nanotoxicity, and the dependence on surface area and structural defects suggest strategies for safe material design.

  11. Imagined memories of painting

    OpenAIRE

    Horta, Maia Schmidt, 1974-

    2011-01-01

    Tese de mestrado, Pintura, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Belas Artes, 2011 A Tese é compsota por dois volumes, um em portugês, outro em inglês Visual imagery, narratives and locations have always been linked to the study of memory. Memory has always been linked to art history and historical shifts in the study of memory had a direct impact on the history of painting. Painting was based on stories and served to make those stories memorable. Since then there have been numerous inve...

  12. Introductory guide to painting

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cromarty, R.E

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available , and have doubts about it, you are wel- come to contact the NBRl for advice. It is always best when buying a paint system to select the products of a single manufacturer. the grain as it dries. Several coats can be used to give a high-gloss finish... rendering Those who have lived on a farm will probably remember how surplus fat used to be treated with an alkali to make soap. The same thing can happen at the point where some oil paints come in contact with the wall. The alkali, which is always...

  13. Process Waste Assessment - Paint Shop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, N.M.

    1993-06-01

    This Process Waste Assessment was conducted to evaluate hazardous wastes generated in the Paint Shop, Building 913, Room 130. Special attention is given to waste streams generated by the spray painting process because it requires a number of steps for preparing, priming, and painting an object. Also, the spray paint booth covers the largest area in R-130. The largest and most costly waste stream to dispose of is open-quote Paint Shop wasteclose quotes -- a combination of paint cans, rags, sticks, filters, and paper containers. These items are compacted in 55-gallon drums and disposed of as solid hazardous waste. Recommendations are made for minimizing waste in the Paint Shop. Paint Shop personnel are very aware of the need to minimize hazardous wastes and are continuously looking for opportunities to do so

  14. LSST Painting Risk Evaluation Memo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Justin E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-11-10

    The optics subsystem is required to paint the edges of optics black where possible. Due to the risks in applying the paint LSST requests a review of the impact of removing this requirement for the filters and L3.

  15. Sludge recovery apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmo, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    Sludge recovery machine comprising a hollow centrifuge, a vertical pipe for feeding in a liquid containing sludge and a sliding rake pressing against the internal wall of the centrifuge to dislodge and move the sludge, a power drive for spinning the centrifuge at high speed and a rotating drying table to take the sludge and dry it [fr

  16. Cultural Collage Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Mary

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a cultural collage painting project. Three things served as the impetus for this project: (1) a desire for students to explore the theme of "culture"; (2) an appreciation for the photo-montaged, layered images one sees in print media; and (3) noticing that projects from core subject areas hanging on the walls…

  17. Synergism in anticorrosive paints

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1CIDEPINT (CONICET–CICPBA): Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo en Tecnología de Pinturas,. Calle 52e/121 y 122, .... plus SOFTCORR 352 software. 2.2 Experimental paints ..... tigaciones Científicas y Técnicas), CICPBA (Comisión de.

  18. Painting Reproductions on Display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Iranowska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Paintings in museums might occasionally be replaced by a photoprint mimicking the original. This article is an investigation of what constitutes a good reproduction of an artwork (oil painting that is meant to be displayed. The article discusses what the usefulness of reproductions depends on, applying the Valuation Studies approach, which means the primary concern is with the practice of valuing itself. In other words, the study focuses on how museum experts evaluate reproduc-tions of oil paintings. The article analyses three cases of displaying digitally prin-ted copies of Edvard Munch's oil paintings between 2013 and 2015 in the Munch Museum and in the National Gallery in Oslo. The study is based on a series of semi-structured interviews with the experts, working at and for the museums, that were involved in producing and exhibiting of the photoprints: curators, con-servators, museum educators, and external manufacturers. The interviews were grouped into five clusters, which I have chosen to call registers of valuing following Frank Heuts and Annemarie Mol (2013. The described valuation practices have to do with delivering experiences to the public, obtaining mimetic resemblance, solving ethical aspects, exhibitions' budget, and last but not least, with the time perspective.

  19. Painting and Writing Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Søren Hattesen

    materialization. At the same time as O’Hara and Rivers investigate the often conflicting powers of both genres to incarnate the reality of the material world (especially the human body) in their respective media, they also playfully foreground the materiality of painterly/poetic text as paint and writing...

  20. Lined canvas paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup Andersen, Cecil

    2013-01-01

    at 50% RH but increased the stress level severely in dry conditions and offered no support to the painting at 70-80 % RH. This means that the traditional glue-paste lining techniques and the wax-resin technique in high RH seem to limit the advisable RH fluctuation in a cultural institution. Conversely...

  1. Painting Patterns with Pixels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoerg, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art unit for middle school students where they created their own original pattern through the use of "ClarisWorks Paint." Discusses the procedure for the project and the evaluation used at the end of the unit. Emphasizes the importance of learning about computers. (CMK)

  2. Accelerated bridge paint test program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    The accelerated bridge paint (AB-Paint) program evaluated a new Sherwin-Williams two-coat, : fast-curing paint system. The system is comprised of an organic zinc-rich primer (SW Corothane I : Galvapac One-Pack Zinc-Rich Primer B65 G11) and a polyurea...

  3. PUREX/UO3 deactivation project management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washenfelder, D.J.

    1993-12-01

    From 1955 through 1990, the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant (PUREX) provided the United States Department of Energy Hanford Site with nuclear fuel reprocessing capability. It operated in sequence with the Uranium Trioxide (UO 3 ) Plant, which converted the PUREX liquid uranium nitrate product to solid UO 3 powder. Final UO 3 Plant operation ended in 1993. In December 1992, planning was initiated for the deactivation of PUREX and UO 3 Plant. The objective of deactivation planning was to identify the activities needed to establish a passively safe, environmentally secure configuration at both plants, and ensure that the configuration could be retained during the post-deactivation period. The PUREX/UO 3 Deactivation Project management plan represents completion of the planning efforts. It presents the deactivation approach to be used for the two plants, and the supporting technical, cost, and schedule baselines. Deactivation activities concentrate on removal, reduction, and stabilization of the radioactive and chemical materials remaining at the plants, and the shutdown of the utilities and effluents. When deactivation is completed, the two plants will be left unoccupied and locked, pending eventual decontamination and decommissioning. Deactivation is expected to cost $233.8 million, require 5 years to complete, and yield $36 million in annual surveillance and maintenance cost savings

  4. Deactivation of molybdate catalysts by nitrogen bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.

    1982-10-01

    Nitrogen bases present in petroleum deactivate the surface of molybdate catalysts. The detrimental effect is attributed either to interactions of the bases with Lewis sites via unpaired electrons on nitrogen or to their ability to remove proton from the surface. The later effect results in a decrease of concentration of Bronsted sites known to be active in catalytic reactions. This enhances rate of coke forming reactions. Resistence of molybdate catalysts to coke formation depends on the form and redistribution of active ingredients on the surface. This can be effected by conditions applied during preparation and pretreatment of the catalysts. Processing parameters used during catalytic hydrotreatment are also important; i.e., the coke formation is slow under conditions ensuring high rate of removal of basic nitrogen containing compounds.

  5. Deactivation of the EBR-II complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelbacher, J.A.; Earle, O.K.; Henslee, S.P. [and others

    1997-12-31

    In January of 1994, the Department of Energy mandated the termination of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Program, effective October 1, 1994. To comply with this decision, Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) prepared a plan providing detailed requirements to place the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) in a radiologically and industrially safe condition, including removal of all irradiated fuel assemblies from the reactor plant, and removal and stabilization of the primary and secondary sodium, a liquid metal used to transfer heat within the reactor plant. The ultimate goal of the deactivation process is to place the EBR-II complex in a stable condition until a decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) plan can be prepared, thereby minimizing requirements for maintenance and surveillance and maximizing the amount of time for radioactive decay. The final closure state will be achieved in full compliance with federal, state and local environmental, safety, and health regulations and requirements. The decision to delay the development of a detailed D&D plan has necessitated this current action. The EBR-II is a pool-type reactor. The primary system contains approximately 87,000 gallons of sodium, while the secondary system has 13,000 gallons. In order to properly dispose of the sodium in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), a facility has been built to react the sodium to a dry carbonate powder in a two stage process. Deactivation of a liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) presents unique concerns. Residual amounts of sodium remaining in the primary and secondary systems must be either reacted or inerted to preclude future concerns with sodium-air reactions that generate explosive mixtures of hydrogen and leave corrosive compounds. Residual amounts of sodium on components will effectively {open_quotes}solder{close_quotes} components in place, making future operation or removal unfeasible.

  6. Deactivation of the EBR-II complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelbacher, J.A.; Earle, O.K.; Henslee, S.P.

    1997-01-01

    In January of 1994, the Department of Energy mandated the termination of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Program, effective October 1, 1994. To comply with this decision, Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) prepared a plan providing detailed requirements to place the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) in a radiologically and industrially safe condition, including removal of all irradiated fuel assemblies from the reactor plant, and removal and stabilization of the primary and secondary sodium, a liquid metal used to transfer heat within the reactor plant. The ultimate goal of the deactivation process is to place the EBR-II complex in a stable condition until a decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) plan can be prepared, thereby minimizing requirements for maintenance and surveillance and maximizing the amount of time for radioactive decay. The final closure state will be achieved in full compliance with federal, state and local environmental, safety, and health regulations and requirements. The decision to delay the development of a detailed D ampersand D plan has necessitated this current action. The EBR-II is a pool-type reactor. The primary system contains approximately 87,000 gallons of sodium, while the secondary system has 13,000 gallons. In order to properly dispose of the sodium in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), a facility has been built to react the sodium to a dry carbonate powder in a two stage process. Deactivation of a liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) presents unique concerns. Residual amounts of sodium remaining in the primary and secondary systems must be either reacted or inerted to preclude future concerns with sodium-air reactions that generate explosive mixtures of hydrogen and leave corrosive compounds. Residual amounts of sodium on components will effectively open-quotes solderclose quotes components in place, making future operation or removal unfeasible

  7. New technology for recyclingmaterials from oily cold rollingmill sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Zhang, Shen-gen; Tian, Jian-jun; Pan, De-an; Meng, Ling; Liu, Yang

    2013-12-01

    Oily cold rolling mill (CRM) sludge is one of metallurgical industry solid wastes. The recycle of these wastes can not only protect the environment but also permit their reutilization. In this research, a new process of "hydrometallurgical treatment + hydrothermal synthesis" was investigated for the combined recovery of iron and organic materials from oily CRM sludge. Hydrometallurgical treatment, mainly including acid leaching, centrifugal separation, neutralization reaction, oxidizing, and preparation of hydrothermal reaction precursor, was first utilized for processing the sludge. Then, micaceous iron oxide (MIO) pigment powders were prepared through hydrothermal reaction of the obtained precursor in alkaline media. The separated organic materials can be used for fuel or chemical feedstock. The quality of the prepared MIO pigments is in accordance with the standards of MIO pigments for paints (ISO 10601-2007). This clean, effective, and economical technology offers a new way to recycle oily CRM sludge.

  8. Oils, paintings and chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eduarda Machado de Araújo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In oil paintings artists use oils to apply pigments. These oils firstly are liquid and then solidify in a thin film. Many chemical reactions are involved in drying and also in the aging of these oils. Drying is a continuous process that begins with the oxidation of insaturated fatty acids from triglycerides to originate peroxides. These compounds suffer a cascade of reactions that lead to cross linking bonds between fatty acids residues, transforming the oil in a solid film. Identification of the film oil is possible using the palmitic/stearic ratio (P/S by chromatographic (GC and/or spectroscopic techniques. Sterol composition, phytosterols or cholesterol, determined by GC-MS or FTIR techniques, allows investigators to distinguish between oil painting and a temper one that used egg as the binding medium.

  9. British Museum paintings

    OpenAIRE

    Edmonds, Frances

    2011-01-01

    Frances Edmonds is one of a group of artists selected for the show ‘Territories’ taking place at Galerie Windkracht 13 in Den Helder, Holland this July 2012. This exhibition is curated by Sharon Beavan and Gethin Evans. The artists represented work across the boundaries of two and three-dimensional and time based form. The brief – to interrogate and explore the notion of territories. Frances will be showing several paintings from the British Museum series, based on imagery collected ...

  10. Deactivation of the EBR-II complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelbacher, J.A.; Earle, O.K.; Henslee, S.P.; Wells, P.B.; Zahn, T.P.

    1996-01-01

    In January of 1994, the Department of Energy mandated the termination of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Program, effective October 1, 1994. To comply with this decision, Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) prepared a plan providing detailed requirements to place the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) in a radiologically and industrially safe condition, including removal of all irradiated fuel assemblies from the reactor plant, and removal and stabilization of the primary and secondary sodium, a liquid metal used to transfer heat within the reactor plant. The ultimate goal of the deactivation process is to place the EBR-II complex in a stable condition until a decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) plan can be prepared, thereby minimizing requirements for maintenance and surveillance and maximizing the amount of time for radioactive decay. The final closure state will be achieved in full compliance with federal, state and local environmental, safety, and health regulations and requirements. The decision to delay the development of a detailed D and D plan has necessitated this current action

  11. Deactivation of the EBR-II complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelbacher, J A; Earle, O K; Henslee, S P; Wells, P B; Zahn, T P

    1996-01-01

    In January of 1994, the Department of Energy mandated the termination of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Program, effective October 1, 1994. To comply with this decision, Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) prepared a plan providing detailed requirements to place the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) in a radiologically and industrially safe condition, including removal of all irradiated fuel assemblies from the reactor plant, and removal and stabilization of the primary and secondary sodium, a liquid metal used to transfer heat within the reactor plant. The ultimate goal of the deactivation process is to place the EBR-II complex in a stable condition until a decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) plan can be prepared, thereby minimizing requirements for maintenance and surveillance and maximizing the amount of time for radioactive decay. The final closure state will be achieved in full compliance with federal, state and local environmental, safety, and health regulations and requirements. The decision to delay the development of a detailed D and D plan has necessitated this current action.

  12. Fitness-driven deactivation in network evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xin-Jian; Peng, Xiao-Long; Fu, Xin-Chu; Small, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Individual nodes in evolving real-world networks typically experience growth and decay—that is, the popularity and influence of individuals peaks and then fades. In this paper, we study this phenomenon via an intrinsic nodal fitness function and an intuitive ageing mechanism. Each node of the network is endowed with a fitness which represents its activity. All the nodes have two discrete stages: active and inactive. The evolution of the network combines the addition of new active nodes randomly connected to existing active ones and the deactivation of old active nodes with a possibility inversely proportional to their fitnesses. We obtain a structured exponential network when the fitness distribution of the individuals is homogeneous and a structured scale-free network with heterogeneous fitness distributions. Furthermore, we recover two universal scaling laws of the clustering coefficient for both cases, C(k) ∼ k −1 and C ∼ n −1 , where k and n refer to the node degree and the number of active individuals, respectively. These results offer a new simple description of the growth and ageing of networks where intrinsic features of individual nodes drive their popularity, and hence degree

  13. Structuralist readings: Painting vs. picture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinkov-Pavlović Lidija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to point to two fundamentally different strategies of painting practice, that is, to two subsystems of painting: picture and painting. This differentiation can be made within the framework of semiotic and semiological analyses which have developed in theory under the influence of structuralism. The first part of the paper offers a basic insight into the linguistic foundation of structuralistic concept, and then sets a thesis about the possibility of analogue reconceptualisation of semiotics/semiology of painting through Julia Kristeva's semiotics and Roland Barthes' semiology. In addition, it points to the concrete concepts of structural analysis which have accentuated the opposition picture-painting with the examples of art practice concurrent to the development of structuralism. However, what is revealed is that various structuralist readings are significantly subjective to unstable relationship between the basic elements in the pictorial object, that is, in the work of painting.

  14. Structuralist readings: Painting vs. picture

    OpenAIRE

    Marinkov-Pavlović Lidija

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to point to two fundamentally different strategies of painting practice, that is, to two subsystems of painting: picture and painting. This differentiation can be made within the framework of semiotic and semiological analyses which have developed in theory under the influence of structuralism. The first part of the paper offers a basic insight into the linguistic foundation of structuralistic concept, and then sets a thesis about the possibility of analogue reconceptu...

  15. The Study Of Deactivation And Regeneration Of A Fluid Cracking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Study Of Deactivation And Regeneration Of A Fluid Cracking Zeolite Catalysts. ... The catalytic activities of modified and unmodified sodium Y-Zeolites catalysts ... sample was seen to completely restore the catalytic activity of both samples.

  16. 340 waste handling complex: Deactivation project management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stordeur, R.T.

    1998-01-01

    This document provides an overview of the strategy for deactivating the 340 Waste Handling Complex within Hanford's 300 Area. The plan covers the period from the pending September 30, 1998 cessation of voluntary radioactive liquid waste (RLW) transfers to the 340 Complex, until such time that those portions of the 340 Complex that remain active beyond September 30, 1998, specifically, the Retention Process Sewer (RPS), can also be shut down and deactivated. Specific activities are detailed and divided into two phases. Phase 1 ends in 2001 after the core RLW systems have been deactivated. Phase 2 covers the subsequent interim surveillance of deactivated and stand-by components during the period of continued RPS operation, through the final transfer of the entire 340 Complex to the Environmental Restoration Contractor. One of several possible scenarios was postulated and developed as a budget and schedule planning case

  17. 1997 project of the year, PUREX deactivation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, R.W.

    1998-01-01

    At the end of 1992, the PUREX and UO 3 plants were deemed no longer necessary for the defense needs of the United States. Although no longer necessary, they were very costly to maintain in their post-operation state. The DOE embarked on a deactivation strategy for these plants to reduce the costs of providing continuous surveillance of the facilities and their hazards. Deactivation of the PUREX and UO 3 plants was estimated to take 5 years and cost $222.5 million and result in an annual surveillance and maintenance cost of $2 million. Deactivation of the PUREX/UO 3 plants officially began on October 1, 1993. The deactivation was 15 months ahead of the original schedule and $75 million under the original cost estimate. The annual cost of surveillance and maintenance of the plants was reduced to less than $1 million

  18. 300 Area fuel supply facilities deactivation function analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, D.P.

    1995-09-01

    The document contains the functions, function definitions, function interfaces, function interface definitions, Input Computer Automated Manufacturing Definition (IDEFO) diagrams, and a function hierarchy chart that describe what needs to be performed to deactivate the 300 Area Fuel Supply Facilities

  19. Deactivation of waste waters in the Czechoslovak Uranium Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priban, V.

    1978-01-01

    Deactivation techniques are described used for the treatment of waste waters from uranium mines and uranium chemical treatment plants. With treatment plant waters this is done either by precipitation of radium with barium sulfate or using multistage evaporating units. Mine waste waters are deactivated by sorption on ion exchangers; strongly basic anion exchangers, mostly Wofatit SBW, Varion AP or Ostion AU are used for uranium, while the strongly acidic Ostion KS is used for radium. (Z.M.)

  20. Activation and deactivation in heavily boron-doped silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Seung-Han; Ro, Jae-Sang

    2003-01-01

    A shallow p + /n junction was formed using a ultra-low-energy (ULE) implanter. Activation by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) exhibited both solid phase epitaxy, in which the sheet resistance dropped rapidly, and reverse annealing, in a manner similar to furnace annealing. The temperature ranges in which these phenomena were observed, however, were higher in the case of RTA processing than they were in the case of furnace annealing due to the low thermal budget associated with the former. Deactivation phenomena were investigated for the shallow source/drain junction based on measurements of the post-annealing time and temperature following the RTA treatments. We found that the deactivation kinetics was divided into two regions. In the first regions, the rate of deactivation increased exponentially with the annealing temperature up to 850 .deg. C. In the second regions, it was found to decrease linearly with the annealing temperature beyond 850 .deg. C. We believe that the first region is kinetically limited while the second is thermodynamically limited. We also observed 'transient enhanced deactivation' an anomalous increase in the sheet resistance during the early stage of annealing at temperatures higher than 800 .deg. C. The activation energy for transient enhanced deactivation was measured to be in the 1.75 ∼ 1.87 eV range while that for normal deactivation was found to be between 3.49 and 3.69 eV.

  1. Decommissioning and deactivation of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anasco, Roberto; Harriague, Santiago; Hey, Alfredo M.; Fabbri, Silvio; Garonis, Omar H.

    2003-01-01

    The National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) is responsible for the decommissioning and deactivation of all relevant nuclear facilities in Argentina. A D and D Subprogram was created in 2000, within Technology Branch of the CNEA, in order to fulfill this responsibility. The D and D Subprogram has organized its activities in four fields: Planning; Technology development; Human resources development and training; International cooperation. The paper describes the work already done in those 4 areas, as well as the nuclear facilities existing in the country. Planning is being developed for the decommissioning of research reactors, beginning with RA-1, as well as for the Atucha I nuclear power station. An integral Management System has been developed, compatibilizing requirements from ISO 9001, ISO 14001, the national norm for Safety and Occupational Health (equivalent to BS 8800), and IAEA 50-SG Q series. Technology development is for the time being concentrated on mechanical decontamination and concrete demolition. A review has been made of technologies already developed both by CNEA and Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A. (the nuclear power utility) in areas of chemical and electrochemical decontamination, cutting techniques and robotics. Human resources development has been based on training abroad in the areas of decontamination, cutting techniques, quality assurance and planning, as well as on specific courses, seminars and workshops. An IAEA regional training course on D and D has been given on April 2002 at CNEA's Constituyentes Atomic Center, with the assistance of 22 university graduates from 13 countries in the Latin American and Caribbean Region, and 11 from Argentina. CNEA has also given fellowships for PhD and Master thesis on the subject. International cooperation has been intense, and based on: - IAEA Technical Cooperation Project and experts missions; - Cooperation agreement with the US Department of Energy; - Cooperation agreement with Germany

  2. LOVE AESTHETICS AND PAINTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZUhal ARDA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Talking about love, while we are talking about a culture and world view means. People love for the people, the passion that inhabited the earth of mankind, the "love" for the first time since love always makes life meaningful emotions has been replaced in the front row between. Throughout history, many artists, scientist, philosopher, and polymath has committed about love are in the works. Poetry, music, theatre, dance, painting, sculpture, each with its own specific language, an art form they are given immortal works about love. Sense of friendship and love of antiquity, Medieval spiritual journeys, when more stunning and dramatic to modern times, trends, human love, to the concept of gaining various dimensions of divine love. Understanding by seeing through these exchanges pictures-meaning maybe the concept of "love" will shed light on the changing values, too. When you do this, both from the east and from the west, giving examples to do a comparison over the years has diversified, changing the concept of "love" art of painting will be an indication that reflected how.

  3. Effects of irradiation of sewage sludge on heavy metal bioavailability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, S.C.; Mayoh, K.R.

    1986-10-01

    Sewage sludges are a valuable resource to agriculture, but their use is limited by the hazards of pathogens, toxic chemicals and heavy metals. Irradiation can control the pathogens and deactivate some of the toxic chemicals. The relative cost of industrial-scale irradiation using accelerators has decreased progressively. This, coupled with the increasing necessity to recycle wastes, has led to renewed interest in irradiation of sludges. In response to this renewed interest, this report examines what is known about the effects of irradiation on the bioavailability of heavy metals. Very few studies have addressed this topic, although workers in the U.S. have claimed decreased solubility of metals in irradiated sludges. We have also briefly reviewed the general literature on sludge to gain indirect evidence on the likely effects. The scant data, often based on less than ideal experimental methodologies, show no major consistent effects of irradiation on the availability of heavy metals from sludge. The data are not sufficient to rule out such effects entirely, but the effects appear to be fairly subtle and not likely to persist beyond one growth season. 85 refs

  4. Microscale radiocarbon dating of paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendriks, Laura; Hajdas, Irka; McIntyre, Cameron; Kueffner, Markus; Ferreira, Ester S.B.; Scherrer, Nadim C.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, radiocarbon dating of paintings using minimal sample sizes has been investigated, in an effort to address the problem of limited access to sample material in paintings. 14 C analyses were conducted on signed and dated paintings from two Swiss artists of the twentieth century. The selected paintings dated from the 1930s and 1960s, provided the opportunity to evaluate the dating accuracy on paintings realized before and after 1950 AD when the 14 C bomb peak was created, as a result of the nuclear tests conducted in the 1950/1960s. The work focused on the one hand on minimizing the size of the canvas sample required for accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon measurement on the gas ion source of the MICADAS and, on the other hand, on testing the possibility of dating the organic binder of the paint. Following careful characterization of the paint composition by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, paints containing no other carbon source than the natural organic binder were identified and dated. (orig.)

  5. Microscale radiocarbon dating of paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendriks, Laura; Hajdas, Irka; McIntyre, Cameron [ETH Zurich, Ion Beam Physics, Zurich (Switzerland); Kueffner, Markus; Ferreira, Ester S.B. [SIK-ISEA, Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Scherrer, Nadim C. [Bern University of Applied Sciences, HKB, Bern (Switzerland)

    2016-03-15

    In this paper, radiocarbon dating of paintings using minimal sample sizes has been investigated, in an effort to address the problem of limited access to sample material in paintings. {sup 14}C analyses were conducted on signed and dated paintings from two Swiss artists of the twentieth century. The selected paintings dated from the 1930s and 1960s, provided the opportunity to evaluate the dating accuracy on paintings realized before and after 1950 AD when the {sup 14}C bomb peak was created, as a result of the nuclear tests conducted in the 1950/1960s. The work focused on the one hand on minimizing the size of the canvas sample required for accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon measurement on the gas ion source of the MICADAS and, on the other hand, on testing the possibility of dating the organic binder of the paint. Following careful characterization of the paint composition by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, paints containing no other carbon source than the natural organic binder were identified and dated. (orig.)

  6. Neural correlates of viewing paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vartanian, Oshin; Skov, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Many studies involving functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have exposed participants to paintings under varying task demands. To isolate neural systems that are activated reliably across fMRI studies in response to viewing paintings regardless of variation in task demands, a quantitative...

  7. Study on radiation-induced deactivation and post-deactivation of some oxide-reductase in dilute aqueous solutions and protective effects: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha Hongfei; Chen Yiqing

    1993-01-01

    The post-deactivation of irradiated catalase in dilute aqueous solution was found and investigated. Post-deactivation of irradiated catalase means that the catalase in dilute aqueous solution could not only be deactivated during γ-irradiation, but it has also been deactivated continuously for some time after the irradiated samples were taken out of the radiation field. No reports about this phenomenon in literature were searched up to now. The effects of absorbed dose, initial catalase concentration in solutions, atmosphere, temperature and additive on post-deactivation of catalase were investigated. H 2 O 2 produced by water radiolysis may attend the post-deactivation reaction in some way. Oxygen in enzyme samples in necessitous for the post-deactivation. 1 x 10 -4 to 5 x 10 -3 mol/L of CH 3 CH 2 OH, HCOONa and EDTA could control the post-deactivation efficiently

  8. Study on radiation-induced deactivation and post-deactivation of some oxidoreductases in dilute aqueous solution and protective effect: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yiqing; Ha Hongfei

    1993-01-01

    In this work the radiation-induced deactivation of catalase in dilute aqueous solution was reported. The effects of irradiation atmosphere, temperature and original concentration of catalase in dilute aqueous solutions on the deactivation of catalase were investigated. The protective effect by some additives (CH 3 CH 2 OH, HCOONa and EDTA) to radiation deactivation in dilute aqueous solutions was also studied. Remarkable protective effect by those additives was observed. The mechanism of radiation deactivation and protective effect have been discussed

  9. Prognostic value of posteromedial cortex deactivation in mild cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R Petrella

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal subjects deactivate specific brain regions, notably the posteromedial cortex (PMC, during many tasks. Recent cross-sectional functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data suggests that deactivation during memory tasks is impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD. The goal of this study was to prospectively determine the prognostic significance of PMC deactivation in mild cognitive impairment (MCI.75 subjects (34 MCI, 13 AD subjects and 28 controls underwent baseline fMRI scanning during encoding of novel and familiar face-name pairs. MCI subjects were followed longitudinally to determine conversion to AD. Regression and analysis of covariance models were used to assess the effect of PMC activation/deactivation on conversion to dementia as well as in the longitudinal change in dementia measures. At longitudinal follow up of up to 3.5 years (mean 2.5+/-0.79 years, 11 MCI subjects converted to AD. The proportion of deactivators was significantly different across all groups: controls (79%, MCI-Nonconverters (73%, MCI-converters (45%, and AD (23% (p<0.05. Mean PMC activation magnitude parameter estimates, at baseline, were negative in the control (-0.57+/-0.12 and MCI-Nonconverter (-0.33+/-0.14 groups, and positive in the MCI-Converter (0.37+/-0.40 and AD (0.92+/-0.30 groups. The effect of diagnosis on PMC deactivation remained significant after adjusting for age, education and baseline Mini-Mental State Exam (p<0.05. Baseline PMC activation magnitude was correlated with change in dementia ratings from baseline.Loss of physiological functional deactivation in the PMC may have prognostic value in preclinical AD, and could aid in profiling subgroups of MCI subjects at greatest risk for progressive cognitive decline.

  10. Dose rate in a deactivated uranium mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wagner S.; Kelecom, Alphonse G.A.C.; Silva, Ademir X.; Marques, José M.; Carmo, Alessander S. do; Dias, Ayandra O., E-mail: pereiraws@gmail.com, E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.br, E-mail: lararapls@hotmail.com, E-mail: Ademir@nuclear.ufrj.br, E-mail: marqueslopes@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Veiga de Almeida (UVA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil (COMAP.N/FCN/INB), Resende RJ (Brazil). Fábrica de Combustível Nuclear. Coordenação de Meio Ambiente e Proteção Radiológica Ambiental; Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARARA-PLS/UFF), Niterói, RJ (Brazil). Laboratório de Radiobiologia e Radiometria; Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    The Ore Treatment Unit is a deactivated uranium mine and milling situated in Caldas, MG, BR. Although disabled, there are still areas considered controlled and supervised from the radiological point of view. In these areas, it is necessary to keep an occupational monitoring program to ensure the workers' safety and to prevent the dispersion of radioactive material. For area monitoring, the dose rate, in μSv∙h{sup -1}, was measured with Geiger Müller (GM) area monitors or personal electronic monitors type GM and thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD), in mSv∙month{sup -1}, along the years 2013 to 2016. For area monitoring, 577 samples were recorded; for personal dosimeters monitoring, 2,656; and for TLD monitoring type, 5,657. The area monitoring showed a mean dose rate of 6.42 μSv∙h{sup -1} associated to a standard deviation of 48 μSv∙h{sup -1} with a maximum recorded value of 685 μSv∙h{sup -1}. 96 % of the samples were below the derived limit per hour for workers (10 μSv∙h{sup -1}). For the personal electronic monitoring, the average of the data sampled was 15.86 μSv∙h{sup -1}, associated to a standard deviation of 61.74 μSv∙h{sup -1}. 80 % of the samples were below the derived limit and the maximum recorded was 1,220 μSv∙h{sup -1}. Finally, the TLD showed a mean of 0.01 mSv∙h{sup -1} (TLD detection limit is 0.2 mSv∙month{sup -1}), associated to a standard deviation of 0.08 mSv∙h{sup -1}. 98% of the registered values were below 0.2 mSv and less than 2 % of the measurements had values above the limit of detection. The samples show areas with low risk of external exposure, as can be seen by the TLD evaluation. Specific areas with greater risk of contamination have already been identified, as well as operations at higher risks. In these cases, the use of the individual electronic dosimeter is justified for a more effective monitoring. Radioprotection identified all risks and was able to extend individual electronic monitoring to all

  11. Dose rate in a deactivated uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Wagner S.; Kelecom, Alphonse G.A.C.; Silva, Ademir X.; Marques, José M.; Carmo, Alessander S. do; Dias, Ayandra O.; Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil; Universidade Federal Fluminense; Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia

    2017-01-01

    The Ore Treatment Unit is a deactivated uranium mine and milling situated in Caldas, MG, BR. Although disabled, there are still areas considered controlled and supervised from the radiological point of view. In these areas, it is necessary to keep an occupational monitoring program to ensure the workers' safety and to prevent the dispersion of radioactive material. For area monitoring, the dose rate, in μSv∙h"-"1, was measured with Geiger Müller (GM) area monitors or personal electronic monitors type GM and thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD), in mSv∙month"-"1, along the years 2013 to 2016. For area monitoring, 577 samples were recorded; for personal dosimeters monitoring, 2,656; and for TLD monitoring type, 5,657. The area monitoring showed a mean dose rate of 6.42 μSv∙h"-"1 associated to a standard deviation of 48 μSv∙h"-"1 with a maximum recorded value of 685 μSv∙h"-"1. 96 % of the samples were below the derived limit per hour for workers (10 μSv∙h"-"1). For the personal electronic monitoring, the average of the data sampled was 15.86 μSv∙h"-"1, associated to a standard deviation of 61.74 μSv∙h"-"1. 80 % of the samples were below the derived limit and the maximum recorded was 1,220 μSv∙h"-"1. Finally, the TLD showed a mean of 0.01 mSv∙h"-"1 (TLD detection limit is 0.2 mSv∙month"-"1), associated to a standard deviation of 0.08 mSv∙h"-"1. 98% of the registered values were below 0.2 mSv and less than 2 % of the measurements had values above the limit of detection. The samples show areas with low risk of external exposure, as can be seen by the TLD evaluation. Specific areas with greater risk of contamination have already been identified, as well as operations at higher risks. In these cases, the use of the individual electronic dosimeter is justified for a more effective monitoring. Radioprotection identified all risks and was able to extend individual electronic monitoring to all risk operations, even with the use of the TLD

  12. Intention retrieval and deactivation following an acute psychosocial stressor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Walser

    Full Text Available We often form intentions but have to postpone them until the appropriate situation for retrieval and execution has come, an ability also referred to as event-based prospective memory. After intention completion, our cognitive system has to deactivate no-more-relevant intention representations from memory to avoid interference with subsequent tasks. In everyday life, we frequently rely on these abilities also in stressful situations. Surprisingly, little is known about potential stress effects on these functions. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the reliability of event-based prospective memory and of intention deactivation in conditions of acute psychosocial stress. To this aim, eighty-two participants underwent the Trier Social Stress Test, a standardized stress protocol, or a standardized control situation. Following this treatment, participants performed a computerized event-based prospective memory task with non-salient and focal prospective memory cues in order to assess prospective memory performance and deactivation of completed intentions. Although the stress group showed elevated levels of salivary cortisol as marker of a stress-related increase in hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity throughout the cognitive testing period compared to the no-stress group, prospective memory performance and deactivation of completed intentions did not differ between groups. Findings indicate that cognitive control processes subserving intention retrieval and deactivation after completion may be mostly preserved even under conditions of acute stress.

  13. Structure of the Deactive State of Mammalian Respiratory Complex I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaza, James N; Vinothkumar, Kutti R; Hirst, Judy

    2018-02-06

    Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is central to energy metabolism in mammalian mitochondria. It couples NADH oxidation by ubiquinone to proton transport across the energy-conserving inner membrane, catalyzing respiration and driving ATP synthesis. In the absence of substrates, active complex I gradually enters a pronounced resting or deactive state. The active-deactive transition occurs during ischemia and is crucial for controlling how respiration recovers upon reperfusion. Here, we set a highly active preparation of Bos taurus complex I into the biochemically defined deactive state, and used single-particle electron cryomicroscopy to determine its structure to 4.1 Å resolution. We show that the deactive state arises when critical structural elements that form the ubiquinone-binding site become disordered, and we propose reactivation is induced when substrate binding to the NADH-reduced enzyme templates their reordering. Our structure both rationalizes biochemical data on the deactive state and offers new insights into its physiological and cellular roles. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Radiation safety in radioluminous paint workshop handling tritium activated paint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaur, P.K.; Venkateswaran, T.V.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the safety features related to a workshop when tritium activated luminous paint is handled by workmen. Salient features of the workshop and the methods employed for monitoring the radiation levels are briefly outlined and results are discussed. The importance of proper ventilation of the workplace and precautions to be taken in the storage of painted articles are highlighted. (author). 1 table, 3 figs

  15. Regeneration of Pt-catalysts deactivated in municipal waste flue gas with H2/N2 and the effect of regeneration step on the SCR catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Hansen, Johannes; Rasmussen, Søren Brik; Kustov, Arkady

    The deactivation performance of Pt-catalysts for CO oxidation has been studied in relation to use in sewage sludge municipal waste burners, where HMDS was found to poison the industrial catalyst in a similar way to the model Pt/TiO2 catalyst. A promising regeneration procedure was developed based...... on reduction with hydrogen. This procedure had negligible effect on the performance of the SCR catalyst. After treatment with 2% H2, 8% O2 in N2 for one hour, a slight better NO SCR activity was observed due to increase in the concentration V4+ sites. However, after exposure in normal NO SCR gases the activity...

  16. PUREX/UO{sub 3} facilities deactivation lessons learned history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrick, D.G.; Gerber, M.S.

    1995-01-01

    The Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Facility operated from 1956-1972, from 1983-1988, and briefly during 1989-1990 to produce for national defense at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The Uranium Trioxide (UO{sub 3}) Facility operated at the Hanford Site from 1952-1972, 1984-1988, and briefly in 1993. Both plants were ordered to permanent shutdown by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in December 1992, thus initiating their deactivation phase. Deactivation is that portion of a facility`s life cycle that occurs between operations and final decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). This document details the history of events, and the lessons learned, from the time of the PUREX Stabilization Campaign in 1989-1990, through the end of the first full fiscal year (FY) of the deactivation project (September 30, 1994).

  17. Hydrotreating catalyst deactivation by coke from SRC-II oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Kumata, F.; Massoth, F.E.

    1988-10-01

    Samples of a CoMo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst were partially deactivated with SRC-II feed in an autoclave reactor to give coked samples of 5 to 18% C. The coked catalysts were analyzed for surface area, pore volume, coronene adsorption and diffusivity, and their catalytic activity determined for hydrodesulfurization (HDS), hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) and C-N hydrogenolysis (CNH) using model compounds. All of the above measurements decreased with increase in coke content. Property data indicate that some pores are blocked by coke and diffusivity results show narrowing of pore mouths with increasing coke content. Catalyst deactivation versus coke level was identical for HDS and HDO, but less for CNH. A simple model of coke deactivation was developed to relate activity to coke content. Coke is envisioned as forming wedge-like deposits in the catalyst pores. 11 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Regeneration of a deactivated USY alkylation catalyst using supercritical isobutane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel M. Ginosar; David N. Ghompson; Kyle C. Burch

    2005-01-01

    Off-line, in-situ alkylation activity recovery from a completely deactivated solid acid catalyst was examined in a continuous-flow reaction system employing supercritical isobutane. A USY zeolite catalyst was initially deactivated during the liquid phase alkylation of butene with isobutane in a single-pass reactor and then varying amounts of alkylation activity were recovered by passing supercritical isobutane over the catalyst bed at different reactivation conditions. Temperature, pressure and regeneration time were found to play important roles in the supercritical isobutane regeneration process when applied to a completely deactivated USY zeolite alkylation catalyst. Manipulation of the variables that influence solvent strength, diffusivity, surface desorption, hydride transfer rates, and coke aging, strongly influence regeneration effectiveness.

  19. Kinetics with deactivation of methylcyclohexane dehydrogenation for hydrogen energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria, G; Marin, A; Wyss, C; Mueller, S; Newson, E [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    The methylcyclohexane dehydrogenation step to recycle toluene and release hydrogen is being studied as part of a hydrogen energy storage project. The reaction is performed catalytically in a fixed bed reactor, and the efficiency of this step significantly determines overall system economics. The fresh catalyst kinetics and the deactivation of the catalyst by coke play an important role in the process analysis. The main reaction kinetics were determined from isothermal experiments using a parameter sensitivity analysis for model discrimination. An activation energy for the main reaction of 220{+-}11 kJ/mol was obtained from a two-parameter model. From non-isothermal deactivation in PC-controlled integral reactors, an activation energy for deactivation of 160 kJ/mol was estimated. A model for catalyst coke content of 3-17 weight% was compared with experimental data. (author) 3 figs., 6 refs.

  20. PUREX/UO3 facilities deactivation lessons learned history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamrick, D.G.; Gerber, M.S.

    1995-01-01

    The Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Facility operated from 1956-1972, from 1983-1988, and briefly during 1989-1990 to produce for national defense at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The Uranium Trioxide (UO 3 ) Facility operated at the Hanford Site from 1952-1972, 1984-1988, and briefly in 1993. Both plants were ordered to permanent shutdown by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in December 1992, thus initiating their deactivation phase. Deactivation is that portion of a facility's life cycle that occurs between operations and final decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D). This document details the history of events, and the lessons learned, from the time of the PUREX Stabilization Campaign in 1989-1990, through the end of the first full fiscal year (FY) of the deactivation project (September 30, 1994)

  1. Sludge recovery apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmo, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    An improved design of a sludge recovery apparatus used in the fabrication of nuclear fuel is described. This apparatus provides for automatic separation of sludge from the grinder coolant, drying of the sludge into a flowable powder and transfer of the dry powder to a salvage container. It can be constructed to comply with criticality-safe-geometry requirements and to obviate need for operating personnel in its immediate vicinity. (UK)

  2. Robot Work Platform for Large Hot Cell Deactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BITTEN, E.J.

    2000-01-01

    The 324 Building, located at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, is being deactivated to meet state and federal cleanup commitments. The facility is currently in its third year of a nine-year project to complete deactivation and closure for long-term surveillance and maintenance. The 324 building contains large hot cells that were used for high-radiation, high-contamination chemical process development and demonstrations. A major obstacle for the 324 deactivation project is the inability to effectively perform deactivation tasks within highly radioactive, contaminated environments. Current strategies use inefficient, resource intensive technologies that significantly impact the cost and schedule for deactivation. To meet mandated cleanup commitments, there is a need to deploy rapid, more efficient remote/robot technologies to minimize worker exposure, accelerate work tasks, and eliminate the need for multiple specialized tool design and procurement efforts. This paper describes the functions and performance requirements for a crane-deployed remote/robot Work Platform possessing full access capabilities. The remote/robot Work Platform will deploy commercially available off-the-shelf tools and end effectors to support Project cleanup goals and reduce overall project risk and cost. The intent of this system is to maximize the use of off-the-shelf technologies that minimize additional new, unproven, or novel designs. This paper further describes procurement strategy, the selection process, the selected technology, and the current status of the procurement and lessons learned. Funding, in part, has been provided by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science and Technology, Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area

  3. 49 CFR 173.173 - Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.173 Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. (a) When..., paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins must be packaged as follows: (1) As prescribed in...

  4. New biocides for antifouling paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazziotti, Isabella; Massanisso, Paolo; Cremisini, Carlo; Chiavarini, Salvatore; Fantini, Michele; Morabito, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    The antifouling paints are used for protecting the hulls of the boasts from the undesirable accumulation of micro-organisms, plants, and animals on artificial surfaces (marine biological fouling). These paints constitute a potential risk for the marine environment, because of the presence in their formulation, among the other potentially toxic components, of organic compounds acting as biocide. The environmental problems associated with the use of the organotin compounds as biocides in the antifouling paints, have lead to the international ban of these compounds. In the article the new antifouling paints coming up the national and international market are shortly introduced and discussed, with particular attention respect to the new organic compounds used as biocides. In Italy quite a few marine monitoring campaigns have been carried out for organotin compounds, on the contrary there is a lack of data regarding the presence of other biocides [it

  5. PUREX/UO3 facilities deactivation lessons learned history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    In May 1997, a historic deactivation project at the PUREX (Plutonium URanium EXtraction) facility at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State concluded its activities (Figure ES-1). The project work was finished at $78 million under its original budget of $222.5 million, and 16 months ahead of schedule. Closely watched throughout the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex and by the US Department of Defense for the value of its lessons learned, the PUREX Deactivation Project has become the national model for the safe transition of contaminated facilities to shut down status

  6. PUREX/UO{sub 3} facilities deactivation lessons learned: History

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, M.S.

    1997-11-25

    In May 1997, a historic deactivation project at the PUREX (Plutonium URanium EXtraction) facility at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State concluded its activities (Figure ES-1). The project work was finished at $78 million under its original budget of $222.5 million, and 16 months ahead of schedule. Closely watched throughout the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex and by the US Department of Defense for the value of its lessons learned, the PUREX Deactivation Project has become the national model for the safe transition of contaminated facilities to shut down status.

  7. The abstract unconscious in painting

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, David

    2009-01-01

    The Abstract Unconscious in Painting addresses painting as experiential process, critically examining the psychological factors involved in the formation of imagery as it emerges through imaginative responses to the process of mark making and the structuring of space and form. The paper sets this process in relation to theoretical material drawn from Jungian and Post Jungian Psychology ( Avens, 1980; Hillman, 1975) the arts ( Gombrich, 1960; Kuspit, 2000; McKeever, 2005; Worringer, 1908) and ...

  8. Skin painting studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witschi, H.P.; Smith, L.H.; Goad, M.E.; Anthony, W.B.; Gipson, L.C.; Stephens, T.J.; Whitaker, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    In order to estimate eventual risks to human health as a consequence of incidental and prolonged skin contact, it is necessary to obtain some information on the potential of coal-derived liquids to elicit skin cancer. In addition, it also must be established whether prolonged dermal exposure will produce signs of toxicity not only on the skin but to internal organs. During the past 2 years, they completed a life-long skin painting study with mice designed to answer some of these questions. The following materials were tested: Raw H-coal blend, containing 5700 ppm N; H-coal blend after low hydrotreatment (2650 ppm N); H-coal blend after high hydrotreatment (0.2 ppm N); H-coal home heating oil, a devolatilized version of the high-hydrotreatment H-coal blend; and an H-coal reformed naphtha. Two petroleum-derived references samples were used: Petroleum No. 2 fuel oil and high catalytically cracked naphtha. Benzo(a)pyrene was used as reference substance. Experimental animals were male and female C3H mice

  9. K basins sludge removal sludge pretreatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuels Program is in the process of planning activities to remove spent nuclear fuel and other materials from the 100-K Basins as a remediation effort for clean closure. The 105 K- East and K-West Basins store spent fuel, sludge, and debris. Sludge has accumulated in the 1 00 K Basins as a result of fuel oxidation and a slight amount of general debris being deposited, by settling, in the basin water. The ultimate intent in removing the sludge and fuel is to eliminate the environmental risk posed by storing fuel at the K Basins. The task for this project is to disposition specific constituents of sludge (metallic fuel) to produce a product stream through a pretreatment process that will meet the requirements, including a final particle size acceptable to the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). The purpose of this task is to develop a preconceptual design package for the K Basin sludge pretreatment system. The process equipment/system is at a preconceptual stage, as shown in sketch ES-SNF-01 , while a more refined process system and material/energy balances are ongoing (all sketches are shown in Appendix C). Thus, the overall process and 0535 associated equipment have been conservatively selected and sized, respectively, to establish the cost basis and equipment layout as shown in sketches ES- SNF-02 through 08

  10. Deactivation of Pacemaker: Ethical Approach or Managerial Failure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macková Marie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The decision about the deactivation of a pacemaker must be the result of a multicriteria decision-making process where the legal, ethical and effectiveness aspects must be taken into account and delicately balanced, while also considering the risk of managerial failure. Academic as well as professional discussion is necessary because there is a whole range of question marks on this topic and all the aspects mentioned above. The aim of this paper is to contribute to the debate by presenting the views of Czech physicians about the possibility of deactivation of the pacemaker in patients in terminal states. Based on the results of our research, the following steps are recommended to enable the deactivation of pacemakers in the Czech environment. Before the patient’s own indication of pacemaker therapy, treatment should be discussed with the patient in detail, including complications and deactivation options. Czech ethical consultant services should be set up in Czech hospitals. And last but not least, they should take an opinion on this issue as well as the professional society.

  11. Mediation Analysis of Mode Deactivation Therapy (Reanalysis and Interpretation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Christopher K.; Apsche, Jack A.

    2013-01-01

    A key component of Mode Deactivation Therapy (MDT) is the development of self-awareness and regulatory skills by the client with the aim of helping adolescent males with conduct disordered behaviors, including sexually inappropriate behaviors and emotional dysregulation. The goal includes altering specific behaviors to fall within socially…

  12. 300 Area fuel supply facilities deactivation mission analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, D.P.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of the 300 Area fuel supply facilities (formerly call ''N reactor fuel fabrication facilities'') Deactivation Project mission analysis. Hanford systems engineering (SE) procedures call for a mission analysis. The mission analysis is an important first step in the SE process

  13. Combustion kinetics of the coke on deactivated dehydrogenation catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Sha; He, Songbo; Li, XianRu; Li, Jingqiu; Bi, Wenjun; Sun, Chenglin

    2015-01-01

    The coke combustion kinetics on the deactivated catalysts for long chain paraffin dehydrogenation was studied by the thermogravimetry and differential thermogravimetry (TG–DTG) technique. The amount and H/C mole ratio of the coke were determined by the TG and elemental analysis. And the

  14. Studies of Deactivation of Methanol to Formaldehyde Selective Oxidation Catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Kristian Viegaard; Schumann, Max; Høj, Martin

    This work presents a study of the deactivation behavior of Fe-Mo oxide catalyst during selective oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde in a period of 5 days. The structural changes in the catalyst have been investigated in situ for the initial 10 h by Raman spectroscopy, and the structure after 5...

  15. 42 CFR 424.540 - Deactivation of Medicare billing privileges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... change in practice location, a change of any managing employee, and a change in billing services. A... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deactivation of Medicare billing privileges. 424.540 Section 424.540 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  16. 200 Area Deactivation Project Facilities Authorization Envelope Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DODD, E.N.

    2000-01-01

    Project facilities as required by HNF-PRO-2701, Authorization Envelope and Authorization Agreement. The Authorization Agreements (AA's) do not identify the specific set of environmental safety and health requirements that are applicable to the facility. Therefore, the facility Authorization Envelopes are defined here to identify the applicable requirements. This document identifies the authorization envelopes for the 200 Area Deactivation

  17. Respirometry in activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjers, H.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the study was (1) to develop a respiration meter capable of continuously measuring, using different procedures, the oxygen uptake rate of activated sludge and (2) to expand knowledge about respiration related characteristics of wastewater and activated sludge.

    A

  18. Carbon-14 in sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.R.; Coleman, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    The level of C-14 in high-level waste is needed to establish the amount of C-14 that will be released to the environment either as off-gas from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) or as a component of saltstone. Available experimental data confirmed a low level of C-14 in soluble waste, but no data was available for sludge. Based on the processes used in each area, Purex LAW sludge in F-area and HM HAW sludge in H-area will contain the bulk of any sludge produced by the cladding. Accordingly, samples from Tank 8F containing Purex LAW and Tank 15H containing HM HAW were obtained and analyzed for C-14. These two waste types constitute approximately 70% of the total sludge inventory now stored in the waste tanks. Results from analyses of these two sludge types show: the total C-14 inventory in sludge now stored in the waste tanks is 6.8 Ci; C-14 releases to the atmosphere from the DWPF will average approximately 0.6 Ci annually at the projected sludge processing rate in the DWPF. 4 references, 2 tables

  19. Activated sludge model No. 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gujer, W.; Henze, M.; Mino, T.

    1999-01-01

    The Activated Sludge Model No. 3 (ASM3) can predict oxygen consumption, sludge production, nitrification and denitrification of activated sludge systems. It relates to the Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1) and corrects for some defects of ASM I. In addition to ASM1, ASM3 includes storage of org...

  20. Radioactive Decontamination by Strippable Paint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantaraparprachoom, N.; Mishima, K.

    1998-01-01

    The strippable paint, one of the adhesion method, is to decontaminate solid surface of materials or/and a large area. Two kinds of specimen planchet, SUS 304 stainless steel and polycarbonate plastic, contaminated with radioactive 137 Cs were studied under various conditions. It included surface bottom types, the flat and convex concentric circle type, normal condition at room temperature and overheat condition (∼80 degree celsius). This method used coating paints which contains some elements to have a reaction with radioactive materials selectively. ALARA-Decon clear, Rempack-X200 clear, JD-P5-Mrs.Coat and Pro-Blue-color guard were selected to use as the coating paints. The contaminated surface was coated by the strippable paint under the optimum time, followed by peeling the paint seal. The Rempack-X200 showed the best result, the highest decontamination efficiency which are about 99-100% for all conditions of specimens. The JD-P5 and ALARA-Decon showed good results, which are 98-99% decontamination efficiency for the normal condition set of specimens and about 94-97% for the overheat set of specimens. They can decontaminate polycarbonate specimens better than stainless steel specimens. The Pro-Blue-color guard showed the lowest decontamination efficiency of which 60% for polycarbonate specimens at normal condition and 40%, 30% for stainless steel specimens at normal and overheat conditions respectively. There was no effects of surface bottom types significantly

  1. Sludge minimization technologies - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oedegaard, Hallvard

    2003-07-01

    The management of wastewater sludge from wastewater treatment plants represents one of the major challenges in wastewater treatment today. The cost of the sludge treatment amounts to more that the cost of the liquid in many cases. Therefore the focus on and interest in sludge minimization is steadily increasing. In the paper an overview is given for sludge minimization (sludge mass reduction) options. It is demonstrated that sludge minimization may be a result of reduced production of sludge and/or disintegration processes that may take place both in the wastewater treatment stage and in the sludge stage. Various sludge disintegration technologies for sludge minimization are discussed, including mechanical methods (focusing on stirred ball-mill, high-pressure homogenizer, ultrasonic disintegrator), chemical methods (focusing on the use of ozone), physical methods (focusing on thermal and thermal/chemical hydrolysis) and biological methods (focusing on enzymatic processes). (author)

  2. Ultraviolet-radiation-curable paints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosset, A M; Su, W F.A.; Vanderglas, E

    1981-09-30

    In product finishing lines, ultraviolet radiation curing of paints on prefabricated structures could be more energy efficient than curing by natural gas fired ovens, and could eliminate solvent emission. Diffuse ultraviolet light can cure paints on three dimensional metal parts. In the uv curing process, the spectral output of radiation sources must complement the absorption spectra of pigments and photoactive agents. Photosensitive compounds, such as thioxanthones, can photoinitiate unsaturated resins, such as acrylated polyurethanes, by a free radical mechanism. Newly developed cationic photoinitiators, such as sulfonium or iodonium salts (the so-called onium salts) of complex metal halide anions, can be used in polymerization of epoxy paints by ultraviolet light radiation. One-coat enamels, topcoats, and primers have been developed which can be photoinitiated to produce hard, adherent films. This process has been tested in a laboratory scale unit by spray coating these materials on three-dimensional objects and passing them through a tunnel containing uv lamps.

  3. The Conservation of Panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Until the early 17th century almost all portable paintings were created on wood supports, including masterpieces by famous painters, ranging from Giotto to Dürer to Rembrandt. The structural conservation of these paintings requires specific knowledge and skills as the supports are susceptible...... and conservation of these artworks. The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) and the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam brought together a group of experts from different disciplines to recommend specific areas in the field that would benefit from systematic research. The experts concluded that targeted...

  4. Dewatering of sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bode, P.

    1984-01-01

    A filter rig has been designed and built. Simulated magnox and alumino ferric hydroxide sludges have been successfully filtered on this equipment and both types of sludge produced a clear filtrate and a cake. The flow rates were low. The cake often partially remained adhered to the filter membrane instead of dropping clear during the filter cleaning cycle. This filtration technique can only be used on sludges which form a non-binding cake. Permeability of the membrane can be altered by stretching. Irradiation of the membrane showed that it should withstand 20 to 50 M.rads. (author)

  5. New technology for recycling materials from oily cold rolling mill sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Liu; Shen-gen Zhang; Jian-jun Tian; De-an Pan; Ling Meng; Yang Liu

    2013-01-01

    Oily cold rolling mill (CRM) sludge is one of metallurgical industry solid wastes. The recycle of these wastes can not only protect the environment but also permit their reutilization. In this research, a new process of“hydrometallurgical treatment+hydrothermal synthesis”was investigated for the combined recovery of iron and organic materials from oily CRM sludge. Hydrometallurgical treatment, mainly including acid leaching, centrifugal separation, neutralization reaction, oxidizing, and preparation of hydrothermal reaction precursor, was first utilized for processing the sludge. Then, micaceous iron oxide (MIO) pigment powders were prepared through hydrothermal reaction of the obtained precursor in alkaline media. The separated organic materials can be used for fuel or chemical feedstock. The quality of the prepared MIO pigments is in accordance with the standards of MIO pigments for paints (ISO 10601-2007). This clean, eff ective, and economical technology off ers a new way to recycle oily CRM sludge.

  6. Epidemics in Adaptive Social Networks with Temporary Link Deactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunc, Ilker; Shkarayev, Maxim S.; Shaw, Leah B.

    2013-04-01

    Disease spread in a society depends on the topology of the network of social contacts. Moreover, individuals may respond to the epidemic by adapting their contacts to reduce the risk of infection, thus changing the network structure and affecting future disease spread. We propose an adaptation mechanism where healthy individuals may choose to temporarily deactivate their contacts with sick individuals, allowing reactivation once both individuals are healthy. We develop a mean-field description of this system and find two distinct regimes: slow network dynamics, where the adaptation mechanism simply reduces the effective number of contacts per individual, and fast network dynamics, where more efficient adaptation reduces the spread of disease by targeting dangerous connections. Analysis of the bifurcation structure is supported by numerical simulations of disease spread on an adaptive network. The system displays a single parameter-dependent stable steady state and non-monotonic dependence of connectivity on link deactivation rate.

  7. Criticality safety for deactivation of the Rover dry headend process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrikson, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Rover dry headend process combusted Rover graphite fuels in preparation for dissolution and solvent extraction for the recovery of 235 U. At the end of the Rover processing campaign, significant quantities of 235 U were left in the dry system. The Rover Dry Headend Process Deactivation Project goal is to remove the remaining uranium bearing material (UBM) from the dry system and then decontaminate the cells. Criticality safety issues associated with the Rover Deactivation Project have been influenced by project design refinement and schedule acceleration initiatives. The uranium ash composition used for calculations must envelope a wide range of material compositions, and yet result in cost effective final packaging and storage. Innovative thinking must be used to provide a timely safety authorization basis while the project design continues to be refined

  8. Bisphenol A Synthesis - Modeling of Industrial Reactor and Catalyst Deactivation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prokop, Zdeněk; Hanková, Libuše; Jeřábek, Karel

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 60, - (2004), s. 77-83 Sp/Iss/ SI ISSN 1381-5148. [Asia-Pacific Congress on Catalysis /3./. Dalian, 12.10.2003-15.10.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/02/1104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : bisphenol A * catalyst deactivation * ion exchanger catalyst Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.582, year: 2004

  9. Deactivation and Storage Issues Shared by Fossil and Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas S. LaGuardia

    1998-01-01

    The deactivation of a power plant, be it nuclear or fossil fueled, requires that the facility be placed in a safe and stable condition to prevent unacceptable exposure of the public or the environment to hazardous materials until the facility can be decommissioned. The conditions at two Texas plants are examined. These plants are fossil fueled, but their conditions might be duplicated at a nuclear plant

  10. Deactivation of nickel hydroxide-gold modified electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Caram, Bruno; Tucceri, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study how the charge-transport process of a nickel hydroxide film electrochemically synthesized on a gold substrate is modified when the electrode is stored for a long time. It was found that nickel hydroxide films are deactivated under storage, that is, films became less conductive than films immediately prepared (nondeactivated). This study was carried out in the context of the rotating disc electrode voltammetry when the modified electrode contacts an ele...

  11. Mechanism of acetaldehyde-induced deactivation of microbial lipases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeger Karl E

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial lipases represent the most important class of biocatalysts used for a wealth of applications in organic synthesis. An often applied reaction is the lipase-catalyzed transesterification of vinyl esters and alcohols resulting in the formation of acetaldehyde which is known to deactivate microbial lipases, presumably by structural changes caused by initial Schiff-base formation at solvent accessible lysine residues. Previous studies showed that several lipases were sensitive toward acetaldehyde deactivation whereas others were insensitive; however, a general explanation of the acetaldehyde-induced inactivation mechanism is missing. Results Based on five microbial lipases from Candida rugosa, Rhizopus oryzae, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis we demonstrate that the protonation state of lysine ε-amino groups is decisive for their sensitivity toward acetaldehyde. Analysis of the diverse modification products of Bacillus subtilis lipases in the presence of acetaldehyde revealed several stable products such as α,β-unsaturated polyenals, which result from base and/or amino acid catalyzed aldol condensation of acetaldehyde. Our studies indicate that these products induce the formation of stable Michael-adducts at solvent-accessible amino acids and thus lead to enzyme deactivation. Further, our results indicate Schiff-base formation with acetaldehyde to be involved in crosslinking of lipase molecules. Conclusions Differences in stability observed with various commercially available microbial lipases most probably result from different purification procedures carried out by the respective manufacturers. We observed that the pH of the buffer used prior to lyophilization of the enzyme sample is of utmost importance. The mechanism of acetaldehyde-induced deactivation of microbial lipases involves the generation of α,β-unsaturated polyenals from acetaldehyde which subsequently form stable Michael-adducts with the

  12. Sewage sludges disinfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre, D.; Gevaudan, P.P.

    1977-01-01

    There is a hygienic risk in using biological sewage sludges for agriculture. Systematic analyses carried out on sludge samples obtained from purification plants in the Eastern and Southern part of France, show the almost uniform presence of pathogenic microorganisms. Some of them survive more than nine months after application to the soil. Conventional processes for disinfection, liming and heat, make the sludge unsuitable for agricultural use. On the other hand, irradiation involves no modification of structure and composition of sludges. Radiation doses required for disinfection vary according to the type of microorganism. Some of them are eliminated at rather low doses (200 krad), but mycobacteria, viruses and eggs of worms resist to more important doses. The security dose is estimated to be approx. 1000 krad

  13. Stop and Paint the Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Shelley

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art lesson where students used watercolors to paint a flower bouquet arranged in a vase. Explains that the students viewed examples of flower bouquets by artists such as Vincent van Gogh and Odilon Redon. Discusses, in detail, the process of creating the artworks. (CMK)

  14. Materials science challenges in paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Philippe; de Viguerie, Laurence

    2018-01-23

    Through the paintings of the old masters, we showcase how materials science today provides us with a vision of the processes involved in the creation of a work of art: the choice of materials, the painter's skill in handling these materials, and the perception of the finished work.

  15. Materials science challenges in paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Philippe; de Viguerie, Laurence

    2018-02-01

    Through the paintings of the old masters, we showcase how materials science today provides us with a vision of the processes involved in the creation of a work of art: the choice of materials, the painter's skill in handling these materials, and the perception of the finished work.

  16. Desalination of painted brick vaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Klenz

    The subject of the thesis is salt and moisture movement that causes damage to wall paintings on church vaults. The deterioration was studied in the churches of Fanefjord, Kirkerup and Brarup. A desalination method was tested om location. The salt and moisture transfer was examined in detail...

  17. Mural Painting as Inclusive Art Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kong

    2010-01-01

    Traditional art education, like other academic disciplines, emphasizes competitiveness and individualism. Through a mural painting curriculum, learners participate in mural art and history appreciation, are active in mural theme or content construction, and engage in hands-on mural design and painting processes. When mural paintings are produced…

  18. Zinc, Paint loss and Harmony in blue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vila, Anna; Krarup Andersen, Cecil; Baadsgaard, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    P.S. Krøyer’s late and most popular paintings have proven very difficult to preserve, and as zinc white has been known to cause structural problems in paintings, the authors investigate if the damage seen in the late paintings can be related to the use of this relatively new pigment. Eight painti...

  19. Deactivation of SCR catalysts in biomass fired power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Kjærgaard

    composition and operating conditions, is not available. The main objective of the work presented in this thesis has been to conduct an in depth investigation of the deactivation mechanism of vanadia based SCR catalysts, when subjected to potassium rich aerosols. It has furthermore been a goal to suggest...... for up to 600 hours. The activity of fresh and exposed catalysts was measured in the temperature range 250-400 °C in a laboratory-scale reactor. All samples exposed for more than 240 hours proved to have deactivated significantly, however, catalysts exposed at 150 °C showed higher remaining activity......-scale setup at 350 °C for up to 1100 hours, and their activities were followed by in situ measurements. A 3%V2O5-7%WO3/TiO2 reference catalyst deactivated with a rate of 0.91 %/day during 960 hours of exposure, and a subsequent SEM-EDS analysis showed complete potassium penetration of the catalyst wall...

  20. Gamification of learning deactivates the Default Mode Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Alexander Howard-Jones

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesised that embedding educational learning in a game would improve learning outcomes, with increased engagement and recruitment of cognitive resources evidenced by increased activation of working memory network (WMN and deactivation of Default Mode Network (DMN regions. In an fMRI study, we compared activity during periods of learning in three conditions that were increasingly game-like: Study-only (when periods of learning were followed by an exemplar question together with its correct answer, Self-quizzing (when periods of learning were followed by a multiple choice question in return for a fixed number of points and Game-based (when, following each period of learning, participants competed with a peer to answer the question for escalating, uncertain rewards. DMN hubs deactivated as conditions became more game-like, alongside greater self-reported engagement and, in the Game-based condition, higher learning scores. These changes did not occur with any detectable increase in WMN activity. Additionally, ventral striatal activation was associated with responding to questions and receiving positive question feedback. Results support the significance of DMN deactivation for educational learning, and are aligned with recent evidence suggesting DMN and WMN activity may not always be anti-correlated.

  1. Gamification of Learning Deactivates the Default Mode Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard-Jones, Paul A; Jay, Tim; Mason, Alice; Jones, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that embedding educational learning in a game would improve learning outcomes, with increased engagement and recruitment of cognitive resources evidenced by increased activation of working memory network (WMN) and deactivation of default mode network (DMN) regions. In an fMRI study, we compared activity during periods of learning in three conditions that were increasingly game-like: Study-only (when periods of learning were followed by an exemplar question together with its correct answer), Self-quizzing (when periods of learning were followed by a multiple choice question in return for a fixed number of points) and Game-based (when, following each period of learning, participants competed with a peer to answer the question for escalating, uncertain rewards). DMN hubs deactivated as conditions became more game-like, alongside greater self-reported engagement and, in the Game-based condition, higher learning scores. These changes did not occur with any detectable increase in WMN activity. Additionally, ventral striatal activation was associated with responding to questions and receiving positive question feedback. Results support the significance of DMN deactivation for educational learning, and are aligned with recent evidence suggesting DMN and WMN activity may not always be anti-correlated.

  2. Deactivation by carbon of iron catalysts for indirect liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomew, C.H.

    1990-10-11

    This report describes recent progress in a fundamental, three-year investigation of carbon formation and its effects on the activity and selectivity of promoted iron catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, the objectives of which are: determine rates and mechanisms of carbon deactivation of unsupported Fe and Fe/K catalysts during CO hydrogenation over a range of CO concentrations, CO:H{sub 2} ratios, and temperatures; model the rates of deactivation of the same catalysts in fixed-bed reactors. During the thirteenth quarter design of software for a computer-automated reactor system to be used in the kinetic and deactivation studies was continued. Further progress was made toward the completion of the control language, control routines, and software for operating this system. Progress was also made on the testing of the system hardware and software. H{sub 2} chemisorption capacities and activity selectivity data were also measured for three iron catalysts promoted with 1% alumina. 47 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Sludge technology assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, T.R.; Cunnane, J.C.; Helt, J.E.

    1994-12-01

    The retrieval, processing, and generation of final waste forms from radioactive tank waste sludges present some of the most challenging technical problems confronting scientists and engineers responsible for the waste management programs at the various Department of Energy laboratories and production facilities. Currently, the Department of Energy is developing a strategy to retrieve, process, and generate a final waste form for the sludge that meets the acceptance criteria for the final disposition. An integral part of this strategy will be use of separation processes that treat the sludge; the goal is to meet feed criteria for the various processes that will generate the final waste form, such as vitrification or grouting. This document is intended to (1) identify separation technologies which are being considered for sludge treatment at various DOE sites, (2) define the current state of sludge treatment technology, (3) identify what research and development is required, (4) identify current research programs within either DOE or academia developing sludge treatment technology, and (5) identify commercial separation technologies which may be applicable. Due to the limited scope of this document, technical evaluations regarding the need for a particular separations technology, the current state of development, or the research required for implementation, are not provided

  4. Sludge Stabilization Campaign blend plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vries, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    This sludge stabilization blend plan documents the material to be processed and the order of processing for the FY95 Sludge Stabilization Campaign. The primary mission of this process is to reduce the inventory of unstable plutonium bearing sludge. The source of the sludge is residual and glovebox floor sweepings from the production of material at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The reactive sludge is currently being stored in various gloveboxes at PFP. There are two types of the plutonium bearing material that will be thermally stabilized in the muffle furnace: Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) sludge and Remote Mechanical C (RMC) Line material

  5. Micropollutant degradation via extracted native enzymes from activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krah, Daniel; Ghattas, Ann-Kathrin; Wick, Arne; Bröder, Kathrin; Ternes, Thomas A

    2016-05-15

    A procedure was developed to assess the biodegradation of micropollutants in cell-free lysates produced from activated sludge of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). This proof-of-principle provides the basis for further investigations of micropollutant biodegradation via native enzymes in a solution of reduced complexity, facilitating downstream protein analysis. Differently produced lysates, containing a variety of native enzymes, showed significant enzymatic activities of acid phosphatase, β-galactosidase and β-glucuronidase in conventional colorimetric enzyme assays, whereas heat-deactivated controls did not. To determine the enzymatic activity towards micropollutants, 20 compounds were spiked to the cell-free lysates under aerobic conditions and were monitored via LC-ESI-MS/MS. The micropollutants were selected to span a wide range of different biodegradabilities in conventional activated sludge treatment via distinct primary degradation reactions. Of the 20 spiked micropollutants, 18 could be degraded by intact sludge under assay conditions, while six showed reproducible degradation in the lysates compared to the heat-deactivated negative controls: acetaminophen, N-acetyl-sulfamethoxazole (acetyl-SMX), atenolol, bezafibrate, erythromycin and 10,11-dihydro-10-hydroxycarbamazepine (10-OH-CBZ). The primary biotransformation of the first four compounds can be attributed to amide hydrolysis. However, the observed biotransformations in the lysates were differently influenced by experimental parameters such as sludge pre-treatment and the addition of ammonium sulfate or peptidase inhibitors, suggesting that different hydrolase enzymes were involved in the primary degradation, among them possibly peptidases. Furthermore, the transformation of 10-OH-CBZ to 9-CA-ADIN was caused by a biologically-mediated oxidation, which indicates that in addition to hydrolases further enzyme classes (probably oxidoreductases) are present in the native lysates. Although the

  6. Test plan, sludge retrieval, sludge packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feigenbutz, L.V.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides direction for the cold testing of tools, equipment and systems which will be installed and operated in K-East (KE) Basin in support of the sludge retrieval and packaging project. The technical uncertainties related to the effectiveness of sludge retrieval procedures and equipment require that cold testing be completed before installation in KE Basin to identify and resolve existing problems, and to optimize the efficiency of all equipment and systems used. This plan establishes the responsibilities, test requirements, and documentation requirements necessary to complete cold tests of: (1) equipment with no potential for plant use; (2) prototype equipment and systems which may be upgraded for use in K-Basin; and (3) plant equipment and systems requiring cold acceptance testing prior to plant use. Some equipment and systems may have been subject to a formal design review and safety assessment; the results of which will be included as supporting documents to the operational readiness review (ORR)

  7. Paintings discrimination by mice: Different strategies for different paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shigeru

    2017-09-01

    C57BL/6 mice were trained on simultaneous discrimination of paintings with multiple exemplars, using an operant chamber with a touch screen. The number of exemplars was successively increased up to six. Those mice trained in Kandinsky/Mondrian discrimination showed improved learning and generalization, whereas those trained in Picasso/Renoir discrimination showed no improvements in learning or generalization. These results suggest category-like discrimination in the Kandinsky/Mondrian task, but item-to-item discrimination in the Picasso/Renoir task. Mice maintained their discriminative behavior in a pixelization test with various paintings; however, mice in the Picasso/Renoir task showed poor performance in a test that employed scrambling processing. These results do not indicate that discrimination strategy for any Kandinsky/Mondrian combinations differed from that for any Picasso/Monet combinations but suggest the mice employed different strategies of discrimination tasks depending upon stimuli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Order-fractal transitions in abstract paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calleja, E.M. de la, E-mail: elsama79@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Caixa Postal 15051, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Cervantes, F. [Department of Applied Physics, CINVESTAV-IPN, Carr. Antigua a Progreso km.6, Cordemex, C.P.97310, Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Calleja, J. de la [Department of Informatics, Universidad Politécnica de Puebla, 72640 (Mexico)

    2016-08-15

    In this study, we determined the degree of order for 22 Jackson Pollock paintings using the Hausdorff–Besicovitch fractal dimension. Based on the maximum value of each multi-fractal spectrum, the artworks were classified according to the year in which they were painted. It has been reported that Pollock’s paintings are fractal and that this feature was more evident in his later works. However, our results show that the fractal dimension of these paintings ranges among values close to two. We characterize this behavior as a fractal-order transition. Based on the study of disorder-order transition in physical systems, we interpreted the fractal-order transition via the dark paint strokes in Pollock’s paintings as structured lines that follow a power law measured by the fractal dimension. We determined self-similarity in specific paintings, thereby demonstrating an important dependence on the scale of observations. We also characterized the fractal spectrum for the painting entitled Teri’s Find. We obtained similar spectra for Teri’s Find and Number 5, thereby suggesting that the fractal dimension cannot be rejected completely as a quantitative parameter for authenticating these artworks. -- Highlights: •We determined the degree of order in Jackson Pollock paintings using the Hausdorff–Besicovitch dimension. •We detected a fractal-order transition from Pollock’s paintings between 1947 and 1951. •We suggest that Jackson Pollock could have painted Teri’s Find.

  9. Microclimate boxes for panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The use of microclimate boxes to protect vulnerable panel paintings is, therefore, not a new phenomenon of the past two or three decades. Rather, it has been a concern for conservators and curators to protect these objects of art at home and in transit since the end of the nineteenth century....... The increased number of travelling exhibitions in recent years has heightened the need to protect paintings during circulation (Thomson 1961; Mecklenburg 1991). The use and design of microclimate boxes have been evolving since 1892. These boxes may be divided into three broad groups: those using an active...... buffer material to stabilize the internal RH, a more recent box containing no added buffer material, and, in recent times, boxes with an altered gas content. Another concern is the appearance (aesthetics) of the box....

  10. Sludge pumping in water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar Manuel, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    In water treatment processes is frequent to separate residual solids, with sludge shape, and minimize its volume in a later management. the technologies to applicate include pumping across pipelines, even to long distance. In wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), the management of these sludges is very important because their characteristics affect load losses calculation. Pumping sludge can modify its behavior and pumping frequency can concern treatment process. This paper explains advantages and disadvantages of different pumps to realize transportation sludge operations. (Author) 11 refs.

  11. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SLUDGE DEWATERABILITY NUMBER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A representative of a sludge sample collected from the same source was filtered under the same environmental condition and the result analysed with two different concepts. One method of analysis uses Sludge Dewaterability Number, while the second employed the Carman's Specific resistance concept in sludge ...

  12. Engineering Phase 2 and Phase 3 certification programs -- PUREX deactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walser, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    This document describes the training programs required to become a Phase 2 and Phase 3 certified engineer at PUREX during deactivation. With the change in mission, the PUREX engineering/certification training program is being revamped as discussed below. The revised program will be administered by PUREX Technical Training using existing courses and training materials. The program will comply with the requirements of the Department of Energy (DOE) order 5480.20A, ''Personnel Selection, Qualification, Training, and Staffing Requirements at DOE Reactor and Non-Reactor Nuclear Facilities.''

  13. Engineering Phase 2 and Phase 3 certification programs -- PUREX deactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walser, R.L.

    1994-12-13

    This document describes the training programs required to become a Phase 2 and Phase 3 certified engineer at PUREX during deactivation. With the change in mission, the PUREX engineering/certification training program is being revamped as discussed below. The revised program will be administered by PUREX Technical Training using existing courses and training materials. The program will comply with the requirements of the Department of Energy (DOE) order 5480.20A, ``Personnel Selection, Qualification, Training, and Staffing Requirements at DOE Reactor and Non-Reactor Nuclear Facilities.``

  14. Epidemic Spread in Networks Induced by Deactivation Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xiaoling; Wu Xiao; Zhang Duanming; Li Zhihao; Liang Fang; Wang Xiaoyu

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the topology and epidemic spreading behaviors on the networks in which deactivation mechanism and long-rang connection are coexisted. By means of numerical simulation, we find that the clustering coefficient C and the Pearson correlation coefficient r decrease with increasing long-range connection μ and the topological state of the network changes into that of BA model at the end (when μ = 1). For the Susceptible-Infect-Susceptible model of epidemics, the epidemic threshold can reach maximum value at μ = 0.4 and presents two different variable states around μ = 0.4

  15. PUREX/UO3 Facilities deactivation lessons learned history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, M.S.

    1996-09-19

    Disconnecting the criticality alarm permanently in June 1996 signified that the hazards in the PUREX (plutonium-uranium extraction) plant had been so removed and reduced that criticality was no longer a credible event. Turning off the PUREX criticality alarm also marked a salient point in a historic deactivation project, 1 year before its anticipated conclusion. The PUREX/UO3 Deactivation Project began in October 1993 as a 5-year, $222.5- million project. As a result of innovations implemented during 1994 and 1995, the project schedule was shortened by over a year, with concomitant savings. In 1994, the innovations included arranging to send contaminated nitric acid from the PUREX Plant to British Nuclear Fuels, Limited (BNFL) for reuse and sending metal solutions containing plutonium and uranium from PUREX to the Hanford Site tank farms. These two steps saved the project $36.9- million. In 1995, reductions in overhead rate, work scope, and budget, along with curtailed capital equipment expenditures, reduced the cost another $25.6 million. These savings were achieved by using activity-based cost estimating and applying technical schedule enhancements. In 1996, a series of changes brought about under the general concept of ``reengineering`` reduced the cost approximately another $15 million, and moved the completion date to May 1997. With the total savings projected at about $75 million, or 33.7 percent of the originally projected cost, understanding how the changes came about, what decisions were made, and why they were made becomes important. At the same time sweeping changes in the cultural of the Hanford Site were taking place. These changes included shifting employee relations and work structures, introducing new philosophies and methods in maintaining safety and complying with regulations, using electronic technology to manage information, and, adopting new methods and bases for evaluating progress. Because these changes helped generate cost savings and were

  16. Sewage sludges disinfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre, D.

    1977-01-01

    There is an hygienic risk in using biological sewage sludges for agriculture. Systematic analysis carried out on sludges samples obtained from purification plants in East and South part of France, show the almost uniform presence of pathogenic microorganisms. Some of it survive more than 9 months after soil application. Conventional process for disinfection: liming and heat are not suitable for agricultural use. On the other hand, irradiation involves no modification in structure and composition of sludges. Radiation doses required for disinfection vary according to microorganisms. If some of them are eliminated with rather light doses (200 krad) mycobacteria, viruses and eggs of worms resist to more important doses. Security dose is estimated around 1000 krad

  17. Charcoal from paper sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, M

    1980-03-06

    Paper sludge containing less than or equal to 50% water is mixed with coffee shells and greater than or equal to 1 almond shells, orange skin, walnut shells, or bean jam waste, compacted, and dry distilled at 300-600 degrees to prepare charcoal. Thus, 1 ton of paper sludge was mixed with 100 kg each of coffee shells, almond shells, orange skin, and walnut shells; compacted and dry distilled 24 hours at approximately 450 degrees. The calorific value of the charcoal produced was approximately 7300 kcal/kg.

  18. Conservation problems with paintings containing fluorescent layers of paint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie De Winter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available L’artiste moderne cherche continuellement de nouvelles techniques. Des nouveaux matériaux tels que l’éponge, le polyester, le sable, etc. sont devenus courants. Ces développements amènent de nouveaux problèmes dans le domaine de la conservation (préventive des matériaux en question. Chaque matériau doit être analysé individuellement afin de préserver  le mieux possible l’intention de l’artiste à long terme. La présente recherche concerne des matériaux très récents: les pigments et les couleurs fluorescentes. Ces derniers n’ont fait leur apparition qu’au vingtième siècle. Pour cette raison les données concernant leur dégradation et leur conservation sont peu nombreuses. La majorité des tableaux fluorescents sont conçus pour être montrés sous éclairage UV. En cas de dommage, si l’œuvre a besoin d’être retouchée, ceci pose un grand problème esthétique. La retouche devient visible sous les lampes UV. La première partie de la recherche concerne la composition des différentes sortes de pigments et de peintures. Par la suite, les différentes causes de dégradation- lumière UV, chaleur, etc.- sont analysées en détail. Pour conclure, un possible remède est proposé.In modern art we can see that artists are breaking with traditional techniques. New materials like sponge, polyester, sand, etc. are being used. This causes a lot of new problems in the (preventive conservation of works containing these materials. Every material needs to be researched individually so the exact intention of the artist can be preserved for a (relatively long period. My research is about very recent materials: fluorescent pigments and paints. These only started to be used by artists from the 60’s. That's why there is not much information about their aging and ways to (preventively conserve them. A lot of fluorescent paintings are meant to be shown under UV-light. If a fluorescent painting has damage and needs to be retouched

  19. Characterization and Regeneration of Pt-Catalysts Deactivated in Municipal Waste Flue Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Birk; Kustov, Arkadii; Due-Hansen, Johannes

    2006-01-01

    Severe deactivation was observed for industrially aged catalysts used in waste incineration plants and tested in lab-scale. Possible compounds that cause deactivation of these Pt-based CO oxidation catalysts have been studied. Kinetic observations of industrial and model catalysts showed...... that siloxanes were the most severe catalyst poisons, although acidic sulfur compounds also caused deactivation. Furthermore, a method for on-site regeneration without shutdown of the catalytic flue gas cleaning system has been developed, i.e. an addition of H-2/N-2 gas to the off-gas can completely restore...... the activity of the deactivated catalysts. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  20. Deactivation of nickel catalysts in the methanization of hydrogen/carbon monoxide mixtures under pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeeb, H P

    1979-01-01

    The deactivation course of nickel methanization catalysts was investigated in the temperature range of 310/sup 0/C to 370/sup 0/C and in the pressure region of 20 to 80 bar. Raising the CO partial pressure accelerated the deactivation whereas raising the H/sub 2/ partial pressure slowed it down. An influence of the temperature could not be clearly recognized. The deactivation got slower with greater dwell time and larger degree of conversion. Two hypotheses to explain the deactivation are given.

  1. Thermal stress analysis of sulfur deactivated solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shumao; Parbey, Joseph; Yu, Guangsen; Xu, Min; Li, Tingshuai; Andersson, Martin

    2018-03-01

    Hydrogen sulfide in fuels can deactivate catalyst for solid oxide fuel cells, which has become one of the most critical challenges to stability. The reactions between sulfur and catalyst will cause phase changes, leading to increase in cell polarization and mechanical mismatch. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach based on the finite element method (FEM) is thus used to investigate the polarization, temperature and thermal stress in a sulfur deactivated SOFC by coupling equations for gas-phase species, heat, momentum, ion and electron transport. The results indicate that sulfur in fuels can strongly affect the cell polarization and thermal stresses, which shows a sharp decrease in the vicinity of electrolyte when 10% nickel in the functional layer is poisoned, but they remain almost unchanged even when the poisoned Ni content was increased to 90%. This investigation is helpful to deeply understand the sulfur poisoning effects and also benefit the material design and optimization of electrode structure to enhance cell performance and lifetimes in various hydrocarbon fuels containing impurities.

  2. Dopaminergic Modulation of Medial Prefrontal Cortex Deactivation in Parkinson Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders H. Andersen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is associated with emotional abnormalities. Dopaminergic medications ameliorate Parkinsonian motor symptoms, but less is known regarding the impact of dopaminergic agents on affective processing, particularly in depressed PD (dPD patients. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of dopaminergic pharmacotherapy on brain activation to emotional stimuli in depressed versus nondepressed Parkinson disease (ndPD patients. Participants included 18 ndPD patients (11 men, 7 women and 10 dPD patients (7 men, 3 women. Patients viewed photographs of emotional faces during functional MRI. Scans were performed while the patient was taking anti-Parkinson medication and the day after medication had been temporarily discontinued. Results indicate that dopaminergic medications have opposite effects in the prefrontal cortex depending upon depression status. DPD patients show greater deactivation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC on dopaminergic medications than off, while ndPD patients show greater deactivation in this region off drugs. The VMPFC is in the default-mode network (DMN. DMN activity is negatively correlated with activity in brain systems used for external visual attention. Thus dopaminergic medications may promote increased attention to external visual stimuli among dPD patients but impede normal suppression of DMN activity during external stimulation among ndPD patients.

  3. Paint Scaler. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2000-01-01

    The Paint Scaler can collect paint samples quickly and efficiently for lab analysis. The Rotary Hammer Drill is a 24-V battery operated, 3/4-in. rotary hammer drill. When used with an optional chipping adapter, the Bosch Rotary Hammer Drill can be used to perform chipping and chiseling tasks such as paint removal from either concrete or metal surfaces. It is ultra-compact, lightweight with an ergonomic balanced grip. The battery operation gives the operator more flexibility during sampling activities

  4. The colors of paintings and viewers' preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Sérgio M C; Linhares, João M M; Montagner, Cristina; João, Catarina A R; Amano, Kinjiro; Alfaro, Catarina; Bailão, Ana

    2017-01-01

    One hypothesis to explain the aesthetics of paintings is that it depends on the extent to which they mimic natural image statistics. In fact, paintings and natural scenes share several statistical image regularities but the colors of paintings seem generally more biased towards red than natural scenes. Is the particular option for colors in each painting, even if less naturalistic, critical for perceived beauty? Here we show that it is. In the experiments, 50 naïve observers, unfamiliar with the 10 paintings tested, could rotate the color gamut of the paintings and select the one producing the best subjective impression. The distributions of angles obtained are described by normal distributions with maxima deviating, on average, only 7 degrees from the original gamut orientation and full width at half maximum just above the threshold to perceive a chromatic change in the paintings. Crucially, for data pooled across observers and abstract paintings the maximum of the distribution was at zero degrees, i.e., the same as the original. This demonstrates that artists know what chromatic compositions match viewers' preferences and that the option for less naturalistic colors does not constrain the aesthetic value of paintings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Retrospective dosimetry using chromosome painting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasazzi, N.B.; Giorgio, M.D.; Taja, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    Chromosome aberration frequency measured in peripheral lymphocytes of persons exposed to ionizing radiation has been used since 1960s for dose assessment. Suspected overexposure is usually evaluated by the frequency of dicentrics and centric rings using an appropriate in vitro calibration curve. However, these chromosome aberrations are unstable with time after exposure and dose reconstruction may encounter uncertainties when the time between the exposure and the analysis is considerable or even unknown. It appears that translocations persist with time after exposure and may be used as an indication of acute past overexposures. Moreover, they appear to accumulate the cytogenetical information, which correlates with the dose received under fractionated, chronic or even occupational exposure conditions. Translocations may be detected using G-banding, which allows to score the total amount of radiation induced translocations but it is a time consuming method, or by Chromosome Painting, a method base on the Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) technique, painting only some chromosome pairs with specific whole chromosome probes and then extrapolating the observed translocation frequencies to the full genome. The latter method allows a faster aberration scoring than G-banding and appears to be the most promissory tool for biodosimetry, particularly when it is necessary to assess low doses and consequently to score a large number of metaphases, e.g. radiation workers exposed within dose limits. As with the unstable chromosome aberration, it is necessary an in vitro calibration curve based on the frequency of stable chromosome aberrations to assess doses. Our laboratory performed calibration curves for Co 60 γ-rays based on the frequencies of unstable (dicentrics and centric rings detected by conventional Giemsa staining) and stable chromosome aberrations (translocations and inversions, detected by G-banding). In order to minimize the interlaboratory variability, we

  6. Ultrasonic reduction of excess sludge from the activated sludge system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guangming; Zhang Panyue; Yang Jinmei; Chen Yanming

    2007-01-01

    Sludge treatment has long become the most challenging problem in wastewater treatment plants. Previous studies showed that ozone or chlorine effectively liquefies sludge into substrates for bio-degradation in the aeration tank, and thus reduces the excess sludge. This paper employs ultrasound to reduce the excess sludge from the sequential batch reactor (SBR) system. Partial sludge was disintegrated into dissolved substrates by ultrasound in an external sono-tank and was then returned to the SBR for bio-degradation. The results showed that ultrasound (25 kHz) effectively liquefied the sludge. The most effective conditions for sludge reduction were as following: sludge sonication ratio of 3/14, ultrasound intensity of 120 kW/kgDS, and sonication duration of 15 min. The amount of excess sludge was reduced by 91.1% to 17.8 mg/(L d); the organic content and settleability of sludge in the SBR were not impacted. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was 81.1%, the total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency was 17-66%, and high phosphorus concentration in the effluent was observed

  7. Bacteriology of activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gils, van H.W.

    1964-01-01

    The bacteriology and biochemistry of activated sludge grown in domestic waste water or fed with synthetic media were studied. The nature of the flocs was investigated by determining morphological and physiological characteristics of many strains isolated.

    Predominant bacteria were

  8. Composting sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, E.

    1979-01-01

    Sewage sludge is predominantly organic matter containing domestic and industrial wastes. The inefficiency of the waste water treatment to destroy pathogens and stabilization of odor-producing volatile organic compounds necessitates further treatment before sludge can be used as a soil amendment or fertilizer. Composting, which is the rapid biological decomposition of the sludge organic matter is an excellent method of sludge stabilization. During the process, volatile organics are decomposed and many of the pathogens destoyed. The low cost of the process and its flexibility with respect to labor and capital makes the system highly attractive to municipalities. A major problem facing large urban waste water treatment facilities is the distribution or marketing. The light weight of the material, expensive hauling costs, and low fertilizer value reduce its attractiveness to the agricultural sector. Thus, the greatest market is for horticultural purposes, sod, nurseries, greenhouses, parks, and reclamation areas. The major potential benefits of irradiating compost as a means of further disinfection are: (1) elimination of any health hazard; (2) increase of market potential, i.e., providing more market outlets to distribute the material; (3) compliance with state and federal health regulations; and (4) enhancement of the economics of composting as a result of utilizing compost in speciality products commanding a higher value

  9. Activated Sludge Rheology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Horn, Willi; Helmus, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Rheological behaviour is an important fluid property that severely impacts its flow behaviour and many aspects related to this. In the case of activated sludge, the apparent viscosity has an influence on e.g. pumping, hydrodynamics, mass transfer rates, sludge-water separation (settling and filtr...... rheological measurements. Moreover, the rheological models are not very trustworthy and remain very “black box”. More insight in the physical background needs 30 to be gained. A model-based approach with dedicated experimental data collection is the key to address this.......Rheological behaviour is an important fluid property that severely impacts its flow behaviour and many aspects related to this. In the case of activated sludge, the apparent viscosity has an influence on e.g. pumping, hydrodynamics, mass transfer rates, sludge-water separation (settling......, leading to varying results and conclusions. In this paper, a vast amount of papers are critically reviewed with respect to this and important flaws are highlighted with respect to rheometer choice, rheometer settings and measurement protocol. The obtained rheograms from experimental efforts have...

  10. Radioactivity in sludge: tank cleaning procedures and sludge disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    In the oil and gas industry management of alpha-active sludge is made more complex by the presence of hydrocarbons and heavy metals. This presentation discusses the origin of radioactivity in sludge, management of risk in terms of safe working procedures, storage and possible disposal options. The several options will generally involve aspects of dilution or of concentration; issues to be discussed will include sludge farming, bioremediation and incineration. (author)

  11. Commercial experience with facility deactivation to safe storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sype, T.T.; Fischer, S.R.; Lee, J.H. Jr.; Sanchez, L.C.; Ottinger, C.A.; Pirtle, G.J.

    1995-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has shutdown many production reactors; the Department has begun a major effort to also shutdown a wide variety of other nuclear facilities. Because so many facilities are being closed, it is necessary to place many of them into a safe- storage status, i.e., deactivation, before conducting decommissioning- for perhaps as long as 20 years. The challenge is to achieve this safe-storage condition in a cost-effective manner while remaining in compliance with applicable regulations. The DOE Office of Environmental Management, Office of Transition and Management, commissioned a lessons-learned study of commercial experience with safe storage and decommissioning. Although the majority of the commercial experience has been with reactors, many of the lessons learned presented in this document can provide insight into transitioning challenges that Will be faced by the DOE weapons complex

  12. Commercial experience with facility deactivation to safe storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sype, T.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fischer, S.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Lee, J.H. Jr.; Sanchez, L.C.; Ottinger, C.A.; Pirtle, G.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has shutdown many production reactors; the Department has begun a major effort to also shutdown a wide variety of other nuclear facilities. Because so many facilities are being closed, it is necessary to place many of them into a safe- storage status, i.e., deactivation, before conducting decommissioning- for perhaps as long as 20 years. The challenge is to achieve this safe-storage condition in a cost-effective manner while remaining in compliance with applicable regulations. The DOE Office of Environmental Management, Office of Transition and Management, commissioned a lessons-learned study of commercial experience with safe storage and decommissioning. Although the majority of the commercial experience has been with reactors, many of the lessons learned presented in this document can provide insight into transitioning challenges that Will be faced by the DOE weapons complex.

  13. Investigation and deactivation of B Plant HEPA filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roege, P.E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the integrated approach used to manage environmental, safety, and health considerations related to the B Plant canyon exhaust air filters at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The narrative illustrates the development and implementation of integrated safety management as applied to a facility and its systems undergoing deactivation. During their lifetime, the high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters prevented the release of significant quantities of radioactive materials into the air. As the material in B Plant AVESF accumulated on the filters, it created an unusual situation. Over long periods of time, the radiation dose from the filter loading, combined with aging and chemical exposure actually degrade those filters which were intended to protect against any release to the environment

  14. Studies of Deactivation of Methanol to Formaldehyde Selective Oxidation Catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Kristian Viegaard; Schumann, Max; Høj, Martin

    Formaldehyde (CH2O) may be synthesized industrially by selective oxidation of methanol over an iron-molybdate (Fe-Mo) oxide catalyst according to: CH3OH + ½O2 →CH2O + H2O. The reaction is normally carried out in a multitubular reactor with excess of air at 250-400 °C (yield = 90-95 %), known...... the activity of the catalyst [2]. Pure MoO3 in itself has low activity. Literature from the last decades agrees that the major reason for the deactivation is loss of molybdenum from the catalyst. Molybdenum forms volatile species with methanol, which can leave behind Mo poor zones. The catalyst is usually...

  15. Zhang Qing and His Meticulous Chinese Paintings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JULIE; M.SEGRAVES

    2002-01-01

    ZHANG Qing was initially drawn to the bird and flower paint-ings of the Tang and Song dynasties (7th-12th centuries). Later,Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) artist Ren Bonian, famous for hispaintings of figures, also became an important influence.Although Zhang Qing considers his style to be firmly rooted in tradi-

  16. Factors effecting paint performance on wood siding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher G. Hunt; R. Sam Williams; Mark Knaebe; Peter Sotos; Steven Lacher

    2009-01-01

    Several different studies are compared to assess the effectiveness of commercial water repellent preservatives (WRP’s) in the late 1990’s on vertical and horizontal siding. Besides WRP, variables included wood species, exposure location (Wisconsin or Mississippi), and solid color stain vs. primer + paint. Data on substrate checking and paint flaking are presented....

  17. THz reflectometric imaging of medieval wall paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2013-01-01

    Terahertz time-domain reflectometry has been applied to the investigation of a medieval Danish wall painting. The technique has been able to detect the presence of carbonblack layer on the surface of the wall painting and a buried insertion characterized by high reflectivity values has been found...

  18. Nanoclays for polymer nanocomposites, paints, inks, greases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... rheological modifier for paints, inks and greases, drug delivery vehicle for controlled release of therapeutic agents, and nanoclays for industrial waste water as well as potable water treatment to make further step into green environment. A little amount of nanoclay can alter the entire properties of polymers, paints, inks and ...

  19. Roosters Rule: A Painted Paper Collage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Susan

    2011-01-01

    On perusing American collage artist Eric Carle's book, "Rooster's Off to See the World," at an annual school book fair, the author, mesmerized by the carnival of colors and collage on each page, thought "What a wonderful visual aid for a combination painting and collage unit." Her first-graders were involved in a painting unit, and knowing their…

  20. Texton-based analysis of paintings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Maaten, L.J.P.; Postma, E.O.

    2010-01-01

    The visual examination of paintings is traditionally performed by skilled art historians using their eyes. Recent advances in intelligent systems may support art historians in determining the authenticity or date of creation of paintings. In this paper, we propose a technique for the examination of

  1. Detecting Corrosion Under Paint and Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    Corrosion is a major concern at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida due to the proximity of the center to the Atlantic Ocean and to salt water lagoons. High humidity, salt fogs, and ocean breezes, provide an ideal environment in which painted steel structures become corroded. Maintenance of painted steel structures is a never-ending process.

  2. Lead content in household paints in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Abhay; Gottesfeld, Perry

    2008-01-01

    Lead and its compounds are used in paints not only to impart colour but also to make it durable, corrosion resistant and to improve drying. Adverse health impacts of lead especially on children have led countries to restrict or ban its use in paints. While U.S. and other developed countries instituted measures to limit the use of lead in paints, some developing countries including India have failed to regulate their lead content. The present study was undertaken to determine the levels of lead in new latex (water-based) and enamel paints (oil-based) intended for residential use in India. A total of 69 paint samples (38 latex and 31 enamel samples) from six of the most popular brands were analysed for lead concentrations. While all latex paint samples contained low levels of lead, (i.e., well below 600 ppm as regulated by United States' Consumer Products Safety Commission) the enamel paint samples of all but one brand contained significant concentrations of lead, ranging up to 140,000 ppm. In fact 84% of the enamel paints tested exceeded 600 ppm whereas only 38 % of all samples (including latex and enamel types) exceeded this regulatory level

  3. The Sign System in Chinese Landscape Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Cliff G.

    2003-01-01

    Paintings emerge from a culture field and must be interpreted in relation to the net of culture. A given culture will be implicated by the sign system used by the painter. Everyone agrees that in Chinese landscape paintings, the most important cultural bond is to ancient Chinese Taoism, and to a lesser degree, to Confucianism. Obviously, then, the…

  4. Deactivation of Escherichia coli by the plasma needle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sladek, R E J; Stoffels, E

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present a parameter study on deactivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) by means of a non-thermal plasma (plasma needle). The plasma needle is a small-sized (1 mm) atmospheric glow sustained by radio-frequency excitation. This plasma will be used to disinfect heat-sensitive objects; one of the intended applications is in vivo deactivation of dental bacteria: destruction of plaque and treatment of caries. We use E. coli films plated on agar dishes as a model system to optimize the conditions for bacterial destruction. Plasma power, treatment time and needle-to-sample distance are varied. Plasma treatment of E. coli films results in formation of a bacteria-free void with a size up to 12 mm. 10 4 -10 5 colony forming units are already destroyed after 10 s of treatment. Prolongation of treatment time and usage of high powers do not significantly improve the destruction efficiency: short exposure at low plasma power is sufficient. Furthermore, we study the effects of temperature increase on the survival of E. coli and compare it with thermal effects of the plasma. The population of E. coli heated in a warm water bath starts to decrease at temperatures above 40 deg. C. Sample temperature during plasma treatment has been monitored. The temperature can reach up to 60 deg. C at high plasma powers and short needle-to-sample distances. However, thermal effects cannot account for bacterial destruction at low power conditions. For safe and efficient in vivo disinfection, the sample temperature should be kept low. Thus, plasma power and treatment time should not exceed 150 mW and 60 s, respectively

  5. Deactivation of Escherichia coli by the plasma needle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sladek, R E J; Stoffels, E [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2005-06-07

    In this paper we present a parameter study on deactivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) by means of a non-thermal plasma (plasma needle). The plasma needle is a small-sized (1 mm) atmospheric glow sustained by radio-frequency excitation. This plasma will be used to disinfect heat-sensitive objects; one of the intended applications is in vivo deactivation of dental bacteria: destruction of plaque and treatment of caries. We use E. coli films plated on agar dishes as a model system to optimize the conditions for bacterial destruction. Plasma power, treatment time and needle-to-sample distance are varied. Plasma treatment of E. coli films results in formation of a bacteria-free void with a size up to 12 mm. 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} colony forming units are already destroyed after 10 s of treatment. Prolongation of treatment time and usage of high powers do not significantly improve the destruction efficiency: short exposure at low plasma power is sufficient. Furthermore, we study the effects of temperature increase on the survival of E. coli and compare it with thermal effects of the plasma. The population of E. coli heated in a warm water bath starts to decrease at temperatures above 40 deg. C. Sample temperature during plasma treatment has been monitored. The temperature can reach up to 60 deg. C at high plasma powers and short needle-to-sample distances. However, thermal effects cannot account for bacterial destruction at low power conditions. For safe and efficient in vivo disinfection, the sample temperature should be kept low. Thus, plasma power and treatment time should not exceed 150 mW and 60 s, respectively.

  6. β-Arrestin-dependent deactivation of mouse melanopsin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan G Cameron

    Full Text Available In mammals, the expression of the unusual visual pigment, melanopsin, is restricted to a small subset of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs, whose signaling regulate numerous non-visual functions including sleep, circadian photoentrainment and pupillary constriction. IpRGCs exhibit attenuated electrical responses following sequential and prolonged light exposures indicative of an adaptational response. The molecular mechanisms underlying deactivation and adaptation in ipRGCs however, have yet to be fully elucidated. The role of melanopsin phosphorylation and β-arrestin binding in this adaptive process is suggested by the phosphorylation-dependent reduction of melanopsin signaling in vitro and the ubiquitous expression of β-arrestin in the retina. These observations, along with the conspicuous absence of visual arrestin in ipRGCs, suggest that a β-arrestin terminates melanopsin signaling. Here, we describe a light- and phosphorylation- dependent reduction in melanopsin signaling mediated by both β-arrestin 1 and β-arrestin 2. Using an in vitro calcium imaging assay, we demonstrate that increasing the cellular concentration of β-arrestin 1 and β-arrestin 2 significantly increases the rate of deactivation of light-activated melanopsin in HEK293 cells. Furthermore, we show that this response is dependent on melanopsin carboxyl-tail phosphorylation. Crosslinking and co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirm β-arrestin 1 and β-arrestin 2 bind to melanopsin in a light- and phosphorylation- dependent manner. These data are further supported by proximity ligation assays (PLA, which demonstrate a melanopsin/β-arrestin interaction in HEK293 cells and ipRGCs. Together, these results suggest that melanopsin signaling is terminated in a light- and phosphorylation-dependent manner through the binding of a β-arrestin within the retina.

  7. Minimization of Excess Sludge in Activated Sludge Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Ali Reza Momeni

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of excess sludge from wastewater treatment plant represents a rising challenge in activated sludge processes. Hence, the minimization of excess sludge production was investigated by increasing the dissolved oxygen in aeration basin. Units of the pilot include: Primary sedimentation tank, aeration basin, secondary sedimentation tank, and return sludge tank. Volume of aeration basin is 360 l and influent flow rate is 90 L/h. Influent of pilot is taken from effluent of grit chamber of Isfahan's North Wastewater treatment plant. The experiments were done on different parts of pilot during the 5 month of study. Results show that increase of dissolved oxygen in aeration tank affect on decrease of excess sludge. Increase of dissolved oxygen from 0.5 to 4.5 mg/L resulted in 25% decrease of excess sludge. Variation of dissolved oxygen affect on settleability of sludge too. By increase of dissolved oxygen, SVI decreased and then increased. Value of 1-3 mg/L was the adequate range of dissolved oxygen by settleability of sludge and optimum range was 2-2.5 mg/L. It could be concluded by increasing of dissolved oxygen up to of 3 mg/L, sludge settleability significant decreased.

  8. Agricultural yields of irradiated sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnavacca, Cecilia; Miranda, E.; Sanchez, M.

    1999-01-01

    Lettuce, radish and ryegrass have been used to study the nitrogen fertilization of soil by sewage sludge. The results show that the irradiated sludge improve by 15 - 30 % the production yield, compared to the non-irradiated sludge. (author)

  9. Selective paint coatings for coloured solar absorbers: Polyurethane thickness insensitive spectrally selective (TISS) paints (Part II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orel, B.; Spreizer, H.; Surca Vuk, A.; Fir, M. [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Merlini, D.; Vodlan, M. [Color d.d., Cesta komandanta Staneta 4, SI-1230 Medvode (Slovenia); Koehl, M. [Fraunhofer-Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Heidenhofstr. 2, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany)

    2007-01-23

    Red, green and blue paints were prepared for use as thickness insensitive spectrally selective (TISS) paint coatings for solar facade absorbers. The paints were composed of a polyurethane resin binder in which various pigments were incorporated in such a way that they formed stable paint dispersions, satisfying stability criteria for facade coatings. A low emittance of the paints was achieved by using low-emittance aluminium flake pigments combined with iron oxide (red coloured paints). Black pigment was added to adjust solar absorptance. Blue and green paints were made by the addition of coloured aluminium flake pigment and the solar absorptance was also adjusted by the addition of black pigment. Efficiency for photo-thermal conversion of solar radiation was assessed by evaluation of the corresponding performance criteria, which enabled the selection of paints whose performance criteria values were higher than 0 (spectrally non-selective black coating). The results confirmed that blue and green paints and to minor extent red ones, combined selectivity with colour. The morphology of the paints was assessed, revealing that the colours originated from the deposition of finely dispersed colour and/or black pigment on the surface of the aluminium flakes during paint preparation. (author)

  10. Spectrally selective paint coatings. Preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crnjak Orel, Z.C.; Klanjsek Gunde, M. [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2001-06-01

    Preparation and characterization of spectrally selective paint coating for photothermal solar energy conversion are discussed. The applied methods for preparation of paints with described measurements and calculations of black-pigmented coatings were reviewed. The article represents not only possible future applications but also past and current applications of spectrally selective paint coating which are used all over the world since the 1980s. Spectrally selective paint coatings based on combinations of two types of resins, various types of pigments and three types of silica, were prepared. The influence of pigment type and pigment volume concentration (PVC) was studied by applying the Kubelka-Munk (K-M) theory. The relation between the degrees of dispersion and distribution of pigment particles across the paint layer is discussed in terms of K-M coefficients.

  11. Reuse of residual sludge from stone-processing: differences and similarities between sludge coming from carbonate and silicate stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Careddu, Nicola; Antonella Dino, Giovanna

    2015-04-01

    its recovery, after a proper treatment, mainly as: landfill waterproofing material; filler material for civil works; artificial soil for land rehabilitation and high value added products from carbonate rocks. Such "new products", obtained from the treatment of residual sludge, have to be certified not only on the basis of their technical and physical characteristics but also by means of appropriate chemical analyses to guarantee that the products are not polluted. The research will show a comparison between the characteristics of the two main sludge categories (similarities and differences), the environmental problems connected to sludge management, the potential applications for both the categories (CS and SS), highlighting the most promising ones (e.g., SS: artificial soil for land rehabilitation and filler material for civil works; CS: filler in high value added products as paper, rubber and paints), the problems connected to "new products" certification and selling, and some suggestions for executive protocols to boost their systematic recovery.

  12. Sewage sludge irradiation with electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauber, M.

    1976-01-01

    The disinfection of sewage sludge by irradiation has been discussed very intensively in the last few months. Powerful electron accelerators are now available and the main features of the irradiation of sewage sludge with fast electrons are discussed and the design parameters of such installations described. AEG-Telefunken is building an irradiation plant with a 1.5 MeV, 25 mA electron accelerator, to study the main features of electron irradiation of sewage sludge. (author)

  13. Sewage sludge additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  14. Composting of sewage sludge irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Shoji; Watanabe, Hiromasa; Nishimura, Koichi; Kawakami, Waichiro

    1981-01-01

    Recently, the development of the techniques to return sewage sludge to forests and farm lands has been actively made, but it is necessary to assure its hygienic condition lest the sludge is contaminated by pathogenic bacteria. The research to treat sewage sludge by irradiation and utilize it as fertilizer or soil-improving material has been carried out from early on in Europe and America. The effects of the irradiation of sludge are sterilization, to kill parasites and their eggs, the inactivation of weed seeds and the improvement of dehydration. In Japan, agriculture is carried out in the vicinity of cities, therefore it is not realistic to use irradiated sludge for farm lands as it is. The composting treatment of sludge by aerobic fermentation is noticed to eliminate the harms when the sludge is returned to forests and farm lands. It is desirable to treat sludge as quickly as possible from the standpoint of sewage treatment, accordingly, the speed of composting is a problem. The isothermal fermentation experiment on irradiated sludge was carried out using a small-scale fermentation tank and strictly controlling fermentation conditions, and the effects of various factors on the fermentation speed were studied. The experimental setup and method are described. The speed of composting reached the maximum at 50 deg C and at neutral or weak alkaline pH. The speed increased with the increase of irradiation dose up to 30 Mrad. (Kako, I.)

  15. Radioactive contamination of sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeder, C.J.; Zanders, E.; Raphael, T.

    1986-01-01

    Because of the radioactivity released through the explosion of the nuclear reactor near Chernobyl radionuclides have been accumulated to a significant extent in sewage sludge in the Federal Republic of Germany. This is demonstrated for samples from four activated sludge plants according to a recent recommendation of the German Commission for Radiation Protection, there is until now no reason to deviate from the common practices of sludge disposal or incineration. The degree of radioactive contamination of plant materials produced on farm lands on which sewage sludge is being spread cannot be estimated with sufficient certainty yet. Additional information is required. (orig.) [de

  16. Sewage sludge disposal in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, F.

    1997-01-01

    Sewage systems serve about 70% of the Austrian population, producing 6 million m 3 of sewage sludge per year with a dry matter content of 4-5%. At present about 52% of this sludge is disposed of in land fills, 33% is incinerated, and only about 15 % is used in agriculture. Although agricultural utilization is becoming increasingly important, several problems, especially those related to public opinion, need to be resolved before increased use will be possible. In this paper, wastewater treatment and sewage-sludge production in Austria, and problems associated with sludge disposal are discussed. (author)

  17. Dewatering properties of differently treated sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zehnder, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    A study on dewatering properties of radiosterilized sewage sludge of different type and origin was carried out. For comparison, also heat-treated (pasteurized) sludge was investigated. The specific filtration resistance of irradiated sewage sludge was lowered in all types of sludge examined. In general, pasteurization increased this parameter. The settling properties of irradiated digested sewage sludge was slightly improved, mainly in the first hours after treatment. Microbial effects may mask the real sedimentation relations especcially in aerobically stabilized sludges. A pasteurization treatment of sewage sludge caused an increased content of soluble substances and suspended particles in the supernatant water. The supernatant water from irradiated sludge showed a smaller increase

  18. Electron beam hardened paint binder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, O.B.; Labana, S.S.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns a paint binder hardened by the effect of electron beams (0.1-100 Mrad/sec). It consists of a dispersion of (A) an ethylenic unsaturated material in (B) at least one vinyl monomer. The component (A) in a reaction product of degraded rubber particles (0.1-4 μm) and an ethylenic unsaturated component with a reactive epoxy, hydroxy or carboxy group which is bonded to the rubber particles by ester or urethane compounds. The rubber particles possess a nucleus and a cross-linked elastomeric acryl polymer, an outer shell with reactive groups and an intermediate layer formed by the monomers of the nucleus and the shell. The manner of production is described in great detail and supplemented by 157 examples. The coatings are suitable to coat articles which will be subject to deformation. (UWI) [de

  19. Detection of paint polishing defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebeggiani, S.; Wagner, M.; Mazal, J.; Rosén, B.-G.; Dahlén, M.

    2018-06-01

    Surface finish plays a major role on perceived product quality, and is the first thing a potential buyer sees. Today end-of-line repairs of the body of cars and trucks are inevitably to secure required surface quality. Defects that occur in the paint shop, like dust particles, are eliminated by manual sanding/polishing which lead to other types of defects when the last polishing step is not performed correctly or not fully completed. One of those defects is known as ‘polishing roses’ or holograms, which are incredibly hard to detect in artificial light but are clearly visible in sunlight. This paper will present the first tests with a measurement set-up newly developed to measure and analyse polishing roses. The results showed good correlations to human visual evaluations where repaired panels were estimated based on the defects’ intensity, severity and viewing angle.

  20. KLIMT, FROM PAINTING TO FASHION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    URDEA Olimpia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fashion has been a subject for most fields of art, starting from visual arts to cinema and literature. The metamorphoses of fashion, an art in itself, are under the sign of history that marked the social during the evolution of humanity. The present paper makes a reference to the links between fashion and Klimt’s work. Klimt proved to be a visionary by means of his visual, unique and unmistakable signature concerning the way he treated the clothed woman. As he worshipped the female body, he portrayed it, reflecting the fashion style of an era that was meant to be renewed. His work, strongly influenced by feminine values, became conspicuous as a manifesto against the rigidity of the Viennese society in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century. The modernity of Klimt’s vision generated the metamorphosis of the woman model, from the corseted woman until that time, and not only in terms of fashion, to the freed woman, using the metaphorical instruments of his art. The artist’s complex creativity helps us find him in four different situations, all in close connection with fashion art: the painter Klimt, who portrays woman who shows herself by showing her garment; the fashion designer Klimt who suggests outfits for his collaborator, Emilie Flöge, remoulding the dress as a clothing item; the fashion photographer from the photographs of Emilie Flöge wearing his creations; and, indirectly, by his paintings from the cycle Women, which had a powerful impact on contemporary fashion. Such a complex, visionary creator, whose painting and fashion interfere, is worth mentioning for his contribution to the fashion art avatars.

  1. Increased persistence of antifouling paint biocides when associated with paint particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K.V.; McHugh, M.; Hilton, M.; Waldock, M.

    2003-01-01

    Release of biocides associated with paint particles into marinas may increase their persistence in the environment. - Current regulatory risk assessment procedures only assess the impact of antifouling paint biocides that are released through leaching from a painted surface. Hull cleaning activities can lead to particles of antifouling paint containing biocides to enter the environment. Comparative pseudo-first order anaerobic degradation rate constants and half-lives were determined for a selection of common antifouling paint booster biocides, their degradation products, and associated with paint particles. Anaerobic half-lives of <0.5 days were calculated for chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, and SeaNine 211, between 1 and 3 days for DCPMU and DCPU, between 14 and 35 days for diuron and CPDU, and over 226 days for GS26575 and Irgarol 1051. Increased persistence was observed when the compounds were introduced to sediments associated with antifouling paint particles. When present as antifouling paint particles, an increased half-life of 9.9 days for SeaNine 211 and 1.4 days was calculated for dichlofluanid, no significant degradation was observed for diuron. It is suspected that this is due to much of the biocide being initially bound within the matrix of the paint particle that is slowly released through dissolution processes into the sediment pore water prior to degradation. The release of booster biocides associated with paint particles into marinas has the potential to lead to their accumulation unless activities such as hull cleaning are strictly regulated

  2. Increased persistence of antifouling paint biocides when associated with paint particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, K.V.; McHugh, M.; Hilton, M.; Waldock, M

    2003-05-01

    Release of biocides associated with paint particles into marinas may increase their persistence in the environment. - Current regulatory risk assessment procedures only assess the impact of antifouling paint biocides that are released through leaching from a painted surface. Hull cleaning activities can lead to particles of antifouling paint containing biocides to enter the environment. Comparative pseudo-first order anaerobic degradation rate constants and half-lives were determined for a selection of common antifouling paint booster biocides, their degradation products, and associated with paint particles. Anaerobic half-lives of <0.5 days were calculated for chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, and SeaNine 211, between 1 and 3 days for DCPMU and DCPU, between 14 and 35 days for diuron and CPDU, and over 226 days for GS26575 and Irgarol 1051. Increased persistence was observed when the compounds were introduced to sediments associated with antifouling paint particles. When present as antifouling paint particles, an increased half-life of 9.9 days for SeaNine 211 and 1.4 days was calculated for dichlofluanid, no significant degradation was observed for diuron. It is suspected that this is due to much of the biocide being initially bound within the matrix of the paint particle that is slowly released through dissolution processes into the sediment pore water prior to degradation. The release of booster biocides associated with paint particles into marinas has the potential to lead to their accumulation unless activities such as hull cleaning are strictly regulated.

  3. Preparation of water paint by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makuuchi, Keizo

    1984-01-01

    The development of coatings which do not require any organic solvent have been the social needs. The emulsion made by radiation method is considered to meet possibly this requirement, but it has not been utilized well in the application to water paint. In this review, the investigation concerning the synthesis of water paint raw material by radiation is summarized. In the introduction, radiation curing, water paint and radiation emulsion polymerization are outlined, in the section of γ-ray emulsion polymerization, clean emulsion, cross-linked polymer particles and low temperature polymerization are described, and in the section of paint characteristics of radiation-induced emulsion-polymerized emulsion, the synthesis of thermosetting emulsion, the relation between the method of polymerization and the properties of emulsion, the performance of coating film, and self-hardening emulsion are explained. In the following section of skin-core double layer structured particle emulsion, skin-core double layer structured particles, optimal monomer composition, optimal polymerization process, the manufacturing test with a pilot plant, the performance of the paint, the durability of skin-core double layer structured particle coating film and low temperature curing water paint are described, and in the section of synthesis of emulsion by utilization of electron beam, electron beam emulsion polymerization and the synthesis of water paint by electron beam graft polymerization are described. (Yoshitake, I.)

  4. Denotative and connotative meanings of paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the relationships between judgments of paintings denotative and connotative meanings was investigated. Denotative domain was defined as motif (represented object, e.g. portrait, landscape etc. and message (information carried by paintings, e.g. celebration of patriotism. Connotative domain was defined as subjective experience, i.e. affective or metaphoric impression produced by painting (e.g. feeling of pleasure, impression of dynamics, and so on. In preliminary study the list of 39 motifs was specified empirically. The four dimensions of pictorial message were taken from the previous study (Marković, 2006: Subjectivism, Ideology, Decoration and Constructivism vs. Realism. The four dimensions of paintings subjective experience were taken from the previous study as well (Radonjić and Marković, 2005: Regularity, Attraction, Arousal and Relaxation. In Experiment 1 subjects were asked to associate 39 motifs with 18 paintings. In Experiment 2 subjects were asked to judge 24 paintings on four dimensions of pictorial message. Results form Experiment 1 have shown that dimensions of paintings subjective experience were significantly correlated with only five motifs (e.g. everyday life was negatively correlated with Arousal, battle was negatively correlated with Relaxation, and so on. Results from Experiment 2 have shown that Subjectivism and Constructivism are negatively correlated with Regularity, and positively correlated with Arousal. Decoration is negatively correlated with Arousal and positively with Attraction and Relaxation.

  5. Deactivation and Regeneration of Commercial Type Fischer-Tropsch Co-Catalysts—A Mini-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Rytter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Deactivation of commercially relevant cobalt catalysts for Low Temperature Fischer-Tropsch (LTFT synthesis is discussed with a focus on the two main long-term deactivation mechanisms proposed: Carbon deposits covering the catalytic surface and re-oxidation of the cobalt metal. There is a great variety in commercial, demonstration or pilot LTFT operations in terms of reactor systems employed, catalyst formulations and process conditions. Lack of sufficient data makes it difficult to correlate the deactivation mechanism with the actual process and catalyst design. It is well known that long term catalyst deactivation is sensitive to the conditions the actual catalyst experiences in the reactor. Therefore, great care should be taken during start-up, shutdown and upsets to monitor and control process variables such as reactant concentrations, pressure and temperature which greatly affect deactivation mechanism and rate. Nevertheless, evidence so far shows that carbon deposition is the main long-term deactivation mechanism for most LTFT operations. It is intriguing that some reports indicate a low deactivation rate for multi-channel micro-reactors. In situ rejuvenation and regeneration of Co catalysts are economically necessary for extending their life to several years. The review covers information from open sources, but with a particular focus on patent literature.

  6. The investigation of deactivation the tailings from sulphate uranium technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikonov, V.I.; Knjazev, O.I.; Ruzin, L.I.; Smolnya, T.A.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of investigation is to decrease contamination of the environment from wastes, produced on treatment of uranium ores by traditional sulphate uranium technology. In the result of treatment the sulphate uranium leaching cakes by 1-3 M chloride or nitrate of alkali-earth metals solutions, the content of radium decrease till (2.4 - 3.0) x 10 -8 Ci/kg. Produced deactivating solutions in which the content of radium-226 and other natural radionuclides exceeds of ten times the limit of tolerance safe concentrations for water (5.4 x 10 -11 Ci/l Ra-226) further may be treated by sorption or extraction. Due to the reason we pay our attention to the class of non-traditional ion-exchangers, which is the micellar wastes from production of antibiotics (MPW). The problems of it's utilization is very acute. MPW from antibiotics generates everyday is amount of tens tones (on dried mass), contents till 80% of moisture and include in solid phase 50 - 95 % organics in the work we used MPW from erythromycin in form of dried powder with size of particles to 0.05 - 0.16 mm. The possibility of radionuclides extraction by mixture of D2EHPA with TBP or TOPO for nitric deactivated solutions are investigated. It was received the complete extraction Th-230 into organic phase and next concentration with high content of isotope Th-230. Ra-D and Po are not recovered by the extractant. Using the extractant preliminary saturated with barium permit to extract completely Ra from solution. The method purification of technological solutions from activity with using solid extractants - TVEKS was developed. The TVEKS samples on styren-divinylbenzen copolymer base with size 1.0 - 1.5 mm were synthesized. The solid carrier was impregnated by D2EHPA or PN-1200 extractant solution in kerosene and used for extraction of radioactive elements (mainly Ra) from chloride acid solutions with summary activity 8.7 x 10 -10 Ci/l. TVEKS was activated by barium to capacity 1-3 mg/l for increasing purification

  7. PAINT SUPPLIES AND LOCATION: EXAMINING ICI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Herron

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available How important is location to an international retailer? Not just any retailer but the second largest paint retailer in the world. Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI was a British chemical company and was at one stage the largest manufacturer in Britain. Formed from the merger of several leading British chemical companies in 1926, ICI makes paints and speciality products, including food ingredients, speciality polymers, electronic materials, fragrances and flavourings. ICI paints purchased the Cleveland Ohiobased Glidden Coatings & Resins (Glidden Paint Company in 1986 for USD$580 million. The addition of Glidden to ICI's North American operations more than doubled that subsidiary's annual sales to $3 billion and increased ICI's corporate presence in the United States dramatically. A decline in paint and solvent consumption during the 2000 decade slowed the average growth of the paint industry to about 2% annually. Rauch Associates, the leading US paint analyst firm, predicted near-term growth to slow even further to 1.2% per annum. Through the 1990’s and early 2000’s Glidden paint was sold only through Glidden-badged paint stores and smaller retailers under licence, developing a strong identifiable brand and reputation. How were potential Glidden retail paint store locations chosen across America to enable and support this market growth? This paper investigates the real process that was developed and applied to construct a national network of retail outlets across the United States. It also highlights the change in direction that occurred at ICI paints culminating in its eventual acquisition by AkzoNobel in 2008 who immediately sold parts of ICI to Henkel, and integrated ICI's remaining operations within its existing organisation. This sale and the associated corporate restructure caused considerable change in marketing directions allowing for the first time the selling of Glidden paint products to mass market centres

  8. Measurement of tritium in dial painting industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawant, J.V.; Rudran, Kamala

    1995-01-01

    Tritium in the form of polystyrene is used coated on zinc sulphide as the active component for the manufacture of self-luminous paint. To study the radiological implication of airborne tritium in the luminous paint industry air monitoring study was conducted by cold strip method and Andersen method. Airborne particulate in different locations in luminous paint (LP) building and background areas were observed to be associated with activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of 1.8 to 5.0 um. Dose to soft tissue and lungs and effective whole body dose were evaluated. (author). 6 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs., 2 ills

  9. Historical origins of Petrykivsky decorative painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Harkava

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Petrykivsky decorative painting is a part of Ukrainian folk art. Domestic science of folk art has originated and has been developing primarily as a study of archaeological antiquities and artistic monuments of the past. Scientific papers, which comprehended the process of folk art development, began to appear in the late nineteenth century, Archaeological Congresses became the impetus for their appearance. Being a representative of the decorative painting, Petrikivsky decorative painting is rooted by its murals to Tripoli. It was created as a peasant domestic drawing. Inexhaustible diversity of local variants of Petrikivsky decorative painting, its evolutionary change, the individual characteristics of paintings of hundreds of famous Ukrainian artists do not even allow comparing it to any other European counterparts, each of which is characterized only by some individual techniques. Petrikivsky decorative painting got the significant boost in its distribution and development when it «came down» from walls to paper. Paper pictures - malyovky - were stucked to walls following the traditional rules of domestic interior’s decoration. Petrikivsky decorative painting got the official status in 1913, when E. Evenbah, by the initiative of D.I. Yavornytsky, gathered the collection of Petrikivsky decorative painting’s malyovkas and organized the exhibition in St. Petersburg. Motives of painting are rooted into the local flora and fauna and into the historical tradition. However, Petrikivsky decorative painting is not a direct reflection of natural motifs. World, created in paintings, is the product of the imagination of folk artist, it is the stylization of local flowers, fruits and birds. First names of Masters of Petrikivsky decorative painting, which appeared in historical sources, were T. Pata, N. Bilokin, I. Pavlenko. Their official recognition happened in 1930 after their participation in the first republican exhibition, which was later shown

  10. Sludge Digestion Manual; Handboek Slibgisting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    This manual offers a guideline for developing, designing, optimizing and operating sludge digestion installations based on sewage sludge. It also offers tools for solving operation problems [Dutch] Het Handboek is een leidraad voor het ontwikkelen, ontwerpen, optimaliseren en bedrijven van slibgistingsinstallaties voor zuiveringsslib. Ook geeft het handvatten voor het oplossen van operationele problemen.

  11. Cylinder deactivation for valve trains with roller finger follower; Zylinderabschaltung fuer Ventiltriebe mit Rollenschlepphebeln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Hermann; Loch, Adam; Widmann, Richard [Mahle International GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany). Zentrale Voraussentwicklung; Kreussen, Gerhard; Rebbert, Martin [FEV Motorentechnik GmbH, Aachen (Germany). Abt. Dynamik; Meehsen, Daniel [FEV Motorentechnik GmbH, Aachen (Germany). Abt. Mechanik Versuch

    2009-04-15

    Cylinder deactivation increases efficiency of gasoline engines without negative effects in terms of exhaust gas emissions or driving dynamics. In particular, the advantageous cost/benefit ratio and great affinity to technologies currently used in gasoline engines support cylinder deactivation as the right path in meeting future market demands. The design and function of cylinder deactivation for valve trains with roller finger follower will be explained and examined with regard to functional aspects, such as stiffness, mass, and kinematic behavior. Based on initial results, design and production characteristics of this new technology are evaluated and technical control interactions in engine applications are presented by Mahle. (orig.)

  12. Color alteration of the paint used for iris painting in ocular prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Úrsula Rocha Fernandes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess color alteration of the paints used for iris painting in artificial eyes. Five disks of heat cured acrylic resin were confectioned by microwave energy for each paint analyzed, in a total of 40 specimens. Each specimen consisted of a colorless acrylic resin disk and another of equal size, of scleral white colored acrylic resin, with the painting interposed between the two disks. The specimens were submitted to an accelerated aging process in a chamber under ultraviolet radiation for 1,008 hours. To assess color variation, a reflective spectrophotometer was used. The results were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and the Tukey test (p < 0.05. All the paints underwent chromatic alteration. The oil paint presented the highest resistance to accelerated aging.

  13. 24 CFR 35.135 - Use of paint containing lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of paint containing lead. 35... Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and Definitions for All Programs. § 35.135 Use of paint containing lead. (a...

  14. A Case Study Application Of Time Study Model In Paint ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a case study in the development and application of a time study model in a paint manufacturing company. The organization specializes in the production of different grades of paint and paint containers. The paint production activities include; weighing of raw materials, drying of raw materials, dissolving ...

  15. Isotopes facilities deactivation project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eversole, R.E.

    1997-05-01

    The production and distribution of radioisotopes for medical, scientific, and industrial applications has been a major activity at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since the late 1940s. As the demand for many of these isotopes grew and their sale became profitable, the technology for the production of the isotopes was transferred to private industry, and thus, many of the production facilities at ORNL became underutilized. In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) instructed ORNL to identify and prepare various isotopes production facilities for safe shutdown. In response, ORNL identified 19 candidate facilities for shutdown and established the Isotopes Facilities Shutdown Program. In 1993, responsibility for the program was transitioned from the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy to the DOE Office of Environmental Management and Uranium Enrichment Operation`s Office of Facility Transition and Management. The program was retitled the Isotopes Facilities Deactivation Project (IFDP), and implementation responsibility was transferred from ORNL to the Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (LMES), Environmental Restoration (ER) Program.

  16. Isotopes facilities deactivation project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eversole, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    The production and distribution of radioisotopes for medical, scientific, and industrial applications has been a major activity at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since the late 1940s. As the demand for many of these isotopes grew and their sale became profitable, the technology for the production of the isotopes was transferred to private industry, and thus, many of the production facilities at ORNL became underutilized. In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) instructed ORNL to identify and prepare various isotopes production facilities for safe shutdown. In response, ORNL identified 19 candidate facilities for shutdown and established the Isotopes Facilities Shutdown Program. In 1993, responsibility for the program was transitioned from the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy to the DOE Office of Environmental Management and Uranium Enrichment Operation's Office of Facility Transition and Management. The program was retitled the Isotopes Facilities Deactivation Project (IFDP), and implementation responsibility was transferred from ORNL to the Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (LMES), Environmental Restoration (ER) Program

  17. Soluble inhibitors/deactivators of cellulase enzymes from lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngmi; Ximenes, Eduardo; Mosier, Nathan S; Ladisch, Michael R

    2011-04-07

    Liquid hot water, steam explosion, and dilute acid pretreatments of lignocellulose generate soluble inhibitors which hamper enzymatic hydrolysis as well as fermentation of sugars to ethanol. Toxic and inhibitory compounds will vary with pretreatment and include soluble sugars, furan derivatives (hydroxymethyl fulfural, furfural), organic acids (acetic, formic and, levulinic acid), and phenolic compounds. Their effect is seen when an increase in the concentration of pretreated biomass in a hydrolysis slurry results in decreased cellulose conversion, even though the ratio of enzyme to cellulose is kept constant. We used lignin-free cellulose, Solka Floc, combined with mixtures of soluble components released during pretreatment of wood, to prove that the decrease in the rate and extent of cellulose hydrolysis is due to a combination of enzyme inhibition and deactivation. The causative agents were extracted from wood pretreatment liquid using PEG surfactant, activated charcoal or ethyl acetate and then desorbed, recovered, and added back to a mixture of enzyme and cellulose. At enzyme loadings of either 1 or 25mg protein/g glucan, the most inhibitory components, later identified as phenolics, decreased the rate and extent of cellulose hydrolysis by half due to both inhibition and precipitation of the enzymes. Full enzyme activity occurred when the phenols were removed. Hence detoxification of pretreated woods through phenol removal is expected to reduce enzyme loadings, and therefore reduce enzyme costs, for a given level of cellulose conversion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Soot oxidation over NOx storage catalysts. Activity and deactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna, K.; Makkee, M.

    2006-01-01

    Soot oxidation activity and deactivation of NO x storage and reduction (NSR) catalysts containing Pt, K, and Ba supported on Al 2 O 3 , are studied under a variety of reaction conditions. K-containing catalysts decrease soot oxidation temperature with O 2 alone and the presence of Pt further enhance the activity due to synergetic effect. The active species responsible for synergism on Pt/K-Al 2 O 3 are unstable and cannot be regenerated. Soot oxidation temperature decreases by about 150 o C with NO+O 2 exhaust feed gas and under lean conditions NSR system acts as catalysed soot filter (CSF). The reactions that are mainly responsible for decreasing soot oxidation temperature are: (1) soot oxidation with NO 2 followed by NO recycles to NO 2 , and (2) soot oxidation with O 2 assisted by NO 2 . Only a part of the stored NO x that is decomposed at high temperatures under lean conditions is found to be useful for soot oxidation. NO x storage capacity of NSR catalysts decreases upon ageing under soot oxidising conditions. This will lead to a decreased soot oxidation activity on stored nitrate decomposition. Pt/K-Al 2 O 3 catalyst is more active, but least stable compared with Pt/Ba-Al 2 O 3 . (author)

  19. Ultrasonic sludge pretreatment under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Ngoc Tuan; Julcour-Lebigue, Carine; Delmas, Henri

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this work was to optimize the ultrasound (US) pretreatment of sludge. Three types of sewage sludge were examined: mixed, secondary and secondary after partial methanisation ("digested" sludge). Thereby, several main process parameters were varied separately or simultaneously: stirrer speed, total solid content of sludge (TS), thermal operating conditions (adiabatic vs. isothermal), ultrasonic power input (PUS), specific energy input (ES), and for the first time external pressure. This parametric study was mainly performed for the mixed sludge. Five different TS concentrations of sludge (12-36 g/L) were tested for different values of ES (7000-75,000 kJ/kgTS) and 28 g/L was found as the optimum value according to the solubilized chemical oxygen demand in the liquid phase (SCOD). PUS of 75-150 W was investigated under controlled temperature and the "high power input - short duration" procedure was the most effective at a given ES. The temperature increase in adiabatic US application significantly improved SCOD compared to isothermal conditions. With PUS of 150 W, the effect of external pressure was investigated in the range of 1-16 bar under isothermal and adiabatic conditions for two types of sludge: an optimum pressure of about 2 bar was found regardless of temperature conditions and ES values. Under isothermal conditions, the resulting improvement of sludge disintegration efficacy as compared to atmospheric pressure was by 22-67% and 26-37% for mixed and secondary sludge, respectively. Besides, mean particle diameter (D[4,3]) of the three sludge types decreased respectively from 408, 117, and 110 μm to about 94-97, 37-42, and 36-40 μm regardless of sonication conditions, and the size reduction process was much faster than COD extraction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Lipid profiling in sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fenfen; Wu, Xuemin; Zhao, Luyao; Liu, Xiaohui; Qi, Juanjuan; Wang, Xueying; Wang, Jiawei

    2017-06-01

    High value-added reutilization of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is essential in sustainable development in WWTPs. However, despite the advantage of high value reutilization, this process must be based on a detailed study of organics in sludge. We used the methods employed in life sciences to determine the profile of lipids (cellular lipids, free fatty acids (FFAs), and wax/gum) in five sludge samples obtained from three typical WWTPs in Beijing; these samples include one sludge sample from a primary sedimentation tank, two activated sludge samples from two Anaerobic-Anoxic-Oxic (A2/O) tanks, and two activated sludge samples from two membrane bioreactor tanks. The percentage of total raw lipids varied from 2.90% to 12.3%. Sludge from the primary sedimentation tank showed the highest concentrations of lipid, FFA, and wax/gum and the second highest concentration of cellular lipids. All activated sludge contained an abundance of cellular lipids (>54%). Cells in sludge can from plants, animals, microbes and so on in wastewater. Approximately 14 species of cellular lipids were identified, including considerable high value-potential ceramide (9567-38774 mg/kg), coenzyme (937-3897 mg/kg), and some phosphatidylcholine (75-548 mg/kg). The presence of those lipid constituents would thus require a wider range of recovery methods for sludge. Both cellular lipids and FFAs contain an abundance of C16-C18 lipids at high saturation level, and they serve as good resources for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pointillist Watercolor Paintings: Exploring Optical Mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamwi, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the pointillist painting process offering background information about technique and how it can be used in the art classroom. Explores the appropriateness of the process for elementary through secondary school students. Includes educational objectives. (CMK)

  2. Electrochemical assessment of magnetite anti corrosive paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar, D. M.; Arroyave, C.; Jaramillo, F.; Mattos, O. R.; Margarit, I. c.; Calderon, J.

    2003-01-01

    With the purpose of deepening in the understanding of the mechanisms of protection of anticorrosive pigments based on iron oxides, this work has been carried out on the production of pure magnetite, and copper and chromium doped magnetite, which were evaluated by different characterization techniques. The paints were prepared with a solvent less epoxy resin maintaining the Pigment volume Content near the Practical Critical value (CPVC), established for each pigment. The paints were applied on polished steel and monitored with electrochemical techniques at total immersion conditions. Permeability and impedance measurements of free films were also done. Impedance data were simulated with the Boukamp software. Results show that the paints pigmented with doped magnetite present better behaviour than a paint prepared with commercial hematite. (Author) 8 refs

  3. Treatment of radioactive sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, W.; Payne, B.J.; Pegler, G.E.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive sludge e.g. that which may accumulate in irradiated nuclear fuel element storage ponds, is treated by pumping it from a settling tank to a particle separator, conveniently a hydrocyclone and a sloping plate separator, the liquid being returned to the settling tank and the solids being metered into a drum pre-lined with dry cement. The drums are in a containment box in which they are transferred to a mixing station where the particles and cement are mixed and thence to a curing station. After curing the drums are embedded in cement in outer containers for transport to a long-term storage site. (author)

  4. Physical and chemical factors affecting sludge consolidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, C.W.; Blimkie, M.E.; Lavoie, P.A

    1997-09-01

    Chemical reactions between sludge components and precipitation reactions within the pores of the existing sludge are shown to contribute to the consolidation of sludge under steam generator operating conditions. Simulations of sludge representative of plants with a mixed iron/copper feedtrain suggest that as the conditions in the feedtrain become more oxidizing the sludge will become harder with a higher nickel ferrite content. The precipitation of feedwater impurities introduced by condenser leaks and of zinc silicate, which is produced in plants with brass condenser tubes and silica in the makeup water, contribute significantly to sludge consolidation. Sodium phosphate is also shown to be an agent of sludge consolidation. (author)

  5. Cleaning of Easel Paintings: An Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordalo, R.; Morais, P.J.; Gouveia, H.; Young, C.

    2006-01-01

    The application of laser cleaning to paintings is relatively recent despite its use on stone-based materials for over 30 years. The cleaning of paintings is of high importance, because it is the least reversible invasive intervention, as well as the most usual of all conservation treatments. Paintings are multilayer system of heterogeneous nature, often very sensitive and inherent difficult to clean. Being a noncontact method, laser cleaning has advantages compared to alternative techniques. Over the last decade, there have been important research studies and advances. However, they are far from sufficient to study the effects on painting materials and to establish the best parameters for each material under investigation. This paper presents a historical overview of the application of laser technology to the cleaning of paintings giving special emphasis on the research of the last decade. An overview of the current research into the interaction between the radiation and the different painting materials (varnish, pigments, and medium) is also given. The pigment's mechanisms of discoloration and the presence of media as a variable factor in the discoloration of pigments are discussed.

  6. Integrated Project Management Planning for the Deactivation of the Savannah River Site F-Canyon Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, T.G.

    2000-12-01

    This paper explains the planning process that is being utilized by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company to take the F-Canyon Complex facilities from operations to a deactivated condition awaiting final decommissioning.

  7. Influence of mass transport towards deactivation in tert-butyl-source driven isobutane/2-butene alkylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschauer, S.J.; Jess, A. [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2011-07-01

    The deactivation of i-butane/trans-2-butene alkylation using tert-butyl-halide promoted ionic liquid catalysts is studied.Here, the mass transport was modified by varying the feed rate and the type of promoter addition. The experimental data show that the deactivation increases with increasing feed rate. Moreover, a biliquid foam is formed when feed rates above 1 g/min are adjusted. As the results indicate a strong influence of the biliquid foam and its formation on deactivation, both aspects are also discussed.When the promoter is added to the feed mixture an increase of conversion with time on stream is observed. A deactivation in continuous promoter addition mode could not be noted in the investigated time-on-stream range. (orig.)

  8. Selective deactivation of M13 bacteriophage in E. Coli using femtosecond laser pulses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Molukanele, P

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Potential for the selective deactivation of viruses while leaving the sensitive material such as the host cell unharmed was studied using a femtosecond laser system, and preliminary results are reported....

  9. Patients' perspective on deactivation of the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator near the end of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; Chaitsing, Rismy; Szili-Torok, Tamas

    2013-01-01

    (67%) completed the survey. Most patients (68%) were aware that it is possible to turn the ICD off, and 95% believed it is important to inform patients about the possibility. Of the patients completing the survey, 84% indicated a choice for or against deactivation. Psychological morbidity......Recent guidelines have emphasized the importance of discussing the issue of deactivation near the end of life with patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). Few studies have examined the patient perspective and patients' wishes. We examined patients' knowledge and wishes...... for information; and the prevalence and correlates of a favorable attitude toward deactivation. Three cohorts of ICD patients (n = 440) extracted from our institutional database were asked to complete a survey that included a vignette about deactivation near the end of life. Of the 440 patients approached, 294...

  10. Vibrational deactivation and atom exchange in O(3P)+CO(X 1Σ+) collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, J.D.; Thommarson, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    A quasiclassical Monte Carlo averaged trajectory study of the ground-state O, CO collision system is presented. An ''effective'' adiabatic potential surface is constructed using pertinent theoretical and experimental data. Vibrational deactivation rates for CO(v=1, 3) and atom exchange rates for CO(v=0, 1, 3) are calculated and compared with experimental data. The high-temperature (400 K< T<2000 K) and low-temperature (270 K< T<400 K) CO deactivation data, and the low-temperature (300 K< T<400 K) atom exchange data are all fit reasonably well by the calculation. However, comparison of the deactivation data to the atom exchange data suggests that at temperatures below 400 K an additional nonadiabatic mechanism may be contributing to the overall deactivation rate

  11. The role of silicon interstitials in the deactivation and reactivation of high concentration boron profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboy, Maria [Campus Miguel Delibes, University of Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)]. E-mail: marabo@tel.uva.es; Pelaz, Lourdes [Campus Miguel Delibes, University of Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Marques, Luis A. [Campus Miguel Delibes, University of Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Lopez, Pedro [Campus Miguel Delibes, University of Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Barbolla, Juan [Campus Miguel Delibes, University of Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Venezia, V.C. [Philips Research Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Duffy, R. [Philips Research Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Griffin, Peter B. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2004-12-15

    Boron cluster formation and dissolution in high concentration B profiles and the role of Si interstitials in these processes are analyzed by kinetic non-lattice Monte Carlo atomistic simulations. For this purpose, we use theoretical structures as simplifications of boron implants into preamorphized Si, followed by low-temperature solid phase epitaxial (SPE) regrowth or laser thermal annealing process. We observe that in the presence of high B concentrations (above 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}), significant deactivation occurs during high temperature anneal, even in the presence of only equilibrium Si interstitials. The presence of additional Si interstitials from an end of range (EOR) damage region accelerates the deactivation process and makes B deactivation slightly higher. We show that B deactivation and reactivation processes can be clearly correlated to the evolution of Si interstitial defects at the EOR. The minimum level of activation occurs when the Si interstitial defects at EOR dissolve or form very stable defects.

  12. Deactivation of group III acceptors in silicon during keV electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sah, C.; Sun, J.Y.; Tzou, J.J.; Pan, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental results on p-Si metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors (MOSC's) are presented which demonstrate the electrical deactivation of the acceptor dopant impurity during 8-keV electron irradiation not only in boron but also aluminum and indium-doped silicon. The deactivation rates of the acceptors during the 8-keV electron irradiation are nearly independent of the acceptor impurity type. The final density of the remaining active acceptor approaches nonzero values N/sub infinity/, with N/sub infinity/(B) Al--H>In-H. These deactivation results are consistent with our hydrogen bond model. The thermal annealing or regeneration rate of the deactivated acceptors in the MOSC's irradiated by 8-keV electron is much smaller than that in the MOSC's that have undergone avalanche electron injection, indicating that the keV electron irradiation gives rise to stronger hydrogen-acceptor bond

  13. Charge separation technique for metal-oxide-silicon capacitors in the presence of hydrogen deactivated dopants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witczak, Steven C.; Winokur, Peter S.; Lacoe, Ronald C.; Mayer, Donald C.

    2000-01-01

    An improved charge separation technique for metal-oxide-silicon (MOS) capacitors is presented which accounts for the deactivation of substrate dopants by hydrogen at elevated irradiation temperatures or small irradiation biases. Using high-frequency capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements, radiation-induced inversion voltage shifts are separated into components due to oxide trapped charge, interface traps and deactivated dopants, where the latter is computed from a reduction in Si capacitance. In the limit of no radiation-induced dopant deactivation, this approach reduces to the standard midgap charge separation technique used widely for the analysis of room-temperature irradiations. The technique is demonstrated on a p-type MOS capacitor irradiated with 60 Co γ-rays at 100 C and zero bias, where the dopant deactivation is significant

  14. Dopamine Transporters in Striatum Correlate with Deactivation in the Default Mode Network during Visuospatial Attention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasi, D.; Fowler, J.; Tomasi, D.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, R.L.; Telang, F.; Wang, Chang L.; Ernst, T.; Fowler, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Dopamine and dopamine transporters (DAT, which regulate extracellular dopamine in the brain) are implicated in the modulation of attention but their specific roles are not well understood. Here we hypothesized that dopamine modulates attention by facilitation of brain deactivation in the default mode network (DMN). Thus, higher striatal DAT levels, which would result in an enhanced clearance of dopamine and hence weaker dopamine signals, would be associated to lower deactivation in the DMN during an attention task. For this purpose we assessed the relationship between DAT in striatum (measured with positron emission tomography and [ 11 C]cocaine used as DAT radiotracer) and brain activation and deactivation during a parametric visual attention task (measured with blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging) in healthy controls. We show that DAT availability in caudate and putamen had a negative correlation with deactivation in ventral parietal regions of the DMN (precuneus, BA 7) and a positive correlation with deactivation in a small region in the ventral anterior cingulate gyrus (BA 24/32). With increasing attentional load, DAT in caudate showed a negative correlation with load-related deactivation increases in precuneus. These findings provide evidence that dopamine transporters modulate neural activity in the DMN and anterior cingulate gyrus during visuospatial attention. Our findings suggest that dopamine modulates attention in part by regulating neuronal activity in posterior parietal cortex including precuneus (region involved in alertness) and cingulate gyrus (region deactivated in proportion to emotional interference). These findings suggest that the beneficial effects of stimulant medications (increase dopamine by blocking DAT) in inattention reflect in part their ability to facilitate the deactivation of the DMN.

  15. Deactivation and Regeneration of Commercial Type Fischer-Tropsch Co-Catalysts—A Mini-Review

    OpenAIRE

    Erling Rytter; Anders Holmen

    2015-01-01

    Deactivation of commercially relevant cobalt catalysts for Low Temperature Fischer-Tropsch (LTFT) synthesis is discussed with a focus on the two main long-term deactivation mechanisms proposed: Carbon deposits covering the catalytic surface and re-oxidation of the cobalt metal. There is a great variety in commercial, demonstration or pilot LTFT operations in terms of reactor systems employed, catalyst formulations and process conditions. Lack of sufficient data makes it difficult to correlat...

  16. DEACTIVATION AND DECOMMISSIONING (D AND D) TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the ongoing task of making Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D) operations more efficient, this subtask has addressed the need to integrate existing characterization technologies with decontamination technologies in order to provide real-time data on the progress of contamination removal. Specifically, technologies associated with concrete decontamination and/or removal have been examined with the goal of integrating existing technologies and commercializing the resulting hybrid. The Department of Energy (DOE) has estimated that 23 million cubic meters of concrete will require disposition as 1200 buildings undergo the D&D process. All concrete removal to be performed will also necessitate extensive use of characterization techniques. The in-process characterization presents the most potential for improvement and cost-savings as compared to other types. Current methods for in-process characterization usually require cessation of work to allow for radiation surveys to assess the rate of decontamination. Combining together decontamination and characterization technologies would allow for in-process evaluation of decontamination efforts. Since the present methods do not use in-process evaluations for the progress of decontamination, they may allow for ''overremoval'' of materials (removal of contaminated along with non-contaminated materials). Overremoval increases the volume of waste and therefore the costs associated with disposal. Integrating technologies would facilitate the removal of only contaminated concrete and reduce the total volume of radioactive waste, which would be disposed of. This would eventually ensure better productivity and time savings. This project presents a general procedure to integrate the above-mentioned technologies in the form of the Technology Integration Module (TIM) along with combination lists of commercially available decontamination and characterization technologies. The scope of the project has also

  17. Natural radionuclides in effluents release by a deactivated uranium mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wagner S.; Kelecom, Alphonse; Silva, Ademir X.; Lopes, José M.; Pinto, Carlos E.C.; Py Júnior, Delcy A.; Antunes, Marcos M., E-mail: pereiraws@gmail.com, E-mail: caerjbr@gmail.com, E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.br, E-mail: delcy@inb.gov.br, E-mail: Antunes@inb.gov.br, E-mail: lararapls@hotmail.com, E-mail: Ademir@nuclear.ufrj.br, E-mail: marqueslopes@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Veiga de Almeida (UVA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil (COMAP.N/FCN/INB), Resende RJ (Brazil). Fábrica de Combustível Nuclear. Coordenação de Meio Ambiente e Proteção Radiológica Ambiental; Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARARA-PLS/UFF), Niterói, RJ (Brazil). Laboratório de Radiobiologia e Radiometria; Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    The Ore Treatment Unit (OTU) is a mine and deactivated uranium plant in the city of Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. This facility possesses three points of release of liquid effluents containing radionuclides: point 014, 025 and 076. At these points, the values of activity concentrations (AC) of the radionuclides U{sub nat}, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 232}Th and {sup 228}Ra were analyzed in 2012. The evaluation of point 014 by univariate statistics pointed four groups. [U{sub nat} > {sup 228}Ra > ({sup 226}Ra = {sup 210}Pb) >{sup 232}Th]. The multivariate statistics separated the radionuclides into two groups: [(U{sub nat} and {sup 232}Th) and ({sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb)]. At point 025, the univariate statistics described three groups: [Un{sub at} > ({sup 228}Ra = {sup 210}Pb) > ({sup 226}Ra = {sup 232}Th)] and the multivariate analysis also described three but different groups: [(U{sub nat} and {sup 228}Ra), ({sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb) and {sup 232}Th]. In turn, point 076 showed another behavior. The univariate analysis showed only two groups: [(U{sub nat}) > ({sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 232}Th)]. Differently, the multivariate statistics defined three groups: [(U{sub nat} and {sup 232}Th), ({sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra) and {sup 210}Pb].Thus, statistical analysis showed that each point has releases of effluents with different characteristics. Both the behaviors of releases, based on multivariate statistics, and of the AC magnitudes, based on the univariate statistics, are different between the points. The only common features were the greater magnitude of uranium and the smaller magnitude of thorium. (author)

  18. Biomonitoring a human population inhabiting nearby a deactivated uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lourenço, J.; Pereira, R.; Pinto, F.; Caetano, T.; Silva, A.; Carvalheiro, T.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Human population environmentally exposed to uranium mining wastes. ► Significantly higher levels of manganese and uranium in peripheral blood samples. ► Significant DNA damages detected by the comet assay. ► Significant decrease of NK and T lymphocytes counts in exposed individuals. ► Concerns on the risks of human populations living nearby uranium mining areas. - Abstract: Environmental exposure to uranium and its daughter radionuclides, has been linked to several negative effects such as those related with important physiological processes, like hematopoiesis, and may also be associated with genotoxicity effects. Herein, genotoxic effects, immunotoxicity, trace elements and C reactive protein (CRP) analyses, were performed in peripheral blood samples collected from individuals of a population living near a deactivated uranium mine. C reactive protein analysis was performed to exclude candidates with active inflammatory processes from further evaluations. DNA damage and immunotoxicity (immunophenotyping and immune cell counts) were evaluated by comet assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Significant DNA damage was observed in the peripheral blood samples from volunteers living in the Cunha Baixa village. A significant decrease of NK and T lymphocytes counts were observed in the individuals from the Cunha Baixa village, when compared with individuals from the reference site. Uranium and manganese levels were significantly higher in the Cunha Baixa village inhabitants. On the other hand, zinc levels were significantly lower in those individuals when compared with the volunteers from the control village. Results suggest that inhabitants from Cunha Baixa have a higher risk of suffering from serious diseases such as cancer, since high DNA damages were observed in peripheral blood leukocytes and also decreased levels of NK and T cells, which play an essential role in the defense against tumor growth

  19. DEACTIVATION AND DECOMMISSIONING (D AND D) TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the ongoing task of making Deactivation and Decommissioning (D and D) operations more efficient, this subtask has addressed the need to integrate existing characterization technologies with decontamination technologies in order to provide real-time data on the progress of contamination removal. Specifically, technologies associated with concrete decontamination and/or removal have been examined with the goal of integrating existing technologies and commercializing the resulting hybrid. The Department of Energy (DOE) has estimated that 23 million cubic meters of concrete will require disposition as 1200 buildings undergo the D and D process. All concrete removal to be performed will also necessitate extensive use of characterization techniques. The in-process characterization presents the most potential for improvement and cost-savings as compared to other types. Current methods for in-process characterization usually require cessation of work to allow for radiation surveys to assess the rate of decontamination. Combining together decontamination and characterization technologies would allow for in-process evaluation of decontamination efforts. Since the present methods do not use in-process evaluations for the progress of decontamination, they may allow for ''overremoval'' of materials (removal of contaminated along with non-contaminated materials). Overremoval increases the volume of waste and therefore the costs associated with disposal. Integrating technologies would facilitate the removal of only contaminated concrete and reduce the total volume of radioactive waste, which would be disposed of. This would eventually ensure better productivity and time savings. This project presents a general procedure to integrate the above-mentioned technologies in the form of the Technology Integration Module (TIM) along with combination lists of commercially available decontamination and characterization technologies. The scope of the project has also been

  20. Exciplex formation and excited state deactivation of difluoroborondipyrromethene (Bodipy) dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benniston, Andrew C; Copley, Graeme; Lemmetyinen, Helge; Tkachenko, Nikolai V

    2010-06-07

    Two series of geometrically-related dyads are discussed based on the difluoroborondipyrromethene (Bodipy) unit, and incorporating covalently attached hydroquinone/quinone groups. These units are anchored directly, or via a phenylene spacer, to the Bodipy core at the meso position in one series (BD-MHQ, BD-MQ, BD-MPHQ, BD-MPQ), but for the second series the attachment site is the 2-position (BD-SHQ, BD-SQ, BD-SPHQ, BD-SPQ). The compounds show various levels of fluorescence depending on the oxidation state of the appended group and the substitution pattern. In non-polar solvents such as toluene, diethyl ether and dichlorobenzene, the S(1) state deactivation of the Bodipy unit in BD-SPQ and BD-MPQ is dominated by (1, 3)exciplex formation, which has not been reported for Bodipy derivatives so far. In the latter molecule, the decay of the exciplex is divided between population of the Bodipy triplet state (13 %-21 %) and ground state reformation. This partitioning is not seen for the side-on substituted derivative, BD-SPQ, and only ground state reformation is observed following decay of the exciplex. This difference in behavior is explained by the radical-pair inter-system-crossing mechanism, which more effectively operates in BD-MPQ because of the orthogonality of the donor-acceptor units. In the more polar solvent CH(3)CN all the quinone derivatives show fast formation of the charge-separated state (k(CS)) followed by slower charge recombination (k(CR)). The ratio k(CS)/k(CR)

  1. Wasting Away: To Sludge or Not to Sludge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Nicolle

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Following a century of high standards of sanitation, food and water safety in North America are often taken for granted. Recent outbreaks of illness attributed to food and water contamination, however, have challenged this complacency. Now, sludge is added to the list of concerns. Sewage sludge is the muddy substance that remains after the treatment of municipal sewage. This material includes not only human waste, but also household and industrial toxic wastes disposed of in local sewers. Federal and provincial Canadian regulations support the use of this material as fertilizer, within acceptable guidelines, as does the Environmental Protection Agency in the United States. The safety of sludge, however, is questioned by some individuals and groups. Specifically, the risk of infectious agents and toxins to workers or other exposed individuals, and the potential for heavy metals and organic chemicals to be transferred from sludge-treated fields into crops are concerns.

  2. Sludge pretreatment chemistry evaluation: Enhanced sludge washing separation factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colton, N.G.

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the work conducted in Fiscal Year 1994 by the Sludge Pretreatment Chemistry Evaluation Subtask for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Tank Waste Treatment Science Task. The main purpose of this task, is to provide the technical basis and scientific understanding to support TWRS baseline decisions and actions, such as the development of an enhanced sludge washing process to reduce the volume of waste that will require high-level waste (HLW) vitrification. One objective within the Sludge Pretreatment Chemistry Evaluation Subtask was to establish wash factors for various SST (single-shell tank) sludges. First, analytical data were compiled from existing tank waste characterization reports. These data were summarized on tank-specific worksheets that provided a uniform format for reviewing and comparing data, as well as the means to verify whether the data set for each tank was complete. Worksheets were completed for 27 SST wastes. The analytical water wash data provided tank-specific information about the fraction of each component that dissolves with water, i.e., an estimate of tank-specific wash factors for evaluating tank-by-tank processing. These wash data were then used collectively to evaluate some of the wash factors that are assumed for the overall SST waste inventory; specifically, wash factors for elements that would be found primarily in sludges. The final step in this study was to incorporate the characterization and wash factor data into a spreadsheet that provides insight into the effect of enhanced sludge washing on individual tank sludges as well as for groups of sludges that may be representative of different waste types. Spreadsheet results include the estimated mass and percentage of each element that would be removed with washing and leaching. Furthermore, estimated compositions are given of the final wash and leach streams and residual solids, in terms of both concentration and dry weight percent

  3. Co-conditioning and dewatering of chemical sludge and waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, G R; Liu, J C; Lee, D J

    2001-03-01

    The conditioning and dewatering behaviors of chemical and waste activated sludges from a tannery were studied. Capillary suction time (CST), specific resistance to filtration (SRF), and bound water content were used to evaluate the sludge dewatering behaviors. Zeta potentials were also measured. Experiments were conducted on each sludge conditioned and dewatered separately, and on the sludge mixed at various ratios. Results indicate that the chemical sludge was relatively difficult to be dewatered, even in the presence of polyelectrolyte. When the waste activated sludge was mixed with the chemical sludge at ratios of 1:1 and 2:1, respectively, the dewaterability of chemical sludge improved remarkably while the relatively better dewaterability of the waste activated sludge deteriorated only to a limited extent. As the mixing ratios became 4:1 and 8:1, the dewaterability of the mixed sludge was equal to that of the waste activated sludge. The optimal polyelectrolyte dosage for the mixed sludge was equal to or less than that of the waste activated sludge. It is proposed that the chemical sludges act as skeleton builders that reduce the compressibility of the mixed sludge whose dewaterability is enhanced. Bound water contents of sludge decreased at low polyelectrolyte dosage and were not significantly affected as polyelectrolyte dosage increased. Advantages and disadvantages of co-conditioning and dewatering chemical sludge and waste activated sludge were discussed.

  4. Steam generator sludge removal apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schafer, B.W.; Werner, C.E.; Klahn, F.C.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention relates to equipment for cleaning steam generators and in particular to a high pressure fluid lance for cleaning sludge off the steam generator tubes away from an open tube lane. 6 figs

  5. Processing method for radioactive sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Yuichi; Kaneko, Masaaki.

    1993-01-01

    The concentration of radioactive sludges contained in a storage tank is controlled, thereafter, a filter is charged into a processing vessel to continuously conduct dewatering. Then, the radioactive sludges and an oxidizer are mixed by stirring using a stirring impeller and by vibrations using a vibrator. At the same time, thermic rays are irradiated by using infrared ray lamps to heat and decompose them. Since thermic rays reach the center of the radioactive sludges by the infrared ray lamps, ion exchange resins are sufficiently decomposed and carbonized into inorganic material. Then, a filling hardener such as mortar cement having a good flowability is charged to solidify the wastes. With such procedures, radioactive sludges can be stored under a stable condition for a long period of time by decomposing organic materials into inorganic materials and solidifying them. Further, an operator's radiation exposure dose can remarkably be reduced by applying a predetermined and a stabilization treatment in an identical processing vessel. (N.H.)

  6. Training facilitates object recognition in cubist paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wiesmann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To the naïve observer, cubist paintings contain geometrical forms in which familiar objects are hardly recognizable, even in the presence of a meaningful title. We used fMRI to test whether a short training session about Cubism would facilitate object recognition in paintings by Picasso, Braque and Gris. Subjects, who had no formal art education, were presented with titled or untitled cubist paintings and scrambled images, and performed object recognition tasks. Relative to the control group, trained subjects recognized more objects in the paintings, their response latencies were significantly shorter, and they showed enhanced activation in the parahippocampal cortex, with a parametric increase in the amplitude of the fMRI signal as a function of the number of recognized objects. Moreover, trained subjects were slower to report not recognizing any familiar objects in the paintings and these longer response latencies were correlated with activation in a fronto-parietal network. These findings suggest that trained subjects adopted a visual search strategy and used contextual associations to perform the tasks. Our study supports the proactive brain framework, according to which the brain uses associations to generate predictions.

  7. Painting with polygons: a procedural watercolor engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiVerdi, Stephen; Krishnaswamy, Aravind; Měch, Radomír; Ito, Daichi

    2013-05-01

    Existing natural media painting simulations have produced high-quality results, but have required powerful compute hardware and have been limited to screen resolutions. Digital artists would like to be able to use watercolor-like painting tools, but at print resolutions and on lower end hardware such as laptops or even slates. We present a procedural algorithm for generating watercolor-like dynamic paint behaviors in a lightweight manner. Our goal is not to exactly duplicate watercolor painting, but to create a range of dynamic behaviors that allow users to achieve a similar style of process and result, while at the same time having a unique character of its own. Our stroke representation is vector based, allowing for rendering at arbitrary resolutions, and our procedural pigment advection algorithm is fast enough to support painting on slate devices. We demonstrate our technique in a commercially available slate application used by professional artists. Finally, we present a detailed analysis of the different vector-rendering technologies available.

  8. Municipal sludge disposal economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J L [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA; Bomberger, Jr, D C; Lewis, F M

    1977-10-01

    Costs for disposal of sludges from a municipal wastewater treatment plant normally represents greater than or equal to 25% of the total plant operating cost. The following 5 sludge handling options are considered: chemical conditioning followed by vacuum filtration, and incineration; high-pressure wet-air oxidation and vacuum filtration or filter press prior to incineration; thermal conditioning, vacuum filtraton, and incineration; high-pressure wet-air oxidation and vacuum filtration, with ash to landfill; aerobic or anaerobic digestion, followed by chemical conditioning, vacuum filtration, and disposal on land; and chemical conditioning, followed by a filter press, flash dryer, and sale as fertilizer. The 1st 2 options result in the ultimate disposal of small amounts of ash in a landfill; the digestion options require a significant landfill; the fertilizer option requires a successful marketing and sales effort. To compare the economies of scale for the options, analyses were performed for 3 plant capacities - 10, 100, and 500 mgd; as plant size increases, the economies of scale for incineration system are quite favorable. The anaerobic digestion system has a poorer capital cost-scaling factor. The incinerator options which start with chemical conditioning consume much less electrical power at all treatment plant sizes; incinerator after thermal conditioning uses more electricity but less fuel. Digestion requires no direct external fossil fuel input. The relative use of fuel is constant at all plant sizes for other options. The incinerator options can produce a significant amount of steam which may be used. The anaerobic digestion process can be a significant net producer of fuel gas.

  9. Nuclear fuel reprocessing deactivation plan for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, M.W.

    1994-10-01

    The decision was announced on April 28, 1992 to cease all United States Department of Energy (DOE) reprocessing of nuclear fuels. This decision leads to the deactivation of all fuels dissolution, solvent extraction, krypton gas recovery operations, and product denitration at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The reprocessing facilities will be converted to a safe and stable shutdown condition awaiting future alternate uses or decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D). This ICPP Deactivation Plan includes the scope of work, schedule, costs, and associated staffing levels necessary to achieve a safe and orderly deactivation of reprocessing activities and the Waste Calcining Facility (WCF). Deactivation activities primarily involve shutdown of operating systems and buildings, fissile and hazardous material removal, and related activities. A minimum required level of continued surveillance and maintenance is planned for each facility/process system to ensure necessary environmental, health, and safety margins are maintained and to support ongoing operations for ICPP facilities that are not being deactivated. Management of the ICPP was transferred from Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO) to Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) on October 1, 1994 as part of the INEL consolidated contract. This revision of the deactivation plan (formerly the Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Phaseout Plan for the ICPP) is being published during the consolidation of the INEL site-wide contract and the information presented here is current as of October 31, 1994. LITCO has adopted the existing plans for the deactivation of ICPP reprocessing facilities and the plans developed under WINCO are still being actively pursued, although the change in management may result in changes which have not yet been identified. Accordingly, the contents of this plan are subject to revision

  10. Differential deactivation during mentalizing and classification of autism based on default mode network connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna L Murdaugh

    Full Text Available The default mode network (DMN is a collection of brain areas found to be consistently deactivated during task performance. Previous neuroimaging studies of resting state have revealed reduced task-related deactivation of this network in autism. We investigated the DMN in 13 high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD and 14 typically developing control participants during three fMRI studies (two language tasks and a Theory-of-Mind (ToM task. Each study had separate blocks of fixation/resting baseline. The data from the task blocks and fixation blocks were collated to examine deactivation and functional connectivity. Deficits in the deactivation of the DMN in individuals with ASD were specific only to the ToM task, with no group differences in deactivation during the language tasks or a combined language and self-other discrimination task. During rest blocks following the ToM task, the ASD group showed less deactivation than the control group in a number of DMN regions, including medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC, anterior cingulate cortex, and posterior cingulate gyrus/precuneus. In addition, we found weaker functional connectivity of the MPFC in individuals with ASD compared to controls. Furthermore, we were able to reliably classify participants into ASD or typically developing control groups based on both the whole-brain and seed-based connectivity patterns with accuracy up to 96.3%. These findings indicate that deactivation and connectivity of the DMN were altered in individuals with ASD. In addition, these findings suggest that the deficits in DMN connectivity could be a neural signature that can be used for classifying an individual as belonging to the ASD group.

  11. Natural radionuclides in effluents release by a deactivated uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Wagner S.; Kelecom, Alphonse; Silva, Ademir X.; Lopes, José M.; Pinto, Carlos E.C.; Py Júnior, Delcy A.; Antunes, Marcos M.; Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil; Universidade Federal Fluminense; Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia

    2017-01-01

    The Ore Treatment Unit (OTU) is a mine and deactivated uranium plant in the city of Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. This facility possesses three points of release of liquid effluents containing radionuclides: point 014, 025 and 076. At these points, the values of activity concentrations (AC) of the radionuclides U_n_a_t, "2"2"6Ra, "2"1"0Pb, "2"3"2Th and "2"2"8Ra were analyzed in 2012. The evaluation of point 014 by univariate statistics pointed four groups. [U_n_a_t > "2"2"8Ra > ("2"2"6Ra = "2"1"0Pb) >"2"3"2Th]. The multivariate statistics separated the radionuclides into two groups: [(U_n_a_t and "2"3"2Th) and ("2"2"6Ra, "2"2"8Ra and "2"1"0Pb)]. At point 025, the univariate statistics described three groups: [Un_a_t > ("2"2"8Ra = "2"1"0Pb) > ("2"2"6Ra = "2"3"2Th)] and the multivariate analysis also described three but different groups: [(U_n_a_t and "2"2"8Ra), ("2"2"6Ra and "2"1"0Pb) and "2"3"2Th]. In turn, point 076 showed another behavior. The univariate analysis showed only two groups: [(U_n_a_t) > ("2"2"6Ra, "2"2"8Ra, "2"1"0Pb, "2"3"2Th)]. Differently, the multivariate statistics defined three groups: [(U_n_a_t and "2"3"2Th), ("2"2"6Ra and "2"2"8Ra) and "2"1"0Pb].Thus, statistical analysis showed that each point has releases of effluents with different characteristics. Both the behaviors of releases, based on multivariate statistics, and of the AC magnitudes, based on the univariate statistics, are different between the points. The only common features were the greater magnitude of uranium and the smaller magnitude of thorium. (author)

  12. Enhanced sludge washing evaluation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, R.D.

    1994-09-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program mission is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford Site waste (current and future tank waste and the strontium/cesium capsules) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The scope of the TWRS Waste Pretreatment Program is to treat tank waste and separate that waste into HLW and LLW fractions and provide additional treatment as required to feed LLW and HLW immobilization facilities. Enhanced sludge washing was chosen as the baseline process for separating Hanford tank waste sludge. Section 1.0 briefly discusses the purpose of the evaluation plan and provides the background that led to the choice of enhanced sludge washing as the baseline process. Section 2.0 provides a brief summary of the evaluation plan details. Section 3.0 discusses, in some detail, the technical work planned to support the evaluation of enhanced sludge washing. Section 4.0 briefly discusses the potential important of policy issues to the evaluation. Section 5.0 discusses the methodology to be used in the evaluation process. Section 6.0 summarizes the milestones that have been defined to complete the enhanced sludge washing evaluation and provides a summary schedule to evaluate the performance of enhanced sludge washing. References are identified in Section 7.0, and additional schedule and milestone information is provided in the appendices.

  13. Enhanced sludge washing evaluation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, R.D.

    1994-09-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program mission is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford Site waste (current and future tank waste and the strontium/cesium capsules) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The scope of the TWRS Waste Pretreatment Program is to treat tank waste and separate that waste into HLW and LLW fractions and provide additional treatment as required to feed LLW and HLW immobilization facilities. Enhanced sludge washing was chosen as the baseline process for separating Hanford tank waste sludge. Section 1.0 briefly discusses the purpose of the evaluation plan and provides the background that led to the choice of enhanced sludge washing as the baseline process. Section 2.0 provides a brief summary of the evaluation plan details. Section 3.0 discusses, in some detail, the technical work planned to support the evaluation of enhanced sludge washing. Section 4.0 briefly discusses the potential important of policy issues to the evaluation. Section 5.0 discusses the methodology to be used in the evaluation process. Section 6.0 summarizes the milestones that have been defined to complete the enhanced sludge washing evaluation and provides a summary schedule to evaluate the performance of enhanced sludge washing. References are identified in Section 7.0, and additional schedule and milestone information is provided in the appendices

  14. Water-Based Pressure-Sensitive Paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jeffrey D.; Watkins, A. Neal; Oglesby, Donald M.; Ingram, JoAnne L.

    2006-01-01

    Water-based pressure-sensitive paints (PSPs) have been invented as alternatives to conventional organic-solvent-based pressure-sensitive paints, which are used primarily for indicating distributions of air pressure on wind-tunnel models. Typically, PSPs are sprayed onto aerodynamic models after they have been mounted in wind tunnels. When conventional organic-solvent-based PSPs are used, this practice creates a problem of removing toxic fumes from inside the wind tunnels. The use of water-based PSPs eliminates this problem. The waterbased PSPs offer high performance as pressure indicators, plus all the advantages of common water-based paints (low toxicity, low concentrations of volatile organic compounds, and easy cleanup by use of water).

  15. Hierarchical Micro-Nano Coatings by Painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirveslahti, Anna; Korhonen, Tuulia; Suvanto, Mika; Pakkanen, Tapani A.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the wettability properties of coatings with hierarchical surface structures and low surface energy were studied. Hierarchically structured coatings were produced by using hydrophobic fumed silica nanoparticles and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) microparticles as additives in polyester (PES) and polyvinyldifluoride (PVDF). These particles created hierarchical micro-nano structures on the paint surfaces and lowered or supported the already low surface energy of the paint. Two standard application techniques for paint application were employed and the presented coatings are suitable for mass production and use in large surface areas. By regulating the particle concentrations, it was possible to modify wettability properties gradually. Highly hydrophobic surfaces were achieved with the highest contact angle of 165∘. Dynamic contact angle measurements were carried out for a set of selected samples and low hysteresis was obtained. Produced coatings possessed long lasting durability in the air and in underwater conditions.

  16. Perceptual dimensions of style in paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Slobodan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to specify the basic perceptual dimensions underlying the judgments of the physical features which define the style in paintings (e.g. salient form, colorful surface, oval contours etc.. The other aim of the study is to correlate these dimensions with the subjective (affective dimensions of the experience of paintings. In the preliminary study a set of 25 pairs of elementary perceptual descriptors were empirically specified, and a set of 25 bipolar scales were made (e.g. uncolored-multicolored. In the experiment 30 subjects judged 24 paintings (paintings were taken from the study of Radonjić and Marković, 2004 on 25 scales. Factor analysis revealed the four factors: form (scales: precise, neat, salient form etc., color (color contrast, lightness contrast, vivid colors, space (voluminosity, depth and oval contours and complexity (multicolored, ornate, detailed. Obtained factors reflected the nature of the phenomenological and neural segregation of form, color, depth processing, and partially of complexity processing (e.g. spatial frequency processing within both the form and color subsystem. The aim of the next step of analysis was to specify the correlations between two groups of judgments: (a mean judgments of 24 paintings on perceptual factors and (b mean judgments of the same set of 24 paintings on subjective (affective experience factors, i.e. regularity, attraction, arousal and relaxation (judgments taken from Radonjić and Marković, 2005. The following significant correlations were obtained: regularity-form, regularity-space, attraction-form and arousal-complexity (negative correlation. The reasons for the unexpected negative correlation between arousal and complexity should be specified in further studies.

  17. Preference for and discrimination of paintings by mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Watanabe

    Full Text Available I measured preference for paintings (Renoir vs. Picasso or Kandinsky vs. Mondrian in mice. In general mice did not display a painting preference except for two mice: one preferred Renoir to Picasso, and the other preferred Kandinsky to Mondrian. Thereafter, I examined discrimination of paintings with new mice. When exposure to paintings of one artist was associated with an injection of morphine (3.0 mg/kg, mice displayed conditioned preference for those paintings, showing discrimination of paintings by Renoir from those by Picasso, and paintings by Kandinsky from those by Mondrian after the conditioning. They also exhibited generalization of the preference to novel paintings of the artists. After conditioning with morphine for a set of paintings consisting of two artists, mice showed discrimination between two sets of paintings also from the two artists but not in association with morphine. These results suggest that mice can discriminate not only between an artist's style but also among paintings of the same artist. When mice were trained to discriminate a pair of paintings by Kandinsky and Renoir in an operant chamber equipped with a touch screen, they showed transfer of the discrimination to new pairs of the artists, but did not show transfer of discrimination of paintings by other artists, suggesting generalization.

  18. Ultrasonic backward radiation on painted rough interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Yong Gyu; Yoon, Seok Soo; Kwon, Sung Duck

    2002-01-01

    The angular dependence(profile) of backscattered ultrasound was measured for steel and brass specimens with periodical surface roughness (1-71μm). Backward radiations showed more linear dependency than normal profile. Direct amplitude increased and averaging amplitude decreased with surface roughness. Painting treatment improved the linearity in direct backward radiation below roughness of 0.03. Scholte and Rayleigh-like waves were observed in the spectrum of averaging backward radiation on periodically rough surface. Painting on periodically rough surface could be used in removing the interface mode effect by periodic roughness.

  19. Removal of toluene by sequential adsorption-plasma oxidation: Mixed support and catalyst deactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Caihong; Huang, Xuemin; Zhao, Junjie; Huang, Jiayu; Kang, Zhongli; Dang, Xiaoqing

    2017-07-15

    A sequential adsorption-plasma oxidation system was used to remove toluene from simulated dry air using γ-Al 2 O 3 , HZSM-5, a mixture of the two materials or their supported Mn-Ag catalyst as adsorbents under atmospheric pressure and room temperature. After 120min of plasma oxidation, γ-Al 2 O 3 had a better carbon balance (∼75%) than HZSM-5, but the CO 2 yield of γ-Al 2 O 3 was only ∼50%; and there was some desorption of toluene when γ-Al 2 O 3 was used. When a mixture of HZSM-5 and γ-Al 2 O 3 with a mass ratio of 1/2 was used, the carbon balance was up to 90% and 82% of this was CO 2 . The adsorption performance and electric discharge characteristics of the mixed supports were tested in order to rationalize this high CO x yield. After seven cycles of sequential adsorption-plasma oxidation, support and Mn-Ag catalyst deactivation occurred. The support and catalyst were characterized before and after deactivation by SEM, a BET method, XRD, XPS and GC-MS in order to probe the mechanism of their deactivation. 97.6% of the deactivated supports and 76% of the deactivated catalysts could be recovered by O 2 temperature-programmed oxidation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Heating value characteristics of sewage sludge: a comparative study of different sludge types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young-JU.; Kang, Hae-Ok.; Qureshi, T.I.

    2005-01-01

    Heating value characteristics of three different types of sludge, i.e. domestic sewage sludge, industrial sludge, and industrial + domestic sewage sludge were investigated. Industrial + domestic sewage sludge (thickened) showed the highest heating value (5040 kcal/kg) than other sludge types. This may be due to increased amount of organic matter presents in thickened sludge than de-watered sludge. A gradual increase in organic matter of the sludge was observed with the increase of the moisture contents. Heating value of the sludge having 60% moisture contents was found in the range between 924-1656 kcal/kg and this amount was higher than the minimum heating value (800 kcal/kg) required sustaining auto thermal combustion in sludge incineration process. Energy consumption requirement for pre drying sludge operations revealed that industrial sludge (de-watered) required the minimum cost (13 $/ton of sludge) to make it a sludge of fuel grade (60% W), while mixed sludge cost the highest amount for its pre-drying operations. (author)

  1. Pentachlorophenol (PCP) sludge recycling unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The Guelph Utility Pole Company treats utility poles by immersion in pentachlorophenol (PCP) or by pressure treatment with chromated copper arsenate (CCA). The PCP treatment process involves a number of steps, each producing a certain amount of sludge and other wastes. In a plant upgrading program to improve processing and treatment of poles and to reduce and recycle waste, a PCP recovery unit was developed, first as an experimental pilot-scale unit and then as a full-scale unit. The PCP recovery unit is modular in design and can be modified to suit different requirements. In a recycling operation, the sludge is pumped through a preheat system (preheated by waste heat) and suspended solids are removed by a strainer. The sludge is then heated in a tank and at a predetermined temperature it begins to separate into its component parts: oil, steam, and solids. The steam condenses to water containing low amounts of light oil, and this water is pumped through an oil/water separator. The recovered oil is reused in the wood treatment process and the water is used in the CCA plant. The oil remaining in the tank is reused in PCP treatment and the solid waste, which includes small stones and wood particles, is removed and stored. By the third quarter of operation, the recovery unit was operating as designed, processing ca 10,000 gal of sludge. This sludge yielded 6,500 gal of water, 3,500 gal of oil, and ca 30 gal of solids. Introduction of the PCP sludge recycling system has eliminated long-term storage of PCP sludge and minimized costs of hazardous waste disposal. 4 figs

  2. Evaluation of the vinyl acetate elimination process in methanogenic sludge with oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, U.; Monroy, O.; Rendon, B.; Gomez, J.; Ramirez, F.

    2009-01-01

    The vinyl acetate (AV) is a volatile toxic used in the painting manufacture, causing serious problems of contamination in grounds, air and natural bodies of water. Under methanogenic conditions the complete mineralization of the AV has not been obtained, but evidences exist suggesting that with the addition of low oxygen concentrations to methanogenic sludge the elimination of this compound is possible. In this work was studied the respiratory process of elimination of the AV methano genesis and methano genesis with oxygen (1 mg/L-d). (Author)

  3. The hydraulic transportation of thickened sludges

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    non-Newtonian sludges (Xu et al., 1993; Spinosa and Lotita, 2001; .... [11]. Analysis and typical applications. Laminar/turbulent transition. For most sewage sludges the ... on Transport and Sedimentation of Solid Particles - Ghent, September.

  4. Microbiological aspects of granular methanogenic sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolfing, J.

    1987-01-01

    The settling characteristics of anaerobic sludge are enhanced by the formation of microbial conglomerates. Various types of conglomerates having different structures, were distinguished in the present study, viz. granules, pellets and flocs (chapter 1). Granular methanogenic sludge, often

  5. Radiation hygienization of raw sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, M.R.; Lavale, D.S.; Rawat, P.; Benny, P.G.; Sharma, A.K.; Dey, G.R.; Bhave, V.

    2001-01-01

    'Radiation treatment of municipal sewage sludge can achieve resource conservation and recovery objectives. The liquid sludge irradiator of Sludge Hygienization Research Irradiator at Baroda (India) was operated for generating data on treatment of raw sludge containing 3-4 % solids. The plant system was modified for irradiating raw sludge without affecting basic irradiator initially designed to treat digested sludge. Hourly samples were analysed for estimation of disinfection dose requirement. Sand separated from the sludge was used as in-situ dosimeter by making use of its thermoluminescence property. Investigations are being carried out for regrowth of Total Coliforms in the sludge samples from this irradiator. Possibility of inadequate treatment due to geometric configuration of irradiator is being checked. (author)

  6. Biological sludge solubilisation for reduction of excess sludge production in wastewater treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, T; Yao, Y; Kihara, Y

    2006-01-01

    A novel sludge disintegration system (JFE-SD system) was developed for the reduction of excess sludge production in wastewater treatment plants. Chemical and biological treatments were applied to disintegrate excess sludge. At the first step, to enhance biological disintegration, the sludge was pretreated with alkali. At the second step, the sludge was disintegrated by biological treatment. Many kinds of sludge degrading microorganisms integrated the sludge. The efficiency of the new sludge disintegration system was confirmed in a full-scale experiment. The JFE-SD system reduced excess sludge production by approximately 50% during the experimental period. The quality of effluent was kept at quite a good level. Economic analysis revealed that this system could significantly decrease the excess sludge treatment cost.

  7. The role and control of sludge age in biological nutrient removal activated sludge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekama, G A

    2010-01-01

    The sludge age is the most fundamental and important parameter in the design, operation and control of biological nutrient removal (BNR) activated sludge (AS) systems. Generally, the better the effluent and waste sludge quality required from the system, the longer the sludge age, the larger the biological reactor and the more wastewater characteristics need to be known. Controlling the reactor concentration does not control sludge age, only the mass of sludge in the system. When nitrification is a requirement, sludge age control becomes a requirement and the secondary settling tanks can no longer serve the dual purpose of clarifier and waste activated sludge thickeners. The easiest and most practical way to control sludge age is with hydraulic control by wasting a defined proportion of the reactor volume daily. In AS plants with reactor concentration control, nitrification fails first. With hydraulic control of sludge age, nitrification will not fail, rather the plant fails by shedding solids over the secondary settling tank effluent weirs.

  8. Highly controlled nest homeostasis of honey bees helps deactivate phenolics in nectar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fanglin; He, Jianzhong; Fu, Wenjun

    2005-06-01

    Honey bees have a highly developed nest homeostasis, for example, maintaining low CO2 levels and stable nest temperatures at 35°C.We investigate the role of nest homeostasis in deactivating phenolic compounds present in the nectar of Aloe littoralis. We show that the phenolic content in nectar was reduced (from 0.65% to 0.49%) after nectar was incubated in a nest of Apis cerana, and that it was reduced still more (from 0.65% to 0.37%) if nectar was mixed with hypopharyngeal gland proteins (HGP) of worker bees before being placed inside a nest. HGP had little effect on samples outside a nest, indicating that nest conditions are necessary for HGP to deactivate phenolics in nectar. Consequently, the highly controlled nest homeostasis of honey bees facilitates direct deactivation of phenolics in nectar, and plays a role in the action of HGP as well.

  9. An Analytical Technique to Determine the Potential for Moisture Accumulation in Deactivated Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MINICHAN, RL

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an analytical technique developed to predict an order of magnitude volume of moisture accumulation in massive structures after deactivation. This work was done to support deactivation of a Department of Energy nuclear materials processing facility. The structure is a four-story, concrete building with a rectangular footprint that is approximately 250m long by 37m wide by 22m high. Its walls are 1.2m thick. The building will be supplied with unconditioned ventilation air after deactivation. The objective of the work was to provide a cost effective engineering evaluation to determine if the un-conditioned ventilation air would result in condensate accumulating inside the building under study. The analysis described is a simple representation of a complex problem. The modeling method is discussed in sufficient detail to allow its application to the study of similar structures

  10. Application, Deactivation, and Regeneration of Heterogeneous Catalysts in Bio-Oil Upgrading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouyun Cheng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The massive consumption of fossil fuels and associated environmental issues are leading to an increased interest in alternative resources such as biofuels. The renewable biofuels can be upgraded from bio-oils that are derived from biomass pyrolysis. Catalytic cracking and hydrodeoxygenation (HDO are two of the most promising bio-oil upgrading processes for biofuel production. Heterogeneous catalysts are essential for upgrading bio-oil into hydrocarbon biofuel. Although advances have been achieved, the deactivation and regeneration of catalysts still remains a challenge. This review focuses on the current progress and challenges of heterogeneous catalyst application, deactivation, and regeneration. The technologies of catalysts deactivation, reduction, and regeneration for improving catalyst activity and stability are discussed. Some suggestions for future research including catalyst mechanism, catalyst development, process integration, and biomass modification for the production of hydrocarbon biofuels are provided.

  11. Immobilized glucose oxidase--catalase and their deactivation in a differential-bed loop reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenosil, J E

    1979-01-01

    Glucose oxidase containing catalase was immobilized with a copolymer of phenylenediamine and glutaraldehyde on pumice and titania carrier to study the enzymatic oxidation of glucose in a differential-bed loop reactor. The reaction rate was found to be first order with respect to the concentration of limiting oxygen substrate, suggesting a strong external mass-transfer resistance for all the flow rates used. The partial pressure of oxygen was varied from 21.3 up to 202.6 kPa. The use of a differential-bed loop reactor for the determination of the active enzyme concentration in the catalyst with negligible internal pore diffusion resistance is shown. Catalyst deactivation was studied, especially with respect to the presence of catalase. It is believed that the hydrogen peroxide formed in the oxidation reaction deactivates catalase first; if an excess of catalase is present, the deactivation of glucose oxidase remains small. The mathematical model subsequently developed adequately describes the experimental results.

  12. Thalamic deactivation at sleep onset precedes that of the cerebral cortex in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnin, Michel; Rey, Marc; Bastuji, Hélène; Guillemant, Philippe; Mauguière, François; Garcia-Larrea, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Thalamic and cortical activities are assumed to be time-locked throughout all vigilance states. Using simultaneous intracortical and intrathalamic recordings, we demonstrate here that the thalamic deactivation occurring at sleep onset most often precedes that of the cortex by several minutes, whereas reactivation of both structures during awakening is synchronized. Delays between thalamus and cortex deactivations can vary from one subject to another when a similar cortical region is considered. In addition, heterogeneity in activity levels throughout the cortical mantle is larger than previously thought during the descent into sleep. Thus, asynchronous thalamo-cortical deactivation while falling asleep probably explains the production of hypnagogic hallucinations by a still-activated cortex and the common self-overestimation of the time needed to fall asleep. PMID:20142493

  13. Matte painting in stereoscopic synthetic imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Jonathan; Parent, Rick

    2010-02-01

    While there have been numerous studies concerning human perception in stereoscopic environments, rules of thumb for cinematography in stereoscopy have not yet been well-established. To that aim, we present experiments and results of subject testing in a stereoscopic environment, similar to that of a theater (i.e. large flat screen without head-tracking). In particular we wish to empirically identify thresholds at which different types of backgrounds, referred to in the computer animation industry as matte paintings, can be used while still maintaining the illusion of seamless perspective and depth for a particular scene and camera shot. In monoscopic synthetic imagery, any type of matte painting that maintains proper perspective lines, depth cues, and coherent lighting and textures saves in production costs while still maintaining the illusion of an alternate cinematic reality. However, in stereoscopic synthetic imagery, a 2D matte painting that worked in monoscopy may fail to provide the intended illusion of depth because the viewer has added depth information provided by stereopsis. We intend to observe two stereoscopic perceptual thresholds in this study which will provide practical guidelines indicating when to use each of three types of matte paintings. We ran subject tests in two virtual testing environments, each with varying conditions. Data were collected showing how the choices of the users matched the correct response, and the resulting perceptual threshold patterns are discussed below.

  14. Using anti-corrosive paints on ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J

    1969-02-07

    Anit-corrosive paints on the outside of ship's hulls fall into 3 groups: the area below the water, the boot- topping area at the waterline, and the weatherwork including the hull and superstructure. Typical formulations of primer and paint are given for use in each section. Anti-corrosion paints must always be considered in conjunction with the kind and amount of surface preparation that can be given. The requirement for faster descaling techniques and higher standards of surface preparation has led to the introduction of automated centrifugal abrasive blasting machines for all new plates and sections. If it is not possible to remove old coatings by abrasive blasting, then the traditional method of chipping followed by wire brushing must be used. The removal of mill scale by abrasive blasting can produce a clean metal surface which is liable to rapid corrosion unless it is painted immediately. A pre-fabrication or shop primer is used which is normally applied by airless spray equipment synchronized with the sand blasting machinery.

  15. Rendering Visible: Painting and Sexuate Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Linda

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, I examine Luce Irigaray's aesthetic of sexual difference, which she develops by extrapolating from Paul Klee's idea that the role of painting is to render the non-visible rather than represent the visible. This idea is the premise of her analyses of phenomenology and psychoanalysis and their respective contributions to understanding…

  16. Piezoelectric paint: characterization for further applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C; Fritzen, C-P

    2012-01-01

    Piezoelectric paint is a very attractive piezoelectric composite in many fields, such as non-destructive testing, or structural health monitoring. However, there are still many obstacles which restrict the real application of it. One of the main problems is that piezoelectric paint lacks a standard fabrication procedure, thus characterization is needed before use. The work presented here explores the characterization of piezoelectric paint. It starts with fabrication of samples with certain piezoelectric powder weight percentages. The microstructures of the samples are investigated by a scanning electron microscope; the results indicate that the fabrication method can produce high quality samples. This is followed by measurements of Young’s modulus and sensitivity. The piezoelectric charge constant d 31 is then deduced from the experimental data; the results agree well with a published result, which validates the effectiveness of the fabrication and characterization method. The characterized piezoelectric paint can expand its applications into different fields and therefore becomes a more promising and competitive smart material. (paper)

  17. Failure-probability driven dose painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogelius, Ivan R; Håkansson, Katrin; Due, Anne K

    2013-01-01

    To demonstrate a data-driven dose-painting strategy based on the spatial distribution of recurrences in previously treated patients. The result is a quantitative way to define a dose prescription function, optimizing the predicted local control at constant treatment intensity. A dose planning study...

  18. What is lead-based paint?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernon, L.S.

    1994-01-01

    The number of variety of lead-abatement regulations and requirements make it difficult and confusing to identify and properly respond to dangerous levels of lead in every situation. Definitions of ''lead-based paint'' and three test methods for lead detection are described to help determine when and how to test for the presence of lead

  19. Nabokov and the Art of Painting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Gerard J.M.; Johnson, D. Barton

    2005-01-01

    Vladimir Nabokov was one of the greatest novelists of the previous century and his mastery of English and Russian prose is unequalled. Nabokov had originally trained to become a painter and shared Marc Chagall's tutor in Paris. In Nabokov and the Art of Painting the authors demonstrate how the art

  20. Understanding Korean food culture from Korean paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Kyung Chung

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Beyond the basic value of food in maximizing nutrients and energy, Korean food culture has developed distinctive cultural characteristics through more than 5,000 years of agricultural history. Although the genre paintings analyzed in this paper are limited to a certain era, this paper will serve as a milestone in providing direction for future studies.

  1. Painting: Is It Indigenous to Ghanaian Culture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Antwi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Painting could be said to be well grounded in all cultures worldwide. This is underpinned by the vast record of cave art as globally represented, even though this phenomenon does not seamlessly continue into some ancient traditions that followed. In the face of the above however, to find the traditional period of a people one has to identify the geographical area of this group in order to consider the autochthonous art practice of the place so as to determine its cultural beginnings, extent, and forms of art explored. In the case of Ghana, one observes that, art historians usually site the beginning of painting at the time when colonial educational training of the arts was begun in Achimota from the 1900s. The study was conducted using historical review and analysis, unstructured interview guides as well as participant and non-participant observational techniques in a descriptive design at Sirigu, Ahwiaa and Ntonso, revealing the forms of painting that existed in the country before the introduction of formal training by the colonial masters. The result showed that Ghanaians traditionally practiced different kinds of painting, long before the colonial art training programme was introduced. We feel it should be of concern for any people to be able to tell, not only how, and why but also when they started doing the things that matter to their existence and cultural heritage.

  2. The Transdisciplinary Potential of Remediated Painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2010-01-01

    the limitations of dialogic intermedia into the field of transdisciplinary aesthetics. In support of my argument, I turn to the concept of remediation as it was first applied in new media theory by Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin. The ambition is to develop an apprehension of painting not as an artistic...

  3. The transdisciplinary potential of remediated painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2011-01-01

    painting as a point of departure but moves beyond the limitations of dialogic intermedia into the field of transdisciplinary aesthetics. In support of my argument, I turn to the concept of remediation as it was first applied in new media theory by Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin. The ambition...

  4. "The Ancient Master Painted like Me"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Son-Mey

    2009-01-01

    By following their wonderful ideas or critical exploration, three eighth graders learned how to do traditional Chinese painting, which is taught by copying old masters' work from the Ming Dynasty in the 17th century. The standard manual, which most learners have been using for these three hundred years, is the "Mustard Seed Garden Manual of…

  5. Simulations of color development in tinted paints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuiver, A.; Barkema, G.T.

    2010-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations have been used to investigate how several thermodynamic and kinetic factors affect the distribution of pigments, when a water-based pigment dispersion is added to a solvent-borne paint. Our model contains three types of lattice particles: water, pigment and organic solvent,

  6. Radiocarbon dating of ancient rock paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilger, W.A.; Hyman, M.; Rowe, M.W. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Southon, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-06-20

    This report presents progress made on a technique for {sup 14}C dating pictographs. A low-temperature oxygen plasma is used coupled with high-vacuum technologies to selectively remove C-containing material in the paints without contamination from inorganic carbon from rock substrates or accretions.

  7. Radiocarbon dating of ancient rock paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilger, W.A.; Hyman, M.; Rowe, M.W.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents progress made on a technique for 14 C dating pictographs. A low-temperature oxygen plasma is used coupled with high-vacuum technologies to selectively remove C-containing material in the paints without contamination from inorganic carbon from rock substrates or accretions

  8. Metal soaps in oil paint : Structure, mechanisms and dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    From a chemical point of view, oil paintings are not stable objects. Visually, changes in the appearance of an oil painting might be very slow, but over the course of centuries, chemical reactions and physical processes do affect the colour, texture and integrity of oil paint layers. This thesis

  9. Elemental composition of paint cross sections by nuclear microprobe analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nens, B.; Trocellier, P.; Engelmann, C.; Lahanier, C.

    1982-09-01

    Physico-chemical characterization of pigments used in artistic painting give precious indications on age of paintings and sometimes on geographical origin of ores. After recalling the principle of protons microprobe, first results obtained by microanalysis of painting cross sections for non destructive microanalysis of impurities in white lead are given [fr

  10. A Short History of the Chemistry of Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedstein, Harriet G.

    1981-01-01

    Includes information on: (1) relationship of art and science; (2) paintings' early history; (3) Egyptian, Greek, Chinese, Byzantine, and Medieval painting; (4) chemical analysis of pigments; (5) chemistry of early pigments; and (6) paint media. Tabular data are provided on chemical names for artists' pigments with their earliest known dates. (CS)

  11. TeraHertz imaging of hidden paint layers on canvas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adam, A.J.L.; Planken, P.C.M.; Meloni, S.; Dik, J.

    2009-01-01

    We show terahertz reflection images of hidden paint layers in a painting on canvas and compare the results with X-ray Radiography and Infrared Reflectography. Our terahertz measurements show strong reflections from both the canvas/paint interface and from the raw umber/lead white interface,

  12. 29 CFR 1915.33 - Chemical paint and preservative removers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chemical paint and preservative removers. 1915.33 Section... Preparation and Preservation § 1915.33 Chemical paint and preservative removers. (a) Employees shall be protected against skin contact during the handling and application of chemical paint and preservative...

  13. Self Cleaning Paint: Introduction of Photocatalytic Particles into a Paint System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Sverrir Grimur

    The current industrial PhD work was aimed at synthesising a photocatalytic composite material which could be used to give organic wood paint films self-cleaning and anti-microbial properties. The current PhD work was done in collaboration between Dyrup A/S and Technical University of Denmark...... consists of an introduction to relevant concepts and literature followed by results, presented as research papers, and a patent application. Four research papers are introduced as individual chapters. Chapter 4 discusses the synthesis and optimisation of anatase TiO2 coated microspheres, chapter 5......-cleaning coatings containing TiO2 coated microspheres. The results show that introducing a photocatalyst into an organic paint system as a coating on inert carrier particles results in durable and weather stable paint films. The paint films exhibit selfcleaning properties and are able to resist the attack of micro...

  14. Integral study of sewage sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Sewage sludges are the by-product generated during the treatment process of waste water, and they are conformed by a solid phase which origin is the accumulation of pollutant materials which has been added to water during natural and anthropogenic activities. Its handling is one of the most serious problems faced by water treatment plants which involve the production, gathering, transportation, re utilization and final disposal of sewage sludges. The main purpose of this project is to perform a technical evaluation of the process of sewage sludge irradiation for its possible application as a choice for treatment and final disposal. Irradiation with gammas from Cobalt-60 shows effectiveness in disinfestation of sewage sludges, since they reduce six times the microbial population with a 7 KGy dose. In like manners with doses of 10 KGy is possible to bring down in 70 % the concentration of organic compounds, as well as to eliminate the presence of 6 to 22 organic compounds on samples of sewage sludges. The whole content of this work is presented in six sections: Introduction, Antecedents, Methodology, Conclusions, Suggestions and Bibliography. (Author)

  15. Excess sludge reduction in activated sludge processes by integrating ultrasound treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Elvira, S.; Fdz-Polanco, M.; Plaza, F. I.; Garralon, G.; Fdz-Polanco, F.

    2009-01-01

    Biological sludge produced in the activated sludge process can be minimised modifying the water line, the sludge line or the final disposal strategy. Selecting the water line the general idea is to reduce the sludge producing the yield coefficient by means of the called lysis cryptic growth process. The main techniques referenced in literature are onization, chlorination and chemical and heat treatment. Ultrasounds are widely used to increase anaerobic biodegradability but are not reported as system to control excess sludge production. (Author)

  16. Work plan for the Isotopes Facilities Deactivation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of the Isotopes Facilities Deactivation Project (IFDP) is to place former isotopes production facilities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in a safe, stable, and environmentally sound condition; suitable for an extended period of minimum surveillance and maintenance (S&M) and as quickly and economical as possible. Implementation and completion of the deactivation project will further reduce the risks to the environment and to public safety and health. Furthermore, completion of the project will result in significant S&M cost savings in future years. The IFDP work plan defines the project schedule, the cost estimate, and the technical approach for the project. A companion document, the IFDP management plan, has been prepared to document the project objectives, define organizational relationships and responsibilities, and outline the management control systems to be employed in the management of the project. The project has adopted the strategy of deactivating the simple facilities first, to reduce the scope of the project and to gain experience before addressing more difficult facilities. A decision support system is being developed to identify the activities that best promote the project mission and result in the largest cost savings. This work plan will be reviewed and revised annually. Deactivation of IFDP facilities was initiated in FY 1994 and will be completed in FY 1999. The schedule for deactivation of facilities is shown. The total cost of the project is estimated to be $36M. The costs are summarized. Upon completion of deactivation, annual S&M costs of these facilities will be reduced from the current level of $5M per year to less than $1M per year.

  17. Work plan for the Isotopes Facilities Deactivation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of the Isotopes Facilities Deactivation Project (IFDP) is to place former isotopes production facilities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in a safe, stable, and environmentally sound condition; suitable for an extended period of minimum surveillance and maintenance (S and M) and as quickly and economical as possible. Implementation and completion of the deactivation project will further reduce the risks to the environment and to public safety and health. Furthermore, completion of the project will result in significant S and M cost savings in future years. The IFDP work plan defines the project schedule, the cost estimate, and the technical approach for the project. A companion document, the EFDP management plan, has been prepared to document the project objectives, define organizational relationships and responsibilities, and outline the management control systems to be employed in the management of the project. The project has adopted the strategy of deactivating the simple facilities first, to reduce the scope of the project and to gain experience before addressing more difficult facilities. A decision support system is being developed to identify the activities that best promote the project mission and result in the largest cost savings. This work plan will be reviewed and revised annually. Deactivation of EFDP Facilities was initiated in FY 1994 and will be completed in FY 2000. The schedule for deactivation of facilities is shown. The total cost of the project is estimated to be $51M. The costs are summarized. Upon completion of deactivation, annual S and M costs of these facilities will be reduced from the current level of $5M per year to less than $1M per year

  18. Does antifouling paint select for antibiotic resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flach, Carl-Fredrik; Pal, Chandan; Svensson, Carl Johan; Kristiansson, Erik; Östman, Marcus; Bengtsson-Palme, Johan; Tysklind, Mats; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2017-07-15

    There is concern that heavy metals and biocides contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance via co-selection. Most antifouling paints contain high amounts of such substances, which risks turning painted ship hulls into highly mobile refuges and breeding grounds for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The objectives of this study were to start investigate if heavy-metal based antifouling paints can pose a risk for co-selection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and, if so, identify the underlying genetic basis. Plastic panels with one side painted with copper and zinc-containing antifouling paint were submerged in a Swedish marina and biofilms from both sides of the panels were harvested after 2.5-4weeks. DNA was isolated from the biofilms and subjected to metagenomic sequencing. Biofilm bacteria were cultured on marine agar supplemented with tetracycline, gentamicin, copper sulfate or zinc sulfate. Biofilm communities from painted surfaces displayed lower taxonomic diversity and enrichment of Gammaproteobacteria. Bacteria from these communities showed increased resistance to both heavy metals and tetracycline but not to gentamicin. Significantly higher abundance of metal and biocide resistance genes was observed, whereas mobile antibiotic resistance genes were not enriched in these communities. In contrast, we found an enrichment of chromosomal RND efflux system genes, including such with documented ability to confer decreased susceptibility to both antibiotics and biocides/heavy metals. This was paralleled by increased abundances of integron-associated integrase and ISCR transposase genes. The results show that the heavy metal-based antifouling paint exerts a strong selection pressure on marine bacterial communities and can co-select for certain antibiotic-resistant bacteria, likely by favoring species and strains carrying genes that provide cross-resistance. Although this does not indicate an immediate risk for promotion of mobile antibiotic resistance, the

  19. Paintings - high-energy protons detect pigments and paint-layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denker, A.; Opitz-Coutureau, J.

    2004-01-01

    High-energy PIXE was used to identify pigment composition, sequencing and the thickness of paint-layers. Before applying the technique to valuable masterpieces, mock-ups were examined in a collaboration with the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. The results of high-energy PIXE were compared to conventional cross-section analysis. In addition, the non-destructiveness of the technique was investigated thoroughly. After this preparative work, two ancient paintings have been examined and the results are presented in this paper

  20. Supplementary information on K-Basin sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAKENAS, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    Three previous documents in this series have been published covering the analysis of: K East Basin Floor and Pit Sludge, K East Basin Canister Sludge, and K West Basin Canister Sludge. Since their publication, additional data have been acquired and analyses performed. It is the purpose of this volume to summarize the additional insights gained in the interim time period

  1. 40 CFR 61.54 - Sludge sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sludge sampling. 61.54 Section 61.54... sampling. (a) As an alternative means for demonstrating compliance with § 61.52(b), an owner or operator... days prior to a sludge sampling test, so that he may at his option observe the test. (c) Sludge shall...

  2. Heavy metals precipitation in sewage sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioretto, M.M.; Rulkens, W.H.; Bruning, H.

    2005-01-01

    There is a great need for heavy metal removal from strongly metal-polluted sewage sludges. One of the advantages of heavy metal removal from this type of sludge is the possibility of the sludge disposal to landfill with reduced risk of metals being leached to the surface and groundwater. Another

  3. Specialization in the default mode: Task-induced brain deactivations dissociate between visual working memory and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Jutta S; Roebroeck, Alard; Maurer, Konrad; Linden, David E J

    2010-01-01

    The idea of an organized mode of brain function that is present as default state and suspended during goal-directed behaviors has recently gained much interest in the study of human brain function. The default mode hypothesis is based on the repeated observation that certain brain areas show task-induced deactivations across a wide range of cognitive tasks. In this event-related functional resonance imaging study we tested the default mode hypothesis by comparing common and selective patterns of BOLD deactivation in response to the demands on visual attention and working memory (WM) that were independently modulated within one task. The results revealed task-induced deactivations within regions of the default mode network (DMN) with a segregation of areas that were additively deactivated by an increase in the demands on both attention and WM, and areas that were selectively deactivated by either high attentional demand or WM load. Attention-selective deactivations appeared in the left ventrolateral and medial prefrontal cortex and the left lateral temporal cortex. Conversely, WM-selective deactivations were found predominantly in the right hemisphere including the medial-parietal, the lateral temporo-parietal, and the medial prefrontal cortex. Moreover, during WM encoding deactivated regions showed task-specific functional connectivity. These findings demonstrate that task-induced deactivations within parts of the DMN depend on the specific characteristics of the attention and WM components of the task. The DMN can thus be subdivided into a set of brain regions that deactivate indiscriminately in response to cognitive demand ("the core DMN") and a part whose deactivation depends on the specific task. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Quenching-induced deactivation of photosensitizer by nanoencapsulation to improve phototherapy of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeisser-Labouèbe, Magali; Mattiuzzo, Marc; Lange, Norbert; Gurny, Robert; Delie, Florence

    2009-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy has emerged as a promising alternative to current cancer treatment. However, conventional photosensitizers have several limitations due to their unsuitable pharmaceutical formulations and lack of selectivity. Our strategy was to exploit the advantages of nanoparticles and the quenching-induced deactivation of the model photosensitizer hypericin to produce "activatable" drug delivery systems. Efficient fluorescence and activity quenching were achieved by increasing the drug-loading rate of nanoparticles. In vitro assays confirmed the reversibility of hypericin deactivation, as the hypericin fluorescence and photodynamic activity were recovered upon cell internalization.

  5. Catalytic Activity and Deactivation of SO2 Oxidation Catalysts in Simulated Power Plant Flue Gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masters, Stephen G.; Chrissanthopoulos, Asthanassios; Eriksen, Kim Michael

    1997-01-01

    The catalyst deactivation and the simultaneious formation of compounds in commercial SO2 oxidation catalysts have been studied by combined activity measurements and in situ EPR spectroscopy in the temperature range 350-480 C in wet and dry simulated power plant flue gas.......The catalyst deactivation and the simultaneious formation of compounds in commercial SO2 oxidation catalysts have been studied by combined activity measurements and in situ EPR spectroscopy in the temperature range 350-480 C in wet and dry simulated power plant flue gas....

  6. A novel tarantula toxin stabilizes the deactivated voltage sensor of bacterial sodium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Cheng; Zhou, Xi; Nguyen, Phuong Tran; Zhang, Yunxiao; Hu, Zhaotun; Zhang, Changxin; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; DeCaen, Paul G; Liang, Songping; Liu, Zhonghua

    2017-07-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (Na V s) are activated by transiting the voltage sensor from the deactivated to the activated state. The crystal structures of several bacterial Na V s have captured the voltage sensor module (VSM) in an activated state, but structure of the deactivated voltage sensor remains elusive. In this study, we sought to identify peptide toxins stabilizing the deactivated VSM of bacterial Na V s. We screened fractions from several venoms and characterized a cystine knot toxin called JZTx-27 from the venom of tarantula Chilobrachys jingzhao as a high-affinity antagonist of the prokaryotic Na V s Ns V Ba (nonselective voltage-gated Bacillus alcalophilus ) and NaChBac (bacterial sodium channel from Bacillus halodurans ) (IC 50 = 112 nM and 30 nM, respectively). JZTx-27 was more efficacious at weaker depolarizing voltages and significantly slowed the activation but accelerated the deactivation of Ns V Ba, whereas the local anesthetic drug lidocaine was shown to antagonize Ns V Ba without affecting channel gating. Mutation analysis confirmed that JZTx-27 bound to S3-4 linker of Ns V Ba, with F98 being the critical residue in determining toxin affinity. All electrophysiological data and in silico analysis suggested that JZTx-27 trapped VSM of Ns V Ba in one of the deactivated states. In mammalian Na V s, JZTx-27 preferably inhibited the inactivation of Na V 1.5 by targeting the fourth transmembrane domain. To our knowledge, this is the first report of peptide antagonist for prokaryotic Na V s. More important, we proposed that JZTx-27 stabilized the Ns V Ba VSM in the deactivated state and may be used as a probe to determine the structure of the deactivated VSM of Na V s.-Tang, C., Zhou, X., Nguyen, P. T., Zhang, Y., Hu, Z., Zhang, C., Yarov-Yarovoy, V., DeCaen, P. G., Liang, S., Liu, Z. A novel tarantula toxin stabilizes the deactivated voltage sensor of bacterial sodium channel. © FASEB.

  7. Multi-Level Contact Oxidation Process Performance When Treating Automobile Painting Wastewater: Pollutant Removal Efficiency and Microbial Community Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufang Zhu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study applied a multi-level contact oxidation process system in a pilot-scale experiment to treat automobile painting wastewater. The experimental wastewater had been pre-treated through a series of physicochemical methods, but the water still contained a high concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD and had poor biodegradability. After the biological treatment, the COD concentration of effluent could stay below 300 mg/L. The study analyzed the effects of hydraulic residence time (HRT on COD, ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N, and total nitrogen (TN. The optimal HRT was 8 h; at that time, removal efficiencies of COD, ammonia nitrogen, and total nitrogen were 83.8%, 86.3%, and 65%, respectively. The system also greatly reduced excess sludge production; the removal efficiency was 82.8% with a HRT of 8 h. The study applied high-throughput pyrosequencing technology to evaluate the microbial diversity and community structures in distinct stages of the biological reactor. The relevance between process performance and microbial community structure was analyzed at the phylum and class level. The abundant Firmicutes made a large contribution to improving the biodegradability of painting wastewater through hydrolysis acidification and reducing sludge production through fermentation in the biological reactor.

  8. 24 CFR 35.1320 - Lead-based paint inspections, paint testing, risk assessments, lead-hazard screens, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint inspections, paint testing, risk assessments, lead-hazard screens, and reevaluations. 35.1320 Section 35.1320 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT...

  9. Investigating the effect of artists’ paint formulation on degradation rates of TiO2‑based oil paints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Driel, B.A.; van den Berg, K. J.; Smout, M.; Dekker, N; Kooyman, P.J.; Dik, J.

    2018-01-01

    This study reports on the effect of artists’ paint formulation on degradation rates of TiO2-based oil paints. Titanium white oil paint exists in a multitude of different recipes, and the effect of the formulation on photocatalytic binder
    degradation kinetics is unknown. These formulations

  10. 75 FR 6383 - Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting, and Pre-Renovation Education Activities in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ..., Repair and Painting, and Pre- Renovation Education Activities in Target Housing and Child Occupied....C. 2682(c)(3), and a lead-based paint pre-renovation education program in accordance with section... TSCA, and a lead-based paint pre-renovation education program in accordance with section 406(b) of TSCA...

  11. Chemical modeling of waste sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, C.F.; Beahm, E.C.

    1996-10-01

    The processing of waste from underground storage tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and other facilities will require an understanding of the chemical interactions of the waste with process chemicals. Two aspects of sludge treatment should be well delineated and predictable: (1) the distribution of chemical species between aqueous solutions and solids, and (2) potential problems due to chemical interactions that could result in process difficulties or safety concerns. It is likely that the treatment of waste tank sludge will begin with washing, followed by basic or acidic leaching. The dissolved materials will be in a solution that has a high ionic strength where activity coefficients are far from unity. Activity coefficients are needed in order to calculate solubilities. Several techniques are available for calculating these values, and each technique has its advantages and disadvantages. The techniques adopted and described here is the Pitzer method. Like any of the methods, prudent use of this approach requires that it be applied within concentration ranges where the experimental data were fit, and its use in large systems should be preceded by evaluating subsystems. While much attention must be given to the development of activity coefficients, other factors such as coprecipitation of species and Ostwald ripening must also be considered when one aims to interpret results of sludge tests or to predict results of treatment strategies. An understanding of sludge treatment processes begins with the sludge tests themselves and proceeds to a general interpretation with the aid of modeling. One could stop with only data from the sludge tests, in which case the table of data would become an implicit model. However, this would be a perilous approach in situations where processing difficulties could be costly or result in concerns for the environment or health and safety

  12. Critical operational parameters for zero sludge production in biological wastewater treatment processes combined with sludge disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seong-Hoon; Lee, Sangho

    2005-09-01

    Mathematical models were developed to elucidate the relationships among process control parameters and the effect of these parameters on the performance of anoxic/oxic biological wastewater processes combined with sludge disintegrators (A/O-SD). The model equations were also applied for analyses of activated sludge processes hybrid with sludge disintegrators (AS-SD). Solubilization ratio of sludge in the sludge disintegrator, alpha, hardly affected sludge reduction efficiencies if the biomass was completely destructed to smaller particulates. On the other hand, conversion efficiency of non-biodegradable particulates to biodegradable particulates, beta, significantly affected sludge reduction efficiencies because beta was directly related to the accumulation of non-biodegradable particulates in bioreactors. When 30% of sludge in the oxic tank was disintegrated everyday and beta was 0.5, sludge reduction was expected to be 78% and 69% for the A/O-SD and AS-SD processes, respectively. Under this condition, the sludge disintegration number (SDN), which is the amount of sludge disintegrated divided by the reduced sludge, was calculated to be around 4. Due to the sludge disintegration, live biomass concentration decreased while other non-biodegradable particulates concentration increased. As a consequence, the real F/M ratio was expected to be much higher than the apparent F/M. The effluent COD was maintained almost constant for the range of sludge disintegration rate considered in this study. Nitrogen removal efficiencies of the A/O-SD process was hardly affected by the sludge disintegration until daily sludge disintegration reaches 40% of sludge in the oxic tank. Above this level of sludge disintegration, autotrophic biomass concentration decreases overly and TKN in the effluent increases abruptly in both the A/O-SD and AS-SD processes. Overall, the trends of sludge reduction and effluent quality according to operation parameters matched well with experimental results

  13. Deactivation and Decommissioning Planning and Analysis with Geographic Information Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, James S.; Koffman, Larry D.; Austin, William E.

    2008-01-01

    From the mid-1950's through the 1980's, the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site produced nuclear materials for the weapons stockpile, for medical and industrial applications, and for space exploration. Although SRS has a continuing defense-related mission, the overall site mission is now oriented toward environmental restoration and management of legacy chemical and nuclear waste. With the change in mission, SRS no longer has a need for much of the infrastructure developed to support the weapons program. This excess infrastructure, which includes over 1000 facilities, will be decommissioned and demolished over the forthcoming years. Dis-positioning facilities for decommissioning and deactivation requires significant resources to determine hazards, structure type, and a rough-order-of-magnitude estimate for the decommissioning and demolition cost. Geographic information systems (GIS) technology was used to help manage the process of dis-positioning infrastructure and for reporting the future status of impacted facilities. Several thousand facilities of various ages and conditions are present at SRS. Many of these facilities, built to support previous defense-related missions, now represent a potential hazard and cost for maintenance and surveillance. To reduce costs and the hazards associated with this excess infrastructure, SRS has developed an ambitious plan to decommission and demolish unneeded facilities in a systematic fashion. GIS technology was used to assist development of this plan by: providing locational information for remote facilities, identifying the location of known waste units adjacent to buildings slated for demolition, and for providing a powerful visual representation of the impact of the overall plan. Several steps were required for the development of the infrastructure GIS model. The first step involved creating an accurate and current GIS representation of the infrastructure data. This data is maintained in a Computer Aided Design

  14. DMPD: Molecular mechanisms of macrophage activation and deactivation bylipopolysaccharide: roles of the receptor complex. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 14609719 Molecular mechanisms of macrophage activation and deactivation bylipopolys...acol Ther. 2003 Nov;100(2):171-94. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Molecular mechanisms of macrophage act...medID 14609719 Title Molecular mechanisms of macrophage activation and deactivation bylipopolysaccharide: ro

  15. Anaerobic digestion of industrial activated aerobic sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodloe, J.G.; Roberts, R.S.

    1990-04-01

    The Tennessee Eastman Company manufactures a variety of organic chemicals, plastics and fibers at their Kingsport Tennessee Facility. The wastewater generated during the manufacture of these compounds is currently treated using an activated sludge process. The objective of the project is to evaluate the economic potential of an anaerobic digestion process to convert industrial sludge at the Tennessee Eastman Company into biogas. The evaluation will require collection and analysis of experimental data on the anaerobic digestion of industrial sludge obtained from Kingsport. Although the experiments will be conducted using Tennessee Eastman sludge, these results should be also generally applicable to similar industrial sludge

  16. Sludge cleaning in the steam generators: sludge Lancing e IBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoro, E.; Gonzalez, S.; Calderon, N.

    2013-01-01

    IBERDROLA Engineering and Construction has echoed the need for plants to remove oxide deposits (sludge) located on the secondary side, on the bottom plate and into the tube bundle steam steam generators. Therefore, and with its partner SAVAC SRA has developed a specific system consisting of applying a capillary water at very high pressure applied directly to the location of these oxides. (Author)

  17. Improved waste-activated sludge dewatering using sludge/oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-10-07

    Oct 7, 2014 ... 2Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-Ro, Seongdong-Gu, Seoul 133-791, ... conventional heating methods in chemical reactions is becom- ... the dewaterability of sludge and reduces the organic matter ..... It is unlikely that this technique will be applied in.

  18. Internal contamination by tritium caused by radioluminescent paints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamiak-Ziemba, J.; Doniec, J.

    1985-01-01

    The internal contamination investigations covered 23 persons using radioluminescence paints containing tritium, assembling devices painted with those paints, and those having no contact with active paints but working next to the painting room. Determined were concentrations of tritium excreted with urine, air contamination at workplaces, contamination of workplace areas and hand skin. At the time covered by the investigations, the mean annual equivalent doses for those using tritium paints were reduced from 14-20 mSv to about 5 mSv. In those working next to the painting room they were reduced from 5.8-15 to 0.23 mSv. The exposure of those assembling the devices does not exceed 1 mSv. It was demonstrated that the main cause of the tritium exposure level was air contamination in working rooms.

  19. Final deactivation project report on the Integrated Process Demonstration Facility, Building 7602 Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the condition of the Integrated Process Demonstration Facility (Building 7602) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) after completion of deactivation activities by the High Ranking Facilities Deactivation Project (HRFDP). This report identifies the activities conducted to place the facility in a safe and environmentally sound condition prior to transfer to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration EM-40 Program. This report provides a history and description of the facility prior to commencing deactivation activities and documents the condition of the building after completion of all deactivation activities. Turnover items, such as the Post-Deactivation Surveillance and Maintenance (S ampersand M) Plan, remaining hazardous and radioactive materials inventory, radiological controls, Safeguards and Security, and supporting documentation provided in the Office of Nuclear Material and Facility Stabilization Program (EM-60) Turnover package are discussed

  20. Filterability of membrane bioreactor (MBR) sludge: impacts of polyelectrolytes and mixing with conventional activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Nevzat O; Civelekoglu, Gokhan; Cinar, Ozer; Kitis, Mehmet

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to investigate the filterability of MBR sludge and its mixture with conventional activated sludge (CAS). In addition, the impacts of type and dose of various polyelectrolytes, filter type and sludge properties on the filterability of both MBR and Mixed sludges were determined. Specific cake resistance (SCR) measured by the Buchner funnel filtration test apparatus and the solids content of the resulting sludge cake were used to assess the dewaterability of tested sludges. The type of filter paper used in Buchner tests affected the results of filterability for MBR, CAS and Mixed sludges. SCR values and optimum polyelectrolyte doses increased with increasing MLSS concentrations in the MBR, which suggested that increase in MLSS concentrations accompanied by increases in EPS and SMP concentrations and a shift toward smaller particles caused poorer dewaterability of the MBR sludge. The significant differences observed among the filterability of CAS and MBR sludges suggested that MLSS alone is not a good predictor of sludge dewaterability. Combining CAS and MBR sludges at different proportions generally improved their dewaterability. Combining MBR sludges having typically high MLSS and EPS concentrations with CAS having much lower MLSS concentrations may be an option for full-scale treatment plants experiencing sludge dewaterability problems. Better filterability and higher cake dry solids were achieved with cationic polyelectrolytes compared to anionic and non-ionic ones for all sludge types tested.

  1. Electrodialytic removal of cadmium from wastewater sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M. R.; Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Nielsen, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents for the first time laboratory results demonstrating electrodialytic removal of Cd from wastewater sludge, which is a method originally developed for soil remediation. During the remediation a stirred suspension of wastewater sludge was exposed to an electric dc field. The liquid....../solid (ml/g fresh sludge) ratio was between 1.4 and 2. Three experiments were performed where the sludge was suspended in distilled water, citric acid or HNO"3. The experimental conditions were otherwise identical. The Cd removal in the three experiments was 69, 70 and 67%, respectively, thus the removal...... was approximately the same. Chemical extraction experiments with acidic solutions showed that 5-10 times more Cd could be extracted from decomposed sludge than from fresh sludge. It is likely that the mobilization of Cd during decomposition of the sludge contributes to the efficient removal of Cd...

  2. Step changes and deactivation behaviour in the continuous decarboxylation of stearic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Rozmyslowicz, B.; Simakova, I.

    2011-01-01

    % conversion of pure stearic acid. Deactivation took place in H-2-deficient gas atmosphere, probably as a result of the formation of unsaturated products and coking in the pore system. Transient experiments with step changes were performed: 1 h was required for the step change to be visible in liquid sampling...

  3. Stability, Deactivation, and Regeneration of Chloroaluminate Ionic Liquid as Catalyst for Industrial C4 Alkylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Alkylation of isobutane and 2-butene was carried out in a continuous unit using triethylamine hydrochloride (Et3NHCl-aluminum chloride (AlCl3 ionic liquid (IL as catalyst. The effects of impurities such as water, methanol, and diethyl ether on the stability of the catalytic properties and deactivation of the ionic liquid were studied in the continuous alkylation. In the Et3NHCl-2AlCl3 ionic liquid, only one half of the aluminum chloride could act as the active site. With a molar ratio of 1:1, the active aluminum chloride in the ionic liquid was deactivated by water by reaction or by diethyl ether through complexation while the complexation of aluminum chloride with two molecular proportions of methanol inactivated the active aluminum chloride in the ionic liquid. The deactivation of chloroaluminate ionic liquid was observed when the active aluminum chloride, i.e., one half of the total aluminum chloride in the ionic liquid, was consumed completely. The regeneration of the deactivated ionic liquid was also investigated and the catalytic activity could be recovered by means of replenishment with fresh aluminum chloride.

  4. Innovative Work Practices and Lessons Learned at the N Area Deactivation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    This report identifies many of the lessons learned, innovations,and effective work practices that derived from activities supporting the N Area Deactivation Project at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. The work practices discussed in this report may be applicable and beneficial to similar projects throughout the DOE complex

  5. Deactivation of Legionella Pneumophila in municipal wastewater by ozone generated in arrays of microchannel plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shengkun; Li, Jun; Kim, Min-Hwan; Cho, Jinhoon; Park, Sung-Jin; Nguyen, Thanh H.; Eden, J. Gary

    2018-06-01

    A greater than four log10 reduction in the concentration of Legionella pneumophila in municipal wastewater has been achieved in 1 min with ozone produced by a microchannel plasma reactor. Requiring less than 22 W of electrical power, and ambient air as the feedstock gas, the microplasma ozone generator is robust and a promising alternative to conventional corona and dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) technologies. Contrary to previous studies, the Ct model for pathogen deactivation (i.e. rate proportional to the product of the available disinfectant concentration and the exposure duration) is found to be valid for L. pneumophila. Accordingly, wastewater-specific Ct equations have been developed to predict the deactivation of L. pneumophila in the secondary wastewater environment. Inactivation of this pathogen was found to be dependent on temperature only in the absence of wastewater organic matter (WOM). In the presence of WOM, pathogen deactivation is controlled by the disinfection contact time, initial ozone concentration (varied between 15 and 281 µg l‑1), and initial WOM loading. The data reported here will assist in the implementation of plasma ozone generators for L. pneumophila deactivation in cooling towers, point-of-use systems, and wastewater reclamation facilities.

  6. A One Year Study of Mode Deactivation Therapy: Adolescent Residential Patients with Conduct and Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Christopher J.; Siv, Alexander M.

    2011-01-01

    This case study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Mode Deactivation Therapy (MDT) implementation in a child and adolescent residential treatment unit and provide preliminary effectiveness data on MDT versus treatment as usual (TAU). This case study compared the efficacy of two treatment methodologies for adolescent males in residential treatment…

  7. Family Mode Deactivation Therapy as a Manualized Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apsche, Jack A.; Bass, Christopher K.; Houston, Marsha-Ann

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the effectiveness of Mode Deactivation Family Therapy (MDT) in an outpatient setting as compared to Treatment as Usual (TAU). MDT is an evidence-based psychotherapy and has been shown to be effective treating adolescents with a variety of problems involving emotional disorder, physical and sexual aggression, as well as…

  8. Boron deactivation in heavily boron-doped Czochralski silicon during rapid thermal anneal: Atomic level understanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Chao; Dong, Peng; Yi, Jun; Ma, Xiangyang; Yang, Deren; Lu, Yunhao

    2014-01-01

    The changes in hole concentration of heavily boron (B)-doped Czochralski silicon subjected to high temperature rapid thermal anneal (RTA) and following conventional furnace anneal (CFA) have been investigated. It is found that decrease in hole concentration, namely, B deactivation, is observed starting from 1050 °C and increases with RTA temperature. The following CFA at 300–500 °C leads to further B deactivation, while that at 600–800 °C results in B reactivation. It is supposed that the interaction between B atoms and silicon interstitials (I) thus forming BI pairs leads to the B deactivation during the high temperature RTA, and, moreover, the formation of extended B 2 I complexes results in further B deactivation in the following CFA at 300–500 °C. On the contrary, the dissociation of BI pairs during the following CFA at 600–800 °C enables the B reactivation. Importantly, the first-principles calculation results can soundly account for the above-mentioned supposition

  9. Boron deactivation in heavily boron-doped Czochralski silicon during rapid thermal anneal: Atomic level understanding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Chao; Dong, Peng; Yi, Jun; Ma, Xiangyang, E-mail: luyh@zju.edu.cn, E-mail: mxyoung@zju.edu.cn; Yang, Deren [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Lu, Yunhao, E-mail: luyh@zju.edu.cn, E-mail: mxyoung@zju.edu.cn [International Center for New-Structured Materials and Laboratory of New-Structured Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2014-01-20

    The changes in hole concentration of heavily boron (B)-doped Czochralski silicon subjected to high temperature rapid thermal anneal (RTA) and following conventional furnace anneal (CFA) have been investigated. It is found that decrease in hole concentration, namely, B deactivation, is observed starting from 1050 °C and increases with RTA temperature. The following CFA at 300–500 °C leads to further B deactivation, while that at 600–800 °C results in B reactivation. It is supposed that the interaction between B atoms and silicon interstitials (I) thus forming BI pairs leads to the B deactivation during the high temperature RTA, and, moreover, the formation of extended B{sub 2}I complexes results in further B deactivation in the following CFA at 300–500 °C. On the contrary, the dissociation of BI pairs during the following CFA at 600–800 °C enables the B reactivation. Importantly, the first-principles calculation results can soundly account for the above-mentioned supposition.

  10. Deactivation of vanadia-based commercial SCR catalysts by polyphosphoric acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castellino, Francesco; Rasmussen, Søren Birk; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2008-01-01

    Commercial vanadia-based SCR monoliths have been exposed to flue gases in a pilot-scale Setup into which phosphoric acid has been added and the deactivation has been followed during the exposure time. Separate measurements by SMPS showed that the phosphoric acid formed polyphosphoric acid aerosols...

  11. Project Management Plan for the Isotopes Facilities Deactivation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The purpose of the Isotopes Facilities Deactivation Project (IFDP) is to place former isotopes production facilities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in a safe, stable, and environmentally sound condition suitable for an extended period of minimum surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M) and as quickly and economically as possible. Implementation and completion of the deactivation project will further reduce the already small risks to the environment and to public safety and health. Furthermore, the project should result in significant S ampersand M cost savings in the future. The IFDP management plan has been prepared to document the project objectives, define organizational relationships and responsibilities, and outline the management control systems to be employed in the management of the project. The project has adopted a strategy to deactivate the simple facilities first, to reduce the scope of the project, and to gain experience before addressing more difficult facilities. A decision support system is being developed to identify those activities, that best promote the project mission and result in largest cost savings. The Work Plan for the Isotopes Facilities Deactivation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Energy Systems 1994) defines the project schedule, the cost estimate, and the technical approach for the project

  12. On the Deactivation of Cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cats, K.H.

    2016-01-01

    The Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) process is an attractive way to obtain synthetic liquid fuel from alternative energy sources such as natural gas, coal or biomass. However, the deactivation of the catalyst, consisting of cobalt nanoparticles supported on TiO2, currently hampers the industrial

  13. Prediction of optical properties of paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ďurikovič, Roman; Ágošton, Tomaš

    2007-09-01

    The field of predictive rendering concerns itself with those methods of image synthesis which yield results that do not only look real, but are also radiometrically correct renditions of nature, i.e., which are accurate predictions of what a real scene would look like under given lighting conditions. A real coating consists of pigments, effect pigments, clear lacquer and glaze. A novel and unique combination of real parameters that are commonly measured in the industry and a theoretical reflectance model consisting of measurable parameters is required. Here, the authors design perception parameters and put them into well known surface reflection functions such as He and Torrance. The original contributions are the study of the sub-surface scattering of real paint and the prediction of its appearance in rendered images by the proposed model of light reflection beneath the paint surface.

  14. NASA logo painted on orbiter Endeavour

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    A KSC worker paints the NASA logo on the port wing of the orbiter Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch in December for STS-88. The paint is a special pigment that takes 18 hours to dry; the whole process takes approximately two weeks to complete. The NASA logo, termed 'meatball,' was originally designed in the late 1950s. It symbolized NASA's role in aeronautics and space in the early years of the agency. The original design included a white border surrounding it. The border was dropped for the Apollo 7 mission in October 1968, replaced with royal blue to match the background of the emblem. In 1972 the logo was replaced by a simple and contemporary design -- the 'worm' -- which was retired from use last year. NASA reverted to its original logo in celebration of the agency's 40th anniversary in October, and the 'golden age' of America's space program. All the orbiters will bear the new logo.

  15. Water-Based Pressure Sensitive Paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oglesby, Donald M.; Ingram, JoAnne L.; Jordan, Jeffrey D.; Watkins, A. Neal; Leighty, Bradley D.

    2004-01-01

    Preparation and performance of a water-based pressure sensitive paint (PSP) is described. A water emulsion of an oxygen permeable polymer and a platinum porphyrin type luminescent compound were dispersed in a water matrix to produce a PSP that performs well without the use of volatile, toxic solvents. The primary advantages of this PSP are reduced contamination of wind tunnels in which it is used, lower health risk to its users, and easier cleanup and disposal. This also represents a cost reduction by eliminating the need for elaborate ventilation and user protection during application. The water-based PSP described has all the characteristics associated with water-based paints (low toxicity, very low volatile organic chemicals, and easy water cleanup) but also has high performance as a global pressure sensor for PSP measurements in wind tunnels. The use of a water-based PSP virtually eliminates the toxic fumes associated with the application of PSPs to a model in wind tunnels.

  16. Noise resistance applied to the study paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanchas Garcia-Zarco, S.; Alfosin Perez, V.; Suarez Garcia, A.; Urrejola Madrinan, S.; Sanchez Bermudez, A.

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical noise is one of the methods of analysis used to interpret the phenomenon of corrosion. It has a number of advantages over other methodology types including its simplicity, its low cost and the fact that it does not disturb the system. This methodology appears to be effective together with other techniques in metal-electrolyte systems. In this case the technique is applied on its own on commercial anti-corrosion paints for which no information is available from other techniques. The main result of this study reveals the effectiveness of the noise resistance parameter, which had already been tested in the lab, when it is used to explain how the paint system behaves in industry. (Author)

  17. Deactivation of silica surfaces with a silanol-terminated polysiloxane; Structural characterization by inverse gas chromatography and solid-state NMR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, A.B.; Haan, de J.W.; Janssen, J.G.M.; Ven, van de L.J.M.; Cramers, C.A.M.G.

    1997-01-01

    Retention gape deactivated with Silicone OV-1701-OH show good chromatographic performance and remarkable stability against water induced stationary phase degradrdation. In an attempt to better understand the findamentals off the deactivation process using silanol terminated polysiloxanes, a fumed

  18. Methylisothiazolinone and benzisothiazolinone are widely used in paint: a multicentre study of paints from five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, Jakob F; Lundov, Michael; Bossi, Rossana

    2015-01-01

    were found in paints from all five countries. Paints purchased in Denmark and Sweden contained especially high concentrations of BIT. CONCLUSION: The use of MI across European countries is extensive. In view of the ongoing epidemic of MI contact allergy, an evaluation of the safety of MI in paints......BACKGROUND: In view of the current epidemic of contact allergy to methylisothiazolinone (MI), it is important to clarify the extent of use of MI and related isothiazolinones in paints currently available for the consumer and worker in Europe. OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the use and concentrations...... of MI, methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI) and benzisothiazolinone (BIT) in paints on the European retail market. METHODS: Wall paints (n = 71) were randomly purchased in retail outlets in five European countries. The paints were quantitatively analysed for their contents of MI, MCI and BIT by high...

  19. Solidification process for sludge residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, K.L.

    1998-01-01

    This report investigates the solidification process used at 100-N Basin to solidify the N Basin sediment and assesses the N Basin process for application to the K Basin sludge residue material. This report also includes a discussion of a solidification process for stabilizing filters. The solidified matrix must be compatible with the Environmental Remediation Disposal Facility acceptance criteria

  20. Sludge stabilization operability test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, W.S.

    1994-01-01

    Document provides the results of the Operability Test Procedure performed to test the operability of the HC-21C thermal stabilization process for sludge. The OTP assured all equipment functioned properly and established the baseline temperature profile for glovebox HC-21C

  1. Thermal analysis of kieselguhr sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Antipov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It’s currently necessary to clarify the mechanisms of thermodynamic and mass transfer processes in capillary porous media. In this paper we obtain the thermogravimetric curves of evaporation drying kieselguhr sludge. It is also an analysis of the curves, allowing to choose the optimum conditions of drying.

  2. Fluidization of Dried Wastewater Sludge.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartman, Miloslav; Pohořelý, Michael; Trnka, Otakar

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 178, 3 (2007) , s. 166-172 ISSN 0032-5910 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4072201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : fluidization characteristics * multiphase reactors * dried stabilized wastewater sludge Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.130, year: 2007

  3. Fermentation and chemical treatment of pulp and paper mill sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon Y; Wang, Wei; Kang, Li

    2014-12-02

    A method of chemically treating partially de-ashed pulp and/or paper mill sludge to obtain products of value comprising taking a sample of primary sludge from a Kraft paper mill process, partially de-ashing the primary sludge by physical means, and further treating the primary sludge to obtain the products of value, including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge as a substrate to produce cellulase in an efficient manner using the resulting sludge as the only carbon source and mixtures of inorganic salts as the primary nitrogen source, and including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge to produce ethanol.

  4. Radiation disinfection of sewage sludge and composting of the irradiated sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Shoji; Nishimura, Koichi; Watanabe, Hiromasa; Kawakami, Waichiro

    1985-01-01

    In the radiation disinfected sewage sludge, its stabilization is necessary with the composting. In this disinfected sludge, there is no need of keeping it at high temperature at the cost of fermentation velocity. The fermentation velocity can thus be set to obtain its maximum value. In sewage sludge utilization of farm land, to prevent the contamination with pathogenic bacteria and the secondary pollution, the radiation disinfection of dehydrated sludge and the composting of the disinfected sludge have been studied. The disinfection effect when an electron accelerator is used for the radiation source is described. Then, the composting of the disinfected sludge is described in chemical kinetics of the microorganisms. (Mori, K.)

  5. Effects of Sludge-amendment on Mineralization of Pyrene and Microorganisms in Sludge and Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge, C; Gejlsbjerg, B; Ekelund, Flemming

    2001-01-01

    . Sludge-amendment enhanced the mineralization of pyrene in the soil compared to soil without sludge, and the most extensive mineralization was observed when the sludge was kept in a lump. The number of protozoa, heterotrophic bacteria and pyrene-mineralizing bacteria was much higher in the sludge compared...... to the soil. The amendment of sludge did not affect the number of protozoa and bacteria in the surrounding soil, which indicated that organic contaminants in the sludge had a little effect on the number of protozoa and bacteria in the surrounding soil...

  6. Colour Dematerialization in Spiritual Literature and Painting

    OpenAIRE

    Sudrajat, Dadang; Piliang, Yasraf Amir; Sanjaya, Tisna; Kusmara, Andriyanto Rikrik

    2017-01-01

    Colour in variety of art expression can be interpreted differently. This study is aiming at analyzing the colour dematerialization of Javanese spiritual literature “Falsafah Jeroning Warna” by Suprapto Kadis and a painting by Ahmad Sadali entitled “Gunung Mas”. Research was done by employing qualitative research, while data was collected by observation, interview, discussion, and documentation study. The analysis of meanings in the two art works was done in descriptive way by using the theory...

  7. Understanding Korean food culture from Korean paintings

    OpenAIRE

    Hae Kyung Chung; Kyung Rhan Chung; Hung Ju Kim

    2016-01-01

    Background: In Korea, there are many traditional foods that have developed along with the country's rich history. In addition, various food cultures have developed through agricultural traditions, ritual ceremonies, and the sharing of affection. Paintings, works of calligraphy, and music demonstrate some of these cultural characteristics of Korean foods. Further research and analysis of Korean food culture using these data sources is currently underway. Methods: This paper focuses on the c...

  8. 'Weightless' acrylic painting by Jack Kroehnke

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    'Weightless' acrylic painting by Jack Kroehnke depicts STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) David C. Hilmers participating in extravehicular activity (EVA) simulation in JSC Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. In the payload bay (PLB) mockup, Hilmers, wearing extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), holds onto the mission-peculiar equipment support structure in foreground while SCUBA-equipped diver monitors activity overhead and camera operator records EVA procedures. Copyrighted art work for use by NASA.

  9. Painting radioprotection at the nuclear eve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portelli, Aurelien; Travadel, Sebastien; Guarnieri, Franck; Parizel, Claire

    2017-01-01

    The CEA Marcoule centre is one of the first pillar of the French nuclear industry. The radiation protection department (SPR) of the centre benefited from the artistic skill of Jacques Castan who illustrated the safety campaigns of the SPR since 1959 and fed an imagination about radiation protection. His most ambitious creation was a wall painting in a staircase, made in 1962. This article describes the symbolic meaning of this work of art, which is today missing

  10. Intumescent paint as fire protection coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. R.S. OLIVEIRA

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper is a compendium on intumescent paint and its main features regarding chemical composition, thermophysical properties and performance as a fire-retardant material. Some of the main technical publications and lines of research on the subject are presented herein. The purpose of this paper is to show the current stage of the technical research being conducted on the topic and enable a better understanding of this fire-retardant material.

  11. Planning for closure and deactivation of the EBR-II complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelbacher, J.A.; Henslee, S.P.; Poland, H.F.; Wells, P.B.

    1997-01-01

    In January 1994, DOE terminated the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Program. Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) prepared a detailed plan to put Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) in a safe condition, including removal of irradiated fueled subassemblies from the plant, transfer of subassemblies, and removal and stabilization of primary and secondary sodium liquid heat transfer metal. The goal of deactivation is to stabilize the EBR-II complex until decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) is implemented, thereby minimizing maintenance and surveillance. Deactivation of a sodium cooled reactor presents unique concerns. Residual sodium in the primary and secondary systems must be either reacted or inerted to preclude concerns with explosive sodium-air reactions. Also, residual sodium on components will effectively solder these items in place, making removal unfeasible. Several special cases reside in the primary system, including primary cold traps, a cesium trap, a cover gas condenser, and systems containing sodium-potassium alloy. The sodium or sodium-potassium alloy in these components must be reacted in place or the components removed. The Sodium Components Maintenance Shop at ANL-W provides the capability for washing primary components, removing residual quantities of sodium while providing some decontamination capacity. Considerations need to be given to component removal necessary for providing access to primary tank internals for D ampersand D activities, removal of hazardous materials, and removal of stored energy sources. ANL-W's plan for the deactivation of EBR-II addresses these issues, providing for an industrially and radiologically safe complex, requiring minimal surveillance during the interim period between deactivation and D ampersand D. Throughout the deactivation and closure of the EBR-II complex, federal environmental concerns will be addressed, including obtaining the proper permits for facility condition and waste processing

  12. External beam PIXE analysis of painting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascholati, Paulo R.; Rizzutto, Marcia A.; Barbosa, Marcel D.L.; Albuquerque, Cindy

    2005-01-01

    The preservation and conservation of mankind cultural heritage has become an important issue worldwide. Non-destructive analytical techniques are suitable, for example, to analyze precious and unique objects of art and archaeology. Among those techniques Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) has good advantage to identify elemental composition present in these kinds of objects. The Laboratorio de Analise de Materiais por Feixes Ionicos-LAMFI of the Institute of Physics of the University of Sao Paulo has been installed an external beam facility for PIXE analysis. This new setup is being used for the analysis of archaeological pottery artifacts, paintings and biological tissues (teeth and bones), which are not compatible with the high vacuum of the regular PIXE target chamber. In addition most art and archaeological objects are too large for the evacuated analysis chamber. Applications of this facility will be presented in the analysis of one painting of the beginning of the last century. The chemical elements identified in the painting were Ca, Ti, Cr, Cu, Fe, Zn, Pb and Ba. The PIXE measurements were done non-destructively and no visible damage was observed on the irradiated object. (author)

  13. Smart paint sensor for monitoring structural vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Saffar, Y; Baz, A; Aldraihem, O

    2012-01-01

    A class of smart paint sensors is proposed for monitoring the structural vibration of beams. The sensor is manufactured from an epoxy resin which is mixed with carbon black nano-particles to make it electrically conducting and sensitive to mechanical vibrations. A comprehensive theoretical and experimental investigation is presented to understand the underlying phenomena governing the operation of this class of paint sensors and evaluate its performance characteristics. A theoretical model is presented to model the electromechanical behavior of the sensor system using molecular theory. The model is integrated with an amplifier circuit in order to predict the current and voltage developed by the paint sensor when subjected to loading. Furthermore, the sensor/amplifier circuit models are coupled with a finite element model of a base beam to which the sensor is bonded. The resulting multi-field model is utilized to predict the behavior of both the sensor and the beam when subjected to a wide variety of vibration excitations. The predictions of the multi-field finite element model are validated experimentally and the behavior of the sensor is evaluated both in the time and the frequency domains. The performance of the sensor is compared with the performance of conventional strain gages to emphasize its potential and merits. The presented techniques are currently being extended to sensors that can monitor the vibration and structural power flow of two-dimensional structures. (paper)

  14. Recycling of paint-contaminated grit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, R; al-Alawi, D; al-Nabhani, M; Pillay, A E; al-Hamdi, A

    2001-08-01

    The impact on the environment of using paint-contaminated grit (PCG) as a partial or full replacement for sand in Portland cement mortar and asphalt concrete mixtures was investigated. The grit waste material originated from abrasive blasting of offshore steel structures. There is a major environmental concern regarding the safe disposal of the spent blasting abrasives that contain paint chips or paint particles and other debris removed from the surface of the steel structures. This work investigated the potential reuse of PCG in Portland cement concrete (PCC) and hot mix asphalt concrete. Several studies were conducted to establish the integrity of the materials containing the recycled grit. These included the chemical and physical characterization of natural sand and PCG, the assay of leaches associated with the grit material for hazardous metal contaminants, such as Cr, Cd and Pb, and the assessment of the mechanical properties of the PCG-substituted mortars by applying special tests (such as Marshall stability and determination of the flow properties) to the PCG-substituted asphalt concrete mixtures. The overall results demonstrated that the potential reuse of PCG in PCC and asphalt concrete mixtures would not pose any environmental threat and could produce several benefits, such as reduced disposal costs, protection of water sources from improper disposal practices and reduced costs in the production of natural aggregates and asphalt cement.

  15. Statistics Analysis Measures Painting of Cooling Tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zacharopoulou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study refers to the cooling tower of Megalopolis (construction 1975 and protection from corrosive environment. The maintenance of the cooling tower took place in 2008. The cooling tower was badly damaged from corrosion of reinforcement. The parabolic cooling towers (factory of electrical power are a typical example of construction, which has a special aggressive environment. The protection of cooling towers is usually achieved through organic coatings. Because of the different environmental impacts on the internal and external side of the cooling tower, a different system of paint application is required. The present study refers to the damages caused by corrosion process. The corrosive environments, the application of this painting, the quality control process, the measures and statistics analysis, and the results were discussed in this study. In the process of quality control the following measurements were taken into consideration: (1 examination of the adhesion with the cross-cut test, (2 examination of the film thickness, and (3 controlling of the pull-off resistance for concrete substrates and paintings. Finally, this study refers to the correlations of measurements, analysis of failures in relation to the quality of repair, and rehabilitation of the cooling tower. Also this study made a first attempt to apply the specific corrosion inhibitors in such a large structure.

  16. Photocatalytic surface reactions on indoor wall paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salthammer, T; Fuhrmann, F

    2007-09-15

    The reduction of indoor air pollutants by air cleaning systems has received considerable interest, and a number of techniques are now available. So far, the method of photocatalysis was mainly applied by use of titanium dioxide (TiO2) in flow reactors under UV light of high intensity. Nowadays, indoor wall paints are equipped with modified TiO2 to work as a catalyst under indoor daylight or artificial light. In chamber experiments carried out under indoor related conditions itwas shown thatthe method works for nitrogen dioxide with air exchange and for formaldehyde without air exchange at high concentrations. In further experiments with volatile organic compounds (VOCs), a small effect was found for terpenoids with high kOH rate constants. For other VOCs and carbon monoxide there was no degradation at all or the surface acted as a reversible sink. Secondary emissions from the reaction of paint constituents were observed on exposure to light. From the results it is concluded that recipes of photocatalytic wall paints need to be optimized for better efficiency under indoor conditions.

  17. Hexavalent chromium removal using aerobic activated sludge batch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The following Cr(VI) removal systems were tested: activated sludge alone; activated sludge with an external electron donor (5 g/. of lactose); activated sludge with PAC addition (4 g/.); activated sludge with both PAC and lactose; and PAC alone. The results reported here showed that activated sludges are capable of ...

  18. Occurrence of bisphenol A in wastewater and wastewater sludge of CUQ treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipti Prakash Mohapatra

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The identification and quantification of bisphenol A (BPA in wastewater (WW and wastewater sludge (WWS is of major interest to assess the endocrine activity of treated effluent discharged into the environment. BPA is manufactured in high quantities fro its use in adhesives, powder paints, thermal paper and paper coatings among others. Due to the daily use of these products, high concentration of BPA was observed in WW and WWS. BPA was measured in samples from Urban Community of Quebec wastewater treatment plant located in Quebec (Canada using LC-MS/MS method. The results showed that BPA was present in significant quantities (0.07 μg L–1 to 1.68 μg L–1 in wastewater and 0.104 μg g–1 to 0.312 μg g–1 in wastewater sludge in the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP. The treatment plant is efficient (76 % in removal of pollutant from process stream, however, environmentally significant concentrations of 0.41 μg L–1 were still present in the treated effluent. Rheological study established the partitioning of BPA within the treatment plant. This serves as the base to judge the portion of the process stream requiring more treatment for degradation of BPA and also in selection of different treatment methods. Higher BPA concentration was observed in primary and secondary sludge solids (0.36 and 0.24 μg g–1, respectively as compared to their liquid counterpart (0.27 and 0.15 μg L–1, respectively separated by centrifugation. Thus, BPA was present in significant concentrations in the WWTP and mostly partitioned in the solid fraction of sludge (Partition coefficient (Kd for primary, secondary and mixed sludge was 0.013, 0.015 and 0.012, respectively.

  19. Difference in brain activations during appreciating paintings and photographic analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori eMizokami

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have investigated neural correlates of aesthetic appreciation for paintings but to date the findings have been heterogeneous. This heterogeneity may be attributed to previous studies’ measurement of aesthetic appreciation of not only the beauty of paintings but also the beauty of motifs of the paintings. In order to better elucidate the beauty of paintings, it seems necessary to compare aesthetic appreciation of paintings and photographic analogues which included corresponding real images. We prepared for famous painters’ pictures and their photographic analogues which were set up to resemble each painting in order to investigate the hypothesis that there exist specific neural correlates associated with the aesthetic appreciation for paintings. Forty-four subjects participated in functional magnetic resonance study which required comparisons of aesthetic appreciation of paintings of still life and landscape versus photographic analogues including corresponding real images of still life and landscape. Bilateral cuneus and the left lingual gyrus were activated in the comparison of aesthetic appreciation of paintings versus photographic analogues. In conclusion, the present findings suggest a possibility of the existence of specific neural correlates associated with the aesthetic appreciation for paintings and that bilateral cuneus and the left lingual gyrus may be involved.

  20. Nanoparticles Ni electroplating and black paint for solar collector applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. El Nady

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A nanoparticles layer of bright nickel base was deposited on copper substrates using electrodeposition technique before spraying the paint. IR reflectance of the paint was found to be around 0.4 without bright nickel layer and the reflectance increased to 0.6 at a Ni layer thickness of 750 nm. The efficiency of the constructed solar collectors using black paint and black paint combined with bright nickel was found to be better than black paint individually. After aging tests under high temperature, Bright nickel improved the stability of the absorber paint. The collector optical gain FR(τα was lowered by 24.7% for the commercial paint and lowered by 19.3% for the commercial paint combined with bright nickel. The overall heat loss FR(UL was increased by 3.3% for the commercial paint and increased by 2.7% for the commercial paint combined with bright nickel after the temperature aging test.

  1. Sludge derived fuel technique of sewage sludge by oil vacuum evaporation drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seokhwan; Lim, Byungran; Lee, Sookoo

    2010-01-01

    Sewage sludge contains high content of organic materials and its water content is also very high about 80% even after filtration process. Landfill as a sludge treatment methods can cause odor problem and leachate production which can derive the secondary contamination of soil and groundwater. The ocean dumping will be prohibited according to the London Convention and domestic stringent environmental regulation. Based on domestic agenda on organic sewage sludge treatment, the ocean disposal will be prohibited from 2012, thus alternative methods are demanded. Sludge derived fuel (SDF) technology can alleviate the emission of greenhouse gas and recover energy from sludge. For proper treatment and SDF production from sludge, the vacuum evaporation and immersion frying technology was adopted in this research. This technology dries moisture in sludge after mixing with oil such as Bunker C oil, waste oil or waste food oil etc. Mixing sludge and oil secures liquidity of organic sludge to facilitate handling throughout the drying process. The boiling temperature could be maintained low through vacuum condition in whole evaporation process. This study was performed to find the optimum operating temperature and pressure, the mixing ratio of sludge and oil. Finally, we could obtained SDF which moisture content was less than 5%, its heating value was over 4,500 kcal/ kg sludge. This heating value could satisfy the Korean Fuel Standard for the Recycle Products. Assessed from the perspective of energy balance and economic evaluation, this sludge drying system could be widely used for the effective sludge treatment and the production of SDF. (author)

  2. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Pt... a Sewage Sludge Section 503.13(a)(4)(ii) requires that the product of the concentration for each...

  3. Textile wastewater treatment: aerobic granular sludge vs activated sludge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotito, Adriana Maria; De Sanctis, Marco; Di Iaconi, Claudio; Bergna, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    Textile effluents are characterised by high content of recalcitrant compounds and are often discharged (together with municipal wastewater to increase their treatability) into centralized wastewater treatment plants with a complex treatment scheme. This paper reports the results achieved adopting a granular sludge system (sequencing batch biofilter granular reactor - SBBGR) to treat mixed municipal-textile wastewater. Thanks to high average removals in SBBGR (82.1% chemical oxygen demand, 94.7% total suspended solids, 87.5% total Kjeldahl nitrogen, 77.1% surfactants), the Italian limits for discharge into a water receiver can be complied with the biological stage alone. The comparison with the performance of the centralized plant treating the same wastewater has showed that SBBGR system is able to produce an effluent of comparable quality with a simpler treatment scheme, a much lower hydraulic residence time (11 h against 30 h) and a lower sludge production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. K Basin sludge dissolution engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westra, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this engineering study is to investigate the available technology related to dissolution of the K Basin sludge in nitric acid. The conclusion of this study along with laboratory and hot cell tests with actual sludge samples will provide the basis for beginning conceptual design of the sludge dissolver. The K Basin sludge contains uranium oxides, fragments of metallic U, and some U hydride as well as ferric oxyhydroxide, aluminum oxides and hydroxides, windblown sand that infiltrated the basin enclosure, ion exchange resin, and miscellaneous materials. The decision has been made to dispose of this sludge separate from the fuel elements stored in the basins. The sludge will be conditioned so that it meets Tank Waste Remediation System waste acceptance criteria and can be sent to one of the underground storage tanks. Sludge conditioning will be done by dissolving the fuel constituents in nitric acid, separating the insoluble material, adding neutron absorbers for criticality safety, and then reacting the solution with caustic to co-precipitate the uranium and plutonium. There will be five distinct feed streams to the sludge conditioning process two from the K East (KE) Basin and three from the K West (KW) Basin. The composition of the floor and pit sludges which contain more iron oxides and sand than uranium is much different than the canister sludges which are composed of mostly uranium oxides. The sludge conditioning equipment will be designed to process all of the sludge streams, but some of the operating parameters will be adjusted as necessary to handle the different sludge stream compositions. The volume of chemical additions and the amount of undissolved solids will be much different for floor and pit sludge than for canister sludge. Dissolution of uranium metal and uranium dioxide has been studied quite thoroughly and much information is available. Both uranium metal and uranium dioxide have been dissolved on a large scale in nuclear fuel

  5. Attempts to deactivate tannins in fodder shrubs with physical and chemical treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salem, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)]. E-mail: bensalem.hichem@iresa.agrinet.tn; Saghrouni, L. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Ecole Superieure d' Agriculture de Mateur, Mateur (Tunisia); Nefzaoui, A. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)

    2005-08-19

    Chopping, water sprinkling, storage under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, urea, wood ash, activated charcoal and polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG) treatments were evaluated for their efficiency in deactivating tannins in shrub foliage. In a first trial, fresh leaves of Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. (acacia) were stored after chopping or without chopping and spraying or without spraying with water under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. The plant material was stored for 1, 7 and 14 days and analysed thereafter for extractable total phenols (TP), extractable total tannins (TT) and extractable condensed tannins (CT) contents. Chopping and water spraying substantially decreased the levels of TP, TT and CT of acacia. The rate of tannin deactivation increased in acacia stored under anaerobic conditions. Acacia stored for 7 days exhibited lower TP, TT and CT contents than that stored for only 1 day. Compared to the 7-day storage period, there was a further non-significant decrease in the level of these phenolic compounds when the storage duration was extended to 14 days. The highest level of rumen degradation of crude protein (CP) in sheep rumen was obtained with chopped, water sprinkled acacia leaves stored under anaerobic conditions. The second trial investigated the effect of increasing levels of urea (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 g/kg) and treatment duration (7, 14, 21 and 28 days) on CP, TP, TT and CT in acacia leaves. The 20 g/kg urea level was sufficient to totally deactivate tannins in acacia even with the shortest storage period, i.e. 7 days. However, urea treatment increased ash-free neutral detergent fibre content and did not improve in sacco acacia degradation. In the third trial air-dried 1 mm ground samples of acacia and kermes oak (Quercus coccifera L.) leaves were added to water (control), acacia wood ash, activated charcoal or PEG solutions (100 g/kg) at 1:10 (w/v) and shaken for 20 min. All these four treatments decreased TP, TT and CT contents and could be classified

  6. STUDY ON MAXIMUM SPECIFIC SLUDGE ACIVITY OF DIFFERENT ANAEROBIC GRANULAR SLUDGE BY BATCH TESTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The maximum specific sludge activity of granular sludge from large-scale UASB, IC and Biobed anaerobic reactors were investigated by batch tests. The limitation factors related to maximum specific sludge activity (diffusion, substrate sort, substrate concentration and granular size) were studied. The general principle and procedure for the precise measurement of maximum specific sludge activity were suggested. The potential capacity of loading rate of the IC and Biobed anaerobic reactors were analyzed and compared by use of the batch tests results.

  7. Environmental sustainability of wastewater sludge treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyer-Souchet, Florence; Larsen, Henrik Fred

    treatment for municipal waste water. A special focus area in Neptune is sludge handling because the sludge amount is expected to increase due to advanced waste water treatment. The main sludge processing methods assessed in Neptune can be divided into two categories: disintegration processes before...... anaerobic digestion (thermal hydrolysis and ultrasound disintegration) and inertisation processes performed at high temperatures (incineration, pyrolysis, gasification, wet oxidation) but they all aim at volume reduction and removal of biodegradable compounds before safe sludge disposal or reuse of its...... resources. As part of a sustainability assessment (or “best practice evaluation”), a comparison between the existing and new sludge handling techniques have been done by use of life cycle assessment (LCA).The concept of induced impacts as compared to avoided impacts when introducing a new sludge treatment...

  8. Sewage sludge and how to sell it

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, I M

    1977-10-01

    Largo, Florida dries its sludge and sells it as fertilizer for $80 to $169/T. The sludge processing plant capable of turning common sludge into a dry, pelletized soil conditioner was only slightly more expensive than the previously proposed concrete drying beds which would have required disposal of the dried residue. The city's experience in setting up the plant and marketing the finished product is discussed. The true advantage of selling heat-dried sludge is that residents of the surrounding area, knowing the value of the product to their lawns and shrubs, will provide the transportation for the product and the physical labor to spread it over an area wider than most municipalities could afford to own or operate. The current production cost of $140/T is high, but the addition of a sludge prethickener-conditioner process and expected future economies of scale as the volume of sludge treated increases should lower per ton costs.

  9. Project management plan for the isotopes facilities deactivation project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    Purpose of the deactivation project is to place former isotopes production facilities at ORNL in a safe, stable, and environmentally sound condition suitable for an extended period of minimum surveillance and maintenance. This management plan was prepared to document project objectives, define organizational relationships and responsibilities, and outline the management control systems. The project has adopted the strategy of deactivating the simple facilities first. The plan provides a road map for the quality assurance program and identifies other documents supporting the Isotopes Facilities Deactivation Project

  10. Are Shaman Paintings Material Religion or Religious Art?

    OpenAIRE

    Jong-chun Park

    2017-01-01

    Laurel Kendall, Jongsung Yang, and Yul Soo Yoon. God Pictures in Korean Contexts: The Ownership and Meaning of Shaman Paintings. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2015. God Pictures in Korean Contexts: The Ownership and Meaning of Shaman Paintings is a pioneering work, one that explores the proverbial “road not taken” by previous research on the subject. The authors situate “the lives of Korean shaman paintings [musindo] in a complex South Korean world; in shaman shrines, private co...

  11. Performance study of the paints for use in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, T.

    1978-01-01

    The performance of some Brazilian commercial paints under physical, chemical and radiation conditions typical of nuclear installations is studied. Resistance to gama rays in the range of 10 4 - 10 9 rad as well as the susceptibility to contamination, ease of decontamination and chemical resistance in 9 different types of paints are studied. Finally, suggestions are provided for the best choice of commercial paints according to their specific uses [pt

  12. Study of decontamination and radiation resistance properties of Indian paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.M.; Gopinathan, E.; Bhagwath, A.M.

    1976-01-01

    A brief introduction to the study of contamination and radiation resistance properties of Indian paints used as coating for structural materials in the nuclear industry is given. The general composition of paints such as epoxy, vinyl, alkyd, phenolic, chlesimated rubber, etc. is given. Method of sample preparation, processing and actual evaluation of decontaminability are described. The results have been discussed in terms of decontamination factors. Some recommendations based on the performance of the paints studied are also included. (K.B.)

  13. Test Production of Anti-Corrosive Paint in Laboratory Scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thein Thein Win, Daw; Khin Aye Tint, Daw; Wai Min Than, Daw

    2003-02-01

    The main purpose of this project is to produce the anti-corrosive paint in laboratory scale. In these experiments, local raw materials, natural resin (shellac), pine oil, turpentine and ethyl alcohol wer applied basically. Laboratory trials were undrtaken to determine the suitablity of raw materials ane their composition for anti-corrosive paint manufacture.The results obtained show that the anti-corrosive paint from experiment No.(30) is suitable for steel plate and this is also considered commercially economics

  14. The physicochemical characterization of cave paintings of Baja California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdez, B.; Cobo, J.; Schorr, M.; Cota, L.; Oviedo, F.

    2006-01-01

    The Palaeolithic paintings of Baja California constitute an important contribution to the national, historic and cultural patrimony of Mexico. The aim of this investigation was to determine the physicochemical characteristics, the microstructure and texture of these polychrome paintings, painted on rocks encountered in the mountainous, desert/arid zones of Baja California and Baja California South. The first stage of this work was devoted to the examination and recording of the cave paintings of 'El Vallecito', a narrow fluvial valley displaying large granitic rocks emerging from the sandy soil. Tiny painting samples were collected and analyzed by SEM, EDS and FTIR techniques. The painters used four main colours: red, black, yellow and white. The paint raw materials are mineral pigments: white (kaolin, calcite, and gypsum), red (hematite), yellow (ochre, limonite), black (charcoal from burnt wood or calcined bones) and water as a diluent and/or a binder, all encountered in the painters habitat. The minerals were collected, ground and sometimes heated to change their tone. By mixing with water, a spreadable paste or a thick slurry was produced, which was applied with the fingers for lines or a piece of animal skin for figures, respectively. The 100% solids, dry paint converts into a dense, hard layer, incrusted into the grainy, rough, hollow granite rock surface. This paint might be called s tone on stone , explaining its permanence for centuries enduring heat, wind and weather. A simulation of the painting technique was done at the Materials and Corrosion Laboratory, UABC by collecting mineral pigments, preparing the paint as a paste or slurry and applying it on a granitic rock. Knowing the paint composition, production and application techniques will be useful in e conservation and restoration of cave paintings and stone-built, ancient structures such as pyramids, cathedrals and monuments. (Author)

  15. Composting of gamma-radiation disinfected sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, W.; Hashimoto, S.; Watanabe, H.; Nishimura, K.; Watanabe, H.; Ito, H.; Takehisa, M.

    1981-01-01

    The composting of radiation disinfected sewage sludge has been studied since 1978, aiming to present a new process of sludge composting for agricultural uses. This process is composed of two steps: irradiation step to disinfect sludge, and composting step to remove odor and easily decomposable organics in sludge. In this paper, the gamma-irradiation effect on sludge cake and composting condition of irradiated sludge are discussed. (author)

  16. Economic comparison of sludge irradiation and alternative methods of municipal sludge treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstrom, S.B.; McGuire, H.E.

    1977-11-01

    The relative economics of radiation treatment and other sludge treatment processes are reported. The desirability of radiation treatment is assessed in terms of cost and the quality of the treated sludge product. The major conclusions of this study are: radiation treatment is a high-level disinfection process. Therefore, it should only be considered if high levels of disinfection are required for widespread reuse of the sludge; the handling, transporting and pathogen growback problems associated with disinfected wet sludge makes it less attractive for reuse than dry sludge; radiation of composted sludge produces a product of similar quality at less cost than any thermal treatment and/or flash drying treatment option for situations where a high degree of disinfection is required; and heavy metal concerns, especially cadmium, may limit the reuse of sludge despite high disinfection levels. It is recommended that radiation treatment of sludge, particularly dry sludge, continue to be studied. A sensitivity analysis investigating the optimal conditions under which sludge irradiation operates should be instigated. Furthermore, costs of adding sludge irradiation to existing sludge treatment schemes should be determined

  17. Use of a water treatment sludge in a sewage sludge dewatering process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górka, Justyna; Cimochowicz-Rybicka, Małgorzata; Kryłów, Małgorzata

    2018-02-01

    The objective of the research study was to determine whether a sewage sludge conditioning had any impact on sludge dewaterability. As a conditioning agent a water treatment sludge was used, which was mixed with a sewage sludge before a digestion process. The capillary suction time (CST) and the specific filtration resistance (SRF) were the measures used to determine the effects of a water sludge addition on a dewatering process. Based on the CST curves the water sludge dose of 0.3 g total volatile solids (TVS) per 1.0 g TVS of a sewage sludge was selected. Once the water treatment sludge dose was accepted, disintegration of the water treatment sludge was performed and its dewaterability was determined. The studies have shown that sludge dewaterability was much better after its conditioning with a water sludge as well as after disintegration and conditioning, if comparing to sludge with no conditioning. Nevertheless, these findings are of preliminary nature and future studies will be needed to investigate this topic.

  18. An Economic comparison of sludge irradiation and alternative methods of municipal sludge treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstrom, S.B.; McGuire, H.E.

    1977-11-01

    The relative economics of radiation treatment and other sludge treatment processes are reported. The desirability of radiation treatment is assessed in terms of cost and the quality of the treated sludge product. The major conclusions of this study are: radiation treatment is a high-level disinfection process. Therefore, it should only be considered if high levels of disinfection are required for widespread reuse of the sludge; the handling, transporting and pathogen growback problems associated with disinfected wet sludge makes it less attractive for reuse than dry sludge; radiation of composted sludge produces a product of similar quality at less cost than any thermal treatment and/or flash drying treatment option for situations where a high degree of disinfection is required; and heavy metal concerns, especially cadmium, may limit the reuse of sludge despite high disinfection levels. It is recommended that radiation treatment of sludge, particularly dry sludge, continue to be studied. A sensitivity analysis investigating the optimal conditions under which sludge irradiation operates should be instigated. Furthermore, costs of adding sludge irradiation to existing sludge treatment schemes should be determined.

  19. Solidifying power station resins and sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, A.S.D.; Haigh, C.P.

    1984-01-01

    Radioactive ion exchange resins and sludges arise at nuclear power stations from various operations associated with effluent treatment and liquid waste management. As the result of an intensive development programme, the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) has designed a process to convert power station resins and sludges into a shielded, packaged solid monolithic form suitable for final disposal. Research and development, the generic CEGB sludge/resin conditioning plant and the CEGB Active Waste Project are described. (U.K.)

  20. Preventive conservation applied to "Casa dos Patudos" oil painting collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafalda Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was the identification of specific risks affecting the collection of oil paintings in the historic house "Casa dos Patudos" (Alpiarça, Portugal and the development of mitigation strategies for the risks encountered. The methodology used was proposed by the Canadian Conservation Institute. The results showed that the main risks affecting this collection result from incorrect handling, increase in paint detachment due to the maintenance of paintings with paint lifting on display, occurrence of insect pests, high fluctuations in relative humidity and, excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Several preventive conservation strategies to mitigate these risks are proposed.

  1. Evaluation of stabilization of steel surface corrosion by paints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Dvořák

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with laboratory experiments focused on protective and stabilizing effects of paints designed to protect rusted steel surfaces. Two well-known paints (the Hammerite No.1 Rustbeater synthetic paint and the Antirezin water-soluble paint have been evaluated. The standardized tests according to ČSN have been used for the evaluation. Stabilization of rusted steel surface hasn’t been demonstrated during the tests. The SEM test method that covers micro-analysis of elements has been used for the evaluation as well.

  2. Oxygen-Independent Pressure Sensitive Paint, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Pressure sensitive paint (PSP) systems are excellent tools for performing global pressure measurements in aerodynamic testing, especially in wind tunnel studies. The...

  3. Digital cleaning and "dirt" layer visualization of an oil painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomero, Cherry May T; Soriano, Maricor N

    2011-10-10

    We demonstrate a new digital cleaning technique which uses a neural network that is trained to learn the transformation from dirty to clean segments of a painting image. The inputs and outputs of the network are pixels belonging to dirty and clean segments found in Fernando Amorsolo's Malacañang by the River. After digital cleaning we visualize the painting's discoloration by assuming it to be a transmission filter superimposed on the clean painting. Using an RGB color-to-spectrum transformation to obtain the point-per-point spectra of the clean and dirty painting images, we calculate this "dirt" filter and render it for the whole image.

  4. Thermal characterization of intumescent fire retardant paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabrese, L; Bozzoli, F; Rainieri, S; Pagliarini, G; Bochicchio, G; Tessadri, B

    2014-01-01

    Intumescent coatings are now the dominant passive fire protection materials used in industrial and commercial buildings. The coatings, which usually are composed of inorganic components contained in a polymer matrix, are inert at low temperatures and at higher temperatures, they expand and degrade to provide a charred layer of low conductivity materials. The charred layer, which acts as thermal barrier, will prevent heat transfer to underlying substrate. The thermal properties of intumescent paints are often unknown and difficult to be estimated since they vary significantly during the expansion process; for this reason the fire resistance validation of a commercial coatings is based on expensive, large-scale methods where each commercial coating-beam configuration has to be tested one by one. Adopting, instead, approaches based on a thermal modelling of the intumescent paint coating could provide an helpful tool to make easier the test procedure and to support the design of fire resistant structures as well. The present investigation is focused on the assessment of a methodology intended to the restoration of the equivalent thermal conductivity of the intumescent layer produced under the action of a cone calorimetric apparatus. The estimation procedure is based on the inverse heat conduction problem approach, where the temperature values measured at some locations inside the layer during the expansion process are used as input known data. The results point out that the equivalent thermal conductivity reached by the intumescent material at the end of the expansion process significantly depends on the temperature while the initial thickness of the paint does not seem to have much effect

  5. Thermal characterization of intumescent fire retardant paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, L.; Bozzoli, F.; Bochicchio, G.; Tessadri, B.; Rainieri, S.; Pagliarini, G.

    2014-11-01

    Intumescent coatings are now the dominant passive fire protection materials used in industrial and commercial buildings. The coatings, which usually are composed of inorganic components contained in a polymer matrix, are inert at low temperatures and at higher temperatures, they expand and degrade to provide a charred layer of low conductivity materials. The charred layer, which acts as thermal barrier, will prevent heat transfer to underlying substrate. The thermal properties of intumescent paints are often unknown and difficult to be estimated since they vary significantly during the expansion process; for this reason the fire resistance validation of a commercial coatings is based on expensive, large-scale methods where each commercial coating-beam configuration has to be tested one by one. Adopting, instead, approaches based on a thermal modelling of the intumescent paint coating could provide an helpful tool to make easier the test procedure and to support the design of fire resistant structures as well. The present investigation is focused on the assessment of a methodology intended to the restoration of the equivalent thermal conductivity of the intumescent layer produced under the action of a cone calorimetric apparatus. The estimation procedure is based on the inverse heat conduction problem approach, where the temperature values measured at some locations inside the layer during the expansion process are used as input known data. The results point out that the equivalent thermal conductivity reached by the intumescent material at the end of the expansion process significantly depends on the temperature while the initial thickness of the paint does not seem to have much effect.

  6. Land application of sewage sludge: Pathogen issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, A.C.

    1997-01-01

    Diseases transmitted via the faecal-oral exposure route cause severe gastroenteric disorders, and large numbers of causative organisms are discharged with the faecal matter of infected individuals. For this reason, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, protozoa, or helminths, are always found in sewage sludge. If not properly treated for use in agriculture, sludge can be a source of pathogenic contamination. Radiation is an attractive method to reduce the numbers of microorganisms in sewage sludge. Routine examination for pathogens is not practised nor recommended because complicated and costly procedures are involved. Instead, an indicator organism is usually assayed and enumerated. In this paper, methods are discussed for the investigation of pathogens in sewage sludge. (author)

  7. Where to dispose of the sewage sludge?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beurer, P.; Geering, F.

    2001-01-01

    The 'proper' course for the disposal of sewage sludge is a topic that has continually sparked intense discussion for years. New legal regulations have developed which have significantly changed the disposal structure. Nevertheless, the consumer market of agriculture products has an increasing influence on sewage sludge recycling possibilities. In this report, the changes in sewage sludge disposal within the last ten years and the expected development is pointed out. On account of legal guidelines and of political market influences, the thermal recycling of sewage sludge is considered as the future solution, which should, however, be adapted according to marginal situations. (author)

  8. Rheological properties of disintegrated sewage sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolski, Paweł

    2017-11-01

    The rheology of the sludge provides information about the capacity and the flow, which in the case of project tasks for the hydraulic conveying installation is an important control parameter. Accurate knowledge of the rheological properties of sludge requires the designation of rheological models. Models single and multiparameter (Ostwald, Bingham, Herschel-Bulkley'a, and others) allow an approximation of flow curves, and the determination of the boundaries of the flow of modified sludge allows you to control the process compaction or are dewatered sludge undergoing flow. The aim of the study was to determine the rheological parameters and rheological models of sludge conditioned by physical methods before and after the process of anaerobic digestion. So far, studies have shown that the application of conditioning in the preparation of sewage sludge increases shear stress, viscosity as well as the limits of flow in relation to the untreated sludge. Offset yield point by the application of a conditioning agent is associated with decreased flowability tested sludge, which has also been observed by analyzing the structure of the prepared samples. Lowering the yield point, and thus the shear stress was recorded as a result of the fermentation test of disintegrated sludge.

  9. Radioactive contamination of sewage sludge. Preliminary data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeder, C J; Zanders, E; Raphael, T

    1986-01-01

    Because of the radioactivity released through the explosion of the nuclear reactor near Chernobyl radionuclides have been accumulated to a significant extent in sewage sludge in the Federal Republic of Germany. This is demonstrated for samples from four activated sludge plants according to a recent recommendation of the German Commission for Radiation Protection, there is until now no reason to deviate from the common practices of sludge disposal or incineration. The degree of radioactive contamination of plant materials produced on farm lands on which sewage sludge is being spread cannot be estimated with sufficient certainty yet. Additional information is required.

  10. Sewage sludge as a biomass energy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Kolat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The major part of the dry matter content of sewage sludge consists of nontoxic organic compounds, in general a combination of primary sludge and secondary microbiological sludge. The sludge also contains a substantive amount of inorganic material and a small amount of toxic components. There are many sludge-management options in which production of energy is one of the key treatment steps. The most important options are anaerobic digestion, co-digestion, incineration in combination with energy recovery and co-incineration in coal-fired power plants. The goal of our applied research is to verify, if the sludge from waste water treatment plants may be used as a biomass energy source in respect of the EU legislation, which would comply with emission limits or the proposal of energy process optimizing the preparation of coal/sludge mixture for combustion in the existing fluid bed boilers in the Czech Republic. The paper discusses the questions of thermal usage of mechanically drained stabilized sewage sludge from the waste water treatment plants in the boiler with circulated fluid layer. The paper describes methods of thermal analysis of coal, sewage sludge and its mixtures, mud transport to the circulating fluidised bed boiler, effects on efficiency, operational reliability of the combustion equipment, emissions and solid combustion residues.

  11. A review of modeling approaches in activated sludge systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    Key words: Mathematical modeling, water, wastewater, wastewater treatment plants, activated sludge systems. INTRODUCTION ... sedimentation processes which take place in the aeration ...... activated sludge waste water treatment systems.

  12. Deactivation of tracer-flo equipment thru retrieval of its radioactive Krypton-85 gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domondon, D.B.; Rara, R.B.; Borras, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    Tracer-flo equipment must be cleared of Krypton-85 before these can be transported. The rules and regulations on safe transport of radioactive materials require Kr-85 gas to be transported in an approved container. A new innovative technique/procedure in deactivating tracer-flo equipment i.e., without separation of the Kr-85 from the nitrogen was developed by the authors. The developed procedure was successfully applied in four tracer-flo equipment of three (3) semiconductor firms. In the process, the three firms have saved about US$ 28,000.00 (P 800,000.00) if the deactivation were undertaken by a foreign service company. The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) retrieved about P 382,000.00 worth of Kr-85 that could be used in industrial applications such as leak tracing of buried pipes, etc. (author). 1 ref.; 5 figs

  13. Attention, emotion, and deactivation of default activity in inferior medial prefrontal cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geday, Jacob; Gjedde, Albert

    2008-01-01

    Attention deactivates the inferior medial prefrontal cortex (IMPC), but it is uncertain if emotions can attenuate this deactivation. To test the extent to which common emotions interfere with attention, we measured changes of a blood flow index of brain activity in key areas of the IMPC...... with positron emission tomography (PET) of labeled water (H(15)2O) uptake in brain of 14 healthy subjects. The subjects performed either a less demanding or a more demanding task of attention while they watched neutral and emotive images of people in realistic indoor or outdoor situations. In the less demanding...... cortices, revealed significant activation in the fusiform gyrus, independently of the task. In contrast, we found no effect of emotional content in the IMPC, where emotions failed to override the effect of the task. The results are consistent with a role of the IMPC in the selection among competitive...

  14. Electron microscopy study of the deactivation of nickel based catalysts for bio oil hydrodeoxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardini, Diego; Mortensen, Peter Mølgaard; Carvalho, Hudson W. P.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) is proposed as an efficient way to remove oxygen in bio-oil, improving its quality as a more sustainable alternative to conventional fuels in terms of CO2 neutrality and relative short production cycle [1]. Ni and Ni-MoS2 nanoparticles supported on ZrO2 show potential...... as high-pressure (100 bar) catalysts for purification of bio-oil by HDO. However, the catalysts deactivate in presence of sulfur, chlorine and potassium species, which are all naturally occurring in real bio-oil. The deactivation mechanisms of the Ni/ZrO2 have been investigated through scanning...... transmission electron microscopy (STEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Catalytic testing has been performed using guaiacol in 1-octanol acting as a model compound for bio-oil. Addition of sulphur (0.3 vol% octanethiol) in the feed...

  15. Electronic Paint: Understanding Children's Representation through Their Interactions with Digital Paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, John; Seow, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This article investigates very young children's use of a stylus-driven, electronic painting and drawing on the tablet PC. The authors compare their development in the use of this device with their use of other mark-making media, including those which derive from pencil and paper technologies and also with mouse-driven electronic paintbox programs.…

  16. Impact on the environment from steel bridge paint deterioration using lead isotopic tracing, paint compositions and soil deconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulson, Brian, E-mail: brian.gulson@mq.edu.au [Department of Environmental Science, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); CSIRO Energy Flagship, North Ryde, NSW 2113 (Australia); Chiaradia, Massimo [Department of Mineralogy, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Davis, Jeffrey [CSIRO Energy Flagship, North Ryde, NSW 2113 (Australia); O' Connor, Gary [Queensland Department of Environment & Heritage Protection, Brisbane, QLD 4000 (Australia)

    2016-04-15

    Deterioration and repair of lead paint on steel structures can result in contamination of the ambient environment but other sources of lead such as from past use of leaded paint and gasoline and industrial activities can also contribute to the contamination. Using a combination of high precision lead isotopic tracing, detailed paint examination, including with scanning electron microscopy, and soil deconstruction we have compared paint on a steel bridge and bulk soil and lead-rich particles separated from soil. The majority of Pb found in the paint derives from Australian sources but some also has a probable US origin. The isotopic data for the bulk soils and selected particles lie on a mixing line with end members the geologically ancient Broken Hill lead and possible European lead which is suggested to be derived from old lead paint and industrial activities. Data for gasoline-derived particulates lie on this array and probably contribute to soil Pb. Although paint from the bridge can be a source of lead in the soils, isotopic tracing, paint morphology and mineralogical identification indicate that other sources, including from paint, gasoline and industrial activities, are contributing factors to the lead burden. Even though physical characteristics and elemental composition are the same in some particles, the isotopic signatures demonstrate that the sources are different. Plots using {sup 206}Pb/{sup 208}Pb vs {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios, the common representation these days, do not allow for source discrimination in this investigation. - Highlights: • Soil Pb values up to 1200 mg/kg below Pb painted bridge • Microscopy & SEM characterised up to 6 different paint layers. • Isotopes identified different sources of Pb including paint and gasoline. • Multiple methods provide definitive answers.

  17. High-intensity erotic visual stimuli de-activate the primary visual cortex in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Hieu K; Beers, Caroline; Willemsen, Antoon; Lont, Erna; Laan, Ellen; Dierckx, Rudi; Jansen, Monique; Sand, Michael; Weijmar Schultz, Willibrord; Holstege, Gert

    2012-06-01

    The primary visual cortex, Brodmann's area (BA 17), plays a vital role in basic survival mechanisms in humans. In most neuro-imaging studies in which the volunteers have to watch pictures or movies, the primary visual cortex is similarly activated independent of the content of the pictures or movies. However, in case the volunteers perform demanding non-visual tasks, the primary visual cortex becomes de-activated, although the amount of incoming visual sensory information is the same. Do low- and high-intensity erotic movies, compared to neutral movies, produce similar de-activation of the primary visual cortex? Brain activation/de-activation was studied by Positron Emission Tomography scanning of the brains of 12 healthy heterosexual premenopausal women, aged 18-47, who watched neutral, low- and high-intensity erotic film segments. We measured differences in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the primary visual cortex during watching neutral, low-intensity erotic, and high-intensity erotic film segments. Watching high-intensity erotic, but not low-intensity erotic movies, compared to neutral movies resulted in strong de-activation of the primary (BA 17) and adjoining parts of the secondary visual cortex. The strong de-activation during watching high-intensity erotic film might represent compensation for the increased blood supply in the brain regions involved in sexual arousal, also because high-intensity erotic movies do not require precise scanning of the visual field, because the impact is clear to the observer. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  18. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant and Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant phaseout/deactivation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, M.W.; Thompson, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    The decision to cease all US Department of Energy (DOE) reprocessing of nuclear fuels was made on April 28, 1992. This study provides insight into and a comparison of the management, technical, compliance, and safety strategies for deactivating the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) and the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant. The purpose of this study is to ensure that lessons-learned and future plans are coordinated between the two facilities

  19. Integrated project management plan for the Plutonium Finishing Plant stabilization and deactivation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SINCLAIR, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    This document sets forth the plans, organization, and control systems for managing the PFP Stabilization and Deactivation Project, and includes the top level cost and schedule baselines. The project includes the stabilization of Pu-bearing materials, storage, packaging, and transport of these and other nuclear materials, surveillance and maintenance of facilities and systems relied upon for storage of the materials, and transition of the facilities in the PFP Complex

  20. Deactivation kinetics of acid-sensing ion channel 1a are strongly pH-sensitive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, David M; Jayaraman, Vasanthi

    2017-03-21

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are trimeric cation-selective ion channels activated by protons in the physiological range. Recent reports have revealed that postsynaptically localized ASICs contribute to the excitatory postsynaptic current by responding to the transient acidification of the synaptic cleft that accompanies neurotransmission. In response to such brief acidic transients, both recombinant and native ASICs show extremely rapid deactivation in outside-out patches when jumping from a pH 5 stimulus to a single resting pH of 8. Given that the resting pH of the synaptic cleft is highly dynamic and depends on recent synaptic activity, we explored the kinetics of ASIC1a and 1a/2a heteromers to such brief pH transients over a wider [H + ] range to approximate neuronal conditions better. Surprisingly, the deactivation of ASICs was steeply dependent on the pH, spanning nearly three orders of magnitude from extremely fast (pH 8 to very slow (>300 ms) at pH 7. This study provides an example of a ligand-gated ion channel whose deactivation is sensitive to agonist concentrations that do not directly activate the receptor. Kinetic simulations and further mutagenesis provide evidence that ASICs show such steeply agonist-dependent deactivation because of strong cooperativity in proton binding. This capacity to signal across such a large synaptically relevant bandwidth enhances the response to small-amplitude acidifications likely to occur at the cleft and may provide ASICs with the ability to shape activity in response to the recent history of the synapse.

  1. Anterior medial prefrontal cortex exhibits activation during task preparation but deactivation during task execution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideya Koshino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The anterior prefrontal cortex (PFC exhibits activation during some cognitive tasks, including episodic memory, reasoning, attention, multitasking, task sets, decision making, mentalizing, and processing of self-referenced information. However, the medial part of anterior PFC is part of the default mode network (DMN, which shows deactivation during various goal-directed cognitive tasks compared to a resting baseline. One possible factor for this pattern is that activity in the anterior medial PFC (MPFC is affected by dynamic allocation of attentional resources depending on task demands. We investigated this possibility using an event related fMRI with a face working memory task. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sixteen students participated in a single fMRI session. They were asked to form a task set to remember the faces (Face memory condition or to ignore them (No face memory condition, then they were given 6 seconds of preparation period before the onset of the face stimuli. During this 6-second period, four single digits were presented one at a time at the center of the display, and participants were asked to add them and to remember the final answer. When participants formed a task set to remember faces, the anterior MPFC exhibited activation during a task preparation period but deactivation during a task execution period within a single trial. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that the anterior MPFC plays a role in task set formation but is not involved in execution of the face working memory task. Therefore, when attentional resources are allocated to other brain regions during task execution, the anterior MPFC shows deactivation. The results suggest that activation and deactivation in the anterior MPFC are affected by dynamic allocation of processing resources across different phases of processing.

  2. Chemicals and excess materials disposition during deactivation as a means of pollution prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, S.D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents several innovative and common sense approaches to pollution prevention that have been employed during facility deactivation at the Hanford Site in South Central Washington. It also presents several pollution prevention principles applicable to other projects. Innovative pollution prevention ideas employed at the Hanford site during facility deactivation included: (1) Recycling more than 185,000 gallons of radioactively contaminated nitric acid by sending it to an operating nuclear fuels reprocessing facility in England; (2) Recycling millions of pounds of chemicals and excess materials to other industries for reuse; (3) Evaporating flush water at a low rate and discharging it into the facility exhaust air stream to avoid discharging thousands of gallons of liquid to the soil column; and (4) Decontaminating and disposing of thousands of gallons of radioactively contaminated organic solvent waste to a RCRA licensed, power-producing, commercial incinerator. Common sense pollution prevention ideas that were employed include recycling office furniture, recycling paper from office files, and redeploying tools and miscellaneous process equipment. Additional pollution prevention occurred as the facility liquid and gaseous discharge streams were deactivated. From the facilities deactivation experiences at Hanford and the ensuing efforts to disposition excess chemicals and materials, several key pollution prevention principles should be considered at other projects and facilities, especially during the operational periods of the facility's mission. These principles include: Institute pollution prevention as a fundamental requirement early in the planning stage of a project or during the operational phase of a facility's mission; Promote recognition and implementation of pollution prevention initiatives; Instill pollution prevention as a value in all participants in the project or facility work scope; Minimize the amount of chemical products and materials

  3. Expertise-related deactivation of the right temporoparietal junction during musical improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Aaron L; Ansari, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Musical training has been associated with structural changes in the brain as well as functional differences in brain activity when musicians are compared to nonmusicians on both perceptual and motor tasks. Previous neuroimaging comparisons of musicians and nonmusicians in the motor domain have used tasks involving prelearned motor sequences or synchronization with an auditorily presented sequence during the experiment. Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine expertise-related differences in brain activity between musicians and nonmusicians during improvisation--the generation of novel musical-motor sequences--using a paradigm that we previously used in musicians alone. Despite behaviorally matched performance, the two groups showed significant differences in functional brain activity during improvisation. Specifically, musicians deactivated the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ) during melodic improvisation, while nonmusicians showed no change in activity in this region. The rTPJ is thought to be part of a ventral attentional network for bottom-up stimulus-driven processing, and it has been postulated that deactivation of this region occurs in order to inhibit attentional shifts toward task-irrelevant stimuli during top-down, goal-driven behavior. We propose that the musicians' deactivation of the rTPJ during melodic improvisation may represent a training-induced shift toward inhibition of stimulus-driven attention, allowing for a more goal-directed performance state that aids in creative thought.

  4. Environmental assessment for the deactivation of the N Reactor facilities. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) provides information for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to decide whether the Proposed Action for the N Reactor facilities warrants a Finding of No Significant Impact or requires the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS). The EA describes current conditions at the N Reactor facilities, the need to take action at the facilities, the elements of the Proposed Action and alternatives, and the potential environmental impacts. The N Reactor facilities are currently in a surveillance and maintenance program, and will eventually be decontaminated and decommissioned (D and D). Operation and maintenance of the facilities resulted in conditions that could adversely impact human health or the environment if left as is until final D and D. The Proposed Action would deactivate the facilities to remove the conditions that present a potential threat to human health and the environment and to reduce surveillance and maintenance requirements. The action would include surveillance and maintenance after deactivation. Deactivation would take about three years and would involve about 80 facilities. Surveillance and maintenance would continue until final D and D, which is expected to be complete for all facilities except the N Reactor itself by the year 2018

  5. Mathematics anxiety reduces default mode network deactivation in response to numerical tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda ePletzer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics anxiety is negatively related to mathematics performance, thereby threatening the professional success. Preoccupation with the emotional content of the stimuli may consume working memory resources, which may be reflected in decreased deactivation of areas associated with the default mode network (DMN activated during self-referential and emotional processing. The common problem is that math anxiety is usually associated with poor math performance, so that any group differences are difficult to interpret.Here we compared the BOLD-response of 18 participants with high (HMAs and 18 participants with low mathematics anxiety (LMAs matched for their mathematical performance to two numerical tasks (number comparison, number bisection. During both tasks, we found stronger deactivation within the DMN in LMAs compared to HMAs, while BOLD-response in task-related activation areas did not differ between HMAs and LMAs. The difference in DMN deactivation between the HMA and LMA group was more pronounced in stimuli with additional requirement on inhibitory functions, but did not differ between number magnitude processing and arithmetic fact retrieval.

  6. Mathematics anxiety reduces default mode network deactivation in response to numerical tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletzer, Belinda; Kronbichler, Martin; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph; Kerschbaum, Hubert H

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics anxiety is negatively related to mathematics performance, thereby threatening the professional success. Preoccupation with the emotional content of the stimuli may consume working memory resources, which may be reflected in decreased deactivation of areas associated with the default mode network (DMN) activated during self-referential and emotional processing. The common problem is that math anxiety is usually associated with poor math performance, so that any group differences are difficult to interpret. Here we compared the BOLD-response of 18 participants with high (HMAs) and 18 participants with low mathematics anxiety (LMAs) matched for their mathematical performance to two numerical tasks (number comparison, number bisection). During both tasks, we found stronger deactivation within the DMN in LMAs compared to HMAs, while BOLD-response in task-related activation areas did not differ between HMAs and LMAs. The difference in DMN deactivation between the HMA and LMA group was more pronounced in stimuli with additional requirement on inhibitory functions, but did not differ between number magnitude processing and arithmetic fact retrieval.

  7. Annual evaluation of routine radiological survey/monitoring frequencies for the High Ranking Facilities Deactivating Project at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    The Bethel Valley Watershed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has several Environmental Management (EM) facilities that are designated for deactivation and subsequent decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). The Surplus Facilities Program at ORNL provides surveillance and maintenance support for these facilities as deactivation objectives are completed to reduce the risks associated with radioactive material inventories, etc. The Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC Radiological Control (RADCON) Program has established requirements for radiological monitoring and surveying radiological conditions in these facilities. These requirements include an annual evaluation of routine radiation survey and monitoring frequencies. Radiological survey/monitoring frequencies were evaluated for two High Ranking Facilities Deactivation Project facilities, the Bulk Shielding Facility and Tower Shielding Facility. Considerable progress has been made toward accomplishing deactivation objectives, thus the routine radiological survey/monitoring frequencies are being reduced for 1999. This report identifies the survey/monitoring frequency adjustments and provides justification that the applicable RADCON Program requirements are also satisfied

  8. Final Deactivation Project report on the Alpha Powder Facility, Building 3028, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This report documents the condition of the Alpha Powder Facility (APF), Building 3028, after completion of deactivation activities. Activities conducted to place the facility in a safe and environmentally sound condition for transfer to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) program are outlined. A history and profile of the facility prior to commencing deactivation activities and a profile of the building after completion of deactivation activities are provided. Turnover items, such as the post-deactivation surveillance and maintenance (S&M) plan, remaining hazardous materials, radiological controls, safeguards and security, quality assurance, facility operations, and supporting documentation provided for in the DOE Nuclear Materials and Facility Stabilization Program (EM-60) turnover package are discussed.

  9. Final Deactivation Project report on the Alpha Powder Facility, Building 3028, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    This report documents the condition of the Alpha Powder Facility (APF), Building 3028, after completion of deactivation activities. Activities conducted to place the facility in a safe and environmentally sound condition for transfer to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) program are outlined. A history and profile of the facility prior to commencing deactivation activities and a profile of the building after completion of deactivation activities are provided. Turnover items, such as the post-deactivation surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M) plan, remaining hazardous materials, radiological controls, safeguards and security, quality assurance, facility operations, and supporting documentation provided for in the DOE Nuclear Materials and Facility Stabilization Program (EM-60) turnover package are discussed

  10. Distinctive Spectral Features of Exciton and Excimer States in the Ultrafast Electronic Deactivation of the Adenine Dinucleotide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhldreier, Mayra C.; Röttger, Katharina; Temps, Friedrich

    We report the observation by transient absorption spectroscopy of distinctive spectro-temporal signatures of delocalized exciton versus relaxed, weakly bound excimer states in the ultrafast electronic deactivation after UV photoexcitation of the adenine dinucleotide.

  11. Design of Embedded Metal Catalysts via Reverser Micro-Emulsion System: a Way to Suppress Catalyst Deactivation by Metal Sintering

    KAUST Repository

    Al Mana, Noor

    2016-01-01

    are embedded inside the protecting shell have attracted a lot of researchers working in the field of catalysis owing to their enhanced physical and chemical properties suppress catalyst deactivation. Also, a new active site generated at the interface between

  12. Gas composition of sludge residue profiles in a sludge treatment reed bed between loadings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Julie Dam; Nielsen, Steen M; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of sludge in sludge treatment reed bed systems includes dewatering and mineralization. The mineralization process, which is driven by microorganisms, produces different gas species as by-products. The pore space composition of the gas species provides useful information on the biological...... processes occurring in the sludge residue. In this study, we measured the change in composition of gas species in the pore space at different depth levels in vertical sludge residue profiles during a resting period of 32 days. The gas composition of the pore space in the sludge residue changed during...

  13. Augmenting painted architectures for communicating cultural heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Sdegno

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a research under development at the University of Trieste to analyze a painted architecture by Paolo Veronese and to present the results using AR systems (Augmented Reality Systems. The canvas was painted in 1573 and it is now at the Gallerie dell’Accademia Museum in Venice. The aim of the research was to transform a two-dimensional work of art in a three dimensional one, allowing all the visitors of a museum to enter the space of the representation and perceive it in a more direct way. After the geometrical analysis of the picture, we started the digital restitution of the perspective references and proceed to model the virtual scene using Boolean primitives and applying all the textures to render the scene in a very realistic way. The further step was to convert the model into a dynamic form with AR algorithms and associate it with spatial references to allow users to do a virtual experience of it.

  14. Colour dematerialization in spiritual literature and painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadang Sudrajat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Colour in variety of art expression can be interpreted differently. This study is aiming at analyzing the colour dematerialization of Javanese spiritual literature “Falsafah Jeroning Warna” by Suprapto Kadis and a painting by Ahmad Sadali entitled “Gunung Mas”. Research was done by employing qualitative research, while data was collected by observation, interview, discussion, and documentation study. The analysis of meanings in the two art works was done in descriptive way by using the theory and the knowledge of tasawwuf or sufism, the aesthetics, and arts. Results showed that both sufis, Ahmad Sadali and Suprapto Kadis, share similarities in doing dematerialization towards colour. For them, colour was initially taken from nature (the external territory which then experienced dematerialization when it made contact with inspiration that was created from the internal area (mental. On the other hand, the difference between the two art works lies on an understanding that colour in FJW is naturalistic mimesis in nature, meanwhile, the painting of Ahmad Sadali is naturaly abstract.

  15. Experimental study of canvas characterization for paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelis, Bruno; Dooms, Ann; Munteanu, Adrian; Cornelis, Jan; Schelkens, Peter

    2010-02-01

    The work described here fits in the context of a larger project on the objective and relevant characterization of paintings and painting canvas through the analysis of multimodal digital images. We captured, amongst others, X-ray images of different canvas types, characterized by a variety of textures and weave patterns (fine and rougher texture; single thread and multiple threads per weave), including raw canvas as well as canvas processed with different primers. In this paper, we study how to characterize the canvas by extracting global features such as average thread width, average distance between successive threads (i.e. thread density) and the spatial distribution of primers. These features are then used to construct a generic model of the canvas structure. Secondly, we investigate whether we can identify different pieces of canvas coming from the same bolt. This is an important element for dating, authentication and identification of restorations. Both the global characteristics mentioned earlier and some local properties (such as deviations from the average pattern model) are used to compare the "fingerprint" of different pieces of cloth coming from the same or different bolts.

  16. Microanalysis of paint layers in polychrome sculptures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, A.; Falcucci, C.; Jaksic, M.

    2001-01-01

    Cross sections paint layers of polychromes sculpture of the 16 century, located at the City Museum of Havana and currently in the restoration process, have been analyzed by capillary based μXRF , μPIXE , SEM -EDX and light microscopy. Experimental parameters (geometry measurement time) of the capillary based μXRF set up (nominal end diameter equal to 10 μm) were optimized to achieve the resolution required for meaningful scintigraphic studies of the art and archaeological objects, Cumulative x-rays spectra for each layer were obtained in order to perform semi-quantitative analysis. The employed pigments were identified by the characteristics elements and the elemental maps precisely reproduced photographs obtained by means of light microscopy. In the case of nuclear microprobe, RBS for Stoichiometry analysis of paint layers was also performed. additional information on the organic materials was also obtained by chemical analysis. Complementary results obtained by using the analytical techniques are presented and discussed from the point of view of the restoration processes

  17. Emotion in Painting and Art Installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konečni, Vladimir J

    2015-01-01

    Paintings are static 2-dimensional images with limited narrative means. On the basis of a critical analysis of the relevant laboratory scaling studies, museum studies, and neuroaesthetic work, the article reaches a negative conclusion about most paintings' ability to engage sufficiently with general viewers' associative-memory systems, so as to lead to identification and empathy, and induce fundamental psychobiological emotions. In contrast, designers of art installations can draw on subtle combinations of several classes of stimulus properties with psychological significance subsumable under the classical concept of the sublime (physical grandeur, rarity, an association with beauty and with biologically significant outcomes), so that some installations may induce the peak aesthetic emotional response, aesthetic awe--as defined in Aesthetic Trinity Theory (Konečni, 2005, 2011), along with the states of being moved and physiological thrills. The approach also involves an analytical skepticism about emotivism, defined as a culturological proclivity for unnecessary insertion of emotion into accounts of mental life and behavior, especially in the arts. Implications for the role of emotion theory in empirical aesthetics are examined.

  18. Characterization of chemical agent transport in paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Matthew P; Gordon, Wesley; Lalain, Teri; Mantooth, Brent

    2013-09-15

    A combination of vacuum-based vapor emission measurements with a mass transport model was employed to determine the interaction of chemical warfare agents with various materials, including transport parameters of agents in paints. Accurate determination of mass transport parameters enables the simulation of the chemical agent distribution in a material for decontaminant performance modeling. The evaluation was performed with the chemical warfare agents bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide (distilled mustard, known as the chemical warfare blister agent HD) and O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX), an organophosphate nerve agent, deposited on to two different types of polyurethane paint coatings. The results demonstrated alignment between the experimentally measured vapor emission flux and the predicted vapor flux. Mass transport modeling demonstrated rapid transport of VX into the coatings; VX penetrated through the aliphatic polyurethane-based coating (100 μm) within approximately 107 min. By comparison, while HD was more soluble in the coatings, the penetration depth in the coatings was approximately 2× lower than VX. Applications of mass transport parameters include the ability to predict agent uptake, and subsequent long-term vapor emission or contact transfer where the agent could present exposure risks. Additionally, these parameters and model enable the ability to perform decontamination modeling to predict how decontaminants remove agent from these materials. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Attention-induced deactivations in very low frequency EEG oscillations: differential localisation according to ADHD symptom status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha J Broyd

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The default-mode network (DMN is characterised by coherent very low frequency (VLF brain oscillations. The cognitive significance of this VLF profile remains unclear, partly because of the temporally constrained nature of the blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD signal. Previously we have identified a VLF EEG network of scalp locations that shares many features of the DMN. Here we explore the intracranial sources of VLF EEG and examine their overlap with the DMN in adults with high and low ADHD ratings. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DC-EEG was recorded using an equidistant 66 channel electrode montage in 25 adult participants with high- and 25 participants with low-ratings of ADHD symptoms during a rest condition and an attention demanding Eriksen task. VLF EEG power was calculated in the VLF band (0.02 to 0.2 Hz for the rest and task condition and compared for high and low ADHD participants. sLORETA was used to identify brain sources associated with the attention-induced deactivation of VLF EEG power, and to examine these sources in relation to ADHD symptoms. There was significant deactivation of VLF EEG power between the rest and task condition for the whole sample. Using s-LORETA the sources of this deactivation were localised to medial prefrontal regions, posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus and temporal regions. However, deactivation sources were different for high and low ADHD groups: In the low ADHD group attention-induced VLF EEG deactivation was most significant in medial prefrontal regions while for the high ADHD group this deactivation was predominantly localised to the temporal lobes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Attention-induced VLF EEG deactivations have intracranial sources that appear to overlap with those of the DMN. Furthermore, these seem to be related to ADHD symptom status, with high ADHD adults failing to significantly deactivate medial prefrontal regions while at the same time showing significant attenuation of

  20. Photon hormesis deactivates alpha-particle induced bystander effects between zebrafish embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, C.Y.P.; Cheng, S.H.; Yu, K.N.

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, we studied the effects of low-dose X-ray photons on the alpha-particle induced bystander effects between embryos of the zebrafish, Danio rerio. The effects on the naive whole embryos were studied through quantification of apoptotic signals (amounts of cells undergoing apoptosis) at 24 h post fertilization (hpf) using vital dye acridine orange staining, followed by counting the stained cells under a fluorescent microscope. We report data showing that embryos at 5 hpf subjected to a 4.4 mGy alpha-particle irradiation could release a stress signal into the medium, which could induce bystander effect in partnered naive embryos sharing the same medium. We also report that the bystander effect was deactivated when the irradiated embryos were subjected to a concomitant irradiation of 10 or 14 mGy of X-rays, but no such deactivation was achieved if the concomitant X-ray dose dropped to 2.5 or 5 mGy. In the present study, the significant drop in the amount of apoptotic signals on the embryos having received 4.4 mGy alpha particles together X-rays irradiation from 2.5 or 5 mGy to 10 or 14 mGy, together with the deactivation of RIBE with concomitant irradiation of 10 or 14 mGy of X-rays supported the participation of photon hormesis with an onset dose between 5 and 10 mGy, which might lead to removal of aberrant cells through early apoptosis or induction of high-fidelity DNA repair. As we found that photons and alpha particles could have opposite biological effects when these were simultaneously irradiated onto living organisms, these ionizing radiations could be viewed as two different environmental stressors, and the resultant effects could be regarded as multiple stressor effects. The present work presented the first study on a multiple stressor effect which occurred on bystander organisms. In other words, this was a non-targeted multiple stressor effect. The photon hormesis could also explain some failed attempts to observe neutron-induced bystander

  1. Final deactivation report on the Radioisotope Production Lab-E, Building 3032, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the condition of Bldg. 3032, after completion of deactivation activities as outlined by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Materials and Facility Stabilization Program (EM-60) guidance documentation. This report outlines the activities conducted to place the facility in a safe and environmentally sound condition for transfer to the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration Program (EM-40). This report provides a history and profile of Bldg. 3032 prior to commencing deactivation activities and a profile of the building after completion of deactivation activities. Turnover items, such as the Postdeactivation Surveillance ampersand Maintenance Plan, remaining hazardous materials, radiological controls, Safeguards and Security, quality assurance, facility operations, and supporting documentation provided in the EM-60 turnover package are discussed. Building 3032 will be used as the Health Physics Office for the Isotopes Facilities Deactivation Program area and will require access for these offices and to facilitate required surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M) activities to maintain the building safety envelope. Bldg. 3032 was stabilized during deactivation so that when transferred to the EM-40 program, only a minimal S ampersand M effort would be required to maintain the building safety envelope. All materials have been removed from the building, and all utility systems, piping, and alarms have been deactivated except electricity and steam needed for the office areas

  2. Life cycle baseline summary for ADS 6504IS Isotopes Facilities Deactivation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of the Isotopes Facility Deactivation Project (IFDP) is to place former isotopes production facilities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in a safe, stable, and environmentally sound condition; suitable for an extended period of minimum surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M) and as quickly and economically as possible. This baseline plan establishes the official target schedule for completing the deactivation work and the associated budget required for deactivation and the necessary S ampersand M. Deactivation of the facilities 3026C, 3026D, 3028, 3029, 3038E, 3038M, and 3038AHF, the Center Circle buildings 3047, 3517, and 7025 will continue though Fiscal Year (FY) 1999. The focus of the project in the early years will be on the smaller buildings that require less deactivation and can bring an early return in reducing S ampersand M costs. This baseline plan covers the period from FY1995 throughout FY2000. Deactivation will continue in various facilities through FY1999. A final year of S ampersand M will conclude the project in FY2000. The estimated total cost of the project during this period is $51M

  3. Historical evolution of oil painting media: A rheological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Viguerie, Laurence; Ducouret, Guylaine; Lequeux, François; Moutard-Martin, Thierry; Walter, Philippe

    2009-09-01

    Rheology is the science of flow, which is a phenomenon found in every painting operation, such as decorative paintings or protective coatings. In this article, the principles of rheology as applied to paintings and coatings are recalled in a first part and the rheological criteria required in the paint industry presented. Indeed, different flow behaviours leads to different finishes. The same procedure and techniques as in industry can be employed to explain some evolutions in oil painting aspects over the centuries. The first recipes for oil painting indicate the use of treated oil, resins and spirits. This article deals with the evolution of the composition of these systems as media for oil painting, according to rheological clues. During the Renaissance period, the media used were Newtonian or slightly shear thinning and allowed one a perfect levelling. Then techniques changed, paints became more opaque with less addition of oil/resin media, and brushstrokes appeared visible. Some preparations containing lead, oil and mastic resin, whose flow behaviour is closed to those required in industry, may have appeared during the 17th century and are still used and sold today. To cite this article: L. de Viguerie et al., C. R. Physique 10 (2009).

  4. Non-Photorealistic Rendering in Chinese Painting of Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A set of algorithms is proposed in this paper to automatically transform 3D animal models to Chinese painting style. Inspired by real painting process in Chinese painting of animals, we divide the whole rendering process into two parts: borderline stroke making and interior shading. In borderline stroke making process we first find 3D model silhouettes in real-time depending on the viewing direction of a user. After retrieving silhouette information from all model edges, a stroke linking mechanism is applied to link these independent edges into a long stroke. Finally we grow a plain thin silhouette line to a stylus stroke with various widths at each control point and a 2D brush model is combined with it to simulate a Chinese painting stroke. In the interior shading pipeline, three stages are used to convert a Gouraud-shading image to a Chinese painting style image: color quantization, ink diffusion and box filtering. The color quantization stage assigns all pixels in an image into four color levels and each level represents a color layer in a Chinese painting. Ink diffusion stage is used to transfer inks and water between different levels and to grow areas in an irregular way. The box filtering stage blurs sharp borders between different levels to embellish the appearance of final interior shading image. In addition to automatic rendering, an interactive Chinese painting system which is equipped with friendly input devices can be also combined to generate more artistic Chinese painting images manually.

  5. 33 CFR 118.140 - Painting bridge piers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Painting bridge piers. 118.140 Section 118.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.140 Painting bridge piers. The District Commander may require...

  6. Dissolution of organic solvents from painted surfaces into water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wren, J.C.; Jobe, D.J.; Sanipelli, G.G.; Ball, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The presence of volatile iodine in containment buildings is one of the major safety concerns in the potential event of nuclear reactor accidents. Organic impurities in containment water, originating from various painted structural surfaces and organic materials, could have a significant impact on iodine volatility following an accident. To determine the source and magnitude of organic impurities and their effects on time-dependent iodine volatility, the dissolution for organic constituents from paints used in reactor buildings has been studied under postulated accident conditions. The studies of the organic dissolution from carbon steel coupons coated with zinc-primed vinyl, epoxy-primed polyurethane or epoxy paints over the temperature range 25-90 deg C are reported. Relatively large activation energies were measured for the release of the principal organic compounds from painted surfaces, suggesting it is the release of the solvents from the paint matrix rather than their diffusion through the solution that is the rate determining step for the dissolution mechanism. The similarities in the values of activation energies for the dissolution of different organic compounds from the paints suggest the release rate is independent of the nature of the painted surface or the type of organic being released from the surface. These two observations indicate that it may be possible to write a generalized rate expression for the release of organic compounds from painted surfaces in containment following an accident. The possible implications of these results for predicting iodine volatility in containment are also discussed. (author)

  7. What You Should Know about Using Paint Strippers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is readily absorbed through the skin and may cause health problems. Adverse health effects in the developing fetus have been noted in laboratory animals exposed to some of the chemicals in paint strippers. Therefore, women of child-bearing age who work with or use paint strippers on a regular ...

  8. Sanding dust from nanoparticle-containing paints: Physical characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koponen, I K; Jensen, K A; Schneider, T

    2009-01-01

    Increasing use of nanoparticles in different industrial applications has raised a new potential health risk to the workers as well as to the consumers. This study investigates the particle size distributions of sanding dust released from paints produced with and without engineered nanoparticles. Dust emissions from sanding painted plates were found to consist of five size modes; three modes under 1 μm and two modes around 1 and 2 μm. We observed that the sander was the only source of particles smaller than 50 nm and they dominated the number concentration spectra. Mass and surface area spectra were dominated by the 1 and 2 μm modes. Addition of nanoparticles caused only minor changes in the geometric mean diameters of the particle modes generated during sanding of two paints doped with 17 nm TiO2 and 95 nm Carbon Black nanoparticles as compared to the size modes generated during sanding a conventional reference paint. However, the number concentrations in the different size modes varied considerably in between the two NP-doped paints and the reference paint. Therefore, from a physical point of view, there may be a difference in the exposure risk during sanding surfaces covered with nanoparticle-based paints as compared to sanding conventional paints.

  9. Gerbrand Bredero wants to borrow a painting: proleptic negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.

    2013-01-01

    In a letter to Badens, his painting teacher, Gerbrand Bredero asks for the loan of a painting to make a copy of it. The act of writing (a letter) requires a proactive role in managing the reader’s reactions. In what at first sight may look like a simple, insignificant and most of all polite letter,

  10. Chromatic changes on the wall paintings in Sanderum Church (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brajer, Isabelle Eve; Christensen, Mads Christian

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes observations and results of analyses undertaken to find explanations for several phenomena affecting the colours on the Gothic wall paintings in Sanderum Church (Denmark). Paintings have been exposed on four webs of the chancel vault and one web in the nave since 1882. Three ...

  11. 13 CFR 120.173 - Lead-based paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lead-based paint. 120.173 Section 120.173 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Policies Applying to All Business Loans Requirements Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders § 120.173 Lead-based paint. If...

  12. The Monetary Appreciation of Paintings : From Realism to Magritte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; van Houte, T.

    1999-01-01

    This study investigates how investments in painted arts compare to those in stocks in terms of risk return trade off using Sharpe and Treynor ratios and Markowitz efficient frontiers. A large database was analysed consisting of more than 10500 auction prices of Belgian painted art over the period

  13. Finite Element Modeling of Vibrations in Canvas Paintings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiriboga Arroyo, P.G.

    2013-01-01

    Preventing vibration damage from occurring to valuable and sensitive canvas paintings is of main concern for museums and art conservation institutions. This concern has grown in recent years due to the increasing demand of paintings for exhibitions worldwide and the concomitant need for their

  14. Images of power in contemporary Nigerian paintings | Gbaden ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contemporary Nigerian paintings are replete with images and notions of power and power relations among the ethnically pluralistic peoples of Nigeria. This paper presents a select number of paintings that best manifest the idea of how power is depicted and how power influences human thinking and aspiration from a ...

  15. Dynamics of Anthropomorphic Painting Robot: Quality Analysis and Cost Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potkonjak, V.; Djordjevic, G.; Kostic, D.; Rasic, M.

    2000-01-01

    Application of robots in spray-painting tasks results in low-cost production, persistent quality and protects humans from a hostile working environment. Automated planning of applicator’s trajectory requires a model of paint deposition onto the treated surface and formulation of an appropriate

  16. Effects of different sludge disintegration methods on sludge moisture distribution and dewatering performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lingyun; Zhang, Guangming; Zheng, Xiang

    2015-02-01

    A key step in sludge treatment is sludge dewatering. However, activated sludge is generally very difficult to be dewatered. Sludge dewatering performance is largely affected by the sludge moisture distribution. Sludge disintegration can destroy the sludge structure and cell wall, so as change the sludge floc structure and moisture distribution, thus affecting the dewatering performance of sludge. In this article, the disintegration methods were ultrasound treatment, K2FeO4 oxidation and KMnO4 oxidation. The degree of disintegration (DDCOD), sludge moisture distribution and the final water content of sludge cake after centrifuging were measured. Results showed that three disintegration methods were all effective, and K2FeO4 oxidation was more efficient than KMnO4 oxidation. The content of free water increased obviously with K2FeO4 and KMnO4 oxidations, while it decreased with ultrasound treatment. The changes of free water and interstitial water were in the opposite trend. The content of bounding water decreased with K2FeO4 oxidation, and increased slightly with KMnO4 oxidation, while it increased obviously with ultrasound treatment. The water content of sludge cake after centrifuging decreased with K2FeO4 oxidation, and did not changed with KMnO4 oxidation, but increased obviously with ultrasound treatment. In summary, ultrasound treatment deteriorated the sludge dewaterability, while K2FeO4 and KMnO4 oxidation improved the sludge dewaterability. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Speciation of mercury in sludge solids: washed sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Lourie, A. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-24

    The objective of this applied research task was to study the type and concentration of mercury compounds found within the contaminated Savannah River Site Liquid Waste System (SRS LWS). A method of selective sequential extraction (SSE), developed by Eurofins Frontier Global Sciences1,2 and adapted by SRNL, utilizes an extraction procedure divided into seven separate tests for different species of mercury. In the SRNL’s modified procedure four of these tests were applied to a washed sample of high level radioactive waste sludge.

  18. Pathogen reduction in sludges by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandon, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    There is international interest in the use of ionizing radiation in waste water and sludge treatment. Results of programs to study effects of radiation on disease-causing microbes commonly found in wastewater sludges will be discussed. Although emphasis will be on the work conducted at Sandia Laboratories, the discussion will include work in progress in West Germany, France, South Africa, and other countries

  19. Sustainability of Domestic Sewage Sludge Disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Bruna Rizzardini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Activated sludge is now one of the most widely used biological processes for the treatment of wastewaters from medium to large populations. It produces high amounts of sewage sludge that can be managed and perceived in two main ways: as a waste it is discharged in landfill, as a fertilizer it is disposed in agriculture with direct application to soil or subjected to anaerobic digestion and composting. Other solutions, such as incineration or production of concrete, bricks and asphalt play a secondary role in terms of their degree of diffusion. The agronomical value of domestic sewage sludge is a proved question, which may be hidden by the presence of several pollutants such as heavy metals, organic compounds and pathogens. In this way, the sustainability of sewage sludge agricultural disposal requires a value judgment based on knowledge and evaluation of the level of pollution of both sewage sludge and soil. The article analyzed a typical Italian case study, a water management system of small communities, applying the criteria of evaluation of the last official document of European Union about sewage sludge land application, the “Working Document on Sludge (3rd draft, 2000”. The report brought out good sewage sludge from small wastewater treatment plants and soils quality suggesting a sustainable application.

  20. Electron beam disinfection of sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Shoji

    1992-01-01

    Electron beam treatment of dehydrated sewage sludge for safe reutilization was performed. Ranges of total bacterial counts and total coliforms in the sludge were from 1.5 x 10 8 to 1.6 x 10 9 and from 2.2 x 10 7 to 1.5 x 10 8 per wet gram, respectively. Total bacterial counts decreased about 5 log cycles after irradiating 5 kGy and irradiation with 2 kGy was enough to kill all coliforms in sewage sludge. The survival curves of total bacteria, obtained by irradiation in oxygen atmosphere, approached to that in nitrogen atmosphere with the increase of sludge thickness. No effects of dose rate and electron energy were found when the sludge layers were thin enough. Continuous disinfection of sewage sludge cake, with the maximum feed rate of 300 kg-sludge/hr, was successfully performed with a Cockcroft-Walton type electron accelerator, a sludge pump and a flat nozzle. (J.P.N.)

  1. Viscosity evolution of anaerobic granular sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pevere, A.; Guibaud, G.; Hullebusch, van E.D.; Lens, P.N.L.; Baudu, M.

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of the apparent viscosity at steady shear rate of sieved anaerobic granular sludge (20¿315 ¿m diameter) sampled from different full-scale anaerobic reactors was recorded using rotation tests. The ¿limit viscosity¿ of sieved anaerobic granular sludge was determined from the apparent

  2. Filterability and Sludge Concentration in Membrane Bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lousada-Ferreira, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Thesis entitled “Filterability and Sludge Concentration in Membrane Bioreactors” aims at explaining the relation between Mixed Liquid Suspended Solids (MLSS) concentration, the amount of solids in the wastewater being treated, also designated as sludge, and filterability, being the ability of

  3. Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion of Sewage Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshizo; Nojima, Tomoyuki; Kakuta, Akihiko; Moritomi, Hiroshi

    A conceptual design of an energy recovering system from sewage sludge was proposed. This system consists of a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, a gas turbine, and a heat exchanger for preheating of combustion air. Thermal efficiency was estimated roughly as 10-25%. In order to know the combustion characteristics of the sewage sludge under the elevated pressure condition, combustion tests of the dry and wet sewage sludge were carried out by using laboratory scale pressurized fluidized bed combustors. Combustibility of the sewage sludge was good enough and almost complete combustion was achieved in the combustion of the actual wet sludge. CO emission and NOx emission were marvelously low especially during the combustion of wet sewage sludge regardless of high volatile and nitrogen content of the sewage sludge. However, nitrous oxide (N2O) emission was very high. Hence, almost all nitrogen oxides were emitted as the form of N2O. From these combustion tests, we judged combustion of the sewage sludge with the pressurized fluidized bed combustor is suitable, and the conceptual design of the power generation system is available.

  4. Gravitational sedimentation of flocculated waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, C P; Lee, D J; Tay, J H

    2003-01-01

    The sedimentation characteristics of flocculated wastewater sludge have not been satisfactorily explored using the non-destructive techniques, partially owing to the rather low solid content (ca. 1-2%) commonly noted in the biological sediments. This paper investigated, for the first time, the spatial-temporal gravitational settling characteristics of original and polyelectrolyte flocculated waste activated sludge using Computerized Axial Tomography Scanner. The waste activated sludge possessed a distinct settling characteristic from the kaolin slurries. The waste activated sludges settled more slowly and reached a lower solid fraction in the final sediment than the latter. Flocculation markedly enhanced the settleability of both sludges. Although the maximum achievable solid contents for the kaolin slurries were reduced, flocculation had little effects on the activated sludge. The purely plastic rheological model by Buscall and White (J Chem Soc Faraday Trans 1(83) (1987) 873) interpreted the consolidating sediment data, while the purely elastic model by Tiller and Leu (J. Chin. Inst. Chem. Eng. 11 (1980) 61) described the final equilibrated sediment. Flocculation produced lower yield stress during transient settling, thereby resulting in the more easily consolidated sludge than the original sample. Meanwhile, the flocculated activated sludge was stiffer in the final sediment than in the original sample. The data reported herein are valuable to the theories development for clarifier design and operation.

  5. Fly ash based zeolitic pigments for application in anticorrosive paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, Ruchi; Tiwari, Sangeeta

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the utilization of waste fly ash in anticorrosive paints. Zeolite NaY was synthesized from waste fly ash and subsequently modified by exchanging its nominal cation Na + with Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ ions. The metal ion exchanged zeolite was then used as anticorrosive zeolitic pigments in paints. The prepared zeolite NaY was characterized using X-Ray diffraction technique and Scanning electron microscopy. The size, shape and density of the prepared fly ash based pigments were determined by various techniques. The paints were prepared by using fly ash based zeolitic pigments in epoxy resin and the percentages of pigments used in paints were 2% and 5%. These paints were applied to the mild steel panels and the anticorrosive properties of the pigments were assessed by the electrochemical spectroscopy technique (EIS).

  6. Large-scale quantitative analysis of painting arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel; Son, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Hawoong

    2014-12-11

    Scientists have made efforts to understand the beauty of painting art in their own languages. As digital image acquisition of painting arts has made rapid progress, researchers have come to a point where it is possible to perform statistical analysis of a large-scale database of artistic paints to make a bridge between art and science. Using digital image processing techniques, we investigate three quantitative measures of images - the usage of individual colors, the variety of colors, and the roughness of the brightness. We found a difference in color usage between classical paintings and photographs, and a significantly low color variety of the medieval period. Interestingly, moreover, the increment of roughness exponent as painting techniques such as chiaroscuro and sfumato have advanced is consistent with historical circumstances.

  7. Automotive Painting Technology A Monozukuri-Hitozukuri Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Salazar, Abraham; Saito, Kozo

    2013-01-01

    This book offers unique and valuable contributions to the field. It offers breadth and inclusiveness. Most existing works on automotive painting cover only a single aspect of this complex topic, such as the chemistry of paint or paint booth technology. Monozukuri and Hitozukuri are Japanese terms that can be translated as “making things” and “developing people” but their implications in Japanese are richer and more complex than this minimal translation would indicate. The Monozukuri-Hitozukuri perspective is drawn from essential principles on which the Toyota approach to problem-solving and continuous improvement is based. From this perspective, neither painting technology R&D nor painting technology use in manufacturing can be done successfully without integrating technological and human concerns involved with making and learning in the broadest sense, as the hyphen is meant to indicate. The editors provide case studies and examples -- drawn from Mr. Toda’s 33 years of experience with automotiv...

  8. 76 FR 27044 - Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting, and Pre-Renovation Education Activities in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ..., Repair and Painting, and Pre- Renovation Education Activities in Target Housing and Child Occupied...), and a lead-based paint pre-renovation education program in accordance with section 406(b) of TSCA, 15... renovation and remodeling activities of pre-1978 housing and child-occupied facilities in the State of...

  9. Waste sludge resuspension and transfer: development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeren, H.O.; Mackey, T.S.

    1980-02-01

    The six Gunite waste tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contain about 400,000 gal of sludge that has precipitated from solution and settled during the 35 years these tanks have been in service. Eventual decommissioning of the tanks has been proposed. The first part of this program is to resuspend the accumulated sludge, to transfer it to new storage tanks in Melton Valley, and to dispose of it by the shale-fracturing process. On the basis of preliminary information, a tentative operational concept was adopted. The sludge in each tank would be resuspended by hydraulic sluicing and pumped from the tank. This resuspended sludge would be treated as necessary to keep the particles in suspension and would be pumped to the new waste-storage tanks. Subsequently the sludge would be pumped from the tanks, combined with a cement-base mix, and disposed of by the shale-fracturing facility. Verification of the feasibility of this concept required development effort on characterization of the sludge and development of techniques for resuspending the sludge and for keeping it in suspension. These development efforts are described in this report. Sections of the report describe both the known properties of the sludge and the tests of grinding methods investigated, discuss tests of various suspenders, describe tests with cement-base mixes, summarize hot-cell tests on actual sludge samples, and describe tests that were made at a mockup of a Gunite tank installation. On the basis of the tests made, it was concluded that reslurrying and resuspension of the sludge is quite feasible and that the suspensions can be made compatible with cement mixes

  10. Physical property characterization of 183-H Basin sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biyani, R.K.; Delegard, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    This document describes the characterization of 183-H Basin sludge physical properties, e.g. bulk density of sludge and absorbent, and determination of free liquids. Calcination of crucible-size samples of sludge was also done and the resulting 'loss-on-ignition' was compared to the theoretical weight loss based on sludge analysis obtained from Weston Labs

  11. Dewaterability of sludge digested in extended aeration plants using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dewaterability of unconditioned sludge digested in full scale and lab scale experiments using either extended aeration (EA) or anaerobic digestion were compared on full and lab scale sand drying beds. Sludge digested in EA plants resulted in improvement in sludge dewaterability compared to sludge digested ...

  12. Sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation: financial viability case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinwood, J.F.; Kotler, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the financial viability of sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation, by examining the following three North American scenarios: 1. Small volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs; 2. Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing low sludge disposal costs; 3. Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs. (author)

  13. Sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation: financial viability case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinwood, J.F.; Kotler, J. (Nordion International Inc., Kanata, Ontario (Canada))

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the financial viability of sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation, by examining the following three North American scenarios: 1. Small volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs; 2. Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing low sludge disposal costs; 3. Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs. (author).

  14. Sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation: Financial viability case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinwood, Jean F.; Kotler, Jiri

    This paper examines the financial viability of sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation, by examining the following three North American scenarios: 1) Small volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs. 2) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing low sludge disposal costs. 3) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs.

  15. The beneficial usage of water treatment sludge as pottery product ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The disposal of sludge from water treatment operations has become a major problem in Malaysia. The problem becomes acute because of scarcity of space for installation of sludge treatment facilities and disposal of treated sludge. Traditionally, treated sludge from water treatment plant will be sent to landfill for disposal.

  16. Radiation-polymerisable paint and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassata, J.C.; Dickie, R.A.

    1974-01-01

    A paint polymerisable under the effect of a radiation is presented. The main components, excluding non-polymerisable solvent, pigment, initiator and particle charge, are as follows: about 90 to 10 parts of a saturated thermoplastic vinyl polymer of average molecular mass around 2000 to 250,000, prepared from monofunctional vinyl monomers to the extent of at least 85% by weight; about 10 to 90 parts of vinyl monomer solvent for the polymer, up to 90% by weight of the solvent consisting of monovinyl monomers and the remainder being chosen amongst divinyl, trivinyl, tetravinyl monomers and their mixtures. The average molecular weight of the thermoplastic vinyl polymer has between 5000 and 50,000 [fr

  17. Diuretic plants in the paintings of Pompeii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melillo, L

    1994-01-01

    The plants that appear in the paintings and mosaics of Pompeii are chiefly edible and medicinal, though flowers with purely esthetic appeal are also shown. An important example is one of the floor mosaics from the House of the Faun, in which it is possible to identify lemon, cherry, strawberry, pomegranate, grape and olive, leaves of grape, fig, apple and olive, and flowers of corn cockle. The diuretic properties of some of these plants are mentioned in the Naturalis Historia of Pliny the Elder. A silver cup from the House of Menandro, one of the most refined examples of plant decoration in antiquity, shows olive branches and fruits. The presence of plants in such artefacts confirms that people of classical times were conscious that plants were important producers of food, oils, fibers, woods and medicines.

  18. Paint compositions for indicating irradiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, T.; Murata, K.

    1975-01-01

    Paint compositions for indicating irradiation dose are prepared from chlorine-combined polyester, 5 to 30 percent by weight of a reductive discoloring substance or a mixture of said substances, and/or 0.005 to 2.0 percent by weight of a reducing dyestuff or a mixture of said dyestuffs, in which said chlorine-combined polyester is obtained by a chlorinated dibasic acid or its anhydride as an acid component or a part of an acid component selected from a group consisting of 3-chlorophthalic acid, 4-chlorophthalic acid, dichlorinated phthalic acid, tetrachlorophthalic acid, 1,4,5,6,7,7-hexachlorobicyclo-(2,2,1)-5-heptene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid, 4-chloro-4-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboxylic acid and the anhydrides corresponding to said acids. (auth)

  19. [Optic mixing of colours in Seurat's painting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernea, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Georges Seurat is the initiator and master of the divisionism. He founds the neoimpressionism current that tries to reproduce the nature exclusively through coloured vibration. Seurat applies the colours in small touches uniformly distributed on the canvas; the colours merge if they are looked by a certain distance, through optical interference. When the spectator approaches from the picture, the special frequency decreases, the optical merging does not appear and the onlooker looks a lot of coloured spots. When the spectator moves away from the picture, the optical interference appears and the clarity of the image becomes perfectly. This current opened the way of the future's modern painting performed by Cézanne, Renoir, Van Gogh.

  20. Local Treatment for Monochrome Outdoor Painted Metal Sculptures: Assessing the suitability of conservation paints for retouching

    OpenAIRE

    van Basten, Nikki; Defeyt, Catherine; Rivenc, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    When outdoor painted sculptures get chipped, scratched or abraded, conservators might consider local retouching treatments as an option that would protect the exposed metal substrate and restore the aesthetic integrity, thus postponing a very costly and invasive overall repainting. Unfortunately, matching colour gloss and texture on large monochrome surfaces is always challenging. This paper reports on research undertaken to investigate some of the materials and application techniques that co...

  1. Effect of phosphorous transformation on the reduction of PM{sub 10} formation during Co-combustion of coal and sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuo, J.K.; Dong, M.; Li, G.D.; Li, S.Q.; Song, Q.; Yao, Q. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Key Lab. of Thermal Science and Power Engineering; Duan, L. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Co-combustion of Municipal Sewage Sludge with coal will become increasingly widely used, regarded as an important incineration method with the high thermal efficiency, low emissions, low investment and operating costs. However, the presence of phosphorus in fine particle has gained increased attention due to its environmental adverse affection and deactivation of SCR DeNOx catalysts. Therefore, the behavior of phosphorus in fine particles during co-combustion of coal and sewage sludge was investigated in a 25 kW quasi one-dimensional down-fired pulverized coal combustor, where PM{sub 10} was collected from the furnace centerline in the outlet of flue gas cooler by using a two-stage nitrogen-aspirated, water-cooling isokinetic sampling probe followed a 13-stage electric low pressure impactor. Then the formation mechanism of PM{sub 10} was investigated by observing the different fractions of sewage sludge in the coal. Similar to the coal combustion, the particle-size-distributions (PSD) of PM{sub 10} mass concentration by co-combustion of sewage sludge with coal exhibit two distinct modes separated by a fraction of 0.157-0.263 {mu}m, ultrafine mode and intermediate mode. With the sewage sludge blended sludge up to 15% (thermal ratio), the mass concentration of the total fly ash and PM{sub 10+} (Dp > 10 {mu}m) vastly increased from 1,088 and 547 mg/Nm{sup 3} (during coal combustion) to 5,059 and 4,403 mg/Nm{sup 3}. However, the mass concentration of fine particulates, such as PM{sub 1}, PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} was maintained at the emission level of coal combustion. When the fraction of sewage sludge less than 15%, the mass concentration of fine particle is higher than the emission during coal combustion, while the growth rate is only by the 3.6, 7.9 and 4.8% of the total concentration of fly ash (5% thermal). The change of the PSD of mass concentration during co- combustion of sewage sludge and coal, mainly was caused by the interaction between Si, Al and Ca, Fe

  2. Long term deactivation test of high dust SCR catalysts by straw co-firing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigang Lin; Degn Jensen, A.; Bjerkvig, J.

    2009-12-15

    The consequences of carbon dioxide induced global warming cause major concern worldwide. The consumption of energy produced with fossil fuels is the major factor that contributes to the global warming. Biomass is a renewable energy resource and has a nature of CO{sub 2} neutrality. Co-combustion of biomass in existing coal fired power plants can maintain high efficiency and reduce the emission of CO{sub 2} at same time. However, one of the problems faced by co-firing is deactivation of the SCR catalysts. Understanding of the mechanisms of deactivation of the catalyst elements at co-firing conditions is crucial for long term runs of the power plants. Twenty six SCR catalyst elements were exposed at two units (SSV3 and SSV4) in the Studstrup Power Plant for a long period. Both units co-fire coal and straw with a typical fraction of 8-10% straw on an energy basis during co-firing. SSV4 unit operated in co-firing mode most of the time; SSV3 unit co-fired straw half of the operating time. The main objective of this PSO-project is to gain knowledge of a long term influence on catalyst activity when co-firing straw in coal-fired power plants, thus, to improve the basis for operating the SCR-plants for NO{sub x}-reduction. The exposure time of the applied catalyst elements (HTAS and BASF) varied from approximately 5000 to 19000 hours in the power plant by exchanging the element two times. The activity of all elements was measured before and after exposure in a bench scale test rig at the Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark. The results show that the activity, estimated by exclusion of channel clogging of the elements, decreases gradually with the total exposure time. It appears that the exposure time under co-firing condition has little effect on the deactivation of the catalyst elements and no sharp decrease of the activity was observed. The average deactivation rate of the catalyst elements is 1.6 %/1000 hours. SEM

  3. REEMISSION OF MERCURY COMPOUNDS FROM SEWAGE SLUDGE DISPOSAL

    OpenAIRE

    Beata Janowska

    2016-01-01

    The sewage sludge disposal and cultivation methods consist in storage, agricultural use, compost production, biogas production or heat treatment. The sewage sludge production in municipal sewage sludge treatment plants in year 2013 in Poland amounted to 540.3 thousand Mg d.m. The sewage sludge for agricultural or natural use must satisfy chemical, sanitary and environmental safety requirements. The heavy metal content, including the mercury content, determines the sewage sludge disposal metho...

  4. Factors affecting the consolidation of steam generator sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, C. W.; Shamsuzzaman, K.; Tapping, R. L.

    1993-02-15

    It is hypothesized that sludge consolidation is promoted by chemical reactions involving the various sludge constituents, although the hardness of the final product will also depend on the total porosity. Oxidizing conditions and higher temperatures produce a harder sludge. The precipitation of Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, a potential binding agent, may also promote sludge consolidation. Several solutions to prevent sludge consolidation are suggested. (Author) 3 figs., 4 tabs., 3 refs.

  5. Aquatic worm reactor for improved sludge processing and resource recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrickx, T.L.G.

    2009-01-01

    Municipal waste water treatment is mainly achieved by biological processes. These processes produce huge volumes of waste sludge (up 1.5 million m3/year in the Netherlands). Further processing of the waste sludge involves transportation, thickening and incineration. A decrease in the amount of waste sludge would be both environmentally and economically attractive. Aquatic worms can be used to reduce the amount of waste sludge. After predation by the worms, the amount of final sludge is lower....

  6. Reassessing the extent of the Q classification for containment paint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spires, G.

    1995-01-01

    A mounting number of site-specific paint debris transport and screen clogging analyses submitted to justify substandard containment paint work have been deemed persuasive by virtue of favorable U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission safety evaluation report (SER) findings. These lay a strong foundation for a standardized approach to redefining the extent to which paint in containment needs to be considered open-quotes Q.close quotes This information justifies an initiative by licensees to roll back paint work quality commitments made at the design phase. This paper questions the validity of the basic premise that all primary containment paint can significantly compromise core and containment cooling [emergency core cooling system/engineered safeguard feature (ECCS/ESF)]. It is posited that the physical extent of painted containment surfaces for which extant material qualification and quality control (QC) structures need apply can be limited to zones relatively proximate to ECCS/ESF suction points. For other painted containment surfaces, simplified criteria should be allowed

  7. The art in science: electron microscopy and paintings conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, L.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: When examining a painting, a conservator uses many different and complementary methods of analysis to build an understanding of the materials and way the painting was constructed. Common methods of examination include x-radiography, infrared reflectography, ultraviolet fluorescence and optical microscopy of the surface of the painting. Minute samples of paint prepared as cross-sections are sometimes taken for optical examination under the microscope, and it is these that can, conveniently, be further analysed with electron microscopy to yield another level of information. Electron microscopy has a valuable role to play within the examination of paintings, be it for pigment identification alone, or at the other end of the spectrum, for informing issues around the attribution of works of art. This paper provides an overview of the use of electron microscopy in the conservation of paintings by discussing examples of work undertaken by the National Gallery of Victoria and the CSIRO. Work described includes the problem of distinguishing between restorers' original paint in a landscape by Arthur Streeton, and the examination of the ground or priming layer in a Rembrandt portrait which clarified its attribution to his studio. Copyright (2003) Australian Microbeam Analysis Society

  8. Marine atmospheres provide a tough test for protective paint systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steptoe, G.G.C.

    1980-04-01

    Protective paints based on chlorinated rubber (CR) offer good resistance to salt-laden atmospheres and extreme climatic conditions, possess low moisture and oxygen permeability, and are resistant to a variety of chemicals, which allows them to counter the acidic and alkaline conditions tha arise from the corrosion of steel in salt water and from cathodic protection. Airless spray techniques allow CR paints to be applied much faster in thick coatings to large surface areas. CR paints can be formulated to produce a dry film thickness of 80-100 jm in one application. One study concluded that the extra expense for good surface preparation and high-performance paint can be regained in 2-4 yr as a result of lower maintenance costs. CR paints can be used successfully with cathodic protection; however, their tolerance to overprotection is less than that of some alternative systems; CR paints are considered to be suitable for use up to a maximum of -0.95 v. The numerous applications of CR paint include large crude carriers, offshore oil structures, oil terminals (e.g., the Flotta terminal in the Orkneys), and storage tanks.

  9. A study on impact monitoring using a piezoelectric paint sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kyung Woo; Kang, Dong Hoon; Park, Seung Bok; Kang, Lae Hyong

    2015-01-01

    The piezoelectric paint sensor is a paint type sensor comprising of an epoxy and piezoelectric powder, which is the main component of a piezoelectric material. This sensor can be easily attached to any type of structure as compared to other sensors because it is viable to directly apply it on structures, as in the case with a typical paint. In this study, the capability of piezoelectric paint sensor for impact detection was evaluated. In Particular, the applications of the piezoelectric paint sensor for railroad vehicles were considered. There have been various cases reported about the damages caused by flying gravel to the under-cover of the railroad vehicle during operation. In order to prevent this, real-time monitoring of the large under-cover surface of the railroad vehicle is unavoidable. Under the assumption of vehicle application, sensor sensitivities were measured after multiple and prolonged exposure to thermal cycle environment -20⁓60 degrees Celsius). Sensitivity evaluation of paint sensor under environmental conditions was conducted in an aluminum specimen. In results, despite the small variations in sensitivity, we could confirm the applicability of this paint sensor for impact detection even after a severe environmental exposure test

  10. Controlled-Deactivation CB1 Receptor Ligands as a Novel Strategy to Lower Intraocular Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Miller

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Nearly half a century has passed since the demonstration that cannabis and its chief psychoactive component Δ9-THC lowers intraocular pressure (IOP. Elevated IOP remains the chief hallmark and therapeutic target for glaucoma, a condition that places millions at risk of blindness. It is likely that Δ9-THC exerts much of its IOP-lowering effects via the activation of CB1 cannabinoid receptors. However, the initial promise of CB1 as a target for treating glaucoma has not thus far translated into a credible therapeutic strategy. We have recently shown that blocking monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL, an enzyme that breaks the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG, substantially lowers IOP. Another strategy is to develop cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonists that are optimized for topical application to the eye. Recently we have reported on a controlled-deactivation approach where the “soft” drug concept of enzymatic deactivation was combined with a “depot effect” that is commonly observed with Δ9-THC and other lipophilic cannabinoids. This approach allowed us to develop novel cannabinoids with a predictable duration of action and is particularly attractive for the design of CB1 activators for ophthalmic use with limited or no psychoactive effects. We have tested a novel class of compounds using a combination of electrophysiology in autaptic hippocampal neurons, a well-characterized model of endogenous cannabinoid signaling, and measurements of IOP in a mouse model. We now report that AM7410 is a reasonably potent and efficacious agonist at CB1 in neurons and that it substantially (30% lowers IOP for as long as 5 h after a single topical treatment. This effect is absent in CB1 knockout mice. Our results indicate that the direct targeting of CB1 receptors with controlled-deactivation ligands is a viable approach to lower IOP in a murine model and merits further study in other model systems.

  11. Brain deactivation in the outperformance in bimodal tasks: an FMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Ching Chiang

    Full Text Available While it is known that some individuals can effectively perform two tasks simultaneously, other individuals cannot. How the brain deals with performing simultaneous tasks remains unclear. In the present study, we aimed to assess which brain areas corresponded to various phenomena in task performance. Nineteen subjects were requested to sequentially perform three blocks of tasks, including two unimodal tasks and one bimodal task. The unimodal tasks measured either visual feature binding or auditory pitch comparison, while the bimodal task required performance of the two tasks simultaneously. The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI results are compatible with previous studies showing that distinct brain areas, such as the visual cortices, frontal eye field (FEF, lateral parietal lobe (BA7, and medial and inferior frontal lobe, are involved in processing of visual unimodal tasks. In addition, the temporal lobes and Brodmann area 43 (BA43 were involved in processing of auditory unimodal tasks. These results lend support to concepts of modality-specific attention. Compared to the unimodal tasks, bimodal tasks required activation of additional brain areas. Furthermore, while deactivated brain areas were related to good performance in the bimodal task, these areas were not deactivated where the subject performed well in only one of the two simultaneous tasks. These results indicate that efficient information processing does not require some brain areas to be overly active; rather, the specific brain areas need to be relatively deactivated to remain alert and perform well on two tasks simultaneously. Meanwhile, it can also offer a neural basis for biofeedback in training courses, such as courses in how to perform multiple tasks simultaneously.

  12. Electroosmotic dewatering of chalk sludge, iron hydroxide sludge, wet fly ash and biomass sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.K.; Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2003-01-01

    . Casagrande's coefficients were determined for the four materials at different water contents. The experiments in this work showed that chalk could be dewatered from 40% to 79% DM (dry matter), fly ash from 75 to 82% DM, iron hydroxide sludge from 2.7 to 19% DM and biomass from 3 to 33% DM by electroosmosis....... The process was not optimised indicating that higher dry matter contents could be achieved by electroosmosis. It was possible to relate Casagrande's coefficient directly to the electroosmotic coefficient obtained by dewatering experiments....

  13. ALARA ASSESSMENT OF SETTLER SLUDGE SAMPLING METHODS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelsen, L.A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this assessment is to compare underwater and above water settler sludge sampling methods to determine if the added cost for underwater sampling for the sole purpose of worker dose reductions is justified. Initial planning for sludge sampling included container, settler and knock-out-pot (KOP) sampling. Due to the significantly higher dose consequence of KOP sludge, a decision was made to sample KOP underwater to achieve worker dose reductions. Additionally, initial plans were to utilize the underwater sampling apparatus for settler sludge. Since there are no longer plans to sample KOP sludge, the decision for underwater sampling for settler sludge needs to be revisited. The present sampling plan calls for spending an estimated $2,500,000 to design and construct a new underwater sampling system (per A21 C-PL-001 RevOE). This evaluation will compare and contrast the present method of above water sampling to the underwater method that is planned by the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) and determine if settler samples can be taken using the existing sampling cart (with potentially minor modifications) while maintaining doses to workers As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) and eliminate the need for costly redesigns, testing and personnel retraining

  14. ALARA ASSESSMENT OF SETTLER SLUDGE SAMPLING METHODS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NELSEN LA

    2009-01-30

    The purpose of this assessment is to compare underwater and above water settler sludge sampling methods to determine if the added cost for underwater sampling for the sole purpose of worker dose reductions is justified. Initial planning for sludge sampling included container, settler and knock-out-pot (KOP) sampling. Due to the significantly higher dose consequence of KOP sludge, a decision was made to sample KOP underwater to achieve worker dose reductions. Additionally, initial plans were to utilize the underwater sampling apparatus for settler sludge. Since there are no longer plans to sample KOP sludge, the decision for underwater sampling for settler sludge needs to be revisited. The present sampling plan calls for spending an estimated $2,500,000 to design and construct a new underwater sampling system (per A21 C-PL-001 RevOE). This evaluation will compare and contrast the present method of above water sampling to the underwater method that is planned by the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) and determine if settler samples can be taken using the existing sampling cart (with potentially minor modifications) while maintaining doses to workers As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) and eliminate the need for costly redesigns, testing and personnel retraining.

  15. Virological investigations on inadiated sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epp, C.

    1980-08-01

    The virusinactivating activity of a Co 60 -irradiation pilot plant at Geiselbullach/Munich was to be examined. We investigated 16 impure sewage water, 15 purified sewage water, 32 raw sladge samples, 62 digested sludge samples before irradiation, 52 digested sludge samples after irradiation and 9 raw sludge samples after irradiation. We completed these investigations by adding poliovaccinevirus type 1 to the digested sludge before irradiation and by adding suspensions of pure virus in MEM + 2% FBS packed in synthetic capsules and mixtures of virus and sludge packed in synthetic capsules to the digested sludge. After the irradiation we collected the capsules and determined the virustiter. The testviruses were poliovaccinevirus type 1, poliowildvirus type 1, echovirus type 6, coxsackie-B-virus type 5, coxsackie-A-virus type 9 and adenovirus type 1. In the field trial the irradiation results were like the laboratory results assuming that the sewage sludge was homogenized enough by digestion and the solid particle concentration was not more than 3%. The D-value was 300-400 krad for enteroviruses and 700 krad for adenovirus. (orig.) [de

  16. A microbiological study on sewage sludge treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sermkiattipong, Ngamnit; Ito, Hitoshi; Hashimoto, Shoji.

    1990-09-01

    Isolation and identification of salmonellae in sewage sludge cake and radiation sensitivities of the isolated strains were studied. Disinfection of the sludge by heat or radiation and effect of such treatment on composting were also carried out. Five groups of O-antigen and seven serotypes of salmonellae were identified from the sludge cakes. D 10 values of the salmonellae in phosphate buffer were ranged from 0.16 to 0.22 kGy and those in sludge were about three times larger. Total bacterial counts and coliforms in the sludges were determined to be 4.6 x 10 7 - 5.1 x 10 9 and 1.3 x 10 5 - 1.1 x 10 9 colony forming unit (cfu/g). After irradiation at 20 kGy by gamma ray or electron beam, decrease of total bacterial count was 5 - 7 log cycles and a dose of 5 kGy was enough to eliminate all of the coliforms. Coliforms decreased rapidly by heating at 65degC, but only one log cycle decrease was observed in total bacterial count. By heating at 100degC, total bacterial count decreased rapidly. Two peaks were observed in CO 2 evolution curves of radiation disinfected sludge composting, but only one peak in heat disinfected sludge composting. (author)

  17. A review on sludge dewatering indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Vu Hien Phuong; Nguyen, Tien Vinh; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuth; Ngo, Huu Hao

    2016-01-01

    Dewatering of sludge from sewage treatment plants is proving to be a significant challenge due to the large amounts of residual sludges generated annually. In recent years, research and development have focused on improving the dewatering process in order to reduce subsequent costs of sludge management and transport. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to establish reliable indices that reflect the efficiency of sludge dewatering. However, the evaluation of sludge dewaterability is not an easy task due to the highly complex nature of sewage sludge and variations in solid-liquid separation methods. Most traditional dewatering indices fail to predict the maximum cake solids content achievable during full-scale dewatering. This paper reviews the difficulties in assessing sludge dewatering performance, and the main techniques used to evaluate dewatering performance are compared and discussed in detail. Finally, the paper suggests a new dewatering index, namely the modified centrifugal index, which is demonstrated to be an appropriate indicator for estimating the final cake solids content as well as simulating the prototype dewatering process.

  18. Radioactivity of sludge in Finland in 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puhakainen, M.; Rahola, T.

    1989-05-01

    Sewage sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants was studied to determine its radionuclide concentrations. Measurements were made to find out whether any radionuclides from the nuclear power stations at Loviisa and Olkiluoto and from hospitals and medical laboratories could be detected in sludge additional to those originating from global and Chernobyl fallout. In the treatment process of water, aluminium sulphate sludge is developed at treatment plants using surface water. This kind of sludge was measured since it also concentrates radionuclides. Fallout nuclides from the Chernobyl nuclear power station after the accident predominated in all sewage sludge samples in Finland. In 1987 six different radionuclides originating from the Chernobyl fallout were detected in sewage sludge. In spring when the snow melted and large quantities of run off water flowed into the treatment plants, the activity concentrations clearly increased, but then started decreasing again. At the end of the year the highest measured 137 Cs activity concentrations were below 1000 Bq kg -1 dry weight. The highest activity concentration in sludge originated from iodine used fro medical purposes

  19. Sustainable sludge management in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, B.; Barrios, J.A.; Mendez, J.M.; Diaz, J.

    2003-07-01

    Worldwide, unsanitary conditions are responsible of more than three million deaths annually. One of the reasons is the low level of sanitation in developing countries. Particularly, sludge from these regions has a high parasite concentration and low heavy metal content even though the available information is limited. Different issues needed to achieve a sustainable sludge management in developing nations are analysed. Based on this analysis some conclusions arise: sludge management plays an important role in sanitation programs by helping reduce health problems and associated risks; investments in sanitation should consider sludge management within the overall projects; the main restriction for reusing sludge is the high microbial concentration, which requires a science-based decision of the treatment process, while heavy metals are generally low; the adequate sludge management needs the commitment of those sectors involved in the development and enforcement of the regulations as well as those that are directly related to its generation, treatment, reuse or disposal; current regulations have followed different approaches, based mainly on local conditions, but they favour sludge reuse to fight problems like soil degradation, reduced crop production, and the increased use of inorganic fertilizers. This paper summarises an overview of theses issues. (author)

  20. Stabilization/solidification of sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boura, Panagiota; Katsioti, Margarita; Tsakiridis, Petros; Katsiri, Alexandra

    2003-07-01

    The main objective of this work is to investigate a viable alternative for the final disposal of sewage sludge from urban wastewater treatment plants by its use as an additive in developing new construction materials. For this purpose, several mixtures of sludge- cement and sludge-cement and jarosite/alunite precipitate were prepared. Jarosite/alunite precipitate is a waste product of a new hydrometallurgical process. Two kinds of sludge were used: primary sludge from Psyttalia Wastewater Treatment Plant, which receives a considerable amount of industrial waste, and biological sludge from Metamorphosi Wastewater Treatment Plant. Various percentages of these sludges were stabilized/solidified with Portland cement and Portland cement with jarosite/alunite. The specimens were tested by determination of compressive strength according to the methods described by European Standard EN 196. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis as well as Thermogravimetry-Differential Thermal Analysis (TG-DTA) were used to determine the hydration products in 28 days. Furthermore, Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure test for heavy metals (TCLP), were carried out in order to investigate the environmental compatibility of these new materials. (author)

  1. Step Changes and Deactivation Behavior in the Continuous Decarboxylation of Stearic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Rozmysłowicz, Bartosz; Simakova, Irina L.

    2011-01-01

    Deoxygenation of dilute and concentrated stearic acid over 2% Pd/C beads was performed in a continuous reactor at 300 °C and 20 bar pressure of Ar or 5% H2/Ar. Stable operation was obtained in 5% H2 atmosphere, with 95% conversion of 10 mol % dilute stearic acid in dodecane and 12% conversion...... of pure stearic acid. Deactivation took place in H2-deficient gas atmosphere, probably as a result of the formation of unsaturated products and coking in the pore system. Transient experiments with step changes were performed: 1 h was required for the step change to be visible in liquid sampling, whereas...

  2. The effect of barrier layer-mediated catalytic deactivation in vertically aligned carbon nanotube growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patole, S P; Yu, Seong-Man; Shin, Dong-Wook; Yoo, Ji-Beom; Kim, Ha-Jin; Han, In-Taek; Kwon, Kee-Won

    2010-01-01

    The effect of Al-barrier layer-mediated Fe-catalytic deactivation in vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) growth was studied. The substrate surface morphology, catalytic diffusion and barrier layer oxidation were found to be dependent on the annealing temperature of the barrier layer, which ultimately affects CNT growth. The annealed barrier layer without complete oxidation was found to be suitable for top to bottom super aligned CNT arrays. The highest average CNT growth rate of up to 3.88 μm s -1 was observed using this simple approach. Details of the analysis are also presented.

  3. Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy of hydrogen complex deactivation on InP:Zn(1 0 0) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.D.; Williams, S.C.; Yasharahla, S.A.; Jallow, N.

    2007-01-01

    Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy is used to study the kinetics of the H-Zn complex deactivation in Zn doped InP(1 0 0). Hydrogen injected into the material electronically passivates the local carrier concentration. Reverse-biased anneals of the InP under ultra-high vacuum show a dramatic change in the work function of the material with increasing temperature. Spectral features are also shown to be sensitive to sample temperature. To our knowledge, we show the first view of hydrogen retrapping at the surface using photoemission spectroscopy. A simple photoelectron threshold energy analysis shows the state of charge compensation of the material

  4. ALARA Review for the Deactivation of the 107-N Pump Well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, T.A.

    1998-01-01

    This as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) review provides a description of the engineering and administrative controls used during the completion of deactivation work at the 107-N Building. This ALARA assessment focuses on the 107-N Building pump well. The level of contamination found in the pump well has been estimated to be approximately 830 mRad/hr beta and 680,000 disintegrations per minute (dpm) alpha per large area wipe. As part of the characterization of the water and sediment, samples were taken to determine the isotopic distribution

  5. Activated and deactivated functional brain areas in the Deqi state: A functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong; Zeng, Tongjun; Zhang, Guifeng; Li, Ganlong; Lu, Na; Lai, Xinsheng; Lu, Yangjia; Chen, Jiarong

    2012-10-25

    We compared the activities of functional regions of the brain in the Deqi versus non-Deqi state, as reported by physicians and subjects during acupuncture. Twelve healthy volunteers received sham and true needling at the Waiguan (TE5) acupoint. Real-time cerebral functional MRI showed that compared with non-sensation after sham needling, true needling activated Brodmann areas 3, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 20, 21, 37, 39, 40, 43, and 47, the head of the caudate nucleus, the parahippocampal gyrus, thalamus and red nucleus. True needling also deactivated Brodmann areas 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 18, 24, 31, 40 and 46.

  6. Characterization of deactivated catalytic cracking catalyst and evaluation as absorbent material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valt, R.B.G.; Kaminari, N.M.S.; Cordeiro, B.; Ponte, M.J.J.S.; Ponte, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    One of the main uses of catalysts in the petroleum industry is in step catalytic cracking, which after use and regeneration cycles generates large quantities of waste material. In this research the deactivated FCC catalyst was characterized before and after the electrokinetic remediation process, in order to assess the change of its structure and possible adsorptive capacity. Analyses of X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and BET surface area measurement were performed. The analysis showed no structural change due to the process employed and that electrokinetic remediation has recovered 42% of adsorption capacity of the material, by removing about 89% of heavy metals adhered initially in the catalyst surface. (author)

  7. Deactivation of medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate cortex in anxiety disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaohu; Wang Peijun; Dong Ningxin; Li Chunbo; Wu Wenyuan; Hu Zhenghui; Tang Xiaowei

    2007-01-01

    Objective: We used blood oxygenation level dependent-functional MR imaging (BOLD- fMRI) to explore the characteristics of deactivation patterns in patients with anxiety disorders and the underlying neural mechanism of this disease. Methods: Ten patients and ten healthy controls participated the experiments. All subjects performed the trait portion of the State-Trait anxiety Inventory (STAI-T) prior to the fMRI scans. The subjects underwent noninvasive functional magnetic resonance imaging while listening actively to emotionally neutral words alternating with no words (experiment 1) and threat related-words alternating with emotionally neutral words (experiment2). During fMRI scanning, subjects were instructed to closely listen to each stimuli word and to silently make a judgment of the word's valence. Data were analyzed with statistical parametric mapping (SPM 99). Individual and group analysis were conducted. Results: Mean STAI-T score was significantly higher for patients group than that of controls (58 ± 8 for patients group and 33 ± 5 for controls, t=8.3, P<0.01). Our fMRI data revealed sets of deactivation brain regions in Experiment for patients and healthy controls, however, the deactivation can be found in experiment 2 only for patients. Interestingly, all the observed deactivation patterns were similar. The related areas compromise medial prefrontal cortex(BA 10, BA 24/32), posterior cingulate (BA 31/30) and Bilateral inferior parietal cortex (MPFC) (BA 39/40), which nearly overlapping with the organized default model network. Further more, the mean t values in the MPFC area (BA 24/32) was significantly higher for control group than that of patient (5.1 controls and 4.2 for patients, t=4.8, P=0.006), conversely, the mean t values in the posterior cingulate cortex(PCC) area was significantly higher for patients l than that of controls (4.9 controls and 5.8 for patients, t=2.4, P=0.026). Conclusion: Our observations suggest that the default model network

  8. Selective Deactivation of M13 Bacteriophage in E. Coli using Femtosecond Laser Pulses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Molukanele, P

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Deactivation of M13 Bacteriophage in E. Coli using Femtosecond Laser Pulses P. Molukanele 1, 3, A. Du Plessis 1, T. Roberts 1, L. Botha 1, M. Khati 2,3, W. Campos 2, 3 1CSIR National Laser Centre, Femtosecond Science group, Pretoria, South Africa 2CSIR... that is about 1 ?m long and 5-6 nm in diameter. Its host Escherichia coli (E.coli), is approximately 2-6 ?m long and 1-1.5 ?m in diameter, see figure 1 below. Figure 1: Schematic representations of M13 bacteriophage and its host E.coli...

  9. Comparison and analysis of membrane fouling between flocculent sludge membrane bioreactor and granular sludge membrane bioreactor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jing-Feng

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to investigate the effect of inoculating granules on reducing membrane fouling. In order to evaluate the differences in performance between flocculent sludge and aerobic granular sludge in membrane reactors (MBRs, two reactors were run in parallel and various parameters related to membrane fouling were measured. The results indicated that specific resistance to the fouling layer was five times greater than that of mixed liquor sludge in the granular MBR. The floc sludge more easily formed a compact layer on the membrane surface, and increased membrane resistance. Specifically, the floc sludge had a higher moisture content, extracellular polymeric substances concentration, and negative surface charge. In contrast, aerobic granules could improve structural integrity and strength, which contributed to the preferable permeate performance. Therefore, inoculating aerobic granules in a MBR presents an effective method of reducing the membrane fouling associated with floc sludge the perspective of from the morphological characteristics of microbial aggregates.

  10. Cost and effectiveness comparisons of various types of sludge irradiation and sludge pasteurization treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.E.

    1976-01-01

    The radiation from 137 Cs, a major constituent of nuclear fuel reprocessing waste, can be used to sterilize sewage sludge. This paper compares the effectiveness and cost of heat pasteurization, irradiation, and thermoradiation (simultaneous heating/irradiation), three competing methods of sludge disinfection. The cost of irradiation and thermoradiation is slightly higher than heat pasteurization costs for liquid sludges, although minor changes in oil availability or prices could change this. If the viral destruction could be done easily by other means, a 500-kilorad irradiation dose would be effective and less costly. For dry sewage sludges, irradiation is as effective and much less costly than any of the liquid sludge disinfection processes. Irradiation of compost appears to be cheaper and more practical than any heat pasteurization process for the dry sludge (the insulating property of the compost makes heating difficult). 6 tables, 2 fig

  11. Modeling Aspects Of Activated Sludge Processes Part I: Process Modeling Of Activated Sludge Facilitation And Sedimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, H. I.; EI-Ahwany, A.H.; Ibrahim, G.

    2004-01-01

    Process modeling of activated sludge flocculation and sedimentation reviews consider the activated sludge floc characteristics such as: morphology viable and non-viable cell ratio density and water content, bio flocculation and its kinetics were studied considering the characteristics of bio flocculation and explaining theory of Divalent Cation Bridging which describes the major role of cations in bio flocculation. Activated sludge flocculation process modeling was studied considering mass transfer limitations from Clifft and Andrew, 1981, Benefild and Molz 1983 passing Henze 1987, until Tyagi 1996 and G. Ibrahim et aI. 2002. Models of aggregation and breakage of flocs were studied by Spicer and Pratsinis 1996,and Biggs 2002 Size distribution of floes influences mass transfer and biomass separation in the activated sludge process. Therefore, it is of primary importance to establish the role of specific process operation factors, such as sludge loading dynamic sludge age and dissolved oxygen, on this distribution with special emphasis on the formation of primary particles

  12. Pigeons can discriminate "good" and "bad" paintings by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    Humans have the unique ability to create art, but non-human animals may be able to discriminate "good" art from "bad" art. In this study, I investigated whether pigeons could be trained to discriminate between paintings that had been judged by humans as either "bad" or "good". To do this, adult human observers first classified several children's paintings as either "good" (beautiful) or "bad" (ugly). Using operant conditioning procedures, pigeons were then reinforced for pecking at "good" paintings. After the pigeons learned the discrimination task, they were presented with novel pictures of both "good" and "bad" children's paintings to test whether they had successfully learned to discriminate between these two stimulus categories. The results showed that pigeons could discriminate novel "good" and "bad" paintings. Then, to determine which cues the subjects used for the discrimination, I conducted tests of the stimuli when the paintings were of reduced size or grayscale. In addition, I tested their ability to discriminate when the painting stimuli were mosaic and partial occluded. The pigeons maintained discrimination performance when the paintings were reduced in size. However, discrimination performance decreased when stimuli were presented as grayscale images or when a mosaic effect was applied to the original stimuli in order to disrupt spatial frequency. Thus, the pigeons used both color and pattern cues for their discrimination. The partial occlusion did not disrupt the discriminative behavior suggesting that the pigeons did not attend to particular parts, namely upper, lower, left or right half, of the paintings. These results suggest that the pigeons are capable of learning the concept of a stimulus class that humans name "good" pictures. The second experiment showed that pigeons learned to discriminate watercolor paintings from pastel paintings. The subjects showed generalization to novel paintings. Then, as the first experiment, size reduction test

  13. The application and processing of paints hardened by electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Electron beam hardening is a process for changing liquid surface coatings of different thicknesses by irradiation with electrons of high energy into solid, hard, elastic films. In contrast to the UV process, one can harden pigmented paints with electron beams. An electron accelerator, which remits free electrons is used as the energy source for starting the chemical reaction in the coating material. In order to irradiate flat parts, which were coated with liquid paint by rolling, pouring or spraying, equally with electrons, one must produce an 'electron curtain', similar to that in a paint pouring machine. (orig./PW) [de

  14. Recognition and inference of crevice processing on digitized paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppiah, S. P.; Srivatsa, S. K.

    2013-03-01

    This paper is designed to detect and removal of cracks on digitized paintings. The cracks are detected by threshold. Afterwards, the thin dark brush strokes which have been misidentified as cracks are removed using Median radial basis function neural network on hue and saturation data, Semi-automatic procedure based on region growing. Finally, crack is filled using wiener filter. The paper is well designed in such a way that most of the cracks on digitized paintings have identified and removed. The paper % of betterment is 90%. This paper helps us to perform not only on digitized paintings but also the medical images and bmp images. This paper is implemented by Mat Lab.

  15. Photonic Paint Developed with Metallic Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Po; Williams, John D.

    2012-01-01

    This work details the design and simulation of an inconspicuous photonic paint that can be applied onto an object for anticounterfeit and tag, track, and locate (TTL) applications. The paint consists of three-dimensional metallic tilted woodpile photonic crystals embedded into a visible and infrared transparent polymer film, which can be applied to almost any surface. The tilted woodpile photonic crystals are designed with a specific pass band detectable at nearly all incident angles of light. When painted onto a surface, these crystals provide a unique reflective infra-red optical signature that can be easily observed and recorded to verify the location or contents of a package.

  16. Studies on some Indian paints for radiochemical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahesh Kumar, V.V.; Srinivasan, R.; Natarajan, R.

    1996-01-01

    The choice of paints in areas subjected to contamination and radiation in nuclear installation need special attention. The types of generic coatings are examined with reference to these requirements. Among those examined, certain types of epoxy paints are found to be attractive for these applications. Samples of epoxy paints obtained from some Indian manufacturers are tested for their suitability. Decontaminability and radiation resistance properties are also evaluated with special reference to radiochemical plants. Important specifications for such applications are listed. This report summarizes the results of these studies. (author)

  17. Effect of pH on Separation of Solid Content from Paint Contained Wastewater by a Coagulant-flocculant Compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Semnani Rahbar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemical wastewater treatment is one of the attracting and common methods for wastewater treatment among the currently employed chemical unit processes. The use of coagulant-flocculant compound is one of the efficient methods for separating of paint and recovery of water. In this research, it was introduced and the effect of pH on removal of solid content from solution was studied experimentally. For this purpose, sludge and suspended solid content of the solution were determined in a jar test by measurement of UV absorption of treated solution and solid separation percentage. The results showed that in pH range 9.5-10.5, maximum efficiency of solid content removal was up to 95%. Consequently, maximum paint removal was obtained in this range of pH. The separation of solid content of the solution was due to formation of aluminum hydroxide. As shown by the results, the reduction of potassium hydroxide as pH adjuster caused decrease of pH and consequently decreases of aluminum hydroxide and solid content removal.  

  18. Deactivation Studies of Rh/Ce0.8Zr0.2O2 Catalysts in Low Temperature Ethanol Steam Reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platon, Alex; Roh, Hyun-Seog; King, David L.; Wang, Yong

    2007-10-30

    Rapid deactivation of Rh/Ce0.8Zr0.2O2 catalysts in low temperature ethanol steam reforming was studied. A significant build-up of carbonaceous intermediate, instead of carbon deposit, was observed at a lower reaction temperature which was attributed to the rapid catalyst deactivation. Co-feed experiments indicated that acetone and ethylene caused more severe catalyst deactivation than other oxygenates such as acidic acid and acetaldehyde.

  19. Anaerobic granular sludge and biofilm reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2003-01-01

    by the immobilization of the biomass, which forms static biofilms, particle-supported biofilms, or granules depending on the reactor's operational conditions. The advantages of the high-rate anaerobic digestion over the conventional aerobic wastewater treatment methods has created a clear trend for the change......-rate anaerobic treatment systems based on anaerobic granular sludge and biofilm are described in this chapter. Emphasis is given to a) the Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) systems, b) the main characteristics of the anaerobic granular sludge, and c) the factors that control the granulation process...

  20. A microbiological study on irradiated sludge composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pongpat, S.; Hashimoto, Shoji.

    1993-03-01

    Effect of fermentation temperature on microorganisms in sewage sludge compost and suppressive effect of the compost on Fusarium oxysporum were investigated. Dehydrated sewage sludge was irradiated at 10 kGy by cobalt 60 gamma ray source and fermented at various temperatures with six different seed-composts. It was found that microorganisms showed higher growth in irradiated sludge at the temperature around 30 to 40degC. One of the seed-composts and compost produced from the seed-compost showed the remarkable effects of suppression on F. oxysporum. It can be also observed that the composts produced by lower temperature fermentation showed higher suppression. (author)