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Sample records for pain impairs standing

  1. Pain in cognitively impaired older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmelee, P A

    1996-08-01

    To summarize, there has been shamefully little empirical research directly examining the prevalence and correlates of pain among cognitively impaired older people. Even less is known about techniques for assessing and managing pain in this group. Existing evidence suggests that cognitively impaired older persons may voice fewer complaints about pain, but there is no reason to believe that they are in fact at less risk of pain than their cognitively intact age-mates. Rather, for whatever reason, persons with cognitively deficits appear to be less inclined to report pain than are intact elders of similar health status. This reporting difference may account at least in part for the fact that pain is less likely to be treated aggressively among cognitively impaired individuals. Unfortunately, knowing the reason for this state of affairs does not mitigate its implication: cognitive deficits place frail older persons at risk of unnecessary pain simply because it is not properly identified. Data reviewed in this chapter suggest that accurate assessment of pain in cognitively impaired older persons, far from being impossible, may actually be only slightly more demanding than it is in intact individuals. Even among markedly impaired elders, self-reports should certainly be taken as valid indicators; early evidence suggests promising avenues for developing reliable, clear-cut guidelines for the nonverbal assessment of pain in very severely demented individuals. As the nation grows older and medical care advances, a growing proportion of individuals can expect to live well into their eighth and even ninth decades. Unfortunately, with this extended life span comes increased likelihood of both cognitive impairment and pain. Thus, expansion of our repertoire of techniques for assessing and managing pain among cognitively impaired older persons must be a central priority for research on pain in late life.

  2. Impairment-targeted exercises for older adults with knee pain: protocol for a proof-of-principle study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exercise therapy for knee pain and osteoarthritis remains a key element of conservative treatment, recommended in clinical guidelines. Yet systematic reviews point to only modest benefits from exercise interventions. One reason for this might be that clinical trials tend to use a one-size-fits-all approach to exercise, effectively disregarding the details of their participants' clinical presentations. This uncontrolled before-after study (TargET-Knee-Pain aims to test the principle that exercises targeted at the specific physical impairments of older adults with knee pain may be able to significantly improve those impairments. It is a first step towards testing the effectiveness of this more individually-tailored approach. Methods/Design We aim to recruit 60 participants from an existing observational cohort of community-dwelling older adults with knee pain. Participants will all have at least one of the three physical impairments of weak quadriceps, a reduced range of knee flexion and poor standing balance. Each participant will be asked to undertake a programme of exercises, targeted at their particular combination and degree of impairment(s, over the course of twelve weeks. The exercises will be taught and progressed by an experienced physiotherapist, with reference to a "menu" of agreed exercises for each of the impairments, over the course of six fortnightly home visits, alternating with six fortnightly telephone calls. Primary outcome measures will be isometric quadriceps strength, knee flexion range of motion, timed single-leg standing balance and the "Four Balance Test Scale" at 12 weeks. Key secondary outcome measures will be self-reported levels of pain, stiffness and difficulties with day-to-day functional tasks (WOMAC. Outcome measures will be taken at three time-points (baseline, six weeks and twelve weeks by a study nurse blinded to the exercise status of the participants. Discussion This study (TargET-Knee-Pain

  3. Does a 'tight' hamstring predict low back pain reporting during prolonged standing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftry, Sean M; Marshall, Paul W M

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between hamstring passive stiffness and extensibility in asymptomatic individuals with the reporting of low back pain during 2-h prolonged standing. Twenty healthy participants with no history of low back pain (mean±SD, age 22.6±2.7 years, height 1.74±0.09 m, weight 76.2±14.8 kg). Low back pain (VAS score; mm) was continuously monitored during 2-h prolonged standing. Hamstring extensibility, passive stiffness, and stretch tolerance were measured before and after prolonged standing using an instrumented straight leg raise (iSLR). Ten participants reported a clinically relevant increase (Δ VAS>10mm) in low back pain during prolonged standing. Hamstring extensiblity (leg°(max)), passive stiffness (Nm.°(-1)), and stretch tolerance (VAS; mm) were no different between pain developers and non-pain developers. No changes in hamstring measures were observed following 2-h prolonged standing. No relationship was observed in this study between measures of hamstring extensibility and the reporting of low back pain during prolonged standing. There is no evidence to recommend hamstring extensibility interventions (i.e. passive stretching) as a means of reducing pain reporting in occupations requiring prolonged standing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Is lumbar lordosis related to low back pain development during prolonged standing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Christopher J; Norton, Barbara J; Callaghan, Jack P; Hwang, Ching-Ting; Van Dillen, Linda R

    2015-08-01

    An induced-pain paradigm has been used in back-healthy people to understand risk factors for developing low back pain during prolonged standing. The purposes of this study were to (1) compare baseline lumbar lordosis in back-healthy participants who do (Pain Developers) and do not (Non-Pain Developers) develop low back pain during 2 h of standing, and (2) examine the relationship between lumbar lordosis and low back pain intensity. Cross-sectional. First, participants stood while positions of markers placed superficial to the lumbar vertebrae were recorded using a motion capture system. Following collection of marker positions, participants stood for 2 h while performing light work tasks. At baseline and every 15 min during standing, participants rated their low back pain intensity on a visual analog scale. Lumbar lordosis was calculated using marker positions collected prior to the 2 h standing period. Lumbar lordosis was compared between pain developers and non-pain developers. In pain developers, the relationship between lumbar lordosis and maximum pain was examined. There were 24 (42%) pain developers and 33 (58%) non-pain developers. Lumbar lordosis was significantly larger in pain developers compared to non-pain developers (Mean difference = 4.4°; 95% Confidence Interval = 0.9° to 7.8°, Cohen's d = 0.7). The correlation coefficient between lumbar lordosis and maximum pain was 0.46 (P = 0.02). The results suggest that standing in more lumbar lordosis may be a risk factor for low back pain development during prolonged periods of standing. Identifying risk factors for low back pain development can inform preventative and early intervention strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The distribution of lumbar intervertebral angles in upright standing and extension is related to low back pain developed during standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viggiani, Daniel; Gallagher, Kaitlin M; Sehl, Michael; Callaghan, Jack P

    2017-11-01

    Lumbar lordosis measures are poorly related to clinical low back pain, however using a controlled exposure such as prolonged standing to identify pain groups may clarify this relationship. The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution of lumbar intervertebral angles in asymptomatic persons who do (pain developers) and do not (non-pain developers) develop low back pain during standing. Sagittal plane lumbar spine radiographs of eight pain developers and eight non-pain developers were taken in three poses: upright standing, full extension and full flexion. Measures of vertebral end plate orientations from L1 to S1 were taken in each pose to compute: intervertebral angles, contribution of each level to the total curve, total lordosis, ranges of motion, relative pose positioning within the range of motion, vertebral shape, and lumbar spine recurve. Measures were compared between pain groups and lumbar levels. Pain group differences in intervertebral angles and level contributions were greatest in the full extension pose, with pain developers having greater contributions from higher lumbar levels and fewer contributions from lower levels than non-pain developers. Pain group differences in intervertebral angle distributions were less pronounced in upright standing and non-existent in full flexion. No other measures differentiated pain groups. Although participants had similar gross-lumbar spine curvature characteristics, non-pain developers have more curvature at lower levels in upright standing and full extension. These differences in regional vertebral kinematics may partially be responsible for standing-induced low back pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cognitive Impairment and Pain Among Nursing Home Residents With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Catherine E; Mack, Deborah S; Hunnicutt, Jacob N; Lapane, Kate L

    2018-06-01

    The prevalence of pain and its management has been shown to be inversely associated with greater levels of cognitive impairment. To evaluate whether the documentation and management of pain varies by level of cognitive impairment among nursing home residents with cancer. Using a cross-sectional study, we identified all newly admitted U.S. nursing home residents with a cancer diagnosis in 2011-2012 (n = 367,462). Minimum Data Set 3.0 admission assessment was used to evaluate pain/pain management in the past five days and cognitive impairment (assessed via the Brief Interview for Mental Status or the Cognitive Performance Scale for 91.6% and 8.4%, respectively). Adjusted prevalence ratios with 95% CI were estimated from robust Poisson regression models. For those with staff-assessed pain, pain prevalence was 55.5% with no/mild cognitive impairment and 50.5% in those severely impaired. Pain was common in those able to self-report (67.9% no/mild, 55.9% moderate, and 41.8% severe cognitive impairment). Greater cognitive impairment was associated with reduced prevalence of any pain (adjusted prevalence ratio severe vs. no/mild cognitive impairment; self-assessed pain 0.77; 95% CI 0.76-0.78; staff-assessed pain 0.96; 95% CI 0.93-0.99). Pharmacologic pain management was less prevalent in those with severe cognitive impairment (59.4% vs. 74.9% in those with no/mild cognitive impairment). In nursing home residents with cancer, pain was less frequently documented in those with severe cognitive impairment, which may lead to less frequent use of treatments for pain. Techniques to improve documentation and treatment of pain in nursing home residents with cognitive impairment are needed. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pain in cognitively impaired, non-communicating children

    OpenAIRE

    Stallard, P; Williams, L; Lenton, S; Velleman, R

    2001-01-01

    AIM—To detail the everyday occurrence of pain in non-communicating children with cognitive impairment.
METHODS—Thirty four parents of cognitively impaired verbally non-communicating children completed pain diaries over a two week period. Each day, for five defined periods, parents rated whether their child had been in pain, and if so, its severity and duration.
RESULTS—Twenty five (73.5%) children experienced pain on at least one day, with moderate or severe levels of pai...

  8. Hip Strength Testing of Soccer Players With Long-Standing Hip and Groin Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafn, Bolette S; Tang, Lars; Nielsen, Peter Martin

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether self-reported pain during hip strength testing correlates to a large degree with hip muscle strength in soccer players with long-standing unilateral hip and groin pain. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Clinical assessments at Sports Orthopaedic Research...... Center-Copenhagen (SORC-C), Arthroscopic Centre Amager, Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-four male soccer players with unilateral long-standing hip and groin pain. INTERVENTIONS: The soccer players performed 5 reliable hip muscle strength tests (isometric hip flexion...... strength (Spearman rho = -0.44, P = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported pain during testing does not seem to correlate with the majority of hip muscle strength tests used in soccer players with long-standing hip and groin pain....

  9. A hip abduction exercise prior to prolonged standing increased movement while reducing cocontraction and low back pain perception in those initially reporting low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viggiani, Daniel; Callaghan, Jack P

    2016-12-01

    Persons who develop low back pain from prolonged standing exhibit increased muscle cocontraction, decreased movement and increased spine extension. However, it is unclear how these factors relate to pain development. The purpose of this study was to use hip abductor fatigue to manipulate muscle activity patterns and determine its effects on standing behaviours and pain development. Forty participants stood for two hours twice, once following a hip abductor fatigue exercise (fatigue), and once without exercise beforehand (control). Trunk and gluteal muscle activity were measured to determine cocontraction. Lumbo-pelvic angles and force plates were used to assess posture and movement strategies. Visual analog scales differentiated pain (PDs) and non-pain developers (NPDs). PDs reported less low back pain during the fatigue session, with females having earlier reductions of similar scale than males. The fatigue session reduced gluteal and trunk cocontraction and increased centre of pressure movement; male and female PDs had opposing spine posture compensations. Muscle fatigue prior to standing reduced cocontraction, increased movement during standing and reduced the low back pain developed by PDs; the timing of pain reductions depended on spine postures adopted during standing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Timing and gender determine if acute pain impairs working memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Anna; Pulvers, Kim; Spady, Thomas J

    2013-11-01

    The effects of pain on memory are complex, and little is known about the vulnerability of working memory (WM) performance when individuals complete a WM test while concurrently experiencing pain. Here, we subjected 78 healthy nonsmoking participants to either acute pain or a control condition while we administered a WM test. In this context, we also tested WM 20 minutes after pain in order to determine if timing of pain affected WM performance, and assessed objective and subjective measures of pain. We hypothesized that pain would impair WM performance during pain. Further, women's WM performance would be impaired more than men. Importantly, there was an interaction between gender and condition, with women exposed to pain experiencing impairments during but not after the cold pressor task. Our data imply that timing and gender are critically important in whether acute pain is costly to WM performance. Our findings have interesting clinical, professional, and educational implications, and understanding the influence of pain could help to improve the interpretation of WM tests in these diverse settings. Results of this study support the growing body of work that attests to the detrimental effect of pain on WM performance. Further, this study provides new evidence that concurrently experiencing cold pressor pain impairs WM in regularly menstruating women and women taking a contraceptive. Copyright © 2013 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Is standing balance altered in individuals with chronic low back pain? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenshteyn, Yevgeniy; Gibson, Kelsey; Hackett, Gavin C; Trem, Andrew B; Wilhelm, Mark

    2018-01-30

    To examine the static standing balance of individuals with chronic low back pain when compared to a healthy control group. A search of available literature was done using PubMed, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, and Scopus databases. Studies were included if they contained the following: (1) individuals with chronic low back pain 3 months or longer; (2) healthy control group; (3) quantified pain measurement; and (4) center of pressure measurement using a force plate. Two authors independently reviewed articles for inclusion, and assessed for quality using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklist for Analytical Cross Sectional Studies. Cohen's d effect size was calculated to demonstrate the magnitude of differences between groups. Nine articles were included in this review. Quality scores ranged from 5/8 to 8/8. Although center of pressure measures were nonhomogeneous, subjects with chronic low back pain had poorer performance overall compared to healthy controls. Despite inconsistencies in statistical significance, effect sizes were frequently large, indicating a lack of sufficient power in the included studies. Data were insufficiently reported among certain studies, limiting the ability of direct study comparison. Results suggest that balance is impaired in individuals with chronic low back pain when compared to healthy individuals. Implications for rehabilitation Static balance is affected in individuals with chronic low back pain. Balance assessments should be completed for individuals with chronic low back pain. Results from balance assessments should be used to indicate areas of improvement and help guide the course of treatment, as well as reassess as treatment progresses.

  12. Hip Strength Testing of Soccer Players With Long-Standing Hip and Groin Pain: What are the Clinical Implications of Pain During Testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafn, Bolette S; Tang, Lars; Nielsen, Martin P; Branci, Sonia; Hölmich, Per; Thorborg, Kristian

    2016-05-01

    To investigate whether self-reported pain during hip strength testing correlates to a large degree with hip muscle strength in soccer players with long-standing unilateral hip and groin pain. Cross-sectional study. Clinical assessments at Sports Orthopaedic Research Center-Copenhagen (SORC-C), Arthroscopic Centre Amager, Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark. Twenty-four male soccer players with unilateral long-standing hip and groin pain. The soccer players performed 5 reliable hip muscle strength tests (isometric hip flexion, adduction, abduction, isometric hip flexion-modified Thomas test, and eccentric hip adduction). Muscle strength was measured with a hand-held dynamometer, and the players rated the pain during testing on a numerical rating scale (0-10). In 4 tests (isometric hip adduction, abduction, flexion, and eccentric adduction), no significant correlations were found between pain during testing and hip muscle strength (Spearman rho = -0.28 to 0.06, P = 0.09-0.39). Isometric hip flexion (modified Thomas test position) showed a moderate negative correlation between pain and hip muscle strength (Spearman rho = -0.44, P = 0.016). Self-reported pain during testing does not seem to correlate with the majority of hip muscle strength tests used in soccer players with long-standing hip and groin pain.

  13. Effects on musculoskeletal pain from “Take a stand!”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danquah, Ida Høgstedt; Kloster, Stine; Holtermann, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    a Stand! included 19 offices (317 workers) at four workplaces cluster randomized to intervention or control. The multicomponent intervention lasted three months and included management support, environmental changes, and local adaptation. Control participants behaved as usual. Musculoskeletal pain...

  14. Association of objectively measured occupational walking and standing still with low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch Nielsen, Camilla; Gupta, Nidhi; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This cross-sectional study investigated the association of objectively measured walking and standing still time at work with low back pain (LBP) intensity among blue-collar workers. Design: A cross-sectional study. Methods: 187 workers attached two accelerometers for diurnal standing ...

  15. Social learning pathways in the relation between parental chronic pain and daily pain severity and functional impairment in adolescents with functional abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Amanda L; Bruehl, Stephen; Smith, Craig A; Garber, Judy; Walker, Lynn S

    2017-10-06

    Having a parent with chronic pain (CP) may confer greater risk for persistence of CP from childhood into young adulthood. Social learning, such as parental modeling and reinforcement, represents one plausible mechanism for the transmission of risk for CP from parents to offspring. Based on a 7-day pain diary in 154 pediatric patients with functional abdominal CP, we tested a model in which parental CP predicted adolescents' daily average CP severity and functional impairment (distal outcomes) via parental modeling of pain behaviors and parental reinforcement of adolescent's pain behaviors (mediators) and adolescents' cognitive appraisals of pain threat (proximal outcome representing adolescents' encoding of parents' behaviors). Results indicated significant indirect pathways from parental CP status to adolescent average daily pain severity (b = 0.18, SE = 0.08, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.31, p = 0.03) and functional impairment (b = 0.08, SE = 0.04, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.15, p = 0.03) over the 7-day diary period via adolescents' observations of parent pain behaviors and adolescent pain threat appraisal. The indirect pathway through parental reinforcing responses to adolescents' pain did not reach significance for either adolescent pain severity or functional impairment. Identifying mechanisms of increased risk for pain and functional impairment in children of parents with CP ultimately could lead to targeted interventions aimed at improving functioning and quality of life in families with chronic pain. Parental modeling of pain behaviors represents a potentially promising target for family based interventions to ameliorate pediatric chronic pain.

  16. Pain-related impairment of daily activities after thoracic surgery: a questionnaire validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringsted, Thomas K; Wildgaard, Kim; Kreiner, Svend; Kehlet, Henrik

    2013-09-01

    Persistent postoperative pain is an acknowledged entity that reduces daily activities. Evaluation of the post-thoracotomy pain syndrome (PTPS) is often measured using traditional pain scales without in-depth questions on pain impairment. Thus, the purpose was to create a procedure-specific questionnaire for assessment of functional impairment due to PTPS. Activities were obtained from the literature supplemented by interviews with patients and surgeons. The questionnaire was validated using the Rasch model in order to describe an underlying pain impairment scale. Four of 17 questions were redundant. The remaining 13 questions from low to intensive activity described functional impairment following persistent pain from thoracotomy and video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). No evidence for differential item functioning for gender, age or differences between open or VATS, were found. A generalized log-linear Rasch model including local dependence was constructed. Though local dependence influenced reliability, the test-retest reliability estimated under the log-linear Rasch model was high (0.88-0.96). Correlation with items from the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (quick) questionnaire supported validity (γ = 0.46, P impairment questionnaire measured 2 qualitatively different pain dimensions although highly correlated (γ = 0.76). This study presents method, results and validation of a new unidimensional scale measuring procedure specific functional impairment due to PTPS following open surgery and VATS. Procedure specific tools such as this could provide important outcomes measures for future trials on persistent postsurgical pain states allowing better assessment of interventions (250).

  17. Evidence-based practice for pain identification in cognitively impaired nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacoco, Christina; Ishikawa, Sally

    2014-09-01

    Pain identification of cognitively impaired elderly is very challenging. This project aimed to identify best practices for pain assessment in nursing home residents with cognitive impairment and to establish a standardized pain assessment guide to optimize nursing practice and resident outcomes. The Iowa Model of Evidence-Based Practice to Promote Quality of Care guided the project's process. Phase I of the project analyzed data gained from chart reviews on current practices of pain assessment, and Phase II used the results of Phase I to develop, implement, and evaluate an evidence-based practice standard for nursing assessment of pain for cognitively impaired residents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Characteristics of highly impaired children with severe chronic pain: a 5-year retrospective study on 2249 pediatric pain patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zernikow Boris

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of pain as a recurrent symptom in children is known to be high, but little is known about children with high impairment from chronic pain seeking specialized treatment. The purpose of this study was the precise description of children with high impairment from chronic pain referred to the German Paediatric Pain Centre over a 5-year period. Methods Demographic variables, pain characteristics and psychometric measures were assessed at the first evaluation. Subgroup analysis for sex, age and pain location was conducted and multivariate logistic regression applied to identify parameters associated with extremely high impairment. Results The retrospective study consisted of 2249 children assessed at the first evaluation. Tension type headache (48%, migraine (43% and functional abdominal pain (11% were the most common diagnoses with a high rate of co-occurrence; 18% had some form of musculoskeletal pain disease. Irrespective of pain location, chronic pain disorder with somatic and psychological factors was diagnosed frequently (43%. 55% of the children suffered from more than one distinct pain diagnosis. Clinically significant depression and general anxiety scores were expressed by 24% and 19% of the patients, respectively. Girls over the age of 13 were more likely to seek tertiary treatment compared to boys. Nearly half of children suffered from daily or constant pain with a mean pain value of 6/10. Extremely high pain-related impairment, operationalized as a comprehensive measure of pain duration, frequency, intensity, pain-related school absence and disability, was associated with older age, multiple locations of pain, increased depression and prior hospital stays. 43% of the children taking analgesics had no indication for pharmacological treatment. Conclusion Children with chronic pain are a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge as they often have two or more different pain diagnoses, are prone to misuse of

  19. Cognitive Impairment in Patients with Chronic Neuropathic or Radicular Pain: An Interaction of Pain and Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orla Moriarty

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of empirical research has confirmed an association between chronic pain and cognitive dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to determine whether cognitive function is affected in patients with a diagnosis of chronic neuropathic or radicular pain relative to healthy control participants matched by age, gender, and years of education. We also examined the interaction of pain with age in terms of cognitive performance. Some limitations of previous clinical research investigating the effects of chronic pain on cognitive function include differences in the pain and cognitive scale materials used, and the heterogeneity of patient participants, both in terms of their demographics and pathological conditions. To address these potential confounds, we have used a relatively homogenous patient group and included both experimental and statistical controls. We have also specifically investigated the interaction effect of pain and age on cognitive performance. Patients (n = 38 and controls (n = 38 were administered a battery of cognitive tests measuring IQ, spatial and verbal memory, attention, and executive function. Educational level, depressive symptoms, and state anxiety were assessed as were medication usage, caffeine, and nicotine consumption to control for possible confounding effects. Both the level of depressive symptoms and the state anxiety score were higher in chronic pain patients than in matched control participants. Chronic pain patients had a lower estimated IQ than controls, and showed impairments on measures of spatial and verbal memory. Attentional responding was altered in the patient group, possibly indicative of impaired inhibitory control. There were significant interactions between chronic pain condition and age on a number of cognitive outcome variables, such that older patients with chronic pain were more impaired than both age-matched controls and younger patients with chronic pain. Chronic pain did not appear

  20. Pain Assessment of Elderly Patients with Cognitive Impairment in the Emergency Department: Implications for Pain Management—A Narrative Review of Current Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua Jones; Tin Fei Sim; Jeff Hughes

    2017-01-01

    Elderly people are susceptible to both falls and cognitive impairment making them a particularly vulnerable group of patients when it comes to pain assessment and management in the emergency department (ED). Pain assessment is often difficult in patients who present to the ED with a cognitive impairment as they are frequently unable to self-report their level of pain, which can have a negative impact on pain management. This paper aims to review how cognitive impairment influences pain assess...

  1. Effect of Pain and Mild Cognitive Impairment on Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepker, Caroline A; Leveille, Suzanne G; Pedersen, Mette M; Ward, Rachel E; Kurlinski, Laura A; Grande, Laura; Kiely, Dan K; Bean, Jonathan F

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effect of pain and mild cognitive impairment (MCI)-together and separately-on performance-based and self-reported mobility outcomes in older adults in primary care with mild to moderate self-reported mobility limitations. Cross-sectional analysis. Academic community outpatient clinic. Individuals aged 65 and older in primary care enrolled in the Boston Rehabilitative Impairment Study in the Elderly who were at risk of mobility decline (N=430). Participants with an average score greater than three on the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) were defined as having pain. MCI was defined using age-adjusted scores on a neuropsychological battery. Multivariable linear regression models assessed associations between pain and MCI, together and separately, and mobility performance (habitual gait speed, Short Physical Performance Battery), and self-reports of function and disability in various day-to-day activities (Late Life Function and Disability Instrument). The prevalence of pain was 34% and of MCI was 42%; 17% had pain only, 25% had MCI only, 17% had pain and MCI, and 41% had neither. Participants with pain and MCI performed significantly worse than all others on all mobility outcomes (Pmobility outcomes than those with neither (Pmobility, and the presence of both comorbidities was associated with the poorest status. Primary care practitioners who encounter older adults in need of mobility rehabilitation should consider screening them for pain and MCI to better inform subsequent therapeutic interventions. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  2. Increasing Optimism Protects Against Pain-Induced Impairment in Task-Shifting Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boselie, Jantine J L M; Vancleef, Linda M G; Peters, Madelon L

    2017-04-01

    Persistent pain can lead to difficulties in executive task performance. Three core executive functions that are often postulated are inhibition, updating, and shifting. Optimism, the tendency to expect that good things happen in the future, has been shown to protect against pain-induced performance deterioration in executive function updating. This study tested whether this protective effect of a temporary optimistic state by means of a writing and visualization exercise extended to executive function shifting. A 2 (optimism: optimism vs no optimism) × 2 (pain: pain vs no pain) mixed factorial design was conducted. Participants (N = 61) completed a shifting task once with and once without concurrent painful heat stimulation after an optimism or neutral manipulation. Results showed that shifting performance was impaired when experimental heat pain was applied during task execution, and that optimism counteracted pain-induced deterioration in task-shifting performance. Experimentally-induced heat pain impairs shifting task performance and manipulated optimism or induced optimism counteracted this pain-induced performance deterioration. Identifying psychological factors that may diminish the negative effect of persistent pain on the ability to function in daily life is imperative. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pain Assessment of Elderly Patients with Cognitive Impairment in the Emergency Department: Implications for Pain Management—A Narrative Review of Current Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Jones

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Elderly people are susceptible to both falls and cognitive impairment making them a particularly vulnerable group of patients when it comes to pain assessment and management in the emergency department (ED. Pain assessment is often difficult in patients who present to the ED with a cognitive impairment as they are frequently unable to self-report their level of pain, which can have a negative impact on pain management. This paper aims to review how cognitive impairment influences pain assessment in elderly adults who present to the ED with an injury due to a fall. A literature search of EMBASE, ProQuest, PubMed, Science Direct, SciFinder and the Curtin University Library database was conducted using keyword searches to generate lists of articles which were then screened for relevance by title and then abstract to give a final list of articles for full-text review. Further articles were identified by snowballing from the reference lists of the full-text articles. The literature reports that ED staff commonly use visual or verbal analogue scales to assess pain, but resort to their own intuition or physiological parameters rather than using standardised observational pain assessment tools when self-report of pain is not attainable due to cognitive impairment. While studies have found that the use of pain assessment tools improves the recognition and management of pain, pain scores are often not recorded for elderly patients with a cognitive impairment in the ED, leading to poorer pain management in this patient group in terms of time to analgesic administration and the use of strong opioids. All healthcare professionals involved in the care of such patients, including pharmacists, need to be aware of this and strive to ensure analgesic use is guided by appropriate and accurate pain assessment in the ED.

  4. Neck pain and postural balance among workers with high postural demands - a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Neck pain is related to impaired postural balance among patients and is highly prevalent among workers with high postural demands, for example, cleaners. We therefore hypothesised, that cleaners with neck pain suffer from postural dysfunction. This cross-sectional study tested if cleaners with neck pain have an impaired postural balance compared with cleaners without neck pain. Methods Postural balance of 194 cleaners with (n = 85) and without (N = 109) neck pain was studied using three different tests. Success or failure to maintain the standing position for 30 s in unilateral stance was recorded. Participants were asked to stand on a force platform for 30 s in the Romberg position with eyes open and closed. The centre of pressure of the sway was calculated, and separated into a slow (rambling) and fast (trembling) component. Subsequently, the 95% confidence ellipse area (CEA) was calculated. Furthermore a perturbation test was performed. Results More cleaners with neck pain (81%) failed the unilateral stance compared with cleaners without neck pain (61%) (p neck pain in comparison with cleaners without neck pain in the Romberg position with eyes closed, but not with eyes open. Conclusions Postural balance is impaired among cleaners with neck pain and the current study suggests a particular role of the slow component of postural sway. Furthermore, the unilateral stance test is a simple test to illustrate functional impairment among cleaners with concurrent neck and low back pain. Trial registration ISRCTN96241850 PMID:21806796

  5. Effect of Pain and Mild Cognitive Impairment on Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schepker, Caroline A; Leveille, Suzanne G; Pedersen, Mette Merete

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of pain and mild cognitive impairment (MCI)-together and separately-on performance-based and self-reported mobility outcomes in older adults in primary care with mild to moderate self-reported mobility limitations. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis. SETTING...... Inventory (BPI) were defined as having pain. MCI was defined using age-adjusted scores on a neuropsychological battery. Multivariable linear regression models assessed associations between pain and MCI, together and separately, and mobility performance (habitual gait speed, Short Physical Performance...

  6. Effects on musculoskeletal pain from "Take a Stand!" - a cluster-randomized controlled trial reducing sitting time among office workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danquah, Ida Høgstedt; Kloster, Stine; Holtermann, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Prolonged sitting at work has been found to increase risk for musculoskeletal pain. The office-based intervention "Take a Stand!" was effective in reducing sitting time at work. We aimed to study the effect of the intervention on a secondary outcome: musculoskeletal pain. Methods Take...... a Stand! included 19 offices (317 workers) at four workplaces cluster randomized to intervention or control. The multicomponent intervention lasted three months and included management support, environmental changes, and local adaptation. Control participants behaved as usual. Musculoskeletal pain...

  7. Effectiveness of active physical training as treatment for long-standing adductor-related groin pain in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, P; Uhrskou, P; Ulnits, L

    1999-01-01

    Groin pain is common among athletes. A major cause of long-standing problems is adductor-related groin pain. The purpose of this randomised clinical trial was to compare an active training programme (AT) with a physiotherapy treatment without active training (PT) in the treatment of adductor-rela...

  8. Experimental knee pain impairs submaximal force steadiness in isometric, eccentric, and concentric muscle actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, David A; McNair, Peter J; Lewis, Gwyn N; Mannion, Jamie

    2015-09-12

    Populations with knee joint damage, including arthritis, have noted impairments in the regulation of submaximal muscle force. It is difficult to determine the exact cause of such impairments given the joint pathology and associated neuromuscular adaptations. Experimental pain models that have been used to isolate the effects of pain on muscle force regulation have shown impaired force steadiness during acute pain. However, few studies have examined force regulation during dynamic contractions, and these findings have been inconsistent. The goal of the current study was to examine the effect of experimental knee joint pain on submaximal quadriceps force regulation during isometric and dynamic contractions. The study involved fifteen healthy participants. Participants were seated in an isokinetic dynamometer. Knee extensor force matching tasks were completed in isometric, eccentric, and concentric muscle contraction conditions. The target force was set to 10 % of maximum for each contraction type. Hypertonic saline was then injected into the infrapatella fat pad to generate acute joint pain. The force matching tasks were repeated during pain and once more 5 min after pain had subsided. Hypertonic saline resulted in knee pain with an average peak pain rating of 5.5 ± 2.1 (0-10 scale) that lasted for 18 ± 4 mins. Force steadiness significantly reduced during pain across all three muscle contraction conditions. There was a trend to increased force matching error during pain but this was not significant. Experimental knee pain leads to impaired quadriceps force steadiness during isometric, eccentric, and concentric contractions, providing further evidence that joint pain directly affects motor performance. Given the established relationship between submaximal muscle force steadiness and function, such an effect may be detrimental to the performance of tasks in daily life. In order to restore motor performance in people with painful arthritic conditions of the

  9. Neck pain and postural balance among workers with high postural demands - a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie B.; Skotte, Jørgen H.; Holtermann, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Neck pain is related to impaired postural balance among patients and is highly prevalent among workers with high postural demands, for example, cleaners. We therefore hypothesised, that cleaners with neck pain suffer from postural dysfunction. This cross-sectional study tested if cleaners with neck...... pain have an impaired postural balance compared with cleaners without neck pain. Postural balance of 194 cleaners with (n = 85) and without (N = 109) neck pain was studied using three different tests. Success or failure to maintain the standing position for 30 s in unilateral stance was recorded...... to cleaners without neck/low back pain (p balance, measured as CEA (p

  10. Introducing Standing Weight-bearing MRI in the Di-agnostics of Low Back Pain and Degenerative Spinal Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bjarke Brandt

    2017-01-01

    (orthostatic syncope) during standing pMRI. In paper 1 we present in an observational study that the risk of fainting (19%) during standing pMRI could almost be eliminated by the use of an external pneumatic compression device (2%). The lumbar lordosis in the standing position is a significant contributor...... to positional changes in the morphology in the lumbar spine. In paper 2, we present in an observational study that changes in lumbar lordosis angle (ΔLA) between the conventional supine and standing position were independent of pain and the degenerative disc score. Before a full introduction of standing p...

  11. Association of functional variations in COMT and GCH1 genes with postherniotomy pain and related impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belfer, Inna; Dai, Feng; Kehlet, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Persistent postoperative pain is a well-established clinical problem with potential severe personal and socioeconomic implications. The prevalence of persistent pain varies across surgery types. Severe persistent pain and related impairment occur in 5% to 10% of patients after groin hernia repair....... The substantial interindividual variability in pain-related phenotypes within each surgery type cannot be explained by environmental factors alone, suggesting that genetic variation may play a role. We investigated the contribution of COMT and GCH1 to persistent postherniotomy pain (PPP)-related functional...... moderate-to-severe pain-related activity impairment 6 months postoperatively as measured by Activity Assessment Scale (≥8.3). Patients with the G allele of COMT SNP rs6269 and C allele of COMT SNP rs4633 had less impairment (P = 0.03 and 0.01, respectively); in addition, the COMT haplotype GCG...

  12. Depression and pain impair daily functioning and quality of life in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Hua; Yen, Yung-Chieh; Chen, Ming-Chao; Chen, Cheng-Chung

    2014-09-01

    Depression and pain frequently occur together. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of depression and pain on the impairment of daily functioning and quality of life (QOL) of depressed patients. We enrolled 131 acutely ill inpatients with major depressive disorder. Depression, pain, and daily functioning were assessed using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Short-Form 36 (SF-36) Body Pain Index, and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale. Health-related QOL was assessed using three primary domains of the SF-36: social functioning, vitality, and general health perceptions. Pearson׳s correlation and structural equation modeling were used to examine relationships among the study variables. Five models were proposed. In all, 129 patients completed all the measures. Model 5, both depression and pain impaired daily functioning and QOL, was the most fitted structural equation model (χ(2)=9.2, df=8, p=0.33, GFI=0.98, AGFI=0.94, TLI=0.99, CFI=0.99, RMSEA=0.03). The correlation between pain and depression was weak (r=-0.27, z=-2.95, p=0.003). This was a cross-sectional study with a small sample size. Depression and pain exert a direct influence on the impairment of daily functioning and QOL of depressed patients; this impairment could be expected regardless of increased pain, depression, or both pain and depression. Pain had a somewhat separate entity from depression. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Sex Differences in How Erotic and Painful Stimuli Impair Inhibitory Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiaxin; Hung, Daisy L.; Tseng, Philip; Tzeng, Ovid J. L.; Muggleton, Neil G.; Juan, Chi-Hung

    2012-01-01

    Witnessing emotional events such as arousal or pain may impair ongoing cognitive processes such as inhibitory control. We found that this may be true only half of the time. Erotic images and painful video clips were shown to men and women shortly before a stop signal task, which measures cognitive inhibitory control. These stimuli impaired…

  14. Effects of intra-hippocampal microinjection of vitamin B12 on the orofacial pain and memory impairments induced by scopolamine and orofacial pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfanparast, Amir; Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Nemati, Shaghayegh

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of microinjection of vitamin B 12 into the hippocampus on the orofacial pain and memory impairments induced by scopolamine and orofacial pain. In ketamine-xylazine anesthetized rats, the right and left sides of the dorsal hippocampus (CA1) were implanted with two guide cannulas. Orofacial pain was induced by subcutaneous injection of formalin (1.5%, 50μl) into the right vibrissa pad, and the durations of face rubbing were recorded at 3-min blocks for 45min. Morris water maze (MWM) was used for evaluation of learning and memory. Finally, locomotor activity was assessed using an open-field test. Vitamin B 12 attenuated both phases of formalin-induced orofacial pain. Prior administration of naloxone and naloxonazine, but not naltrindole and nor-binaltorphimine, prevented this effect. Vitamin B 12 and physostigmine decreased latency time as well as traveled distance in Morris water maze. In addition, these chemicals improved scopolamine-induced memory impairment. The memory impairment induced by orofacial pain was improved by vitamin B 12 and physostigmine used alone. Naloxone prevented, whereas physostigmine enhanced the memory improving effect of vitamin B 12 in the pain-induced memory impairment. All the above-mentioned chemicals did not alter locomotor activity. The results of the present study showed that at the level of the dorsal hippocampus, vitamin B 12 modulated orofacial pain through a mu-opioid receptor mechanism. In addition, vitamin B 12 contributed to hippocampal cholinergic system in processing of memory. Moreover, cholinergic and opioid systems may be involved in improving effect of vitamin B 12 on pain-induced memory impairment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Do people with chronic pain have impaired executive function? A meta-analytical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Carolyn; Stanton, Tasha R; Bowering, K Jane; Tabor, Abby; McFarlane, Alexander; Moseley, G Lorimer

    2014-11-01

    A widely held belief within the clinical community is that chronic pain is associated with cognitive impairment, despite the absence of a definitive systematic review or meta-analysis on the topic. The current systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to establish the current evidence concerning the difference in executive function between people with chronic pain and healthy controls. Six databases were searched for citations related to executive function and chronic pain from inception to June 24, 2013. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for eligibility and extracted relevant data according to the Cochrane Collaboration and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Twenty five studies were included in the review and twenty two studies in the meta-analysis. A small to moderate impairment in executive function performance was found in people with chronic pain across cognitive components, although all studies had a high risk of bias. The current evidence suggests impairment of executive function in people with chronic pain, however, important caveats exist. First, executive function involves many cognitive components and there is no standard test for it. Second, moderators of executive function, such as medication and sleep, were seldom controlled for in studies of executive function performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pain and functional impairment as mediators of the link between medical symptoms and depression in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, William P; Bykowski, Cathy A; Mayhew, Laura L

    2013-03-01

    Among people with diabetes, depression is more common and is associated with greater morbidity and mortality. A better understanding of mechanisms underlying the link between poor health and depression is needed. Pain and functional impairment may account for the effect of poor health on depression in diabetes. The purpose of the study was to examine whether pain and functional impairment mediate the association between diabetes-related medical symptoms and depression in type 2 diabetes. Adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (N = 77) completed the following measures: Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ), Diabetes Symptom Checklist (DSC), and Medical Outcomes Study 12-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12). Body mass index (BMI) was computed using height and weight data from medical records. Mediation and linear regression analyses were conducted. Pain and functional impairment made significant, independent contributions to depression. Functional impairment mediated the link between diabetes-related medical symptoms and depression. Pain mediated the association between higher BMI and depression. Pain and functional impairment appear to play important, independent roles in depression in type 2 diabetes. Mediation analyses suggest the following: 1. diabetes-related medical problems increase functional impairment, which in turn leads to greater depression; and 2. the burden of carrying greater body mass (higher BMI) increases pain, which leads to increased depression.

  17. Steadiness of Spinal Regions during Single-Leg Standing in Older Adults with and without Chronic Low Back Pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Liang Kuo

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to compare the steadiness index of spinal regions during single-leg standing in older adults with and without chronic low back pain (LBP and to correlate measurements of steadiness index with the performance of clinical balance tests. Thirteen community-dwelling older adults (aged 55 years or above with chronic LBP and 13 age- and gender-matched asymptomatic volunteers participated in this study. Data collection was conducted in a university research laboratory. Measurements were steadiness index of spinal regions (trunk, thoracic spine, lumbar spine, and pelvis during single-leg standing including relative holding time (RHT and relative standstill time (RST, and clinical balance tests (timed up and go test and 5-repetition sit to stand test. The LBP group had a statistically significantly smaller RHT than the control group, regardless of one leg stance on the painful or non-painful sides. The RSTs on the painful side leg in the LBP group were not statistically significantly different from the average RSTs of both legs in the control group; however, the RSTs on the non-painful side leg in the LBP group were statistically significantly smaller than those in the control group for the trunk, thoracic spine, and lumbar spine. No statistically significant intra-group differences were found in the RHTs and RSTs between the painful and non-painful side legs in the LBP group. Measurements of clinical balance tests also showed insignificant weak to moderate correlations with steadiness index. In conclusion, older adults with chronic LBP demonstrated decreased spinal steadiness not only in the symptomatic lumbar spine but also in the other spinal regions within the kinetic chain of the spine. When treating older adults with chronic LBP, clinicians may also need to examine their balance performance and spinal steadiness during balance challenging tests.

  18. Effects of hamstring stretch with pelvic control on pain and work ability in standing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyun-Il; Choi, Ho-Suk; Shin, Won-Seob

    2016-11-21

    Hamstring tightness induces posterior pelvic tilt and decreased lumbar lordosis, which can result in low back painOBJECTIVE: We investigated effects of hamstring stretch with pelvic control on pain and work ability in standing workers. One hundred adult volunteers from a standing workers were randomly assigned to pelvic control hamstring stretching (PCHS) (n = 34), general hamstring stretching (GHS) (n = 34), control (n = 32) groups. The control group was performed self-home exercise. All interventions were conducted 3 days per week for 6 weeks, and included in the hamstring stretching and lumbopelvic muscle strengthening. Outcomes were evaluated through the visual analog scale (VAS), straight leg raise test (SLR), sit and reach test (SRT), Oswestry disability index (ODI), and work ability index (WAI). Significant difference in VAS, SLR, SRT, ODI, and WAI were found in the PCHS and GHS groups. The control group was a significant difference only in ODI. The PCHS group showed a greater difference than the GHS group and control group in VAS, SLR, SRT, and ODI. The pelvic control hamstring stretch exercise would be more helpful in back pain reduction and improvement of work ability in an industrial setting.

  19. Pain-related Impairment of Daily Activities After Thoracic Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, Thomas K; Wildgaard, Kim; Kreiner, Svend

    2013-01-01

    -specific questionnaire for assessment of functional impairment due to PTPS. METHODS:: Activities were obtained from the literature supplemented by interviews with patients and surgeons. The questionnaire was validated using the Rasch model in order to describe an underlying pain impairment scale. RESULTS:: Four of 17...... found. A generalized log-linear Rasch model including local dependence was constructed. Though local dependence influenced reliability, the test-retest reliability estimated under the log-linear Rasch model was high (0.88-0.96). Correlation with items from the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand...... (quick) questionnaire supported validity (γ=0.46, P...

  20. Evaluation of postural stability during quiet standing, step-up and step-up with lateral perturbation in subjects with and without low back pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ram Prasad

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The  evaluation  of  postural  stability  during  quiet stance,  step  up  and step  up  task  with  perturbation  using posturography  could  be  useful  in treatment  and  outcome monitoring  in  chronic  low  back  pain rehabilitation  (CLBP.  The aims  of  this  study  were  twofold  and investigating  1  differences of postural stability measures between CLBP patients and healthy participants  during  above  mentioned  tasks.  2 postural  stability characteristics between control and movement impairment groups of  CLBP  patients  on  above  tasks.  Fourteen  CLBP  and fifteen normal  individuals  participated  and  posturography outcome variables  were  obtained  during  above  tasks.  The  low  back pain  subjects  showed  significantly  different  anterior-posterior (p=0 .01 as well as medio- lateral (p=0.05 postural stability characteristics during the step up task with external perturbation, whereas quiet standing and simple step up task did not show any differences. In addition to these values, in CLBP population, the maximum COP excursion (p=0.01, standard stability (p=0.02 and the stability scores (p=0.02 were also found significant in step up with perturbation task compared to healthy participants. As the task difficulty increases CLBP patients exhibited significantly different postural stability characteristics compared to healthy participants. Conversely, sub-group analysis in CLBP patients revealed significant differences only in medio-lateral COP excursions during normal standing (p=0.005. No significant differences were observed in tasks of higher difficulties such as step up and step up task with lateral perturbation in-between patients with movement and control impairment groups of CLBP. These findings have implications for assessment and optimizing postural control interventions on functional back pain rehabilitation.

  1. Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis Who Score Highly on the PainDETECT Questionnaire Present With Multimodality Hyperalgesia, Increased Pain, and Impaired Physical Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Penny; Benson, Heather A E; Will, Rob; Wright, Anthony

    2018-01-01

    PainDETECT is a self-report questionnaire that can be used to identify features of neuropathic pain. A proportion of patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) score highly on the PainDETECT questionnaire. This study aimed to determine whether those with a higher "positive neuropathic" score on the PainDETECT questionnaire also had greater pain, hypersensitivity, and reduced function compared with individuals with knee OA with lower PainDETECT scores. In total, 130 participants with knee OA completed the PainDETECT, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC), and Pain Quality Assessment Scale questionnaires. Quantitative sensory testing was carried out at 3 sites (both knees and elbow) using standard methods. Cold and heat pain thresholds were tested using a Peltier thermode and pressure pain thresholds using a digital algometer. Physical function was assessed using 3 timed locomotor function tests. In total, 22.3% of participants scored in the "positive neuropathic" category with a further 35.4% in the unclear category. Participants in the "positive neuropathic" category reported higher levels of pain and more impaired function based on the WOMAC questionnaire (Ppain thresholds at the OA knee. They were also slower to complete 2 of the locomotion tasks. This study identified a specific subgroup of people with knee OA who exhibited PainDETECT scores in the "positive neuropathic" category. These individuals experienced increased levels of pain, widespread, multimodality hyperalgesia, and greater functional impairment than the remaining cohort. Identification of OA patients with this pain phenotype may permit more targeted and effective pain management.

  2. Presurgical Weight Is Associated with Pain, Functional Impairment, and Anxiety among Gastric Bypass Surgery Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharlene Wedin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pain and obesity are significant public health concerns in the United States associated with significant levels of health-care expenses and lost productivity. Previous research suggests that obesity is a risk factor for chronic pain, mainly due to excessive weight placed on the joints. However, the obesity-pain relationship appears to be complex and reciprocal. Little work to date has focused on the relationship between weight and pain among patients undergoing gastric bypass surgery for weight loss. Patients scheduled to undergo bariatric surgery for weight loss at a large southeastern academic medical center ( completed the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI, the Center for Epidemiological Studies 10-item Depression scale (CESD-10, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI. Higher presurgical weight was associated with higher pain-on-average ratings, higher functional impairment due to pain across the domains of physical activity, mood, walking ability, relationships, and enjoyment of life. Higher presurgical weight was associated with higher BAI scores, but weight was not related to depression. Findings suggest that bariatric surgery candidates report a moderate amount of pain prior to surgery and that presurgical weight is associated with higher pain, increased functional impairment due to pain, and increased anxiety. Anxiety was found to mediate the relationship between increased weight and pain.

  3. The association of fatigue, pain, depression and anxiety with work and activity impairment in immune mediated inflammatory diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray W Enns

    Full Text Available Impairment in work function is a frequent outcome in patients with chronic conditions such as immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID, depression and anxiety disorders. The personal and economic costs of work impairment in these disorders are immense. Symptoms of pain, fatigue, depression and anxiety are potentially remediable forms of distress that may contribute to work impairment in chronic health conditions such as IMID. The present study evaluated the association between pain [Medical Outcomes Study Pain Effects Scale], fatigue [Daily Fatigue Impact Scale], depression and anxiety [Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale] and work impairment [Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Scale] in four patient populations: multiple sclerosis (n = 255, inflammatory bowel disease (n = 248, rheumatoid arthritis (n = 154 and a depression and anxiety group (n = 307, using quantile regression, controlling for the effects of sociodemographic factors, physical disability, and cognitive deficits. Each of pain, depression symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and fatigue individually showed significant associations with work absenteeism, presenteeism, and general activity impairment (quantile regression standardized estimates ranging from 0.3 to 1.0. When the distress variables were entered concurrently into the regression models, fatigue was a significant predictor of work and activity impairment in all models (quantile regression standardized estimates ranging from 0.2 to 0.5. These findings have important clinical implications for understanding the determinants of work impairment and for improving work-related outcomes in chronic disease.

  4. D-Aspartate drinking solution alleviates pain and cognitive impairment in neuropathic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, Enza; Luongo, Livio; Guida, Francesca; Marabese, Ida; Romano, Rosaria; Iannotta, Monica; Rossi, Francesca; D'Aniello, Antimo; Stella, Luigi; Marmo, Federica; Usiello, Alessandro; de Bartolomeis, Andrea; Maione, Sabatino; de Novellis, Vito

    2016-07-01

    D-Aspartate (D-Asp) is a free D-amino acid detected in multiple brain regions and putative precursor of endogenous N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) acting as agonist at NMDA receptors. In this study, we investigated whether D-Asp (20 mM) in drinking solution for 1 month affects pain responses and pain-related emotional, and cognitive behaviour in a model of neuropathic pain induced by the spared nerve injury (SNI) of the sciatic nerve in mice. SNI mice developed mechanical allodynia and motor coordination impairment 30 days after SNI surgery. SNI mice showed cognitive impairment, anxiety and depression-like behaviour, reduced sociability in the three chamber sociability paradigm, increased expression of NR2B subunit of NMDA receptor and Homer 1a in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The expression of (post synaptic density) PSD-95 and Shank 1was instead unaffected in the mPFC of the SNI mice. Treatment with D-Asp drinking solution, started right after the SNI (day 0), alleviated mechanical allodynia, improved cognition and motor coordination and increased social interaction. D-Asp also restored the levels of extracellular D-Asp, Homer 1a and NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor to physiological levels and reduced Shank1 and PSD-95 protein levels in the mPFC. Amitriptyline, a tricyclic antidepressant used also to alleviate neuropathic pain in humans, reverted mechanical allodynia and cognitive impairment, and unlike D-Asp, was effective in reducing depression and anxiety-like behaviour in the SNI mice and increased PSD protein level. Altogether these findings demonstrate that D-Asp improves sensorial, motor and cognitive-like symptoms related to chronic pain possibly through glutamate neurotransmission normalization in neuropathic mice.

  5. Health care costs, work productivity and activity impairment in non-malignant chronic pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Christian; Handberg, Gitte; Axelsen, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the costs of non-malignant chronic pain in patients awaiting treatment in a multidisciplinary pain clinic in a hospital setting. Health care costs due to chronic pain are particular high during the first year after pain onset, and remain high compared with health care costs be...... before pain onset. The majority of chronic pain patients incur the costs of alternative treatments. Chronic pain causes production losses at work, as well as impairment of non-work activities.......This study explores the costs of non-malignant chronic pain in patients awaiting treatment in a multidisciplinary pain clinic in a hospital setting. Health care costs due to chronic pain are particular high during the first year after pain onset, and remain high compared with health care costs...

  6. Acute alcohol intoxication impairs segmental body alignment in upright standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafstrom, A; Patel, M; Modig, F; Magnusson, M; Fransson, P A

    2014-01-01

    Balance control when standing upright is a complex process requiring input from several partly independent mechanisms such as coordination, feedback and feedforward control, and adaptation. Acute alcohol intoxication from ethanol is recognized as a major contributor to accidental falls requiring medical care. This study aimed to investigate if intoxication at 0.06 and 0.10% blood alcohol concentration affected body alignment. Mean angular positions of the head, shoulder, hip, and knee were measured with 3D-motion analysis and compared with the ankle position in 25 healthy adults during standing with or without perturbations, and with eyes open or closed. Alcohol intoxication had significant effects on body alignment during perturbed and unperturbed stance, and on adaptation to perturbations. It induced a significantly more posterior alignment of the knees and shoulders, and a tendency for a more posterior and left deviated head alignment in perturbed stance than when sober. The impact of alcohol intoxication was most apparent on the knee alignment, where availability of visual information deteriorated the adaptation to perturbations. Thus, acute alcohol intoxication resulted in inadequate balance control strategies with increased postural rigidity and impaired adaptation to perturbations. These factors probably contribute to the increased risk of falling when intoxicated with alcohol.

  7. The relationship between abdominal muscle activity and pain, disability and fear of movement during standing postural tasks in females with chronic nonspecific low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ehsani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It appears that the level of fear of movement changes deep trunk muscle activity in the patients with low back pain (LBP. There is no study to investigate the relationship between deep trunk muscle activity and fear of movement in the patients with LBP. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between abdominal muscle activity and pain, disability and fear of movement during standing postural tasks in females with chronic nonspecific LBP. Materials and Methods: Forty four females participated were asked to maintain their balance during standing on the platform stability levels of Biodex Balance System (BBS. Concurrently, ultrasonography (US data about abdominal muscles thickness measurement were transferred and saved to process offline. The pain intensity, disability and fear of movement were assessed by valid scales and questionnaire. Results: There was not significant correlation between abdominal muscle thickness changes and pain and disability intensity (P>0.05, while significant and inverse correlation between deep abdominal muscle thickness changes and fear of movement was observed in the patients (P<0.05, although this correlation is weak (r= -0.36- -0.32. Conclusion: It seems that increases in fear of movement decrease significantly deep abdominal muscles activity in the patients with LBP. This relationship demonstrates the importance of cognitive behavioral therapy and controlling fear of movement on improvement of deep abdominal muscle activity in the patients with LBP

  8. Effect of Lumbar Disc Degeneration and Low-Back Pain on the Lumbar Lordosis in Supine and Standing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bjarke B; Bendix, Tom; Grindsted, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVE: To examine the influence of low-back pain (LBP) and lumbar disc degeneration (LDD) on the lumbar lordosis in weight-bearing positional magnetic resonance imaging (pMRI). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The lumbar lordosis increases with a change...... of position from supine to standing and is known as an essential contributor to dynamic changes. However, the lordosis may be affected by disc degeneration and pain. METHODS: Patients with LBP >40 on a 0 to 100 mm Visual Analog Scale (VAS) both during activity and rest and a sex and age-decade matching...... control group without LBP were scanned in the supine and standing position in a 0.25-T open MRI unit. LDD was graded using Pfirrmann's grading-scale. Subsequently, the L2-to-S1 lumbar lordosis angle (LA) was measured. RESULTS: Thirty-eight patients with an average VAS of 58 (±13.8) mm during rest and 75...

  9. Impaired spatial body representation in complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinersmann, Annika; Landwehrt, Julia; Krumova, Elena K; Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Güntürkün, Onur; Maier, Christoph

    2012-11-01

    Recently, a shift of the visual subjective body midline (vSM), a correlate of the egocentric reference frame, towards the affected side was reported in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). However, the specificity of this finding is as yet unclear. This study compares 24 CRPS patients to 21 patients with upper limb pain of other origin (pain control) and to 24 healthy subjects using a comprehensive test battery, including assessment of the vSM in light and dark, line bisection, hand laterality recognition, neglect-like severity symptoms, and motor impairment (disability of the arm, shoulder, and hand). 1-way analysis of variance, t-tests, significance level: 0.05. In the dark, CRPS patients displayed a significantly larger leftward spatial bias when estimating their vSM, compared to pain controls and healthy subjects, and also reported lower motor function than pain controls. For right-affected CRPS patients only, the deviation of the vSM correlated significantly with the severity of distorted body perception. Results confirm previous findings of impaired visuospatial perception in CRPS patients, which might be the result of the involvement of supraspinal mechanisms in this pain syndrome. These mechanisms might accentuate the leftward bias that results from a right-hemispheric dominance in visuospatial processing and is known as pseudoneglect. Pseudoneglect reveals itself in the tendency to perceive the midpoint of horizontal lines or the subjective body midline left of the centre. It was observable in all 3 groups, but most pronounced in CRPS patients, which might be due to the cortical reorganisation processes associated with this syndrome. Copyright © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Pain and Christianity. A symbol for overcoming pain?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markschies, C

    2007-08-01

    Pain and Christianity appear to belong together: Christ's pain stands at the centre of God's healing; his pain leads to the salvation of mankind. We can learn from Jesus' example how to bear suffering and pain. In early Christian times, the belief that Jesus Christ suffered pain on the cross was usually not accepted. In line with the "apathy axiom", freedom from emotion was something to strive for at that time. Only after the acceptance of Christianity as the state religion of the Roman Empire in 380 AD did the pain of Christ again stand in the centre of the Christian doctrine of salvation. The memory of the fact that Jesus himself had to undergo the worst pain can still help people to overcome their pain and comfort them.

  11. Behavioral cues to expand a pain model of the cognitively impaired elderly in long-term care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burfield AH

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Allison H Burfield,1 Thomas TH Wan,2 Mary Lou Sole,3 James W Cooper41School of Nursing, College of Health and Human Services, University of North Carolina-Charlotte, Charlotte, NC, 2Administration, and Medical Education, Doctoral Program in Public Affairs, College of Health and Public Affairs, 3College of Nursing, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, 4College of Pharmacy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between hypothesized pain behaviors in the elderly and a measurement model of pain derived from the Minimum Data Set-Resident Assessment Instrument (MDS-RAI 2.0 items.Methods: This work included a longitudinal cohort recruited from Medicare-certified long-term care facilities across the United States. MDS data were collected from 52,996 residents (mean age 83.7 years. Structural equation modeling was used to build a measurement model of pain to test correlations between indicators and the fit of the model by cognitive status. The model evaluates the theoretical constructs of pain to improve how pain is assessed and detected within cognitive levels.Results: Using pain frequency and intensity as the only indicators of pain, the overall prevalence of pain was 31.2%; however, analysis by cognitive status showed that 47.7% of the intact group was in pain, while only 18.2% of the severely, 29.4% of the moderately, and 39.6% of the mildly cognitively impaired groups were experiencing pain. This finding supports previous research indicating that pain is potentially under-reported in severely cognitively impaired elderly nursing home residents. With adjustments to the measurement model, a revised format containing affective, behavioral, and inferred pain indicates a better fit of the data to include these domains, as a more complete measure of the pain construct.Conclusion: Pain has a significant effect on quality of life and long-term health outcomes in nursing home

  12. Blood pressure associates with standing balance in elderly outpatients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantsje H Pasma

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Assessment of the association of blood pressure measurements in supine and standing position after a postural change, as a proxy for blood pressure regulation, with standing balance in a clinically relevant cohort of elderly, is of special interest as blood pressure may be important to identify patients at risk of having impaired standing balance in routine geriatric assessment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a cross-sectional cohort study, 197 community-dwelling elderly referred to a geriatric outpatient clinic of a middle-sized teaching hospital were included. Blood pressure was measured intermittently (n = 197 and continuously (subsample, n = 58 before and after a controlled postural change from supine to standing position. The ability to maintain standing balance was assessed during ten seconds of side-by-side, semi-tandem and tandem stance, with both eyes open and eyes closed. Self-reported impaired standing balance and history of falls were recorded by questionnaires. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between blood pressure and 1 the ability to maintain standing balance; 2 self-reported impaired standing balance; and 3 history of falls, adjusted for age and sex. RESULTS: Blood pressure decrease after postural change, measured continuously, was associated with reduced ability to maintain standing balance in semi-tandem stance with eyes closed and with increased self-reported impaired standing balance and falls. Presence of orthostatic hypotension was associated with reduced ability to maintain standing balance in semi-tandem stance with eyes closed for both intermittent and continuous measurements and with increased self-reported impaired standing balance for continuous measurements. CONCLUSION: Continuous blood pressure measurements are of additional value to identify patients at risk of having impaired standing balance and may therefore be useful in routine geriatric care.

  13. Impaired behavioural pain responses in hph-1 mice with inherited deficiency in GTP cyclohydrolase 1 in models of inflammatory pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasser, A.; Bjerrum, Ole Jannik; Heegaard, A.-M.

    2013-01-01

    following intraplantar injection of CFA, formalin and capsaicin; whereas decreased basal level of GTP-CH1 activity had no influence in naïve hph-1 mice on acute mechanical and heat pain thresholds. Moreover, the hph-1 mice showed no signs of motor impairment or dystonia-like symptoms......Background: GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GTP-CH1), the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), encoded by the GCH1 gene, has been implicated in the development and maintenance of inflammatory pain in rats. In humans, homozygous carriers of a " pain-protective" (PP) haplotype...... of the GCH1 gene have been identified exhibiting lower pain sensitivity, but only following pain sensitisation. Ex vivo, the PP GCH1 haplotype is associated with decreased induction of GCH1 after stimulation, whereas the baseline BH4 production is not affected. Contrary, loss of function mutations in the GCH...

  14. Facilitated pronociceptive pain mechanisms in radiating back pain compared with localized back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke; Palsson, Thorvaldur Skuli; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Facilitated pain mechanisms and impaired pain inhibition are often found in chronic pain patients. This study compared clinical pain profiles, pain sensitivity, as well as pro-nociceptive and anti-nociceptive mechanisms in patients with localized low back pain (n=18), localized neck pain (n=17......), low back and radiating leg pain (n=18), or neck and radiating arm pain (n=17). It was hypothesized that patients with radiating pain had facilitated pain mechanisms and impaired pain inhibition compared with localized pain patients. Cuff algometry was performed on the non-painful lower leg to assess...... threshold (HPT) at the non-painful hand were also assessed. Clinical pain intensity, psychological distress, and disability were assessed with questionnaires. TSP was increased in patients with radiating back pain compared with localized back pain (Ppain or localized low...

  15. Factors associated with cervical kinematic impairments in patients with neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treleaven, Julia; Chen, Xiaoqi; Sarig Bahat, Hilla

    2016-04-01

    Cervical kinematics have functional relevance and are important for assessment and management in patients with neck disorders. A better understanding of factors that might influence cervical kinematics is required. The aim of this study was to determine any relationships between altered kinematics to the symptoms and signs of sensorimotor impairments, neck pain and disability and fear of neck motion in people with neck pain. Kinematics were measured in 39 subjects with chronic neck pain using a customized virtual reality system. Range of cervical motion, mean and peak velocity, time to peak velocity percentage, number of velocity peaks and accuracy were derived. Correlations between these measures to self-reported (neck pain intensity, disability, fear of motion, dizziness, visual disturbances) and sensorimotor measures and regression analyses were conducted. Range and velocity of motion of cervical rotation appeared to be most related to visual disturbances and pain or dynamic balance. Nevertheless these relationships only explained about 30% of the variance of each measure. Signs and symptoms of sensorimotor dysfunction should be considered and monitored in the management of altered cervical rotation kinematics in patients with chronic neck disorders. Future research should consider the effects of addressing these factors on neck kinematics and vice versa to aid functional recovery in those with neck pain. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Pain patients in street traffic. Do analgesics impair driving safety?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, W

    2003-06-05

    Analgesics--in particular when self-prescribed or taken over the long term--may have a negative effect on safety on the road. This applies not only to vehicle drivers, but also to cyclists and pedestrians. Psychotropic effects of analgesics of all three WHO categories play a major causal role. Impairments may take the form of sleepiness, impaired vision, giddiness, loss of muscular tone or cardiovascular reactions. On the other hand, untreated severe pain has a high risk potential, since it may reduce both cognitive and psychomotoric performance. During the stabilization phase or dose adjustment of opioids, the patient must cautioned not to drive, and particular care must be taken in patients on concomitant or long-term medication or drinking excessive alcohol. In the last resort, the prescription of an analgesic is an individual decision involving both physician and patient.

  17. The role of trigeminal nucleus caudalis orexin 1 receptors in orofacial pain transmission and in orofacial pain-induced learning and memory impairment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooshki, Razieh; Abbasnejad, Mehdi; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed; Raoof, Maryam

    2016-04-01

    It is widely accepted that the spinal trigeminal nuclear complex, especially the subnucleus caudalis (Vc), receives input from orofacial structures. The neuropeptides orexin-A and -B are expressed in multiple neuronal systems. Orexin signaling has been implicated in pain-modulating system as well as learning and memory processes. Orexin 1 receptor (OX1R) has been reported in trigeminal nucleus caudalis. However, its roles in trigeminal pain modulation have not been elucidated so far. This study was designed to investigate the role of Vc OX1R in the modulation of orofacial pain as well as pain-induced learning and memory deficits. Orofacial pain was induced by subcutaneous injection of capsaicin in the right upper lip of the rats. OX1R agonist (orexin-A) and antagonist (SB-334867-A) were microinjected into Vc prior capsaicin administration. After recording nociceptive times, learning and memory was investigated using Morris water maze (MWM) test. The results indicated that, orexin-A (150 pM/rat) significantly reduced the nociceptive times, while SB334867-A (80 nM/rat) exaggerated nociceptive behavior in response to capsaicin injection. In MWM test, capsaicin-treated rats showed a significant learning and memory impairment. Moreover, SB-334867-A (80 nM/rat) significantly exaggerated learning and memory impairment in capsaicin-treated rats. However, administration of orexin-A (100 pM/rat) prevented learning and memory deficits. Taken together, these results indicate that Vc OX1R was at least in part involved in orofacial pain transmission and orexin-A has also a beneficial inhibitory effect on orofacial pain-induced deficits in abilities of spatial learning and memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Direction-Specific Impairments in Cervical Range of Motion in Women with Chronic Neck Pain: Influence of Head Posture and Gravitationally Induced Torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolfsson, Thomas; Björklund, Martin; Svedmark, Åsa; Srinivasan, Divya; Djupsjöbacka, Mats

    2017-01-01

    Cervical range of motion (ROM) is commonly assessed in clinical practice and research. In a previous study we decomposed active cervical sagittal ROM into contributions from lower and upper levels of the cervical spine and found level- and direction-specific impairments in women with chronic non-specific neck pain. The present study aimed to validate these results and investigate if the specific impairments can be explained by the neutral posture (defining zero flexion/extension) or a movement strategy to avoid large gravitationally induced torques on the cervical spine. Kinematics of the head and thorax was assessed in sitting during maximal sagittal cervical flexion/extension (high torque condition) and maximal protraction (low torque condition) in 120 women with chronic non-specific neck pain and 40 controls. We derived the lower and upper cervical angles, and the head centre of mass (HCM), from a 3-segment kinematic model. Neutral head posture was assessed using a standardized procedure. Previous findings of level- and direction-specific impairments in neck pain were confirmed. Neutral head posture was equal between groups and did not explain the direction-specific impairments. The relative magnitude of group difference in HCM migration did not differ between high and low torques conditions, lending no support for our hypothesis that impairments in sagittal ROM are due to torque avoidance behaviour. The direction- and level-specific impairments in cervical sagittal ROM can be generalised to the population of women with non-specific neck pain. Further research is necessary to clarify if torque avoidance behaviour can explain the impairments.

  19. Direction-Specific Impairments in Cervical Range of Motion in Women with Chronic Neck Pain: Influence of Head Posture and Gravitationally Induced Torque.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Rudolfsson

    Full Text Available Cervical range of motion (ROM is commonly assessed in clinical practice and research. In a previous study we decomposed active cervical sagittal ROM into contributions from lower and upper levels of the cervical spine and found level- and direction-specific impairments in women with chronic non-specific neck pain. The present study aimed to validate these results and investigate if the specific impairments can be explained by the neutral posture (defining zero flexion/extension or a movement strategy to avoid large gravitationally induced torques on the cervical spine.Kinematics of the head and thorax was assessed in sitting during maximal sagittal cervical flexion/extension (high torque condition and maximal protraction (low torque condition in 120 women with chronic non-specific neck pain and 40 controls. We derived the lower and upper cervical angles, and the head centre of mass (HCM, from a 3-segment kinematic model. Neutral head posture was assessed using a standardized procedure.Previous findings of level- and direction-specific impairments in neck pain were confirmed. Neutral head posture was equal between groups and did not explain the direction-specific impairments. The relative magnitude of group difference in HCM migration did not differ between high and low torques conditions, lending no support for our hypothesis that impairments in sagittal ROM are due to torque avoidance behaviour.The direction- and level-specific impairments in cervical sagittal ROM can be generalised to the population of women with non-specific neck pain. Further research is necessary to clarify if torque avoidance behaviour can explain the impairments.

  20. Cognitive Impairments in Fibromyalgia Syndrome: Associations With Positive and Negative Affect, Alexithymia, Pain Catastrophizing and Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez-Sánchez, Carmen M; Reyes Del Paso, Gustavo A; Duschek, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic condition characterized by widespread pain accompanied by symptoms like depression, anxiety, sleep disturbance and fatigue. In addition, affected patients frequently report cognitive disruption such as forgetfulness, concentration difficulties or mental slowness. Though cognitive deficits in FMS have been confirmed in various studies, not much is known about the mechanisms involved in their origin. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of affect-related variables to cognitive impairments in FMS. For this purpose, 67 female FMS patients and 32 healthy control subjects completed a battery of cognitive tests measuring processing speed, attention, visuospatial and verbal memory, cognitive flexibility and planning abilities. In addition, participants completed self-report questionnaires pertaining to positive and negative affect, alexithymia, pain catastrophizing and self-esteem. Clinical characteristics including pain severity, symptoms of depression and anxiety, insomnia and fatigue were also assessed. FMS patients showed markedly poorer performance than healthy controls in all of the cognitive domains assessed, in addition to greater levels of depression, anxiety, negative affect, alexithymia and pain catastrophizing, and lower self-esteem and positive affect. In exploratory correlation analysis in the FMS sample, lower cognitive performance was associated with higher pain severity, depression, anxiety, negative affect, alexithymia and pain catastrophizing, as well as lower self-esteem and positive affect. However, in regression analyses, pain, self-esteem, alexithymia, and pain catastrophizing explained the largest portion of the variance in performance. While interference effects of clinical pain in cognition have been previously described, the present findings suggest that affective factors also substantially contribute to the genesis of cognitive impairments. They support the notion that affective disturbances

  1. Impairments in static standing balance are highly prevalent among older adults receiving home-based physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Richard W

    2012-01-01

    Measures of balance are an important component of the physical therapist examination. This study investigated the usefulness of timed static stance durations for identifying balance impairments among patients receiving home-based physical therapy. This study involved the retrospective retrieval of data from the records of 48 patients at least 60 years of age. Their balance was measured under 3 foot configurations; that is, feet apart, feet together, and on each foot. Every patient demonstrated impaired standing balance. Most, but not all could balance 30 seconds with the feet apart or together. Only 19 could maintain balance on each of both feet. Of those who could so balance, none was able to achieve the average time of normal individuals of comparable age. Although not able to identify all aspects of balance, timed durations of stance under different configurations demonstrate a high prevalence of balance impairments among patients receiving home-based physical therapy. As the tests are objective, fast, and require little space, they can be advocated in such a setting.

  2. Single anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) using self- locking stand-alone polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cage: evaluation of pain and health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanakis, Stylianos; Thomaidis, Tryfon; Charitoudis, George; Pavlidis, Pavlos; Theodosiadis, Panagiotis; Gkasdaris, Grigorios

    2017-09-01

    Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) constitutes the conventional treatment of cervical disc herniation due to degenerative disc disease (DDD). ACDF with plating presents a variety of complications postoperatively and stand-alone cages are thought to be a promising alternative. The aim of this study was firstly, to analyze prospectively collected data from a sample of patients treated with single ACDF using C-Plus self-locking stand-alone PEEK cage system, without the use of plates or screws, in order to evaluate pain levels of patients, utilizing Neck and Arm Pain scale as an expression of visual analogue scale (VAS). Secondly, we aimed to evaluate health-related quality of life, via the short-form 36 (SF-36) and Neck Disability Index (NDI). Thirty-six patients (19 male and 17 female) with mean age 49.6±7 years old who underwent successful single ACDF using self-locking stand-alone PEEK cage for symptomatic cervical DDD were selected for the study. Neck and Arm pain, as well as SF-36 and NDI were estimated preoperatively and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Patients underwent preoperative and postoperative clinical, neurological and radiological evaluation. The clinical and radiological outcomes were satisfactory after a minimum 1-year follow-up. All results were statistically important (P<0.05), excluding improvement in NDI measured between 6 and 12 months. SF-36, Neck Pain, as well as Arm Pain featured gradual and constant improvement during follow-up, with best scores presenting at 12 months after surgery, while NDI reached its best at 6 months postoperatively. Generally, all scores showed improvement postoperatively during the different phases of the follow-up. Subsequently, ACDF using C-Plus cervical cage constitutes an effective method for cervical disc herniation treatment, in terms of postoperative improvement on pain levels and health-related quality of life and a safe alternative to the conventional method of treatment for cervical DDD.

  3. Interactive cervical motion kinematics: sensitivity, specificity and clinically significant values for identifying kinematic impairments in patients with chronic neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarig Bahat, Hilla; Chen, Xiaoqi; Reznik, David; Kodesh, Einat; Treleaven, Julia

    2015-04-01

    Chronic neck pain has been consistently shown to be associated with impaired kinematic control including reduced range, velocity and smoothness of cervical motion, that seem relevant to daily function as in quick neck motion in response to surrounding stimuli. The objectives of this study were: to compare interactive cervical kinematics in patients with neck pain and controls; to explore the new measures of cervical motion accuracy; and to find the sensitivity, specificity, and optimal cutoff values for defining impaired kinematics in those with neck pain. In this cross-section study, 33 patients with chronic neck pain and 22 asymptomatic controls were assessed for their cervical kinematic control using interactive virtual reality hardware and customized software utilizing a head mounted display with built-in head tracking. Outcome measures included peak and mean velocity, smoothness (represented by number of velocity peaks (NVP)), symmetry (represented by time to peak velocity percentage (TTPP)), and accuracy of cervical motion. Results demonstrated significant and strong effect-size differences in peak and mean velocities, NVP and TTPP in all directions excluding TTPP in left rotation, and good effect-size group differences in 5/8 accuracy measures. Regression results emphasized the high clinical value of neck motion velocity, with very high sensitivity and specificity (85%-100%), followed by motion smoothness, symmetry and accuracy. These finding suggest cervical kinematics should be evaluated clinically, and screened by the provided cut off values for identification of relevant impairments in those with neck pain. Such identification of presence or absence of kinematic impairments may direct treatment strategies and additional evaluation when needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhanced pain expectation in migraine: EEG-based evidence for impaired prefrontal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Rina; Granovsky, Yelena; Yarnitsky, David

    2013-01-01

    Dysexcitability characterizes the interictal migraineous brain. The main central expressions of this dysexcitability are decreased habituation and enhanced anticipation and attention to pain and other external sensory stimuli. This study evaluates the effects of anticipation on pain modulation and their neural correlates in migraine. In 39 migraineurs (20 migraine with aura [MWA] and 19 migraine without aura [MOA]) and 22 healthy controls, cortical responses to 2 successive trains of noxious contact-heat stimuli, presented in either predicted or unpredicted manner, were analyzed using standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography key. A lack of habituation to repeated predicted pain was associated with significantly increased pain-evoked potential amplitudes in MWAs (increase of 3.9 μV) and unchanged ones in MOAs (1.1 μV) but not in controls (decrease of 5 μV). Repeated unpredicted pain resulted in enhanced pain-evoked potential amplitudes in both MWA and MOA groups (increase of 5.5 μV and 4.4 μV, respectively) compared with controls (decrease of 0.2 μV). Source localization revealed reduced activations in the anterior-medial prefrontal cortices and subsequent increased somatosensory activity in migraineurs (P < .05). The prefrontal-somatosensory dysfunction positively correlated with lifetime headache duration (P < .05) and concern of upcoming migraine attacks (P < .05) in MWAs, and with frequency of migraine attacks in MOAs (P < .05). Our findings of impaired modulation of anticipated pain in migraine suggest a heightened state of anticipatory readiness combined with ineffective recruitment of prefrontal inhibitory pathways during experience of pain; the latter might account for the former, at least partially. In line, less efficient inhibitory capability is a plausible mechanistic explanation for patients' high concern about their upcoming migraine attacks. © 2012 American Headache Society.

  5. A positron emission tomography study of wind-up pain in chronic postherniotomy pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kupers, Ron; Lonsdale, Markus Georg; Aasvang, Eske Kvanner

    2011-01-01

    -induced wind-up pain in neuropathic pain patients. We therefore used positron emission tomography (PET) to investigate the cerebral response pattern of mechanical wind-up pain in a homogenous group of 10 neuropathic pain patients with long-standing postherniotomy pain in the groin area. Patients were scanned...

  6. Exploring the prevalence and variance of cognitive impairment, pain, neuropsychiatric symptoms and ADL dependency among persons living in nursing homes; a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björk, Sabine; Juthberg, Christina; Lindkvist, Marie; Wimo, Anders; Sandman, Per-Olof; Winblad, Bengt; Edvardsson, David

    2016-08-22

    Earlier studies in nursing homes show a high prevalence of cognitive impairment, dependency in activities of daily living (ADL), pain, and neuropsychiatric symptoms among residents. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of the above among residents in a nationally representative sample of Swedish nursing homes, and to investigate whether pain and neuropsychiatric symptoms differ in relation to gender, cognitive function, ADL-capacity, type of nursing-home unit and length of stay. Cross-sectional data from 188 randomly selected nursing homes were collected. A total of 4831 residents were assessed for cognitive and ADL function, pain and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and the chi-square test. The results show the following: the prevalence of cognitive impairment was 67 %, 56 % of residents were ADL-dependent, 48 % exhibited pain and 92 % exhibited neuropsychiatric symptoms. The prevalence of pain did not differ significantly between male and female residents, but pain was more prevalent among cognitively impaired and ADL-dependent residents. Pain prevalence was not significantly different between residents in special care units for people with dementia (SCU) and general units, or between shorter-and longer-stay residents. Furthermore, the prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms did not differ significantly between male and female residents, between ADL capacities or in relation to length of stay. However, residents with cognitive impairment and residents in SCUs had a significantly higher prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms than residents without cognitive impairment and residents in general units. The prevalence rates ascertained in this study could contribute to a greater understanding of the needs of nursing-home residents, and may provide nursing home staff and managers with trustworthy assessment scales and benchmark values for further quality assessment purposes, clinical development work and

  7. Central adaptation of pain perception in response to rehabilitation of musculoskeletal pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Christoffer H; Sundstrup, Emil

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of long-standing musculoskeletal pain and adaptations in response to physical rehabilitation is important for developing optimal treatment strategies. The influence of central adaptations of pain perception in response to rehabilitation of musculoskeletal pain remains...

  8. Impaired behavioural pain responses in hph-1 mice with inherited deficiency in GTP cyclohydrolase 1 in models of inflammatory pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GTP-CH1), the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), encoded by the GCH1 gene, has been implicated in the development and maintenance of inflammatory pain in rats. In humans, homozygous carriers of a “pain-protective” (PP) haplotype of the GCH1 gene have been identified exhibiting lower pain sensitivity, but only following pain sensitisation. Ex vivo, the PP GCH1 haplotype is associated with decreased induction of GCH1 after stimulation, whereas the baseline BH4 production is not affected. Contrary, loss of function mutations in the GCH1 gene results in decreased basal GCH1 expression, and is associated with DOPA-responsive dystonia (DRD). So far it is unknown if such mutations affect acute and inflammatory pain. Results In the current study, we examined the involvement of the GCH1 gene in pain models using the hyperphenylalaninemia 1 (hph-1) mouse, a genetic model for DRD, with only 10% basal GTP-CH1 activity compared to wild type mice. The study included assays for determination of acute nociception as well as models for pain after sensitisation. Pain behavioural analysis of the hph-1 mice showed reduced pain-like responses following intraplantar injection of CFA, formalin and capsaicin; whereas decreased basal level of GTP-CH1 activity had no influence in naïve hph-1 mice on acute mechanical and heat pain thresholds. Moreover, the hph-1 mice showed no signs of motor impairment or dystonia-like symptoms. Conclusions In this study, we demonstrate novel evidence that genetic mutations in the GCH1 gene modulate pain-like hypersensitivity. Together, the present data suggest that BH4 is not important for basal heat and mechanical pain, but they support the hypothesis that BH4 plays a role in inflammation-induced hypersensitivity. Our studies suggest that the BH4 pathway could be a therapeutic target for the treatment of inflammatory pain conditions. Moreover, the hph-1 mice provide a valid model to

  9. Effects of age and mild cognitive impairment on the pain response system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Miriam; Mylius, Veit; Schepelmann, Karsten; Lautenbacher, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Both age and dementia have been shown to have an effect on nociception and pain processing. The question arises whether mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which is thought to be a transitional stage between normal ageing and dementia, is also associated with alterations in pain processing. The aim of the present study was to answer this question by investigating the impact of age and MCI on the pain response system. Forty young subjects, 45 cognitively unimpaired elderly subjects and 42 subjects with MCI were investigated by use of an experimental multi-method approach. The subjects were tested for their subjective (pain ratings), motor (RIII reflex), facial (Facial Action Coding System) and their autonomic (sympathetic skin response and evoked heart rate response) responses to noxious electrical stimulation of the nervus suralis. We found significant group differences in the autonomic responses to noxious stimulation. The sympathetic skin response amplitude was significantly reduced in the cognitively unimpaired elderly subjects compared to younger subjects and to an even greater degree in subjects with MCI. The evoked heart rate response was reduced to a similar degree in both groups of aged subjects. Regression analyses within the two groups of the elderly subjects revealed that age and, in the MCI group, cognitive status were significant predictors of the decrease in autonomic responsiveness to noxious stimulation. Except for the autonomic parameters, no other pain parameter differed between the three groups. The pain response system appeared to be quite unaltered in MCI patients compared to cognitively unimpaired individuals of the same age. Only the sympathetic responsiveness qualified as an indicator of early aging effects as well as of pathophysiology associated with MCI, which both seemed to affect the pain system independently from each other.

  10. The ambiguity of standing in standing devices: a qualitative interview study concerning children and parents experiences of the use of standing devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordström, Birgitta; Näslund, Annika; Ekenberg, Lilly; Zingmark, Karin

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe children's and parents' experiences of the significance of standing in a standing device. Individual interviews were performed with six children/teenagers (aged 7-19 years) and 14 parents. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using a qualitative content analysis. The analysis resulted in the major theme, the duality of uprightness and the related themes: (1) the instrumental dimension of standing; (2) the social dimension of standing; and (3) the ambivalent dimension of standing. Each of the themes comprised several subthemes. There is an inherent duality related to the use of a standing device. Standing in a standing device was seen as a treatment of body structures and functions, as well as a possible source of pain. Standing was considered to influence freedom in activities and participation both positively and negatively. The parents experienced that standing influenced other peoples' views of their child, while the children experienced standing as a way to extend the body and as something that gave them benefits in some activities. Physiotherapists working with children should take into account both the social and physical dimensions of using a standing device and consider both the child's and the parents' views.

  11. Intra-observer and interobserver reliability ofOne Leg Stand Test as a measure of posturalbalance in low back pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo, Thomas; Iversen, Elena; Andersen, Niels Trolle

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the absolute and relative reliability of intra-observer and interobserver To determine the absolute and relative reliability of intra-observer and interobserver measurements of postural balance using the One Leg Stand Test in patients with low back pain. Patients and methods...... to stand for the maximum time, and no further analysis was done. Eyes closed: intra-observer reliability was tested in 21 patients; absolute reliability showed a standard error of the measurement (SEM) of 2.48 s and a minimal detectable change (MDC) of 6.88. The relative reliability was acceptable...... with an intra class correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.86. Interobserver reliability was tested in 27 patients; absolute reliability showed a SEM of 1.42 s and a MDC of 3.95. The relative reliability was acceptable with an ICC of 0.91. Conclusions: The One Leg Stand Test can be used to test postural balance...

  12. The influence of Pilates exercises on body balance in the standing position of hearing impaired people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walowska, Jagoda; Bolach, Bartosz; Bolach, Eugeniusz

    2017-11-13

    Hearing impairment may affect the body posture maintenance. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of modified Pilates exercise program on the body posture maintenance in hearing impaired people. Eighty students (aged 13-24) were enrolled and randomly allocated into two groups: test group (n = 41) which attended an original program based on modified Pilates exercises and control group (n = 39) which attended standard physical education classes. Stabilographic tests were conducted at baseline and after 6-week training program. Both groups showed improved control of body balance in a standing position manifested in reductions of the length of path, surface area, and speed of deflection. Modified Pilates program was significantly more effective in improving body balance control in relaxed posture and with feet together than standard physical education classes. The greater efficiency of the modified Pilates program was expressed in a significant improvement in balance control parameters, i.e., path length, surface area, and speed of deflection. The modified Pilates program was more effective in improving body balance control in the hearing impaired people than standard physical education classes. Modification of physical activity recommendations for hearing impaired students may be considered; however, further research is required. Implications for Rehabilitation Hearing impairment impacts the mental, social and, physical spheres of life as well as deteriorates equivalent reactions and the way body posture is maintained. In hearing impaired people, control of body balance and muscle coordination is often disturbed, thus more attention should be paid to exercises associated with balance which may improve the ability to learn and develop motor skills. Modified Pilates program was significantly more effective in improving body balance control than standard physical education classes in hearing impaired people.

  13. Motor dysfunction of complex regional pain syndrome is related to impaired central processing of proprioceptive information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Paulina J M; Peper, C Lieke E; Marinus, Johan; Beek, Peter J; van Hilten, Jacobus J

    2013-11-01

    Our understanding of proprioceptive deficits in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and its potential contribution to impaired motor function is still limited. To gain more insight into these issues, we evaluated accuracy and precision of joint position sense over a range of flexion-extension angles of the wrist of the affected and unaffected sides in 25 chronic CRPS patients and in 50 healthy controls. The results revealed proprioceptive impairment at both the patients' affected and unaffected sides, characterized predominantly by overestimation of wrist extension angles. Precision of the position estimates was more prominently reduced at the affected side. Importantly, group differences in proprioceptive performance were observed not only for tests at identical percentages of each individual's range of wrist motion but also when controls were tested at wrist angles that corresponded to those of the patient's affected side. More severe motor impairment of the affected side was associated with poorer proprioceptive performance. Based on additional sensory tests, variations in proprioceptive performance over the range of wrist angles, and comparisons between active and passive displacements, the disturbances of proprioceptive performance most likely resulted from altered processing of afferent (and not efferent) information and its subsequent interpretation in the context of a distorted "body schema." The present results point at a significant role for impaired central processing of proprioceptive information in the motor dysfunction of CRPS and suggest that therapeutic strategies aimed at identification of proprioceptive impairments and their restoration may promote the recovery of motor function in CRPS patients. Copyright © 2013 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Steadiness of Spinal Regions during Single-Leg Standing in Older Adults with and without Chronic Low Back Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Yi-Liang; Huang, Kuo-Yuan; Chiang, Pei-Tzu; Lee, Pei-Yun; Tsai, Yi-Ju

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the steadiness index of spinal regions during single-leg standing in older adults with and without chronic low back pain (LBP) and to correlate measurements of steadiness index with the performance of clinical balance tests. Thirteen community-dwelling older adults (aged 55 years or above) with chronic LBP and 13 age- and gender-matched asymptomatic volunteers participated in this study. Data collection was conducted in a university research laboratory. ...

  15. Footwear interventions for foot pain, function, impairment and disability for people with foot and ankle arthritis: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frecklington, Mike; Dalbeth, Nicola; McNair, Peter; Gow, Peter; Williams, Anita; Carroll, Matthew; Rome, Keith

    2017-11-03

    To conduct a literature review on the effectiveness of footwear on foot pain, function, impairment and disability for people with foot and ankle arthritis. A search of the electronic databases Scopus, Medline, CINAHL, SportDiscus and the Cochrane Library was undertaken in September 2017. The key inclusion criteria were studies reporting on findings of footwear interventions for people with arthritis with foot pain, function, impairment and/or disability. The Quality Index Tool was used to assess the methodological quality of studies included in the qualitative synthesis. The methodological variation of the included studies was assessed to determine the suitability of meta-analysis and the grading of recommendations, assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE) system. Between and within group effect sizes were calculated using Cohen's d. 1440 studies were identified for screening with 11 studies included in the review. Mean (range) quality scores were 67% (39-96%). The majority of studies investigated rheumatoid arthritis (n = 7), but also included gout (n = 2), and 1st metatarsophalangeal joint osteoarthritis (n = 2). Meta-analysis and GRADE assessment were not deemed appropriated based on methodological variation. Footwear interventions included off-the-shelf footwear, therapeutic footwear and therapeutic footwear with foot orthoses. Key footwear characteristics included cushioning and a wide toe box for rheumatoid arthritis; cushioning, midsole stability and a rocker-sole for gout; and a rocker-sole for 1st metatarsophalangeal joint osteoarthritis. Between group effect sizes for outcomes ranged from 0.01 to 1.26. Footwear interventions were associated with reductions in foot pain, impairment and disability for people with rheumatoid arthritis. Between group differences were more likely to be observed in studies with shorter follow-up periods in people with rheumatoid arthritis (12 weeks). Footwear interventions improved foot pain, function and disability in

  16. Hidden spondylolisthesis: unrecognized cause of low back pain? Prospective study about the use of dynamic projections in standing and recumbent position for the individuation of lumbar instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landi, Alessandro; Gregori, Fabrizio; Marotta, Nicola; Donnarumma, Pasquale; Delfini, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic X-rays (DXR) are widely recognized as an effective method to detect lumbar instability (LI). They are usually performed with the patient in standing position (SDXR). In our opinion, standing position inhibits micromovements of the lumbar segment interested by the listhesis, thanks to paravertebral muscles antalgic contraction and augmented tone. We aim to demonstrate that DXR in recumbent position (RDXR), reducing the action of paravertebral muscles, can discover hypermovements not evidenced in SDXR. Between January 2011 and January 2013, we studied 200 consecutive patients with lumbar degenerative disease with MRI, SDXR, and RDXR. We aimed to find a correlation between low back or radicular pain and the presence of a spondylolisthesis not showed by the SDXR, but showed by the RDXR. We analysed 200 patients: of the 133 not pathologic in SDXR, 43 patients (32.3 %) showed an hypermovement in RDXR (p = 0.0001) without any significant correlation between hidden listhesis and age, sex, or level involved. The aim of our study is to determine whether in patients with lumbalgy without evidence of listhesis in SDXR, pain can be attributed to a faccettal syndrome or to a spondylolisthesis. Consequence of pain is augmented muscular tone of the paravertebral musculature, particularly in standing position. Augmented muscular tone tries to inhibit the pain generator, attempting to limit the slippage of the involved segment. In patients examined in RDXR, the tone of paravertebral musculature is reduced, showing the hidden spondylolisthesis. (orig.)

  17. Hidden spondylolisthesis: unrecognized cause of low back pain? Prospective study about the use of dynamic projections in standing and recumbent position for the individuation of lumbar instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landi, Alessandro; Gregori, Fabrizio; Marotta, Nicola; Donnarumma, Pasquale; Delfini, Roberto [University of Rome - Policlinico Umberto I, Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Division of Neurosurgery, Rome (Italy)

    2015-03-26

    Dynamic X-rays (DXR) are widely recognized as an effective method to detect lumbar instability (LI). They are usually performed with the patient in standing position (SDXR). In our opinion, standing position inhibits micromovements of the lumbar segment interested by the listhesis, thanks to paravertebral muscles antalgic contraction and augmented tone. We aim to demonstrate that DXR in recumbent position (RDXR), reducing the action of paravertebral muscles, can discover hypermovements not evidenced in SDXR. Between January 2011 and January 2013, we studied 200 consecutive patients with lumbar degenerative disease with MRI, SDXR, and RDXR. We aimed to find a correlation between low back or radicular pain and the presence of a spondylolisthesis not showed by the SDXR, but showed by the RDXR. We analysed 200 patients: of the 133 not pathologic in SDXR, 43 patients (32.3 %) showed an hypermovement in RDXR (p = 0.0001) without any significant correlation between hidden listhesis and age, sex, or level involved. The aim of our study is to determine whether in patients with lumbalgy without evidence of listhesis in SDXR, pain can be attributed to a faccettal syndrome or to a spondylolisthesis. Consequence of pain is augmented muscular tone of the paravertebral musculature, particularly in standing position. Augmented muscular tone tries to inhibit the pain generator, attempting to limit the slippage of the involved segment. In patients examined in RDXR, the tone of paravertebral musculature is reduced, showing the hidden spondylolisthesis. (orig.)

  18. Prescription pain reliever misuse and levels of pain impairment: 3-year course in a nationally representative outpatient sample of US adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novak SP

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Scott P Novak,1 Cristie Glasheen,1 Carl L Roland,2 1Behavioral Health Epidemiology, RTI International, 2Clinical Sciences and Outcomes Evidence, Pfizer Inc., Durham, NC, USA Background: The primary aim of this work was to present the prevalence data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC, a representative 3-year longitudinal survey (ages 18+ years that captured information on patterns of self-reported pain interference and prescription pain reliever misuse. A second aim was to assess the degree to which the risk of various types of opioid misuse (onset, desistance, and incidence of dependence was related to the longitudinal course of self-reported pain interference over the 3-year period. Methods: We used a two-wave, nationally representative sample of adults (aged 18+ years in which the baseline data were collected during 2001–2002 and a single follow-up was obtained ~3 years later (2004–2005 with 34,332 respondents with complete data on study variables for both waves. Results: Our findings indicated that ~10% reported high pain interference in the past month at each wave. There was tremendous stability in levels of pain, with ~5% reporting consistent levels of high impairment over the 3-year study, a proxy for chronic pain. Levels of pain were more strongly associated with prescription pain reliever misuse concurrently rather than prospectively, and the association was largely linear, with the likelihood of misuse increasing with levels of pain. Finally, health service factors were also prominent predictors of onset, but not the outcomes, of desistance or transitions to problem use. Conclusion: This study is the first to use a nationally representative sample with measures of pain and drug use history collected over an extended period. These results may help provide clinicians with an understanding that the risk of misuse is greatest when pain is active and may help guide the selection of

  19. Impairment and disability rating in low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, R T

    2001-08-01

    LBP is one of the two most common forms of disability in Western society (mental illness is the other), and remains a thorny problem in the arena of disability evaluation. Disability evaluation after LBP differs whether the pain is work-related or not. If work-related, guidelines for disability evaluation differ by jurisdiction and type of employment (e.g., private vs. federal employee). When outside of the workplace, thresholds for disability differ between entitlement programs (Social Security Disability) and private insurance programs (long-term disability insurance). In the patient without obvious findings, the disability evaluating physician needs to be caring and compassionate and yet maintain an objective stance with the understanding that there may be significant psychosocial overlay in patients with nonobjective pain complaints. Although some would argue that objective independent medical evaluation is an oxymoron, psychiatrists have excellent training and perspective with which to do so. The patient suffering from catastrophic brain injury or spinal cord injury offers a useful contrast--on the most severe end of the disability spectrum--to the patient with persisting low back complaints but normal physical examination. As a society, we have to wisely manage the funds that comprise our social "safety net" in order to provide for persons with severe disability who cannot provide for themselves. It would then follow that patients with minor impairments/disabilities should receive minor (i.e., noninflated) ratings. Psychiatrists need to enable rather than disable their patients.

  20. Experimental pain processing in individuals with cognitive impairment: current state of the science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Defrin, R; Amanzio, Martina; de Tomasso, M

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment (CI) can develop during the course of ageing and is a feature of many neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. Many individuals with CI have substantial, sustained and complex healthcare needs which frequently include pain. However, individuals with CI can have difficulty...... of neurological and neurodegenerative disorders in which CI is typically present. Overall, the existing data suggest that pain processing is altered in most individuals with CI compared to cognitively intact matched controls. The precise nature of these alterations varies with the type of CI (or associated...... to cognitively unimpaired individuals. Our current understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underpinning these alterations is limited, but may be enhanced through the use of animal models of CI which also exhibit alterations in nociceptive responding. Further research employing additional behavioural...

  1. 20 CFR 220.102 - Non-severe impairment(s), defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Non-severe impairment(s), defined. 220.102 Section 220.102 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT... these include— (1) Physical functions such as walking, standing, sitting, lifting, pushing, pulling...

  2. Effect of Lumbar Disc Degeneration and Low-Back Pain on the Lumbar Lordosis in Supine and Standing: A Cross-Sectional MRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bjarke B; Bendix, Tom; Grindsted, Jacob; Bliddal, Henning; Christensen, Robin; Hansen, Philip; Riis, Robert G C; Boesen, Mikael

    2015-11-01

    Cross-sectional study. To examine the influence of low-back pain (LBP) and lumbar disc degeneration (LDD) on the lumbar lordosis in weight-bearing positional magnetic resonance imaging (pMRI). The lumbar lordosis increases with a change of position from supine to standing and is known as an essential contributor to dynamic changes. However, the lordosis may be affected by disc degeneration and pain. Patients with LBP >40 on a 0 to 100 mm Visual Analog Scale (VAS) both during activity and rest and a sex and age-decade matching control group without LBP were scanned in the supine and standing position in a 0.25-T open MRI unit. LDD was graded using Pfirrmann's grading-scale. Subsequently, the L2-to-S1 lumbar lordosis angle (LA) was measured. Thirty-eight patients with an average VAS of 58 (±13.8) mm during rest and 75 (±5.0) mm during activities, and 38 healthy controls were included. MRI findings were common in both groups, whereas, the summation of the Pfirrmann's grades (LDD-score) was significantly higher in the patients [(MD 1.44; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.80 to 2.10; P lordosis between the positions may be independent of pain. Decreasing lordosis change seems to be associated with age-related increasing disc degeneration in healthy individuals. 2.

  3. Identification of pain indicators for infants at risk for neurological impairment: A Delphi consensus study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camfield Carol

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of infant pain measures have been developed over the past 15 years incorporating behavioural and physiologic indicators; however, no reliable or valid measure exists for infants who are at risk for neurological impairments (NI. The objective of this study was to establish consensus about which behavioural, physiologic and contextual indicators best characterize pain in infants at high, moderate and low levels of risk for NI. Methods A 39- item, self-administered electronic survey that included infant physiologic, behavioral and contextual pain indicators was used in a two round Delphi consensus exercise. Fourteen pediatric pain experts were polled individually and anonymously on the importance and usefulness of the pain indicators for the 3 differing levels of risk for NI. Results The strength of agreement between expert raters was moderate in Round 1 and fair in Round 2. In general, pain indicators with the highest concordance for all three groups were brow bulge, facial grimace, eye squeeze, and inconsolability. Increased heart rate from baseline in the moderate and severe groups demonstrated high concordance. In the severe risk group, fluctuations in heart rate and reduced oxygen saturation were also highly rated. Conclusion These data constitute the first step in contributing to the development and validation of a pain measure for infants at risk for NI. In future research, we will integrate these findings with the opinions of (a health care providers about the importance and usefulness of infant pain indicators and (b the pain responses of infants at mild, moderate and high risk for NI.

  4. Pain modulatory phenotypes differentiate subgroups with different clinical and experimental pain sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaegter, Henrik B.; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    between subgroups. Cuff algometry was performed on lower legs in 400 chronic pain patients to assess pressure pain threshold (cPPT), pressure pain tolerance (cPTT), temporal summation of pain (TSP: increase in pain scores to ten repeated stimulations), and conditioned pain modulation (CPM: increase in c......PPT during cuff pain conditioning on the contralateral leg). Heat detection (HDT) and heat pain thresholds (HPT) at clinical painful and non-painful body areas were assessed. Based on TSP and CPM four distinct groups were formed: Group 1 (n=85) had impaired CPM and facilitated TSP. Group 2 (n=148) had...... impaired CPM and normal TSP. Group 3 (n=45) had normal CPM and facilitated TSP. Group 4 (n=122) had normal CPM and normal TSP. Group 1 showed more pain regions compared with the other three groups (PCPM and facilitated TSP plays an important role in widespread pain. Group 1...

  5. Functional Impairment and Painful Physical Symptoms in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder Treated with Antidepressants: Real-World Evidence from the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jihyung; Novick, Diego; Moneta, Maria Victoria; El-Shafei, Ahmed; Dueñas, Héctor; Haro, Josep Maria

    2017-01-01

    The Global Burden of Disease 2010 study reported the relative size of major depressive disorder (MDD) burden to be greater in the Middle East and North Africa than anywhere else. However, little research has been carried out to examine the comparative effectiveness of antidepressants in this region. To assess and compare functioning levels in Middle Eastern patients with MDD treated with either duloxetine or a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), and to examine the impacts of depression-related pain on functioning by the type of treatment. This post-hoc analysis, which focused on Middle Eastern patients, used data from a 6-month prospective observational study that included 1,549 MDD patients without sexual dysfunction. Levels of functional impairment and depression-related pain were assessed using the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the modified Somatic Symptom Inventory, respectively. A mixed model with repeated measures (MMRM) was employed. The mean age of the patients was 37.3 (SD=8.4) years, and 34.6% were female. Patient functioning was, on average, moderately impaired at baseline, but improved substantially during follow-up in both the duloxetine (n=152) and the SSRI (n=123) cohorts. The MMRM results showed a lower level of functional impairment at 24 weeks in the duloxetine cohort than in the SSRI cohort (p<0.001). Pain severity at baseline was positively associated with functional impairment during follow-up only in the SSRI cohort (p=0.003). Duloxetine-treated MDD patients achieved better functioning than SSRI-treated patients. This treatment difference was partly driven by depression-related pain.

  6. Trajectories of Symptoms and Impairment for Pediatric Patients with Functional Abdominal Pain: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvaney, Shelagh; Lambert, E. Warren; Garber, Judy; Walker, Lynn S.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This prospective study characterizes trajectories of symptoms and impairment in pediatric patients with abdominal pain not associated with identifiable organic disease. Method: The Children's Somatization Inventory and the Functional Disability Inventory were administered four times over 5 years to 132 patients (6-18 years old) seen in…

  7. Detection of systemic inflammation in severely impaired chronic pain patients, and effects of a CBT-ACT-based multi-modal pain rehabilitation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysing, E-B; Smith, L; Thulin, M; Karlsten, R; Gordh, T

    2017-12-29

    Aims A few previous studies indicate an ongoing of low-grade systemic inflammation in chronic pain patients (CPP) [1, 2]. In the present study we investigated the plasma inflammatory profile in severely impaired chronic pain patients. In addition we studied if there were any alterations in inflammation patterns at one-year follow up, after the patients had taken part in a CBT-ACT based 4 weeks in-hospital pain rehabilitation program (PRP). Methods Blood samples were collected from 52 well characterized chronic pain patients. Plasma from matched healthy blood donors were used as controls. At one year after the treatment program, 28 of the patients were available for follow up. Instead of only analyzing single inflammation-related substances, we used a new multiplex panel enabling the simultaneous analysis of 92 inflammation-related proteins, mainly cytokines and chemokines (Proseek Inflammation, Olink, Uppsala, Sweden). Multivariate statistics were used for analysis. Results Clear signs of increased inflammatory activity were detected in the pain patients. Accepting a false discovery rate (FDR) of 5%, there were significant differences in 43 of the 92 inflammatory biomarkers. The expression of 8 biomarkers were 4 times higher in patients compared to controls. Three biomarkers, CXCL5, SIRT2, AXIN1 were more than 8 times higher. The conventional marker for inflammation, CRP, did not differ. Of the 28 patients available for follow up one year after the intervention, all showed lower levels of the inflammatory biomarker initially raised. Conclusions The results indicate that CPP suffer from a low grade of chronic systemic inflammation, not detectable by CRP analysis. This may have implications for the general pain hypersensitivity, and other symptoms, often described in this group of patients. We conclude that inflammatory plasma proteins may be measureable molecular markers to distinguishes CPP from pain free controls, and that a CBT-ACT pain rehab program seem to

  8. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) impairs visuospatial perception,whereas post-herpetic neuralgia does not: possible implications for supraspinal mechanism of CRPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Hironobu; Sumitani, Masahiko; Yozu, Arito; Otake, Yuko; Shibata, Masahiko; Mashimo, Takashi; Miyauchi, Satoru

    2009-11-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) patients show impaired visuospatial perception in the dark, as compared to normal patients with acute nociceptive pain. The purpose of this study is 2-fold: (i) to ascertain whether this distorted visuospatial perception is related to the chronicity of pain, and (ii) to analyse visuospatial perception of CRPS in comparison with another neuropathic pain condition. We evaluated visual subjective body-midline (vSM) representation in 27 patients with post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) and 22 with CRPS under light and dark conditions. A red laser dot was projected onto a screen and moved horizontally towards the sagittal plane of the objective body-midline (OM). Each participant was asked to direct the dot to a position where it crossed their vSM. The distance between the vSM and OM was analysed to determine how and in which direction the vSM deviated. Under light condition, all vSM judgments approximately matched the OM. However, in the dark, CRPS patients, but not PHN patients, showed a shifted vSM towards the affected side. We demonstrated that chronic pain does not always impair visuospatial perception. The aetiology of PHN is limited to the peripheral nervous system, whereas the distorted visuospatial perception suggests a supraspinal aetiology of CRPS.

  9. Evidence of Impaired Proprioception in Chronic, Idiopathic Neck Pain: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Tasha R; Leake, Hayley B; Chalmers, K Jane; Moseley, G Lorimer

    2016-06-01

    Despite common use of proprioceptive retraining interventions in people with chronic, idiopathic neck pain, evidence that proprioceptive dysfunction exists in this population is lacking. Determining whether proprioceptive dysfunction exists in people with chronic neck pain has clear implications for treatment prescription. The aim of this study was to synthesize and critically appraise all evidence evaluating proprioceptive dysfunction in people with chronic, idiopathic neck pain by completing a systematic review and meta-analysis. MEDLINE, CINAHL, PubMed, Allied and Complementary Medicine, EMBASE, Academic Search Premier, Scopus, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), and Cochrane Collaboration databases were searched. All published studies that compared neck proprioception (joint position sense) between a chronic, idiopathic neck pain sample and asymptomatic controls were included. Two independent reviewers extracted relevant population and proprioception data and assessed methodological quality using a modified Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement. Thirteen studies were included in the present review. Meta-analysis on 10 studies demonstrated that people with chronic neck pain perform significantly worse on head-to-neutral repositioning tests, with a moderate standardized mean difference of 0.44 (95% confidence interval=0.25, 0.63). Two studies evaluated head repositioning using trunk movement (no active head movement thus hypothesized to remove vestibular input) and showed conflicting results. Three studies evaluated complex or postural repositioning tests; postural repositioning was no different between groups, and complex movement tests were impaired only in participants with chronic neck pain if error was continuously evaluated throughout the movement. A paucity of studies evaluating complex or postural repositioning tests does not permit any solid conclusions about them. People with chronic, idiopathic

  10. Hypoalgesia after exercise and the cold pressor test is reduced in chronic musculuskeletal pain patients with high pain sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vægter, Henrik Bjarke; Handberg, Gitte; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In chronic pain patients, impaired conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) have been reported. No studies have compared CPM and EIH in chronic musculoskeletal pain patients with high pain sensitivity (HPS) and low pain sensitivity (LPS). MATERIALS.......005). Pain tolerance increased after the cold pressor test and exercise in both groups (PCPM and EIH were partly impaired in chronic pain patients with high versus less pain sensitivity, suggesting that the CPM and EIH responses depend on the degree of pain sensitivity. This has clinical...

  11. Pain management in patients with hidradenitis suppurativa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horvath, Barbara; Janse, Ineke C.; Sibbald, Gary R.

    Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic, relapsing, and painful inflammatory disease. HS patients' quality of life is severely impaired, and this impairment correlates strongly with their pain. Pain in HS can be acute or chronic and has both inflammatory and noninflammatory origins. The purpose

  12. Post-Amputation Pain Is Associated with the Recall of an Impaired Body Representation in Dreams—Results from a Nation-Wide Survey on Limb Amputees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekrater-Bodmann, Robin; Schredl, Michael; Diers, Martin; Reinhard, Iris; Foell, Jens; Trojan, Jörg; Fuchs, Xaver; Flor, Herta

    2015-01-01

    The experience of post-amputation pain such as phantom limb pain (PLP) and residual limb pain (RLP), is a common consequence of limb amputation, and its presence has negative effects on a person’s well-being. The continuity hypothesis of dreams suggests that the presence of such aversive experiences in the waking state should be reflected in dream content, with the recalled body representation reflecting a cognitive proxy of negative impact. In the present study, we epidemiologically assessed the presence of post-amputation pain and other amputation-related information as well as recalled body representation in dreams in a sample of 3,234 unilateral limb amputees. Data on the site and time of amputation, residual limb length, prosthesis use, lifetime prevalence of mental disorders, presence of post-amputation pain, and presence of non-painful phantom phenomena were included in logistic regression analyses using recalled body representation in dreams (impaired, intact, no memory) as dependent variable. The effects of age, sex, and frequency of dream recall were controlled for. About 22% of the subjects indicated that they were not able to remember their body representation in dreams, another 24% of the amputees recalled themselves as always intact, and only a minority of less than 3% recalled themselves as always impaired. Almost 35% of the amputees dreamed of themselves in a mixed fashion. We found that lower-limb amputation as well as the presence of PLP and RLP was positively associated with the recall of an impaired body representation in dreams. The presence of non-painful phantom phenomena, however, had no influence. These results complement previous findings and indicate complex interactions of physical body appearance and mental body representation, probably modulated by distress in the waking state. The findings are discussed against the background of alterations in cognitive processes after amputation and hypotheses suggesting an innate body model. PMID

  13. Post-amputation pain is associated with the recall of an impaired body representation in dreams-results from a nation-wide survey on limb amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekrater-Bodmann, Robin; Schredl, Michael; Diers, Martin; Reinhard, Iris; Foell, Jens; Trojan, Jörg; Fuchs, Xaver; Flor, Herta

    2015-01-01

    The experience of post-amputation pain such as phantom limb pain (PLP) and residual limb pain (RLP), is a common consequence of limb amputation, and its presence has negative effects on a person's well-being. The continuity hypothesis of dreams suggests that the presence of such aversive experiences in the waking state should be reflected in dream content, with the recalled body representation reflecting a cognitive proxy of negative impact. In the present study, we epidemiologically assessed the presence of post-amputation pain and other amputation-related information as well as recalled body representation in dreams in a sample of 3,234 unilateral limb amputees. Data on the site and time of amputation, residual limb length, prosthesis use, lifetime prevalence of mental disorders, presence of post-amputation pain, and presence of non-painful phantom phenomena were included in logistic regression analyses using recalled body representation in dreams (impaired, intact, no memory) as dependent variable. The effects of age, sex, and frequency of dream recall were controlled for. About 22% of the subjects indicated that they were not able to remember their body representation in dreams, another 24% of the amputees recalled themselves as always intact, and only a minority of less than 3% recalled themselves as always impaired. Almost 35% of the amputees dreamed of themselves in a mixed fashion. We found that lower-limb amputation as well as the presence of PLP and RLP was positively associated with the recall of an impaired body representation in dreams. The presence of non-painful phantom phenomena, however, had no influence. These results complement previous findings and indicate complex interactions of physical body appearance and mental body representation, probably modulated by distress in the waking state. The findings are discussed against the background of alterations in cognitive processes after amputation and hypotheses suggesting an innate body model.

  14. Post-amputation pain is associated with the recall of an impaired body representation in dreams-results from a nation-wide survey on limb amputees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Bekrater-Bodmann

    Full Text Available The experience of post-amputation pain such as phantom limb pain (PLP and residual limb pain (RLP, is a common consequence of limb amputation, and its presence has negative effects on a person's well-being. The continuity hypothesis of dreams suggests that the presence of such aversive experiences in the waking state should be reflected in dream content, with the recalled body representation reflecting a cognitive proxy of negative impact. In the present study, we epidemiologically assessed the presence of post-amputation pain and other amputation-related information as well as recalled body representation in dreams in a sample of 3,234 unilateral limb amputees. Data on the site and time of amputation, residual limb length, prosthesis use, lifetime prevalence of mental disorders, presence of post-amputation pain, and presence of non-painful phantom phenomena were included in logistic regression analyses using recalled body representation in dreams (impaired, intact, no memory as dependent variable. The effects of age, sex, and frequency of dream recall were controlled for. About 22% of the subjects indicated that they were not able to remember their body representation in dreams, another 24% of the amputees recalled themselves as always intact, and only a minority of less than 3% recalled themselves as always impaired. Almost 35% of the amputees dreamed of themselves in a mixed fashion. We found that lower-limb amputation as well as the presence of PLP and RLP was positively associated with the recall of an impaired body representation in dreams. The presence of non-painful phantom phenomena, however, had no influence. These results complement previous findings and indicate complex interactions of physical body appearance and mental body representation, probably modulated by distress in the waking state. The findings are discussed against the background of alterations in cognitive processes after amputation and hypotheses suggesting an innate

  15. MRI findings in soccer players with long-standing adductor-related groin pain and asymptomatic controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branci, Sonia; Thorborg, Kristian; Bech, Birthe Højlund; Boesen, Mikael; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Hölmich, Per

    2015-05-01

    Soccer players are commonly affected by long-standing adductor-related groin pain (ARGP), but the clinical significance of MRI findings in these athletes is largely unknown. Our aims were (1) to evaluate whether MRI findings are associated with long-standing ARGP in soccer players, (2) to assess MRI findings in asymptomatic soccer players and non-soccer playing controls. This cross-sectional study included 28 male soccer players with long-standing ARGP, 17 male asymptomatic soccer players and 20 male asymptomatic non-soccer playing athletes of matching age and athletic exposure. Participants underwent identical standardised and reliable clinical examination, and MRI scans (3 T) of the pelvis performed by a blinded observer. Images were consensus rated by three blinded radiologists according to a standardised MRI evaluation protocol. The associations between clinical adductor-related findings and pathological MRI findings were investigated with χ(2) statistics and OR. Central disc protrusion (p=0.027) and higher grades of pubic bone marrow oedema (BMO; p=0.027) were significantly more present in symptomatic players than asymptomatic players. However, up to 71% of asymptomatic soccer players displayed different positive MRI findings, and asymptomatic soccer players had significantly higher odds (OR ranging from 6.3 to 13.3) for BMO, adductor tendinopathy and degenerative changes than non-soccer players. ARGP in soccer players was associated with central disc protrusion and higher grades of pubic BMO. Moreover, positive MRI findings were significantly more frequent in soccer players compared with non-soccer players irrespective of symptoms, suggesting that these MRI changes may be associated with soccer play itself rather than clinical symptoms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Individuals with knee impairments identify items in need of clarification in the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) pain interference and physical function item banks - a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Andrew D; Dodds, Nathan E; Yu, Lan; Pilkonis, Paul A; Irrgang, James J

    2016-05-11

    The content and wording of the Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Physical Function and Pain Interference item banks have not been qualitatively assessed by individuals with knee joint impairments. The purpose of this investigation was to identify items in the PROMIS Physical Function and Pain Interference Item Banks that are irrelevant, unclear, or otherwise difficult to respond to for individuals with impairment of the knee and to suggest modifications based on cognitive interviews. Twenty-nine individuals with knee joint impairments qualitatively assessed items in the Pain Interference and Physical Function Item Banks in a mixed-methods cognitive interview. Field notes were analyzed to identify themes and frequency counts were calculated to identify items not relevant to individuals with knee joint impairments. Issues with clarity were identified in 23 items in the Physical Function Item Bank, resulting in the creation of 43 new or modified items, typically changing words within the item to be clearer. Interpretation issues included whether or not the knee joint played a significant role in overall health and age/gender differences in items. One quarter of the original items (31 of 124) in the Physical Function Item Bank were identified as irrelevant to the knee joint. All 41 items in the Pain Interference Item Bank were identified as clear, although individuals without significant pain substituted other symptoms which interfered with their life. The Physical Function Item Bank would benefit from additional items that are relevant to individuals with knee joint impairments and, by extension, to other lower extremity impairments. Several issues in clarity were identified that are likely to be present in other patient cohorts as well.

  17. Sucrose and naltrexone prevent increased pain sensitivity and impaired long-term memory induced by repetitive neonatal noxious stimulation: Role of BDNF and β-endorphin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuseir, Khawla Q; Alzoubi, Karem H; Alhusban, Ahmed; Bawaane, Areej; Al-Azzani, Mohammed; Khabour, Omar F

    2017-10-01

    Pain in neonates is associated with short and long-term adverse outcomes. Data demonstrated that long-term consequences of untreated pain are linked to the plasticity of the neonate's brain. Sucrose is effective and safe for reducing painful procedures from single events. However, the mechanism of sucrose-induced analgesia is not fully understood. The role of the opioid system in this analgesia using the opioid receptor antagonist Naltrexone was investigated, plus the long-term effects on learning and memory formation during adulthood. Pain was induced in rat pups via needle pricks of the paws. Sucrose solution and/or naltrexone were administered before the pricks. All treatments started on day one of birth and continued for two weeks. At the end of 8weeks, behavioral studies were conducted to test spatial learning and memory using radial arm water maze (RAWM), and pain threshold via foot-withdrawal response to a hot plate. The hippocampus was dissected; levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and endorphins were assessed using ELISA. Acute repetitive neonatal pain increased pain sensitivity later in life, while naltrexone with sucrose decreased pain sensitivity. Naltrexone and/or sucrose prevented neonatal pain induced impairment of long-term memory, while neonatal pain decreased levels of BDNF in the hippocampus; this decrease was averted by sucrose and naltrexone. Sucrose with naltrexone significantly increased β-endorphin levels in noxiously stimulated rats. In conclusion, naltrexone and sucrose can reverse increased pain sensitivity and impaired long-term memory induced by acute repetitive neonatal pain probably by normalizing BDNF expression and increasing β-endorphin levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Alexithymic trait, painful heat stimulation and everyday pain experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga ePollatos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alexithymia was found to be associated with a variety of somatic complaints including somatoform pain symptoms. This study addressed the question of whether the different facets of alexithymia are related to responses in heat pain stimulation and its interrelations with levels of everyday pain as assessed by self report. Methods: In the study, sensitivity to heat pain was assessed in fifty healthy female participants. Alexithymia facets were assessed by the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. Pain threshold and tolerance were determined using a testing the limits procedure. Participants furthermore rated subjective intensities and unpleasantness of tonic heat stimuli (45.5 C to 47.5 C on visual analogue scales and on a questionnaire. Possible confounding with temperature sensitivity and mood was controlled. Everyday pain was assessed by self-report addressing everyday pain frequency, intensity and impairment experienced over the last two months. Results: Main results were that the facets of alexithymia were differentially associated with pain perception. The affective scale difficulties in describing feelings was associated with hyposensitivity to pain as indicated by higher pain tolerance scores. Furthermore, everyday pain frequency was related to increased alexithymia values on the affective scale difficulties in identifying feelings, whereas higher values on the cognitive alexithymia scale externally oriented thinking were related to lower pain impairment and intensity. Conclusions: We conclude that the different facets of alexithymia are related to alternations in pain processing. Further research on clinical samples is necessary to elucidate whether different aspects of alexithymia act as vulnerability factor for the development of pain symptoms.

  19. Preoperative pain mechanisms assessed by cuff algometry are associated with chronic postoperative pain relief after total knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Kristian Kjær; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Simonsen, Ole; Laursen, Mogens Berg; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2016-07-01

    Chronic postoperative pain after total knee replacement (TKR) in knee osteoarthritis (KOA) implies clinical challenges. Widespread hyperalgesia, facilitated temporal summation of pain (TSP), and impaired conditioned pain modulation (CPM) have been found in painful KOA. This exploratory study investigated postoperative pain relief 12 months after TKR in 4 subgroups of patients preoperatively profiled by mechanistic quantitative sensory testing. In 103 patients with KOA, pressure pain detection threshold (PDT) and tolerance thresholds (PTT) were assessed at the lower leg using cuff algometry. Temporal summation of pain was measured as an increase in pain intensity scores during 10 repeated (2 seconds intervals) painful cuff stimuli. Conditioned pain modulation was calculated as the relative increase in PDT during painful conditioning stimulation. The grand averages of TSP and CPM were calculated and values below or above were used for subgrouping: facilitated TSP/impaired CPM (group A, N = 16), facilitated TSP/normal CPM (group B, N = 15), normal TSP/impaired CPM (group C, N = 44), and normal TSP/normal CPM (group D, N = 28). Clinical VAS pain intensity scores were collected before and 12 months after TKR surgery and the pain relief calculated. Less pain relief was found in group A (52.0% ± 14.0% pain relief) than in group B (81.1% ± 3.5%, P = 0.023) and group C (79.6% ± 4.4%, P = 0.007), but not group D (69.4% ± 7.9%, P = 0.087). Low preoperative PDT was associated with a less postoperative pain relief (R = -0.222, P = 0.034), whereas TSP or CPM alone showed no associations with postoperative pain relief. This explorative study indicated that patients with osteoarthritis with facilitated TSP together with impaired CPM are more vulnerable to experience less pain relief after TKR.

  20. Problem Adaptation Therapy for Pain (PATH-Pain): A Psychosocial Intervention for Older Adults with Chronic Pain and Negative Emotions in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiosses, Dimitris N; Ravdin, Lisa D; Stern, Amy; Bolier, Ruth; Kenien, Cara; Reid, M Carrington

    2017-01-01

    Chronic pain is highly prevalent in older adults, contributes to activity restriction and social isolation, disrupts family and interpersonal relationships, and poses a significant economic burden to society. Negative emotions such as sadness, anxiety, helplessness, and hopelessness are associated with chronic pain and contribute to poor quality of life, impaired interpersonal and social functioning, and increased disability. Psychosocial interventions for older adults with chronic pain have been historically developed for, and are almost exclusively delivered to, cognitively intact patients. Therefore, many older adults with chronic pain and comorbid cognitive deficits have limited treatment options. Our multidisciplinary team developed Problem Adaptation Therapy for Pain in Primary Care (PATH-Pain), a psychosocial intervention for older adults with chronic pain, negative emotions, and a wide range of cognitive functioning, including mild-to-moderate cognitive impairment. In the current article, we describe the principles underlying PATH-Pain, review the steps taken to adapt the original PATH protocol, outline the treatment process, and present a case illustrating its potential value.

  1. Exploring nursing assistants' roles in the process of pain management for cognitively impaired nursing home residents: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Justina Y W

    2014-05-01

    To explore nursing assistants' roles during the actual process of pain management (assessment, reporting, implementation of pain-relieving interventions and re-assessment) for cognitively impaired home residents with pain. Nursing assistants provide most of the direct care to residents and represent the major taskforce in nursing homes. They may develop specialized knowledge of residents' pain experience that enables them to play both a pivotal role in pain assessment and possibly a supporting role in pain treatment. Currently, there is a lack of research into nursing assistants' functions in pain management. This is a descriptive, exploratory qualitative study. Forty-nine nursing assistants were recruited from 12 nursing homes, 12 of them participating in semi-structured individual interviews and 37 in 8 semi-structured focus groups. All interviews were carried out from May to September 2010. Data collected via both data collection methods were transcribed verbatim and analysed by content analysis. Nursing assistants were found to play four roles in the pain management process: (1) pain assessor; (2) reporter; (3) subordinate implementing prescribed medications; and (4) instigator implementing non-pharmacological interventions. This study highlights the importance of nursing assistants in successful pain assessment and identifies their possible supporting roles in other aspects of pain management. However, nursing assistants' scope of practice resulted in their functions in pain management being continually undervalued by other healthcare professionals. Continuous in-service training, the use of a standardized pain management protocol and strategies for building coherent work teams in nursing homes are suggested to improve this situation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Pain Assessment in Impaired Cognition (PAIC: content validity of the Dutch version of a new and universal tool to measure pain in dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Dalen-Kok AH

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Annelore H van Dalen-Kok,1 Wilco P Achterberg,1 Wieke E Rijkmans,1 Sara A Tukker-van Vuuren,1 Suzanne Delwel,2,3 Henrica CW de Vet,4 Frank Lobbezoo,2,5 Margot WM de Waal1 1Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, 2Department of Oral Kinesiology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA, University of Amsterdam and VU University Amsterdam, 3Department of Clinical Neuropsychology, Faculty of Behavioral and Movement Sciences, VU University, 4Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, The EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, 5MOVE Research Institute Amsterdam, VU University, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Objectives: Detection and measurement of pain in persons with dementia by using observational pain measurement tools is essential. However, the evidence for the psychometric properties of existing observational tools remains limited. Therefore, a new meta-tool has been developed: Pain Assessment in Impaired Cognition (PAIC, as a collaborative EU action. The aim is to describe the translation procedure and content validity of the Dutch version of the PAIC.Methods: Translation of the PAIC into Dutch followed the forward-backward approach of the Guidelines for Establishing Cultural Equivalence of Instruments. A questionnaire survey was administered to clinical nursing home experts (20 physicians and 20 nurses to determine whether the PAIC items are indicative of pain and whether items are specific for pain or for other disorders (anxiety disorder, delirium, dementia, or depression. To quantify content validity, mean scores per item were calculated.Results: Eleven items were indicative of pain, for example, “frowning,” “freezing,” and “groaning.” Fifteen items were considered to be pain-specific, for example, “frowning,” “curling up,” and “complaining.” There were discrepancies between the notion of pain characteristics according to nurses

  3. AORN Ergonomic Tool 4: Solutions for Prolonged Standing in Perioperative Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Nancy L; Nelson, Audrey; Matz, Mary W; Lloyd, John

    2011-06-01

    Prolonged standing during surgical procedures poses a high risk of causing musculoskeletal disorders, including back, leg, and foot pain, which can be chronic or acute in nature. Ergonomic Tool 4: Solutions for Prolonged Standing in Perioperative Settings provides recommendations for relieving the strain of prolonged standing, including the use of antifatigue mats, supportive footwear, and sit/stand stools, that are based on well-accepted ergonomic safety concepts, current research, and access to new and emerging technology. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Self-reported prevalence, description and management of pain in adults with haemophilia: methods, demographics and results from the Pain, Functional Impairment, and Quality of life (P-FiQ) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkop, M; Neff, A; Buckner, T W; Wang, M; Batt, K; Kessler, C M; Quon, D; Boggio, L; Recht, M; Baumann, K; Gut, R Z; Cooper, D L; Kempton, C L

    2017-07-01

    Haemophilia is characterized by frequent haemarthrosis, leading to acute/chronic joint pain. To assess self-reported prevalence, description and management of pain in adult males with mild-to-severe haemophilia and history of joint pain/bleeding. Participants completed a pain survey and five patient-reported outcome instruments assessing pain, functional impairment and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Of 381 participants enrolled, median age was 34 years; 77% had haemophilia A, 71% had severe disease and 65% were overweight/obese. Many (56%) were not receiving routine infusions; 30% never received routine infusions. During the prior 6 months, 20% experienced acute pain, 34% chronic pain and 32% both acute/chronic pain. Subjects with both acute/chronic pain (vs. none, acute or chronic) were more likely to be depressed (30% vs. 0-15%), obese (35% vs. 20-29%) and have lower HRQoL (mean EQ-5D visual analog scale, 69 vs. 83-86) and function (median overall Hemophilia Activities List, 60 vs. 88-99). Most common analgesics used for acute/chronic pain during the prior 6 months were acetaminophen (62%/55%) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (34%/49%); most common non-pharmacologic strategies were ice (65%/33%) and rest (51%/33%). Hydrocodone-acetaminophen was the most common opioid for both acute/chronic pain (30%); other long-acting opioids were infrequently used specifically for chronic but not acute pain (morphine, 7%; methadone, 6%; fentanyl patch, 2%). Patients with chronic pain, particularly those with both acute/chronic pain, frequently experience psychological issues, functional disability and reduced HRQoL. Treatment strategies for acute pain (e.g. routine infusions to prevent bleeding) and for chronic pain (e.g. long-acting opioids) may be underused. © 2017 The Authors. Haemophilia Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Child pain catastrophizing mediates the relation between parent responses to pain and disability in youth with functional abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Natoshia R; Lynch-Jordan, Anne; Barnett, Kimberly; Peugh, James; Sil, Soumitri; Goldschneider, Kenneth; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita

    2014-12-01

    Functional abdominal pain (FAP) in youth is associated with substantial impairment in functioning, and prior research has shown that overprotective parent responses can heighten impairment. Little is known about how a range of parental behaviors (overprotection, minimizing, and/or encouragement) in response to their child's pain interact with child coping characteristics (eg, catastrophizing) to influence functioning in youth with FAP. In this study, it was hypothesized that the relation between parenting factors and child disability would be mediated by children's levels of maladaptive coping (ie, pain catastrophizing). Seventy-five patients with FAP presenting to a pediatric pain clinic and their caregivers participated in the study. Youth completed measures of pain intensity (Numeric Rating Scale), pain catastrophizing (Pain Catastrophizing Scale), and disability (Functional Disability Inventory). Caregivers completed measures of parent pain catastrophizing (Pain Catastrophizing Scale), and parent responses to child pain behaviors (Adult Responses to Child Symptoms: Protection, Minimizing, and Encouragement/Monitoring subscales). Increased functional disability was significantly related to higher child pain intensity, increased child and parent pain catastrophizing, and higher levels of encouragement/monitoring and protection. Parent minimization was not related to disability. Child pain catastrophizing fully mediated the relation between parent encouragement/monitoring and disability and partially mediated the relation between parent protectiveness and disability. The impact of parenting behaviors in response to FAP on child disability is determined, in part, by the child's coping style. Findings highlight a more nuanced understanding of the parent-child interaction in determining pain-related disability levels, which should be taken into consideration in assessing and treating youth with FAP.

  6. Long standing intra oral acid burn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, V.V.; Ebenezer, S.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2015-01-01

    Oral burn due to ingestion of corrosive substances can bring about debilitating consequences. It often brings mortality, and the survivors can have severe impairment of functions, especially in relation to the stomatognathic and gastrointestinal systems. This article presents a long-standing case

  7. Treatment of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Casandra J; Watson, James C

    2015-02-01

    Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy impairs quality of life and can be difficult to treat. To discuss current treatment recommendations for painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Literature review. Systematic review of the literature discussing treatment of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Existing treatment guidelines were studied and compared. Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy occurs in about one in six people with diabetes. This condition impairs quality of life and increases healthcare costs. Treatment recommendations exist, but individual patient therapy can require a trial-and-error approach. Many treatment options have adjuvant benefits or side effects which should be considered prior to initiating therapy. Often, a combination of treatment modalities with various mechanisms of action is required for adequate pain control. Adequate medication titration and a reasonable trial period should be allowed. The treatment of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy can be challenging, but effective management can improve patient's quality of life. Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy impairs quality of life and can be difficult to treat. Many treatment options have adjuvant benefits or side effects which should be considered prior to initiating therapy. Often, a combination of treatment modalities with various mechanisms of action is required for adequate pain control. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  8. Pain and functional impairment 6 years after inguinal herniorrhaphy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske Kvanner; Bay-Nielsen, Morten; Kehlet, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    2002 and June 2003 (n=1015) based upon the nationwide Danish Hernia Database collaboration. The response rate was 68.4%. Combined frequent and moderate or severe pain from the previous hernia site during activity was reported by 187 patients (18.4%). Pain during sexual activity was reported by 224...... and subsequent sexual dysfunction represent a clinically significant problem in about 3% of younger male patients with a previous inguinal herniorrhaphy. Intraoperative nerve damage and disposition to other chronic pain conditions are among the most likely pathogenic factors.......To determine the incidence of pain related sexual dysfunction 1 year after inguinal herniorrhaphy and to assess the impact pain has on sexual function. In contrast to the well-described about 10% risk of chronic wound related pain after inguinal herniorrhaphy, chronic genital pain, dysejaculation...

  9. Fear of pain in children and adolescents with neuropathic pain and complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Laura E

    2016-02-01

    A significant proportion of children and adolescents with chronic pain endorse elevated pain-related fear. Pain-related fear is associated with high levels of disability, depressive symptoms, and school impairment. Because of faulty nerve signaling, individuals with neuropathic pain and complex regional pain syndrome may be more prone to develop pain-related fear as they avoid use of and neglect the affected body area(s), resulting in exacerbated symptoms, muscle atrophy, maintenance of pain signaling, and ongoing pain-related disability. Not surprisingly, effective treatments for elevated pain-related fears involve exposure to previously avoided activities to downregulate incorrect pain signaling. In the context of intensive interdisciplinary pain treatment of youth with neuropathic pain, decreasing pain-related fear is associated with improved physical and psychological functioning, whereas high initial pain-related fear is a risk factor for less treatment responsiveness. An innovative approach to targeting pain-related fear and evidence of a neural response to treatment involving decoupling of the amygdala with key fear circuits in youth with complex regional pain syndrome suggest breakthroughs in our ability to ameliorate these issues.

  10. Differences in pain processing between patients with chronic low back pain, recurrent low back pain and fibromyalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Goubert, Dorien; Danneels, Lieven; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Descheemaeker, Filip; Coppieters, Iris; Meeus, Mira

    2017-01-01

    Background: The impairment in musculoskeletal structures in patients with low back pain (LBP) is often disproportionate to their complaint. Therefore, the need arises for exploration of alternative mechanisms contributing to the origin and maintenance of non-specific LBP. The recent focus has been on central nervous system phenomena in LBP and the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the various symptoms and characteristics of chronic pain. Knowledge concerning changes in pain processing ...

  11. Pain and pharmacologic pain management in long-stay nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunnicutt, Jacob N; Ulbricht, Christine M; Tjia, Jennifer; Lapane, Kate L

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies estimate that >40% of long-stay nursing home (NH) residents experience persistent pain, with 20% of residents in pain receiving no analgesics. Strengthened NH surveyor guidance and improved pain measures on the Minimum Data Set 3.0 were introduced in March 2009 and October 2010, respectively. This study aimed to provide estimates after the important initiatives of (1) prevalence and correlates of persistent pain; and (2) prevalence and correlates of untreated or undertreated persistent pain. We identified 1,387,405 long-stay residents in U.S. NHs between 2011 and 2012 with 2 Minimum Data Set assessments 90 days apart. Pain was categorized as persistent (pain on both assessments), intermittent (pain on either assessment), or none. Pharmacologic pain management was classified as untreated pain (no scheduled or as needed medications received) or potentially undertreated (no scheduled received). Modified Poisson models adjusting for resident clustering within NHs provided adjusted prevalence ratios (APRs) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The prevalence of persistent and intermittent pain was 19.5% and 19.2%, respectively, but varied substantially by age, sex, race and ethnicity, cognitive impairment, and cancer. Of residents in persistent pain, 6.4% and 32.0% were untreated and undertreated, respectively. Racial and ethnic minorities (non-Hispanic blacks vs whites, APR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.13-1.25) and severely cognitively impaired residents (severe vs no/mild APR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.44-1.57) had an increased prevalence of untreated and undertreated pain. One in 5 NH residents has persistent pain. Although this estimate is greatly improved, many residents may be undertreated. The disturbing disparities in untreated and undertreated pain need to be addressed.

  12. Do functional tests predict low back pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takala, E P; Viikari-Juntura, E

    2000-08-15

    A cohort of 307 nonsymptomatic workers and another cohort of 123 workers with previous episodes of low back pain were followed up for 2 years. The outcomes were measured by symptoms, medical consultations, and sick leaves due to low back disorders. To study the predictive value of a set of tests measuring the physical performance of the back in a working population. The hypothesis was that subjects with poor functional capacity are liable to back disorders. Reduced functional performance has been associated with back pain. There are few data to show whether reduced functional capacity is a cause or a consequence of pain. Mobility of the trunk in forward and side bending, maximal isokinetic trunk extension, flexion and lifting strength, and static endurance of back extension were measured. Standing balance and foot reaction time were recorded with a force plate. Clinical tests for the provocation of back or leg pain were performed. Gender, workload, age, and anthropometrics were managed as potential confounders in the analysis. Marked overlapping was seen in the measures of the subjects with different outcomes. Among the nonsymptomatic subjects, low performance in tests of mobility and standing balance was associated with future back disorders. Among workers with previous episodes of back pain, low isokinetic extension strength, poor standing balance, and positive clinical signs predicted future pain. Some associations were found between the functional tests and future low back pain. The wide variation in the results questions the value of the tests in health examinations (e.g., in screening or surveillance of low back disorders).

  13. Complex regional pain syndrome 1 : a study on pain and motor impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.M. Ribbers (Gerard)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis, is compiled of publications on reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) or Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 (CRPS 1), as it was renamed by the committee on taxonomy of the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP). It is a puzzling syndrome both from a clinical

  14. Pain, Bullying Involvement, and Mental Health Problems Among Children and Adolescents With ADHD in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yi-Chun; Huang, Mei-Feng; Wu, Yu-Yu; Hu, Huei-Fan; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships of pain and pain-induced functional impairment with bullying involvement, as well as the relationships between pain and mental health problems among 474 children and adolescents with ADHD. The levels of pain, pain-induced functional impairment, involvement in bullying, depression, anxiety, ADHD symptoms, and sleep quality were assessed. Both victims of verbal and relational bullying and victims of physical bullying were more likely to have pain and pain-induced functional impairment than nonvictims. The perpetrators of verbal and relational bullying were more likely to have pain than the nonperpetrators. Participants with pain and pain-induced functional impairment experienced more severe depression and anxiety and worse sleep quality than did those without pain or pain-induced functional impairment. Clinical and educational professionals should consider the possibility of involvement in bullying and comorbid depression, anxiety, and poor sleep quality among ADHD children and adolescents with pain problems.

  15. Influence of chronic back pain on kinematic reactions to unpredictable arm pulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götze, Martin; Ernst, Michael; Koch, Markus; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2015-03-01

    There is evidence that muscle reflexes are delayed in patients with chronic low back pain in response to perturbations. It is still unrevealed whether these delays accompanied by an altered kinematic or compensated by adaption of other muscle parameters. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chronic low back pain patients show an altered kinematic reaction and if such data are reliable for the classification of chronic low back pain. In an experiment involving 30 females, sudden lateral perturbations were applied to the arm of a subject in an upright, standing position. Kinematics was used to distinguish between chronic low back pain patients and healthy controls. A calculated model of a stepwise discriminant function analysis correctly predicted 100% of patients and 80% of healthy controls. The estimation of the classification error revealed a constant rate for the classification of the healthy controls and a slightly decreased rate for the patients. Observed reflex delays and identified kinematic differences inside and outside the region of pain during impaired movement indicated that chronic low back pain patients have an altered motor control that is not restricted to the lumbo-pelvic region. This applied paradigm of external perturbations can be used to detect chronic low back pain patients and also persons without chronic low back pain but with an altered motor control. Further investigations are essential to reveal whether healthy persons with changes in motor function have an increased potential to develop chronic back pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Child pain catastrophizing mediates the relationship between parent responses to pain and disability in youth with functional abdominal pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Natoshia Raishevich; Lynch-Jordan, Anne; Barnett, Kimberly; Peugh, James; Sil, Soumitri; Goldschneider, Kenneth; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Functional abdominal pain (FAP) in youth is associated with substantial impairment in functioning and prior research has shown that overprotective parent responses can heighten impairment. Little is known about how a range of parental behaviors in response to their child’s pain (overprotection, minimizing and/or encouragement) interact with child coping characteristics (e.g., catastrophizing) to influence functioning in youth with FAP. In this study, it was hypothesized that the relationship between parenting factors and child disability would be mediated by children’s level of maladaptive coping (i.e., pain catastrophizing). Methods Seventy-five patients with FAP presenting to a pediatric pain clinic and their caregivers participated. Youth completed measures of pain intensity (Numeric Rating Scale), pain catastrophizing (Pain Catastrophizing Scale), and disability (Functional Disability Inventory). Caregivers completed measures of parent pain catastrophizing (Pain Catastrophizing Scale), and parent responses to child pain behaviors (Adult Responses to Child Symptoms: protection, minimizing, and encouragement/monitoring subscales). Results Increased functional disability was significantly related to higher child pain intensity, increased child and parent pain catastrophizing, and higher levels of encouragement/monitoring and protection. Parent minimization was not related to disability. Child pain catastrophizing fully mediated the relationship between parent encouragement/monitoring and disability and partially mediated the relationship between parent protectiveness and disability. Conclusions The impact of parenting behaviors in response to FAP on child disability is determined in part by the child’s coping style. Findings highlight a more nuanced understanding of the parent-child interaction in determining pain-related disability levels, which should be taken into consideration in assessing and treating youth with FAP. PMID:25121521

  17. Conditioned pain modulation in patients with nonspecific chronic back pain with chronic local pain, chronic widespread pain, and fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, Andreas; Eich, Wolfgang; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Tesarz, Jonas

    2017-03-01

    Findings considering conditioned pain modulation (CPM) in chronic back pain (CBP) are contradictory. This might be because many patients with CBP report pain in further areas of the body, and altered CPM might influence spatial extent of pain rather than CBP per se. Therefore, we compared CPM in patients with CBP with different pain extent. Patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), for whom CPM impairment is reported most consistently, were measured for comparison. Based on clinical evaluation and pain drawings, patients were categorized into chronic local back pain (CLP; n = 53), chronic widespread back pain (CWP; n = 32), and FMS (n = 92). Conditioned pain modulation was measured by the difference in pressure pain threshold (test stimuli) at the lower back before and after tonic heat pain (conditioning stimulus). We also measured psychosocial variables. Pressure pain threshold was significantly increased in CLP patients after tonic heat pain (P pain modulation in CLP was significantly higher than that in CWP and FMS (P painful areas (0-10) were associated with lower CPM (r = 0.346, P = 0.001) in CBP but not in FMS (r = -0.013, P = 0.903). Anxiety and depression were more pronounced in FMS than in CLP or CWP (P values pain inhibition seem to be more indicated the higher the pain extent.

  18. Predictors for half-year outcome of impairment in daily life for back pain patients referred for physiotherapy: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstens, Sven; Hermann, Katja; Froböse, Ingo; Weiler, Stephan W

    2013-01-01

    From observational studies, there is only sparse information available on the predictors of development of impairment in daily life for patients receiving physiotherapy. Therefore, our aim was to identify factors which predict impairment in daily life for patients with back pain 6 months after receiving physiotherapy. We conducted a prospective cohort study with 6-month follow-up. Patients were enrolled for treatment in private physiotherapy practices. Patients with a first physiotherapy referral because of thoracic or low back pain, aged 18 to 65 years were included. Primary outcome impairment was measured utilising the 16-item version of the Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Questionnaire. Therapy was documented on a standardized form. Baseline scores for impairment in daily life, symptom characteristics, sociodemographic and psychosocial factors, physical activity, nicotine consumption, intake of analgesics, comorbidity and delivered primary therapy approach were investigated as possible predictors. Univariate and multiple linear regression analyses were performed. A total of 792 patients participated in the study (59% female, mean age 44.4 (SD 11.4), with 6-month follow-up results available from 391 patients. In univariate analysis 17 variables reached significance. In multiple linear regression identified predictors were: impairment in daily life before therapy, mental disorders, duration of the complaints, self-prognosis on work ability, rheumatoid arthritis, age, form of stress at work and physical activity. The variables explain 34% of variance (adjusted R(2), pphysiotherapy patients, this study adds new knowledge for forming appropriate referral guidelines. Impairment in daily life before therapy, mental disorder as comorbidity and the duration of the complaints can be named as outstanding factors. The results of this study can be used to facilitate comparison of patient therapy goals with the prognosis in everyday practice.

  19. Predictors for half-year outcome of impairment in daily life for back pain patients referred for physiotherapy: a prospective observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Karstens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: From observational studies, there is only sparse information available on the predictors of development of impairment in daily life for patients receiving physiotherapy. Therefore, our aim was to identify factors which predict impairment in daily life for patients with back pain 6 months after receiving physiotherapy. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study with 6-month follow-up. Patients were enrolled for treatment in private physiotherapy practices. Patients with a first physiotherapy referral because of thoracic or low back pain, aged 18 to 65 years were included. Primary outcome impairment was measured utilising the 16-item version of the Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Questionnaire. Therapy was documented on a standardized form. Baseline scores for impairment in daily life, symptom characteristics, sociodemographic and psychosocial factors, physical activity, nicotine consumption, intake of analgesics, comorbidity and delivered primary therapy approach were investigated as possible predictors. Univariate and multiple linear regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: A total of 792 patients participated in the study (59% female, mean age 44.4 (SD 11.4, with 6-month follow-up results available from 391 patients. In univariate analysis 17 variables reached significance. In multiple linear regression identified predictors were: impairment in daily life before therapy, mental disorders, duration of the complaints, self-prognosis on work ability, rheumatoid arthritis, age, form of stress at work and physical activity. The variables explain 34% of variance (adjusted R(2, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: With minimal information available from observational studies on the predictors of development of back problems for physiotherapy patients, this study adds new knowledge for forming appropriate referral guidelines. Impairment in daily life before therapy, mental disorder as comorbidity and the duration of the

  20. Endogenous pain modulation in chronic orofacial pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moana-Filho, Estephan J; Herrero Babiloni, Alberto; Theis-Mahon, Nicole R

    2018-06-15

    Abnormal endogenous pain modulation was suggested as a potential mechanism for chronic pain, ie, increased pain facilitation and/or impaired pain inhibition underlying symptoms manifestation. Endogenous pain modulation function can be tested using psychophysical methods such as temporal summation of pain (TSP) and conditioned pain modulation (CPM), which assess pain facilitation and inhibition, respectively. Several studies have investigated endogenous pain modulation function in patients with nonparoxysmal orofacial pain (OFP) and reported mixed results. This study aimed to provide, through a qualitative and quantitative synthesis of the available literature, overall estimates for TSP/CPM responses in patients with OFP relative to controls. MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane databases were searched, and references were screened independently by 2 raters. Twenty-six studies were included for qualitative review, and 22 studies were included for meta-analysis. Traditional meta-analysis and robust variance estimation were used to synthesize overall estimates for standardized mean difference. The overall standardized estimate for TSP was 0.30 (95% confidence interval: 0.11-0.49; P = 0.002), with moderate between-study heterogeneity (Q [df = 17] = 41.8, P = 0.001; I = 70.2%). Conditioned pain modulation's estimated overall effect size was large but above the significance threshold (estimate = 1.36; 95% confidence interval: -0.09 to 2.81; P = 0.066), with very large heterogeneity (Q [df = 8] = 108.3, P pain facilitation and trend for pain inhibition impairment in patients with nonparoxysmal OFP.

  1. [A pilot study on pain assessment among elderly with severe dementiain residential aged care facilities of Reggio Emilia district].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargellini, Annalisa; Mastrangelo, Stefano; Cervi, Monica; Bagnasco, Michele; Reghizzi, Jlenia; Coriani, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    . A pilot study on pain assessment among elderly with severe dementia in residential aged care facilities of Reggio Emilia district. Despite the availability of pain assessment tools and best practice recommendations for the assessment and management of pain in people with severe dementia, pain in residential aged care facilities is still undetected or misinterpreted. To assess pain prevalence and analgesic load medication in people with severe cognitive impairment admitted to residential aged care facilities of Reggio Emilia (Italy) province. A pilot cross-sectional study was conducted on 84 elderly patients affected by severe dementia and resident in aged care facilities. Pain was assessed with the PAINAD observational scale, both at rest and during routine procedures: positioning in bed, from bed to standing position, from bed to chair or during the medication of a pressure sore (under challenge). 33.4% of patients had pain at rest, mainly mild, and 86.9 % under challenge. During routine interventions, in 64 patients (76.2%) pain increased compared to at rest condition (for 39, 2/3, moderate-severe); although 46 of them were prescribed as-required analgesic medication, none had received the drug. Also patients with analgesics on regular basis experienced more pain during routine procedures. Many patients experienced pain during routine procedures. The regular use of pain assessment tools and adequate training of all healthcare professionals are essential requirements for an effective pain control.

  2. Effects of Holding an External Load on the Standing Balance of Older and Younger Adults With and Without Chronic Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigaki, Leonardo; Vieira, Edgar Ramos; de Oliveira Gil, André Wilson; Araújo, Cynthia Gobbi Alves; Carmargo, Mariana Zingari; Sturion, Leandro Amaral; de Oliveira, Marcio Roǵerio; da Silva, Rubens A

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of holding an external load on the standing balance of younger and older adults with and without chronic low back pain (CLBP). Twenty participants with and 20 without CLBP participated in the study. Each group contained 10 younger (50% men) and 10 older adults (50% men). Participants were instructed to look straight ahead while standing on a force platform during two 120-second trials with and without holding an external load (10% of body mass). The center of pressure area, mean velocity, and mean frequency in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions were measured. Older adults had worse standing balance than younger adults did (P external load significantly increased postural instability for both age groups and CLBP status, with mean effect size across center of pressure variables of d = 0.82 for older participants without CLBP and d = 2.65 for younger participants without CLBP. These effects for people with CLBP were d = 1.65 for subgroup of older and d = 1.60 for subgroup of younger participants. Holding an external load of 10% of body mass increased postural instability of both younger and older adults with and without CLBP. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Construct validity of patient-reported outcome instruments in US adults with hemophilia: results from the Pain, Functional Impairment, and Quality of life (P-FiQ study

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    Batt K

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Katharine Batt,1 Michael Recht,2 David L Cooper,3 Neeraj N Iyer,3 Christine L Kempton4 1Hematology and Oncology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, 2The Hemophilia Center, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, 3Novo Nordisk Inc., Plainsboro, NJ, 4Departments of Pediatrics and Hematology and Medical Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA Background: People with hemophilia (PWH experience frequent joint bleeding, resulting in pain and functional impairment. Generic and disease-specific patient-reported outcome (PRO instruments have been used in clinical studies, but rarely in the comprehensive hemophilia care setting. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess construct validity of PRO instruments measuring pain, functional impairment, and health-related quality of life in US PWH with a history of joint pain/bleeding. Methods: Adult male PWH completed 4 PRO instruments (EQ-5D-5L with visual analog scale, Brief Pain Inventory v2 Short Form [BPI], SF-36v2, Hemophilia Activities List [HAL] and underwent a musculoskeletal examination (Hemophilia Joint Health Score v2.1 [HJHS]. Construct validity between index and domain scores was evaluated by Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient. Results: A total of 381 PWH were enrolled. EQ-5D-5L Mobility correlated with BPI, SF-36v2, and HAL domains related to pain, physical function, and activity of the lower extremities. EQ-5D-5L Self-Care correlated only with HAL Self-Care. EQ-5D-5L Usual Activities correlated with BPI Pain Interference and domains within SF-36v2 and HAL related to pain and physical function/activities (particularly those involving the lower extremities. EQ-5D-5L Pain/Discomfort correlated with Bodily Pain and Physical Summary on SF-36v2, HAL Overall Activity, and all BPI pain domains. EQ-5D-5L Anxiety/Depression correlated with social/emotional/mental aspects of SF-36v2. On BPI, most pain domains correlated with Bodily

  4. Measuring Musculoskeletal Pain in Infants, Children, and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaleff, Zoe A; Kamper, Steven J; Stinson, Jennifer N

    2017-01-01

    Synopsis Accurate, reliable, and timely assessment of pain is critical for effective management of musculoskeletal pain conditions. The assessment of pain in infants, children, and adolescents with and without cognitive impairment can be particularly challenging for clinicians for a number...... of reasons, including factors related to: the consultation (eg, heterogeneous patient population, time constraints), the clinician (eg, awareness / knowledge of available pain scales), standardised assessment scales (eg, availability, psychometric properties, and application of each scale) the patient (eg...... experience, expression, and assessment in infants, children, and adolescents, provides age appropriate suggestions for measuring pain intensity in patients with and without cognitive impairment, and identifies ways to assess the impact of pain using multidimensional pain scales. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther...

  5. Nature and Nurture of Human Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Belfer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Humans are very different when it comes to pain. Some get painful piercings and tattoos; others can not stand even a flu shot. Interindividual variability is one of the main characteristics of human pain on every level including the processing of nociceptive impulses at the periphery, modification of pain signal in the central nervous system, perception of pain, and response to analgesic strategies. As for many other complex behaviors, the sources of this variability come from both nurture (environment and nature (genes. Here, I will discuss how these factors contribute to human pain separately and via interplay and how epigenetic mechanisms add to the complexity of their effects.

  6. Effects of rehabilitative interventions on pain, function and physical impairments in people with hand osteoarthritis: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Hand osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with pain, reduced grip strength, loss of range of motion and joint stiffness leading to impaired hand function and difficulty with daily activities. The effectiveness of different rehabilitation interventions on specific treatment goals has not yet been fully explored. The objective of this systematic review is to provide evidence based knowledge on the treatment effects of different rehabilitation interventions for specific treatment goals for hand OA. Methods A computerized literature search of Medline, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), ISI Web of Science, the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) and SCOPUS was performed. Studies that had an evidence level of 2b or higher and that compared a rehabilitation intervention with a control group and assessed at least one of the following outcome measures - pain, physical hand function or other measures of hand impairment - were included. The eligibility and methodological quality of trials were systematically assessed by two independent reviewers using the PEDro scale. Treatment effects were calculated using standardized mean difference and 95% confidence intervals. Results Ten studies, of which six were of higher quality (PEDro score >6), were included. The rehabilitation techniques reviewed included three studies on exercise, two studies each on laser and heat, and one study each on splints, massage and acupuncture. One higher quality trial showed a large positive effect of 12-month use of a night splint on hand pain, function, strength and range of motion. Exercise had no effect on hand pain or function although it may be able to improve hand strength. Low level laser therapy may be useful for improving range of motion. No rehabilitation interventions were found to improve stiffness. Conclusions There is emerging high quality evidence to support that rehabilitation interventions can offer significant benefits to individuals

  7. [Occupational standing vibration rate and vibrational diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnaukh, N G; Vyshchipan, V F; Haumenko, B S

    2003-12-01

    Occupational standing vibration rate is proposed in evaluating a degree of impairment of an organism activity. It will allow more widely to introduce specification of quality and quantity in assessment of the development of vibrational disease. According out-patient and inpatient obtained data we have established criterial values of functional changes in accordance with accumulated occupational standing vibration rate. The nomogram was worked out for defining a risk of the development of vibrational disease in mine workers. This nomogram more objectively can help in diagnostics of the disease.

  8. Estimation of the contribution of norketamine to ketamine-induced acute pain relief and neurocognitive impairment in healthy volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsen, Erik; Noppers, Ingeborg; Niesters, Marieke; Kharasch, Evan; Aarts, Leon; Sarton, Elise; Dahan, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Background The N-methyl-D-receptor antagonist ketamine is metabolized in the liver into its active metabolite norketamine. No human data are available on the relative contribution of norketamine to ketamine-induced analgesia and side effects. One approach to assess the ketamine and norketamine contributions is by measuring ketamine-effect at varying ketamine and norketamine plasma concentrations using the CYP450 inducer rifampicin. Methods In 12 healthy male volunteers the effect of rifampicin versus placebo pretreatment on S-ketamine (a 2-h infusion of 20 mg/h)-induced analgesia and cognition was quantified. The relative ketamine and norketamine contribution to effect was estimated using a linear additive population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model. Results S-ketamine produced significant analgesia, psychotropic effects (drug high), and cognitive impairment (including memory impairment, reduced psychomotor speed, reduced reaction time, reduced cognitive flexibility). Modeling revealed a negative contribution of S-norketamine to S-ketamine-induced analgesia and absence of contribution to cognitive impairment. At ketamine and norketamine effect concentrations of 100 ng/ml and 50 ng/ml, respectievly, the ketamine contribution to analgesia is −3.8 cm (visual analogue pain score) versus a contribution of norketamine of +1.5 cm, causing an overall effect −2.3 cm. The blood-effect-site equilibration half-life ranged from 0 (cognitive flexibility) to 11.8 (pain intensity) min, and averaged across all end-points was 6.1 min. Conclusions This first observation that norketamine produces effects in the opposite direction of ketamine requires further proof. It can explain the observation of ketamine-related excitatory phenomena (such as hyperalgesia and allodynia) upon the termination of ketamine infusions. PMID:22692377

  9. Impact of pain reported during isometric quadriceps muscle strength testing in people with knee pain: data from the osteoarthritis initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Daniel L; Stratford, Paul W

    2011-10-01

    Muscle force testing is one of the more common categories of diagnostic tests used in clinical practice. Clinicians have little evidence to guide interpretations of muscle force tests when pain is elicited during testing. The purpose of this study was to examine the construct validity of isometric quadriceps muscle strength tests by determining whether the relationship between maximal isometric quadriceps muscle strength and functional status was influenced by pain during isometric testing. A cross-sectional design was used. Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative were used to identify 1,344 people with unilateral knee pain and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain subscale scores of 1 or higher on the involved side. Measurements of maximal isometric quadriceps strength and ratings of pain during isometric testing were collected. Outcome variables were WOMAC physical function subscale, 20-m walk test, 400-m walk test, and a repeated chair stand test. Multiple regression models were used to determine whether pain during testing modified or confounded the relationship between strength and functional status. Pearson r correlations among the isometric quadriceps strength measures and the 4 outcome measures ranged from -.36 (95% confidence interval=-.41, -.31) for repeated chair stands to .36 (95% confidence interval=.31, .41) for the 20-m walk test. In the final analyses, neither effect modification nor confounding was found for the repeated chair stand test, the 20-m walk test, the 400-m walk test, or the WOMAC physical function subscale. Moderate or severe pain during testing was weakly associated with reduced strength, but mild pain was not. The disease spectrum was skewed toward mild or moderate symptoms, and the pain measurement scale used during muscle force testing was not ideal. Given that the spectrum of the sample was skewed toward mild or moderate symptoms and disease, the data suggest that isometric quadriceps muscle

  10. Anti-fatigue mats, low back pain, and electromyography: An interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghazadeh, Javad; Ghaderi, Mahmoud; Azghani, Mahmood-Reza; Khalkhali, Hamid-Reza; Allahyari, Teimour; Mohebbi, Iraj

    2015-01-01

    Increasing bilateral gluteus medius co-activation has been identified as one of the most important factors in developing low back pain due to prolonged standing in healthy people. This study aims to investigate the impact of an anti-fatigue mat on the bilateral gluteus medius co-activation pattern and to report the low back pain subjectively in 2 different standing positions on the normal rigid surface and on the anti-fatigue mat. While carrying out an easy simulated profession, 16 participants who had no low back pain background were requested to stand for 2 h in each position, with and without using the anti-fatigue floor mat, respectively. At the beginning of standing process and at every 15 min until the time of 120 min lapses, electric activities for the bilateral gluteus medius co-activation and subjective pain level in low back area were collected by the surface electromyogeraphy (EMG) and the visual analogue scale (VAS), respectively in each position. The obtained findings revealed that the anti-fatigue mat significantly decreased subjective pain level in low back area among 15 participants (p 0.05). The findings obtained under this study related to the impact of the anti-fatigue mat upon the low back pain based on the increase of > 10 mm on the VAS threshold, which showed that this intervention had no significant impact upon decreasing the number of patients suffering from the low back pain and also minimizing the bilateral gluteus medius co-activation in both pain developer groups (p > 0.05). However, 73% of the participants preferred to apply it. It seems that the anti-fatigue mat may be useful in reducing the low back pain although it objectively didn't significantly change the gluteus medius co-activation pattern related to the low back pain. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  11. Head posture and neck pain of chronic nontraumatic origin: a comparison between patients and pain-free persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Anabela G; Punt, T David; Sharples, Paul; Vilas-Boas, João P; Johnson, Mark I

    2009-04-01

    To compare standing head posture measurements between patients with nontraumatic neck pain (NP) and pain-free individuals. Single-blind (assessor) cross-sectional study. Hospital and general community. Consecutive patients (n=40) with chronic nontraumatic NP and age- and sex-matched pain-free participants (n=40). Not applicable. Three angular measurements: the angle between C7, the tragus of the ear, and the horizontal; the angle between the tragus of the ear, the eye, and the horizontal; and the angle between the inferior margins of the right and the left ear and the horizontal were calculated through the digitization of video images. NP patients were found to have a significantly smaller angle between C7, the tragus, and the horizontal, resulting in a more forward head posture than pain-free participants (NP, mean +/- SD, 45.4 degrees +/-6.8 degrees ; pain-free, mean +/- SD, 48.6 degrees +/-7.1 degrees ; P50y) revealed an interaction, with a statistically significant difference in head posture for younger participants with NP compared with younger pain-free participants (NP, mean +/- SD, 46.1 degrees +/-6.7 degrees ; pain-free, mean +/- SD, 51.8 degrees +/-5.9 degrees ; P.05; CI for the difference between groups, -4.9 degrees -4.2 degrees ). No other differences were found between patients and pain-free participants. Younger patients with chronic nontraumatic NP were shown to have a more forward head posture in standing than matched pain-free participants. However, the difference, although statistically significant, was perhaps too small to be clinically meaningful.

  12. Corticomotor control of lumbar multifidus muscles is impaired in chronic low back pain: concurrent evidence from ultrasound imaging and double-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé-Alarie, Hugo; Beaulieu, Louis-David; Preuss, Richard; Schneider, Cyril

    2016-04-01

    Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is often associated with impaired control of deep trunk muscles and reorganization of the primary motor areas (M1). Precisely, functional changes of the lumbar multifidus muscles (MF) involved in spine stability may be of special interest in rehabilitation. Therefore, we tested MF corticomotor control using double transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paradigms for the first time in this muscle and examined its link with MF volitional activation. Eleven individuals with lateralized CLBP and 13 pain-free participants were recruited. Ultrasound imaging enabled measurement of MF volitional isometric contraction in prone lying. TMS of MF M1 area was used to test hemispheric excitability and mechanisms in relation to motor programming, i.e., active motor threshold (AMT), amplitude of motor-evoked potentials and short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and facilitation (SICF). In CLBP, SICI level was lower in the left hemisphere and MF volitional contraction was not related to AMT (M1 excitability), conversely to what was observed in the pain-free group. No other between-group difference was detected. These original findings support a plasticity of cortical maps controlling paravertebral muscles and likely including a different motor strategy for the control of MF. Changes of M1 function may thus underlie impaired motor control of lumbopelvic spine and pain persistence in CLBP.

  13. Prefrontal cortex and mediodorsal thalamus reduced connectivity is associated with spatial working memory impairment in rats with inflammatory pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Cruz, Helder; Sousa, Mafalda; Vieira, Joana B; Lima, Deolinda; Galhardo, Vasco

    2013-11-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the mediodorsal thalamus (MD) form interconnected neural circuits that are important for spatial cognition and memory, but it is not known whether the functional connectivity between these areas is affected by the onset of an animal model of inflammatory pain. To address this issue, we implanted 2 multichannel arrays of electrodes in the mPFC and MD of adult rats and recorded local field potential activity during a food-reinforced spatial working memory task. Recordings were performed for 3weeks, before and after the establishment of the pain model. Our results show that inflammatory pain caused an impairment of spatial working memory performance that is associated with changes in the activity of the mPFC-MD circuit; an analysis of partial directed coherence between the areas revealed a global decrease in the connectivity of the circuit. This decrease was observed over a wide frequency range in both the frontothalamic and thalamofrontal directions of the circuit, but was more evident from MD to mPFC. In addition, spectral analysis revealed significant oscillations of power across frequency bands, namely with a strong theta component that oscillated after the onset of the painful condition. Finally, our data revealed that chronic pain induces an increase in theta/gamma phase coherence and a higher level of mPFC-MD coherence, which is partially conserved across frequency bands. The present results demonstrate that functional disturbances in mPFC-MD connectivity are a relevant cause of deficits in pain-related working memory. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical correlates of between-limb synchronization of standing balance control and falls during inpatient stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Avril; Mochizuki, George; Inness, Elizabeth L; McIlroy, William E

    2012-01-01

    Stroke-related sensorimotor impairment potentially contributes to impaired balance. Balance measures that reveal underlying limb-specific control problems, such as a measure of the synchronization of both lower limbs to maintain standing balance, may be uniquely informative about poststroke balance control. This study aimed to determine the relationships between clinical measures of sensorimotor control, functional balance, and fall risk and between-limb synchronization of balance control. The authors conducted a retrospective chart review of 100 individuals with stroke admitted to inpatient rehabilitation. Force plate-based measures were obtained while standing on 2 force plates, including postural sway (root mean square of anteroposterior and mediolateral center of pressure [COP]), stance load asymmetry (percentage of body weight borne on the less-loaded limb), and between-limb synchronization (cross-correlation of the COP recordings under each foot). Clinical measures obtained were motor impairment (Chedoke-McMaster Stroke Assessment), plantar cutaneous sensation, functional balance (Berg Balance Scale), and falls experienced in rehabilitation. Synchronization was significantly related to motor impairment and prospective falls, even when controlling for other force plate-based measures of standing balance control (ie, postural sway and stance load symmetry). Between-limb COP synchronization for standing balance appears to be a uniquely important index of balance control, independent of postural sway and load symmetry during stance.

  15. Adherence of pain assessment to the German national standard for pain management in 12 nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterbrink, Jürgen; Bauer, Zsuzsa; Mitterlehner, Barbara; Gnass, Irmela; Kutschar, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Pain is very common among nursing home residents. The assessment of pain is a prerequisite for effective multiprofessional pain management. Within the framework of the German health services research project, 'Action Alliance Pain-Free City Muenster', the authors investigated pain assessment adherence according to the German national Expert Standard for Pain Management in Nursing, which is a general standard applicable to all chronic⁄acute pain-affected persons and highly recommended for practice. To evaluate the state of pain assessment and to identify need for improvement in 12 nursing homes in a German city. In the present study, the authors used an ex-post-facto design (survey methodology). Available written policies for routine pain assessment in residents ≥65 years of age were reviewed and a standardized online survey completed by 151 of 349 nurses in 12 nursing home facilities was conducted between September 2010 and April 2011. Most of the included nursing homes provided written policies for pain assessment, and the majority of nurses reported that they assess and regularly reassess pain. However, observational tools for residents with severe cognitive impairment and written reassessment schedules were lacking in many facilities or were inconsistent. Essentially, pain assessment appeared to be feasible in the majority of the German nursing homes studied. However, the absence or inconsistency of reassessment schedules indicate that pain management guidelines should include a detailed and explicit reassessment schedule for the heterogenic needs of nursing home residents. For residents with severe cognitive impairment, assessment tools are needed that are simple to use and clearly indicate the presence or absence of pain.

  16. High resolution ultrasonography in ankle joint pain: Where does it stand?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mennatallah Hatem Shalaby

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ankle is frequently injured in trauma, overuse syndrome and inflammatory processes. Different imaging modalities assess the ankle, including plain radiography, computed tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and ultrasonography (US. Purpose: Our objective is to assess the role of high resolution US as a valuable tool in the depiction of causes of ankle joint pain. Patients and methods: The study included 28 patients presented with ankle pain ranging in age from 17 to 60 years. They were examined by US and findings were correlated with MRI. Results: US was capable to detect various lesions (synovitis, arthritis, plantar fasciitis, tendon and ligamentous lesions. It had a sensitivity of 95.4%, a specificity of 83.3% and an overall accuracy of 92.8%. US had a limited value in detection of avascular necrosis (AVN, bone marrow oedema and fractures. Conclusion: US can be used as a first step diagnostic tool in cases of ankle pain. MRI should be spared to cases with negative or equivocal US findings. Keywords: High resolution ultrasound, Ankle joint pain, Tendons, Ligaments, Synovitis, Arthritis

  17. Fear of pain in children and adolescents with neuropathic pain and CRPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    A significant proportion of children and adolescents with chronic pain endorse elevated pain-related fear. Pain-related fear is associated with high levels of disability, depressive symptoms, and school impairment. Due to faulty nerve signaling, individuals with neuropathic pain and CRPS may be more prone to develop pain-related fear as they avoid use of and neglect the affected body area(s), resulting in exacerbated symptoms, muscle atrophy, maintenance of pain signaling, and ongoing pain-related disability. Not surprisingly, effective treatments for elevated pain-related fears involve exposure to previously avoided activities to down-regulate incorrect pain signaling. In the context of intensive interdisciplinary pain treatment of youth with neuropathic pain, decreasing pain-related fear is associated with improved physical and psychological functioning, while high initial pain-related fear is a risk factor for less treatment responsiveness. An innovative approach to targeting pain-related fear as well as evidence of a neural response to treatment involving decoupling of the amygdala with key fear circuits in youth with CRPS suggest breakthroughs in our ability to ameliorate these issues. PMID:26785161

  18. The relationship between pain severity and patient-reported outcomes among patients with chronic low back pain in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montgomery W

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available William Montgomery,1 Jeffrey Vietri,2 Jing Shi,3 Kei Ogawa,4 Sawako Kariyasu,4 Levent Alev,4 Masaya Nakamura5 1Eli Lilly Australia Pty Ltd., Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Health Outcomes Practice, Kantar Health, Horsham, PA, 3Health Outcomes Practice, Kantar Health, Princeton, NJ, USA; 4Eli Lilly Japan K.K., Kobe, Japan; 5Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Objective: The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of pain severity on patient-reported outcomes among individuals diagnosed with chronic low back pain in Japan. Methods: Data were provided by the 2012 Japan National Health and Wellness Survey (N=29,997, a web-based survey of individuals in Japan aged ≥18 years. This analysis included respondents diagnosed with low back pain of ≥3-month duration. Measures included the revised Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Survey Instrument, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 scale, the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment: General Health questionnaire, and self-reported all-cause health care visits (6 months. Generalized linear models were used to assess the relationship between outcomes and severity of pain in the past week as reported on a numeric rating scale ranging from 0 (no pain to 10 (pain as bad as you can imagine, controlling for length of diagnosis, sociodemographics, and general health characteristics. Results: A total of 290 respondents were included in the analysis; mean age was 56 years, 41% were females, and 56% were employed. Pain severity was 3/10 for the first quartile, 5/10 for the median, and 7/10 for the third quartile of this sample. Increasing severity was associated with lower scores for mental and physical component summaries and Short-Form 6D health utility, higher depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 scores, greater absenteeism and presenteeism, greater activity impairment

  19. Sitting and standing postures are corrected by adjustable furniture with lowered muscle tension in high-school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskelo, R; Vuorikari, K; Hänninen, O

    2007-10-01

    This study compared the effect of 24 months of adjustable school desks and chairs usage (the intervention) and traditional non-adjustable usage (the control condition) on sitting and standing postures, muscle strength, classroom muscle tension, pain and learning in 15 (8 female and 7 male) high-school students and 15 anthropometrically and gender matched control students from neighbouring schools. It was assessed whether any responses took place after growth cessation. In comparison with controls, the intervention group of students' sitting postures standing kyphosis, scoliosis and lordosis became significantly better, both before and after growth cessation. Trunk muscle strength increased in the intervention students whose muscle tension during classes fell significantly in the trapezius and lumbar muscles, whereas in control students' lumbar tension increased. Headache and low-back pain correlated with neck-shoulder pain and trapezius muscle tension. Intervention students reported that they experienced benefits from the adjustable tables and chairs. They also received significantly better overall marks than the controls at the end of high school. It is concluded that the adjustable school desks and chairs promoted better sitting and standing postures, increased muscle strength, alleviated pain and appeared to be associated with better overall academic marks.

  20. Pain treatment for nursing home residents differs according to cognitive state - a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Ulrike; Pitzer, Stefan; Schreier, Maria Magdalena; Osterbrink, Jürgen; Alzner, Reinhard; Iglseder, Bernhard

    2016-06-17

    Communication skills are known to decrease with advancing cognitive impairment. Analgesic treatment in long-term care may be deficient due to the residents' impaired ability to communicate their pain and needs. Undertreated pain frequently leads to rising BPSD in residents with cognitive impairment, resulting in a treatment with antipsychotics. Aim of this study was the analysis of differences in assessment and pharmacological treatment of pain in nursing home residents relative to their cognitive state and ability to articulate pain. Data stems from the baseline of a non-experimental pre-post-study in 12 Austrian nursing homes. Residents' pain prevalence in relation to pain assessment and cognitive decline was assessed, data on medical diagnoses and prescriptions were retrieved from the nursing homes' documentation (n = 425). Residents were first divided into two groups: Residents with MMSE ≥ 18 were selected into group CUS (cognitively unimpaired/slightly impaired), residents with MMSE ≤ 17 were selected into group CI (cognitively moderately to severely impaired). CI residents were then sub-grouped according to their ability to communicate pain via the Verbal Rating Scale (VRS) (i.e. group CI-V, group CI-NV). Pain behavior of CI residents was assessed with a modified German version of PAINAD. Group differences were tested with ANOVA and H-test, 95 % confidence intervals were calculated and associations were tested with log-binomial regression. Pain prevalence in CI residents irrespective of their ability to communicate pain was 80 % and exceeded the CUS group prevalence significantly by 14 %. CI residents had significantly less analgesic prescriptions. Furthermore, CI residents have a significantly higher risk of getting no analgesics when in pain than CUS residents (CI-V: RR =2.6, CI-NV: RR =3.4). Use of antipsychotics was high in all groups (49 - 65 %) with more prescriptions in the cognitively impaired group. Results point toward an

  1. Experimental quadriceps muscle pain impairs knee joint control during walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Alkjaer, Tine; Lund, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Pain is a cardinal symptom in musculoskeletal diseases involving the knee joint, and aberrant movement patterns and motor control strategies are often present in these patients. However, the underlying neuromuscular mechanisms linking pain to movement and motor control are unclear. To investigate...... the functional significance of muscle pain on knee joint control during walking, three-dimensional gait analyses were performed before, during, and after experimentally induced muscle pain by means of intramuscular injections of hypertonic saline (5.8%) into vastus medialis (VM) muscle of 20 healthy subjects....... Isotonic saline (0.9%) was used as control. Surface electromyography (EMG) recordings of VM, vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris, and semitendinosus muscles were synchronized with the gait analyses. During experimental muscle pain, the loading response phase peak knee extensor moments were attenuated...

  2. Comparison of standing postural control and gait parameters in people with and without chronic low back pain: a cross-sectional case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRae, Catharine Siân; Critchley, Duncan; Lewis, Jeremy S; Shortland, Adam

    2018-01-01

    Differences in postural control and gait have been identified between people with and without chronic low back pain (CLBP); however, many previous studies present data from small samples, or have used methodologies with questionable reliability. This study, employing robust methodology, hypothesised that there would be a difference in postural control, and spatiotemporal parameters of gait in people with CLBP compared with asymptomatic individuals. This cross-sectional case-control study age-matched and gender-matched 16 CLBP and 16 asymptomatic participants. Participants were assessed barefoot (1) standing, over three 40 s trials, under four posture challenging conditions (2) during gait. Primary outcome was postural stability (assessed by root mean squared error of centre of pressure (CoP) displacement (CoP RMSEAP ) and mean CoP velocity (CoP VELAP ), both in the anteroposterior direction); gait outcomes were hip range of movement and peak moments, walking speed, cadence and stride length, assessed using force plates and a motion analysis system. There were no differences between groups in CoP RMSEAP (P=0.26), or CoP VELAP (P=0.60) for any standing condition. During gait, no differences were observed between groups for spatiotemporal parameters, maximum, minimum and total ranges of hip movement, or peak hip flexor or extensor moments in the sagittal plane. In contrast to previous research, this study suggests that people with mild to moderate CLBP present with similar standing postural control, and parameters of gait to asymptomatic individuals. Treatments directed at influencing postural stability (eg, standing on a wobble board) or specific parameters of gait may be an unnecessary addition to a treatment programme.

  3. 15. Amygdala pain mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Volker

    2015-01-01

    A limbic brain area the amygdala plays a key role in emotional responses and affective states and disorders such as learned fear, anxiety and depression. The amygdala has also emerged as an important brain center for the emotional-affective dimension of pain and for pain modulation. Hyperactivity in the laterocapsular division of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeLC, also termed the “nociceptive amygdala”) accounts for pain-related emotional responses and anxiety-like behavior. Abnormally enhanced output from the CeLC is the consequence of an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms. Impaired inhibitory control mediated by a cluster of GABAergic interneurons in the intercalated cell masses (ITC) allows the development of glutamate- and neuropeptide-driven synaptic plasticity of excitatory inputs from the brainstem (parabrachial area) and from the lateral-basolateral amygdala network (LA-BLA, site of integration of polymodal sensory information). BLA hyperactivity also generates abnormally enhanced feedforward inhibition of principal cells in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a limbic cortical area that is strongly interconnected with the amygdala. Pain-related mPFC deactivation results in cognitive deficits and failure to engage cortically driven ITC-mediated inhibitory control of amygdala processing. Impaired cortical control allows the uncontrolled persistence of amygdala pain mechanisms. PMID:25846623

  4. Clinical Interpretation of Quantitative Sensory Testing as a Measure of Pain Sensitivity in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Brandow, Amanda M.; Panepinto, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) display significantly lower mean/median thermal and mechanical pain thresholds compared to controls. This suggests impaired pain sensitivity where stimuli produce exaggerated pain. Despite these mean/median differences, clinicians need to understand if patients meet criteria for impaired pain sensitivity. We defined thresholds for impaired cold, heat, and mechanical pain sensitivity in SCD patients. Using quantitative sensory testing (QST) we assessed c...

  5. Impaired insula functional connectivity associated with persistent pain perception in patients with complex regional pain syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Joon Hwan; Lee, Do-Hyeong; Lee, Kyung-Jun; Lee, Won Joon; Moon, Jee Youn; Kim, Yong Chul

    2017-01-01

    Given that the insula plays a contributory role in the perception of chronic pain, we examined the resting-state functional connectivity between the insular cortex and other brain regions to investigate neural underpinnings of persisting perception of background pain in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). A total of 25 patients with CRPS and 25 matched healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging at rest. With the anterior and posterior insular cortices as seed regions, we compared the strength of the resting-state functional connectivity between the two groups. Functional connectivity between the anterior and posterior insular cortices and the postcentral and inferior frontal gyri, cingulate cortices was reduced in patients with CRPS compared with controls. Additionally, greater reductions in functional connectivity between the anterior insula and right postcentral gyrus were associated with more severe sensory pain in patients with CRPS (short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire sensory subscores, r = -.517, P = .023). The present results imply a possible role of the insula in aberrant processing of pain information in patients with CRPS. The findings suggest that a functional derangement of the connection between one of the somatosensory cortical functions of perception and one of the insular functions of awareness can play a significant role in the persistent experience of regional pain that is not confined to a specific nerve territory. PMID:28692702

  6. Cancer pain management-current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Thapa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer pain is still one of the most feared entities in cancer and about 75% of these patients require treatment with opioids for severe pain. The cancer pain relief is difficult to manage in patients with episodic or incidental pain, neuropathic pain, substance abuse and with impaired cognitive or communication skills. This non-systematic review article aims to discuss reasons for under treatment, tools of pain assessment, cancer pain and anxiety and possibly carve new approaches for cancer pain management in future. The current status of World Health Organization analgesic ladder has also been reviewed. A thorough literature search was carried out from 1998 to 2010 for current status in cancer pain management in MEDLINE, WHO guidelines and published literature and relevant articles have been included.

  7. Pain relief is associated with decreasing postural sway in patients with non-specific low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhe, A.; Fejer, René; Walker, B.

    2012-01-01

    is maintained if pain levels change in adults with non-specific low back pain. Methods: Thirty-eight patients with non-specific low back pain and a matching number of healthy controls were enrolled. Postural sway was measured by three identical static bipedal standing tasks of 90 sec duration with eyes closed......Background: Increased postural sway is well documented in patients suffering from non-specific low back pain, whereby a linear relationship between higher pain intensities and increasing postural sway has been described. No investigation has been conducted to evaluate whether this relationship...... in narrow stance on a firm surface. The perceived pain intensity was assessed by a numeric rating scale (NRS 11). The patients received three manual interventions (e. g. manipulation, mobilization or soft tissue techniques) at 3-4 day intervals, postural sway measures were obtained at each occasion. Results...

  8. Physical Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewin, Shari

    Many health conditions can lead to physical impairments that impact computer and Web access. Musculoskeletal conditions such as arthritis and cumulative trauma disorders can make movement stiff and painful. Movement disorders such as tremor, Parkinsonism and dystonia affect the ability to control movement, or to prevent unwanted movements. Often, the same underlying health condition also has sensory or cognitive effects. People with dexterity impairments may use a standard keyboard and mouse, or any of a wide range of alternative input mechanisms. Examples are given of the diverse ways that specific dexterity impairments and input mechanisms affect the fundamental actions of Web browsing. As the Web becomes increasingly sophisticated, and physically demanding, new access features at the Web browser and page level will be necessary.

  9. Sports-related groin pain: evaluation with MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekberg, O.; Sjoeberg, S.; Westlin, N.

    1996-01-01

    Our purpose was to assess the role of MRI in evaluating the musculoskeletal system in athletes with chronic pain laterally in the groin of unknown etiology. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the public ring was performed in 11 young athletes (soccer players) with long-standing groin pain. MR findings were compared with plain films and isotope examination (bone scan Tc99M). Abnormal MRI findings included a broadened and irregular symphysis with a characteristic pattern of low signal intensity on T1W and high signal intensity on T2W images localized in the superior public ramus at a distance from the symphysis. Positive findings were also observed on plaon films and on nuclear medicine studies. However, the imaging findings in the superior pubic ramus of the symphysis was located considerably more laterally on MRI. MRI is a valuable method for evaluating discrete and ambiguous pelvic pain in athletes, particularly for identifying concomitant changes in the superior ramus, which may give rise to long-standing pain localized laterally in the groin. (orig.)

  10. Objective sensory evaluation of the spread of complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinger, Lara; Schwartzman, Robert J; Ahmad, Ayesha; Erwin, Kirsten; Alexander, Guillermo M

    2013-01-01

    The spread of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) has been well documented. Many severe refractory long-standing patients have total body pain (TBP) that evolved from a single extremity injury. The purpose of this study was to document by objective sensory threshold testing the extent of body area involvement in 20 long-standing patients with CRPS who have TBP. A comparison of sensory threshold testing parameters between 20 long-standing refractory patients with CRPS who have TBP versus 10 healthy participants. Twenty patients with CRPS who stated that they suffered from total body pain were chosen from the Drexel University College of Medicine CRPS database. They were compared to 10 healthy participants that were age and gender matched to the patients with CRPS. The sensory parameters tested were: skin temperature; static and mechanical allodynia; thermal allodynia; mechanical hyperalgesia; after sensations following all sensory tests. The sites chosen for testing in the patients with CRPS were the most painful area in each of 8 body regions that comprised the total body area. Five patients with CRPS had signs of CRPS over 100% of their body (20%). One patient had pain over 87% and another had pain over 90% of their body area. The average percentage of body involvement was 62% (range 37% - 100%). All patients with CRPS had at least one sensory parameter abnormality in all body regions. All patients with CRPS had lower pain thresholds for static allodynia in all body areas, while 50% demonstrated a lower threshold for dynamic allodynia in all body regions compared to the healthy participants. Cold allodynia had a higher median pain rating on the Likert pain scale in all body areas versus healthy participants except for the chest, abdomen, and back. Eighty-five percent of the patients with CRPS had a significantly lower pain threshold for mechanical hyperalgesia in all body areas compared to the healthy participants. After sensations occurred after all sensory

  11. Cognitive impairment in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorder--a matched control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antepohl, Wolfram; Kiviloog, Liisa; Andersson, Jan; Gerdle, Björn

    2003-01-01

    To verify the occurrence of cognitive impairment in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) and to provide a more detailed description of the impairment's character and context. Thirty (30) patients with chronic WAD and 30 matched healthy controls completed a cognitive test battery. Four computerised tests were used: a) two different types of cognitive tasks (reaction time vs. working memory) and b) two types of information processing (verbal vs. spatial). Before testing and after every randomised subtest, subjects rated their pain level on a visual analogue scale. A worse overall performance among patients with WAD and, specifically, worse results concerning working memory tasks were found. Post-hoc testing revealed a statistically significant difference concerning the single variable "verbal reaction time". Pain intensity among patients increased significantly during testing. Pain intensity after the subtest for verbal mental reaction time (independent of test sequence) was significantly correlated with results in this subtest, the more pain, the more time was needed. Compared to healthy controls, patients performed worse overall. Concerning verbal reaction time, the impairment was correlated with pain intensity. The findings support the hypothesis that pain might be one important factor leading to cognitive impairment in patients with chronic WAD.

  12. Shape of magnifiers affects controllability in children with visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebrand-Schurink, Joyce; Boonstra, F Nienke; van Rens, Ger H M B; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Meulenbroek, Ruud G J; Cox, Ralf F A

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to examine the controllability of cylinder-shaped and dome-shaped magnifiers in young children with visual impairment. This study investigates goal-directed arm movements in low-vision aid use (stand and dome magnifier-like object) in a group of young children with visual impairment (n = 56) compared to a group of children with normal sight (n = 66). Children with visual impairment and children with normal sight aged 4-8 years executed two types of movements (cyclic and discrete) in two orientations (vertical or horizontal) over two distances (10 cm and 20 cm) with two objects resembling the size and shape of regularly prescribed stand and dome magnifiers. The visually impaired children performed slower movements than the normally sighted children. In both groups, the accuracy and speed of the reciprocal aiming movements improved significantly with age. Surprisingly, in both groups, the performance with the dome-shaped object was significantly faster (in the 10 cm condition and 20 cm condition with discrete movements) and more accurate (in the 20 cm condition) than with the stand-shaped object. From a controllability perspective, this study suggests that it is better to prescribe dome-shaped than cylinder-shaped magnifiers to young children with visual impairment. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Conditioned Pain Modulation and Pressure Pain Sensitivity in the Adult Danish General Population: The DanFunD Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Sine; Jørgensen, Torben; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    with cold pressor pain (hand) for 2 minutes. Conditioning pain intensity was assessed using a visual analog scale and questionnaire data were collected. Female sex (P stress......Increased pressure pain sensitivity and impaired descending pain control have been associated with chronic pain, but knowledge on the variability in the adult general population is lacking. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) and descending pain control assessed using conditioned pain modulation (CPM...... (P ≤ .02), and high visual analog scale score (P ≤ .02) were associated with a larger CPM response. PERSPECTIVE: Data from this large population-based study provide new insight into the gender and age variation in pain sensitivity and CPM response. Decreased CPM potency and increased pain sensitivity...

  14. Reliability of standing weight-bearing (0.25T) MR imaging findings and positional changes in the lumbar spine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bjarke B; Hansen, Philip; Christensen, Anders F

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the reliability and absolute agreement of common degenerative findings in standing positional magnetic resonance imaging (pMRI). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Low back pain patients with and without sciatica were consecutively enrolled to undergo a supine and standing pMRI. Three...

  15. Usefulness of the Pain Tracking Technique in Acute Mechanical Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Bravo Acosta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the usefulness of the pain tracking technique in acute mechanical low back pain. Method. We performed an experimental prospective (longitudinal explanatory study between January 2011 and September 2012. The sample was randomly divided into two groups. Patients were assessed at the start and end of the treatment using the visual analogue scale and the Waddell test. Treatment consisted in applying the pain tracking technique to the study group and interferential current therapy to the control group. At the end of treatment, cryotherapy was applied for 10 minutes. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test and the Mann Whitney test were used. They were performed with a predetermined significance level of p≤0.05. Results. Pain was triggered by prolonged static posture and intense physical labor and intensified through trunk movements and when sitting and standing. The greatest relief was reported in lateral decubitus position and in William’s position. The majority of the patients had contracture. Pain and disability were modified with the rehabilitation treatment in both groups. Conclusions. Both the pain tracking and interferential current techniques combined with cryotherapy are useful treatments for acute mechanical low back pain. The onset of analgesia is faster when using the pain tracking technique.

  16. Six degree-of-freedom knee joint kinematics in obese individuals with knee pain during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-Sheng; Tsai, Tsung-Yuan; Felson, David T; Li, Guoan; Lewis, Cara L

    2017-01-01

    Knee joint pain is a common symptom in obese individuals and walking is often prescribed as part of management programs. Past studies in obese individuals have focused on standing alignment and kinematics in the sagittal and coronal planes. Investigation of 6 degree-of-freedom (6DOF) knee joint kinematics during standing and gait is important to thoroughly understand knee function in obese individuals with knee pain. This study aimed to investigate the 6DOF knee joint kinematics in standing and during gait in obese patients using a validated fluoroscopic imaging system. Ten individuals with obesity and knee pain were recruited. While standing, the knee was in 7.4±6.3°of hyperextension, 2.8±3.3° of abduction and 5.6±7.3° of external rotation. The femoral center was located 0.7±3.1mm anterior and 5.1±1.5mm medial to the tibial center. During treadmill gait, the sagittal plane motion, i.e., flexion/extension and anterior-posterior translation, showed a clear pattern. Specifically, obese individuals with knee pain maintained the knee in more flexion and more anterior tibial translation during most of the stance phase of the gait cycle and had a reduced total range of knee flexion when compared to a healthy non-obese group. In conclusion, obese individuals with knee pain used hyperextension knee posture while standing, but maintained the knee in more flexion during gait with reduced overall range of motion in the 6DOF analysis.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging assessed inflammation in the wrist is associated with patient-reported physical impairment, global assessment of disease activity and pain in early rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glinatsi, Daniel; Baker, Joshua F; Hetland, Merete L

    2017-01-01

    metacarpophalangeal joints in the analyses did not strengthen the associations between MRI pathology and PROs. CONCLUSIONS: MRI-assessed inflammation, but not damage, in early RA wrists is associated with patient-reported physical impairment, global assessment of disease activity and pain and influences the physical...

  18. Clinical outcome of stand-alone ALIF compared to posterior instrumentation for degenerative disc disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udby, Peter M.; Bech-Azeddine, Rachid

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the article was to: a) present results from a case cohort pilot study comparing stand-alone ALIF and TLIF and, b) review the literature on studies comparing the clinical outcome of stand-alone ALIF with posterior instrumentation including TLIF or PLIF, in patients with disabling...... low back pain resulting from degenerative disc disease. ALIF surgery has previously been linked with certain high risk complications and unfavorable long term fusion results. Newer studies suggest that stand-alone ALIF can possibly be advantageous compared to other types of posterior instrumented...

  19. Life Course Experiences, Pain and Suffering: A Case Study of an Older Mexican American Woman with Mobility Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Janiece L.; Harrison, Tracie C.; Hendrickson, Sherry G.

    2012-01-01

    There is a dearth of literature examining how adversity shapes the experiences of pain and/or suffering in a middle aged Mexican American women. The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to understand pain and suffering from a life course perspective as described by a Mexican American woman aging with early onset mobility impairment. This Hispanic woman experienced episodes of abuse and rejection over the life course, which may have significantly influenced her pain and suffering experience in adulthood. This adds to the literature on how adversity influences later life pain experience and provides insight on why pharmacological treatment alone may not be as successful as a holistic intervention. Hay escasez de literatura que examine cómo la adversidad da forma a las experiencias de dolor y / o sufrimiento en mujeres mexicana-americana mayores de edad. El propósito de este estudio descriptivo cualitativo fue comprender el dolor y el sufrimiento desde una perspectiva de ciclo de vida como descrito por una mujer mexicana-americana envejeciendo con inicio temprano de deterioro de movilidad. Esta Latina experimentó episodios de maltrato y rechazo, que se percibió haber afectado su experiencia de dolor y sufrimiento luego como adulta. Este estudio aumenta la literatura sobre cómo la adversidad influya la experiencia de dolor más tarde en la vida, y nos permite comprender mejor como el tratamiento farmacológico por sí solo no es tan exitoso como pueda ser una intervención integral. PMID:24830728

  20. Pain processing in dementia and its relation to neuropathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherder, E.J.A.; Sergeant, J.A.; Swaab, D.F.

    2003-01-01

    Most clinical studies of pain in dementia have focused on assessment procedures that are sensitive to pain in "demented" or "cognitively impaired" elderly patients. The neuropathology of dementia has not played a major part in pain assessment. In this review, the neuropathological effects of

  1. Contribution of amygdala CRF neurons to chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, Matthew; Marketkar, Tanvi; Dimitrov, Eugene

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the role of amygdala corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurons in the perturbations of descending pain inhibition caused by neuropathic pain. Forced swim increased the tail-flick response latency in uninjured mice, a phenomenon known as stress-induced analgesia (SIA) but did not change the tail-flick response latency in mice with neuropathic pain caused by sciatic nerve constriction. Neuropathic pain also increased the expression of CRF in the central amygdala (CeAmy) and ΔFosB in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Next, we injected the CeAmy of CRF-cre mice with cre activated AAV-DREADD (Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs) vectors. Activation of CRF neurons by DREADD/Gq did not affect the impaired SIA but inhibition of CRF neurons by DREADD/Gi restored SIA and decreased allodynia in mice with neuropathic pain. The possible downstream circuitry involved in the regulation of SIA was investigated by combined injections of retrograde cre-virus (CAV2-cre) into the locus ceruleus (LC) and cre activated AAV-diphtheria toxin (AAV-FLEX-DTX) virus into the CeAmy. The viral injections were followed by a sciatic nerve constriction ipsilateral or contralateral to the injections. Ablation of amygdala projections to the LC on the side of injury but not on the opposite side, completely restored SIA, decreased allodynia and decreased ΔFosB expression in the spinal cord in mice with neuropathic pain. The possible lateralization of SIA impairment to the side of injury was confirmed by an experiment in which unilateral inhibition of the LC decreased SIA even in uninjured mice. The current view in the field of pain research attributes the process of pain chronification to abnormal functioning of descending pain inhibition. Our results demonstrate that the continuous activity of CRF neurons brought about by persistent pain leads to impaired SIA, which is a symptom of dysregulation of descending pain inhibition. Therefore, an over

  2. Postural balance in low back pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo, Thomas; Schiøttz-Christensen, Berit; Jensen, Lone Donbæk

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Altered postural control has been observed in low back pain (LBP) patients. They seem to be more dependent on vision when standing. The objective of the study was to determine concurrent and predictive validity of measures of postural stability in LBP patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS......: Centre of Pressure (CoP) measurements were tested against pain, fear of pain, and physical function. Velocity, anterior-posterior displacement, and the Romberg Ratio obtained on a portable force platform were used as measures of postural stability. RESULTS: Baseline and 12-week follow-up results of 97....... CONCLUSION: This first study of concurrent and predictive validity of postural balance in LBP patients revealed no association between CoP measures and pain, fear of pain, and physical function....

  3. Pain and microcrystalline arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ramonda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Microcrystals are responsible for some of the most common and complex arthropathies which are often accompanied by intense, severe pain and inflammatory reactions. The main pathogens are crystals of monosodium urate (MSU, responsible for the gout, calcium pyrophosphate (CPP, which deposits also in various clinical forms of arthopathies, and basic calcium phosphate associated with osteoarthritis. In this context, the microcrystal arthritis is characterized by multiple, acute attacks followed by chronic pain, disability, impaired quality of life, and increased mortality. Given their chronic nature, they represent an ever more urgent public health problem. MSU and CPP crystals are also able to activate nociceptors. The pain in mycrocrystalline arthritis (MCA is an expression of the inflammatory process. In the course of these diseases there is an abundant release of inflammatory molecules, including prostaglandins 2 and kinins. Interleukin-1 represents the most important cytokine released during the crystal-induced inflammatory process. Therefore, clinically, pain is the most important component of MCA, which lead to functional impairment and disability in a large proportion of the population. It is fundamental to diagnose these diseases as early as possible, and to this aim, to identify appropriate and specific targets for a timely therapeutic intervention.

  4. Frequent Exertion and Frequent Standing at Work, by Industry and Occupation Group - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shockey, Taylor M; Luckhaupt, Sara E; Groenewold, Matthew R; Lu, Ming-Lun

    2018-01-12

    Repeated exposure to occupational ergonomic hazards, such as frequent exertion (repetitive bending or twisting) and frequent standing, can lead to injuries, most commonly musculoskeletal disorders (1). Work-related musculoskeletal disorders have been estimated to cost the United States approximately $2.6 billion in annual direct and indirect costs (2). A recent literature review provided evidence that prolonged standing at work also leads to adverse health outcomes, such as back pain, physical fatigue, and muscle pain (3). To determine which industry and occupation groups currently have the highest prevalence rates of frequent exertion at work and frequent standing at work, CDC analyzed data from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) Occupational Health Supplement (OHS) regarding currently employed adults in the United States. By industry, the highest prevalence of both frequent exertion and frequent standing at work was among those in the agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting industry group (70.9%); by occupation, the highest prevalence was among those in the construction and extraction occupation group (76.9%). Large differences among industry and occupation groups were found with regard to these ergonomic hazards, suggesting a need for targeted interventions designed to reduce workplace exposure.

  5. The DSM-IV nosology of chronic pain: a comparison of pain disorder and multiple somatization syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, W; Heuser, J; Fichter, M M

    2000-01-01

    This study evaluates the classification of pain from the perspective of the DSM-IV system. Of 60 in-patients with long-standing and disabling pain syndromes, 29 with pain disorder (PD) and 31 with pain as part of a multiple somatization syndrome (MSS) were compared before and after a structured cognitive-behavioral treatment. It was hypothesized that MSS patients show more psychological distress, are more severely disabled, and respond less to the treatment. Both groups were similar with respect to sociodemographic status, history of pain symptomatology and comorbidity with DSM-IV mental disorders. The results show that MSS patients had higher levels of affective and sensoric pain sensations as well as more pain-related disabilities. They were also less successful during treatment to reduce their pain-related depression and anxiety. Psychosocial functioning was improved only by PD patients, but remained almost unchanged in the MSS group. However, there were no group differences concerning general depression and hypochondriasis, dysfunctional attitudes towards body and health, and use of pain coping strategies. It is concluded that the DSM-IV distinction between 'pure' pain disorder and syndromes involving pain plus multiple somatoform symptoms cannot generally be confirmed, but further studies of validation are needed. Copyright 2000 European Federation of Chapters of the International Association for the Study of Pain.

  6. 20 CFR 416.929 - How we evaluate symptoms, including pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., we consider your symptoms, such as pain, to evaluate whether you have a severe physical or mental... medically determinable severe physical or mental impairment(s), but your impairment(s) does not meet or... functionally limiting effects of your symptoms. We will develop evidence regarding the possibility of a...

  7. Retropsoas hernia as a cause of chronic abdominal pain: CT diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, J.E.; Strauch, E.D.

    1998-01-01

    Congenital retropsoas small bowel herniation is reported as the cause of long-standing recurrent abdominal pain in a teenage girl. Knowledge of this entity is important for differential diagnosis of abdominal pain, mass, or retroperitoneal gas and fluid, and for avoiding complications of percutaneous renal interventions. (orig.)

  8. Work Outcomes in Patients Who Stay at Work Despite Musculoskeletal Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Andy; Higgins, Niamh M; Rothwell, Conor; Ashton, Jennifer; Breen, Roisin; Corcoran, Oriel; FitzGerald, Oliver; Gallagher, Pamela; Desmond, Deirdre

    2017-12-13

    Purpose To assess self-reported work impacts and associations between psychosocial risk factors and work impairment amongst workers seeking care for musculoskeletal pain while continuing to work. Methods Patients were recruited from Musculoskeletal Assessment Clinics at 5 hospitals across Ireland. Participants completed questionnaires including assessments of work impairment (Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire), work ability (single item from the Work Ability Index) and work performance (Work Role Functioning Questionnaire; WRFQ). Logistic and hierarchical regressions were conducted to analyse the relation between psychosocial variables and work outcomes. Results 155 participants (53.5% female; mean age = 46.50 years) who were working at the time of assessment completed the questionnaires. Absenteeism was low, yet 62.6% were classified as functioning poorly according to the WRFQ; 52.3% reported having poor work ability. Logistic regression analyses indicated that higher work role functioning was associated with higher pain self-efficacy (OR 1.51); better work ability was associated with older age (OR 1.063) and lower functional restriction (OR 0.93); greater absenteeism was associated with lower pain self-efficacy (OR 0.65) and poorer work expectancy (OR 1.18). Multiple regression analysis indicated that greater presenteeism was associated with higher pain intensity (β = 0.259) and lower pain self-efficacy (β = - 0.385). Conclusions While individuals continue to work with musculoskeletal pain, their work performance can be adversely affected. Interventions that target mutable factors, such as pain self-efficacy, may help reduce the likelihood of work impairment.

  9. Prevalence of Physical Impairment Among the Elderlly Persons of the Tehran City in 1385

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsoon Nodehi Moghadam

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Musculoskeletal pain is common in elderly people with prevalence range from 10% to 71%. Musculoskeletal pain is found to be a strong risk factor for disability in elderly woman. The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of physical impairment of elderly people. Methods & Materials: A physiotherapist has evaluated elderly persons files in four physiotherapy centers during 1384-85. Results: Knee osteoarthritis and low back pain respectively were the most common causes of physical impairment in elderly women. Prevalence of knee osteoarthritis is increasing. This increase is likely due to several factors: advancing age of population, increasing injuries and rapidly advancing rates of obesity. Age–related change of intervertebral disks, decreased back muscle strength and decreased bone mineral density may lead to low back pain. Conclusion: Knee osteoarthritis and low back pain are the most commom causes of physical impairment.

  10. Psychometric properties of the OARSI/OMERACT osteoarthritis pain and functional impairment scales: ICOAP, KOOS-PS and HOOS-PS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruyssen-Witrand, A; Fernandez-Lopez, C J; Gossec, L; Anract, P; Courpied, J P; Dougados, M

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the psychometric properties of the OARSI-OMERACT questionnaires in comparison to the existing validated scales. Consecutive hip or knee osteoarthritis patients consulting in an orthopedic department were enrolled in the study. Data collected were pain using the Intermittent and Constant Osteoarthritis Pain (ICOAP), a Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), the Western Ontario McMaster Universities' Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain subscale, the Lequesne pain subscale; functional impairment using the Knee disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score-Physical Function Shortform (KOOS-PS), the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score-Physical Function Shortform (HOOS-PS), a NRS, the WOMAC function sub-scale, the Lequesne function subscale. Validity was assessed by calculating the Spearman's correlation coefficient between all the scales. Reliability was assessed in out-patients with stable disease comparing the data collected within 2 weeks using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Responsiveness was assessed on the data from hospitalised patients prior to and 12 weeks after a total joint replacement (TJR) using the standardised response mean. Three hundred patients (mean age=68 years, females=62%, hip OA=57%) were included. There was a moderate to good correlation between ICOAP, KOOS-PS, HOOS-PS and the WOMAC, NRS and Lequesne scales. Reliability of the ICOAP hip OA HOOS-PS and KOOS-PS was good (ICC range 0.80-0.81) whereas it was moderate for knee ICOAP (ICC=0.65). Responsiveness of the ICOAP, KOOS-PS and HOOS-PS 12 weeks after TJR was comparable to responsiveness of other scales (SRM range: 0.54-1.82). The psychometric properties of the ICOAP, KOOS-PS and HOOS-PS were comparable to those of the WOMAC, Lequesne and NRS.

  11. Measurement properties, feasibility and clinical utility of the Doloplus-2 pain scale in older adults with cognitive impairment: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Marie Rostad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Doloplus-2 is a pain assessment scale for assessing pain in older adults with cognitive impairment. It is used in clinical practice and research. However, evidence for its measurement properties, feasibility and clinical utility remain incomplete. This systematic review synthesizes previous research on the measurement properties, feasibility and clinical utility of the scale. Method We conducted a systematic search in three databases (CINAHL, Medline and PsycINFO for studies published in English, French, German, Dutch/Flemish or a Scandinavian language between 1990 and April 2017. We also reviewed the Doloplus-2 homepage and reference lists of included studies to supplement our search. Two reviewers independently reviewed titles and abstracts and performed the quality assessment and data abstraction. Results A total of 24 studies were included in this systematic review. The quality of the studies varied, but many lacked sufficient detail about the samples and response rates. The Doloplus-2 has been studied using diverse samples in a variety of settings; most study participants were in long-term care and in people with dementia. Sixteen studies addressed various aspects of the scale’s feasibility and clinical utility, but their results are limited and inconsistent across settings and samples. Support for the scale’s reliability, validity and responsiveness varied widely across the studies. Generally, the reliability coefficients reached acceptable benchmarks, but the evidence for different aspects of the scale’s validity and responsiveness was incomplete. Conclusion Additional high-quality studies are warranted to determine in which populations of older adults with cognitive impairment the Doloplus-2 is reliable, valid and feasible. The ability of the Doloplus-2 to meaningfully quantify pain, measure treatment response and improve patient outcomes also needs further investigation. Trial registration PROSPERO reg. no

  12. Measurement properties, feasibility and clinical utility of the Doloplus-2 pain scale in older adults with cognitive impairment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostad, Hanne Marie; Utne, Inger; Grov, Ellen Karine; Puts, Martine; Halvorsrud, Liv

    2017-11-02

    The Doloplus-2 is a pain assessment scale for assessing pain in older adults with cognitive impairment. It is used in clinical practice and research. However, evidence for its measurement properties, feasibility and clinical utility remain incomplete. This systematic review synthesizes previous research on the measurement properties, feasibility and clinical utility of the scale. We conducted a systematic search in three databases (CINAHL, Medline and PsycINFO) for studies published in English, French, German, Dutch/Flemish or a Scandinavian language between 1990 and April 2017. We also reviewed the Doloplus-2 homepage and reference lists of included studies to supplement our search. Two reviewers independently reviewed titles and abstracts and performed the quality assessment and data abstraction. A total of 24 studies were included in this systematic review. The quality of the studies varied, but many lacked sufficient detail about the samples and response rates. The Doloplus-2 has been studied using diverse samples in a variety of settings; most study participants were in long-term care and in people with dementia. Sixteen studies addressed various aspects of the scale's feasibility and clinical utility, but their results are limited and inconsistent across settings and samples. Support for the scale's reliability, validity and responsiveness varied widely across the studies. Generally, the reliability coefficients reached acceptable benchmarks, but the evidence for different aspects of the scale's validity and responsiveness was incomplete. Additional high-quality studies are warranted to determine in which populations of older adults with cognitive impairment the Doloplus-2 is reliable, valid and feasible. The ability of the Doloplus-2 to meaningfully quantify pain, measure treatment response and improve patient outcomes also needs further investigation. PROSPERO reg. no.: CRD42016049697 registered 20. Oct. 2016.

  13. Sagittal lumbar and pelvic alignment in the standing and sitting positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Kenji; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Nishimura, Hirosuke; Tanaka, Hidetoshi; Shishido, Takaaki; Yamamoto, Kengo

    2012-11-01

    The sitting position has become the most common posture in today's workplace. In relation to this position, kinematic analysis of the lumbar spine is helpful in understanding the causes of low back pain and its prevention. In this study, we investigated the relationship between sagittal lumbar alignment and pelvic alignment in the standing and sitting positions for 50 healthy adults. Lumbar lordotic angle (LLA), sacral slope (SS), pelvic tilt (PT), and pelvic incidence (PI) were measured on lateral lumbar spine standing and sitting radiographs. Regarding changes from the standing to sitting positions, average LLA, SS, and PT were -16.6° (-49.8 %), -18.7° (-50.3 %), and 18.3° (284.8 %), respectively (P position, lumbar lordosis was reduced and pelvic rotation became posterior. This study showed that LLA decreased by approximately 50 % and PT increased by approximately 25 % in the sitting position compared with the standing position. No significant gender differences were observed for LLA, SS, and PT in the standing position. In the sitting position, however, LLA and SS were markedly larger for women.

  14. The degree of cardiac baroreflex involvement during active standing is associated with the quality of life in fibromyalgia patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Roberto Zamunér

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS is a rheumatologic disorder characterized by chronic widespread pain, fatigue and other symptoms. Baroreflex dysfunction has been observed in women with FMS. However, it is unknown whether the limited involvement of the baroreflex control during an orthostatic stimulus has some impact on the quality of life of the FMS patient. Therefore, the aim of the study is evaluate the relationship between the quality of life of the FMS patient and indexes of the cardiovascular autonomic control as estimated from spontaneous fluctuations of heart period (HP and systolic arterial pressure (SAP. We enrolled 35 women with FMS (age: 48.8±8.9 years; body mass index: 29.3±4.3 Kg/m2. The electrocardiogram, non-invasive finger blood pressure and respiratory activity were continuously recorded during 15 minutes at rest in supine position (REST and in orthostatic position during active standing (STAND. Traditional cardiovascular autonomic control markers were assessed along with a Granger causality index assessing the strength of the causal relation from SAP to HP (CRSAP→HP and measuring the degree of involvement of the cardiac baroreflex. The impact of FMS on quality of life was quantified by the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ and visual analog score for pain (VAS pain. No significant linear association was found between FIQ scores and the traditional cardiovascular indexes both at REST and during STAND (p>0.05. However, a negative relationship between CRSAP→HP during STAND and FIQ score was found (r = -0.56, p<0.01. Similar results were found with VAS pain. In conclusion, the lower the degree of cardiac baroreflex involvement during STAND in women with FMS, the higher the impact of FMS on the quality of life, thus suggesting that Granger causality analysis might be clinically helpful in assessing the state of the FMS patient.

  15. Neuropathic pain management in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hyde, Catherine

    2012-10-01

    There are difficulties in assessing, managing, and evaluating neuropathic pain in dying children, particularly those with neurological impairment. Neuropathic pain in children often presents differently to how it presents in the adult population. Comprehensive assessment as well as pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions are crucial to its successful management and frequently require input from an interdisciplinary team. Notwithstanding the need for further research, this paper brings together research papers, reviews, and clinical guidelines to present an exploration of existing evidence regarding care for children with neuropathic pain and their families.

  16. PHARMACOTHERAPY IN ELDERLY NEUROPATHIC PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Eko P

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The incidence of pain increases with age. Neuropathic pain are common in elderly patients and pose challenges in both their diagnosis and treatment. The most common neuropathic pain in elderly are radiculopathy due to foraminal or spinal stenosis, diabetic neuropathy, and postherpetic neuralgia. Pain in the elderly is often unrecognized and undertreated. The main problem with pain in older adults relates to impaired quality of life secondary to pain which may be expressed by depression (including increased suicide risk, anxiety, sleep disruption, appetite disturbance, and weight loss, cognitive impairment, and limitations in the performance of daily activities. Pain management in elderly patients requires a different perspective from that of younger patients. Causes, comorbidities, and responses to both pain and its treatment differ between young healthy and older patients. Effective pain management in elderly patients should include both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic strategies. Pharmacological approaches are the first line of pain management in older person for neuropathic pain. Pharmacologic strategies call for administration of nonopioid analgesics, opioid analgesics, and adjuvant medication. Polypharmacy, drug-drug and drug-disease interactions, age-associated changes in drug metabolism, and the high frequency of adverse drug reactions need to be carefully considered in using medications in this population /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso

  17. Is there a relationship between pain intensity and postural sway in patients with non-specific low back pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhe, A.; Fejer, R.; Walker, B.

    2011-01-01

    compared to healthy controls. In addition, regression analysis revealed a significant and linear increase in postural sway with higher pain ratings for all included COP parameters. Statistically significant changes in mean sway velocity in antero-posterior and medio-lateral direction and sway area were......Background: Increased center of pressure excursions are well documented in patients suffering from non-specific low back pain, whereby the altered postural sway includes both higher mean sway velocities and larger sway area. No investigation has been conducted to evaluate a relationship between...... pain intensity and postural sway in adults (aged 50 or less) with non-specific low back pain. Methods: Seventy-seven patients with non-specific low back pain and a matching number of healthy controls were enrolled. Center of pressure parameters were measured by three static bipedal standing tasks of 90...

  18. Pain and functional capacity in female fibromyalgia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Aparicio, Virginia A; Sjöström, Michael; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel

    2011-11-01

    To examine the association between pain and functional capacity levels. [corrected] Cross-sectional study. University of Granada. One hundred twenty-three women with fibromyalgia (51.7 ± 7.2 years). We measured weight and height, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. We assessed tender points by pressure pain and functional capacity by means of the 30-second chair stand, handgrip strength, chair sit and reach, back scratch, blind flamingo, 8-ft up and go and 6-minute walk tests. We observed an association of tender points count with the chair stand and 6-minute walk tests (r = -0.273, P = 0.004 and r = -0.183, P = 0.046, respectively). These associations became nonsignificant once the analyses were adjusted by weight or BMI. We observed an association of algometer score with the back scratch, chair stand, and 6-minute walk tests (r = 0.238, P = 0.009; r = 0.363, P BMI, except the association between algometer score and the 6-minute walk test that became nonsignificant once the analyses were adjusted by weight. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 39.2 and 33.3%, respectively. There is an inverse association of tender points count with the chair stand and distance walked in the 6-minute walk tests, and a positive association of algometer score with the chair stand, distance walked in the 6-minute walk and back scratch tests, yet, weight status seems to play a role in these associations. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Pain Experience in Hemophilia Patients: A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoume Rambod

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pain, as a crucial subsequence of joint hemorrhages in hemophilia patients, is chronic, debilitating, and distracting. This study aimed to describe and interpret pain experiences of hemophilia patients in their lives. Methods: This qualitative study with hermeneutic phenomenological approach was conducted on fourteen hemophilia patients who had been referred to a hemophiliacenter affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. The study question was “what is the meaning of pain in hemophilia patients’ lives? The data were collected through semi-structured interviews and field notes through purposeful sampling. Then, thematic analysis with van Manen’s six-step methodological framework was used. MAX.QDA qualitative software package, 2010, was used to analyze the data. Results: The three main themes that emerged in this study were “alteration in physical health”, “engagement in psychological problems”, and “impairment in social relationships”. Alteration in physical health consisted of three subthemes, namely “impairment of physical function”, “change in body physics”, and “disturbance in sleep quality”. In addition, two subthemes including “nostalgia of pain in adults with hemophilia” and “psychological distress” emerged from engagement in psychological problems. Finally, “loss of social activity” and “change in relationships” were related to impairment in social relationships. Conclusion: The present study highlighted alteration in physical health, engagement in psychological problems, and impairment in social relationship as a result of pain in hemophilia patients. Thus, healthcare providers and family members have to pay special attention to these problems. Besides, providing complementary therapy interventions is suggested for reducing these issues.

  20. Pain associated with health and economic burden in France: results from recent National Health and Wellness Survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadjiat Y

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Yacine Hadjiat,1 Alain Serrie,2 Richard Treves,3 Berangere Chomier,1 Laurent Geranton,4 Stephane Billon5 1Medical Department, Mundipharma SAS, Paris, 2Pain and Palliative Care Department, CHU Lariboisiere, Paris, 3Rheumatology Department, CHU Limoges, Limoges, 4Public Affairs Department, Mundipharma, 5Department of Health Economics, University Paris Dauphine, Paris, France Purpose: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of pain among French adults and assess the impact of pain on health-related quality of life (HRQoL, activity impairment, and health care resource use (HRU.Patients and methods: Respondents from the 2015 France National Health and Wellness Survey (N=19,173 were categorized by self-reported pain (experienced pain in the past 12 months vs no pain and compared on HRQoL (36-Item Short Form Health Survey version 2: Mental Component Summary, Physical Component Summary, and Short Form-6 Dimensions health utilities, activity impairment (Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire, employment status, and HRU (health care provider visits, emergency room visits, and hospitalizations. Bivariate analyses examined differences between pain groups stratified by age, sex, income, and Charlson comorbidity index (CCI scores.Results: Pain prevalence was 20.2% (n=4007. Mean Physical Component Summary decrements with pain ranged from 3.4 to 8.1 points among those aged <35 years to those aged 45–54 years, respectively. Results for Mental Component Summary and Short Form-6 Dimensions scores followed similar patterns. Regardless of income, sex, or CCI group, pain was associated with significant decrements on all HRQoL measures (for all, p<0.05. The impact of pain on activity impairment was lowest among those <35 years; this impact was higher in middle age and then tapered off among those aged ≥75 years. Pain was associated with greater activity impairment and more health care provider visits across income, sex, and CCI groups (for all

  1. Mobile kidney pain provocation ultrasonography before surgery for symptomatic mobile kidney: A prospective study of 43 consecutive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnerlöv, Conny; Söderström, Minette; Öhberg, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether mobile kidney pain provocation ultrasonography together with intravenous pyelography in supine and standing positions and a full medical history can confirm the diagnosis of the clinical condition of symptomatic mobile kidney and aid the selection of patients for surgical treatment. In a consecutive study, 43 patients with the clinical picture of symptomatic mobile kidney, a positive mobile kidney pain provocation ultrasonography and a renal descent of at least 2 lumbar vertebral heights on intravenous pyelography in the standing position, were operated on with nephropexy. Patients' pain relief after nephropexy was evaluated by clinical follow-up, a questionnaire and visual analogue scale (VAS) scoring. Reduction of pain after nephropexy was associated with a significant decrease in VAS scoring from a median of 8 (range 4-10) preoperatively to a median of 0 (range 0-7) postoperatively (p mobile kidney pain provocation ultrasonography and intravenous pyelography in supine and standing positions can verify the diagnosis of symptomatic mobile kidney and aid the selection of patients who will benefit from nephropexy.

  2. Postoperative pain impairs subsequent performance on a spatial memory task via effects on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Haidong; Kawano, Takashi; Tamura, Takahiko; Iwata, Hideki; Takahashi, Yasuhiro; Eguchi, Satoru; Yamazaki, Fumimoto; Kumagai, Naoko; Yokoyama, Masataka

    2013-12-18

    Pain may be associated with postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD); however, this relationship remains under investigated. Therefore, we examined the impact of postoperative pain on cognitive functions in aged animals. Rats were allocated to the following groups: control (C), 1.2 % isoflurane for 2 hours alone (I), I with laparotomy (IL), IL with analgesia using local ropivacaine (IL+R), and IL with analgesia using systemic morphine (IL+M). Pain was assessed by rat grimace scale (RGS). Spatial memory was evaluated using a radial maze from postoperative days (POD) 3 to 14. NMDA receptor (NR) 2 subunits in hippocampus were measured by ELISA. Finally, effects of memantine, a low-affinity uncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, on postoperative cognitive performance were tested. Postoperative RGS was increased in Group IL, but not in other groups. The number of memory errors in Group I were comparable to that in Group C, whereas errors in Group IL were increased. Importantly, in Group IL+R and IL+M, cognitive impairment was not found. The memory errors were positively correlated with the levels of NMDA receptor 2 subunits in hippocampus. Prophylactic treatment with memantine could prevent the development of memory deficits observed in Group IL without an analgesic effect. Postoperative pain contributes to the development of memory deficits after anesthesia and surgery via up-regulation of hippocampal NMDA receptors. Our findings suggest that postoperative pain management may be important for the prevention of POCD in elderly patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Laterality judgments are not impaired in patients with chronic whiplash associated disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedler, Ashley; Motlagh, Helena; Sterling, Michele

    2013-02-01

    Impaired integration of the body schema with motor processes may contribute to painful and/or restricted movement in chronic pain. Laterality judgment tasks assess this integration of the body schema with motor processes. The purpose of this study was to assess if patients with chronic whiplash associated disorders (WAD) are impaired on laterality judgment tasks. Accuracy (ACC) and reaction time (RT) for foot and neck laterality tasks were assessed in 64 (35 female) patients with chronic (>6 months) WAD and 24 (14 female) asymptomatic subjects. Pain characteristics, post-traumatic stress symptoms, cold pain thresholds (CPT) and pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were collected for patients with WAD. The effect of WAD and body part on laterality task performance was assessed. For patients with WAD, the correlations between neck task performance and pain characteristics, post-traumatic stress symptoms and pain thresholds were assessed. There was no effect of group on laterality performance. Subjects showed better RT (p laterality task in patients with WAD. Cervical spine PPT were significantly correlated with accuracy (r = 0.36) and RT (r = 0.29) in patients with WAD. These findings suggest that patients with chronic WAD are not impaired on neck or foot laterality judgment tasks. Laterality training is not indicated in the management of chronic WAD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Chronic Widespread Back Pain is Distinct From Chronic Local Back Pain: Evidence From Quantitative Sensory Testing, Pain Drawings, and Psychometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, Andreas; Eich, Wolfgang; Janke, Susanne; Leisner, Sabine; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Tesarz, Jonas

    2016-07-01

    Whether chronic localized pain (CLP) and chronic widespread pain (CWP) have different mechanisms or to what extent they overlap in their pathophysiology is controversial. The study compared quantitative sensory testing profiles of nonspecific chronic back pain patients with CLP (n=48) and CWP (n=29) with and fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) patients (n=90) and pain-free controls (n = 40). The quantitative sensory testing protocol of the "German-Research-Network-on-Neuropathic-Pain" was used to measure evoked pain on the painful area in the lower back and the pain-free hand (thermal and mechanical detection and pain thresholds, vibration threshold, pain sensitivity to sharp and blunt mechanical stimuli). Ongoing pain and psychometrics were captured with pain drawings and questionnaires. CLP patients did not differ from pain-free controls, except for lower pressure pain threshold (PPT) on the back. CWP and FMS patients showed lower heat pain threshold and higher wind-up ratio on the back and lower heat pain threshold and cold pain threshold on the hand. FMS showed lower PPT on back and hand, and higher comorbidity of anxiety and depression and more functional impairment than all other groups. Even after long duration CLP presents with a local hypersensitivity for PPT, suggesting a somatotopically specific sensitization of nociceptive processing. However, CWP patients show widespread ongoing pain and hyperalgesia for different stimuli that is generalized in space, suggesting the involvement of descending control systems, as also suggested for FMS patients. Because mechanisms in nonspecific chronic back pain with CLP and CWP differ, these patients should be distinguished in future research and allocated to different treatments.

  5. Acute and chronic pain syndromes in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Knudsen, L; Jensen, K

    1991-01-01

    A representative sample of 117 patients with definite multiple sclerosis (MS) was interviewed on pain syndromes. Chronic syndromes lasting more than one month included dysaestesthesia, low back pain, spasms, tonic seizures, tightening and painful sensations in the extremities. Acute syndromes...... with pain at the time of the examination increased with age and duration of disease. Patients with pain were significantly more often spastic and significantly more often sought alternative treatment forms. No difference was found for mean age, sex, physical impairment, duration of disease from onset of MS...

  6. Muscle function and origin of pain in fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, R M; Jacobsen, Søren

    1994-01-01

    It may be concluded that both peripheral and central mechanisms may operate in the pathophysiology of both impaired muscle function and pain in FM. These mechanisms may in part be attributable to physical deconditioning and disuse of muscle secondary to the characteristic pain and fatigue so ofte...

  7. Effective and Efficient Stand Magnifier Use in Visually Impaired Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebrand-Schurink, Joyce; Cox, Ralf F. A.; van Rens, Ger H. M. B.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Meulenbroek, Ruud G. J.; Boonstra, Frouke N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The main objective of this study was to analyze the effectiveness and efficiency of magnifier use in children with visual impairment who did not use a low vision aid earlier, in an ecologically valid goal-directed perceptuomotor task. Methods: Participants were twenty-nine 4- to 8-year-old

  8. Intensive interdisciplinary outpatient pain management program for chronic back pain: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artner J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Juraj Artner, Stephan Kurz, Balkan Cakir, Heiko Reichel, Friederike LattigDepartment of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Ulm, RKU, GermanyBackground: Chronic back pain is relatively resistant to unimodal therapy regimes. The aim of this study was to introduce and evaluate the short-term outcome of a three-week intensive multidisciplinary outpatient program for patients with back pain and sciatica, measured according to decrease of functional impairment and pain.Methods: The program was designed for patients suffering from chronic back pain to provide intensive interdisciplinary therapy in an outpatient setting, consisting of interventional injection techniques, medication, exercise therapy, back education, ergotherapy, traction, massage therapy, medical training, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, aquatraining, and relaxation.Results: Based on Oswestry Disability Index (ODI and Numeric Rating Scale (NRS scores, a significant improvement in pain intensity and functionality of 66.83% NRS and an ODI of 33.33% were achieved by our pain program within 3 weeks.Conclusion: This paper describes the organization and short-term outcome of an intensive multidisciplinary program for chronic back pain on an outpatient basis provided by our orthopedic department, with clinically significant results.Keywords: chronic back pain, intense, multidisciplinary, program, outpatient

  9. Persistent postsurgical pain after video-assisted thoracic surgery – an observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildgaard, Kim; Ringsted, T K; Jessen Hansen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    on activities of daily living of PPP after VATS. METHODS: Using a prospective observational design, 47 patients undergoing VATS completed both preoperative, early postoperative and 3 months follow-up. Preoperative pain, pain characteristics, psychological factors, pain-related functional impairment...

  10. Pain Experience in Hemophilia Patients: A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambod, Masoume; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Molazem, Zahra; Khair, Kate

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Pain, as a crucial subsequence of joint hemorrhages in hemophilia patients, is chronic, debilitating, and distracting. This study aimed to describe and interpret pain experiences of hemophilia patients in their lives. Methods: This qualitative study with hermeneutic phenomenological approach was conducted on fourteen hemophilia patients who had been referred to a hemophilia center affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. The study question was “what is the meaning of pain in hemophilia patients’ lives? The data were collected through semi-structured interviews and field notes through purposeful sampling. Then, thematic analysis with van Manen’s six-step methodological framework was used. MAX.QDA qualitative software package, 2010, was used to analyze the data. Results: The three main themes that emerged in this study were “alteration in physical health”, “engagement in psychological problems”, and “impairment in social relationships”. Alteration in physical health consisted of three subthemes, namely “impairment of physical function”, “change in body physics”, and “disturbance in sleep quality”. In addition, two subthemes including “nostalgia of pain in adults with hemophilia” and “psychological distress” emerged from engagement in psychological problems. Finally, “loss of social activity” and “change in relationships” were related to impairment in social relationships. Conclusion: The present study highlighted alteration in physical health, engagement in psychological problems, and impairment in social relationship as a result of pain in hemophilia patients. Thus, healthcare providers and family members have to pay special attention to these problems. Besides, providing complementary therapy interventions is suggested for reducing these issues. PMID:27713894

  11. Pain cognition versus pain intensity in patients with endometriosis: toward personalized treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aken, Mieke A W; Oosterman, Joukje M; van Rijn, C M; Ferdek, Magdalena A; Ruigt, Gé S F; Peeters, B W M M; Braat, Didi D M; Nap, Annemiek W

    2017-10-01

    To explore how pain intensity and pain cognition are related to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in women with endometriosis. Cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey. Multidisciplinary referral center. Women with laparoscopically and/or magnetic resonance imaging-proven endometriosis (n = 50) and healthy control women (n = 42). For HRQoL, two questionnaires: the generic Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Endometriosis Health Profile 30 (EHP-30). For pain cognition, three questionnaires: the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), the Pain Vigilance and Awareness Questionnaire (PVAQ), and the Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale (PASS). For pain intensity, the verbal Numeric Rating Scale (NRS). Association between pain intensity and pain cognition with HRQoL in women with endometriosis, and the differences in HRQoL and pain cognition between women with endometriosis and healthy controls. Health-related quality of life was statistically significantly impaired in women with endometriosis as compared with healthy control women. The variables of pain intensity and pain cognition were independent factors influencing the HRQoL of women with endometriosis. Patients with endometriosis had statistically significantly more negative pain cognition as compared with controls. They reported more pain anxiety and catastrophizing, and they were hypervigilant toward pain. Pain cognition is independently associated with the HRQoL in endometriosis patients. Clinicians should be aware of this phenomenon and may consider treating pain symptoms in a multidimensional, individualized way in which the psychological aspects are taken into account. In international guidelines on management of women with endometriosis more attention should be paid to the psychological aspects of care. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Widespread pain - do pain intensity and care-seeking influence sickness absence? - A population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Søren; Christiansen, David Høyrup; Jensen, Jens Christian

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both musculoskeletal pain-intensity in relation to a specific location (e.g. lower back or shoulder) and pain in multiple body regions have been shown to be associated with impaired function and sickness absence, but the impact of pain intensity on the association between widespread...... between number of musculoskeletal pain sites and sickness absence, and to analyze the impact on absenteeism from care-seeking in general practice due to musculoskeletal disorders.METHODS: 3745 Danish adults registered with eight General Practitioners (GPs) in one primary medical center reported location...... pain and sickness absence has not been studied. Additionally it is unknown whether care-seeking in general practice due to musculoskeletal disorders has a positive or negative impact on future absenteeism. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of pain intensity on the association...

  13. Cancer Health Empowerment for Living without Pain (Ca-HELP: study design and rationale for a tailored education and coaching intervention to enhance care of cancer-related pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slee Christina

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer-related pain is common and under-treated. This article describes a study designed to test the effectiveness of a theory-driven, patient-centered coaching intervention to improve cancer pain processes and outcomes. Methods/Design The Cancer Health Empowerment for Living without Pain (Ca-HELP Study is an American Cancer Society sponsored randomized trial conducted in Sacramento, California. A total of 265 cancer patients with at least moderate pain severity (Worst Pain Numerical Analog Score >=4 out of 10 or pain-related impairment (Likert score >= 3 out of 5 were randomly assigned to receive tailored education and coaching (TEC or educationally-enhanced usual care (EUC; 258 received at least one follow-up assessment. The TEC intervention is based on social-cognitive theory and consists of 6 components (assess, correct, teach, prepare, rehearse, portray. Both interventions were delivered over approximately 30 minutes just prior to a scheduled oncology visit. The majority of visits (56% were audio-recorded for later communication coding. Follow-up data including outcomes related to pain severity and impairment, self-efficacy for pain control and for patient-physician communication, functional status and well-being, and anxiety were collected at 2, 6, and 12 weeks. Discussion Building on social cognitive theory and pilot work, this study aims to test the hypothesis that a brief, tailored patient activation intervention will promote better cancer pain care and outcomes. Analyses will focus on the effects of the experimental intervention on pain severity and impairment (primary outcomes; self-efficacy and quality of life (secondary outcomes; and relationships among processes and outcomes of cancer pain care. If this model of coaching by lay health educators proves successful, it could potentially be implemented widely at modest cost. Trial Registration [Clinical Trials Identifier: NCT00283166

  14. Effects of an exercise and manual therapy program on physical impairments, function and quality-of-life in people with osteoporotic vertebral fracture: a randomised, single-blind controlled pilot trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherburn Margaret

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This randomised, single-blind controlled pilot trial aimed to determine the effectiveness of a physiotherapy program, including exercise and manual therapy, in reducing impairments and improving physical function and health-related quality of life in people with a history of painful osteoporotic vertebral fracture. Methods 20 participants were randomly allocated to an intervention (n = 11 or control (n = 9 group. The intervention group attended individual sessions with an experienced clinician once a week for 10 weeks and performed daily home exercises with adherence monitored by a self-report diary. The control group received no treatment. Blinded assessment was conducted at baseline and 11 weeks. Questionnaires assessed self-reported changes in back pain, physical function, and health-related quality of life. Objective measures of thoracic kyphosis, back and shoulder muscle endurance (Timed Loaded Standing Test, and function (Timed Up and Go test were also taken. Results Compared with the control group, the intervention group showed significant reductions in pain during movement (mean difference (95% CI -1.8 (-3.5 to -0.1 and at rest (-2.0 (-3.8 to -0.2 and significantly greater improvements in Qualeffo physical function (-4.8 (-9.2 to -0.5 and the Timed Loaded Standing test (46.7 (16.1 to 77.3 secs. For the perceived change in back pain over the 10 weeks, 9/11 (82% participants in the intervention group rated their pain as 'much better' compared with only 1/9 (11% participants in the control group. Conclusion Despite the modest sample size, these results support the benefits of exercise and manual therapy in the clinical management of patients with osteoporotic vertebral fractures, but need to be confirmed in a larger sample. Trail registration NCT00638768

  15. Searching for strategies to reduce the mechanical demands of the sit-to-stand task with a muscle-actuated optimal control model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, M.F.; Kistemaker, D.A.; Vaz, M.A.; Ackermann, M

    2016-01-01

    Background The sit-to-stand task, which involves rising unassisted from sitting on a chair to standing, is important in daily life. Many people with muscle weakness, reduced range of motion or loading-related pain in a particular joint have difficulty performing the task. How should a person

  16. CLINICAL AND HAEMATO-BIOCHEMICAL ALTERATIONS FOLLOWING TREATMENT WITH INTERFERENTIAL THERAPY IN THE BACK PAIN IN DOGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Sharma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of sixteen clinical cases, comprising of 8 animals each in Group I (animals with hindquarter weakness, which could stand, and had staggering gait and intact pain sensation and Group II (animals with hind quarter paresis, which were unable to stand and dragged hind legs while walking with intact pain sensation were treated with Computerized interferential unit and conventional therapy. Different clinical and haematobiochemical study revealed that the post treatment changes were transient and remains within normal physiological limits.

  17. Stress-related clinical pain and mood in women with chronic pain: moderating effects of depression and positive mood induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mary C; Thummala, Kirti; Zautra, Alex J

    2014-08-01

    Chronic pain with comorbid depression is characterized by poor mood regulation and stress-related pain. This study aims to compare depressed and non-depressed pain patients in mood and pain stress reactivity and recovery, and test whether a post-stress positive mood induction moderates pain recovery. Women with fibromyalgia and/or osteoarthritis (N = 110) underwent interpersonal stress and were then randomly assigned by pain condition and depression status, assessed via the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale, to positive versus neutral mood induction. Depression did not predict stress-related reactivity in despondency, joviality, or clinical pain. However, depression × mood condition predicted recovery in joviality and clinical pain; depressed women recovered only in the positive mood condition, whereas non-depressed women recovered in both mood conditions. Depression does not alter pain and mood stress reactivity, but does impair recovery. Boosting post-stress jovial mood ameliorates pain recovery deficits in depressed patients, a finding relevant to chronic pain interventions.

  18. Predictive risk factors for persistent postherniotomy pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske K; Gmaehle, Eliza; Hansen, Jeanette B

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persistent postherniotomy pain (PPP) affects everyday activities in 5-10% of patients. Identification of predisposing factors may help to identify the risk groups and guide anesthetic or surgical procedures in reducing risk for PPP. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in 464...... patients undergoing open or laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal elective groin hernia repair. Primary outcome was identification of risk factors for substantial pain-related functional impairment at 6 months postoperatively assessed by the validated Activity Assessment Scale (AAS). Data on potential...... risk factors for PPP were collected preoperatively (pain from the groin hernia, preoperative AAS score, pain from other body regions, and psychometric assessment). Pain scores were collected on days 7 and 30 postoperatively. Sensory functions including pain response to tonic heat stimulation were...

  19. The Cannabinoid System and Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhams, Stephen G.; Chapman, Victoria; Finn, David P.; Hohmann, Andrea G.; Neugebauer, Volker

    2018-01-01

    Chronic pain states are highly prevalent and yet poorly controlled by currently available analgesics, representing an enormous clinical, societal, and economic burden. Existing pain medications have significant limitations and adverse effects including tolerance, dependence, gastrointestinal dysfunction, cognitive impairment, and a narrow therapeutic window, making the search for novel analgesics ever more important. In this article, we review the role of an important endogenous pain control system, the endocannabinoid (EC) system, in the sensory, emotional, and cognitive aspects of pain. Herein, we briefly cover the discovery of the EC system and its role in pain processing pathways, before concentrating on three areas of current major interest in EC pain research; 1. Pharmacological enhancement of endocannabinoid activity (via blockade of EC metabolism or allosteric modulation of CB1 receptors); 2. The EC System and stress-induced modulation of pain; and 3. The EC system & medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) dysfunction in pain states. Whilst we focus predominantly on the preclinical data, we also include extensive discussion of recent clinical failures of endocannabinoid-related therapies, the future potential of these approaches, and important directions for future research on the EC system and pain. PMID:28625720

  20. Motor cortex tRNS improves pain, affective and cognitive impairment in patients with fibromyalgia: preliminary results of a randomised sham-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curatolo, Massimiliano; La Bianca, Giuseppe; Cosentino, Giuseppe; Baschi, Roberta; Salemi, Giuseppe; Talotta, Rossella; Romano, Marcello; Triolo, Giovanni; De Tommaso, Marina; Fierro, Brigida; Brighina, Filippo

    2017-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a clinical syndrome characterised by widespread musculoskeletal pain, chronic fatigue, cognitive deficits, and sleep and mood disorders. The effectiveness of most pharmacological treatments is limited, and there is a need for new, effective and well-tolerated therapies. It has recently been shown that transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) of the motor cortex reduces pain, and that tDCS of the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) improves anxiety, depression and cognitive impairment in FM patients. The new technique of transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) using randomly changing alternating currents has very recently been shown to improve working memory and pain in limited series of patients with FM or neuropathic pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical effects of primary motor cortex (M1) tRNS in FM patients. Twenty female FM patients aged 26-67 years were randomised to undergo active (real) or placebo (sham) tRNS sessions on five days a week (Monday-Friday) for two weeks. Each patient was evaluated before and after treatment using a visual analogue scale (VAS), the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Trail Making Test (TMT), the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), the Forward and Backward Digit Span test, and the FAS verbal fluency test. In comparison with sham treatment, active tRNS of M1 induced a general improvement in the clinical picture of FM, with a significant reduction in pain, depression, anxiety and FIQ scores and a significant improvement in TMT (A), RAVLT and FAS scores. These findings suggest that tRNS of M1 can be very effective in relieving FM symptoms. Unlike motor cortex tDCS, it seems to counteract both pain and cognitive disturbances, possibly because the invoked mechanism of stochastic resonance synchronises neural firing and thus leads to more widespread and lasting effects.

  1. Impaired recognition of social emotion in patients with complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Na Young; Kang, Do-Hyung; Jang, Joon Hwan; Park, Soo Young; Hwang, Jae Yeon; Kim, Sung Nyun; Byun, Min Soo; Park, Hye Youn; Kim, Yong Chul

    2013-11-01

    Multiple brain areas involved in nociceptive, autonomic, and social-emotional processing are disproportionally changed in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Little empirical evidence is available involving social cognitive functioning in patients with chronic pain conditions. We investigated the ability of patients with CRPS to recognize the mental/emotional states of other people. Forty-three patients with CRPS and 30 healthy controls performed the Reading Mind in the Eyes Test, which consists of photos in which human eyes express various emotional and mental states. Neuropsychological tests, including the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the stop-signal test, and the reaction time test, were administered to evaluate other cognitive functions. Patients with CRPS were significantly less accurate at recognizing emotional states in other persons, but not on other cognitive tests, compared with control subjects. We found a significant association between the deficit in social-emotion recognition and the affective dimension of pain, whereas this deficit was not related to the sensory dimension of pain. Our findings suggest a disrupted ability to recognize others' mental/emotional states in patients with CRPS. This article demonstrated a deficit in inferring mental/emotional states of others in patients with CRPS that was related to pain affect. Our study suggests that additional interventions directed toward reducing distressful affective pain may be helpful to restore social cognitive processing in patients with CRPS. Copyright © 2013 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Doloplus-2, a valid tool for behavioural pain assessment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loge Jon H

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Doloplus-2 is used for behavioural pain assessment in cognitively impaired patients. Little data exists on the psychometric properties of the Doloplus-2. Our objectives were to test the criterion validity and inter-rater reliability of the Doloplus-2, and to explore a design for validations of behavioural pain assessment tools. Methods Fifty-one nursing home patients and 22 patients admitted to a geriatric hospital ward were included. All were cognitively impaired and unable to self-report pain. Each patient was examined by an expert in pain evaluation and treatment, who rated the pain on a numerical rating scale. The ratings were based on information from the medical record, reports from nurses and patients (if possible about pain during the past 24 hours, and a clinical examination. These ratings were used as pain criterion. The Doloplus-2 was administered by the attending nurse. Regression analyses were used to estimate the ability of the Doloplus-2 to explain the expert's ratings. The inter-rater reliability of the Doloplus-2 was evaluated in 16 patients by comparing the ratings of two nurses administrating the Doloplus-2. Results There was no association between the Doloplus-2 and the expert's pain ratings (R2 = 0.02. There was an association (R2 = 0.54 between the expert's ratings and the Doloplus-2 scores in a subgroup of 16 patients assessed by a geriatric expert nurse (the most experienced Doloplus-2 administrator. The inter-rater reliability between the Doloplus-2 administrators assessed by the intra-class coefficient was 0.77. The pain expert's ratings were compared with ratings of two independent geriatricians in a sub sample of 15, and were found satisfactory (intra-class correlation 0.74. Conclusion It was challenging to conduct such a study in patients with cognitive impairment and the study has several limitations. The results do not support the validity of the Doloplus-2 in its present version and they

  3. Why Aren't There More Female Pain Medicine Physicians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Tina L; Bicket, Mark C

    2018-04-09

    Despite a growing awareness about the importance of gender equity and the rising number of women in medicine, women remain persistently underrepresented in pain medicine and anesthesiology. Pain medicine ranks among the bottom quartile of medical specialties in terms of female applicants, female trainees, and proportion of female practitioners. Female pain medicine physicians are also notably disadvantaged compared with their male colleagues in most objective metrics of gender equity, which include financial compensation, career advancement, public recognition, and leadership positions. Increased gender diversity among pain medicine physicians is vital to fostering excellence in pain research, education, and clinical care, as well as creating a high-quality work environment. Pain medicine stands at a crossroads as a specialty, and must examine reasons for its current gender gap and consider a call to action to address this important issue.

  4. Disentangling the Sleep-Pain Relationship in Pediatric Chronic Pain: The Mediating Role of Internalizing Mental Health Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pavlova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pediatric chronic pain often emerges in adolescence and cooccurs with internalizing mental health issues and sleep impairments. Emerging evidence suggests that sleep problems may precede the onset of chronic pain as well as anxiety and depression. Studies conducted in pediatric populations with pain-related chronic illnesses suggest that internalizing mental health symptoms may mediate the sleep-pain relationship; however, this has not been examined in youth with primary pain disorders. Objective. To examine whether anxiety and depressive symptoms mediated relationships between sleep quality and pain outcomes among youth with chronic pain. Methods. Participants included 147 youth (66.7% female aged 8–18 years who were referred to a tertiary-level chronic pain program. At intake, the youth completed psychometrically sound measures of sleep quality, pain intensity, pain interference, and anxiety and depressive symptoms. Results. As hypothesized, poor sleep quality was associated with increased pain intensity and pain interference, and anxiety and depressive symptoms mediated these sleep-pain relationships. Discussion. For youth with chronic pain, poor sleep quality may worsen pain through alterations in mood and anxiety; however, prospective research using objective measures is needed. Future research should examine whether targeting sleep and internalizing mental health symptoms in treatments improve pain outcomes in these youth.

  5. Using Pictures to Assess Pain Location in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesko, Phyllis J; Eliades, Aris Beoglos

    2018-06-01

    This study uses the Pain Area Locator (PAL) tool, a picture communication aid with body and medical equipment icons, to identify pain location in postoperative pediatric patients and assesses discrepancies between nurses' pain location assessment and pain location identified using the PAL tool. This descriptive study used a quantitative, comparative design, with a convenience sample of pediatric postoperative patients undergoing same-day surgeries at a free-standing, acute care, Magnet designated pediatric hospital. The child's pain location was assessed by asking the child to point to one of the 12 pictures on the PAL tool of where they hurt. All 41 (100%) of the postoperative children in the study demonstrated ability to use the PAL tool. The child identified a pain location in 34 assessments (83%) when the nurse documented no pain location. This investigation expands on previous evidence supporting that children can use the PAL tool to identify the pain location postoperatively. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. An analysis of posture and back pain in the first and third trimesters of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, M E; Conner-Kerr, T

    1998-09-01

    While the incidence of back pain during pregnancy has been shown to be high, few studies have investigated postural changes that occur during pregnancy and their relationship to back pain. The purpose of this study was to determine if posture and back pain changed from the first to the third trimester of pregnancy and whether there was a relationship between the two. Twelve healthy women who were having uncomplicated pregnancies participated in the study. During the first and third trimesters, each subject had their standing posture and back pain assessed by a Metrecom Skeletal Analysis System and a 0- to 10-cm line pain scale, respectively. Repeated measures analysis of variance and Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated on or between back pain and nine posture variables and revealed significant increases in third trimester back pain and postures compared with first trimester back pain (p postures for lumbar angle (p change in posture and back pain. These results suggest that in the standing position the lumbar lordosis and sagittal pelvic tilt increased and head position become more posterior as women progressed from the first trimester to the last trimester of pregnancy. These postural changes, however, were not related to back pain. This suggests that many of the posture-correcting clinical exercise regimens given to pregnant women need to be investigated.

  7. Availability and utilization of opioids for pain management: global issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjiani, Deepak; Paul, D Baby; Kunnumpurath, Sreekumar; Kaye, Alan David; Vadivelu, Nalini

    2014-01-01

    Pain can significantly influence an individual's health status and can have serious negative consequences: poor nutrition, decreased appetite, abnormal sleep patterns, fatigue, and impairment of daily living activities. Pain can cause psychological impairment and decrease healing and recovery from injuries and illness. A hallmark of many chronic conditions, pain affects more patients' lives than diabetes mellitus, heart disease, and cancer combined. However, many chronic sufferers do not have access to effective pain management for a variety of reasons, including limited access, restrictions, and personal and cultural biases. This review summarizes issues of access, distribution, and cultural bias with regard to opioid agents and seeks to clarify the challenges related to opioid delivery. The considerable negative physical and mental consequences of chronic pain are discussed for the general and palliative care population. Opioids are an effective treatment for various intractable painful conditions, but problems in global opioid access for safe and rational use in pain management contribute to unnecessary suffering. These problems persist despite increased understanding in recent years of the pathophysiology of pain. Comprehensive guidelines for goal-directed and patient-friendly chronic opiate therapy will potentially enhance the outlook for future chronic pain management. The improvement of pain education in undergraduate and postgraduate training will benefit patients and clinicians. The promise of new medications, along with the utilization of multimodal approaches, has the potential to provide effective pain relief to future generations of sufferers.

  8. Biofeedback for pain management in traumatised refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Julia; Karl, Anke; Denke, Claudia; Mathier, Fabienne; Dittmann, Jennifer; Rohleder, Nicolas; Knaevelsrud, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Chronic pain (CP) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are both frequent and often comorbid in refugees. To date, few controlled trials have studied the efficacy of treatments targeting this comorbidity; no treatment guidelines yet exist. The authors examined the feasibility and efficacy of short-term cognitive behavioural biofeedback (BF) addressing CP in traumatised refugees. The sample comprised 11 severely traumatised refugees with CP and PTSD (mean age = 36 years, SD = 6), who underwent assessment with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale, Pain Disability Index, and Visual Rating Scale. Additionally, coping with pain and psychotherapy tolerance were assessed. Acceptance of BF was high. Pre-post effects were small to medium for increased pain management and associated heart rate reactivity but large for coping with pain. The results encourage further research to confirm whether BF is indicated as a treatment component, but not a stand-alone treatment, for traumatised refugees with comorbid CP and PTSD.

  9. Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis Who Score Highly on the PainDETECT Questionnaire Present With Multimodality Hyperalgesia, Increased Pain, and Impaired Physical Function

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, Penny; Benson, Heather A.E.; Will, Rob; Wright, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: PainDETECT is a self-report questionnaire that can be used to identify features of neuropathic pain. A proportion of patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) score highly on the PainDETECT questionnaire. This study aimed to determine whether those with a higher “positive neuropathic” score on the PainDETECT questionnaire also had greater pain, hypersensitivity, and reduced function compared with individuals with knee OA with lower PainDETECT scores. Materials and Methods: In total, ...

  10. Cognitive Impairments and Subjective Cognitive Complaints in Fabry Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loeb, Josefine; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Madsen, Christoffer Valdorff

    2018-01-01

    Fabry disease is a rare progressive X-linked lysosomal storage disorder which leads to neuropathic pain, organ dysfunction and cerebral pathology. Few studies have investigated cognitive impairment in Fabry disease and these previous studies are difficult to compare due to heterogeneous methodolo......Fabry disease is a rare progressive X-linked lysosomal storage disorder which leads to neuropathic pain, organ dysfunction and cerebral pathology. Few studies have investigated cognitive impairment in Fabry disease and these previous studies are difficult to compare due to heterogeneous...... methodological designs and small cohorts. The objective was to investigate the frequency of cognitive impairment in the Danish nationwide cohort of Fabry patients. Further, we examined if subjective cognitive complaints were associated with objective cognitive performances in this patient group....... Neuropsychological tests (17 measures) and evaluation of subjective complaints with the Perceived Deficits Questionnaire (PDQ) were applied in 41 of 63 patients. According to an a priori definition, 12 patients (29.3%) were cognitively impaired. Tests tapping psychomotor speed, attention and executive functions had...

  11. Influence of pain on postural control in women with neck pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Soares

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of pain on postural control in women with neck pain and the relationship with possible changes in sensory systems and posture. The neck pain group was composed of women, aged between 20 and 50years, complaining of neck pain for more than three months; the control group was composed of women without complaints of neck pain. For the characterization of the groups, we used anamnesis, neck disability index and Visual Analogue Scale. Postural balance was assessed on force platform. Postural balance with manipulation of the sensory systems was measured by Foam Laser Dynamic Posturography, exposing the individual to six sensory organization tests. Posture was assessed by the Postural Assessment Software. The normality of the variables were verified using Shapiro-Wilk test, Student’s t-test and Mann-Whitney test for comparison between groups, with a significance level of5%. Groups were homogeneous in demographic variables. We observed higher amplitude and displacement velocity of the center of pressure in the neck pain group, showing greater postural balance. There were significant diferences incraniovertebral angle, showing forward head posture in symptomatic women. In dynamics posturography, we observed a difference between the groups: the score obtainedin the six sensory conditions showed that neck pain group presented greater balance impairment. Neck pain and forward head posture have a deleterious effect on postural control in symptomatic women, both in the static posture and dynamic posture.

  12. Prognostic Value of Impaired Preoperative Ankle Reflex in Surgical Outcome of Lumbar Disc Herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Omidi-Kashani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several prognostic factors exist influencing the outcome of surgical discectomy in the patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between severity of preoperative impaired ankle reflex and outcomes of lumbar discectomy in the patients with L5-S1 LDH. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 181 patients (108 male and 73 female who underwent simple discectomy in our orthopedic department from April 2009 to April 2013 and followed them up for more than one year. The mean age of the patients was 35.3±8.9 years old. Severity of reflex impairment was graded from 0 to 4+ and radicular pain and disability were assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS and Oswestry disability index (ODI questionnaires, respectively. Subjective satisfaction was also evaluated at the last follow-up visit. Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare qualitative variables. Results: Reflex impairment existed in 44.8% preoperatively that improved to 10% at the last follow-up visit. Statistical analyses could not find a significant relationship between the severity of impaired ankle reflex and sex or age (P=0.538 and P=0.709, respectively. There was a remarkable relationship between severity of reflex impairment and preoperative radicular pain or disability (P=0.012 and P=0.002, respectively. Kruskal-Wallis test showed that a more severity in ankle reflex impairment was associated with not only less improvement in postoperative pain and disability but also less satisfaction rate (P Conclusions: In the patients with L5-S1 LDH, more severe ankle reflex impairment is associated with less improvement in postoperative pain, disability, and subjective satisfaction.

  13. Acute and chronic pain syndromes in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Knudsen, L; Jensen, K

    1991-01-01

    with pain at the time of the examination increased with age and duration of disease. Patients with pain were significantly more often spastic and significantly more often sought alternative treatment forms. No difference was found for mean age, sex, physical impairment, duration of disease from onset of MS......, depressive score and score of delayed verbal memory....

  14. The Sit & Stand chair. A revolutionary advance in adaptive seating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galumbeck, Michael H; Buschbacher, Ralph M; Wilder, Robert P; Winters, Kathryne L; Hudson, Mary Anne; Edlich, Richard F

    2004-01-01

    A major factor governing independence for the elderly and persons with disabilities is the ability to stand from a chair. Factors such as pain, reduced joint range of motion, stiffness, and muscle weakness frequently limit the ability to stand. Sit-to-stand position is even further reduced in patients whose hands and shoulders are afflicted with rheumatoid arthritis. When achieving a sit-to-stand position in the elderly and persons with disabilities, there is considerable risk of the individual falling and sustaining bone fracture. The purposes of this scientific report are to achieve the following goals: (1) to provide a narrative discussion of the senior author's contributions to furniture manufacturing as well as his successful patent application for the SIT & STAND chair, (2) to describe the steps involved in the development of the SIT & STAND prototype, and (3) to examine the performance of the SIT & STAND chair in assisting the elderly or persons with disabilities in achieving a sit-to-stand position. The invention of the SIT & STAND chair by the senior author, Michael Galumbeck, was a culmination of his lifelong interest in adaptive seating systems. His electrically operated chair has the unique ability to assist the occupant to achieve safely a sit-to-stand position. The rear portion of his chair remains in a fixed position to support the buttocks of the user during mechanical lift. The front portion of the seat folds down incrementally as the chair rises to allow the feet of the user to be positioned in a more posterior position firmly on the floor. Using its actuator, the height that the chair rises will vary with the length of the legs of the occupant. Using the drawing program Solid Works (Solid Works, Concord, Massachusetts), drawings of the chair were made. To visualize the operation and performance of the chair, separate drawings were made in the lateral position. The prototype of the SIT & STAND chair was manufactured with an electric actuator that

  15. Heterogeneous sensory processing in persistent postherniotomy pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske Kvanner; Brandsborg, Birgitte; Jensen, Troels Staehelin

    2010-01-01

    hinders evaluation of potential subgroups for further investigation and/or treatment allocation. Thus we used a standardized QST protocol to evaluate sensory functions in PPP and pain-free control patients, to allow individual sensory characterization of pain patients from calculated Z-values. Seventy PPP...... patients with pain related impairment of everyday activities were compared with normative data from 40 pain-free postherniotomy patients operated>1 year previously. Z-values showed a large variation in sensory disturbances ranging from pronounced detection hypoesthesia (Z=6, cold) to pain hyperalgesia (Z......=-8, pressure). Hyperalgesia for various modalities were found in 80% of patients, with pressure hyperalgesia in approximately 65%, and cutaneous (mechanical or thermal) hyperalgesia in approximately 35% of patients. The paradoxical combination of tactile hypoesthesia and hyperalgesia was seen...

  16. Effects of Acute Alcohol Intoxication on Empathic Neural Responses for Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The questions whether and how empathy for pain can be modulated by acute alcohol intoxication in the non-dependent population remain unanswered. To address these questions, a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject study design was adopted in this study, in which healthy social drinkers were asked to complete a pain-judgment task using pictures depicting others' body parts in painful or non-painful situations during fMRI scanning, either under the influence of alcohol intoxication or placebo conditions. Empathic neural activity for pain was reduced by alcohol intoxication only in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC. More interestingly, we observed that empathic neural activity for pain in the right anterior insula (rAI was significantly correlated with trait empathy only after alcohol intoxication, along with impaired functional connectivity between the rAI and the fronto-parietal attention network. Our results reveal that alcohol intoxication not only inhibits empathic neural responses for pain but also leads to trait empathy inflation, possibly via impaired top-down attentional control. These findings help to explain the neural mechanism underlying alcohol-related social problems.

  17. Differences in Pain Processing Between Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain, Recurrent Low Back Pain, and Fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goubert, Dorien; Danneels, Lieven; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Descheemaeker, Filip; Meeus, Mira

    2017-05-01

    The impairment in musculoskeletal structures in patients with low back pain (LBP) is often disproportionate to their complaint. Therefore, the need arises for exploration of alternative mechanisms contributing to the origin and maintenance of non-specific LBP. The recent focus has been on central nervous system phenomena in LBP and the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the various symptoms and characteristics of chronic pain. Knowledge concerning changes in pain processing in LBP remains ambiguous, partly due to the diversity in the LBP population. The purpose of this study is to compare quantitative sensory assessment in different groups of LBP patients with regard to chronicity. Recurrent low back pain (RLBP), mild chronic low back pain (CLBP), and severe CLBP are compared on the one hand with healthy controls (HC), and on the other hand with fibromyalgia (FM) patients, in which abnormal pain processing has previously been reported. Cross-sectional study. Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Ghent University, Belgium. Twenty-three RLBP, 15 mild CLBP, 16 severe CLBP, 26 FM, and 21 HC participated in this study. Quantitative sensory testing was conducted by manual pressure algometry and computer-controlled cuff algometry. A manual algometer was used to evaluate hyperalgesia as well as temporal summation of pain and a cuff algometer was used to evaluate deep tissue hyperalgesia, the efficacy of the conditioned pain modulation and spatial summation of pain. Pressure pain thresholds by manual algometry were significantly lower in FM compared to HC, RLBP, and severe CLBP. Temporal summation of pain was significantly higher in FM compared to HC and RLBP. Pain tolerance thresholds assessed by cuff algometry were significantly lower in FM compared to HC and RLBP and also in severe CLBP compared to RLBP. No significant differences between groups were found for spatial summation or conditioned pain modulation. No psychosocial issues were taken into account for this

  18. Pain physiology education improves health status and endogenous pain inhibition in fibromyalgia: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oosterwijck, Jessica; Meeus, Mira; Paul, Lorna; De Schryver, Mieke; Pascal, Aurelie; Lambrecht, Luc; Nijs, Jo

    2013-10-01

    There is evidence that education on pain physiology can have positive effects on pain, disability, and catastrophization in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain disorders. A double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) was performed to examine whether intensive pain physiology education is also effective in fibromyalgia (FM) patients, and whether it is able to influence the impaired endogenous pain inhibition of these patients. Thirty FM patients were randomly allocated to either the experimental (receiving pain physiology education) or the control group (receiving pacing self-management education). The primary outcome was the efficacy of the pain inhibitory mechanisms, which was evaluated by spatially accumulating thermal nociceptive stimuli. Secondary outcome measures included pressure pain threshold measurements and questionnaires assessing pain cognitions, behavior, and health status. Assessments were performed at baseline, 2 weeks, and 3 months follow-up. Repeated measures ANOVAS were used to reveal possible therapy effects and effect sizes were calculated. After the intervention the experimental group had improved knowledge of pain neurophysiology (Pphysiology. Pain physiology education seems to be a useful component in the treatment of FM patients as it improves health status and endogenous pain inhibition in the long term.

  19. Low-Dose Intravenous Immunoglobulin Treatment for Long-Standing Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Andreas; Bisla, Jatinder; Carganillo, Roy; Frank, Bernhard; Gupta, Rima; Kelly, Joanna; McCabe, Candy; Murphy, Caroline; Padfield, Nick; Phillips, Ceri; Sanders, Mark; Serpell, Mick; Shenker, Nick; Shoukrey, Karim; Wyatt, Lynne; Ambler, Gareth

    2017-10-03

    Two small trials suggest that low-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) may improve the symptoms of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), a rare posttraumatic pain condition. To confirm the efficacy of low-dose IVIg compared with placebo in reducing pain during a 6-week period in adult patients who had CRPS from 1 to 5 years. 1:1 parallel, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial for 6 weeks, with an optional 6-week open extension. Patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 study groups between 27 August 2013 and 28 October 2015; the last patient completed follow-up on 21 March 2016. Patients, providers, researchers, and outcome assessors were blinded to treatment assignment. (ISRCTN42179756). 7 secondary and tertiary care pain management centers in the United Kingdom. 111 patients with moderate or severe CRPS of 1 to 5 years' duration. IVIg, 0.5 g/kg of body weight, or visually indistinguishable placebo of 0.1% albumin in saline on days 1 and 22 after randomization. The primary outcome was 24-hour average pain intensity, measured daily between days 6 and 42, on an 11-point (0- to 10-point) rating scale. Secondary outcomes were pain interference and quality of life. The primary analysis sample consisted of 108 eligible patients, 103 of whom had outcome data. Mean (average) pain scores were 6.9 points (SD, 1.5) for placebo and 7.2 points (SD, 1.3) for IVIg. The adjusted difference in means was 0.27 (95% CI, -0.25 to 0.80; P = 0.30), which excluded the prespecified, clinically important difference of -1.2. No statistically significant differences in secondary outcomes were found between the groups. In the open extension, 12 of the 67 patients (18%) who received 2 IVIg infusions had pain reduction of at least 2 points compared with their baseline score. Two patients in the blinded phase (1 in the placebo and 1 in the IVIg group) and 4 in the open IVIg phase had serious events. Results do not apply to patients who have had CRPS for less than 1 year or more

  20. Residual impairment after lower extremity fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faergemann, C; Frandsen, P A; Röck, N D

    1998-01-01

    In a prospective follow-up study of 158 consecutive patients 18 to 64 years old with unilateral lower extremity fracture, our aim was to disclose the impairment and disability 6 months after the injury. The patients were interviewed within 1 week after the trauma, and all patients returned...... the functional status before the injury. Additionally, three major aspects of impairments were measured 6 months after the fractures: range of motion, muscle strength, and pain. Most patients had a significantly higher SIP score 6 months after the fracture(s) than pretraumatically. The mean overall SIP score...... was 2.7 pretraumatically and 8.7 6 months posttraumatically. Major deficits in range of motion was observed, especially in the ankle joint. Additionally, loss of muscle strength was observed in the thigh and calf muscles in one fourth of the patients. Only low levels of residual pain were reported after...

  1. Do subjects with acute/subacute temporomandibular disorder have associated cervical impairments: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Piekartz, Harry; Pudelko, Ani; Danzeisen, Mira; Hall, Toby; Ballenberger, Nikolaus

    2016-12-01

    There is preliminary evidence of cervical musculoskeletal impairment in some temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain states. To determine whether people with TMD, classified as either mild or moderate/severe TMD, have more cervical signs of dysfunction than healthy subjects. Cross-sectional survey. Based on the Conti Amnestic Questionnaire and examination of the temporomandibular joint (Axis I classification of the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD), of 144 people examined 59 were classified to a mild TMD group, 40 to a moderate/severe TMD group and 45 to an asymptomatic control group without TMD. Subjects were evaluated for signs of cervical musculoskeletal impairment and disability including the Neck Disability Index, active cervical range of motion, the Flexion-Rotation Test, mechanical pain threshold of the upper trapezius and obliquus capitis inferior muscles, Cranio-Cervical Flexion test and passive accessory movements of the upper 3 cervical vertebrae. According to cervical musculoskeletal dysfunction, the control group without TMD were consistently the least impaired and the group with moderate/severe TMD were the most impaired. These results suggest, that the more dysfunction and pain is identified in the temporomandibular region, the greater levels of dysfunction is observable on a number of cervical musculoskeletal function tests. The pattern of cervical musculoskeletal dysfunction is distinct to other cervical referred pain phenomenon such as cervicogenic headache. These findings provide evidence that TMD in an acute/subacute pain state is strongly related with certain cervical spine musculoskeletal impairments which suggests the cervical spine should be examined in patients with TMD as a potential contributing factor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pain Control in the Presence of Drug Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadivelu, Nalini; Lumermann, Leandro; Zhu, Richard; Kodumudi, Gopal; Elhassan, Amir O; Kaye, Alan David

    2016-05-01

    Drug addiction is present in a significant proportion of the population in the USA and worldwide. Drug addiction can occur with the abuse of many types of substances including cocaine, marijuana, stimulants, alcohol, opioids, and tranquilizers. There is a high likelihood that clinicians will encounter patients with substance abuse disorders on a regular basis with the prevalence of the use of illicit substances and the high rate of abuse of prescription drugs. The use of abuse deterrent formulations of prescription opioid agents, pill counts, and urine drug abuse screenings are all useful strategies. Optimum pain management of patients with addiction in the outpatient and inpatient setting is essential to minimize pain states. Careful selection of medications and appropriate oversight, including drug agreements, can reduce drug-induced impairments, including sleep deficits and diminished physical, social, and sexual functioning. This review, therefore, discusses the prevalence of illicit and prescription drug addiction, the challenges of achieving optimum pain control, and the therapeutic approaches to be considered in this challenging population. More research is warranted to develop improved therapies and routes of treatments for optimum pain relief and to prevent the development of central sensitization, chronic pain, and impaired physical and social functioning in patients with drug addiction.

  3. Light touch contact improves pain-evoked postural instability during quiet standing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirata, Rogerio P.; Christensen, Steffan W.; Agger, Simone

    2018-01-01

    for 40 seconds with their eyes closed. Their postural stability was quantified by the area and velocity of center of pressure (CoP) displacement. The CoP was recorded with and without pain during two different conditions: 1) no touch and 2) the subjects were asked to lightly touch a curtain...

  4. Jumping Stand Apparatus Reveals Rapidly Specific Age-Related Cognitive Impairments in Mouse Lemur Primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Picq

    Full Text Available The mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus is a promising primate model for investigating normal and pathological cerebral aging. The locomotor behavior of this arboreal primate is characterized by jumps to and from trunks and branches. Many reports indicate insufficient adaptation of the mouse lemur to experimental devices used to evaluate its cognition, which is an impediment to the efficient use of this animal in research. In order to develop cognitive testing methods appropriate to the behavioral and biological traits of this species, we adapted the Lashley jumping stand apparatus, initially designed for rats, to the mouse lemur. We used this jumping stand apparatus to compare performances of young (n = 12 and aged (n = 8 adults in acquisition and long-term retention of visual discriminations. All mouse lemurs completed the tasks and only 25 trials, on average, were needed to master the first discrimination problem with no age-related differences. A month later, all mouse lemurs made progress for acquiring the second discrimination problem but only the young group reached immediately the criterion in the retention test of the first discrimination problem. This study shows that the jumping stand apparatus allows rapid and efficient evaluation of cognition in mouse lemurs and demonstrates that about half of the old mouse lemurs display a specific deficit in long-term retention but not in acquisition of visual discrimination.

  5. COMPLEX REGIONAL PAIN SYNDROME: AN UPDATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Complex Regional Pain Syndrome or CRPS is a chronic disabling heterogenous pain disorder due to trauma, resulting in sensory changes, motor function impairment, psychological changes. Diagnosis is based on clinical features and investigations. The patho - physiology is not clearly known. There is no single drug therapy, only combinations work. Treatment is multidisplinary involving medical, psychological and rehabi li tation. Newer modes of spinal cord stimulations, neuraxial mode of analgesics and newe r drugs are promising

  6. [Bone metastases pain in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouahnia, K; Luu, M; Baba-Hamed, N; Des Guetz, G

    2009-05-20

    Every year in Europe and in USA, more than 60% of new cases of cancer are diagnosed at the patient's of more than 65 years with a mortality of more than 70%. Pain, is a major symptom which often accompanies cancer. It is always painful and intolerable, notably when pain is linked to bone metastases to elderly patients often poly pathological. In 1/3 of cases pain is present at the time of diagnosis of cancer and in 2/3 of cases at the advanced diseases. The bone metastases occupy the third place after the pulmonary and liver metastases. They are in order of frequency linked in breast cancer, the kidney and the prostate cancer. Bone metastases are at the origin of the loss of the elderly autonomy, with for consequence an impairment of quality of life. Validated tools are at now available to assess this pain. The different treatments offered in bone metastases pain are: the chemotherapy, the surgery, radiotherapy, bisphosphonates and analgesic treatment.

  7. Is there a relationship between pain intensity and postural sway in patients with non-specific low back pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhe, Alexander; Fejer, René; Walker, Bruce

    2011-07-15

    Increased center of pressure excursions are well documented in patients suffering from non-specific low back pain, whereby the altered postural sway includes both higher mean sway velocities and larger sway area. No investigation has been conducted to evaluate a relationship between pain intensity and postural sway in adults (aged 50 or less) with non-specific low back pain. Seventy-seven patients with non-specific low back pain and a matching number of healthy controls were enrolled. Center of pressure parameters were measured by three static bipedal standing tasks of 90 sec duration with eyes closed in narrow stance on a firm surface. The perceived pain intensity was assessed by a numeric rating scale (NRS-11), an equal number of patients (n = 11) was enrolled per pain score. Generally, our results confirmed increased postural instability in pain sufferers compared to healthy controls. In addition, regression analysis revealed a significant and linear increase in postural sway with higher pain ratings for all included COP parameters. Statistically significant changes in mean sway velocity in antero-posterior and medio-lateral direction and sway area were reached with an incremental change in NRS scores of two to three points. COP mean velocity and sway area are closely related to self-reported pain scores. This relationship may be of clinical use as an objective monitoring tool for patients under treatment or rehabilitation.

  8. The relevance of accuracy of heartbeat perception in noncardiac and cardiac chest pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Stefanie; Gerlach, Alexander L; Achenbach, Stephan; Martin, Alexandra

    2015-04-01

    The development and course of noncardiac chest pain are assumed to be influenced by interoceptive processes. It was investigated whether heartbeat perception was enhanced in patients suffering from noncardiac chest pain and to what degree it was associated with self-reported cognitive-perceptual features and chest pain characteristics. A total of 42 patients with noncardiac chest pain (NCCP), 35 patients with cardiac chest pain, and 52 healthy controls were recruited. Heartbeat perception was assessed using the Schandry task and a modified Brener-Kluvitse task. Self-report measures assessed anxiety sensitivity, somatosensory amplification, heart-focused anxiety, and chest pain characteristics. Heartbeat perception was not more accurate in patients with NCCP, compared to patients with cardiac chest pain and healthy controls. However, in patients with NCCP, the error score (Schandry task) was significantly associated with stronger chest pain impairment, and the response bias (Brener-Kluvitse task) was associated with lower chest pain intensity. Against assumptions of current etiological models, heartbeat perception was not enhanced in patients with NCCP. Chest pain characteristics and particularly their appraisal as threatening might be more relevant to NCCP than the perceptional accuracy of cardiac sensations and should be focused in psychological interventions. However, associations with chest pain impairment suggest cardiac interoception to influence the course of NCCP.

  9. Maintenance of Segmental Lordosis and Disk Height in Stand-alone and Instrumented Extreme Lateral Interbody Fusion (XLIF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malham, Gregory M; Ellis, Ngaire J; Parker, Rhiannon M; Blecher, Carl M; White, Rohan; Goss, Ben; Seex, Kevin A

    2017-03-01

    A prospective single-surgeon nonrandomized clinical study. To evaluate the radiographic and clinical outcomes, by fixation type, in extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) patients and provide an algorithm for determining patients suitable for stand-alone XLIF. XLIF may be supplemented with pedicle screw fixation, however, since stabilizing structures remain intact, it is suggested that stand-alone XLIF can be used for certain indications. This eliminates the associated morbidity, though subsidence rates may be elevated, potentially minimizing the clinical benefits. A fixation algorithm was developed after evaluation of patient outcomes from the surgeon's first 30 cases. This algorithm was used prospectively for 40 subsequent patients to determine the requirement for supplemental fixation. Preoperative, postoperative, and 12-month follow-up computed tomography scans were measured for segmental and global lumbar lordosis and posterior disk height. Clinical outcome measures included back and leg pain (visual analogue scale), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and SF-36 physical and mental component scores (PCS and MCS). Preoperatively to 12-month follow-up there were increases in segmental lordosis (7.9-9.4 degrees, P=0.0497), lumbar lordosis (48.8-55.2 degrees, P=0.0328), and disk height (3.7-5.5 mm, P=0.0018); there were also improvements in back (58.6%) and leg pain (60.0%), ODI (44.4%), PCS (56.7%), and MCS (16.1%) for stand-alone XLIF. For instrumented XLIF, segmental lordosis (7.6-10.5 degrees, P=0.0120) and disk height (3.5-5.6 mm, Plordosis decreased (51.1-45.8 degrees, P=0.2560). Back (49.8%) and leg pain (30.8%), ODI (32.3%), PCS (37.4%), and MCS (2.0%) were all improved. Subsidence occurred in 3 (7.5%) stand-alone patients. The XLIF treatment fixation algorithm provided a clinical pathway to select suitable patients for stand-alone XLIF. These patients achieved positive clinical outcomes, satisfactory fusion rates, with sustained correction of lordosis and

  10. Neck muscle vibration can improve sensorimotor function in patients with neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beinert, Konstantin; Keller, Martin; Taube, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    People with neck pain display a diminished joint position sense and disturbed postural control, which is thought to be a result of impaired somatosensory afferent activity and/or integration. Afferent processing can be artificially manipulated by vibration and was shown to reduce motor performance in healthy subjects. However, the effect of vibration on sensorimotor function in neck pain patients is scarcely investigated. To assess the effect of neck muscle vibration on joint position sense and postural control in neck pain subjects and healthy controls. Case control study. Thirteen neck pain patients and 10 healthy controls participated in the present study. Cervical joint position sense and dynamic and static postural stability. Short-term, targeted neck muscle vibration with 100 Hz was applied after baseline measurement. Vibration had opposite effects in patients and healthy subjects. Patients showed improved joint position sense (pneck pain. Thus, vibration may be used to counteract sensorimotor impairment of the cervical spine. Potential underlying mechanisms are discussed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Radiological findings in symphyseal and adductor-related groin pain in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branci, Sonia; Thorborg, Kristian; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2013-01-01

    and imaging techniques. The authors performed a review of the existing original evidence-based radiological literature involving radiography, ultrasonography and MRI in athletes with long-standing symphyseal and adductor-related groin pain. Our search yielded 17 original articles, of which 12 were dedicated......Long-standing symphyseal and adductor-related groin pain is a common problem for many athletes, and requires a multidisciplinary approach. Radiological evaluation of symptomatic individuals is a cornerstone in the diagnostic workup, and should be based on precise and reliable diagnostic terms...... to MRI, four to radiography and one to ultrasonography. Four main radiological findings seem to consistently appear: degenerative changes at the pubic symphyseal joint, pathology at the adductor muscle insertions, pubic bone marrow oedema and the secondary cleft sign. However, the existing diagnostic...

  12. Pain relief is associated with decreasing postural sway in patients with non-specific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhe, Alexander; Fejer, René; Walker, Bruce

    2012-03-21

    Increased postural sway is well documented in patients suffering from non-specific low back pain, whereby a linear relationship between higher pain intensities and increasing postural sway has been described. No investigation has been conducted to evaluate whether this relationship is maintained if pain levels change in adults with non-specific low back pain. Thirty-eight patients with non-specific low back pain and a matching number of healthy controls were enrolled. Postural sway was measured by three identical static bipedal standing tasks of 90 sec duration with eyes closed in narrow stance on a firm surface. The perceived pain intensity was assessed by a numeric rating scale (NRS-11). The patients received three manual interventions (e.g. manipulation, mobilization or soft tissue techniques) at 3-4 day intervals, postural sway measures were obtained at each occasion. A clinically relevant decrease of four NRS scores in associated with manual interventions correlated with a significant decrease in postural sway. In contrast, if no clinically relevant change in intensity occurred (≤ 1 level), postural sway remained similar compared to baseline. The postural sway measures obtained at follow-up sessions 2 and 3 associated with specific NRS level showed no significant differences compared to reference values for the same pain score. Alterations in self-reported pain intensities are closely related to changes in postural sway. The previously reported linear relationship between the two variables is maintained as pain levels change. Pain interference appears responsible for the altered sway in pain sufferers. This underlines the clinical use of sway measures as an objective monitoring tool during treatment or rehabilitation.

  13. [Gastrointestinal diseases and abdominal pain in combat veterans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal'tsev, A I; Torgashov, M N; Popova, O S

    2013-01-01

    To analyze the role of consequences of combat stress in the development of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) diseases. One hundred and sixty-one combat veterans aged 24 to 69 years were examined. All underwent a clinical and neurological examination using the McGill pain questionnaire (MPQ), Beck depression inventory, Kotenev trauma stress questionnaire, and visual analogue scale to determine pain intensity. Anxiety, impairments in memory and sleep, and depression were identified. The SF-36 questionnaire was used to estimate quality of life in the patients. Gastric secretory function was investigated; esophagogastroduodenoscopy, X-ray and ultrasound studies, clinical and biochemical blood tests, coprological examinations, fecal tests for dysbiosis, if indicated, occult blood were made. Combat stress and its consequences as posttraumatic stress disorder have been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of GIT diseases and in the development of chronic abdominal pain. GIT diseases in combat veterans are in larger measure a sequel of impaired processes of adjustment to combat stress. Chronic abdominal pains were heterogeneous. On the one hand, chronic GIT disease serves as a source of pain syndrome; on the other hand, the central nervous system is of importance in the development of chronic abdominal pain. In addition to therapy for GIT and hepatobiliary diseases, the treatment of GIT diseases in this category of patients involves psychotherapy and neuroprotection, aimed at reducing the consequences of combat stress in combat veterans.

  14. Topical review: orofacial pain in dementia patients: a diagnostic challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobbezoo, F.; Weijenberg, R.A.F.; Scherder, E.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive review of the literature on the diagnosis of pain in the orofacial region of patients suffering from a cognitive impairment or a dementia. This review was based on a literature search yielding 74 papers, most of which dealt with the assessment of pain in general

  15. Anorectal and Pelvic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharucha, Adil E; Lee, Tae Hee

    2016-10-01

    Although pelvic pain is a symptom of several structural anorectal and pelvic disorders (eg, anal fissure, endometriosis, and pelvic inflammatory disease), this comprehensive review will focus on the 3 most common nonstructural, or functional, disorders associated with pelvic pain: functional anorectal pain (ie, levator ani syndrome, unspecified anorectal pain, and proctalgia fugax), interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome, and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. The first 2 conditions occur in both sexes, while the latter occurs only in men. They are defined by symptoms, supplemented with levator tenderness (levator ani syndrome) and bladder mucosal inflammation (interstitial cystitis). Although distinct, these conditions share several similarities, including associations with dysfunctional voiding or defecation, comorbid conditions (eg, fibromyalgia, depression), impaired quality of life, and increased health care utilization. Several factors, including pelvic floor muscle tension, peripheral inflammation, peripheral and central sensitization, and psychosocial factors, have been implicated in the pathogenesis. The management is tailored to symptoms, is partly supported by clinical trials, and includes multidisciplinary approaches such as lifestyle modifications and pharmacological, behavioral, and physical therapy. Opioids should be avoided, and surgical treatment has a limited role, primarily in refractory interstitial cystitis. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility and postural balance in patients with nontraumatic chronic neck pain--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmgren, Per J; Andreasson, Daniel; Eriksson, Magnus; Hägglund, Andreas

    2009-06-30

    Although cervical pain is widespread, most victims are only mildly and occasionally affected. A minority, however, suffer chronic pain and/or functional impairments. Although there is abundant literature regarding nontraumatic neck pain, little focuses on diagnostic criteria. During the last decade, research on neck pain has been designed to evaluate underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, without noteworthy success. Independent researchers have investigated postural balance and cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility among patients with chronic neck pain, and have (in most cases) concluded the source of the problem is a reduced ability in the neck's proprioceptive system. Here, we investigated cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility and postural balance among patients with nontraumatic chronic neck pain. Ours was a two-group, observational pilot study of patients with complaints of continuous neck pain during the 3 months prior to recruitment. Thirteen patients with chronic neck pain of nontraumatic origin were recruited from an institutional outpatient clinic. Sixteen healthy persons were recruited as a control group. Cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility was assessed by exploring head repositioning accuracy and postural balance was measured with computerized static posturography. Parameters of cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility were not reduced. However, in one of six test movements (flexion), global repositioning errors were significantly larger in the experimental group than in the control group (p < .05). Measurements did not demonstrate any general impaired postural balance, and varied substantially among participants in both groups. In patients with nontraumatic chronic neck pain, we found statistically significant global repositioning errors in only one of six test movements. In this cohort, we found no evidence of impaired postural balance.Head repositioning accuracy and computerized static posturography are imperfect measures of functional

  17. Measurement properties and feasibility of clinical tests to assess sit-to-stand/stand-to-sit tasks in subjects with neurological disease: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula F. S. Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Subjects with neurological disease (ND usually show impaired performance during sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit tasks, with a consequent reduction in their mobility levels. OBJECTIVE: To determine the measurement properties and feasibility previously investigated for clinical tests that evaluate sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit in subjects with ND. METHOD: A systematic literature review following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses protocol was performed. Systematic literature searches of databases (MEDLINE/SCIELO/LILACS/PEDro were performed to identify relevant studies. In all studies, the following inclusion criteria were assessed: investigation of any measurement property or the feasibility of clinical tests that evaluate sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit tasks in subjects with ND published in any language through December 2012. The COSMIN checklist was used to evaluate the methodological quality of the included studies. RESULTS: Eleven studies were included. The measurement properties/feasibility were most commonly investigated for the five-repetition sit-to-stand test, which showed good test-retest reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient:ICC=0.94-0.99 for subjects with stroke, cerebral palsy and dementia. The ICC values were higher for this test than for the number of repetitions in the 30-s test. The five-repetition sit-to-stand test also showed good inter/intra-rater reliabilities (ICC=0.97-0.99 for stroke and inter-rater reliability (ICC=0.99 for subjects with Parkinson disease and incomplete spinal cord injury. For this test, the criterion-related validity for subjects with stroke, cerebral palsy and incomplete spinal cord injury was, in general, moderate (correlation=0.40-0.77, and the feasibility and safety were good for subjects with Alzheimer's disease. CONCLUSIONS: The five-repetition sit-to-stand test was used more often in subjects with ND, and most of the measurement

  18. Measuring Musculoskeletal Pain in Infants, Children, and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaleff, Zoe A; Kamper, Steven J; Stinson, Jennifer N

    2017-01-01

    Synopsis Accurate, reliable, and timely assessment of pain is critical for effective management of musculoskeletal pain conditions. The assessment of pain in infants, children, and adolescents with and without cognitive impairment can be particularly challenging for clinicians for a number...... of reasons, including factors related to: the consultation (eg, heterogeneous patient population, time constraints), the clinician (eg, awareness / knowledge of available pain scales), standardised assessment scales (eg, availability, psychometric properties, and application of each scale) the patient (eg......, developmental stage, ability to communicate), and the context in which the interaction takes place (eg, familiarity with the setting and physiological and psychological state). As a result, pain is frequently not assessed or measured during the consultation, and in many instances, is underestimated...

  19. Prevalence and management of pain, by race and dementia among nursing home residents: United States, 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Manisha; Bercovitz, Anita; Harris-Kojetin, Lauren D

    2010-03-01

    Data from the National Nursing Home Survey, 2004. About one-quarter of all nursing home residents reported or showed signs of pain. Nonwhite residents and residents with dementia were less likely to report or show signs of pain compared with white residents and residents without dementia. Nonwhite residents with dementia were least likely, and white residents without dementia were most likely to report or show signs of pain. Forty-four percent of nursing home residents with pain received neither standing orders for pain medication nor special services for pain management (i.e., appropriate pain management). Among residents with dementia and pain, nonwhite residents were more likely than white residents to lack appropriate pain management.

  20. Patients' interpretations of a counselling intervention for low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angel, Sanne; Jensen, Lone Donbæk; Gonge, Birgitte Krøis

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low back pain often becomes a chronic condition and causes physical, psychological, social, and occupational impairment. Despite huge allocations of resources into the healthcare system and the labour market for treating and preventing low back pain, problems related to low back pain...... the intervention. If participants managed to change their health behaviour, it assisted them in transforming from being passive victims of pain into becoming active and in control. Participants who did not feel that they were sufficiently able to adhere to the treatment plan felt increasingly stigmatised, because...

  1. The role of neuropsychological performance in the relationship between chronic pain and functional physical impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulles, Wiesje L J A; Oosterman, Joukje M

    2011-12-01

      In this study, the relationship between pain intensity, neuropsychological, and physical function in adult chronic pain patients was examined.   Thirty participants with chronic pain completed neuropsychological tests tapping mental processing speed, memory, and executive function. Pain intensity was measured with three visual analog scales and the Pain Rating Index of the McGill Pain Questionnaire. A grip strength test, the 6-minute walk test, the Unipedal Stance Test and the Lifting Low Test were administered in order to obtain a performance-based measure of physical capacity. Self-reported physical ability was assessed with the Disability Rating Index and the Short Form-36 Physical Functioning, and Role Physical scales. Psychosocial function was examined using the Mental Health and Role Emotional subscales of the Short Form-36.   The study was set in two outpatient physical therapy clinics in The Netherlands.   The analysis showed that a lower mental processing speed was related to a higher level of pain, as well as to a lower performance-based and self-reported physical functioning. In addition, both performance-based and self-reported physical function revealed an inverse correlation with pain intensity. Psychosocial function turned out to be an important mediator of the relationship between pain and self-reported, but not performance-based, physical function. Mental processing speed, on the other hand, was found to mediate the relationship between pain and performance-based physical functioning.   The results suggest that in chronic pain patients, mental processing speed mediates the relationship between pain and physical function. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Pain management: the multidisciplinary roessingh back-school rehabilitation program and e-health interventions for chronic pain sufferers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Wever, Daniel; Söderback, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Multidisciplinary team interventions aiming at breaking the vicious circle of impaired functioning are effective for clients with chronic pain. However, because of the growing number of people with such complaints, these interventions cannot be provided totally on a face-to-face basis.

  3. The degree of cardiac baroreflex involvement during active standing is associated with the quality of life in fibromyalgia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamunér, Antonio Roberto; Porta, Alberto; Andrade, Carolina Pieroni; Forti, Meire; Marchi, Andrea; Furlan, Raffaello; Barbic, Franca; Catai, Aparecida Maria; Silva, Ester

    2017-01-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a rheumatologic disorder characterized by chronic widespread pain, fatigue and other symptoms. Baroreflex dysfunction has been observed in women with FMS. However, it is unknown whether the limited involvement of the baroreflex control during an orthostatic stimulus has some impact on the quality of life of the FMS patient. Therefore, the aim of the study is evaluate the relationship between the quality of life of the FMS patient and indexes of the cardiovascular autonomic control as estimated from spontaneous fluctuations of heart period (HP) and systolic arterial pressure (SAP). We enrolled 35 women with FMS (age: 48.8±8.9 years; body mass index: 29.3±4.3 Kg/m2). The electrocardiogram, non-invasive finger blood pressure and respiratory activity were continuously recorded during 15 minutes at rest in supine position (REST) and in orthostatic position during active standing (STAND). Traditional cardiovascular autonomic control markers were assessed along with a Granger causality index assessing the strength of the causal relation from SAP to HP (CRSAP→HP) and measuring the degree of involvement of the cardiac baroreflex. The impact of FMS on quality of life was quantified by the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ) and visual analog score for pain (VAS pain). No significant linear association was found between FIQ scores and the traditional cardiovascular indexes both at REST and during STAND (p>0.05). However, a negative relationship between CRSAP→HP during STAND and FIQ score was found (r = -0.56, pquality of life, thus suggesting that Granger causality analysis might be clinically helpful in assessing the state of the FMS patient.

  4. Is there a relationship between pain intensity and postural sway in patients with non-specific low back pain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fejer René

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased center of pressure excursions are well documented in patients suffering from non-specific low back pain, whereby the altered postural sway includes both higher mean sway velocities and larger sway area. No investigation has been conducted to evaluate a relationship between pain intensity and postural sway in adults (aged 50 or less with non-specific low back pain. Methods Seventy-seven patients with non-specific low back pain and a matching number of healthy controls were enrolled. Center of pressure parameters were measured by three static bipedal standing tasks of 90 sec duration with eyes closed in narrow stance on a firm surface. The perceived pain intensity was assessed by a numeric rating scale (NRS-11, an equal number of patients (n = 11 was enrolled per pain score. Results Generally, our results confirmed increased postural instability in pain sufferers compared to healthy controls. In addition, regression analysis revealed a significant and linear increase in postural sway with higher pain ratings for all included COP parameters. Statistically significant changes in mean sway velocity in antero-posterior and medio-lateral direction and sway area were reached with an incremental change in NRS scores of two to three points. Conclusions COP mean velocity and sway area are closely related to self-reported pain scores. This relationship may be of clinical use as an objective monitoring tool for patients under treatment or rehabilitation.

  5. Changes of postural control and muscle activation pattern in response to external perturbations after neck flexor fatigue in young subjects with and without chronic neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chih-Hsiu; Chien, Andy; Hsu, Wei-Li; Yen, Ling-Wei; Lin, Yang-Hua; Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies have identified sensorimotor disturbances and greater fatigability of neck muscles in patients with neck pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of neck pain and neck flexor fatigue on standing balance following postural perturbations. Twenty patients with chronic neck pain (CNP) (24.7±3.6 year-old) and 20 age-matched asymptomatic subjects (22.1±2.2 year-old) were recruited. Subjects stood barefoot on a force plate and experienced backward perturbations before and after neck flexor fatigue. Center of pressure, electromyography of cervical and lumbar muscles, and head/trunk accelerations were recorded. Two-way ANOVA (pain×fatigue) was used for statistical analysis. CNP group showed larger body sway during quiet standing but not during perturbed standing compared with asymptomatic adults. In both groups, neck flexor fatigue resulted in greater body sway during the quiet standing but smaller body sway during perturbed standing, increased neck muscle activations and decreased lumbar muscle activations, as well as increased time to maximal head acceleration. Disturbed balance control was observed in CNP patients during the quiet standing. However, a rigid strategy was used to minimize the postural sway and to protect the head against backward perturbations in both CNP and asymptomatic young adults after neck flexor fatigue. The results facilitate the understanding of how the subjects with chronic neck pain and with neck muscle fatigue deal with the challenging condition. Further studies are needed to verify if such phenomenon could be changed after the intervention of specific flexor muscle retraining and balance control exercises. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Central Pain Processing in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease: A Laser Pain fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Petschow

    Full Text Available Pain is a common non-motor symptom in Parkinson's disease. As dopaminergic dysfunction is suggested to affect intrinsic nociceptive processing, this study was designed to characterize laser-induced pain processing in early-stage Parkinson's disease patients in the dopaminergic OFF state, using a multimodal experimental approach at behavioral, autonomic, imaging levels.13 right-handed early-stage Parkinson's disease patients without cognitive or sensory impairment were investigated OFF medication, along with 13 age-matched healthy control subjects. Measurements included warmth perception thresholds, heat pain thresholds, and central pain processing with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (erfMRI during laser-induced pain stimulation at lower (E = 440 mJ and higher (E = 640 mJ target energies. Additionally, electrodermal activity was characterized during delivery of 60 randomized pain stimuli ranging from 440 mJ to 640 mJ, along with evaluation of subjective pain ratings on a visual analogue scale.No significant differences in warmth perception thresholds, heat pain thresholds, electrodermal activity and subjective pain ratings were found between Parkinson's disease patients and controls, and erfMRI revealed a generally comparable activation pattern induced by laser-pain stimuli in brain areas belonging to the central pain matrix. However, relatively reduced deactivation was found in Parkinson's disease patients in posterior regions of the default mode network, notably the precuneus and the posterior cingulate cortex.Our data during pain processing extend previous findings suggesting default mode network dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. On the other hand, they argue against a genuine pain-specific processing abnormality in early-stage Parkinson's disease. Future studies are now required using similar multimodal experimental designs to examine pain processing in more advanced stages of Parkinson's disease.

  7. Pain empathy in schizophrenia: an fMRI study

    OpenAIRE

    Horan, William P.; Jimenez, Amy M.; Lee, Junghee; Wynn, Jonathan K.; Eisenberger, Naomi I.; Green, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    Although it has been proposed that schizophrenia is characterized by impaired empathy, several recent studies found intact neural responses on tasks measuring the affective subdomain of empathy. This study further examined affective empathy in 21 schizophrenia outpatients and 21 healthy controls using a validated pain empathy paradigm with two components: (i) observing videos of people described as medical patients who were receiving a painful sound stimulation treatment; (ii) listening to th...

  8. Acute pain induces insulin resistance in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greisen, J.; Juhl, C.B.; Grøfte, Thorbjørn

    2001-01-01

    Background: Painful trauma results in a disturbed metabolic state with impaired insulin sensitivity, which is related to the magnitude of the trauma. The authors explored whether pain per se influences hepatic and extrahepatic actions of insulin. Methods: Ten healthy male volunteers underwent two...... randomly sequenced hyperinsulinemic–euglycemic (insulin infusion rate, 0.6 mU · kg-1 · min-1 for 180 min) clamp studies 4 weeks apart. Self-controlled painful electrical stimulation was applied to the abdominal skin for 30 min, to a pain intensity of 8 on a visual analog scale of 0–10, just before...... the clamp procedure (study P). In the other study, no pain was inflicted (study C). Results: Pain reduced whole-body insulin-stimulated glucose uptake from 6.37 ± 1.87 mg · kg-1 · min-1 (mean ± SD) in study C to 4.97 ± 1.38 mg · kg-1 · min-1 in study P (P

  9. Cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility and postural balance in patients with nontraumatic chronic neck pain – a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmgren, Per J; Andreasson, Daniel; Eriksson, Magnus; Hägglund, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Background Although cervical pain is widespread, most victims are only mildly and occasionally affected. A minority, however, suffer chronic pain and/or functional impairments. Although there is abundant literature regarding nontraumatic neck pain, little focuses on diagnostic criteria. During the last decade, research on neck pain has been designed to evaluate underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, without noteworthy success. Independent researchers have investigated postural balance and cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility among patients with chronic neck pain, and have (in most cases) concluded the source of the problem is a reduced ability in the neck's proprioceptive system. Here, we investigated cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility and postural balance among patients with nontraumatic chronic neck pain. Methods Ours was a two-group, observational pilot study of patients with complaints of continuous neck pain during the 3 months prior to recruitment. Thirteen patients with chronic neck pain of nontraumatic origin were recruited from an institutional outpatient clinic. Sixteen healthy persons were recruited as a control group. Cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility was assessed by exploring head repositioning accuracy and postural balance was measured with computerized static posturography. Results Parameters of cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility were not reduced. However, in one of six test movements (flexion), global repositioning errors were significantly larger in the experimental group than in the control group (p < .05). Measurements did not demonstrate any general impaired postural balance, and varied substantially among participants in both groups. Conclusion In patients with nontraumatic chronic neck pain, we found statistically significant global repositioning errors in only one of six test movements. In this cohort, we found no evidence of impaired postural balance. Head repositioning accuracy and computerized static posturography are

  10. Children and adolescents with complex regional pain syndrome: More psychologically distressed than other children in pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Deirdre E; Williams, Sara E; Carullo, Veronica P; Claar, Robyn Lewis; Bruehl, Stephen; Berde, Charles B

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Historically, in both adult and pediatric populations, a lack of knowledge regarding complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and absence of clear diagnostic criteria have contributed to the view that this is a primarily psychiatric condition. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that children with CRPS are more functionally disabled, have more pain and are more psychologically distressed than children with other pain conditions. METHODS: A total of 101 children evaluated in a tertiary care pediatric pain clinic who met the International Association for the Study of Pain consensus diagnostic criteria for CRPS participated in the present retrospective study. Comparison groups included 103 children with abdominal pain, 291 with headache and 119 with back pain. Children and parents completed self-report questionnaires assessing disability, somatization, pain coping, depression, anxiety and school attendance. RESULTS: Children with CRPS reported higher pain intensity and more recent onset of pain at the initial tertiary pain clinic evaluation compared with children with other chronic pain conditions. They reported greater functional disability and more somatic symptoms than children with headaches or back pain. Scores on measures of depression and anxiety were within normal limits and similar to those of children in other pain diagnostic groups. CONCLUSIONS: As a group, clinic-referred children with CRPS may be more functionally impaired and experience more somatic symptoms compared with children with other pain conditions. However, overall psychological functioning as assessed by self-report appears to be similar to that of children with other chronic pain diagnoses. Comprehensive assessment using a biopsychosocial framework is essential to understanding and appropriately treating children with symptoms of CRPS. PMID:23662291

  11. Reduced health-related quality of life among Japanese college students with visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Iguchi

    2015-01-01

    Although previous studies have shown detrimental effects of visual impairment on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), they were primarily conducted on elderly individuals with visual impairment. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate if HRQOL is impaired in young college students with visual impairment and to explore the relationships between HRQOL and other factors. It was hypothesized that visual impairment is not influential enough to lower the HRQOL of young people due to their better physical fitness and more flexible mentality. A total of 21 college students (mean age = 25 years old) with varying degrees of visual impairment completed the short form (SF)-36 health survey and questionnaires on daily physical activities. Subjects were grouped depending on the type of visual impairment: blind (n = 11) or severely impaired (n = 10). In addition, grip strength and single-leg standing balance were assessed. No between-group differences were found in the SF-36 scores. However, compared to the general Japanese standards (50.0 ± 10.0), the Vitality scores of the blind group were lower (41.9 ± 7.2, p = 0.004) and the Physical Function scores of the severely impaired group were higher (55.3 ± 2.4, p = 0.001). In addition, a negative correlation was found between standing balance (variability of foot center of pressure) and the Physical Component Summary score of the SF-36 (r(2) = 0.35, p = 0.005). These findings suggest that even among young people severe visual impairment leads to reductions in some components of HRQOL.

  12. Prevalence of Low Back Pain Among Traffic Wardens in Lagos State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to determine the prevalence of low back pain and its associated risk factors among traffic wardens. ... in regulating traffic also has a significant influence on the severity of LBP. ... wardens in Lagos State, who assume a standing position for.

  13. A randomized controlled trial of self-perceived pain, discomfort, and impairment of jaw function in children undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed or removable appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedel, Anna-Paulina; Bondemark, Lars

    2016-03-01

    To compare patients' perceptions of fixed and removable appliance therapy for correction of anterior crossbite in the mixed dentition, with special reference to perceived pain, discomfort, and impairment of jaw function. Sixty-two patients with anterior crossbite and functional shift were recruited consecutively and randomized for treatment with fixed appliances (brackets and archwires) or removable appliances (acrylic plates and protruding springs). A questionnaire, previously found to be valid and reliable, was used for evaluation at the following time points: before appliance insertion, on the evening of the day of insertion, every day/evening for 7 days after insertion, and at the first and second scheduled appointments (after 4 and 8 weeks, respectively). Pain and discomfort intensity were higher for the first 3 days for the fixed appliance. Pain and discomfort scores overall peaked on day 2. Adverse effects on school and leisure activities were reported more frequently in the removable than in the fixed appliance group. The fixed appliance group reported more difficulty eating different kinds of hard and soft food, while the removable appliance group experienced more speech difficulties. No significant intergroup difference was found for self-estimated disturbance of appearance between the appliances. The general levels of pain and discomfort were low to moderate in both groups. There were some statistically significant differences between the groups, but these were only minor and with minor clinical relevance. As both appliances were generally well accepted by the patients, either fixed or removable appliance therapy can be recommended.

  14. Executive and Attentional Functions in Chronic Pain: Does Performance Decrease with Increasing Task Load?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joukje M Oosterman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diminished executive function and attentional control has been reported in chronic pain patients. However, the precise pattern of impairment in these aspects of cognition in chronic pain remains unclear. Moreover, a decline in psychomotor speed could potentially influence executive and attentional control performance in pain patients.

  15. Standing Postural Control in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yi Huey; Partridge, Katie; Girdler, Sonya; Morris, Susan L.

    2017-01-01

    Impairments in postural control affect the development of motor and social skills in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This review compared the effect of different sensory conditions on static standing postural control between ASD and neurotypical individuals. Results from 19 studies indicated a large difference in postural control…

  16. PID Controller Design for FES Applied to Ankle Muscles in Neuroprosthesis for Standing Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhani, Hossein; Same, Michael; Masani, Kei; Li, Ya Qi; Popovic, Milos R

    2017-01-01

    Closed-loop controlled functional electrical stimulation (FES) applied to the lower limb muscles can be used as a neuroprosthesis for standing balance in neurologically impaired individuals. The objective of this study was to propose a methodology for designing a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller for FES applied to the ankle muscles toward maintaining standing balance for several minutes and in the presence of perturbations. First, a model of the physiological control strategy for standing balance was developed. Second, the parameters of a PID controller that mimicked the physiological balance control strategy were determined to stabilize the human body when modeled as an inverted pendulum. Third, this PID controller was implemented using a custom-made Inverted Pendulum Standing Apparatus that eliminated the effect of visual and vestibular sensory information on voluntary balance control. Using this setup, the individual-specific FES controllers were tested in able-bodied individuals and compared with disrupted voluntary control conditions in four experimental paradigms: (i) quiet-standing; (ii) sudden change of targeted pendulum angle (step response); (iii) balance perturbations that simulate arm movements; and (iv) sudden change of targeted angle of a pendulum with individual-specific body-weight (step response). In paradigms (i) to (iii), a standard 39.5-kg pendulum was used, and 12 subjects were involved. In paradigm (iv) 9 subjects were involved. Across the different experimental paradigms and subjects, the FES-controlled and disrupted voluntarily-controlled pendulum angle showed root mean square errors of controlled balance were significantly smaller or tended to be smaller than those observed with voluntarily-controlled balance, implying improved steady-state and transient responses of FES-controlled balance. At the same time, the FES-controlled balance required similar torque levels (no significant difference) as voluntarily

  17. A quality review of smartphone applications for the management of pain

    OpenAIRE

    Portelli, Pamela; Eldred, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Smartphone applications (apps) are recent innovations that have not been studied extensively. The lack of regulatory body assessing the content of existing apps means that their quality is often unknown. This review aims to assess the quality of smartphone apps that claim to provide information and treatment for pain conditions. It assesses the degree to which apps adhere to evidence-based practices in psychological research for pain management and which stand the best chance of being effecti...

  18. Introducing sit-stand desks increases classroom standing time among university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Jerome

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Excessive sedentary behavior has been associated with many negative health outcomes. While an understudied health topic, there is evidence that university students are excessively sedentary. Sit-stand desks have been shown to reduce sedentary time among pre-university students (ages 5–18years and sedentary workers but have not been tested in university classrooms. This study tested the effects of introducing sit-stand desks into a university classroom on student's classroom sitting and standing behaviors. Using a cross-over design, students received access to both traditional seated desks and sit-stand desks for six weeks. Data were collected between September and December, 2016. We recruited 304 healthy undergraduate university students enrolled in one of two small (25 seats classrooms at a large Midwestern university during the fall of 2016. Average minutes of standing/hour/student, average percent class time spent standing, and the number of sit-stand transitions/student/hour were directly observed with video camera surveillance. Participants stood significantly more (p<0.001 when provided access to sit-stand desks (7.2min/h/student; 9.3% of class time spent standing compared to when they had access to seated desks (0.7min/h/student; 1.6% of class time spent standing but no differences were observed for the number of sit-stand transitions (p=0.47. Students reported high favorability for the sit-stand desks and improvements in several student engagement and affective outcomes while using the sit-stand desks. These findings support introducing sit-stand desks in university classrooms as an approach to reduce sedentary behaviors of university students. Keywords: Sedentary, University students, Sit-stand desk

  19. Cortisol reduces recall of explicit contextual pain memory in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwegler, Kyrill; Ettlin, Dominik; Buser, Iris; Klaghofer, Richard; Goetzmann, Lutz; Buddeberg, Claus; Alon, Eli; Brügger, Mike; de Quervain, Dominique J-F

    2010-09-01

    Remembering painful incidents has important adaptive value but may also contribute to clinical symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and chronic pain states. Because glucocorticoids are known to impair memory retrieval processes, we investigated whether cortisol affects recall of previously experienced pain in healthy young men. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, 20 male participants were presented pictures, half of them combined with a heat-pain stimulus. The next day, the same pictures were shown in the absence of pain. Cortisol (20 mg) administered 1h before retention testing reduced recall of explicit contextual pain memory, whereas it did not affect pain threshold or pain tolerance. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Orofacial Pain and Mastication in Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbezoo, Frank; Delwel, Suzanne; Weijenberg, Roxane A F; Scherder, Erik J A

    2017-01-01

    Orofacial pain is a common condition in the general population. It is likely that this is also the case in older persons with a dementia. However, the assessment of (orofacial) pain in non-verbal individuals is hampered by the subjective nature of pain, and their limited communicative abilities. To overcome this drawback, several tools have been developed for the assessment of pain based on observations of pain-specific facial activities, body movements, and vocalizations. Unfortunately, none of the so far developed observational tools have been designed specifically for the assessment of orofacial pain. While the recent psychometric testing of the Orofacial MOBID Pain Scale did not yield reliable outcomes, the subsequently developed Orofacial Pain Scale for Non-Verbal Individuals (OPS-NVI) is currently being evaluated and shows good promise to be reliable and valid. Besides the assessment of orofacial pain, an important application of this instrument will be the investigation of the probable causal association between impaired chewing and cognitive decline, in which orofacial pain plays a mediating role by its negative influence on chewing ability. The identification of this negative influence will urge opinion leaders and policy makers to improve the oral health status in older persons with a dementia. Ultimately, pain-free oral functioning may lead to a higher quality of life and might help stabilizing or improving cognition in this frail and vulnerable patient population. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Age Differences in Decoding Pain from the Facial Expression of Healthy Individuals and Patients with Dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lautenbacher, Stefan; Hofer, Wiebke; Kunz, Miriam

    Objective. Patients with dementia, whose ability to provide self-report of pain is often impaired, are in crucial need of observers who can detect the patients' pain-indicative behaviors appropriately, to initiate treatment. The facial display of pain promises to be especially informative for that

  2. Family factors, emotional functioning, and functional impairment in juvenile fibromyalgia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; Lynch, Anne M; Slater, Shalonda; Graham, T Brent; Swain, Nicole F; Noll, Robert B

    2008-10-15

    Family factors and emotional functioning can play an important role in the ability of adolescents with juvenile primary fibromyalgia syndrome (JPFS) to cope with their condition and function in their everyday lives. The primary objectives of this study were to determine 1) whether adolescents with JPFS and their caregivers differed from healthy age-matched comparison peers and their caregivers in terms of emotional distress and functional impairment; 2) whether there were any differences in the family environment of adolescents with JPFS compared with healthy comparison peers; and 3) which individual-, caregiver-, and family-level variables were associated with functional impairment in adolescents with JPFS. Participants were 47 adolescents with JPFS recruited from a pediatric rheumatology clinic and 46 comparison peers without chronic illness matched for age, sex, and race. Participants and their caregivers (all mothers) completed a battery of standardized measures administered in their homes. Adolescents with JPFS had greater internalizing and externalizing symptoms than healthy comparison peers. Mothers of adolescents with JPFS reported twice as many pain conditions and significantly greater depressive symptoms than mothers of comparison peers. The JPFS group also had poorer overall family functioning and more conflicted family relationships. In adolescents with JPFS, maternal pain history was associated with significantly higher functional impairment. Increased distress and chronic pain are evident in families of adolescents with JPFS, and family relationships are also impacted. Implications for child functional impairment and the need for inclusion of caregivers in treatment are discussed.

  3. A longitudinal assessment of myoelectric activity, postural sway, and low-back pain during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Luciana S; Elias, Leonardo A; Gomide, Adriane B; Vieira, Marcus F; DO Amaral, Waldemar N

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the control of upright quiet standing in pregnant women throughout pregnancy, and whether low-back pain exerts influence on this motor task. Myoelectric signals from postural muscles and stabilometric data were collected from 15 non-pregnant and 15 pregnant women during upright quiet standing. Electromyogram envelopes and center of pressure metrics were evaluated in the control group, as well as in pregnant women in their first and third trimester of pregnancy. A correlation analysis was performed between the measured variables and a low-back pain disability index. Pregnant women exhibited a decreased maximum voluntary isometric activity for all postural muscles evaluated. Additionally, the activity of lumbar muscles during the postural task was significantly higher in the pregnant women in comparison to the non-pregnant controls. The soleus muscle maintained its activity at the same level as the gestation progressed. Higher postural oscillations were observed in the anteroposterior direction while mediolateral sway was reduced in the third trimester of pregnancy. No correlation was detected between the lowback pain disability index and neuromechanical variables. This study provides additional data regarding the functioning and adaptations of the postural control system during pregnancy. Also, we provide further evidence that postural control during quiet standing cannot be used to predict the occurrence of low-back pain. We hypothesize that the modifications in the neural drive to the muscles, as well as in postural sway may be related to changes in the biomechanics and hormonal levels experienced by the pregnant women.

  4. Standing footprint diagnostic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Y. F.; Fan, Y. B.; Li, Z. Y.; Newman, T.; Lv, C. S.; Fan, Y. Z.

    2013-10-01

    Center of pressure is commonly used to evaluate standing balance. Even though it is incomplete, no better evaluation method has been presented. We designed our experiment with three standing postures: standing with feet together, standing with feet shoulder width apart, and standing with feet slightly wider than shoulder width. Our platform-based pressure system collected the instantaneous plantar pressure (standing footprint). A physical quantity of instantaneous standing footprint principal axis was defined, and it was used to construct an index to evaluate standing balance. Comparison between results from our newly established index and those from the center of pressure index to evaluate the stability of different standing postures revealed that the standing footprint principal axis index could better respond to the standing posture change than the existing one. Analysis indicated that the insensitive response to the relative position between feet and to the standing posture change from the center of pressure could be better detected by the standing footprint principal axis index. This predicts a wide application of standing footprint principal axis index when evaluating standing balance.

  5. Cold Pain Threshold Identifies a Subgroup of Individuals With Knee Osteoarthritis That Present With Multimodality Hyperalgesia and Elevated Pain Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Anthony; Benson, Heather A E; Will, Rob; Moss, Penny

    2017-09-01

    Cold hyperalgesia has been established as an important marker of pain severity in a number of conditions. This study aimed to establish the extent to which patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) demonstrate widespread cold, heat, and pressure hyperalgesia. OA participants with widespread cold hyperalgesia were compared with the remaining OA cohort to determine whether they could be distinguished in terms of hyperalgesia, pain report, pain quality, and physical function. A total of 80 participants with knee OA and 40 matched healthy, pain-free controls participated. OA participants completed a washout of their usual medication. Quantitative sensory testing was completed at 3 sites using standard methods. Cold pain threshold (CPT) and heat pain thresholds (HPT) were tested using a Peltier thermode and pressure pain thresholds (PPT) using a digital algometer. All participants completed the short-form health survey questionnaire and OA participants completed the PainDETECT, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index of the Knee (WOMAC), and pain quality assessment scale questionnaires. OA participants demonstrated widespread cold hyperalgesia (Ppain, decreased function, and more features of neuropathic pain. This study identified a specific subgroup of patients with knee OA who exhibited widespread, multimodality hyperalgesia, more pain, more features of neuropathic pain, and greater functional impairment. Identification of patients with this pain phenotype may permit more targeted and effective pain management.

  6. Associations of knee extensor strength and standing balance with physical function in knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pua, Yong-Hao; Liang, Zhiqi; Ong, Peck-Hoon; Bryant, Adam L; Lo, Ngai-Nung; Clark, Ross A

    2011-12-01

    Knee extensor strength is an important correlate of physical function in patients with knee osteoarthritis; however, it remains unclear whether standing balance is also a correlate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cross-sectional associations of knee extensor strength, standing balance, and their interaction with physical function. One hundred four older adults with end-stage knee osteoarthritis awaiting a total knee replacement (mean ± SD age 67 ± 8 years) participated. Isometric knee extensor strength was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Standing balance performance was measured by the center of pressure displacement during quiet standing on a balance board. Physical function was measured by the self-report Short Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire and by the 10-meter fast-pace gait speed test. After adjustment for demographic and knee pain variables, we detected significant knee strength by standing balance interaction terms for both SF-36 physical function and fast-pace gait speed. Interrogation of the interaction revealed that standing balance in the anteroposterior plane was positively related to physical function among patients with lower knee extensor strength. Conversely, among patients with higher knee extensor strength, the standing balance-physical function associations were, or tended to be, negative. These findings suggest that although standing balance was related to physical function in patients with knee osteoarthritis, this relationship was complex and dependent on knee extensor strength level. These results are of importance in developing intervention strategies and refining theoretical models, but they call for further study. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  7. Impaired Empathy Processing in Individuals with Internet Addiction Disorder: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Jiao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Internet addiction disorder (IAD is associated with deficits in social communication and avoidance of social contact. It has been hypothesized that people with IAD may have an impaired capacity for empathy. The purpose of the current study was to examine the processing of empathy for others’ pain in IADs. Event-related potentials produced in response to pictures showing others in painful and non-painful situations were recorded in 16 IAD subjects and 16 healthy controls (HCs. The N1, P2, N2, P3, and late positive potential components were compared between the two groups. Robust picture × group interactions were observed for N2 and P3. The painful pictures elicited larger N2 and P3 amplitudes than the non-painful pictures did only in the HC group but not in the IAD group. The results of this study suggest that both of the early automatic and of the later cognitive processes of pain empathy may be impaired in IADs. This study provides psychophysical evidence of empathy deficits in association with IAD. Further studies combining multidimensional measurements of empathy are needed to confirm these findings.

  8. The role of neuropsychological performance in the relationship between chronic pain and functional physical impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulles, W.L.J.A.; Oosterman, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective.  In this study, the relationship between pain intensity, neuropsychological, and physical function in adult chronic pain patients was examined. Design.  Thirty participants with chronic pain completed neuropsychological tests tapping mental processing speed, memory, and executive

  9. Pain Assessment in Impaired Cognition (PAIC) : Content validity of the Dutch version of a new and universal tool to measure pain in dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dalen-Kok, A.H.; Achterberg, W.P.; Rijkmans, W.E.; Tukker-Van Vuuren, S.A.; Delwel, S.; De Vet, H.C.W.; Lobbezoo, F.; De Waal, M.W.M.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Detection and measurement of pain in persons with dementia by using observational pain measurement tools is essential. However, the evidence for the psychometric properties of existing observational tools remains limited. Therefore, a new meta-tool has been developed: Pain Assessment in

  10. Associations Between Pain, Current Tobacco Smoking, Depression, and Fibromyalgia Status Among Treatment-Seeking Chronic Pain Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goesling, Jenna; Brummett, Chad M; Meraj, Taha S; Moser, Stephanie E; Hassett, Afton L; Ditre, Joseph W

    2015-07-01

    As smoking impacts physiological pathways in the central nervous system, it is important to consider the association between smoking and fibromyalgia, a pain condition caused predominantly by central nervous system dysfunction. The objectives were to assess the prevalence of current smoking among treatment-seeking chronic pain patients with (FM+) and without (FM-) a fibromyalgia-like phenotype; test the individual and combined influence of smoking and fibromyalgia on pain severity and interference; and examine depression as a mediator of these processes. Questionnaire data from 1566 patients evaluated for a range of conditions at an outpatient pain clinic were used. The 2011 Survey Criteria for Fibromyalgia were used to assess the presence of symptoms associated with fibromyalgia. Current smoking was reported by 38.7% of FM+ patients compared to 24.7% of FM- patients. FM+ smokers reported higher pain and greater interference compared to FM+ nonsmokers, FM- smokers, and FM- nonsmokers. There was no interaction between smoking and fibromyalgia. Significant indirect effects of fibromyalgia and smoking via greater depression were observed for pain severity and interference. Current smoking and positive fibromyalgia status were associated with greater pain and impairment among chronic pain patients, possibly as a function of depression. Although FM+ smokers report the most negative clinical symptomatology (i.e., high pain, greater interference) smoking does not appear to have a unique association with pain or functioning in FM+ patients, rather the effect is additive. The 38.7% smoking rate in FM+ patients is high, suggesting FM+ smokers present a significant clinical challenge. © 2015 American Academy of Pain Medicine.

  11. Relationship between foot sensation and standing balance in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citaker, Seyit; Gunduz, Arzu Guclu; Guclu, Meral Bosnak; Nazliel, Bijen; Irkec, Ceyla; Kaya, Defne

    2011-06-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate the relationship between the foot sensations and standing balance in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and find out the sensation, which best predicts balance. Twenty-seven patients with MS (Expanded Disability Status Scale 1-3.5) and 10 healthy volunteers were included. Threshold of light touch-pressure, duration of vibration, and distance of two-point discrimination of the foot sole were assessed. Duration of static one-leg standing balance was measured. Light touch-pressure, vibration, two-point discrimination sensations of the foot sole, and duration of one-leg standing balance were decreased in patients with MS compared with controls (pbalance in patients with MS. In the multiple regression analysis conducted in the 27 MS patients, 47.6% of the variance in the duration of one-leg standing balance was explained by two-point discrimination sensation of the heel (R(2)=0.359, p=0.001) and vibration sensation of the first metatarsal head (R(2)=0.118, p=0.029). As the cutaneous receptors sensitivity decreases in the foot sole the standing balance impairs in patients with MS. Two-point discrimination sensation of the heel and vibration sensation of the first metatarsal head region are the best predictors of the static standing balance in patients with MS. Other factors which could be possible to predict balance and effects of sensorial training of foot on balance should be investigated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Simple pain measures reveal psycho-social pathology in patients with Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odes, Shmuel; Friger, Michael; Sergienko, Ruslan; Schwartz, Doron; Sarid, Orly; Slonim-Nevo, Vered; Singer, Terri; Chernin, Elena; Vardi, Hillel; Greenberg, Dan; Israel Ibd Research Nucleus

    2017-02-14

    To determine whether pain has psycho-social associations in adult Crohn's disease (CD) patients. Patients completed demographics, disease status, Patient Harvey-Bradshaw Index (P-HBI), Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), Short Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (SIBDQ), and five socio-psychological questionnaires: Brief Symptom Inventory, Brief COPE Inventory, Family Assessment Device, Satisfaction with Life Scale, and Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire. Pain sub-scales in P-HBI, SF-36 and SIBDQ measures were recoded into 4 identical scores for univariate and multinomial logistic regression analysis of associations with psycho-social variables. The cohort comprised 594 patients, mean age 38.6 ± 14.8 years, women 52.5%, P-HBI 5.76 ± 5.15. P-HBI, SF-36 and SIBDQ broadly agreed in their assessment of pain intensity. More severe pain was significantly associated with female gender, low socio-economic status, unemployment, Israeli birth and smoking. Higher pain scores correlated positively with psychological stress, dysfunctional coping strategies, poor family relationships, absenteeism, presenteeism, productivity loss and activity impairment and all WPAI sub-scores. Patients exhibiting greater satisfaction with life had less pain. The regression showed increasing odds ratios for psychological stress (lowest 2.26, highest 12.17) and female gender (highest 3.19) with increasing pain. Internet-recruited patients were sicker and differed from hardcopy questionnaire patients in their associations with pain. Pain measures in P-HBI, SF-36 and SIBDQ correlate with psycho-social pathology in CD. Physicians should be aware also of these relationships in approaching CD patients with pain.

  13. Shape of magnifiers affects controllability in children with visual impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebrand-Schurink, Joyce; Boonstra, F. Nienke; van Rens, Ger H. M. B.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Meulenbroek, Ruud G. J.; Cox, Ralf F. A.

    2016-01-01

    PurposeThis study aimed to examine the controllability of cylinder-shaped and dome-shaped magnifiers in young children with visual impairment. MethodsThis study investigates goal-directed arm movements in low-vision aid use (stand and dome magnifier-like object) in a group of young children with

  14. Effect of pain neurophysiology education on physiotherapy students' understanding of chronic pain, clinical recommendations and attitudes towards people with chronic pain: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colleary, G; O'Sullivan, K; Griffin, D; Ryan, C G; Martin, D J

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the effect of pain neurophysiology education (PNE) on student physiotherapists': (1) knowledge of chronic pain; (2) attitudes towards patients with chronic pain; and (3) clinical recommendations for patients with chronic pain. Multicentre single-blind randomised controlled trial. One UK and one Irish university. Seventy-two student physiotherapists. Participants received either PNE (intervention) or a control education. Both were delivered in a 70-minute group lecture. (1) The Revised Pain Neurophysiology Quiz to assess knowledge; (2) the Health Care Pain Attitudes and Impairment Relationship Scale (HC-PAIRS) to assess attitudes; and (3) a case vignette to assess the appropriateness of clinical recommendations. Post education, the PNE group had a greater increase in pain neurophysiology knowledge [mean difference 4.0 (95% confidence interval 3.2 to 4.7), Pstudents in the PNE group were more likely to make appropriate recommendations regarding work (94% vs 56%), exercise (92% vs 56%), activity (94% vs 67%) and bed rest (69% vs 33%) compared with those in the control group (Pphysiotherapy students, and could be used on a more widespread basis. There is a need to investigate whether these findings can be replicated in other healthcare professions, and how well these reported changes lead to changes in actual clinical behaviour and the clinical outcomes of patients. Copyright © 2017 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pain management: a review of organisation models with integrated processes for the management of pain in adult cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink-Huis, Anita; van Achterberg, Theo; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2008-08-01

    This paper reports a review of the literature conducted to identify organisation models in cancer pain management that contain integrated care processes and describe their effectiveness. Pain is experienced by 30-50% of cancer patients receiving treatment and by 70-90% of those with advanced disease. Efforts to improve pain management have been made through the development and dissemination of clinical guidelines. Early improvements in pain management were focussed on just one or two single processes such as pain assessment and patient education. Little is known about organisational models with multiple integrated processes throughout the course of the disease trajectory and concerning all stages of the care process. Systematic review. The review involved a systematic search of the literature, published between 1986-2006. Subject-specific keywords used to describe patients, disease, pain management interventions and integrated care processes, relevant for this review were selected using the thesaurus of the databases. Institutional models, clinical pathways and consultation services are three alternative models for the integration of care processes in cancer pain management. A clinical pathway is a comprehensive institutionalisation model, whereas a pain consultation service is a 'stand-alone' model that can be integrated in a clinical pathway. Positive patient and process outcomes have been described for all three models, although the level of evidence is generally low. Evaluation of the quality of pain management must involve standardised measurements of both patient and process outcomes. We recommend the development of policies for referrals to a pain consultation service. These policies can be integrated within a clinical pathway. To evaluate the effectiveness of pain management models standardised outcome measures are needed.

  16. Managing neuropathic pain in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Moore

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Disorders of the somatosensory system such as neuropathic pain are common in people with chronic neurologic and musculoskeletal diseases, yet these conditions remain an underappreciated morbidity in our veterinary patients. This is likely because assessment of neuropathic pain in people relies heavily on self-reporting, something our veterinary patients are not able to do. The development of neuropathic pain is a complex phenomenon, and concepts related to it are frequently not addressed in the standard veterinary medical curriculum such that veterinarians may not recognize this as a potential problem in patients. The goals of this review are to discuss basic concepts in the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain, provide definitions for common clinical terms used in association with the condition, and discuss available medical treatment options for dogs with neuropathic pain. The development of neuropathic pain involves key mechanisms such as ectopic afferent nerve activity, peripheral sensitization, central sensitization, impaired inhibitory modulation, and activation of microglia. Treatments aimed at reducing neuropathic pain are targeted at one or more of these mechanisms. Several drugs are commonly used in the veterinary clinical setting to treat neuropathic pain. These include gabapentin, pregabalin, amantadine, and amitriptyline. Proposed mechanisms of action for each drug, and known pharmacokinetic profiles in dogs are discussed. Strong evidence exists in the human literature for the utility of most of these treatments, but clinical veterinary-specific literature is currently limited. Future studies should focus on objective methods to document neuropathic pain and monitor response to therapy in our veterinary patients.

  17. The effects of experimental pain and induced optimism on working memory task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boselie, Jantine J L M; Vancleef, Linda M G; Peters, Madelon L

    2016-07-01

    Pain can interrupt and deteriorate executive task performance. We have previously shown that experimentally induced optimism can diminish the deteriorating effect of cold pressor pain on a subsequent working memory task (i.e., operation span task). In two successive experiments we sought further evidence for the protective role of optimism on pain-induced working memory impairments. We used another working memory task (i.e., 2-back task) that was performed either after or during pain induction. Study 1 employed a 2 (optimism vs. no-optimism)×2 (pain vs. no-pain)×2 (pre-score vs. post-score) mixed factorial design. In half of the participants optimism was induced by the Best Possible Self (BPS) manipulation, which required them to write and visualize about a life in the future where everything turned out for the best. In the control condition, participants wrote and visualized a typical day in their life (TD). Next, participants completed either the cold pressor task (CPT) or a warm water control task (WWCT). Before (baseline) and after the CPT or WWCT participants working memory performance was measured with the 2-back task. The 2-back task measures the ability to monitor and update working memory representation by asking participants to indicate whether the current stimulus corresponds to the stimulus that was presented 2 stimuli ago. Study 2 had a 2 (optimism vs. no-optimism)×2 (pain vs. no-pain) mixed factorial design. After receiving the BPS or control manipulation, participants completed the 2-back task twice: once with painful heat stimulation, and once without any stimulation (counter-balanced order). Continuous heat stimulation was used with temperatures oscillating around 1°C above and 1°C below the individual pain threshold. In study 1, the results did not show an effect of cold pressor pain on subsequent 2-back task performance. Results of study 2 indicated that heat pain impaired concurrent 2-back task performance. However, no evidence was found

  18. Dynamic weight-bearing assessment of pain in knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klokker, Louise; Christensen, Robin; Wæhrens, Eva Elisabet Ejlersen

    2016-01-01

    -minute-walk-test (6MWT), and 6-min-walk-test with subsequent pain rating (6MWTpain), and once with a transition questionnaire (TRANS-Q) for the patient-reported change in pain after 12 weeks of exercise. Construct validity (baseline-scores) and responsiveness (change-scores) were estimated by Spearman Correlation...... a standing position). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the construct validity, responsiveness, and interpretability of the DAP for knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: One-hundred participants with knee OA were tested twice each with the DAP, the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), six...

  19. Resilience does not explain the dissociation between chronic pain and physical activity in South Africans living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia L. Wadley

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pain burden is high in people living with HIV (PLWH, but the effect of this pain on functionality is equivocal. Resilience, the ability to cope with adversity, may promote adaptation to pain, so we hypothesised that higher resilience would correlate with less pain-related impairment of activity. We recruited 197 black South African PLWH, 99 with chronic pain (CP and 98 patients without. We measured pain intensity and interference using the Brief Pain Inventory, and resilience using the Resilience Scale. Participants were generally highly resilient. Greater resilience correlated with better health-related quality of life, but not with pain intensity or interference. We also measured physical activity objectively, by actigraphy, in a subset of patients (37 with chronic pain and 31 without chronic pain, who wore accelerometers for two weeks. There was no difference in duration or intensity of activity between those with and without pain, and activity was not associated with resilience. In this sample, pain was not associated with altered physical activity. Resilience did not explain differences in pain intensity or pain interference but was associated with improved quality of life. Financial stresses and the fear of HIV stigma may have driven patients to conceal pain and to suppress its expected impairment of activity.

  20. School Self-Concept in Adolescents With Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Deirdre E; Gray, Laura S; Iversen, Christina N; Kim, Susan

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated school self-efficacy and sense of school membership (collectively "school self-concept") as potential influences on impaired school function among adolescents with chronic pain, including comparison of adolescents with primary pain to those with disease-based pain and pain-free peers. In all, 264 adolescents (12-17 years old) with primary pain conditions, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, or no pain completed measures of functional disability, school functioning, pain characteristics, and school self-concept, the Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for School Situations (SEQ-SS), and Psychological Sense of School Membership (PSSM). Both the SEQ-SS and PSSM demonstrated reliability and some validity, with the SEQ-SS more strongly supported. As a group, adolescents with primary pain conditions reported poorer school self-concept. School self-efficacy, but not school belongingness, predicted school functioning later in the school year. School self-concept, especially as assessed with the SEQ-SS, is relevant and important to assess when addressing school functioning in youth with chronic pain. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  1. Validation of the baseline severity stratification of objective functional impairment in lumbar degenerative disc disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stienen, Martin N; Smoll, Nicolas R; Joswig, Holger; Corniola, Marco V; Schaller, Karl; Hildebrandt, Gerhard; Gautschi, Oliver P

    2017-05-01

    OBJECTIVE The Timed Up and Go (TUG) test is a simple, objective, and standardized method to measure objective functional impairment (OFI) in patients with lumbar degenerative disc disease (DDD). The objective of the current work was to validate the OFI baseline severity stratification (BSS; with levels of "none," "mild," "moderate," and "severe"). METHODS Data were collected in a prospective IRB-approved 2-center study. Patients were assessed with a comprehensive panel of scales for measuring pain (visual analog scale [VAS] for back and leg pain), functional impairment (Roland-Morris Disability Index [RMDI] and Oswestry Disability Index [ODI]), and health-related quality of life (HRQOL; EQ-5D and SF-12). OFI BSS was determined using age- and sex-adjusted cutoff values. RESULTS A total of 375 consecutive patients scheduled for lumbar spine surgery were included. Each 1-step increase on the OFI BSS corresponded to an increase of 0.53 in the back pain VAS score, 0.69 in the leg pain VAS score, 1.81 points in the RMDI, and 5.93 points in the ODI, as well as to a decrease in HRQOL of -0.073 in the EQ-5D, -1.99 in the SF-12 physical component summary (PCS), and -1.62 in the SF-12 mental component summary (MCS; all p measure of functional impairment for use in daily clinical practice. The presence of OFI indicates the presence of significant functional impairment on subjective outcome measures.

  2. [Physiotherapy and physical therapy in pain management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, M; Seeger, D; Schöps, P

    2015-10-01

    Patients attend physiotherapy and physical therapy (PT) due to pain problems and/or functional impairments. Although the main focus for therapists has traditionally been physical examination and treatment of tissue structures and biomechanics, over the last few decades a growing body of research has highlighted the importance of central nervous system processing and psychosocial contributors to pain perception. Treatment with PT aims to reduce disability and suffering by reducing pain and increasing tolerance to movement. In Germany, pain management conducted by physiotherapists is currently undergoing major changes. Firstly, PT education is transitioning from a vocational to a degree level and additionally new concepts for improved multidisciplinary treatment approaches are being developed. However, there still remain substantial differences between therapists working in multidisciplinary pain clinics and those following medical referral in private practices. This article provides information on how national and international impulses have contributed to the development of different concepts of passive therapies and active/functional pain rehabilitation in Germany. In the future PT will need to provide more evidence about efficiency and modes of actions for different treatment options to selectively reason the application to patients with acute, subacute and chronic pain.

  3. Postoperative Pain in Children After Dentistry Under General Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Michelle; Copp, Peter E; Haas, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, severity, and duration of postoperative pain in children undergoing general anesthesia for dentistry. This prospective cross-sectional study included 33 American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) Class I and II children 4-6 years old requiring multiple dental procedures, including at least 1 extraction, and/or pulpectomy, and/or pulpotomy of the primary dentition. Exclusion criteria were children who were developmentally delayed, cognitively impaired, born prematurely, taking psychotropic medications, or recorded baseline pain or analgesic use. The primary outcome of pain was measured by parents using the validated Faces Pain Scale-Revised (FPS-R) and Parents' Postoperative Pain Measure (PPPM) during the first 72 hours at home. The results showed that moderate-to-severe postoperative pain, defined as FPS-R ≥ 6, was reported in 48.5% of children. The prevalence of moderate-to-severe pain was 29.0% by FPS-R and 40.0% by PPPM at 2 hours after discharge. Pain subsided over 3 days. Postoperative pain scores increased significantly from baseline (P children do experience moderate-to-severe pain postoperatively. Although parents successfully used pain scales, they infrequently administered analgesics.

  4. Pain and consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Larrea, Luis; Bastuji, Hélène

    2017-10-12

    The aversive experience we call "pain" results from the coordinated activation of multiple brain areas, commonly described as a "pain matrix". This is not a fixed arrangement of structures but rather a fluid system composed of several interacting networks: A 'nociceptive matrix' includes regions receiving input from ascending nociceptive systems, and ensures the bodily characteristics of physical pain. A further set of structures receiving secondary input supports the 'salience' attributes of noxious stimuli, triggers top-down cognitive controls, and -most importantly- ensures the passage from pre-conscious nociception to conscious pain. Expectations and beliefs can still modulate the conscious experience via activity in supramodal regions with widespread cortical projections such as the ventral tegmental area. Intracortical EEG responses in humans show that nociceptive cortical processing is initiated in parallel in sensory, motor and limbic areas; it progresses rapidly to the recruitment of anterior insular and fronto-parietal networks, and finally to the activation of perigenual, posterior cingulate and hippocampal structures. Functional connectivity between sensory and high-level networks increases during the first second post-stimulus, which may be determinant for access to consciousness. A model is described, progressing from unconscious sensori-motor and limbic processing of spinothalamic and spino-parabrachial input, to an immediate sense of awareness supported by coordinated activity in sensorimotor and fronto-parieto-insular networks, and leading to full declarative consciousness through integration with autobiographical memories and self-awareness, involving posterior cingulate and medial temporal areas. This complete sequence is only present during full vigilance states. We contend, however, that even in unconscious subjects, repeated limbic and vegetative activation by painful stimuli via spino-amygdalar pathways can generate implicit memory traces and

  5. Pain during sexual activity before and after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolver, Mette A; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    during sexual activity was a risk factor for postoperative pain during sexual activity. METHODS: A prospective questionnaire study before and 6 months after hernia repair was conducted. Men (age 18-85 years) undergoing laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair were included. RESULTS: In total, 160 men were......BACKGROUND: Sexual life may be impaired by pain during sexual activity in patients with inguinal hernia. On the other hand, inguinal hernia repair has also been reported to cause sexual dysfunction in terms of pain during sexual activity and ejaculation. The primary aim of this study...... was to estimate the prevalence of pain during sexual activity before and after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair, and the secondary, to describe pain location, frequency of pain during sexual activity, and to which degree sexual life was affected by the pain. Furthermore, to examine whether preoperative pain...

  6. Neck Pain and Acute Dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, João; Romão, José; Cunha, Anita; Paiva, Sofia; Miguéis, António

    2017-02-01

    The acute tendinitis of the longus colli muscle is an unusual diagnosis in the cases of acute dysphagia with cervical pain. Is a self-limiting condition caused by abnormal calcium hydroxyapatite deposition in the prevertebral space and can cause pharyngeal swelling with impaired swallow. It is absolutely critical to make the differential diagnosis with deep cervical infections in order to avoid invasive treatments.

  7. Endogenous inhibition of somatic pain is impaired in girls with irritable bowel syndrome compared with healthy girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endogenous pain inhibition is often deficient in adults with chronic pain conditions including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). It is unclear whether deficiencies in pain inhibition are present in young children with IBS. The present study compared endogenous pain inhibition, somatic pain threshold, ...

  8. Associations between biopsychosocial factors and chronic upper limb pain among slaughterhouse workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Brandt, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    of slaughterhouse work (all p > 0.4). CONCLUSIONS: Chronic upper limb pain was paralleled by reduced neuromuscular function of the shoulder and hand along with impaired work ability, work disability and general health. Future studies on chronic pain management at the workplace should carefully consider....... METHODS: Eighty-two male slaughterhouse workers, 49 with chronic upper limb pain and 33 pain-free controls participated in the study. Maximal muscle strength, RFD, and muscle activity was determined from fast and forceful maximal voluntary contractions for the shoulder and hand. Participants filled out...

  9. Effect of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction on unipedal standing balance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulig, Kornelia; Lee, Szu-Ping; Reischl, Stephen F; Noceti-DeWit, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Foot pain and diminished functional capacity are characteristics of tibialis posterior tendon dysfunction (TPTD). This study tested the hypotheses that women with TPTD would have impaired performance of a unipedal standing balance test (USBT) and that balance performance would be related to the number of single limb heel raises (SLHR). Thirty-nine middle-aged women, 19 with early stage TPTD (stage I and II), were instructed to perform 2 tasks; a USBT and repeated SLHR. Balance success was defined as a 10-second stance. For those who were successful, center of pressure (COP) data in anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) directions were recorded as a measure of postural sway. SLHR performance was divided into 3 bins (≤2; 3-9 and > 10 repetitions). The between-balance success on performing the SLHR test was analyzed using the Fisher's exact test (2 × 3). Independent t tests were used to compare between-group differences in postural sway. Relationship of postural sway to the number of heel raises was assessed using Spearman's rho. The success rate of the USBT was significantly lower in women with TPTD than the controls (47% vs 85%, P = .041). In addition, women with TPTD who completed the USBT exhibited increased AP COP displacement (14.0 ± 7.4 vs 8.4 ± 1.3 mm, P = .008), and a strong trend of increased ML COP displacement (8.3 ± 4.5 vs 6.1 ± 1.2 mm, P = .050). The success rate of USBT was correlated with the number of SLHR (P = .01). The AP and ML COP displacement were correlated with SLHR (r = -.538 and .495), respectively. Women with TPTD have difficulty in performing the USBT. Performance of the USBT and SLHR are highly correlated and predictive of each other. A unipedal balance test may be used as a proxy TPTD assessment tool to the heel raising test when pain prevents performance. Level III, case control study. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Psychometric evaluation of the Orofacial Pain Scale for Non-Verbal Individuals as a screening tool for orofacial pain in people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delwel, Suzanne; Perez, Roberto S G M; Maier, Andrea B; Hertogh, Cees M P M; de Vet, Henrica C W; Lobbezoo, Frank; Scherder, Erik J A

    2018-04-29

    The aim of this study was to describe the psychometric evaluation of the Orofacial Pain Scale for Non-Verbal Individuals (OPS-NVI) as a screening tool for orofacial pain in people with dementia. The OPS-NVI has recently been developed and needs psychometric evaluation for clinical use in people with dementia. The pain self-report is imperative as a reference standard and can be provided by people with mild-to-moderate cognitive impairment. The presence of orofacial pain during rest, drinking, chewing and oral hygiene care was observed in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia using the OPS-NVI. Participants who were considered to present a reliable self-report were asked about pain presence, and in all participants, the oral health was examined by a dentist for the presence of potential painful conditions. After item-reduction, inter-rater reliability and criterion validity were determined. The presence of orofacial pain in this population was low (0%-10%), resulting in an average Positive Agreement of 0%-100%, an average Negative Agreement of 77%-100%, a sensitivity of 0%-100% and a specificity of 66%-100% for the individual items of the OPS-NVI. At the same time, the presence of oral problems, such as ulcers, tooth root remnants and caries was high (64.5%). The orofacial pain presence in this MCI and dementia population was low, resulting in low scores for average Positive Agreement and sensitivity and high scores for average Negative Agreement and specificity. Therefore, the OPS-NVI in its current form cannot be recommended as a screening tool for orofacial pain in people with MCI and dementia. However, the inter-rater reliability and criterion validity of the individual items in this study provide more insight for the further adjustment of the OPS-NVI for diagnostic use. Notably, oral health problems were frequently present, although no pain was reported or observed, indicating that oral health problems cannot be used as a new reference

  11. Impaired hand size estimation in CRPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltz, Elena; Seifert, Frank; Lanz, Stefan; Müller, Rüdiger; Maihöfner, Christian

    2011-10-01

    A triad of clinical symptoms, ie, autonomic, motor and sensory dysfunctions, characterizes complex regional pain syndromes (CRPS). Sensory dysfunction comprises sensory loss or spontaneous and stimulus-evoked pain. Furthermore, a disturbance in the body schema may occur. In the present study, patients with CRPS of the upper extremity and healthy controls estimated their hand sizes on the basis of expanded or compressed schematic drawings of hands. In patients with CRPS we found an impairment in accurate hand size estimation; patients estimated their own CRPS-affected hand to be larger than it actually was when measured objectively. Moreover, overestimation correlated significantly with disease duration, neglect score, and increase of two-point-discrimination-thresholds (TPDT) compared to the unaffected hand and to control subjects' estimations. In line with previous functional imaging studies in CRPS patients demonstrating changes in central somatotopic maps, we suggest an involvement of the central nervous system in this disruption of the body schema. Potential cortical areas may be the primary somatosensory and posterior parietal cortices, which have been proposed to play a critical role in integrating visuospatial information. CRPS patients perceive their affected hand to be bigger than it is. The magnitude of this overestimation correlates with disease duration, decreased tactile thresholds, and neglect-score. Suggesting a disrupted body schema as the source of this impairment, our findings corroborate the current assumption of a CNS involvement in CRPS. Copyright © 2011 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Abnormal Brain Responses to Action Observation in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Jaakko; Saari, Jukka; Koskinen, Miika; Hlushchuk, Yevhen; Forss, Nina; Hari, Riitta

    2017-03-01

    Patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) display various abnormalities in central motor function, and their pain is intensified when they perform or just observe motor actions. In this study, we examined the abnormalities of brain responses to action observation in CRPS. We analyzed 3-T functional magnetic resonance images from 13 upper limb CRPS patients (all female, ages 31-58 years) and 13 healthy, age- and sex-matched control subjects. The functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired while the subjects viewed brief videos of hand actions shown in the first-person perspective. A pattern-classification analysis was applied to characterize brain areas where the activation pattern differed between CRPS patients and healthy subjects. Brain areas with statistically significant group differences (q frontal gyrus, secondary somatosensory cortex, inferior parietal lobule, orbitofrontal cortex, and thalamus. Our findings indicate that CRPS impairs action observation by affecting brain areas related to pain processing and motor control. This article shows that in CRPS, the observation of others' motor actions induces abnormal neural activity in brain areas essential for sensorimotor functions and pain. These results build the cerebral basis for action-observation impairments in CRPS. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Association of Physical Performance and Pain With Fear of Falling Among Community—Dwelling Japanese Women Aged 65 Years and Older

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Yoshihito; Arima, Kazuhiko; Kanagae, Mitsuo; Okabe, Takuhiro; Mizukami, Satoshi; Nishimura, Takayuki; Abe, Yasuyo; Goto, Hisashi; Horiguchi, Itsuko; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Our aim was to explore the association of physical performance and pain with fear of falling among community-dwelling Japanese women. The subjects were 278 women aged 65 years and over. We collected information on fear of falling, painful joints, comorbidities, falls in the previous year, and cataracts. Walking time (distance of 6 m), chair stand time (5 times), grip strength, the timed up and go test (TUG), and functional reach were measured. The prevalence of fear of falling was 36.3%, and it increased with age, but it was not significant (P = 0.081). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that poor physical performance (longer walking time, longer chair stand time, weaker grip strength, and longer TUG) and pain (low back, and upper and lower extremity pain) were significantly associated with fear of falling after adjusting for age, body mass index, comorbidities, falls in the previous year, and cataracts. Maintaining physical functioning and managing pain may be important for elderly women with fear of falling. PMID:26334906

  14. Evidence for working memory deficits in chronic pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Carolyn; Stanton, Tasha R; Jane Bowering, K; Tabor, Abby; McFarlane, Alexander; Lorimer Moseley, G

    2013-08-01

    People with chronic pain commonly report impaired cognitive function. However, to date, there has been no systematic evaluation of the body of literature concerning cognitive impairment and pain. Nor have modern meta-analytical methods been used to verify and clarify the extent to which cognition may be impaired. The objective of this study was to systematically evaluate and critically appraise the literature concerning working memory function in people with chronic pain. The study was conducted along Cochrane collaboration and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement guidelines. A sensitive search strategy was designed and conducted with the help of an expert librarian using 6 databases. Twenty-four observational studies evaluating behavioural and/or physiological outcomes in a chronic pain group and a control group met the inclusion criteria. All studies had a high risk of bias, owing primarily to lack of assessor blinding to outcome. High heterogeneity within the field was found with the inclusion of 24 papers using 21 different working memory tests encompassing 9 different working memory constructs and 9 different chronic pain populations. Notwithstanding high heterogeneity, pooled results from behavioural outcomes reflected a consistent, significant moderate effect in favour of better performance by healthy controls and, with the exception of one study, pooled results from physiological outcomes reflected no evidence for an effect. Future research would benefit from the use of clearly defined constructs of working memory, as well as standardised methods of testing. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Differences between two subgroups of low back pain patients in lumbopelvic rotation and symmetry in the erector spinae and hamstring muscles during trunk flexion when standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-hee; Yoo, Won-gyu; Choi, Bo-ram

    2013-04-01

    The present study was performed to examine lumbopelvic rotation and to identify asymmetry of the erector spinae and hamstring muscles in people with and without low back pain (LBP). The control group included 16 healthy subjects, the lumbar-flexion-rotation syndrome LBP group included 17 subjects, and the lumbar-extension-rotation syndrome LBP group included 14 subjects. Kinematic parameters were recorded using a 3D motion-capture system, and electromyography parameters were measured using a Noraxon TeleMyo 2400T. The two LBP subgroups showed significantly more lumbopelvic rotation during trunk flexion in standing than did the control group. The muscle activity and flexion-relaxation ratio asymmetries of the erector spinae muscles in the lumbar-flexion-rotation syndrome LBP group were significantly greater than those in the control group, and the muscle activity and flexion-relaxation ratio asymmetry of the hamstring muscles in the lumbar-extension-rotation syndrome LBP group were significantly greater than those in the control group. Imbalance or asymmetry of passive tissue could lead to asymmetry of muscular activation. Muscle imbalance can cause asymmetrical alignment or movements such as unexpected rotation. The results showed a greater increase in lumbopelvic rotation during trunk flexion in standing among the lumbar-flexion-rotation syndrome and lumbar-extension-rotation syndrome LBP groups compared with the control group. The differences between the two LBP subgroups may be a result of imbalance and asymmetry in erector spinae and hamstring muscle properties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Performance on selected visual and auditory subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition during laboratory-induced pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etherton, Joseph L; Tapscott, Brian E

    2015-01-01

    Although chronic pain patients commonly report problems with concentration and memory, recent research indicates that induced pain alone causes little or no impairment on several Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) subtests, suggesting that cognitive complaints in chronic pain may be attributable to factors other than pain. The current studies examined potential effects of induced pain on Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) visual working memory index (VWM) subtests (Experiment 1, n = 32) and on the immediate portions of WMS-IV auditory memory (IAM) subtests (Experiment 2, n = 55). In both studies, participants were administered one of two subtests (Symbol Span or Spatial Addition for Experiment 1; Logical Memory or Verbal Paired Associates for Experiment 2) normally and were then administered the alternate subtest while experiencing either cold pressor pain induction or a nonpainful control condition. Results indicate that induced pain in nonclinical volunteers did not impair performance on either VWM or IAM performance, suggesting that pain alone does not account for complaints or deficits in these domains in chronic pain patients. Nonpainful variables such as sleep deprivation or emotional disturbance may be responsible for reported cognitive complaints in chronic pain patients.

  17. PID Controller Design for FES Applied to Ankle Muscles in Neuroprosthesis for Standing Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Rouhani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Closed-loop controlled functional electrical stimulation (FES applied to the lower limb muscles can be used as a neuroprosthesis for standing balance in neurologically impaired individuals. The objective of this study was to propose a methodology for designing a proportional-integral-derivative (PID controller for FES applied to the ankle muscles toward maintaining standing balance for several minutes and in the presence of perturbations. First, a model of the physiological control strategy for standing balance was developed. Second, the parameters of a PID controller that mimicked the physiological balance control strategy were determined to stabilize the human body when modeled as an inverted pendulum. Third, this PID controller was implemented using a custom-made Inverted Pendulum Standing Apparatus that eliminated the effect of visual and vestibular sensory information on voluntary balance control. Using this setup, the individual-specific FES controllers were tested in able-bodied individuals and compared with disrupted voluntary control conditions in four experimental paradigms: (i quiet-standing; (ii sudden change of targeted pendulum angle (step response; (iii balance perturbations that simulate arm movements; and (iv sudden change of targeted angle of a pendulum with individual-specific body-weight (step response. In paradigms (i to (iii, a standard 39.5-kg pendulum was used, and 12 subjects were involved. In paradigm (iv 9 subjects were involved. Across the different experimental paradigms and subjects, the FES-controlled and disrupted voluntarily-controlled pendulum angle showed root mean square errors of <1.2 and 2.3 deg, respectively. The root mean square error (all paradigms, rise time, settle time, and overshoot [paradigms (ii and (iv] in FES-controlled balance were significantly smaller or tended to be smaller than those observed with voluntarily-controlled balance, implying improved steady-state and transient responses of FES

  18. Importance of Pain Acceptance in Relation to Headache Disability and Pain Interference in Women With Migraine and Overweight/Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillis, Jason; Graham Thomas, J; Seng, Elizabeth K; Lipton, Richard B; Pavlović, Jelena M; Rathier, Lucille; Roth, Julie; O'Leary, Kevin C; Bond, Dale S

    2017-05-01

    Pain acceptance involves willingness to experience pain and engaging in valued activities while pain is present. Though pain acceptance could limit both headache-related disability and pain interference in individuals with migraine, few studies have addressed this issue. This study evaluated whether higher levels of total pain acceptance and its two subcomponents, pain willingness and activity engagement, were associated with lower levels of headache-related impairment in women who had both migraine and overweight/obesity. In this cross-sectional study, participants seeking weight loss and headache relief in the Women's Health and Migraine trial completed baseline measures of pain acceptance (Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire [CPAQ]), headache-related disability (Headache Impact Test-6), and pain interference (Brief Pain Inventory). Migraine headache frequency and pain intensity were assessed daily via smartphone diary. Using CPAQ total and subcomponent (pain willingness and activity engagement) scores, headache frequency, pain intensity, and body mass index (BMI) as predictors in linear regression, headache-related disability, and pain interference were modeled as outcomes. On average, participants (n = 126; age = 38.5 ± 8.2 years; BMI = 35.3 ± 6.6 kg/m 2 ) reported 8.4 ± 4.7 migraine days/month and pain intensity of 6.0 ± 1.5 on a 0-10 scale on headache days. After correcting for multiple comparisons (adjusted α = .008), pain willingness was independently associated with both lower headache-related disability (P treatment-seeking women with migraine and overweight/obesity. Future studies are needed to clarify direction of causality and test whether strategies designed to help women increase pain willingness, or relinquish ineffective efforts to control pain, can improve functional outcomes in women who have migraine and overweight/obesity. © 2017 American Headache Society.

  19. Neck motion, motor control, pain and disability: A longitudinal study of associations in neck pain patients in physiotherapy treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisingset, Ingebrigt; Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin; Woodhouse, Astrid; Vasseljen, Ottar

    2016-04-01

    Neck pain is associated with several alterations in neck motion and motor control, but most of the findings are based on cross-sectional studies. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between changes in neck motion and motor control, and changes in neck pain and disability in physiotherapy patients during a course of treatment. Prospective cohort study. Subjects with non-specific neck pain (n = 71) participated in this study. Neck flexibility, joint position error (JPE), head steadiness, trajectory movement control and postural sway were recorded before commencement of physiotherapy (baseline), at 2 weeks, and at 2 months. Numerical Rating Scale and Neck Disability Index were used to measure neck pain and disability at the day of testing. To analyze within subjects effects in neck motion and motor control, neck pain, and disability over time we used fixed effects linear regression analysis. Changes in neck motion and motor control occurred primarily within 2 weeks. Reduction in neck pain was associated with increased cervical range of motion in flexion-/extension and increased postural sway when standing with eyes open. Decreased neck disability was associated with some variables for neck flexibility and trajectory movement control. Cervical range of motion in flexion-/extension was the only variable associated with changes in both neck pain and neck disability. This study shows that few of the variables for neck motion and motor control were associated with changes neck pain and disability over a course of 2 months with physiotherapy treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A web-based neurological pain classifier tool utilizing Bayesian decision theory for pain classification in spinal cord injury patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sneha K.; Chun, Sophia; Liu, Brent J.

    2014-03-01

    Pain is a common complication after spinal cord injury with prevalence estimates ranging 77% to 81%, which highly affects a patient's lifestyle and well-being. In the current clinical setting paper-based forms are used to classify pain correctly, however, the accuracy of diagnoses and optimal management of pain largely depend on the expert reviewer, which in many cases is not possible because of very few experts in this field. The need for a clinical decision support system that can be used by expert and non-expert clinicians has been cited in literature, but such a system has not been developed. We have designed and developed a stand-alone tool for correctly classifying pain type in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients, using Bayesian decision theory. Various machine learning simulation methods are used to verify the algorithm using a pilot study data set, which consists of 48 patients data set. The data set consists of the paper-based forms, collected at Long Beach VA clinic with pain classification done by expert in the field. Using the WEKA as the machine learning tool we have tested on the 48 patient dataset that the hypothesis that attributes collected on the forms and the pain location marked by patients have very significant impact on the pain type classification. This tool will be integrated with an imaging informatics system to support a clinical study that will test the effectiveness of using Proton Beam radiotherapy for treating spinal cord injury (SCI) related neuropathic pain as an alternative to invasive surgical lesioning.

  1. Effects of education to facilitate knowledge about chronic pain for adults: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geneen, Louise J; Martin, Denis J; Adams, Nicola; Clarke, Clare; Dunbar, Martin; Jones, Derek; McNamee, Paul; Schofield, Pat; Smith, Blair H

    2015-10-01

    Chronic pain can contribute to disability, depression, anxiety, sleep disturbances, poor quality of life and increased health care costs, with close to 20 % of the adult population in Europe reporting chronic pain. To empower the person to self-manage, it is advocated that education and training about the nature of pain and its effects and how to live with pain is provided. The objective of this review is to determine the level of evidence for education to facilitate knowledge about chronic pain, delivered as a stand-alone intervention for adults, to reduce pain and disability. We identified randomised controlled trials of educational intervention for chronic pain by searching CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and ongoing trials registries (inception to December 2013). Main inclusion criteria were (1) pain >3 months; (2) study design that allowed isolation of effects of education and (3) measures of pain or disability. Two reviewers independently screened and appraised each study. Nine studies were analysed. Pooled data from five studies, where the comparator group was usual care, showed no improvement in pain or disability. In the other four studies, comparing different types of education, there was no evidence for an improvement in pain; although, there was evidence (from one study) of a decrease in disability with a particular form of education-pain neurophysiology education (PNE). Post-hoc analysis of psychosocial outcomes reported in the studies showed evidence of a reduction in catastrophising and an increase of knowledge about pain following PNE. The evidence base is limited by the small numbers of studies, their relatively small sample sizes, and the diversity in types of education studied. From that limited evidence, the only support for this type of education is for PNE, though it is insufficiently strong to recommend conclusively that PNE should be delivered as a stand-alone intervention. It therefore remains sensible to recommend that education be delivered in

  2. Discrepancy between stimulus response and tolerance of pain in Alzheimer disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Dahm, Christina; Werner, Mads U; Jensen, Troels Staehelin

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Affective-motivational and sensory-discriminative aspects of pain were investigated in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease (AD) and healthy elderly controls using the cold pressor test tolerance and repetitive stimuli of warmth and heat stimuli, evaluating the stimulus....... The results further suggest that the attenuated cold pressor pain tolerance may relate to impairment of coping abilities. Paradoxically, we found an attenuated stimulus-response function, compared to controls, suggesting that AD dementia interferes with pain ratings over time, most likely due to memory...

  3. Mastication movements and sleep quality of patients with myofascial pain: occlusal device therapy improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilanova, Larissa Soares Reis; Gonçalves, Thais Marques Simek Vega; Pimentel, Marcele Jardim; Bavia, Paula Furlan; Rodrigues Garcia, Renata Cunha Matheus

    2014-12-01

    Patients with myofascial pain experience impaired mastication, which might also interfere with their sleep quality. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the jaw motion and sleep quality of patients with myofascial pain and the impact of a stabilization device therapy on both parameters. Fifty women diagnosed with myofascial pain by the Research Diagnostic Criteria were enrolled. Pain levels (visual analog scale), jaw movements (kinesiography), and sleep quality (Epworth Sleepiness Scale; Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) were evaluated before (control) and after stabilization device use. Range of motion (maximum opening, right and left excursions, and protrusion) and masticatory movements during Optosil mastication (opening, closing, and total cycle time; opening and closing angles; and maximum velocity) also were evaluated. Repeated-measures analysis of variance in a generalized linear mixed models procedure was used for statistical analysis (α=.05). At baseline, participants with myofascial pain showed a reduced range of jaw motion and poorer sleep quality. Treatment with a stabilization device reduced pain (Pmastication increased, and improvements in sleep scores for the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (P<.001) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (P=.04) were found. Myofascial pain impairs jaw motion and quality of sleep; the reduction of pain after the use of a stabilization device improves the range of motion and sleep parameters. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Etesam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment can emerge in the earliest phases of multiple sclerosis. It strongly impacts different aspects of Multiple Sclerosis (MS patients' lives, like employment, social relationships and the overall quality of life; thus, its on-time recognition and treatment is mandatory. This paper discusses issues, diagnostic methods and treatment options for cognitive dysfunctions in MS. This paper is a descriptive review of the related studies in the recent 10 years, performing a keyword search in the main databases4T. Cognitive impairment mostly involves aspects of information processing, memory and executive functioning in MS. Neuropsychological tests like MACFIMS and BRB-N are recommended for its assessment. Still, there is no fully efficient treatment for cognitive impairment. Researchers have shown some positive effects, using disease-modifying therapies and cognitive rehabilitation. Depression, pain, fatigue and other factors influencing cognitive functions must be paid attention to4T. Recognizing cognitive impairment as a major symptom for MS, makes studying this subject one of the priorities in dealing with the disease. Therefore, a consecutive research for identification and management of this part of quality of life in MS patients is obligatory4T.4T

  5. Decrease in musculoskeletal pain after 4 and 12 months of an aerobic exercise intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Birk Jørgensen, Marie; Lidegaard, Mark

    2018-01-01

    affects level of musculoskeletal pain from baseline to 4- and 12-months follow-up. METHODS: One-hundred-and-sixteen cleaners aged 18-65 years were cluster-randomized. The aerobic exercise group ( n = 57) received worksite aerobic exercise (30 min twice a week) and the reference group ( n = 59) lectures....... Aerobic exercise interventions among workers standing or walking in the majority of the working hours should tailor exercise to only maintain the positive effect on musculoskeletal pain.......BACKGROUND: Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain is high in jobs with high physical work demands. An aerobic exercise intervention targeting cardiovascular health was evaluated for its long term side effects on musculoskeletal pain. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate if aerobic exercise...

  6. Drive Stands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electrical Systems Laboratory (ESL)houses numerous electrically driven drive stands. A drive stand consists of an electric motor driving a gearbox and a mounting...

  7. Regulation of peripheral blood flow in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: clinical implication for symptomatic relief and pain management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coderre Terence J

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the chronic stage of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS, impaired microcirculation is related to increased vasoconstriction, tissue hypoxia, and metabolic tissue acidosis in the affected limb. Several mechanisms may be responsible for the ischemia and pain in chronic cold CPRS. Discussion The diminished blood flow may be caused by either sympathetic dysfunction, hypersensitivity to circulating catecholamines, or endothelial dysfunction. The pain may be of neuropathic, inflammatory, nociceptive, or functional nature, or of mixed origin. Summary The origin of the pain should be the basis of the symptomatic therapy. Since the difference in temperature between both hands fluctuates over time in cold CRPS, when in doubt, the clinician should prioritize the patient's report of a persistent cold extremity over clinical tests that show no difference. Future research should focus on developing easily applied methods for clinical use to differentiate between central and peripheral blood flow regulation disorders in individual patients.

  8. Postural stability is altered by the stimulation of pain but not warm receptors in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Corbeil Philippe; Blouin Jean-Sébastien; Teasdale Normand

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background It is now recognized that large diameter myelinated afferents provide the primary source of lower limb proprioceptive information for maintaining an upright standing position. Small diameter afferents transmitting noxious stimuli, however, can also influence motor behaviors. Despite the possible influence of pain on motor behaviors, the effects of pain on the postural control system have not been well documented. Methods Two cutaneous heat stimulations (experiment 1: non-n...

  9. Religiousness affects mental health, pain and quality of life in older people in an outpatient rehabilitation setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, Giancarlo; Lucchetti, Alessandra Granero; Badan-Neto, Antonio M; Peres, Patricia T; Peres, Mario F P; Moreira-Almeida, Alexander; Gomes, Cláudio; Koenig, Harold G

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the relationship between religiousness and mental health, hospitalization, pain, disability and quality of life in older adults from an outpatient rehabilitation setting in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Cross-sectional study. A total of 110 patients aged 60 years or older were interviewed during attendance at an outpatient rehabilitation service. Researchers administered a standardized questionnaire that assessed socio-demographic data, religiousness, self-reported quality of life, anxiety, physical activity limitation, depression, pain and cognition. Predictors were included in each model analysis, and a backward conditional method was used for variable selection using logistic regression (categorical outcomes) or linear regression (continuous outcomes). Thirty-one patients (28.2%) fulfilled criteria for significant depressive symptoms, 27 (24.5%) for anxiety, and 10 (9.6%) for cognitive impairment. Pain was present in 89 (80.7%) patients. Limited depressive symptoms (as assessed by the Geriatric Depression Scale), and greater self-reported quality of life were related to greater self-reported religiousness, as were scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination (less cognitive impairment), and lower ratings of pain. Religiousness is related to significantly less depressive symptoms, better quality of life, less cognitive impairment, and less perceived pain. Clinicians should consider taking a spiritual history and ensuring that spiritual needs are addressed among older patients in rehabilitation settings.

  10. Impaired perception of surface tilt in progressive supranuclear palsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian L Dale

    Full Text Available Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP is characterized by early postural instability and backward falls. The mechanisms underlying backward postural instability in PSP are not understood. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that postural instability in PSP is a result of dysfunction in the perception of postural verticality.We gathered posturography data on 12 subjects with PSP to compare with 12 subjects with idiopathic Parkinson's Disease (PD and 12 healthy subjects. Objective tests of postural impairment included: dynamic sensory perception tests of gravity and of surface oscillations, postural responses to surface perturbations, the sensory organization test of postural sway under altered sensory conditions and limits of stability in stance.Perception of toes up (but not toes down surface tilt was reduced in subjects with PSP compared to both control subjects (p≤0.001 standing, p≤0.007 seated and subjects with PD (p≤0.03 standing, p≤0.04 seated. Subjects with PSP, PD and normal controls accurately perceived the direction of gravity when standing on a tilting surface. Unlike PD and control subjects, subjects with PSP exerted less postural corrective torque in response to toes up surface tilts.Difficulty perceiving backward tilt of the surface or body may account for backward falls and postural impairments in patients with PSP. These observations suggest that abnormal central integration of sensory inputs for perception of body and surface orientation contributes to the pathophysiology of postural instability in PSP.

  11. The burden of neck pain: its meaning for persons with neck pain and healthcare providers, explored by concept mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Randeraad-van der Zee, Carlijn H; Beurskens, Anna J H M; Swinkels, Raymond A H M; Pool, Jan J M; Batterham, Roy W; Osborne, Richard H; de Vet, Henrica C W

    2016-05-01

    To empirically define the concept of burden of neck pain. The lack of a clear understanding of this construct from the perspective of persons with neck pain and care providers hampers adequate measurement of this burden. An additional aim was to compare the conceptual model obtained with the frequently used Neck Disability Index (NDI). Concept mapping, combining qualitative (nominal group technique and group consensus) and quantitative research methods (cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling), was applied to groups of persons with neck pain (n = 3) and professionals treating persons with neck pain (n = 2). Group members generated statements, which were organized into concept maps. Group members achieved consensus about the number and description of domains and the researchers then generated an overall mind map covering the full breadth of the burden of neck pain. Concept mapping revealed 12 domains of burden of neck pain: impaired mobility neck, neck pain, fatigue/concentration, physical complaints, psychological aspects/consequences, activities of daily living, social participation, financial consequences, difficult to treat/difficult to diagnose, difference of opinion with care providers, incomprehension by social environment, and how person with neck pain deal with complaints. All ten items of the NDI could be linked to the mind map, but the NDI measures only part of the burden of neck pain. This study revealed the relevant domains for the burden of neck pain from the viewpoints of persons with neck pain and their care providers. These results can guide the identification of existing measurements instruments for each domain or the development of new ones to measure the burden of neck pain.

  12. Quantitative Postural Analysis of Children With Congenital Visual Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pádua, Michelle; Sauer, Juliana F; João, Silvia M A

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the postural alignment of children with visual impairment with that of children without visual impairment. The sample studied was 74 children of both sexes ages 5 to 12 years. Of these, 34 had visual impairment and 40 were control children. Digital photos from the standing position were used to analyze posture. Postural variables, such as tilt of the head, shoulder position, scapula position, lateral deviation of the spine, ankle position in the frontal plane and head posture, angle of thoracic kyphosis, angle of lumbar lordosis, pelvis position, and knee position in the frontal and sagittal planes, were measured with the Postural Assessment Software 0.63, version 36 (SAPO, São Paulo, Brazil), with markers placed in predetermined bony landmarks. The main results of this study showed that children with visual impairment have increased head tilt (P Visual impairment influences postural alignment. Children with visual impairment had increased head tilt, uneven shoulders, greater lateral deviation of the spine, thoracic kyphosis, lower lumbar lordosis, and more severe valgus deformities on knees. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Introducing sit-stand desks increases classroom standing time among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerome, Matthew; Janz, Kathleen F; Baquero, Barbara; Carr, Lucas J

    2017-12-01

    Excessive sedentary behavior has been associated with many negative health outcomes. While an understudied health topic, there is evidence that university students are excessively sedentary. Sit-stand desks have been shown to reduce sedentary time among pre-university students (ages 5-18 years) and sedentary workers but have not been tested in university classrooms. This study tested the effects of introducing sit-stand desks into a university classroom on student's classroom sitting and standing behaviors. Using a cross-over design, students received access to both traditional seated desks and sit-stand desks for six weeks. Data were collected between September and December, 2016. We recruited 304 healthy undergraduate university students enrolled in one of two small (25 seats) classrooms at a large Midwestern university during the fall of 2016. Average minutes of standing/hour/student, average percent class time spent standing, and the number of sit-stand transitions/student/hour were directly observed with video camera surveillance. Participants stood significantly more (p classrooms as an approach to reduce sedentary behaviors of university students.

  14. The patellofemoral pain and osteoarthritis subscale of the KOOS (KOOS-PF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crossley, Kay M; Macri, Erin M; Cowan, Sallie M

    2018-01-01

    with patellofemoral pain and/or osteoarthritis and 14 health and medical clinicians. Item reduction was performed using data from patellofemoral cohorts (n=138). We used the COnsesus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurements INstruments guidelines to evaluate reliability, validity, responsiveness......BACKGROUND: Patellofemoral pain and osteoarthritis are prevalent and associated with substantial pain and functional impairments. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are recommended for research and clinical use, but no PROMs are specific for patellofemoral osteoarthritis, and existing PROMs...... for patellofemoral pain have methodological limitations. This study aimed to develop a new subscale of the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score for patellofemoral pain and osteoarthritis (KOOS-PF), and evaluate its measurement properties. METHODS: Items were generated using input from 50 patients...

  15. A comprehensive Fabry-related pain questionnaire for adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üçeyler, Nurcan; Magg, Barbara; Thomas, Phillip; Wiedmann, Silke; Heuschmann, Peter; Sommer, Claudia

    2014-11-01

    Pain may be the earliest symptom in Fabry disease and presents with a distinct phenotype including triggerable pain attacks, evoked pain, pain crises, and chronic pain. Current pain questionnaires do not reflect the special phenotype of Fabry disease-associated pain, which hampers its systematic evaluation as the basis of correct diagnosis and effective treatment. A questionnaire specifically designed to assess Fabry disease-associated pain is thus urgently needed. At the Würzburg Fabry Center for Interdisciplinary Therapy (FAZIT), Germany, we developed and validated the first face-to-face Fabry Pain Questionnaire (FPQ) for adult patients. The initial version of the FPQ was tested in a pilot study with 20 consecutive Fabry disease patients. The performance of the revised FPQ was assessed in a first (n=56) and second (n=20) validation phase in consecutive Fabry disease patients. For this, patients were interviewed at baseline and 2 weeks later. We determined the test-retest reliability and validity of the FPQ in comparison to data obtained with the Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory. The FPQ contains 15 questions on the 4 pain phenotypes of Fabry disease (pain attacks, pain crises, evoked pain, chronic pain) in childhood and adulthood, on pain development during life with and without enzyme replacement therapy, and on everyday life impairment due to pain. This first disease-specific questionnaire is a valuable tool for baseline and follow-up assessment of pain in Fabry disease patients and may guide treatment in this distinct pain phenotype. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Relationship between workload and low back pain in assembly line workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Kalantari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Work pressure and excessive workload can jeopardize and impair the people’s health. One of these impairments is musculoskeletal disorders. Among these disorders, low back pain is the most common and most costly problem. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between workload and prevalence of low back pain in assembly line workers of a car manufacturing factory. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 69 workers working in the assembly line of a factory. Data collection tools included three questionnaires: demographic questionnaire, NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX and Cornell Musculoskeletal Discomfort Questionnaire (CMDQ. Data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential (T-test and One-way ANOVA statistics. Results: Of the workers, 72.5% were female. The average total workload was 71.42% and the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in low back was 43.37%. The results of the analysis of relationship between workload and the prevalence of low back pain showed a significant relationship between physical/ mental workload and the incidence of low back pain (P<0.05. Conclusion: The more is the workload on the person, the greater is the risk of low back pain. Measures such as increasing the number of workers to distribute the workload, slowing the work pace, having work-rest periods for workers, improving psychological conditions of work, etc. can be useful in this regard.

  17. Improved oxygenation during standing performance of deep breathing exercises with positive expiratory pressure after cardiac surgery: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Henrik; Faager, Gun; Westerdahl, Elisabeth

    2015-09-01

    Breathing exercises after cardiac surgery are often performed in a sitting position. It is unknown whether oxygenation would be better in the standing position. The aim of this study was to evaluate oxygenation and subjective breathing ability during sitting vs standing performance of deep breathing exercises on the second day after cardiac surgery. Patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (n = 189) were randomized to sitting (controls) or standing. Both groups performed 3 × 10 deep breaths with a positive expiratory pressure device. Peripheral oxygen saturation was measured before, directly after, and 15 min after the intervention. Subjective breathing ability, blood pressure, heart rate, and pain were assessed. Oxygenation improved significantly in the standing group compared with controls directly after the breathing exercises (p < 0.001) and after 15 min rest (p = 0.027). The standing group reported better deep breathing ability compared with controls (p = 0.004). A slightly increased heart rate was found in the standing group (p = 0.047). After cardiac surgery, breathing exercises with positive expiratory pressure, performed in a standing position, significantly improved oxygenation and subjective breathing ability compared with sitting performance. Performance of breathing exercises in the standing position is feasible and could be a valuable treatment for patients with postoperative hypoxaemia.

  18. Stand and within-stand factors influencing Golden-winged Warbler use of regenerating stands in the central Appalachian Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja H. Bakermans

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera is currently being considered for protected status under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. The creation of breeding habitat in the Appalachian Mountains is considered a conservation priority for this songbird, which is dependent on extensively forested landscapes with adequate availability of young forest. We modeled abundance of Golden-winged Warbler males in regenerating harvested forest stands that were 0-17 years postharvest at both mid-Appalachian and northeast Pennsylvania regional scales using stand and within-stand characteristics of 222 regenerating stands, 2010-2011. Variables that were most influential at the mid-Appalachian scale were different than those in the northeast region. Across the mid-Appalachian ecoregion, the proportion of young forest cover, i.e., shrub/scrub cover, within 1 km of regenerating stands best explained abundance of Golden-winged Warblers. Golden-winged Warbler response was best explained by a concave quadratic relationship in which abundance was highest with 5-15% land in young forest cover. We also found evidence that the amount of herbaceous cover, i.e., the amount of grasses and forbs, within a regenerating stand positively influenced abundance of Golden-winged Warblers. In northeastern Pennsylvania, where young forest cover is found in high proportions, the distance to the nearest regenerating stand best explained variation in abundance of Golden-winged Warblers. Abundance of Golden-winged Warblers was 1500 m away. When modeling within-stand features in the northeast region, many of the models were closely ranked, indicating that multiple variables likely explained Golden-winged Warbler response to within-stand conditions. Based on our findings, we have proposed several management guidelines for land managers interested in creating breeding habitat for Golden-winged Warblers using commercial timber operations. For example, we recommend when managing for

  19. Pain perception in major depressive disorder: a neurophysiological case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambito Marsala, Sandro; Pistacchi, Michele; Tocco, Pierluigi; Gioulis, Manuela; Fabris, Federico; Brigo, Francesco; Tinazzi, Michele

    2015-10-15

    Depression and pain may sometimes be related conditions. Occasionally, depression may be associated with physical symptoms, such as back pain and headache. Moreover, depression may impair the subjective response to pain and is likely to influence the pain feeling. Conversely, chronic pain may represent an emotional condition as well as physical sensation, and can influence both the mood and behaviour. To better understand the relationship between pain and depression, we therefore assessed the pain threshold and the tolerance pain threshold in patients with depressive disorders. We conducted a case-control study and selected patients who had recently received a diagnosis of major depression (DSM-IV), before treatment, and without any significant pain complaints. Age- and sex-matched healthy controls were also included. Tactile and pain thresholds were assessed in all subjects through an electrical stimulation test. All results were compared between the groups. 27 patients and 27 age-matched healthy controls were included in the study. Tactile, pain and tolerance thresholds were evaluated in all subjects. The pain threshold and pain tolerance were lower in patients with major depression than controls. All differences were statistically significant (pdepressive disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Clinical characteristics and pathophysiology of pelvic pain in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesselmann, U

    2002-12-01

    Chronic pelvic pain is a common and debilitating problem that can significantly impair the quality of life of a woman. Patients with chronic pelvic pain are usually evaluated and treated by gynecologists, gastroenterologists, urologists, and internists. Although these patients seek medical care because they are looking for help to alleviate their pelvic discomfort and pain, in many cases the only focus is on finding and possibly treating the underlying pelvic disease.However, often the examination and work-up remain unrevealing and no specific cause of the pain can be identified. At this point patients are frequently told, that no etiology for their chronic pain syndrome can be found and that nothing can be done. In these cases it is important to recognize that pain is not only a symptom of pelvic disease, but that the patient is suffering from a chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Knowledge of the clinical characteristics of visceral pain will guide the health care provider in making a diagnosis of chronic pelvic pain and in sorting it out from the lump diagnosis of idiopathic pain. Once the diagnosis of chronic pelvic pain is made, treatment should be directed towards symptomatic pain management.This conceptualization of chronic pelvic pain is very important, because chronic pelvic pain is a treatable condition! Effective treatment modalities are available to lessen the impact of pain and offer reasonable expectations of an improved functional status.

  1. Plantar pressure and foot pain in the last trimester of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag-Saygi, Evrim; Unlu-Ozkan, Feyza; Basgul, Alin

    2010-02-01

    Back and foot pain are common complaints during pregnancy. Progression of symptoms is seen especially in the third trimester as the center of gravity (COP) is altered due to weight gain. The aim of the study was to evaluate plantar pressure changes and postural balance differences of pregnant women. Thirty-five last trimester pregnant women with complaints of foot pain were included. The control group consisted of 35 non-pregnant women who were age and body mass index (BMI) matched volunteers. All selected cases were overweight. Foot pain in pregnancy was measured by Visual analogue scale (VAS). Percentages of pressure on forefoot and hindfoot were measured using static pedobarography and peak pressures at forefoot, midfoot and hindfoot were measured using dynamic pedobarography. As a measurement of balance, COP sway length and width were also analyzed. Compared to overweight individuals, pregnant patients had higher forefoot pressure on the right side with standing and walking. Also, significant increases in contact times under the forefoot and longer floor contact times were found. VAS scores were correlated with forefoot contact times during walking. Although the sway length from COP was higher than controls, no significant correlation was found in sway length and weight gain. These data suggest that forefoot pressures increase in the last trimester of pregnancy during standing and walking. There is prominent increased postural sway in anterior-posterior direction in this period. We believe that based on the observed pressure changes, foot pain in pregnancy due to changes in body mass and distribution may be relieved by exercise and shoewear modifications.

  2. Quality of life considerations and pain management in hidradenitis suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jemec, Gregor Be

    2017-01-01

    perceived as unclean and stigmatizing by the patients, but also cause pain and scarring making this inflammatory skin disorder unique. It is obvious that the disease has a significant negative impact on the patients' quality of life (QOL). The impact is influenced not only by the pain which is a significant...... independent contributor to the patients' life quality, but by the clinically significant comorbidity associated with HS. In particular, the psychological comorbidities of depression and anxiety both further compound QOL impairment and pain. It is strongly recommended that these factors be taken into account...... when planning a treatment strategy for patients with HS, and that specific steps are taken to manage pain and comorbidities associated with the reduced QOL generally experienced by this group of patients. Basic pain management includes anti-inflammatory treatments as well as local- and central...

  3. The Evaluation of Pelvic Cross Syndrome in Patients with Non-specific Chronic Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Masoud A'rab

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was the investigation of relationship between muscle imbalance syndrome in the lumbo-pelvic area (Pelvic Cross Syndrome which includes the combination of weakness of phasic muscles and tightness of postural muscles, lordosis and chronic low back pain. Materials & Methods: This study was a comparative - cross-sectional and case – control research. A convenience sample of 600 subjects participated in this study. The size of lordosis, strength of abdominal and gluteal muscles and the extensibility of iliopsoas and back extensor muscles were measured in each group. The best cut-off values obtained from Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve analysis were used to categorize subjects as having weak or tight muscles in accordance with the assumptions. The lumbar lordosis in subjects with and without patterns of muscle impairments, and the association between lordosis and low back pain was assessed. Data were analyzed by using statistical methods such as: ICC, Kolmogroff – Smirnoff, Independent T test and ANOVA. Results: The Findings of this study showed no significant difference in the degree of lordosis in subjects with and without patterns of muscle impairment in pelvic cross syndrome (P=0.38 and no significant difference in the lordosis between subjects with and without low back pain among those with specific patterns of muscle impairment in pelvic cross syndrome (P=0.62. Data also showed no significant association between degree of lordosis and low back pain (P=0.25. Conclusion: The findings of this study did not support the Pelvic Cross Syndrome theory, which indicates certain patterns of muscle impairment would lead to exaggerated LL and LBP. Our data show a relationship between muscle impairment and occurrence of LBP, but probably not via changing the degree of lumbar lordosis as it has been proposed in PCS theory.

  4. Back pain in seniors: the Back pain Outcomes using Longitudinal Data (BOLD) cohort baseline data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvik, Jeffrey G; Comstock, Bryan A; Heagerty, Patrick J; Turner, Judith A; Sullivan, Sean D; Shi, Xu; Nerenz, David R; Nedeljkovic, Srdjan S; Kessler, Larry; James, Kathryn; Friedly, Janna L; Bresnahan, Brian W; Bauer, Zoya; Avins, Andrew L; Deyo, Richard A

    2014-04-23

    Back pain represents a substantial burden globally, ranking first in a recent assessment among causes of years lived with disability. Though back pain is widely studied among working age adults, there are gaps with respect to basic descriptive epidemiology among seniors, especially in the United States. Our goal was to describe how pain, function and health-related quality of life vary by demographic and geographic factors among seniors presenting to primary care providers with new episodes of care for back pain. We examined baseline data from the Back pain Outcomes using Longitudinal Data (BOLD) registry, the largest inception cohort to date of seniors presenting to a primary care provider for back pain. The sample included 5,239 patients ≥ 65 years old with a new primary care visit for back pain at three integrated health systems (Northern California Kaiser-Permanente, Henry Ford Health System [Detroit], and Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates [Boston]). We examined differences in patient characteristics across healthcare sites and associations of patient sociodemographic and clinical characteristics with baseline patient-reported measures of pain, function, and health-related quality of life. Patients differed across sites in demographic and other characteristics. The Detroit site had more African-American patients (50%) compared with the other sites (7-8%). The Boston site had more college graduates (68%) compared with Detroit (20%). Female sex, lower educational status, African-American race, and older age were associated with worse functional disability as measured by the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire. Except for age, these factors were also associated with worse pain. Baseline pain and functional impairment varied substantially with a number of factors in the BOLD cohort. Healthcare site was an important factor. After controlling for healthcare site, lower education, female sex, African-American race, and older age were associated with worse

  5. Pain relief at the end of life: nurses' experiences regarding end-of-life pain relief in patients with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brorson, Hanna; Plymoth, Henrietta; Örmon, Karin; Bolmsjö, Ingrid

    2014-03-01

    Patients with dementia receive suboptimal palliative care, and this patient group is at risk to have pain at the end of life. Because communicative impairments are common in this patient group, nurses play an important caregiver role in identifying, assessing, and relieving patients' pain. This study aimed to describe nurses' experiences regarding end-of-life pain relief in patients with dementia. This descriptive exploratory qualitative study was based on seven semistructured interviews. Burnard's content analysis inspired the data analysis. Two main categories were identified: (1) nurses' experience of difficulties concerning pain relief and (2) nurses' experience of resources concerning pain relief. Nurses experienced difficulties, such as feeling of powerlessness because of difficulties in obtaining adequate prescriptions for analgesics, ethical dilemmas, feeling of inadequacy because analgesia did not have the desired effect, and a feeling of not being able to connect with the patient. Factors, including knowledge about the patient, professional experience, utilization of pain assessment tools, interpersonal relationships, and interprofessional cooperation, served as resources and enabled end-of-life pain relief. The results of this study highlight the complexity of pain relief in patients with dementia at the end of life from a nursing perspective. The inability of patients with dementia to verbally communicate their pain makes them a vulnerable patient group, dependent on their caregivers. Knowing the life story of the patient, professional experience, teamwork based on good communication, and use of a pain assessment tool were reported by the nurses to improve pain relief at the end of life for patients with dementia. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical and radiological outcome after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion with stand-alone empty polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiban, Ehab; Gapon, Karina; Wostrack, Maria; Meyer, Bernhard; Lehmberg, Jens

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate long-term results after one-, two-, and three-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) with stand-alone empty polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages. We performed a retrospective review of a consecutive patient cohort that underwent ACDF with stand-alone empty PEEK cages between 2007 and 2010 with a minimum follow-up of 12 months. Radiographic follow-up included static and flexion/extension radiographs. Changes in the operated segments were measured and compared to radiographs directly after surgery. Clinical outcome was evaluated by a physical examination, pain visual analog scale (VAS), and health-related quality of life (HRQL) using the EuroQOL questionnaire (EQ-5D). Analysis of associations between fusion, subsidence, cervical alignment, and clinical outcome parameters were performed. Of 407 consecutive cases, 318 met all inclusion criteria. Follow-up data were obtained from 265 (83 %) cases. The mean age at presentation was 55 years and 139 patients were male (52 %). In the sample, 127, 125, and 13 patients had one-, two-, and three-level surgeries, respectively; 132 (49 %) presented with spondylotic cervical myelopathy and 133 (50 %) with cervical radiculopathy. Fusion was achieved in 85, 95, and 94 % of segments in one-, two-, and three-level surgeries, respectively. Non-fusion was associated with higher VAS pain levels. Radiographic adjacent segment disease (ASD) was observed in 20, 29, and 15 % in one-, two-, and three-level surgeries, respectively. ASD was associated with lower HRQL. Subsidence was observed in 25, 27, and 15 % of segments in one-, two-, and three-level surgeries, respectively. However, this had no influence on clinical outcome. Follow-up operations for symptomatic adjacent disc disease and implant failure at index level were needed in 16 (6 %) and four (1.5 %) cases, respectively. Younger age was associated with better clinical outcome. Multilevel surgery favored better myelopathy outcomes and fusion reduced overall

  7. Neuropathic pain is not adequately treated in the older general population: Results from the KORA F4 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisinger, Christa; Bongaerts, Brenda W C; Heier, Margit; Amann, Ute; Kowall, Bernd; Herder, Christian; Rückert-Eheberg, Ina-Maria; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Ziegler, Dan

    2018-05-24

    We evaluated the pharmacological treatment of distal sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN) among older subjects from the general population. The study included subjects aged 61 to 82 years from the KORA F4 survey (2006-2008). DSPN was defined as the presence of bilaterally impaired foot-vibration perception and/or bilaterally impaired foot-pressure sensation. Pain intensity was assessed with the painDETECT questionnaire. From the included 1076 older persons, 172 (16%) persons reported pain in the lower extremities and DSPN was present in 150 (14%) subjects. Forty-eight people with pain in the lower extremities reported DSPN. Only 38% of the subjects with DSPN reporting an average pain level of ≥4 during the past 4 weeks received medical treatment, predominantly nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs 20% and opioids 12%). The medication of choice for neuropathic pain, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and opioids was relatively being underused. However, opioids and neuropathy preparations were prescribed preferably for subjects with painful DSPN. In the older general population, only a small proportion of subjects with painful DSPN receive analgesic pharmacotherapy. Although not recommended by guidelines for the treatment of neuropathic pain, NSAIDs were the most frequently used class of analgesic drugs. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Association between pain severity, depression severity, and use of health care services in Japan: results of a nationwide survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vietri J

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey Vietri,1 Tempei Otsubo,2 William Montgomery,3 Toshinaga Tsuji,4 Eiji Harada5 1Health Outcomes Practice, Kantar Health, Milan, Italy; 2Tokyo Shinjuku Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan; 3Eli Lilly Australia Pty Ltd., West Ryde, Australia; 4Medical Affairs, Shionogi & Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan; 5Eli Lilly Japan KK, Kobe, Japan Background: Depression is often associated with painful physical symptoms. Previous research has seldom assessed the relationship between the severity of physical symptoms and the severity of mental and emotional symptoms of depression or other health outcomes, and no such studies have been conducted previously among individuals with depression in Japan. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the severity of physical pain and depression and other outcomes among individuals in Japan diagnosed with depression.Methods: Data for individuals aged 18 and older in Japan who reported being diagnosed with depression and also reported physical pain were obtained from the Japan National Health and Wellness Survey. These respondents were characterized on sociodemographics and health characteristics, and the relationship between ratings of severity on pain in the last week and health outcomes were assessed using bivariate correlations and generalized linear models. Measures included the Patient Health Questionnaire for depression severity, Medical Outcomes Study 12-Item Short Form Survey Instrument for health-related quality of life, the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment for work and activity impairment, and 6-month report of health care use.Results: More severe physical pain in the past week was correlated with more severe depression, worse health-related quality of life, lower health utility, greater impairment at work, and more health care provider visits. These relationships remained significant after incorporating sociodemographics and health characteristics in the statistical models

  9. Mechanisms of chronic pain - key considerations for appropriate physical therapy management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Carol A; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Bond, Samantha

    2017-07-01

    In last decades, knowledge of nociceptive pain mechanisms has expanded rapidly. The use of quantitative sensory testing has provided evidence that peripheral and central sensitization mechanisms play a relevant role in localized and widespread chronic pain syndromes. In fact, almost any patient suffering with a chronic pain condition will demonstrate impairments in the central nervous system. In addition, it is accepted that pain is associated with different types of trigger factors including social, physiological, and psychological. This rational has provoked a change in the understanding of potential mechanisms of manual therapies, changing from a biomechanical/medical viewpoint, to a neurophysiological/nociceptive viewpoint. Therefore, interventions for patients with chronic pain should be applied based on current knowledge of nociceptive mechanisms since determining potential drivers of the sensitization process is critical for effective management. The current paper reviews mechanisms of chronic pain from a clinical and neurophysiological point of view and summarizes key messages for clinicians for proper management of individuals with chronic pain.

  10. Static and Dynamic Balance in Congenital Severe to Profound Hearing-Impaired Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh HajiHeydari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Research conducted since the early 1900s has consistently identified differences between deaf and hearing children on performance of a wide variety of motor tasks, most notably balance. Our study was performed to test static and dynamic balance skills in congenital severe to profound hearing impaired children in comparison with normal age-matched children.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 30 severe to profound hearing impaired and 40 normal children with age 6 to 10 years old. Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency 2, balance subset with 9 parts was used for evaluation of balance skills.Results: Hearing-impaired children showed 16.7 to 100% fail results in 7 parts of the balance subset. In normal children fail result was revealed just in 3 parts of the balance subset from 2.5 to 57.5%, and differences between two groups were significant (p<0.0001. There was a significant difference between two groups in two static balance skills of standing on one leg on a line and standing on one leg on a balance beam with eyes closed (p<0.0001.conclusion: It seems that development of static balance skills are longer than dynamic ones. Because severe to profound hearing-impaired children showed more weakness than normal children in both static and dynamic balance abilities, functional tests of balance proficiency can help to identify balance disorders in these children.

  11. Functional brain imaging: what has it brought to our understanding of neuropathic pain? A special focus on allodynic pain mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyron, Roland

    2016-02-01

    Brain responses to nociception are well identified. The same is not true for allodynic pain, a strong painful sensation in response to touch or innocuous cold stimuli that may be experienced by patients with neuropathic pain. Brain (or spinal cord) reorganization that may explain this paradoxical perception still remains largely unknown. Allodynic pain is associated with abnormally increased activity in SII and in the anterior insular cortex, contralateral and/or ipsilateral to allodynia. Because a bilateral increase in activity has been repeatedly reported in these areas in nociceptive conditions, the observed activation during allodynia can explain that a physiologically nonpainful stimulus could be perceived by the damaged nervous system as a painful one. Both secondary somatosensory and insular cortices receive input from the thalamus, which is a major relay of sensory and spinothalamic pathways, the involvement of which is known to be crucial for the development of neuropathic pain. Both thalamic function and structure have been reported to be abnormal or impaired in neuropathic pain conditions including in the basal state, possibly explaining the spontaneous component of neuropathic pain. A further indication as to how the brain can create neuropathic pain response in SII and insular cortices stems from examples of diseases, including single-case reports in whom a focal brain lesion leads to central pain disappearance. Additional studies are required to certify the contribution of these areas to the disease processes, to disentangle abnormalities respectively related to pain and to deafferentation, and, in the future, to guide targeting of stimulation studies.

  12. Importance of Pain Acceptance in Relation to Headache Disability and Pain Interference in Women with Migraine and Overweight/Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillis, Jason; Thomas, J. Graham; Seng, Elizabeth K.; Lipton, Richard B.; Pavlovic, Jelena; Rathier, Lucille; Roth, Julie; O’Leary, Kevin C.; Bond, Dale S.

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pain acceptance involves willingness to experience pain and engaging in valued activities while pain is present. Though pain acceptance could limit both headache-related disability and pain interference in individuals with migraine, few studies have addressed this issue. The current study evaluated whether higher levels of total pain acceptance and it’s 2 subcomponents, pain willingness and activity engagement, were associated with lower levels of headache-related impairment in women who had both migraine and overweight/obesity. METHODS In this cross-sectional study, participants seeking weight loss and headache relief in the Women’s Health and Migraine (WHAM) trial completed baseline measures of pain acceptance (Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire [CPAQ]), headache-related disability (Headache Impact Test-6 [HIT-6]), and pain interference (Brief Pain Inventory [BPI]). Migraine headache frequency and pain intensity were assessed daily via smartphone diary. Using CPAQ total and subcomponent (pain willingness and activity engagement) scores, headache frequency, pain intensity, and BMI as predictors in linear regression, headache-related disability and pain interference were modeled as outcomes. RESULTS On average, participants (n=126; age=38.5±8.2 years; BMI=35.3±6.6 kg/m2) reported 8.4±4.7 migraine days/month and pain intensity of 6.0±1.5 on a 0–10 scale on headache days. After correcting for multiple comparisons (adjusted α=.008), pain willingness was independently associated with both lower headache related disability (pheadache related disability (p=.128; β= −.138) and pain interference (p=.042; β= −.154). CPAQ Total Score was not associated with headache related disability (p=.439; β=.066) and pain interference (p=.305; β=.074). Pain intensity was significantly associated with outcomes in all analyses (p’s headache-related disability and general pain interference in treatment-seeking women with migraine and overweight

  13. A geriatric assessment in general practice: prevalence, location, impact and doctor-patient perceptions of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruschinski, Carsten; Wiese, Birgitt; Dierks, Marie-Luise; Hummers-Pradier, Eva; Schneider, Nils; Junius-Walker, Ulrike

    2016-01-28

    To investigate what a geriatric assessment in general practice adds towards previous findings of prevalence, location, impact and the dyadic doctor-patient perception of pain in this age group. Cross-sectional study. Consecutive patients aged 70 and over underwent a comprehensive geriatric assessment in general practice that included a basic pain assessment (severity, sites and impact). Patients with pain and their doctors then independently rated its importance. Pain was correlated with further findings from the assessment, such as overall health, physical impairments, everyday function, falls, mood, health related lifestyle, social circumstances, using bivariate and multivariate statistics. Patient-doctor agreement on the importance of pain was calculated using kappa statistics. 219 out of 297 patients (73.7 %) reported pain at any location. Pain was generally located at multiple sites. It was most often present at the knee (33.9%), the lumbar spine (33.5%) as well as the hip (13.8%) and correlated with specific impairments such as restrictions of daily living (knee) or sleep problems (spine). Patients with pain and their physicians poorly agreed on the importance of the pain problem. A basic pain assessment can identify older patients with pain in general practice. It has resulted in a high prevalence exceeding that determined by encounters in consultations. It has been shown that a geriatric assessment provides an opportunity to address pain in a way that is adapted to older patients' needs - addressing all sites, its specific impact on life, and the patients' perceived importance of pain. Since there is little doctor-patient agreement, this seems a valuable strategy to optimize concrete treatment decisions and patient centered care. This study is registered in the German Clinical Trial Register ( DRKS00000792 ).

  14. Analysis of pain, functional capacity, muscular strength and balance in young women with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camile Ludovico Zamboti

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS is associated with anterior knee pain, changes in functional capacity, balance and muscle strength disorders. Objective: To quantify pain, functional capacity, strength in quadriceps (Q, gluteus medium (GM, hip external rotator (ER muscles and balance in sedentary women with PFPS. Methods: Twenty sedentary women, aged 18 to 25 years, were divided into two groups: PFPS (N=10 and control group (N=10. All the volunteers answered the items of the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, the Lysholm Knee Score Scale, the Anterior Knee Pain Scale (AKPS, and the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS. The participants performed the following tests: maximal voluntary isometric contraction measured by dynamometry; postural balance using the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT and a force platform. Statistical analyses were performed using the Shapiro Wilk test, the Mann Whitney U test and Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Data were submitted to SPSS 20 software. Results: The PFPS group presented greater pain, balance impairment and higher average velocity of oscillation; however, no differences were observed in Q, GM and RE muscle strength and in balance analyzed by SEBT. Conclusion: Women with PFPS exhibited greater pain, worse functional capacity and body balance. Moderate correlation between both balance tests suggests the use of SEBT when the force platform is not available, which could facilitate and highlight the importance of clinical diagnosis with regard to postural balance.

  15. Leveraging Interactive Patient Care Technology to Improve Pain Management Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao-Gupta, Suma; Kruger, David; Leak, Lonna D; Tieman, Lisa A; Manworren, Renee C B

    2017-12-15

    Most children experience pain in hospitals; and their parents report dissatisfaction with how well pain was managed. Engaging patients and families in the development and evaluation of pain treatment plans may improve perceptions of pain management and hospital experiences. The aim of this performance improvement project was to engage patients and families to address hospitalized pediatric patients' pain using interactive patient care technology. The goal was to stimulate conversations about pain management expectations and perceptions of treatment plan effectiveness among patients, parents, and health care teams. Plan-Do-Study-Act was used to design, develop, test, and pilot new workflows to integrate the interactive patient care technology system with the automated medication dispensing system and document actions from both systems into the electronic health record. The pediatric surgical unit and hematology/oncology unit of a free-standing, university-affiliated, urban children's hospital were selected to pilot this performance improvement project because of the high prevalence of pain from surgeries and hematologic and oncologic diseases, treatments, and invasive procedures. Documentation of pain assessments, nonpharmacologic interventions, and evaluation of treatment effectiveness increased. The proportion of positive family satisfaction responses for pain management significantly increased from fiscal year 2014 to fiscal year 2016 (p = .006). By leveraging interactive patient care technologies, patients and families were engaged to take an active role in pain treatment plans and evaluation of treatment outcomes. Improved active communication and partnership with patients and families can effectively change organizational culture to be more sensitive to patients' pain and patients' and families' hospital experiences. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A modern neuroscience approach to chronic spinal pain: combining pain neuroscience education with cognition-targeted motor control training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijs, Jo; Meeus, Mira; Cagnie, Barbara; Roussel, Nathalie A; Dolphens, Mieke; Van Oosterwijck, Jessica; Danneels, Lieven

    2014-05-01

    Chronic spinal pain (CSP) is a severely disabling disorder, including nontraumatic chronic low back and neck pain, failed back surgery, and chronic whiplash-associated disorders. Much of the current therapy is focused on input mechanisms (treating peripheral elements such as muscles and joints) and output mechanisms (addressing motor control), while there is less attention to processing (central) mechanisms. In addition to the compelling evidence for impaired motor control of spinal muscles in patients with CSP, there is increasing evidence that central mechanisms (ie, hyperexcitability of the central nervous system and brain abnormalities) play a role in CSP. Hence, treatments for CSP should address not only peripheral dysfunctions but also the brain. Therefore, a modern neuroscience approach, comprising therapeutic pain neuroscience education followed by cognition-targeted motor control training, is proposed. This perspective article explains why and how such an approach to CSP can be applied in physical therapist practice.

  17. A new technique to treat facet joint pain with pulsed radiofrequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schianchi, Pietro Martino

    2015-02-01

    Facet joint pain affects 5% to 15% of the population with low back pain and the prevalence increases with age due to progression of arthritis. While conservative treatments are often unsuccessful, the scientific evidence on minimally invasive therapies such as intra-articular steroid infiltration and continuous and pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) of the medial branches is contradictory. Since PRF has recently been reported to successfully treat joint pain, a new application of this method is proposed for facetogenic lumbar pain via an intra-articular subcapsular approach. Here we reported two cases with successful treatment. A 71-year-old patient presented because of persisting pain in the left gluteal region radiating to the lateral thigh and calf when standing. Anti-inflammatory drugs produced only short-lasting insufficient relief. A 52-year-old employee was admitted in June 2012 because of axial lower lumbar pain with intermittent diffuse radiation to the right lower extremity that worsened during walking and lying down despite receiving analgesics and physiotherapy. A new approach to treat lumbar facet joint pain with PRF is simple to perform and without serious complications. In view of the good long-lasting results obtained with the two reported cases, randomized control trials are necessary to validate this new approach.

  18. Depolarized inactivation overcomes impaired activation to produce DRG neuron hyperexcitability in a Nav1.7 mutation in a patient with distal limb pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianying; Yang, Yang; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman D; van Es, Michael; Zhao, Peng; Salomon, Jody; Drenth, Joost P H; Waxman, Stephen G

    2014-09-10

    Sodium channel Nav1.7, encoded by SCN9A, is expressed in DRG neurons and regulates their excitability. Genetic and functional studies have established a critical contribution of Nav1.7 to human pain disorders. We have now characterized a novel Nav1.7 mutation (R1279P) from a female human subject with distal limb pain, in which depolarized fast inactivation overrides impaired activation to produce hyperexcitability and spontaneous firing in DRG neurons. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells demonstrated that R1279P significantly depolarizes steady-state fast-, slow-, and closed-state inactivation. It accelerates deactivation, decelerates inactivation, and facilitates repriming. The mutation increases ramp currents in response to slow depolarizations. Our voltage-clamp analysis showed that R1279P depolarizes channel activation, a change that was supported by our multistate structural modeling. Because this mutation confers both gain-of-function and loss-of-function attributes on the Nav1.7 channel, we tested the impact of R1279P expression on DRG neuron excitability. Current-clamp studies reveal that R1279P depolarizes resting membrane potential, decreases current threshold, and increases firing frequency of evoked action potentials within small DRG neurons. The populations of spontaneously firing and repetitively firing neurons were increased by expressing R1279P. These observations indicate that the dominant proexcitatory gating changes associated with this mutation, including depolarized steady-state fast-, slow-, and closed-state inactivation, faster repriming, and larger ramp currents, override the depolarizing shift of activation, to produce hyperexcitability and spontaneous firing of nociceptive neurons that underlie pain. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3412328-13$15.00/0.

  19. Contributions of physical and cognitive impairments to self-reported driving difficulty in chronic whiplash-associated disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasaki, Hiroshi; Treleaven, Julia; Johnston, Venerina; Jull, Gwendolen

    2013-08-15

    Cross-sectional. To conduct a preliminary analysis of the physical, cognitive, and psychological domains contributing to self-reported driving difficulty after adjusting for neck pain, dizziness, and relevant demographics in chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) using hierarchical regression modeling. Pain is a risk factor for car crashes, and dizziness may affect fitness to drive. Both symptoms are common in chronic WAD and difficulty driving is a common complaint in this group. Chronic WAD is often accompanied by physical, cognitive, and psychological impairments. These impairments may contribute to self-reported driving difficulty beyond neck pain, dizziness, and relevant demographics. Forty individuals with chronic WAD participated. Dependent variables were the magnitude of self-reported driving difficulty assessed in the strategic, tactical, and operational levels of the Neck Pain Driving Index. Three models were developed to assess the contributions of independent variables (physical, cognitive, and psychological domains) to each of the 3 dependent variables after adjusting for neck pain intensity, dizziness, and driving demographics. The measures included were: physical domain-range and maximum speed of head rotation, performances during gaze stability, eye-head coordination, and visual dependency tests; cognitive domain-self-reported cognitive symptoms including fatigue and the trail making tests; and psychological domain-general stress, traumatic stress, depression, and fear of neck movements and driving. Symptom duration was relevant to driving difficulty in the strategic and tactical levels. The cognitive domain increased statistical power to estimate the strategic and operational levels (P < 0.1) beyond other contributors. The physical domain increased statistical power to estimate the tactical level (P < 0.1) beyond other contributors. Physical and cognitive impairments independently contributed to self-reported driving difficulty in chronic WAD

  20. Postural stability is altered by the stimulation of pain but not warm receptors in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Jean-Sébastien; Corbeil, Philippe; Teasdale, Normand

    2003-10-17

    It is now recognized that large diameter myelinated afferents provide the primary source of lower limb proprioceptive information for maintaining an upright standing position. Small diameter afferents transmitting noxious stimuli, however, can also influence motor behaviors. Despite the possible influence of pain on motor behaviors, the effects of pain on the postural control system have not been well documented. Two cutaneous heat stimulations (experiment 1: non-noxious 40 degrees C; experiment 2: noxious 45 degrees C) were applied bilaterally on the calves of the subject with two thermal grills to stimulate A delta and C warm receptors and nociceptors in order to examine their effects on postural stability. The non-noxious stimulation induced a gentle sensation of warmth and the noxious stimulation induced a perception of heat pain (visual analogue scores of 0 and 46 mm, respectively). For both experiments, ten healthy young adults were tested with and without heat stimulations of the lower limbs while standing upright on a force platform with eyes open, eyes closed and eyes closed with tendon co-vibration of tibialis anterior and triceps surae muscles. The center of pressure displacements were analyzed to examine how both stimulations affected the regulation of quiet standing and if the effects were exacerbated when vision was removed or ankle proprioception perturbed. The stimulation of the warm receptors (40 degrees C) did not induce any postural deterioration. With pain (45 degrees C), subjects showed a significant increase in standard deviation, range and mean velocity of postural oscillations as well as standard deviation of the center of pressure velocity. The effects of heat pain were exacerbated when subjects had both their eyes closed and ankle tendons vibrated (increased standard deviation of the center of pressure velocity and mean velocity of the center of pressure). A non-noxious stimulation (40 degrees C) of the small diameter afferents is not a

  1. Postural stability is altered by the stimulation of pain but not warm receptors in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corbeil Philippe

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is now recognized that large diameter myelinated afferents provide the primary source of lower limb proprioceptive information for maintaining an upright standing position. Small diameter afferents transmitting noxious stimuli, however, can also influence motor behaviors. Despite the possible influence of pain on motor behaviors, the effects of pain on the postural control system have not been well documented. Methods Two cutaneous heat stimulations (experiment 1: non-noxious 40 degrees C; experiment 2: noxious 45 degrees C were applied bilaterally on the calves of the subject with two thermal grills to stimulate A delta and C warm receptors and nociceptors in order to examine their effects on postural stability. The non-noxious stimulation induced a gentle sensation of warmth and the noxious stimulation induced a perception of heat pain (visual analogue scores of 0 and 46 mm, respectively. For both experiments, ten healthy young adults were tested with and without heat stimulations of the lower limbs while standing upright on a force platform with eyes open, eyes closed and eyes closed with tendon co-vibration of tibialis anterior and triceps surae muscles. The center of pressure displacements were analyzed to examine how both stimulations affected the regulation of quiet standing and if the effects were exacerbated when vision was removed or ankle proprioception perturbed. Results The stimulation of the warm receptors (40 degrees C did not induce any postural deterioration. With pain (45 degrees C, subjects showed a significant increase in standard deviation, range and mean velocity of postural oscillations as well as standard deviation of the center of pressure velocity. The effects of heat pain were exacerbated when subjects had both their eyes closed and ankle tendons vibrated (increased standard deviation of the center of pressure velocity and mean velocity of the center of pressure. Conclusions A non

  2. Low back pain and disability in individuals with plantar heel pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClinton, Shane; Weber, Carolyn F; Heiderscheit, Bryan

    2018-03-01

    Lack of response to plantar heel pain (PHP) treatment may be related to unmanaged low back pain (LBP) and low back dysfunction, but a relationship between LBP and PHP has not been established. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the prevalence of LBP among individuals with and without PHP and to assess the association between low back disability and foot/ankle function. A cross-sectional study compared the prevalence and likelihood of LBP in individuals with (n=27) and without (n=27) PHP matched to age, sex, BMI, foot posture, and foot mobility. In individuals with PHP, correlations were examined between foot/ankle function using the foot and ankle ability measure (FAAM), low back disability using the Oswestry low back disability questionnaire (OSW), duration of PHP symptoms, body mass index (BMI), and age. A greater percentage of individuals with PHP had LBP (74% versus 37% of controls, odds ratio=5.2, P=0.009) and higher levels of low back disability (17% higher OSW score than controls, PPHP, FAAM scores were correlated with OSW scores (ρ=-0.463, P=0.015), but not with duration of PHP symptoms, BMI, or age (P>0.150). Individuals with PHP had a greater prevalence of LBP and higher low back disability that was correlated to reduced foot and ankle function. Treatment to address both local and proximal impairments, including impairments related to LBP, may be warranted to improve the management of PHP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Correlates and management of nonmalignant pain in the nursing home. SAGE Study Group. Systematic Assessment of Geriatric drug use via Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, A; Lapane, K; Gambassi, G; Bernabei, R; Mor, V; Lipsitz, L A

    1999-08-01

    Nonmalignant pain is a common problem among older people. The prevalence of pain in the nursing home is not well studied. We looked at the association between nonmalignant pain, psychological and functional health, and the practice patterns for pain management in the nursing home. A cross-sectional study. Nursing Home in four US states. A total of 49,971 nursing home residents from 1992 to 1995. We used the SAGE database (Systematic Assessment of Geriatric drug use via Epidemiology), which linked information from the Minimum Data Set and nursing home drug utilization data. The MDS items measured included pain, activities of daily living (ADL) function, mood, and time involved in activities. The use of analgesics, anxiolytics, and antidepressants was also documented. Daily pain was reported in 26% of nursing home residents. The prevalence was lower among men, persons more than age 85, and racial minorities. Persons suffering pain daily were more likely to have severe ADL impairment, odds ratio (OR) (2.47 (95% CI, 2.34-2.60)), more depressive signs and symptoms (OR 1.66 (95% CI, 1.57-1.75)), and less frequent involvement in activities (OR 1.35 (95% CI, 1.29-1.40)). Approximately 25% of persons with daily pain received no analgesics. Residents who were more than 85 years old (OR 1.15 (95% CI 1.02-1.28)), cognitively impaired, (OR 1.44 (95% CI, 1.29-1.61)), of male gender (OR 1.17 (95% CI, 1.06-1.29)), or a racial minority (OR 1.69 (95% CI, 1.40-2.05) and OR 1.56 (95% CI, 0.70-1.04) for blacks and Hispanics, respectively) were at greater risk of not receiving analgesics. Approximately 50% of those in pain used physical and occupational therapies, which was more than two times higher (OR 2.44 (95% CI, 2.34-2.54)), than use for those not in pain. Daily nonmalignant pain is prevalent among nursing home residents and is often associated with impairments in ADL, mood, and decreased activity involvement. Even when pain was recognized, men, racial minorities, and cognitively

  4. Medically unexplained chronic pain in Australia: difficulties for rehabilitation providers and workers in pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, Coralie; Matthews, Lynda R; Donelly, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    In Australia, evidence of an ageing population and a skills shortage are imminent challenges for employers [5,50]. A further concern arises from the work injury and motor accident compensation schemes, where many claims for soft tissue injuries result in permanent impairment depriving the community of otherwise productive workers [85]. In many cases, it is chronic pain that becomes the major barrier to a return to productive work. This study will review the operation of rehabilitation within Australian Workers' and Motor Accidents compensation systems in order to identify values and attitudes underpinning the vocational rehabilitation ethos. The models underlying current practice will also be identified. A comprehensive review of published literature and policy documents was undertaken. We identified a variety of contextual factors that influenced progress back into the workforce for people living with persistent pain. The conceptual models underpinning these factors within rehabilitation systems were explored. They were all driven by a strong focus on early return to work and at the same time the sustainability of rehabilitation as a profitable industry. Implications of these findings on the relationship between the rehabilitation provider and the person in pain are discussed. Rehabilitation professionals are influenced by and in turn influence the context in which chronic pain is experienced. Empirical data about the experiences of vocational rehabilitation professionals in Australian personal injury rehabilitation systems is lacking, yet the implications of the cost of chronic pain to the nation are significant. It is recommended that rehabilitation providers increase their awareness of the perhaps unforeseen traps within the various practice models they might be using on the goal of sustainable return to work for people living with pain.

  5. Postural control deficit in acute QTF grade II whiplash injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehner, Christoph; Heym, Birgit; Maier, Dirk; Sander, Silvia; Arand, Markus; Elbel, Martin; Hartwig, Erich; Kramer, Michael

    2008-07-01

    Experimental in vivo study. The objective was to investigate the balance control in patients with acute QTF grade II whiplash injuries of the cervical spine. Tetra-ataxiametric posturography in chronic pain patients after whiplash injuries of the cervical spine has revealed an impaired regulation of balance. However, so far it is unclear if this is caused by the accident or other factors that are associated with the pain chronification process. 40 patients with acute QTF grade II whiplash injuries and 40 healthy matched controls were examined on a posturography platform. The stability index ST(Sigma) and the Fourier analysis FA(Sigma) (0.10-1.00Hz) were established for eight standing positions and sum scores were calculated. The pain index was established using a visual analog scale ranging from 0 to 100. A follow-up examination was conducted for the patients after 2 months. The patients with acute whiplash injuries of the cervical spine achieved significantly poorer results for both ST(Sigma) and FA(Sigma) than the healthy controls. There were no differences between the eight standing positions for both ST(Sigma) and FA(Sigma). After 2 months, 17 patients had no change in the pain development, 21 patients showed an improvement in pain intensity and 2 patients had deteriorated. The subgroup of patients with improvement in pain intensity showed a significant improvement in balance control concerning the FA(Sigma) compared to patients with unchanged pain intensity. Patients with acute whiplash injuries have a reduced balance control as compared to matched controls. This study gives an indication that post-traumatic neck pain is associated with impairments of postural control.

  6. Pain symptoms in patients with severe cerebral palsy: Prevalence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the presence of pain in patients diagnosed with severe cerebral palsy (CP) according to the degree of motor function impairment. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on students of the Association of Parents and Friends of Exceptional Children (APAE) diagnosed with cerebral palsy and ...

  7. The role of pain for early rehabilitation in fast track surgery.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kristensen, Morten Tange; Myhrmann, Lis

    , pain medication with only oral analgesics. Two trained physiotherapists assessed all patients on postoperative day 1 (POD 1) and on the day of discharge (DOD) for: Independence in three basic functions of transfer and ambulation: 1) Get in and out of bed, 2) Sit to stand from a chair and 3) Walking...... is not a restricting factor for early rehabilitation....

  8. [Multidisciplinary guideline 'Recognition and treatment of chronic pain in vulnerable elderly people'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achterberg, Wilco P; de Ruiter, Corinne M; de Weerd-Spaetgens, Chantal M E E; Geels, Paul; Horikx, Annemieke; Verduijn, Monique M

    2012-01-01

    Chronic pain in vulnerable elderly people is still poorly recognized and treated, both at home and in hospitals and care and nursing homes. Vulnerable elderly people experience and express pain differently to relatively healthy adults, especially when they suffer from cognitive impairment or specific conditions. Determining the nature and severity of the pain requires the use of pain assessment instruments that have been validated for use in vulnerable elderly people. Effective treatment of pain demands careful diagnosis and pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions that have proven effectiveness in vulnerable elderly people. The combination of multiple morbidity and poly-pharmacy increases the chance of side-effects and complications. In addition, the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of many drugs are different in vulnerable elderly people. The advice is to start with a lower dose of pain medication and gradually build up a level on the basis of pain relief and side-effects ('start low, go slow!').

  9. Characteristics of low back pain in adolescent patients with early-stage spondylolysis evaluated using a detailed visual analogue scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Shiro; Aoki, Yasuchika; Toyooka, Takeshi; Shiga, Tetsuo; Otsuki, Kazumi; Aikawa, Emi; Oyama, Takato; Kitoh, Kazuhisa; Chikako, Sakaida; Takata, Yuka; Ishizaki, Tohru; Omori, Yasutaka; Kiguchi, Yasumi; Takata, Akito; Kote, Ayako; Nakanishi, Yasuko; Matsushita, Yukio; Suzuki, Takane; Mori, Chisato; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Nishikawa, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Retrospective comparative cohort study. To elucidate the characteristics of low back pain (LBP) in adolescent patients with early-stage spondylolysis (ESS). ESS is a common cause of acute LBP in adolescents. When treating patients with ESS, early diagnosis is important; however, early diagnosis is difficult without magnetic resonance imaging. Adolescent patients (n = 77) with acute LBP showing no pathological findings on plain radiography were included (<1 m after onset). Patients were divided into ESS and nonspecific LBP (NS-LBP) groups by conducting magnetic resonance imaging; patients showing no pathological findings that explain the cause of LBP were classified as NS-LBP. LBP was evaluated using a traditional visual analogue scale (VAS; 0-10 cm), Oswestry Disability Index, and a detailed VAS scoring system in which pain is independently evaluated in 3 different postural situations (in motion, standing, and sitting); the values were compared between the 2 groups. Of 77 patients, 41 (mean age: 14.6 yr; 33 adolescent boys/8 adolescent girls) had ESS and 36 (mean age: 14.3 yr; 20 adolescent boys/16 adolescent girls) were considered to have NS-LBP. Respective traditional VAS and Oswestry Disability Index scores were 4.9, 16.1 in the ESS group, and 6.2, 26.3 in the NS-LBP group. Both scores were significantly higher in the NS-LBP group. The results of the detailed VAS revealed that the ESS group showed significantly greater pain intensity while in motion than while standing or sitting (4.2, 2.0, and 2.0, respectively), whereas the NS-LBP group showed similar pain intensities in all 3 postural situations (5.3, 4.0, and 4.9, respectively). This study revealed that LBP characteristics may provide important information for distinguishing ESS from other low back disorders. Because early diagnosis is essential for the treatment of ESS, MRI examination is recommended for patients showing severe pain in motion, but less pain when standing or sitting.

  10. Provocative diskography: safety and predictive value in the outcome of spinal fusion or pain intervention for chronic low-back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willems PC

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Paul C Willems Department of Orthopedic Surgery, CAPHRI Research School, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, the Netherlands Abstract: There is still no clear definition of diskogenic low-back pain and no consensus on a generally agreed test, such as provocative diskography (PD, to diagnose painful disk degeneration, and probably more importantly, to predict the outcome of therapy intended to reduce pain that is presumed to be diskogenic in nature. Nevertheless, PD is the most specific procedure to diagnose diskogenic low-back pain. Its accuracy, however, is rather low or at best unknown. Although rare, the most prevalent complication, postdiskography diskitis, can be devastating for the individual patient, so all measures, like strict sterile conditions and antibiotic prophylaxis, should be taken to avoid this complication. It is advised to perform the procedure in a pressure-controlled way with a constant low flow, and optionally computed tomography imaging. PD should not be performed in morphologically normal disks. A standardized execution of the test should be established in order to perform high-quality studies to determine its accuracy to lead to meaningful interventions, and find best practices for diagnosis and treatment of diskogenic back pain. Possibly, PD may have detrimental effects on the disk, causing early degeneration, although it is unknown whether this will be related to clinical symptoms. Especially with these possible adverse side effects in mind, the risk–benefit ratio with the lack of clear benefits from treatments provided, and possible complications of disk puncture, the rationale for PD is questionable, which should be stressed to patients in the process of shared decision making. Diskography as a stand-alone test is not recommended in clinical decision making for patients with chronic low-back pain. Keywords: provocative diskography, chronic low-back pain, prognostic accuracy, spinal fusion, pain

  11. 2D.03: IMPROVING DIAGNOSTIC STRATEGY IN PATIENTS WITH LONG-STANDING HYPERTENSION, CHEST PAIN AND NORMAL RESTING ECG: VALUE OF THE EXERCISE HIGH-FREQUENCY QRS VERSUS ST-SEGMENT ANALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, A; Bianchi, S; Grifoni, C; Trausi, F; Angeli, E; Paolini, D; Catarzi, S; Perrotta, M E; Covelli, A; Renzi, N; Bertolini, P; Mazzucchelli, M

    2015-06-01

    The novel exercise computer-assisted high-frequency QRS-analysis (ex-HF/QRS) has demonstrated improved sensitivity and specificity over the conventional exercise-ST/ECG-segment-analysis (ex-ST/ECG) in the detection of myocardial ischemia. The aim of the present study was to test the implementation in diagnostic value of the ex-HF/QRS in patient with hypertension and chest pain (CP) versus the conventional ex-ST/ECG anlysis alone. Patients with long-standing hypertension, CP, normal ECG, troponin and echocardiography were enrolled. All patients underwent the ex-ST/ECG and ex-HF/QRS. A decrease >/=50% of the signal of ex-HF/QRS intensity recorded in two contiguous leads, at least, was considered as index of ischaemia, as ST-segment depression >/=2 mm or >/=1 mm and CP on ex-ST/ECG. Exclusion criteria were QRS duration >/=120 msec and inability to exercise. The end-point was the composite of coronary stenosis >50% or acute coronary syndrome, revascularization, cardiovascular death at 3-month follow-up. Six-hundred thirty-one patients were enrolled (age 61+/-15 y). The percentage of age-adjusted maximal predicted heart rate was 88+/-10 beat-per-minute and the maximal systolic blood pressure was 169+/-22 mmHg. Twenty-seven patients achieved the end-point. On multivariate analysis, both the ex-ST/ECG and ex-HF/QRS were predictors of the end-point. The ex-HF/QRS showed higher sensitivity (88% vs 50%; p = 0.003), lower specificity (77% vs 97%; p = 0.245) and comparable negative predictive value (99% vs 99%; p = NS) when compared to ex-ST/ECG. Receiver operator characteristics (ROC) analysis showed the incremental diagnostic value of the ex-HF/QRS (area: 0.64, 95% Confidence Intervals, CI 0.51-0.77) over conventional ex-ST/ECG (0.60, CI 0.52-0.66) and Chest Pain Score (0.53, CI 0.48-0.59); p = NS on pairwise C-statistic. In patients with long-standing hypertension and CP submitted to risk stratification with exercise tolerance test, the novel ex

  12. Chronic Lateral Epicondylalgia Does Not Exhibit Mechanical Pain Modulation in Response to Noxious Conditioning Heat Stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Edwin Choon Wyn; Sterling, Michele; Vicenzino, Bill

    2017-10-01

    The impaired attenuation of pain by the application of a noxious conditioning stimulus at a segmentally distinct site, known as conditioned pain modulation (CPM), has been implicated in clinical pain states. Chronic lateral epicondylalgia (LE), which is characterized by lower pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) at sites remote to the affected elbow and spinal cord hyperexcitability, is a clinical pain state that might plausibly involve less efficacious CPM. This study aimed to determine whether LE exhibits a less efficacious CPM compared with that in pain-free controls. Results: Twenty participants with LE, aged 50.7 years (SD=7.05) and who had their condition for 10.2 months (range: 2 to 80 mo), were matched by age and sex to 22 pain-free participants. All participants indicated their PPT over the lateral epicondyle(s) before and during a conditioning noxious heat stimulus that was applied over the calf. A CPM score was calculated as the difference between the PPT before and during the heat pain-conditioning stimulus expressed as a percentage of PPT before the heat pain-conditioning stimulus. The condition (LE vs. control) by side (affected vs. unaffected) analysis of variance revealed a significant condition effect (P=0.001), but not side effect (P=0.192) or side-by-condition interaction effect (P=0.951). Follow-up tests for the effect of condition revealed a mean deficit in CPM of -24.5% (95% confidence interval, -38.0 to -11.0) in LE compared with that in pain-free participants. The results that suggest an impaired ability to modulate pain might be associated with the previously observed spinal cord hyperexcitability and the mechanical hyperalgesia that characterizes LE.

  13. The revised FLACC score: Reliability and validation for pain assessment in children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Line Kjeldgaard; Rahbek, Ole; Nikolajsen, Lone

    2015-01-01

    AbstractBackground and aims Pain in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is difficult to assess and is therefore not sufficiently recognized and treated. Children with severe cognitive impairments have an increased risk of neglected postoperative, procedural and chronic pain resulting in decreased...... quality of life. The r-FLACC (revised Face, Legs, Activity, Cry and Consolability) pain score is an internationally acclaimed tool for assessing pain in children with CP because of its ease to use and its use of core pain behaviours. In addition the r-FLACC pain score may be superior to other pain...... of the r-FLACC pain score for use in Danish children with CP. Methods Twenty-seven children aged 3–15 years old with CP were included after orthopaedic surgery. Two methods for assessment of postoperative pain were used. Pain intensity was assessed by r-FLACC, with a 2 min standardized video recording...

  14. Ecological System Influences in the Treatment of Pediatric Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre E Logan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Family, school and the peer network each shape the chronic pain experience of the individual child, and each of these contexts also represents a domain of functioning often impaired by chronic pain. The goal of the present article is to summarize what is known about these bidirectional influences between children with pain and the social systems that surround them. Case reports that illustrate these complex, transactional forces and their ultimate impact on the child’s pain-related functioning are included. A case involving siblings participating in an intensive interdisciplinary program for functional restoration and pain rehabilitation highlights how parents change through this treatment approach and how this change is vital to the child’s outcomes. Another case involving a child undergoing intensive interdisciplinary treatment illustrates how school avoidance can be treated in the context of pain rehabilitation, resulting in successful return to the regular school environment. Finally, an acceptance and commitment therapy-focused group intervention for children with sickle cell disease and their parents demonstrates the benefits of peer contact as an element of the therapeutic intervention.

  15. A COMBINED TREATMENT APPROACH EMPHASIZING IMPAIRMENT-BASED MANUAL THERAPY AND EXERCISE FOR HIP-RELATED COMPENSATORY INJURY IN ELITE ATHLETES: A CASE SERIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Steve; Short, Gretchen; Strack, Donald; Anloague, Philip; Brewster, Brian

    2017-11-01

    Athletes experiencing hip, groin, and low back pain often exhibit similar clinical characteristics. Individuals with hip, groin and low back pain may have the presence of multiple concurrent pathoanatomical diagnoses. Regardless, similar regional characteristics and dysfunction may contribute to the patient's chief complaint, potentially creating a sub-group of individuals that may be defined by lumbopelvic and hip mobility limitations, motor control impairments, and other shared clinical findings. The purpose of this case series is to describe the conservative management of elite athletes, within the identified aforementioned sub-group, that emphasized regional manual therapy interventions, and therapeutic exercise designed to improve lumbopelvic and hip mobility, stability and motor control. Five elite athletes were clinically diagnosed by a physical therapist with primary pathologies including adductor-related groin pain (ARGP), femoral acetabular impingement (FAI) with acetabular labral lesion and acute, mechanical low back pain (LBP). Similar subjective, objective findings and overall clinical profiles were identified among all subjects. Common findings aside from the chief complaint included, but were not limited to, decreased hip range of motion (ROM), impaired lumbopelvic motor control and strength, lumbar hypomobility in at least one segment, and a positive hip flexion-adduction-internal rotation (FADIR) special test. A three-phase impairment-based physical therapy program was implemented to resolve the primary complaints and return the subjects to their desired level of function. Acute phase rehabilitation consisted of manual therapy and fundamental motor control exercises. Progression to the sub-acute and terminal phases was based on improved subjective pain reports and progress with functional impairments. As the subjects progress through the rehabilitation phases, the delivery of physical therapy interventions were defined by decreased manual therapies

  16. INVESTIGETING THE EFFECTS OF STANDING TRAINING ON BODY FUNCTIONS AND ACTIVITY FOR NONAMBULATORY CHILDREN WITH MYELOMENINGOCELE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Cankaya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: It was indicated in many studies that verticalization have positive effects such as preventing fractures,regulating cardiopulmonary functions, increasing the head control, and the facilitation of postural muscles in pediatric patients, however, no study showing the effect of supported standing in patients with myelomeningocele on body functions and activity was encountered. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of structured supported standing training in children with myelomeningocele on body functions and activity according to ICF-CY. Methods: Twenty-five children with MMC aged between 3 and 17, who were divided into two groups-SST and control. The supported standing training was given to supported standing group 2 hours a day for 8 weeks in addition to the routine physical therapy program. Body functions were assessed with the Trunk Impairment Scale, and activity levels were assessed with the Gross Motor Function Measurement-88 and Pediatric Functional Independence Measurement at the beginning of the study, at the end of 8 weeks and at the end of 12 weeks from beginning. Results: The results of the structured supported standing training program during 8 weeks showed that children’s body functions and activity increased statistically significantly in SST group (p0.05. Conclusion: The results show that supported standing training effects the body functions and activity positively. It is recommended to educate the families for the supported standing training to be added to the routine physiotherapy and rehabilitation program for children with MMC and continue the training at home.

  17. Catastrophizing Interferes with Cognitive Modulation of Pain in Women with Fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, Laura D; Stegner, Aaron J; Schwabacher, Isaac J; Lindheimer, Jacob B; Cook, Dane B

    2018-02-21

    Pain modulation is a critical function of the nociceptive system that includes the ability to engage descending pain control systems to maintain a functional balance between facilitation and inhibition of incoming sensory stimuli. Dysfunctional pain modulation is associated with increased risk for chronic pain and is characteristic of fibromyalgia (FM). Catastrophizing is also common in FM. However, its influence on pain modulation is poorly understood. To determine the role of catastrophizing on central nervous system processing during pain modulation in FM via examining brain responses and pain sensitivity during an attention-distraction paradigm. Twenty FM patients and 18 healthy controls (CO) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while receiving pain stimuli, administered alone and during distracting cognitive tasks. Pain ratings were assessed after each stimulus. Catastrophizing was assessed with the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). The ability to modulate pain during distraction varied among FM patients and was associated with catastrophizing. This was demonstrated by significant positive relationships between PCS scores and pain ratings (P modulation did not differ between FM and CO (P > 0.05). FM patients with higher levels of catastrophizing were less able to distract themselves from pain, indicative of catastrophizing-related impairments in pain modulation. These results suggest that the tendency to catastrophize interacts with attention-resource allocation and may represent a mechanism of chronic pain exacerbation and/or maintenance. Reducing catastrophizing may improve FM symptoms via improving central nervous system regulation of pain.

  18. Pain empathy in schizophrenia: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, William P; Jimenez, Amy M; Lee, Junghee; Wynn, Jonathan K; Eisenberger, Naomi I; Green, Michael F

    2016-05-01

    Although it has been proposed that schizophrenia is characterized by impaired empathy, several recent studies found intact neural responses on tasks measuring the affective subdomain of empathy. This study further examined affective empathy in 21 schizophrenia outpatients and 21 healthy controls using a validated pain empathy paradigm with two components: (i) observing videos of people described as medical patients who were receiving a painful sound stimulation treatment; (ii) listening to the painful sounds (to create regions of interest). The observing videos component incorporated experimental manipulations of perspective taking (instructions to imagine 'Self' vs 'Other' experiencing pain) and cognitive appraisal (information about whether treatment was 'Effective' vs 'Not Effective'). When considering activation across experimental conditions, both groups showed similar dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and anterior insula (AI) activation while merely observing others in pain. However, there were group differences associated with perspective taking: controls showed relatively greater dACC and AI activation for the Self vs Other contrast whereas patients showed relatively greater activation in these and additional regions for the Other vs Self contrast. Although patients demonstrated grossly intact neural activity while observing others in pain, they showed more subtle abnormalities when required to toggle between imagining themselves vs others experiencing pain. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. The relationships between measures of stature recovery, muscle activity and psychological factors in patients with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sandra; Holmes, Paul; Woby, Steve; Hindle, Jackie; Fowler, Neil

    2012-02-01

    Individuals with low back pain (LBP) often exhibit elevated paraspinal muscle activity compared to asymptomatic controls during static postures such as standing. This hyperactivity has been associated with a delayed rate of stature recovery in individuals with mild LBP. This study aimed to explore this association further in a more clinically relevant population of NHS patients with LBP and to investigate if relationships exist with a number of psychological factors. Forty seven patients were recruited from waiting lists for physiotherapist-led rehabilitation programmes. Paraspinal muscle activity while standing was assessed via surface electromyogram (EMG) and stature recovery over a 40-min unloading period was measured on a precision stadiometer. Self-report of pain, disability, anxiety, depression, pain-related anxiety, fear of movement, self-efficacy and catastrophising were recorded. Correlations were found between muscle activity and both pain (r=0.48) and disability (r=0.43). Muscle activity was also correlated with self-efficacy (r=-0.45), depression (r=0.33), anxiety (r=0.31), pain-related anxiety (r=0.29) and catastrophising (r=0.29) and was a mediator between self-efficacy and pain. Pain was a mediator in the relationship between muscle activity and disability. Stature recovery was not found to be related to pain, disability, muscle activity or any of the psychological factors. The findings confirm the importance of muscle activity within LBP, in particular as a pathway by which psychological factors may impact on clinical outcome. The mediating role of muscle activity between psychological factors and pain suggests that interventions that are able to reduce muscle tension may be of particular benefit to patients demonstrating such characteristics, which may help in the targeting of treatment for LBP. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pain in chemotherapy-induced neuropathy--more than neuropathic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Christian; Breimhorst, Markus; Burbach, Berenike; Egenolf, Christina; Baier, Bernhard; Fechir, Marcel; Koerber, Juergen; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Vogt, Thomas; Birklein, Frank

    2013-12-01

    Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy (CIN) is an adverse effect of chemotherapy. Pain in CIN might comprise neuropathic and nonneuropathic (ie, musculoskeletal) pain components, which might be characterized by pain patterns, electrophysiology, and somatosensory profiling. Included were 146 patients (100 female, 46 male; aged 56 ± 0.8 years) with CIN arising from different chemotherapy regimens. Patients were characterized clinically through nerve conduction studies (NCS) and quantitative sensory testing (QST). Questionnaires for pain (McGill) and anxiety/depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) were supplied. Patients were followed-up after 17 days. Large- (61%) and mixed- (35%) fibre neuropathies were more frequent than small-fibre neuropathy (1.4%). The 5 major chemotherapeutic regimens impacted differently on large- but not on small-fibre function and did not predict painfulness. Chronic pain associated with CIN was reported in 41.7%. Painless and painful CIN did not differ in QST profiles or electrophysiological findings, but different somatosensory patterns were found in CIN subgroups (pain at rest [RestP], n = 25; movement-associated pain [MovP], n = 15; both pain characteristics [MovP+RestP], n = 21; or no pain [NonP], n = 85): small-fibre function (cold-detection threshold, CDT: z score: -1.46 ± 0.21, P < 0.01) was most impaired in RestP; mechanical hyperalgesia was exclusively found in MovP (z score: +0.81 ± 0.30, P < 0.05). "Anxiety" discriminated between painful and painless CIN; "CDT" and "anxiety" discriminated between patients with ongoing (RestP) and movement-associated pain (MovP) or pain components (MovP+RestP). The detrimental effect of chemotherapy on large fibres failed to differentiate painful from painless CIN. Patients stratified for musculoskeletal or neuropathic pain, however, differed in psychological and somatosensory parameters. This stratification might allow for the application of a more specific therapy. Copyright © 2013

  1. Sensory Impairment and Health-Related Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    KWON, Hye-Jin; KIM, Ji-su; KIM, Yoon-jung; KWON, Su-jin; YU, Jin-Na

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sensory impairment is a common condition that exerts negative effects on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in the elderly. This study aimed to determine the relationship between sensory impairment and HRQoL and identify sensory-specific differences in the HRQoL of elderly. Methods: This study used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V (2010–2012), analyzing 5,260 subjects over 60 years of age who completed ophthalmic and otologic examinations. Vision and hearing impairment were measured and classified. HRQoL was determined according to the European QoL five dimension test (EQ-5D). Multivariate logistic regression analysis and analysis of covariance were performed to identify relationships between sensory impairment and HRQoL dimensions as well as differences in HRQoL scores. Results: In the final adjusted multivariate model, there was a statistically higher proportion of those with dual sensory impairment who reported problems with mobility (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.45–5.03), usual activities (aOR 2.32, 95% CI 1.16–4.64), and pain/discomfort among EQ-5D subcategories (aOR 1.79, 95% CI 1.07–2.97). In the EQ-5D dimensions, the means and standard deviations of vision impairment (0.86 [0.01]) and dual sensory impairment (0.84 [0.02]) appeared meaningfully lower than those for no sensory impairment (0.88 [0.00]) or hearing impairment (0.88 [0.01]); P = .02). Conclusion: Sensory impairment reduces HRQoL in the elderly. Improvement of HRQoL in the elderly thus requires regular screening and appropriate management of sensory impairment. PMID:26258089

  2. Risk indicators for severe impaired oral health among indigenous Australian young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts-Thomson Kaye F

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral health impairment comprises three conceptual domains; pain, appearance and function. This study sought to: (1 estimate the prevalence of severe oral health impairment as assessed by a summary oral health impairment measure, including aspects of dental pain, dissatisfaction with dental appearance and difficulty eating, among a birth cohort of Indigenous Australian young adults (n = 442, age range 16-20 years; (2 compare prevalence according to demographic, socio-economic, behavioural, dental service utilisation and oral health outcome risk indicators; and (3 ascertain the independent contribution of those risk indicators to severe oral health impairment in this population. Methods Data were from the Aboriginal Birth Cohort (ABC study, a prospective longitudinal investigation of Aboriginal individuals born 1987-1990 at an Australian regional hospital. Data for this analysis pertained to Wave-3 of the study only. Severe oral health impairment was defined as reported experience of toothache, poor dental appearance and food avoidance in the last 12 months. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate effects of demographic, socio-economic, behavioural, dental service utilisation and clinical oral disease indicators on severe oral health impairment. Effects were quantified as odds ratios (OR. Results The percent of participants with severe oral health impairment was 16.3 (95% CI 12.9-19.7. In the multivariate model, severe oral health impairment was associated with untreated dental decay (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.6-9.6. In addition to that clinical indicator, greater odds of severe oral health impairment were associated with being female (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.6, being aged 19-20 years (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.6, soft drink consumption every day or a few days a week (OR 2.6, 95% 1.2-5.6 and non-ownership of a toothbrush (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.4. Conclusions Severe oral health impairment was prevalent among this population. The findings

  3. [Evaluation of the "initiative pain-free clinic" for quality improvement in postoperative pain management. A prospective controlled study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmkuhl, D; Meissner, W; Neugebauer, E A M

    2011-09-01

    Demonstration of improved postoperative pain management by implementation of the S3 guidelines on treatment of acute perioperative and posttraumatic pain, by the integrated quality management concept "quality management acute pain" of the TÜV Rheinland or by participation in the benchmark project "Quality improvement in postoperative pain management" (QUIPS). A prospective controlled study (pre-post design) was carried out in hospitals with various levels of care comparing three hospital groups (n = 17/7/3, respectively). Group 1: participation in the QUIPS project (intraclinic and interclinic comparison of outcome data of postoperative pain treatment), group 2: participation in the quality management acute pain program (certified by TÜV Rheinland), group 3: control group with no involvement in either of the two concepts. In all three groups, an anonymous data collection was performed consisting of patient-reported pain intensity, side effects, pain disability and patient satisfaction. Pain therapy intervention was carried out only in group 2 by an integrated quality management concept (certification project: Quality management acute pain) with a package of measures to improve structure, process and outcome quality. The TÜV Rheinland certified clinics (group 2) showed a significant improvement in the pre-post comparison (before versus after certification) in the areas maximum pain (from visual analogue scale VAS 4.6 to 3.7), stress pain (5.3 to 3.9), pain-related impairment (proportion of patients with pain-linked decreased mobility and movement 26% to 16.1%, coughing and breathing 23.1% to 14.3%) and patient satisfaction (from 13.2 to 13.7; scale 0 completely unsatisfied, 15 very satisfied). The clinics with participation in QUIPS for 2 years also showed a significant improvement in stress pain (numeric rating scale NRS for pain 4.5 to 4.2), pain-linked-limitation of coughing and breathing (28% to 23.6%), and patient satisfaction (from 11.9 to 12.4). There were

  4. A case of complex regional pain syndrome with agnosia for object orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Gail; Cohen, Helen; Goebel, Andreas

    2011-07-01

    This systematic investigation of the neurocognitive correlates of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) in a single case also reports agnosia for object orientation in the context of persistent CRPS. We report a patient (JW) with severe long-standing CRPS who had no difficulty identifying and naming line drawings of objects presented in 1 of 4 cardinal orientations. In contrast, he was extremely poor at reorienting these objects into the correct upright orientation and in judging whether an object was upright or not. Moreover, JW made orientation errors when copying drawings of objects, and he also showed features of mirror reversal in writing single words and reading single letters. The findings are discussed in relation to accounts of visual processing. Agnosia for object orientation is the term for impaired knowledge of an object's orientation despite good recognition and naming of the same misoriented object. This defect has previously only been reported in patients with major structural brain lesions. The neuroanatomical correlates are discussed. The patient had no structural brain lesion, raising the possibility that nonstructural reorganisation of cortical networks may be responsible for his deficits. Other patients with CRPS may have related neurocognitive defects. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Chronic pain and praying to a higher power: useful or useless?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Gerhard

    2008-06-01

    In the present study a Swedish sample of 118 persons with chronic pain completed online tests on two occasions in association with treatment trials. A three item subscale measuring praying as a coping strategy was derived from the Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ), but adapted to refer to "a higher power" instead of "God". Measures of pain and anxiety/depression were also included. Results revealed significant associations between praying and pain interference and impairment. Praying was also associated with anxiety and depression scores. Results also showed that prayer predicted depression scores at follow-up, and that follow-up prayer was predicted by pain interference at first measurement occasion. Overall, if prayer had any relation with the other variables it was in the negative direction of more distress being associated with more praying both concurrently and prospectively.

  6. Predictors of long-term effect from education and exercise in patients with knee and hip pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Søren Thorgaard; Simonsen, Mikkel Elstrup; Odgaard, Anders

    2014-01-01

    in pain (p self-efficacy at three months (Beta = 0.304) was a predictor of one-year improvement in EQ-5D (p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: The identified predictors highlight the importance of combining education and exercise. This study indicates that good long-term treatment results...... baseline to one year were dependent variables in regression analyses, while changes from baseline to 3 months and absolute results at three months in physical performance (30-second chair stand test) and self-efficacy were predictor variables. RESULTS: A total of 79/82 patients completed the one......-year follow-up. Improvements in pain and EQ-5D at three months were maintained at one year (p self-efficacy from baseline to three months (Beta = -0.369) and 30-second chair stand test (Beta = -0.251) and self-efficacy at three months (Beta = -0.492) were predictors of one-year improvement...

  7. Treatment related impairments in arm and shoulder in patients with breast cancer: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine T Hidding

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women in the developed world. As a result of breast cancer treatment, many patients suffer from serious complaints in their arm and shoulder, leading to limitations in activities of daily living and participation. In this systematic literature review we present an overview of the adverse effects of the integrated breast cancer treatment related to impairment in functions and structures in the upper extremity and upper body and limitations in daily activities. Patients at highest risk were defined. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic literature search using the databases of PubMed, Embase, CINAHL and Cochrane from 2000 to October 2012, according to the PRISMA guidelines. Included were studies with patients with stage I-III breast cancer, treated with surgery and additional treatments (radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormonal therapy. The following health outcomes were extracted: reduced joint mobility, reduced muscle strength, pain, lymphedema and limitations in daily activities. Outcomes were divided in within the first 12 months and >12 months post-operatively. Patients treated with ALND are at the highest risk of developing impairments of the arm and shoulder. Reduced ROM and muscle strength, pain, lymphedema and decreased degree of activities in daily living were reported most frequently in relation to ALND. Lumpectomy was related to a decline in the level of activities of daily living. Radiotherapy and hormonal therapy were the main risk factors for pain. CONCLUSIONS: Patients treated with ALND require special attention to detect and consequently address impairments in the arm and shoulder. Patients with pain should be monitored carefully, because pain limits the degree of daily activities. Future research has to describe a complete overview of the medical treatment and analyze outcome in relation to the treatment. Utilization of uniform validated measurement

  8. Treatment related impairments in arm and shoulder in patients with breast cancer: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidding, Janine T; Beurskens, Carien H G; van der Wees, Philip J; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women in the developed world. As a result of breast cancer treatment, many patients suffer from serious complaints in their arm and shoulder, leading to limitations in activities of daily living and participation. In this systematic literature review we present an overview of the adverse effects of the integrated breast cancer treatment related to impairment in functions and structures in the upper extremity and upper body and limitations in daily activities. Patients at highest risk were defined. We conducted a systematic literature search using the databases of PubMed, Embase, CINAHL and Cochrane from 2000 to October 2012, according to the PRISMA guidelines. Included were studies with patients with stage I-III breast cancer, treated with surgery and additional treatments (radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormonal therapy). The following health outcomes were extracted: reduced joint mobility, reduced muscle strength, pain, lymphedema and limitations in daily activities. Outcomes were divided in within the first 12 months and >12 months post-operatively. Patients treated with ALND are at the highest risk of developing impairments of the arm and shoulder. Reduced ROM and muscle strength, pain, lymphedema and decreased degree of activities in daily living were reported most frequently in relation to ALND. Lumpectomy was related to a decline in the level of activities of daily living. Radiotherapy and hormonal therapy were the main risk factors for pain. Patients treated with ALND require special attention to detect and consequently address impairments in the arm and shoulder. Patients with pain should be monitored carefully, because pain limits the degree of daily activities. Future research has to describe a complete overview of the medical treatment and analyze outcome in relation to the treatment. Utilization of uniform validated measurement instruments has to be encouraged.

  9. Physiotherapy for pain and disability in adults with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) types I and II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Keith M; Wand, Benedict M; O'Connell, Neil E

    2016-02-24

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a painful and disabling condition that usually manifests in response to trauma or surgery. When it occurs, it is associated with significant pain and disability. It is thought to arise and persist as a consequence of a maladaptive pro-inflammatory response and disturbances in sympathetically-mediated vasomotor control, together with maladaptive peripheral and central neuronal plasticity. CRPS can be classified into two types: type I (CRPS I) in which a specific nerve lesion has not been identified, and type II (CRPS II) where there is an identifiable nerve lesion. Guidelines recommend the inclusion of a variety of physiotherapy interventions as part of the multimodal treatment of people with CRPS, although their effectiveness is not known. To determine the effectiveness of physiotherapy interventions for treating the pain and disability associated with CRPS types I and II. We searched the following databases from inception up to 12 February 2015: CENTRAL (the Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, LILACS, PEDro, Web of Science, DARE and Health Technology Assessments, without language restrictions, for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of physiotherapy interventions for treating pain and disability in people CRPS. We also searched additional online sources for unpublished trials and trials in progress. We included RCTs of physiotherapy interventions (including manual therapy, therapeutic exercise, electrotherapy, physiotherapist-administered education and cortically directed sensory-motor rehabilitation strategies) employed in either a stand-alone fashion or in combination, compared with placebo, no treatment, another intervention or usual care, or of varying physiotherapy interventions compared with each other in adults with CRPS I and II. Our primary outcomes of interest were patient-centred outcomes of pain intensity and functional disability. Two review authors independently evaluated those studies

  10. Vaginismus: heightened harm avoidance and pain catastrophizing cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Charmaine; Peters, Madelon L; Schultz, Willibrord Weijmar; de Jong, Peter J

    2012-02-01

    Catastrophic appraisal of experienced pain may promote hypervigilance and intense pain, while the personality trait of harm avoidance (HA) might prevent the occurrence of correcting such experiences. Women inflicted with vaginismus may enter a self-perpetuating downward spiral of increasing avoidance of (anticipated) pain. In vaginismus the anticipation of pain may give rise to catastrophic pain ideation. This may establish hypervigilance toward painful sexual stimuli, which consequently results in negative appraisal of sexual cues. This process could impair genital and sexual responding, intensify pain and trigger avoidance, which in turn may contribute to the onset and persistence of symptoms in vaginismus and to certain extent also in dyspareunia. To investigate whether women suffering from vaginismus are characterized by heightened levels of habitual pain catastrophic cognitions, together with higher levels of HA. This study consisted of three groups: a lifelong vaginismus group (N = 35, mean age = 28.4; standard deviation [SD] = 5.8), a dyspareunia group (N = 33, mean age = 26.7; SD = 6.8), and women without sexual complaints (N = 54, mean age = 26.5; SD = 6.7). HA scale of Cloninger's tridimensional personality questionnaire, and the pain catastrophizing scale. Specifically women inflicted with vaginismus showed significantly heightened levels of catastrophic pain cognitions compared with the other two groups, as well as significant enhanced HA vs. the control group, and a trend vs. the dyspareunia group. Both traits were shown to have cumulative predictive validity for the presence of vaginismus. This study focused on the personality traits of catastrophizing pain cognitions and HA in women with lifelong vaginismus. Our findings showed that indeed, women suffering from vaginismus are characterized by trait of HA interwoven with habitual pain catastrophizing cognitions. This study could help in the refinement of the current conceptualization and might shed

  11. Effect of chronic nonmalignant pain on highway driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuijzen, D S; van Wijck, A J M; Wille, F; Verster, J C; Kenemans, J L; Kalkman, C J; Olivier, B; Volkerts, E R

    2006-05-01

    Most pain patients are treated in an outpatient setting and are engaged in daily activities including driving. Since several studies showed that cognitive functioning may be impaired in chronic nonmalignant pain, the question arises whether or not chronic nonmalignant pain affects driving performance. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the effects of chronic nonmalignant pain on actual highway driving performance during normal traffic. Fourteen patients with chronic nonmalignant pain and 14 healthy controls, matched on age, educational level, and driving experience, participated in the study. Participants performed a standardized on-the-road driving test during normal traffic, on a primary highway. The primary parameter of the driving test is the Standard Deviation of Lateral Position (SDLP). In addition, driving-related skills (tracking, divided attention, and memory) were examined in the laboratory. Subjective assessments, such as pain intensity, and subjective driving quality, were rated on visual analogue scales. The results demonstrated that a subset of chronic nonmalignant pain patients had SDLPs that were higher than the matched healthy controls, indicating worse highway driving performance. Overall, there was a statistically significant difference in highway driving performance between the groups. Further, chronic nonmalignant pain patients rated their subjective driving quality to be normal, although their ratings were significantly lower than those of the healthy controls. No significant effects were found on the laboratory tests.

  12. Development of prolonged standing strain index to quantify risk levels of standing jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Isa; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Many occupations in industry such as metal stamping workers, electronics parts assembly operators, automotive industry welders, and lathe operators require working in a standing posture for a long time. Prolonged standing can contribute to discomfort and muscle fatigue particularly in the back and legs. This study developed the prolonged standing strain index (PSSI) to quantify the risk levels caused by standing jobs, and proposed recommendations to minimize the risk levels. Risk factors associated with standing jobs, such as working posture, muscles activity, standing duration, holding time, whole-body vibration, and indoor air quality, were the basis for developing the PSSI. All risk factors were assigned multipliers, and the PSSI was the product of those multipliers. Recommendations for improvement are based on the PSSI; however, extensive studies are required to validate their effectiveness. multipliers, and the PSSI was the product of those multipliers. Recommendations for improvement are based on the PSSI; however, extensive studies are required to validate their effectiveness.

  13. Association between chronic musculoskeletal pain and executive function in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, S; Sawa, R; Nakatsu, N; Saito, T; Sugimoto, T; Nakamura, R; Misu, S; Ueda, Y; Ono, R

    2017-11-01

    We examined the association of chronic musculoskeletal pain with executive function in community-dwelling older adults. This cross-sectional study recruited 234 community-dwelling older adults in Japan (mean age: 72.7, women: 62.8%). Chronic musculoskeletal pain was defined as having moderate or more severe pain lasting ≥ 3 months. Executive function was assessed using the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), Trail Making Test (TMT) parts A and B, Letter Verbal Fluency Test (LVFT) and Category Verbal Fluency Test (CVFT). Prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal pain was 19% (n = 44). In the univariate analysis, the DSST and CVFT scores were significantly lower in the chronic musculoskeletal pain group than in the control group (DSST: chronic musculoskeletal pain group vs. control group, 40.2 vs. 45.4, respectively, p dwelling older adults. The association of chronic musculoskeletal pain with executive function requires further investigation. Our results suggest an association between moderate-severe chronic musculoskeletal pain and impairments of semantic fluency and processing speed in community-dwelling older adults. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  14. The Consequence of Combined Pain and Stress on Work Ability in Female Laboratory Technicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kenneth Jay; Friborg, Maria Kristine; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2015-01-01

    Musculoskeletal pain and stress-related disorders are leading causes of impaired work ability, sickness absences and disability pensions. However, knowledge about the combined detrimental effect of pain and stress on work ability is lacking. This study investigates the association between pain...... in the neck-shoulders, perceived stress, and work ability. In a cross-sectional survey at a large pharmaceutical company in Denmark 473 female laboratory technicians replied to questions about stress (Perceived Stress Scale), musculoskeletal pain intensity (scale 0-10) of the neck and shoulders, and work...... ability (Work Ability Index). General linear models tested the association between variables. In the multi-adjusted model, stress (p work ability index score, and there was no significant stress by pain interaction (p = 0.32). Work ability...

  15. The consequence of combined pain and stress on work ability in female laboratory technicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jay, Kenneth; Friborg, Maria Kristine; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2015-01-01

    Musculoskeletal pain and stress-related disorders are leading causes of impaired work ability, sickness absences and disability pensions. However, knowledge about the combined detrimental effect of pain and stress on work ability is lacking. This study investigates the association between pain...... in the neck-shoulders, perceived stress, and work ability. In a cross-sectional survey at a large pharmaceutical company in Denmark 473 female laboratory technicians replied to questions about stress (Perceived Stress Scale), musculoskeletal pain intensity (scale 0-10) of the neck and shoulders, and work...... ability (Work Ability Index). General linear models tested the association between variables. In the multi-adjusted model, stress (p work ability index score, and there was no significant stress by pain interaction (p = 0.32). Work ability...

  16. The one-leg standing radiograph

    OpenAIRE

    Pinsornsak, P.; Naratrikun, K.; Kanitnate, S.; Sangkomkamhang, T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the joint space width between one-leg and both-legs standing radiographs in order to diagnose a primary osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods Digital radiographs of 100 medial osteoarthritic knees in 50 patients were performed. The patients had undergone one-leg standing anteroposterior (AP) views by standing on the affected leg while a both-legs standing AP view was undertaken while standing on both legs. The severity of the osteoarthritis wa...

  17. Management of pain in advanced disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Dylan G

    2014-06-01

    Pain is common in advanced malignancy but also prevalent in other non-malignant life-limiting diseases such as advanced heart disease; end stage renal failure and multiple sclerosis. Patients with renal or liver impairment need specific consideration, as most analgesics rely on either or both for their metabolism and excretion. Recent evidence-based guidelines and the systematic reviews that have informed their recommendations. The principles of the WHO (World Health Organisation) analgesic ladder are commonly endorsed as a structured approach to the management of pain. For neuropathic pain, the efficacy of different agents is similar and choice of drug more guided by side effects, drug interactions and cost. Evidence supporting the WHO analgesic ladder is disputed and alternatives suggested, but no overwhelming evidence for an alternative approach exists to date. Alternative approaches to the WHO analgesic ladder, new analgesic agents, e.g. rapid onset oral/intranasal fentanyl. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Rehabilitation of a female dancer with patellofemoral pain syndrome: applying concepts of regional interdependence in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Caitlyn; Hanney, William J; Podschun, Laura; Kolber, Morey J

    2010-06-01

    Due to complex movements and high physical demands, dance is often associated with a multitude of impairments including pain of the low back, pelvis, leg, knee, and foot. This case report provides an exercise progression, emphasizing enhancement of strength and neuromuscular performance using the concept of regional interdependence in a 17 year old female dancer with patellofemoral pain syndrome.

  19. [Breakthrough pain treatment with sublingual fentanyl in patients with chronic cutaneous ulcers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo-Triadó, V; López Alarcón, M D; Villegas Estévez, F; Alba Moratillas, C; Massa Domínguez, B; Palomares Payá, F; Mínguez Martí, A; Debón Vicent, L

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy and safety of opioids in the management of pain in those patients with chronic cutaneous ulcers and breakthrough/incidental pain. An open-label, multicentre, prospective, uncontrolled study was conducted in the pain and ulcer units of 5 hospitals across the Comunidad Valenciana. Eligibility criteria were baseline pain 4 in the visual analogue scale or breakthrough procedural pain 4. Exclusion criteria were cognitive impairment, opioid intolerance, or patient refusal to provide informed consent. The protocol scheduled 5 controls: baseline (enrolment), 15 days, one month, 2 months, and 3 months. The main outcome measure of the study was the visual analogue scale score during rest, movement and procedures. Opioids were administered for release of the baseline pain, and sublingual fentanyl for breakthrough pain. A total of 32 patients (86.5%) completed the study. Baseline pain achieved a mean improvement of 3.6 visual analogue scale points (SD 2.3), movement pain improved by 3.9 points (SD 2.5) and procedural pain improved by 4.5 points (SD 2.8), and the mean pain intensity improvement was statistically significant from the first control and at all controls thereafter (PDolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. Physical activity associate low back pain and intervention program: Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Muhamad Aizat Mat; Hasbollah, Hasif Rafidee; Ibrahim, Mohd Asrul Hery; Marican, Nor Dalila; Halim, Muhd Hafzal Abdul; Rashid, Ahmad Faezi Ab.; Yasin, Nurul Hafizah Mohd

    2017-10-01

    The person who have low back pain often report impaired disability to performance daily activities which passive movement of daily life. The effects of low back pain on daily function of patients can describe as a patients level of disability or reduction in physical function it interferes with the movement of patients for running a daily lives. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a review to examine the relationship between physical activity and low back pain. Besides that, the suggestion prevention program to patient who has low back pain. This systematic review study was used internet to find databases and search engines. Data were collected using Wiley online library, Bioline International, SAGE, Science Direct, NCBI, ProQuest, Biomed central, American Diabetes Association, PLOS One and Springer. The search was performed using keywords of "physical activity", "low back pain", "back pain", "activity level" and "intervention". The study was reviewed the resources and the results were classified in different section The results were classified based on several sections including years of reporting, who were reporting, the origins of articles and their health criteria about physical activity and low back pain. There are positive associate physical activity and low back pain from the systematic review. Future intervention treatment can reduce associate physical activity to low back pain.

  1. Headache Exacerbates Pain Characteristics in Temporomandibular Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Yuri Martins; Alves da Costa, Dayse Regina; de Lima Ferreira, Ana Paula; Porporatti, André Luís; Svensson, Peter; Rodrigues Conti, Paulo César; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of headache in adults with masticatory myofascial pain (MMP) on the outcome variables clinical pain (ie, self-reported pain intensity and pressure pain sensitivity), sleep quality, and pain catastrophizing. A total of 97 patients with MMP were diagnosed with co-existing headache (MMPH group, n = 50) or without headache (MMP group, n = 47) according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD). The outcome parameters were the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI); the Catastrophizing Thoughts subscale of the Pain-Related Self-Statement Scale (PRSS-C); pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) of the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles; and self-reported facial pain intensity measured on a 0- to 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS). Student t test for independent samples (α = 1.2%) and factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) (α = 5%) were used to analyze the data. The MMPH group showed significantly impaired sleep quality (mean ± standard deviation [SD] PSQI score 9.1 ± 3.5) compared with the MMP group (7.2 ± 3.4; P = .008). Subscale scores on the PRSS-C were significantly higher in the MMPH (2.1 ± 1.2) than in the MMP group (1.6 ± 1.4, uncorrected P = .048). Also, the PPTs (kgf/cm²) of the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles were significantly lower in the MMPH group (1.52 ± 0.53; 1.29 ± 0.43, respectively) than in the MMP group (2.09 ± 0.73; 1.70 ± 0.68, respectively; P headache patients had lower PPTs in the anterior temporalis muscle (P = .041) in comparison with non-headache patients. Co-existence of headache further exacerbates clinical characteristics in patients with painful TMD, which implies involvement of common mechanisms and pathways of vulnerability in these patients.

  2. Self-Management Interventions to Prevent the Secondary Condition of Pain in People with Disability Due to Mobility Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Froehlich-Grobe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This focused review examines the use and effectiveness of self-management strategies in preventing or managing pain, which is among the most common secondary conditions faced by individuals with a mobility disability. Methods This focused review was part of a two-phase comprehensive scoping review. Phase I was a comprehensive scoping review of the literature targeting multiple outcomes of self-management interventions for those with mobility impairment, and Phase II was a focused review of the literature on self-management interventions that target pain as a primary or secondary outcome. Two authors searched CINAHL, PubMed, and PsyclNFO for papers published from January 1988 through August 2014 using specified search terms. Following the scoping review, the authors independently screened and selected the studies and reviewed the eligible studies, and the first author extracted data from the included studies. Results The scoping review yielded 40 studies that addressed pain self-management interventions for those living with mobility impairment. These 40 accumulated papers revealed a heterogeneous evidence base in terms of setting (clinic, community, and online, target populations, intervention duration (3 weeks to 24 months, and mode (health-care providers and lay leaders. Most of the reviewed studies reported that the self-management intervention led to significant reduction of pain over time, suggesting that self-management may be a promising approach for addressing pain experienced by people who live with mobility limitations. Discussion This review also reveals moderate-to-high bias across studies, and findings indicate that future research should enhance the methodological quality to provide stronger evidence about the effectiveness of self-management strategies for reducing pain among those with mobility impairments.

  3. Treatment Preferences for CAM in Children with Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie C. I. Tsao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available CAM therapies have become increasingly popular in pediatric populations. Yet, little is known about children's preferences for CAM. This study examined treatment preferences in chronic pediatric pain patients offered a choice of CAM therapies for their pain. Participants were 129 children (94 girls (mean age = 14.5 years ± 2.4; range = 8–18 years presenting at a multidisciplinary, tertiary clinic specializing in pediatric chronic pain. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine the relationships between CAM treatment preferences and patient's sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, as well as their self-reported level of functioning. Over 60% of patients elected to try at least one CAM approach for pain. The most popular CAM therapies were biofeedback, yoga and hypnosis; the least popular were art therapy and energy healing, with craniosacral, acupuncture and massage being intermediate. Patients with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia (80% were the most likely to try CAM versus those with other pain diagnoses. In multivariate analyses, pain duration emerged as a significant predictor of CAM preferences. For mind-based approaches (i.e. hypnosis, biofeedback and art therapy, pain duration and limitations in family activities were both significant predictors. When given a choice of CAM therapies, this sample of children with chronic pain, irrespective of pain diagnosis, preferred non-invasive approaches that enhanced relaxation and increased somatic control. Longer duration of pain and greater impairment in functioning, particularly during family activities increased the likelihood that such patients agreed to engage in CAM treatments, especially those that were categorized as mind-based modalities.

  4. Treatment Preferences for CAM in children with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Jennie C I; Meldrum, Marcia; Kim, Su C; Jacob, Margaret C; Zeltzer, Lonnie K

    2007-09-01

    CAM therapies have become increasingly popular in pediatric populations. Yet, little is known about children's preferences for CAM. This study examined treatment preferences in chronic pediatric pain patients offered a choice of CAM therapies for their pain. Participants were 129 children (94 girls) (mean age = 14.5 years +/- 2.4; range = 8-18 years) presenting at a multidisciplinary, tertiary clinic specializing in pediatric chronic pain. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine the relationships between CAM treatment preferences and patient's sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, as well as their self-reported level of functioning. Over 60% of patients elected to try at least one CAM approach for pain. The most popular CAM therapies were biofeedback, yoga and hypnosis; the least popular were art therapy and energy healing, with craniosacral, acupuncture and massage being intermediate. Patients with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia (80%) were the most likely to try CAM versus those with other pain diagnoses. In multivariate analyses, pain duration emerged as a significant predictor of CAM preferences. For mind-based approaches (i.e. hypnosis, biofeedback and art therapy), pain duration and limitations in family activities were both significant predictors. When given a choice of CAM therapies, this sample of children with chronic pain, irrespective of pain diagnosis, preferred non-invasive approaches that enhanced relaxation and increased somatic control. Longer duration of pain and greater impairment in functioning, particularly during family activities increased the likelihood that such patients agreed to engage in CAM treatments, especially those that were categorized as mind-based modalities.

  5. Reineke’s stand density index: a quantitative and non-unitless measure of stand density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis L. VanderSchaaf

    2013-01-01

    When used as a measure of relative density, Reineke’s stand density index (SDI) can be made unitless by relating the current SDI to a standard density but when used as a quantitative measure of stand density SDI is not unitless. Reineke’s SDI relates the current stand density to an equivalent number of trees per unit area in a stand with a quadratic mean diameter (Dq)...

  6. Association between composites of selected motion palpation and pain provocation tests for sacroiliac joint disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimanifar, Manijeh; Karimi, Noureddin; Arab, Amir Massoud

    2017-04-01

    The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) has been implicated as a potential source of low back and buttock pain. Several types of motion palpation and pain provocation tests are used to evaluate SIJ dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between motion palpation and pain provocation tests in assessment of SIJ problems. This study is Descriptive Correlation. 50 patients between the ages of 20 and 65 participated. Four motion palpation tests (Sitting flexion, Standing flexion, Prone knee flexion, Gillet test) and three pain provocation tests (FABER, Posterior shear, Resisted abduction test) were examined. Chi-square analysis was used to assess the relationship between results of the individuals and composites of these two groups of tests. No significant relationship was found between these two groups of tests. It seems that motion palpation tests assess SIJ dysfunction and provocative tests assessed SIJ pain which do not appear to be related. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Neuropsychological assessment of chronic non-malignant pain patients treated in a multidisciplinary pain centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøgren, Per; Christrup, Lona Louring; Petersen, Morten Aa

    2005-01-01

    for information processing and working memory and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). CRT and FTT were impaired in the total patient sample. Treatment with opioids was associated with poorer performance of PASAT. High scores of PVAS and SVAS were associated with poor performance of PASAT and CRT, respectively...... with a combination of long-term oral opioids and antidepressants and/or anticonvulsants. Assessments comprised pain (PVAS) and sedation (SVAS), Continuous Reaction Time (CRT) testing for sustained attention, Finger Tapping Test (FTT) testing for psychomotor speed, Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT) testing...

  8. Impact of musculoskeletal pain on balance and concerns of falling in mobility-limited, community-dwelling Danes over 75 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kendall, Julie C; Hvid, Lars G; Hartvigsen, Jan

    2018-01-01

    on questionnaires. Sway range, velocity and area were recorded on a force plate in a comfortable standing stance. Pain intensity was rated on an 11 point numerical rating scale (0-10). Participants were sub-grouped into mild (0-4) and intense (> 5) neck pain or low back pain. RESULTS: Intense neck pain...... as measured by centre of pressure (COP) changes and concerns of falling compared to those without pain. METHODS: 48 older adults with a gait speed of from Odense, Denmark were recruited through the public health service. Self-reported neck pain, low back pain, and concerns of falling were recorded...... balance and concerns of falling in mobility-limited older adults, and if so, whether this is associated with different intensities of pain. OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether mobility-limited older adults with mild or intense neck pain and/or low back pain have significantly increased postural sway...

  9. Pain and mean absorbed dose to the pubic bone after radiotherapy among gynecological cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldenström, Ann-Charlotte; Olsson, Caroline; Wilderäng, Ulrica; Dunberger, Gail; Lind, Helena; al-Abany, Massoud; Palm, Åsa; Avall-Lundqvist, Elisabeth; Johansson, Karl-Axel; Steineck, Gunnar

    2011-07-15

    To analyze the relationship between mean absorbed dose to the pubic bone after pelvic radiotherapy for gynecological cancer and occurrence of pubic bone pain among long-term survivors. In an unselected, population-based study, we identified 823 long-term gynecological cancer survivors treated with pelvic radiotherapy during 1991-2003. For comparison, we used a non-radiation-treated control population of 478 matched women from the Swedish Population Register. Pain, intensity of pain, and functional impairment due to pain in the pubic bone were assessed with a study-specific postal questionnaire. We analyzed data from 650 survivors (participation rate 79%) with median follow-up of 6.3 years (range, 2.3-15.0 years) along with 344 control women (participation rate, 72 %). Ten percent of the survivors were treated with radiotherapy; ninety percent with surgery plus radiotherapy. Brachytherapy was added in 81%. Complete treatment records were recovered for 538/650 survivors, with dose distribution data including dose-volume histograms over the pubic bone. Pubic bone pain was reported by 73 survivors (11%); 59/517 (11%) had been exposed to mean absorbed external beam doses beam doses ≥ 52.5 Gy. Thirty-three survivors reported pain affecting sleep, a 13-fold increased prevalence compared with control women. Forty-nine survivors reported functional impairment measured as pain walking indoors, a 10-fold increased prevalence. Mean absorbed external beam dose above 52.5 Gy to the pubic bone increases the occurrence of pain in the pubic bone and may affect daily life of long-term survivors treated with radiotherapy for gynecological cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sleep, stress, neurocognitive profile and healthrelated quality of life in adolescents with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Molina

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to measure levels of sleep, stress, and depression, as well as health-related quality of life, and to assess the neurocognitive profiles in a sample of adolescents with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain. METHODS: Nineteen adolescents with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain and 20 age-matched healthy control subjects were evaluated regarding their levels of sleep and stress, as well as quality of life, and underwent neurocognitive testing. RESULTS: The sample groups consisted predominantly of females (84%, and the socioeconomic status did not differ between the two groups. In addition, the occurrence of depressive symptoms was similar between the two groups; specifically, 26% of the idiopathic musculoskeletal pain patients and 30% of the control subjects had scores indicative of depression. Teenagers in the group with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain reported poorer quality of life and sleep scores than those in the control group. Regarding stress, patients had worse scores than the control group; whereas 79% of the adolescents with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain met the criteria for a diagnosis of stress, only 35% of the adolescents in the control group met the criteria. In both groups, we observed scores that classified adolescents as being in the resistance phase (intermediate and exhaustion phase (pathological of distress. However, the idiopathic musculoskeletal pain group more frequently reported symptomatic complaints of physical and emotional distress. The neurocognitive assessment showed no significant impairments in either group. CONCLUSION: Adolescents with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain did not exhibit cognitive impairments. However, adolescents with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain did experience intermediate to advanced psychological distress and lower health-related quality of life, which may increase their risk of cognitive dysfunction in the future.

  11. Pain and Mean Absorbed Dose to the Pubic Bone After Radiotherapy Among Gynecological Cancer Survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldenstroem, Ann-Charlotte; Olsson, Caroline; Wilderaeng, Ulrica; Dunberger, Gail; Lind, Helena; Al-Abany, Massoud; Palm, Asa; Avall-Lundqvist, Elisabeth; Johansson, Karl-Axel; Steineck, Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the relationship between mean absorbed dose to the pubic bone after pelvic radiotherapy for gynecological cancer and occurrence of pubic bone pain among long-term survivors. Methods and Materials: In an unselected, population-based study, we identified 823 long-term gynecological cancer survivors treated with pelvic radiotherapy during 1991-2003. For comparison, we used a non-radiation-treated control population of 478 matched women from the Swedish Population Register. Pain, intensity of pain, and functional impairment due to pain in the pubic bone were assessed with a study-specific postal questionnaire. Results: We analyzed data from 650 survivors (participation rate 79%) with median follow-up of 6.3 years (range, 2.3-15.0 years) along with 344 control women (participation rate, 72 %). Ten percent of the survivors were treated with radiotherapy; ninety percent with surgery plus radiotherapy. Brachytherapy was added in 81%. Complete treatment records were recovered for 538/650 survivors, with dose distribution data including dose-volume histograms over the pubic bone. Pubic bone pain was reported by 73 survivors (11%); 59/517 (11%) had been exposed to mean absorbed external beam doses <52.5 Gy to the pubic bone and 5/12 (42%) to mean absorbed external beam doses ≥52.5 Gy. Thirty-three survivors reported pain affecting sleep, a 13-fold increased prevalence compared with control women. Forty-nine survivors reported functional impairment measured as pain walking indoors, a 10-fold increased prevalence. Conclusions: Mean absorbed external beam dose above 52.5 Gy to the pubic bone increases the occurrence of pain in the pubic bone and may affect daily life of long-term survivors treated with radiotherapy for gynecological cancer.

  12. Common Functional Gastroenterologic Disorders Associated With Abdominal Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharucha, Adil E.; Chakraborty, Subhankar; Sletten, Christopher D.

    2016-01-01

    Although abdominal pain is a symptom of several structural gastrointestinal disorders (eg, peptic ulcer disease), this comprehensive review will focus on the 4 most common nonstructural, or functional, disorders associated with abdominal pain: functional dyspepsia, constipation-predominant and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome, and functional abdominal pain syndrome. Together, these conditions affect approximately 1 in 4 people in the United States. They are associated with comorbid conditions (eg, fibromyalgia, depression), impaired quality of life, and increased health care utilization. Symptoms are explained by disordered gastrointestinal motility and sensation, which are implicated in a variety of peripheral (eg, postinfectious inflammation, luminal irritants) and/or central (eg, stress and anxiety) factors. These disorders are defined and can generally be diagnosed by symptoms alone. Often prompted by alarm features, selected testing is useful to exclude structural disease. Identifying the specific diagnosis (eg, differentiating between functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome) and establishing an effective patient-physician relationship are the cornerstones of therapy. Many patients with mild symptoms can be effectively managed with limited tests, sensible dietary modifications, and over-the-counter medications tailored to symptoms. If these measures are not sufficient, pharmacotherapy should be considered for bowel symptoms (constipation or diarrhea) and/or abdominal pain; opioids should not be used. Behavioral and psychological approaches (eg, cognitive behavioral therapy) can be very helpful, particularly in patients with chronic abdominal pain who require a multidisciplinary pain management program without opioids. PMID:27492916

  13. Psychosocial, Physical, and Neurophysiological Risk Factors for Chronic Neck Pain: A Prospective Inception Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi, Bahar; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Maluf, Katrina S

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify modifiable risk factors for the development of first-onset chronic neck pain among an inception cohort of healthy individuals working in a high-risk occupation. Candidate risk factors identified from previous studies were categorized into psychosocial, physical, and neurophysiological domains, which were assessed concurrently in a baseline evaluation of 171 office workers within the first 3 months of hire. Participants completed monthly online surveys over the subsequent year to identify the presence of chronic interfering neck pain, defined as a Neck Disability Index score ≥5 points for 3 or more months. Data were analyzed using backward logistic regression to identify significant predictors within each domain, which were then entered into a multivariate regression model adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index. Development of chronic interfering neck pain was predicted by depressed mood (odds ratio [OR] = 3.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.10-10.31, P = .03), cervical extensor endurance (OR = .92, 95% CI, .87-.97, P = .001), and diffuse noxious inhibitory control (OR = .90, 95% CI, .83-.98, P = .02) at baseline. These findings provide the first evidence that individuals with preexisting impairments in mood and descending pain modulation may be at greater risk for developing chronic neck pain when exposed to peripheral nociceptive stimuli such as that produced during muscle fatigue. Depressed mood, poor muscle endurance, and impaired endogenous pain inhibition are predisposing factors for the development of new-onset chronic neck pain of nonspecific origin in office workers. These findings may assist with primary prevention by allowing clinicians to screen for individuals at risk of developing chronic neck pain. Copyright © 2015 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Oral infections and orofacial pain in Alzheimer's disease: case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Regina Dowgan T. de Siqueira

    Full Text Available Abstract Dental infections, frequent in the general population, are a common cause of inflammation with systemic impact, and are the most common cause of orofacial pain. Temporomandibular disorders are also frequent in the elderly and represent an important cause of secondary headache. Both inflammation and pain can also contribute to cognitive, functional and behavioral impairment of the elderly and aggravate symptoms of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD. We report a case of a 74-year-old woman with AD and chronic facial pain who had a significant improvement in functional activities as well as in cognition and depressive symptoms after successful treatment of her facial pain. Patients with AD have higher compromise of oral health with infections and teeth loss. The investigation of orofacial pain should be performed in patients with AD, because of the associations reviewed and given the potential for improvement as highlighted by this case.

  15. Maintaining professionalism in today's business environment: ethical challenges for the pain medicine specialist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebovits, Allen

    2012-09-01

    There are many external influences in today's market force that impair the relationship between the pain medicine specialist and the patient, and ultimately prevent optimal quality of care. This article explores the ethical challenges facing the pain medicine specialist in today's increasingly "business" environment and will offer solutions for maintaining the professionalism of pain medicine. Four commonly encountered bioethical principles in the practice of pain medicine are reviewed: beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice, and autonomy. The following ethical challenges of the pain medicine specialist are reviewed: practicing outside ones specialty area, practice characteristics, the consultant role, the economic lure of aggressive intervention, not evaluating for and treating comorbid psychopathology, reimbursement pressures, workers' compensation, and use of unproven methods. Solutions offered include collegial associations, social responsibility, legislative initiatives, pain education, interdisciplinary evaluation and treatment, improved relationships with third-party payers, reduced racial disparities, and ethics education. Ethics is the "roadmap" that enables the pain medicine specialist to navigate the increasingly murky waters of practicing pain management today by maintaining the professionalism necessary to combat today's "business" pressures. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Comparison of orofacial pain of patients with different stages of precancer and oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanjie; Zhang, Peipei; Li, Wenlu

    2017-03-16

    Orofacial pain impairs a patient's speech, swallowing, eating and interpersonal relations. Thirty-seven patients with a premalignant oral lesion, 124 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSSC), and 21 patients with a recurrence of OSSC were evaluated for their orofacial pain. The University of California San Francisco Oral Cancer Pain Questionnaire was administered to these patients at their initial visit, before they were prescribed analgesics for pain and before any treatment. Significant differences with respect to orofacial pain between the groups could be evaluatedwere observed. Patients with recurrence had the highest facial pain and patients with precancer had the lowest. Patients with OSSC and recurrence of OSSC reported significant levels of orofacial pain and functional restriction because of pain. Moreover, patients with recurrence of OSSC experienced significantly higher function-related pain, rather than pain qualities. These findings suggest that an important predictor for recurrence of OSSC may be the onset of orofacial pain that is exacerbated during function. The present study examined orofacial pain depending on the disease severity of precancer and oral cancer patients. Earlier recognition of symptoms of OSSC may improve early detection of its recurrence.

  17. Chronic pain as a manifestation of potassium channel-complex autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Christopher J; Lennon, Vanda A; Aston, Paula A; McKeon, Andrew; Pittock, Sean J

    2012-09-11

    Autoantibodies targeting voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complexes cause a spectrum of neuronal hyperexcitability disorders. We investigated pain as a manifestation of VGKC-complex autoimmunity. We reviewed the prevalence and characteristics of pain in VGKC-complex-immunoglobulin G (IgG)-seropositive patients in 25 months of comprehensive service testing for neural autoantibodies, subtyped positive sera for LGI1-IgG and CASPR2-IgG specificities, and reviewed pain prevalence in autoimmune control patients. VGKC-complex-IgG was identified in 1,992 patients of 54,853 tested (4%). Of 316 evaluated neurologically at Mayo Clinic, 159 (50%) had pain, in isolation (28%) or with accompanying neurologic manifestations (72%), and not attributable to alternative cause. Pain was subacute in onset, chronic in course, neuropathic, nociceptive, regional, or diffuse and sometimes attributed to fibromyalgia (6%) or psychogenic cause (13%). Most patients had normal peripheral nervous system function, measured by neuropathy impairment scores and nerve conduction. Evidence of neuronal hyperexcitability (hyperhidrosis, quantitative heat-pain hyperalgesia, or electromyographic excitability) was 25-fold more common in pain patients. Pain management required multiple medications in 70% (narcotics, 30%); 13 of 16 patients reported pain relief with immunotherapy. Pain was significantly associated with CASPR2-IgG-positivity (16% positive with pain, 7% without pain; p = 0.014) but not with LGI1-IgG. Less than 10% of 167 patients with neural autoantibodies other than VGKC-complex-IgG reported pain. Chronic idiopathic pain is a syndromic manifestation of VGKC-complex autoimmunity. Hyperexcitability of nociceptive pathways is implicated. CASPR2-IgG significantly associates with pain, but in most patients the antigenic VGKC-complex molecule remains to be determined. VGKC-complex autoimmunity represents an important new direction for pain research and therapy.

  18. Pain and major depressive disorder: Associations with cognitive impairment as measured by the THINC-integrated tool (THINC-it).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Danielle S; Carmona, Nicole E; Mansur, Rodrigo B; Lee, Yena; Park, Hyun Jung; Rodrigues, Nelson B; Subramaniapillai, Mehala; Rosenblat, Joshua D; Pan, Zihang; Lee, Jae Hon; Lee, JungGoo; Almatham, Fahad; Alageel, Asem; Shekotikhina, Margarita; Zhou, Aileen J; Rong, Carola; Harrison, John; McIntyre, Roger S

    2017-04-01

    To examine the role of pain on cognitive function in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD). Adults (18-65) with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual - Fifth Edition (DSM-5)-defined diagnosis of MDD experiencing a current major depressive episode (MDE) were enrolled (n MDD =100). All subjects with MDD were matched in age, sex, and years of education to healthy controls (HC) (n HC =100) for comparison. Cognitive function was assessed using the recently validated THINC-integrated tool (THINC-it), which comprises variants of the choice reaction time (i.e., THINC-it: Spotter), One-Back (i.e., THINC-it: Symbol Check), Digit Symbol Substitution Test (i.e., THINC-it: Codebreaker), Trail Making Test - Part B (i.e., THINC-it: Trails), as well as the Perceived Deficits Questionnaire for Depression - 5-item (i.e., THINC-it: PDQ-5-D). A global index of objective cognitive function was computed using objective measures from the THINC-it, while self-rated cognitive deficits were measured using the PDQ-5-D. Pain was measured using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Regression analyses evaluated the role of pain in predicting objective and subjective cognitive function. A significant between-group differences on the VAS was observed (p<0.001), with individuals with MDD reporting higher pain severity as evidenced by higher scores on the VAS than HC. Significant interaction effects were observed between self -rated cognitive deficits and pain ratings (p<0.001) on objective cognitive performance (after adjusting for MADRS total score), suggesting that pain moderates the association between self-rated and objective cognitive function. Results indicated that pain is associated with increased self-rated and objective cognitive deficits in adults with MDD. The study herein provides preliminary evidence demonstrating that adults with MDD reporting pain symptomatology and poorer subjective cognitive function is predictive of poorer objective cognitive performance. THINC-it is capable of

  19. Talking About Sex When Sex Is Painful: Dyadic Sexual Communication Is Associated With Women's Pain, and Couples' Sexual and Psychological Outcomes in Provoked Vestibulodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancourt, Kate M; Rosen, Natalie O; Bergeron, Sophie; Nealis, Logan J

    2016-11-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a recurrent vulvovaginal pain condition associated with psychological and sexual consequences for affected women and their partners, including lower quality of dyadic sexual communication compared to pain-free couples. Although greater sexual communication is associated with positive sexual and relational outcomes for both pain-free couples and couples experiencing painful sex, little is known about its role in women's pain and psychological outcomes, especially in a relational context. The present study examined associations between dyadic sexual communication and pain, sexual satisfaction, sexual functioning, and depressive symptoms in a sample of 107 couples in which the woman was diagnosed with PVD via a standardized gynecological assessment. Women completed a measure of pain intensity, and both members of the couple completed measures of their dyadic sexual communication, sexual satisfaction, sexual functioning, and depressive symptoms. Analyses were guided by the actor-partner interdependence model. Women and partners' own perceptions of greater dyadic sexual communication were associated with their own greater sexual satisfaction and sexual functioning, and lower depressive symptoms. Partners' perceptions of greater dyadic sexual communication were also associated with women's lower pain and greater sexual satisfaction. Results point to the importance of dyadic coping conceptualizations for both individual and interpersonal outcomes in PVD. Dyadic sexual communication may be a key treatment target for interventions aimed at improving the pain and psychological and sexual impairments of women with PVD and their partners.

  20. Pain from Dental Implant Placement, Inflammatory Pulpitis Pain, and Neuropathic Pain Present Different Somatosensory Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porporatti, André Luís; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; Stuginski-Barbosa, Juliana; Bonfante, Estevam Augusto; Costa, Yuri Martins; Rodrigues Conti, Paulo César

    2017-01-01

    To address the two following questions: (1) What kind of somatosensory abnormalities may be characterized in patients receiving dental implants (IMP), in ongoing inflammatory dental pulpitis (IP) patients, and in neuropathic pain (atypical odontalgia [AO]) patients? and (2) What sort of sensory and neural changes may result from dental implant placement surgery and pulpectomy? A total of 60 subjects were divided into three groups: the IMP (n = 20), IP (n = 20), and AO groups (n = 20). Quantitative sensory testing (QST) was performed preoperatively (baseline) for all three groups and postoperatively at 1 month and 3 months after dental implant placement or pulpectomy (in the IMP group and IP group, respectively). Statistical analyses were completed with one-way and two-way analysis of variance and z score transformations (α = 5%). The main findings of this study indicated that: (1) Elevations in mechanical detection threshold (MDT) and in current perception threshold (CPT) related to C-fiber activation, indicating a loss of function, were found at baseline in IP patients; (2) Somatosensory abnormalities such as allodynia, reduced MDT and mechanical pain threshold (MPT), and impaired pain modulation were found in AO patients; (3) No somatosensory alterations after implant placement were found in the IMP group; and (4) Somatosensory alterations in the form of reduction in the CPT related to C-fiber activation were reported 3 months after pulpectomy in the IP group. This study showed that somatosensory abnormalities were evident in AO and IP patients, and somatosensory alterations were seen in IP patients even 3 months after pulpectomy. However, no somatosensory alterations were seen after implant placement.

  1. Eccentric and Isometric Hip Adduction Strength in Male Soccer Players With and Without Adductor-Related Groin Pain An Assessor-Blinded Comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, Kristian; Branci, Sonia; Nielsen, Peter Martin

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adductor-related pain is the most common clinical finding in soccer players with groin pain and can be a long-standing problem affecting physical function and performance. Hip adductor weakness has been suggested to be associated with this clinical entity, although it has never been...... investigated. PURPOSE: To investigate whether isometric and eccentric hip strength are decreased in soccer players with adductor-related groin pain compared with asymptomatic soccer controls. The hypothesis was that players with adductor-related groin pain would have lower isometric and eccentric hip adduction...... strength than players without adductor-related groin pain. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: Male elite and subelite players from 40 teams were contacted. In total, 28 soccer players with adductor-related groin pain and 16 soccer players without adductor-related groin pain...

  2. Sit-to-stand ground reaction force characteristics in blind and sighted female children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji Aylar, Mozhgan; Jafarnezhadgero, Amir Ali; Salari Esker, Fatemeh

    2018-03-05

    The association between visual sensory and sit-to-stand ground reaction force characteristics is not clear. Impulse is the amount of force applied over a period of time. Also, free moment represents the vertical moment applied in the center of pressure (COP). How the ground reaction force components, vertical loading rate, impulses and free moment respond to long and short term restricted visual information? Fifteen female children with congenital blindness and 45 healthy girls with no visual impairments participated in this study. The girls with congenital blindness were placed in one group and the 45 girls with no visual impairments were randomly divided into three groups of 15; eyes open, permanently eyes closed, and temporary eyes closed. The participants in the permanently eyes closed group closed their eyes for 20 min before the test, whereas temporary eyes closed group did tests with their eyes closed throughout, and those in the eyes open group kept their eyes open. Congenital blindness was associated with increased vertical loading rate, range of motion of knee and hip in the medio-lateral plane. Also, medio-lateral and vertical ground reaction force impulses. Similar peak negative and positive free moments were observed in three groups. In conclusion, the results reveal that sit-to-stand ground reaction force components in blind children may have clinical importance for improvement of balance control of these individuals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Urethral pain syndrome: fact or fiction--an update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreger, N M; Degener, S; Roth, S; Brandt, A S; Lazica, D A

    2015-09-01

    Urethral pain syndrome is a symptom complex including dysuria, urinary urgency and frequency, nocturia and persistent or intermittent urethral and/or pelvic pain in the absence of proven infection. These symptoms overlap with several other conditions, such as interstitial cystitis bladder pain syndrome and overactive bladder. Urethral pain syndrome may occur in men but is more frequent in women. The exact etiology is unknown but infectious and psychogenic factors, urethral spasms, early interstitial cystitis, hypoestrogenism, squamous metaplasia as well as gynecological risk factors are discussed. These aspects should be ruled out or confirmed in the diagnostic approach. Despite the assumption of a multifactorial etiology, pathophysiologically there is a common pathway: dysfunctional epithelium of the urethra becomes leaky which leads to bacterial and abacterial inflammation and ends in fibrosis due to the chronic impairment. The therapeutic approach should be multimodal using a trial and error concept: general treatment includes analgesia, antibiotics, alpha receptor blockers and muscle relaxants, antimuscarinic therapy, topical vaginal estrogen, psychological support and physical therapy. In cases of nonresponding patients intravesical and/or surgical therapy should be considered. The aim of this review is to summarize the preliminary findings on urethral pain syndrome and to elucidate the diagnostic and therapeutic options.

  4. Surgical management of symptomatic low back pain and monoradicular leg pain in adolescent and young adult patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalevski Svetoslav

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of the present retrospective study is to draw attention to symptomatic low back pain in adolescent patients, in order to encourage earlier diagnosis and surgical treatment. The study assessed the radiological, clinical features and surgical outcomes of 13of this kind of patient. Materials and Methods: Out of a series of 983 consecutive cases (1999-2011 of lumbar disc excisions from our neurosurgical institution, 13-1,32% of the patients were between the ages of 15 and 20 mean 17,84. Fifteen operations, including two reoperations, were performed on this patient group, by a conventional microsurgical procedure. The indications for surgery were failure of conservative treatment, intractable pain and/or progressive neurological impairment. Results: Low back pain and monoradicular sciatica were the main complaints in 77%, but findings of neurological deficits were rare - 1 case. The surgical findings revealed a protruding disc in eleven cases, one lateral recess stenosis and one lumbar synovial cyst. Initially, all patients were treated conservatively by their physicians more than 3 months without success. On the day of discharge, Kirkaldy-Willis criteria results were excellent or good in 92% of patients. The follow-up period ranged from 6 months to 2 years with an average of 1 year and 2 months. The results were excellent in 10 patients and good in 3 patients. Discussion: We demonstrate that the cause of low back pain and monoradicular leg pain in adolescent patients may not only be a cause of herniated lumbar disc or lateral recess narrowing. Very rarely these symptoms may be caused by lumbar synovial cysts. Conclusion: Surgical treatment of adolescent patients is able to relieve the clinical symptoms quickly. Clinical symptoms such as low back pain and leg pain and the neurologic deficit disappear within 3 months after surgery.

  5. SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF SYMPTOMATIC LOW BACK PAIN AND MONORADICULAR LEG PAIN IN ADOLESCENT AND YOUNG ADULT PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalevski Svetoslav

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of the present retrospective study is to draw attention to symptomatic low back pain in adolescent patients, in order to encourage earlier diagnosis and surgical treatment. The study assessed the radiological, clinical features and surgical outcomes of 13 of this kind of patient. Materials and Methods: Out of a series of 983 consecutive cases (1999–2011 of lumbar disc excisions from our neurosurgical institution, 13–1,32% of the patients were between the ages of 15 and 20 mean 17,84. Fifteen operations, including two reoperations,were performed on this patient group, by a conventional microsurgical procedure. The indications for surgery were failure of conservative treatment, in tractable pain and/or progressive neurological impairment. Results: Low back pain and monoradicular sciatica were the main complaints in 77%, but findings of neurological deficits were rare — 1 case. The surgical findings revealed a protruding disc in eleven cases, one lateral recess stenosis and one lumbar synovial cyst. Initially, all patients were treated conservatively by their physicians more than 3 months without success. On the day of discharge, Kirkaldy-Willis criteria results were excellent or good in 92% of patients. The follow-up period ranged from 6 months to 2 years with an average of 1 year and 2 months. The results were excellent in 10 patients and good in 3 patients. Discussion: We demonstrate that the cause of low back pain and monoradicular leg pain in adolescent patients may not only be a cause of herniated lumbar disc or lateral recess narrowing. Very rarely these symptoms may be caused by lumbar synovial cysts. Conclusion: Surgical treatment of adolescent patients is able to relieve the clinical symptoms quickly. Clinical symptoms such as low back pain and leg pain and the neurologic deficit disappear within 3 months after surgery.

  6. “Laugh or I’ll Die”: Facing Death on the Stand-up Comedy Stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keisalo, Marianna Päivikki

    may be at odds with the idea that humor is supposed to be enjoyable, but stand-up comedy comes with risks for both performer and audience. What draws the comedian to keep trying, to face annihilation time after time? I suggest these high emotional stakes are part of the value of comedy, which may...... be at its most enjoyable when it provides a way to engage with fear and pain. Death is also a fairly common topic in comedy routines – death of a loved one, fear of death, etc. Thus, I present a view of stand-up comedy as facing death in both its off-stage and on-stage forms, in relation to the digressions...... on semiotic excess. Comedic digression allows – even requires – us to find new perspectives on the imperatives of life, and a well-timed improvised digression can save a show going badly. The research is based on 20 months of field work in Finland, including becoming an amateur comedian myself....

  7. Management of patients with refractory angina: Canadian Cardiovascular Society/Canadian Pain Society joint guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillion, Michael; Arthur, Heather M; Cook, Allison; Carroll, Sandra L; Victor, J Charles; L'allier, Philippe L; Jolicoeur, E Marc; Svorkdal, Nelson; Niznick, Joel; Teoh, Kevin; Cosman, Tammy; Sessle, Barry; Watt-Watson, Judy; Clark, Alexander; Taenzer, Paul; Coyte, Peter; Malysh, Louise; Galte, Carol; Stone, James

    2012-01-01

    Refractory angina (RFA) is a debilitating disease characterized by cardiac pain resistant to conventional treatments for coronary artery disease including nitrates, calcium-channel and β-adrenoceptor blockade, vasculoprotective agents, percutaneous coronary interventions, and coronary artery bypass grafting. The mortality rate of patients living with RFA is not known but is thought to be in the range of approximately 3%. These individuals suffer severely impaired health-related quality of life with recurrent and sustained pain, poor general health status, psychological distress, impaired role functioning, and activity restriction. Effective care for RFA sufferers in Canada is critically underdeveloped. These guidelines are predicated upon a 2009 Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) Position Statement which identified that underlying the problem of RFA management is the lack of a formalized, coordinated, interprofessional strategy between the cardiovascular and pain science/clinical communities. The guidelines are therefore a joint initiative of the CCS and the Canadian Pain Society (CPS) and make practice recommendations about treatment options for RFA that are based on the best available evidence. Concluding summary recommendations are also made, giving direction to future clinical practice and research on RFA management in Canada. Copyright © 2012 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Improvement in automatic postural coordination following alexander technique lessons in a person with low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Timothy W; Horak, Fay B; Henry, Sharon M

    2005-06-01

    The relationship between abnormal postural coordination and back pain is unclear. The Alexander Technique (AT) aims to improve postural coordination by using conscious processes to alter automatic postural coordination and ongoing muscular activity, and it has been reported to reduce low back pain. This case report describes the use of the AT with a client with low back pain and the observed changes in automatic postural responses and back pain. The client was a 49-year-old woman with a 25-year history of left-sided, idiopathic, lumbrosacral back pain. Automatic postural coordination was measured using a force plate during horizontal platform translations and one-legged standing. The client was tested monthly for 4 months before AT lessons and for 3 months after lessons. Before lessons, she consistently had laterally asymmetric automatic postural responses to translations. After AT lessons, the magnitude and asymmetry of her responses and balance improved and her low back pain decreased. Further research is warranted to study whether AT lessons improve low back pain-associated abnormalities in automatic postural coordination and whether improving automatic postural coordination helps to reduce low back pain.

  9. Ergonomic Risk Factors and Their Association With Lower Back and Neck Pain Among Pharmaceutical Employees in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbafinejad, Yasser; Imanizade, Zahra; Danesh, Hossein

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the ergonomic risk factors for low back pain (LBP) and neck pain in an industry in which only light tasks are performed. These common disorders can be significant work-related musculoskeletal disorders. This study included 396 employees who worked in packaging units of pharmaceutical companies. The Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire and the rapid upper limb assessment (RULA) were used to generate data. This study showed an association between LBP, RULA scores, and workers' education. For neck pain, an association was found with age, gender, and subjective questions about working posture (mostly sitting/standing or alternating between the two). Absence from work more than 3 days, which could have been associated with pain, was significantly associated with both disorders. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. The possible role of meditation in myofascial pain syndrome: A new hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth Panta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background of Hypothesis: Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS is the most common musculoskeletal pain disorder of the head and neck area. In the past, several theories were put forth to explain its origin and nature, but none proved complete. Myofascial pain responds to changing psychological states and stress, anxiety, lack of sleep, anger, depression and chronic pain are direct contributional factors. Myofascial pain syndrome may be considered as a psychosomatic disorder. There are numerous accepted palliative approaches, but of all, relaxation techniques stand out and initiate healing at the base level. In this article, the connection between mental factors, MPS and meditation are highlighted. Recent literature has shed light on the fundamental role of free radicals in the emergence of myofascial pain. The accumulating free radicals disrupt mitochondrial integrity and function, leading to sustenance and progression of MPS. Meditation on the other hand was shown to reduce free radical load and can result in clinical improvement. 'Mindfulness' is the working principle behind the effect of all meditations, and I emphasize that it can serve as a potential tool to reverse the neuro-architectural, neurobiological and cellular changes that occur in MPS. Conclusions: The findings described in this paper were drawn from studies on myofascial pain, fibromyalgia, similar chronic pain models and most importantly from self experience (experimentation. Till date, no hypothesis is available connecting MPS and meditation. Mechanisms linking MPS and meditation were identified, and this paper can ignite novel research in this direction.

  11. Clinical experience with a chronic pain management programme in Hong Kong Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Alice K Y; Chu, M C; Chen, P P; Ma, M; Gin, Tony

    2007-10-01

    To describe experience with a chronic pain management programme in Hong Kong Chinese patients. Prospective study. Regional hospital, Hong Kong. Patients with chronic pain who participated in the first six Comprehensive Out-patient Pain Engagement programmes between 2002 and 2005. Comprehensive Out-patient Pain Engagement is a 14-day structured, multidisciplinary out-patient programme conducted over 6 weeks. It includes pain education, cognitive re-conceptualisation, training in communication skills and coping strategies, graded physical exercises and functional activities training. It aims to improve patient function and quality of life, despite persistent pain. Changes in scores from baseline values after joining the programme, with respect to several assessment tools. These included the following: visual analogue pain scale, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, Patient Self-efficacy Questionnaire, Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, Medical Outcome Survey-Short Form 36 Questionnaire, and duration of physical tolerances, medication utilisation, and work status records. Forty-five patients were available for analysis. After the Comprehensive Out-patient Pain Engagement programme, improvements in Medical Outcome Survey-Short Form 36 Questionnaire (role physical and vitality), Pain Catastrophizing Scale, Patient Self-efficacy Questionnaire, and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure were demonstrated (P<0.05). The duration of standing and sitting tolerances increased (P<0.05). An improvement in employment rate was also evident (P=0.01). The initial results of our management programme in Chinese patients with chronic pain are encouraging. This type of programme should be promoted more widely in this group of patients, as it appears to improve physical function, psychological well-being, and productivity.

  12. Adaptation of postural responses during different standing perturbation conditions in individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thigpen, Mary T; Cauraugh, James; Creel, Gwen; Day, Kristin; Flynn, Sheryl; Fritz, Stacy; Frost, Shirley; Respess, Robert; Gardner-Smith, Portia; Brack, Mia; Behrman, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Incomplete spinal cord injury (ISCI) frequently disrupts afferent and efferent neural pathways underlying co-requisite voluntary and involuntary muscle activation required for functional standing and walking. To understand involuntary postural control mechanisms necessary for standing, we compared eight individuals with ISCI to eight controls with no impairment. The aim of this study was to investigate anticipatory and reactive balance responses in individuals with ISCI. The ability to adapt to changes in balance conditions was assessed by monitoring automatic postural responses (APRs) during a series of expected and unexpected changes in perturbation direction (backward translation versus toes-up rotation). Both groups were able to modulate appropriately within one or two trials following an unexpected change in condition. Onset times of anterior tibialis and medial gastrocnemius (MG) were significantly slower in the ISCI group during expected and unexpected conditions. These findings demonstrate that persons with mild to moderate lower extremity sensorimotor deficits are able to generate and adapt APRs to a rapid and unexpected contextual change during a simple standing balance task.

  13. Gait analysis and weight bearing in pre-clinical joint pain research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ängeby Möller, Kristina; Svärd, Heta; Suominen, Anni; Immonen, Jarmo; Holappa, Johanna; Stenfors, Carina

    2018-04-15

    There is a need for better joint pain treatment, but development of new medication has not been successful. Pre-clinical models with readouts that better reflect the clinical situation are needed. In patients with joint pain, pain at rest and pain at walking are two major complaints. We describe a new way of calculating results from gait analysis using the CatWalk™ setup. Rats with monoarthritis induced by injection of Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) intra-articularly into the ankle joint of one hind limb were used to assess gait and dynamic weight bearing. The results show that dynamic weight bearing was markedly reduced for the injected paw. Gait parameters such as amount of normal step sequences, walking speed and duration of step placement were also affected. Treatment with naproxen (an NSAID commonly used for inflammatory pain) attenuated the CFA-induced effects. Pregabalin, which is used for neuropathic pain, had no effect. Reduced dynamic weight bearing during locomotion, assessed and calculated in the way we present here, showed a dose-dependent and lasting normalization after naproxen treatment. In contrast, static weight bearing while standing (Incapacitance tester) showed a significant effect for a limited time only. Mechanical sensitivity (von Frey Optihairs) was completely normalized by naproxen, and the window for testing pharmacological effect disappeared. Objective and reproducible effects, with an endpoint showing face validity compared to pain while walking in patients with joint pain, are achieved by a new way of calculating dynamic weight bearing in monoarthritic rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Reliability of standing weight-bearing (0.25T) MR imaging findings and positional changes in the lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Bjarke B.; Bliddal, Henning [Department of Reumatology, Copenhagen University Hospital, The Parker Institute, Koebenhavn Oe (Denmark); Hansen, Philip; Christensen, Anders F.; Trampedach, Charlotte; Rasti, Zoreh; Boesen, Mikael [Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Koebenhavn Oe (Denmark)

    2018-01-15

    To test the reliability and absolute agreement of common degenerative findings in standing positional magnetic resonance imaging (pMRI). Low back pain patients with and without sciatica were consecutively enrolled to undergo a supine and standing pMRI. Three readers independently evaluated the standing pMRI for herniation, spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, HIZ lesions and facet joint effusion. The evaluation included a semi-quantitative grading of spinal stenosis, foraminal stenosis and spinal nerve root compression. The standing pMRI images were evaluated with full access to supine MRI. In case lower grades or the degenerative findings were not present in the supine images, this was reported separately as position-dependent changes. A subsample of 20 pMRI examinations was reevaluated after two months. The reproducibility was assessed by inter- and intra-reader reliability (kappa statistic) and absolute agreement between readers. Fifty-six patients were included in this study. There was fair-to-substantial inter-reader reliability (κ 0.47 to 0.82) and high absolute agreement (72.3% to 99.1%) for the pMRI findings. The intra-reader assessment showed similar reliability and agreement (κ 0.36 to 0.85; absolute agreement: 62.5% to 98.8%). Positional changes between the supine and standing position showed a fair-to-moderate inter- and intra-reader reliability (κ 0.25 to 0.52; absolute agreement: 97.0% to 99.1). Evaluation of the lumbar spine for degenerative findings by standing pMRI has acceptable reproducibility; however, positional changes from the supine to the standing position as an independent outcome should be interpreted with caution because of lower reliability, which calls for further standardisation. (orig.)

  15. Reliability of standing weight-bearing (0.25T) MR imaging findings and positional changes in the lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Bjarke B.; Bliddal, Henning; Hansen, Philip; Christensen, Anders F.; Trampedach, Charlotte; Rasti, Zoreh; Boesen, Mikael

    2018-01-01

    To test the reliability and absolute agreement of common degenerative findings in standing positional magnetic resonance imaging (pMRI). Low back pain patients with and without sciatica were consecutively enrolled to undergo a supine and standing pMRI. Three readers independently evaluated the standing pMRI for herniation, spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, HIZ lesions and facet joint effusion. The evaluation included a semi-quantitative grading of spinal stenosis, foraminal stenosis and spinal nerve root compression. The standing pMRI images were evaluated with full access to supine MRI. In case lower grades or the degenerative findings were not present in the supine images, this was reported separately as position-dependent changes. A subsample of 20 pMRI examinations was reevaluated after two months. The reproducibility was assessed by inter- and intra-reader reliability (kappa statistic) and absolute agreement between readers. Fifty-six patients were included in this study. There was fair-to-substantial inter-reader reliability (κ 0.47 to 0.82) and high absolute agreement (72.3% to 99.1%) for the pMRI findings. The intra-reader assessment showed similar reliability and agreement (κ 0.36 to 0.85; absolute agreement: 62.5% to 98.8%). Positional changes between the supine and standing position showed a fair-to-moderate inter- and intra-reader reliability (κ 0.25 to 0.52; absolute agreement: 97.0% to 99.1). Evaluation of the lumbar spine for degenerative findings by standing pMRI has acceptable reproducibility; however, positional changes from the supine to the standing position as an independent outcome should be interpreted with caution because of lower reliability, which calls for further standardisation. (orig.)

  16. Reliability of standing weight-bearing (0.25T) MR imaging findings and positional changes in the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bjarke B; Hansen, Philip; Christensen, Anders F; Trampedach, Charlotte; Rasti, Zoreh; Bliddal, Henning; Boesen, Mikael

    2018-01-01

    To test the reliability and absolute agreement of common degenerative findings in standing positional magnetic resonance imaging (pMRI). Low back pain patients with and without sciatica were consecutively enrolled to undergo a supine and standing pMRI. Three readers independently evaluated the standing pMRI for herniation, spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, HIZ lesions and facet joint effusion. The evaluation included a semi-quantitative grading of spinal stenosis, foraminal stenosis and spinal nerve root compression. The standing pMRI images were evaluated with full access to supine MRI. In case lower grades or the degenerative findings were not present in the supine images, this was reported separately as position-dependent changes. A subsample of 20 pMRI examinations was reevaluated after two months. The reproducibility was assessed by inter- and intra-reader reliability (kappa statistic) and absolute agreement between readers. Fifty-six patients were included in this study. There was fair-to-substantial inter-reader reliability (κ 0.47 to 0.82) and high absolute agreement (72.3% to 99.1%) for the pMRI findings. The intra-reader assessment showed similar reliability and agreement (κ 0.36 to 0.85; absolute agreement: 62.5% to 98.8%). Positional changes between the supine and standing position showed a fair-to-moderate inter- and intra-reader reliability (κ 0.25 to 0.52; absolute agreement: 97.0% to 99.1). Evaluation of the lumbar spine for degenerative findings by standing pMRI has acceptable reproducibility; however, positional changes from the supine to the standing position as an independent outcome should be interpreted with caution because of lower reliability, which calls for further standardisation.

  17. Stress and back pain: we’re all concerned!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    Yesterday (18 April), CERN celebrated the World Day for Safety and Health at Work. This event was organised by the Safety Unit of the BE Department, the HSE Unit, the Medical Service and the Fire Brigade for the third year running.     The yellow mannequin demonstrates how different positions require different effort to carry the same load: the first by curving the back (which places more strain on the spine), and the other by bending the knees (a good technique to reduce strain). Information stands on the themes of stress and back pain were set up in each of CERN’s three restaurants and attracted more than 260 people, including CERN’s Director-General. Stress self-evaluation, anti-stress techniques, tips for avoiding and managing back pain… all aspects of these everyday afflictions were addressed. The participants, most of whom were directly affected by these problems, had their many questions answered at the stands....

  18. Clinical examination and physical assessment of hip joint-related pain in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiman, Michael P; Thorborg, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Evidence-based clinical examination and assessment of the athlete with hip joint related pain is complex. It requires a systematic approach to properly differentially diagnose competing potential causes of athletic pain generation. An approach with an initial broad focus (and hence use...... of highly sensitive tests/measures) that then is followed by utilizing more specific tests/measures to pare down this imprecise differential diagnosis list is suggested. Physical assessment measures are then suggested to discern impairments, activity and participation restrictions for athletes with hip...

  19. Learning to Stand: The Acceptability and Feasibility of Introducing Standing Desks into College Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto M. Benzo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged sedentary behavior is an independent risk factor for multiple negative health outcomes. Evidence supports introducing standing desks into K-12 classrooms and work settings to reduce sitting time, but no studies have been conducted in the college classroom environment. The present study explored the acceptability and feasibility of introducing standing desks in college classrooms. A total of 993 students and 149 instructors completed a single online needs assessment survey. This cross-sectional study was conducted during the fall semester of 2015 at a large Midwestern University. The large majority of students (95% reported they would prefer the option to stand in class. Most students (82.7% reported they currently sit during their entire class time. Most students (76.6% and instructors (86.6% reported being in favor of introducing standing desks into college classrooms. More than half of students and instructors predicted having access to standing desks in class would improve student’s “physical health”, “attention”, and “restlessness”. Collectively, these findings support the acceptability of introducing standing desks in college classrooms. Future research is needed to test the feasibility, cost-effectiveness and efficacy of introducing standing desks in college classrooms. Such studies would be useful for informing institutional policies regarding classroom designs.

  20. Neurodegenerative properties of chronic pain: cognitive decline in patients with chronic pancreatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijtje L A Jongsma

    Full Text Available Chronic pain has been associated with impaired cognitive function. We examined cognitive performance in patients with severe chronic pancreatitis pain. We explored the following factors for their contribution to observed cognitive deficits: pain duration, comorbidity (depression, sleep disturbance, use of opioids, and premorbid alcohol abuse. The cognitive profiles of 16 patients with severe pain due to chronic pancreatitis were determined using an extensive neuropsychological test battery. Data from three cognitive domains (psychomotor performance, memory, executive functions were compared to data from healthy controls matched for age, gender and education. Multivariate multilevel analysis of the data showed decreased test scores in patients with chronic pancreatitis pain in different cognitive domains. Psychomotor performance and executive functions showed the most prominent decline. Interestingly, pain duration appeared to be the strongest predictor for observed cognitive decline. Depressive symptoms, sleep disturbance, opioid use and history of alcohol abuse provided additional explanations for the observed cognitive decline in some of the tests, but to a lesser extent than pain duration. The negative effect of pain duration on cognitive performance is compatible with the theory of neurodegenerative properties of chronic pain. Therefore, early and effective therapeutic interventions might reduce or prevent decline in cognitive performance, thereby improving outcomes and quality of life in these patients.

  1. Early predictors of the long-term outcome of low back pain - results of a 22-year prospective cohort study from general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lonnberg, F.; Pedersen, P.; Siersma, V.

    2010-01-01

    , use of painkillers for low back pain, use of health care providers, impairments due to low back pain and unfitness for work caused by low back pain. The influence of the predictors was assessed by relative risks. RESULTS: After 22 years, four out of five patients still experienced low back pain....... The perception of poor working conditions correlates with recurrent low back pain, intake of painkillers and limitations to daily life. CONCLUSION: Compared with pain history and clinical findings, the perception of workload is a better predictor of the long-term outcome of low back pain Udgivelsesdato: 2010/8/3...

  2. Possible applications of Neuromuscular Taping in pain reduction in Multiple Sclerosis subject: a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmine Berlingieri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pain is a common disabling symptom in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS. It has been indicated that pain prevalence in MS patients is between 29–86 %. It is evident that most MS patients requiring treatment will be also searching pain related treatments to assist in day to day activities. Neuropathic pain is a difficult symptom and is generally inadequately relieved even though different rehabilitative approaches may be used. Neuromuscular Taping inducing micro-movements by stimulating receptors in the skin has been described in literature as a possible intervention in neurological and orthopedic rehabilitation improving mobility and in pain reduction. The aim of this preliminary report was to analyze the effect and to evaluate the possible applications of Neuromuscular Taping (NMT in patients with MS in order to reduce pain in comparison to the Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS and to physical rehabilitation treatment alone. We observed that NMT together with standard physical rehabilitation was able to reduce neuropathic pain to greater lengths, with statistically significant differences between pre and post treatment, compared to the other treatments evaluated. This study showed increased efficacy in pain reduction when NMT was applied to standard physical treatment in long standing pain conditions. Neuromuscular Taping may constitute a low cost treatment strategy for neuropathic pain conditions in MS.

  3. About Face: Evaluating and Managing Tactile Impairment at the Time of Autism Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa M. T. Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation for sensory impairment is a routine part of autism diagnosis. Sensory impairment of hearing, vision, or touch results in developmental delay and must be addressed before delay can resolve. Recent studies confirm that tactile impairment is present in autism and can be effectively treated with a tactile stimulation protocol. The research suggests a change in management at the time of autism diagnosis to include evaluation and treatment of tactile impairment. Here we validate screening and management tool for tactile impairment, the Autism Touch and Self-Regulation Checklist, in 404 typical and autistic preschool children. The tool assesses tactile impairment by location and severity. Autistic children were distinguished by mixed pain and numbness on multiple areas including the face and mouth (F=412.1 (1,402;p<.000. Oral-facial tactile impairment interferes with the tactile stimulus to orienting. We hypothesized that oral-facial tactile impairment and difficulty orienting are predictive of ASD and that severity of tactile impairment is predictive of severity of ASD. Questions evaluating oral-facial and orienting responses correctly predicted 91% of the autism group. Severity of tactile impairment correctly predicted 81% of mild versus severe ASD. Results underscore the importance of evaluating and treating tactile impairment at the time of autism diagnosis.

  4. Treatment of patients with painful blind eye using stellate ganglion block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vaz Horta Xavier

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: management of pain in painful blind eyes is still a challenge. Corticosteroids and hypotensive agents, as well as evisceration and enucleation, are some of the strategies employed so far that are not always effective and, depending on the strategy, cause a deep emotional shock to the patient. Given these issues, the aim of this case report is to demonstrate a new and viable option for the management of such pain by treating the painful blind eye with the stellate ganglion block technique, a procedure that has never been described in the literature for this purpose. CASE REPORT: six patients with painful blind eye, all caused by glaucoma, were treated; in these patients, VAS (visual analogue scale for pain assessment, in which 0 is the absence of pain and 10 is the worst pain ever experienced ranged from 7 to 10. We opted for weekly sessions of stellate ganglion block with 4 mL of bupivacaine (0.5% without vasoconstrictor and clonidine 1 mcg/kg. Four patients had excellent results at VAS, ranging between 0 and 3, and two remained asymptomatic (VAS = 0, without the need for additional medication. The other two used gabapentin 300 mg every 12 h. CONCLUSION: currently, there are several therapeutic options for the treatment of painful blind eye, among which stand out the retrobulbar blocks with chlorpromazine, alcohol and phenol. However, an effective strategy with low rate of serious complications, which is non-mutilating and improves the quality of life of the patient, is essential. Then, stellate ganglion block arises as a demonstrably viable and promising option to meet this demand.

  5. Sit-to-Stand in People with Stroke: Effect of Lower Limb Constraint-Induced Movement Strategies

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    Charla Krystine Gray

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Weight-bearing asymmetry and impaired balance may contribute to the increased fall risk in people with stroke when rising to stand from sitting. Objective. This study investigated the effect of constraint-induced movement (CIM strategies on weight-bearing symmetry and balance during sit-to-stand in people with stroke. Methods. A nonrandom convenience sample of fifteen people with stroke performed the sit-to-stand task using three CIM strategies including a solid or compliant (foam block strategy, with the unaffected limb placed on the block, and an asymmetrical foot position strategy, with the unaffected limb placed ahead of the affected limb. Duration of the task, affected limb weight-bearing, and centre of pressure and centre of mass displacement were measured in the frontal and sagittal plane. Results. Affected limb weight-bearing was increased and frontal plane centre of pressure and centre of mass moved toward the affected limb compared to baseline with all CIM strategies. Centre of mass displacement in the sagittal plane was greater with the compliant block and asymmetrical foot strategies. Conclusions. The CIM strategies demonstrated greater loading of the affected limb and movement of the centre of pressure and centre of mass toward the affected limb. The compliant block and asymmetrical foot conditions may challenge sagittal plane balance during sit-to-stand in people with stroke.

  6. Adolescent standing postural response to backpack loads: a randomised controlled experimental study

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    Pirunsan Ubon

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Backpack loads produce changes in standing posture when compared with unloaded posture. Although 'poor' unloaded standing posture has been related to spinal pain, there is little evidence of whether, and how much, exposure to posterior load produces injurious effects on spinal tissue. The objective of this study was to describe the effect on adolescent sagittal plane standing posture of different loads and positions of a common design of school backpack. The underlying study aim was to test the appropriateness of two adult 'rules-of-thumb'-that for postural efficiency, backpacks should be worn high on the spine, and loads should be limited to 10% of body weight. Method A randomised controlled experimental study was conducted on 250 adolescents (12–18 years, randomly selected from five South Australian metropolitan high schools. Sagittal view anatomical points were marked on head, neck, shoulder, hip, thigh, knee and ankle. There were nine experimental conditions: combinations of backpack loads (3, 5 or 10% of body weight and positions (backpack centred at T7, T12 or L3. Sagittal plane photographs were taken of unloaded standing posture (baseline, and standing posture under the experimental conditions. Posture was quantified from the x (horizontal coordinate of each anatomical point under each experimental condition. Differences in postural response were described, and differences between conditions were determined using Analysis of Variance models. Results Neither age nor gender was a significant factor when comparing postural response to backpack loads or conditions. Backpacks positioned at T7 produced the largest forward (horizontal displacement at all the anatomical points. The horizontal position of all anatomical points increased linearly with load. Conclusion There is evidence refuting the 'rule-of-thumb' to carry the backpack high on the back. Typical school backpacks should be positioned with the centre at waist or

  7. What is the impact of acute and chronic orofacial pain on quality of life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shueb, S S; Nixdorf, D R; John, M T; Alonso, B Fonseca; Durham, J

    2015-10-01

    Orofacial pain (OFP) is thought to substantially reduce oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). Little has been reported about the impact of acute dental pain and persistent (chronic) orofacial pain conditions, other than temporomandibular disorders (TMD), on OHRQoL. The aim of this study was to examine and compare OHRQoL impairment among four OFP conditions: TMD, acute dental pain (ADP), trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and persistent dentoalveolar pain disorder (PDAP). OHRQoL was measured using the OHIP-49 in a convenience sample of subjects with four OFP conditions (TMD (n=41), ADP (n=41), TN (n=21), PDAP (n=22) and a pain-free control group (n=21)). The mean OHIP-49 summary score described the level of impact and inferential and descriptive statistics were used to examine any differences inter-condition. The mean of the OHIP-14 and 5 were also measured by extracting the corresponding items from the OHIP-49. All pain conditions presented with statistically significant (Porofacial pain conditions are likely not to be substantial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bilateral thoracoscopic splanchnicectomy for pain in patients with chronic pancreatitis impairs adrenomedullary but not noradrenergic sympathetic function.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buscher, H.C.J.L.; Lenders, J.W.M.; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.; Sweep, C.G.J.; Goor, H. van

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bilateral thoracoscopic splanchnicectomy (BTS) is a well-known technique to alleviate intractable pain in patients with chronic pancreatitis. BTS not only disrupts afferent fibers from the pancreas that mediate pain but also postganglionic sympathetic fibers, which originate in segments

  9. Associations among depression severity, painful physical symptoms, and social and occupational functioning impairment in patients with major depressive disorder: a 3-month, prospective, observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harada E

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Eiji Harada,1 Yoichi Satoi,2 Atsushi Kuga,1 Hirofumi Tokuoka,1 Toshiaki Kikuchi,3 Koichiro Watanabe,4 Levent Alev,1 Masaru Mimura3 1Biomedicine, Medicines Development Unit Japan, Eli Lilly Japan K.K, Kobe, Japan; 2Statistical Science, Eli Lilly Japan K.K., Kobe, Japan; 3Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 4Department of Neuropsychiatry, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: To investigate associations among depression severity, painful physical symptoms (PPS, and social and occupational functioning impairment in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD who had achieved complete remission (CR or partial remission (PR after acute treatment.Patients and methods: This was a 12-week, multicenter, prospective, observational study. Patients with MDD treated with an antidepressant medication for the previous 12 weeks (±3 weeks who had achieved CR (defined as a 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression [HAM-D17] score ≤7 or PR (HAM-D17 score ≥8 and ≤8 were enrolled. Depression severity, PPS, and impairment in social and occupational functioning were assessed using the HAM-D17, the Brief Pain Inventory (Short Form (BPI-SF, and the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS, respectively, at enrollment (Week 12 and after 12 weeks (Week 24.Results: Overall, 323 Japanese patients with MDD were enrolled (CR n=158, PR n=165 and 288 patients completed the study (CR n=139, PR n=149. HAM-D17 and SOFAS scores were strongly and negatively correlated at enrollment (Week 12; P<0.0001 and Week 24 (P<0.0001. A weak negative correlation between the BPI-SF and SOFAS was observed at Week 24 (P=0.0011, but not at enrollment (P=0.164. Remission status at enrollment (CR or PR was associated with achieving normal social and occupational functioning (SOFAS score ≥80 at Week 24 in patients who had not achieved normal social and occupational functioning (SOFAS score <80 at

  10. Oral infections and orofacial pain in Alzheimer’s disease: Case report and review

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Siqueira, Silvia Regina Dowgan T.; Rolim, Thaís de Souza; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Nitrini, Ricardo; Anghinah, Renato; de Siqueira, José Tadeu T.

    2010-01-01

    Dental infections, frequent in the general population, are a common cause of inflammation with systemic impact, and are the most common cause of orofacial pain. Temporomandibular disorders are also frequent in the elderly and represent an important cause of secondary headache. Both inflammation and pain can also contribute to cognitive, functional and behavioral impairment of the elderly and aggravate symptoms of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We report a case of a 74-year-old woman with AD and chronic facial pain who had a significant improvement in functional activities as well as in cognition and depressive symptoms after successful treatment of her facial pain. Patients with AD have higher compromise of oral health with infections and teeth loss. The investigation of orofacial pain should be performed in patients with AD, because of the associations reviewed and given the potential for improvement as highlighted by this case. PMID:29213678

  11. Validity and reliability of the Nintendo Wii Balance Board for assessment of standing balance.

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    Clark, Ross A; Bryant, Adam L; Pua, Yonghao; McCrory, Paul; Bennell, Kim; Hunt, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Impaired standing balance has a detrimental effect on a person's functional ability and increases their risk of falling. There is currently no validated system which can precisely quantify center of pressure (COP), an important component of standing balance, while being inexpensive, portable and widely available. The Wii Balance Board (WBB) fits these criteria, and we examined its validity in comparison with the 'gold standard'-a laboratory-grade force platform (FP). Thirty subjects without lower limb pathology performed a combination of single and double leg standing balance tests with eyes open or closed on two separate occasions. Data from the WBB were acquired using a laptop computer. The test-retest reliability for COP path length for each of the testing devices, including a comparison of the WBB and FP data, was examined using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), Bland-Altman plots (BAP) and minimum detectable change (MDC). Both devices exhibited good to excellent COP path length test-retest reliability within-device (ICC=0.66-0.94) and between-device (ICC=0.77-0.89) on all testing protocols. Examination of the BAP revealed no relationship between the difference and the mean in any test, however the MDC values for the WBB did exceed those of the FP in three of the four tests. These findings suggest that the WBB is a valid tool for assessing standing balance. Given that the WBB is portable, widely available and a fraction of the cost of a FP, it could provide the average clinician with a standing balance assessment tool suitable for the clinical setting. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Common Functional Gastroenterological Disorders Associated With Abdominal Pain.

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    Bharucha, Adil E; Chakraborty, Subhankar; Sletten, Christopher D

    2016-08-01

    Although abdominal pain is a symptom of several structural gastrointestinal disorders (eg, peptic ulcer disease), this comprehensive review will focus on the 4 most common nonstructural, or functional, disorders associated with abdominal pain: functional dyspepsia, constipation-predominant and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome, and functional abdominal pain syndrome. Together, these conditions affect approximately 1 in 4 people in the United States. They are associated with comorbid conditions (eg, fibromyalgia and depression), impaired quality of life, and increased health care utilization. Symptoms are explained by disordered gastrointestinal motility and sensation, which are implicated in various peripheral (eg, postinfectious inflammation and luminal irritants) and/or central (eg, stress and anxiety) factors. These disorders are defined and can generally be diagnosed by symptoms alone. Often prompted by alarm features, selected testing is useful to exclude structural disease. Identifying the specific diagnosis (eg, differentiating between functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome) and establishing an effective patient-physician relationship are the cornerstones of therapy. Many patients with mild symptoms can be effectively managed with limited tests, sensible dietary modifications, and over-the-counter medications tailored to symptoms. If these measures are not sufficient, pharmacotherapy should be considered for bowel symptoms (constipation or diarrhea) and/or abdominal pain; opioids should not be used. Behavioral and psychological approaches (eg, cognitive behavioral therapy) can be helpful, particularly in patients with chronic abdominal pain who require a multidisciplinary pain management program without opioids. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Efficient conditioned pain modulation despite pain persistence in painful diabetic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granovsky, Yelena; Nahman-Averbuch, Hadas; Khamaisi, Mogher; Granot, Michal

    2017-05-01

    Alleviation of pain, by either medical or surgical therapy, is accompanied by transition from less efficient, or pro-nociceptive, to efficient conditioned pain modulation (CPM). Spontaneous decrease or resolution of pain with disease progression is reported for some patients with painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN). To explore whether CPM changes similarly in parallel to spontaneous resolution of pain in PDN patients. In this cross-sectional study, thirty-three patients with PDN underwent psychophysical assessment of pain modulation on the forearm, remote from the clinical pain. Pain duration was not correlated with neuropathic pain intensity, yet, it correlated with CPM efficiency; patients with longer pain duration had same pain level, but more efficient CPM than those with short-pain duration (ρ = -0.417; P = 0.025, Spearman correlation). Patients with pain more than 2 years (median split) expressed efficient CPM that was not different from that of healthy controls. These patients also had lower temporal summation of pain than the short-pain duration patients group ( P < 0.05). The 2 patient groups did not differ in c