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Sample records for pah-contaminated soil entwicklung

  1. Phyto remediation of PAH contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petruzzelli, G.; Pedron, F.; Barbafieri, M.; Cervelli, St.; Vigna Guidi, G.

    2005-01-01

    Phyto-remediation may enhance degradation of organic compounds promoting an adequate substrate for microbial growth. The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of two plant species, Lupinus albus and Zea mais, in the bio-remediation of a PAH contaminated soil. This soil has been collected in a contaminated industrial area in Italy characterized by PAH concentrations up to 16000 mg/Kg. Microcosms experiments were carried out by planting Lupinus albus and Zea mais in the polluted soil; controls without plants were run separately. Growing period lasted by three months. Plants favoured PAH biodegradation by percentages of 32% with Lupinus albus and 22% with Zea mais, with respect to non vegetated microcosms. (authors)

  2. Enhanced bioremediation of PAH contaminated soils from coal processing sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, M.M.; Lee, S.

    1995-01-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are a potential hazard to health due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic nature and acute toxicity and there is an imminent need for remediation of PAH contaminated soils abounding the several coke oven and town gas sites. Aerobic biological degradation of PAHs is an innovative technology and has shown high decontamination efficiencies, complete mineralization of contaminants, and is environmentally safe. The present study investigates the remediation of PAH contaminated soils achieved using Acinetobacter species and fungal strain Phanerochaete Chrysosporium. The soil used for the experiments was an industrially contaminated soil obtained from Alberta Research Council (ARC) primary cleanup facility, Alberta, Canada. Soil characterization was done using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to qualitatively and quantitatively determine the contaminants in the soil. Artificially contaminated soil was also used for some experiments. All the experiments were conducted under completely mixed conditions with suitable oxygen and nutrient amendments. The removal efficiency obtained for various PAHs using the two microorganisms was compared

  3. Bioremediation of PAH contaminated soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, M.M.; Lee, S.

    1994-01-01

    Soils contaminated with polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pose a hazard to life. The remediation of such sites can be done using physical, chemical, and biological treatment methods or a combination of them. It is of interest to study the decontamination of soil using bioremediation. The experiments were conducted using Acinetobacter (ATCC 31012) at room temperature without pH or temperature control. In the first series of experiments, contaminated soil samples obtained from Alberta Research Council were analyzed to determine the toxic contaminant and their composition in the soil. These samples were then treated using aerobic fermentation and removal efficiency for each contaminant was determined. In the second series of experiments, a single contaminant was used to prepare a synthetic soil sample. This sample of known composition was then treated using aerobic fermentation in continuously stirred flasks. In one set of flasks, contaminant was the only carbon source and in the other set, starch was an additional carbon source. In the third series of experiments, the synthetic contaminated soil sample was treated in continuously stirred flasks in the first set and in fixed bed in the second set and the removal efficiencies were compared. The removal efficiencies obtained indicated the extent of biodegradation for various contaminants, the effect of additional carbon source, and performance in fixed bed without external aeration

  4. Algal tests with soil suspensions and elutriates: A comparative evaluation for PAH contaminated soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baun, Anders; Justesen, Kasper Bo; Nyholm, Niels

    2002-01-01

    An algal growth inhibition test procedure with soil suspensions is proposed and evaluated for PAH-contaminated soil. The growth rate reduction of the standard freshwater green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (formerly known as Selenastrum capricornutum) was used as the toxicity endpoint......, and was quantified by measuring the fluorescence of solvent-extracted algal pigments. No growth rate reduction was detected for soil contents up to 20 g/l testing five non-contaminated Danish soils. Comparative testing with PAH-contaminated soil elutriates and soil suspensions showed that the suspensions had...

  5. Chemical and bioanalytical characterisation of PAHs in risk assessment of remediated PAH-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Maria; Hagberg, Jessika; Rotander, Anna; van Bavel, Bert; Engwall, Magnus

    2013-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common contaminants in soil at former industrial areas; and in Sweden, some of the most contaminated sites are being remediated. Generic guideline values for soil use after so-called successful remediation actions of PAH-contaminated soil are based on the 16 EPA priority pollutants, which only constitute a small part of the complex cocktail of toxicants in many contaminated soils. The aim of the study was to elucidate if the actual toxicological risks of soil samples from successful remediation projects could be reflected by chemical determination of these PAHs. We compared chemical analysis (GC-MS) and bioassay analysis (H4IIE-luc) of a number of remediated PAH-contaminated soils. The H4IIE-luc bioassay is an aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor-based assay that detects compounds that activate the Ah receptor, one important mechanism for PAH toxicity. Comparison of the results showed that the bioassay-determined toxicity in the remediated soil samples could only be explained to a minor extent by the concentrations of the 16 priority PAHs. The current risk assessment method for PAH-contaminated soil in use in Sweden along with other countries, based on chemical analysis of selected PAHs, is missing toxicologically relevant PAHs and other similar substances. It is therefore reasonable to include bioassays in risk assessment and in the classification of remediated PAH-contaminated soils. This could minimise environmental and human health risks and enable greater safety in subsequent reuse of remediated soils.

  6. Remediation approaches for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated soils: Technological constraints, emerging trends and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppusamy, Saranya; Thavamani, Palanisami; Venkateswarlu, Kadiyala; Lee, Yong Bok; Naidu, Ravi; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2017-02-01

    For more than a decade, the primary focus of environmental experts has been to adopt risk-based management approaches to cleanup PAH polluted sites that pose potentially destructive ecological consequences. This focus had led to the development of several physical, chemical, thermal and biological technologies that are widely implementable. Established remedial options available for treating PAH contaminated soils are incineration, thermal conduction, solvent extraction/soil washing, chemical oxidation, bioaugmentation, biostimulation, phytoremediation, composting/biopiles and bioreactors. Integrating physico-chemical and biological technologies is also widely practiced for better cleanup of PAH contaminated soils. Electrokinetic remediation, vermiremediation and biocatalyst assisted remediation are still at the development stage. Though several treatment methods to remediate PAH polluted soils currently exist, a comprehensive overview of all the available remediation technologies to date is necessary so that the right technology for field-level success is chosen. The objective of this review is to provide a critical overview in this respect, focusing only on the treatment options available for field soils and ignoring the spiked ones. The authors also propose the development of novel multifunctional green and sustainable systems like mixed cell culture system, biosurfactant flushing, transgenic approaches and nanoremediation in order to overcome the existing soil- contaminant- and microbial-associated technological limitations in tackling high molecular weight PAHs. The ultimate objective is to ensure the successful remediation of long-term PAH contaminated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of hydrophobicity in PAH-contaminated soils during phytoremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cofield, Naressa; Banks, M. Katherine; Schwab, A. Paul

    2007-01-01

    The impact of recalcitrant organic compounds on soil hydrophobicity was evaluated in contaminated soil from a manufactured gas plant site following 12 months of phytoremediation. Significant reduction in soil wetting and water retention was observed in contaminated soil compared to an uncontaminated control. Phytoremediation was effective at reducing total PAHs by 69% with corresponding changes in soil classification from extremely hydrophobic (initial sample) to moderately-strongly hydrophobic (planted) and hydrophilic-very hydrophilic (unplanted) after 12 months. The greatest reduction in soil hydrophobicity was observed in the unplanted, unfertilized treatments that had the lowest removal rate of PAHs. The presence of plants may contribute to hydrophobicity in contaminated soil. - The presence of recalcitrant hydrophobic organic pollutants may enhance soil hydrophobicity

  8. Evaluation of bio-remediation technologies for PAHs contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Frutos, F.J.; Diaz, J.; Rodriguez, V.; Escolano, O.; Garcia, S.; Perez, R.; Martinez, R.; Oromendia, R.

    2005-01-01

    Natural attenuation is a new concept related to polluted soil remediation. Can be understood like an 'in situ' bio-remediation process with low technical intervention. This low intervention may be in order to follow the behaviour of pollutants 'monitored natural attenuation' or include an optimisation process to improve biological remediation. The use of this technology is a fact for light hydrocarbon polluted soil, but few is known about the behaviour of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in this process. PAHs are more recalcitrant to bio-remediation due to their physic-chemical characteristics, mainly hydrophobicity and electrochemical stability. PAHs are a kind of pollutants widely distributed in the environment, not only in the proximity of the source. This linked to the characteristics of some of them related to toxicity and mutagenicity implies its inclusion as target compounds from an environmental point of view. Their low availability, solubility and the strong tendency to bind to soil particle, especially to the organic phase affect PAHs biological mineralisation. So, if the pollutant is not available to microorganisms it can not be bio-degraded. Bioavailability can be assessed form several but complementary points of view: physico-chemical and biological. First including the term availability and the second to point out the capacity of soil microorganisms to mineralize PAHs. Availability and Bio-degradability must be determined, as well as the presence and activity of specific degraders among the soil organisms, once settled these points is necessary to study the biological requirements to optimise biodegradation kinetics of these compounds. In this work we present a study carried out on a soil, contaminated by PAHs, the study includes three main topics: bioavailability assessment (both term availability and bio-degradability), bio-remediation assessment, once optimised conditions for natural attenuation and finally a simulation of the

  9. Effects of PAH-Contaminated Soil on Rhizosphere Microbial Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pritchina, Olga; Ely, Cairn; Smets, Barth F.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial associations with plant roots are thought to contribute to the success of phytoremediation. We tested the effect of addition of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminated soil on the structure of the rhizosphere microbial communities of wheat (Triticum aestivum), lettuce (Lactuca...

  10. Remediation of PAH-contaminated soil using Achromobacter sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutright, T.J.; Lee, S.

    1994-01-01

    Several technologies have the potential to effectively remediate soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): solvent extraction, coal-oil agloflotation, supercritical extraction, and bioremediation. Due to the cost effectiveness and in-situ treatment capabilities of bioremediation, studies were conducted to determine the efficiency of Achromobacter sp. to remediate an industrial contaminated soil sample. Specifically, the use of three different mineral salt solutions in conjunction with the Achromobacter sp. was investigated. The molecular identification of the contaminants and their respective levels after remediation were determined using a Hewlett-Packard 1050 HPLC. Preliminary results show a 92% remediation for the use of two of the mineral salt solutions after 20 days' treatment. After 8 weeks, the remediation efficiency reached 99%. Bioremediation was also critically compared to the other potential remediation technologies

  11. Effect of Rhizosphere Enzymes on Phytoremediation in PAH-Contaminated Soil Using Five Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Dai, Yuanyuan; Sun, Libo

    2015-01-01

    A pot experiment was performed to study the effectiveness of remediation using different plant species and the enzyme response involved in remediating PAH-contaminated soil. The study indicated that species Echinacea purpurea, Festuca arundinacea Schred, Fire Phoenix (a combined F. arundinacea), and Medicago sativa L. possess the potential for remediation in PAH-contaminated soils. The study also determined that enzymatic reactions of polyphenol oxidase (except Fire Phoenix), dehydrogenase (except Fire Phoenix), and urease (except Medicago sativa L.) were more prominent over cultivation periods of 60d and 120d than 150d. Urease activity of the tested species exhibited prominently linear negative correlations with alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen content after the tested plants were cultivated for 150d (R2 = 0.9592). The experiment also indicated that alkaline phosphatase activity in four of the five tested species (Echinacea purpurea, Callistephus chinensis, Festuca arundinacea Schred and Fire Phoenix) was inhibited during the cultivation process (at 60d and 120d). At the same time, the study determined that the linear relationship between alkaline phosphatase activity and effective phosphorus content in plant rhizosphere soil exhibited a negative correlation after a growing period of 120d (R2 = 0.665). Phytoremediation of organic contaminants in the soil was closely related to specific characteristics of particular plant species, and the catalyzed reactions were the result of the action of multiple enzymes in the plant rhizosphere soil. PMID:25822167

  12. An innovative method for the solidification/stabilization of PAHs-contaminated soil using sulfonated oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fujun; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Qian; Cui, Deshan; Liu, Qingbing; Peng, Changsheng; Li, Fasheng; Gu, Qingbao

    2018-02-15

    Stabilization/solidification (S/S) has been successfully employed in many superfund sites contaminated with organic materials. However, this method's long-term effectiveness has not been fully evaluated and the increase in soil volume following treatment is unfavorable to follow-up disposal. The present study developed a novel method for the S/S of PAHs-contaminated soil with the facilitation of sulfonated oil (SO). Adding SO significantly improved the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) values of Portland cement and activated carbon (PC-AC) treated soil samples, and the UCS values of the soil sample treated with 0.02% of SO were up to 2.3 times higher than without SO addition. When the soil was treated with PC-AC-SO, the PAHs leaching concentrations were 14%-25% of that in leachates of the control soil, and high molecular weight PAHs including benzo(a)pyrene were rarely leached. Freeze/thaw durability tests reveal that the leachability of PAHs was not influenced by freeze-thaw cycles. The UCS values of PC-AC-SO treated soil samples were 2.2-3.4 times greater than those of PC-AC treated soil samples after 12 freeze-thaw cycles. The PC-AC-SO treated soils resist disintegration better when compared to the PC-AC treated soils. The SEM micrographs reveal that the soils' compactness was significantly improved when treated with SO. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Long-term assessment of natural attenuation: statistical approach on soils with aged PAH contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouvrard, Stéphanie; Chenot, Elodie-Denise; Masfaraud, Jean-François; Schwartz, Christophe

    2013-07-01

    Natural attenuation processes valorization for PAH-contaminated soil remediation has gained increasing interest from site owners. A misunderstanding of this method and a small amount of data available does not encourage its development. However, monitored natural attenuation (MNA) offers a valuable, cheaper and environmentally friendly alternative to more classical options such as physico-chemical treatments (e.g., chemical oxidation, thermal desorption). The present work proposes the results obtained during a long-term natural attenuation assessment of historically contaminated industrial soils under real climatic conditions. This study was performed after a 10 year natural attenuation period on 60 off-ground lysimeters filled with contaminated soils from different former industrial sites (coking industry, manufactured gas plants) whose initial concentration of PAH varied between 380 and 2,077 mg kg(-1). The analysed parameters included leached water characterization, soil PAH concentrations, evaluation of vegetation cover quality and quantity. Results showed a good efficiency of the PAH dissipation and limited transfer of contaminants to the environment. It also highlighted the importance of the fine soil fractions in controlling PAH reactivity. PAH dissipation through water leaching was limited and did not present a significant risk for the environment. This PAH water concentration appeared however as a good indicator of overall dissipation rate, thereby illustrating the importance of pollutant availability in predicting its degradation potential.

  14. Aerobic Bioremediation of PAH Contaminated Soil Results in Increased Genotoxicity and Developmental Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibwe, Leah; Geier, Mitra C; Nakamura, Jun; Tanguay, Robert L; Aitken, Michael D; Simonich, Staci L Massey

    2015-12-01

    The formation of more polar and toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) transformation products is one of the concerns associated with the bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soils. Soil contaminated with coal tar (prebioremediation) from a former manufactured gas plant (MGP) site was treated in a laboratory scale bioreactor (postbioremediation) and extracted using pressurized liquid extraction. The soil extracts were fractionated, based on polarity, and analyzed for 88 PAHs (unsubstituted, oxygenated, nitrated, and heterocyclic PAHs). The PAH concentrations in the soil tested, postbioremediation, were lower than their regulatory maximum allowable concentrations (MACs), with the exception of the higher molecular weight PAHs (BaA, BkF, BbF, BaP, and IcdP), most of which did not undergo significant biodegradation. The soil extract fractions were tested for genotoxicity using the DT40 chicken lymphocyte bioassay and developmental toxicity using the embryonic zebrafish (Danio rerio) bioassay. A statistically significant increase in genotoxicity was measured in the unfractionated soil extract, as well as in four polar soil extract fractions, postbioremediation (p toxicity was measured in one polar soil extract fraction, postbioremediation (p soil extract fractions in embryonic zebrafish, both pre- and postbioremediation. The increased toxicity measured postbioremediation is not likely due to the 88 PAHs measured in this study (including quinones), because most were not present in the toxic polar fractions and/or because their concentrations did not increase postbioremediation. However, the increased toxicity measured postbioremediation is likely due to hydroxylated and carboxylated transformation products of the 3- and 4-ring PAHs (PHE, 1MPHE, 2MPHE, PRY, BaA, and FLA) that were most degraded.

  15. Chemical-assisted phytoremediation of CD-PAHs contaminated soils using Solanum nigrum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuanjie; Zhou, Qixing; Wei, Shuhe; Hu, Yahu; Bao, Yanyu

    2011-09-01

    A well-characterized cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulating plant Solanum nigrum was grown in Cd and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) co-contaminated soil that was repeatedly amended with chemicals, including EDTA, cysteine (CY), salicylic acid (Sa), and Tween 80 (TW80), to test individual and combined treatment effects on phytoremediation of Cd-PAHs contaminated soils. Plant growth was negatively affected by exogenous chemicals except for EDTA. S. nigrum could accumulate Cd in tissues without assistant chemicals, while there was no visible effect on the degradation of PAHs. Cysteine had significant effects on phytoextraction of Cd and the highest metal extraction ratio (1.27%) was observed in 0.9 mmol/kg CY treatment. Both salicylic acid and Tween 80 had stimulative effects on the degradation of PAHs and there was the maximal degradation rate (52.6%) of total PAHs while 0.9 mmol/kg Sa was applied. Furthermore, the combined treatment T(0.1EDTA+0.9CY+0.5TW80) and T(0.5EDTA+0.9CY+03Sa) could not only increase the accumulation of Cd in plant tissues, but also promote the degradation of PAHs. These results indicated that S. nigrum might be effective in phytoextracting Cd and enhancing the biodegradation of PAHs in the co-contaminated soils with assistant chemicals.

  16. Aerobic Bioremediation of PAH Contaminated Soil Results in Increased Genotoxicity and Developmental Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibwe, Leah; Geier, Mitra C.; Nakamura, Jun; Tanguay, Robert L.; Aitken, Michael D.; Simonich, Staci L. Massey

    2015-01-01

    The formation of more polar and toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) transformation products is one of the concerns associated with the bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soils. Soil contaminated with coal tar (pre-bioremediation) from a former manufactured gas plant (MGP) site was treated in a laboratory scale bioreactor (post-bioremediation) and extracted using pressurized liquid extraction. The soil extracts were fractionated, based on polarity, and analyzed for 88 PAHs (unsubstituted, oxygenated, nitrated, and heterocyclic PAHs). The PAH concentrations in the soil tested, post-bioremediation, were lower than their regulatory maximum allowable concentrations (MACs), with the exception of the higher molecular weight PAHs (BaA, BkF, BbF, BaP, and IcdP), most of which did not undergo significant biodegradation. The soil extract fractions were tested for genotoxicity using the DT40 chicken lymphocyte bioassay and developmental to xicity using the embryonic zebrafish (Danio rerio) bioassay. A statistically significant increase in genotoxicity was measured in the unfractionated soil extract, as well as in four polar soil extract fractions, post-bioremediation (p bioremediation (p bioremediation. The increased toxicity measured post-bioremediation is not likely due to the 88 PAHs measured in this study (including quinones), because most were not present in the toxic polar fractions and/or because their concentrations did not increase post-bioremediation. However, the increased toxicity measured post-bioremediation is likely due to hydroxylated and carboxylated transformation products of the 3- and 4-ring PAHs (PHE, 1MPHE, 2MPHE, PRY, BaA, and FLA) that were most degraded. PMID:26200254

  17. Rhizosphere effects of PAH-contaminated soil phytoremediation using a special plant named Fire Phoenix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Xiao, Nan; Wei, Shuhe; Zhao, Lixing; An, Jing

    2014-03-01

    The rhizosphere effect of a special phytoremediating species known as Fire Phoenix on the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated, including changes of the enzymatic activity and microbial communities in rhizosphere soil. The study showed that the degradation rate of Σ8PAHs by Fire Phoenix was up to 99.40% after a 150-day culture. The activity of dehydrogenase (DHO), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) increased greatly, especially after a 60-day culture, followed by a gradual reduction with an increase in the planting time. The activity of these enzymes was strongly correlated to the higher degradation performance of Fire Phoenix growing in PAH-contaminated soils, although it was also affected by the basic characteristics of the plant species itself, such as the excessive, fibrous root systems, strong disease resistance, drought resistance, heat resistance, and resistance to barren soil. The activity of polyphenoloxidase (PPO) decreased during the whole growing period in this study, and the degradation rate of Σ8PAHs in the rhizosphere soil after having planted Fire Phoenix plants had a significant (R(2)=0.947) negative correlation with the change in the activity of PPO. Using an analysis of the microbial communities, the results indicated that the structure of microorganisms in the rhizosphere soil could be changed by planting Fire Phoenix plants, namely, there was an increase in microbial diversity compared with the unplanted soil. In addition, the primary advantage of Fire Phoenix was to promote the growth of flora genus Gordonia sp. as the major bacteria that can effectively degrade PAHs. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Enhanced bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soil by immobilized bacteria with plant residue and biochar as carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Baoliang; Yuan, Miaoxin; Qian, Linbo [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Dept. of Environmental Science; Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, Hangzhou (China)

    2012-10-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are largely accumulated in soils in China. The immobilized-microorganism technique (IMT) is a potential approach for abating soil contamination with PAHs. However, few studies about the application of IMT to contaminated soil remediation were reported. Due to recalcitrance to decomposition, biochar application to soil may enhance soil carbon sequestration, but few studies on the application of biochars to remediation of contaminated soil were reported. In this study, we illustrated enhanced bioremediation of soil having a long history of PAH contamination by IMT using plant residues and biochars as carriers. Two PAH-degrading bacteria, Pseudomonas putida and an unidentified indigenous bacterium, were selected for IMT. The extractability and biodegradation of 15 PAHs in solution and an actual PAH-contaminated soil amended with immobilized-bacteria materials were investigated under different incubation periods. The effects of carriers and the molecular weight of PAHs on bioremediation efficiency were determined to illustrate their different bio-dissipation mechanisms of PAHs in soil. The IMT can considerably enhance the removal of PAHs. Carriers impose different effects on PAH bio-dissipation by amended soil with immobilized-bacteria, which can directly degrade the carrier-associated PAHs. The removal of PAHs from soil depended on PAH molecular weight and carrier types. Enhanced bio-dissipation by IMT was much stronger for 4- and 5-ring PAHs than for 3- and 6-ring ones in soil. Only P400 biochar-immobilized bacteria enhanced bio-dissipation of all PAHs in contaminated soil after a 90-day incubation. Biochar can promote bioremediation of contaminated soil as microbial carriers of IMT. It is vital to select an appropriate biochar as an immobilized carrier to stimulate biodegradation. It is feasible to use adsorption carriers with high sorptive capabilities to concentrate PAHs as well as microorganisms and thereby enhance

  19. Effects of soil amendment with different carbon sources and other factors on the bioremediation of an aged PAH-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Ying; Luo, Yongming; Ping, Lifeng; Zou, Dexun; Li, Zhengao; Christie, Peter

    2010-04-01

    Carbon supplementation, soil moisture and soil aeration are believed to enhance in situ bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soils by stimulating the growth of indigenous microorganisms. However, the effects of added carbon and nitrogen together with soil moisture and soil aeration on the dissipation of PAHs and on associated microbial counts have yet to be fully assessed. In this study the effects on bioremediation of carbon source, carbon-to-nitrogen ratio, soil moisture and aeration on an aged PAH-contaminated agricultural soil were studied in microcosms over a 90-day period. Additions of starch, glucose and sodium succinate increased soil bacterial and fungal counts and accelerated the dissipation of phenanthrene and benzo(a)pyrene in soil. Decreases in phenanthrene and benzo(a)pyrene concentrations were effective in soil supplemented with glucose and sodium succinate (both 0.2 g C kg(-1) dry soil) and starch (1.0 g C kg(-1) dry soil). The bioremediation effect at a C/N ratio of 10:1 was significantly higher (P Soil microbial counts and PAH dissipation were lower in the submerged soil but soil aeration increased bacterial and fungal counts, enhanced indigenous microbial metabolic activities, and accelerated the natural degradation of phenanthrene and benzo(a)pyrene. The results suggest that optimizing carbon source, C/N ratio, soil moisture and aeration conditions may be a feasible remediation strategy in certain PAH contaminated soils with large active microbial populations.

  20. Comparison of the effectiveness of soil heating prior or during in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) of aged PAH-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranc, Bérénice; Faure, Pierre; Croze, Véronique; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Simonnot, Marie-Odile

    2017-04-01

    Thermal treatments prior or during chemical oxidation of aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soils have already shown their ability to increase oxidation effectiveness. However, they were never compared on the same soil. Furthermore, oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (O-PACs), by-products of PAH oxidation which may be more toxic and mobile than the parent PAHs, were very little monitored. In this study, two aged PAH-contaminated soils were heated prior (60 or 90 °C under Ar for 1 week) or during oxidation (60 °C for 1 week) with permanganate and persulfate, and 11 O-PACs were monitored in addition to the 16 US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) PAHs. Oxidant doses were based on the stoichiometric oxidant demand of the extractable organic fraction of soils by using organic solvents, which is more representative of the actual contamination than only the 16 US EPA PAHs. Higher temperatures actually resulted in more pollutant degradation. Two treatments were about three times more effective than the others: soil heating to 60 °C during persulfate oxidation and soil preheating to 90 °C followed by permanganate oxidation. The results of this study showed that persulfate effectiveness was largely due to its thermal activation, whereas permanganate was more sensitive to PAH availability than persulfate. The technical feasibility of these two treatments will soon be field-tested in the unsaturated zone of one of the studied aged PAH-contaminated soils.

  1. ANAEROBIC BIOREMEDIATION OF PAH-CONTAMINATED SOIL: ASSESSMENT OF THE DEGRADATION OF CONTAMINANTS AND BIOGAS PRODUCTION UNDER THERMOPHILIC AND MESOPHILIC CONDITIONS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sayara, T.; Čvančarová, Monika; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Sarra, M.; Sánchez, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2015), s. 153-165 ISSN 1582-9596 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/09/1058 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : anaerobic digestion * central composite design * PAH-contaminated soil Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.008, year: 2015

  2. Betaproteobacteria dominance and diversity shifts in the bacterial community of a PAH-contaminated soil exposed to phenanthrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Florence; Torelli, Stéphane; Le Paslier, Denis; Barbance, Agnès; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice; Bru, David; Geremia, Roberto; Blake, Gérard; Jouanneau, Yves

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the PAH-degrading bacteria of a constructed wetland collecting road runoff has been studied through DNA stable isotope probing. Microcosms were spiked with 13 C-phenanthrene at 34 or 337 ppm, and bacterial diversity was monitored over a 14-day period. At 337 ppm, PAH degraders became dominated after 5 days by Betaproteobacteria, including novel Acidovorax, Rhodoferax and Hydrogenophaga members, and unknown bacteria related to Rhodocyclaceae. The prevalence of Betaproteobacteria was further demonstrated by phylum-specific quantitative PCR, and was correlated with a burst of phenanthrene mineralization. Striking shifts in the population of degraders were observed after most of the phenanthrene had been removed. Soil exposed to 34 ppm phenanthrene showed a similar population of degraders, albeit only after 14 days. Results demonstrate that specific Betaproteobacteria are involved in the main response to soil PAH contamination, and illustrate the potential of SIP approaches to investigate PAH biodegradation in soil. - Highlights: ► We explored PAH-degrading bacteria on a chronically polluted site by stable isotope probing. ► Betaproteobacteria appeared as the main phenanthrene degraders in soil. ► Most soil PAH degraders were poorly related to bacteria isolated so far. ► Diversity shifts occurred in the community of degraders when the PAH became less available. - On a site collecting road runoff, implementation of stable isotope probing to identify soil bacteria responsible for phenanthrene degradation, led to the discovery of new Betaproteobacteria distantly related to known PAH degraders.

  3. Remediation of PAH-contaminated soil by the combination of tall fescue, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus and epigeic earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan-Fei; Lu, Mang

    2015-03-21

    A 120-day experiment was performed to investigate the effect of a multi-component bioremediation system consisting of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) (Glomus caledoniun L.), and epigeic earthworms (Eisenia foetida) for cleaning up polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated soil. Inoculation with AMF and/or earthworms increased plant yield and PAH accumulation in plants. However, PAH uptake by tall fescue accounted for a negligible portion of soil PAH removal. Mycorrhizal tall fescue significantly enhanced PAH dissipation, PAH degrader density and polyphenol oxidase activity in soil. The highest PAH dissipation (93.4%) was observed in the combination treatment: i.e., AMF+earthworms+tall fescue, in which the soil PAH concentration decreased from an initial value of 620 to 41 mg kg(-1) in 120 days. This concentration is below the threshold level required for Chinese soil PAH quality (45 mg kg(-1) dry weight) for residential use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. PAH contamination in soils adjacent to a coal-transporting facility in Tapin district, south Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizwar, Andy; Trihadiningrum, Yulinah

    2015-07-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the level of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), listed as priority pollutants by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), in surface soils around a coal-transporting facility in the western part of South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Three composite soil samples were collected from a coal stockpile, coal-hauling road, and coal port. Identification and quantification of PAH was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The total content of 16 USEPA-PAH ranged from 11.79 to 55.30 mg/kg with arithmetic mean value of 33.14 mg/kg and median of 32.33 mg/kg. The 16 USEPA-PAH measured levels were found to be greater compared with most of the literature values. The levels of high molecular-weight PAH (5- and 6-ring) were dominant and formed 67.77-80.69 % of the total 16 USEPA-PAH The most abundant of individual PAH are indeno[1,2,3-cd] pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene with concentration ranges of 2.11-20.56 and 1.59-17.84 mg/kg, respectively. The degree of PAH contamination and subsequent toxicity assessment suggest that the soils of the study area are highly contaminated and pose a potential health risk to humans.

  5. Effect of Sphingobium yanoikuyae B1 inoculation on bacterial community dynamics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation in aged and freshly PAH-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunliffe, Michael; Kertesz, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    Sphingobium yanoikuyae B1 is able to degrade a range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and as a sphingomonad belongs to one of the dominant genera found in PAH-contaminated soils. We examined the ecological effect that soil inoculation with S. yanoikuyae B1 has on the native bacterial community in three different soils: aged PAH-contaminated soil from an industrial site, compost freshly contaminated with PAHs and un-contaminated compost. Survival of S. yanoikuyae B1 was dependent on the presence of PAHs, and the strain was unable to colonize un-contaminated compost. Inoculation with S. yanoikuyae B1 did not cause extensive changes in the native bacterial community of either soil, as assessed by denaturing gel electrophoresis, but its presence led to an increase in the population level of two other species in the aged contaminated soil community and appeared to have an antagonistic affect on several members of the contaminated compost community, indicating niche competition. - Sphingobium yanoikuyae B1 does not cause major changes in the native bacterial community while colonizing PAH-contaminated soils, but some niche competition is evident

  6. Dynamics and role of sphingomonas/mycobacterium populations during bio-remediation of weathered PAH-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastiaens, L.; Ryngaert, A.; Leys, N.; Van Houtven, D.; Gemoets, J.; Goethals, L.; Springael, D.

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are major soil pollutants in many industrialized countries. During the last decades, a diversity of PAH-degrading micro-organisms has been isolated, suggesting possibilities for bio-remediation. However, biodegradation of PAHs in contaminated soils is not always successful. The low bio-availability of the PAHs is the major problem, especially in weathered soils. In these soils a tightly sorbed PAH-fraction is present which is in general hardly accessible for microorganisms. In order to bio-remedy PAHs also in weathered soils, stimulation of bacteria which have special strategies to access sorbed organics may be a solution. Sphingomonas and Mycobacterium strains may represent such bacteria as (I) they are often isolated as PAH degraders, (II) they are ubiquitously present in PAH-contaminated soils, and (III) they display features which might promote bioavailability. Lab- and pilot-scale experiments were set up in order (A) to study the dynamics of indigenous Sphingomonas and Mycobacterium populations during bio-remediation, and (B) to evaluate their role in the biodegradation of the less bio-available PAH-fraction during treatment of an historic PAH polluted soil. The soil was treated under natural soil moisture conditions and slurry conditions. The experimental set-ups ranged from 2 g lab-scale test to pilot experiments in 1 ton bio-piles and dry solid reactors (50 kg 70% dry matter soil). Different additives were evaluated for stimulation of the Sphingomonas and Mycobacterium population as a strategy to improve bio-remediation of PAHs. The evolution of this microbial population was followed using culture-independent general and genus-specific PCR-based detection methods targeting the 16S rRNA genes of the eu-bacterial community, Mycobacterium or the Sphingomonas populations, respectively. During the different bio-remediation experiments that were conducted, the Mycobacterium population remained very stable, only minor

  7. Dynamics and role of sphingomonas/mycobacterium populations during bio-remediation of weathered PAH-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastiaens, L.; Ryngaert, A.; Leys, N.; Van Houtven, D.; Gemoets, J. [Flemish Institute for Technological Research-Vito, Mol (Belgium); Goethals, L. [ENVISAN, Aalst, (Belgium); Springael, D. [Catholic University of Leuven-KUL, Leuven (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are major soil pollutants in many industrialized countries. During the last decades, a diversity of PAH-degrading micro-organisms has been isolated, suggesting possibilities for bio-remediation. However, biodegradation of PAHs in contaminated soils is not always successful. The low bio-availability of the PAHs is the major problem, especially in weathered soils. In these soils a tightly sorbed PAH-fraction is present which is in general hardly accessible for microorganisms. In order to bio-remedy PAHs also in weathered soils, stimulation of bacteria which have special strategies to access sorbed organics may be a solution. Sphingomonas and Mycobacterium strains may represent such bacteria as (I) they are often isolated as PAH degraders, (II) they are ubiquitously present in PAH-contaminated soils, and (III) they display features which might promote bioavailability. Lab- and pilot-scale experiments were set up in order (A) to study the dynamics of indigenous Sphingomonas and Mycobacterium populations during bio-remediation, and (B) to evaluate their role in the biodegradation of the less bio-available PAH-fraction during treatment of an historic PAH polluted soil. The soil was treated under natural soil moisture conditions and slurry conditions. The experimental set-ups ranged from 2 g lab-scale test to pilot experiments in 1 ton bio-piles and dry solid reactors (50 kg 70% dry matter soil). Different additives were evaluated for stimulation of the Sphingomonas and Mycobacterium population as a strategy to improve bio-remediation of PAHs. The evolution of this microbial population was followed using culture-independent general and genus-specific PCR-based detection methods targeting the 16S rRNA genes of the eu-bacterial community, Mycobacterium or the Sphingomonas populations, respectively. During the different bio-remediation experiments that were conducted, the Mycobacterium population remained very stable, only minor

  8. Investigation of the impacts of ethyl lactate based Fenton treatment on soil quality for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Suyin; Yap, Chiew Lin; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Venny

    2013-11-15

    This study aims to investigate the impacts of ethyl lactate (EL) based Fenton treatment on soil quality for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated soils. Accumulation of oxygenated-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) was observed, but quantitative measurement on the most abundant compound 9,10-anthraquinone (ATQ) showed lower accumulation of the compound than that reported for ethanol (ET) based Fenton treatment. In general, as compared to conventional water (CW) based Fenton treatment, the EL based Fenton treatment exerted either a lower or higher negative impact on soil physicochemical properties depending on the property type and shared the main disadvantage of reduced soil pH. For revegetation, EL based Fenton treatment was most appropriately adopted for soil with native pH >/~ 6.2 in order to obtain a final soil pH >/~ 4.9 subject to the soil buffering capacity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Treatment of PAH-contaminated soil using cement-activated persulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fujun; Zhang, Qian; Wu, Bin; Peng, Changsheng; Li, Ning; Li, Fasheng; Gu, Qingbao

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a novel method for the treatment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon -contaminated soil using cement-activated persulfate was developed. The removal of PAHs in soil rose with increasing initial persulfate concentration, initial Portland cement (PC) concentration, and oxidation reaction time. At an initial persulfate and PC concentration of 19.20 mmol/kg and 10% of soil weight and a reaction time of 2 h, the removal rate of PAHs reached 57.3%. Residual PAHs were mainly adsorbed within the soil granules and thus became less available. The mechanism of PC facilitating the oxidation reaction was that PC addition can increase the pH and temperature of the system. When the soil was stabilized/solidified by 10% of PC, the leaching concentration of PAHs and TOC was significantly higher than that leached from untreated soil. Persulfate oxidation decreased the leaching concentration of PAHs but increased the leaching concentration of TOC in solidification/stabilization products. The addition of activated carbon can decrease the leaching concentrations of both PAHs and TOC. Freeze-thaw durability tests revealed that the leachability of PAHs was not affected by freeze-thaw cycles. The unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of treated soil samples after 12 freeze-thaw cycles was only 49.0% of that curing for 52 days, but the UCS was still > 1 MPa. The treated soil samples can resist disintegration during the process of freeze-thaw cycles.

  10. Impact of clay mineral on air oxidation of PAH-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biache, Coralie; Kouadio, Olivier; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Faure, Pierre

    2014-09-01

    This work investigated the impact of a clay mineral (bentonite) on the air oxidation of the solvent extractable organic matters (EOMs) and the PAHs from contaminated soils. EOMs were isolated from two coking plant soils and mixed with silica sand or bentonite. These samples, as well as raw soils and bentonite/soil mixtures, were oxidized in air at 60 and 100 °C for 160 days. Mineralization was followed by measuring the CO2 produced over the experiments. EOM, polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC), including PAH, contents were also determined. Oxidation led to a decrease in EOM contents and PAH concentrations, these diminutions were enhanced by the presence of bentonite. Transfer of carbon from EOM to insoluble organic matter pointed out a condensation phenomenon leading to a stabilization of the contamination. Higher mineralization rates, observed during the oxidation of the soil/bentonite mixtures, seem to indicate that this clay mineral had a positive influence on the transformation of PAC into CO2.

  11. Remediation technologies for treatment of PAH contaminated soil and strategies to enhance process efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, J.; Alcantara, M. T.; Pazos, M.; Longo, M. A.; Sanroman, M. A.

    2009-07-01

    The presence of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils poses a potential threat to human health. The removal of these contaminants presents a challenge to scientists and engineers. PAHs are characterized by their palpable hydrophobic nature. Consequently, these species tend to be adsorbed on solid particulates, especially on the organic fraction of the solids. (Author)

  12. Remediation technologies for treatment of PAH contaminated soil and strategies to enhance process efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, J.; Alcantara, M. T.; Pazos, M.; Longo, M. A.; Sanroman, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    The presence of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils poses a potential threat to human health. The removal of these contaminants presents a challenge to scientists and engineers. PAHs are characterized by their palpable hydrophobic nature. Consequently, these species tend to be adsorbed on solid particulates, especially on the organic fraction of the solids. (Author)

  13. Bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soil with fungi - from laboratory to field scale

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Winquist, E.; Björklöf, K.; Schultz, E.; Räsänen, M.; Salonen, K.; Anasonye, F.; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Steffen, K.; Jorgensen, K.S.; Tuomela, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 2 (2014), s. 238-247 ISSN 0964-8305 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020218 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : bioremediation * contaminated soil * PAH * field scale Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.131, year: 2014

  14. PAHs contamination in urban soils from Lisbon: spatial variability and potential risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachada, Anabela; Pereira, Ruth; Ferreira da Silva, Eduardo; Duarte, Armando

    2015-04-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can become major contaminants in urban and industrial areas, due to the existence of a plethora of diffuse and point sources. Particularly diffuse pollution, which is normally characterized by continuous and long-term emission of contaminants below risk levels, can be a major problem in urban areas. Since PAHs are persistent and tend to accumulate in soils, levels are often above the recommended guidelines indicating that ecological functions of soils may be affected. Moreover, due to the lipophilic nature, hydrophobicity and low chemical and biological degradation rates of PAHs, which leads to their bioconcentration and bioamplification, they may reach toxicological relevant concentrations in organisms. The importance and interest of studying this group of contaminants is magnified due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic and endocrine disrupting effects. In this study, a risk assessment framework has been followed in order to evaluate the potential hazards posed by the presence of PAHs in Lisbon urban soils. Hence, the first step consisted in screening the total concentrations of PAHs followed by the calculation of risks based on existing models. Considering these models several samples were identified as representing a potential risk when comparing with the guidelines for soil protection. Moreover, it was found that for 38% of samples more than 50% of species can be potentially affected by the mixture of PAHs. The use of geostatistical methods allowed to visualize the predicted distribution of PAHs in Lisbon area and identify the areas where possible risk to the environment are likely occurring However, it is known that total concentration may not allow a direct prediction of environmental risk, since in general only a fraction of total concentration is available for partitioning between soil and solution and thus to be uptake or transformed by organisms (bioacessible or bioavailable) or to be leached to groundwater. The

  15. Microorganism selection and performance in bioslurry reactors treating PAH-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, D P; Hudak, A J

    2002-09-01

    A continuous-flow reactor (CSTR) and a soil slurry-sequencing batch reactor (SS-SBR) were operated in 81 vessels for 200 days to treat a soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Filtered slurry samples were used to quantify bulk biosurfactant concentrations and PAH emulsification. Concentrations of Corynebacterium aquaticum, Flavobacterium mizutaii, Mycobacterium gastri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Pseudomonas putida were determined using fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. The CSTR and SS-SBR selected microbial consortia with markedly different surfactant-producing and PAH-degrading abilities. Biosurfactant levels in the SS-SBR reached 4 times the critical micelle concentration (CMC) that resulted in considerable emulsification of PAH. In contrast, CSTR operation resulted in nomeasurable biosurfactant production. Total PAH removal efficiency was 93% in the SS-SBR, compared with only 66% in the CSTR, and stripping of PAH was 3 times less in the SS-SBR. Reversing the mode of operation on day 100 caused a complete reversal in microbial consortia and in reactor performance by day 140. These results show that bioslurry reactor operation can be manipulated to control overall reactor performance.

  16. Heavy metal effects on the biodegradation of fluorene by Sphingobacterium sp. KM-02 isolated from PAHs-contaminated mine soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, I.; Chon, C.; Jung, K.; Kim, J.

    2012-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAHs) are widely distributed in the environment and occur ubiquitously in fossil fuels as well as in products of incomplete combustion and are known to be strongly toxic, often with carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. Fluorene is one of the 16 PAHs included in the list of priority pollutants of the Environmental Protection Agency. The fluorene-degrading bacterial strain Sphingobacterium sp. KM-02 was isolated from PAHs-contaminated soil near an abandoned mine impacted area by selective enrichment techniques. Fluorene added to the Sphingobacterium sp. KM-02 culture as sole carbon and energy source was 78.4% removed within 120 h. A fluorene degradation pathway is tentatively proposed based on mass spectrometric identification of the metabolic intermediates 9-fluorenone, 4-hydroxy-9-fluorenone, and 8-hydroxy-3,4-benzocoumarin. Further the ability of Sphingobacterium sp. KM-02 to bioremediate 100 mg/kg fluorene in mine soil was examined by composting under laboratory conditions. Treatment of microcosm soil with the strain KM-02 for 20 days resulted in a 65.6% reduction in total amounts. These results demonstrate that Sphingobacterium sp. KM-02 could potentially be used in the bioremediation of fluorene from contaminated soil. Mine impacted area comprises considerable amounts of heavy metals such as cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic, and copper. Although some of these metals are necessary for biological life, excessive quantities often result in the inhibition of essential biological reactions via numerous pathways. A number of reports collectively show that various metals, such as Al, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Hg at a range of concentrations have adverse effects on the degradation of organic compounds. However, at present there is only limited information on the effect of individual heavy metals on the biological degradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including fluorene. Moreover, heavy metal effects were not

  17. Impact of clay mineral, wood sawdust or root organic matter on the bacterial and fungal community structures in two aged PAH-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cébron, Aurélie; Beguiristain, Thierry; Bongoua-Devisme, Jeanne; Denonfoux, Jérémie; Faure, Pierre; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Ouvrard, Stéphanie; Parisot, Nicolas; Peyret, Pierre; Leyval, Corinne

    2015-09-01

    The high organic pollutant concentration of aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated wasteland soils is highly recalcitrant to biodegradation due to its very low bioavailability. In such soils, the microbial community is well adapted to the pollution, but the microbial activity is limited by nutrient availability. Management strategies could be applied to modify the soil microbial functioning as well as the PAH contamination through various amendment types. The impact of amendment with clay minerals (montmorillonite), wood sawdust and organic matter plant roots on microbial community structure was investigated on two aged PAH-contaminated soils both in laboratory and 1-year on-site pot experiments. Total PAH content (sum of 16 PAHs of the US-EPA list) and polar polycyclic aromatic compounds (pPAC) were monitored as well as the available PAH fraction using the Tenax method. The bacterial and fungal community structures were monitored using fingerprinting thermal gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE) method. The abundance of bacteria (16S rRNA genes), fungi (18S rRNA genes) and PAH degraders (PAH-ring hydroxylating dioxygenase and catechol dioxygenase genes) was followed through qPCR assays. Although the treatments did not modify the total and available PAH content, the microbial community density, structure and the PAH degradation potential changed when fresh organic matter was provided as sawdust and under rhizosphere influence, while the clay mineral only increased the percentage of catechol-1,2-dioxygenase genes. The abundance of bacteria and fungi and the percentage of fungi relative to bacteria were enhanced in soil samples supplemented with wood sawdust and in the plant rhizospheric soils. Two distinct fungal populations developed in the two soils supplemented with sawdust, i.e. fungi related to Chaetomium and Neurospora genera and Brachyconidiellopsis and Pseudallescheria genera, in H and NM soils respectively. Wood sawdust amendment favoured the

  18. In situ phytoremediation of PAH-contaminated soil by intercropping alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) with tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and associated soil microbial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Mingming; Fu, Dengqiang; Teng, Ying; Shen, Yuanyuan; Luo, Yongming; Li, Zhengao [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation; Christie, Peter [Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Belfast (United Kingdom). Agri-Environment Branch

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: A 7-month field experiment was conducted to investigate the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) remediation potential of two plant species and changes in counts of soil PAH-degrading bacteria and microbial activity. Materials and methods: Alfalfa and tall fescue were grown in monoculture and intercropped for 7 months in contaminated field soil. Soil and plant samples were analyzed for PAHs. Plant biomass, densities of PAH-degradation soil bacteria, soil microbial biomass C and N, enzyme activities, and the physiological profile of the soil microbial community were determined. Results and discussion: Average removal percentage of total PAHs in intercropping (30.5%) was significantly higher than in monoculture (19.9%) or unplanted soil (-0.6%). About 7.5% of 3-ring, 12.3% of 4-ring, and 17.2% of 5(+6)-ring PAHs were removed from the soil by alfalfa, with corresponding values of 25.1%, 10.4%, and 30.1% for tall fescue. Intercropping significantly enhanced the remediation efficiency. About 18.9% of 3-ring, 30.9% of 4-ring, and 33.4% of 5(+6)-ring PAHs were removed by the intercropping system. Higher counts of soil culturable PAH-degrading bacteria and elevated microbial biomass and enzyme activities were found after intercropping. Soil from intercropping showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) average well-color development obtained by the BIOLOG Ecoplate assay and Shannon-Weaver index compared with monoculture. Conclusions: Cropping promoted the dissipation of soil PAHs. Tall fescue gave greater removal of soil PAHs than alfalfa, and intercropping was more effective than monoculture. Intercropping of alfalfa and tall fescue may be a promising in situ bioremediation strategy for PAH-contaminated soils. (orig.)

  19. Tenax TA extraction to understand the rate-limiting factors in methyl-β-cyclodextrin-enhanced bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingming; Luo, Yongming; Teng, Ying; Christie, Peter; Jia, Zhongjun; Li, Zhengao

    2013-06-01

    The effectiveness of many bioremediation systems for PAH-contaminated soil may be constrained by low contaminant bioaccessibility due to limited aqueous solubility or large sorption capacity. Information on the extent to which PAHs can be readily biodegraded is of vital importance in the decision whether or not to remediate a contaminated soil. In the present study the rate-limiting factors in methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD)-enhanced bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soil were evaluated. MCD amendment at 10 % (w/w) combined with inoculation with the PAH-degrading bacterium Paracoccus sp. strain HPD-2 produced maximum removal of total PAHs of up to 35 %. The desorption of PAHs from contaminated soil was determined before and after 32 weeks of bioremediation. 10 % (w/w) MCD amendment (M2) increased the Tenax extraction of total PAHs from 12 to 30 % and promoted degradation by up to 26 % compared to 6 % in the control. However, the percentage of Tenax extraction for total PAHs was much larger than that of degradation. Thus, in the control and M2 treatment it is likely that during the initial phase the bioaccessibility of PAHs is high and biodegradation rates may be limited by microbial processes. On the other hand, when the soil was inoculated with the PAH-degrading bacterium (CKB and MB2), the slowly and very slowly desorbing fractions (F sl and F vl ) became larger and the rate constants of slow and very slow desorption (k sl and k vl ) became extremely small after bioremediation, suggesting that desorption is likely rate limiting during the second, slow phase of biotransformation. These results have practical implications for site risk assessment and cleanup strategies.

  20. Feasibility of treating aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated soils using ethyl lactate-based Fenton treatment via parametric and kinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Chiew Lin; Gan, Suyin; Ng, Hoon Kiat

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the feasibility of treating aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated soils using ethyl lactate (EL)-based Fenton treatment via a combination of parametric and kinetic studies. An optimised operating condition was observed at 66.7 M H2O2 with H2O2/Fe(2+) of 40:1 for low soil organic carbon (SOC) content and mildly acidic soil (pH 6.2), and 10:1 for high SOC and very acidic soil (pH 4.4) with no soil pH adjustment. The desorption kinetic was only mildly shifted from single equilibrium to dual equilibrium of the first-order kinetic model upon ageing. Pretreatment with EL fc = 0.60 greatly reduced the mass transfer coefficient especially for the slow desorbed fraction (kslow) of high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs, largely contributed by the concentration gradient created by EL-enhanced solubility. As the major desorption obstacle was almost fully overcome by the pretreatment, the pseudo-first-order kinetic reaction rate constant of PAHs degradation of aged soils was statistically discernible from that of freshly contaminated soils but slightly reduced in high SOC and high acidity soil. Stabilisation of H2O2 by EL addition in combination with reduced Fe(2+) catalyst were able to slow the decomposition rate of H2O2 even at higher soil pH.

  1. Bioremediation of PAH-contamined soils: Consequences on formation and degradation of polar-polycyclic aromatic compounds and microbial community abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biache, Coralie; Ouali, Salma; Cébron, Aurélie; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Colombano, Stéfan; Faure, Pierre

    2017-05-05

    A bioslurry batch experiment was carried out over five months on three polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) contaminated soils to study the PAC (PAH and polar-PAC) behavior during soil incubation and to evaluate the impact of PAC contamination on the abundance of microbial communities and functional PAH-degrading populations. Organic matter characteristics and reactivity, assessed through solvent extractable organic matter and PAC contents, and soil organic matter mineralization were monitored during 5 months. Total bacteria and fungi, and PAH-ring hydroxylating dioxygenase genes were quantified. Results showed that PAHs and polar-PACs were degraded with different degradation dynamics. Differences in degradation rates were observed among the three soils depending on PAH distribution and availability. Overall, low molecular weight compounds were preferentially degraded. Degradation selectivity between isomers and structurally similar compounds was observed which could be used to check the efficiency of bioremediation processes. Bacterial communities were dominant over fungi and were most likely responsible for PAC degradation. Abundance of PAH-degrading bacteria increased during incubations, but their proportion in the bacterial communities tended to decrease. The accumulation of some oxygenated-PACs during the bioslurry experiment underlines the necessity to monitor these compounds during application of remediation treatment on PAH contaminated soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. {sup 32}P-postlabeling determination of DNA adducts in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris exposed to PAH-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, P. [Laval Univ. Research Center, Quebec (Canada)]|[Ministere de l`Environnement et de la Faune du Quebec (Canada); El Adlouni, C.; Mukhopadhyay, M.J.; Nadeau, D.; Poirier, G.G. [Laval Univ. Research Center, Quebec (Canada); Viel, G. [CreaLab., Quebec (Canada)

    1995-05-01

    The importance of the search for reliable biomarkers of DNA damage in environmental health assessment is well recognized by the scientific community and regulatory agencies. Among the major biomarkers of DNA damage is the measurement of DNA adducts in target cells or tissues. Up to now, DNA adduct determinations have been directed mostly toward human exposure to toxic substances from the workplace and environment. Moreover, techniques for measuring DNA adducts, and in particular the {sup 32}P-postlabelling technique, presented also the possibility of determining DNA adduct levels in endogenous animal populations exposed to polluted environments as early warning monitors of ecotoxicity. Soil contamination is becoming a major environmental issue. Therefore, numerous contaminated sites must now be remediated to protect human health and to permit new uses of these sites as agricultural, residential, or industrial areas. Fulfillment of this task requires standardized and sensitive bioassays to carry out site evaluations and to establish scientifically defensible soil quality criteria. To that effect, the earthworm appears to be one of the best organisms for use in soil toxicity evaluation. Earthworms are probably the most relevant soil species, representing 60 to 80% of the total animal biomass in soil. Present soil bioassays focus mostly on plant species with end points like seed germination, root elongation, seedling growth and seedling emergence, and on acute toxicity evaluation (re: LC 50) on the earthworm Eisenia fetida. As yet, a standardized soil invertebrate test for teratogenic or mutagenic end points has not been developed. In this paper, we report the feasibility of DNA adduct determination by {sup 32}P-postlabelling in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris as a way to detect the presence of genotoxic substances in soils. 20 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  3. Micromorphology and stable-isotope geochemistry of historical pedogenic siderite formed in PAH-contaminated alluvial clay soils, Tennessee, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driese, S.G.; Ludvigson, Greg A.; Roberts, J.A.; Fowle, D.A.; Gonzalez, Luis A.; Smith, J.J.; Vulava, V.M.; McKay, L.D.

    2010-01-01

    Alluvial clay soil samples from six boreholes advanced to depths of 400-450 cm (top of limestone bedrock) from the Chattanooga Coke Plant (CCP) site were examined micromorphologically and geochemically in order to determine if pedogenic siderite (FeCO3) was present and whether siderite occurrence was related to organic contaminant distribution. Samples from shallow depths were generally more heavily contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) than those at greater depth. The upper 1 m in most boreholes consisted of mixtures of anthropogenically remolded clay soil fill containing coal clinker, cinder grains, and limestone gravel; most layers of coarse fill were impregnated with creosote and coal tar. Most undisturbed soil (below 1 m depth) consisted of highly structured clays exhibiting fine subangular blocky ped structures, as well as redox-related features. Pedogenic siderite was abundant in the upper 2 m of most cores and in demonstrably historical (< 100 years old) soil matrices. Two morphologies were identified: (1) sphaerosiderite crystal spherulites ranging from 10 to 200 um in diameter, and (2) coccoid siderite comprising grape-like "clusters" of crystals 5-20 ??n in diameter. The siderite, formed in both macropores and within fine-grained clay matrices, indicates development of localized anaerobic, low-Eh conditions, possibly due to microbial degradation of organic contaminants. Stable-isotope compositions of the siderite have ??13C values spanning over 25%o (+7 to - 18%o VPDB) indicating fractionation of DIC by multiple microbial metabolic pathways, but with relatively constant ??18O values from (-4.8 ?? 0.66%o VPDB) defining a meteoric sphaerosiderite line (MSL). Calculated isotope equilibrium water ??18O values from pedogenic siderites at the CCP site are from 1 to 5 per mil lighter than the groundwater ??18O values that we estimate for the site. If confirmed by field studies in progress, this observation might call for a reevaluation of

  4. Isolation and characterization of bacteria capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organophosphorus pesticides from PAH-contaminated soil in Hilo, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jong-Su; Keum, Young-Soo; Harada, Renee M; Li, Qing X

    2007-07-11

    Nineteen bacterial strains were isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil in Hilo, HI, and characterized by two different spray-plated methods, turbidity test in liquid medium, and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Analysis of the soil showed 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a range from 0.6 to 30 mg/kg of dry weight each and 12 PAH metabolites. Five distinct bacterial strains (C3, C4, P1-1, JS14, and JS19b1) selected from preliminary plating and turbidity tests were further tested for PAH degradation through single PAH degradation assay. Strains C3, C4, and P1-1 degraded phenanthrene (40 mg/L) completely during 7 days of incubation. Strain JS14 degraded fluoranthene (40 mg/L) completely during 10 days of incubation. Strain JS19b1 degraded 100% of phenanthrene (40 mg/L) in 7 days, 77% of fluorene (40 mg/L) in 14 days, 97% of fluoranthene (40 mg/L) in 10 days, and 100% of pyrene (40 mg/L) in 14 days. Turbidity tests showed that strains P1-1, JS14, and JS19b1 utilized several organophosphorus pesticides as growth substrate. P1-1 can degrade carbofenothion, chlorfenvinphos, diazinon, fonofos, and pirimiphos-methyl. JS14 can transform chlorfenvinphos and diazinon. JS19b1 can break down diazinon, pirimiphos-methyl, and temephos.

  5. Response of microbial activities and diversity to PAHs contamination at coal tar contaminated land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaohui; Sun, Yujiao; Ding, Aizhong; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Dayi

    2015-04-01

    Coal tar is one of the most hazardous and concerned organic pollutants and the main hazards are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The indigenous microorganisms in soils are capable to degrade PAHs, with essential roles in biochemical process for PAHs natural attenuation. This study investigated 48 soil samples (from 8 depths of 6 boreholes) in Beijing coking and chemistry plant (China) and revealed the correlation between PAHs contamination, soil enzyme activities and microbial community structure, by 16S rRNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). At the site, the key contaminants were identified as naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene and anthracene, and the total PAHs concentration ranged from 0.1 to 923.9 mg/kg dry soil. The total PAHs contamination level was positively correlated (pcatalase activities (0.554-6.230 mL 0.02 M KMnO4/g•h) and dehydrogenase activities (1.9-30.4 TF μg/g•h soil), showing the significant response of microbial population and degrading functions to the organic contamination in soils. The PAHs contamination stimulated the PAHs degrading microbes and promoted their biochemical roles in situ. The positive relationship between bacteria count and dehydrogenase activities (p<0.05) suggested the dominancy of PAHs degrading bacteria in the microbial community. More interestingly, the microbial community deterioration was uncovered via the decline of microbial biodiversity (richness from 16S rRNA DGGE) against total PAHs concentration (p<0.05). Our research described the spatial profiles of PAHs contamination and soil microbial functions at the PAHs heavily contaminated sites, offering deeper understanding on the roles of indigenous microbial community in natural attenuation process.

  6. Ecotoxicological and human toxicological risk assessment of PAH-contaminated soils before and after biological treatment; Oekotoxikologische und humantoxikologische Risikobewertung PAK-belasteter Boeden vor und nach biologischer Behandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, P.H.; Hanstein, W.G. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physiologische Chemie; Weissenfels, W.D. [RAG Umwelt Kommunal GmbH, Bottrop (Germany); Afferden, M. van [IMTA, Jiutepec, Mor. (Mexico); Pfeifer, F. [DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The goal of the present work is to assess the adverse effects of soil bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) which remain in soils after biological remediation. We focus on risk assessment for mammalian species with respect to the oral uptake of contaminated soil particles and compare the results of a biomarker test with those of an ecotoxicological assay, the bioluminescence inhibition test with Vibrio fischeri. As a biomarker effect in mammals, we determined the liver microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP1A1 which is induced by PAH in exposed rats. After biological soil treatment, different amounts of PAH remain in the soil depending on the soil properties and initial pollutant composition. Particularly, higher condensated PAH resists biological treatment due to its hydrophobicity. In addition, high amounts of organic carbon in the soils affect remediation efficiency. In the bioluminescence inhibition test, eluates of all biologically treated soils studied do not reveal any or only low inhibitory effects. In contrast, the oral uptake of biologically treated contaminated soils leads to induction levels for CYP1A1 similar to those in the untreated samples. A good correlation is obtained between CYP1A1 levels and the amount of 5 and 6-ring PAH in the soil samples. The main result is that the remediation efficiency determined by the luminescence test is not reflected by the biomarker test, a finding which indicates the high bioavailability of residual PAH in soils. Consequently, new criteria for human risk assessment can be delineated. (orig.) [German] Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, moegliche toxische Wirkungen PAK-belasteter Boeden vor und nach biologischer Sanierung zu erfassen. Hierbei liegt der Schwerpunkt auf der Abschaetzung des Risikos fuer Saeugetiere nach oraler Aufnahme von Bodenpartikeln. Als Biomarker-Effekt fuer die PAK-Aufnahme haben wir in Ratten die Induktion des lebermikrosomalen P450-Enzyms CYP1A1 bestimmt, dessen Expression durch PAK moduliert

  7. Improving bioremediation of PAH contaminated soils by thermal pretreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonten, L.

    2001-01-01

    Numerous sites and large volumes of sediments in the Netherlands are contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which are of great concern because of their

  8. Using slow-release permanganate candles to remediate PAH-contaminated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Lindy; Sakulthaew, Chainarong; Comfort, Steve

    2012-11-30

    Surface waters impacted by urban runoff in metropolitan areas are becoming increasingly contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Slow-release oxidant candles (paraffin-KMnO(4)) are a relatively new technology being used to treat contaminated groundwater and could potentially be used to treat urban runoff. Given that these candles only release permanganate when submerged, the ephemeral nature of runoff events would influence when the permanganate is released for treating PAHs. Our objective was to determine if slow-release permanganate candles could be used to degrade and mineralize PAHs. Batch experiments quantified PAH degradation rates in the presence of the oxidant candles. Results showed most of the 16 PAHs tested were degraded within 2-4 h. Using (14)C-labled phenanthrene and benzo(a)pyrene, we demonstrated that the wax matrix of the candle initially adsorbs the PAH, but then releases the PAH back into solution as transformed, more water soluble products. While permanganate was unable to mineralize the PAHs (i.e., convert to CO(2)), we found that the permanganate-treated PAHs were much more biodegradable in soil microcosms. To test the concept of using candles to treat PAHs in multiple runoff events, we used a flow-through system where urban runoff water was pumped over a miniature candle in repetitive wet-dry, 24-h cycles. Results showed that the candle was robust in removing PAHs by repeatedly releasing permanganate and degrading the PAHs. These results provide proof-of-concept that permanganate candles could potentially provide a low-cost, low-maintenance approach to remediating PAH-contaminated water. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Using slow-release permanganate candles to remediate PAH-contaminated water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauscher, Lindy, E-mail: purplerauscher@neb.rr.com [School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583-0915 (United States); Sakulthaew, Chainarong, E-mail: chainarong@huskers.unl.edu [School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583-0915 (United States); Department of Veterinary Technology, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Comfort, Steve, E-mail: scomfort1@unl.edu [School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583-0915 (United States)

    2012-11-30

    proof-of-concept that permanganate candles could potentially provide a low-cost, low-maintenance approach to remediating PAH-contaminated water.

  10. Using slow-release permanganate candles to remediate PAH-contaminated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauscher, Lindy; Sakulthaew, Chainarong; Comfort, Steve

    2012-01-01

    remediating PAH-contaminated water.

  11. Review of PAH contamination in food products and their health hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Vasudha; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2015-11-01

    Public concern over the deleterious effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has grown rapidly due to recognition of their toxicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenicity. The aim of this review is to describe the status of PAH pollution among different food types, the route of dietary intake, measures for its reduction, and legislative approaches to control PAH. To this end, a comprehensive review is outlined to evaluate the status of PAH contamination in many important food categories along with dietary recommendations. Our discussion is also extended to describe preventive measures to reduce PAH in food products to help reduce the risks associated with human intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular and stable carbon isotopic characterization of PAH contaminants at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Moonkoo . E-mail moonkoo.kim@wmich.edu; Kennicutt, Mahlon C.; Qian Yaorong

    2006-01-01

    The molecular and stable carbon isotopic compositions of contaminant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at McMurdo Station, Antarctica were analyzed in samples collected from land and sub-tidal area. PAHs in the study areas were characterized by high amounts of naphthalene and alkylated naphthalenes from petroleum products introduced by human activities in the area. Principal component analysis (PCA) of PAH composition data identified multiple sources of PAH contamination in the study area. Compositional assignments of origins were confirmed using compound specific stable carbon isotopic analysis

  13. A comparison of bioaugmentation and intrinsic in situ bioremediation of a PAH contaminated site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geddes, T.; Mortier, N.; Chaparian, M.

    1995-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one of the most common environmental hazards, naturally occurring in petroleum and its by-products. They are encountered at nearly all UST sites, and present an impediment to the use of cost effective intrinsic in situ bioremediation due to their recalcitrant nature. Even bacteria isolated specifically for their ability to degrade PAHs in the laboratory have shown no significant degradative capabilities in the field. This is due to the unique balance that exists at every contaminated site between the microbial ecology, chemical, physical, and environmental factors. Therefore, bacteria indigenous to the site and acclimated to these environmental parameters should be well suited for use in bioaugmentation. Based on this assumption, a new and innovative approach to bioaugmentation has been developed which consists of a series of scientifically-sound, rational steps in the use of this technology. Initially, careful chemical and biological analyses of site samples are conducted using conventional analytical instrumentation and state-of-the-art microbiological, biochemical, and molecular biological techniques. Bacteria from site samples that demonstrate potential PAH degradative capability are isolated. The bacteria are then enriched in culture and re-introduced to the site with appropriate nutrients. Further, this approach encompasses the proposed guidelines for proving the efficacy of in situ bioremediation as set forth by the National Science Foundation. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach, data are presented here of a laboratory-scale trial of a PAH contaminated site

  14. Assessment of DDT, HCH and PAH contamination and associated ecotoxicological risks in surface sediments of coastal Tema Harbour (Ghana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botwe, Benjamin O; Kelderman, Peter; Nyarko, Elvis; Lens, Piet N L

    2017-02-15

    This study assessed DDTs, HCHs and PAHs contamination in sediments from the Tema Harbour (Ghana) and the associated ecotoxicological risks. The results showed widespread DDTs, HCHs and PAHs contamination in the harbour sediments with mean concentrations ranging from 6.0-12.8, 2.8-12.7 and 2750-5130μg·kg -1 d·w, respectively. The silt-clay and total organic carbon contents of the sediments poorly correlated with the pollutant concentrations. DDTs and HCHs contamination relate to past use of DDT and lindane, which under the anoxic harbour conditions resulted in disproportionately higher concentrations of p,p'-DDD and γ-HCH in the sediments. No conclusion could be drawn on the sources of PAHs as either petrogenic or pyrogenic. The pollutant concentrations in the harbour sediments, particularly γ-HCH, may pose high ecotoxicological risks. In comparison to a previous study, this study indicates there has been a considerable reduction in PAH contamination in the Tema Harbour since the last major oil spill in 2007. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Monitoring PAH contamination in water: Comparison of biological and physico-chemical tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeault, A.; Gourlay-Francé, C.

    2013-01-01

    The suitability of biological methods and chemical-based passive samplers to determine exposure to PAHs was tested by deploying zebra mussels and SPMDs along the Seine River over 11 months. The concentration of 13 PAHs was analyzed every month in both water and mussels. The sum of the PAH concentrations in mussels, initially at 299 ng g dry wt −1 , reached 2654, 3972 and 3727 ng g −1 at the end of exposure in the three sampling points taken through the river. The respective SPMD-available concentrations of TPAHs reached 9, 52 and 34 ng L −1 . Results showed seasonal variations of total PAH concentrations in the mussels, characterized by a decrease during spawning. The non-achievement of steady state concentration that was observed in mussels may be accounted for by the temporal variation of environmental concentrations. Thus, a bioaccumulation model based on kinetic rather than simple equilibrium partitioning was found to be more appropriate to describe PAH content in mussels. Moreover, biodynamic kinetic modeling proved useful to better understand the uptake and loss processes of pyrene. It clearly shows that these processes are markedly influenced by the biological state of the zebra mussels. The most realistic hypothesis is that the temporal variation of the biodynamic parameters may originate from a decrease of the mussels' metabolization of PAHs during spawning. Since SPMD passive samplers cannot integrate such biological factors, they are poor predictors of PAH bioavailability in mussels. - Highlights: • PAH contamination was monitored by deploying mussels and SPMDs over 11 months along the Seine River. • 5–6 ring PAHs which could not be quantified in spot samples, were measured in SPMDs. • PAH concentrations in the mussels decreased during spawning. • Temporal variation of bioaccumulated PAH may originate from a decrease of the mussels' metabolism during spawning. • Biodynamic model was allowed to explain the bioaccumulation

  16. Ca2+ promoted the low transformation efficiency of plasmid DNA exposed to PAH contaminants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuxing Kang

    Full Text Available The effects of interactions between genetic materials and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs on gene expression in the extracellular environment remain to be elucidated and little information is currently available on the effect of ionic strength on the transformation of plasmid DNA exposed to PAHs. Phenanthrene and pyrene were used as representative PAHs to evaluate the transformation of plasmid DNA after PAH exposure and to determine the role of Ca(2+ during the transformation. Plasmid DNA exposed to the test PAHs demonstrated low transformation efficiency. In the absence of PAHs, the transformation efficiency was 4.7 log units; however, the efficiency decreased to 3.72-3.14 log units with phenanthrene/pyrene exposures of 50 µg · L(-1. The addition of Ca(2+ enhanced the low transformation efficiency of DNA exposed to PAHs. Based on the co-sorption of Ca(2+ and phenanthrene/pyrene by DNA, we employed Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and mass spectrometry (MS to determine the mechanisms involved in PAH-induced DNA transformation. The observed low transformation efficiency of DNA exposed to either phenanthrene or pyrene can be attributed to a broken hydrogen bond in the double helix caused by planar PAHs. Added Ca(2+ formed strong electrovalent bonds with "-POO(--" groups in the DNA, weakening the interaction between PAHs and DNA based on weak molecular forces. This decreased the damage of PAHs to hydrogen bonds in double-stranded DNA by isolating DNA molecules from PAHs and consequently enhanced the transformation efficiency of DNA exposed to PAH contaminants. The findings provide insight into the effects of anthropogenic trace PAHs on DNA transfer in natural environments.

  17. Monitoring PAH contamination in water: Comparison of biological and physico-chemical tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeault, A., E-mail: bourgeault@ensil.unilim.fr; Gourlay-Francé, C.

    2013-06-01

    The suitability of biological methods and chemical-based passive samplers to determine exposure to PAHs was tested by deploying zebra mussels and SPMDs along the Seine River over 11 months. The concentration of 13 PAHs was analyzed every month in both water and mussels. The sum of the PAH concentrations in mussels, initially at 299 ng g{sub dry} {sub wt}{sup −1}, reached 2654, 3972 and 3727 ng g{sup −1} at the end of exposure in the three sampling points taken through the river. The respective SPMD-available concentrations of TPAHs reached 9, 52 and 34 ng L{sup −1}. Results showed seasonal variations of total PAH concentrations in the mussels, characterized by a decrease during spawning. The non-achievement of steady state concentration that was observed in mussels may be accounted for by the temporal variation of environmental concentrations. Thus, a bioaccumulation model based on kinetic rather than simple equilibrium partitioning was found to be more appropriate to describe PAH content in mussels. Moreover, biodynamic kinetic modeling proved useful to better understand the uptake and loss processes of pyrene. It clearly shows that these processes are markedly influenced by the biological state of the zebra mussels. The most realistic hypothesis is that the temporal variation of the biodynamic parameters may originate from a decrease of the mussels' metabolization of PAHs during spawning. Since SPMD passive samplers cannot integrate such biological factors, they are poor predictors of PAH bioavailability in mussels. - Highlights: • PAH contamination was monitored by deploying mussels and SPMDs over 11 months along the Seine River. • 5–6 ring PAHs which could not be quantified in spot samples, were measured in SPMDs. • PAH concentrations in the mussels decreased during spawning. • Temporal variation of bioaccumulated PAH may originate from a decrease of the mussels' metabolism during spawning. • Biodynamic model was allowed to explain

  18. Application of Equilibrium Partitioning Theory to Soil PAH Contamination (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In March 2004, ORD's Ecological Risk Assessment Support Center (ERASC) received a request from the Ecological Risk Assessment Forum (ERAF) to provide insight into the issue of whether equilibrium partitioning (EqP) techniques can be used to predict the toxicity of polycyclic arom...

  19. Bioremediation of a PAH-contaminated gasworks site with the Ebiox vacuum heap system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiermann, D.R.; Bolliger, R.

    1995-01-01

    A former gasworks site in the industrial city of Winterthur, Switzerland, was extremely contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX); phenols; ammonia; and mineral oils. Three vacuum heaps, with a total volume of 10,500 m 3 of contaminated soil, were bioremediated during 1993/94. Separating excavated soil material into different soil qualities was of particular importance because of the pathway definition of the specific soil material. Excavation of contamination took longer than 10 months, delivering continuously different contaminated soil-type material for bioremediation. Conditioning and subsequent biostimulation of the large soil volumes were the prerequisites for most advanced milieu optimization. The degradation results demonstrated the potential for successful application of bioremediation on former industrial sites. PAH-concentration reductions ranged from 75 to 83% for the soil values and from 87 to 98% for the elution values. Soil and elution target qualities were met within 6 to 12 months, depending on initial PAH-concentration and soil structure. The achieved target quality for the bioremediated soil allowed subsequent reuse as high-value backfill material for the ongoing building project

  20. Multispecies and monoculture rhizoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the soil

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maila, MP

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the authors investigated the potential of multispecies rhizoremediation and monoculture rhizoremediation in decontaminating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated soil. Plant-mediated PAH dissipation was evaluated using...

  1. Comparison of plants with C3 and C4 carbon fixation pathways for remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminated soils

    OpenAIRE

    Sivaram, Anithadevi Kenday; Logeshwaran, Panneerselvan; Subashchandrabose, Suresh R.; Lockington, Robin; Naidu, Ravi; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2018-01-01

    The phytoremediation technique has been demonstrated to be a viable option for the remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated sites. This study evaluated the potential applicability of plants with C3 and C4 carbon fixation pathways for the phytoremediation of recalcitrant high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs contaminated soil. A 60 and 120-day greenhouse study was conducted which showed higher degradation of HMW PAHs in soil grown with C4 plants when compared to C3 plants...

  2. Chronic polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH contamination is a marginal driver for community diversity and prokaryotic predicted functioning in coastal sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Jeanbille

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Benthic microorganisms are key players in the recycling of organic matter and recalcitrant compounds such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in coastal sediments. Despite their ecological importance, the response of microbial communities to chronic PAH pollution, one of the major threats to coastal ecosystems, has received very little attention. In one of the largest surveys performed so far on coastal sediments, the diversity and composition of microbial communities inhabiting both chronically contaminated and non-contaminated coastal sediments were investigated using high-throughput sequencing on the 18S and 16S rRNA genes. Prokaryotic alpha-diversity showed significant association with salinity, temperature, and organic carbon content. The effect of particle size distribution was strong on eukaryotic diversity. Similarly to alpha-diversity, beta-diversity patterns were strongly influenced by the environmental filter, while PAHs had no influence on the prokaryotic community structure and a weak impact on the eukaryotic community structure at the continental scale. However, at the regional scale, PAHs became the main driver shaping the structure of bacterial and eukaryotic communities. These patterns were not found for PICRUSt predicted prokaryotic functions, thus indicating some degree of functional redundancy. Eukaryotes presented a greater potential for their use as PAH contamination biomarkers, owing to their stronger response at both regional and continental scales.

  3. Ligninolytic basidiomycetes as promising organisms for the mycoremediation of PAH-contaminated Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozdnyakova, N. N.; Balandina, S. A.; Dubrovskaya, E. V.; Golubev, C. N.; Turkovskaya, O. V.

    2018-01-01

    Primary screening of ligninolytic fungi belonging to wood- and soil-inhabiting basidiomycetes revealed their ability to degrade three-ringed PAHs with formation of quinone metabolites at the first stage. The degradative activity was both species and strain specific, and some differences in the “chances” for the formed quinones were found. They were the main end metabolites in the degradation of PAHs by Stropharia rugosoannulata and Agaricus bisporus. During PAH degradation by strains of Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Schizophyllum commune, and Bjerkandera adusta similar metabolites were detected during the cultivation, but they were utilized further. The results supported the hypothesis that the degree of PAH degradation may depend on the composition of the extracellular ligninolytic complex of the fungi: in the presence of a single ligninolytic enzyme, laccase, the accumulation of quinone metabolites takes place; their further utilization is possible with the participation of ligninolytic peroxidases. The data obtained showed the necessity not only to identify the metabolites formed, but also to study the activity of the basic ligninolytic enzymes. It is important for the correct selection of fungal strains for mycoremediation.

  4. Long-Term Monitoring of PAH Contamination in Sediment and Recovery After the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moonkoo; Jung, Jee-Hyun; Ha, Sung Yong; An, Joon Geon; Shim, Won Joon; Yim, Un Hyuk

    2017-07-01

    Approximately 10,900 t of crude oil was released 10 km off the west coast of Korea after the collision between the oil tanker Hebei Spirit and a barge carrying a crane in December 2007. To assess the areal extent and temporal trends of PAH contamination, 428 sediment samples were collected from December 2007 through May 2015 for PAH analysis. Sedimentary PAH concentrations measured immediately after the spill ranged from 3.2 to 71,200 ng g -1 , with a mean of 3800 ng g -1 . Increases in PAH concentrations were observed at stations 7-23, which were heavily oiled due to tidal currents and northwesterly wind that transported the spilled oil to these locations. Mean and maximum PAH concentrations decreased drastically from 3800 to 88.5 and 71,200 to 1700 ng g -1 , respectively, 4 months after the spill. PAH concentrations highly fluctuated until September 2008 and then decreased slowly to background levels. Reduction rate was much faster at the sandy beaches (k = 0.016) than in the muddy sites (k = 0.001). In muddy sediments, low attenuation due to low flushing rate in the mostly anaerobic sediment possibly contributed the persistence of PAHs. By May 2015 (~7.5 years after the spill), mean and maximum PAH concentrations decreased by 54 and 481 times, respectively, compared with the peak concentrations. The sedimentary PAH concentrations in the monitoring area have returned to regional background levels.

  5. Application of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to predict bioremediation efficacy of long-term composting of PAH-contaminated soil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cajthaml, Tomáš; Šašek, Václav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 21 (2005), s. 8448-8452 ISSN 0013-936X R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/03/P078 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : SFE * long-term composting * PAH Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.054, year: 2005

  6. Bioremediation of Pyrene-Contaminated Soils Using Biosurfactant

    OpenAIRE

    Jorfi; Rezaee; Jaafarzadeh; Esrafili; Akbari; Moheb Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are persistence organic chemicals with proved carcinogenic and mutagenic hazards. These compounds are usually adsorbed in soils in vicinity of oil and gas industries. Bioremediation of PAHs contaminated soils is difficult due to hydrophobic nature of PAHs. Objectives The main purpose of the current study was to determine the pyrene removal efficiency in synthetically contaminated ...

  7. Polnische qualitative Soziologie: Entwicklung und Hauptthemen

    OpenAIRE

    Konecki, Krzysztof T.; Kacperczyk, Anna M.; Marciniak, Lukasz T.

    2005-01-01

    In dem vorliegenden Beitrag wird die Entwicklung der qualitativen Soziologie in Polen rekonstruiert, indem deren wesentliche intellektuelle Wurzeln und einige Hauptthemen der polnischen Soziologie vorgestellt werden. Romantizismus und die induktive Methode sind essenzielle Elemente für die Entwicklung der Disziplin in Polen gewesen und Charakteristika ihrer Besonderheit. Die Bedeutung von Florian ZNANIECKI für die Entstehung der polnischen qualitativen Soziologie wird gewürdigt. URN: urn:n...

  8. Electroleaching for a decontamination of mercury polluted soils and residues. Development of a hydrometallurgical cyclic process; Elektrolaugung zur Dekontamination quecksilberbelasteter Boeden und Reststoffe. Entwicklung eines hydrometallurgischen Kreislaufprozesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoeming, J. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Zentralabteilung Technikum

    1998-12-31

    In this thesis, the possibilities and limitations of a hydrometallurgical clean-up technique are shown for treating mercury contaminated solids. The principles of the technique were described by models that derived from theoretical considerations. These models were experimentally examined, tested with realcontaminated solids and used to design a new process, the electroleaching. Two variants of this cyclic process were developed. They differ in the combination of a chloridic oxidative leaching step, a cathodic mercury deposition and an anodic leachate regeneration. All steps were analysed thermodynamically and kinetically. Treating highly contaminated soils residual concentrations of mercury below 1 mg kg{sup -1} were achieved. It was also possible to separate simultaneously traces of gold from mercury containing gold mining residues and to lower contents of chlorinated hydrocarbons a well. (orig.) [Deutsch] In dieser Arbeit werden die Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen einer hydrometallurgischen Reinigungstechnik fuer Feststoffe aufgezeigt, die mit Quecksilber kontaminiert sind. Dazu wurden aus theoretischen Ueberlegungen heraus entwickelte Modellierungen experimentell abgeprueft, verfahrenstechnisch umgesetzt und an realkontaminierten Feststoffen erprobt. So wurde ein neues Kreislaufverfahren entwickelt, die Elektrolaugung. Die zwei vorgestellten Prozessvarianten unterscheiden sich durch die jeweilige Kombination von chloridisch-oxidierender Laugung, kathodischer Quecksilberabscheidung und anodischer Laugungsmittel-Regenerierung. Alle Teilprozesse wurden sowohl thermodynamisch als auch kinetisch analysiert. Bei Behandlung industrieller Altlasten konnten Quecksilber-Restgehalte unter 1 mg kg{sup -1} erreicht werden. Ebenso konnten Goldspuren aus quecksilberhaltigen Abgaengen brasilianischer Goldgewinnung abgetrennt sowie Gehalte an chlorierten Kohlenwasserstoffen verringert werden. (orig.)

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination of surface sediments and oysters from the inter-tidal areas of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaspare, Lydia; Machiwa, John F.; Mdachi, S.J.M.; Streck, Georg; Brack, Werner

    2009-01-01

    Surface sediment and oyster samples from the inter-tidal areas of Dar es Salaam were analyzed for 23 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including the 16 compounds prioritized by US-EPA using GC/MS. The total concentration of PAHs in the sediment ranged from 78 to 25,000 ng/g dry weight, while oyster concentrations ranged from 170 to 650 ng/g dry weight. Hazards due to sediment contamination were assessed using Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmarks and Threshold Effect Levels. Diagnostic indices and principle component analysis were used to identify possible sources. Interestingly, no correlation between sediment and oyster concentrations at the same sites was found. This is supported by completely different contamination patterns, suggesting different sources for both matrices. Hazard assessment revealed possible effects at six out of eight sites on the benthic communities and oyster populations. The contribution of PAH intake via oyster consumption to carcinogenic risks in humans seems to be low. - PAH contamination may pose hazards to benthos but limited risks to humans

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination of surface sediments and oysters from the inter-tidal areas of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaspare, Lydia; Machiwa, John F. [Department of Aquatic Environment and Conservation, University of Dar es Salaam, P.O. Box 60091, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Mdachi, S.J.M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Dar es Salaam, P.O. Box 35062, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Streck, Georg [UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Department of Effect-Directed Analysis, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Brack, Werner [UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Department of Effect-Directed Analysis, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)], E-mail: werner.brack@ufz.de

    2009-01-15

    Surface sediment and oyster samples from the inter-tidal areas of Dar es Salaam were analyzed for 23 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including the 16 compounds prioritized by US-EPA using GC/MS. The total concentration of PAHs in the sediment ranged from 78 to 25,000 ng/g dry weight, while oyster concentrations ranged from 170 to 650 ng/g dry weight. Hazards due to sediment contamination were assessed using Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmarks and Threshold Effect Levels. Diagnostic indices and principle component analysis were used to identify possible sources. Interestingly, no correlation between sediment and oyster concentrations at the same sites was found. This is supported by completely different contamination patterns, suggesting different sources for both matrices. Hazard assessment revealed possible effects at six out of eight sites on the benthic communities and oyster populations. The contribution of PAH intake via oyster consumption to carcinogenic risks in humans seems to be low. - PAH contamination may pose hazards to benthos but limited risks to humans.

  11. Localized enrichment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil, spruce needles, and lake sediments linked to in-situ bitumen extraction near Cold Lake, Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korosi, J.B.; Irvine, G.; Skierszkan, E.K.; Doyle, J.R.; Kimpe, L.E.; Janvier, J.; Blais, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The extraction of bitumen from the Alberta oil sands using in-situ technologies is expanding at a rapid rate; however, investigations into the environmental impacts of oil sands development have focused on surface mining in the Athabasca region. We measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in soils, spruce needles, and lake sediment cores in the Cold Lake oil sands region to provide a historical and spatial perspective on PAH contamination related to in-situ extraction activities. A pronounced increase in PAH concentrations was recorded in one of two study lakes (Hilda Lake) corresponding to the onset of commercial bitumen production in ∼1985. Distance from extraction rigs was not an important predictor of PAH concentrations in soils, although two samples located near installations were elevated in alkyl PAHs. Evidence of localized PAH contamination in Hilda Lake and two soil samples suggests that continued environmental monitoring is justified to assess PAH contamination as development intensifies. -- Highlights: •In-situ bitumen extraction linked to rise in alkyl PAHs in one of two study lakes. •Alkyl PAHs elevated in two soil samples. •PAH contamination likely related to effluent sources, not atmospheric deposition. -- PAHs in sediments and soils were generally low in areas adjacent to in-situ bitumen extraction rigs in the Cold Lake Alberta oil sands, but evidence of localized contamination at some sites was evident

  12. Managing long-term polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminated soils: a risk-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Luchun; Naidu, Ravi; Thavamani, Palanisami; Meaklim, Jean; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2015-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a family of contaminants that consist of two or more aromatic rings fused together. Soils contaminated with PAHs pose significant risk to human and ecological health. Over the last 50 years, significant research has been directed towards the cleanup of PAH-contaminated soils to background level. However, this achieved only limited success especially with high molecular weight compounds. Notably, during the last 5-10 years, the approach to remediate PAH-contaminated soils has changed considerably. A risk-based prioritization of remediation interventions has become a valuable step in the management of contaminated sites. The hydrophobicity of PAHs underlines that their phase distribution in soil is strongly influenced by factors such as soil properties and ageing of PAHs within the soil. A risk-based approach recognizes that exposure and environmental effects of PAHs are not directly related to the commonly measured total chemical concentration. Thus, a bioavailability-based assessment using a combination of chemical analysis with toxicological assays and nonexhaustive extraction technique would serve as a valuable tool in risk-based approach for remediation of PAH-contaminated soils. In this paper, the fate and availability of PAHs in contaminated soils and their relevance to risk-based management of long-term contaminated soils are reviewed. This review may serve as guidance for the use of site-specific risk-based management methods.

  13. Technology-Enhanced Learning @ CELSTEC: Ausgangslage, Entwicklung und Trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemke, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Klemke, R. (2011). Technology-Enhanced Learning @ CELSTEC: Ausgangslage, Entwicklung und Trends. Presentation given to visitors from Currenta GmbH in the Learning Media Lab. February, 15, 2011, Heerlen, Netherlands. ICoper-project.

  14. Extraction agents for the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil in soil washing technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Ee Von; Gan, Suyin; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Poh, Phaik Eong

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil have been recognised as a serious health and environmental issue due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic properties. One of the commonly employed soil remediation techniques to clean up such contamination is soil washing or solvent extraction. The main factor which governs the efficiency of this process is the solubility of PAHs in the extraction agent. Past field-scale soil washing treatments for PAH-contaminated soil have mainly employed organic solvents or water which is either toxic and costly or inefficient in removing higher molecular weight PAHs. Thus, the present article aims to provide a review and discussion of the alternative extraction agents that have been studied, including surfactants, biosurfactants, microemulsions, natural surfactants, cyclodextrins, vegetable oil and solution with solid phase particles. These extraction agents have been found to remove PAHs from soil at percentages ranging from 47 to 100% for various PAHs. -- Highlights: • The alternative and advancement in extraction agents to remove PAHs from soil using soil washing technology is summarised. • The soil regulations for PAH level in various countries are summarized for reference to researchers. • The concentration levels of PAHs in soil at present and the need for soil remediation is presented. -- The efficiency of the extraction agent plays a significant role in soil washing of PAH-contaminated soil

  15. Aufgabenbezogene Differenzierung und Entwicklung des verbalen Selbstkonzepts im Anfangsunterricht

    OpenAIRE

    Lipowsky, Frank; Kastens, Claudia; Lotz, Miriam; Faust, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Die vorliegende Studie untersucht, wie sich aufgabenbezogene Differenzierung im Deutschunterricht auf die Entwicklung des verbalen Selbstkonzepts von Erst- und Zweitklässlern (Lesen und Schreiben) auswirkt. Die untersuchte Stichprobe setzt sich aus 735 Schülern des ersten Schuljahres zusammen, die 38 Klassen an staatlichen und privaten Grundschulen besuchen und die bis zum Ende des zweiten Schuljahres in ihrer Entwicklung untersucht wurden. Die Ergebnisse zeigen sowohl einen indirekten als au...

  16. Mycobacterium Diversity and Pyrene Mineralization in Petroleum-Contaminated Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Pui-Yi; Kinkle, Brian K.

    2001-01-01

    Degradative strains of fast-growing Mycobacterium spp. are commonly isolated from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soils. Little is known, however, about the ecology and diversity of indigenous populations of these fast-growing mycobacteria in contaminated environments. In the present study 16S rRNA genes were PCR amplified using Mycobacterium-specific primers and separated by temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE), and prominent bands were sequenced to compare the ...

  17. Enzymatic bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons by fungal consortia enriched from petroleum contaminated soil and oil seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, V; Arulazhagan, P; Ebenezer, P

    2014-05-01

    The present study focuses on fungal strains capable of secreting extracellular enzymes by utilizing hydrocarbons present in the contaminated soil. Fungal strains were enriched from petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil samples collected from Chennai city, India. The potential fungi were isolated and screened for their enzyme secretion such as lipase, laccase, peroxidase and protease and also evaluated fungal enzyme mediated PAHs degradation. Total, 21 potential PAHs degrading fungi were isolated from PAHs contaminated soil, which belongs to 9 genera such as Aspergillus, Curvularia, Drechslera, Fusarium, Lasiodiplodia, Mucor Penicillium, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, and two oilseed-associated fungal genera such as Colletotrichum and Lasiodiplodia were used to test their efficacy in degradation of PAHs in polluted soil. Maximum lipase production was obtained with P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus and L. theobromae VBE1 under optimized cultural condition, which utilized PAHs in contaminated soil as sole carbon source. Fungal strains, P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus and L. theobromae VBE1, as consortia, used in the present study were capable of degrading branched alkane isoprenoids such as pristine (C17) and pyrene (C18) present in PAHs contaminated soil with high lipase production. The fungal consortia acts as potential candidate for bioremediation of PAHs contaminated environments.

  18. POP and PAH contamination in the southern slopes of Mt. Everest (Himalaya, Nepal): Long-range atmospheric transport, glacier shrinkage, or local impact of tourism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzella, Licia; Salerno, Franco; Freppaz, Michele; Roscioli, Claudio; Pisanello, Francesca; Poma, Giulia

    2016-02-15

    Due to their physico-chemical properties, POPs and PAHs are subjected to long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) and may be deposited in remote areas. In this study, the contamination with DDx, PCBs, PBDEs, and PAHs was investigated in sediments and soils collected on the southern slopes of Mt. Everest (Himalaya, Nepal) in two different sampling campaigns (2008 and 2012). The results showed a limited contamination with POPs and PAHs in both soil and sediment samples. Therefore, the southern slopes of Mt. Everest can be considered a remote area in almost pristine condition. The LRAT mechanism confirmed its primary role in the transfer of contaminants to remote regions, while the gradual melting of glaciers, due to global warming, and the subsequent release of contaminants was suggested to be a secondary source of pollution of the lake sediments. In addition, the increase of tourism in this area during the last decades might have influenced the present concentrations of PAHs in the sediments and soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantification of small-scale variation in the size and composition of phenanthrene-degrader populations and PAH contaminants in traffic-impacted topsoil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Anders R; Styrishave, Bjarne; Aamand, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Small-scale colocalisation of microbial polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degraders and PAHs in contaminated soil is a prerequisite for efficient biodegradation of the PAHs. We therefore tested the hypothesis that phenanthrene-degrading bacteria are colocalised with PAHs at the millimetre...... densities of PAH degraders at the millimetre scale indicate that PAH persistence may not be caused by local lack of degrader cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that either MPN of pollutant degraders, qPCR of functional genes, CFU of heterotrophic micro-organisms, or the content...

  20. Politische Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung und die UN-Dekade der Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung

    OpenAIRE

    Brunold, Andreas (Prof.)

    2009-01-01

    Politische Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung und die UN-Dekade der Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung. - In: Aktuelle theoretische und empirische Projekte in der Politikdidaktik / GPJE (Hrsg.). - Schwalbach/Ts. : Wochenschau-Verl., 2009. - S. 68-83. - (Schriftenreihe der Gesellschaft für Politikdidaktik und Politische Jugend- und Erwachsenenbildung ; 8)

  1. Die Entwicklung von Kindern: eine Einführung

    OpenAIRE

    Siegler, Robert; DeLoache, Judy; Eisenberg, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Das Kapitel behandelt zunächst die Gründe für die Untersuchung der Kindesentwicklung und ihre historischen Wurzeln. Es werden anschließend Leitfragen der Kindesentwicklung sowie Methoden der Untersuchung kindlicher Entwicklung erläutert. Eine Zusammenfassung stellt schließlich die Kernthesen der einzelnen Abschnitte in einer kompakten Übersicht dar.(DIPF/paul)

  2. Entwicklung eines kontinuierlichen Verfahrens zur enzymkatalysierten Synthese eines strukturierten Triglycerides

    OpenAIRE

    Stadler, Hans-Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    Ausgangspunkt für die in der vorliegenden Arbeit durchgeführten Entwicklung eines kontinuierlichen Verfahrens zur Synthese des strukturierten Triglycerides 1,3-Oleyl-2-palmitoylglycerin war die von Schmid [Schmid 1999] entwickelte lipase-katalysierte Zwei-Schritt-Synthese für strukturierte Triglyceride vom Typ ABA [European Patent Application; EP 0 882 797 A2]. In der ersten Reaktionsstufe dieser zweistufigen Umesterung wird in einer Folgereaktion das Substrat Tripalmitin mit Hilfe ein...

  3. Flotation of PAH contaminated dredged sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulleneers, H.; Roubroeks, S.; Bruning, H.; Rulkens, W.H.; Koopal, L.K.

    2000-01-01

    The applicability of dissolved air flotation to remediate contaminated sediments of "Overschie" (Rotterdam) and "Petrol Harbor" (Amsterdam) is studied. Several flotation reagents (Diesel Fuel, Montanol, Aerophine, Aerofroth) are applied to enhance the flotation efficiency. The physical chemical

  4. Gender - Schlüsselthema für Entwicklung sowie Bildung für Nachhaltige Entwicklung

    OpenAIRE

    von Hagen, Markéta; Willems, Johanna

    2011-01-01

    Gleichberechtigung der Geschlechter ist international als Schlüssel für Nachhaltige Entwicklung anerkannt. Die internationale und deutsche Entwicklungszusammenarbeit hat zum Ziel, Frauen und Männer gleichermaßen am Entwicklungsprozess zu beteiligen und profitieren zu lassen. Die Integration des Gender-Ansatzes bedeutet, dass Entwicklungsmaßnahmen die Geschlechterverhältnisse berücksichtigen und versuchen diese im Sinne der Gleichberechtigung zu beeinflussen. Der Gender-Ansatz ist einerseits a...

  5. Dynamic Effects of Biochar on the Bacterial Community Structure in Soil Contaminated with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Bian, Yongrong; Wang, Fang; Xu, Min; Ni, Ni; Yang, Xinglun; Gu, Chenggang; Jiang, Xin

    2017-08-16

    Amending soil with biochar is an effective soil remediation strategy for organic contaminants. This study investigated the dynamic effects of wheat straw biochar on the bacterial community structure during remediation by high-throughput sequencing. The wheat straw biochar amended into the soil significantly reduced the bioavailability and toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Biochar amendment helped to maintain the bacterial diversity in the PAH-contaminated soil. The relationship between the immobilization of PAHs and the soil bacterial diversity fit a quadratic model. Before week 12 of the incubation, the incubation time was the main factor contributing to the changes in the soil bacterial community structure. However, biochar greatly affected the bacterial community structure after 12 weeks of amendment, and the effects were dependent upon the biochar type. Amendment with biochar mainly facilitated the growth of rare bacterial genera (relative abundance of 0.01-1%) in the studied soil. Therefore, the application of wheat straw biochar into PAH-contaminated soil can reduce the environmental risks of PAHs and benefit the soil microbial ecology.

  6. The abundance of health-associated bacteria is altered in PAH polluted soils-Implications for health in urban areas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirudra Parajuli

    Full Text Available Long-term exposure to polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs has been connected to chronic human health disorders. It is also well-known that i PAH contamination alters soil bacterial communities, ii human microbiome is associated with environmental microbiome, and iii alteration in the abundance of members in several bacterial phyla is associated with adverse or beneficial human health effects. We hypothesized that soil pollution by PAHs altered soil bacterial communities that had known associations with human health. The rationale behind our study was to increase understanding and potentially facilitate reconsidering factors that lead to health disorders in areas characterized by PAH contamination. Large containers filled with either spruce forest soil, pine forest soil, peat, or glacial sand were left to incubate or contaminated with creosote. Biological degradation of PAHs was monitored using GC-MS, and the bacterial community composition was analyzed using 454 pyrosequencing. Proteobacteria had higher and Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes had lower relative abundance in creosote contaminated soils than in non-contaminated soils. Earlier studies have demonstrated that an increase in the abundance of Proteobacteria and decreased abundance of the phyla Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes are particularly associated with adverse health outcomes and immunological disorders. Therefore, we propose that pollution-induced shifts in natural soil bacterial community, like in PAH-polluted areas, can contribute to the prevalence of chronic diseases. We encourage studies that simultaneously address the classic "adverse toxin effect" paradigm and our novel "altered environmental microbiome" hypothesis.

  7. Mutagenic hazards of complex polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures in contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemieux, C.L.; Lambert, A.B.; Lundstedt, S.; Tysklind, M.; White, P.A. [Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Safe Environment Program

    2008-04-15

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate hazard/risk assessment methods for complex environmental mixtures that involve a targeted, priority chemical approach based on the cumulative hazard/risk of known mixture components or analyses of sufficiently similar mixtures. Ten polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soils were separated into nonpolar and semipolar fractions, and both fractions elicited positive responses on the Salmonella reverse mutation assay. Targeted and nontargeted methods of hazard prediction routinely overestimated mutagenic activities for the nonpolar soil fractions, suggesting nonadditive interactions of PAHs in complex mixtures. This suggests that current risk assessment methods for complex mixtures may provide conservative estimates regarding soils contaminated with priority PAHs alone. Significant underestimations of total risk, however, will be obtained if the soils also contain unidentified PAHs as well as polycyclic aromatic compounds and related compounds that contribute to the total mutagenic activity. Furthermore, estimates of excess lifetime cancer risk associated with the nondietary ingestion of the PAH-contaminated soils studied here indicate that a traditional risk assessment model based on identified priority PAHs and an assumption of additivity generally underestimates the risk associated with the nonpolar soil fractions (in comparison to bioassay-derived risk estimates). Additional cancer risk may be associated with the more polar compounds that also are found at these contaminated sites and that rarely are included in the standard risk assessment methodology.

  8. Bildung für eine nachhaltige Entwicklung und Fairer Handel

    OpenAIRE

    Mathar, Reiner

    2003-01-01

    Im Rahmen des BLK-Programms '21' kann Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung im schulischen Rahmen greifbar gemacht werden. Der Beitrag beschreibt einige Umsetzungsmöglichkeiten am Beispiel des Fairen Handels. (DIPF/Orig.)

  9. Politische Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung und das Konzept des Globalen Lernens

    OpenAIRE

    Brunold, Andreas (Prof.)

    2009-01-01

    Politische Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung und das Konzept des Globalen Lernens. - In: Standortbestimmung Politische Bildung / Heinrich Oberreuter (Hrsg.). - Schwalbach/Ts. : Wochenschau-Verl., 2009. - S. 307-333. - (Tutzinger Schriften zur politischen Bildung)

  10. Entwicklung und Anwendung neuer NMR-Methoden: Orientierungsmedien zur Strukturbestimmung mit anisotropen Parametern und Metabonomics

    OpenAIRE

    Büchler, Silke

    2014-01-01

    Das Ziel dieser Arbeit war die Entwicklung und Anwendung neuer Orientierungsmedien zur Strukturbestimmung mit anisotropen Parametern, sowie die Etablierung von Metabonomics-Studien an Flüssigzellkulturen und Reispflanzen.

  11. Identification of anthraquinone-degrading bacteria in soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers-Vieira, Elyse A; Zhang, Zhenfa; Adrion, Alden C; Gold, Avram; Aitken, Michael D

    2015-06-01

    Quinones and other oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) are toxic and/or genotoxic compounds observed to be cocontaminants at PAH-contaminated sites, but their formation and fate in contaminated environmental systems have not been well studied. Anthracene-9,10-dione (anthraquinone) has been found in most PAH-contaminated soils and sediments that have been analyzed for oxy-PAHs. However, little is known about the biodegradation of oxy-PAHs, and no bacterial isolates have been described that are capable of growing on or degrading anthraquinone. PAH-degrading Mycobacterium spp. are the only organisms that have been investigated to date for metabolism of a PAH quinone, 4,5-pyrenequinone. We utilized DNA-based stable-isotope probing (SIP) with [U-(13)C]anthraquinone to identify bacteria associated with anthraquinone degradation in PAH-contaminated soil from a former manufactured-gas plant site both before and after treatment in a laboratory-scale bioreactor. SIP with [U-(13)C]anthracene was also performed to assess whether bacteria capable of growing on anthracene are the same as those identified to grow on anthraquinone. Organisms closely related to Sphingomonas were the most predominant among the organisms associated with anthraquinone degradation in bioreactor-treated soil, while organisms in the genus Phenylobacterium comprised the majority of anthraquinone degraders in the untreated soil. Bacteria associated with anthracene degradation differed from those responsible for anthraquinone degradation. These results suggest that Sphingomonas and Phenylobacterium species are associated with anthraquinone degradation and that anthracene-degrading organisms may not possess mechanisms to grow on anthraquinone. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. APPLICATION OF FENTON’S REAGENT ON REMEDIATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONs (PAHs IN SPIKED SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursiah La Nafie

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Problem associated with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs contaminated site in environmental media have received increasing attention. To resolve such problems, innovative in situ methods are urgently required. This work investigated the feasibility of using Fenton's Reagent to remediate PAHs in spiked soil. PAHs were spiked into soil to simulate contaminated soil. Fenton's Reagent (H2O2 + Fe2+ and surfactant were very efficient in destruction of PAHs including naphthalene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo(apyrene from spiked soil. It was indicated by the fact that more than 96% of PAHs were degraded in the solution and the spiked soil.   Keywords: Environmental, Fenton's Reagent, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, and Spiked soil.

  13. Phytoremediation of mixed-contaminated soil using the hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum lesbiacum: Evidence of histidine as a measure of phytoextractable nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, Andrew C.; Bell, Thomas; Heywood, Chloe A.; Smith, J.A.C.; Thompson, Ian P.

    2007-01-01

    In this study we examine the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the ability of the hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum lesbiacum to phytoextract nickel from co-contaminated soil. Planted and unplanted mesocosms containing the contaminated soils were repeatedly amended with sorbitan trioleate, salicylic acid and histidine in various combinations to enhance the degradation of two PAHs (phenanthrene and chrysene) and increase nickel phytoextraction. Plant growth was negatively affected by PAHs; however, there was no significant effect on the phytoextraction of Ni per unit biomass of shoot. Exogenous histidine did not increase nickel phytoextraction, but the histidine-extractable fraction of soil nickel showed a high correlation with phytoextractable nickel. These results indicate that Alyssum lesbiacum might be effective in phytoextracting nickel from marginally PAH-contaminated soils. In addition, we provide evidence for the broader applicability of histidine for quantifying and predicting Ni phytoavailability in soils. - Alyssum lesbiacum was shown to phytoextract nickel from PAH-contaminated soils from which the pool of nickel accessed for phytoextraction is closely modelled by a histidine-soil extract

  14. Phytoremediation of mixed-contaminated soil using the hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum lesbiacum: Evidence of histidine as a measure of phytoextractable nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Andrew C. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology-Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3SR (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: acsi@ceh.ac.uk; Bell, Thomas [Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS (United Kingdom); Heywood, Chloe A. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology-Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3SR (United Kingdom); Smith, J.A.C. [Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RB (United Kingdom); Thompson, Ian P. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology-Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3SR (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    In this study we examine the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the ability of the hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum lesbiacum to phytoextract nickel from co-contaminated soil. Planted and unplanted mesocosms containing the contaminated soils were repeatedly amended with sorbitan trioleate, salicylic acid and histidine in various combinations to enhance the degradation of two PAHs (phenanthrene and chrysene) and increase nickel phytoextraction. Plant growth was negatively affected by PAHs; however, there was no significant effect on the phytoextraction of Ni per unit biomass of shoot. Exogenous histidine did not increase nickel phytoextraction, but the histidine-extractable fraction of soil nickel showed a high correlation with phytoextractable nickel. These results indicate that Alyssum lesbiacum might be effective in phytoextracting nickel from marginally PAH-contaminated soils. In addition, we provide evidence for the broader applicability of histidine for quantifying and predicting Ni phytoavailability in soils. - Alyssum lesbiacum was shown to phytoextract nickel from PAH-contaminated soils from which the pool of nickel accessed for phytoextraction is closely modelled by a histidine-soil extract.

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soils: bioaugmentation of autochthonous bacteria and toxicological assessment of the bioremediation process by means of Vicia faba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini Castiglione, Monica; Giorgetti, Lucia; Becarelli, Simone; Siracusa, Giovanna; Lorenzi, Roberto; Di Gregorio, Simona

    2016-04-01

    Two bacterial strains, Achromobacter sp. (ACH01) and Sphingomonas sp. (SPH01), were isolated from a heavily polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil (5431.3 ± 102.3 ppm) for their capacity to use a mixture of anthracene, pyrene, phenanthrene and fluorene as sole carbon sources for growth and for the capacity to produce biosurfactants. The two strains were exploited for bioaugmentation in a biopile pilot plant to increase the bioavailability and the degradation of the residual PAH contamination (99.5 ± 7.1 ppm) reached after 9 months of treatment. The denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) profile of the microbial ecology of the soil during the experimentation showed that the bioaugmentation approach was successful in terms of permanence of the two strains in the soil in treatment. The bioaugmentation of the two bacterial isolates positively correlated with the PAH depletion that reached 7.9 ± 2 ppm value in 2 months of treatment. The PAH depletion was assessed by the loss of the phyto-genotoxicity of soil elutriates on the model plant Vicia faba L., toxicological assessment adopted also to determine the minimum length of the decontamination process for obtaining both the depletion of the PAH contamination and the detoxification of the soil at the end of the process. The intermediate phases of the bioremediation process were the most significant in terms of toxicity, inducing genotoxic effects and selective DNA fragmentation in the stem cell niche of the root tip. The selective DNA fragmentation can be related to the selective induction of cell death of mutant stem cells that can compromise offsprings.

  16. Umweltbildung - Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung. Was macht den Unterschied?

    OpenAIRE

    Rost, Jürgen

    2002-01-01

    Der vorliegende Beitrag will zeigen, dass Bildung für eine nachhaltige Entwicklung gegenüber herkömmlicher Umweltbildung tatsächlich eine neue Qualität hat. ... Das Konzept der Bildung für eine nachhaltige Entwicklung hat eine weitere Facette neben der Umweltbildung, nämlich das Konzept des globalen Lernens. Zunächst werden die zentralen Probleme dargestellt, die die Umwelterziehung in den vergangenen drei Jahrzehnten nicht lösen konnte und woran sie vielleicht gescheitert ist. Abschnitt 2 be...

  17. Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily Moghaddas; Ken Hubbert

    2014-01-01

    When managing for resilient forests, each soil’s inherent capacity to resist and recover from changes in soil function should be evaluated relative to the anticipated extent and duration of soil disturbance. Application of several key principles will help ensure healthy, resilient soils: (1) minimize physical disturbance using guidelines tailored to specific soil types...

  18. Impact of electrochemical treatment of soil washing solution on PAH degradation efficiency and soil respirometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousset, Emmanuel; Huguenot, David; Hullebusch, Eric D. van; Oturan, Nihal; Guibaud, Gilles; Esposito, Giovanni; Oturan, Mehmet A.

    2016-01-01

    The remediation of a genuinely PAH-contaminated soil was performed, for the first time, through a new and complete investigation, including PAH extraction followed by advanced oxidation treatment of the washing solution and its recirculation, and an analysis of the impact of the PAH extraction on soil respirometry. The study has been performed on the remediation of genuine PAH-contaminated soil, in the following three steps: (i) PAH extraction with soil washing (SW) techniques, (ii) PAH degradation with an electro-Fenton (EF) process, and (iii) recirculation of the partially oxidized effluent for another SW cycle. The following criteria were monitored during the successive washing cycles: PAH extraction efficiency, PAH oxidation rates and yields, extracting agent recovery, soil microbial activity, and pH of soil. Two representative extracting agents were compared: hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) and a non-ionic surfactant, Tween"® 80. Six PAH with different numbers of rings were monitored: acenaphthene (ACE), phenanthrene (PHE), fluoranthene (FLA), pyrene (PYR), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and benzo(g,h,i)perylene (BghiP). Tween"® 80 showed much better PAH extraction efficiency (after several SW cycles) than HPCD, regardless of the number of washing cycles. Based on successive SW experiments, a new mathematical relation taking into account the soil/water partition coefficient (Kd*) was established, and could predict the amount of each PAH extracted by the surfactant with a good correlation with experimental results (R"2 > 0.975). More HPCD was recovered (89%) than Tween"® 80 (79%), while the monitored pollutants were completely degraded (>99%) after 4 h and 8 h, respectively. Even after being washed with partially oxidized solutions, the Tween"® 80 solutions extracted significantly more PAH than HPCD and promoted better soil microbial activity, with higher oxygen consumption rates. Moreover, neither the oxidation by-products nor the acidic media (p

  19. Enrichment behavior and transport mechanism of soil-bound PAHs during rainfall-runoff events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Luo, Xiaolin; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Bin; Han, Feng; Lin, Zhongrong; Wang, Xuejun

    2012-12-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) transported by surface runoff result in nonpoint source pollution and jeopardize aquatic ecosystems. The transport mechanism of PAHs during rainfall-runoff events has been rarely studied regarding pervious areas. An experimental system was setup to simulate the runoff pollution process on PAHs-contaminated soil. The enrichment behavior of soil-bound PAHs was investigated. The results show that soil organic matters (SOM), rather than clay particles, seem to be the main carrier of PAHs. The enrichment is highly conditioned on runoff and erosion processes, and its magnitude varies among PAH compounds. It is not feasible to build a simple and universal relationship between enrichment ratio and sediment discharge following the traditional enrichment theory. To estimate the flux of PAHs from pervious areas, soil erosion process has to be clearly understood, and both organic carbon content and composition of SOM should be factored into the calculation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Improving Agricultural Safety of Soils Contaminated with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by In Situ Bioremediation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Hai-huan; Pan, Jian-gang; Xu, Shena-jun; Bai, Zhi-hui; Wang, Dong; Huang, Zhan-bin

    2015-08-01

    In order to reduce the risk of enrichment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in crops, reduce the potential hazards of food-sourced PAHs to human and increase the agricultural safety of PAHs contaminated soils, the bio-augmented removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated through in situ remediation by introducing Rhodobacter sphaeroides (RS) into the agricultural soil contaminated by PAHs. The 50-times diluted RS was sprayed on leaf surface (in area B) or irrigated to roots (in area D). The treatment of spraying water of the equal amount was taken as the control (A) and the wheat field without any treatment as the blank (CK). Treatments were conducted since wheat seeding. Soil and wheat samples were collected in the mature period to analyze the changes of community structure of the soil microorganisms and the concentration of PAHs in soils and investigate the strengthening and restoration effects of RS on PAHs contaminated soils. Compared to the CK Area, the areas B and D revealed that the variation ratio of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) that were the biomarker of soil microorganisms was 29.6%, and the ratio of total PAHs removed was increased 1.59 times and 1.68 times, respectively. The dry weight of wheat grain of 50 spikes was increased by 8.95% and 12.5%, respectively, and the enrichment factor of total PAHs was decreased by 58.9% and 62.2% respectively in the wheat grains. All the results suggested that RS reduced enrichment of PAHs in wheat grains and increased wheat yield, which had great exploitation and utilization potentiality in repairing and improving the agricultural safety of the soils contaminated with PHAs.

  1. Impact of electrochemical treatment of soil washing solution on PAH degradation efficiency and soil respirometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousset, Emmanuel; Huguenot, David; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Oturan, Nihal; Guibaud, Gilles; Esposito, Giovanni; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2016-04-01

    The remediation of a genuinely PAH-contaminated soil was performed, for the first time, through a new and complete investigation, including PAH extraction followed by advanced oxidation treatment of the washing solution and its recirculation, and an analysis of the impact of the PAH extraction on soil respirometry. The study has been performed on the remediation of genuine PAH-contaminated soil, in the following three steps: (i) PAH extraction with soil washing (SW) techniques, (ii) PAH degradation with an electro-Fenton (EF) process, and (iii) recirculation of the partially oxidized effluent for another SW cycle. The following criteria were monitored during the successive washing cycles: PAH extraction efficiency, PAH oxidation rates and yields, extracting agent recovery, soil microbial activity, and pH of soil. Two representative extracting agents were compared: hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) and a non-ionic surfactant, Tween(®) 80. Six PAH with different numbers of rings were monitored: acenaphthene (ACE), phenanthrene (PHE), fluoranthene (FLA), pyrene (PYR), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and benzo(g,h,i)perylene (BghiP). Tween(®) 80 showed much better PAH extraction efficiency (after several SW cycles) than HPCD, regardless of the number of washing cycles. Based on successive SW experiments, a new mathematical relation taking into account the soil/water partition coefficient (Kd*) was established, and could predict the amount of each PAH extracted by the surfactant with a good correlation with experimental results (R(2) > 0.975). More HPCD was recovered (89%) than Tween(®) 80 (79%), while the monitored pollutants were completely degraded (>99%) after 4 h and 8 h, respectively. Even after being washed with partially oxidized solutions, the Tween(®) 80 solutions extracted significantly more PAH than HPCD and promoted better soil microbial activity, with higher oxygen consumption rates. Moreover, neither the oxidation by-products nor the acidic media (p

  2. Removal of PAH using electrokinetic transport of biosurfactants in clayey soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria, E.; Lin, J. [Dept. of Building Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia Univ., Montreal (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The electrokinetic introduction of non-toxic, biodegradable surfactants (produced ex-situ) to remediate PAH-contaminated soil was investigated. The lab tests demonstrated the possibility of removal of organic contaminants from clayey soil without hazardous impact to the environment. The rhamnolipids (biosurfactants), produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa to increase the solubility of PAHs into the aqueous phase, were used in the enhancement of electrokinetic remediation. This study determined the potential on-site production of biosurfactants that was directly introduced to soil by means of electrokinetics. The average removal of phenanthrene achieved 74% in the presence of biosurfactants above CMC. The remaining compounds are left for biodegradation. These results contribute to the development of a new remediation technology - bioelectrokinetics. (orig.)

  3. Cancer risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminated soils determined using bioassay-derived levels of benzo[a]pyrene equivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Christine L; Long, Alexandra S; Lambert, Iain B; Lundstedt, Staffan; Tysklind, Mats; White, Paul A

    2015-02-03

    Here we evaluate the excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) posed by 10 PAH-contaminated soils using (i) the currently advocated, targeted chemical-specific approach that assumes dose additivity for carcinogenic PAHs and (ii) a bioassay-based approach that employs the in vitro mutagenic activity of the soil fractions to determine levels of benzo[a]pyrene equivalents and, by extension, ELCR. Mutagenic activity results are presented in our companion paper.1 The results show that ELCR values for the PAH-containing fractions, determined using the chemical-specific approach, are generally (i.e., 8 out of 10) greater than those calculated using the bioassay-based approach; most are less than 5-fold greater. Only two chemical-specific ELCR estimates are less than their corresponding bioassay-derived values; differences are less than 10%. The bioassay-based approach, which permits estimation of ELCR without a priori knowledge of mixture composition, proved to be a useful tool to evaluate the chemical-specific approach. The results suggest that ELCR estimates for complex PAH mixtures determined using a targeted, chemical-specific approach are reasonable, albeit conservative. Calculated risk estimates still depend on contentious PEFs and cancer slope factors. Follow-up in vivo mutagenicity assessments will be required to validate the results and their relevance for human health risk assessment of PAH-contaminated soils.

  4. Entwicklung und Evaluation computerbasierter Trainingsaufgaben für das wissenschaftliche Schreiben

    OpenAIRE

    Proske, Antje

    2006-01-01

    Wissenschaftliches Schreiben ist eine sehr komplexe Aufgabe, die eine Vielzahl unterschiedlicher Aktivitäten umfasst. Viele Studierende haben jedoch Schwierigkeiten, die damit verbundenen Anforderungen selbständig zu bewältigen. Im Mittelpunkt des Interesses der vorliegenden Arbeit stand daher die Entwicklung und Evaluation interaktiver computerbasierter Trainingsaufgaben, die Studienanfänger beim Erwerb von Grundkompetenzen des wissenschaftlichen Schreibens unterstützen. Zentrale Anliegen di...

  5. Wie Geschwister sich in ihrer musikalischen Entwicklung beeinflussen. Ergebnisse einer Erhebung mit offenem Fragebogen

    OpenAIRE

    Olbertz, Franziska

    2012-01-01

    Die Rolle der Geschwister in der musikalischen Entwicklung sollte anhand empirischer Daten fassbar gemacht und damit eine Forschungslücke der musikalischen Entwicklungspsychologie geschlossen werden. Dazu wurden in der aktuellen Studie zunächst die Formen der musikalischen Beeinflussung unter Geschwistern qualitativ erhoben und kategorisiert. Einfache quantitative Analysen desselben Materials sollten auch Hypothesen über die Bedeutung einiger Variablen ermöglichen, wie z. B. des Altersabstand...

  6. Entwicklung von Cysteinproteaseinhibitoren - ein klassischer und ein kombinatorischer Ansatz zur Inhibitoroptimierung

    OpenAIRE

    Machon, Uwe Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Ziel der Dissertation „Entwicklung von Cysteinproteaseinhibitoren – ein klassischer und ein kombinatorischer Ansatz zur Inhibitoroptimierung“ war die Optimierung von neuen Inhibitoren von Falcipain-2 und Rhodesain als neue potentielle Wirkstoffe gegen Malaria bzw. die Schlafkrankheit über zwei verschiedene Methoden. Es handelt sich hierbei um einen klassischen und einen kombinatorischen Ansatz. Der klassische Ansatz basiert auf einer Struktur, deren Aktivität per Zufall entdeckt wurde. In Scr...

  7. Identification of soil bacteria able to degrade phenanthrene bound to a hydrophobic sorbent in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regonne, Raïssa Kom; Martin, Florence; Mbawala, Augustin; Ngassoum, Martin Benoît; Jouanneau, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Efficient bioremediation of PAH-contaminated sites is limited by the hydrophobic character and poor bioavailability of pollutants. In this study, stable isotope probing (SIP) was implemented to track bacteria that can degrade PAHs adsorbed on hydrophobic sorbents. Temperate and tropical soils were incubated with 13 C-labeled phenanthrene, supplied by spiking or coated onto membranes. Phenanthrene mineralization was faster in microcosms with PAH-coated membranes than in microcosms containing spiked soil. Upon incubation with temperate soil, phenanthrene degraders found in the biofilms that formed on coated membranes were mainly identified as Sphingomonadaceae and Actinobacteria. In the tropical soil, uncultured Rhodocyclaceae dominated degraders bound to membranes. Accordingly, ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase sequences recovered from this soil matched PAH-specific dioxygenase genes recently found in Rhodocyclaceae. Hence, our SIP approach allowed the detection of novel degraders, mostly uncultured, which differ from those detected after soil spiking, but might play a key role in the bioremediation of PAH-polluted soils. -- Highlights: •Soil bacteria with the ability to degrade sorbent-bound PAHs were investigated. •In soil, membrane-bound phenanthrene was readily mineralized. •PAH degraders found in biofilms were different in temperate and tropical soils. •Uncultured Rhodocyclaceae were dominant phenanthrene degraders in the tropical soil. •PAH-specific ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase sequences were identified in soil DNA. -- Bacteria able to degrade PAHs bound to a hydrophobic sorbent were mainly identified as uncultured Rhodocyclaceae and Sphingomonadaceae in polluted soils from tropical and temperate area, respectively

  8. Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenschuss, A.; Huber, S.; Riss, A.; Schwarz, S.; Tulipan, M.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental soil surveys in each province of Austria have been performed, soils of about 5,000 sites were described and analyzed for nutrients and pollutants, the majority of these data are recorded in the soil information system of Austria (BORIS) soil database, http://www.ubavie.gv.at/umweltsituation/boden/boris), which also contains a soil map of Austria, data from 30 specific investigations mainly in areas with industry and results from the Austria - wide cesium investigation. With respect to the environmental state of soils a short discussion is given, including two geographical charts, one showing which sites have soil data (2001) and the other the cadmium distribution in top soils according land use (forest, grassland, arable land, others). Information related to the soil erosion, Corine land cover (Europe-wide land cover database), evaluation of pollutants in soils (reference values of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Se, Pb, Tl, Va, Zn, AOX, PAH, PCB, PCDD/pcdf, dioxin), and relevant Austrian and European standards and regulations is provided. Figs. 2, Tables 4. (nevyjel)

  9. Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenschuss, A.; Huber, S.; Riss, A.; Schwarz, S.; Tulipan, M.

    2001-01-01

    For Austria there exists a comprehensive soil data collection, integrated in a GIS (geographical information system). The content values of pollutants (cadmium, mercury, lead, copper, mercury, radio-cesium) are given in geographical charts and in tables by regions and by type of soil (forests, agriculture, greenland, others) for the whole area of Austria. Erosion effects are studied for the Austrian region. Legal regulations and measures for an effective soil protection, reduction of soil degradation and sustainable development in Austria and the European Union are discussed. (a.n.)

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon removal from contaminated soils using fatty acid methyl esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zongqiang; Wang, Xiaoguang; Tu, Ying; Wu, Jinbao; Sun, Yifei; Li, Peng

    2010-03-01

    In this study, solubilization of PAHs from a manufactured gas plant (MGP) soil and two artificially spiked soils using fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) was investigated. PAH removals from both the MGP and the spiked soils by FAME, methanol, soybean oil, hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin, Triton X-100, and Tween 80 were compared. The effect of FAME:MGP soil ratios on PAH removals was also investigated. Results showed that the FAME mixture synthesized by our lab was more efficient than the cyclodextrin and the two surfactants used for PAH removal from the spiked soils with individual PAH concentrations of 200 and 400 mg kg(-1). However, the difference among three PAH removals by the FAME, soybean oil and methanol was not quite pronounced. The FAME synthesized and market biodiesel exhibited better performance for PAH removals (46% and 35% of total PAH) from the weathered contaminated MGP soil when compared with the other agents (0-31%). Individual PAH removals from the weathered MGP soil were much lower than those from the spiked soils. The percentages of total PAH removals from the MGP soil were 59%, 46%, and 51% for the FAME:MGP soil ratios of 1:2, 1:1, and 2:1, respectively. These results showed that the FAME could be a more attractive alternative to conventional surfactants in ex situ washing of PAH-contaminated soils. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Analytical characterization of contaminated soils from former manufactured gas plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeseler, F.; Blanchet, D.; Vandecasteele, J.P.; Druelle, V.; Werner, P.; Technische Univ., Dresden,

    1999-01-01

    Detailed analytical characterization of the organic matter (OM) of aged polluted soils from five former manufactured gas plants (MGP) and of two coal tars was completed. It was aimed at obtaining information relevant to the physicochemical state of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollutants and to their in-situ evolution in time. Overall characterization of total OM (essentially polluting OM) was carried out directly on soil samples with or without prior extraction with solvent. It involved a technique of pyrolysis/oxidation coupled to flame ionization/thermal conductivity detection. Extracts in solvent were fractionated by liquid chromatography into saturated hydrocarbons, PAH, and resins, the first two fractions being further characterized by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The compositions of OM of soils were found to be very similar. A total of 28% of organic carbon, including all PAH, was extractable by solvent. The compositions of coal tars were qualitatively similar to those of OM of MGP soils but with a higher proportion (48%) of total extractable OM and of PAH, in particular lower PAH. Contamination of MGP soils appeared essentially as coal tar having undergone natural attenuation. The constant association of PAH with heavy OM in MGP soils is important with respect to the mobility and bioaccessibility of these pollutants

  12. Bioremediation of Pyrene-Contaminated Soils Using Biosurfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorfi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are persistence organic chemicals with proved carcinogenic and mutagenic hazards. These compounds are usually adsorbed in soils in vicinity of oil and gas industries. Bioremediation of PAHs contaminated soils is difficult due to hydrophobic nature of PAHs. Objectives The main purpose of the current study was to determine the pyrene removal efficiency in synthetically contaminated soil, using biosurfactant. Materials and Methods Four pure bacterial strains capable of pyrene degradation were isolated from contaminated soils via enrichment techniques. The soil samples were spiked with an initial pyrene concentration of 500 mg/kg and subjected to bioremediation using a mixed culture comprised of previously isolated strains, in addition to application of biosurfactant during 63 days. Results The pyrene removal efficiency in samples containing biosurfactant, without biosurfactant and controls, were 86.4%, 59.8% and 14%, respectively, after 63 days. The difference of pyrene removal efficiency between the biosurfactant-containing samples and the ones without it was significant (P < 0.05. Conclusions Application of rhamnolipid biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa significantly improved pyrene removal in contaminated soils.

  13. Die Entwicklung des Verhaltens bei der Nahrungsaufnahme, der Pflege und dem Spielen bei Kindern im 2. und 3. Lebensjahr in Tageseinrichtungen

    OpenAIRE

    Sporrer, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit einem Teil des Dokumentationsbogens der kindlichen Entwicklung, der im Lóczy-Institut in Budapest unter der Leitung der Kinderärztin Emmi Pikler erarbeitet wurde. Mit ihm können außerhäuslich betreute Kinder in ihrer Entwicklung beobachtet und diese dokumentiert werden. Das Ziel ist, differenzierte Aussagen zur Entwicklung der betreuten Kinder machen zu können. Die Normierung des Bogens erfolgte erstmals in den 1960er Jahren in Ungarn. Wir führen in...

  14. Prospektive Entwicklung des postoperativen Sprachverstehens nach Tympanoplastik bei chronischer Otitis media

    OpenAIRE

    Knof, B; Plotz, K; Krack, A; Stumper, J; Schönfeld, R

    2013-01-01

    Einleitung: Tympanoplastiken I/III bei chron. Otitis media COM (mesotympanalis CMOM und epitympanalis CEOM). In der Literatur werden erfolgreiche operative Behandlungen mit Verringerung der Schallleitungskomponente (air-bone gap) belegt (Gierke et al. 2011). Aus Sicht des Patienten steht die Verbesserung des Hörvermögens und des Sprachverstehens im Alltag im Vordergrund. Das Ziel war die Untersuchung der Entwicklung des Hörvermögens in Ruhe sowie im Störgeräusch.Methoden: An den Hör- und Sp...

  15. Investigation of changes in {delta}{sup 13}C of PAHs during phytoremediation of coal tar-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mick Cooper; Cheng-Gong Sun; Margaret Smith; Harry Duncan; Colin Snape [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Chemical Environmental and Mining Engineering

    2007-07-01

    It has been shown that phytoremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated land is a useful, low cost, low maintenance method of cleaning up land at former gas and coking works. However, PAH degradation in the soil and sediment is slow, but PAHs may be degraded through properly stimulated soil micro-organisms. Here we describe a laboratory trial, employing the clover Trifolium pretense (L.)(TP), which was grown in samples of soil contaminated by fresh coal tar, and in soil heavily contaminated by PAHs, obtained from a former coking works. As the latter substrate was 'naturally' contaminated, it contained both pure PAHs and their derivatives, and was thus considered fully 'weathered', and contained recalcitrant PAH species. Conventional analytical techniques (for example, GC-MS) generally provide little information on the source of pollutants such as PAHs. Previous work has established, however, that significant differences existed in the {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C isotopic ratios between PAHs from various sources. Source apportionment of PAH contamination by stable isotope analysis is a powerful technique, but one which assumes that isotopic fractionation is not a significant factor in aged or bioaltered matrices. Phytoremediation trials described here have been utilised in order to determine whether or not any such fractionation of {sup 13}C occurs during the process. Although PAH distributions can be markedly altered by biodegradation, it has been demonstrated that, for low temperature coal tar, the carbon stable isotopic values of the parent PAHs remain fairly constant. 22 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. 3D-Master-Leitungssatz - Konzept zur Entwicklung von Leitungssätzen als 3D-Master in einem realistischen, vollständigen DMU-Modell

    OpenAIRE

    Neckenich, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    Die Fokussierung auf eine 3D-orientierte Produktentwicklung und einen durchgängigen 3D-Prozess wird in der heutigen Industrie immer wichtiger. Im Entwicklungsprozess des Kabelbaums trifft dabei die bauraumorientierte 3D-Entwicklung auf die produktorientierte 2D-Entwicklung. Die unsaubere Trennung zwischen bestehenden Definitionssystemen im heutigen Entwicklungsprozess führt dabei zu Datendiskrepanzen, Zeitverzug und Fehlern. Im Digital Mock-Up, welcher zur digitalen Absicherung des Fahrzeugs ...

  17. Ability of natural attenuation and phytoremediation using maize (Zea mays L.) to decrease soil contents of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) derived from biomass fly ash in comparison with PAHs-spiked soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Košnář, Zdeněk; Mercl, Filip; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2018-05-30

    A 120-day pot experiment was conducted to compare the ability of natural attenuation and phytoremediation approaches to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil amended with PAHs-contaminated biomass fly ash. The PAH removal from ash-treated soil was compared with PAHs-spiked soil. The removal of 16 individual PAHs from soil ranged between 4.8% and 87.8% within the experiment. The natural attenuation approach led to a negligible total PAH removal. The phytoremediation was the most efficient approach for PAH removal, while the highest removal was observed in the case of ash-treated soil. The content of low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs and the total PAHs in this treatment significantly decreased (P <.05) over the whole experiment by 47.6% and 29.4%, respectively. The tested level of PAH soil contamination (~1600 µg PAH/kg soil dry weight) had no adverse effects on maize growth as well on the biomass yield. In addition, the PAHs were detected only in maize roots and their bioaccumulation factors were significantly lower than 1 suggesting negligible PAH uptake from soil by maize roots. The results showed that PAHs of ash origin were similarly susceptible to removal as spiked PAHs. The presence of maize significantly boosted the PAH removal from soil and its aboveground biomass did not represent any environmental risk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of fresh organic matter incorporation on PAH fate in a contaminated industrial soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pernot, Audrey [Université de Lorraine, LSE, UMR 1120, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, F-54518 (France); INRA, LSE, UMR 1120, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, F-54518 (France); Université de Lorraine, LIEC, UMR 7360, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, F-54506 (France); CNRS, LIEC, UMR 7360, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, F-54506 (France); Ouvrard, Stéphanie, E-mail: stephanie.ouvrard@univ-lorraine.fr [Université de Lorraine, LSE, UMR 1120, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, F-54518 (France); INRA, LSE, UMR 1120, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, F-54518 (France); Leglize, Pierre [Université de Lorraine, LSE, UMR 1120, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, F-54518 (France); INRA, LSE, UMR 1120, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, F-54518 (France); Watteau, Françoise [Université de Lorraine, LSE, UMR 1120, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, F-54518 (France); INRA, LSE, UMR 1120, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, F-54518 (France); CNRS, UMS 3562, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, F-54501 (France); Derrien, Delphine [INRA, BEF, UR 1138, Centre Nancy-Lorraine, Champenoux, F-54280 (France); and others

    2014-11-01

    The impacts of fresh organic matter (OM) incorporation in an industrial PAH-contaminated soil on its structure and contaminant concentrations (available and total) were monitored. A control soil and a soil amended with the equivalent of 10 years maize residue input were incubated in laboratory-controlled conditions over 15 months. The structure of the amended soil showed an aggregation process trend which is attributable to (i) the enhanced microbial activity resulting from fresh OM input itself and (ii) the fresh OM and its degradation products. Initially the added organic matter was evenly distributed among all granulodensimetric fractions, and then rapidly degraded in the sand fraction, while stabilizing and accumulating in the silts. PAH degradation remained slight, despite the enhanced microbial biomass activity, which was similar to kinetics of the turnover rate of OM in an uncontaminated soil. The silts stabilized the anthropogenic OM and associated PAH. The addition of fresh OM tended to contribute to this stabilization process. Thus, in a context of plant growth on this soil two opposing processes might occur: rhizodegradation of the available contaminant and enhanced stabilization of the less available fraction due to carbon input. - Highlights: • Fresh OM input in an industrial soil leads to aggregation. • TC and δ{sup 13}C increase in fine silts. • Fine silts store both the natural and anthropogenic OM. • PAH concentration and availability are not impacted by an addition of OM.

  19. Assessment of metal and PAH profiles in SUDS soil based on an improved experimental procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedoldi, Damien; Chebbo, Ghassan; Pierlot, Daniel; Kovacs, Yves; Gromaire, Marie-Christine

    2017-11-01

    The increasing use of infiltration-based systems for stormwater management questions the soil's ability to act as a long-term filter for runoff contaminants, and brings about operational matters regarding the most effective maintenance practices to enhance contaminant retention in SUDS. This paper reports the vertical extent of metal and PAH contamination in the soil of seven source-control devices in operation for more than 10 years, assessed via a two-step sampling strategy to optimize the representativeness of the contamination profiles. Metal distribution was typically characterized by a significant surface buildup, followed by a decrease in concentrations with increasing depth, usually coming close to the background values. PAH were more heterogeneously distributed with depth, but their accumulation was globally restricted to the upper 10-40 cm. This indicates an interesting potential for pollution interception by the upper horizons of soil, but does not necessarily prevent from downward fluxes, even while measuring low surface contents, as deeper strata may have lesser retention capacities. Specific amendments of the surface soil may help prevent this problem. Surface soil renewal - which would be necessary over 2.5-30 cm in four sites, according to the "strictest" standards for soil remediation - may regenerate the soil's sorption potential, but such a practice could disrupt the interactions with the local ecosystem, so this should be carried out exceptionally and not as a preventive measure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of fresh organic matter incorporation on PAH fate in a contaminated industrial soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernot, Audrey; Ouvrard, Stéphanie; Leglize, Pierre; Watteau, Françoise; Derrien, Delphine

    2014-01-01

    The impacts of fresh organic matter (OM) incorporation in an industrial PAH-contaminated soil on its structure and contaminant concentrations (available and total) were monitored. A control soil and a soil amended with the equivalent of 10 years maize residue input were incubated in laboratory-controlled conditions over 15 months. The structure of the amended soil showed an aggregation process trend which is attributable to (i) the enhanced microbial activity resulting from fresh OM input itself and (ii) the fresh OM and its degradation products. Initially the added organic matter was evenly distributed among all granulodensimetric fractions, and then rapidly degraded in the sand fraction, while stabilizing and accumulating in the silts. PAH degradation remained slight, despite the enhanced microbial biomass activity, which was similar to kinetics of the turnover rate of OM in an uncontaminated soil. The silts stabilized the anthropogenic OM and associated PAH. The addition of fresh OM tended to contribute to this stabilization process. Thus, in a context of plant growth on this soil two opposing processes might occur: rhizodegradation of the available contaminant and enhanced stabilization of the less available fraction due to carbon input. - Highlights: • Fresh OM input in an industrial soil leads to aggregation. • TC and δ 13 C increase in fine silts. • Fine silts store both the natural and anthropogenic OM. • PAH concentration and availability are not impacted by an addition of OM

  1. Fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in plant-soil systems: Plant responses to a chemical stress in the root zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoylman, Anne M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Under laboratory conditions selected to maximize root uptake, plant tissue distribution of PAH-derived 14C was largely limited to root tissue of Malilotus alba. These results suggest that plant uptake of PAHs from contaminated soil via roots, and translocation to aboveground plant tissues (stems and leaves), is a limited mechanism for transport into terrestrial food chains. However, these data also indicate that root surface sorption of PAHs may be important for plants grown in soils containing elevated concentration PAHs. Root surface sorption of PAHs may be an important route of exposure for plants in soils containing elevated concentrations of PAHS. Consequently, the root-soil interface may be the site of plant-microbial interactions in response to a chemical stress. In this study, evidence of a shift in carbon allocation to the root zone of plants exposed to phenanthrene and corresponding increases in soil respiration and heterotrophic plate counts provide evidence of a plant-microbial response to a chemical stress. The results of this study establish the importance of the root-soil interface for plants growing in PAH contaminated soil and indicate the existence of plant-microbial interactions in response to a chemical stress. These results may provide new avenues of inquiry for studies of plant toxicology, plant-microbial interactions in the rhizosphere, and environmental fates of soil contaminants. In addition, the utilization of plants to enhance the biodegradation of soil contaminants may require evaluation of plant physiological changes and plant shifts in resource allocation.

  2. Biochar reduces the bioaccumulation of PAHs from soil to carrot (Daucus carota L.) in the rhizosphere: A mechanism study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ni; Song, Yang; Shi, Renyong; Liu, Zongtang; Bian, Yongrong; Wang, Fang; Yang, Xinglun; Gu, Chenggang; Jiang, Xin

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to reveal the mechanisms on how biochar reduces bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tuberous vegetables. Corn straw-derived biochar pyrolyzed at 300°C (CB300) or bamboo-derived biochar pyrolyzed at 700°C (BB700) was amended into PAH-contaminated soil planted with carrot (Daucus carota L.). After 150days, 2% CB300 or 2% BB700 amendments significantly reduced the bioaccumulation of PAHs in carrot root (pbiochars both showed better effectiveness at reducing the bioavailability of high-molecular-weight PAHs than the low-molecular-weight PAHs in the rhizosphere. Therefore, the mechanisms on how biochar reduces the PAH uptake into carrot are dependent on the type of biochar (e.g., pyrolysis temperature and feedstock) and root presence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Further validation of the HPCD-technique for the evaluation of PAH microbial availability in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doick, Kieron J.; Clasper, Paula J.; Urmann, Karina; Semple, Kirk T.

    2006-01-01

    There is currently considerable scientific interest in finding a chemical technique capable of predicting bioavailability; non-exhaustive extraction techniques (NEETs) offer such potential. Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD), a NEET, is further validated through the investigation of concentration ranges, differing soil types, and the presence of co-contaminants. This is the first study to demonstrate the utility of the HPCD-extraction technique to predict the microbial availability to phenanthrene across a wide concentration range and independent of soil-contaminant contact time (123 d). The efficacy of the HPCD-extraction technique for the estimation of PAH microbial availability in soil is demonstrated in the presence of co-contaminants that have been aged for the duration of the experiment together in the soil. Desorption dynamics are compared in co-contaminant and single-PAH contaminated spiked soils to demonstrate the occurrence of competitive displacement. Overall, a single HPCD-extraction technique proved accurate and reproducible for the estimation of PAH bioavailability from soil. - HPCD extractions can determine the microbial availability of PAHs in mixtures and over a range of concentrations

  4. Comparison of solid-phase bioassays and ecoscores to evaluate the toxicity of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lors, Christine; Ponge, Jean-Francois; Martinez Aldaya, Maite; Damidot, Denis

    2010-01-01

    Five bioassays (inhibition of lettuce germination and growth, earthworm mortality, inhibition of springtail population growth, avoidance by springtails) were compared, using four coke factory soils contaminated by PAHs and trace elements, before and after biotreatment. For each bioassay, several endpoints were combined in an 'ecoscore', a measure of test sensitivity. Ecoscores pooled over all tested bioassays revealed that most organisms were highly sensitive to the concentration of 3-ring PAHs. When four soils were combined, behavioural tests using the springtail Folsomia candida showed higher ecoscores, i.e. they were most sensitive to soil contamination. However, despite overall higher sensitivity of behavioural tests, which could be used for cheap and rapid assessment of soil toxicity, especially at low levels of contamination, some test endpoints were more sensitive than others, and this may differ from a soil to another, pointing to the need for a battery of bioassays when more itemized results are expected. - The avoidance test using the soil springtail Folsomia candida is globally more sensitive to PAH contamination than acute and chronic toxicity bioassays using plants and animals but a battery of tests could reveal better in detail.

  5. Reduction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from petroleum-contaminated soil using thermal desorption technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silkebakken, D.M.; Davis, H.A.; Ghosh, S.B.; Beardsley, G.P.

    1995-01-01

    The remediation of petroleum-contaminated soil typically requires the selection of a treatment option that addresses the removal of both volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), primarily BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) compounds, can be readily removed from the soil by a variety of well-established technologies. The semivolatile organic compounds, especially the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) that are characteristic of petroleum-contaminated soil, are not as amenable to conventional treatment. Low temperature thermal volatilization (LTTV) can be a viable treatment technology depending on the initial contaminant concentrations present and applicable cleanup objectives that must be attained. A-two-phase treatability study was conducted at 14 former underground storage tank (UST) sites to evaluate the applicability and effectiveness of LTTV for remediation of approximately 31,000 tons of PAH-contaminated soil. The PAHs of primary concern included benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene, dibenz(a,h) anthracene, and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene. During Phase 1, LTTV operational parameters were varied by trial-and-error and changes in soil treatment effectiveness were monitored. Phase B of the treatability study incorporated the appropriate treatment regime established during Phase 1 to efficiently remediate the remaining contaminated soil

  6. Bioremediation of soils and sediments containing PAHs and PCP using Daramend trademark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seech, A.; Burwell, S.; Marvan, I.

    1994-01-01

    A full-scale demonstration of Grace Dearborn's Daramend trademark for bioremediation of soil containing chlorinated phenols, PAHs and petroleum hydrocarbons is being conducted at an industrial wood treatment site in Ontario. A pilot-scale demonstration of Daramend for the clean-up of sediments contaminated with PAHs was also conducted. The full-scale demonstration, which includes bioremediation of approximately 4,500 m 3 of soil, was initiated at a wood preserving facility in Ontario, in the summer of 1993. The soil contains chlorinated phenols, PAHs and total petroleum hydrocarbons at concentrations of up to 700, 1,400 and 6,300 mg/kg respectively. Full-scale bioremediation at this site employs the same Daramend protocols and organic amendment treatments that were used at the pilot-scale phase where the PAH, total petroleum hydrocarbon, and pentachlorophenol concentrations were reduced to below the Canadian clean-up guidelines for industrial soils. In addition, the toxicity of the soil to earthworms was eliminated while the rate of seed germination was increased to that of an agricultural soil during the pilot scale demonstration phase. The ex-situ portion of the full-scale demonstration is currently being audited by the EPA under the SITE program. This paper will focus on the ex-situ work. The pilot-scale demonstration of sediment remediation consisted of ex-situ bioremediation of approximately 90 tonnes of PAH-contaminated sediment in a confined treatment area

  7. A multi-process phytoremediation system for removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xiaodong; El-Alawi, Yousef; Penrose, Donna M.; Glick, Bernard R.; Greenberg, Bruce M.

    2004-01-01

    To improve phytoremediation processes, multiple techniques that comprise different aspects of contaminant removal from soils have been combined. Using creosote as a test contaminant, a multi-process phytoremediation system composed of physical (volatilization), photochemical (photooxidation) and microbial remediation, and phytoremediation (plant-assisted remediation) processes was developed. The techniques applied to realize these processes were land-farming (aeration and light exposure), introduction of contaminant degrading bacteria, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), and plant growth of contaminant-tolerant tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Over a 4-month period, the average efficiency of removal of 16 priority PAHs by the multi-process remediation system was twice that of land-farming, 50% more than bioremediation alone, and 45% more than phytoremediation by itself. Importantly, the multi-process system was capable of removing most of the highly hydrophobic, soil-bound PAHs from soil. The key elements for successful phytoremediation were the use of plant species that have the ability to proliferate in the presence of high levels of contaminants and strains of PGPR that increase plant tolerance to contaminants and accelerate plant growth in heavily contaminated soils. The synergistic use of these approaches resulted in rapid and massive biomass accumulation of plant tissue in contaminated soil, putatively providing more active metabolic processes, leading to more rapid and more complete removal of PAHs. - Persistent PAH contaminants in soils can be removed more completely and rapidly by using multiple remediation processes

  8. Enrichment behavior and transport mechanism of soil-bound PAHs during rainfall-runoff events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yi; Luo Xiaolin; Zhang Wei; Wu Bin; Han Feng; Lin Zhongrong; Wang Xuejun

    2012-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) transported by surface runoff result in nonpoint source pollution and jeopardize aquatic ecosystems. The transport mechanism of PAHs during rainfall-runoff events has been rarely studied regarding pervious areas. An experimental system was setup to simulate the runoff pollution process on PAHs-contaminated soil. The enrichment behavior of soil-bound PAHs was investigated. The results show that soil organic matters (SOM), rather than clay particles, seem to be the main carrier of PAHs. The enrichment is highly conditioned on runoff and erosion processes, and its magnitude varies among PAH compounds. It is not feasible to build a simple and universal relationship between enrichment ratio and sediment discharge following the traditional enrichment theory. To estimate the flux of PAHs from pervious areas, soil erosion process has to be clearly understood, and both organic carbon content and composition of SOM should be factored into the calculation. - Highlights: ► Significant enrichment of particle-bound PAHs during rainfall-runoff events. ► Organic matters as the direct carrier of PAHs in runoff from contaminated soil. ► The traditional enrichment theory is not fully valid for PAHs. - The traditional enrichment theory is not fully valid for PAHs, and soil organic matters have a significant impact on the transport of PAHs during rainfall-runoff events.

  9. Spatial Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Concentrations in Soils from Bursa, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Gizem

    2016-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify regional variations in soil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in Bursa, Turkey, and to determine the distributions and sources of various PAH species and their possible sources. Surface soil samples were collected from 20 different locations. The PAH concentrations in soil samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total PAH concentrations (∑12 PAH) varied spatially between 8 and 4970 ng/g dry matter (DM). The highest concentrations were measured in soils taken from traffic+barbecue+ residential areas (4970 ng/g DM) and areas with cement (4382 ng/g DM) and iron-steel (4000 ng/g DM) factories. In addition, the amounts of ∑7 carcinogenic PAH ranged from 1 to 3684 ng/g DM, and between 5 and 74 % of the total PAHs consisted of such compounds. Overall, 4-ring PAH compounds (Fl, Pyr, BaA and Chr) were dominant in the soil samples, with 29-82 % of the ∑12 PAH consisting of 4-ring PAH compounds. The ∑12 BaPeq values ranged from 0.1 to 381.8 ng/g DM. Following an evaluation of the molecular diagnostic ratios, it was concluded that the PAH pollution in Bursa soil was related to pyrolytic sources; however, the impact of petrogenic sources should not be ignored.

  10. Comparison of solid-phase bioassays and ecoscores to evaluate the toxicity of contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lors, Christine [Universite Lille Nord de France, 1bis rue Georges Lefevre, 59044 Lille Cedex (France); Ecole des Mines de Douai, MPE-GCE, 941 rue Charles-Bourseul, 59500 Douai (France); Centre National de Recherche sur les Sites et Sols Pollues, 930 Boulevard Lahure, BP 537, 59505 Douai Cedex (France); Ponge, Jean-Francois, E-mail: ponge@mnhn.f [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CNRS UMR 7179, 4 Avenue du Petit-Chateau, 91800 Brunoy (France); Martinez Aldaya, Maite [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CNRS UMR 7179, 4 Avenue du Petit-Chateau, 91800 Brunoy (France); Damidot, Denis [Universite Lille Nord de France, 1bis rue Georges Lefevre, 59044 Lille Cedex (France); Ecole des Mines de Douai, MPE-GCE, 941 rue Charles-Bourseul, 59500 Douai (France)

    2010-08-15

    Five bioassays (inhibition of lettuce germination and growth, earthworm mortality, inhibition of springtail population growth, avoidance by springtails) were compared, using four coke factory soils contaminated by PAHs and trace elements, before and after biotreatment. For each bioassay, several endpoints were combined in an 'ecoscore', a measure of test sensitivity. Ecoscores pooled over all tested bioassays revealed that most organisms were highly sensitive to the concentration of 3-ring PAHs. When four soils were combined, behavioural tests using the springtail Folsomia candida showed higher ecoscores, i.e. they were most sensitive to soil contamination. However, despite overall higher sensitivity of behavioural tests, which could be used for cheap and rapid assessment of soil toxicity, especially at low levels of contamination, some test endpoints were more sensitive than others, and this may differ from a soil to another, pointing to the need for a battery of bioassays when more itemized results are expected. - The avoidance test using the soil springtail Folsomia candida is globally more sensitive to PAH contamination than acute and chronic toxicity bioassays using plants and animals but a battery of tests could reveal better in detail.

  11. Die Etablierung massenspektrometrischer quantitativer Studien des Herzproteoms während der embryonalen Entwicklung und der Alterung

    OpenAIRE

    Konzer, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Neue Erkenntnisse über die physiologischen, molekularen und pathologischen Prozesse im Herzen konnten im letzten Jahrzehnt anhand von Modellorganismen gewonnen werden. Die Entwicklung neuer Techniken ermöglichte außerdem die Etablierung umfangreicher und eindrucksvoller Studien basierend auf den neusten Mikroskopieverfahren, auf globalen Genexpressionsanalysen (Microarray) sowie auf modernen Massenspektrometrie (MS)- basierenden Proteinanalysen anhand von hochauflösenden Tandem-Massenspektrom...

  12. Bioremediation of a polyaromatic hydrocarbon contaminated soil by native soil microbiota and bioaugmentation with isolated microbial consortia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Isis Serrano; Santos, Eder da Costa dos; Menezes, Cristiano Ragagnin de; Faria, Andréia Fonseca de; Franciscon, Elisangela; Grossman, Matthew; Durrant, Lucia Regina

    2009-10-01

    Biodegradation of a mixture of PAHs was assessed in forest soil microcosms performed either without or with bioaugmentation using individual fungi and bacterial and a fungal consortia. Respiratory activity, metabolic intermediates and extent of PAH degradation were determined. In all microcosms the low molecular weight PAH's naphthalene, phenanthrene and anthracene, showed a rapid initial rate of removal. However, bioaugmentation did not significantly affect the biodegradation efficiency for these compounds. Significantly slower degradation rates were demonstrated for the high molecular weight PAH's pyrene, benz[a]anthracene and benz[a]pyrene. Bioaugmentation did not improve the rate or extent of PAH degradation, except in the case of Aspergillus sp. Respiratory activity was determined by CO(2) evolution and correlated roughly with the rate and timing of PAH removal. This indicated that the PAHs were being used as an energy source. The native microbiota responded rapidly to the addition of the PAHs and demonstrated the ability to degrade all of the PAHs added to the soil, indicating their ability to remediate PAH-contaminated soils.

  13. Identification of soil bacteria able to degrade phenanthrene bound to a hydrophobic sorbent in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regonne, Raïssa Kom [CEA, DSV/iRTSV, Chimie et Biologie des Métaux, 38054, Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Univ. Grenoble Alpes and CNRS, UMR 5249, 38042, Grenoble (France); Laboratoire de Substances Actives et Pollution, ENSAI, Université de Ngaoundéré, BP 455, Ngaoundéré (Cameroon); Martin, Florence [CEA, DSV/iRTSV, Chimie et Biologie des Métaux, 38054, Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Univ. Grenoble Alpes and CNRS, UMR 5249, 38042, Grenoble (France); Mbawala, Augustin [Laboratoire de Microbiologie, ENSAI, Université de Ngaoundéré, BP 455, Ngaoundéré (Cameroon); Ngassoum, Martin Benoît [Laboratoire de Substances Actives et Pollution, ENSAI, Université de Ngaoundéré, BP 455, Ngaoundéré (Cameroon); Jouanneau, Yves [CEA, DSV/iRTSV, Chimie et Biologie des Métaux, 38054, Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Univ. Grenoble Alpes and CNRS, UMR 5249, 38042, Grenoble (France)

    2013-09-15

    Efficient bioremediation of PAH-contaminated sites is limited by the hydrophobic character and poor bioavailability of pollutants. In this study, stable isotope probing (SIP) was implemented to track bacteria that can degrade PAHs adsorbed on hydrophobic sorbents. Temperate and tropical soils were incubated with {sup 13}C-labeled phenanthrene, supplied by spiking or coated onto membranes. Phenanthrene mineralization was faster in microcosms with PAH-coated membranes than in microcosms containing spiked soil. Upon incubation with temperate soil, phenanthrene degraders found in the biofilms that formed on coated membranes were mainly identified as Sphingomonadaceae and Actinobacteria. In the tropical soil, uncultured Rhodocyclaceae dominated degraders bound to membranes. Accordingly, ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase sequences recovered from this soil matched PAH-specific dioxygenase genes recently found in Rhodocyclaceae. Hence, our SIP approach allowed the detection of novel degraders, mostly uncultured, which differ from those detected after soil spiking, but might play a key role in the bioremediation of PAH-polluted soils. -- Highlights: •Soil bacteria with the ability to degrade sorbent-bound PAHs were investigated. •In soil, membrane-bound phenanthrene was readily mineralized. •PAH degraders found in biofilms were different in temperate and tropical soils. •Uncultured Rhodocyclaceae were dominant phenanthrene degraders in the tropical soil. •PAH-specific ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase sequences were identified in soil DNA. -- Bacteria able to degrade PAHs bound to a hydrophobic sorbent were mainly identified as uncultured Rhodocyclaceae and Sphingomonadaceae in polluted soils from tropical and temperate area, respectively.

  14. Potential of vetiver (vetiveria zizanioides l.) grass in removing selected pahs from diesel contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisa, W.U.; Rashid, A.

    2015-01-01

    Phytoremediation has been renowned as an encouraging technology for the remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soils, little is known about how plant species behave during the process of PAH phytoremediation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) plant in PAH phytoremediation and extraction potential of Vetiveria zizanioides for selected PAHs from the diesel contaminated soil. The field soil samples were spiked with varying concentrations (0.5% and 1%) of diesel and used for pot experiment which was conducted in greenhouse. Vetiver grass was used as experimental plant. Physico-chemical analysis of soil was performed before and after the experiment. Concentration of selected PAHs i.e. phenanthrene, pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene in soil was determined using HPLC. Plant parameters such as root/shoot length and dry mass were compared after harvest. Concentrations of PAHs were also determined in plant material and in soils after harvesting. Result showed that initial concentration of phenanthrene was significantly different from final concentration in treatments in which soil was spiked with diesel. Initial and final concentration of pyrene in soil was also significantly different from each other in two treatments in which soil was spiked with 1% diesel. Pyrene concentration was significantly different in roots and shoots of plants while benzo(a)pyrene concentration in treatments in which soil was spiked with diesel was also significantly different from roots and shoots. Phenanthrene was less extracted by the plant in all the treatments and it was present in higher concentration in soil as compared to plant. Our results indicate that vetiver grass has effectively removed PAHs from soil consequently a significantly higher root and shoot uptake of PAHs was observed than control treatments. Study concludes Vetiveria zizanioides as potentially promising plant specie for the removal

  15. Effect of biosurfactant[0] on the sorption of phenanthrene onto original and H2O2-treated soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Xiaohong; ZHAN Xinhua; ZHOU Lixiang

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of biosurfactant on sorption of phenanthrene (PHE) onto the original or H2O2-treated black loamy soil (typic isohumisols) and red sandy soil (typic ferralisols). The sorption isotherms were performed with the original and "soft" carbon-removed soils in the presence and absence of biosurfactant (200 mg/L). The sorption and degradation of biosurfactant were investigated. The result showed that organic matter played an important role in PHE sorption onto the black loamy and red sandy soils, and the PHE sorption isotherms on the "soft" carbon-removed soils exhibited more nonlinearity than those on the original soils. The values of partition coefficient (Kd) on the original black loamy soil with or without 200 mg/L biosurfactant were 181.6 and 494.5 mL/g, respectively. Correspondingly, in the red sandy soil, Kd was 246.4 and 212.8 mL/g in the presence or absence of biosurfactant, respectively. The changes of Kd suggested that biosurfactant inhibited PHE sorption onto the black loamy soil, but facilitated PHE sorption onto the red sandy soil. The nonlinearity of PHE sorption isotherm was decreased in the presence of biosurfactant. Site specific sorption might occur during PHE sorption onto both the original and the "soft" carbon-removed soils in the presence of biosurfactant. It was noted that biosurfactant could also be sorbed onto soils. The maximal sorption capacity of the red sandy soil for biosurfactant was (76.9 ± 0.007) μg/g, which was 1.31 times that of black loamy soil. Biosurfactant was degraded quickly in the two selected soils, and 92% of biosurfactant were mineralized throughout the incubation experiment for 7 d. It implied that biosurfactant should be added frequently when the remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soils was conducted through PAH desorption approach facilitated by biosurfactant.

  16. Native Michigan plants stimulate soil microbial species changes and PAH remediation at a legacy steel mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John C; Cable, Edward; Dabkowski, Robert T; Gargala, Stephanie; McCall, Daniel; Pangrazzi, Garett; Pierson, Adam; Ripper, Mark; Russell, Donald K; Rugh, Clayton L

    2013-01-01

    A 1.3-acre phytoremediation site was constructed to mitigate polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination from a former steel mill in Michigan. Soil was amended with 10% (v/v) compost and 5% (v/v) poultry litter. The site was divided into twelve 11.89 m X 27.13 m plots, planted with approximately 35,000 native Michigan perennials, and soils sampled for three seasons. Soil microbial density generally increased in subplots of Eupatorium perfoliatum (boneset), Aster novae-angliae (New England aster), Andropogon gerardii (big bluestem), and Scirpus atrovirens (green bulrush) versus unplanted subplots. Using enumeration assays with root exudates, PAH degrading bacteria were greatest in soils beneath plants. Initially predominant, Arthrobacter were found capable of degrading a PAH cocktail in vitro, especially upon the addition of root exudate. Growth of some Arthrobacter isolates was stimulated by root exudate. The frequency of Arthrobacter declined in planted subplots with a concurrent increase in other species, including secondary PAH degraders Bacillus and Nocardioides. In subplots supporting only weeds, an increase in Pseudomonas density and little PAH removal were observed. This study supports the notion that a dynamic interplay between the soil, bacteria, and native plant root secretions likely contributes to in situ PAH phytoremediation.

  17. Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals in Soils of Past Coking Sites: Distribution and Stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hanzhong; Zhao, Song; Nulaji, Gulimire; Tao, Kelin; Wang, Fu; Sharma, Virender K; Wang, Chuanyi

    2017-06-06

    This study presents the existence of environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) in soils of past coking sites, mainly contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Measurements of EPFRs were conducted by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique with numerous soil samples, which were collected from different distances (0-1000 m) and different depths (0-30 cm) of three contaminant sources. EPR signals with ∼3 × 10 17 radicals/g of the soil samples were obtained, which are very similar to that generated in PAHs contaminated clays, that is, g = 2.0028-2.0036. Concentrations of PAHs and soil components were determined to understand their role in producing EPFRs. PAHs, clay, and iron predominately contributed to generating EPRFs. Meanwhile, organic matter negatively influenced the production of EPRFs. The effects of environmental factors (moisture and oxic/anoxic) were also studied to probe the persistency of EPFRs under various simulated conditions. The EPFRs are stable under relatively dry and oxic conditions. Under anoxic conditions without O 2 and H 2 O, the spin densities decrease initially, followed by gradual increase before attaining constant values in two months period time. The present work implies that continuous formation of EPFRs induced by PAHs is largely responsible for the presence of relatively stable radicals in soils of coking sites.

  18. Assessment of contaminant lability during phytoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon impacted soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakia D. Parrish; M. Katherine Banks; A. Paul Schwab [Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, CT (United States). Department of Soil and Water

    2005-09-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are recalcitrant compounds, some of which are known carcinogens, often found in high residual soil concentrations at industrial sites. Recent research has confirmed that phytoremediation holds promise as a low-cost treatment method for PAH contaminated soil. In this study, the lability of soil bound PAHs in the rhizosphere was estimated using solid phase extraction resin. An extraction time of 14 days was determined to be appropriate for this study. Resin-extractable PAHs, which are assumed to be more bioavailable, decreased during plant treatments. Significant reductions in the labile concentrations of several PAH compounds occurred over 12 months of plant growth. The differences in concentration between the unplanted and the planted soil indicate that the presence of plant roots, in addition to the passage of time, contributes to reduction in the bioavailability of target PAHs. The lability of sorbed contaminants is modified by the presence of plants. Remediation coupled with plant treatment can change the bioavailability of contaminants in soil.

  19. Assessment of contaminant lability during phytoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon impacted soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrish, Zakia D. [Department of Soil and Water, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 123 Huntington Street, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Banks, M. Katherine [School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, 550 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2051 (United States)]. E-mail: kbanks@ecn.purdue.edu; Schwab, A. Paul [Department of Agronomy, Purdue University, 915 W. State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2054 (United States)

    2005-09-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are recalcitrant compounds, some of which are known carcinogens, often found in high residual soil concentrations at industrial sites. Recent research has confirmed that phytoremediation holds promise as a low-cost treatment method for PAH contaminated soil. In this study, the lability of soil bound PAHs in the rhizosphere was estimated using solid phase extraction resin. An extraction time of 14 days was determined to be appropriate for this study. Resin-extractable PAHs, which are assumed to be more bioavailable, decreased during plant treatments. Significant reductions in the labile concentrations of several PAH compounds occurred over 12 months of plant growth. The differences in concentration between the unplanted and the planted soil indicate that the presence of plant roots, in addition to the passage of time, contributes to reduction in the bioavailability of target PAHs. - The lability of sorbed contaminants is modified by the presence of plants. Remediation coupled with plant treatment can change the bioavailability of contaminants in soil.

  20. Assessment of contaminant lability during phytoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon impacted soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrish, Zakia D.; Banks, M. Katherine; Schwab, A. Paul

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are recalcitrant compounds, some of which are known carcinogens, often found in high residual soil concentrations at industrial sites. Recent research has confirmed that phytoremediation holds promise as a low-cost treatment method for PAH contaminated soil. In this study, the lability of soil bound PAHs in the rhizosphere was estimated using solid phase extraction resin. An extraction time of 14 days was determined to be appropriate for this study. Resin-extractable PAHs, which are assumed to be more bioavailable, decreased during plant treatments. Significant reductions in the labile concentrations of several PAH compounds occurred over 12 months of plant growth. The differences in concentration between the unplanted and the planted soil indicate that the presence of plant roots, in addition to the passage of time, contributes to reduction in the bioavailability of target PAHs. - The lability of sorbed contaminants is modified by the presence of plants. Remediation coupled with plant treatment can change the bioavailability of contaminants in soil

  1. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil spiked with model mixtures of petroleum hydrocarbons and heterocycles using biosurfactants from Rhodococcus ruber IEGM 231.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivshina, Irina; Kostina, Ludmila; Krivoruchko, Anastasiya; Kuyukina, Maria; Peshkur, Tatyana; Anderson, Peter; Cunningham, Colin

    2016-07-15

    Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil using biosurfactants (BS) produced by Rhodococcus ruber IEGM 231 was studied in soil columns spiked with model mixtures of major petroleum constituents. A crystalline mixture of single PAHs (0.63g/kg), a crystalline mixture of PAHs (0.63g/kg) and polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles (PASHs), and an artificially synthesized non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) containing PAHs (3.00g/kg) dissolved in alkanes C10-C19 were used for spiking. Percentage of PAH removal with BS varied from 16 to 69%. Washing activities of BS were 2.5 times greater than those of synthetic surfactant Tween 60 in NAPL-spiked soil and similar to Tween 60 in crystalline-spiked soil. At the same time, amounts of removed PAHs were equal and consisted of 0.3-0.5g/kg dry soil regardless the chemical pattern of a model mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons and heterocycles used for spiking. UV spectra for soil before and after BS treatment were obtained and their applicability for differentiated analysis of PAH and PASH concentration changes in remediated soil was shown. The ratios A254nm/A288nm revealed that BS increased biotreatability of PAH-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ecological and health risk-based characterization of agricultural soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the vicinity of a chemical plant in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Geng; Niu, Junjie; Guo, Wenjiong; An, Xiangsheng; Zhao, Long

    2016-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from chemical plants can cause serious pollution of surrounding agricultural soils. A comprehensive study of agricultural soils was conducted in the vicinity of a chemical plant in China to characterize the soil PAH concentration, as well as their composition and sources. Human health and a screening-level ecological risk assessment were conducted for PAH contamination in agricultural soils. The results showed that the total concentrations of 16 priority PAHs ranged from 250.49 to 9387.26 ng g(-1), with an average of 2780.42 ng g(-1). High molecular weight PAHs (four to six rings) were the dominant component, accounting for more than 60% of all PAHs. Principal component analysis (PCA) and positive matrix factorization model (PMF) suggested that diesel emissions, coal combustion, coke ovens, and fuel combustion and gasoline emissions were the main sources of PAHs in agricultural soils. The ecological risk assessment results based on the effects range-low (ERL), the effects range-median (ERM), and the ecological screening levels (ESL) indicated that the exposure to ∑PAH16 was >ERL, >ERM, and ≥ERL and ESL at 78.1% of the soil sampling stations, and could induce biological effects in mammals. The Bapeq concentrations posed a potential carcinogenic risk to humans. Further risk management and control of soil PAHs in these agricultural soils is required to ensure the safety of the biocoenosis and human health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Enhanced dissipation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the rhizosphere of the Athel tamarisk (Tamarix aphylla L. Karst.) grown in saline-alkaline soils of the former lake Texcoco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur-Galvis, Liliana A; Carrillo, Hernando; Luna-Guido, Marco; Marsch, Rodolfo; Dendooven, Luc

    2012-09-01

    Remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated alkaline saline soil with phreatophyte or "water loving plants" was investigated by spiking soil from the former lake Texcoco with 100 mg phenanthrene (Phen) kg(-1) soil, 120 mg anthracene (Ant)kg(-1) soil and 45 mg benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) kg(-1) soil and vegetating it with Athel tamarisk (Tamarix aphylla L Karst.). The growth of the Athel tamarisk was not affected by the PAHs. In soil cultivated with Athel tamarisk, the leaching of PAHs to the 32-34 cm layer decreased 2-fold compared to the uncultivated soil. The BaP concentration decreased to 39% of the initial concentration at a distance smaller than 3 cm from the roots and to 45% at a distance larger than 3cm, but 59% remained in unvegetated soil after 240 days. Dissipation of Ant and Phen decreased with depth, but not BaP. The biodegradation of PAHs was affected by their chemical properties and increased in the presence of T. aphylla, but decreased with depth.

  4. Review: Gerd Jüttemann (Hrsg. (2013. Die Entwicklung der Psyche in der Geschichte der Menschheit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Krebs

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Der Vorbereitungsband für die Reihe "Die Psychogenese der Menschheit" – ein Sammelband aus 32 Beiträgen, betitelt "Die Entwicklung der Psyche in der Geschichte der Menschheit" und 2013 herausgegeben von Gerd JÜTTEMANN – wird in dieser Besprechung in mehreren Schritten vorgestellt und bewertet. Zunächst wird kontextuell argumentiert, dass die bewährte, empirisch-experimentelle Methodologie der Psychologie zur Vernachlässigung weiterer Erkenntnisverfahren führte, die bei Themen wie dem hier zu besprechenden Werk allein verbleiben und die kurz angesprochen werden. Sodann wird das Werk im Überblick knapp dargestellt und die außergewöhnliche Heterogenität in Inhalten und Methoden betont. Die Besprechung einzelner Beiträge, die nach dem Gesichtspunkt großer Unterschiedlichkeit ausgewählt wurden, schließt sich an. Die abschließende Gesamtbewertung betont den lückenhaften Forschungsstand, die Notwendigkeit der allein verbleibenden qualitativen Methodik mit ihren verschiedenen Möglichkeiten und nennt Desiderata künftigen Vorgehens für diesen thematisch und methodisch interessanten Auftakt-Band, der insbesondere durch Dichte und Verschiedenheit der Beiträge beeindruckt. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1502219

  5. Interactions between selected PAHs and the microbial community in rhizosphere of a paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu H; Yang, Xue Y

    2009-01-15

    This study investigated the interaction of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), i.e., naphthalene (NAP), phenanthrene (PHN), and pyrene (PYR), with the microbial community in the rhizosphere of a paddy soil and the influence of the rice (Oryza sativa) rhizosphere on the microbial community structure. A range of initial NAP, PHN and PYR levels in soil (50-200, 18-72, and 6.6-26.6 mg kg(-1), respectively) were prepared and the soil samples were then aged for 4 months (to yield PAH concentrations at 1.02-1.42, 1.32-4.77, and 2.98-18.5 mg kg(-)(1), respectively) before the soil samples were planted with rice seedlings. The microbial phospholipid-fatty-acid (PLFA) patterns in PAH-contaminated soils were analyzed to elucidate the changes of the microbial biomass and community composition. Results indicated that at the applied concentrations the PAHs were not toxic to rice seedlings, as evidenced by no growth inhibition during the 8-week planting period. However, the microbial biomass, as revealed by PLFAs, decreased significantly with increasing PAH concentration in both rhizospheric and non-rhizospheric soils. The PAHs in soils were obviously toxic to microorganisms, and the toxicity of PHN was greater than PYR due likely to the higher PHN bioavailability. Total PLFAs in rhizospheric soils were profoundly higher than those in non-rhizospheric soils, suggesting that the inhibitive effect of PAHs on microbial activities was alleviated by the rice roots. The principal component analysis (PCA) of the PLFA signatures revealed pronounced changes in PLFA pattern in rhizospheric and non-rhizospheric soils with or without spiked PAHs. Using the PLFA patterns as a biomarker, it was found that Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to PAHs than Gram-negative bacteria, and the rhizosphere of rice roots stimulated the growth of aerobic bacteria.

  6. Renewables in figures. National and international trends in 2016; Erneuerbare Energien in Zahlen. Nationale und internationale Entwicklung im Jahr 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-09-15

    The expansion of renewable energies is a central pillar of the energy transition. The development is positive: In 2016, renewable energies accounted for 31.7 percent of total gross electricity consumption. The brochure informs about the progress achieved in the further development of renewable energies in Germany, Europe and the world. The data on the development of renewable energies in Germany is based on the results of the Working Group on Renewable Energy Statistics (AGEE-Stat), which compiles the balance sheet of renewable energies for Germany on behalf of the BMWi. The data published here are a snapshot with the editorial deadline of August 2016 - they are still provisional in some places, especially for 2016. At the same time, current time series on the development of renewable energies in Germany since 1990 as well as a variety of graphs are published on the websites of the BMWi. These time series and graphs will be updated at the turn of the year 2017/2018. [German] Der Ausbau der erneuerbaren Energien ist eine zentrale Saeule der Energiewende. Die Entwicklung ist positiv: Im Jahr 2016 hatten die erneuerbare Energien einen Anteil von 31,7 Prozent am gesamten Bruttostromverbrauch. Mit der Broschuere wird ueber den erreichten Fortschritt beim weiteren Ausbau der Erneuerbaren Energien in Deutschland, in Europa und der Welt informiert. Grundlage der Daten zur Entwicklung der erneuerbaren Energien in Deutschland sind die Ergebnisse der Arbeitsgruppe Erneuerbare Energien-Statistik (AGEE-Stat), die im Auftrag des BMWi die Bilanz der erneuerbaren Energien fuer Deutschland erarbeitet. Die hier veroeffentlichten Daten stellen eine Momentaufnahme mit Redaktionsschluss August 2016 dar - sie haben insbesondere fuer das Jahr 2016 an einigen Stellen noch vorlaeufigen Charakter. Parallel werden auf den Internetseiten des BMWi aktuelle Zeitreihen zur Entwicklung der erneuerbaren Energien in Deutschland seit dem Jahr 1990 sowie vielfaeltige Schaubilder veroeffentlicht

  7. Möglichkeiten der Umsetzung einer Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung unter Verwendung kooperativer Lernformen im Geographieunterricht

    OpenAIRE

    Stange, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    „Ohne Nachhaltigkeit gibt es keine gute Zukunft“ betonte die Bildungsstaatssekretärin Cornelia Quennet-Thielen in einem Interview Anfang Oktober (BMBF 2015). Sie erklärte weiter: „Und ohne Bildung bleibt Nachhaltigkeit nur eine Forderung.“ (ebd.) Genau zehn Jahre sind vergangen, seit die Vereinten Nationen die UN-Dekade für Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung, kurz BNE, ausriefen. Der Leitgedanken der Nachhaltigkeit sollte über die Bildung Eingang in die Alltagswelten finden. Nun ist die UN-D...

  8. "Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung" - die Sicht der Kinder : Ergebnisse aus dem weltweiten OMEP-Projekt

    OpenAIRE

    Engdahl, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    Während der UNESCO Dekade „Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung“ (BNE) führte die Weltorganisation für Frühe Bildung (OMEP) zwischen 2009-2014 ein umfangreiches Projekt zum Thema Nachhaltigkeit durch. Das übergeordnete Ziel des Projektes war das Bewußtsein der OMEP Mitglieder und der internationalen Fachgemeinde für die Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung (BNE) zu stärken. Dabei wurde ein besonderer Fokus auf die kindorientierte Perspektive gelegt.

  9. Development with DMU. Options in the modern product life cycle; Entwicklung mit DMU. Moeglichkeiten im modernen Produktlebenszyklus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehn, H.; Moser, H. [Competent Engineering GmbH, Graz (Austria)

    2005-02-01

    In this contribution, the Graz-based development company Competent Engineering outlines the advantages of digital mock-ups for efficient product development. The focus is on a uniform product and data structure that is to ensure early availability of DMU for all stages of the product life cycle. (orig.) [German] Der Grazer Entwicklungsdienstleister Competent Engineering beschreibt in diesem Beitrag anhand der Entwicklung eines Ottomotors, welche Vorteile der Einsatz von Digital Mock-Ups fuer eine effiziente Produktentwicklung hat. Besondere Bedeutung hat dabei eine moeglichst durchgaengige Produkt- und Datenstruktur, um eine fruehe Verfuegbarkeit der DMUs fuer alle Bereiche innerhalb des Produktlebenszyklus zu ermoeglichen. (orig.)

  10. Electrokinetic-Enhanced Remediation of Phenanthrene-Contaminated Soil Combined with Sphingomonas sp. GY2B and Biosurfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Weijia; Guo, Chuling; Zhang, Hui; Liang, Xujun; Wei, Yanfu; Lu, Guining; Dang, Zhi

    2016-04-01

    Electrokinetic-microbial remediation (EMR) has emerged as a promising option for the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated soils. The aim of this study was to enhance degradation of phenanthrene (Phe)-contaminated soils using EMR combined with biosurfactants. The electrokinetic (EK) remediation, combined with Phe-degrading Sphingomonas sp. GY2B, and biosurfactant obtained by fermentation of Pseudomonas sp. MZ01, degraded Phe in the soil with an efficiency of up to 65.1 % at the anode, 49.9 % at the cathode after 5 days of the treatment. The presence of biosurfactants, electricity, and a neutral electrolyte stimulated the growth of the degrading bacteria as shown by a rapid increase in microbial biomass with time. The electrical conductivity and pH changed little during the course of the treatment, which benefitted the growth of microorganisms and the remediation of Phe-contaminated soil. The EMR system with the addition of biosurfactant had the highest Phe removal, demonstrating the biosurfactant may enhance the bioavailability of Phe and the interaction with the microorganism. This study suggests that the EMR combined with biosurfactants can be used to enhance in situ bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soils.

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentration levels, pattern, source identification and soil toxicity assessment in urban traffic soil of Dhanbad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Swapnil; Sinha, Alok; Tarafdar, Abhrajyoti

    2016-03-01

    Present study was carried out to assess and understand potential health risk and to examine the impact of vehicular traffic on the contamination status of urban traffic soils in Dhanbad City with respect to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Eight urban traffic sites and two control/rural site surface soils were analyzed and the contents of 13 priority PAHs was determined. Total PAH concentration at traffic sites ranged from 1.019 μg g(-1) to 10.856 μg g(-1) with an average value of 3.488 μg g(-1). At control/rural site, average concentration of total PAHs was found to be 0.640 μg g(-1). PAH pattern was dominated by four- and five-ring PAHs (contributing >50% to the total PAHs) at all the eight traffic sites. On the other hand, rural soil showed a predominance of low molecular weight three-ring PAHs (contributing >30% to the total PAHs). Indeno[123-cd]pyrene/benz[ghi]perylene (IP/BgP) ratio indicated that PAH load at the traffic sites is predominated by the gasoline-driven vehicles. The ratio of Ant/(Ant+Phe) varied from 0.03 to 0.44, averaging 0.10; Fla/(Fla+Pyr) from 0.39 to 0.954, averaging 0.52; BaA/(BaA+Chry) from 0.156 to 0.60, averaging 0.44; and IP/(IP+BgP) from 0.176 to 0.811, averaging 0.286. The results indicated that vehicular emission was the major source for PAHs contamination with moderate effect of coal combustion and biomass combustion. Carcinogenic potency of PAH load in traffic soil was nearly 6.15 times higher as compared to the control/rural soil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evolution of bacterial community during bioremediation of PAHs in a coal tar contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lors, C.; Ryngaert, A.; Perie, F.; Diels, L.; Damidot, D. [University of Lille, Lille (France)

    2010-11-15

    The monitoring of a windrow treatment applied to soil contaminated by mostly 2, 3- and 4-ring PAHs produced by coal tar distillation was performed by following the evolution of both PAH concentration and the bacterial community. Total and PAH-degrading bacterial community structures were followed by 165 rRNA PCR-DGGE in parallel with quantification by bacterial counts and 16 PAH measurements. Six months of biological treatment led to a strong decrease in 2-, 3- and 4-ring PAH concentrations (98, 97 and 82%, respectively). This result was associated with the activity of bacterial PAH-degraders belonging mainly to the Gamma proteobacteria, in particular the Enterobacteria and Pseudomonas genera which were detected over the course of the treatment. This group was considered to be a good bioindicator to determine the potential PAH biodegradation of contaminated soil. Conversely other species like the Beta proteobacteria were detected after 3 months when 2-, 3- and 4-ring PAHs were almost completely degraded. Thus presence of the Beta proteobacteria group could be considered a good candidate indicator to estimate the endpoint of biotreatment of this type of PAH contaminated soil.

  13. Near-critical and supercritical fluid extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from town gas soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, B.S.; Azzam, F.O.; Cutright, T.J.; Lee, S.

    1995-01-01

    The contamination of soil by hazardous and toxic organic pollutants is an ever-growing problem facing the global community. One particular family of contaminants that are of major importance are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs are the result of coal gasification and high-temperature processes. Sludges from these town gas operations were generally disposed of into unlined pits and left there for eventual biodegradation. However, the high levels of PAH contained in the pits prevented the occurrence of biodegradation. PAH contaminated soil is now considered hazardous and must be cleaned to environmentally acceptable standards. One method for the remediation is extraction with supercritical water. Water in or about its critical region exhibits enhanced solvating power toward most organic compounds. Contaminated soil containing 4% by mass of hydrocarbons was ultra-cleaned in a 300-cm 3 semicontinuous system to an environmentally acceptable standard of less than 200 ppm residual hydrocarbon concentration. The effects of subcritical or supercritical extraction, solvent temperature, pressure, and density have been studied, and the discerning characteristics of this type of fluid have been identified. The efficiencies of subcritical and supercritical extraction have been discussed from a process engineering standpoint

  14. Soil-borne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in El Paso, Texas: Analysis of a potential problem in the United States/Mexico border region

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Torre-Roche, Roberto J.; Lee, Wen-Yee; Campos-Díaz, Sandra I.

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasonic extraction followed by Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction (SBSE) and thermal desorption inline coupled with Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (TD/GC/MS)was used to perform a comprehensive determination of soil-borne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in El Paso, Texas. The method provided good sensitivity and faster processing time for the analysis. The total PAHs in El Paso soil ranged from 0.1 to 2225.5 µg kg−1. Although the majority of PAH concentrations did not exceed the soil screening levels regulated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, the existence of PAHs in this ecosystem is ubiquitous. Naphthalene were found in 100% of the soil samples; while the heavy PAHs (five- and six-ring) were not often detected and mostly remained in closer proximity to industrial areas and major traffic points. The results ruled out the possibility of petroleum refining as the significant source of local soil-borne PAH contamination, but they suggested that the PAHs found in El Paso soil were closely linked to human activities and possible other industrial processes. PMID:18768257

  15. Entwicklung der Reglementierung von 10 MEM-Berufen im Kontext von Bildungsreformen und dem Wandel in der Arbeitswelt: Eine Kurzstudie im Auftrag von LIBS: Eine Kurzstudie im Auftrag von LIBS Industrielle Berufslehren Schweiz, Baden

    OpenAIRE

    Egg, Maria Esther; Renold, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Im Auftrag der LIBS Industrielle Berufslehren Schweiz, hat die KOF die Entwicklung von 10 MEM1-Berufsbildern seit dem ersten Berufsbildungsgesetz dargestellt und diese eingebettet in eine kurze Zusammenfassung der wichtigsten Etappenschritte des Schweizer Berufsbildungssystems.

  16. Effect of pre-heating on the chemical oxidation efficiency: implications for the PAH availability measurement in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biache, Coralie; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Andriatsihoarana, Sitraka; Colombano, Stéfan; Faure, Pierre

    2015-04-09

    Three chemical oxidation treatments (KMnO4, H2O2 and Fenton-like) were applied on three PAH-contaminated soils presenting different properties to determine the potential use of these treatments to evaluate the available PAH fraction. In order to increase the available fraction, a pre-heating (100 °C under N2 for one week) was also applied on the samples prior oxidant addition. PAH and extractable organic matter contents were determined before and after treatment applications. KMnO4 was efficient to degrade PAHs in all the soil samples and the pre-heating slightly improved its efficiency. H2O2 and Fenton-like treatments presented low efficiency to degrade PAH in the soil presenting poor PAH availability, however, the PAH degradation rates were improved with the pre-heating. Consequently H2O2-based treatments (including Fenton-like) are highly sensitive to contaminant availability and seem to be valid methods to estimate the available PAH fraction in contaminated soils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Energy report for Bavaria, 1996/97. Data on the development of the Bavarian energy industry, with an energy balance; Energiebericht Bayern 1996/97. Daten zur Entwicklung der bayerischen Energiewirtschaft mit Energiebilanz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The report presents the energy balance for Bavaria and provides information on: Bavarian energy industry; structure and development of primary and end-use energy consumption; situation and development of energy sources (electricity, gas, mineral oil, coal, district heating). (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Bericht enthaelt die Energiebilanz Bayern fuer das Berichtsjahr und bietet Informationen zur Energiewirtschaft in Bayern, zur Struktur und Entwicklung des Primaer- und Endenergieverbrauchs und zur Situation und Entwicklung bei den einzelnen Energietraegern (Elektrizitaet, Gas, Mineraloel, Kohle, Fernwaerme). (orig.)

  18. Assessment of the bioaccessibility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from Beijing using an in vitro test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Xiangyu; Tang, Lily; Zhu Yongguan; Xing Baoshan; Duan Jing; Zheng Minghui

    2006-01-01

    As an important human exposure pathway of contaminants, soil ingestion is of increasing concern for assessing health risk from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils. A wide range of total PAH concentrations ranging from 0.112 μg g -1 to 27.8 μg g -1 in soils collected from different public sites, including gas stations, roadsides, bus stops, a kindergarten, primary and middle schools, a university and residential area, was detected. In general, total PAHs concentrations in soils from traffic areas were significantly higher than that from the other sites, indicating a dominant contribution from motor vehicles. Physiologically based in vitro tests were used to evaluate the oral bioaccessibility of PAHs in surface soil under different land uses in Beijing regarding both gastric and small intestinal conditions. It was found that the oral bioaccessibility of total PAHs in small intestinal condition, ranging from 9.2% to 60.5% of total PAHs in soil, was significantly higher than gastric condition, ranging from 3.9% to 54.9%. The bioaccessibility of individual PAHs in soils generally decreased with the increasing ring number of PAHs in both gastric and small intestinal conditions. However, the ratio of bioaccessibility of individual PAHs in gastric condition to that in small intestinal condition, generally increased with increasing ring number, indicating the relatively pronounced effect of bile extract on improving bioaccessibility of PAHs with relatively high ring numbers characterized by their high K ow values. The observation that bile extract at a level higher than critical micelle concentration could reduce the surface tension of digestive juice substantially, which may cause PAHs to be available for intestinal absorption, calls for more careful establishment of reliable soil criteria for PAHs, especially concerning the health of children who may ingest a considerable amount of PAH-contaminated soil via outdoor hand-mouth activities. - Oral

  19. Spatial Variability of PAHs and Microbial Community Structure in Surrounding Surficial Soil of Coal-Fired Power Plants in Xuzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Zhang, Wangyuan; Chen, Yi; Zhang, Shaoliang; Feng, Qiyan; Hou, Huping; Chen, Fu

    2016-09-02

    This work investigated the spatial profile and source analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil that surrounds coal-fired power plants in Xuzhou, China. High-throughput sequencing was employed to investigate the composition and structure of soil bacterial communities. The total concentration of 15 PAHs in the surface soils ranged from 164.87 to 3494.81 μg/kg dry weight. The spatial profile of PAHs was site-specific with a concentration of 1400.09-3494.81 μg/kg in Yaozhuang. Based on the qualitative and principal component analysis results, coal burning and vehicle emission were found to be the main sources of PAHs in the surface soils. The phylogenetic analysis revealed differences in bacterial community compositions among different sampling sites. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum, while Acidobacteria was the second most abundant. The orders of Campylobacterales, Desulfobacterales and Hydrogenophilales had the most significant differences in relative abundance among the sampling sites. The redundancy analysis revealed that the differences in bacterial communities could be explained by the organic matter content. They could also be explicated by the acenaphthene concentration with longer arrows. Furthermore, OTUs of Proteobacteria phylum plotted around particular samples were confirmed to have a different composition of Proteobacteria phylum among the sample sites. Evaluating the relationship between soil PAHs concentration and bacterial community composition may provide useful information for the remediation of PAH contaminated sites.

  20. Spatial Variability of PAHs and Microbial Community Structure in Surrounding Surficial Soil of Coal-Fired Power Plants in Xuzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the spatial profile and source analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in soil that surrounds coal-fired power plants in Xuzhou, China. High-throughput sequencing was employed to investigate the composition and structure of soil bacterial communities. The total concentration of 15 PAHs in the surface soils ranged from 164.87 to 3494.81 μg/kg dry weight. The spatial profile of PAHs was site-specific with a concentration of 1400.09–3494.81 μg/kg in Yaozhuang. Based on the qualitative and principal component analysis results, coal burning and vehicle emission were found to be the main sources of PAHs in the surface soils. The phylogenetic analysis revealed differences in bacterial community compositions among different sampling sites. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum, while Acidobacteria was the second most abundant. The orders of Campylobacterales, Desulfobacterales and Hydrogenophilales had the most significant differences in relative abundance among the sampling sites. The redundancy analysis revealed that the differences in bacterial communities could be explained by the organic matter content. They could also be explicated by the acenaphthene concentration with longer arrows. Furthermore, OTUs of Proteobacteria phylum plotted around particular samples were confirmed to have a different composition of Proteobacteria phylum among the sample sites. Evaluating the relationship between soil PAHs concentration and bacterial community composition may provide useful information for the remediation of PAH contaminated sites.

  1. Renewable energies in Germany. Data on the development in 2016; Erneuerbare Energien in Deutschland. Daten zur Entwicklung im Jahr 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-03-15

    The Working Group on Renewable Energy Statistics (AGEE-Stat), which regularly evaluates the use of renewable energies on behalf of the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Energy, has made an initial assessment of the development of renewable energies in Germany on the basis of available, mostly provisional data of 2016. The present background paper describes the previous findings for the areas of electricity, heat and transport, supplemented by figures on economic significance as well as on emission reductions through renewable energies. [German] Die Arbeitsgruppe Erneuerbare Energien-Statistik (AGEE-Stat), die im Auftrag des Bundesministeriums fuer Wirtschaft und Energie regelmaessig die Nutzung der erneuerbaren Energien bilanziert, hat auf der Grundlage verfuegbarer, zumeist vorlaeufiger Daten eine erste Abschaetzung zur Entwicklung der erneuerbaren Energien in Deutschland im Jahr 2016 erstellt. Das vorliegende Hintergrundpapier beschreibt die bisherigen Erkenntnisse fuer die Bereiche Strom, Waerme und Verkehr, ergaenzt um Zahlen zur wirtschaftlichen Bedeutung sowie zur Emissionsvermeidung durch erneuerbare Energien.

  2. Der Weg zum Java-Profi Konzepte und Techniken für die professionelle Java-Entwicklung

    CERN Document Server

    Inden, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Sie haben bereits Einiges an Erfahrung mit Java und möchten Ihre Entwicklungstätigkeit nun professionalisieren? Oder sind Sie schon auf dem Weg zum Profi, benötigen aber ein Nachschlagewerk, das Ihnen die wichtigen Themen aus der Java-Welt kompakt und kompetent vermittelt? Dieses Buch bietet eine umfassende Einführung in die professionelle Entwicklung und vermittelt Ihnen das notwendige Wissen, um stabile und erweiterbare Softwaresysteme auf Java-SE-Basis zu bauen. Praxisnahe Beispiele helfen dabei, das Gelernte rasch umzusetzen. Neben der Praxis wird viel Wert auf das Verständnis zugrunde liegender Konzepte gelegt. Dabei kommen dem Autor Michael Inden seine umfangreichen Schulungs- und Entwicklererfahrungen zugute - und Ihnen als Leser damit ebenso. Diese Neuauflage wurde durchgehend überarbeitet, aktualisiert und erweitert. Natürlich darf das aktuelle Java 8 nicht fehlen. Verschiedene Kapitel sind Java 8 und seinen Neuerungen gewidmet. Dort wird ein fundierter Einstieg in die umfangreichen Erweit...

  3. Status reports on the development and application of acoustic emission analysis. Proceedings; Statusberichte zur Entwicklung und Anwendung der Schallemissionsanalyse. Beitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-08-01

    The colloquium lectures represent the wide range of applications in acoustic emission analysis and testing in the areas of damage development and damage mechanisms, testing of components, condition monitoring, development of new measuring systems and sensors as well as software development regarding locating methods and signal analysis. One focus of the colloquium is on current hardware and software developments for status monitoring by means of AE monitoring. One of the papers was separately analyzed for this database. [German] Die Vortraege des Kolloquiums repraesentieren das breite Spektrum der Anwendungen der Schallemissionsanalyse und -pruefung in den Bereichen der Schadensentwicklung und Schadensmechanismen, Pruefung von Bauteilen, Zustandsueberwachung, Entwicklung neuer Messsysteme und Sensoren sowie Softwareentwicklung bezueglich Ortungsverfahren und Signalanalyse. Ein Schwerpunkt des Kolloquiums betrifft aktuelle Hard- und Softwareentwicklungen zur Zustandsueberwachung durch AE-Monitoring.

  4. From eco-efficiency in overall sustainable development in enterprises; Von Oekoeffizienz zu nachhaltiger Entwicklung in Unternehmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weizsaecker, E.U. von; Stigson, B; Seiler-Hausmann, J D [eds.

    2001-07-01

    Eco-efficiency is achieved when goods and services satisfy human needs, increase the quality of life, at prices which are competitive and when environmental impacts and resource intensity are decreased to a degree that they are in accordance with the expected capacities of the Earth. Eco-efficiency is a management approach that allows enterprises to carry out environmental protection measures from a market-oriented point of view. Eco-efficiency shows that ecology and economy do not contradict each other. On the contrary, in combination, they present a gain for enterprises. The motto is: To produce more with less. The WBCSD and its member enterprises have agreed to make economic growth and sustainable development the guideline for their economic entrepreneurial actions. The WBCSD supports the close co-operation of the economy, government and other organizations, as it is only together that we can help sustainable development to achieve a breakthrough. (orig.) [German] Oekoeffizienz ist dann erreicht, wenn Gueter und Dienstleistungen die menschlichen Beduerfnisse befriedigen, die Lebensqualitaet erhoehen und wettbewerbsfaehige Preise aufweisen, und die oekologischen Auswirkungen und die Ressourcenintensitaet waehrend des Lebenszyklus soweit verringert werden, dass eine Uebereinstimmung mit der voraussichtlichen Belastbarkeit der Erde besteht. Oekoeffizienz steht fuer einen Managementansatz, der Unternehmen erlaubt, Umweltschutzmassnahmen unter Marktgesichtspunkten durchzufuehren. Mit Oekoeffizienz wird zum Ausdruck gebracht, dass Oekonomie und Oekologie sich nicht ausschliessen, sondern in Kombination einen Gewinn fuer Unternehmen darstellen. Das Motto lautet: Mehr mit weniger produzieren. Der WBCSD und seine Mitgliedsunternehmen haben sich darauf verstaendigt, ihr Handeln von den Prinzipien des oekonomischen Wachstums und der nachhaltigen Entwicklung leiten zu lassen. Der WBCSD unterstuetzt die enge Zusammenarbeit von Wirtschaft, Staat und anderen Organisationen

  5. Determine the Efficacy of Salinity on Bioremediation of Polluted Soil by Phenanthrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Ravanipour

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phenanthrene is one of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs that are formed during the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, oil pollution and different process of oil and gas plants. PAHs-contaminated area have increased a health risk to humans and environments due to toxicity, carcinogenicity, hydrophobicity and their tendency to accumulation in soil and sediment and their entrance to food chain. Bioremediation is an effective method for removing toxic pollutants from soils such as Phenanthrene. The main object of this study is the assessment of the effects of salinity on the efficacy of the process of bioremediation on polluted soils by Phenanthrene. Methods: The bare soil of any organic and microbial pollution was first polluted artificially to the phenanthrene then a nutrient solution with two minimum and maximum concentrations of salinity were added to it in order to have the proportion of 10% w:v (soil: water. After that a microbial mixture which was enable degradation the phenanthrene added to the slurry and aerated. After the extraction of phenanthrene by ultrasonic, the residual concentration in the soil was analyzed by GC. Results: In the conditions that salinity concentration was maximum, the microbial growth has a longer lag phase than the minimum salinity. The findings from extraction process by GC depict the removal percentage of maximum and minimum salinity in 56th %70.5 day and %71.8, respectively. Conclusion: In In spite of the longer log phase of maximum concentration of salinity and according to GC results, there was just a little difference between two solutions. Therefore it reveals that salinity can increase the lag phase but haven't any inhibitory effect on Phenanthrene removal.

  6. Phytoextraction of metals and rhizoremediation of PAHs in co-contaminated soil by co-planting of Sedum alfredii with ryegrass (Lolium perenne) or castor (Ricinus communis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Huang, Huagang; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Li, Tingqiang; He, Zhenli; Yang, Xiaoe; Alva, Ashok

    2013-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the potential for phytoextraction of heavy metals and rhizoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in co-contaminated soil by co-planting a cadmium/zinc (Cd/Zn) hyperaccumulator and lead (Pb) accumulator Sedum alfredii with ryegrass (Lolium perenne) or castor (Ricinus communis). Co-planting with castor decreased the shoot biomass of S. alfredii as compared to that in monoculture. Cadmium concentration in S. alfredii shoot significantly decreased when grown with ryegrass or castor as compared to that in monoculture. However, no reduction of Zn or Pb concentration in S. alfredii shoot was detected in co-planting treatments. Total removal of either Cd, Zn, or Pb by plants was similar across S. alfredii monoculture or co-planting with ryegrass or castor, except enhanced Pb removal in S. alfredii and ryegrass co-planting treatment. Co-planting of S. alfredii with ryegrass or castor significantly enhanced the pyrene and anthracene dissipation as compared to that in the bare soil or S. alfredii monoculture. This appears to be due to the increased soil microbial population and activities in both co-planting treatments. Co-planting of S. alfredii with ryegrass or castor provides a promising strategy to mitigate both metal and PAH contaminants from co-contaminated soils.

  7. Bioremediation of high molecular weight polyaromatic hydrocarbons co-contaminated with metals in liquid and soil slurries by metal tolerant PAHs degrading bacterial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavamani, Palanisami; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2012-11-01

    Bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) contaminated soils in the presence of heavy metals have proved to be difficult and often challenging due to the ability of toxic metals to inhibit PAH degradation by bacteria. In this study, a mixed bacterial culture designated as consortium-5 was isolated from a former manufactured gas plant (MGP) site. The ability of this consortium to utilise HMW PAHs such as pyrene and BaP as a sole carbon source in the presence of toxic metal Cd was demonstrated. Furthermore, this consortium has proven to be effective in degradation of HMW PAHs even from the real long term contaminated MGP soil. Thus, the results of this study demonstrate the great potential of this consortium for field scale bioremediation of PAHs in long term mix contaminated soils such as MGP sites. To our knowledge this is the first study to isolate and characterize metal tolerant HMW PAH degrading bacterial consortium which shows great potential in bioremediation of mixed contaminated soils such as MGP.

  8. CHARACTERIZING SOIL/WATER SORPTION AND DESORPTION BEHAVIOR OF BTEX AND PAHS USING SELECTIVE SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION (SFE); TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steve Hawthorne

    1998-01-01

    The first goal of the proposed study was to generate initial data to determine the ability of selective SFE behavior to mimic the soil/water sorption and desorption behavior of BTEX (benzene, toluene, and xylenes) and PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons).Samples generated by Professor Bill Rixey's column sorption studies (aged for 2 weeks to 8 months) and desorption studies (six weeks desorption of the aged soil columns with pure water) were extracted using sequentially-stronger SFE conditions to selectively remove different fractions of each BTEX and PAH component which range from loosely to tightly bound in the soil matrices. The selective SFE results parallel the sorption/desorption leaching behavior and mechanisms determined by Professor Rixey's investigations (under separate funding) using water desorption of soil columns previously aged with BTEX and PAHs. These results justify more intensive investigations of the use of selective SFE to mimic soil/water sorption and desorption of organic pollutants related to fossil fuels which will be performed under separate funding. The second goal of the study was to determine if selective SFE extraction behavior parallels the remediation behavior displayed by PAHs currently undergoing in-situ bioremediation at a manufactured gas plant (MGP) site. Based on soil analyses of several individual PAHs (as well as total PAHs) before remediation began, and after 147 days of remediation, selective SFE successfully mimicked remediation behavior. These results strongly support the use of selective SFE to predict remediation behavior of soils contaminated with PAHs, and are expected to provide a powerful and rapid analytical tool which will be useful for determining the remediation endpoints which are necessary for environmental protection. Based on the initial success found in the present study, additional investigations into the use of SFE for predicting and monitoring the remediation behavior of PAH-contaminated soils will be

  9. Bildung für eine nachhaltige Entwicklung. Bericht der BLK an die Regierungschefs von Bund und Ländern zur Umsetzung des Orientierungsrahmens

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Der Orientierungsrahmen "Bildung für eine nachhaltige Entwicklung" wurde 1998 durch die Bund-Länder-Kommission für Bildungsplanung und Forschungsförderung (BLK) beschlossen. In dem vorliegenden Dokument wird auf der Grundlage einer Umfrage der BLK-Geschäftsstelle bei den Kultus- und Wissenschaftsministerien über seine Umsetzung berichtet. Der Bericht gliedert sich wie folgt: 1. Rechtliche und politische Grundlagen sowie landesspezifische Initiativen/Programme einer Bildung für nachhaltige Ent...

  10. Entwicklung und Evaluierung eines auf dem Stellungsfeldermodell basierenden syntaktischen Annotationsverfahrens für Lernerkorpora innerhalb einer Mehrebenen-Architektur mit Schwerpunkt auf schriftlichen Texten fortgeschrittener Deutschlerner

    OpenAIRE

    Doolittle, Seanna

    2008-01-01

    Die Arbeit zeigt exemplarisch die Möglichkeiten, die die Mehrebenen-Korpusarchitektur bei der Annotation von „standard-“ und „nicht standardsprachlichen“ Äußerungen in einem gemeinsamen Korpus bieten. // Konkret beschäftigt sie sich mit der Entwicklung und Evaluierung eines auf dem Stellungsfeldermodell basierenden syntaktischen Annotationsverfahrens für Lernerkorpora, bestehend aus schriftlichen Texten fortgeschrittener Deutschlerner, innerhalb einer Mehrebenen-Architektur. Die Felderannotat...

  11. Mild acid and alkali treated clay minerals enhance bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in long-term contaminated soil: A 14C-tracer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Bhabananda; Sarkar, Binoy; Rusmin, Ruhaida; Naidu, Ravi

    2017-04-01

    Bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soils requires a higher microbial viability and an increased PAH bioavailability. The clay/modified clay-modulated bacterial degradation could deliver a more efficient removal of PAHs in soils depending on the bioavailability of the compounds. In this study, we modified clay minerals (smectite and palygorskite) with mild acid (HCl) and alkali (NaOH) treatments (0.5-3 M), which increased the surface area and pore volume of the products, and removed the impurities without collapsing the crystalline structure of clay minerals. In soil incubation studies, supplements with the clay products increased bacterial growth in the order: 0.5 M HCl ≥ unmodified ≥ 0.5 M NaOH ≥ 3 M NaOH ≥ 3 M HCl for smectite, and 0.5 M HCl ≥ 3 M NaOH ≥ 0.5 M NaOH ≥ 3 M HCl ≥ unmodified for palygorskite. A 14 C-tracing study showed that the mild acid/alkali-treated clay products increased the PAH biodegradation (5-8%) in the order of 0.5 M HCl ≥ unmodified > 3 M NaOH ≥ 0.5 M NaOH for smectite, and 0.5 M HCl > 0.5 M NaOH ≥ unmodified ≥ 3 M NaOH for palygorskite. The biodegradation was correlated (r = 0.81) with the bioavailable fraction of PAHs and microbial growth as affected particularly by the 0.5 M HCl and 0.5 M NaOH-treated clay minerals. These results could be pivotal in developing a clay-modulated bioremediation technology for cleaning up PAH-contaminated soils and sediments in the field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sphingomonas from petroleum-contaminated soils in Shenfu, China and their PAHs degradation abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisha Zhou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Members of the Sphingomonas genus are often isolated from petroleum-contaminated soils due to their unique abilities to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, which are important for in situ bioremediation. In this study, a combined phenotypic and genotypic approach using streptomycin-containing medium and Sphingomonas -specific PCR was developed to isolate and identify culturable Sphingomonas strains present in petroleum-contaminated soils in the Shenfu wastewater irrigation zone. Of the 15 soil samples examined, 12 soils yielded yellow streptomycin-resistant colonies. The largest number of yellow colony-forming units (CFUs could reach 105 CFUs g-1 soil. The number of yellow CFUs had a significant positive correlation (p < 0.05 with the ratio of PAHs to total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH, indicating that Sphingomonas may play a key role in degrading the PAH fraction of the petroleum contaminants at this site. Sixty yellow colonies were selected randomly and analyzed by colony PCR using Sphingomonas -specific primers, out of which 48 isolates had PCR-positive signals. The 48 positive amplicons generated 8 distinct restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP patterns, and 7 out of 8 phylotypes were identified as Sphingomonas by 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the representative strains. Within these 7 Sphingomonas strains, 6 strains were capable of using fluorene as the sole carbon source, while 2 strains were phenanthrene-degrading Sphingomonas. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to evaluate the relationship between PAHs contamination levels and culturable Sphingomonas in environmental samples.

  13. Activated carbon amendment to sequester PAHs in contaminated soil: a lysimeter field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Sarah E; Elmquist, Marie; Brändli, Rahel; Hartnik, Thomas; Jakob, Lena; Henriksen, Thomas; Werner, David; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2012-04-01

    Activated carbon (AC) amendment is an innovative method for the in situ remediation of contaminated soils. A field-scale AC amendment of either 2% powder or granular AC (PAC and GAC) to a PAH contaminated soil was carried out in Norway. The PAH concentration in drainage water from the field plot was measured with a direct solvent extraction and by deploying polyoxymethylene (POM) passive samplers. In addition, POM samplers were dug directly in the AC amended and unamended soil in order to monitor the reduction in free aqueous PAH concentrations in the soil pore water. The total PAH concentration in the drainage water, measured by direct solvent extraction of the water, was reduced by 14% for the PAC amendment and by 59% for GAC, 12 months after amendment. Measurements carried out with POM showed a reduction of 93% for PAC and 56% for GAC. The free aqueous PAH concentration in soil pore water was reduced 93% and 76%, 17 and 28 months after PAC amendment, compared to 84% and 69% for GAC. PAC, in contrast to GAC, was more effective for reducing freely dissolved concentrations than total dissolved ones. This could tentatively be explained by leaching of microscopic AC particles from PAC. Secondary chemical effects of the AC amendment were monitored by considering concentration changes in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nutrients. DOC was bound by AC, while the concentrations of nutrients (NO(3), NO(2), NH(4), PO(4), P-total, K, Ca and Mg) were variable and likely affected by external environmental factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Occurrence of nitro- and oxy-PAHs in agricultural soils in eastern China and excess lifetime cancer risks from human exposure through soil ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhe; Zhu, Ying; Zhuo, Shaojie; Liu, Weiping; Zeng, Eddy Y; Wang, Xilong; Xing, Baoshan; Tao, Shu

    2017-11-01

    The quality of agricultural soil is vital to human health, however soil contamination is a severe problem in China. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been found to be among the major soil contaminants in China. PAH derivatives could be more toxic but their measurements in soils are extremely limited. This study reports levels, spatial distributions and compositions of 11 nitrated (nPAHs) and 4 oxygenated PAHs (oPAHs) in agricultural soils covering 26 provinces in eastern China to fill the data gap. The excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) from the exposure to them in addition to 21 parent PAHs (pPAHs) via soil ingestion has been estimated. The mean concentration of ∑nPAHs and ∑oPAHs in agricultural soils is 50±45μg/kg and 9±8μg/kg respectively. Both ∑nPAHs and ∑oPAHs follow a similar spatial distribution pattern with elevated concentrations found in Liaoning, Shanxi, Henan and Guizhou. However if taking account of pPAHs, the high ELCR by soil ingestion is estimated for Shanxi, Zhejiang, Liaoning, Jiangsu and Hubei. The maximum ELCR is estimated at ca.10 -5 by both deterministic and probabilistic studies with moderate toxic equivalent factors (TEFs). If maximum TEFs available are applied, there is a 0.2% probability that the ELCR will exceed 10 -4 in the areas covered. There is a great chance to underestimate the ELCR via soil ingestion for some regions if only the 16 priority PAHs in agricultural soils are considered. The early life exposure and burden are considered extremely important to ELCR. Emission sources are qualitatively predicted and for areas with higher ELCR such as Shanxi and Liaoning, new loadings of PAHs and derivatives are identified. This is the first large scale study on nPAHs and oPAHs contamination levels in agricultural soils in China. The risk assessment based on this underpins the policy making and is valuable for both scientists and policy makers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Amelioration of soil PAH and heavy metals by combined application of fly ash and biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masto, Reginald; George, Joshy; Ansari, Md; Ram, Lal

    2016-04-01

    Generation of electricity through coal combustion produces huge quantities of fly ash. Sustainable disposal and utilization of these fly ash is a major challenge. Fly ash along with other amendments like biochar could be used for amelioration of soil. In this study, fly ash and biochar were used together for amelioration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated soil. Field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of fly ash and biochar on the amelioration of soil PAH, and the yield of Zea mays. The treatments were control, biochar (4 t/ha), fly ash (4 t/ha), ash + biochar ( 2 + 2 t/ha). Soil samples were collected after the harvest of maize crop and analysed for chemical and biological parameters. Thirteen PAHs were analysed in the postharvest soil samples. Soil PAHs were extracted in a microwave oven at 120 °C using hexane : acetone (1:1) mixture. The extracted solutions were concentrated, cleaned and the 13 PAHs [Acenaphthene (Ace), fluorene (Flr), phenanthrene (Phn), anthracene(Ant), pyrene(Pyr), benz(a)anthracene (BaA), chrysene (Chy), benzo(b)fluoranthene (BbF), benzo(k)fluoranthene (BkF), benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene (BghiP), dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene)(Inp)] were analysed using GC-MS. The mean pH increased from 6.09 in control to 6.64 and 6.58 at biochar and fly ash treated soils, respectively. N content was not affected, whereas addition of biochar alone and in combination with fly ash, has significantly increased the soil organic carbon content. P content was almost double in combined (9.06 mg/kg) treatment as compared to control (4.32 mg/kg). The increase in K due to biochar was 118%, whereas char + ash increased soil K by 64%. Soil heavy metals were decreased: Zn (-48.4%), Ni (-41.4%), Co (-36.9%), Cu (-35.7%), Mn (-34.3%), Cd (-33.2%), and Pb (-30.4%). Soil dehydrogenase activity was significantly increased by ash and biochar treatments and the maximum activity was observed for the combined

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil of the Canadian River floodplain in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, F.; Wade, T.L.; Sericano, J.L.; Mohanty, B.P.; Smith, K.A.

    2010-01-01

    The accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in soil, plants, and water may impart negative eff ects on ecosystem and human health. We quantified the concentration and distribution of 41 PAH (n = 32), organic C, total N, and S (n = 140) and investigated PAH sources using a chronosequence of floodplain soils under a natural vegetation succession. Soil samples were collected between 0- and 260-cm depth in bare land (the control), wetland, forest, and grassland areas near a closed municipal landfill and an active asphalt plant (the contaminant sources) in the north bank of the Canadian River near Norman, OK. Principal component, cluster, and correlation analyses were used to investigate the spatial distribution of PAH, in combination with diagnostic ratios to distinguish pyrogenic vs. petrogenic PAH suites. Total PAH concentration (??PAH) had a mean of 1300 ng g-1, minimum of 16 ng g-1, and maximum of 12,000 ng g-1. At 0- to 20-cm depth, ??PAH was 3500 ?? 1600 ng g-1 (mean ?? 1 SE) near the contaminant sources. The most common compounds were nonalkylated, high molecular weight PAH of pyrogenic origin, i.e., fluoranthene (17%), pyrene (14%), phenanthrene (9%), benzo(b)fluoranthene (7%), chrysene (6%), and benzo(a)anthracene (5%). ??PAH in the control (130 ?? 23 ng g -1) was comparable to reported concentrations for the rural Great Plains. Perylene had a unique distribution pattern suggesting biological inputs. The main PAH contamination mechanisms were likely atmospheric deposition due to asphalt production at the 0- to 20-cm depth and past landfill operations at deeper depths. Copyright ?? 2010 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhanced biodegradation of PAHs in historically contaminated soil by M. gilvum inoculated biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Bijing; Zhang, Youchi; Hou, Yanwei; Arp, Hans Peter H; Reid, Brian J; Cai, Chao

    2017-09-01

    The inoculation of rice straw biochar with PAH-degrading Mycobacterium gilvum (1.27 × 10 11  ± 1.24 × 10 10  cell g -1 ), and the subsequent amendment of this composite material to PAHs contaminated (677 mg kg -1 ) coke plant soil, was conducted in order to investigate if would enhance PAHs biodegradation in soils. The microbe-biochar composite showed superior degradation capacity for phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene. Phenanthrene loss in the microbe-biochar composite, free cell alone and biochar alone treatments was, respectively, 62.6 ± 3.2%, 47.3 ± 4.1% and non-significant (P > 0.05); whereas for fluoranthene loss it was 52.1 ± 2.3%; non-significant (P > 0.05) and non-significant (P > 0.05); and for pyrene loss it was 62.1 ± 0.9%; 19.7 ± 6.5% and 13.5 ± 2.8%. It was hypothesized that the improved remediation was underpinned by i) biochar enhanced mass transfer of PAHs from the soil to the carbonaceous biochar "sink", and ii) the subsequent degradation of the PAHs by the immobilized M. gilvum. To test this mechanism, a surfactant (Brij 30; 20 mg g -1 soil), was added to impede PAHs mass transfer to biochar and sorption. The surfactant increased solution phase PAH concentrations and significantly (P < 0.05) reduced PAH degradation in the biochar immobilized M. gilvum treatments; indicating the enhanced degradation occurred between the immobilized M. gilvum and biochar sorbed PAHs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Erkundungen im Spannungsfeld von Pädagogik, Spielspass und technischer Machbarkeit. Gedanken zur Konzeption und Entwicklung spielbasierter digitaler Lernumgebung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Berger

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Computerspiele sind heute aus der digitalen Medienwelt nicht mehr wegzudenken. Ihre rasante technische Entwicklung sowie ihre hohe Akzeptanz in der Jugendkultur werfen Fragen nach pädagogischer Verwertbarkeit dieses Mediums auf. Auf diesem Gebiet besteht Forschungsbedarf: Für den Einsatz aktueller Spielkonzepte als Lehrmittel existieren keine fundierten Theorien oder Konzepte. Der schöpferische Umgang mit Spielen durch Anwender («Emergent Gameplay» bietet hier durch sein hohes Motivationspotential einen vielversprechenden Ansatz. Die oft wenig beachtete Rolle der digitalen Spielen zugrunde liegenden Softwaretechnik sollte stärkere Berücksichtigung finden: Es existiert einerseits ein für die Akzeptanz beim Anwender notwendiges Minimum, andererseits ist der Einsatz des aktuellen technischen «state of the art» für die Umsetzung pädagogischer und didaktischer Ambitionen durch seine enormen Anforderungen wenig zielführend. Im Ergebnis sind Idee und Spielspass das Mass auch für Anwendungen des Game Based Learn­ing.

  19. Implications of Bioremediation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils for Human Health and Cancer Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davie-Martin, Cleo L. [Department; Department; Stratton, Kelly G. [Pacific Northwest; Teeguarden, Justin G. [Pacific Northwest; Waters, Katrina M. [Pacific Northwest; Simonich, Staci L. Massey [Department; Department

    2017-08-09

    Background: Bioremediation uses microorganisms to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soils. Its success is largely evaluated through targeted analysis of PAH concentrations in soil and cancer risk (exposure) estimates. However, bioremediation often fails to significantly degrade the most carcinogenic PAHs and can initiate formation of more polar metabolites, some of which may be more toxic. Objectives: We aimed to investigate whether the cancer risk associated with PAH-contaminated soils was reduced post-bioremediation and to identify the most effective bioremediation strategies for degrading the carcinogenic and high molecular weight (≥MW302) PAHs. Methods: Pre- and post-bioremediation concentrations of eight B2 group carcinogenic PAHs in soils were collated from the literature and used to calculate excess lifetime cancer risks (ELCR) for adult populations exposed via non-dietary ingestion, per current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recommendations. Due to the nature of the collated data (reported as mean concentrations ± standard deviations pre- and post-bioremediation), we used simulation methods to reconstruct the datasets and enable statistical comparison of ELCR values pre- and post-bioremediation. Additionally, we measured MW302 PAHs in a contaminated soil prior to and following treatment in an aerobic bioreactor and examined their contributions to cancer risk. Results: 120 of 158 treated soils (76%) exhibited a statistically significant reduction in cancer risk following bioremediation; however, 67% (106/158) of soils had post-bioremediation ELCR values over 10 fold higher than the USEPA health-based ‘acceptable’ risk level. Composting treatments were most effective at biodegrading PAHs in soils and reducing the ELCR. MW302 PAHs were not significantly degraded during bioremediation and dibenzo(a,l)pyrene, alone, contributed an additional 35% to the cancer risk associated with the eight B2 group PAHs in the

  20. INTERACTION’S EFFECT OF ORGANIC MATERIAL AND AGGREGATION ON EXTRACTION EFFICIENCY OF TPHS FROM PETROLEUM CONTAMINATED SOILS WITH MAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ganjidoust and Gh. Naghizadeh

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Microwave-Assisted Extraction (MAE is a type of low-temperature thermal desorption process that its numerous advantages have caused a wide spread use of it. Microwave heating is a potentially attractive technique as it provides volumetric heating process to improve heating efficiencies as compared with conventional techniques. The ability to rapidly heat the sample solvent mixture is inherent to MAE and the main advantage of this technique. Presently MAE has been shown to be one of the best technologies for removing environmental pollutants specially PAHs, phenols and PCBs from soils and sediments. Five different mixtures and types of aggregation (Sand, Top soil, Kaolinite besides three concentrations of crude oil as a contaminant (1000, 5000 and 10000 mg/L were considered. The results indicated that regardless of aggregation, the presence of humus component in soil reduces the efficiency. Minimum and maximum efficiencies were for sandy soil (containing organic components and kaolinite (without any organic content, respectively. According to the results of this research when some amount of humus and organic materials are available in the matrix, it causes the extraction efficiency to perform as a function of just humus materials but not aggregation. Increasing the concentration of crude oil reduced the efficiency with a sharp steep for higher concentration (5000-10000 mg/L and less steeper for lower concentration (1000-5000 mg/L. The concentration of the contaminant, works just as an independent function with extraction time and aggregation factors. The extraction period of 10 min. can be suggested as an optimum extraction time in FMAE for PAHs contaminated soils.

  1. Implications of polluted soil biostimulation and bioaugmentation with spent mushroom substrate (Agaricus bisporus) on the microbial community and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Delgado, Carlos; D'Annibale, Alessandro; Pesciaroli, Lorena; Yunta, Felipe; Crognale, Silvia; Petruccioli, Maurizio; Eymar, Enrique

    2015-03-01

    Different applications of spent Agaricus bisporus substrate (SAS), a widespread agro-industrial waste, were investigated with respect to the remediation of a historically polluted soil with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH). In one treatment, the waste was sterilized (SSAS) prior to its application in order to assess its ability to biostimulate, as an organic amendment, the resident soil microbiota and ensuing contaminant degradation. For the other treatments, two bioaugmentation approaches were investigated; the first involved the use of the waste itself and thus implied the application of A. bisporus and the inherent microbiota of the waste. In the second treatment, SAS was sterilized and inoculated again with the fungus to assess its ability to act as a fungal carrier. All these treatments were compared with natural attenuation in terms of their impact on soil heterotrophic and PAH-degrading bacteria, fungal growth, biodiversity of soil microbiota and ability to affect PAH bioavailability and ensuing degradation and detoxification. Results clearly showed that historically PAH contaminated soil was not amenable to natural attenuation. Conversely, the addition of sterilized spent A. bisporus substrate to the soil stimulated resident soil bacteria with ensuing high removals of 3-ring PAH. Both augmentation treatments were more effective in removing highly condensed PAH, some of which known to possess a significant carcinogenic activity. Regardless of the mode of application, the present results strongly support the adequacy of SAS for environmental remediation purposes and open the way to an attractive recycling option of this waste. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils around Guanting Reservoir, Beijing, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiao, W.T.; Lu, Y.L.; Wang, T.Y.; Li, J.; Han, Jingyi; Wang, G.; Hu, W.Y.

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ( 16PAHs) were measured by gas chromatography equipped with a mass spectrometry detector (GC-MS) in 56 topsoil samples around Guanting Reservior (GTR), which is an important water source for Beijing. Low to medium levels of PAH contamination

  3. Biological treatment of PAH-contaminated sediments in a Sequencing Batch Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiavola, Agostina; Baciocchi, Renato; Gavasci, Renato

    2010-01-01

    The technical feasibility of a sequential batch process for the biological treatment of sediments contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was evaluated through an experimental study. A bench-scale Sediment Slurry Sequencing Batch Reactor (SS-SBR) was fed with river sediments contaminated by a PAH mixture made by fluorene, anthracene, pyrene and crysene. The process performance was evaluated under different operating conditions, obtained by modifying the influent organic load, the feed composition and the hydraulic residence time. Measurements of the Oxygen Uptake Rates (OURs) provided useful insights on the biological kinetics occurring in the SS-SBR, suggesting the minimum applied cycle time-length of 7 days could be eventually halved, as also confirmed by the trend observed in the volatile solid and total organic carbon data. The removal efficiencies gradually improved during the SS-SBR operation, achieving at the end of the study rather constant removal rates above 80% for both 3-rings PAHs (fluorene and anthracene) and 4-ring PAHs (pyrene and crysene) for an inlet total PAH concentration of 70 mg/kg as dry weight (dw).

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the sediments of east coast peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Suhaimi Elias; Abdul Khalik Wood; Zaleha Hashim; Wee Boon Siong; Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah; Shamsiah Abdul Rahman; Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah Salim; Ariffin Talib

    2007-01-01

    The polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are pollutants of concern due to their persistent in the marine ecosystem, thus its can cause long-term adverse effect to the marine life. In this study the concentrations of PAHs in east coast Peninsular Malaysia sediments were determined. About ten stations along the east coast of the coastal area were selected to collect sediments sample using grab sampler. The PAHs from the sediment samples were soxhlet extracted using mixture of hexane and dichloromethane (DCM). Fractionation was done using the silica-alumina column. About 17 compounds of the PAHs were determined using the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GCMS model QP5050A). The Σ PAHs was found in the range between 0.26 μg/ g to 0.59 μg/ g dry weight. The data from the study signified that the main source of PAHs in the sediment of the east coast peninsular Malaysia is originated from the pyrolytic source. (author)

  5. Construction of PAH-degrading mixed microbial consortia by induced selection in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra, German; Absalón, Ángel E; Anducho-Reyes, Miguel Ángel; Fernandez, Francisco J; Cortés-Espinosa, Diana V

    2017-04-01

    Bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated soils through the biostimulation and bioaugmentation processes can be a strategy for the clean-up of oil spills and environmental accidents. In this work, an induced microbial selection method using PAH-polluted soils was successfully used to construct two microbial consortia exhibiting high degradation levels of low and high molecular weight PAHs. Six fungal and seven bacterial native strains were used to construct mixed consortia with the ability to tolerate high amounts of phenanthrene (Phe), pyrene (Pyr) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and utilize these compounds as a sole carbon source. In addition, we used two engineered PAH-degrading fungal strains producing heterologous ligninolytic enzymes. After a previous selection using microbial antagonism tests, the selection was performed in microcosm systems and monitored using PCR-DGGE, CO 2 evolution and PAH quantitation. The resulting consortia (i.e., C1 and C2) were able to degrade up to 92% of Phe, 64% of Pyr and 65% of BaP out of 1000 mg kg -1 of a mixture of Phe, Pyr and BaP (1:1:1) after a two-week incubation. The results indicate that constructed microbial consortia have high potential for soil bioremediation by bioaugmentation and biostimulation and may be effective for the treatment of sites polluted with PAHs due to their elevated tolerance to aromatic compounds, their capacity to utilize them as energy source. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Degradation pathways of 1-methylphenanthrene in bacterial Sphingobium sp. MP9-4 isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jianan; Luo, Lijuan; Chen, Baowei; Sha, Sha; Qing, Qing; Tam, Nora F Y; Zhang, Yong; Luan, Tiangang

    2017-01-30

    Alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are abundant in petroleum, and alkylated phenanthrenes are considered as the primary PAHs during some oil spill events. Bacterial strain of Sphingobium sp. MP9-4, isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil, was efficient to degrade 1-methylphenanthrene (1-MP). A detailed metabolism map of 1-MP in this strain was delineated based on analysis of metabolites with gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). 1-MP was initially oxidized via two different biochemical strategies, including benzene ring and methyl-group attacks. Benzene ring attack was initiated with dioxygenation of the non-methylated aromatic ring via similar degradation pathways of phenanthrene (PHE) by bacteria. For methyl-group attack, mono oxygenase system was involved and more diverse enzymes were needed than that of PHE degradation. This study enhances the understanding of the metabolic pathways of alkylated PAHs and shows the significant potential of Sphingobium sp. MP9-4 for the bioremediation of alkylated PAHs contaminated environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Long-term perspectives of technical and social development in Germany. Visions for research and technology policy; Langfristige Perspektiven technischer und gesellschaftlicher Entwicklung in Deutschland. Visionen fuer die Forschungs- und Technologiepolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, W; Zweck, A

    1995-12-01

    This publication contains six contributions discussing the medium- and long-term perspectives of technical, social and economic development in Germany. (UA) [Deutsch] Die vorliegende Publikation enthaelt 6 Vortraege, die sich mit mittel- und langfristigen Perspektiven der technischen, sozialen und wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung in Deutschland befassen. (UA)

  8. [St. Petersburg und Livland - und die Entwicklung der estnischen Literatur : Anton Schiefner (1817-1879) und Friedrich R. Kreutzwald (1803-1882) im Briefwechsel (1853-1879)] / Felix Köther

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Köther, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: St. Petersburg und Livland - und die Entwicklung der estnischen Literatur : Anton Schiefner (1817-1879) und Friedrich R. Kreutzwald (1803-1882) im Briefwechsel (1853-1879) / bearbeitet von Hartmut Walravens. Wiesbaden : Harrassowitz, 2013. (Orientalistik-Bibliographien und Dokumentationen ; Bd. 22)

  9. Environmental research - development of the material balance of oak tree ecosystems on quaternary spoil bank substrates of coal mines; Umweltforschung - Entwicklung des Stoffhaushaltes von Eichenoekosystemen auf quartaeren Kippsubstraten des Braunkohlenbergbaues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzur, J.; Knoche, D.

    2000-07-01

    Investigations have shown that even the very first forest generation on spoil banks already have high vitality. However, it is well known that pioneering terrestrial ecosystems have a high water and material turnover dynamics which will quickly influence the soil at that site but is not an indication of the development of a stable ecosystem. Long-term measurements were therefore made in oak forest ecosystems on quaternary spoil bank sands in order to achieve a quantification (Boxberg: Q. rubra L., 2 years; Kleinleipisch: Q. rubra L., 21 years; Annahuetter: Q. rubra L., 63 years). The results were compared with a virgin soil reference site (Neusorgefeld: Q. rubra L., 41 years). [German] Seit Jahrzehnten praegen Braunkohlentagebaue das Landschaftsbild und den Wasserhaushalt der Niederlausitz. Bislang wurden ca. 770 km{sup 2} ueberwiegend forstlich genutzter Flaechen devastiert und auf 2.100 km{sup 2} rund 9,5 Mrd. m{sup 3} statischer Grundwasservorraete entnommen. Im Zuge der seit 1990 drastisch verringerten Kohlefoerderung und forcierten Bergbausanierung erreicht die Rekultivierungsflaeche zwischenzeitlich rund 450 km{sup 2}, wobei die forstliche Folgenutzung mit 60% der Flaeche dominiert. Zahlreiche wachstumskundliche Untersuchungen belegen, dass sich bereits in der ersten Waldgeneration auf Kippe wuechsige und vitale Bestaende etablieren. Vegetations- und ertragskundliche Parameter wie z.B. Artenzusammensetzung, Naehrstoffversorgung, laufender Zuwachs oder Vorratshaltung sind jedoch per se noch keine hinreichenden Kriterien zur Einschaetzung der Entwicklungsdynamik und damit des angestrebten Rekultivierungserfolgs. Bekannterweise zeichnen sich im Aufbau befindliche terrestrische Oekosysteme generell durch eine ausgepraegte Wasser- und Stoffdynamik aus, welche im Zuge bodengenetischer Prozesse meist eine rasche Standortveraenderung bewirkt. Da das Standortpotential zum Rekultivierungszeitpunkt nicht prognostiziert werden kann, ist offen, ob sich bereits in der

  10. Unterrichtsentwurf: Die Entwicklung eines nationalen Identitätsbewusstseins in den von Napoleon besetzten Ländern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Fridrich

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Nathalie Friedrichs proposes the following lesson plan for the senior classes of the German Gymnasium (grammar-school: „Die Entwicklung eines nationalen Identitätsbewusstseins in den von Napoleon besetzten Ländern“ (The Development of a National Sense of Identity in the Countries Occupied by Napeoleon.The central question, however, is whether this new German national consciousness at the dawn of the 19th century can be traced back to Napoleon’s reign in the Rhineland region or whether it emerged during the wars of liberation as a result of a firm rejection of Napoleon.The following materials will be given to the pupils beforhand: A short preparatory text with essential background information, a pithy quote , and two historical sources, namely the appeal of Ludwig Adolf Peter Graf von Sayn-Wittgenstein to support the war of liberation, and another more francophile source by the physician Adolf Kußmaul. The latter source points in the direction of a positive experience during the time of French occupation and therefore relativises the claim of a German patriotism as a direct result of the war against France. From a didactical viewpoint, the lesson aims to develop the prerequisites for a critical analysis of historical source texts and different points of view on the topic. Finally, a table listing the respective pros and cons of the Napoleonic arguments is sketched out, visualising the perspectives of the students and leading to the final discussion, which should produce answers to the questions of the role of Napoleon for the Germans.

  11. Soziologische Wissenskulturen zwischen individualisierter Inspiration und prozeduraler Legitimation. Zur Entwicklung qualitativer und interpretativer Sozialforschung in der deutschen und französischen Soziologie seit den 1960er Jahren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiner Keller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wie wissen Soziologinnen und Soziologen, was sie wissen? Trotz der Internationalisierung der Soziologie bestehen nach wie vor starke sprachräumliche Unterschiede in der soziologischen Wissensproduktion, in eingesetzten Theorien, Methoden und Fragestellungen. Der nachfolgende Beitrag erläutert die Entwicklung und Ausprägung der Unterschiedlichkeit soziologischer Wissenskulturen im Hinblick auf den Einsatz qualitativer bzw. interpretativer Ansätze seit den 1960er Jahren in Deutschland und Frankreich. Er stützt sich auf ein von uns 2012-2014 geleitetes Forschungsprojekt und dessen empirische Grundlagen: Dokumentenanalysen und Interviews. Wissenskulturen werden als die Arten und Weisen der Produktion und Legitimation von (hier: soziologischem Wissen verstanden. Diesbezüglich lässt sich von der Erkenntnisproduktion als dem zentralen Handlungsproblem soziologischen Forschens sprechen. Während für die französischsprachige Soziologie diagnostisch von einer Lösung dieses Erkenntnisproblems durch die den Forschenden zugeschriebenen Kompetenzen und Inspirationen ausgegangen werden kann, schiebt sich im deutschsprachigen Raume eine prozedurale Legitimation durch Verfahren in den Vordergrund. Der Beitrag rekonstruiert exemplarisch die Ausgangssituation dieser Entwicklungen um die Wende zu den 1960er Jahren und bettet sie in die weitere Entfaltung der jeweiligen Soziologien ein. Er will damit zur gegenwärtigen Entwicklung einer reflexiven Soziologie beitragen. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1601145

  12. Levels, sources and probabilistic health risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the agricultural soils from sites neighboring suburban industries in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Ruipeng; Yang, Xiaoyi; Su, Hanrui; Pan, Yue; Zhang, Qiuzhuo; Wang, Juan; Long, Mingce

    2018-03-01

    The levels, sources and quantitative probabilistic health risks for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in agricultural soils in the vicinity of power, steel and petrochemical plants in the suburbs of Shanghai are discussed. The total concentration of 16 PAHs in the soils ranges from 223 to 8214ng g -1 . The sources of PAHs were analyzed by both isomeric ratios and a principal component analysis-multiple linear regression method. The results indicate that PAHs mainly originated from the incomplete combustion of coal and oil. The probabilistic risk assessments for both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks posed by PAHs in soils with adult farmers as concerned receptors were quantitatively calculated by Monte Carlo simulation. The estimated total carcinogenic risks (TCR) for the agricultural soils has a 45% possibility of exceeding the acceptable threshold value (10 -6 ), indicating potential adverse health effects. However, all non-carcinogenic risks are below the threshold value. Oral intake is the dominant exposure pathway, accounting for 77.7% of TCR, while inhalation intake is negligible. The three PAHs with the highest contribution for TCR are BaP (64.35%), DBA (17.56%) and InP (9.06%). Sensitivity analyses indicate that exposure frequency has the greatest impact on the total risk uncertainty, followed by the exposure dose through oral intake and exposure duration. These results indicate that it is essential to manage the health risks of PAH-contaminated agricultural soils in the vicinity of typical industries in megacities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Interactions of rice (Oryza sativa L.) and PAH-degrading bacteria (Acinetobacter sp.) on enhanced dissipation of spiked phenanthrene and pyrene in waterlogged soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y; Yu, X Z; Wu, S C; Cheung, K C; Tam, N F Y; Qian, P Y; Wong, M H

    2006-12-15

    The effects of cultivation of rice (Oryza sativa L.) and PAH-degrading bacteria (Acinetobacter sp.) separately, and in combination, on the dissipation of spiked phenanthrene and pyrene (0, 50+50, 100+100, 200+200 mg kg(-1)) in waterlogged soil were studied using pot trials. The population of introduced PAH-degrading bacteria remained at 10(5) CFU g(-1) dry soil after 20 days of treatment with Acinetobacter sp. only, but increased to 10(6) when planted with rice simultaneously. Shoot and root biomass of rice when grown alone was adversely affected by spiked PAHs, but significantly increased by 2-55% and 8-409%, respectively, when inoculated with Acinetobacter sp.. Phenanthrene and pyrene concentrations in roots ranged from 1-27 and 20-98 mg kg(-1), respectively, while their concentrations in shoots were generally lower than 0.2 mg kg(-1). The dissipation of phenanthrene was mainly due to abiotic loss as 70-78% phenanthrene was lost from the control soil at the end of 80 days, while removal of 86-87% phenanthrene had been achieved after 40 days in the treatment co-cultivated with Acinetobacter sp. and rice. Compared with the control where only 6-15% of pyrene was removed from soil, a much higher dissipation of pyrene (43-62%) was attained for the treatments co-cultivated with Acinetobacter sp. and rice at the end of 80 days. The results demonstrated that co-cultivation of rice and PAH-degrading bacteria may have a great potential to accelerate the bioremediation process of PAH-contaminated soil under waterlogged conditions.

  14. Final report on the development of a disturbanceless NDE compact cooling device; Abschlussbericht zur Entwicklung einer stoerarmen maschinellen NDE-Kompaktkuehlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, G.

    2002-08-13

    The project comprised the following aspects: 1. Development of a disturbance-free, mechanized compact cooling system for a NDE measuring system on the basis of a commercial SL200-10 split stirling cooling system of AEG Infrarotmodule GmbH, Heilbronn; 2. Support of the development work at the HTSL/Hall magnetometer of Friedrich-Schiller University, Jena; 3. Measurements of HTSL/Hall magnetometer samples and thermal characterisation. [German] Im Rahmen dieses Vorhabens wurden die folgenden Aufgabenstellungen behandelt: 1. Entwicklung einer stoerarmen, maschinellen Kompaktkuehlung fuer ein NDE-Messsystem auf der Basis eines kommerziellen Split-Stirlingkuehlers SL200-10 der Firma AEG Infrarotmodule GmbH, Heilbronn, 2. Unterstuetzung der Entwicklungsarbeiten am HTSL/Hall-Magnetometer, die bei der Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet in Jena durchgefuehrt wurden, 3. Messungen an HTSL/Hall-Magnetometer-Proben zu deren thermischer Charakterisierung. (orig.)

  15. Revolution by way of technical transfer in the development of locomotive brake systems; Revolutionierung in der Entwicklung von Bremssystemen bei Lokomotiven durch Technologietransfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, E.C. [New York Air Brake (United States). Bereich Engineering; Sinn, R. [New York Air Brake (United States). Bereich Elektronik und Software

    1997-12-31

    With the use of components from other sectors and orientation on the technologies of other fields it has been possible to enhance the standard of electronic braking systems. The reliability of the CCBII is ten times greater than with conventional systems. The physical volume could be reduced by 40 percent and the weight by 30 percent. The CCBII has functional redundancy and the Locotrol Distributed Power System is already integrated. A diagnostics system allows repair times to be reduced to 20 minutes. Production is now commencing and it is planned to make the first deliveries starting from January 1998. (orig.) [Deutsch] Durch das Einbinden von Entwurfsverfahren aus der Luft- und Raumfahrtindustrie sowie der Verwendung von Komponenten aus dem Automobilsektor, hochentwickelter Werkstoffe und Techniken ist es moeglich, neue Wege bei Bremssystemen zu gehen. Der Beitrag beschreibt die Entwicklung einer neuen Generation von computergesteuerten Bremssystemen fuer Lokomotiven. (orig.)

  16. Forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Michael C. Amacher

    2009-01-01

    Productive soils are the foundation of sustainable forests throughout the United States. Forest soils are generally subjected to fewer disturbances than agricultural soils, particularly those that are tilled, so forest soils tend to have better preserved A-horizons than agricultural soils. Another major contrast between forest and agricultural soils is the addition of...

  17. Wildnisbildung als Möglichkeit zur Professionalisierung zukünftiger Geographielehrer/innen – ein neuer Ansatz zur Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung?. GW-Unterricht|GW-Unterricht 142/143|

    OpenAIRE

    Lindau, Anne-Kathrin; Hottenroth, Daniela; Lindner, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Der in den deutschen Nationalparken seit mehreren Jahren thematisierte und praktizierte Ansatz der Wildnisbildung stellt möglicherweise einen neuen Zugang zur Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung (BNE) in der universitären Lehrer/innenbildung im Fach Geographie dar. Am Beispiel des DBU-geförderten Projektes „Wildnis macht stark“ wird eine Konzeption für die Umsetzung von Wildnisbildung im Rahmen des Geographie-Lehramtsstudiums vorgestellt und mit ersten Forschungsergebnissen zur Wirksamkeit in...

  18. Development of new layer systems for sliding bearings under high mechanical and tribological stress. Final report; Entwicklung neuer Schichtsysteme fuer den Einsatz bei mechanisch-tribologisch hochbeanspruchten Gleitlagern. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathias, M.; Herrmann, B.

    1995-12-31

    The report describes the sputtering technique as a coating method for sliding bearings of high-speed diesel engines. The project aimed at the development of a heavy-duty, wear-resistant sputtered layer on a copper-lead basis for sliding bearings. (HW) [Deutsch] Es wird berichtet ueber die Einfuehrung der Sputtertechnik als Beschichtungsverfahren fuer Gleitlager fuer schnell laufende Dieselmotoren. Ziel des Projektes war die Entwicklung einer hochbelastbaren, verschleissfesten Gleitlager-Sputterschicht auf Kupfer-Blei-Basis. (HW)

  19. Sustainable development - theory and practice of environmental consulting. Proceedings of a seminar of Zentrale Informationsstelle Umweltberatung Bayern. Vol. 11; Nachhaltige Entwicklung - Theorie und Praxis fuer die Umweltberatung. Seminarband der Zentralen Informationsstelle Umweltberatung Bayern. Bd. 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koller, U.; Behling, G.; Klemmer, A.; Haury, H.J. [comps.

    1998-12-31

    On 25/26 November, 1997, Zentrale Informationsstelle, Umweltberatung Bayern held its 11th seminar under the title ``Sustainable development - theory and practice of environmental consulting. Subjects related to the Agenda 21 were discussed in lectures and workshops. [Deutsch] Am 25. und 26. November 1997 veranstaltete die Zentrale Informationsstelle, Umweltberatung Bayern ihr elftes Seminar mit dem Thema ``Nachhaltige Entwicklung- Theorie und Praxis fuer die Umweltberatung``. In Fachvortraegen und Workshops wurden Themen zur Agenda 21 behandelt. (ABI)

  20. Soil and Soil Water Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Easton, Zachary M.; Bock, Emily

    2017-01-01

    Discusses the relationships between soil, water and plants. Discusses different types of soil, and how these soils hold water. Provides information about differences in soil drainage. Discusses the concept of water balance.

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pollution effect on soil biological activity in the anthropogenic contaminated area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batukaev, Abdulmalik; Sushkova, Svetlana; Minkina, Tatiana; Antonenko, Elena; Salamova, Anzhelika; Gimp, Alina; Deryabkina, Irina

    2017-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one of the most significant environmental contaminants with mutagenic and carcinogenic properties to all living organisms. The changes in microbial community structure in technogenic polluted soil may be used as tools for predicting and monitoring natural degradation and for search the most effective and appropriate pathways of bioremediation. The present study is aimed to research the biological activity of the soil in the emission zone of Novocherkassk Power station (NPs) (Russia) polluted by PAHs in 2015. The NPs is one of the largest thermal power stations in the south of Russia burning low-quality coal appurtenant the enterprises of I hazardous class. Monitoring plots were located on virgin or no-till fallow areas and not subject to the sanitary-protection zone of the NPs. Soil samples were taken from a depth of 0- to 20-cm, because the major part of PAHs are accumulated in the surface soil layer. The soils of the plots mainly include Chernozems Calcic (plots 1, 4, 5, 7, 9 and 10), Phaeozems Haplic (plots 3, 6, 8 and 11) Fluvisols Umbric (plots 2 and 12). In the soil of 12 monitoring plots located around NPs there were determined the main enzymes, abundance of soil bacteria and 17 priority PAHs. PAHs extraction from soil was performed by new developed ecologically clean method of subcritical water extraction without organic solvents (Sushkova et al., 2015). The level of PAHs around NPs is high at the nearest to factory monitoring plots situated at distance 1,0-1,2 km and reaches from 1600,1±14,7 up to 373,6±7,1 mkg/kg in the 20-cm soil layer. Gradually decrease of PAHs contamination is observed while increasing the distance from the NPs. The level of highmolecular PAHs (4-6 aromatic rings) exceeds the level of lowmolecular (2-3 aromatic rings) PAHs in all monitoring plots situated though the prevailing wind direction from NPs. The close correlations were found between PAHs content and biological activity parameters

  2. Study of reactive solutes transport and PAH migration in unsaturated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gujisaite, V.; Simonnot, M.O.; Gujisaite, V.; Morel, J.L.; Ouvrard, S.; Simonnot, M.O.; Gaudet, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    -silty uncontaminated soil or a sand and a model porous medium constituted of sand in which coal tar particles are dispersed. In a second time, column experiments will be carried out with a PAH contaminated soil from a former coking plant and with a multi-polluted industrial soil (PAH, heavy metals) to study PAH migration. For each studied soil, we will also determine the water retention curve in order to find the best operating conditions for our experiments with unsaturated flow. Modelling of solutes transfer in soils is also needed to improve understanding of the fate of contaminants and for risk assessment. However, it is difficult to take into account at the same time flow and interactions in models. Different models and numerical codes have been developed for solute transport. We have chosen to use the CXTFIT code, in order to model our results. This code allows indeed modelling of reactive solute transport in unsaturated porous media as well as under saturated conditions. It is usually used to estimate solute transport parameters using a nonlinear least-squares parameter optimization method. It may be used to solve the inverse problem by fitting a variety of mathematical solutions of theoretical transport models, based upon the one-dimensional convection-dispersion equation (CDE), to experimental results. The program may also be used to solve the direct or forward problem to determine concentrations as a function of time and/or position. This study at a bench scale will enable us at first to develop a methodology under unsaturated conditions and also to better understand the dominating mechanisms which control PAH transfer and availability in natural soils, especially by quantifying the impact of parameters like soil water content, water flow or the presence of plants. This is a first step before the change of scale (lysimeter). Modelling of the observed processes will also enable us to predict long term fate of PAH in soils

  3. Entwicklung von Landnutzungsszenarien für landschaftsökologische Fragestellungen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Uta

    2002-04-01

    context of this thesis the grid-based deterministic allocation model luck (Land Use Change Scenario Kit) for the allocation of land-use changes was developed. It is based upon the types of spatial data, which are commonly used in landscape ecology, such as information on land-use, soils as well as topography. The derivation of scenarios follows the approaches of landscape planning. The model is based upon the hypothesis, that land-use structure can be described as a function of its landscape ecological factors. The potential of a site to become subject to land-use changes, results from a combination of its local qualities and the site characteristics of its neighbourhood. Land-use change is realised iteratively in order to simulate the gradual process of changes in the landscape. The influence of land-use changes on flood generation serves as a case study to demonstrate the need for spatial explicit land-use scenarios. For each land-use category – built up areas, agriculturally used areas and natural/semi-natural land – the model luck offers a submodel for investigating the effect of land-use changes on flood generation: 1) Expansion of settlement area: This submodel is based upon the assumption that settlements spread only in the neighbourhood of already existing built-up areas and preferentially along infrastructural axes of development. Steep slopes inhibit the spreading on potential locations. 2) Set-aside of marginal yield sites under agricultural use: Setting-aside of arable land is based on the hypothesis that the selection of arable land to be set-aside depends on the potential yield efficiency of the locations. Within this submodel all fields under agricultural use are valued to that effect and the ones with the least productive efficiency are selected as set-aside locations. In case of homogeneous area qualities the set-aside locations are selected randomly. 3) Establishment of protected areas in waterside and ripearian areas: This submodel takes into

  4. Tenax extraction for exploring rate-limiting factors in methyl-β-cyclodextrin enhanced anaerobic biodegradation of PAHs under denitrifying conditions in a red paddy soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Mingming; Ye, Mao; Hu, Feng; Li, Huixin; Teng, Ying; Luo, Yongming; Jiang, Xin; Kengara, Fredrick Orori

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Enhanced anaerobic bioremediation of a red paddy soil polluted with PAHs. • 1% (w/w) methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD) and 20 mM nitrate addition acted as solubility-enhancing agent and electron acceptor respectively. • Tenax extraction and a first-three-compartment modeling were applicable to explore the rate-limiting factors in the biodegradation. • Lack of PAH-degraders hindered biodegradation in control and MCD addition treatments. • Inadequate bioaccessible PAHs was vital rate-limiting factor in nitrate addition treatments. -- Abstract: The effectiveness of anaerobic bioremediation systems for PAH-contaminated soil may be constrained by low contaminants bioaccessibility due to limited aqueous solubility and lack of suitable electron acceptors. Information on what is the rate-limiting factor in bioremediation process is of vital importance in the decision in what measures can be taken to assist the biodegradation efficacy. In the present study, four different microcosms were set to study the effect of methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD) and nitrate addition (N) on PAHs biodegradation under anaerobic conditions in a red paddy soil. Meanwhile, sequential Tenax extraction combined with a first-three-compartment model was employed to evaluate the rate-limiting factors in MCD enhanced anaerobic biodegradation of PAHs. Microcosms with both 1% (w/w) MCD and 20 mM N addition produced maximum biodegradation of total PAHs of up to 61.7%. It appears rate-limiting factors vary with microcosms: low activity of degrading microorganisms is the vital rate-limiting factor for control and MCD addition treatments (CK and M treatments); and lack of bioaccessible PAHs is the main rate-limiting factor for nitrate addition treatments (N and MN treatments). These results have practical implications for site risk assessment and cleanup strategies

  5. Tenax extraction for exploring rate-limiting factors in methyl-β-cyclodextrin enhanced anaerobic biodegradation of PAHs under denitrifying conditions in a red paddy soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Mingming, E-mail: sunmingming@njau.edu.cn [Soil Ecology Lab, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Key Laboratory of Soil Environmental and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Ye, Mao [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Hu, Feng, E-mail: fenghu@njau.edu.cn [Soil Ecology Lab, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Li, Huixin [Soil Ecology Lab, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Teng, Ying [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Luo, Yongming [Yantai Institute of Costal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Jiang, Xin [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Kengara, Fredrick Orori [Department of Chemistry, Maseno University, Private Bag, Maseno 40105 (Kenya)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Enhanced anaerobic bioremediation of a red paddy soil polluted with PAHs. • 1% (w/w) methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD) and 20 mM nitrate addition acted as solubility-enhancing agent and electron acceptor respectively. • Tenax extraction and a first-three-compartment modeling were applicable to explore the rate-limiting factors in the biodegradation. • Lack of PAH-degraders hindered biodegradation in control and MCD addition treatments. • Inadequate bioaccessible PAHs was vital rate-limiting factor in nitrate addition treatments. -- Abstract: The effectiveness of anaerobic bioremediation systems for PAH-contaminated soil may be constrained by low contaminants bioaccessibility due to limited aqueous solubility and lack of suitable electron acceptors. Information on what is the rate-limiting factor in bioremediation process is of vital importance in the decision in what measures can be taken to assist the biodegradation efficacy. In the present study, four different microcosms were set to study the effect of methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD) and nitrate addition (N) on PAHs biodegradation under anaerobic conditions in a red paddy soil. Meanwhile, sequential Tenax extraction combined with a first-three-compartment model was employed to evaluate the rate-limiting factors in MCD enhanced anaerobic biodegradation of PAHs. Microcosms with both 1% (w/w) MCD and 20 mM N addition produced maximum biodegradation of total PAHs of up to 61.7%. It appears rate-limiting factors vary with microcosms: low activity of degrading microorganisms is the vital rate-limiting factor for control and MCD addition treatments (CK and M treatments); and lack of bioaccessible PAHs is the main rate-limiting factor for nitrate addition treatments (N and MN treatments). These results have practical implications for site risk assessment and cleanup strategies.

  6. Thermopiles - a new thermal desorption technology for recycling highly organic contaminated soils down to natural levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haemers, J.; Cardot, J.; Falcinelli, U.; Zwaan, H.

    2005-01-01

    The Thermopile R technology, developed by Deep Green, provides an implementation system allowing to treat hydrocarbon and PAH contaminated materials down to natural levels or down to levels where they are treatable with a traditional thermal desorption unit, in a controlled batch system. The materials are indirectly heated while a substantial part of the energy is reused to heat the pile of soil. The system differs from most of the indirect thermal desorption systems by its very high energetic efficiency as well as its ability to be set -up remotely. The system does not face preferential path problems, since the heating medium is only conduction, which is very indifferent with regard to soil type (clay, sand, silt, etc.). That property is critical to an in-depth clean-up with a batch system. Other systems, based on heat, are mostly sending heat vectors (gases, hot air, steam, etc.) through the soil, which implies preferential paths, which are the main cause for not completely cleaning the soil with most batch technologies (down to natural levels). The soil to treat is placed in a pile or in a modular container in which perforated steel pipes are installed along a hexagonal pattern. During treatment those pipes are heated by hot gases (about 600 deg. C) coming from the afterburner. Consequently the soil reaches the contaminant's desorption temperature. The desorbed pollutants are then drawn by convection and diffusion into the heating pipes via the perforations. Once in the pipes the desorbed gases are mixed with the heating gases. They are sucked by the ID fan and sent to the afterburner. The hydrocarbons in gaseous phase are then oxidized in the afterburner. In this manner, they provide a part of the energy needed to heat the soil itself. The pilot unit is also equipped with a purge that allows the evacuation of a part of the gases circulating in the system; Different additional gas treatments can be applied as required by the type of contaminants and the

  7. Konzeptionelle Entwicklung innovativer Bremssysteme

    OpenAIRE

    Schwankl, L.

    2017-01-01

    Im Rahmen des hier vorgestellten Kooperationsprojekts wurden vorhandene elektromagnetische Bremsen nach konstruktionsmethodischen Gesichtspunkten überarbeitet. Nach einer intensiven Auseinandersetzung mit dem bestehenden System wurde unter Anwendung unterschiedlichster Kreativitätstechniken eine große Anzahl von neuen Lösungsvorschlägen erarbeitet und dokumentiert. Bereits in den frühen Phasen der Produktentwicklung wurden die relevanten, produktbestimmenden Eigenschaften mittels einfacher An...

  8. Die Entwicklung der Lemmaselektion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning

    2003-01-01

    On one hand, much too much importance is attached to the selection of lemmas in dictionary reviews, on the other, it is an established fact that metalexicographical interest in the selection of lemmas is not remarkable. This is undoubtedly due to the fact that this problem is more one of methodol......On one hand, much too much importance is attached to the selection of lemmas in dictionary reviews, on the other, it is an established fact that metalexicographical interest in the selection of lemmas is not remarkable. This is undoubtedly due to the fact that this problem is more one...... of methodology, which should be based on the genuine purpose of the dictionary, than one of theory, which may generate entirely new metalexicographical theories. The metalexicographical practise more or less matches the metalexicographical interest. Much time and effort may have been spent on various selection...... is nowhere to be found. This is especially questionable for a dictionary which considers authentic documentation of modern German language to be its most important task. Linked with a criticism of actual systematic phenomena this article offers suggestions for a more systematic methodology....

  9. Soil algae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    Also, the importance of algae in soil formation and soil fertility improvement cannot be over ... The presence of nitrogen fixing microalgae (Nostoc azollae) in the top soil of both vegetable ..... dung, fish food and dirty water from fish ponds on.

  10. Determination of the deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to soil at Scheyern and Kirchheim near Munich; Bestimmung der Eintraege von polyzyklischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAHs) an den Standorten Scheyern und Kirchheim bei Muenchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krainz, A; Wiedenmann, M; Maguhn, J [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie

    1998-12-31

    Task force 1, ``Analysis of the exposure of soils``, carried out comprehensive and site-specific measurements of the transfer of environmental chemicals into soil by means of the example of s-triazines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This work was in four parts: a: Determination of PAH nuisance concentrations in selected sites (Juelich, Scheyern, Bad Lauchstaedt); b: Measurement of wet deposition, development and use of methods for the determination of dry deposition; c: Statements regarding large-area PAH transfer into soil in Germany; d: Modelling of the rates of dry deposition. (orig.) [Deutsch] Aufgabe der Arbeitsgruppe 1 `Belastungsanalyse von Boeden`: Flaechendeckende sowie standortbezogene Erfassung der Eintraege von Umweltchemikalien am Beispiel der s-Triazine und PAHs. a: Bestimmung der Immissionskonzentrationen von PAHs an den Schwerpunktstandorten (Juelich, Scheyern, Bad Lauchstaedt) b: Messung der Nassen Deposition, Entwicklung und Anwendung von Methoden zur Bestimmung der Trockenen Deposition c: Aussagen ueber flaechendeckende Eintraege von PAHs in der Bundesrepublik d: Modellierung der Trockendepositionsraten. (orig.)

  11. Determination of the deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to soil at Scheyern and Kirchheim near Munich; Bestimmung der Eintraege von polyzyklischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAHs) an den Standorten Scheyern und Kirchheim bei Muenchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krainz, A.; Wiedenmann, M.; Maguhn, J. [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie

    1997-12-31

    Task force 1, ``Analysis of the exposure of soils``, carried out comprehensive and site-specific measurements of the transfer of environmental chemicals into soil by means of the example of s-triazines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This work was in four parts: a: Determination of PAH nuisance concentrations in selected sites (Juelich, Scheyern, Bad Lauchstaedt); b: Measurement of wet deposition, development and use of methods for the determination of dry deposition; c: Statements regarding large-area PAH transfer into soil in Germany; d: Modelling of the rates of dry deposition. (orig.) [Deutsch] Aufgabe der Arbeitsgruppe 1 `Belastungsanalyse von Boeden`: Flaechendeckende sowie standortbezogene Erfassung der Eintraege von Umweltchemikalien am Beispiel der s-Triazine und PAHs. a: Bestimmung der Immissionskonzentrationen von PAHs an den Schwerpunktstandorten (Juelich, Scheyern, Bad Lauchstaedt) b: Messung der Nassen Deposition, Entwicklung und Anwendung von Methoden zur Bestimmung der Trockenen Deposition c: Aussagen ueber flaechendeckende Eintraege von PAHs in der Bundesrepublik d: Modellierung der Trockendepositionsraten. (orig.)

  12. Development of renewable energy sources in Germany 2014. Charts and figures based on statistical data from the working group on renewable energy-statistics (AGEE-Stat); Entwicklung der erneuerbaren Energien in Deutschland im Jahr 2014. Grafiken und Diagramme unter Verwendung aktueller Daten der Arbeitsgruppe Erneuerbare Energien-Statistik (AGEE-Stat)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieder, Thomas; Bickel, Peter; Musiol, Frank (comps.) [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Wuerttemberg (ZSW), Stuttgart (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    The more than 30 diagrams and graphs describe the development of the importance of renewable energy in Germany by the year 2014. Also, discusses the development of avoided greenhouse emissions through renewable energies, as well as the investments and their economic impulses for Germany. Some technical terms are conclusively explained in a glossary. [German] Die mehr als 30 Diagramme und Graphiken beschreiben die Entwicklung der Bedeutung der erneuerbaren Energien fuer Deutschland bis zum Jahr 2014. Auch wird auf die Entwicklung der vermiedenen Treibhaus-Emissionen durch erneuerbare Energien, sowie die Investitionen und deren wirtschaftlichen Impulse fuer Deutschland eingegangen. Einige Fachbegriffe werden abschliessend in einem Glossar erlaeutert.

  13. Distribution of endophytic bacteria in Alopecurus aequalis Sobol and Oxalis corniculata L. from soils contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anping Peng

    Full Text Available The distributions of endophytic bacteria in Alopecurus aequalis Sobol and Oxalis corniculata L. grown in soils contaminated with different levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were investigated with polymerase chain reaction followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis technology (PCR-DGGE and cultivation methods. Twelve types of PAHs, at concentrations varying from 0.16 to 180 mg·kg(-1, were observed in the roots and shoots of the two plants. The total PAH concentrations in Alopecurus aequalis Sobol obtained from three different PAH-contaminated stations were 184, 197, and 304 mg·kg(-1, and the total PAH concentrations in Oxalis corniculata L. were 251, 346, and 600 mg·kg(-1, respectively. The PCR-DGGE results showed that the endophytic bacterial communities in the roots and shoots of the two plants were quite different, although most bacteria belonged to Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. A total of 68 endophytic bacterial strains were isolated from different tissues of the two plants and classified into three phyla: Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. In both plants, Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. were the dominant cultivable populations. With an increase in the PAH pollution level, the diversity and distribution of endophytic bacteria in the two plants changed correspondingly, and the number of cultivable endophytic bacterial strains decreased rapidly. Testing of the isolated endophytic bacteria for tolerance to each type of PAH showed that most isolates could grow well on Luria-Bertani media in the presence of different PAHs, and some isolates were able to grow rapidly on a mineral salt medium with a single PAH as the sole carbon and energy source, indicating that these strains may have the potential to degrade PAHs in plants. This research provides the first insight into the characteristics of endophytic bacterial populations under different PAH pollution levels and provides a

  14. Bacterial diversity exploration in hydrocarbon polluted soil: metabolic potential and degrader community evolution revealed by isotope labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, F.

    2011-01-01

    amplified from soil DNA, by constructing hybrid enzymes and assaying their activity The results obtained and the tools implemented in this study may be used to develop methods for the diagnostic and monitoring of pollutant biodegradation in processes such as bioremediation of PAHs contaminated sites. (author)

  15. Mycotic aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery after septic embolism; Entwicklung eines mykotischen Aneurysmas der A. mesenterica superior nach septischer Embolie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, F.; Dinkel, H.P. [Institut fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Inselspital, Universitaetsklinik Bern (Switzerland)

    2002-07-01

    Mycotic aneurysms of the aorta and the visceral arteries are life-threatening diseases, due to potential rupture and organ or limb ischemia. They occur in endocarditis, immunodeficiency, bacteremia and fungemia, and have a poor prognosis.We report on a case of a 54-year-old male patient suffering from abdominal angina after mitral valve replacement for septic mycotic endocarditis. In presence of a mycotic-embolic occlusion of the left popliteal artery and multiple septic organ infarctions a mycotic aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery was found in abdominal spiral-CT.Based on sequential spiral-CT examinations, this case demonstrates the development of a septic aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery. (orig.) [German] Mykotische Aneurysmen der Aorta und ihrer Aeste stellen wegen Rupturgefahr und moeglicher Minderperfusion von Organen und Extremitaeten eine lebensgefaehrliche Erkrankung mit unguenstiger Prognose dar. Beguenstigende Faktoren sind geschwaechte Immunabwehr, Endokarditis, Bakteriaemie und Fungaemie.Wir berichten ueber einen 54-jaehrigen Patienten, der nach einem Mitralklappenersatz bei mykotischer Endokarditis zunehmende abdominelle Beschwerden im Sinne einer Angina abdominalis entwickelte. Die abdominelle Spiralcomputertomographie zeigte ein mykotisches Aneurysma der A. mesenterica superior. Daneben bestanden ein mykotischer Verschluss der linken A. poplitea und multiple septische Organinfarkte.Der Fall demonstriert anhand sequentieller Computertomographien eindrucksvoll die Entwicklung eines septischen Viszeralarterienaneurysmas. (orig.)

  16. Enhancement of in situ Remediation of Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmroth, M.

    2006-07-01

    Approximately 750 000 sites of contaminated land exist across Europe. The harmful chemicals found in Finnish soils include heavy metals, oil products, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorophenols, and pesticides. Petroleum and petroleum products enter soil from ruptured oil pipelines, land disposal of refinery products, leaking storage tanks and through accidents. PAH contamination is caused by the spills of coal tar and creosote from coal gasification and wood treatment sites in addition to oil spills. Cleanup of soil by bioremediation is cheaper than by chemical and physical processes. However, the cleaning capacity of natural attenuation and in situ bioremediation is limited. The purpose of this thesis was to find feasible options to enhance in situ remediation of hydrocarbon contaminants. The aims were to increase the bioavailability of the contaminants and microbial activity at the subsurface in order to achieve higher contaminant removal efficiency than by intrinsic biodegradation alone. Enhancement of microbial activity and decrease of soil toxicity during remediation were estimated by using several biological assays. The performance of these assays was compared in order to find suitable indicators to follow the progress of remediation. Phytoremediation and chemical oxidation are promising in situ techniques to increase the degradation of hydrocarbons in soil. Phytoremediation is plant-enhanced decontamination of soil and water. Degradation of hydrocarbons is enhanced in the root zone by increased microbial activity and through the detoxifying enzymes of plants themselves. Chemical oxidation of contaminants by Fenton's reaction can produce degradation products which are more biodegradable than the parent compounds. Fenton's reaction and its modifications apply solutions of hydrogen peroxide and iron for the oxidation of organic chemicals. The cost of oxidation can be reduced by aiming at partial instead of full

  17. Survival and growth of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa l.) inoculated with an am fungus (Glomus intraradices) in contaminated soils treated with two different remediation technologies (bio-pile and thermal desorption)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norini, M.P.; Beguiristain, Th.; Leyval, C.

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent a group of persistent and toxic soil pollutants that are of major public concern due to their mutagenic and carcinogenic property. Phyto-remediation is the use of plants and their associated microorganisms for remediation of polluted soils. Phyto-remediation could be used in conjunction with other remediation technologies to reduce the contamination to safe levels and maintain or restore soil physico-chemical and biological properties. Most plant species form mycorrhizas with symbiotic fungi. It was shown that AM fungi enhance survival and plant growth in PAH contaminated soils. Mycorrhizal fungi also enhance the biotransformation or biodegradation of PAH, although the effect differed between soils. A rhizosphere and myco-rhizosphere gradient of PAH concentrations was observed, with decreased PAH concentration with decreased distance to roots. Different microbial communities were found in the rhizosphere of AM and non-mycorrhizal plants in comparison to bulk soil, suggesting that AM could affect PAH degradation by changing microbial communities. We investigated the effect of mycorrhizal fungi and nutrients on the ability of alfalfa to grow on soil contaminated with PAHs before and after two remediation treatments. We used soil from an industrial site (Homecourt, North East part of France) highly contaminated with PAH (2000 mg kg -1 ), which has been partially treated by two different remediation technologies (bio-pile and thermal desorption). The bio-pile treatment consisted of piling the contaminated soil with stimulation of aerobic microbial activity by aeration and addition of nutrient solution, and reduced PAH concentration to around 300 mg kg-1. With the thermal desorption treatment the soil was heated to around 500 deg. C so that PAH vaporized and were separated from the soil. The residual PAH concentration in soil was 40 mg kg -1 . Treated and non-treated contaminated soil was planted with alfalfa (Medicago

  18. Soil pollution and soil protection

    OpenAIRE

    Haan, de, F.A.M.; Visser-Reijneveld, M.I.

    1996-01-01

    This book was compiled from lecture handouts prepared for the international postgraduate course on soil quality, entitled 'Soil Pollution and Soil Protection' given jointly by the universities of Wageningen (The Netherlands), Gent and Leuven (Belgium), under the auspices of the international Training Centre (PHLO) of Wageningen Agricultural University.Of the three environmental compartments air, water and soil, it is soil that varies most in composition under natural conditions. The effects o...

  19. Possible impacts of Hg and PAH contamination on benthic foraminiferal assemblages: An example from the Sicilian coast, central Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Leonardo, Rossella [Dipartimento di Chimica e Fisica della Terra ed Applicazioni alle Georisorse e ai Rischi Naturali (CFTA), Universita di Palermo, Via Archirafi 36, 90123 Palermo (Italy); Bellanca, Adriana [Dipartimento di Chimica e Fisica della Terra ed Applicazioni alle Georisorse e ai Rischi Naturali (CFTA), Universita di Palermo, Via Archirafi 36, 90123 Palermo (Italy)], E-mail: bellanca@unipa.it; Capotondi, Lucilla [ISMAR-CNR, Marine Geology Section, Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Cundy, Andrew [School of the Environment, University of Brighton, Moulsecoomb, Brighton, BN2 4GJ (United Kingdom); Neri, Rodolfo [Dipartimento di Chimica e Fisica della Terra ed Applicazioni alle Georisorse e ai Rischi Naturali (CFTA), Universita di Palermo, Via Archirafi 36, 90123 Palermo (Italy)

    2007-12-15

    The Palermo and Augusta urban/industrial areas (Sicily) are examples of contaminated coastal environments with a relatively high influx of unregulated industrial and domestic effluents. Three sediment box-cores were collected offshore of these urban/industrial areas in water depths of 60-150 m during two cruises (summers 2003/2004), dated by {sup 210}Pb and {sup 137}Cs, and analysed for total mercury concentration and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentration. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages were also examined (in terms of their distribution and morphology) to assess the potential use of benthic foraminifera as bioindicators of pollutant input and environmental change in these Mediterranean shelf environments. The Hg and PAHs vs depth profiles show a clear increase in concentration with decreasing depth. Most of the sediments are highly enriched in mercury and show concentrations more than 20 times the background mercury value estimated for sediments from the Sicily Strait. The Hg and PAH concentrations appear to be potentially hazardous, grossly exceeding national and international regulatory guidelines. A reduction in abundance of benthic foraminifera, increasing percentages of tests with various morphological deformities, and the dominance of opportunistic species in more recent sediments can be correlated to anthropogenic impact.

  20. Possible impacts of Hg and PAH contamination on benthic foraminiferal assemblages: An example from the Sicilian coast, central Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Leonardo, Rossella; Bellanca, Adriana; Capotondi, Lucilla; Cundy, Andrew; Neri, Rodolfo

    2007-01-01

    The Palermo and Augusta urban/industrial areas (Sicily) are examples of contaminated coastal environments with a relatively high influx of unregulated industrial and domestic effluents. Three sediment box-cores were collected offshore of these urban/industrial areas in water depths of 60-150 m during two cruises (summers 2003/2004), dated by 210 Pb and 137 Cs, and analysed for total mercury concentration and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentration. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages were also examined (in terms of their distribution and morphology) to assess the potential use of benthic foraminifera as bioindicators of pollutant input and environmental change in these Mediterranean shelf environments. The Hg and PAHs vs depth profiles show a clear increase in concentration with decreasing depth. Most of the sediments are highly enriched in mercury and show concentrations more than 20 times the background mercury value estimated for sediments from the Sicily Strait. The Hg and PAH concentrations appear to be potentially hazardous, grossly exceeding national and international regulatory guidelines. A reduction in abundance of benthic foraminifera, increasing percentages of tests with various morphological deformities, and the dominance of opportunistic species in more recent sediments can be correlated to anthropogenic impact

  1. Water quality concerns due to forest fires: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) contamination of groundwater from mountain areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansilha, C; Carvalho, A; Guimarães, P; Espinha Marques, J

    2014-01-01

    Water quality alterations due to forest fires may considerably affect aquatic organisms and water resources. These impacts are cumulative as a result of pollutants mobilized from fires, chemicals used to fight fire, and postfire responses. Few studies have examined postfire transport into water resources of trace elements, including the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which are organic pollutants produced during combustion and are considered carcinogenic and harmful to humans. PAH are also known to adversely affect survival, growth, and reproduction of many aquatic species. This study assessed the effects of forest wildfires on groundwater from two mountain regions located in protected areas from north and central Portugal. Two campaigns to collect water samples were performed in order to measure PAH levels. Fifteen of 16 studied PAH were found in groundwater samples collected at burned areas, most of them at concentrations significantly higher than those found in control regions, indicating aquifer contamination. The total sum of PAH in burned areas ranged from 23.1to 95.1 ng/L with a median of 62.9 ng/L, which is one- to sixfold higher than the average level measured in controls (16.2 ng/L). In addition, in control samples, the levels of light PAH with two to four rings were at higher levels than heavy PAH with five or six rings, thus showing a different profile between control and burned sites. The contribution of wildfires to groundwater contamination by PAH was demonstrated, enabling a reliable assessment of the impacts on water quality and preparation of scientifically based decision criteria for postfire forest management practices.

  2. Integrated Assessment of PAH Contamination in the Czech Rivers Using a Combination of Chemical and Biological Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Blahova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH pollution of selected rivers in the Czech Republic. Integrated evaluation was carried out using combination of chemical and biological monitoring, in which we measured content of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP in chub bile and priority PAH in water samples obtained by exposing the semipermeable membrane devices at each location. The concentrations of 1-OHP in bile samples and sum of priority PAH in water sampler ranged from 6.8 ng mg protein−1 to 106.6 ng mg protein−1 and from 5.2 ng L−1 to 173.9 ng L−1, respectively. The highest levels of biliary metabolite and PAH in water were measured at the Odra River (the Bohumín site, which is located in relatively heavily industrialized and polluted region. Statistically significant positive correlation between biliary 1-OHP and sum of PAH in water was also obtained (P<0.01, rs=0.806.

  3. Inoculum carrier and contaminant bioavailability affect fungal degradation performances of PAH-contaminated solid matrices from a wood preservation plant

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Covino, S.; Svobodová, Kateřina; Čvančarová, Monika; D´Annibale, A.; Petruccioli, M.; Federici, F.; Křesinová, Zdena; Galli, E.; Cajthaml, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 8 (2010), s. 855-864 ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06156 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Biodegradation * White-rot fungi * Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.155, year: 2010

  4. Integrated assessment of PAH contamination in the Czech Rivers using a combination of chemical and biological monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blahova, Jana; Divisova, Lenka; Kodes, Vit; Leontovycova, Drahomira; Mach, Samuel; Ocelka, Tomas; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) pollution of selected rivers in the Czech Republic. Integrated evaluation was carried out using combination of chemical and biological monitoring, in which we measured content of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) in chub bile and priority PAH in water samples obtained by exposing the semipermeable membrane devices at each location. The concentrations of 1-OHP in bile samples and sum of priority PAH in water sampler ranged from 6.8 ng mg protein(-1) to 106.6 ng mg protein(-1) and from 5.2 ng L(-1) to 173.9 ng L(-1), respectively. The highest levels of biliary metabolite and PAH in water were measured at the Odra River (the Bohumín site), which is located in relatively heavily industrialized and polluted region. Statistically significant positive correlation between biliary 1-OHP and sum of PAH in water was also obtained (P < 0.01, r s = 0.806).

  5. Paleo-oil and gas fields in the red sandstone of the North German Basin: Effects of hydrocarbon migration on storage quality development. Fluid flow, diagenesis and storage quality in the red sandstone strata of northern Germany; Palaeo-Oel- und -Gasfelder im Rotliegenden des Norddeutschen Beckens: Wirkung der KW-Migration auf die Speicherqualitaets-Entwicklung. Fluidfluss, Diagenese und Speicherqualitaet im Rotliegend Norddeutschlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solms, M. [SGC, Lehrte (Germany); Gaupp, R. [Jena Univ. (Germany); Littke, R.; Schwarzer, D. [RWTH Aachen (Germany); Schubarth-Engelschall, J.; Trappe, H. [TEEC, Isernhagen (Germany); Krawczyk, C.; Tanner, D.; Oncken, O. [GFZ, Potsdam (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    This sub-project was aimed at improving the geological concept of the development of storage quality, at the development of a model for monitoring and reconstruction of the structural development and restructuring of reservoirs, and at obtaining information on hydrocarbon origins, migration pathways and filling chronology. Drill core data were combined with 3D seismic data in order to obtain a deeper understanding of the processes involved. [German] Im Rahmen des DGMK-Forschungsprogrammes ''Tight Gas Reservoirs'' (Projekt 593-8) wurden von der Arbeitsgruppe Sedimentologie 43 Bohrungen aus dem Rotliegend Nordwestdeutschlands untersucht. Die vorgestellten Ergebnisse schliessen sich an den Vortrag ''Einfluss von Fazies und Diagenese auf die Speicher-Qualitaets-Entwicklung von Rotliegendsandsteinen NW Deutschlands'' (SOLMS et al., DGMK-Fruehjahrstagung 2002). Ziel dieses Teilprojektes ist die Verbesserung des geologischen Konzeptes zur Entwicklung der Speicherqualitaet, die Entwicklung eines Modells zur Erfassung und Rekonstruktion der strukturellen Entwicklung und Restrukturierung von Lagerstaetten sowie die Klaerung von KW-Herkunftsgebieten, Migrationswegen und Fuellungschronologien. Durch die Verknuepfung der Kerndaten mit 3D seismischen Daten soll eine verbesserte Einschaetzung der Speicherqualitaeten aus dem 3D seismischen Abbild erreicht werden. (orig.)

  6. Solarization soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Ghraibe, W.

    1995-01-01

    Solar energy could be used in pest control, in soil sterilization technology. The technique consists of covering humid soils by plastic films steadily fixed to the soil. Timing must be in summer during 4-8 weeks, where soil temperature increases to degrees high enough to control pests or to produce biological and chemical changes. The technique could be applied on many pests soil, mainly fungi, bacteria, nematods, weeds and pest insects. The technique could be used in greenhouses as well as in plastic film covers or in orchards where plastic films present double benefits: soil sterilization and production of black mulch. Mechanism of soil solarization is explained. Results show that soil solarization can be used in pest control after fruit crops cultivation and could be a method for an integrated pest control. 9 refs

  7. Delphi report 1995 on developments in science and technology. Mini Delphi; Delphi-Bericht 1995 zur Entwicklung von Wissenschaft und Technik. Mini-Delphi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In August 1993 the first German `Delphi Report on Developments in Science and Technology` was published. It was elaborated by the Fraunhofer Institute for System Engineering and Innovation Research (FhG-ISI) in cooperation with the Japanese National Institute of Science and Technology Policy (NISTEP). The `MINI-DELPHI` now completed by FhG-ISI, again in cooperation with NISTEP, is a further development of the Delphi approach in that it is more differentiated in its questions and assessment criteria than its predecessors. `MINI-DELPHI` is not intended as a comprehensive forecast on technology in general but rather focusses on key topics. Its emphasis is on technology demand and the relevance of technologies to social issues. Although the Mini-Delphi study was primarily aimed at further refining the methodology employed, it nevertheless contains a wealth of information and details on circumscript questions. The requisite database is provided by tables on the results of two inquiry rounds among Japanese and German experts. (orig./RHM) [Deutsch] Im August 1993 wurde der erste deutsche `Delphi-Bericht zur Entwicklung von Wissenschaft und Technik` veroeffentlicht. Er war vom Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (FhG-ISI) in Zusammenarbeit mit dem japanischen National Institute of Science and Technology Policy (NISTEP) erarbeitet worden. Mit dem jetzt vorliegenden `MINI-DELPHI` hat das FhG-ISI - wieder in Zusammenarbeit mit dem NISTEP - den Delphi-Ansatz fortentwickelt und sowohl hinsichtlich der Fragen als auch der Beurteilungskriterien weiter ausdifferenziert. `MINI-DELPHI` bezweckt keine umfassende Technologievorausschau, sondern konzentriert sich auf Schluesselthemen. Im Vordergrund steht der Gedanke des Technikbedarfs und die Relevanz fuer gesellschaftliche Fragestellungen. Obwohl die Mini-Delphi-Studie vorrangig der Weiterentwicklung der Methodik dient, enthaelt sich eine Fuelle von Informationen und Details zu Einzelfragen. Die im Bericht

  8. Development of a dynamic short-term test method for installed thermal solar systems; Entwicklung eines dynamischen Kurzzeittestverfahrens fuer installierte thermische Solaranlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beikircher, T.; Gut, M.; Kronthaler, P.; Oberdorf, C.; Schoelkopf, W. [Bayerisches Zentrum fuer Angewandte Energieforschung, Muenchen (Germany). Abt. Solarthermie und Biomasse

    1998-12-31

    A short-term test method for in-situ measurement of the collector field, pipelines and heat exchanger of large-surface solar systems was developed at ZAE Bayern, together with the necessary technical systems (mobile acquisition of meteorological data via telemetering, non-invasive surface temperature sensors and ultrasonic volume flow measuring instruments). Dynamic measurements were made for 11 days in a large-surface solar system of the ``Solarthermie 2000`` programme using the new measuring system. In order to optimize the evaluation procedure, the plant was simulated, and the influence of different models and operating conditions during the measurements on the prediction quality was investigated in detail. On this basis, it was possible to predict the long-term collector yield of the ZfS Hilden, which was measured for a period of 7 months, with an error of less than 5%. The method will be validated in two further industrial-scale systems. [Deutsch] Am ZAE Bayern wurde ein Kurzzeittestverfahren zur insitu-Vermessung des Kollektorkreises (Kollektorfeld, Rohrleitungen, Waermetauscher) grosser Solaranlagen entwickelt. Hierzu wurde eine der Aufgabenstellung angepasste Messtechnik entwickelt (Mobile meteorologische Datenerfassung mit Funkbetrieb, nicht-invasive Oberflaechen-Temperaturfuehler und Ultraschall-Volumenstrommessgeraete). Der Kollektorkreis einer grossen Solaranlage aus dem Programm Solarthermie 2000 wurde dynamisch ueber 11 Tage (29.10.-8.11.1997) mit der neuen Messtechnik vermessen. Zur Entwicklung eines geeigneten Auswerteverfahrens wurde die Anlage simulatorisch abgebildet und der Einfluss verschiedener Modellansaetze und der Betriebsbedingungen waehrend des Mess- und Vorhersagezeitraums auf die Vorhersageguete im Detail untersucht. Mit dem entwickelten Verfahren konnte aus der dynamischen Kurzzeitvermessung der in einer Langzeitmessung der ZfS Hilden ueber 7 Monate ermittelte Kollektorertrag nach dem solaren Waermetauscher auf deutlich besser als 5

  9. Soils - Volusia County Soils (Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Soils: 1:24000 SSURGO Map. Polygon boundaries of Soils in Volusia County, downloaded from SJRWMD and created by NRCS and SJRWMD. This data set is a digital version...

  10. Soil microbiology and soil health assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil scientists have long recognized the importance of soil biology in ecological health. In particular, soil microbes are crucial for many soil functions including decomposition, nutrient cycling, synthesis of plant growth regulators, and degradation of synthetic chemicals. Currently, soil biologis...

  11. Soil metagenomics and tropical soil productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Garrett, Karen A.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation summarizes research in the soil metagenomics cross cutting research activity. Soil metagenomics studies soil microbial communities as contributors to soil health.C CCRA-4 (Soil Metagenomics)

  12. Soil pollution and soil protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de F.A.M.; Visser-Reijneveld, M.I.

    1996-01-01

    This book was compiled from lecture handouts prepared for the international postgraduate course on soil quality, entitled 'Soil Pollution and Soil Protection' given jointly by the universities of Wageningen (The Netherlands), Gent and Leuven (Belgium), under the auspices of the international

  13. Soil friability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2011-01-01

    This review gathers and synthesizes literature on soil friability produced during the last three decades. Soil friability is of vital importance for crop production and the impact of crop production on the environment. A friable soil is characterized by an ease of fragmentation of undesirably large...... aggregates/clods and a difficulty in fragmentation of minor aggregates into undesirable small elements. Soil friability has been assessed using qualitative field methods as well as quantitative field and laboratory methods at different scales of observation. The qualitative field methods are broadly used...... by scientists, advisors and farmers, whereas the quantitative laboratory methods demand specialized skills and more or less sophisticated equipment. Most methods address only one aspect of soil friability, i.e. either the strength of unconfined soil or the fragment size distribution after applying a stress. All...

  14. Soil Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Verruijt, A.

    2010-01-01

    This book is the text for the introductory course of Soil Mechanics in the Department of Civil Engineering of the Delft University of Technology, as I have given from 1980 until my retirement in 2002. It contains an introduction into the major principles and methods of soil mechanics, such as the analysis of stresses, deformations, and stability. The most important methods of determining soil parameters, in the laboratory and in situ, are also described. Some basic principles of applied mecha...

  15. Climatic change in Germany. Development, consequences, risks and perspectives; Klimawandel in Deutschland. Entwicklung, Folgen, Risiken und Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasseur, Guy [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Jacob, Daniela; Schuck-Zoeller, Susanne (eds.) [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Hamburg (Germany). Climate Service Center Germany

    2017-06-01

    The book on the climatic change in Germany includes contributions to the following issues: global climate projections and regional projections in Germany and Europe: observation of the climatic change in Central Europe, regional climate modeling, limits and challenges of the regional climate modeling; climatic change in Germany - regional features and extremes: temperature and heat waves, precipitation, wind and cyclones, sea-level increase, tides, storm floods and sea state, floods, definition uncertainties, draughts, forest fires, natural risks; consequences of the climatic change in Germany: air quality, health, biodiversity, water resources, biochemical cycles, agriculture, forestry, soils, personal and commercial transport, cities and urban regions, tourism, infrastructure, energy and water supplies, cost of the climatic change and economic consequences; overall risks and uncertainties: assessment of vulnerabilities, literature review, climatic change as risk enhancement in complex systems, overall risks and uncertainties, decision making under uncertainties in complex systems; integrated strategies for the adaptation to the climatic change: the climate resilient society - transformations and system changes, adaptation to the climatic change as new political field, options for adaptation strategies.

  16. Development of a test system for the determination of biodegradability in surface waters; Entwicklung eines Testsystems fuer die Pruefung des biologischen Abbaus in Oberflaechengewaessern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalsch, W; Knacker, T; Robertz, M; Schallnass, H J

    1997-04-01

    The study presented here describes the development of a laboratory test system for the determination of aerobic biodegradability of substances at low concentrations in surface water. It was aimed to prepare a draft guideline for a biodegradation simulation test according to OECD format. The experimental approach was based on a literature study conducted within the frame of this project. Further useful information on the possible test design was derived from the German BBA guideline 5-1. Natural water and sediments were collected. Radiolabelled Lindane or 4-Nitrophenol was added. The test vessels (reactors) were aerated and incubated under controlled conditions for up to 92 days. The results showed biological stability of the sediment/water systems even without addition of nutrients and adherence to non-reducing conditions. Mineralisation of 4-Nitrophenol was influenced by the sediment type, the method of aeration and temperature. Factors affecting the mineralisation of Lindane were the method of application and again, the sediment type and temperature. Considerable amounts of the radioactivity were bound to the sediment and were to a large extent unextractable. The potential of a reactor to mineralise a test substance could not be correlated with the biological parameters measured. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die vorliegende Studie beschreibt die Entwicklung eines Labortestverfahrens zur Pruefung des aeroben Abbaus niedrig konzentrierter Stoffe in Oberflaechengewaessern. Dabei war es ein Ziel, das Verfahren so weit abzusichern, dass ein Entwurf fuer eine Pruefrichtlinie als Simulationstest im Format der OECD-Richtlinien abgefasst werden konnte. Grundlage fuer die Konzeption war eine zuvoerderst durchgefuehrte Literaturstudie. Hinweise auf ein moegliches Testdesign ergaben sich auch aus der BBA-Richtlinie 5-1. Wasser und Sediment wurden der Natur entnommen und nach Zugabe der radioaktiven Pruefsubstanz Lindan oder 4-Nitrophenol in einem beluefteten Gefaess unter

  17. Development of a CdTe/CdS solar wafer. Final report; Entwicklung einer CdTe/CdS Duennschicht-Solarzelle. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koentges, M.; Reineck-Koch, R.

    2002-07-01

    The focus was on the development and optimisation of the close-spaced sublimation process in an inline coating plant for production of stable high-efficiency CdS/CdTe solar wafers. An inline plant was to be constructed by ANTEC GmbH and ISFH. Film layers were to be optimised, and investigations were to show whether processing of single films is possible without breaking the vacuum, e.g. for etching. The results were to be used directly by ANTEC GmbH. An efficiency of 14 percent and an idle voltage of about 850 V were to be achieved with a film thickness of 2 {mu}m. To achieve these goals, the following project stages were envisaged: 1. Replacement of the expensive window material ITO by a less costly material. 2. Higher stability of the back contact by using appropriate intermediate layers. 3. Alternative activation processes other than the conventional CdCl{sub 2} activation. 4. Investigation of the effects of the activation step on the electric properties of the sample. [German] Die uebergreifende Aufgabenstellung des Projektes war die Entwicklung und Optimierung des Close-spaced-Sublimation verfahrens in einer Inline-Beschichtungsanlage fuer die Herstellung stabiler und hocheffizienter CdS/CdTe Duennschichtsolarzellen. Mit dem Wissen der ANTEC GmbH sollte zusammen mit dem ISFH eine Inline-Anlage konzipiert und gebaut werden. Die fuer die Solarzelle notwendigen Einzelschichten sollten in dem Inline-Prozess optimiert werden. Es sollte ermittelt werden, ob eine Prozessierung der Einzelschichten ohne Brechen des Vakuums, z.B. fuer einen Aetzschritt, moeglich ist. Die erzielten Ergebnisse sollen direkt der ANTEC GmbH zufliessen. In dem Projekt wurde als Endziel ein Wirkungsgrad der CdTe/CdS-Duennschichtsolarzelle von 14% und eine Erhoehung der Leerlaufspannung auf Werte um 850 mV angestrebt. Gleichzeitig sollte die CdTe-Schichtdicke auf 2 {mu}m vermindert werden. Um dieses Gesamtziel zu erreichen, sollen folgende Teilaufgaben bearbeitet werden: 1) Das teuere

  18. Rehabilitation and development of environmental pollution areas: pilot project in a former uranium mining area; Sanierung und Entwicklung umweltbelasteter Raeume: Modellvorhaben in einer ehemaligen Uranbergbauregion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, B.; Rathmann, J.; Wirth, P.; Bovet, J.; Danielzyk, R.; Dienemann, H.; Dudel, G.; Freyer, W.; Hutter, G.

    2002-07-01

    zunehmend wahrgenommen, wobei bestimmte Gebietstypen wie altindustrialisierte Raeume, Bergbau- und Konversionsgebiete im Focus der Aufmerksamkeit stehen. Haeufig - so auch im ehemaligen Uranbergbaugebiet um Johanngeorgenstadt im saechsischen Erzgebirge - treten zu den Umweltschaeden allgemeine Probleme strukturschwacher Raeume (schwache wirtschaftliche Wertschoepfung, schlechte Erreichbarkeit). Durch die Selbstverstaerkung negativer Prozesse wird die Abwanderung der Bevoelkerung ausgeloest und die Siedlungen beginnen zu schrumpfen. Einzelfallbezogene und rein technische Loesungsansaetze, wie sie durch die regionale Strukturpolitik in der Vergangenheit praktiziert worden sind, geraten in derartigen Problemraeumen rasch an ihre Grenzen. Gefragt sind stattdessen komplexe Loesungen, die gezielt Einzelprojekte mit der Entwicklung neuer Perspektiven fuer die betroffenen Gemeinden verbinden. In Anbetracht der positiven Erfahrungen im Sanierungs- und Entwicklungsgebiet Uranbergbau wird jenen Bundeslaendern, in denen es Gebiete mit gravierenden Umweltschaeden gibt, empfohlen, Sanierungs- und Entwicklungsgebiete in die landes- und regionalplanerische Praxis zu uebernehmen. Dabei steht der Gedanke im Mittelpunkt, dass zunaechst die Ausweisung von Problemgebieten in Raumordnungsplaenen erfolgt und daraufhin Aktionsraeume gebildet werden, in denen Sanierungs- und Entwicklungsziele formuliert und umgesetzt werden. (orig.)

  19. Soil Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    The characteristics of the soil solution in the root environment in the greenhouse industry differ much from those for field grown crops. This is caused firstly by the growing conditions in the greenhouse, which strongly differ from those in the field and secondly the function attributed to the soil

  20. Soil washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuman, R.S.; Diel, B.N.; Halpern, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Disposal of soils or sludges contaminated with organic and inorganic compounds is a major problem for environmental remedial activities, hazardous waste generators, and the disposal industry. This paper reports that many of these wastes can be effectively treated utilizing soil washing technology. CWM has been developing soil washing technology over the past few years, with extensive work being conducted on the bench scale. These studies have demonstrated consistently high removal efficiencies (95-99%) for a wide variety of PCB and petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated waste. Recently, a comprehensive study examining the removal of both organic and inorganic contraminants from two different types of surrogate soil matrices was completed. In addition to establishing the range of contaminants that can be removed from soil, a method for surfactant/water separation was evaluated. For example, using a thermal phase separation method, approximately 90% of the surfactant could be recovered from the water

  1. Soil Forming Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    It! What is Soil? Chip Off the Old Block Soil Forming Factors Matters of Life and Death Underneath It All Wise Choices A World of Soils Soil Forming Factors 2 A Top to Bottom Guide 3 Making a Soil Monolith 4 Soil Orders 5 State Soil Monoliths 6 Where in the Soil World Are You? >> A Top to

  2. What is Soil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    It! What is Soil? Chip Off the Old Block Soil Forming Factors Matters of Life and Death Underneath It All Wise Choices A World of Soils Soil? 2 The Skin of the Earth 3 Soil Ingredients 4 Soil Recipes 5 CLORPT for Short >> What Is Soil? Soils Make Life Plants grow in and from

  3. Short version of the 1996 environmental expertise on the implementation of a sustainable, environmentally acceptable development. Conclusions and recommendations for action; Kurzfassung des Umweltgutachtens 1996 zur Umsetzung einer dauerhaft-umweltgerechten Entwicklung. Schlussfolgerungen und Handlungsempfehlungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The aim of the present expertise is to set new orientation marks for the tedious, conflict-laden procedure of bringing the ideal of a sustainable, environmentally acceptable development to realisation. By submitting this expertise the Environmental Council has acted in accordance with its assignment to report periodically on certain well-defined issues; specifically, to analyse generic questions of environmental protection, describe the environmental situation in Germany with regard to selected sectors of environmental protection, and give a critical valuation of current environmental policy. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Das vorliegende Gutachten hat das Ziel, weitere Markierungen fuer den langwierigen und konflikttraechtigen Weg zur Umsetzung des Leitbildes einer dauerhaft-umweltgerechten Entwicklung zu setzen. Der Umweltrat kommt auch in diesem Gutachten seinem Auftrag nach, im Rahmen der periodischen Begutachtung uebergreifende Fragen des Umweltschutzes zu analysieren und fuer ausgewaehlte Umweltschutzsektoren die Umweltsituation in Deutschland zu beschreiben und die Umweltpolitik kritisch zu bewerten. (orig./SR)

  4. Development of ecological and economical super-insulations for various applications. Subproject 1: scientific development of ecological super-insulations for industrial application. Subproject 2: experimental synthesis and development of a pilot plant for continuously production and realisation of multilayer-insulation materials. Final report; Entwicklung oekologischer und wirtschaftlicher Super-Isolationen fuer vielfaeltige Anwendungen. Teilvorhaben 1: Wissenschaftliche Entwicklung oekologischer Super-Isolationen fuer industrielle Anwendungen. Teilvorhaben 2: Experimentelle Struktursynthese und Entwicklung einer Technikumsanlage zur kontinuierlichen Herstellung von Mehrschicht-Daemmstoffen. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offermann, P.; Freudenberg, C.; Schenk, A.; Doerfel, A.; Hoffmann, G.; Roedel, H.; Schierz, C.; Hopf, W.

    2002-07-01

    deliverables. A precondition for this is the continued work and the successful combination of the present solutions with new innovative materials. (orig.) [German] Waermedaemmstoffe finden in unterschiedlichen Bereichen, aus denen ihre speziellen Aufgaben resultieren, Anwendung. Materialien wie Daemmstoffe aus Mineralfasern und Schaumkunststoffe werden im Bauwesen und fuer die Industriedaemmung eingesetzt. Waermedaemmstoffe aus natuerlichen Rohstoffen finden, wenn auch nur begrenzt, im Bauwesen Anwendung. Im Bekleidungsbereich werden neben Vliesstoffen aus synthetischen Polymeren oder Schafwolle besonders im out-door-Bereich gestrickte Fleece verwendet. Die Zielstellung des Projektes besteht in der Entwicklung eines Daemmmaterials mit sehr geringer Waermeleitfaehigkeit bei sehr geringer Dichte sowie hohen Freiheitsgraden hinsichtlich der Struktur- und Stoffparameter. Die Umsetzung erfolgt mit dem Verfahren der elektrostatischen Beflockung. Es wird ein Rechenmodell zur Ermittlung optimaler Strukturen hinsichtlich Waermeleitfaehigkeit und Dichte erstellt. Im Anschluss an eine anforderungsgerechte Materialauswahl werden praktische Untersuchungen zur Wirkungsweise des Materials durchgefuehrt. Es wird eine Technikumsanlage zur kontinuierlichen Herstellung des Materials installiert und erprobt. Das Ergebnis des Projektes besteht in einer sehr variablen gestaltbaren Daemmstoffstruktur mit hervorragenden Eigenschaften. Das entwickelte Material wird als Super-Isolations-Flock-Daemmstoff bezeichnet. Bei definierten Strukturbedingungen und entsprechender Materialauswahl koennen Werte fuer die Waermleitfaehigkeit im Bereich von 0,027 W/mK und 0,030 W/mK erreicht werden. Die Dichte fuer derartige Strukturen liegt im Bereich zwischen 10 kg/m{sup 3} und 20 kg/m{sup 3}. Fuer Anwendungsbeispiele ohne hohen mechanische Anforderunge koennen Strukturen mit einer Dichte von ca. 7 kg/m{sup 3} erzielt werden. Der Super-Isolations-Flock-Daemmstoff findet im Bekleidungsbereich sowie im technischen

  5. Agriculture: Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Productive soils, a favorable climate, and clean and abundant water resources are essential for growing crops, raising livestock, and for ecosystems to continue to provide the critical provisioning services that humans need.

  6. Bioremediation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon contaminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the effect of lead and chromium on the rate of bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated clay soil. Naphthalene was used as a target PAH. The soil was sterilized by heating at 120oC for one hour. 100g of the soil was contaminated with lead, chromium, nickel and mercury ...

  7. Development of a fluidized-bed method for on-line evaluation of radiotracers in vitro; Entwicklung einer Fliessbettechnik zur Bewertung von Radiopharmaka an Zellkulturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noll, T.

    1999-05-01

    This study presents the development of a continuously operating fluidized-bed bioreactor for on-line evaluation of radiotracers in vitro, which combines tissue-like three-dimensional cell cultivation in open porous microcarriers with a technique for on-line radioactivity detection. The long time stability of steady-state permits a large number of experiments using the same culture. All relevant parameters (O{sub 2}, pH, T, etc.) can be adjusted according to the experimental requirements. The flux of the circulating medium can be adapted to the blood flow of the corresponding organism, while the input function of the radiotracer is freely adjustable for simulation of in vivo conditions. Sampling and examination of the immobilized cells care possible at any time. Using this system, the kinetics of 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) in human glioma cells (86HG39) were studied and it was shown that the dependence of the lumped constant (LC) for FDG on the medium glucose concentration is similar to that obtained in the rat brain. For normoglycemic concentrations the LC was determined to be in the range of 0.7, while in hypoglycemia it increased progressively up to a value of 1.22 at a glucose concentration of 3 mM. The rate constants in the three compartment model were found to be similar to those obtained in vivo using PET; indicating the validity of the system for tracer evaluation. Furthermore the kinetics of both diastereomeric forms of 4-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-proline was investigated and found that both diastereomeres were not metabolized and reached an identical intracellular steady state concentration. The trans-form was transported three times faster than the cis-diastereomere, indicated by the rate constants. (orig.) [German] Diese Arbeit beschreibt die Entwicklung eines kontinuierlich betriebenen Wirbelschichtreaktors zur on-line Bewertung von Radiotracern an Zellkulturen. Der Bioreaktor kombiniert eine gewebeaehnliche, dreidimensionale Zellkultivierung in

  8. Development of plans for retrofitting Russian housing, taking into account European competences for increasing its energy efficiency; Entwicklung von Planungs- und Sanierungskonzepten fuer den russischen Wohnungsbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezhov, Andrey; Himburg, Stefan [Hochschule fuer Technik Berlin (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    und die Erstellung eines einheitlichen Berechnungsansatzes. Als Grundlage fuer die durchgefuehrten Berechnungen dienten die deutschen Vorschriften der aktuellen Energieeinsparverordnung in Kombination mit der Berechnungsnorm DIN 4108-6 sowie DIN 4701-10. Hierzu wurden die klimatischen Bedingungen Russlands am Beispiel der russischen Metropole Sankt Petersburg in die Berechnungen integriert. Die Datenanalyse des Bestandsgebaeudes eroeffnet eine grosse Bandbreite an Moeglichkeiten zur Erhoehung der Energieeffizienz. So wird unter anderem im Zuge der Berechnungen festgestellt, dass durch relativ kostenguenstige Massnahmen zur Verbesserung des Waermeschutzes eine bedeutende Verringerung des Endenergiebedarfs erreicht werden kann. Es werden weiterhin moegliche Sanierungsvarianten unter Einbeziehung verschiedener Materialien und Heizungsanlagen vorgestellt. Die Ergebnisse machen deutlich, dass die Zukunft russischer Wohnhaeuser wie der hier dargestellten Typenserie 1-507 alles andere als aussichtslos ist, wie oft vermutet wird. Sie koennen im Gegenteil durchaus als komfortabler und funktionaler Wohnraum dienen. Auch die Verwendung regenerativer Energiequellen wie der Solarenergie ist unter den Bedingungen einer noerdlich gelegenen Stadt wie Sankt Petersburg realisierbar. Die durchgefuehrten Berechnungen zeigen, dass eine Sanierung der russischen Wohnbauten der ersten Periode des industriellen Bauens durchaus lohnenswert sein kann, insbesondere wenn man die Entwicklung der Energiepreise betrachtet. In seiner energieeffizientesten Form (''Passivhaus'') bringt eine Sanierung eine Reduzierung des Endenergiebedarfs von bis zu 90 % im Vergleich zum Bestandsgebaeude mit sich. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) - Magnesic Soils

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Magnesic soils is a subset of the SSURGO dataset containing soil family selected based on the magnesic content and serpentinite parent material. The following soil...

  10. Soil shrinkage characteristics in swelling soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taboada, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this presentation are to understand soil swelling and shrinkage mechanisms, and the development of desiccation cracks, to distinguish between soils having different magnitude of swelling, as well as the consequences on soil structural behaviour, to know methods to characterize soil swell/shrink potential and to construct soil shrinkage curves, and derive shrinkage indices, as well to apply them to assess soil management effects

  11. Untersuchungen zur Entwicklung von Satellitengalaxien

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Björn

    2002-01-01

    Gleichgewichtsmodelle ein- und zweikomponentiger Satellitengalaxien werden erzeugt und die Gezeiteneinwirkungen der als starres äußeres Potential angenommenen Milchstraße auf sie betrachtet. Eine erste Reihe von Simulationen mit anfänglich kugelsymmetrischen einkomponentigen Satelliten zeigt, daß sich nach elliptischer Deformation ein Balken und Schweife ungleicher Länge ausbilden, deren Aussehen sich periodisch ändert. Mithilfe von Vergleichssimulationen wurden folgende Phänomene am Satelliten entdeckt: (1) Hochdichtebereiche in den Schweifen, (2) Niedrigdichtebereiche um den Kern bzw. Balken und (3) ein oft verdeckter Balken. Analysiert wird das Erscheinungsbild in Zeitabhängigkeit. Die Teilchen gehen dem Kern über den Balken verloren und bewegen sich entlang gewisser stets gleich aussehender charakteristischer Strukturen in die Schweife. Nach einer Herleitung allgemeiner Größen des mehrkomponentigen Kingprofils werden drei stabile Standardmodelle zweikomponentiger Satellitengalaxien mit Massenverhältnis 1:10 (baryonische zu dunkle Materie) und unterschiedlicher Verteilung der dunklen und sichtbaren Materie gefunden. Ohne die Allgemeinheit der Ergebnisse zu beeinträchtigen, wurde dabei die Große Magellanische Wolke als Grundlage der Modelle genommen. Nach geeigneter Wahl der Bahn, zu der der Gezeitenradius des verwendeten dreikomponentigen Milchstraßenpotentials sowohl analytisch als auch numerisch berechnet wird, werden Simulationen der Modelle analysiert. Hauptaugenmerk ist das unterschiedliche Verhalten der Komponenten. Hauptergebnisse: (1) Es ist möglich, große Anteile dunkler, jedoch nur geringe sichtbarer Materie abzulösen. Dunkle und sichtbare Materie können unterschiedliche morphologische Strukturen bilden. (2) Je nach Konzentration der Komponenten ist die Eigengravitation der Teilchen mehr oder weniger für das Aussehen bestimmend. (3) Die Kernauflösung des Satelliten findet im Perigalaktikum (PG), sein Zerfall aber erst im Apogalaktikum statt. (4) Die Geschwindigkeitsdispersionen der Komponenten im Kern sind im PG entlang der Sichtlinie kurzzeitig stark erhöht, sie fallen ebenso wie die Dichten und deren Verhältnis mit jedem PG stufenförmig ab; einiges davon sind nur Projektionseffekte. (5) Der radiale Verlauf der Geschwindigkeitsdispersion ist vom Bahnort abhängig er wurde genau untersucht. (6) Der Satellit zerfällt über einen Kreislauf aus Massenverlust, flacher werdendem Potential und kleiner werdendem Gezeitenradius. Equilibrium models of one- and two-component satellite galaxies are created. The tidal influence of the Milky Way, which is modeled as a rigid external potential, is examined. A first set of simulations adopting originally spherically-symmetric, one-component satellites show that after elliptical deformation, a bar and tails of unequal length arise which change their morphology cyclically. By considering comparative simulations, the following phenomena are discovered: (1) High-density regions in the tails, (2) low-density zones around the core or bar, (3) an often concealed bar. The overall morphology as function of time is analysed. The particles are lost from the core via the bar and move along certain morphologically characteristic structures into the tails. After deducing general quantities of the multi-component King model, three stable standard models of two-component satellite galaxies with different distributions of dark and visible matter are found. These models have a mass ratio of 1:10 for baryonic to dark matter. Without restriction to the universality of the results, the Large Magellanic Cloud was taken as basic prototype for these models. To choose the proper orbits, the tidal radius of the three-component model of the potential of the Galaxy is calculated both analytically and numerically. Then the simulations are analysed with the different behaviour of the components being the main focus of interest. Main results: (1) It is possible to detach a large fraction of dark matter but only a small amount of visible matter. Dark and visible matter may form different morphological structures. (2) Depending on the concentrations of the components, self-gravity may be the decisive factor for determining the morphology. (3) The dissolution of the core of the satellite occurs at perigalacticon (PG), but it does not decay before apogalacticon. (4) At PG the core densities of the components, their ratio and the velocity dispersions fall off in steps, the velocity dispersions along the line of sight show a high narrow peak. Some of these effects are just projection effects. (5) The radial dependence of the velocity dispersion is dependent on the orbital position; it is analysed in detail. (6) The satellite decays through a cycle of mass loss, an increasingly shallow potential and decreasing tidal radius.

  12. Soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. L. Boersma; D. Kirkham; D. Norum; R. Ziemer; J. C. Guitjens; J. Davidson; J. N. Luthin

    1971-01-01

    Infiltration continues to occupy the attention of soil physicists and engineers. A theoretical and experimental analysis of the effect of surface sealing on infiltration by Edwards and Larson [1969] showed that raindrops reduced the infiltration rate by as much as 50% for a two-hour period of infiltration. The effect of raindrops on the surface infiltration rate of...

  13. Soil microbiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, D.C.; Legg, J.O.

    1984-01-01

    The major areas of soil microbiological and biochemical research which have involved both stable and radioactive isotopes are summarized. These include microbial decomposition of naturally occurring materials, microbial biomass, interactions of plants and microbes, denitrification, mineralization and immobilization of nitrogen and biological nitrogen fixation. (U.K.)

  14. Soil fertility management: Impacts on soil macrofauna, soil aggregation and soil organic matter allocation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayuke, F.O.; Brussaard, L.; Vanlauwe, B.; Six, J.; Lelei, D.K.; Kibunja, C.N.; Pulleman, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Maintenance of soil organic matter through integrated soil fertility management is important for soil quality and agricultural productivity, and for the persistence of soil faunal diversity and biomass. Little is known about the interactive effects of soil fertility management and soil macrofauna

  15. Basic Soils. Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana State Univ., Bozeman. Dept. of Agricultural and Industrial Education.

    This curriculum guide is designed for use in teaching a course in basic soils that is intended for college freshmen. Addressed in the individual lessons of the unit are the following topics: the way in which soil is formed, the physical properties of soil, the chemical properties of soil, the biotic properties of soil, plant-soil-water…

  16. Development of process technology for large-area thin-film solar modules based on compound semiconductors. Final report; Entwicklung der technologischen Grundlagen fuer grosse Photovoltaikmodule auf Basis von Duennschicht-Verbindungshalbleitern. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurus, H.; Lechner, P.; Geyer, R.; Ruebel, H.; Schade, H.; Psyk, W.; Frammelsberger, W.; Berthold, W.; Eichner, C.; Heckel, E.; Huber, R.; Labudde-Eibl, H.; Raith, S.; Schenk, B.; Ullrich, H.

    1998-06-01

    dabei die Grundlagenentwicklungen des Instituts fuer physikalische Elektronik der Universitaet Stuttgart (IPE) und des ZSW einerseits und die Erfahrungen der PST auf den Gebieten der grossflaechigen Modulfertigung andererseits. Fuer jede Einzelschicht eines Moduls (Rueckkontakt Mo, Absorber CIS, Anpassungsschicht CdS o.ae. und Fensterschicht ZnO) wurden Anlagen und Verfahren entwickelt, die eine hohe Qualitaet der Eigenschaften auf Flaechen bis 30x30 cm{sup 2} gewaehrleisten. Die monolithische Integration der Solarmodule durch geeignete Strukturierungsverfahren wie Laser-Scribing, mechanisches Ritzen und Lift-Off-Verfahren wurden untersucht und optimiert. Die Projektschwerpunkte bei PST waren die grossflaechige Abscheidung des Mo-Rueckkontaks und seine nachfolgende Strukturierung, Beitraege zur Entwicklung der ZnO-Fensterschicht und die Entwicklung der Modultechnik. Die hier zugeordneten Arbeitspakete waren die Randentschichtung, die Kontaktierung, die Laminierung, die Kabeldurchfuehrung, die Modulcharakterisierung und der Klimatest. Das Projektziel, naemlich die Entwicklung der Verfahrens- und Anlagentechnik (Basistechnologie) zur Herstellung grossflaechiger Module (30x30 cm{sup 2}) mit einem Wirkungsgrad von 10-12% wurde erreicht (bestes Modul: {eta}=11.7 Apertur). (orig.)

  17. Research parallel to 'Solarthermie 2000'. Development of a standardized acceptance test for industrial-scale solar thermal systems. Final report; Begleitforschung Solarthermie 2000. Entwicklung eines standardisierten Abnahmeverfahrens fuer solarthermische Grossanlagen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beikircher, T.; Benz, N.; Gut, M.; Schwenk, C.; Schoelkopf, W.

    2000-02-01

    First, a simple and efficient tool for projecting solar thermal power systems was to be developed by ITW Stuttgart (see separate ITW Stuttgart report). Parallel to this, a fast and simple method was to be developed for in-situ assessment or the annual yield of such systems, with a maximum error of 5 percent. The following steps were taken: 1. Development of a measuring system for the task; 2. Selection of methods of evaluation for the dynamic in situ short-term test; 3. Development and testing of the method in several industrial-scale systems and validation by comparison with the results of conventional measurements. The dynamic in situ short-term test method developed on this basis consists of six steps which are described in the report. The measuring accuracy depends on the correct function of the plant. [German] Zunaechst sollte fuer solarthermische Grossanlagen ein Katalog standardisierter Anlagenkonfigurationen erstellt und anschliessend in die gaengigen Planungswerkzeuge TRNSYS und TSOL uebertragen werden, um Planern ein einfaches und leistungsfaehiges Werkzeug zur Auslegung und zur Berechnung des GSR zur Verfuegung zu stellen. Damit sollen Planungsfehler aufgrund fehlender Erfahrung mit Solaranlagen vermieden und ein Standard fuer innovative Anlagenkonzepte verbreitet werden. Dieser Arbeitspunkt wurde ausschliesslich durch das ITW Stuttgart bearbeitet, siehe separater Berichtsteil des ITW Stuttgart. Parallel dazu war ein Testverfahren zu entwickeln, mit dem der Jahresertrag grosser thermischer Solaranlagen in situ, d.h. an der installierten Anlage vor Ort, ohne Eingriff in die Anlage, um die Gewaehrleistungspflicht des Anlagenbauers zu erhalten, auf 5% genau, um ein klares juristisches Kriterium fuer die Feststellung einer etwaigen Nachbesserungspflicht des Erbauers zu haben, kostenguenstig und in kurzer Zeit (maximal 6 Wochen) bestimmt werden kann. Hierzu waren folgende Arbeiten notwendig: 1. Entwicklung einer an die Aufgabenstellung angepassten Messtechnik

  18. United Nations conference of environment and development, held at Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. Documents. Agenda 21; Konferenz der Vereinten Nationen fuer Umwelt und Entwicklung im Juni 1992 in Rio de Janeiro. Dokumente. Agenda 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    With the translation of Agenda 21 all the documents released in connection with the United Nations Conference of Environment and Development (UNCED) at Rio de Janeiro (June 1992) have now been made generally available also in the German language. Agenda 21, which in 40 chapters discusses the basic political platforms of environment-oriented sustainable development, is an action programme for the 21st century adopted at Rio by more than 170 states. The action programme contains detailed instructions as to the practices to be abandoned to prevent any further deteriorations as well as strategies to be adopted to gradually relieve the situation and to ensure a reasonable and sustainable exploitation of our natural resources. One important approach to this goal is that environmental issues are considered within a global context, thus being a prominent factor in all political spheres. The rules set up in this action programme are applicable to industrial and developing countries alike. It offers - in broad outline - prescriptions for the combatting poverty, control of overpopulation, reconciliation of commercial and environmental interests, disposal of refuse and chemicals, for climate, energy and agricultural policies as well as the ways in which industrial and developing countries could cooperate both financially and in terms of shared technologies. The bilateral and multilateral development policies of the Federal Government are largely based on Agende 21. (orig./HP) [Deutsch] Mit der Uebersetzung der Agenda 21 sind nunmehr alle Dokumente der Konferenz fuer Umwelt und Entwicklung der Vereinten Nationen (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro (June 1992) auch in deutscher Sprache der Oeffenlichkeit zugaenglich. Die Agenda 21, die mit ihren 40 Kapiteln alle wesentlichen Politikbereiche einer umweltvertraeglichen, nachhaltigen Entwicklung anspricht, ist das in Rio von mehr als 170 Staaten verabschiedete Aktionsprogramm fuer das 21. Jahrhundert. Mit diesem Aktionsprogramm werden

  19. Development of a guidance manual for the identification and assessment of interactions as part of Environmental Impact Assessment; Entwicklung einer Arbeitsanleitung zur Beruecksichtigung der Wechselwirkungen in der Umweltvertraeglichkeitspruefung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rassmus, J.; Bruening, H.; Kleinschmidt, V.; Reck, H.; Dierssen, K.; Bonk, A. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Oekologie-Zentrum

    2001-03-01

    , a methodology for the cross-media assessment of effects was developed. Here, the direct and indirect (caused e.g. via effect chains/webs) effects already described in the chapters specific to the various protected assets are examined to select and jointly assess those among them that are of relevance to general objectives or sub-objectives (protection of human health, improvement of environmental conditions to improve the quality of life for human beings, preservation of habitat potentials for plants and animals). (orig.) [German] Ziel des Vorhabens war die Entwicklung einer praxisorientierten Arbeitsanleitung fuer die Beruecksichtigung der Wechselwirkungen in der UVP. Die Arbeitsanleitung soll Vorhabenstraeger und deren Gutachter bei der Ermittlung und Beschreibung der Auswirkungen eines Vorhabens auf Wechselwirkungen und der entsprechenden sachgerechten Darstellung innerhalb der Antragsunterlagen und Behoerden bei der folgenden Bewertung unterstuetzen. Im Rahmen des Vorhabens wurden die entsprechenden rechtlichen und naturwissenschaftlichen Grundlagen (hier insbesondere der Kenntnistand der Oekosystemforschung), die im In- und Ausland bekannten Leitfaeden/Arbeitsanleitungen u.ae. und die in der Praxis angewandten Ansaetze ausgewertet und weiterentwickelt. Dies erfolgte u.a. durch die Auswertung der entsprechenden Literatur und durch Expertenworkshops. Nach der im Vorhaben entwickelten Definition sind unter Wechselwirkungen im Sinne der EU-UVP-Richtlinie und Paragraph 2 UVPG, die in der Umwelt ablaufenden Prozesse zu verstehen. Bei der in der UVP-Praxis gegenwaertig angewandten Betrachtung von Wirkungsketten und -netzen werden Prozesse bzw. Wechselwirkungen bereits weitgehend ermittelt und beschrieben, da die Glieder der Ketten und Netze ueber Prozesse miteinander verbunden sind. Die im Vorhaben entwickelte Arbeitsanleitung geht hier einen Schritt weiter, indem sie ein Verfahren fuer die systematische Bearbeitung von Wirkungsketten- und -netzen mit definierten

  20. Soil tillage

    OpenAIRE

    Dierauer, Hansueli

    2013-01-01

    The web platform offers a compilation of various formats and materials dealing with reduced tillage and its challenges regarding weeds. A selection of short movies about mechanical weeding, green manure and tailor-made machinery is listed. Leaflets and publications on reduced tillage can be downloaded. In there, different treatments and machinery are tested and compared to advice farmers on how to conserve soil while keeping weed under control. For Swiss farmers information on the leg...

  1. Soil sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortunati, G.U.; Banfi, C.; Pasturenzi, M.

    1994-01-01

    This study attempts to survey the problems associated with techniques and strategies of soil sampling. Keeping in mind the well defined objectives of a sampling campaign, the aim was to highlight the most important aspect of representativeness of samples as a function of the available resources. Particular emphasis was given to the techniques and particularly to a description of the many types of samplers which are in use. The procedures and techniques employed during the investigations following the Seveso accident are described. (orig.)

  2. Biological and chemical development of mining lakes. Status report 1998/1999. Data acquisition, methods, trends; Biologische und chemische Entwicklung von Bergbaurestseen. Statusbericht 1998/1999. Bestandsaufnahme, Methoden und Entwicklungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friese, K; Tuempling, W von [eds.

    2000-07-01

    Acidification of mining lakes in central Germany and the Lausitz was investigated for three aspects: 1.) biological dynamics and material effects on plancton abundance and variety; 2.) Chemical and microbiological interactions between sediments influenced by mining (authochthone, allochthone) and water phase 3. 3.) Limnological and hydrochemical development of water systems in abandoned mining areas with a view to environmental quality and/or utilisation. The following objects were investigated. a) Goitsche open-cast mine (Bitterfeld district); b) Lake 111 (Koyne/Pllessa district), - Lakes 107, 117 (Koyne/Plessa district), Lake b (Schlabendorf-Nord district). [German] Kernproblem in den Braunkohlengebieten der neuen Bundeslaender ist die Versauerung von Bergbauseen. Die Bearbeitung des Verbundprojektes konzentriert sich in den Bergbaufolgelandschaften der Regionen Mitteldeutschland und Lausitz auf bergbaulich gestoerte und in Veraenderung befindliche Oberflaechenwasser-Systeme. Arbeitziele sind 1.) die Vertiefung der Kenntnisse zur biologischen Dynamik und zum stofflichen Einfluss auf die Diversitaet und Abundanz von Plankton in sauren Bergbauseen 2) Untersuchungen zu spezifischen Wechselwirkungen (chemisch, mikrobiologisch) zwischen bergbaulich beeinflussten Sedimenten (autochthon, allochthon) und der Wasserphase 3. Betrachtungen der limnologischen und hydrochemischen Entwicklung der Wassersysteme in Bergbaufolgelandschaften hinsichtlich Umweltqualitaetszielen und/oder Nutzungszielen. Im Rahmen des Verbundprojektes werden von den Sektionen Gewaesserforschung, Hydrogeologie, Analytik, Bodenforschung und Umweltmikrobiologie in Mitteldeutschland und der Lausitz folgende Objekte bearbeitet: a) Tagebaukomplex Goitsche (Bitterfelder Revier) und b) Restloch 111 (Revier Koyne/Plessa), - Restloch 107, 117 (Revier Koyne/Plessa), - Restloch B (Revier Schlabendorf-Nord). (orig.)

  3. Innovation for improvement of pedestrian protection as the challenge for the development of front-end structures of passenger cars; Innovationen zur Verbesserung des Fussgaengerschutzes als Herausforderung fuer die Entwicklung von PKW-Vorbaustrukturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, F.; Weidemann, W.; Jansohn, W.; Schneider, M. [EDAG Engineering and Design AG, Fulda (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Requirements for improvement of pedestrian protection are the result of real-world accidents and test conditions, which take an important role in development of front-end structures of passenger cars at present, based on legal regulations (EU directives expected in 2005) and on car assessment programmes (application as per EuroNCAP since 1997). Styling and packaging are major considerations in conceptual realisation on a large scale. Furthermore, demands for minimisation of weight and cost have to be considered as marginal conditions. Solutions for this conflict of aims, which results from the new safety requirements and performance criteria for front-end structures, are to be represented and discussed based on concrete examples. (orig.) [German] Anforderungen zur Verbesserung des Fussgaengerschutzes resultieren einerseits aus dem Unfallgeschehen und andererseits aus Versuchsbedingungen, die derzeit auf der Basis von gesetzlichen Regelungen (erwartete EU-Richtlinie etwa im Jahr 2005) und von Sicherheitsbewertungen (Anwendung im Rahmen von EuroNCAP seit 1997) in der Vorbau-Entwicklung von Personenkraftwagen eine bedeutende Rolle einnehmen. Die konzeptionelle Umsetzung tangiert sowohl Styling als auch Packaging in erheblichem Umfang, darueber hinaus sind als Randbedingungen die Forderungen nach der Minimierung von Gewicht und Kosten zu beruecksichtigen. Die Loesungen dieses Zielkonfliktes, deren Wirkungsfeld durch die neuen Sicherheitsanforderungen und die Auslegungskriterien fuer Vorbaustrukturen aufgespannt wird, sollen anhand von konkreten Beispielen dargestellt und diskutiert werden. (orig.)

  4. Development and prototypical application of analysis methods for complex anion mixtures in waters and heavy metal organyls in sediments; Entwicklung und prototypische Anwendung von Analysenverfahren fuer komplexe Anionengemische in Waessern und Schwermetallorganylen in Sedimenten. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, B.; Knoechel, A.; Potgeter, H.; Staub, S.; Stocker, M.

    2002-07-01

    When it comes to assessing the hazards emanating from heavy pollutants in waters mere elemental analysis provides too little information. Due to the great differences in toxicity and mobility it is important to know more about the exact species in question. This is particularly true of heavy metals that form stable organyls, specifically As, Pb, Sn and Hg, but also of alkylated arsenic acids, which need to be measured in complex anion mixtures. The purpose of the present project was to develop robust, powerful analysis methods and thus overcome the existing deficit in reliable analysis methods for these substances. An important approach in this connection is the use of coupled chromatography and detection systems for separation and analysis. [German] Hinsichtlich der von einer Schwermetallbelastung in Gewaessern ausgehenden Gefahren liefert die reine Elementanalytik nur unzureichende Aussagen. Aufgrund der grossen Unterschiede in Toxiditaet und Mobilitaet ist die Kenntnis der jeweils vorliegenden Spezies bedeutungsvoll. Dies gilt in besonderem Masse fuer die stabile Organyle bildenden Schwermetalle As, Pb, Sn und Hg sowie die alkylierten Arsensaeuren, die es innerhalb komplexer Anionengemische zu bestimmen gilt. Hinsichtlich ihrer sicheren Bestimmung bestehen methodische Defizite, die das vorliegende Projekt durch die Entwicklung robuster, nachweisstarker Analysenverfahren zu beseitigen versucht. Grosse Bedeutung kommt dabei gekoppelten Systemen aus Chromatographie und Detektion als Trenn- und Bestimmungsmethode zu. (orig.)

  5. Dual vehicle - Development, construction and testing of a dual vehicle for passenger transport on roads and railways. Final report; Zweiwegefahrzeug - Entwicklung, Bau und Erprobung eines Zweiwegefahrzeuges zur Personenbefoerderung Strasse/Schiene. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This feasibility study investigated a prototype dual vehicle for railways and roads. Technical problems, acceptance specifications, legal and economic aspects were gone into. [German] Zielstellung fuer das Vorhaben war die Untersuchung ausgewaehlter technischer Fragestellungen hinsichtlich der Machbarkeit der Entwicklung und Erprobung eines Prototypes fuer ein Zweiwegefahrzeug fuer den Personenverkehr, das fuer den Einsatz auf der Schiene und der Strasse vorgesehen und dafuer entsprechend technisch ausgestattet ist. Damit erbringt das Vorhaben technisch-konstruktive Loesungsansaetze fuer ein vollstaendig neues Fahrzeuggrundkonzept und traegt hinsichtlich eines solchen zukuenftigen Fahrzeugtyps - zur Klaerung technischer Fragen (statische Zusammenbauuntersuchungen, geometrische und massliche Bedingungen sowie Konzipierung, Leistungsanforderungen der Komponenten, Konzept fuer Ein- und Ausspuren sowie fuer Ein- und Ausstieg), - zur Pruefung der technischen Zulassungsfaehigkeit des Fahrzeuges, - zur Klaerung von Rechtsfragen fuer die Sicherung des Betriebes des Fahrzeuges - sowie zum Nachweis des wirtschaftlicheren Betriebes des Fahrzeuges bei. Das Vorhaben unterbreitet unter Beruecksichtigung sicherheitstechnischer, gesetzlicher und wirtschaftlicher Rahmenbedingungen Loesungsvorschlaege fuer die konstruktive Konzipierung des Fahrgestells und ein technisches Konzept fuer das Ein- und Ausspuren fuer einen neuen Fahrzeugtyp, der sowohl fuer die Strassenbenutzung als auch fuer den Schienenverkehr zugelassen ist. (orig.)

  6. Development of a regional concept for energy management for the region of Karlsruhe. Final report; Entwicklung eines regionalen Energiemanagement-Konzeptes und Anwendung auf die TechnologieRegion Karlsruhe. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rentz, O.; Fichtner, W.; Frank, M. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Industriebetriebslehre und Industrielle Produktion; Wolf, M.A.; Rejman, M.; Eyerer, P. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Chemische Technologie (ICT) (Germany); Reimert, R.; Schulz, A.; Buren, V. v. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Engler-Bunte-Institut Bereich 1 - Gas, Erdoel und Kohle; Schaefers, B.; Bernart, Y. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (DE). Institut fuer Soziologie (IfSoz) (Germany)

    2002-09-01

    Major objectives of this project are: to prepare a cross-disciplinary analysis of all characteristic aspects of the energy supply and demand patterns of a group of selected energy-intensive companies in the Karlsruhe and Rhine harbour area (5 industrial power consumers, 1 utility), to identify practical approaches for optimization and integration of energy and material flows, (networking), and to develop optimised investment and energy supply options within the framework of given conditions. The basis of the optimal solution and energy network presented and explained in detail is a new combined-cycle power plant running as a gas-fired CHP plant, substituting about 50% of the systems formerly used. (orig./CB) [German] Fragestellungen der Effizienzsteigerung und der Verwertung von Abfaellen und Abwaerme gewinnen an Relevanz vor dem Hintergrund der begrenzten Aufnahmekapazitaet der Umweltmedien fuer Schadstoffe. Im Rahmen des Projektes wurde am Beispiel der Region Karlsruhe (5 Industrieunternehmen und 1 EVU) die Entwicklung betriebsuebergreifender Energieversorgungssysteme (Netzwerke) interdisziplinaer analysiert und beschrieben. Zielsetzungen des Projekts waren unter anderem: Bestimmung von zukunftsfaehigen Optionen, intelligente Vernetzung von Energiestroemen, wirtschaftliche Optimierung betriebsuebergreifender Energiemanagement-Loesungen. Die optimale vorgestellte Loesung ist charakterisiert durch den Neubau einer zentralen, gasgefeuerten GuD-Anlage, die etwa die Haelfte der bisherigen Anlagen ersetzt und zusammen mit den weiterhin genutzten Anlagen die Energieversorgung der Unternehmen sicherstellt. (orig./CB)

  7. Energy report for Bavaria, 1998/99. Data on the development of the Bavarian energy industry, with an energy balance; Energiebericht Bayern 1998/99. Daten zur Entwicklung der bayerischen Energiewirtschaft mit Energiebilanz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The energy report presents an annotated statistical review of energy supply in Bavaria and addresses the energy policy and resulting activities of the Bavarian Land government. The energy balance and tabulated data for the various branches of the energy industry predominantly cover the year 1997, but whenever available, data for the years 1998 and 1999 have been included. As in previous energy reports, an annex to the report contains statements of the Bavarian Land government in reply to written questions of members of the Land Parliament, and energy policy decisions of the Land Parliament taken within the reporting period. (orig./CB) [German] Der vorliegende Bericht zeigt die Entwicklung der Energieversorung in Bayern und gibt einen Ueberblick ueber die energiepolitischen Aktivitaeten der Staatsregierung. Die Energiebilanz und die Datentabellen zu den einzelnen Energiezweigen beziehen sich im allgemeinen auf das Jahr 1997. Soweit bei einigen Energietraegern bereits Zahlen fuer 1998 und 1999 vorliegen, wurden sie in den Bericht mit aufgenommen. Im Anhang des Energieberichts sind wieder Stellungnahmen der Bayerischen Staatsregierung zu Schriftlichen Anfragen von Abgeordneten sowie Beschluessen des Bayerischen Landtags zur Energiepolitik aus dem Berichtszeitraum wiedergegeben. (orig.)

  8. Development of a two-phase, two-component jet pump refrigerator for utilization of low-temperature solar heat. Final report; Entwicklung einer Zweiphasen-/Zweikomponenten-Strahlpumpenkaelteanlage zur Nutzung solarer Niedertemperaturwaerme. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostofizadeh, C.; Bohne, D.

    2001-08-01

    A solar refrigerator for air conditioning and cooling was developed. The key component is a two-phase, two-component jet pump with ammonia and water as working fluid. Both the pump flow and the suction flow can be two-phase flows. This way, the advantages of both the absorption and the compression principle will be utilized, and a compact size will be achieved. Upon termination of the calculations, the function of the pump will be investigated in a 0 W pilot plant. For this, various geometries were calculated and tested for their potential efficiencies. A prototype will be constructed on the basis of the results. [German] Das Ziel des Vorhabens besteht in der Entwicklung einer solarbetriebenen Kaelteanlage fuer Klimatisierungs- und Kuehlungszwecke. Die Hauptkomponente der Kaelteanlage ist eine Zweiphasen-/Zweikomponenten-Strahlpumpe, die mit dem Arbeitsgemisch Ammoniak/Wasser betrieben wird. Sowohl der Treib- als auch der Saugstrom koennen zweiphasig sein. Dadurch sollen einerseits die Vorteile des Absorptions- und des Kompressionsprinzips miteinander verknuepft und andererseits ein kompakter Aufbau erreicht werden. Nach Abschluss der thermodynamischen und kinetischen Berechnungen soll die Funktion der Zweiphasen-/Zweikomponenten-Strahlpumpe mit Hilfe einer Pilotanlage mit ca. 20 kW Kaelteleistung untersucht werden. Dazu werden nach Vorausberechnungen verschiedene Geometrien in Bezug auf erzielbare Wirkungsgrade getestet. Die Ergebnisse bilden die Basis fuer den Bau eines Prototyps. (orig.)

  9. Soil use and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.; McBratney, A.B.; White, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    This four-volume set, edited by leading experts in soil science, brings together in one collection a series of papers that have been fundamental to the development of soil science as a defined discipline. Volume 3 on Soil Use and Management covers: - Soil evaluation and land use planning - Soil and

  10. Soil properties and processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.; McBratney, A.B.; White, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    This four-volume set, edited by leading experts in soil science, brings together in one collection a series of papers that have been fundamental to the development of soil science as a defined discipline. Tis volume 2 on Soil Properties and Processes covers: - Soil physics - Soil (bio)chemistry -

  11. Soil and Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ; Environment Human Health Animal Health Safe Use Practices Food Safety Environment Air Water Soil Wildlife Home Page Pesticides and the Environment Soil and Pesticides Related Topics: What Happens to Pesticides español Soil and Pesticides Soil can be degraded and the community of organisms living in the soil can

  12. Remediation of Soil and Ground Water Contaminated with PAH using Heat and Fe(II)-EDTA Catalyzed Persulfate Oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadim, Farhad; Huang, Kun-Chang; Dahmani, Amine M.

    2006-01-01

    demonstrated the feasibility of degrading PAHs in aqueous systems with persulfate oxidation. Additional tests are being conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of treating PAHs in soils and obtaining the rate of degradation of PAHs with persulfate oxidation.Two sets of laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the ability of sodium persulfate in oxidizing real world PAH-contaminated soils collected from a Superfund site in Connecticut. The first set of soil sample were treated only with persulfate and to the second batch, mixture of persulfate and Fe(II)-EDTA solutions were added. The results of the second test showed that within 24 hours, 75% to 100% of the initial concentrations of seven PAH compounds detected in the soil samples were degraded by sodium persulfate mixed with FE(II)-EDTA

  13. Detailed Soils 24K

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital soil survey and is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The information was...

  14. Indicators: Soil Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemical makeup of the soil can provide information on wetland condition, wetland water quality and services being provided by the wetland ecosystem. Analyzing soil chemistry reveals if the soil is contaminated with a toxic chemical or heavy metal.

  15. Tropical Soil Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borggaard, Ole K.

    and environmental protection. Tropical Soil Chemistry by Ole K. Borggaard provides an overview of the composition, occurrence, properties, processes, formation, and environmental vulnerability of various tropical soil types (using American Soil Taxonomy for classification). The processes and the external factors...... soil chemical issues are also presented to assess when, why, and how tropical soils differ from soils in other regions. This knowledge can help agricultural specialists in the tropics establish sustainable crop production. Readers are assumed to be familiar with basic chemistry, physics...

  16. Sorters for soil cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramlitt, E.T.; Johnson, N.R.; Tomicich, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    A soil sorter is a system with conveyor, radiation detectors, and a gate. The system activates the gate based on radiation measurements to sort soil to either clean or contaminated paths. Automatic soil sorters have been perfected for use in the cleanup of plutonium contaminated soil at Johnston Atoll. The cleanup processes soil through a plant which mines plutonium to make soil clean. Sorters at various locations in the plant effectively reduce the volume of soil for mining and they aid in assuring clean soil meets guidelines

  17. Soil-structure interaction including nonlinear soil

    OpenAIRE

    Gicev, Vlado

    2008-01-01

    There are two types of models of soil-structure system depending upon the rigidity of foundation: models with rigid and models with flexible foundation. Main features of the soil-structure interaction phenomenon: -wave scattering, -radiation damping, -reduction of the system frequencies. In this presentation, the influence of interaction on the development of nonlinear zones in the soil is studied.

  18. Effect of single and mixed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination on plant biomass yield and PAH dissipation during phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afegbua, Seniyat Larai; Batty, Lesley Claire

    2018-04-27

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated sites have a mixture of PAH of varying concentration which may affect PAH dissipation differently to contamination with a single PAH. In this study, pot experiments investigated the impact of PAH contamination on Medicago sativa, Lolium perenne, and Festuca arundinacea biomass and PAH dissipation from soils spiked with phenanthrene (Phe), fluoranthene (Flu), and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in single and mixed treatments. Stimulatory or inhibitory effects of PAH contamination on plant biomass yields were not different for the single and mixed PAH treatments. Results showed significant effect of PAH treatments on plant growth with an increased root biomass yield for F. arundinacea in the Phe (175%) and Flu (86%) treatments and a root biomass decrease in the mixed treatment (4%). The mean residual PAHs in the planted treatments and unplanted control for the single treatments were not significantly different. B[a]P dissipation was enhanced for single and mixed treatments (71-72%) with F. arundinacea compared to the unplanted control (24-50%). On the other hand, B[a]P dissipation was inhibited with L. perenne (6%) in the single treatment and M. sativa (11%) and L. perenne (29%) in the mixed treatment. Abiotic processes had greater contribution to PAH dissipation compared to rhizodegradation in both treatments. In most cases, a stimulatory effect of PAH contamination on plant biomass yield without an enhancement of PAH dissipation was observed. Plant species among other factors affect the relative contribution of PAH dissipation mechanisms during phytoremediation. These factors determine the effectiveness and suitability of phytoremediation as a remedial strategy for PAH-contaminated sites. Further studies on impact of PAH contamination, plant selection, and rhizosphere activities on soil microbial community structure and remediation outcome are required.

  19. The Prevalence of Power-Sharing: Exploring the Patterns of Post-Election Peace Die Verbreitung von Power-Sharing: Bedingungen für eine friedliche Entwicklung nach Wahlen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K. Jarstad

    2009-01-01

    Statistiken aus der Post-Accord Elections (PAE Datensammlung, die in diesem Artikel präsentiert werden, haben gleichwohl ergeben, dass Frieden, Power-Sharing und Demokratie eng miteinander verflochten sind; Friedensabkommen sehen heute in den meisten Fällen sowohl Power-Sharing als auch Wahlen vor. Im Gegensatz zu früheren Forschungen, die von der Annahme ausgingen, das Power-Sharing ein Instrument zur Beendigung von Gewalt darstellt, belegen die Daten, dass der Konflikt häufig nach Unterzeichnung eines Abkommens fortlebt, auch wenn Regelungen zur Machtteilung vorgesehen sind. Dass Power-Sharing Wahlen begünstigt, lässt sich nicht belegen; im Gegenteil, es kommt häufiger vor, dass nach einem Friedensprozess ohne Power-Sharing-Abkommen Wahlen abgehalten werden. Eine Periode der Machtteilung vor Wahlen scheint eine anschließende friedliche Entwicklung nicht zu fördern; Wahlen sind in diesem Fall ähnlich konfliktreich wie Wahlen, die nach Friedensvereinbarungen ohne Machtteilungsklauseln abgehalten wurden. Als gute Nachricht kann gelten, dass Power-Sharing keinen negativen Effekt auf eine friedliche Entwicklung nach Wahlen zu haben scheint.

  20. From the components to the stack. Developing and designing 5kW HT-PEFC stacks; Von der Komponente zum Stack. Entwicklung und Auslegung von HT-PEFC-Stacks der 5 kW-Klasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendzulla, Anne

    2010-12-22

    The aim of the present project is to develop a stack design for a 5-kW HTPEFC system. First, the state of the art of potential materials and process designs will be discussed for each component. Then, using this as a basis, three potential stack designs with typical attributes will be developed and assessed in terms of practicality with the aid of a specially derived evaluation method. Two stack designs classified as promising will be discussed in detail, constructed and then characterized using short stack tests. Comparing the stack designs reveals that both designs are fundamentally suitable for application in a HT-PEFC system with on-board supply. However, some of the performance data differ significantly for the two stack designs. The preferred stack design for application in a HT-PEFC system is characterized by robust operating behaviour and reproducible high-level performance data. Moreover, in compact constructions (120 W/l at 60 W/kg), the stack design allows flexible cooling with thermal oil or air, which can be adapted to suit specific applications. Furthermore, a defined temperature gradient can be set during operation, allowing the CO tolerance to be increased by up to 10 mV. The short stack design developed within the scope of the present work therefore represents an ideal basis for developing a 5-kW HT-PEFC system. Topics for further research activities include improving the performance by reducing weight and/or volume, as well as optimizing the heat management. The results achieved within the framework of this work clearly show that HTPEFC stacks have the potential to play a decisive role in increasing efficiency in the future, particularly when combined with an on-board supply system. (orig.) [German] Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit ist die Entwicklung eines Stackkonzeptes fuer ein 5 kW-HT-PEFC System. Dazu wird zunaechst fuer jede Komponente der Stand der Technik moeglicher Materialien und Prozesskonzepte diskutiert. Darauf aufbauend werden drei

  1. Soil structural behaviour of flooded soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taboada, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this presentation are to: identify factors determining of the structural behaviour of flooded soils, as compared to those acting in upland soils; analyse the influence of reductive processes on aggregate stabilising agents; discuss mechanisms of structural deterioration and recovery during the flooding-drying cycle, on the basis of a case study: cattle trampling effects in the flooding Pampa of Argentina. Flooded soils, now known as Hydric soils, are characteristic of wetlands and irrigated fields cropped to rice (paddy soils). In them, water covers the soil, or is present either at or near the surface of the soil all year or for varying periods of time during the year. Hydric soils belong to different taxa of the FAO-UNESCO Soil Map (2000). Fluvisols, Planosols and Gleysols are widespread distributed in the globe. The generation of redoximorphic features is due to different causes in each of them. Fluvisols are covered part of the year by surface water from river overflows; Planosols are soils having an impervious Bt horizon, supporting perched water during short periods; and Gleysols are soils affected by stagnant water tables during long periods

  2. Visual soil evaluation and soil compaction research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M.L. Guimarães, Rachel; Keller, Thomas; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2017-01-01

    Following on from discussions that took place during the 19th International Conference of the International Soil Tillage Research Organization (ISTRO) in Montevideo, Uruguay, in 2012, the ISTRO working groups “Visual Soil Examination and Evaluation” (VSEE) and “Subsoil Compaction” decided...... to organize a joint workshop. The present special issue is an outcome from the workshop on “Soil structural quality of tropical soils: Visual evaluation methods and soil compaction prevention strategies” that was held 26–29 May 2014 in Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. There has been a long-lasting interest in Visual...... Soil Evaluation (VSE). An ISTRO working group was established more than 30 years ago with the objectives to exchange knowledge and experiences on field methods of visual-tactile soil assessment and to foster international cooperation on new or refined methods. The three previous meeting of the group...

  3. 11 Soil Microbial Biomass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    186–198. Insam H. (1990). Are the soil microbial biomass and basal respiration governed by the climatic regime? Soil. Biol. Biochem. 22: 525–532. Insam H. D. and Domsch K. H. (1989). Influence of microclimate on soil microbial biomass. Soil Biol. Biochem. 21: 211–21. Jenkinson D. S. (1988). Determination of microbial.

  4. Hot fire, cool soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoof, C.R.; Moore, D.; Fernandes, P.; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Fernandes, R.; Ferreira, A.J.D.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Wildfires greatly increase a landscape's vulnerability to flooding and erosion events by removing vegetation and changing soils. Fire damage to soil increases with increasing soil temperature, and, for fires where smoldering combustion is absent, the current understanding is that soil temperatures

  5. Visual soil evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visual Soil Evaluation (VSE) provides land users and environmental authorities with the tools to assess soil quality for crop performance. This book describes the assessment of the various structural conditions of soil, especially after quality degradation such as compaction, erosion or organic...... and nutrient leaching, and for diagnosing and rectifying erosion and compaction in soils....

  6. Application of laser-optical diagnostics for the support of direct-injection gasoline combustion process development; Einsatz laseroptischer Messverfahren zur Unterstuetzung der Entwicklung von Brennverfahren mit Benzin-Direkteinspritzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hentschel, W.; Meyer, H.; Stiebels, B. [Volkswagenwerk AG, Wolfsburg (Germany). Abt. Forschung und Entwicklung

    2000-07-01

    The development of direct-injection gasoline engines at Volkswagen was supported strictly from the beginning by the means of optical diagnostics and CFD-simulations. Basic phenomena, such as the formation of the in-cylinder flow field, the penetration of the spray formed by a hollow-cone swirl-type injector at high fuel pressure, the interaction of spray and flow and the formation of an ignitable mixture were analysed in details. The paper describes the laser-optical techniques-particle-image-velocimetry, laser-Doppler-anemometry, videostroboscopy, high-speed cinematography and laser-induced fluorescence - which were used during the development of the DI gasoline combustion process. Examples taken from engines with optical access to the combustion chamber demonstrate the capability of the techniques and pinpoint where the design of the combustion process benefits from experimental and simulation investigations. (orig.) [German] Die Entwicklung von Ottomotoren mit Benzin-Direkteinspritzung wurde bei Volkswagen von Beginn an konsequent durch den Einsatz optischer Messverfahren und CFD-Simulationen unterstuetzt. Damit konnten grundlegende Phaenomene, wie die Ausbildung des Stroemungsfeldes im Motorbrennraum, die Ausbreitung des durch einen Hohlkegel-Drallinjektor unter hohem Druck eingespritzten Kraftstoffs sowie die Wechselwirkung der Luftstroemung im Zylinder mit den Einspritzstrahlen und die Bildung einer zuendfaehigen Ladungswolke detailliert untersucht werden. Das Paper beschreibt die laseroptischen Messverfahren - Particle-Image-Velocimetry, Laser-Doppler-Anemometry, Video-Stroboskopie, Hochgeschwindikgkeits-Kinematographie und Laserinduzierte Fluoreszenz - die bei der Brennverfahrensentwicklung eingesetzt werden und zeigt anhand einer Reihe von konkreten Beispielen, wo Antworten auf Grundsatzfragen zur Auslegung des Brennverfahrens durch Messergebnisse an optisch zugaenglichen Motoren und durch CFD-Simulationen erarbeitet werden koennen. (orig.)

  7. Restoring Soil Quality to Mitigate Soil Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattan Lal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Feeding the world population, 7.3 billion in 2015 and projected to increase to 9.5 billion by 2050, necessitates an increase in agricultural production of ~70% between 2005 and 2050. Soil degradation, characterized by decline in quality and decrease in ecosystem goods and services, is a major constraint to achieving the required increase in agricultural production. Soil is a non-renewable resource on human time scales with its vulnerability to degradation depending on complex interactions between processes, factors and causes occurring at a range of spatial and temporal scales. Among the major soil degradation processes are accelerated erosion, depletion of the soil organic carbon (SOC pool and loss in biodiversity, loss of soil fertility and elemental imbalance, acidification and salinization. Soil degradation trends can be reversed by conversion to a restorative land use and adoption of recommended management practices. The strategy is to minimize soil erosion, create positive SOC and N budgets, enhance activity and species diversity of soil biota (micro, meso, and macro, and improve structural stability and pore geometry. Improving soil quality (i.e., increasing SOC pool, improving soil structure, enhancing soil fertility can reduce risks of soil degradation (physical, chemical, biological and ecological while improving the environment. Increasing the SOC pool to above the critical level (10 to 15 g/kg is essential to set-in-motion the restorative trends. Site-specific techniques of restoring soil quality include conservation agriculture, integrated nutrient management, continuous vegetative cover such as residue mulch and cover cropping, and controlled grazing at appropriate stocking rates. The strategy is to produce “more from less” by reducing losses and increasing soil, water, and nutrient use efficiency.

  8. Soil organic matter studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A total of 77 papers were presented and discussed during this symposium, 37 are included in this Volume II. The topics covered in this volume include: biochemical transformation of organic matter in soils; bitumens in soil organic matter; characterization of humic acids; carbon dating of organic matter in soils; use of modern techniques in soil organic matter research; use of municipal sludge with special reference to heavy metals constituents, soil nitrogen, and physical and chemical properties of soils; relationship of soil organic matter and plant metabolism; interaction between agrochemicals and organic matter; and peat. Separate entries have been prepared for those 20 papers which discuss the use of nuclear techniques in these studies

  9. Soil water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, D.R.; Cassel, D.K.

    1984-01-01

    The use of radiation and tracer techniques in investigations into soil water management in agriculture, hydrology etc. is described. These techniques include 1) neutron moisture gauges to monitor soil water content and soil water properties, 2) gamma radiation attenuation for measuring the total density of soil and soil water content, 3) beta radiation attenuation for measuring changes in the water status of crop plants and 4) radioactive and stable tracers for identifying pathways, reactions and retention times of the constituents in soils and groundwater aquifers. The number and spacing of soil observations that should be taken to represent the management unit are also considered. (U.K.)

  10. Soil physical properties affecting soil erosion in tropical soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo Lujan, D.

    2004-01-01

    The total vegetated land area of the earth is about 11,500 hectare. Of this, about 12% is in South America. Of this, about 14% is degraded area. Water erosion, chemical degradation, wind erosion, and physical degradation have been reported as main types of degradation. In South America water erosion is a major process for soil degradation. Nevertheless, water erosion can be a consequence of degradation of the soil structure, especially the functional attributes of soil pores to transmit and retain water, and to facilitate root growth. Climate, soil and topographic characteristics determine runoff and erosion potential from agricultural lands. The main factors causing soil erosion can be divided into three groups: Energy factors: rainfall erosivity, runoff volume, wind strength, relief, slope angle, slope length; Protection factors: population density, plant cover, amenity value (pressure for use) and land management; and resistance factors: soil erodibility, infiltration capacity and soil management. The degree of soil erosion in a particular climatic zone, with particular soils, land use and socioeconomic conditions, will always result from a combination of the above mentioned factors. It is not easy to isolate a single factor. However, the soil physical properties that determine the soil erosion process, because the deterioration of soil physical properties is manifested through interrelated problems of surface sealing, crusting, soil compaction, poor drainage, impeded root growth, excessive runoff and accelerated erosion. When an unprotected soil surface is exposed to the direct impact of raindrops it can produce different responses: Production of smaller aggregates, dispersed particles, particles in suspension and translocation and deposition of particles. When this has occurred, the material is reorganized at the location into a surface seal. Aggregate breakdown under rainfall depends on soil strength and a certain threshold kinetic energy is needed to start

  11. Cross-cutting activities: Soil quality and soil metagenomics

    OpenAIRE

    Motavalli, Peter P.; Garrett, Karen A.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation reports on the work of the SANREM CRSP cross-cutting activities "Assessing and Managing Soil Quality for Sustainable Agricultural Systems" and "Soil Metagenomics to Construct Indicators of Soil Degradation." The introduction gives an overview of the extensiveness of soil degradation globally and defines soil quality. The objectives of the soil quality cross cutting activity are: CCRA-4 (Soil Metagenomics)

  12. Bioremediation of PAHs contaminated river sediment by an integrated approach with sequential injection of co-substrate and electron acceptor: Lab-scale study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Tongzhou; Zhang, Zhen; Dong, Wenyi; Wu, Xiaojing; Wang, Hongjie

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the feasibility of employing an integrated bioremediation approach in contaminated river sediment was evaluated. Sequential addition of co-substrate (acetate) and electron acceptor (NO 3 − ) in a two-phase treatment was capable of effectively removing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in river sediment. The residual concentration of total PAHs decreased to far below effect range low (ERL) value within 91 days of incubation, at which concentration it could rarely pose biological impairment. The biodegradation of high molecular weight PAHs were found to be mainly occurred in the sediment treated with co-substrates (i.e. acetate or methanol), in which acetate was found to be more suitable for PAHs degradation. The role of co-substrates in influencing PAHs biodegradation was tentatively discussed herein. Additionally, the sediment odorous problem and blackish appearance were intensively addressed by NO 3 − injection. The results of this study demonstrated that integrating two or more approaches/processes would be a helpful option in sediment remediation. It can lead to a more effective remediation performance, handle multiple contamination issues, as well as mitigate environmental risks caused by one of the single methods. - Highlights: • Sequential addition of acetate and NO 3 − removed PAHs and mitigated sediment odor. • Acetate is a suitable co-substrate used for PAHs degradation in river sediment. • NO 3 − Injection was effective for sediment odor and blackish appearance mitigation. • Integrated method is suggested in complicated real case with multi-remedial target. - Sequential addition of co-substrate and electron acceptor was capable of effectively removing PAHs and addressing sediment odorous problem and blackish appearance.

  13. Biogeochemical and isotopic gradients in a BTEX/PAH contaminant plume: Model-based interpretation of a high-resolution field data set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prommer, H.; Anneser, B.; Rolle, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    of toluene, which is the most rapidly degrading compound and the most important reductant at the site. The resulting depth profiles at the observation well show distinct differences between the small isotopic enrichment in the contaminant plume core and the much stronger enrichment of up to 3.3 parts per......A high spatial resolution data set documenting carbon and sulfur isotope fractionation at a tar oil-contaminated, sulfate-reducing field site was analyzed with a reactive transport model. Within a comprehensive numerical model, the study links the distinctive observed isotope depth profiles...... with the degradation of various monoaromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (BTEX/PAHs) under sulfate-reducing conditions. In the numerical model, microbial dynamics were simulated explicitly and isotope fractionation was directly linked to the differential microbial uptake of lighter and heavier carbon...

  14. Bioremediation of PAHs contaminated river sediment by an integrated approach with sequential injection of co-substrate and electron acceptor: Lab-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tongzhou; Zhang, Zhen; Dong, Wenyi; Wu, Xiaojing; Wang, Hongjie

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the feasibility of employing an integrated bioremediation approach in contaminated river sediment was evaluated. Sequential addition of co-substrate (acetate) and electron acceptor (NO 3 - ) in a two-phase treatment was capable of effectively removing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in river sediment. The residual concentration of total PAHs decreased to far below effect range low (ERL) value within 91 days of incubation, at which concentration it could rarely pose biological impairment. The biodegradation of high molecular weight PAHs were found to be mainly occurred in the sediment treated with co-substrates (i.e. acetate or methanol), in which acetate was found to be more suitable for PAHs degradation. The role of co-substrates in influencing PAHs biodegradation was tentatively discussed herein. Additionally, the sediment odorous problem and blackish appearance were intensively addressed by NO 3 - injection. The results of this study demonstrated that integrating two or more approaches/processes would be a helpful option in sediment remediation. It can lead to a more effective remediation performance, handle multiple contamination issues, as well as mitigate environmental risks caused by one of the single methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Soil stabilization 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barenberg, E. J.; Thompson, M. R.; Tayabji, S. D.; Nussbaum, P. J.; Ciolko, A. T.

    Seven papers cover the following areas: design, construction and performance of lime, fly ash, and slag pavement; evaluation of heavily loaded cement stabilized bases; coal refuse and fly ash compositions; potential highway base course materials; lime soil mixture design considerations for soils of southeastern United States; short term active soil property changes caused by injection of lime and fly ash; soil cement for use in stream channel grade stabilization structures; and reaction products of lime treated southeastern soils.

  16. COMPARISONS OF SOXHLET EXTRACTION, PRESSURIZED LIQUID EXTRACTION, SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION, AND SUBCRITICAL WATER EXTRACTION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SOLIDS: RECOVERY, SELECTIVITY, AND EFFECTS ON SAMPLE MATRIX. (R825394)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extractions of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a former manufactured gas plant site were performed with a Soxhlet apparatus (18 h), by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) (50 min at 100°C), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) (1 h at 150°...

  17. Soil hydraulic properties of Cuban soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, M.E.; Medina, H.

    2004-01-01

    Because soil hydraulic properties are indispensable for determining soil water retention and soil water movement, their input for deterministic crop simulation models is essential. From these models is possible to access the effect of the weather changes, soil type or different irrigation schedules on crop yields. With these models, possibilities are provided to answer questions regarding virtual 'what happen if' experiments with a minimum of fieldwork. Nevertheless, determining soil hydraulic properties can be very difficult owing to unavailability of necessary equipment or the lack of personal with the proper knowledge for those tasks. These deficiencies are a real problem in developing countries, and even more so when there is not enough financial possibilities for research work. This paper briefly presents the way these properties have been accessed for Cuban soils, which methods have been used and the work now in progress. (author)

  18. [Microscopic soil fungi - bioindicators organisms contaminated soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donerian, L G; Vodianova, M A; Tarasova, Zh E

    In the paper there are considered methodological issues for the evaluation of soil biota in terms of oil pollution. Experimental studies have shown that under the exposure of a various levels of oil pollution meeting certain gradations of the state and optimal alteration in microbocenosis in sod-podzolic soils, there is occurred a transformation of structure of the complex of micromycetes and the accumulation of toxic species, hardly typical for podzolic soils - primarily represantatives of the genus Aspergillus (A.niger and A. versicolor), Paecilomyces (P.variotii Bainer), Trichoderma (T.hamatum), the genus of phytopathogens Fusarium (F.oxysporum), dermatophytes of genus Sporothrix (S. schenckii) and dark-colored melanin containing fungi of Dematiaceae family. Besides that there are presented data on the study of microbiocenosis of the urban soil, the urban soil differed from the zone soil, but shaped in similar landscape and climatic conditions, and therefore having a tendency to a similar response from the side of microorganisms inhabiting the soil. Isolated complex of soil microscopic fungi is described by many authors as a complex, characteristic for soils of megalopolises. This allowed authors of this work to suggest that in urban soils the gain in the occurrence of pathogenic species micromycetes also increases against a background of chronic, continuously renewed inflow of petroleum hydrocarbons from various sources of pollution. Because changes in the species composition of micromycetes occurred in accordance with the increasing load of oil, so far as microscopic soil fungi can be recommended as a bioindicator organisms for oil. In the article there is also provided information about the distinctive features of modern DNA identification method of soil microscopic fungi and accepted in our country methodology of isolation of micromycetes with the use of a nutrient Czapek medium.

  19. Soil washing technology evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suer, A.

    1995-04-01

    Environmental Restoration Engineering (ERE) continues to review innovative, efficient, and cost effective technologies for SRS soil and/or groundwater remediation. As part of this effort, this technical evaluation provides review and the latest information on the technology for SRS soil remediation. Additional technology evaluation reports will be issued periodically to update these reports. The purpose of this report is to review the soil washing technology and its potential application to SRS soil remediation. To assess whether the Soil Washing technology is a viable option for SRS soil remediation, it is necessary to review the technology/process, technology advantages/limitations, performance, applications, and cost analysis

  20. CONSIDERATIONS ON URBAN SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Lacatusu

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban soil is an material that has been manipulated, disturbed or transported by man’s activities in the urban environment and is used as a medium for plant growth and for constructions. The physical, chemical, and biological properties are generally less favorable as a rooting medium than soil found on the natural landscape. The main characteristics of urban soils are: great vertical and spatial variability; modified soil structure leading to compaction; presence of a surface crust; modified soil reaction, usually elevated; restricted aeration and water drainage; modified abundance of chemical elements, interrupted nutrient cycling and soil organism activity; presence of anthropic materials contaminants and pollutants; modified soil temperature regime. The urbic horizon is designated as U (always capital letter and for indication of processes are used different small letters. It is necessary elaboration a new classification of urban soils for our country.

  1. iSOIL: Interactions between soil related sciences - Linking geophysics, soil science and digital soil mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Peter; Werban, Ulrike; Sauer, Uta

    2010-05-01

    High-resolution soil property maps are one major prerequisite for the specific protection of soil functions and restoration of degraded soils as well as sustainable land use, water and environmental management. To generate such maps the combination of digital soil mapping approaches and remote as well as proximal soil sensing techniques is most promising. However, a feasible and reliable combination of these technologies for the investigation of large areas (e.g. catchments and landscapes) and the assessment of soil degradation threats is missing. Furthermore, there is insufficient dissemination of knowledge on digital soil mapping and proximal soil sensing in the scientific community, to relevant authorities as well as prospective users. As one consequence there is inadequate standardization of techniques. At the poster we present the EU collaborative project iSOIL within the 7th framework program of the European Commission. iSOIL focuses on improving fast and reliable mapping methods of soil properties, soil functions and soil degradation risks. This requires the improvement and integration of advanced soil sampling approaches, geophysical and spectroscopic measuring techniques, as well as pedometric and pedophysical approaches. The focus of the iSOIL project is to develop new and to improve existing strategies and innovative methods for generating accurate, high resolution soil property maps. At the same time the developments will reduce costs compared to traditional soil mapping. ISOIL tackles the challenges by the integration of three major components: (i)high resolution, non-destructive geophysical (e.g. Electromagnetic Induction EMI; Ground Penetrating Radar, GPR; magnetics, seismics) and spectroscopic (e.g., Near Surface Infrared, NIR) methods, (ii)Concepts of Digital Soil Mapping (DSM) and pedometrics as well as (iii)optimized soil sampling with respect to profound soil scientific and (geo)statistical strategies. A special focus of iSOIL lies on the

  2. Electrochemical soil remediation - accelerated soil weathering?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottosen, L.M.; Villumsen, A.; Hansen, H.K.; Jensen, P.E.; Pedersen, A.J. [Dept. of Civil Engineering, Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Ribeiro, A.B. [Dept. of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, New Univ. of Lisbon, Monte da Caparica (Portugal)

    2001-07-01

    In electrochemical soil remediation systems, where enhancement solutions and complexing agents are not used, a developing acidic front is mobilizing the heavy metals and the electric current is removing the mobilized elements from the soil. The hypotheses investigated in this paper is whether this process may be comparable to the chemical soil weathering that occurs in the environment due to the acidic rain, where the mobilized elements are removed from the soil by the penetrating water. Even through the weathering process is highly accelerated in the electrochemical cell. This paper shows results from electrodialytic remediation experiments performed with four different Danish heavy metal polluted soils. The main emphasis is laid on the relation between the developing acidic front and electromigration of Cu, Zn, Mn, Mg, Fe and Ca. (orig.)

  3. Soil conservation measures: exercises

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Tomás de; Fonseca, Felícia

    2009-01-01

    Exercises proposed under the topic of Soil Conservation Measures addresses to the design of structural measure, namely waterways in the context of a soil conservation plan. However, to get a better insight on the actual meaning of soil loss as a resource loss, a prior exercise is proposed to students. It concerns calculations of soil loss due to sheet (interrill) erosion and to gully erosion, and allows the perception through realistic number of the impact of these mechanism...

  4. Phosphorus in agricultural soils:

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringeval, Bruno; Augusto, Laurent; Monod, Hervé; Apeldoorn, van D.F.; Bouwman, A.F.; Yang, X.; Achat, D.L.; Chini, L.P.; Oost, van K.; Guenet, Bertrand; Wang, R.; Decharme, B.; Nesme, T.; Pellerin, S.

    2017-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) availability in soils limits crop yields in many regions of the World, while excess of soil P triggers aquatic eutrophication in other regions. Numerous processes drive the global spatial distribution of P in agricultural soils, but their relative roles remain unclear. Here, we

  5. Thermal Properties of Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    plagio - clase feldspar and pyroxene. The tine fraction may Surface area and its effects contain the clay "sheet" minerals (i.e. kaolinite. illite...Pyroxene, Kaoliniwe Unified By By Ortho. Plagio . amphibole, Basic clay min. Hematite Soil Soil soil petrogr. X.ray clase clase and Igneous and clay and no

  6. Restoration of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda J, Jose Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    A great variety of techniques are used for the restoration of contaminated soils. The contamination is present by both organic and inorganic pollutants. Environmental conditions and soil characteristics should take into account in order to implement a remedial technique. The bioremediation technologies are showed as help to remove a variety of soil contaminants. (author) [es

  7. Soil burden by radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, W.E.H.; Wenzel, W.W.

    1989-01-01

    Natural radioactivity - half-lifes and radiation type of man-made nuclides, radionuclide behaviour in soils, effects on soil condition and soil functions are described. The only mode of decontamination is by decay and thus primarily dependent on the half-life of nuclides

  8. Soil life under stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tobor-Kaplon, Maria Agnieszka

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis I studied how long-term soil contamination affects microbial populations and processes, ecosystem properties and functional stability. I also investigated which parameters are suitable as indicators of soil quality in long-term contaminated soils. I found that contamination had a

  9. Biogeochemistry of paddy soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kögel-Knabner, I.; Amelung, W.; Cao, Z.; Fiedler, S.; Frenzel, P.; Jahn, R.; Kalbitz, K.; Kölbl, A.; Schloter, M.

    2010-01-01

    Paddy soils make up the largest anthropogenic wetlands on earth. They may originate from any type of soil in pedological terms, but are highly modified by anthropogenic activities. The formation of these Anthrosols is induced by tilling the wet soil (puddling), and the flooding and drainage regime

  10. ISRIC - World Soil Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dent, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    ISRICWorld Soil Information is an independent foundation, funded by the Netherlands Government with a mandate to increase knowledge of the land, its soils in particular, and to support the sustainable use of land resources; in short, to help people understand soils. Its aims are to -Inform and

  11. Harvesting soil with potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelyng, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Norwegian authorities demand soil leaving potato packing plants to be deposited as waste. Depositing soil from potato processing plants is associated with significant cost for Norwegian producers. Therefore CYCLE investigated potato soil harvesting from an innovation and socio-economic perspective....

  12. Development of a measuring and evaluation method for X-ray analysis of residual stresses in the surface region of polycrystalline materials; Entwicklung eines Mess- und Auswerteverfahrens zur roentgenographischen Analyse des Eigenspannungszustandes im Oberflaechenbereich vielkristalliner Werkstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genzel, C.

    2000-11-01

    The topic of the habilitation thesis is the development of an X-ray diffraction method for measurement and depth-resolved analysis of internal stresses in the surface region of polycrystalline materials. The method relies on the basic approach of varying {tau}, the penetration depth of the X-rays in the materials, by the scattering vector g{sub theta{psi}} via stepwise specimen rotation. Thus, depth profiles of the interlattice plane distances d(hkl) in the specimen system can be derived for given direction and inclination angles {theta} and {psi} of the scattering vector. This offers the possibility to identify individual components of the stress tensors of the basic equation of the X-ray diffraction analysis, and to perform separate analyses of those components. For calculation of the relevant internal stress distributions {sigma}{sub ij}({tau}) using the interlattice plane distance profiles, a self-consistent method is established which takes into account the high sensitivity of the derived internal stresses in relation to the interlattice plane distance d{sub 0}(hkl) in the stress-free crystal lattice. The evaluation yields results describing the depth profiles as well as the strain-free interlattice plane distance d{sub 0}(hkl), so that a quantitative analysis is possible of tri-axial internal stress states in the surface region of the materials. (orig./CB) [German] Den Gegenstand der vorliegenden Arbeit bildet die Entwicklung eines roentgenographischen Mess- und Auswerteverfahrens zur tiefenaufgeloesten Analyse des oberflaechennahen Eigenspannungszustandes in vielkristallinen Werkstoffen. Der Grundgedanke der Methode besteht darin, die Eindringtiefe {tau} der Roentgenstrahlung in den Werkstoff durch schrittweise Drehung der Probe um den Streuvektor g{sub {theta}}{sub {psi}} zu variieren. Damit koennen Tiefenprofile der Netzebenenabstaende d(hkl) fuer fest vorgegebene Azimut- und Neigungswinkel {theta} und {psi} des Streuvektors im Probensystem ermittelt

  13. Development of new heterogeneous catalysts for the decomposition of methanol into hydrogen and carbon monoxide applying high throughput methods; Entwicklung neuer heterogener Katalysatoren zur Spaltung von Methanol in Wasserstoff und Kohlenmonoxid mittels Hochdurchsatz-Methoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Torsten

    2008-07-11

    The topic of this thesis has been the development of new heterogeneous catalysts for the decomposition of methanol into hydrogen and carbon monoxide. As an important constraint here, the content of noble metals of the catalysts should be as low as possible. High-throughput-methods were applied in some of the syntheses and experiments to accelerate the development, as, for example, the use of liquid based sol-gel syntheses and the examination of catalyst libraries by spatial resolution gas chromatography. This screening technique allowed to test up to 207 different substances during one single experiment. Then, different combinatorial strategies were applied. First, these methods led to a highly active and stable catalyst in the ternary system of Cu-Ni-Zn, which showed high conversion and selectivity comparable to an industrial reference catalyst. Its activity during an 18 hour long term run was constant in contrast to the reference. Second, an additional approach starting from a broader variety of elements led to a Ce- Ru- and to a Cr-Ru-catalyst. Both of them were highly active in short term experiments, but lost their outstanding performances during long term runs. (orig.) [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit befasste sich mit der Entwicklung neuer heterogener Katalysatoren fuer die Spaltung von Methanol zu Wasserstoff und Kohlenmonoxid, die einen moeglichst geringen Gehalt an Edelmetallen aufweisen sollten. Um diesen Prozess zu beschleunigen, wurden in einem Teil der Synthesen und Experimente Hochdurchsatzmethoden verwendet. Neben der Roboter gestuetzten Sol-Gel-Synthese umfasste dies die Untersuchung von Katalysatorbibliotheken mittels ortsaufgeloester Gaschromatographie, die es ermoeglichte, in einem Experiment bis zu 207 verschiedene Substanzen auf ihre katalytische Aktivitaet zu testen. Unter Anwendung verschiedener kombinatorischer Strategien wurde zunaechst ein sehr aktiver und stabiler Katalysator im ternaeren Cu-Ni-Zn-System entdeckt. Neben Umsaetzen und

  14. Development of an indicator system for the German action plan to global climate change (DAS); Entwicklung eines Indikatorensystems fuer die Deutsche Anpassungsstrategie an den Klimawandel (DAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenthaler, Konstanze; Andrian-Werburg, Stefan von [Bosch und Partner GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Nickel, Darla [Ecologic gGmbH Institut fuer Internationale und Europaeische Umweltpolitik, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    On 17th December 2008 the German Federal Cabinet adopted the German Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change (DAS: Deutsche Anpassungsstrategie) (BUNDESREGIERUNG 2008). The DAS has created the framework for adapting to the consequences of climate change in Germany. First and foremost, the DAS contributes its guidelines at Federal level, to provide guidance for agents at other levels. The Strategy lays the foundation for a medium-term process. In conjunction with the individual Federal States and other groups representing various sectors of society, the Strategy provides a step-by-step assessment of the risks of climate change. Furthermore, it states the potential requirements for action, and defines the appropriate goals and potential adaptation measures to be developed and implemented in the process. The Strategy is divided into 13 action fields and two cross-sectional fields (=14+15). (1) Human health (2) Building sector (3) Water regime, water management, coastal and marine protection (4) Soil (5) Biological diversity (6) Agriculture (7) Woodland and forestry (8) Fishery (9) Energy industry (conversion, transport and supply) (10) Financial services industry (11) Transport, transport infrastructure (12) Trade and industry (13) Tourism industry (14) Spatial, regional and physical development planning (15) Civil protection. In due course, the Federal Environment Agency (UBA) will design a comprehensive set of tools to support and implement the DAS. This will be made available for download from www.anpassung.net. An integral part of this will be the 'Tatenbank' (www.tatenbank.anpassung.net), the 'Klimalotse' (www.klimalotse.anpassung.net), FISKA (special information system 'Adaptation') and an Indicator System to aid adaptation. The latter is one of the key tasks identified for the DAS. As far as the Indicator System is concerned, it has been decided to prepare a Report on Indicators for the challenges facing Germany and the

  15. Bioindication with soil microfauna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aescht, E.; Foissner, W.

    1992-01-01

    The state of a soil can be characterised through its inhabitant micro-, meso-, and macrofauna. For an appropriate assessment of soil quality at least one representative of each of these size categories should be studied (e.g. testacea, mites, earthworms). This contribution summarizes the insights gained from microscopic soil fauna in this context. The following practical examples are discussed: pesticides, organic and artificial fertilisers, soil compaction, ecological and conventional farming, recolonisation. The 'weighted cenosis index' represents a quantitative measure for the influence of anthropogenic activity on a soil. (orig.) [de

  16. Soil heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherameti, Irena [Jena Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Botanik und Pflanzenphysiologie; Varma, Ajit (eds.) [Amity Univ., Uttar Pradesh (India). Amity Inst. of Microbial Technology; Amity Science, Technology and Innovation Foundation, Noida, UP (India)

    2010-07-01

    Human activities have dramatically changed the composition and organisation of soils. Industrial and urban wastes, agricultural application and also mining activities resulted in an increased concentration of heavy metals in soils. How plants and soil microorganisms cope with this situation and the sophisticated techniques developed for survival in contaminated soils is discussed in this volume. The topics presented include: the general role of heavy metals in biological soil systems; the relation of inorganic and organic pollutions; heavy metal, salt tolerance and combined effects with salinity; effects on abuscular mycorrhizal and on saprophytic soil fungi; heavy metal resistance by streptomycetes; trace element determination of environmental samples; the use of microbiological communities as indicators; phytostabilization of lead polluted sites by native plants; effects of soil earthworms on removal of heavy metals and the remediation of heavy metal contaminated tropical land. (orig.)

  17. From soil in art towards Soil Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, C.; Landa, E. R.; Toland, A.; Wessolek, G.

    2015-02-01

    The range of art forms and genres dealing with soil is wide and diverse, spanning many centuries and artistic traditions, from prehistoric painting and ceramics to early Renaissance works in Western literature, poetry, paintings, and sculpture, to recent developments in cinema, architecture and contemporary art. Case studies focused on painting, installation, and cinema are presented with the view of encouraging further exploration of art about, in, with, or featuring soil or soil conservation issues, created by artists, and occasionally scientists, educators or collaborative efforts thereof.

  18. Soil Organic Carbon in the Soil Scapes of Southeastern Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Joni

    2009-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is well known to maintain several functions. On the one hand, being the major component of soil organic matter (SOM),it is a determinant of soil physical and chemical properties, an important proxy for soil biological activity and a measure of soil productivity. Land use management that will enhance soil carbon (C) levels is therefore important for farmers and land use planners, particularly in semiarid and sub-humid Africa where severe soil degradation and desertifi...

  19. Reduction of energy consumption and reduction of galvanisation fluid loss by means of innovative galvanisation drums made of novel materials and with novel geomentries. Final report; Senkung des Energieverbrauches und Verringerung der Galvanisierbadverschleppung durch die Entwicklung von innovativen Galvanisiertrommeln aus neuen Werkstoffen mit neuer Geometrie. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tscherwitschke, R.

    2003-09-01

    The project intended to develop a galvanizing drum with higher efficiency (30 percent) without inducing limitations, either by reducing the exposure time at identical energy consumption or by permitting a higher coating rate at higher energy consumption. Developments during the last 50 years have been unsatisfactory in this field. (orig.) [German] Ziel des Projektes war, eine Galvanisiertrommel zu entwickeln, die ohne sonstige Einschraenkung eine signifikante Leistungssteigerung erbringt, konkret bei gleichem Energie-Einsatz (V x A) die Expositionszeit beim Galvanisierprozess reduziert oder bei gleichem Energie-Einsatz ein groesseres Warenvolumen mit der gleichen Schichtdicke, galvanisch beschichtet. Angestrebte Effizienzsteierung war 30%. In der gleichen Groessenordnung sollte eine Energieeinsparung einhergehen. In den letzten 50 Jahren gab es nur eine Entwicklung in diese Richtung, die sich aus einer Reihe von Gruenden nicht dauerhaft durchgesetzt hat. (orig.)

  20. Mass Transport within Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.

    2009-03-01

    Contaminants in soil can impact human health and the environment through a complex web of interactions. Soils exist where the atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, and biosphere converge. Soil is the thin outer zone of the earth's crust that supports rooted plants and is the product of climate and living organisms acting on rock. A true soil is a mixture of air, water, mineral, and organic components. The relative proportions of these components determine the value of the soil for agricultural and for other human uses. These proportions also determine, to a large extent, how a substance added to soil is transported and/or transformed within the soil (Spositio, 2004). In mass-balance models, soil compartments play a major role, functioning both as reservoirs and as the principal media for transport among air, vegetation, surface water, deeper soil, and ground water (Mackay, 2001). Quantifying the mass transport of chemicals within soil and between soil and atmosphere is important for understanding the role soil plays in controlling fate, transport, and exposure to multimedia pollutants. Soils are characteristically heterogeneous. A trench dug into soil typically reveals several horizontal layers having different colors and textures. As illustrated in Figure 1, these multiple layers are often divided into three major horizons: (1) the A horizon, which encompasses the root zone and contains a high concentration of organic matter; (2) the B horizon, which is unsaturated, lies below the roots of most plants, and contains a much lower organic carbon content; and (3) the C horizon, which is the unsaturated zone of weathered parent rock consisting of bedrock, alluvial material, glacial material, and/or soil of an earlier geological period. Below these three horizons lies the saturated zone - a zone that encompasses the area below ground surface in which all interconnected openings within the geologic media are completely filled with water. Similarly to the unsaturated

  1. Assessment the effect of homogenized soil on soil hydraulic properties and soil water transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohawesh, O.; Janssen, M.; Maaitah, O.; Lennartz, B.

    2017-09-01

    Soil hydraulic properties play a crucial role in simulating water flow and contaminant transport. Soil hydraulic properties are commonly measured using homogenized soil samples. However, soil structure has a significant effect on the soil ability to retain and to conduct water, particularly in aggregated soils. In order to determine the effect of soil homogenization on soil hydraulic properties and soil water transport, undisturbed soil samples were carefully collected. Five different soil structures were identified: Angular-blocky, Crumble, Angular-blocky (different soil texture), Granular, and subangular-blocky. The soil hydraulic properties were determined for undisturbed and homogenized soil samples for each soil structure. The soil hydraulic properties were used to model soil water transport using HYDRUS-1D.The homogenized soil samples showed a significant increase in wide pores (wCP) and a decrease in narrow pores (nCP). The wCP increased by 95.6, 141.2, 391.6, 3.9, 261.3%, and nCP decreased by 69.5, 10.5, 33.8, 72.7, and 39.3% for homogenized soil samples compared to undisturbed soil samples. The soil water retention curves exhibited a significant decrease in water holding capacity for homogenized soil samples compared with the undisturbed soil samples. The homogenized soil samples showed also a decrease in soil hydraulic conductivity. The simulated results showed that water movement and distribution were affected by soil homogenizing. Moreover, soil homogenizing affected soil hydraulic properties and soil water transport. However, field studies are being needed to find the effect of these differences on water, chemical, and pollutant transport under several scenarios.

  2. Effects of natural and synthetic soil conditioners on soil moisture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficacy of a natural soil conditioner, Coco-Peat (C-P), and synthetic soil conditioners, Terawet (T-200) and Teraflow (T-F), in improving soil moisture content were examined on five Ghanaian soil series (Akroso, Akuse, Amo, Hake and Oyarifa). In general, the water retention of T-200 and C-P treated soils were similar ...

  3. Modelling soil anaerobiosis from water retention characteristics and soil respiration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurgers, G.; Dörsch, P.; Bakken, L.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Egil Haugen, L.

    2006-01-01

    Oxygen is a prerequisite for some and an inhibitor to other microbial functions in soils, hence the temporal and spatial distribution of oxygen within the soil matrix is crucial in soil biogeochemistry and soil biology. Various attempts have been made to model the anaerobic fraction of the soil

  4. Advances in soil dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Advances in Soil Dynamics, Volume 3, represents the culmination of the work undertaken by the Advances in Soil Dynamics Monograph Committee, PM-45-01, about 15 years ago to summarize important developments in this field over the last 35 years. When this project was initiated, the main goal...... was to abridge major strides made in the general area of soil dynamics during the sixties, seventies, and eighties. However, by about the mid-nineties soil dynamics research in the US and much of the developed world had come to a virtual standstill. Although significant progress was made prior to the mid......-nineties, we still do not have a sound fundamental knowledge of soil-machine and soil-plant interactions. It is the hope of the editors that these three volumes will provide a ready reference for much needed future research in this area....

  5. Soil-dithiocarbamate interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghu, K.

    1980-01-01

    Soil is the ultimate repository of the pesticides applied for the control of plant pests and diseases. A variety of interactions like leaching, adsorption, chemical and microbial degradation etc take place between soil and pesticide. Results on work on two dialkyldithiocarbamates viz. thiram (tetramethylthiuram disulfide) and ziram (zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate) with respect to above interactions in soil are discussed and summarised. 35 S-labelled thiram and ziram were used in the studies. (author)

  6. Soil Management for Hardwood Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. M. Broadfoot; B. G. Blackmon; J. B. Baker

    1971-01-01

    Soil management is the key to successful hardwood management because soil properties are probably the most important determinants of forest productivity. Because of the lack of soil uniformity, however, many foresters have become frustrated with attempts to relate soil to satisfactory growth. Since soil scientists have been unable to predict site quality for trees in...

  7. Earthworms and Soil Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Tamae

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the toxicity of metal contaminated soils has been assessed with various bioassays, more information is needed about the biochemical responses, which may help to elucidate the mechanisms involved in metal toxicity. We previously reported that the earthworm, Eisenia fetida, accumulates cadmium in its seminal vesicles. The bio-accumulative ability of earthworms is well known, and thus the earthworm could be a useful living organism for the bio-monitoring of soil pollution. In this short review, we describe recent studies concerning the relationship between earthworms and soil pollutants, and discuss the possibility of using the earthworm as a bio-monitoring organism for soil pollution.

  8. Radioisotopes in soil science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotur, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    Soils form a thin veneer of the Earth that sustain the entire flora and fauna of the terra firma. To that extent the soil as a natural resource is very precious and needs to be managed in a sustainable manner. The fate of degradation of pesticides in soil and build-up of heavy metals in the overall biosafety scenario is also studied gainfully using radioisotopes. Radioisotopes are a very potent tool in the hands of the Soil Scientists, perhaps, the most important among the peaceful applications in service of the mankind

  9. Microbiological soil regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, D.; Wiesner, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Interdiciplinary Task Force ''Environmental Biotechnology - Soil'' of DECHEMA aims to pool the knowledge potential of the Dechema study committees on environmental biotechnology and soil protection with a view to the advancement of microbiological soil decontamination techniques. This conference volume on the 9th expert meeting of Dechema on environmental protection subjects entitled ''Microbiological Soil Regeneration'', held on February 27th and 28th, 1991, and the subsequent compilation of results give an intermediate account of the ongoing work of the Dechema Task Force. (orig.) [de

  10. Soil physics and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dourado Neto, Durval; Reichardt, K.; Sparovek, G.

    2004-01-01

    The approach that integrates knowledge is very important in Agriculture, including farmers, extensionists, researchers and professors. The specialists, including the soil physicists, must have a global view of the crop production system. Therefore, their expertise can be useful for the society. The Essence of scientific knowledge is its practical application. The soil physics is a sub area of Agronomy. There are many examples of this specific subject related to Agriculture. This paper will focus, in general, the following cases: (i) erosion, environmental pollution and human health, (ii) plant population and distribution, soil fertility, evapo-transpiration and soil water flux density, and (iii) productivity, effective root depth, water deficit and yield

  11. Electrodialytic soil remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Lene

    1997-01-01

    It is not possible for all heavy metal polluted soils to remediate it by an applied electric field alone. A desorbing agent must in different cases be added to the soil in order to make the process possible or to make it cost effective......It is not possible for all heavy metal polluted soils to remediate it by an applied electric field alone. A desorbing agent must in different cases be added to the soil in order to make the process possible or to make it cost effective...

  12. Soil microbial activities and its relationship with soil chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fields assessed are organically managed Soils (OMS), Inorganically Managed Soils (IMS) and an Uncultivated Land having grass coverage (ULS). Soil Microbial Respiration (SMR), Microbial Biomass Carbon (MBC), Microbial Biomass Nitrogen (MBN) and Microbial Biomass Phosphorus (MBP) were analyzed.

  13. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) - Kinds and Distribution of Soils

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  14. Strukturell-organisatorische Entwicklung und Etablierung eines interdisziplinären Trainingszentrums für klinisch-praktische Fertigkeiten [Structural and organizational development and establishment of an interdisciplinary Skills Lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dott, Wolfgang

    2010-02-01

    rztliche Handeln essentiell sind. Im Juli 2005 begann der Aufbau eines interdisziplinären Trainingszentrums an der medizinischen Fakultät der Rheinisch-Westfälischen Technischen Hochschule Aachen, genannt „AIXTRA“ (Aachener interdisziplinäres Trainingszentrum für medizinische Ausbildung. Sach- und Personalmittel zur strukturellen und methodischen Etablierung des sog. Skillslab wurden zunächst aus einem fakultätsinternen Förderprogramm für innovative Lehrkonzepte, im weiteren Verlauf zum überwiegenden Teil aus Studienbeiträgen zur Verfügung gestellt. Methodik: Im Vorfeld wurden die folgenden notwendigen Schritte eines Projektmanagements erarbeitet: Entwicklung eines methodischen Rahmenkonzeptes, Definition der inhaltlichen Ausrichtung und Auswahl der Fertigkeiten, Schaffung infrastruktureller Voraussetzungen (Räume, Unterrichtsmaterial, Personal, Konzeptionierung von „Pilot-Kursen“, Realisierung repräsentabler „Meilensteine“, Gewinnung weiterer potenter fakultätsinterner Partner für zukünftigen Ausbau, Implementierung Kursangebot in laufende Curricula, Evaluation der Einzel-Kurse und des Gesamtkonzeptes. Ergebnis: Die vorab festgelegten Teilschritte des Projektmanagements erwiesen sich als zielführend bei der Umsetzung des Projektes. Eine „Minimal“-Infrastruktur in Bezug auf räumliche und personelle Ressourcen wurde etabliert, das methodische Konzept umgesetzt. Im Sommersemester 2008 besuchten insgesamt 709 Teilnehmer in 133 fakultativen Kursen und ca. 900 Studierende in curricularen Veranstaltungen das Skillslab „AIXTRA“. Schlussfolgerung: Nach drei Jahren wird im interdisziplinären Trainingszentrum eine breite Palette von Kursen angeboten, in denen Studierende praktische Fertigkeiten erlernen, trainieren und optimieren können. Die bisher gewonnenen Erfahrungen in der Konzeptionierung und Organisation des Kursprogramms sind essentielle Grundlage für den weiteren strukturellen und methodisch-didaktischen Ausbau des Skillslab.

  15. First status seminar `Druckflamm`. Development of a coal-fuelled combined cycle process with liquid ash separation. Conference report; Erstes Statusseminar `Druckflamm`. Entwicklung eines kohlegefeuerten Gas- und Dampfturbinenprozesses mit Fluessigascheabscheidung. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannes, K. [ed.

    1999-09-01

    werden kann. Dabei muss das Rauchgas soweit von Partikeln und materialschaedlichen Daempfen gereinigt werden, dass es gasturbinenvertraeglich wird. Nach Angaben der Turbinenhersteller bedeutet dies einen Partikelgehalt <3mg/m{sup 3} i.N. bei einem Partikeldurchmesser < 3 {mu}m und einem Alkaligehalt < 1 ppm. Zur praktischen Erprobung dieser Entwicklung wird in Dorsten auf dem Gelaende eines frueheren STEAG-Kraftwerkes eine Versuchsanlage gefahren. Mit ihr wollen die Betreiber den Gas-Dampfturbinenprozess, der mit Heizoel oder Gas Wirkungsgrade von z.Z. 57 % erreicht, auch fuer Kohle nutzbar machen. Die in Dorsten errichtete Versuchsanlage besitzt eine thermische Leistung von 1 MW und kann bis zu einem Druck von 20 bar betrieben werden. Ein Ueberblick ueber die bisher erzielten Ergebnisse und gewonnenen Erkenntnisse zu Einsatzkohle, Verbrennung und Rauchgasreinigung wird der schematischen Darstellung der Anlage folgend gegeben. Ueber Materialverhalten und Messtechnik wird gesondert berichtet. Als Brennstoff wurden Kohlen unterschiedlicher Zusammensetzung mit Schlackefliesspunkten zwischen ca. 1200 bis 1400 C eingesetzt. (orig.AKF)

  16. Soil treatment engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivica, Kisic; Zeljka, Zgorelec; Aleksandra, Percin

    2017-10-01

    Soil is loose skin of the Earth, located between the lithosphere and atmosphere, which originated from parent material under the influence of pedogenetic processes. As a conditionally renewable natural resource, soil has a decisive influence on sustainable development of global economy, especially on sustainable agriculture and environmental protection. In recent decades, a growing interest prevails for non-production soil functions, primarily those relating to environmental protection. It especially refers to protection of natural resources whose quality depends directly on soil and soil management. Soil contamination is one of the most dangerous forms of soil degradation with the consequences that are reflected in virtually the entire biosphere, primarily at heterotrophic organisms, and also at mankind as a food consumer. Contamination is correlated with the degree of industrialization and intensity of agrochemical usage. It is typically caused by industrial activity, agricultural chemicals or improper disposal of waste. The negative effects caused by pollution are undeniable: reduced agricultural productivity, polluted water sources and raw materials for food are only a few of the effects of soil degradation, while almost all human diseases (excluding AIDS) may be partly related to the transport of contaminants, in the food chain or the air, to the final recipients - people, plants and animals. The remediation of contaminated soil is a relatively new scientific field which is strongly developing in the last 30 years and becoming a more important subject. In order to achieve quality remediation of contaminated soil it is very important to conduct an inventory as accurately as possible, that is, to determine the current state of soil contamination.

  17. Soil/Rock Properties Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Soil/Rock Properties LaboratoryLocation: Spokane SiteThe Soil/Rock Properties Laboratory is contained in the soils bay, a 4,700 sq. ft. facility that provides space...

  18. Soil-wood interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der Annemieke; klein Gunnewiek, Paulien; Boer, de Wietse

    2017-01-01

    Wood-inhabiting fungi may affect soil fungal communities directly underneath decaying wood via their exploratory hyphae. In addition, differences in wood leachates between decaying tree species may influence soil fungal communities. We determined the composition of fungi in 4-yr old decaying logs

  19. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  20. Soils, peatlands, and biomonitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Doolittle

    2009-01-01

    Soils are three-dimensional (3D) natural bodies conSlStmg of unconsolidated mineral and organic materials that form a continuous blanket over most of the earth's land sUlface. At all sca les of measurements, soils are exceedingly complex and variable in biological, chemical, physical, mineralogical, and electromagnetic properties....

  1. Scour in cohesive soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This study of scour in cohesive soils had two objectives. The first was to introduce and demonstrate a new ex situ erosion testing device (ESTD) that can mimic the near-bed flow of open channels to erode cohesive soils within a specified range of she...

  2. Contaminated soil concrete blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Korte, A.C.J.; Brouwers, Jos; Limbachiya, Mukesh C.; Kew, Hsein Y.

    2009-01-01

    According to Dutch law the contaminated soil needs to be remediated or immobilised. The main focus in this article is the design of concrete blocks, containing contaminated soil, that are suitable for large production, financial feasible and meets all technical and environmental requirements. In

  3. The Global Soil Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanarella, Luca

    2015-07-01

    The Global Soil Partnership (GSP) has been established, following an intensive preparatory work of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in collaboration with the European Commission (EC), as a voluntary partnership coordinated by the FAO in September 2011 [1]. The GSP is open to all interested stakeholders: Governments (FAO Member States), Universities, Research Organizations, Civil Society Organizations, Industry and private companies. It is a voluntary partnership aiming towards providing a platform for active engagement in sustainable soil management and soil protection at all scales: local, national, regional and global. As a “coalition of the willing” towards soil protection, it attempts to make progress in reversing soil degradation with those partners that have a genuine will of protecting soils for our future generations. It openly aims towards creating an enabling environment, despite the resistance of a minority of national governments, for effective soil protection in the large majority of the countries that are genuinely concerned about the rapid depletion of their limited soil resources.

  4. Complex conductivity of soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revil, A.; Coperey, A.; Shao, Z.; Florsch, N.; Fabricus, I.L.; Deng, Y.; Delsman, J.R.; Pauw, P.S.; Karaoulis, M.; Louw, P.G.B. de; Baaren, E.S. van; Dabekaussen, W.; Menkovic, A.; Gunnink, J.L.

    2017-01-01

    The complex conductivity of soils remains poorly known despite the growing importance of this method in hydrogeophysics. In order to fill this gap of knowledge, we investigate the complex conductivity of 71 soils samples (including four peat samples) and one clean sand in the frequency range 0.1 Hz

  5. Soil Health Educational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorman, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Soil health and cover crops are topics of interest to farmers, gardeners, and students. Three soil health and cover crop demonstrations provide educational resources. Demonstrations one outlines two educational cover crop seed displays, including the advantages and disadvantages. Demonstration two shows how to construct and grow a cover crop root…

  6. The soil life cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van J.P.

    2016-01-01

    Soil is one of the most important natural resource for life on Earth and provides important ecosystem services, such as food production, carbon sequestration, water regulation and contaminant attenuation. Soil quality, defined as the soil’s ability to provide these services, is drastically

  7. Creative Soil Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martha

    2010-01-01

    Take plant lessons outdoors with this engaging and inquiry-based activity in which third-grade students learn how to apply soil conservation methods to growing plants. They also collect data and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of their method of soil conservation. An added benefit to this activity is that the third-grade students played…

  8. Radioiodine in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabova, T.

    1981-01-01

    Behaviour was studied of radioiodine in different soil subtypes sampled in the vicinity of the A-1 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice. Radioiodine sorption is mainly affected by the amount of humus and by the clay fraction of soil. The highest sorption was recorded for meadow chernozem and the lowest for rendzina soils. At the same pH, soils with a higher level of organic matter adsorb more radioiodine. Upon applying radioiodate in soil samples, reduction to iodide takes place. Under the action of anions, radioiodine sorption decreases, the effect decreasing as follows: H 2 PO 4 - >SO 2- >Cl - >NO 3 - . The highest desorption was caused by 0.1 N NaOH solution. (author)

  9. Climate-smart soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paustian, Keith; Lehmann, Johannes; Ogle, Stephen; Reay, David; Robertson, G. Philip; Smith, Pete

    2016-04-01

    Soils are integral to the function of all terrestrial ecosystems and to food and fibre production. An overlooked aspect of soils is their potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Although proven practices exist, the implementation of soil-based greenhouse gas mitigation activities are at an early stage and accurately quantifying emissions and reductions remains a substantial challenge. Emerging research and information technology developments provide the potential for a broader inclusion of soils in greenhouse gas policies. Here we highlight ‘state of the art’ soil greenhouse gas research, summarize mitigation practices and potentials, identify gaps in data and understanding and suggest ways to close such gaps through new research, technology and collaboration.

  10. Electrodialytic soil remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsmose, Bodil; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Lene

    1999-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of how heavy metals can be found in the soil and the theory of electrodialytic remediation. Basically electrodialytic remediation works by passing electric current through the soil, and the heavy metals in ionic form will carry some of the current. Ion-exchange membranes...... prevents the protons and the hydroxides ions from the electrode processes to enter the soil. The heavy metals are collected in a concentration compartment, which is separated from the soil by ion-exchange membranes. Examples from remediation experiments are shown, and it is demonstrated that it is possible...... to remediate soil polluted with heavy metals be this method. When adding desorbing agents or complexing agents, chosing the right current density, electrolyte and membranes, the proces can be optimised for a given remediation situation. Also electroosmosis is influencing the system, and if extra water...

  11. Managing soil natural capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Ronggang; Termansen, Mette; Brady, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Farmers are exposed to substantial weather and market related risks. Rational farmers seek to avoid large losses. Future climate change and energy price fluctuations therefore make adaptating to increased risks particularly important for them. Managing soil natural capital—the capacity of the soil...... to generate ecosystem services of benefit to farmers—has been proven to generate the double dividend: increasing farm profit and reducing associated risk. In this paper we explore whether managing soil natural capital has a third dividend: reducing the downside risk (increasing the positive skewness of profit......). This we refer to as the prudence effect which can be viewed as an adaptation strategy for dealing with future uncertainties through more prudent management of soil natural capital. We do this by developing a dynamic stochastic portfolio model to optimize the stock of soil natural capital—as indicated...

  12. The Changing Model of Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, D. D.; Yaalon, D.

    2012-12-01

    The contemporary genetic model of soil is changing rapidly in response to advances in soil science and to human and environmental forcings in the 21st century (Richter and Yaalon, 2012). Three ongoing changes in the model of soil include that: (1) lower soil boundaries are much deeper than the solum, historically the O to B horizons, (2) most soils are polygenetic paleosols, products of soil-forming processes that have ranged widely over soils' lifetimes, and (3) soils are globally human-natural bodies, no longer natural bodies. Together, these changes in the model of soil mean that human forcings are a global wave of soil polygenesis altering fluxes of matter and energy and transforming soil thermodynamics as potentially very deep systems. Because soils are non-linear systems resulting from high-order interactions of physics, chemistry, and biology, trajectories of how human forcings alter soils over decades are not readily predictable and require long-term soil observations. There is much to learn about how soils are changing internally as central components of management systems and externally in relation to wider environments. To be critical, research has been remarkably superficial in studies of soil, reductionist in approach, and lacking in time-series observations of responses to soil management. While this criticism may sound negative, it creates significant opportunities for contemporary soil scientists.

  13. Cultural Patterns of Soil Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzel, Nikola; Feller, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Living soil supports all terrestrial ecosystems. The only global threat to earth's soils comes from human societies' land use and resource consuming activities. Soil perception and understanding by soil scientists are mainly drawn from biophysical parameters and found within Cartesian rationality, and not, or much less consciously from its rather intangible cultural dimension. But nevertheless, human soil perception, soil awareness, and soil relation are a cultural phenomenon, too. Aiming at soil awareness and education, it is of first order importance for the soil science community and the IUSS to study, discuss and communicate also about the cultural perceptions and representations of soil. For any society, cultural patterns in their relation to soil encompass: (i) General culturally underlying structures like (religious or 'secular') myths and belief systems. (ii) The personal, individual relation to/with and behaviour towards soil. This includes implicit concepts of soil being part integral concepts of landscape because the large majority of humans don't see soil as a distinct object. This communication would be to make evident: (i) the importance of cultural patterns and psychic/psychological background concerning soil, by case studies and overviews on different cultural areas, (ii) the necessity to develop reflections on this topic as well to communicate about soil with large public, as to raise awareness soil scientists to the cultural dimension of soils. A working group was recently founded at IUSS (Division 4) on this topic.

  14. Relaxometry in soil science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaumann, G. E.; Jaeger, F.; Bayer, J. V.

    2009-04-01

    NMR relaxometry is a sensitive, informative and promising method to study pore size distribution in soils as well as many kinds of soil physicochemical processes, among which are wetting, swelling or changes in the macromolecular status. Further, it is a very helpful method to study interactions between molecules in soil organic matter and it can serve to study the state of binding of water or organic chemicals to soil organic matter. The method of Relaxometry excite the nuclei of interest and their relaxation kinetics are observed. The relaxation time is the time constant of this first order relaxation process. Most applications of relaxometry concentrate on protons, addressing water molecules or H-containing organic molecules. In this context, 1H-NMR relaxometry may be used as an analysis method to determine water uptake characteristics of soils, thus gaining information about water distribution and mobility as well as pore size distribution in wet and moist samples. Additionally, it can also serve as a tool to study mobility of molecular segments in biopolymers. Principally, relaxometry is not restricted to protons. In soil science, relaxometry is also applied using deuterium, xenon and other nuclei to study pore size distribution and interactions. The relaxation time depends on numerous parameters like surface relaxivity, diffusion and interactions between nuclei as well as between nuclei and the environment. One- and two-dimensional methods address the relation between relaxation time and diffusion coefficients and can give information about the interconnectivity of pores. More specific information can be gained using field cycling techniques. Although proton NMR relaxometry is a very promising method in soil science, it has been applied scarcely up to now. It was used to assess changes in molecular rigidity of humic substances. A very recent study shows the potential of NMR relaxometry to assess the pore size distribution of soils in a fast and non

  15. Soil invertebrates as bioindicators of urban soil quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santorufo, Lucia; Van Gestel, Cornelis A.M.; Rocco, Annamaria; Maisto, Giulia

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at relating the abundance and diversity of invertebrate communities of urban soils to chemical and physical soil characteristics and to identify the taxa most sensitive or tolerant to soil stressors. The invertebrate community of five urban soils in Naples, Italy, was sampled. To assess soil quality invertebrate community indices (Shannon, Simpson, Menhinick and Pielou indices), Acarina/Collembola ratios, and the soil biological quality index (QBS) were calculated. The chemical and physical characteristics of the soils strongly differed. Abundance rather than taxa richness of invertebrates were more affected by soil characteristics. The community was more abundant and diverse in the soils with high organic matter and water content and low metal (Cu, Pb, Zn) concentrations. The taxa more resistant to the urban environment included Acarina, Enchytraeids, Collembola and Nematoda. Collembolans appeared particularly sensitive to changing soil properties. Among the investigated indices, QBS seems most appropriate for soil quality assessment. - Highlights: ► The abundance and diversity of invertebrate communities was related to properties and metal contents of urban soils. ► Several (biodiversity) indices were calculated and compared to evaluate soil quality. ► Metal contamination affected invertebrate density and diversity. ► The taxa more tolerant to metal contamination were Acarina, Enchytraeids, Collembola and Nematoda. ► The soil biological quality index QBS index was most appropriate for soil quality assessment. - Soil metal contamination negatively affected soil invertebrate abundance and diversity.

  16. Why is the influence of soil macrofauna on soil structure only considered by soil ecologists ?

    OpenAIRE

    Bottinelli, N.; Jouquet, Pascal; Capowiez, Y.; Podwojewski, Pascal; Grimaldi, Michel; Peng, X.

    2015-01-01

    These last twenty years have seen the development of an abundant literature on the influence of soil macrofauna on soil structure. Amongst these organisms, earthworms, termites and ants are considered to play a key role in regulating the physical, chemical and microbiological properties of soils. Due to these influential impacts, soil ecologists consider these soil macro-invertebrates as ‘soil engineers’ and their diversity and abundance are nowadays considered as relevant bioindi...

  17. Effects of straw mulching on soil evaporation during the soil thawing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    26

    Keywords: straw mulching, soil water evaporation, soil thawing period, freezing depth, soil liquid water .... moisture and the soil water evaporation process. The Songnen Plain ...... soils on soil infiltration and evaporation: Water Sci. Technol.

  18. Soil bacteria for remediation of polluted soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springael, D; Bastiaens, L; Carpels, M; Mergaey, M; Diels, L

    1996-09-18

    Soil bacteria, specifically adapted to contaminated soils, may be used for the remediation of polluted soils. The Flemish research institute VITO has established a collection of bacteria, which were isolated from contaminated areas. This collection includes microbacteria degrading mineral oils (Pseudomonas sp., Acinetobacter sp. and others), microbacteria degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (genera Sphingomonas and Mycobacterium), microbacteria degrading polychlorobiphenyls (genus Ralstonia and strains related to beta-Proteobacteria), and metal resistant bacteria with plasmid borne resistances to Cd, Zn, Ni, Co, Cu, Hg, and Cr. Bench-scale reactors were developed to investigate the industrial feasibility of bioremediation. Batch Stirred Tank Reactors were used to evaluate the efficiency of oil degraders. Soils, contaminated with non-ferrous metals, were treated using a Bacterial Metal Slurry Reactor. It was found that the reduction of the Cd concentration may vary strongly from sample to sample: reduction factors vary from 95 to 50%. Is was shown that Cd contained in metallic sinter and biologically unavailable Cd could not be removed.

  19. BOREAS TE-01 SSA Soil Lab Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides a set of soil properties for the SSA. The soil samples were collected at sets of soil pits. Major soil properties include soil horizon; dry...

  20. BOREAS TE-01 SSA Soil Lab Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides a set of soil properties for the SSA. The soil samples were collected at sets of soil pits. Major soil properties include soil...

  1. Physical soil quality indicators for monitoring British soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corstanje, Ron; Mercer, Theresa G.; Rickson, Jane R.; Deeks, Lynda K.; Newell-Price, Paul; Holman, Ian; Kechavarsi, Cedric; Waine, Toby W.

    2017-09-01

    Soil condition or quality determines its ability to deliver a range of functions that support ecosystem services, human health and wellbeing. The increasing policy imperative to implement successful soil monitoring programmes has resulted in the demand for reliable soil quality indicators (SQIs) for physical, biological and chemical soil properties. The selection of these indicators needs to ensure that they are sensitive and responsive to pressure and change, e.g. they change across space and time in relation to natural perturbations and land management practices. Using a logical sieve approach based on key policy-related soil functions, this research assessed whether physical soil properties can be used to indicate the quality of British soils in terms of their capacity to deliver ecosystem goods and services. The resultant prioritised list of physical SQIs was tested for robustness, spatial and temporal variability, and expected rate of change using statistical analysis and modelling. Seven SQIs were prioritised: soil packing density, soil water retention characteristics, aggregate stability, rate of soil erosion, depth of soil, soil structure (assessed by visual soil evaluation) and soil sealing. These all have direct relevance to current and likely future soil and environmental policy and are appropriate for implementation in soil monitoring programmes.

  2. Describing Soils: Calibration Tool for Teaching Soil Rupture Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seybold, C. A.; Harms, D. S.; Grossman, R. B.

    2009-01-01

    Rupture resistance is a measure of the strength of a soil to withstand an applied stress or resist deformation. In soil survey, during routine soil descriptions, rupture resistance is described for each horizon or layer in the soil profile. The lower portion of the rupture resistance classes are assigned based on rupture between thumb and…

  3. Combination of soil classification and some selected soil properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The advantage in the combined use of soil classification and top soil analysis for explaining crop yield variation was examined. Soil properties and yields of maize (Zea mays L) on different soil types were measured on farmers' fields for 2 years. Yield prediction improved from 2 per cent at the Order and Association levels to ...

  4. Physical soil quality indicators for monitoring British soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Corstanje

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil condition or quality determines its ability to deliver a range of functions that support ecosystem services, human health and wellbeing. The increasing policy imperative to implement successful soil monitoring programmes has resulted in the demand for reliable soil quality indicators (SQIs for physical, biological and chemical soil properties. The selection of these indicators needs to ensure that they are sensitive and responsive to pressure and change, e.g. they change across space and time in relation to natural perturbations and land management practices. Using a logical sieve approach based on key policy-related soil functions, this research assessed whether physical soil properties can be used to indicate the quality of British soils in terms of their capacity to deliver ecosystem goods and services. The resultant prioritised list of physical SQIs was tested for robustness, spatial and temporal variability, and expected rate of change using statistical analysis and modelling. Seven SQIs were prioritised: soil packing density, soil water retention characteristics, aggregate stability, rate of soil erosion, depth of soil, soil structure (assessed by visual soil evaluation and soil sealing. These all have direct relevance to current and likely future soil and environmental policy and are appropriate for implementation in soil monitoring programmes.

  5. Iodine in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johanson, Karl Johan

    2000-12-01

    A literature study of the migration and the appearance of iodine isotopes in the bio-sphere particularly in soil is presented. Some important papers in the field of iodine appearance in soil and the appearance of 129 I in the surroundings of reprocessing plants are discussed. The most important conclusions are: 1. Iodine binds to organic matter in the soil and also to some oxides of aluminium and iron. 2. If the iodine is not bound to the soil a large fraction of added 129 I is volatilized after a rather short period. 3. The binding and also the volatilisation seems to be due to biological activity in the soil. It may take place within living microorganisms or by external enzymes excreted from microorganisms. 4. Due to variations in the composition of soil there may be a large variation in the distribution of 129 I in the vertical profile of soil - usually most of the 129 I in the upper layer - which also results in large variations in the 129 I uptake to plants

  6. Climate Strategic Soil Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattan Lal

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The complex and strong link between soil degradation, climate change and food insecurity is a global challenge. Sustainable agricultural systems must be integral to any agenda to address climate change and variability, improve renewable fresh water supply and quality, restore degraded soils and ecosystems and advance food security. These challenges are being exacerbated by increasing population and decreasing per capita arable land area and renewable fresh water supply, the increasing frequency of extreme events, the decreasing resilience of agroecosystems, an increasing income and affluent lifestyle with growing preference towards meat-based diet and a decreasing soil quality and use efficiency of inputs. Reversing these downward spirals implies the implementation of proven technologies, such as conservation agriculture, integrated nutrient management, precision agriculture, agroforestry systems, etc. Restoration of degraded soil and desertified ecosystems and the creation of positive soil and ecosystem C budgets are important. Urban agriculture and green roofs can reduce the energy footprint of production chains for urban and non-urban areas and enhance the recycling of by-products. Researchable priorities include sustainable land use and soil/water management options, judicious soil governance and modus operandi towards payments to land managers for the provisioning of ecosystem services.

  7. Radon emanation from soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markkanen, M.; Arvela, H.

    1992-01-01

    The results of gamma spectrometric sample measurements of radon ( 222 Rn) emanation coefficients and radium concentrations ( 226 Ra) from about 800 Finnish soil samples are presented. The radon emanation rate was measured in about 400 soil samples, using radon-tight cans and Lucas cells. The effects of water content and temperature on radon emanation were investigated, using various samples of different soil types. Radon emanation and the effect of water content on radon emanation were investigated separately for different grain sizes (samples of till). The results provide some information on radon emanation in different soil types and relate emanation in laboratory conditions to conditions in ground soil. In routine measurements of radon emanation from soil samples, use of a 5% water content was considered advisable. The correction coefficients of radon emanation varied between 0.3 and 1.5, depending on the water content and soil type. At 5% water content, hardly any difference was found between radon emanation at temperatures of 20 and 1 o C. Radon emanation was found to be an inverse function of grain sizes larger than 0.5 mm in diameter. (author)

  8. Soil washing treatability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krstich, M.

    1995-12-01

    Soil washing was identified as a viable treatment process option for remediating soil at the FEMP Environmental Management Project (FEMP). Little information relative to the specific application and potential effectiveness of the soil washing process exists that applies to the types of soil at the FEMP. To properly evaluate this process option in conjunction with the ongoing FEMP Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS), a treatability testing program was necessary to provide a foundation for a detailed technical evaluation of the viability of the process. In August 1991, efforts were initiated to develop a work plan and experimental design for investigating the effectiveness of soil washing on FEMP soil. In August 1992, the final Treatability Study Work Plan for Operable Unit 5: Soil Washing (DOE 1992) was issued. This document shall be referenced throughout the remainder of this report as the Treatability Study Work Plan (TSWP). The purpose of this treatability study was to generate data to support initial screening and the detailed analysis of alternatives for the Operable Unit 5 FS

  9. Iodine in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johanson, Karl Johan [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    2000-12-01

    A literature study of the migration and the appearance of iodine isotopes in the bio-sphere particularly in soil is presented. Some important papers in the field of iodine appearance in soil and the appearance of {sup 129}I in the surroundings of reprocessing plants are discussed. The most important conclusions are: 1. Iodine binds to organic matter in the soil and also to some oxides of aluminium and iron. 2. If the iodine is not bound to the soil a large fraction of added {sup 129}I is volatilized after a rather short period. 3. The binding and also the volatilisation seems to be due to biological activity in the soil. It may take place within living microorganisms or by external enzymes excreted from microorganisms. 4. Due to variations in the composition of soil there may be a large variation in the distribution of {sup 129}I in the vertical profile of soil - usually most of the {sup 129}I in the upper layer - which also results in large variations in the {sup 129}I uptake to plants.

  10. Parameterization of radiocaesium soil-plant transfer using soil characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplev, A. V.; Drissner, J.; Klemt, E.; Konopleva, I. V.; Zibold, G.

    1996-01-01

    A model of radionuclide soil-plant transfer is proposed to parameterize the transfer factor by soil and soil solution characteristics. The model is tested with experimental data on the aggregated transfer factor T ag and soil parameters for 8 forest sites in Baden-Wuerttemberg. It is shown that the integral soil-plant transfer factor can be parameterized through radiocaesium exchangeability, capacity of selective sorption sites and ion composition of the soil solution or the water extract. A modified technique of (FES) measurement for soils with interlayer collapse is proposed. (author)

  11. SOIL Geo-Wiki: A tool for improving soil information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalský, Rastislav; Balkovic, Juraj; Fritz, Steffen; See, Linda; van der Velde, Marijn; Obersteiner, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Crowdsourcing is increasingly being used as a way of collecting data for scientific research, e.g. species identification, classification of galaxies and unravelling of protein structures. The WorldSoilProfiles.org database at ISRIC is a global collection of soil profiles, which have been 'crowdsourced' from experts. This system, however, requires contributors to have a priori knowledge about soils. Yet many soil parameters can be observed in the field without specific knowledge or equipment such as stone content, soil depth or color. By crowdsourcing this information over thousands of locations, the uncertainty in current soil datasets could be radically reduced, particularly in areas currently without information or where multiple interpretations are possible from different existing soil maps. Improved information on soils could benefit many research fields and applications. Better soil data could enhance assessments of soil ecosystem services (e.g. soil carbon storage) and facilitate improved process-based ecosystem modeling from local to global scales. Geo-Wiki is a crowdsourcing tool that was developed at IIASA for land cover validation using satellite imagery. Several branches are now available focused on specific aspects of land cover validation, e.g. validating cropland extent or urbanized areas. Geo-Wiki Pictures is a smart phone application for collecting land cover related information on the ground. The extension of Geo-Wiki to a mobile environment provides a tool for experts in land cover validation but is also a way of reaching the general public in the validation of land cover. Here we propose a Soil Geo-Wiki tool that builds on the existing functionality of the Geo-Wiki application, which will be largely designed for the collection and sharing of soil information. Two distinct applications are envisaged: an expert-oriented application mainly for scientific purposes, which will use soil science related language (e.g. WRB or any other global reference

  12. Soil washing results for mixed waste pond soils at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.A.; Freeman, H.D.; Baker, E.G.; Riemath, W.F.

    1991-01-01

    Soil washing technology was assessed as a means for remediating soil contaminated with mixed wastes primarily composed of heavy metals and radionuclides. The soils at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site are considered suitable for soil washing because of their relatively low quantities of silt and clay. However, in a limited number of soil washing experiments using soils from different locations in the north pond of the 300 Area, the degree of decontamination achieved for the coarse fraction of the soil varied considerably. Part of this variation appears to be due to the presence of a discrete layer of contaminated sediment found in some of the samples

  13. Development of soil taxation and soil classification as furthered by the Austrian Soil Science Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Soil taxation and soil classification are important drivers of soil science in Austria. However, the tasks are quite different: whereas soil taxation aims at the evaluation of the productivity potential of the soil, soil classification focusses on the natural development and - especially nowadays - on functionality of the soil. Since the foundation of the Austrian Soil Science Society (ASSS), representatives both directions of the description of the soil have been involved in the common actions of the society. In the first years it was a main target to improve and standardize field descriptions of the soil. Although both systems differ in the general layout, the experts should comply with identical approaches. According to this work, a lot of effort has been put into the standardization of the soil classification system, thus ensuring a common basis. The development, state of the art and further development of both classification and taxation systems initiated and carried out by the ASSS will be shown.

  14. Wissensbasierte Entwicklung in Singapur und Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Menkhoff, Thomas; Gerke, Solvay; Evers, Hans-Dieter; Chay, Yue Wah

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the question how knowledge is used to benefit the economic development of Singapore and Malaysia. Both countries have followed strict science policies to establish knowledge governance regimes for a knowledge-based economy. On the basis of empirical studies in both countries we show, how ethnic and religious diversity impact on the ability to develop an epistemic culture of knowledge sharing and ultimately an innovative knowledge-based economy.

  15. Effect of different soil washing solutions on bioavailability of residual arsenic in soils and soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Jinwoo; Yang, Kyung; Jho, Eun Hea; Nam, Kyoungphile

    2015-11-01

    The effect of soil washing used for arsenic (As)-contaminated soil remediation on soil properties and bioavailability of residual As in soil is receiving increasing attention due to increasing interest in conserving soil qualities after remediation. This study investigates the effect of different washing solutions on bioavailability of residual As in soils and soil properties after soil washing. Regardless of washing solutions, the sequential extraction revealed that the residual As concentrations and the amount of readily labile As in soils were reduced after soil washing. However, the bioassay tests showed that the washed soils exhibited ecotoxicological effects - lower seed germination, shoot growth, and enzyme activities - and this could largely be attributed to the acidic pH and/or excessive nutrient contents of the washed soils depending on washing solutions. Overall, this study showed that treated soils having lower levels of contaminants could still exhibit toxic effects due to changes in soil properties, which highly depended on washing solutions. This study also emphasizes that data on the As concentrations, the soil properties, and the ecotoxicological effects are necessary to properly manage the washed soils for reuses. The results of this study can, thus, be utilized to select proper post-treatment techniques for the washed soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. SoilEffects – start characterization of the experimental soil

    OpenAIRE

    Løes, Anne-Kristin; Johansen, Anders; Pommeresche, Reidun; Riley, Hugh

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the establishment, experimental plan and initial soil characteristics of the field experiment linked to the project “Effects of anaerobically digested manure on soil fertility - establishment of a long-term study under Norwegian conditions” (SoilEffects, 2010-14). The aim of the SoilEffects project is to identify potential risks and benefits for soil fertility when animal manure is anaerobically digested for biogas production. The field experiment was established on...

  17. Soil Microbes and soil microbial proteins: interactions with clay minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, A.; Kelleher, B. P.

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial enumeration in soil environments estimates that the population may reach approximately 10 1 0 g - 1 of soil and comprise up to 90% of the total soil microbial biomass. Bacteria are present in soils as single cells or multicell colonies and often strongly adsorb onto mineral surfaces such as sand and clay. The interactions of microbes and microbial biomolecules with these minerals have profound impacts on the physical, chemical and biological properties of soils. (Author)

  18. Trace elements in brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Geraldo Cesar

    1995-01-01

    A literature revision on trace elements (Zn, B, Mn, Mo, Cu, Fe, and Cl) in Brazilian soils was prepared, with special attention to the chemical form and range in the soil, extraction methods and correlation of the amount in soils with soil properties

  19. Soil variability in mountain areas

    OpenAIRE

    Zanini, E.; Freppaz, M.; Stanchi, S.; Bonifacio, E.; Egli, M.

    2015-01-01

    The high spatial variability of soils is a relevant issue at local and global scales, and determines the complexity of soil ecosystem functions and services. This variability derives from strong dependencies of soil ecosystems on parent materials, climate, relief and biosphere, including human impact. Although present in all environments, the interactions of soils with these forming factors are particularly striking in mountain areas.

  20. Mycotoxins in the soil environment

    OpenAIRE

    Elmholt, S.

    2008-01-01

    The paper outlines the current knowledge concerning fate of mycotoxins in the soil environment, including - outline of mycotoxins addressed (trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, aflatoxins, ochratoxins and patulin) - routes by which the mycotoxins enter the soil environment - routes by which they are immobilised or removed from the soil environment - mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in the soil environment

  1. Diel hysteresis between soil respiration and soil temperature in a biological soil crust covered desert ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Chao; Li, Xinrong; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Yongle

    2018-01-01

    Soil respiration induced by biological soil crusts (BSCs) is an important process in the carbon (C) cycle in arid and semi-arid ecosystems, where vascular plants are restricted by the harsh environment, particularly the limited soil moisture. However, the interaction between temperature and soil respiration remains uncertain because of the number of factors that control soil respiration, including temperature and soil moisture, especially in BSC-dominated areas. In this study, the soil respiration in moss-dominated crusts and lichen-dominated crusts was continuously measured using an automated soil respiration system over a one-year period from November 2015 to October 2016 in the Shapotou region of the Tengger Desert, northern China. The results indicated that over daily cycles, the half-hourly soil respiration rates in both types of BSC-covered areas were commonly related to the soil temperature. The observed diel hysteresis between the half-hourly soil respiration rates and soil temperature in the BSC-covered areas was limited by nonlinearity loops with semielliptical shapes, and soil temperature often peaked later than the half-hourly soil respiration rates in the BSC-covered areas. The average lag times between the half-hourly soil respiration rates and soil temperature for both types of BSC-covered areas were two hours over the diel cycles, and they were negatively and linearly related to the volumetric soil water content. Our results highlight the diel hysteresis phenomenon that occurs between soil respiration rates and soil temperatures in BSC-covered areas and the negative response of this phenomenon to soil moisture, which may influence total C budget evaluations. Therefore, the interactive effects of soil temperature and moisture on soil respiration in BSC-covered areas should be considered in global carbon cycle models of desert ecosystems.

  2. Soil treatment technologies combined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, K.J.; Russell, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) presents a legislative mandate to select effective and long-term remediation options. SARA has spurred the development of innovative technologies and other remedial alternatives that can be applied to the diverse contaminated media at hazardous waste sites. Even though many treatment technologies have been investigated for use at hazardous waste sites, only a few have been used successfully. Soil vapor extraction and soil composting have achieved cleanup goals at sites with soils contaminated with solvents, aromatic hydrocarbons and petroleum derivatives. With the increased use of innovative on-site technologies, the integration of multiple technologies to remediate sites with complex contaminants becomes a viable and cost-effective remedial alternative. Soil vapor extraction and composting have been applied successfully as individual technologies at hazardous waste sites. An integration of these two technologies also has been used to remediate a complex contaminated site

  3. Soils - Mean Permeability

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital spatial data set provides information on the magnitude and spatial pattern of depth-weighted, mean soil permeability throughout the State of Kansas. The...

  4. Chemically stabilized soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct laboratory evaluations to quantify the effects of compaction and moisture conditions on the strength of chemically treated soils typical utilized in pavement construction in Mississippi.

  5. CPC Soil Moisture

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The monthly data set consists of a file containing 1/2 degree monthly averaged soil moisture water height equivalents for the globe from 1948 onwards. Values are...

  6. The Soil Mobilome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Wenting

    Soil is considered a reservoir of diverse bacterial cellular functions, of which resistance mechanisms towards biological antimicrobial agents are of substantial interest to us. Previous findings report that the long-term accumulation of copper in an agricultural soil significantly affects......-selected for among natural bacterial populations. One possible explanation is the horizontal transfer of resistance genes among soil bacteria mediated by mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids, integrons, transposons and bacteriophages, of which copper and antibiotic resistance genes can be linked on the same...... mobile elements. To test this hypothesis, we collected non-polluted and CuSO4- contaminated soil samples and attempted to describe the co-selection of plasmid-encoded copper and antimicrobial resistance via both an endogenous plasmid isolation approach as well as a plasmid metagenomic approach...

  7. Thermal soil remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.

    1999-01-01

    The environmental properties and business aspects of thermal soil remediation are described. Thermal soil remediation is considered as being the best option in cleaning contaminated soil for reuse. The thermal desorption process can remove hydrocarbons such as gasoline, kerosene and crude oil, from contaminated soil. Nelson Environmental Remediation (NER) Ltd. uses a mobile thermal desorption unit (TDU) with high temperature capabilities. NER has successfully applied the technology to target heavy end hydrocarbon removal from Alberta's gumbo clay in all seasons. The TDU consist of a feed system, a counter flow rotary drum kiln, a baghouse particulate removal system, and a secondary combustion chamber known as an afterburner. The technology has proven to be cost effective and more efficient than bioremediation and landfarming

  8. Soil degradation in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper diagnoses the issues involved behind the current state, usage, interactions and linkages in the soils in Pakistan. The condition of soils is deteriorating due to developmental and environmental factors such as soil degradation, water pollution, fauna degeneration etc. Issues, problems and constraints faced in the management and usage of soils are diagnosed at different levels in the ecosystems predominant in Pakistan. The research questions propose effective solutions, types of instruments, methods or processes to resolve the issues within the various areas or ecosystems in the most sustainable and effective manner [23]. Biological solutions and methods can be applied at the sub-system level by private individuals or communities at a lower cost, and at a more localized level than engineering methods. Engineering methods may be suited for interventions at a system level rather than at a sub-system level; but even at this level they will be complementary with biological methods. (author)

  9. Attenuation coefficients of soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini, E.; Naziry, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    As a prerequisite to the interpretation of gamma-spectrometric in situ measurements of activity concentrations of soil radionuclides the attenuation of 60 to 1332 keV gamma radiation by soil samples varying in water content and density has been investigated. A useful empirical equation could be set up to describe the dependence of the mass attenuation coefficient upon photon energy for soil with a mean water content of 10%, with the results comparing well with data in the literature. The mean density of soil in the GDR was estimated at 1.6 g/cm 3 . This value was used to derive the linear attenuation coefficients, their range of variation being 10%. 7 figs., 5 tabs. (author)

  10. THE DIRT ON SOILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This keynote presentation will provide basic information regarding the physical, chemical, and biological importance of soils to 50 second grade teachers within the Cincinnati Public School System as part of a Hamilton County Department of Environmenatl Services Sois Workshop.

  11. Soil Gas Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field Branches Quality System and Technical Procedures: This document describes general and specific procedures, methods and considerations to be used and observed when collecting soil gas samples for field screening or laboratory analysis.

  12. Soil Sampling Operating Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Region 4 Science and Ecosystem Support Division (SESD) document that describes general and specific procedures, methods, and considerations when collecting soil samples for field screening or laboratory analysis.

  13. Soil strength and forest operations

    OpenAIRE

    Beekman, F.

    1987-01-01

    The use of heavy machinery and transport vehicles is an integral part of modern forest operations. This use often causes damage to the standing trees and to the soil. In this study the effects of vehicle traffic on the soil are analysed and the possible consequences for forest management discussed. The study is largely restricted to sandy and loamy soils because of their importance for Dutch forestry.

    Soil strength, defined as the resistance of soil structure against the impa...

  14. SUSTAINABILITY EFFECTS OF Crotalaria juncea L. AND Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH ON SOIL FERTILITY AND SOIL CONSERVATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    -, reduction of nutrient leaching (N, Ca, K), reduction of soil erosion, improved utilisation of rainfall (water), shading of soil, aeration of soil, weed control and pest control. Crotalaria crops also provide cost reduction as a result of lower fertiliser use, improved nutrient utilisation, easier cultivation, reduced plant protection requirements. To a certain extent that this plant roots are involved in this process and green manure contribute to the biological stabilisation of soil structure following mechanical cultivation. Depending on soil type, the roots of crotalaria can extend down to 1.5-2 m according to earlier publications of autor. This result are presented that crotalaria has great advantagens in green manuring. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This research was supported by Research Institute for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest and Natinal Vegetable Crops Research Center, Brazília REFERENCES Bremner, J.M., Keeney, D.R. 1966. Determination and isotope-ratio analysis of different forms of nitrogen in soils. 3. Exchangeable ammonium, nitrate and nitrite by extraction destillation methods. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 30:577-582. Christian, P., Kurt, G.S 1996. The role of soil fertility in sustainable agriculture with special reference to Sub-Saharan Africa. Entwicklung. 4, 3-6. Janssen., B.H. 1993. Integrated nutrient management: use of organic and mineral fertilizers. In: Reulen and Prins, 1993. Kádár, I. 1992. Principles and methods in plant nutrition. RISSAC-HAS, Budapest. Lakanen, E. and Erviö, R. 1971. A comparison of eight extractants for the determination of plant available micronutrients in soil. Acta Agr. Fenn. 123. 223-232. Lazányi, J. 1998. Use of alternative crops for forage production and soil conservation. Research Center of Debrecen Agricultural University, Debrecen. Márton, L. 1999. From a new alternative crops (Crotalaria juncea L.) production and disease. Agroforum 5, 64. Németh, T. 1996. Organic

  15. Development and testing of redundant optical fiber sensing systems with self-control, for underground nuclear waste disposal site monitoring. Vol. 1: Summary and evaluation. Final report; Entwicklung und Erprobung redundanter faseroptischer Messsysteme mit Selbstkontrolle zur Endlagerueberwachung. Bd. 1: Zusammenfassung und Auswertung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jobmann, M.; Fischer, S.; Voet, M.

    2000-01-01

    Fiber optic sensors have been developed or further developed, for specific tasks of the research project reported, as for instance detecting and signalling changes of geophysical or geochemical parameters in underground waste storage sites which are of relevance to operating safety. Such changes include e.g. materials dislocations, extensions, temperatures, humidity, pH value and presence of gaseous carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The measuring principle chosen is the fiber Bragg Grating method, as a particularly versatile method easy to integrate into fiber optic networks. After development and successful lab-scale testing of all sensors, except for the gas sensors, field test systems have been made for underground applications and have been tested in situ in the experimental Konrad mine of DBE. Most of the problems discovered with these tests could be resolved wihtin the given project period, so that finally field-test proven sensing systems are available for further activities. The report explains the system performance with a concrete example which shows inter alia beneficial aspects of the system with respect to on-site operation, and the potentials offered in establishing more direct connections between numerical safety analyses and measured results. (orig./CB) [German] Im Rahmen dieses Forschungsprojektes wurden faseroptische Sensoren entwickelt bzw. weiterentwickelt, die in der Lage sind, Veraenderungen relevanter geophysikalischer und geochemischer Groessen im Bereich der Grubenraeume zu signalisieren, die zu einer Gefaehrdung der Betriebssicherheit fuehren koennten. Im einzelnen sind dies Verschiebungen, Dehnungen, Temperatur, Feuchtigkeit, pH-Werte und Gasgehalte an Kohlendioxid und Wasserstoff. Als Messprinzip wurde aus den moeglichen optischen Verfahren das 'Bragg-Gitter' Prinzip zur Entwicklung gewaehlt, da es besonders vielseitig ist und sich gut in groessere optische Netzwerke integrieren laesst. Nach Entwicklung und erfolgreichem Test der

  16. Aircraft Research Guideline 1999 - 2002: High pressure compressor - preliminary design as a basis for the development of an efficient and environmentally friendly core engine. Final report; Leitlinie Luftfahrtforschung 1999 - 2002: Hochdruckverdichter-Vorauslegung als Grundlagenuntersuchung zur Entwicklung eines Kerntriebwerkes fuer einen effizienten und umweltfreundlichen Antrieb. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinger, H.

    2001-08-01

    This report completes the documentation for the research project 'High Pressure Compressor - Preliminary Design as Basis for the Development of an Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Core Engine' which was funded by the Ministry of Economics of State Brandenburg. The objective of the project is to deliver a preliminary compressor aerodynamic design as well as design studies for an efficient, weight and cost improved compressor. The increase of stage pressure ratio and improved efficiency, whilst stage and blade count is reduced, has been achieved by advanced 3D methods. Compressor stability also at off-design conditions will be retained. The mechanical design focusses on a cost and weight optimised rotor not only for a conventional bladed discs but also for Blish stages. Various options for split casings have been developed and assessed. Alternative vortex reducers based on different design options have been carried out. The results from this project will be directly exploited in a follow-on project for a new nine-stage compressor. The new high pressure compressor will be a key element of the future two-shaft-engine architecture. (orig.) [German] Der vorliegende Bericht schliesst das vom Land Brandenburg im Rahmen der Leitlinie Luftfahrtforschung gefoerderte Vorhaben 'Hochdruckverdichter - Vorauslegung als Grundlagenuntersuchung zur Entwicklung eines Kerntriebwerkes fuer einen effizienten und umweltfreundlichen Antrieb' ab. Ziel dieses Vorhabens ist es, im Rahmen einer aerodynamischen Vorauslegung sowie Designstudien die notwendigen Technologien zu erarbeiten, um einen hinsichtlich Effizienz, Kosten, Gewicht und Wartungsintervallen verbesserten Hochdruckverdichter auszulegen. Die Erhoehung des Druckverhaeltnisses und des Wirkungsgrads bei verringerter Stufen- und Schaufelzahl sowie ein stabiles Betriebsverhalten auch ausserhalb des Auslegungspunktes wurde dabei durch eine aeusserst fortschrittliche 3D Schaufelauslegung erreicht. Auf der

  17. Effect of rainfall infiltration into unsaturated soil using soil column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, A.; Mukhlisin, M.; Jaafar, O.

    2018-02-01

    Rainfall especially in tropical region caused infiltration to the soil slope. The infiltration may change pore water pressure or matric suction of the soil. The event of rainfall infiltration into soil is a complex mechanism. Therefore, the main objectives of this research paper is to study the influence of rainfall intensity and duration that changed pore water pressure to soil. There are two types of soils used in this study; forest soil and kaolin. Soil column apparatus is used for experiments. Rainfall were applied to the soil and result for 3, 6, 12, 24, 72, 120 and 168 hours were retrieved. Result shows that for the both types of soil, the negative pore water pressures were increased during wetting process and gradually decreased towards drying process. The results also show that pore water pressure at top part was increased greatly as the wetting process started compared to the middle and bottom part of the column.

  18. Apparent soil electrical conductivity in two different soil types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilker Nunes Medeiros

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mapping the apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa has become important for the characterization of the soil variability in precision agriculture systems. Could the ECa be used to locate the soil sampling points for mapping the chemical and physical soil attributes? The objective of this work was to examine the relations between ECa and soil attributes in two fields presenting different soil textures. In each field, 50 sampling points were chosen using a path that presented a high variability of ECa obtained from a preliminary ECa map. At each sampling point, the ECa was measured in soil depths of 0-20, 0-40 and 0-60 cm. In addition, at each point, soil samples were collected for the determination of physical and chemical attributes in the laboratory. The ECa data obtained for different soil depths was very similar. A large number of significant correlations between ECa and the soil attributes were found. In the sandy clay loam texture field there was no correlation between ECa and organic matter or between ECa and soil clay and sand content. However, a significant positive correlation was shown for the remaining phosphorus. In the sandy loam texture field the ECa had a significant positive correlation with clay content and a significant negative correlation with sand content. The results suggest that the mapping of apparent soil electrical conductivity does not replace traditional soil sampling, however, it can be used as information to delimit regions in a field that have similar soil attributes.

  19. Soil degradation effect on biological activity in Mediterranean calcareous soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Pérez, L.; Alcover-Sáez, S.; Mormeneo, S.; Boluda, R.

    2009-04-01

    Soil degradation processes include erosion, organic matter decline, compaction, salinization, landslides, contamination, sealing and biodiversity decline. In the Mediterranean region the climatological and lithological conditions, together with relief on the landscape and anthropological activity are responsible for increasing desertification process. It is therefore considered to be extreme importance to be able to measure soil degradation quantitatively. We studied soil characteristics, microbiological and biochemical parameters in different calcareous soil sequences from Valencia Community (Easter Spain), in an attempt to assess the suitability of the parameters measured to reflect the state of soil degradation and the possibility of using the parameters to assess microbiological decline and soil quality. For this purpose, forest, scrubland and agricultural soil in three soil sequences were sampled in different areas. Several sensors of the soil biochemistry and microbiology related with total organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, soil respiration, microorganism number and enzyme activities were determined. The results show that, except microorganism number, these parameters are good indicators of a soil biological activity and soil quality. The best enzymatic activities to use like indicators were phosphatases, esterases, amino-peptidases. Thus, the enzymes test can be used as indicators of soil degradation when this degradation is related with organic matter losses. There was a statistically significant difference in cumulative O2 uptake and extracellular enzymes among the soils with different degree of degradation. We would like to thank Spanish government-MICINN for funding and support (MICINN, project CGL2006-09776).

  20. Soil physics and the water management of spatially variable soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngs, E.G.

    1983-01-01

    The physics of macroscopic soil-water behaviour in inert porous materials has been developed by considering water flow to take place in a continuum. This requires the flow region to consist of an assembly of representative elementary volumes, repeated throughout space and small compared with the scale of observations. Soil-water behaviour in swelling soils may also be considered as a continuum phenomenon so long as the soil is saturated and swells and shrinks in the normal range. Macroscale heterogeneity superimposed on the inherent microscale heterogeneity can take many forms and may pose difficulties in the definition and measurement of soil physical properties and also in the development and use of predictive theories of soil-water behaviour. Thus, measurement techniques appropriate for uniform soils are often inappropriate, and criteria for soil-water management, obtained from theoretical considerations of behaviour in equivalent uniform soils, are not applicable without modification when there is soil heterogeneity. The spatial variability of soil-water properties is shown in results from field experiments concerned with water flow measurements; these illustrate both stochastic and deterministic heterogeneity in soil-water properties. Problems of water management of spatially variable soils when there is stochastic heterogeneity appear to present an insuperable problem in the application of theory. However, for soils showing deterministic heterogeneity, soil-water theory has been used in the solution of soil-water management problems. Thus, scaling using similar media theory has been applied to the infiltration of water into soils that vary over a catchment area. Also, the drain spacing to control the water-table height in soils in which the hydraulic conductivity varies with depth has been calculated using groundwater seepage theory. (author)

  1. Predicting Soil-Air and Soil-Water Transport Properties During Soil Vapor Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Tjalfe

    Increased application of in-situ technology for control and removal of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the subsurface has made the understanding of soil physical properties and their impact upon contaminant transport even more important. Knowledge of contaminant transport is important when...... properties of undisturbed soil from more easily measurable soil properties are developed. The importance of soil properties with respect to contaminant migration during remediation by soil vapor extraction (SVE) in the unsaturated zone was investigated using numerical simulations....

  2. The Influence of Soil Particle on Soil Condensation Water

    OpenAIRE

    Hou Xinwei; Chen Hao; Li Xiangquan; Cui Xiaomei; Liu Lingxia; Wang Zhenxing

    2013-01-01

    The experiment results showed that the indoor experiment formed from the volume of soil hygroscopic water increased gradually with decreasing size of soil particles. In the outdoor experiments, the results showed that the formed condensation water in medium sand was greater than it was in fine sand; the soil hot condensation water was mainly formed in the top layer of soil between 0-5 cm. We also found that covering the soil surface with stones can increase the volume of formed soil condensat...

  3. Pesticide-soil microflora interactions in flooded rice soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethunathan, N.; Siddaramappa, R.; Siddarame Gowda, T.K.; Rajaram, K.P.; Barik, S.; Rao, V.R.

    1976-01-01

    Isotope studies revealed that gamma and beta isomers of HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane) decomposed rapidly in nonsterile soils capable of attaining redox potentials of -40 to -100mV within 20 days after flooding. Degradation was slow, however, in soils low in organic matter and in soils with extremely low pH and positive potentials, even after several weeks of flooding. Under flooded conditions, endrin decomposed to six metabolites in most soils. There is evidence that biological hydrolysis of parathion is more widespread than hitherto believed, particularly under flooded soil conditions. Applications of benomyl (fungicide) to a simulated-oxidized zone of flooded soils favoured heterotrophic nitrification. (author)

  4. Soil functional types: surveying the biophysical dimensions of soil security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cécillon, Lauric; Barré, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Soil is a natural capital that can deliver key ecosystem services (ES) to humans through the realization of a series of soil processes controlling ecosystem functioning. Soil is also a diverse and endangered natural resource. A huge pedodiversity has been described at all scales, which is strongly altered by global change. The multidimensional concept soil security, encompassing biophysical, economic, social, policy and legal frameworks of soils has recently been proposed, recognizing the role of soils in global environmental sustainability challenges. The biophysical dimensions of soil security focus on the functionality of a given soil that can be viewed as the combination of its capability and its condition [1]. Indeed, all soils are not equal in term of functionality. They show different processes, provide different ES to humans and respond specifically to global change. Knowledge of soil functionality in space and time is thus a crucial step towards the achievement soil security. All soil classification systems incorporate some functional information, but soil taxonomy alone cannot fully describe the functioning, limitations, resistance and resilience of soils. Droogers and Bouma [2] introduced functional variants (phenoforms) for each soil type (genoform) so as to fit more closely to soil functionality. However, different genoforms can have the same functionality. As stated by McBratney and colleagues [1], there is a great need of an agreed methodology for defining the reference state of soil functionality. Here, we propose soil functional types (SFT) as a relevant classification system for the biophysical dimensions of soil security. Following the definition of plant functional types widely used in ecology, we define a soil functional type as "a set of soil taxons or phenoforms sharing similar processes (e.g. soil respiration), similar effects on ecosystem functioning (e.g. primary productivity) and similar responses to global change (land-use, management or

  5. European Atlas of Soil Biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh (contributor), Paul Henning

    Soil is one of the fundamental components for supporting life on Earth. Most ecosystem processes and global functions that occur within soil are driven by living organisms that, in turn, sustain life above ground. However, despite the fact that soils are home to a quarter of all living species on...... Biodiversity is an essential reference to the many and varied aspects of soil. The overall goal of this work is to convey the fundamental necessity to safeguard soil biodiversity in order to guarantee life on this planet.......Soil is one of the fundamental components for supporting life on Earth. Most ecosystem processes and global functions that occur within soil are driven by living organisms that, in turn, sustain life above ground. However, despite the fact that soils are home to a quarter of all living species...... on Earth, life within the soil is often hidden away and suffers by being 'out of sight and out of mind'. What kind of life is there in soil? What do we mean by soil biodiversity? What is special about soil biology? How do our activities affect soil ecosystems? What are the links between soil biota...

  6. Modelling the Impact of Soil Management on Soil Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, H. J.; Weller, U.; Rabot, E.; Stößel, B.; Lang, B.; Wiesmeier, M.; Urbanski, L.; Wollschläger, U.

    2017-12-01

    Due to an increasing soil loss and an increasing demand for food and energy there is an enormous pressure on soils as the central resource for agricultural production. Besides the importance of soils for biomass production there are other essential soil functions, i.e. filter and buffer for water, carbon sequestration, provision and recycling of nutrients, and habitat for biological activity. All these functions have a direct feed back to biogeochemical cycles and climate. To render agricultural production efficient and sustainable we need to develop model tools that are capable to predict quantitatively the impact of a multitude of management measures on these soil functions. These functions are considered as emergent properties produced by soils as complex systems. The major challenge is to handle the multitude of physical, chemical and biological processes interacting in a non-linear manner. A large number of validated models for specific soil processes are available. However, it is not possible to simulate soil functions by coupling all the relevant processes at the detailed (i.e. molecular) level where they are well understood. A new systems perspective is required to evaluate the ensemble of soil functions and their sensitivity to external forcing. Another challenge is that soils are spatially heterogeneous systems by nature. Soil processes are highly dependent on the local soil properties and, hence, any model to predict soil functions needs to account for the site-specific conditions. For upscaling towards regional scales the spatial distribution of functional soil types need to be taken into account. We propose a new systemic model approach based on a thorough analysis of the interactions between physical, chemical and biological processes considering their site-specific characteristics. It is demonstrated for the example of soil compaction and the recovery of soil structure, water capacity and carbon stocks as a result of plant growth and biological

  7. Soil mechanics and analysis of soils overlying cavitose bedrock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drumm, E.C.

    1987-08-01

    The stability of the residual soils existing at the West Chestnut Ridge Site, Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee, was evaluated. The weathered bedrock below this residual soil contains numerous solution cavities, and several karst features were identified. The West Chestnut Ridge site was evaluated with respect to deformation and collapse of the residual soil into the bedrock cavities. A finite element analysis investigated the effects of bedrock cavity radius, thickness of soil overburden, and surface surcharge upon the deformational and stability characteristics of the residual soil. The results indicate that for small cavity radii, the thickness of the soil cover has little effect on the zone of yielded soil. For large cavity radii, a smaller zone of distressed soil occurs under thick soil cover than under thin soil cover. Dimensionless curves are presented to enable the prediction of the vertical extent of the zone of yielded soil for a range of site geometries. Although the thick soil deposits (100 feet or greater) typically found on the ridges result in high stresses adjacent to the cavity, the area of the distressed or yielded soil is small and unlikely to extend to the surface. In addition, the surface deformation or subsidence is expected to be minimal. Thus, the siting of waste facilities on the ridges where the overburden is maximum would tend to reduce the effects of deformation into the cavities. 29 refs., 37 figs., 7 tabs

  8. Spice In Martian Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiferlin, K.; Spohn, T.; Spice Team

    The Netlander mission offers a unique opportunity to study the surface and the inte- rior of Mars at four different locations at the same time. In addition to real "network"- science, where the presence of four stations is a 'must' to address global science as- pects, local, landing site-related instruments can more than double our knowledge of the surface of Mars, compared to the three landing sites (Viking 1 and 2, Pathfinder) we are currently familiar with. The SPICE instrument will characterize the soil at the landing sites. Force sensors integrated into the seismometer legs (three per station) will determine the mechanical strength of the soil. Thermal sensors will measure the local soil temperature, the thermal inertia and the thermal diffusivity independently, thus allowing us to determine the thermal conductivity and the volumetric heat capac- ity of the soil. These properties will tell us about (1) soil cementation ("duricrust"), (2) volatile exchange with the atmosphere, (3) grain size, (4) near-surface stratigra- phy, and (5) will finally provide ground truth for remote sensing data such as that from Mars Global Surveyor's thermal emission spectrometer.

  9. Soil organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The nature, content and behaviour of the organic matter, or humus, in soil are factors of fundamental importance for soil productivity and the development of optimum conditions for growth of crops under diverse temperate, tropical and arid climatic conditions. In the recent symposium on soil organic matter studies - as in the two preceding ones in 1963 and 1969 - due consideration was given to studies involving the use of radioactive and stable isotopes. However, the latest symposium was a departure from previous efforts in that non-isotopic approaches to research on soil organic matter were included. A number of papers dealt with the behaviour and functions of organic matter and suggested improved management practices, the use of which would contribute to increasing agricultural production. Other papers discussed the turnover of plant residues, the release of plant nutrients through the biodegradation of organic compounds, the nitrogen economy and the dynamics of transformation of organic forms of nitrogen. In addition, consideration was given to studies on the biochemical transformation of organic matter, characterization of humic acids, carbon-14 dating and the development of modern techniques and their impact on soil organic matter research

  10. Lasagna trademark soil remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    Lasagna trademark is an integrated, in situ remediation technology being developed which remediates soils and soil pore water contaminated with soluble organic compounds. Lasagna trademark is especially suited to sites with low permeability soils where electroosmosis can move water faster and more uniformly than hydraulic methods, with very low power consumption. The process uses electrokinetics to move contaminants in soil pore water into treatment zones where the contaminants can be captured and decomposed. Initial focus is on trichloroethylene (TCE), a major contaminant at many DOE and industrial sites. Both vertical and horizontal configurations have been conceptualized, but fieldwork to date is more advanced for the vertical configuration. Major features of the technology are electrodes energized by direct current, which causes water and soluble contaminants to move into or through the treatment layers and also heats the soil; treatment zones containing reagents that decompose the soluble organic contaminants or adsorb contaminants for immobilization or subsequent removal and disposal; and a water management system that recycles the water that accumulates at the cathode (high pH) back to the anode (low pH) for acid-base neutralization. Alternatively, electrode polarity can be reversed periodically to reverse electroosmotic flow and neutralize pH

  11. Water repellent soils: the case for unsaturated soil mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beckett Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water repellent (or “hydrophobic” or “non-wetting” soils have been studied by soil scientists for well over a century. These soils are typified by poor water infiltration, which leads to increased soil erosion and poor crop growth. However, the importance of water repellence on determining soil properties is now becoming recognised by geotechnical engineers. Water repellent soils may, for example, offer novel solutions for the design of cover systems overlying municipal or mine waste storage facilities. However, investigations into factors affecting their mechanical properties have only recently been initiated. This purpose of this paper is to introduce geotechnical engineers to the concept of water repellent soils and to discuss how their properties can be evaluated under an unsaturated soils framework. Scenarios in which water repellent properties might be relevant in geotechnical applications are presented and methods to quantify these properties in the laboratory and in the field examined.

  12. SOIL WASHING TREATABILITY TESTS FOR PESTICIDE- CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 1987 Sand Creek Operable Unit 5 record of decision (ROD) identified soil washing as the selected technology to remediate soils contaminated with high levels of organochlorine pesticides, herbicides, and metals. Initial treatability tests conducted to assess the applicability...

  13. Soil Spectroscopy: An Alternative to Wet Chemistry for Soil Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nocita, M.; Stevens, A.; van Wesemael, Bas

    2015-01-01

    The soil science community is facing a growing demand of regional, continental, and worldwide databases in order to monitor the status of the soil. However, the availability of such data is very scarce. Cost-effective tools to measure soil properties for large areas (e.g., Europe) are required....... Soil spectroscopy has shown to be a fast, cost-effective, envi-ronmental-friendly, nondestructive, reproducible, and repeatable analytical technique. The main aim of this paper is to describe the state of the art of soil spectroscopy as well as its potential to facilitating soil monitoring. The factors...... constraining the application of soil spectroscopy as an alternative to traditional laboratory analyses, together with the limits of the technique, are addressed. The paper also highlights that the widespread use of spectroscopy to monitor the status of the soil should be encouraged by (1) the creation...

  14. Shaping an Optimal Soil by Root-Soil Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Kemo; White, Philip J; Whalley, William R; Shen, Jianbo; Shi, Lei

    2017-10-01

    Crop production depends on the availability of water and mineral nutrients, and increased yields might be facilitated by a greater focus on roots-soil interactions. Soil properties affecting plant growth include drought, compaction, nutrient deficiency, mineral toxicity, salinity, and submergence. Plant roots respond to the soil environment both spatially and temporally by avoiding stressful soil environments and proliferating in more favorable environments. We observe that crops can be bred for specific root architectural and biochemical traits that facilitate soil exploration and resource acquisition, enabling greater crop yields. These root traits affect soil physical and chemical properties and might be utilized to improve the soil for subsequent crops. We argue that optimizing root-soil interactions is a prerequisite for future food security. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Soil biogeochemistry, plant physiology and phytoremediation of cadmium contaminated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmium (Cd) loading in soil and the environment has been accelerated worldwide due to enhanced industrialization and intensified agricultural production, particularly in the developing countries. Soil Cd pollution, resulting from both anthropogenic and geogenic sources, has posed an increasing chal...

  16. Dryland soil microbial communities display spatial biogeographic patterns associated with soil depth and soil parent material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, Blaire; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Belnap, Jayne; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2013-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are common to drylands worldwide. We employed replicated, spatially nested sampling and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to describe the soil microbial communities in three soils derived from different parent material (sandstone, shale, and gypsum). For each soil type, two depths (biocrusts, 0–1 cm; below-crust soils, 2–5 cm) and two horizontal spatial scales (15 cm and 5 m) were sampled. In all three soils, Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria demonstrated significantly higher relative abundance in the biocrusts, while Chloroflexi and Archaea were significantly enriched in the below-crust soils. Biomass and diversity of the communities in biocrusts or below-crust soils did not differ with soil type. However, biocrusts on gypsum soil harbored significantly larger populations of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria and lower populations of Cyanobacteria. Numerically dominant operational taxonomic units (OTU; 97% sequence identity) in the biocrusts were conserved across the soil types, whereas two dominant OTUs in the below-crust sand and shale soils were not identified in the gypsum soil. The uniformity with which small-scale vertical community differences are maintained across larger horizontal spatial scales and soil types is a feature of dryland ecosystems that should be considered when designing management plans and determining the response of biocrusts to environmental disturbances.

  17. The history of energy industry law in Germany. With particular emphasis on the development of the Energy Act (EnWG) and current proposals for reform under discussion; Zur Entwicklung des Energierechts in Deutschland. Unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung des Energiewirtschaftsgesetzes und der aktuellen Reformdiskussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smeddinck, U.

    1995-11-01

    The paper describes the history and development of the regulatory framework governing the energy industry and the reasons why this legislation has been creating an organisational framework of the power industry in Germany with some strikingly peculiar features. The core structure and the essential aspects of the Energy Act (EnWG) are discussed in detail, followed by a survey of relevant cartel laws and the regime of franchise agreements and franchise duties. The amendments made in response to the oil crisis in the early seventies are mentioned, and current trends and proposals for reform are outlined. The Annex contains material illustrating a number of significant developments and issues in the history of the energy industry law, with brief explanations. The bibliography also lists publications of interest to readers wishing to get more insight into ongoing debates about problems posed by energy industry law, and proposed reforms. [Deutsch] Der Beitrag zeichnet die Entstehung und Veraenderung des rechtlichen Ordnungsrahmens nach, der fuer die derzeitige eigentuemliche Organisation der deutschen Elektrizitaetswirtschaft verantwortlich ist. Im Mittelpunkt steht das EnWG mit seinem Grundmuster. Darueberhinaus werden die einschlaegigen kartellrechtlichen Vorschriften und das Konzessionsabgabenrecht vorgestellt. Weiter wird die Reaktion des Gesetzgebers auf die dramatische Oelkrise zu Beginn der siebziger Jahre deutlich. Schliesslich wird der gegenwaertige Stand der Novellierungsbemuehungen skizziert. Die im Anhang enthaltenen Materialien veranschaulichen einige markante Punkte der energierechtlichen Entwicklung. Sie sind jeweils mit einer kurzen Erlaeuterung versehen. Das Literaturverzeichnis enthaelt auch Veroeffentlichungen zur aktuellen Diskussion, die dem interessierten Leser den vertieften Einstieg in dieses Problemfeld moeglich machen.

  18. Stress transmission in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamandé, Mathieu; Schjønning, Per

    We urgently need increased quantitative knowledge on stress transmission in real soils loaded with agricultural machinery. 3D measurements of vertical stresses under tracked wheels were performed in situ in a Stagnic Luvisol (clay content 20 %) continuously cropped with small grain cereals......). Seven load cells were inserted horizontally from a pit with minimal disturbance of soil in each of three depths (0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 m), covering the width of the wheeled area. The position of the wheel relative to the transducers was recorded using a laser sensor. Finally, the vertical stresses near...... the soil-tyre interface were measured in separate tests by 17 stress transducers across the width of the tyres. The results showed that the inflation pressure controlled the level of maximum stresses at 0.3 m depth, while the wheel load was correlated to the measured stresses at 0.9 m depth. This supports...

  19. Cleaning the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegmann, R.

    1993-01-01

    Volume 6 of the Hamburg Reports contains contributions from scientists from the Special Research Field 188 'Cleaning up Contaminated Soils' of the Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg and the University of Hamburg and of experts from science and from the practical field. The soil science and analytical aspects of the biological and chemical/physical treatment processes are shown and open questions specific to processes are dealt with. Scientific results are compared with practical experience here. The evaluation of treated soils for reuse in the environment is a very important question, which is explained in the first articles here. Examples of case studies are shown in the last part of the volume. (orig.) [de

  20. Complex conductivity of soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revil, A.; Coperey, A.; Shao, Z.

    2017-01-01

    The complex conductivity of soil remains poorly known despite the growing importance of this method in hyrogeophysics. In order to fill this gap of knowledge, we investigate the complex conductivity of 71 soils samples (including 4 peat samples) and one clean sand in the frequency range 0.1 Hertz...... to 45 kHz. The soil samples are saturated with 6 different NaCl brines with conductivities (0.031, 0.53, 1.15, 5.7, 14.7, and 22 S m-1, NaCl, 25°C) in order to determine their intrinsic formation factor and surface conductivity. This dataset is used to test the predictions of the dynamic Stern...

  1. Bioremediation of contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balba, M.T.; Ying, A.C.; McNeice, T.G.

    1992-01-01

    Microorganisms, especially bacteria, yeast and fungi are capable of degrading many kinds of xenobiotic compounds and toxic chemicals such as petroleum hydrocarbon compounds. These microorganisms are ubiquitous in nature and, despite their enormous versatility, there are numerous cases in which long-term contamination of soil and groundwater has been observed. The persistence of the contamination is usually caused by the inability of microorganisms to metabolize these compounds under the prevailing environmental condition. This paper reports on biological remediation of contaminated sites which can be accomplished by using naturally-occurring microorganisms to treat the contaminants. The development of a bioremediation program for a specific contaminated soil system usually includes: A thorough site/soil/waste characterization; Treatability studies

  2. Soil warming increases metabolic quotients of soil microorganisms without changes in temperature sensitivity of soil respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marañón-Jiménez, Sara; Soong, Jenniffer L.; Leblans, Niki I. W.; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D.; Dauwe, Steven; Fransen, Erik; Janssens, Ivan A.

    2017-04-01

    Increasing temperatures can accelerate soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and release large amounts of CO2 to the atmosphere, potentially inducing climate change feedbacks. Alterations to the temperature sensitivity and metabolic pathways of soil microorganisms in response to soil warming can play a key role in these soil carbon (C) losses. Here, we present results of an incubation experiment using soils from a geothermal gradient in Iceland that have been subjected to different intensities of soil warming (+0, +1, +3, +5, +10 and +20 °C above ambient) over seven years. We hypothesized that 7 years of soil warming would led to a depletion of labile organic substrates, with a subsequent decrease of the "apparent" temperature sensitivity of soil respiration. Associated to this C limitation and more sub-optimal conditions for microbial growth, we also hypothesized increased microbial metabolic quotients (soil respiration per unit of microbial biomass), which is associated with increases in the relative amount of C invested into catabolic pathways along the warming gradient. Soil respiration and basal respiration rates decreased with soil warming intensity, in parallel with a decline in soil C availability. Contrasting to our first hypothesis, we did not detect changes in the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration with soil warming or on the availability of nutrients and of labile C substrates at the time of incubation. However, in agreement to our second hypothesis, microbial metabolic quotients (soil respiration per unit of microbial biomass) increased at warmer temperatures, while the C retained in biomass decreased as substrate became limiting. Long-term (7 years) temperature increases thus triggered a change in the metabolic functioning of the soil microbial communities towards increasing energy costs for maintenance or resource acquisition, thereby lowering the capacity of C retention and stabilization of warmed soils. These results highlight the need

  3. Soils, time, and primate paleoenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bown, T.M.; Kraus, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Soils are the skin of the earth. From both poles to the equator, wherever rocks or sediment are exposed at the surface, soils are forming through the physical and chemical action of climate and living organisms. The physical attributes (color, texture, thickness) and chemical makeup of soils vary considerably, depending on the composition of the parent material and other variables: temperature, rainfall and soil moisture, vegetation, soil fauna, and the length of time that soil-forming processes have been at work. United States soil scientists1 have classified modern soils into ten major groups and numerous subgroups, each reflecting the composition and architecture of the soils and, to some extent, the processes that led to their formation. The physical and chemical processes of soil formation have been active throughout geologic time; the organic processes have been active at least since the Ordovician.2 Consequently, nearly all sedimentary rocks that were deposited in nonmarine settings and exposed to the elements contain a record of ancient, buried soils or paleosols. A sequence of these rocks, such as most ancient fluvial (stream) deposits, provides a record of soil paleoenvironments through time. Paleosols are also repositories of the fossils of organisms (body fossils) and the traces of those organisms burrowing, food-seeking, and dwelling activities (ichnofossils). Indeed, most fossil primates are found in paleosols. Careful study of ancient soils gives new, valuable insights into the correct temporal reconstruction of the primate fossil record and the nature of primate paleoenvironments. ?? 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Fixation of Soil Using PEC and Separation of Fixed Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong Suk; Yang, Hee-Man; Lee, Kune Woo; Seo, Bum-Kyoung; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Radioactive cesium (Cs-137) is the most apprehensive element due to its long half-lives, high solubility in water, and strong radiation emission in the form of gamma rays. Because the radioactivity is localized within topsoil, soil surface on topsoil should be fixed to prevent the spreading of the contaminated soils by wind and water erosion. Many methods have been developing for soil fixation to remove radioactive contaminants in soil and prevent to diffuse radioactive materials. Various materials have been used as fixatives such as clays, molecular sieves, polymer, and petroleum based products. One of the methods is a soil fixation or solidification using polyelectrolyte. Polyelectrolytes have many ionic groups and form the polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) due to electrostatic interaction of anion and cation in an aqueous solution. polyelectrolyte complex can fix soil particles by flocculation and formation of crust between soil. The method can prevent a spread of radioactive material by floating on a soil surface. The decontamination efficiency of the surface soils reached about 90%, and dust release was effectively suppressed during the removal of surface soils. However it has a problem that the removed soil must separate soil and polymer to treat as the waste. In this study, the fixation of soil by polyelectrolyte complex to suppress the spread of contaminant and the separation method of soil and polymer was investigated. The properties of polyelectrolyte complex solution and the stability of fixed soil by polyelectrolyte complex were investigated. The concentration of salt in the polyelectrolyte complex solution is a very important parameter for the soil fixation.

  5. Developing and using artificial soils to analyze soil microbial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X.; Cheng, H. Y.; Boynton, L.; Masiello, C. A.; Silberg, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    Microbial diversity and function in soils are governed by soil characteristics such as mineral composition, particles size and aggregations, soil organic matter (SOM), and availability of nutrients and H2O. The spatial and temporal heterogeneity of soils creates a range of niches (hotspots) differing in the availability of O2, H2O, and nutrients, which shapes microbial activities at scales ranging from nanometer to landscape. Synthetic biologists often examine microbial response trigged by their environment conditions in nutrient-rich aqueous media using single strain microbes. While these studies provided useful insight in the role of soil microbes in important soil biogeochemical processes (e.g., C cycling, N cycling, etc.), the results obtained from the over-simplified model systems are often not applicable natural soil systems. On the contrary, soil microbiologists examine microbial processes in natural soils using longer incubation time. However, due to its physical, chemical and biological complexity of natural soils, it is often difficult to examine soil characteristics independently and understand how each characteristic influences soil microbial activities and their corresponding soil functioning. Therefore, it is necessary to bridge the gap and develop a model matrix to exclude unpredictable influences from the environment while still reliably mimicking real environmental conditions. The objective of this study is to design a range of ecologically-relevant artificial soils with varying texture (particle size distribution), structure, mineralogy, SOM content, and nutrient heterogeneity. We thoroughly characterize the artificial soils for pH, active surface area and surface morphology, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and water retention curve. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the artificial soils as useful matrix for microbial processes, such as microbial growth and horizontal gene transfer (HGT), using the gas-reporting biosensors recently developed in

  6. Soil and ground cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiechen, A.; Heine, K.; Bundesanstalt fuer Milchforschung, Kiel

    1985-01-01

    The monitoring programmes set up in accordance with the directives for the surveillance of effluents from nuclear installations oblige operators of such installations to take samples of vegetation (grass) and soil twice a year at the least favourable place in the industrial plant's environment, and at a reference site, for radioactivity monitoring by gamma spectroscopy. In addition, the samples are to be examined for their Sr-90 content. Data recorded over the years show that nuclear facilities do not significantly contribute to soil and vegetation contamination with Sr-90 or Cs-137. The directives require regular interlaboratory comparisons, which are coordinated by the directing centre at Kiel. (DG) [de

  7. Soil monitoring instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbarger, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has an extensive program for the development of nondestructive assay instrumentation for the quantitative analysis of transuranic (TRU) materials found in bulk solid wastes generated by Department of Energy facilities and by the commercial nuclear power industry. Included are wastes generated in decontamination and decommissioning of outdated nuclear facilities as well as wastes from old waste burial ground exhumation programs. The assay instrumentation is designed to have detection limits below 10 nCi/g wherever practicable. Because of the topic of this workshop, only the assay instrumentation applied specifically to soil monitoring will be discussed here. Four types of soil monitors are described

  8. Soil contamination studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a quick screening method that accurately identifies and quantifies the amount of alpha-emitting radionuclides in infinitely-thick soil samples using a Frisch grid ionization chamber. An additional objective of the work was to provide the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office and its contractors with information on the theoretical and actual measured results of atmospheric testing contamination of soil and water at the Nevada Test Site through a comprehensive search of existing literature

  9. Soil reinforcement with geosynthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessaim Mohammed Mustapha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The proportionality of existence of land with good bearing to erect any building or building is very small, to remedy this deficiency it is necessary to resort to techniques of reinforcement of the soils which can constitute a very important development. Among these methods of remediation, there is reinforcement by the geosynthetics which constitute an effective solution to these constraints. This process tends to stabilize the soil in question with increased load bearing capacity in civil engineering and geotechnical works such as embankments, slopes, embankments and hydraulic structures, with an inestimable gain in time, economy and durability while preserving the natural and environmental aspect.

  10. Sustainable Soil Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Evgrafova, Alevtina; Kirkegaard Nielsen, Søren

    Linket til højre henviser til rapporten i trykt format til download. This report provides an overview on new technologies for integrate sustainable and resilient management practices in arable ecosystems for advanced farmers, consultants, NGOs and policy makers. By following sustainable soil...... and soil quality in short- and long-terms. This report also illustrates the importance to combine a system approach for plant production by assessing field readiness, managing in-field traffic management, implementing the sitespecific controlled as well as sensor-controlled seedbed preparation, seeding...

  11. Soil invertebrate fauna affect N2O emissions from soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, I.; Deyn, de G.B.; Thakur, M.P.; Groenigen, van J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soils contribute significantly to global warming. Mitigation of N2O emissions is severely hampered by a lack of understanding of its main controls. Fluxes can only partly be predicted from soil abiotic factors and microbial analyses – a possible role for soil fauna

  12. Hysteresis of soil temperature under different soil moisture and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in a solar greenhouse. The objective of this study was to find a simple method to estimate the hysteresis of soil temperature under three soil moisture and two fertilizer levels in solar greenhouse conditions with tomato crop (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). The results show that the soil moisture had no significant effects on ...

  13. Soils in Schools: Embedding Soil Science in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, Alisa

    2015-01-01

    Soil science, though relevant to a variety of subjects including science, geography, mathematics, social sciences and history, is typically perceived as a subgenre of agriculture. With a global need for soil scientists, and declining numbers in university soil courses, there's a growing gap between science needs and providers. One way to promote…

  14. Soil texture classification algorithm using RGB characteristics of soil images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil texture has an important influence on agriculture, affecting crop selection, movement of nutrients and water, soil electrical conductivity, and crop growth. Soil texture has traditionally been determined in the laboratory using pipette and hydrometer methods that require a considerable amount o...

  15. Soil microbial community response to land use and various soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil microbial community response to land use and various soil elements in a city landscape of north China. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Legumes played an important role in stimulating the growth and reproduction of various soil microbial populations, accordingly promoting the microbial catabolic activity.

  16. Impacts of prescribed fire on soil loss and soil quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shakesby, Richard A.; Martins Bento, Celia; Ferreira, Carla S.S.; Ferreira, António J.D.; Stoof, C.R.; Urbanek, Emilia; Walsh, Rory P.D.

    2015-01-01

    Prescribed (controlled) fire has recently been adopted as an important wildfire-fighting strategy in the Mediterranean. Relatively little research, however, has assessed its impacts on soil erosion and soil quality. This paper investigates hillslope-scale losses of soil, organic matter and

  17. Soil tension mediates isotope fractionation during soil water evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaj, Marcel; McDonnell, Jeffrey

    2017-04-01

    Isotope tracing of the water cycle is increasing in its use and usefulness. Many new studies are extracting soil waters and relating these to streamflow, groundwater recharge and plant transpiration. Nevertheless, unlike isotope fractionation factors from open water bodies, soil water fractionation factors are poorly understood and until now, only empirically derived. In contrast to open water evaporation where temperature, humidity and vapor pressure gradient define fractionation (as codified in the well-known Craig and Gordon model), soil water evaporation includes additionally, fractionation by matrix effects. There is yet no physical explanation of kinetic and equilibrium fraction from soil water within the soil profile. Here we present a simple laboratory experiment with four admixtures of soil grain size (from sand to silt to clay). Oven-dried samples were spiked with water of known isotopic composition at different soil water contents. Soils were then stored in sealed bags and the headspace filled with dry air and allowed to equilibrate for 24hours. Isotopic analysis of the headspace vapor was done with a Los Gatos Inc. water vapor isotope analyzer. Soil water potential of subsamples were measured with a water potential meter. We show for the first time that soil tension controls isotope fractionation in the resident soil water. Below a Pf 3.5 the δ-values of 18O and 2H of the headspace vapor is more positive and increases with increasing soil water potential. Surprisingly, we find that the relationship between soil tension and equilibrium fractionation is independent of soil type. However, δ-values of each soil type plot along a distinct evaporation line. These results indicate that equilibrium fractionation is affected by soil tension in addition to temperature. Therefore, at high soil water tension (under dry conditions) equilibrium fractionation is not consistent with current empirical formulations that ignore these effects. These findings may have

  18. Allegheny County Soil Type Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains soil type and soil classification, by area. Additional info at: http://mcdc.cas.psu.edu/datawiz.htm;...

  19. St Francis Hydro, Soils data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — We collected data 2012-2016 covering spatially-explicit, soil layering, bulk density, drainage rate (2012, 2015) infiltration into rain garden mulch and mineral soil...

  20. Frost Heave in Colloidal Soils

    KAUST Repository

    Peppin, Stephen; Majumdar, Apala; Style, Robert; Sander, Graham

    2011-01-01

    We develop a mathematical model of frost heave in colloidal soils. The theory accountsfor heave and consolidation while not requiring a frozen fringe assumption. Two solidificationregimes occur: a compaction regime in which the soil consolidates

  1. Collapse settlement in compacted soils

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, AR

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into collapse settlement in compacted soils is described, with special reference to recent cases in Southern Africa where collapse settlement occurred in road embankments following wetting of the soil. The laboratory work described...

  2. Soil! Get the Scoop - The Soil Science Society of America's International Year of Soils Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindbo, David L.; Hopmans, Jan; Olson, Carolyn; Fisk, Susan; Chapman, Susan; van Es, Harold

    2015-04-01

    Soils are a finite natural resource and are nonrenewable on a human time scale. Soils are the foundation for food, animal feed, fuel and natural fiber production, the supply of clean water, nutrient cycling and a range of ecosystem functions. The area of fertile soils covering the world's surface is limited and increasingly subject to degradation, poor management and loss to urbanization. Increased awareness of the life-supporting functions of soil is called for if this trend is to be reversed and so enable the levels of food production necessary to meet the demands of population levels predicted for 2050. The Soil Science Society of America is coordinating with the Global Soil Partnership and other organizations around the world to celebrate the 2015 International Year of Soils and raise awareness and promote the sustainability of our limited soil resources. We all have a valuable role in communicating vital information on soils, a life sustaining natural resource. Therefore, we will provide resources to learn about soils and help us tell the story of soils. We will promote IYS on social media by sharing our posts from Facebook and Twitter. Additionally SSSA developed 12 monthly themes that reflect the diverse value of soils to our natural environment and society. Each month has information on the theme, a lesson plan, and other outreach activities. All information is available on a dedicated website www.soil.org/IYS. The site will be updated constantly throughout the year.

  3. Sustainable Soil Water Management Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Basch, G.; Kassam, A.; Friedrich, T.; Santos, F.L.; Gubiani, P.I.; Calegari, A.; Reichert, J.M.; dos Santos, D.R.

    2012-01-01

    Soil quality and its management must be considered as key elements for an effective management of water resources, given that the hydrological cycle and land management are intimately linked (Bossio et al. 2007). Soil degradation has been described by Bossio et al. (2010) as the starting point of a negative cycle of soil-water relationships, creating a positive, self-accelerating feedback loop with important negative impacts on water cycling and water productivity. Therefore, sustainable soil...

  4. Soil, a sponge for pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Lichtfouse , Eric

    1997-01-01

    This article is written both in English and French; International audience; This preface of the special issue entitled "Soil Pollutants" (Analusis Magazine 25, M16-M72, 1997) highlights major basic and applied issues about the sources and fate of organic, mineral and radioactive pollutants in soils. Soils have long been considered as a closed and inert medium where wastes can be dumped without impact on living organisms. This is false and we know now that soils play a vital role in ecosystems...

  5. Engineering Significant of Swelling Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Behzad Kalantari

    2012-01-01

    This study describes some of the most important swelling characters of expansive soils when used as foundation materials to support various types of civil engineering structures. Expansive soils are considered among difficult foundation materials and expand upon wetting and shrink upon losing moisture. They are considered problematic soils for architectural and civil engineers. These types of soils may cause minor to major structural damages to pavements as well as buildings. It is therefore ...

  6. Use of advanced chemical fingerprinting in PAH source identification and allocation at a coal tar processing site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.S.; Boehm, P.D.; Douglas, G.S.

    1995-01-01

    Advanced chemical fingerprinting analyses were used to determine source allocation at a former coal tar processing facility which had been converted to a petroleum recycling site. Soil samples from the site had high petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations and elevated levels of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Comparisons of PAH distributions were used to differentiate the coal tar hydrocarbons from the petroleum hydrocarbons in soil samples. A more specific technique was needed to accurately allocate the contribution of the two sources to the observed PAH contamination in the soil. Petroleum biomarkers (steranes and triterpanes) which are present in crude oils and many refined petroleum products but are absent in coal tar were used to quantitatively allocate the source of the PAH contamination based on the relative ratio of the PAH to the biomarkers in soil samples. Using the resulting coal tar/petroleum source ratio the contribution of petroleum to the overall PAH contamination at the site was calculated. A multivariate statistical technique (principal component analysis or PCA) was used to provide an independent validation of the source allocation. The results of the source allocation provided a foundation for the site clean-up and remediation costs

  7. Soil gas radon response to environmental and soil physics variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.M.; Chen, C.; Holford, D.

    1991-01-01

    During the last three years a field study of soil gas radon activities conducted at Poamoho, Oahu, has shown that the primary environmental variables that control radon transport in shallow tropical soils are synoptic and diurnal barometric pressure changes and soil moisture levels. Barometric pressure changes drive advective transport and mixing of soil gas with atmospheric air; soil moisture appears to control soil porosity and permeability to enhance or inhibit advective and diffusive radon transport. An advective barrier test/control experiment has shown that advective exchange of soil gas and air may account for a substantial proportion of the radon loss from shallow soils but does not significantly affect radon activities at depths greater than 2.3 m. An irrigation test/control experiment also suggests that, at soil moisture levels approaching field capacity, saturation of soil macroporosity can halt all advective transport of radon and limit diffusive mobility to that occurring in the liquid phase. The results of the authors field study have been used to further refine and extend a numerical model, RN3D, that has been developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratories to simulate subsurface transport of radon. The field data have allowed them to accurately simulate the steady state soil gas radon profile at their field site and to track transient radon activities under the influence of barometric pressure changes and in response to changes in soil permeability that result from variations in soil moisture levels. Further work is continuing on the model to enable it to properly account for the relative effects of advective transport of soil gas through cracks and diffusive mobility in the bulk soils

  8. Soil structural quality assessment for soil protection regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, Alice; Boivin, Pascal

    2017-04-01

    Soil quality assessment is rapidly developing worldwide, though mostly focused on the monitoring of arable land and soil fertility. Soil protection regulations assess soil quality differently, focusing on priority pollutants and threshold values. The soil physical properties are weakly considered, due to lack of consensus and experimental difficulties faced with characterization. Non-disputable, easy to perform and inexpensive methods should be available for environmental regulation to be applied, which is unfortunately not the case. As a consequence, quantitative soil physical protection regulation is not applied, and inexpensive soil physical quality indicators for arable soil management are not available. Overcoming these limitations was the objective of a research project funded by the Swiss federal office for environment (FOEN). The main results and the perspectives of application are given in this presentation. A first step of the research was to characterize soils in a good structural state (reference soils) under different land use. The structural quality was assessed with field expertise and Visual Evaluation of the Soil Structure (VESS), and the physical properties were assessed with Shrinkage analysis. The relationships between the physical properties and the soil constituents were linear and highly determined. They represent the reference properties of the corresponding soils. In a second step, the properties of physically degraded soils were analysed and compared to the reference properties. This allowed defining the most discriminant parameters departing the different structure qualities and their threshold limits. Equivalent properties corresponding to these parameters but inexpensive and easy to determine were defined and tested. More than 90% of the samples were correctly classed with this method, which meets, therefore, the requirements for practical application in regulation. Moreover, result-oriented agri-environmental schemes for soil quality

  9. Soils [Chapter 4.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary; Johannes W. A. Langeveld

    2015-01-01

    Soils are crucial for profitable and sustainable biomass feedstock production. They provide nutrients and water, give support for plants, and provide habitat for enormous numbers of biota. There are several systems for soil classification. FAO has provided a generic classification system that was used for a global soil map (Bot et al., 2000). The USDA Natural Resources...

  10. Soil carbon 4 per mille

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, V.L.

    2017-01-01

    The ‘4 per mille Soils for Food Security and Climate’ was launched at the COP21 with an aspiration to increase global soil organic matter stocks by 4 per 1000 (or 0.4 %) per year as a compensation for the global emissions of greenhouse gases by anthropogenic sources. This paper surveyed the soil

  11. A study on soil structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuylenborgh, van J.

    1947-01-01

    As soils differ in capacity to form a structure, it is necessary to distinguish between intrinsic structure and actual structure. Intrinsic structure is the capacity of a soil to form a certain structure. Actual structure is the structure of the soil at a certain moment.

    Using experiments and

  12. Mycorrhizas and tropical soil fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso, I.M.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    Major factors that constrain tropical soil fertility and sustainable agriculture are low nutrient capital, moisture stress, erosion, high P fixation, high acidity with aluminium toxicity, and low soil biodiversity. The fragility of many tropical soils limits food production in annual cropping

  13. The threat of soil salinity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daliakopoulos, I.N.; Tsanis, I.K.; Koutroulis, A.; Kourgialas, N.N.; Varouchakis, A.E.; Karatzas, G.P.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2016-01-01

    Soil salinisation is one of the major soil degradation threats occurring in Europe. The effects of salinisation can be observed in numerous vital ecological and non-ecological soil functions. Drivers of salinisation can be detected both in the natural and man-made environment, with climate and

  14. Minnesota's Soils and Their Uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, Clifton

    There is an increasing need for land planning and understanding soil is one step toward assuring proper land use. This publication, written by soil scientists and teachers, is designed as a reference for high school teachers. It is designed to be a comprehensive collection about Minnesota soils (although the information can be applied to other…

  15. Biological Soil Crust Web Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    www.soilcrust.org Crust 101 Advanced Gallery References CCERS site Links Biological Soil Crusts Textbook Corrections Level of Development Index Biological soil crusts are the community of organisms , mosses, liverworts and lichens. A Field Guide to Biological Soil Crusts of Western U.S. Drylands: Common

  16. Soil threats and soil protection: the role of biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, J. L.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of soil conservation/soil protection in its wider sense has undergone important changes through history. Perceptions of soil as a crucial base of life in ancient cultures progressively evolved to a more pragmatic vision, with close connection to food production for survival. For centuries, agrarian production and the provision of food for humankind remained the main and crucial vision of the interaction of societies with soil. However, there are also some other new and important concepts related to soil which have progressively developed. (Author)

  17. SoilInfo App: global soil information on your palm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengl, Tomislav; Mendes de Jesus, Jorge

    2015-04-01

    ISRIC ' World Soil Information has released in 2014 and app for mobile de- vices called 'SoilInfo' (http://soilinfo-app.org) and which aims at providing free access to the global soil data. SoilInfo App (available for Android v.4.0 Ice Cream Sandwhich or higher, and Apple v.6.x and v.7.x iOS) currently serves the Soil- Grids1km data ' a stack of soil property and class maps at six standard depths at a resolution of 1 km (30 arc second) predicted using automated geostatistical mapping and global soil data models. The list of served soil data includes: soil organic carbon (), soil pH, sand, silt and clay fractions (%), bulk density (kg/m3), cation exchange capacity of the fine earth fraction (cmol+/kg), coarse fragments (%), World Reference Base soil groups, and USDA Soil Taxonomy suborders (DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0105992). New soil properties and classes will be continuously added to the system. SoilGrids1km are available for download under a Creative Commons non-commercial license via http://soilgrids.org. They are also accessible via a Representational State Transfer API (http://rest.soilgrids.org) service. SoilInfo App mimics common weather apps, but is also largely inspired by the crowdsourcing systems such as the OpenStreetMap, Geo-wiki and similar. Two development aspects of the SoilInfo App and SoilGrids are constantly being worked on: Data quality in terms of accuracy of spatial predictions and derived information, and Data usability in terms of ease of access and ease of use (i.e. flexibility of the cyberinfrastructure / functionalities such as the REST SoilGrids API, SoilInfo App etc). The development focus in 2015 is on improving the thematic and spatial accuracy of SoilGrids predictions, primarily by using finer resolution covariates (250 m) and machine learning algorithms (such as random forests) to improve spatial predictions.

  18. Soil-ecological risks for soil degradation estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonova, Tatiana; Shirkin, Leonid; Kust, German; Andreeva, Olga

    2016-04-01

    Soil degradation includes the processes of soil properties and quality worsening, primarily from the point of view of their productivity and decrease of ecosystem services quality. Complete soil cover destruction and/or functioning termination of soil forms of organic life are considered as extreme stages of soil degradation, and for the fragile ecosystems they are normally considered in the network of their desertification, land degradation and droughts /DLDD/ concept. Block-model of ecotoxic effects, generating soil and ecosystem degradation, has been developed as a result of the long-term field and laboratory research of sod-podzol soils, contaminated with waste, containing heavy metals. The model highlights soil degradation mechanisms, caused by direct and indirect impact of ecotoxicants on "phytocenosis- soil" system and their combination, frequently causing synergistic effect. The sequence of occurring changes here can be formalized as a theory of change (succession of interrelated events). Several stages are distinguished here - from heavy metals leaching (releasing) in waste and their migration downward the soil profile to phytoproductivity decrease and certain phytocenosis composition changes. Phytoproductivity decrease leads to the reduction of cellulose content introduced into the soil. The described feedback mechanism acts as a factor of sod-podzolic soil self-purification and stability. It has been shown, that using phytomass productivity index, integrally reflecting the worsening of soil properties complex, it is possible to solve the problems dealing with the dose-reflecting reactions creation and determination of critical levels of load for phytocenosis and corresponding soil-ecological risks. Soil-ecological risk in "phytocenosis- soil" system means probable negative changes and the loss of some ecosystem functions during the transformation process of dead organic substance energy for the new biomass composition. Soil-ecological risks estimation is

  19. Infiltration in Unsaturated Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghotbi, Abdoul R.; Omidvar, M.; Barari, Amin

    2011-01-01

    An approximate analytical solution has been established for the well known Richards’ equation for unsaturated flow of transports in soils. Despite the importance of Richards’ equation in geotechnical and geoenvironmental applications, most solutions to the problem are generally based on numerical...

  20. stabilized lateritic soil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    this work to optimize the amount of bagasse ash content in cement-stabilized lateritic soil. Geometric .... can handle or consider all the properties involved at the same time to ...... Bearig Ratio of Used oil contaminated Lateritic soils” Nigerian ...

  1. Hydrology and soil erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard J. Lane; Mary R. Kidwell

    2003-01-01

    We review research on surface water hydrology and soil erosion at the Santa Rita Experimental Range (SRER). Almost all of the research was associated with eight small experimental watersheds established from 1974 to 1975 and operated until the present. Analysis of climatic features of the SRER supports extending research findings from the SRER to broad areas of the...

  2. Improved Biosensors for Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberg, J. J.; Masiello, C. A.; Cheng, H. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Microbes drive processes in the Earth system far exceeding their physical scale, affecting crop yields, water quality, the mobilization of toxic materials, and fundamental aspects of soil biogeochemistry. The tools of synthetic biology have the potential to significantly improve our understanding of microbial Earth system processes: for example, synthetic microbes can be be programmed to report on environmental conditions that stimulate greenhouse gas production, metal oxidation, biofilm formation, pollutant degradation, and microbe-plant symbioses. However, these tools are only rarely deployed in the lab. This research gap arises because synthetically programmed microbes typically report on their environment by producing molecules that are detected optically (e.g., fluorescent proteins). Fluorescent reporters are ideal for petri-dish applications and have fundamentally changed how we study human health, but their usefulness is quite limited in soils where detecting fluorescence is challenging. Here we describe the construction of gas-reporting biosensors, which release nonpolar gases that can be detected in the headspace of incubation experiments. These constructs can be used to probe microbial processes within soils in real-time noninvasive lab experiments. These biosensors can be combined with traditional omics-based approaches to reveal processes controlling soil microbial behavior and lead to improved environmental management decisions.

  3. When soils become sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, Jos P.M.; Zomeren, van Andre; Dijkstra, Joris J.; Comans, Rob N.J.

    2017-01-01

    Simulating the storage of aerobic soils under water, the chemical speciation of heavy metals and arsenic was studied over a long-term reduction period. Time-dynamic and redox-discrete measurements in reactors were used to study geochemical changes. Large kinetic differences in the

  4. Soil and fertilizer nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winteringham, F.P.W.

    1984-01-01

    As a result of the intensified practices and effectively diminishing land resources per capita, increasing weights of both native soil- and added fertilizer-nitrogen will be lost to agriculture and its products, and will find their way into the environment. Soil-nitrogen levels and contingent productivity can nevertheless be maintained in the face of these losses on the basis of improved soil-N management. In some local situations nitrate levels in water for drinking purposes are likely to continue rising. In some cases agriculture and clearance practices are only one of several sources. In others they are clearly mainly responsible. In developing countries these losses represent those of a relatively increasingly costly input. This is due to the fact that industrial fertilizer nitrogen production is a particularly high energy-consuming process. In the more advanced industrialized countries they represent an addition to the problems and costs of environmental quality and health protection. The programmes, information and data reviewed here suggest that these problems can be contained by improved and extended soil and water management in agriculture on the basis of existing technology. In particular there appears to be enormous scope for the better exploitation of existing legumes both as non-legume crop alternatives or as biofertilizers which also possess more desirable C:N ratios than chemical fertilizer

  5. Surface soil contamination standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothe, G.F.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to define surface soil contamination limits for radioactive materials below which posting, restrictions and environmental controls are not necessary in order to protect personnel and the environment. The standards can also be used to determine if solid waste or other material is contaminated relative to disposal requirements. The derivation of the standards is given

  6. Humus and soil fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Humus is a Latin word, meaning on or in the ground, but what is humus in the context of tree and landscape care? Is humus the same as soil organic matter? With the increased emphasis on biologically-based products for sustainable landscapes and tree care, the sources and quality of humus products have greatly increased in recent years.

  7. Soil Science Forensic Application

    OpenAIRE

    Rēpele, M; Alksne, M

    2009-01-01

    The forensic potential of soil and geological evidence has been recognized for more than a century, but in the last 15 years these types of evidence have been used much more widely both as an investigative intelligence tool and as evidence in court.

  8. Physical soil degradation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boels, D.; Havinga, L.

    1980-01-01

    Soils used in agriculture are subjected to a wide variety of human activities. Soil tillage and soil impravement operations may loose the soil, while soil wetting due to rainfall, and farming operations as sowing, spraying, weed control and harvesting but also grazing cattle may compact the soil.

  9. Impact of Soil Texture on Soil Ciliate Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, J. F.; Brown, S.; Habtom, E.; Brinson, F.; Epps, M.; Scott, R.

    2014-12-01

    Soil water content and connectivity strongly influence microbial activities in soil, controlling access to nutrients and electron acceptors, and mediating interactions between microbes within and between trophic levels. These interactions occur at or below the pore scale, and are influenced by soil texture and structure, which determine the microscale architecture of soil pores. Soil protozoa are relatively understudied, especially given the strong control they exert on bacterial communities through predation. Here, ciliate communities in soils of contrasting textures were investigated. Two ciliate-specific primer sets targeting the 18S rRNA gene were used to amplify DNA extracted from eight soil samples collected from Sumter National Forest in western South Carolina. Primer sets 121F-384F-1147R (semi-nested) and 315F-959R were used to amplify soil ciliate DNA via polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the resulting PCR products were analyzed by gel electrophoresis to obtain quantity and band size. Approximately two hundred ciliate 18S rRNA sequences were obtained were obtained from each of two contrasting soils. Sequences were aligned against the NCBI GenBank database for identification, and the taxonomic classification of best-matched sequences was determined. The ultimate goal of the work is to quantify changes in the ciliate community under short-timescale changes in hydrologic conditions for varying soil textures, elucidating dynamic responses to desiccation stress in major soil ciliate taxa.

  10. Soil washing results for mixed waste pond soils at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.A.

    1991-09-01

    Soil washing technology was assessed as a means for remediating soil contaminated with mixed wastes primarily composed of heavy metals and radionuclides. The soils at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site are considered suitable for soil washing because of their relatively low quantities of silt and clay. However, in a limited number of soil washing experiments using soils from different locations in the north pond of the 300 Area, the degree of decontamination achieved for the coarse fraction of the soil varied considerably. Part of this variation appears to be due to the presence of a discrete layer of contaminated sediment found in some of the samples. 7 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Soil Penetration Resistance of Recultivated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zadorozhnaya Galina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines changes in the spatial distribution of soil penetration resistance in ordinary chernozem (Calcic Chernozem and in the recultivated soil in 2012 and 2014. The measurements were carried out in the field using an Eijkelkamp penetrometer on a regular grid. The depth of measurement was 50 cm, the interval was 5 cm. The indices of variation of soil penetration resistance in space and time have been determined. The degree of spatial dependence of soil penetration resistance has been determined layer by layer. The nature of temporal dynamics of soil penetration resistance of chernozem and technical soil has been described. A significant positive relationship of the structure of chernozem in the two years of the research has been shown. Significant correlations between the data of different years in the technical soil were found to be mostly negative.

  12. How does soil management affect carbon losses from soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klik, A.; Trümper, G.

    2009-04-01

    Agricultural soils are a major source as well as a sink of organic carbon (OC). Amount and distribution of OC within the soil and within the landscape are driven by land management but also by erosion and deposition processes. At the other hand the type of soil management influences mineralization and atmospheric carbon dioxide losses by soil respiration. In a long-term field experiment the impacts of soil tillage systems on soil erosion processes were investigated. Following treatments were compared: 1) conventional tillage (CT), 2) conservation tillage with cover crop during the winter period (CS), and 3) no-till with cover crop during winter period (NT). The studies were carried out at three sites in the Eastern part of Austria with annual precipitation amounts from 650 to 900 mm. The soil texture ranged from silt loam to loam. Since 2007 soil CO2 emissions are measured with a portable soil respiration system in intervals of about one week, but also in relation to management events. Concurrent soil temperature and soil water content are measured and soil samples are taken for chemical and microbiological analyses. An overall 14-yr. average soil loss between 1.0 t.ha-1.yr-1 for NT and 6.1 t.ha-1.yr-1 for CT resulted in on-site OC losses from 18 to 79 kg ha-1.yr-1. The measurements of the carbon dioxide emissions from the different treatments indicate a high spatial variation even within one plot. Referred to CT plots calculated carbon losses amounted to 65-94% for NT plots while for the different RT plots they ranged between 84 and 128%. Nevertheless site specific considerations have to be taken into account. Preliminary results show that the adaptation of reduced or no-till management strategies has enormous potential in reducing organic carbon losses from agricultural used soils.

  13. Bioavailability of radiocaesium in soil: parameterization using soil characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syssoeva, A.A.; Konopleva, I.V. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    It has been shown that radiocaesium availability to plants strongly influenced by soil properties. For the best evaluation of TFs it necessary to use mechanistic models that predict radionuclide uptake by plants based on consideration of sorption-desorption and fixation-remobilization of the radionuclide in the soil as well as root uptake processes controlled by the plant. The aim of the research was to characterise typical Russian soils on the basis of the radiocaesium availability. The parameter of the radiocaesium availability in soils (A) has been developed which consist on radiocaesium exchangeability; CF -concentration factor which is the ratio of the radiocaesium in plant to that in soil solution; K{sub Dex} - exchangeable solid-liquid distribution coefficient of radiocaesium. The approach was tested for a wide range of Russian soils using radiocaesium uptake data from a barley pot trial and parameters of the radiocaesium bioavailability. Soils were collected from the arable horizons in different soil climatic zones of Russia and artificially contaminated by {sup 137}Cs. The classification of soils in terms of the radiocaesium availability corresponds quite well to observed linear relationship between {sup 137}Cs TF for barley and A. K{sub Dex} is related to the soil radiocaesium interception potential (RIP), which was found to be positively and strongly related to clay and physical clay (<0,01 mm) content. The {sup 137}Cs exchangeability were found to be in close relation to the soil vermiculite content, which was estimated by the method of Cs{sup +} fixation. It's shown radiocaesium availability to plants in soils under study can be parameterized through mineralogical soil characteristics: % clay and the soil vermiculite content. (author)

  14. Final Remedial Investigation Report Area of Contamination (AOC) 57. Volume III. Appendices E through Q

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination from parking lot runoff. Although some residual TPHC and PAH concentrations remained in Area 1 soils after the removal...formulations and has industrial uses in tanneries, as well as the glass and wine making industries. Toxicity depends on its chemical form. Arsenic is an...nature and is an essential element. Copper deficiency is characterized by anemia and is used for medicinal purposes as an emetic and an astringent . Acute

  15. Modelling soil organic carbon concentration of mineral soils in arable lands using legacy soil data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suuster, E; Ritz, Christian; Roostalu, H

    2012-01-01

    is appropriate if the study design has a hierarchical structure as in our scenario. We used the Estonian National Soil Monitoring data on arable lands to predict SOC concentrations of mineral soils. Subsequently, the model with the best prediction accuracy was applied to the Estonian digital soil map...

  16. Using USDA's National Cooperative Soil Survey Soil Characterization Data to detect soil change: A cautionary tale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, the USDA-NRCS National Cooperative Soil Survey Soil Characterization Database (NSCD) was reported to provide evidence that total nitrogen (TN) stocks of agricultural soils have increased across the Mississippi basin since 1985. Unfortunately, due to omission of metadata from the NSCD, hist...

  17. Diurnal hysteresis between soil CO2 and soil temperature is controlled by soil water content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diego A. Riveros-Iregui; Ryan E. Emanuel; Daniel J. Muth; L. McGlynn Brian; Howard E. Epstein; Daniel L. Welsch; Vincent J. Pacific; Jon M. Wraith

    2007-01-01

    Recent years have seen a growing interest in measuring and modeling soil CO2 efflux, as this flux represents a large component of ecosystem respiration and is a key determinant of ecosystem carbon balance. Process-based models of soil CO2 production and efflux, commonly based on soil temperature, are limited by nonlinearities such as the observed diurnal hysteresis...

  18. Degradation of thiram in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghu, K.; Murthy, N.B.K.; Kumarsamy, R.

    1975-01-01

    Determination of the residual 35 S labelled tetramethylthiuram disulfide showed that the fungicide persisted longer in sterilized than in unsterilized soil, while the chloroform extractable radioactivity decreased, the water extractable radioactivity increased with increase in time. However, in sterilized soil the water extractable radioactivity remained more or less constant. Degradation of the fungicide was further demonstrated by the release of C 35 S 2 from soil treated with labelled thiram. Dimethylamine was found to be one of the degradation products. A bacterium isolated from thiram-enriched soil could degrade the fungicide in shake culture. The degradation pathways of thiram in sterilized and unsterilized soils are discussed. (author)

  19. Soil Erosion and Agricultural Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, D. R.

    2009-04-01

    Data drawn from a global compilation of studies support the long articulated contention that erosion rates from conventionally plowed agricultural fields greatly exceed rates of soil production, erosion under native vegetation, and long-term geological erosion. Whereas data compiled from around the world show that soil erosion under conventional agriculture exceeds both rates of soil production and geological erosion rates by up to several orders of magnitude, similar global distributions of soil production and geological erosion rates suggest an approximate balance. Net soil erosion rates in conventionally plowed fields on the order of 1 mm/yr can erode typical hillslope soil profiles over centuries to millennia, time-scales comparable to the longevity of major civilizations. Well-documented episodes of soil loss associated with agricultural activities date back to the introduction of erosive agricultural methods in regions around the world, and stratigraphic records of accelerated anthropogenic soil erosion have been recovered from lake, fluvial, and colluvial stratigraphy, as well as truncation of soil stratigraphy (such as truncated A horizons). A broad convergence in the results from studies based on various approaches employed to study ancient soil loss and rates of downstream sedimentation implies that widespread soil loss has accompanied human agricultural intensification in examples drawn from around the world. While a broad range of factors, including climate variability and society-specific social and economic contexts — such as wars or colonial relationships — all naturally influence the longevity of human societies, the ongoing loss of topsoil inferred from studies of soil erosion rates in conventional agricultural systems has obvious long-term implications for agricultural sustainability. Consequently, modern agriculture — and therefore global society — faces a fundamental question over the upcoming centuries. Can an agricultural system

  20. Soil Security Assessment of Tasmania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Damien; Kidd, Darren; McBratney, Alex

    2017-04-01

    The concept of soil security aligns well with the aspirational and marketing policies of the Tasmanian Government, where increased agricultural expansion through new irrigation schemes and multiple-use State managed production forests co-exists beside pristine World Heritage conservation land, a major drawcard of the economically important tourism industry . Regarding the Sustainable Development Gaols (SDG's) this could be seen as a exemplar of the emerging tool for quantification of spatial soil security to effectively protect our soil resource in terms of food (SDG 2.4, 3.9) and water security (SDG 6.4, 6.6), biodiversity maintenance and safeguarding fragile ecosystems (SDG 15.3, 15.9). The recent development and application of Digital Soil Mapping and Assessment capacities in Tasmania to stimulate agricultural production and better target appropriate soil resources has formed the foundational systems that can enable the first efforts in quantifying and mapping Tasmanian Soil Security, in particular the five Soil Security dimensions (Capability, Condition, Capital, Codification and Connectivity). However, to provide a measure of overall soil security, it was necessary to separately assess the State's three major soil uses; Agriculture, Conservation and Forestry. These products will provide an indication of where different activities are sustainable or at risk, where more soil data is needed, and provide a tool to better plan for a State requiring optimal food and fibre production, without depleting its natural soil resources and impacting on the fragile ecosystems supporting environmental benefits and the tourism industry.

  1. NCRP soil contamination task group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    The National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has recently established a Task Group on Soil Contamination to describe and evaluate the migration pathways and modes of radiation exposure that can potentially arise due to radioactive contamination of soil. The purpose of this paper is to describe the scientific principles for evaluation of soil contamination which can be used as a basis for derivation of soil contamination limits for specific situations. This paper describes scenarios that can lead to soil contamination, important characteristics of soil contamination, the subsequent migration pathways and exposure modes, and the application of principles in the report in deriving soil contamination limits. The migration pathways and exposure modes discussed in this paper include: direct radiation exposure; and exhalation of gases

  2. Applications of visual soil evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ball, Bruce C; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Batey, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Working Group F “Visual Soil Examination and Evaluation” (VSEE) was formed over 30 years ago within the International Soil & Tillage Research Organisation (ISTRO) on the initiative of Tom Batey. The objectives of the Working Group are to stimulate interest in field methods of visual-tactile soil...... assessment, to encourage their wider use and to foster international cooperation. The previous main meeting of the group in 2005 at Peronne, France, brought together, for the first time, a group of soil scientists who had each developed a method to evaluate soil structure directly in the field (Boizard et al...... to the re-development of the Peerlkamp numeric method of assessment of soil structure into the Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure (VESS) spade test (Ball et al., 2007 and Guimarães et al., 2011). The meeting also recommended further cooperation between members of the Working Group. The evaluation...

  3. Effects of environmental factors and soil properties on topographic variations of soil respiration

    OpenAIRE

    Tamai, K.

    2010-01-01

    Soil respiration rates were measured along different parts of a slope in (a) an evergreen forest with common brown forest soil and (b) a deciduous forest with immature soil. The effects of soil temperature, soil moisture and soil properties were estimated individually, and the magnitudes of these effects in the deciduous and evergreen forests were compared. In the evergreen forest with common brown forest soil, soil properties had the greatest effect on soil respiration rates, followed by soi...

  4. Soil Water Retention Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. E.; Kim, J.; Cifelli, R.; Chandra, C. V.

    2016-12-01

    Potential water retention, S, is one of parameters commonly used in hydrologic modeling for soil moisture accounting. Physically, S indicates total amount of water which can be stored in soil and is expressed in units of depth. S can be represented as a change of soil moisture content and in this context is commonly used to estimate direct runoff, especially in the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) curve number (CN) method. Generally, the lumped and the distributed hydrologic models can easily use the SCS-CN method to estimate direct runoff. Changes in potential water retention have been used in previous SCS-CN studies; however, these studies have focused on long-term hydrologic simulations where S is allowed to vary at the daily time scale. While useful for hydrologic events that span multiple days, the resolution is too coarse for short-term applications such as flash flood events where S may not recover its full potential. In this study, a new method for estimating a time-variable potential water retention at hourly time-scales is presented. The methodology is applied for the Napa River basin, California. The streamflow gage at St Helena, located in the upper reaches of the basin, is used as the control gage site to evaluate the model performance as it is has minimal influences by reservoirs and diversions. Rainfall events from 2011 to 2012 are used for estimating the event-based SCS CN to transfer to S. As a result, we have derived the potential water retention curve and it is classified into three sections depending on the relative change in S. The first is a negative slope section arising from the difference in the rate of moving water through the soil column, the second is a zero change section representing the initial recovery the potential water retention, and the third is a positive change section representing the full recovery of the potential water retention. Also, we found that the soil water moving has traffic jam within 24 hours after finished first

  5. Dynamical soil-structure interactions: influence of soil behaviour nonlinearities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandomzadeh, Ali

    2011-01-01

    The interaction of the soil with the structure has been largely explored the assumption of material and geometrical linearity of the soil. Nevertheless, for moderate or strong seismic events, the maximum shear strain can easily reach the elastic limit of the soil behavior. Considering soil-structure interaction, the nonlinear effects may change the soil stiffness at the base of the structure and therefore energy dissipation into the soil. Consequently, ignoring the nonlinear characteristics of the dynamic soil-structure interaction (DSSI) this phenomenon could lead to erroneous predictions of structural response. The goal of this work is to implement a fully nonlinear constitutive model for soils into a numerical code in order to investigate the effect of soil nonlinearity on dynamic soil structure interaction. Moreover, different issues are taken into account such as the effect of confining stress on the shear modulus of the soil, initial static condition, contact elements in the soil-structure interface, etc. During this work, a simple absorbing layer method based on a Rayleigh/Caughey damping formulation, which is often already available in existing Finite Element softwares, is also presented. The stability conditions of the wave propagation problems are studied and it is shown that the linear and nonlinear behavior are very different when dealing with numerical dispersion. It is shown that the 10 points per wavelength rule, recommended in the literature for the elastic media is not sufficient for the nonlinear case. The implemented model is first numerically verified by comparing the results with other known numerical codes. Afterward, a parametric study is carried out for different types of structures and various soil profiles to characterize nonlinear effects. Different features of the DSSI are compared to the linear case: modification of the amplitude and frequency content of the waves propagated into the soil, fundamental frequency, energy dissipation in

  6. Soils in art as a teaching tool in soil science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poch, Rosa M.

    2017-04-01

    The representation of soils in the different artistic expressions occurs much less often than that of other naturalistic scientific disciplines, like botany or zoology, due to the minor perception of soils as a natural body since the humans started to express themselves through art. Nevertheless, painters, writers and even musicians and film directors have been forced to deal with soils in their works, as a component of the landscape and as the main actor of the various soil functions. Even if the artists are not aware of soils in the sense of soil science - a study object - their observation of nature invariably leads to express their properties, the problems due to their misuse or degradation and their management practices. These art works have a great value when teaching soil science to students, because the latter can learn to intepret and go beyond the artist's observation and therefore they can appreciate the perception of soils and soil properties along the history of humankind. Paintings from various periods can be used as exercises, mainly those depicting landscapes or agricultural works. Some examples are Dutch landscape painters, as Brueghel the Young showing detailed soil erosion features; or Wijnants (XVII century) depicting very clear podzols on sand dunes. Also the impressionists (Van Gogh, Cézanne, Gaugin), or the landscapes of the romantic nationalists (XIX- early XX century) show forest or agricultural soils that can be used either to deduce soil forming processes and describe horizons, or to discuss the effectivity of soil management practices (deforestation, burning, plowing, terracing). Also some pieces of literature can be used either for illustrating real soil landscapes and soil-water relationships (Steinbeck's "The Grapes of Wrath") or in case of fiction literature, as exercice for soil mapping (Tolkien's Middle Earth in "The Hobbit" and "The Lord of the Rings"). Films as "The field" (Jim Sheridan, 1990) or "Corn Island" (George Ovasvili

  7. Soil organic matter and soil biodiversity spots in urban and semi urban soils of southeast Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Esperanza

    2015-04-01

    We have observed how the constant use of compost or vermicompost has created spots of soil restoration in urban and semiurban soils of Chiapas (Huitepec and Teopisca), increasing soil organic matter amount, soil moisture and soil porosity, and enhancing then the presence of soil biodiversity; for example, in a Milpa with vermicompost (polyculture of Zea mays with Curcubita pepo, and Fasolius vulgaris) we have found a high density of an epigeic earthworm (640 ind.m2), Dichogaster bolahui, not present in the same type of soil just some meters of distance, in an Oak forest, where soil macroinvertebrates abundance decreased drastically. In another ecosystem within a Persea Americana culture, we found how above and below ground soil biodiversity is affected by the use of vermicompost, having clearly different microcosmos with and without vermicompost (30-50% more micro and macro invertebrates with vermicompost). So now in Campeche, within those soils that are classified by the mayas as tzequel, soils not use for agriculture, we have implemented home gardens and school gardens by the use of compost of vermicomposts in urban and semiurban soils. In school gardens (mainly primary schools) students have cultivated several plants with alimentary purposes; teachers have observed how the increase of soil biodiversity by the use of compost or vermicompost has enhanced the curiosity of children, even has promoted a more friendly behavior among students, they have learned how to do compost and how to apply it. Urban and semiurban soils can be modified by the use of compost and vermicompost, and soil biodiversity has extremely increased.

  8. Discovering the essence of soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frink, D.

    2012-04-01

    Science, and what it can learn, is constrained by its paradigms and premises. Similarly, teaching and what topics can be addressed are constrained by the paradigms and premises of the subject matter. Modern soil science is founded on the five-factor model of Dokuchaev and Jenny. Combined with Retallack's universal definition of soil as geologic detritus affected by weathering and/or biology, modern soil science emphasizes a descriptive rather than an interpretive approach. Modern soil science however, emerged from the study of plants and the need to improve crop yields in the face of chronic and wide spread famine in Europe. In order to teach that dirt is fascinating we must first see soils in their own right, understand their behavior and expand soil science towards an interpretive approach rather than limited as a descriptive one. Following the advice of James Hutton given over two centuries ago, I look at soils from a physiological perspective. Digestive processes are mechanical and chemical weathering, the resulting constituents reformed into new soil constituents (e.g. clay and humus), translocated to different regions of the soil body to serve other physiological processes (e.g. lamellae, argillic and stone-line horizons), or eliminated as wastes (e.g. leachates and evolved gasses). Respiration is described by the ongoing and diurnal exchange of gasses between the soil and its environment. Circulatory processes are evident in soil pore space, drainage capacity and capillary capability. Reproduction of soil is evident at two different scales: the growth of clay crystals (with their capacity for mutation) and repair of disturbed areas such as result from the various pedo-perturbations. The interactions between biotic and abiotic soil components provide examples of both neurological and endocrine systems in soil physiology. Through this change in perspective, both biotic and abiotic soil processes become evident, providing insight into the possible behavior of

  9. Soil biodiversity and soil community composition determine ecosystem multifunctionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagg, Cameron; Bender, S. Franz; Widmer, Franco; van der Heijden, Marcel G. A.

    2014-01-01

    Biodiversity loss has become a global concern as evidence accumulates that it will negatively affect ecosystem services on which society depends. So far, most studies have focused on the ecological consequences of above-ground biodiversity loss; yet a large part of Earth’s biodiversity is literally hidden below ground. Whether reductions of biodiversity in soil communities below ground have consequences for the overall performance of an ecosystem remains unresolved. It is important to investigate this in view of recent observations that soil biodiversity is declining and that soil communities are changing upon land use intensification. We established soil communities differing in composition and diversity and tested their impact on eight ecosystem functions in model grassland communities. We show that soil biodiversity loss and simplification of soil community composition impair multiple ecosystem functions, including plant diversity, decomposition, nutrient retention, and nutrient cycling. The average response of all measured ecosystem functions (ecosystem multifunctionality) exhibited a strong positive linear relationship to indicators of soil biodiversity, suggesting that soil community composition is a key factor in regulating ecosystem functioning. Our results indicate that changes in soil communities and the loss of soil biodiversity threaten ecosystem multifunctionality and sustainability. PMID:24639507

  10. Soil salinity decreases global soil organic carbon stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Raj; Gottschalk, Pia; Smith, Pete; Marschner, Petra; Baldock, Jeff; Setia, Deepika; Smith, Jo

    2013-11-01

    Saline soils cover 3.1% (397 million hectare) of the total land area of the world. The stock of soil organic carbon (SOC) reflects the balance between carbon (C) inputs from plants, and losses through decomposition, leaching and erosion. Soil salinity decreases plant productivity and hence C inputs to the soil, but also microbial activity and therefore SOC decomposition rates. Using a modified Rothamsted Carbon model (RothC) with a newly introduced salinity decomposition rate modifier and a plant input modifier we estimate that, historically, world soils that are currently saline have lost an average of 3.47 tSOC ha(-1) since they became saline. With the extent of saline soils predicted to increase in the future, our modelling suggests that world soils may lose 6.8 Pg SOC due to salinity by the year 2100. Our findings suggest that current models overestimate future global SOC stocks and underestimate net CO2 emissions from the soil-plant system by not taking salinity effects into account. From the perspective of enhancing soil C stocks, however, given the lower SOC decomposition rate in saline soils, salt tolerant plants could be used to sequester C in salt-affected areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Radon in soil gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rector, H.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a technology review conducted to identify and organize the range of options for measuring radon in soil gas as a means to evaluate radon exposure potential in buildings. The main focus of the review includes identifying the following: Measurement of objectives - the specific parameter(s) that each technology is designed to measure( e.g., soil gas concentration, flux density, etc.); Equipment needs -commercial availability of systems and/or components, specifications for fabricated components; Procedural information - documented elements of field and laboratory methodology and quality assurance; Underlying assumptions - conceptual and mathematical models utilized to convert analytical outcomes to estimators of radon. Basic technologies and field data were examined from a generic perspective (e.g., the common denominators of passive detectors, hollow sampling probes, flux monitors)( as well as specific configurations developed by individual investigators (e.g., sample volume, depth) to develop the basis for separating analytical uncertainties form sampling uncertainties

  12. Pneumatic soil removal tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhaus, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    A soil removal tool is provided for removing radioactive soil, rock and other debris from the bottom of an excavation, while permitting the operator to be located outside of a containment for that excavation. The tool includes a fixed jaw, secured to one end of an elongate pipe, which cooperates with a movable jaw pivotably mounted on the pipe. Movement of the movable jaw is controlled by a pneumatic cylinder mounted on the pipe. The actuator rod of the pneumatic cylinder is connected to a collar which is slidably mounted on the pipe and forms part of the pivotable mounting assembly for the movable jaw. Air is supplied to the pneumatic cylinder through a handle connected to the pipe, under the control of an actuator valve mounted on the handle, to provide movement of the movable jaw. 3 figs

  13. Pneumatic soil removal tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, John E.

    1992-01-01

    A soil removal tool is provided for removing radioactive soil, rock and other debris from the bottom of an excavation, while permitting the operator to be located outside of a containment for that excavation. The tool includes a fixed jaw, secured to one end of an elongate pipe, which cooperates with a movable jaw pivotably mounted on the pipe. Movement of the movable jaw is controlled by a pneumatic cylinder mounted on the pipe. The actuator rod of the pneumatic cylinder is connected to a collar which is slidably mounted on the pipe and forms part of the pivotable mounting assembly for the movable jaw. Air is supplied to the pneumatic cylinder through a handle connected to the pipe, under the control of an actuator valve mounted on the handle, to provide movement of the movable jaw.

  14. Sustainable Soil Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Evgrafova, Alevtina; Kirkegaard Nielsen, Søren

    management strategies, which consider the site- and field-specific parameters and agricultural machinery’s improvements, it is possible to maximize production and income, while reducing negative environmental impacts and human health issues induced by agricultural activities as well as improving food......Linket til højre henviser til rapporten i trykt format til download. This report provides an overview on new technologies for integrate sustainable and resilient management practices in arable ecosystems for advanced farmers, consultants, NGOs and policy makers. By following sustainable soil...... and soil quality in short- and long-terms. This report also illustrates the importance to combine a system approach for plant production by assessing field readiness, managing in-field traffic management, implementing the sitespecific controlled as well as sensor-controlled seedbed preparation, seeding...

  15. Bioremediation of soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, D.

    1991-01-01

    Bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils has evolved from the refinery land treatment units of thirty years ago to the modern slurry reactors of today. Modifications in the process include engineering controls designed to prevent the migration of hydrocarbons into the unsaturated zone, the saturated zone and groundwater, and the atmosphere. Engineering innovations in the area of composting and bioaugmentation that have focused on further process control and the acceleration of the treatment process will form the basis for future improvements in bioremediation technology. Case studies for established methods that have survived this development process and continue to be used as cost effective biological treatments like engineered land farms, soil heap treatment and in situ treatment will be discussed

  16. Isolation and identification of soil fungi isolates from forest soil for flooded soil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazwani Aziz, Nor; Zainol, Norazwina

    2018-04-01

    Soil fungi have been evaluated for their ability in increasing and recovering nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in flooded soil and in promoting the growth of the host plant. Host plant was cultivated in a mixture of fertile forest soil (nutrient-rich soil) and simulated flooded soil (nutrient-poor soil) in an optimized soil condition for two weeks. The soil sample was harvested every day until two weeks of planting and was tested for nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentration. Soil fungi were isolated by using dilution plating technique and was identified by Biolog’s Microbial Systems. The concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium was found to be increasing after two weeks by two to three times approximately from the initial concentration recorded. Two fungi species were identified with probability more than 90% namely Aspergillus aculeatus and Paecilomyces lilacinus. Both identified fungi were found to be beneficial in enhancing plant growth and increasing the availability of nutrient content in the soil and thus recovering the nutrient content in the flooded soil.

  17. Stripping away the soil

    OpenAIRE

    Bartelme, Ryan P.; Oyserman, Ben O.; Blom, Jesse E.; Sepulveda-Villet, Osvaldo J.; Newton, Ryan J.

    2018-01-01

    As the processes facilitated by plant growth promoting microorganisms (PGPMs) become better characterized, it is evident that PGPMs may be critical for successful sustainable agricultural practices. Microbes enrich plant growth through various mechanisms, such as enhancing resistance to disease and drought, producing beneficial molecules, and supplying nutrients and trace metals to the plant rhizosphere. Previous studies of PGPMs have focused primarily on soil-based crops. In contrast, aquapo...

  18. Food, soil, and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bommer, D.F.R.; Hrabovszky, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    The growing pressures on the world's land resources will result in problems requiring a major research effort.The first group of problems relates to increased soil degradation. The research to alleviate this will have to incorporate not only physical and biological solutions, but also pay much more attention to the socio-economic context in which the conservation programmes need to succeed.The second major area for research on land resource is to make better use of low-capacity or problem soils.This could be by reducing the existing limitations, such as changing physical or chemical characteristics of the soil, or by developing plants and production techniques which reduce the detrimental effects of constraints. Example of these are acidity, salinity, and aluminium toxicity. Finally the broadest and more important area is that of research to enable more intensive use of better-quality land. Research topics here may relate to optimal plant nutrient management, soil moisture management, and developing cultivation techniques with minimum commercial energy requirements. Making plants more productive will involve research aimed at increasing photosynthetic efficiency, nitrogen fixation, disease and pest resistance, improved weed control, and bio-engineering to adjust plant types to maximize production potentials. Improved rotational systems for the achievement of many of the above goals will become increasingly important, as the potential problems or inappropriate cultivation practices become evident. In conclusion, food supplies of the world could meet the rapidly rising demands that are made on them, if agriculture receives sufficient attention and resources. Even with most modern development, land remains the base for agriculture, and optimal use of the world's land resources is thus crucial for future agricultural production

  19. Soil physical properties on Venezuelan steeplands: Applications to soil conservation planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a framework to support decision making for soil conservation on Venezuelan steeplands. The general approach is based on the evaluation of two important land qualities: soil productivity and soil erosion risk, both closely related to soil physical properties. Soil productivity can be estimated from soil characteristics such as soil air-water relationships, soil impedances and soil fertility. On the other hand, soil erosion risk depends basically on soil hydrologic properties, rainfall aggressiveness and terrain slope. Two indexes are obtained from soil and land characteristics: soil productivity index (PI) and erosion risk index (ERI), each one evaluates the respective land quality. Subsequently, a matrix with these two qualities shows different land classes as well as soil conservation priorities, conservation requirements and proposed land uses. The paper shows also some applications of the soil productivity index as an approach to evaluate soil loss tolerance for soil conservation programs on tropical steeplands. (author)

  20. Impacts of soil moisture content on visual soil evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmet-Booth, Jeremy; Forristal, Dermot; Fenton, Owen; Bondi, Giulia; Creamer, Rachel; Holden, Nick

    2017-04-01

    Visual Soil Examination and Evaluation (VSE) techniques offer tools for soil quality assessment. They involve the visual and tactile assessment of soil properties such as aggregate size and shape, porosity, redox morphology, soil colour and smell. An increasing body of research has demonstrated the reliability and utility of VSE techniques. However a number of limitations have been identified, including the potential impact of soil moisture variation during sampling. As part of a national survey of grassland soil quality in Ireland, an evaluation of the impact of soil moisture on two widely used VSE techniques was conducted. The techniques were Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure (VESS) (Guimarães et al., 2011) and Visual Soil Assessment (VSA) (Shepherd, 2009). Both generate summarising numeric scores that indicate soil structural quality, though employ different scoring mechanisms. The former requires the assessment of properties concurrently and the latter separately. Both methods were deployed on 20 sites across Ireland representing a range of soils. Additional samples were taken for soil volumetric water (θ) determination at 5-10 and 10-20 cm depth. No significant correlation was observed between θ 5-10 cm and either VSE technique. However, VESS scores were significantly related to θ 10-20 cm (rs = 0.40, sig = 0.02) while VSA scores were not (rs = -0.33, sig = 0.06). VESS and VSA scores can be grouped into quality classifications (good, moderate and poor). No significant mean difference was observed between θ 5-10 cm or θ 10-20 cm according to quality classification by either method. It was concluded that VESS scores may be affected by soil moisture variation while VSA appear unaffected. The different scoring mechanisms, where the separate assessment and scoring of individual properties employed by VSA, may limit soil moisture effects. However, moisture content appears not to affect overall structural quality classification by either method. References