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Sample records for paediatric rotavirus gastroenteritis

  1. Impact of community-acquired paediatric rotavirus gastroenteritis on family life: data from the REVEAL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Wielen, Marie; Giaquinto, Carlo; Gothefors, Leif; Huelsse, Christel; Huet, Frédéric; Littmann, Martina; Maxwell, Melanie; Talayero, José M P; Todd, Peter; Vila, Miguel T; Cantarutti, Luigi; Van Damme, Pierre

    2010-03-15

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and the most frequent cause of severe diarrhoea in children aged less than 5 years. Although the epidemiology of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) is well documented, there are few data on the impact of RVGE on the families of affected children. Data associated with the burden of RVGE, including number of working days lost, levels of parental stress, the need for alternative childcare arrangements and additional nappies used, were extracted from questionnaires completed by parents of children participating in a prospective, multicentre, observational study (Rotavirus gastroenteritis Epidemiology and Viral types in Europe Accounting for Losses in public health and society, REVEAL), conducted during 2004-2005 in selected areas of Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom to estimate the incidence of RVGE in children aged less than 5 years seeking medical care as a result of AGE. 1102 children with RVGE were included in the present analysis. The proportion of RVGE cases that required at least one parent or other person to be absent from work was 39%-91% in the hospital setting, 44%-64% in the emergency department, and 20%-64% in primary care. Self-reported levels of parental stress were generally high (mean stress levels, > or = 5 on a 10-point visual analogue scale). Additional childcare arrangements were required in up to 21% of RVGE episodes. The mean number of nappies used per day during RVGE episodes was approximately double that used when the child was not ill. Paediatric RVGE cases cause disruption to families and parental stress. The burden of RVGE on children and their families could be substantially reduced by routine rotavirus vaccination of infants.

  2. Impact of community-acquired paediatric rotavirus gastroenteritis on family life: data from the REVEAL study

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    Talayero José MP

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotavirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE and the most frequent cause of severe diarrhoea in children aged less than 5 years. Although the epidemiology of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE is well documented, there are few data on the impact of RVGE on the families of affected children. Methods Data associated with the burden of RVGE, including number of working days lost, levels of parental stress, the need for alternative childcare arrangements and additional nappies used, were extracted from questionnaires completed by parents of children participating in a prospective, multicentre, observational study (Rotavirus gastroenteritis Epidemiology and Viral types in Europe Accounting for Losses in public health and society, REVEAL, conducted during 2004-2005 in selected areas of Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom to estimate the incidence of RVGE in children aged less than 5 years seeking medical care as a result of AGE. Results 1102 children with RVGE were included in the present analysis. The proportion of RVGE cases that required at least one parent or other person to be absent from work was 39%-91% in the hospital setting, 44%-64% in the emergency department, and 20%-64% in primary care. Self-reported levels of parental stress were generally high (mean stress levels, ≥ 5 on a 10-point visual analogue scale. Additional childcare arrangements were required in up to 21% of RVGE episodes. The mean number of nappies used per day during RVGE episodes was approximately double that used when the child was not ill. Conclusions Paediatric RVGE cases cause disruption to families and parental stress. The burden of RVGE on children and their families could be substantially reduced by routine rotavirus vaccination of infants.

  3. [Nosocomial rotavirus gastroenteritis].

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    Marinosci, A; Doit, C; Koehl, B; Belhacel, K; Mariani Kurkdjian, P; Melki, I; Renaud, A; Lemaitre, C; Ammar Khodja, N; Blachier, A; Bonacorsi, S; Faye, A; Lorrot, M

    2016-11-01

    Rotavirus is the most common cause of gastroenteritis in children requiring hospitalization. It is a very resistant and contagious virus causing nosocomial gastroenteritis. In France, the vaccine against rotavirus has been available since 2006, but the vaccine is not recommended for infant vaccination. The aim of this retrospective study was to describe nosocomial rotavirus gastroenteritis (NRGE) and to assess its impact on children hospitalized in the General Pediatrics Department of Robert-Debré Hospital (Paris) between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2013. We analyzed the demographic characteristics of children (age, term birth, underlying diseases) and the severity of the NRGE (oral or intravenous hydration), and assessed whether these children could benefit from vaccination against rotavirus. One hundred thirty-six children presented nosocomial rotavirus infection, with an incidence of 2.5 NRGE per 1000 days of hospitalization. The incidence of NRGE was stable between 2009 and 2013 despite the introduction of specific hygiene measures. The average age of the children was 7 months (range: 0.5-111 months). Most often NRGE occurred in children hospitalized for respiratory diseases (65% of cases) and requiring prolonged hospitalization (median: 18 days). One-third of children were born premature (25%). Hydration was oral in 80 patients (59%), by intravenous infusion in 18 patients (13%), and intraosseous in one patient. Half of the patients were aged less than 5 months and could benefit from the protection afforded by vaccination. NRGE are common. Rotavirus mass vaccination should have a positive impact on the incidence of NRGE by reducing the number of children hospitalized for gastroenteritis, therefore indirectly reducing the number of hospital cross-infections of hospitalized children who are too young to be vaccinated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Changes in the epidemiology of gastroenteritis in a paediatric short stay unit following the introduction of rotavirus immunisation.

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    Akikusa, Jonathan D; Hopper, Sandy M; Kelly, Julian J; Kirkwood, Carl D; Buttery, Jim P

    2013-02-01

    Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) has been a significant component of the clinical load in the short stay unit (SSU) at the Royal Children's Hospital (RCH) since its establishment in 2004. Since the introduction of routine rotavirus immunisation in Australia in 2007 there has been a clinical impression of a substantial reduction in AGE managed in the SSU. This study aimed to examine changes in the epidemiology of AGE in the SSU, and RCH overall, between 2005 and 2009 and explore whether this reflects a change specifically in AGE due to rotavirus. Discharge coding data for AGE from all inpatient wards, the SSU and emergency department (ED) at the RCH were examined. Stool virology results for the same period were analysed. Since 2007 there has been a 58% reduction in AGE admissions to the SSU. The median age of patients admitted to the RCH with rotaviral enteritis has increased from 1.3 years to 3.8 years. Presentations to the ED for AGE have fallen from 53 to 34 cases per 1000 attendances between 2004 and 2009, and admission rates from the ED have fallen from 23 to 13% of AGE presentations. Detection rates of rotavirus fell from 13.1 to 6.7% between 2005 and 2009. A marked decrease in AGE-related clinical activity and reduction in rotavirus detection at the RCH has occurred since the introduction of routine rotavirus immunisation in Australia. This has significant resource planning implications for units based on short stay models of care. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  5. Burden of paediatric Rotavirus Gastroenteritis (RVGE and potential benefits of a universal Rotavirus vaccination programme with a pentavalent vaccine in Spain

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    Diez-Domingo Javier

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotavirus is the most common cause of gastroenteritis in young children worldwide. The aim of the study was to assess the health outcomes and the economic impact of a universal rotavirus vaccination programme with RotaTeq, the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine, versus no vaccination programme in Spain. Methods A birth cohort was followed up to the age of 5 using a cohort model. Epidemiological parameters were taken from the REVEAL study (a prospective epidemiological study conducted in Spain, 2004-2005 and from the literature. Direct and indirect costs were assessed from the national healthcare payer and societal perspectives by combining health care resource utilisation collected in REVEAL study and unit costs from official sources. RotaTeq per protocol efficacy data was taken from a large worldwide rotavirus clinical trial (70,000 children. Health outcomes included home care cases, General Practioner (GP/Paediatrician, emergency department visits, hospitalisations and nosocomial infections. Results The model estimates that the introduction of a universal rotavirus vaccination programme with RotaTeq (90% coverage rate would reduce the rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE burden by 75% in Spain; 53,692 home care cases, 35,187 GP/Paediatrician visits, 34,287 emergency department visits, 10,987 hospitalisations and 2,053 nosocomial infections would be avoided. The introduction of RotaTeq would avoid about 76% of RVGE-related costs from both perspectives: €22 million from the national health system perspective and €38 million from the societal perspective. Conclusions A rotavirus vaccination programme with RotaTeq would reduce significantly the important medical and economic burden of RVGE in Spain.

  6. ABO blood grouping in Egyptian children with rotavirus gastroenteritis

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    Hala Gouda Elnady

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Rotavirus gastroenteritis is an important public health problem all over the world, causing a notable economic burden in both developing and developed countries. Aim: To explore the relationship between blood group typing, rotavirus gastroenteritis, and its severity in Egyptian children. Material and methods: A cross sectional case control study was conducted on 231 cases of acute gastroenteritis attending the outpatient clinic of Al-Zahraa University Hospital. Full history taking, clinical examination, and clinical data collection were done. Blood samples were collected for an ABO grouping. Stool samples were tested for viral gastroenteritis agents. Results : Rota positive cases of GE were significantly more prevalent among cases with blood group A (p < 0.05 and significantly less among cases with blood group B (p < 0.05. The rate of hospitalisation was highly significantly greater among cases with group A (p < 0.005, and significantly lower among cases with group AB and O (p < 0.05. As regards the degree of dehydration, moderate and severe cases were highly significant in groups A and O (p < 0.005. Rota-positive gastroenteritis showed significant positive correlations with indicators of severity such as hospitalisation, degree of dehydration, and duration of fever (p < 0.005. Conclusions : Blood group A is highly associated with paediatric rotavirus gastroenteritis. This could highlight an important risk factor, which could play a significant role for the pathogenesis of rotavirus gastroenteritis and severity as well. Furthermore, more intervention care could be needed for blood group A paediatric patients, if gastroenteritis especially rotavirus affect this group to avoid comorbidities.

  7. Severe Rotavirus gastroenteritis in a patient with infant leukemia

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    Hatice Uygun

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children. Reports about the clinical relevance of rotavirus in immunocompromised children are rare. We herein presented a case of life-threatening Rotavirus gastroenteritis in an infant with acute myeloblastic leukemia which could be prevented by recently recommended Rotavirus vaccination.

  8. CNS complications of rotavirus gastroenteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volosinova, D.

    2010-01-01

    Rotavirus infection may be accompanied by serious complications, e.g. disabilities central nervous system (CNS). Theory rotavirus penetration across the blood-brain barrier and subsequent rota-associated convulsions by the 2-year case-history of the patient. Rotavirosis minor gastrointestinal symptoms may lead to erroneous diagnosis. (author)

  9. Pediatric Rotavirus Gastroenteritis: A 2 year Analysis to Understand Current Prevalence in Mumbai

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    Vidya Nerurkar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have established the high prevalence of paediatric Rotavirus gastroenteritis in India. The importance of rapid diagnosis of rotavirus infection has also been stressed upon, to initiate prompt rehydration therapy and prevent unnecessary use of antibiotics .We undertook a retrospective analysis of 327 paediatric stool specimens to understand the current prevalence and seasonal distribution of cases in Mumbai and its surrounding areas. Overall Rotavirus positivity rate was 37.9 %, with peak positivity in winter seasons. Infections were more common upto 2 years of age. Incidence of bacterial and parasitic coinfections was low.

  10. Human rotavirus group a serotypes causing gastroenteritis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rotavirus remains a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in children worldwide with an estimated 2000 deaths each day in developing countries. Due to HIV/AIDS scourge in Kenya, it is possible that rotavirus-related gastroenteritis has been aggravated in adults. The Global Alliance for Immunizations has ...

  11. The impact of rotavirus gastroenteritis on the family

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    Kelly Claudia M

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea in young children and causes substantial morbidity and mortality. Although the clinical aspects have been well described, little information is available regarding the emotional, social, and economic impact of rotavirus gastroenteritis on the family of a sick child. The objectives of this study were to: 1 assess the family impact of rotavirus gastroenteritis through qualitative interviews with parents; 2 compare the clinical severity of rotavirus-positive and negative gastroenteritis; 3 test a questionnaire asking parents to rank the importance of various factors associated with a case of rotavirus gastroenteritis. Methods The study enrolled parents and children (2–36 months of age brought to one of the study sites (outpatient clinic or ER if the child experienced ≥ 3 watery or looser-than normal stools and/or forceful vomiting within any 24-hour period within the prior 3 days. The clinical severity of each child's illness was rated using a clinical scoring system and stool samples were tested for rotavirus antigen. Parents of rotavirus-positive children were invited to participate in focus group or individual interviews and subsequently completed a questionnaire regarding the impact of their child's illness. Results Of 62 enrolled children, 43 stool samples were collected and 63% tested positive for rotavirus. Illness was more severe in children with rotavirus-positive compared to rotavirus-negative gastroenteritis (92% vs. 37.5% rated as moderate/severe. Seventeen parents of rotavirus-positive children participated in the interviews and completed the written questionnaire. Parents were frightened by the severity of vomiting and diarrhea associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis, and noted that family life was impacted in several ways including loss of sleep, missed work, and an inability to complete normal household tasks. They expressed frustration at the lack of a

  12. Estimating rotavirus gastroenteritis hospitalisations by using hospital episode statistics before and after the introduction of rotavirus vaccine in Australia.

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    Jayasinghe, Sanjay; Macartney, Kristine

    2013-01-30

    Hospital discharge records and laboratory data have shown a substantial early impact from the rotavirus vaccination program that commenced in 2007 in Australia. However, these assessments are affected by the validity and reliability of hospital discharge coding and stool testing to measure the true incidence of hospitalised disease. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of these data sources for disease estimation, both before and after, vaccine introduction. All hospitalisations at a major paediatric centre in children aged <5 years from 2000 to 2009 containing acute gastroenteritis (AGE) ICD 10 AM diagnosis codes were linked to hospital laboratory stool testing data. The validity of the rotavirus-specific diagnosis code (A08.0) and the incidence of hospitalisations attributable to rotavirus by both direct estimation and with adjustments for non-testing and miscoding were calculated for pre- and post-vaccination periods. A laboratory record of stool testing was available for 36% of all AGE hospitalisations (n=4948) the rotavirus code had high specificity (98.4%; 95% CI, 97.5-99.1%) and positive predictive value (96.8%; 94.8-98.3%), and modest sensitivity (61.6%; 58-65.1%). Of all rotavirus test positive hospitalisations only a third had a rotavirus code. The estimated annual average number of rotavirus hospitalisations, following adjustment for non-testing and miscoding was 5- and 6-fold higher than identified, respectively, from testing and coding alone. Direct and adjusted estimates yielded similar percentage reductions in annual average rotavirus hospitalisations of over 65%. Due to the limited use of stool testing and poor sensitivity of the rotavirus-specific diagnosis code routine hospital discharge and laboratory data substantially underestimate the true incidence of rotavirus hospitalisations and absolute vaccine impact. However, this data can still be used to monitor vaccine impact as the effects of miscoding and under-testing appear to be

  13. Rotavirus vaccine and health-care utilization for rotavirus gastroenteritis in Tsu City, Japan

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    Kamiya, Hajime; Suga, Shigeru; Nagao, Mizuho; Ichimi, Ryoji; Fujisawa, Takao; Umemoto, Masakazu; Tanaka, Takaaki; Ito, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Shigeki; Ido, Masaru; Taniguchi, Koki; Ihara, Toshiaki; Nakano, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Background Rotavirus vaccines were introduced in Japan in November 2011. We evaluated the subsequent reduction of the health-care burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis. Methods We conducted active surveillance for rotavirus gastroenteritis among children under 5 years old before and after the vaccine introduction. We surveyed hospitalization rates for rotavirus gastroenteritis in children in Tsu City, Mie Prefecture, Japan, from 2007 to 2015 and surveyed the number of outpatient visits at a Tsu City clinic from 2010 to 2015. Stool samples were obtained for rotavirus testing and genotype investigation. We assessed rotavirus vaccine coverage for infants living in Tsu City. Results In the pre-vaccine years (2007–2011), hospitalization rates for rotavirus gastroenteritis in children under 5 years old were 5.5, 4.3, 3.1 and 3.9 cases per 1000 person-years, respectively. In the post-vaccine years (2011–2015), the rates were 3.0, 3.5, 0.8 and 0.6 cases per 1000 person-years, respectively. The hospitalization rate decreased significantly in the 2013–2014 and 2014–2015 seasons compared to the average of the seasons before vaccine introduction (P rotavirus infection was 66. In the post-vaccine years (2011–2015), the numbers for each season was 23, 23, 7 and 5, respectively. The most dominant rotavirus genotype shifted from G3P[8] to G1P[8] and to G2P[4]. The coverage of one dose of rotavirus vaccine in Tsu City was 56.5% in 2014. Conclusion After the vaccine introduction, the hospitalization rates and outpatient visits for rotavirus gastroenteritis greatly decreased. PMID:28246579

  14. ROTAVIRUS INFECTION. HOW TO REALLY PROTECT CHILDREN FROM SEVERE GASTROENTERITIS?

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    T. A. Grechukha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the statistics of the recent 5 years, the share of rotavirus gastroenterites is 44-47% of all acute intestinal infections in children under 5 years of age in the Russian Federation. Up to 5% of mortality rate in children under 5 years of age is connected with rotavirus gastroenteritis. Rotavirus gastroenteritis takes an especially severe course in children of 6-24 months of age. The only reliable method of preventing this infection is vaccination. The authors present information on the rotavirus strains dominant in Russia and abroad, efficacy and safety of immunization with a pentavalent vaccine and the recommended schemes of its administration. This vaccine is registered in the Russian Federation; it is to be first used in the nearest future.

  15. Unexpectedly high burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in very young infants

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    Reilly Megan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The highest incidence of rotavirus gastroenteritis has generally been reported in children 6-24 months of age. Young infants are thought to be partially protected by maternal antibodies acquired transplacentally or via breast milk. The purpose of our study was to assess the age distribution of children with confirmed community-acquired rotavirus gastroenteritis presenting to an urban referral hospital. Methods Children presenting to The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia with acute gastroenteritis have been monitored for the presence of rotavirus antigen in the stool by ELISA (followed by genotyping if ELISA-positive since the 1994-95 epidemic season. Results Over the last 12 rotavirus seasons prior to the introduction of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in 2006, stool specimens from 1646 patients tested positive for community-acquired rotavirus infection. Gender or age was not recorded in 6 and 5 cases, respectively. Overall, 58% of the cases occurred in boys. G1 was the predominant VP7 serotype, accounting for 72% of cases. The median (IQR age was 11 (5-21 months. A total of 790 (48% cases occurred in children outside the commonly quoted peak age range, with 27% in infants 24 months of age. A total of 220 (13% cases occurred during the first 3 months of life, and the highest number of episodes per month of age [97 (6%] was observed during the second month of life. Conclusions The incidence of community-acquired rotavirus gastroenteritis monitored over 12 seasons in the prevaccine era at a major university hospital was nearly constant for each month of age during the first year of life, revealing an unexpectedly high incidence of symptomatic rotavirus disease in infants

  16. Detection of rotavirus and other enteropathogens in children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in Havana, Cuba.

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    Ribas, María de Los Angeles; Tejero, Yahisel; Cordero, Yanislet; de Los Angeles León, María; Rodriguez, Misladys; Perez-Lastre, Jorge; Triana, Thelma; Guerra, Mabel; Ayllón, Lucía; Escalante, Gladys; Hadad, Jorge

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to diagnose infections with rotavirus and other enteric pathogens in children under five years old with acute gastroenteritis and to identify the most common epidemiological and clinical characteristics of these pathogens. The study was conducted using 110 stool samples from the same number of children under five years old who were inpatients at three paediatric hospitals in Havana, Cuba, between October and December 2011. The samples were tested for rotavirus and other enteric pathogens using traditional and molecular microbiological methods. Pathogens were detected in 85 (77.3 %) of the children. Rotavirus was the most commonly found, appearing in 54.5 % of the children, followed by bacteria (29 %) and parasites (10.9 %). Other viral pathogens detected included adenovirus (6.4 %) and astrovirus (3.6 %). In rotavirus-positives cases, at least one other pathogen was detected, usually a bacterium (26.6 %). More than three episodes of watery diarrhea in 24 hours were observed in 78.3 % of the cases. Dehydration was found in 30 (50 %) rotavirus-positive children, of whom seven (11.6 %) were transferred to an intensive care unit due to complications of metabolic acidosis. Rotavirus was most commonly observed among children under 12 months old (65 %). The highest incidence of infection occurred in children who were under the care of a relative at home (78.3 %), had not been breastfed (65 %), or had been breastfed for less than six months (28.3 %). The genotype combinations most frequently found were G9P8 (28.3 %) and G1P8 (10 %). This study demonstrates the presence of rotavirus and other enteric pathogens as causes of gastroenteritis in hospitalized infants and young children in Cuba.

  17. Socio-demographic, Clinical and Laboratory Features of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in Children Treated in Pediatric Clinic

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    Azemi, Mehmedali; Berisha, Majlinda; Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora; Kolgeci, Selim; Avdiu, Muharrem; Jakupi, Xhevat; Hoxha, Rina; Hoxha-Kamberi, Teuta

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of work was presentation of several socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics of gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus. The examinees and methods: The examinees were children under the age of five years treated at the Pediatric Clinic due to acute gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus. Rotavirus is isolated by method chromatographic immunoassay by Cer Test Biotec. Results: From the total number of patients (850) suffering from acute gastroenteritis, feces test on bac...

  18. Prospective study of the burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in Danish children and their families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Thomas; Iturriza, Miren; Faaborg-Andersen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    This was the first study to characterize the total burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) at both hospital and general physician (GP) clinics in Denmark, and also the first to confirm rotavirus (RV) as the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (GE) among children......This was the first study to characterize the total burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) at both hospital and general physician (GP) clinics in Denmark, and also the first to confirm rotavirus (RV) as the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (GE) among children...

  19. The Control of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in The United States

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    Glass, Roger I.; Parashar, Umesh; Patel, Manish; Tate, Jacqueline; Jiang, Baoming; Gentsch, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Since 2006, two new vaccines have been licensed to prevent rotavirus, the cause of 20% to 50% of severe acute gastroenteritis in young children worldwide. These vaccines have been implemented in national immunization programs in about 30 high- and middle-income countries, including the United States, and vaccine use has led to substantial decreases in diarrhea-related health care visits. In addition to reductions in diarrhea burden in vaccinated children, decreases have been observed in older, unvaccinated age groups in many settings, suggesting indirect benefits (i.e., herd immunity) from vaccination. Although the efficacy of these oral rotavirus vaccines is expectedly lower in developing countries in Asia and Africa, the public health benefits of vaccination in these settings, where more than 90% of the estimated 453,000 annual deaths from rotavirus occur, are likely to be substantial. Efforts continue to develop alternative rotavirus vaccines that could have a better efficacy and safety profile and may be less expensive. PMID:23303967

  20. Clinical dehydration and glomerular filtration rate in acute paediatric gastroenteritis.

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    Milani, Gregorio P; Fossali, Emilio F; Perri, Alessandra; Vettori, Arianna; Grillo, Paolo; Agostoni, Carlo

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate changes in glomerular filtration rate in acute gastroenteritis. The correlation between two clinical diagnostic scales and glomerular filtration rate has been investigated in 113 children with acute gastroenteritis in a paediatric emergency setting. A significant reduction of GFR was found in 10% children less than, and 5% children higher than, 2 years of age with acute gastroenteritis. The differences observed as for risk of renal hypoperfusion suggests to consider the age of children as an important determinant to consider the dehydration status in acute gastroenteritis. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Aetiology of acute paediatric gastroenteritis in Bulgaria during summer months: prevalence of viral infections.

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    Mladenova, Zornitsa; Steyer, Andrej; Steyer, Adela Fratnik; Ganesh, Balasubramanian; Petrov, Petar; Tchervenjakova, Tanja; Iturriza-Gomara, Miren

    2015-03-01

    Paediatric acute gastroenteritis is a global public health problem. Comprehensive laboratory investigation for viral, bacterial and parasitic agents is helpful for improving management of acute gastroenteritis in health care settings and for monitoring and controlling the spread of these infections. Our study aimed to investigate the role of various pathogens in infantile diarrhoea in Bulgaria outside the classical winter epidemics of rotavirus and norovirus. Stool samples from 115 hospitalized children aged 0-3 years collected during summer months were tested for presence of 14 infectious agents - group A rotavirus, astrovirus, Giardia, Cryptosporidium and Entamoeba using ELISAs; norovirus by real-time RT-PCR; picobirnavirus and sapovirus by RT-PCR; adenovirus using PCR, and Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia coli, Yersinia and Campylobacter using standard bacterial cultures. Infectious origin was established in a total of 92 cases and 23 samples remained negative. A single pathogen was found in 67 stools, of which rotaviruses were the most prevalent (56.7 %), followed by noroviruses (19.4 %), enteric adenoviruses (7.5 %), astroviruses (6.0 %), bacteria and parasites (4.5 % each) and sapoviruses (1.4 %). Rotavirus predominant genotypes were G4P[8] (46.3 %) and G2P[4] (21.4 %); for astroviruses, type 1a was the most common, while the GII.4/2006b variant was the most prevalent among noroviruses. Bacteria were observed in five cases, with Salmonella sp. as the most prevalent, while parasites were found in ten stool samples, with Giardia intestinalis in five cases. The results demonstrated high morbidity associated with viral infections and that rotavirus and norovirus remain the most common pathogens associated with severe gastroenteritis during summer months in Bulgaria, a country with a temperate climate, and significant molecular diversity among circulating virus strains. © 2015 The Authors.

  2. Identification of co-infection by rotavirus and parvovirus in dogs with gastroenteritis in Mexico

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    Ariadna Flores Ortega

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This is the first report on circulating canine rotavirus in Mexico. Fifty samples from dogs with gastroenteritis were analyzed used polymerase chain reaction and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in order to identify parvovirus and rotavirus, respectively; 7% of dogs were infected with rotavirus exclusively, while 14% were co-infected with both rotavirus and parvovirus; clinical signs in co-infected dogs were more severe.

  3. Identification of co-infection by rotavirus and parvovirus in dogs with gastroenteritis in Mexico.

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    Ortega, Ariadna Flores; Martínez-Castañeda, José Simón; Bautista-Gómez, Linda G; Muñoz, Raúl Fajardo; Hernández, Israel Quijano

    This is the first report on circulating canine rotavirus in Mexico. Fifty samples from dogs with gastroenteritis were analyzed used polymerase chain reaction and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in order to identify parvovirus and rotavirus, respectively; 7% of dogs were infected with rotavirus exclusively, while 14% were co-infected with both rotavirus and parvovirus; clinical signs in co-infected dogs were more severe. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Outbreak of rotavirus gastroenteritis with high mortality, Nicaragua, 2005 Brote de gastroenteritis por rotavirus con alta mortalidad, Nicaragua, 2005

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    Juan José Amador

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We investigated a nationwide outbreak of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in Nicaragua in children under 5 years old, leading to many consultations, hospitalizations, and deaths. We questioned whether a vaccine might have prevented these illnesses and deaths, sought to identify risk factors for death, and developed a clinical profile of children hospitalized with diarrhea. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study to determine whether children who died had access to routine immunizations, a proxy predicting access to a rotavirus vaccine. We identified risk factors for death among children who died in the outbreak compared with surviving age-matched controls with diarrhea. We collected stools, clinical data, and immunization data on children hospitalized for diarrhea to test for rotavirus, develop the profile, and forecast future access to a rotavirus vaccine. RESULTS: The outbreak from February to April 2005 caused 47 470 consultations and 52 deaths. Approximately 80% of cases and controls and 60% of children hospitalized with diarrhea had access to routine immunizations and would likely have had access to a rotavirus vaccine. With a vaccine efficacy of 85%, up to 51% of severe rotavirus cases and up to 68% of deaths could have been prevented if a rotavirus vaccine were available as part of routine child-hood immunizations. Study of 35 case-control pairs indicated that severe illnesses, malnutrition, and care by traditional healers were risk factors for death. Rotavirus was found in 42% of samples from hospitalized children and was associated with severe disease and dehydration. CONCLUSIONS: The impact of the seasonal outbreaks of rotavirus disease could be diminished with a rotavirus vaccine, improvements in oral rehydration programs, and training of traditional healers in the proper management of children with acute diarrhea.OBJETIVOS: Se investigó un brote nacional de gastroenteritis grave por rotavirus en niños menores de 5 a

  5. Efficacy of a pentavalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine against rotavirus gastroenteritis among American Indian children.

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    Grant, Lindsay R; Watt, James P; Weatherholtz, Robert C; Moulton, Lawrence H; Reid, Raymond; Santosham, Mathuram; O'Brien, Katherine L

    2012-02-01

    Before the widespread use of rotavirus vaccines, rotavirus was a leading cause of gastroenteritis among children. Navajo and White Mountain Apache children suffer a disproportionate burden of severe rotavirus disease compared with the general U.S. population. We enrolled Navajo and White Mountain Apache infants in a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of pentavalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine (PRV). Subjects received 3 doses of vaccine or placebo at 4 to 10 week intervals, with the first dose given between 6 and 12 weeks of age. Gastroenteritis episodes were identified by active surveillance. Disease severity was determined by a standardized scoring system. There were 509 and 494 randomized children who received vaccine and placebo, respectively. Among placebo recipients, the incidence of rotavirus gastroenteritis was 34.2 episodes/100 child-years (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 25.8-38.9) versus 8.1 episodes/100 child-years (95% CI: 5.4-12.5) in the vaccine group. The percentage of rotavirus episodes caused by serotypes G1, G2, and G3 was 72.3%, 23.4%, and 2.1%, respectively. There were no severe rotavirus episodes among vaccinees and 4 among placebo recipients. PRV was 77.1% (95% CI: 59.7-87.6), 89.5% (95% CI: 65.9-97.9), and 82.9% (95% CI: 61.1-93.6) effective against G1-G4 rotavirus disease, severe and moderate rotavirus disease combined, and outpatient visits for rotavirus disease, respectively. The risk of adverse events was similar for the vaccine and placebo groups. PRV was highly effective in preventing rotavirus disease and related health care utilization in these American Indian infants. Vaccine efficacy and immunogenicity were similar to the overall study population enrolled in the multicenter trial.

  6. Group A rotavirus gastroenteritis: post-vaccine era, genotypes and zoonotic transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchs, Adriana; Timenetsky, Maria do Carmo Sampaio Tavares

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article provides a review of immunity, diagnosis, and clinical aspects of rotavirus disease. It also informs about the changes in epidemiology of diarrheal disease and genetic diversity of circulating group A rotavirus strains following the introduction of vaccines. Group A rotavirus is the major pathogen causing gastroenteritis in animals. Its segmented RNA genome can lead to the emergence of new or unusual strains in human populations via interspecies transmission and/or reassortment events. PMID:27462899

  7. Prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants and children: rotavirus vaccine safety, efficacy, and potential impact of vaccines

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    Aruna Chandran

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Aruna Chandran1, Sean Fitzwater1, Anjie Zhen2, Mathuram Santosham11Department of International Health, Division of Health Systems, 2Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Rotavirus infection is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis globally, with greater than 86% of deaths occurring in low-income and middle-income countries. There are two rotavirus vaccines currently licensed in the United States and prequalified by the World Health Organization. RV1 is a monovalent attenuated human rotavirus strain, given orally in two doses. RV5 is a pentavalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine, given orally in three doses. A third rotavirus vaccine, LLV, is a lamb rotavirus strain given orally as a single dose, which is currently available only in China. RV1 and RV5 have been shown to be highly efficacious in developed countries, and initial results from trials in Africa and Asia are promising as well. At least three other vaccines are in development, which are being developed by manufacturers of developing countries. Further studies are needed to clarify issues including administration of oral rotavirus vaccines with breastfeeding and other oral vaccines, and alterations in dosing schedule. Using new data on global diarrheal burden, rotavirus is estimated to cause 390,000 deaths in children younger than 5 years. Should rotavirus vaccines be introduced in the routine immunization programs of all countries, a potential of 170,000 deaths could be prevented annually. The largest impact on mortality would be seen in low-income and middle-income countries, despite poor immunization coverage and lower efficacy. Therefore, international efforts are needed to ensure that rotavirus vaccines reach the populations with highest burden of rotavirus disease.Keywords: vaccination, mortality, rotavirus, gastroenteritis

  8. Monitoring of rotavirus infection in a paediatric hospital by RNA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the spring of 1987 and the autumn of 1988, stool specimens were collected from infants and young children in the paediatric unit at H. F. Verwoerd Hospital, Pretoria, and examined for the presence of rotaviruses to assess the potential for hospital-acquired infection in the paediatric wards. Stool samples were also ...

  9. SAMJ Monitoring of rotavirus infection in a paediatric hospital by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the spring of 1987 and the autumn of 1988, stool specimens were collected from infants and young children in the paediatric unit at H. F. Verwoerd Hospital, Pretoria, and examined for the presence of rotaviruses to assess the potential for hospital-acquired infection in the paediatric wards. Stool samples were also ...

  10. Circulating rotavirus genotypes in the Irish paediatric population prior to the introduction of the vaccination programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yandle, Z; Coughlan, S; Drew, R J; O'Flaherty, N; O'Gorman, J; De Gascun, C

    2017-11-01

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of viral gastroenteritis in children, and it is anticipated that the introduction of the Rotarix™ vaccine (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals S.A., Rixensart, Belgium) into the Irish immunisation schedule will result in a significant reduction of rotavirus-associated disease. In the pre- and post-vaccination eras, it is important to determine circulating strains of rotavirus to assess vaccine effectiveness, to monitor vaccine failures, and to detect potential emerging strains. This study was a collaboration between the Temple Street Children's University Hospital (TSCUH), Dublin, and the National Virus Reference Laboratory (NVRL), Dublin, to determine the then circulating rotavirus strains in a paediatric hospital. In the 2015/2016 period (July 2015-June 2016) 89 faecal samples from paediatric patients (53 from TSCUH, 36 from other hospitals) were characterised. The results showed G1P[8] to be the predominant genotype (57%), followed by G9P[8] (34%), G4P[8] (6%), G2P[4] (2%), and G12P[8] (1%). This distribution of genotypes is comparable to those found in other European countries prior to vaccination suggesting that the vaccine should be highly efficacious in the Irish population.

  11. Modulation of rotavirus severe gastroenteritis by the combination of probiotics and prebiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Ochoa, Guadalupe; Flores-Mendoza, Lilian K; Icedo-Garcia, Ramona; Gomez-Flores, Ricardo; Tamez-Guerra, Patricia

    2017-09-01

    Annual mortality rates due to infectious diarrhea are about 2.2 million; children are the most vulnerable age group to severe gastroenteritis, representing group A rotaviruses as the main cause of disease. One of the main factors of rotavirus pathogenesis is the NSP4 protein, which has been characterized as a viral toxin involved in triggering several cellular responses leading to diarrhea. Furthermore, the rotavirus protein NSP1 has been associated with interferon production inhibition by inducing the degradation of interferon regulatory factors IRF3, IRF5, and IRF7. On the other hand, probiotics such as Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus species in combination with prebiotics such as inulin, HMO, scGOS, lcFOS have been associated with improved generalized antiviral response and anti-rotavirus effect by the reduction of rotavirus infectivity and viral shedding, decreased expression of NSP4 and increased levels of specific anti-rotavirus IgAs. Moreover, these probiotics and prebiotics have been related to shorter duration and severity of rotavirus diarrhea, to the prevention of infection and reduced incidence of reinfections. In this review we will discuss in detail about the rotavirus pathogenesis and immunity, and how probiotics such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species in combination with prebiotics have been associated with the prevention or modulation of rotavirus severe gastroenteritis.

  12. Prevalence of rotavirus in children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in Imam Sajjad Hospital of Yasuj, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Khodadadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & Aim: Rotavirus infection is the most common cause of dehydrating and gastroenteritis among children worldwide. . The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of rotavirus in children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in Imam Sajjad Hospital of Yasuj. Methods: This cross sectional – descriptive study was done on 184 stool samples of children younger than 7 years of age hospitalized at Imam Sajjad hospital of Yasuj in 2011 due to acute gastroenteritis. All samples were routinely analyzed for detection of rotavirus by Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA test. Data was analyzed by SPSS version 16, Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. Results: Of the 184 samples analyzed, 52(28.26% were positive.The Results showed significant relationship between the seasonal distribution and virus detection (p=0/001. The highest incidence of rotavirus was seen in autumn with frequency of (48.08% and the lowest in spring (5.77%. Conclusions: According to high prevalence of rotavirus infection, continual surveillance is necessary to provide useful data for formulating effective vaccines and perform diarrhea prevention programs. Key words: Rotavirus, Gastroenteritis, Prevalence, Elisa

  13. Cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in the Netherlands; the results of a consensus model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozenbaum, M.H.; Mangen, M.J.J.; Giaquinto, C.; Wilschut, J.C.; Hak, E.; Postma, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Each year rotavirus gastroenteritis results in thousands of paediatric hospitalisations and primary care visits in the Netherlands. While two vaccines against rotavirus are registered, routine immunisation of infants has not yet been implemented. Existing cost-effectiveness studies

  14. Household catastrophic healthcare expenditure and impoverishment due to rotavirus gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganathan, Tharani; Lee, Way-Seah; Lee, Kok-Foo; Jit, Mark; Ng, Chiu-Wan

    2015-01-01

    While healthcare costs for rotavirus gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization may be burdensome on households in Malaysia, exploration on the distribution and catastrophic impact of these expenses on households are lacking. We assessed the economic burden, levels and distribution of catastrophic healthcare expenditure, the poverty impact on households and inequities related to healthcare payments for acute gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization in Malaysia. A two-year prospective, hospital-based study was conducted from 2008 to 2010 in an urban (Kuala Lumpur) and rural (Kuala Terengganu) setting in Malaysia. All children under the age of 5 years admitted for acute gastroenteritis were included. Patients were screened for rotavirus and information on healthcare expenditure was obtained. Of the 658 stool samples collected at both centers, 248 (38%) were positive for rotavirus. Direct and indirect costs incurred were significantly higher in Kuala Lumpur compared with Kuala Terengganu (US$222 Vs. US$45; pMalaysia.

  15. Rotaviruses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    CDC's Dr. Jon Gentsch discusses rotaviruses, the most important cause of severe gastroenteritis in children less than five years of age. Essentially, all children around the world get the disease during the first few years of life.

  16. The Comparition of the Efficacy of Two Different Probiotics in Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in Children

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    Özlem Erdoğan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the study is to compare the clinical effectiveness of the probiotics—Saccharomyces boulardii and Bifidobacterium lactis—in children who had been diagnosed with rotavirus gastroenteritis. Materials and methods. Seventy five patients aged between 5 months–5 years diagnosed as rotavirus gastroenteritis were included in the study. The patients diagnosed as rotavirus gastroenteritis by latex agglutination test in stool were divided into 3 groups of twenty-five patients each: First group was given oral rehydration therapy and rapid refeeding with a normal diet with Saccharomyces boulardii (spp. I-745, second group was given oral rehydration therapy and rapid refeeding with a normal diet with Bifidobacterium lactis (spp. B94, culture number:∘118529 and third group received only oral rehydration therapy and rapid refeeding with a normal diet. Results. The duration of diarrhea was shorter in the group given oral rehydration therapy and rapid refeeding with a normal diet with Bifidobacterium lactis and Saccharomyces boulardii than the group given only oral rehydration therapy and rapid refeeding with a normal diet. Conclusion. Bifidobacterium lactis has a complemental role in the treatment of rotavirus gatroenteritis and other probiotics may also have a beneficial effect in rotavirus gastroenteritis compared with the therapy included only oral rehydration therapy and rapid refeeding with a normal diet.

  17. Impact of rotavirus vaccination on rotavirus and all-cause gastroenteritis in peri-urban Kenyan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandera, Ernest Apondi; Mohammad, Shah; Bundi, Martin; Komoto, Satoshi; Nyangao, James; Kathiiko, Cyrus; Odoyo, Erick; Miring'u, Gabriel; Taniguchi, Koki; Ichinose, Yoshio

    2017-09-12

    A monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) was introduced into the National Immunization Program in Kenya in July 2014. We examined the impact of the vaccine on hospitalization for all-cause acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and rotavirus-specific AGE and strain distribution at a large referral hospital which serves a predominantly peri-urban population in Central Kenya. Data on rotavirus AGE and strain distribution were derived from ongoing hospital-based AGE surveillance. Hospital administrative data were used to compare trends in all-cause AGE. Pre-vaccine (July 2009-June 2014) and post-vaccine (July 2014-June 2016) periods were compared for changes in hospitalization for all-cause AGE and rotavirus AGE and strain distribution. Following the vaccine introduction, the proportion of children aged rotavirus declined by 30% (95% CI: 19-45%) in the first year and 64% (95% CI: 49-77%) in the second year. Reductions in rotavirus positivity were most pronounced among the vaccine-eligible group (rotavirus and all-cause AGE were reduced substantially. There was an increased detection of G2P[4], G3P[6] and G3P[8], which coincided temporally with the timing of the vaccine introduction. Thus, introducing the rotavirus vaccine into the routine immunization program in Kenya has resulted in a notable decline in rotavirus and all-cause AGE hospitalizations in Central Kenya. This provides early evidence for public health policy makers in Kenya to support the sustained use of the rotavirus vaccine in routine immunizations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prospective evaluation of indirect costs due to acute rotavirus gastroenteritis in Spain: the ROTACOST study

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    Sánchez-Lastres Juan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of rotavirus in developed countries is mainly economic. This study aimed to assess the indirect costs induced by rotavirus acute gastroenteritis (RVAGE in Spain. Methods A prospective observational study was conducted from October 2008 to June 2009. It included 682 children up to 5 years of age with acute gastroenteritis (AGE who attended primary care (n = 18 and emergency room/hospital settings (n = 10, covering the regions of Galicia and Asturias (North-west Spain. All non-medical expenses incurred throughout the episode were recorded in detail using personal interviews and telephone contact. Results Among the 682 enrolled children, 207 (30.4% were rotavirus positive and 170 (25% had received at least one dose of rotavirus vaccine. The mean (standard deviation indirect cost caused by an episode of AGE was estimated at 135.17 (182.70 Euros. Costs were 1.74-fold higher when AGE was caused by rotavirus compared with other etiologies: 192.7 (219.8 Euros vs. 111.6 (163.5 Euros (p Conclusions Rotavirus generates a significant indirect economic burden. Our data should be considered in the decision-making process of the eventual inclusion of rotavirus vaccine in the national immunization schedule of well developed countries.

  19. Cryptosporidium spp. and rotavirus gastroenteritis and change of incidence after rotavirus vaccination among children in Raparin Pediatrics Hospital, Erbil, Iraq

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    Sally S. Azeez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Watery diarrhea is the most common medical problem among infants and young children, caused by different microbial etiology including Cryptosporidium spp. and rotavirus, which are usually misdiagnosed in conventional stool test. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of Cryptosporidium and rotavirus gastroenteritis among children in Erbil as well as evaluate the efficacy of rotavirus vaccination procedure applied in Erbil.Methods: Fecal specimens were collected from 400 children (boys and girls, aged one month to five years old, who attended Raparin Pediatrics Hospital in Erbil complaining from diarrhea, between January to August 2014. Modified Ziehl Neelsen technique and nested PCR were used for detection of cryptosporidiosis while rotavirus infection was detected by rapid CerTest.Results: Rate of detection of cryptosporidiosis was remarkably higher using PCR than Ziehl-Neelsen stain (0% versus 6%, and the infection was slightly higher among boys (6.25% vs 5.55% and children ≤2 years (11.7%. The peak of infection reached during spring season (March and April (9.5%. The detection rate of rotavirus was 32.0%, which was slightly higher among males (34.4% vs 30.0% and in children between one to three years old (39.3%. The highest detection rate (38.6% was recorded during winter season (January and February. The infection was significantly higher among non-vaccinated children (65.9% vs 14.1%; p<0.05.Conclusion: The incidence of cryptosporidiosis is declining. However, rotavirus gastroenteritis was relatively high among young children in Erbil. Rotateq vaccine significantly reduced the incidence of rotavirus infection.

  20. Rotavirus vaccine effectiveness in preventing hospitalizations due to gastroenteritis: a descriptive epidemiological study from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, C; Liebert, U G

    2018-04-10

    Rotavirus infections are common causes of infant hospitalization. The present study examined the effectiveness of anti-rotavirus vaccination in preventing rotavirus-related hospitalizations in Germany, following its state and nationwide introductions in 2008 and 2013, respectively. During 15 consecutive seasons 9557 stool samples of hospitalized children of 5 years and younger with acute gastroenteritis were screened for rotavirus A. Rotavirus G and P genotypes were assessed after vaccine introduction. Vaccine effectiveness was determined by comparison of rotavirus incidence in pre-vaccine and post-vaccine cohorts. The herd effect was calculated as the difference between the observed reduction of rotavirus-related hospitalizations and the expected direct vaccine effect. The number of rotavirus-related hospitalizations declined after vaccine introduction. Approximately 26% (503/1955) of prevented cases could be attributed to the herd effect. Human rotaviruses of genotypes G3P[8], G1P[8], G9P[8], G4P[8], G2P[4] and G12P[8] were most frequent. Uncommon genotypes remained rare. The direct, indirect, total and overall vaccine effectiveness was 86% (95% confidence interval (CI) 83.2-89.1%), 48% (95% CI 42.8-52.6%), 93% (95% CI 91.3-94.3%) and 69% (95% CI 66.5-72.0%), respectively. There was no significant difference in vaccine-type or in genotype-specific vaccine effectiveness. Anti-rotavirus vaccination efficiently reduced rotavirus-related hospitalizations in Germany in the past decade. The vaccines analysed in this article provide a broadly heterologous and long-lasting protection. The herd effect substantially contributed to the observed drop in the number of incidences of severe rotavirus infections. Presumably, constant high vaccine coverage will lead to a continued upward trend in the overall vaccine efficiency. Copyright © 2018 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Estimates of economic burden of providing inpatient care in childhood rotavirus gastroenteritis from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Way Seah; Poo, Muhammad Izzuddin; Nagaraj, Shyamala

    2007-12-01

    To estimate the cost of an episode of inpatient care and the economic burden of hospitalisation for childhood rotavirus gastroenteritis (GE) in Malaysia. A 12-month prospective, hospital-based study on children less than 14 years of age with rotavirus GE, admitted to University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, was conducted in 2002. Data on human resource expenditure, costs of investigations, treatment and consumables were collected. Published estimates on rotavirus disease incidence in Malaysia were searched. Economic burden of hospital care for rotavirus GE in Malaysia was estimated by multiplying the cost of each episode of hospital admission for rotavirus GE with national rotavirus incidence in Malaysia. In 2002, the per capita health expenditure by Malaysian Government was US$71.47. Rotavirus was positive in 85 (22%) of the 393 patients with acute GE admitted during the study period. The median cost of providing inpatient care for an episode of rotavirus GE was US$211.91 (range US$68.50-880.60). The estimated average cases of children hospitalised for rotavirus GE in Malaysia (1999-2000) was 8571 annually. The financial burden of providing inpatient care for rotavirus GE in Malaysian children was estimated to be US$1.8 million (range US$0.6 million-7.5 million) annually. The cost of providing inpatient care for childhood rotavirus GE in Malaysia was estimated to be US$1.8 million annually. The financial burden of rotavirus disease would be higher if cost of outpatient visits, non-medical and societal costs are included.

  2. Household catastrophic healthcare expenditure and impoverishment due to rotavirus gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharani Loganathan

    Full Text Available While healthcare costs for rotavirus gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization may be burdensome on households in Malaysia, exploration on the distribution and catastrophic impact of these expenses on households are lacking.We assessed the economic burden, levels and distribution of catastrophic healthcare expenditure, the poverty impact on households and inequities related to healthcare payments for acute gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization in Malaysia.A two-year prospective, hospital-based study was conducted from 2008 to 2010 in an urban (Kuala Lumpur and rural (Kuala Terengganu setting in Malaysia. All children under the age of 5 years admitted for acute gastroenteritis were included. Patients were screened for rotavirus and information on healthcare expenditure was obtained.Of the 658 stool samples collected at both centers, 248 (38% were positive for rotavirus. Direct and indirect costs incurred were significantly higher in Kuala Lumpur compared with Kuala Terengganu (US$222 Vs. US$45; p<0.001. The mean direct and indirect costs for rotavirus gastroenteritis consisted 20% of monthly household income in Kuala Lumpur, as compared with only 5% in Kuala Terengganu. Direct medical costs paid out-of-pocket caused 141 (33% households in Kuala Lumpur to experience catastrophic expenditure and 11 (3% households to incur poverty. However in Kuala Terengganu, only one household (0.5% experienced catastrophic healthcare expenditure and none were impoverished. The lowest income quintile in Kuala Lumpur was more likely to experience catastrophic payments compared to the highest quintile (87% vs 8%. The concentration index for out-of-pocket healthcare payments was closer to zero at Kuala Lumpur (0.03 than at Kuala Terengganu (0.24.While urban households were wealthier, healthcare expenditure due to gastroenteritis had more catastrophic and poverty impact on the urban poor. Universal rotavirus vaccination would reduce both disease burden and health

  3. Prospective evaluation of indirect costs due to acute rotavirus gastroenteritis in Spain: the ROTACOST study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzón-Alejandro, Marta; Redondo-Collazo, Lorenzo; Sánchez-Lastres, Juan Manuel; Martinón-Torres, Nazareth; Martinón-Sánchez, José María; Martinón-Torres, Federico

    2011-09-14

    The effect of rotavirus in developed countries is mainly economic. This study aimed to assess the indirect costs induced by rotavirus acute gastroenteritis (RVAGE) in Spain. A prospective observational study was conducted from October 2008 to June 2009. It included 682 children up to 5 years of age with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) who attended primary care (n = 18) and emergency room/hospital settings (n = 10), covering the regions of Galicia and Asturias (North-west Spain). All non-medical expenses incurred throughout the episode were recorded in detail using personal interviews and telephone contact. Among the 682 enrolled children, 207 (30.4%) were rotavirus positive and 170 (25%) had received at least one dose of rotavirus vaccine. The mean (standard deviation) indirect cost caused by an episode of AGE was estimated at 135.17 (182.70) Euros. Costs were 1.74-fold higher when AGE was caused by rotavirus compared with other etiologies: 192.7 (219.8) Euros vs. 111.6 (163.5) Euros (p purchase of material. Patients with RVAGE were admitted to hospital more frequently than those with other etiologies (47.8% vs 14%, p decision-making process of the eventual inclusion of rotavirus vaccine in the national immunization schedule of well developed countries.

  4. Nosocomial outbreak of neonatal gastroenteritis caused by a new serotype 4, subtype 4B human rotavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerna, G; Forster, J; Parea, M; Sarasini, A; Di Matteo, A; Baldanti, F; Langosch, B; Schmidt, S; Battaglia, M

    1990-07-01

    A nosocomial outbreak of rotavirus gastroenteritis involving 52 newborns occurred between June and September 1988 at the University Children's Hospital of Freiburg, Federal Republic of Germany. Stools from 27 representative patients were examined for rotavirus serotypes, using a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The electropherotype was also examined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of genomic RNA. As many as 18 patients were found to be infected by serotype 4, subtype 4B strain, and in all of them the same electropherotype was detected. Although rotavirus from the remaining nine patients could not be typed, the electropherotype in four was identical to that of the serotype 4, subtype 4B strain. Thus, most of the patients in the outbreak were infected by the same rotavirus strain. Retrospective epidemiological studies showed that the 4B strain began to circulate at the hospital in January 1988, whereas only rotavirus serotypes 1, 3, and 4A were detected in 1985-1987. The primary case of the outbreak was presumably a newborn with acute gastroenteritis, admitted to the hospital from a small maternity unit in the same urban area. During the outbreak, 12 of 44 healthy newborns in the nurseries of the Children's Hospital and other maternity hospitals were found to be asymptomatic rotavirus carriers, and in three of the newborns the same 4B strain was detected. This is the first reported outbreak caused by a serotype 4, subtype 4B strain.

  5. Rotavirus gastroenteritis in children in 4 regions in Brazil: a hospital-based surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munford, Veridiana; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; de Souza, Eloisa Correa; Cardoso, Debora Morais; Cardoso, Divina das Dores de Paula; Borges, Ana Maria Tavares; Costa, Paulo Sergio Sucasas da; Melgaço, Irene Angela Melo; Rosa, Humberto; Carvalho, Paulo Roberto Antonacci; Goldani, Marcelo Zubaran; Moreira, Edson Duarte; Santana, Ciria; El Khoury, Antoine; Ikedo, Fabio; Rácz, Maria Lucia

    2009-11-01

    Rotavirus is a major cause of gastroenteritis in children. Knowledge of rotavirus genotypes is important for vaccination strategies. During 2005-2006, rotavirus surveillance studies were conducted in São Paulo, Salvador, Goiânia, and Porto Alegre, Brazil. Stool samples were collected from children <5 years of age who had diarrhea and were screened by the Rotaclone Enzyme Immunoassay for the presence of rotavirus. Confirmed rotavirus-positive samples were characterized for P and G genotypes by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. A total of 510 stool samples were collected. Of these, 221 (43.3%) were positive for rotavirus. Overall, G9 was the predominant G type, followed by G2, and G1; P[4] and P[8] were the predominant P types. The most frequent G/P genotype combination detected was G2P[4], followed by G9P[8], G9P[4], and G1P[8]. G2P[4] was the predominant type in Goiânia and Salvador; G9P[8] and G1P[8] were predominant in São Paulo and Porto Alegre, respectively. The prevalence, seasonality, and genotype distribution of rotavirus infection varied in different regions in Brazil. With immunization programs, continuous monitoring of rotavirus types is important to detect novel and emerging strains.

  6. Biennial pattern of rotavirus gastroenteritis in the Netherlands and a shifting age distribution following a low rotavirus season, 2010-2016.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberk, J.D.M.; Pijnacker, R.; Bruijning-Verhagen, P.; Franz, E.; Vennema, H.; Hooiveld, M.; Hahné, S.J.M.; Melker, H.E. de

    2017-01-01

    A hyper-endemic rotavirus season was expected after a low-endemic 2014 season in the Netherlands. Rotavirus detections were however similar in 2015 and lower in 2016 compared with 2010-2013. Gastroenteritis consultations rates were also similar in 2015, but the age-distribution shifted to older

  7. Efficacy and safety of an oral live attenuated human rotavirus vaccine against rotavirus gastroenteritis during the first 2 years of life in Latin American infants: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhares, Alexandre C; Velázquez, F Raúl; Pérez-Schael, Irene; Sáez-Llorens, Xavier; Abate, Hector; Espinoza, Felix; López, Pío; Macías-Parra, Mercedes; Ortega-Barría, Eduardo; Rivera-Medina, Doris Maribel; Rivera, Luis; Pavía-Ruz, Noris; Nuñez, Ernesto; Damaso, Silvia; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo M; De Vos, Béatrice; O'Ryan, Miguel; Gillard, Paul; Bouckenooghe, Alain

    2008-04-05

    Peak incidence of rotavirus gastroenteritis is seen in infants between 6 and 24 months of age. We therefore aimed to assess the 2-year efficacy and safety of an oral live attenuated human rotavirus vaccine for prevention of severe gastroenteritis in infants. 15 183 healthy infants aged 6-13 weeks from ten Latin American countries randomly assigned in a 1 to 1 ratio to receive two oral doses of RIX4414 or placebo at about 2 and 4 months of age in a double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III study were followed up until about 2 years of age. Primary endpoint was vaccine efficacy from 2 weeks after dose two until 1 year of age. Treatment allocation was concealed from investigators and parents of participating infants. Efficacy follow-up for gastroenteritis episodes was undertaken from 2 weeks after dose two until about 2 years of age. Analysis was according to protocol. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00140673 (eTrack444563-023). 897 infants were excluded from the according-to-protocol analysis. Fewer cases (protavirus gastroenteritis were recorded for the combined 2-year period in the RIX4414 group (32 [0.4%] of 7205; 95% CI 0.3-0.6) than in the placebo group (161 [2.3%] of 7081; 1.9-2.6), resulting in a vaccine efficacy of 80.5% (71.3-87.1) to 82.1% (64.6-91.9) against wild-type G1, 77.5% (64.7-86.2) against pooled non-G1 strains, and 80.5% (67.9-88.8) against pooled non-G1 P[8] strains. Vaccine efficacy for hospital admission for rotavirus gastroenteritis was 83.0% (73.1-89.7) and for admission for diarrhoea of any cause was 39.3% (29.1-48.1). No cases of intussusception were reported during the second year of follow-up. Two doses of RIX4414 were effective against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis during the first 2 years of life in a Latin American setting. Inclusion of RIX4414 in routine paediatric immunisations should reduce the burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis worldwide.

  8. Socio-demographic, Clinical and Laboratory Features of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in Children Treated in Pediatric Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azemi, Mehmedali; Berisha, Majlinda; Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora; Kolgeci, Selim; Avdiu, Muharrem; Jakupi, Xhevat; Hoxha, Rina; Hoxha-Kamberi, Teuta

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of work was presentation of several socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics of gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus. The examinees and methods: The examinees were children under the age of five years treated at the Pediatric Clinic due to acute gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus. Rotavirus is isolated by method chromatographic immunoassay by Cer Test Biotec. Results: From the total number of patients (850) suffering from acute gastroenteritis, feces test on bacteria, viruses. protozoa and fungi was positive in 425 (49.76%) cases. From this number the test on bacteria was positive in 248 (58.62%) cases, on viruses it was positive in 165 (39.0%), on protozoa in 9 (2.12%) cases and on fungi only one case. Rotavirus was the most frequent one in viral test, it was isolated in 142 (86.06%) cases, adenoviruses were found in 9 (5.45%) cases and noroviruses in only one case. The same feces sample that contained rotavirus and adenoviruses were isolated in five cases, whereas rotavirus with bacteria was isolated in the same feces sample in five cases. The biggest number of cases 62 (43.66%) were of the age 6-12 months, whereas the smallest number 10 (7.04%) cases were of the age 37-60 months. There were 76 (53.52%) of cases of male gender, from rural areas there were 81 (57.04%) cases and there were 58 (40.80%) cases during the summer period. Among the clinical symptoms the most prominent were diarrhea, vomiting, high temperature, whereas the different degree of dehydration were present in all cases (the most common one was moderate dehydration). The most frequent one was isonatremic dehydration in 91 (64.08%) cases, less frequent one was hypernatremic dehydration in 14 (9.85%) cases. The majority of cases (97.89%) had lower blood pH values, whereas 67 (47.17%) cases had pH values that varied from 7.16 -7.20 (curve peak), normal values were registered in only 3 (2.11%) cases. Urea values were increased in 45 (31.07%) cases (the maximum value

  9. Hospitalizations due to rotavirus gastroenteritis in Catalonia, Spain, 2003-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis among young children in Spain and worldwide. We evaluated hospitalizations due to community and hospital-acquired rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) and estimated related costs in children under 5 years old in Catalonia, Spain. Results We analyzed hospital discharge data from the Catalan Health Services regarding hospital admissions coded as infectious gastroenteritis in children under 5 for the period 2003-2008. In order to estimate admission incidence, we used population estimates for each study year published by the Statistic Institut of Catalonia (Idescat). The costs associated with hospital admissions due to rotavirus diarrhea were estimated for the same years. A decision tree model was used to estimate the threshold cost of rotavirus vaccine to achieve cost savings from the healthcare system perspective in Catalonia. From 2003 through 2008, 10655 children under 5 years old were admitted with infectious gastroenteritis (IGE). Twenty-two percent of these admissions were coded as RVGE, yielding an estimated average annual incidence of 104 RVGE hospitalizations per 100000 children in Catalonia. Eighty seven percent of admissions for RVGE occurred during December through March. The mean hospital stay was 3.7 days, 0.6 days longer than for other IGE. An additional 892 cases of presumed nosocomial RVGE were detected, yielding an incidence of 2.5 cases per 1000 child admissions. Total rotavirus hospitalization costs due to community acquired RVGE for the years 2003 and 2008 were 431,593 and 809,224 €, respectively. According to the estimated incidence and hospitalization costs, immunization would result in health system cost savings if the cost of the vaccine was 1.93 € or less. At a vaccine cost of 187 € the incremental cost per hospitalization prevented is 195,388 € (CI 95% 159,300; 238,400). Conclusions The burden of hospitalizations attributable to rotavirus appeared to be lower in

  10. Importance of rotavirus as a cause of gastroenteritis in Jordan: a hospital based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuri-Bulos, Najwa; Al Khatib, Mohammad

    2006-01-01

    Rotavirus is recognized to be a very important cause of GE in younger children in both developed as well as developing countries, but causes most of the mortality and morbidity in the latter. The recent introduction of a rotavirus vaccine in some parts of the world makes it necessary for us to determine the impact of this organism in our population with the aim of determining the need for the vaccine. In order to determine this, a study was conducted at the JUH and 3 other private hospitals. At the JUH, 64/256 (25%) of children with GE had rotavirus in 1995. The proportions of cases attributed to rotavirus in the other 3 y were 70/199 (35.2%), 69/279 (24.7%) and 76/294 (25.8%) for 2002, 2003 and 2004, respectively. The cumulative proportion of cases attributable to rotavirus gastroenteritis in all the y was 27.14%. With regard to the 3 private hospitals, rotavirus accounted for 38/225 (16.9%), 140/664 (21%) and 668/1496 (44.6%) at the Khalidy, Jordan and Islamic hospitals, respectively. It is concluded that rotavirus is a significant cause of GE in Jordanian children regardless of their social background, and attempt at controlling this infection may be warranted.

  11. An atypical rotavirus detected in a child with gastroenteritis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    H. G. Pereira

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available Particles morphologically identical to rotaviruses were found in the faeces of a nine week-old child with gastroenteritis. Analysis of the viral RNA genome by polyacrylamine gel electrophoresis revealed 10 bands (probably 11 segments some of wich differed in migration rate from those of the great majority of rotaviruses infecting man and other animal hosts. The virus was not detected by a highly sensitive enzyme immunoassay (ELISA and therefore probably lacked the crossreactive antigen(s shared by the majority rotaviruses. This was the only strain with such behaviour among 230 rotaviruses of human origin examined in this laboratory since 1979. The implications of the existence of non-crossreactive rotaviruses are discussed.Partículas morfologicamente idênticas a rotavirus foram encontradas nas fezes de uma criança de dois meses com gastroenterite. Análise do genoma viral por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida revelou 10 faixas (provavelmente 11 segmentos de RNA, algumas das quais diferem em velocidade de migração das observadas na grande maioria de rotavirus de hospedeiros humanos e de diversas espécies de animais. O vírus não foi revelado por um ensaio imuno-enzimático de alta sensibilidade, o que sugere a ausência do antígeno de grupo que da reações cruzadas entre a maioria dos rotavirus. O vírus descrito no presente trabalho foi o único com tal comportamento entre 230 amostras analisadas por nós desde 1979. A relevância de existência de rotavirus não relacionados antigenicamente a outros membros do grupo é discutida.

  12. Identification of group B rotavirus as an etiological agent in the gastroenteritis outbreak in Maharashtra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Madhuri S; Ganorkar, Nital N; Ranshing, Sujata S; Basu, Atanu; Chavan, Nutan A; Gopalkrishna, Varanasi

    2017-12-01

    Acute gastroenteritis outbreak occurred at Pargaon, Maharashtra, India in 1789 cases with an attack rate of 32.5% between November to December 2015. The stool specimens (n = 32) were investigated for different enteric viral agents using conventional methods. Transmission electron microscopy and RNA polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis respectively identified morphologically distinct rotavirus particles in 28% and RNA migration pattern of Group B Rotavirus (GBR) in 72% of the specimens. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequencing confirmed presence of GBR in 97% of the samples analyzed. The predominance of GBR infections and absence or insignificant presence of other agents confirmed GBR as an etiological agent of the gastroenteritis outbreak occurred in Maharashtra, India. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Prevalence of adenovirus and rotavirus infection in immunocompromised patients with acute gastroenteritis in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Joana; Ferreira, Delfim; Arrabalde, Célia; Almeida, Sandra; Baldaque, Inês; Sousa, Hugo

    2015-11-12

    To characterize the prevalence of rotavirus (RV) and adenovirus (AdV) infections in immunocompromised patients with acute gastroenteritis. The presence of RV and AdV (serotypes 40 and 41) was evaluated in 509 stool samples obtained between January 2009 and December 2010 from 200 immunocompromised patients (83 females and 117 males; median age 21 years old, range 0-72. The diagnosis of infection was performed as a routine procedure and the presence of RV and AdV (serotypes 40 and 41) was determined by immunochromatography using the RIDA(®) Quick Rota-Adeno-Kombi kit (r-Biopharm, Darmstadt, Germany). The data analysis and description of seasonal frequencies were performed using computer software IBM(®) SPSS(®) (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) Statistics version 20.0 for Mac. The frequencies of infection were compared into different age and gender groups by χ(2) test. The study revealed 12.4% AdV positive samples and 0.8% RV positive samples, which correspond to a prevalence of 6.5% and 1.5%, respectively. AdV was more frequent between October 2009 and April 2010, while RV was identified in April 2010 and July 2010. The stool analysis revealed that from the 509 samples, 63 (12.4%) were positive for AdV and 4 (0.8%) positive for RV, which by resuming the information of each patient, lead to an overall prevalence of AdV and RV of 6.5% (13/200 patients) and 1.5% (3/200 patients), respectively. The stratification of the analysis regarding age groups showed a tendency to an increased prevalence of infection in paediatric patients between 0-10 years old. Considering the seasonal distribution of these infections, our study revealed that AdV infection was more frequent between October 2009 and April 2010, while RV infection was characterized by two distinct peaks (April 2010 and July 2010). The overall prevalence of AdV and RV infection in immunocompromised patients with acute gastroenteritis was 8% and AdV was the most prevalent agent.

  14. Rotavirus specific plasma secretory immunoglobulin in children with acute gastroenteritis and children vaccinated with an attenuated human rotavirus vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Daniel; Vásquez, Camilo; Corthésy, Blaise; Franco, Manuel A; Angel, Juana

    2013-01-01

    Rotavirus (RV)–specific secretory immunoglobulin (RV-SIg) has been previously detected in serum of naturally RV infected children and shown to reflect the intestinal Ig immune response. Total plasma SIgA and plasma RV-SIg were evaluated by ELISA in children with gastroenteritis due or not due to RV infection and in 50 children vaccinated with the attenuated RIX4414 human RV vaccine and 62 placebo recipients. RV-SIg was only detected in children with evidence of previous RV infection or with acute RV gastroenteritis. Vaccinees had higher RV-SIg titers than placebo recipients and RV-SIg titers increased after the second vaccine dose. RV-SIg measured after the second dose correlated with protection when vaccinees and placebo recipients were analyzed jointly. RV-SIg may serve as a valuable correlate of protection for RV vaccines. PMID:23839157

  15. Community-Acquired Rotavirus Gastroenteritis Compared with Adenovirus and Norovirus Gastroenteritis in Italian Children: A Pedianet Study

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    D. Donà

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Rotavirus (RV is the commonest pathogen in the hospital and primary care settings, followed by Adenovirus (AV and Norovirus (NV. Only few studies that assess the burden of RV gastroenteritis at the community level have been carried out. Objectives. To estimate incidence, disease characteristics, seasonal distribution, and working days lost by parents of RV, AV, and NV gastroenteritis leading to a family pediatrician (FP visit among children < 5 years. Methods. 12-month, observational, prospective, FP-based study has been carried out using Pedianet database. Results. RVGE incidence was 1.04 per 100 person-years with the highest incidence in the first 2 years of life. Incidences of AVGEs (1.74 and NVGEs (1.51 were slightly higher with similar characteristics regarding age distribution and symptoms. Risk of hospitalisation, access to emergency room (ER, and workdays lost from parents were not significantly different in RVGEs compared to the other viral infections. Conclusions. Features of RVGE in terms of hospitalisation length and indirect cost are lower than those reported in previous studies. Results of the present study reflect the large variability of data present in the literature. This observation underlines the utility of primary care networks for AGE surveillance and further studies on community-acquired gastroenteritis in children.

  16. Molecular Characterization of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis Strains, Iraqi Kurdistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Herish M.; Coulter, J. Brian S.; Nakagomi, Osamu; Zaki, Jamal M.; Al-Rabaty, Abas A.; Dove, Winifred; Cunliffe, Nigel A.

    2006-01-01

    Of 260 children with acute diarrhea in Erbil, Iraqi Kurdistan, 96 (37%) were infected with rotavirus. Reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction identified G1, G4, G2, G9, P[8], P[6], and P[4] as the most common genotypes. Eight G/P combinations were found, but P[8]G1 and P[4]G2 accounted for >50% of the strains. PMID:16704845

  17. Temporal distribution of gastroenteritis viruses in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso: seasonality of rotavirus

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    Nafissatou Ouedraogo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute gastroenteritis is one of the most common diseases among children and adults, and continues to cause a major problem of public health in Burkina Faso. The temporal pattern of rotavirus, norovirus, sapovirus, astrovirus, adenovirus and Aichivirus A was studied by examining prevalence of gastroenteritis viruses in association with meteorological variables in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Methods Stool samples from 263 children under 5 years of age and 170 older children patients, adolescent and adults with gastroenteritis were collected in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from November 2011 to September 2012. Enteric viruses were detected using real-time or end-point (RT- PCR. Temperature, humidity and monthly rainfall were recorded from the National Meteorological Direction. Categorical data were compared by Chi-square tests and the effect of weather variables and monthly prevalence were analyzed using Pearson Correlation Coefficient test. Results The prevalence of rotavirus infections was significantly higher in the dry season (Season S1 compared to the wet season (season S2 (p = 0.03 among the population of children under 5 years of age. No statistically significant difference was observed regarding other gastroenteritis viruses comparing the dry season and the wet season. Positive cases of rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus and sapovirus in children under 5 years of age were correlated with temperature (r = −0.68, p = 0.01; r = −0.74, p < 0.001; r = −0.68, p = 0.01; r = −0.65, p = 0.02, respectively and only rotavirus, adenovirus and astrovirus were correlated with relative humidity (r = −0.61, p = 0.04; r = −0.54, p = 0.08; r = −0.51, p = 0.1 respectively. No correlation was observed with rainfall. In older children, adolescent and adults patients, rotavirus and norovirus correlated with relative humidity (r = −0.58, p = 0.05; r = 0.54, p

  18. Rotaviruses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-01-06

    CDC's Dr. Jon Gentsch discusses rotaviruses, the most important cause of severe gastroenteritis in children less than five years of age. Essentially, all children around the world get the disease during the first few years of life.  Created: 1/6/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 1/6/2009.

  19. Comparison of 2 Assays for Diagnosing Rotavirus and Evaluating Vaccine Effectiveness in Children with Gastroenteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Slavica; Tam, Ka Ian; Lyde, Freda C.; Payne, Daniel C.; Szilagyi, Peter; Edwards, Kathryn; Staat, Mary Allen; Weinberg, Geoffrey A.; Hall, Caroline B.; Chappell, James; McNeal, Monica; Gentsch, Jon R.; Bowen, Michael D.; Parashar, Umesh D.

    2013-01-01

    We compared rotavirus detection rates in children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and in healthy controls using enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) and semiquantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). We calculated rotavirus vaccine effectiveness using different laboratory-based case definitions to determine which best identified the proportion of disease that was vaccine preventable. Of 648 AGE patients, 158 (24%) were EIA positive, and 157 were also qRT-PCR positive. An additional 65 (10%) were qRT-PCR positive but EIA negative. Of 500 healthy controls, 1 was EIA positive and 24 (5%) were qRT-PCR positive. Rotavirus vaccine was highly effective (84% [95% CI 71%–91%]) in EIA-positive children but offered no significant protection (14% [95% CI −105% to 64%]) in EIA-negative children for whom virus was detected by qRT-PCR alone. Children with rotavirus detected by qRT-PCR but not by EIA were not protected by vaccination, suggesting that rotavirus detected by qRT-PCR alone might not be causally associated with AGE in all patients. PMID:23876518

  20. Infection and cross-infection in a Paediatric Gastro-enteritis unit

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    Jean Bowen Jones

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available A two month study to investigate the incidence o f nosocomial infection was conducted in a paediatric gastroenteritis ward o f a black academic hospital. Enteric pathogens were identified on admission in 61 (47,2% o f 129 patients; 56 bacterial and 25 viral. Six per cent o f patients had a combination o f bacterial and viral pathogens. Enteric pathogens most frequently identified on admission were Campylobacter jejuni in 22%, Rotavirus in 19,3%, EPEC in 10,8% and Shigella spp. in 6,9% patients. Twenty six (20% patients had more than 1 enteric pathogen. The nosocomial infection rate was recorded at 17,1%. EPEC occurred most commonly in 5,3% patients, Salmonella typhimurium in 4,6% and Shigella spp. in 2,3%. Nosocomial infections increased the mean length o f hospital stay from 7,2- 20,2 days. Contributory factors to the spread o f nosocomial infection were the unsatisfactory methods o f bathing patients and giving naso-gastric feeds.

  1. Epidemiologic Association Between FUT2 Secretor Status and Severe Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in Children in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Daniel C.; Currier, Rebecca L.; Staat, Mary A.; Sahni, Leila C.; Selvarangan, Rangaraj; Halasa, Natasha B.; Englund, Janet A.; Weinberg, Geoffrey A.; Boom, Julie A.; Szilagyi, Peter G.; Klein, Eileen J.; Chappell, James; Harrison, Christopher J.; Davidson, Barbara S.; Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Slavica; Moffatt, Mary D.; McNeal, Monica; Wikswo, Mary; Bowen, Michael D.; Morrow, Ardythe L.; Parashar, Umesh D.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE A genetic polymorphism affecting FUT2 secretor status in approximately one-quarter of humans of European descent affects the expression of histo-blood group antigens on the mucosal epithelia of human respiratory, genitourinary, and digestive tracts. These histo-blood group antigens serve as host receptor sites necessary for attachment and infection of some pathogens, including norovirus. OBJECTIVE We investigated whether an association exists between FUT2 secretor status and laboratory-confirmed rotavirus infections in US children. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Multicenter case-control observational study involving active surveillance at 6 US pediatric medical institutions in the inpatient and emergency department clinical settings. We enrolled 1564 children younger than 5 years with acute gastroenteritis (diarrhea and/or vomiting) and 818 healthy controls frequency matched by age and month, from December 1, 2011, through March 31, 2013. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Paired fecal-saliva specimens were tested for rotavirus and for secretor status. Comparisons were made between rotavirus test–positive cases and healthy controls stratified by ethnicity and vaccination status. Adjusted multivariable analyses assessed the preventive association of secretor status against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. RESULTS One (0.5%) of 189 rotavirus test–positive cases was a nonsecretor, compared with 188 (23%) of 818 healthy control participants (P < .001). Healthy control participants of Hispanic ethnicity were significantly less likely to be nonsecretors (13%) compared with healthy children who were not of Hispanic ethnicity (25%) (P < .001). After controlling for vaccination and other factors, children with the nonsecretor FUT2 polymorphism appeared statistically protected (98% [95% CI, 84%–100%]) against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Severe rotavirus gastroenteritis was virtually absent among US children who had a genetic

  2. Epidemiology and genetic diversity of rotavirus strains in children with acute gastroenteritis in Lahore, Pakistan.

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    Muhammad Masroor Alam

    Full Text Available Pakistan harbors high disease burden of gastro-enteric infections with majority of these caused by rotavirus. Unfortunately, lack of proper surveillance programs and laboratory facilities have resulted in scarcity of available data on rotavirus associated disease burden and epidemiological information in the country. We investigated 1306 stool samples collected over two years (2008-2009 from hospitalized children under 5 years of age for the presence of rotavirus strains and its genotypic diversity in Lahore. The prevalence rate during 2008 and 2009 was found to be 34% (n = 447 out of 1306. No significant difference was found between different age groups positive for rotavirus (p>0.05. A subset of EIA positive samples was further screened for rotavirus RNA through RT-PCR and 44 (49.43% samples, out of total 89 EIA positive samples, were found positive. G and P type prevalence was found as follows: G1P [4] = 3(6.81%; G1P [6] = 9(20.45%; G1P [8] = 1(2.27%; G2P [4] = 21(47.72%; G2P [8] = 1(2.27%; G9P [4] = 1(2.27%; G9P [6] = 1(2.27% and G9P [8] = 7(15.90%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the VP7 and VP4 sequences clustered closely with the previously detected strains in the country as well as Belgian rotaviruses. Antigenic characterization was performed by analyzing major epitopes in the immunodominant VP7 and VP4 gene segments. Although the neutralization conferring motifs were found variable between the Pakistani strains and the two recommended vaccines strains (Rotarix™ and RotaTeq™, we validate the use of rotavirus vaccine in Pakistan based on the proven and recognized vaccine efficacy across the globe. Our findings constitute the first report on rotavirus' genotype diversity, their phylogenetic relatedness and epidemiology during the pre-vaccination era in Lahore, Pakistan and support the immediate introduction of rotavirus vaccine in the routine immunization program of the country.

  3. Investigation of Stilbenoids as Potential Therapeutic Agents for Rotavirus Gastroenteritis

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    Judith M. Ball

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotavirus (RV infections cause severe diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide. Vaccines are available but cost prohibitive for many countries and only reduce severe symptoms. Vaccinated infants continue to shed infectious particles, and studies show decreased efficacy of the RV vaccines in tropical and subtropical countries where they are needed most. Continuing surveillance for new RV strains, assessment of vaccine efficacy, and development of cost effective antiviral drugs remain an important aspect of RV studies. This study was to determine the efficacy of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory stilbenoids to inhibit RV replication. Peanut (A. hypogaea hairy root cultures were induced to produce stilbenoids, which were purified by high performance countercurrent chromatography (HPCCC and analyzed by HPLC. HT29.f8 cells were infected with RV in the presence stilbenoids. Cell viability counts showed no cytotoxic effects on HT29.f8 cells. Viral infectivity titers were calculated and comparatively assessed to determine the effects of stilbenoid treatments. Two stilbenoids, trans-arachidin-1 and trans-arachidin-3, show a significant decrease in RV infectivity titers. Western blot analyses performed on the infected cell lysates complemented the infectivity titrations and indicated a significant decrease in viral replication. These studies show the therapeutic potential of the stilbenoids against RV replication.

  4. Bolus fluid therapy and sodium homeostasis in paediatric gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Stephen B; Geary, Denis F

    2013-03-01

    The study aims to assess the risk of developing hyponatraemia when large-volume bolus fluid rehydration therapy is administered. We conducted a prospective randomised study in a tertiary-care centre emergency department. Participants included children with gastroenteritis and dehydration requiring intravenous rehydration. They were randomised to receive 60 mL/kg (large) or 20 mL/kg (standard) 0.9% saline bolus followed by maintenance 0.9% saline for 3 h. Biochemical tests were performed at baseline and 4 h. The primary outcome measure was the development of hyponatraemia at 4 h. Secondary outcome measures were (i) change in sodium relative to baseline value; (ii) magnitude of decrease among those who experienced a decrease; (iii) risk of hypernatraemia; (iv) correlations between urine parameters and hyponatraemia; and (v) fluid overload. Eighty-four of 224 (38%) participants were hyponatraemic at baseline. At 4 h, 22% (48/217) had a dysnatraemia, and similar numbers of children were hyponatraemic in both groups: large (23% (26/112)) versus standard (21% (22/105)) (P = 0.69). Among initially hyponatraemic children, 63% (30/48) who received large-volume rehydration and 44% (15/34) of those administered standard rehydration were isonatraemic at 4 h (P = 0.10). Overall, children who received 60 mL/kg experienced a larger mean increase (1.6 ± 2.4 mEq/L vs. 0.9 ± 2.2 mEq/L; P = 0.04) and were less likely to experience a sodium decrease of ≥2 mEq/L (8/112 vs. 17/105; P = 0.04) than those administered 20 mL/kg. Large-volume bolus rehydration therapy with 0.9% saline is safe. It does not promote the development of hyponatraemia over the short term, but hastens the resolution of baseline hyponatraemia. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  5. The impact of childhood acute rotavirus gastroenteritis on the parents’ quality of life: prospective observational study in European primary care medical practices

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    Domingo Javier

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotavirus (RV is the commonest cause of acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide. A Quality of Life study was conducted in primary care in three European countries as part of a larger epidemiological study (SPRIK to investigate the impact of paediatric rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE on affected children and their parents. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was linguistically validated in Spanish, Italian and Polish. The questionnaire was included in an observational multicentre prospective study of 302 children aged Results Questionnaire responses showed that acute RVGE in a child adversely affects the parents’ daily life as well as the child. Parents of children with RVGE experience worry, distress and impact on their daily activities. RVGE of greater clinical severity (assessed by the Vesikari scale was associated with higher parental worries due to symptoms and greater changes in the child’s behaviour, and a trend to higher impact on parents’ daily activities and higher parental distress, together with a higher score on the symptom severity scale of the questionnaire. Conclusions Parents of a child with acute RVGE presenting to primary care experience worry, distress and disruptions to daily life as a result of the child’s illness. Prevention of this disease through prophylactic vaccination will improve the daily lives of parents and children.

  6. The Hidden Health and Economic Burden of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in Malaysia: An Estimation Using Multiple Data Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganathan, Tharani; Ng, Chiu-Wan; Lee, Way-Seah; Jit, Mark

    2016-06-01

    Rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) results in substantial mortality and morbidity worldwide. However, an accurate estimation of the health and economic burden of RVGE in Malaysia covering public, private and home treatment is lacking. Data from multiple sources were used to estimate diarrheal mortality and morbidity according to health service utilization. The proportion of this burden attributable to rotavirus was estimated from a community-based study and a meta-analysis we conducted of primary hospital-based studies. Rotavirus incidence was determined by multiplying acute gastroenteritis incidence with estimates of the proportion of gastroenteritis attributable to rotavirus. The economic burden of rotavirus disease was estimated from the health systems and societal perspective. Annually, rotavirus results in 27 deaths, 31,000 hospitalizations, 41,000 outpatient visits and 145,000 episodes of home-treated gastroenteritis in Malaysia. We estimate an annual rotavirus incidence of 1 death per 100,000 children and 12 hospitalizations, 16 outpatient clinic visits and 57 home-treated episodes per 1000 children under-5 years. Annually, RVGE is estimated to cost US$ 34 million to the healthcare provider and US$ 50 million to society. Productivity loss contributes almost a third of costs to society. Publicly, privately and home-treated episodes consist of 52%, 27% and 21%, respectively, of the total societal costs. RVGE represents a considerable health and economic burden in Malaysia. Much of the burden lies in privately or home-treated episodes and is poorly captured in previous studies. This study provides vital information for future evaluation of cost-effectiveness, which are necessary for policy-making regarding universal vaccination.

  7. Incidence of rotavirus gastroenteritis by age in African, Asian and European children: Relevance for timing of rotavirus vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, A. Duncan; Madhi, Shabir A.; Cunliffe, Nigel A.; Vesikari, Timo; Phua, Kong Boo; Lim, Fong Seng; Nelson, E. Anthony S.; Lau, Yu-Lung; Huang, Li-Min; Karkada, Naveen; Debrus, Serge; Han, Htay Htay; Benninghoff, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Variability in rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) epidemiology can influence the optimal vaccination schedule. We evaluated regional trends in the age of RVGE episodes in low- to middle- versus high-income countries in three continents. We undertook a post-hoc analysis based on efficacy trials of a human rotavirus vaccine (HRV; Rotarix™, GSK Vaccines), in which 1348, 1641, and 5250 healthy infants received a placebo in Europe (NCT00140686), Africa (NCT00241644), and Asia (NCT00197210, NCT00329745). Incidence of any/severe RVGE by age at onset was evaluated by active surveillance over the first two years of life. Severity of RVGE episodes was assessed using the Vesikari-scale. The incidence of any RVGE in Africa was higher than in Europe during the first year of life (≤2.78% vs. ≤2.03% per month), but much lower during the second one (≤0.86% versus ≤2.00% per month). The incidence of severe RVGE in Africa was slightly lower than in Europe during the first year of life. Nevertheless, temporal profiles for the incidence of severe RVGE in Africa and Europe during the first (≤1.00% and ≤1.23% per month) and second (≤0.53% and ≤1.13% per month) years of life were similar to those of any RVGE. Any/severe RVGE incidences peaked at younger ages in Africa vs. Europe. In high-income Asian regions, severe RVGE incidence (≤0.31% per month) remained low during the study. The burden of any RVGE was higher earlier in life in children from low- to middle- compared with high-income countries. Differing rotavirus vaccine schedules are likely warranted to maximize protection in different settings. PMID:27260009

  8. Group A rotavirus genotypes in hospital-acquired gastroenteritis in Italy, 2012-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianiro, G; Delogu, R; Fiore, L; Monini, M; Ruggeri, F M

    2017-07-01

    Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in young (aged rotavirus are presently known, most RVA infections in humans worldwide are related to five major G/P combinations: G1P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8], G4P[8], and G9P[8]. To provide the hospitals of the Italian surveillance network with update information on RVA AGE. During RVA gastroenteritis surveillance in Italy in 2012-14, a total of 2341 RVA-positive faecal samples were collected from children hospitalized with AGE, and RVA strains were genotyped following standard EuroRotaNet protocols. Most strains analysed belonged to the five major human genotypes and 118 out of 2341 (5.0%) were reported to be hospital-acquired. Comparison of the distributions of the RVA genotypes circulating in the community or associated with nosocomial infections showed a different distribution of genotypes circulating inside the hospital wards, with respect to those observed in the community. G1P[8] and G9P[8] RVA strains were detected frequently, whereas G12P[8] caused a single large nosocomial outbreak. The information from this study will be useful to implement guidelines for preventing RVA AGE and optimizing the management of patients in hospital wards. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in the Middle Eastern and North African pediatric population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Yinghui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE is the most common cause of severe childhood diarrhea worldwide. Objectives were to estimate the burden of RVGE among children less than five years old in the Middle East (Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, UAE, Yemen, North Africa (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia and Turkey. Methods A comprehensive literature search was conducted in major databases on the epidemiology and burden of rotavirus among children less than five years old between 1999 and 2009. Data from each country was extracted and compared. Results The search identified 43 studies. RVGE was identified in 16-61% of all cases of acute gastroenteritis, with a peak in the winter. RVGE-related hospitalization rates ranged from 14% to 45%, compared to 14%-28% for non-RVGE. Annually, RVGE caused up to 112 fatalities per 100,000 in certain countries in the region. Hospitalization costs ranged from $1.8 to $4.6 million annually, depending on the country. The most recent literature available showed that G1P[8] was the most prevalent genotype combination in 8 countries (range 23%-56%. G2P[4] was most prevalent in 4 countries (26%-48%. G9P[8] and G4P[8] were also frequently detected. Conclusions RVGE is a common disease associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and economic burden. Given the variety and diverse rotavirus types in the region, use of a vaccine with broad and consistent serotype coverage would be important to help decrease the burden of RVGE in the Middle East and North Africa.

  10. Burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in the Middle Eastern and North African pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Hanane; Ogilvie, Isla; El Khoury, Antoine C; Duan, Yinghui; Goetghebeur, Mireille M

    2011-01-07

    Rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) is the most common cause of severe childhood diarrhea worldwide. Objectives were to estimate the burden of RVGE among children less than five years old in the Middle East (Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, UAE, Yemen), North Africa (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia) and Turkey. A comprehensive literature search was conducted in major databases on the epidemiology and burden of rotavirus among children less than five years old between 1999 and 2009. Data from each country was extracted and compared. The search identified 43 studies. RVGE was identified in 16-61% of all cases of acute gastroenteritis, with a peak in the winter. RVGE-related hospitalization rates ranged from 14% to 45%, compared to 14%-28% for non-RVGE. Annually, RVGE caused up to 112 fatalities per 100,000 in certain countries in the region. Hospitalization costs ranged from $1.8 to $4.6 million annually, depending on the country. The most recent literature available showed that G1P[8] was the most prevalent genotype combination in 8 countries (range 23%-56%). G2P[4] was most prevalent in 4 countries (26%-48%). G9P[8] and G4P[8] were also frequently detected. RVGE is a common disease associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and economic burden. Given the variety and diverse rotavirus types in the region, use of a vaccine with broad and consistent serotype coverage would be important to help decrease the burden of RVGE in the Middle East and North Africa.

  11. Group A rotavirus gastroenteritis: post-vaccine era, genotypes and zoonotic transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchs, Adriana; Timenetsky, Maria do Carmo Sampaio Tavares

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACTThis article provides a review of immunity, diagnosis, and clinical aspects of rotavirus disease. It also informs about the changes in epidemiology of diarrheal disease and genetic diversity of circulating group A rotavirus strains following the introduction of vaccines. Group A rotavirus is the major pathogen causing gastroenteritis in animals. Its segmented RNA genome can lead to the emergence of new or unusual strains in human populations via interspecies transmission and/or reassortment events.RESUMOEste artigo fornece uma revisão sobre imunidade, diagnóstico e aspectos clínicos da doença causada por rotavírus. Também aponta as principais mudanças no perfil epidemiológico da doença diarreica e na diversidade genética das cepas circulantes de rotavírus do grupo A, após a introdução vacinal. O rotavírus do grupo A é o principal patógeno associado à gastroenterite em animais. Seu genoma RNA segmentado pode levar ao surgimento de cepas novas ou incomuns na população humana, por meio de transmissão entre espécies e eventos de rearranjo.

  12. Efficacy of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants in developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armah, George E; Sow, Samba O; Breiman, Robert F; Dallas, Michael J; Tapia, Milagritos D; Feikin, Daniel R; Binka, Fred N; Steele, A Duncan; Laserson, Kayla F; Ansah, Nana A; Levine, Myron M; Lewis, Kristen; Coia, Michele L; Attah-Poku, Margaret; Ojwando, Joel; Rivers, Stephen B; Victor, John C; Nyambane, Geoffrey; Hodgson, Abraham; Schödel, Florian; Ciarlet, Max; Neuzil, Kathleen M

    2010-08-21

    Rotavirus gastroenteritis causes many deaths in infants in sub-Saharan Africa. Because rotavirus vaccines have proven effective in developed countries but had not been tested in developing countries, we assessed efficacy of a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine against severe disease in Ghana, Kenya, and Mali between April, 2007, and March, 2009. In our multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, undertaken in rural areas of Ghana and Kenya and an urban area of Mali, we randomly assigned infants aged 4-12 weeks without symptoms of gastrointestinal disorders in a 1:1 ratio to receive three oral doses of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine 2 mL or placebo at around 6 weeks, 10 weeks, and 14 weeks of age. Infants with HIV infection were not excluded. Randomisation was done by computer-generated randomisation sequence in blocks of six. We obtained data for gastrointestinal symptoms from parents on presentation to health-care facilities and clinical data were obtained prospectively by clinicians. The primary endpoint was severe rotavirus gastroenteritis (Vesikari score >or=11), detected by enzyme immunoassay, arising 14 days or more after the third dose of placebo or vaccine to end of study (March 31, 2009; around 21 months of age). Analysis was per protocol; infants who received scheduled doses of vaccine or placebo without intervening laboratory-confirmed naturally occurring rotavirus disease earlier than 14 days after the third dose and had complete clinical and laboratory results were included in the analysis. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00362648. 5468 infants were randomly assigned to receive pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (n=2733) or placebo (n=2735). 2357 infants assigned to vaccine and 2348 assigned to placebo were included in the per-protocol analysis. 79 cases of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis were reported in 2610.6 person-years in the vaccine group, compared with 129 cases in 2585.9 person-years in the placebo group, resulting

  13. Secondary efficacy endpoints of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine against gastroenteritis in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Milagritos D; Armah, George; Breiman, Robert F; Dallas, Michael J; Lewis, Kristen D C; Sow, Samba O; Rivers, Stephen B; Levine, Myron M; Laserson, Kayla F; Feikin, Daniel R; Victor, John C; Ciarlet, Max; Neuzil, Kathleen M; Steele, A Duncan

    2012-04-27

    The efficacy of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (PRV), RotaTeq(®), was evaluated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter Phase III clinical trial conducted (April 2007-March 2009) in 3 low-income countries in Africa: Ghana, Kenya, and Mali. In total, 5468 infants were randomized 1:1 to receive 3 doses of PRV/placebo at approximately 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age; concomitant administration with routine EPI vaccines, including OPV, was allowed. HIV-infected infants were not excluded. The primary endpoint, vaccine efficacy (VE) against severe-rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE), as measured by Vesikari scoring system (VSS, score ≥11), from ≥14 days following Dose 3 through a follow-up period of nearly 2 years in the combined 3 African countries, and secondary endpoints by total follow-up period have been previously reported. In this study, we report post hoc subgroup analyses on secondary endpoints of public health importance. VE against RVGE of any severity was 49.2% (95%CI: 29.9, 63.5) through the first year of life and 30.5% (95%CI: 16.7, 42.2) through the complete follow-up period. VE against severe-gastroenteritis of any etiology was 21.5% (95%CI: vaccine-contained G and P types (G1-G4, P1A[8]), (ii) non-vaccine G types (G8, G9, G10), and (iii) non-vaccine P types (P1B[4], P2A[6]) was 34.0% (95%CI:11.2, 51.2), 81.8% (95%CI:16.5, 98.0) and 40.7% (95%CI:8.4, 62.1), respectively. There was a trend towards higher VE with higher disease severity, although in some cases the numbers were small. In African countries with high under-5 mortality rates, PRV significantly reduced RVGE through nearly 2 years of follow-up; more modest reductions were observed against gastroenteritis of any etiology. PRV provides protection against severe-RVGE caused by diverse rotavirus genotypes, including those not contained in the vaccine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in pediatric patients with acute rotavirus gastroenteritis and dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Tanju; Altekin, Emel; İşgüder, Rana; Kenesari, Yasin; Duman, Murat; Arslan, Nur

    2013-09-03

    Dehydration caused by acute rotavirus gastroenteritis is a frequent finding in pediatric patients. The most important treatment modality in these patients is recognising and treating dehydration, electrolyte imbalance and acute kidney injury. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is used widely as a biomarker for the diagnosis of acute or chronic renal injury in numerous clinical studies. It is recognized as an early marker of acute renal failure before the elevation of routine biochemical tests such as creatinine. The aim of this study is to investigate the plasma and urine NGAL concentrations in mildly or moderately dehydrated patients with acute rotavirus gastroenteritis. A total of 30 patients (13 girls, mean age 62.5 ± 46.2 months) with diarrhea and mild/moderate dehydration and 35 healthy controls (17 girls, mean age 81.1 ± 41.8 months) were enrolled in the study. Plasma and urine NGAL levels of the two groups were compared. The mean age, gender and serum creatinine levels of the patients and healthy controls were similar. The mean plasma and urine NGAL levels of the patients were significantly higher than controls (plasma: 118.6 ± 81.2 vs. 66.5 ± 11.3, p = 0.001 and urine: 17.7 ± 17.5 vs. 10.6 ± 7.9, p = 0.035, respectively). Mildly or moderately dehydrated children have higher plasma and urine NGAL levels compared to control subjects. Plasma and/or urine NGAL levels can be used for the early prediction of renal impairment in children with mild or moderate dehydration.

  15. Molecular characterization of group A rotaviruses detected in children with gastroenteritis in Ireland in 2006-2009.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cashman, O

    2012-02-01

    SUMMARYCommunity and hospital-acquired cases of human rotavirus are responsible for millions of gastroenteritis cases in children worldwide, chiefly in developing countries, and vaccines are now available. During surveillance activity for human rotavirus infections in Ireland, between 2006 and 2009, a total of 420 rotavirus strains were collected and analysed. Upon either PCR genotyping and sequence analysis, a variety of VP7 (G1-G4 and G9) and VP4 (P[4], P[6], P[8] and P[9]) genotypes were detected. Strains G1P[8] were found to be predominant throughout the period 2006-2008, with slight fluctuations seen in the very limited samples available in 2008-2009. Upon either PCR genotyping and sequence analysis of selected strains, the G1, G3 and G9 viruses were found to contain E1 (Wa-like) NSP4 and I1 VP6 genotypes, while the analysed G2 strains possessed E2 NSP4 and I2 VP6 genotypes, a genetic make-up which is highly conserved in the major human rotavirus genogroups Wa- and Kun-like, respectively. Upon sequence analysis of the most common VP4 genotype, P[8], at least two distinct lineages were identified, both unrelated to P[8] Irish rotaviruses circulating in previous years, and more closely related to recent European humans rotaviruses. Moreover, sequence analysis of the VP7 of G1 rotaviruses revealed the onset of a G1 variant, previously unseen in the Irish population.

  16. Lack of nonspecific protection against all-cause nonrotavirus gastroenteritis by vaccination with orally administered rotavirus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Lindsay; Watt, James; Moulton, Lawrence; Weatherholtz, Robert; Reid, Raymond; Santosham, Mathuram; O'Brien, Katherine

    2013-06-01

    Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is recognized as a global, common threat to child survival, especially in developing countries. Rotavirus, in particular, has been implicated as a leading cause of severe AGE; however, there are numerous other pathogens that also cause AGE. Several studies have demonstrated that oral vaccination against rotavirus has generated the unanticipated benefit of protecting against AGE caused by nonrotavirus pathogens. Safety and efficacy of the pentavalent bovine-human reassortant rotavirus vaccine were studied in multiple populations, including children of the Navajo and White Mountain Apache tribes in the southwestern United States. Stool specimens were collected from children with AGE and tested for rotavirus using an enzyme immunoassay. Analyses were conducted to detect the presence or absence of a vaccine effect on incidence, severity, and duration of AGE in which rotavirus was not detected. The majority of AGE (N = 558: 472 nonrotavirus vs 86 rotavirus) occurred between August 2002 and March 2004 among children ranging from ages 4 to 23 months. The incidence of nonrotavirus AGE was similar by vaccine groups with an incidence rate ratio of 1.07 (incidence rate ratio = vaccinated/unvaccinated, 95% confidence interval 0.89-1.29). The hazards of first, second, third, or any AGE in which rotavirus was not detected differed little by vaccination status (P > 0.05). Duration of symptoms and severity of nonrotavirus AGE were similar by vaccine group. There was no vaccine effect on frequency or severity of nonrotavirus AGE.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of universal rotavirus vaccination in reducing rotavirus gastroenteritis in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tilson, L

    2011-10-06

    We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of universal infant rotavirus (RV) vaccination compared to current standard of care of "no vaccination". Two RV vaccines are currently licensed in Ireland: Rotarix and RotaTeq. A cohort model used in several European countries was adapted using Irish epidemiological, resource utilisation and cost data. The base case model considers the impact of Rotarix vaccination on health-related quality of life of children under five years old from a healthcare payer perspective. Other scenarios explored the use of RotaTeq, impact on one caregiver, on societal costs and on cases that do not seek medical attention. Cost was varied between the vaccine list price (€100\\/course) in the base case and an assumed tender price (€70\\/course). One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted. Implementing universal RV vaccination may prevent around 1970 GP visits, 3280 A&E attendances and 2490 hospitalisations. A vaccination programme was estimated to cost approximately €6.54 million per year but €4.65 million of this would be offset by reducing healthcare resource use. The baseline ICER was €112,048\\/QALY and €72,736\\/QALY from the healthcare payer and societal perspective, respectively, falling to €68,896 and €43,916\\/QALY, respectively, if the impact on one caregiver was considered. If the price fell to €70 per course, universal RV vaccination would be cost saving under all scenarios. Results were sensitive to vaccination costs, incidence of RV infection and direct medical costs. Universal RV vaccination would not be cost-effective under base case assumptions. However, it could be cost-effective at a lower vaccine price or from a wider societal perspective.

  18. Analysis by rotavirus gene 6 reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay of rotavirus-positive gastroenteritis cases observed during the vaccination phase of the Rotavirus Efficacy and Safety Trial (REST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, David O; Vesikari, Timo; Dennehy, Penelope; Dallas, Michael D; Goveia, Michelle G; Itzler, Robbin F; Ciarlet, Max

    2014-01-01

    During the vaccination phase of the Rotavirus Efficacy and Safety Trial (REST), the period between the administration of dose 1 through 13 days after the administration of dose 3, there were more wild-type rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) cases among vaccine recipients compared with placebo recipients using the protocol-specified microbiological plaque assay in the clinical-efficacy cohort, a subset of subjects where vaccine efficacy against RVGE of any severity was assessed. In this study, a rotavirus genome segment 6-based reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction assay was applied post hoc to clarify the accuracy of type categorization of all these RVGE cases in vaccine recipients during the vaccination phase of REST. The assay characterized 147 (90%) of 163 re-assayed RVGE cases or rotavirus-associated health care contacts as type-determinable: either wild-type or vaccine-type rotavirus strains. In the clinical-efficacy cohort (N = 5673), 19 (18.8%) of 101 samples from RVGE cases contained wild-type rotavirus, 70 (69.3%) vaccine virus, and 12 (11.9%) were indeterminable. In the large-scale cohort (N = 68,038), 10 (34.5%) of 29 samples from RVGE-related health care contacts contained wild-type rotavirus strains, 15 (51.7%) vaccine-type rotavirus strains, and 4 (13.8%) were indeterminable. Of the 33 samples from RVGE cases in placebo recipients, all were confirmed to contain wild-type rotaviruses. Altogether, this post-hoc re-evaluation showed that the majority (75%) of type-determinable RVGE cases or health care contacts that occurred during the vaccination phase of REST in vaccine recipients were associated with vaccine-type rotavirus strains rather than wild-type rotavirus strains. PMID:25424931

  19. Analysis by rotavirus gene 6 reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay of rotavirus-positive gastroenteritis cases observed during the vaccination phase of the Rotavirus Efficacy and Safety Trial (REST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, David O; Vesikari, Timo; Dennehy, Penelope; Dallas, Michael D; Goveia, Michelle G; Itzler, Robbin F; Ciarlet, Max

    2014-01-01

    During the vaccination phase of the Rotavirus Efficacy and Safety Trial (REST), the period between the administration of dose 1 through 13 days after the administration of dose 3, there were more wild-type rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) cases among vaccine recipients compared with placebo recipients using the protocol-specified microbiological plaque assay in the clinical-efficacy cohort, a subset of subjects where vaccine efficacy against RVGE of any severity was assessed. In this study, a rotavirus genome segment 6-based reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay was applied post hoc to clarify the accuracy of type categorization of all these RVGE cases in vaccine recipients during the vaccination phase of REST. The assay characterized 147 (90%) of 163 re-assayed RVGE cases or rotavirus-associated health care contacts as type-determinable: either wild-type or vaccine-type rotavirus strains. In the clinical-efficacy cohort (N = 5673), 19 (18.8%) of 101 samples from RVGE cases contained wild-type rotavirus, 70 (69.3%) vaccine virus, and 12 (11.9%) were indeterminable. In the large-scale cohort (N = 68,038), 10 (34.5%) of 29 samples from RVGE-related health care contacts contained wild-type rotavirus strains, 15 (51.7%) vaccine-type rotavirus strains, and 4 (13.8%) were indeterminable. Of the 33 samples from RVGE cases in placebo recipients, all were confirmed to contain wild-type rotaviruses. Altogether, this post-hoc re-evaluation showed that the majority (75%) of type-determinable RVGE cases or health care contacts that occurred during the vaccination phase of REST in vaccine recipients were associated with vaccine-type rotavirus strains rather than wild-type rotavirus strains.

  20. Prevalence of group a rotavirus, enteric adenovirus, norovirus and astrovirus infections among children with acute gastroenteritis in al-qassim, saudi arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meqdam, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of Rotavirus, Adenovirus, Norovirus, and Astrovirus among Saudi children with gastroenteritis. This study was conducted at the Department of Medical Laboratories, Qassim University during the winter seasons of the years 2004 and 2005. A total of 284 diarrhoeal fecal specimens collected from children were tested for the gastroenteritis causing viruses using enzyme immunoassay. Of the 284 specimens, 142 (50%) were found to be positive for viruses causing gastroenteritis. Rotavirus (66.2%) was the most frequently detected, followed by adenovirus (15.5%), norovirus and astrovirus each with 9.2%. All of rotavirus detected belonged to group A. Eight specimens were found positive by two viruses. The introduction of simple and rapid tests for diagnosis of viruses causing gastroenteritis in our pediatric hospitals will improve patient care by reducing unnecessary treatments and hospital stay for patients. (author)

  1. Association of serum anti-rotavirus immunoglobulin A antibody seropositivity and protection against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis: analysis of clinical trials of human rotavirus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuvart, Brigitte; Neuzil, Kathleen M; Steele, A Duncan; Cunliffe, Nigel; Madhi, Shabir A; Karkada, Naveen; Han, Htay Htay; Vinals, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Clinical trials of the human rotavirus vaccine Rotarix™ (RV1) have demonstrated significant reductions in severe rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) in children worldwide. However, no correlate of vaccine efficacy (VE) has yet been established. This paper presents 2 analyses which aimed to investigate whether serum anti-RV IgA measured by ELISA 1 or 2 mo post-vaccination can serve as a correlate of efficacy against RVGE: (1) In a large Phase III efficacy trial (Rota-037), the Prentice criteria for surrogate endpoints was applied to anti-RV IgA seropositivity 1 mo post-vaccination. These criteria determine whether a significant vaccine group effect can be predicted from the surrogate, namely seropositivity (anti-RV IgA concentration>20 U/mL); (2) Among other GSK-sponsored RV1 VE studies, 8 studies which assessed immunogenicity at 1 or 2 mo post-vaccination in all or a sub-cohort of enrolled subjects and had at least 10 RVGE episodes were included in a meta-analysis to measure the regression between clinical VE and VE predicted from immunogenicity (VE1). In Rota-037, anti-RV IgA seropositivity post-vaccination was associated with a lower incidence of any or severe RVGE, however, the proportion of vaccine group effect explained by seropositivity was only 43.6% and 32.7% respectively. This low proportion was due to the vaccine group effect observed in seronegative subjects. In the meta-analysis, the slope of the regression between clinical VE and VE1 was statistically significant. These two independent analyses support the hypothesis that post-vaccination anti-RV IgA seropositivity (antibody concentration ≥20 U/mL) may serve as a useful correlate of efficacy in clinical trials of RV1 vaccines.

  2. Post-earthquake outbreak of rotavirus gastroenteritis in Kashmir (India): an epidemiological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Somenath; Rathore, Abhilakh Singh; Kadri, Syed Manzoor; Dutt, Som; Khare, Shashi; Lal, Shiv

    2008-10-01

    An earthquake struck Kashmir on 8 October 2005. A central team of public health specialists was sent to Kashmir to assess the public health measures required following the earthquake, and to assist in institution of public health measures. Epidemiological and environmental investigation in Tangdar block (Kupwara district) and Uri Tehsil (Baramula district). Visits to villages affected by the earthquake, rehabilitation camps and health care, examination of cases with acute diarrhoeal disease (ADD), environmental observations, collection of clinical samples from ADD cases and environmental samples from drinking water sources, and laboratory methods. In total, 1783 cases of ADD were reported between 14 October and 17 December 2005 in Tangdar (population 65000). The overall attack rate was 20% in children under 4 years of age. Twelve cases of ADD with loose motions without blood were studied, and 11 rectal swabs and one stool sample were processed. No bacterial enteropathogens could be isolated, but three of the 12 samples yielded rotavirus antigen on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Twelve of 13 (92.3%) water samples, collected from various stream or tap water (source: spring/stream) sources, were unsatisfactory (P=0.001) using the H(2)S strip method compared with other sources (well/mineral water). All eight water sources in Tangdar block were unsatisfactory, indicated by blackening of H(2)S filter paper strips. Following the earthquake, drinking stream water or tap water without boiling or chlorination may have led to a common source water-borne outbreak of rotavirus gastroenteritis. Other contributing factors were: overcrowding; poor sanitation; open-air defaecation; poor hygiene; and living in makeshift camps near streams. Person-to-person transmission may also have contributed to perpetuation of the outbreak. Following the establishment of medical camps and information, education and communication regarding the need to drink boiled water and follow safer

  3. Rotavirus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotavirus is a virus that causes gastroenteritis. Symptoms include severe diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration. Almost all ... the U.S. are likely to be infected with rotavirus before their 5th birthday. Infections happen most often ...

  4. Gastroenteritis attributable to rotavirus in hospitalized Saudi Arabian children in the period 2007–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohamed; Azhar, Esam; Kao, Moujahed; Al-Kaiedi, Noura; Alhani, Hatim; Al Olayan, Ibrahim; Pawinski, Robert; Gopala, Kusuma; Kandeil, Walid; Anis, Sameh; Van Doorn, Leen Jan; DeAntonio, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Rotavirus (RV) is a leading cause of severe gastroenteritis (GE) in children across the world. As there is a lack of epidemiological data for RV gastroenteritis (RVGE) in Saudi Arabia, this hospital-based study was designed to estimate the disease burden of RVGE and assess the prevalent RV types in Saudi children younger than 5 years of age. Patients and methods Children hospitalized for acute GE were enrolled at four pediatric referral hospitals in Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted from February 2007 to March 2008 and used the World Health Organization’s generic protocol for RVGE surveillance. The Vesikari severity scale was used to assess the severity of RVGE. Stool samples were tested for RV using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Samples were further typed by reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction and hybridization assay for determining the G and P types. Results A total of 1,007 children were enrolled; the final analysis included 970 children, of whom 395 were RV positive, 568 were RV negative, and seven had unknown RV status. The proportion of RVGE among GE hospitalizations was 40.7% (95% confidence interval: 37.6–43.9). The highest percentage of RVGE hospitalizations (83.1%) was seen in children younger than 2 years of age. The highest proportion of RV among GE hospitalizations was in June 2007 with 57.1%. The most common RV types detected were G1P[8] (49.3%), G1G9P[8] (13.2%), and G9P[8] (9.6%). Before hospitalization, severe GE episodes occurred in 88.1% RV-positive and 79.6% RV-negative children. Overall, 94% children had recovered by the time they were discharged. Two children (one RV positive and one RV negative) died due to GE complications. Conclusion RVGE is responsible for a high proportion of hospitalizations in Saudi children younger than 5 years of age. Routine RV vaccination has therefore been introduced into the national immunization program and may help reduce the morbidity, mortality, and disease burden

  5. The percentage of nosocomial-related out of total hospitalizations for rotavirus gastroenteritis and its association with hand hygiene compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisbourd-Zinman, Orith; Ben-Ziony, Shiri; Solter, Ester; Chodick, Gabriel; Ashkenazi, Shai; Livni, Gilat

    2011-03-01

    Because the absolute numbers of both community-acquired and nosocomial rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) vary, we studied the percentage of hospitalizations for RVGE that were transmitted nosocomially as an indicator of in-hospital acquisition of the infection. In a 4-year prospective study, the percentage of nosocomial RVGE declined steadily, from 20.3% in 2003 to 12.7% in 2006 (P = .001). Concomitantly, the rate of compliance with hand hygiene increased from 33.7% to 49% (P = .012), with a significant (P Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Efficacy of human rotavirus vaccine against severe gastroenteritis in Malawian children in the first two years of life: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunliffe, Nigel A; Witte, Desiree; Ngwira, Bagrey M; Todd, Stacy; Bostock, Nancy J; Turner, Ann M; Chimpeni, Philips; Victor, John C; Steele, A Duncan; Bouckenooghe, Alain; Neuzil, Kathleen M

    2012-04-27

    Rotavirus gastroenteritis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among African infants and young children. A phase III, placebo-controlled, multi-centre clinical trial of a live, oral G1P[8] human rotavirus vaccine (RIX4414) undertaken in Malawi and South Africa significantly reduced the incidence of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in the first year of life. We now report on vaccine efficacy in the Malawi cohort of children who were followed into the second year of life. A total of 1773 healthy infants were enrolled in Blantyre, Malawi into three groups. Two groups received three doses of RIX4414 or placebo at age 6, 10, and 14 weeks and the third group received placebo at 6 weeks and RIX4414 at age 10 and 14 weeks. Subjects were followed by weekly home visits for episodes of gastroenteritis until 1 year of age, and were then re-consented for further follow-up to 18-24 months of age. Severity of gastroenteritis episodes was graded according to the Vesikari scoring system. Seroconversion for anti-rotavirus IgA was determined on a subset of children by using ELISA on pre- and post-vaccine blood samples. Rotavirus VP7 (G) and VP4 (P) genotypes were determined by RT-PCR. A total of 70/1030 (6.8%, 95% CI 5.3-8.5) subjects in the pooled (2 dose plus 3 dose) RIX4414 group compared with 53/483 (11.0%, 8.3-14.1) subjects in the placebo group developed severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in the entire follow-up period (vaccine efficacy 38.1% (9.8-57.3)). The point estimate of efficacy in the second year of life (17.6%; -59.2 to 56.0) was lower than in the first year of life (49.4%; 19.2-68.3). There were non-significant trends towards a higher efficacy in the second year of life among children who received the three-dose schedule compared with the two-dose schedule, and a higher anti-rotavirus IgA seroresponse rate in the three-dose RIX4414 group. Rotavirus strains detected included genotype G12 (31%); G9 (23%); and G8 (18%); only 18% of strains belonged to the G1P[8

  7. Characterization of rotavirus strains detected among children and adults with acute gastroenteritis in Ganozan, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheyami, Ali M.; Dove, W.; Cunliffe, Nigel A.; Hart, C.A.; Areeshi, Mohammed Y.; Nakagomi, O.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to assess the circulating rotavirus strains among hospitalized children and adults in Gizan City. This cross-sectional study was based in 5 hospitals in the Gizan area. Stool samples were collected between November 2004 and March 2005 from sequential patients with acute dehydrating diarrhea. Rotavirus antigen was detected in stool by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The diversity of rotavirus strains was investigated using electropherotyping and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction amplification of the VP7 and VP4 genes (G and P genotyping). Rotavirus was detected in 54 of 454 (12%) subjects. The ages of those infected with rotavirus ranged from 15 days to 20 years, with a median age of 36 months. The highest rotavirus detection rate (24%) occurred in children in aged 48-59 months. Overall, 50 (93%) of strains could be assigned both a G- and P- type; G1P (8) was the most frequently detected strain type (n=48, 89%) with one rotavirus each of G2P (4) and G9P (8). Rotavirus strains circulating in Gizan would be well covered by current rotavirus vaccines. Rotavirus serotype G9 has been detected in Saudi Arabia for the first time. Continued surveillance of rotavirus strains is required. (author)

  8. Human rotavirus group a serotypes causing gastroenteritis in children less than 5 years and HIV-infected adults in Viwandani slum, Nairobi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raini, S K; Nyangao, J; Kombich, J; Sang, C; Gikonyo, J; Ongus, J R; Odari, E O

    2015-01-01

    Rotavirus remains a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in children worldwide with an estimated 2000 deaths each day in developing countries. Due to HIV/AIDS scourge in Kenya, it is possible that rotavirus-related gastroenteritis has been aggravated in adults. The Global Alliance for Immunizations has ranked rotavirus infection a priority for vaccine, and, to ensure its success, there is a need to document the local strain(s) circulating in different regions. A cross-sectional study was conducted to document human rotavirus group A serotypes in children below 5 years and HIV-infected adults in Viwandani slum in Nairobi, Kenya. A total of 260 (128 from children and 132 from HIV infected adults) fecal specimen samples were analyzed from August 2012 to July 2013. Screening for rotavirus was done by antigen based enzyme immune-sorbent assay (ELISA), Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) was used to detect rotavirus electropherotypes and finally genotyping was done by RT-PCR using genotype-specific primer sets targeting VP4 and VP7 genes. Rotavirus was detected in 23% and 8% of children and adult, respectively. Prevalence was high in children of 48 years. Long electropherotypes accounted for 80% and 60% while short electropherotypes accounted for 20% and 40% in children and adult, respectively. The common globally distributed strains, G1 and G3, accounted for 60% detections while the unusual G9 strain accounted for 80% infection in adults. G1P[8] was the common genotypic combination in children, accounting for 40% infection, whereas G9 [P8] accounted for 60% of the infections in adults. This study shows the existence of strain diversity between rotavirus circulating in children and adults within this study group. It further shows that as currently constituted, the 2 vaccines recommended for rotavirus would cover the circulating strain in Viwandani slum. Finally, there is a need for continuous rotavirus strain surveillance in children and a further focus on HIV

  9. Delayed Dosing of Oral Rotavirus Vaccine Demonstrates Decreased Risk of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis Associated With Serum Zinc: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgate, E Ross; Haque, Rashidul; Dickson, Dorothy M; Carmolli, Marya P; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C; Nayak, Uma; Qadri, Firdausi; Alam, Masud; Walsh, Mary Claire; Diehl, Sean A; Zaman, K; Petri, William A; Kirkpatrick, Beth D

    2016-09-01

    Rotavirus is the world's leading cause of childhood diarrheal death. Despite successes, oral rotavirus vaccines are less effective in developing countries. In an urban slum of Dhaka, we performed active diarrhea surveillance to evaluate monovalent G1P[8] rotavirus vaccine (RV1) efficacy and understand variables contributing to risk of rotavirus diarrhea (RVD). We performed a randomized controlled trial of monovalent oral rotavirus vaccine (RV1). Seven hundred healthy infants received RV1 or no RV1 (1:1) using delayed dosing (10 and 17 weeks) and were followed for 1 year. Intensive diarrhea surveillance was performed. The primary outcome was ≥1 episode of RVD. Nutritional, socioeconomic, and immunologic factors were assessed by logistic regression best-subsets analysis for association with risk of RVD and interactions with vaccine arm. Incidence of all RVD was 38.3 cases per 100 person-years. Per-protocol RV1 efficacy was 73.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 45.8%-87.0%) against severe RVD and 51% (95% CI, 33.8%-63.7%) against all RVD. Serum zinc level (odds ratio [OR], 0.77; P = .002) and lack of rotavirus immunoglobulin A (IgA) seroconversion (OR, 1.95; P = .018) were associated with risk of RVD, independent of vaccination status. Water treatment and exclusive breastfeeding were of borderline significance. Factors not associated with RVD included height for age at 10 weeks, vitamin D, retinol binding protein, maternal education, household income, and sex. In an urban slum with high incidence of RVD, the efficacy of RV1 against severe RVD was higher than anticipated in the setting of delayed dosing. Lower serum zinc level and lack of IgA seroconversion were associated with increased risk of RVD independent of vaccination. NCT01375647. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Oral live attenuated human rotavirus vaccine (RotarixTM offers sustained high protection against severe G9P[8] rotavirus gastroenteritis during the first two years of life in Brazilian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cleonice A Justino

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In a large Phase III trial conducted in 10 Latin American countries, the safety and efficacy of the live attenuated monovalent rotavirus vaccine RIX4414 was evaluated in 15,183 healthy infants followed up during the first two years of life. Belém was the only site in Brazil included in this multicentre trial. The study in Belém included a subset of 653 infants who were followed up until 24 months of age for protection against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. These subjects were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive two doses of vaccine (n = 328 or two doses of placebo (n = 325 at approximately two and four months of age. Of the 653 enrolled infants, 23 dropped out during the study period. For the combined two-year period, the efficacy of RIX4414 was 72.3% [95% confidence interval (CI 37.5-89.1%] against severe rotavirus-related gastroenteritis, reaching a protection rate of 81.8% (95% CI 36.4-96.6% against circulating wild-type G9 rotavirus strains. It is concluded that two doses of RIX4414 are highly efficacious against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in Belém during the first two years of life and provide high protection against the worldwide emergence and spread of G9P[8] strains.

  11. Reduction in Rotavirus-associated Acute Gastroenteritis Following Introduction of Rotavirus Vaccine Into Australia's National Childhood Vaccine Schedule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buttery, Jim P.; Lambert, Stephen B.; Grimwood, Keith; Nissen, Michael D.; Field, Emma J.; Macartney, Kristine K.; Akikusa, Jonathan D.; Kelly, Julian J.; Kirkwood, Carl D.

    Introduction: Rotavirus vaccines were introduced into the funded Australian National Immunization Program (NIP) in July 2007. Due to purchasing arrangements, individual states and territories chose either a 2-dose RV1 (Rotarix, GSK) regimen or 3-dose RV5 (Rotateq, Merck/CSL) regimen. This allowed

  12. Rotavirus Gastroenteritis is Associated with Increased Morbidity and Mortality in Children with Inherited Metabolic Disorders

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smith, A

    2017-04-01

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of infantile diarrhoea worldwide in children <5 years1. Although mortality rates are low in Ireland, certain populations are more susceptible to the associated morbidity and mortality of infection. A retrospective chart review of 14 patients with confirmed IMDs who were admitted to Temple Street Children’s Hospital between 2010 to 2015 with rotavirus infection were compared with 14 randomly selected age matched controls. The median length of stay was 7 days (SD25.3) in IMD patients versus 1.5 days (SD 2.1) in the controls. IV fluids were required on average for 4.5 days (range 0-17) in IMD patients versus 0.63 days (range 0-3) in controls. This report highlights the increased morbidity of rotavirus infection in patients with IMD compared to healthy children. This vulnerable population are likely to benefit from the recent introduction of the rotavirus oral vaccination in October 2016.

  13. Epidemiological and clinical features of rotavirus among children younger than 5 years of age hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in Northern Italy

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    Montrasio Giovanni

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotavirus is the major cause of acute gastroenteritis and severe dehydrating diarrhea in young children. Methods To estimate the proportion of hospital admissions for rotavirus acute gastroenteritis and identify the circulating G and P genotypes among children under five years of age, we conducted a prospective observational study from January to December 2008, recruiting children consecutively admitted to six hospitals in Milan and nearby towns in northern Italy. Typing was done on stool samples by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction amplification. Results Of the 521 stool samples from children with acute gastroenteritis, 34.9% (95%CI, 30.8 to 39.2% were rotavirus-positive. Two thirds (67.6% were under two years of age, and 13.2% were under six months. The predominant G type was G1 (40.7%, followed by G9 (22.5%, G2 (13.2%, G3 (5.5%, G4 (3.8% and G10 (1.6%. Twenty-one (11.7% mixed-G infections were identified: G1+G10 (8.8%; G1+G9 (1.6%; and G2+G10 (1.2%. Only P[8] (67.6% and P[4] (12.6% types were P genotyped. The predominant single G/P combination was G1P[8] (39.7%, followed by G9P[8] (25.3%, G2P[4] (14.3%, and G3P[8] (4.1%. All G-mixed types combined with P[8]. Conclusions These findings show an high prevalence of rotavirus infections among children admitted to hospital for acute gastroenteritis caused by different rotavirus strains circulating in the area studied.

  14. Strengthening laboratory capacity through the surveillance of rotavirus gastroenteritis in Central Africa: the Surveillance Épidémiologique en Afrique Centrale (SURVAC) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waku-Kouomou, Diane; Esona, Mathew D; Pukuta, Elizabeth; Gouandijka-Vasilache, Ionela; Boula, Angeline; Dahl, Benjamin A; Mondonge, Vital; Mekontso, David; Guifara, Gilbert; Mbary-Daba, Regis; Lewis, Jamie; Yahaya, Ali Ahmed; Mwenda, Jason M; Cavallaro, Kathleen F; Gody, Jean Chrysostome; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Koki-Ndombo, Paul; Bowen, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the SURVAC pilot project was to strengthen disease surveillance and response in three countries; Cameroon (CAE), Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Central African Republic (CAR). Seven laboratories involved in rotavirus surveillance were provided with equipment, reagents and supplies. CDC and WHO staff provided on-site classroom and bench training in biosafety, quality assurance, quality control (QC), rotavirus diagnosis using Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) and genotyping of rotavirus strains using the Reverse Transcription Polymerase-chain reaction (RT-PCR). All laboratory data were reported through WHO/AFRO. Twenty-three staff members were trained on RT-PCR for rotavirus genotyping which was introduced for the first time in all three countries. In CAE, the number of samples analysed by EIA and RT-PCR increased tenfold between 2007 and 2013. In DRC, this number increased fivefold, from 2009 to 2013 whereas in CAR, it increased fourfold between 2011 and 2013. All laboratories passed WHO proficiency testing in 2014. Laboratory capacity was strengthened through equipping laboratories and strengthening a subregional laboratory workforce for surveillance of rotavirus gastroenteritis. Each of the three countries generated rotavirus surveillance and genotyping data enabling the mapping of circulating genotypes. These results will help monitor the impact of rotavirus vaccination in these countries. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Comparative efficacy of different schemes for the therapy of rotavirus gastroenteritis in children. Case–control study

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    S. V. Khaliullina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective research: compare the efficacy of different types of therapy for rotavirus gastroenteritis in children.Materials and methods. A study was carried out, the design of which corresponded to the case–control type. The main group is children hospitalized in a hospital with laboratory confirmed rotavirus infection (35 cases, who were prescribed a modern regimen of therapy that included a low-carbohydrate diet, rehydration with low osmolar oral solutions, dioctahedral smectite, probiotic containing Saccharomyces boulardii. For each child of the main group was selected another patient (control, the corresponding sex, age, the period from the onset of the disease to admission to hospital, and the degree of dehydration. Patients of the control group (n=35 were assigned a traditional «old» therapy regimen, including a diet corresponding to Table No. 4 in Pevznur, oral rehydration solutions with osmolality of 282 mOsm/l, anthibacterial therapy (ceftriaxone, dioctahedral smectite and pancreatin at age-dependent doses. The duration of the observation was 5 days. Results: By the 5th day of treatment, the normalization of the stool was recorded in 91.4% [95% CI 82.1–100.7], 32/35 in the main group and 71.4% [95% CI 56.5–86.3], 25/35 children in the control (p <0.05, OR 4.27 [95% CI 1.06–17.2]. The timing of relief of excess meteorism also had statistically significant differences and was shorter in patients receiving a «new» therapy regimen (OR 2.8 [95% CI 1.01–8]. The positive effect of the proposed scheme was also observed when assessing the duration of dehydration symptoms and the timing of hospitalization.Conclusions: The conducted study case–control showed the advantage of modern schemes of therapy of rotavirus infections in children.

  16. Efficacy of human rotavirus vaccine against severe gastroenteritis in Malawian children in the first two years of life: a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunliffe, Nigel A; Witte, Desiree; Ngwira, Bagrey M; Todd, Stacy; Bostock, Nancy J; Turner, Ann M; Chimpeni, Philips; Victor, John C; Steele, A Duncan; Bouckenooghe, Alain; Neuzil, Kathleen M

    2014-01-01

    Rotavirus gastroenteritis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among African infants and young children. A phase III, placebo-controlled, multi-centre clinical trial of a live, oral G1P[8] human rotavirus vaccine (RIX4414) undertaken in Malawi and South Africa significantly reduced the incidence of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in the first year of life. We now report on vaccine efficacy in the Malawi cohort of children who were followed into the second year of life. A total of 1,773 healthy infants were enrolled in Blantyre, Malawi into three groups. Two groups received three doses of RIX4414 or placebo at age 6, 10, and 14 weeks and the third group received placebo at 6 weeks and RIX4414 at age 10 and 14 weeks. Subjects were followed by weekly home visits for episodes of gastroenteritis until 1 year of age, and were then re-consented for further follow-up to 18-24 months of age. Severity of gastroenteritis episodes was graded according to the Vesikari scoring system. Seroconversion for anti-rotavirus IgA was determined on a subset of children by using ELISA on pre- and post-vaccine blood samples. Rotavirus VP7 (G) and VP4 (P) genotypes were determined by RT-PCR. A total of 70/1030 (6.8%, 95% CI 5.3 - 8.5) subjects in the pooled (2 dose plus 3 dose) RIX4414 group compared with 53/483 (11.0%, 8.3 – 14.1) subjects in the placebo group developed severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in the entire follow-up period (Vaccine Efficacy 38.1% (9.8 – 57.3). The point estimate of efficacy in the second year of life (17.6%; −59.2 – 56.0) was lower than in the first year of life (49.4%; 19.2 – 68.3). There were non-significant trends towards a higher efficacy in the second year of life among children who received the three-dose schedule compared with the two-dose schedule, and a higher anti-rotavirus IgA seroresponse rate in the three-dose RIX4414 group. Rotavirus strains detected included genotype G12 (31%); G9 (23%); and G8 (18%); only 18% of strains belonged

  17. Impacto de la introducción de la vacuna contra el rotavirus en la hospitalización por gastroenteritis aguda grave en el Hospital del Niño de la Ciudad de Panamá Impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction on hospital admissions for severe acute gastroenteritis at the Children's Hospital in Panama City

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    Javier Nieto Guevara

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar si la introducción de la vacunación infantil contra el rotavirus en Panamá permitió reducir la tasa de hospitalización por gastroenteritis en niños menores de 5 años. MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional de corte transversal en dos períodos: del 1 de enero al 31 de agosto de 2005 (antes de la introducción de la vacunación contra el rotavirus y del 1 de enero al 31 de agosto de 2007 (un año después de la introducción. Se estudiaron todos los niños y niñas entre 2 meses y 5 años de edad hospitalizados con diagnóstico de gastroenteritis aguda grave en la sala de corta estancia de gastroenteritis del Hospital del Niño, en Ciudad de Panamá, Panamá. Las variables fueron: número de episodios de gastroenteritis, número de casos hospitalizados por gastroenteritis aguda grave, días de hospitalización y uso de antibióticos, según dos grupos de edad (de 2 meses a 1 año y de más de 1 año a 5 años. Se calculó el riesgo relativo (RR con intervalos de confianza de 95% (IC95% y un nivel de significación P OBJECTIVES: To determine if infant rotavirus vaccination in Panama has reduced the rate of hospital admission for gastroenteritis among children under 5 years of age. METHODS: An observational, cross-sectional study of two time periods: 1 January-31 August 2005 (prior to initiating rotavirus vaccination and 1 January-31 August 2007 (one year after introducing rotavirus vaccination. All the children from 2 months-5 years of age admitted with a diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis to the short-stay gastroenteritis area of the Children's Hospital in Panama City, Panama, were studied. The variables were: number of gastroenteritis episodes; number of cases admitted for severe acute gastroenteritis; number of days hospitalized; and antibiotics treatment for each of the two age groups (2 months-1 year and >1-5 years. The relative risk (RR was calculated with a 95% confidence interval (95%CI and a significance level of P

  18. Epidemiological features and genetic characterization of virus strains in rotavirus associated gastroenteritis in children of Odisha in Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Eileena; Dwibedi, Bhagirathi; Kar, S K; Acharya, A S

    2017-09-01

    We have studied the clinical characteristics, severity and seasonality of rotavirus infection and prevalent genotypes in 652 non-rota vaccinated children in Odisha in eastern India. P genotypes were analysed for their association with host blood group antigens. P type of the virus is determined by the VP8* gene, and specific recognition of A - type of Histo - blood group antigen by P[14]VP8* has been reported. VP4, VP7 and VP6 genes of commonly identified G1P[8] strain were compared with genes of the same strain isolated from other parts of India, elsewhere and strains used for Rotarix and Rotateq vaccines. In 54.75% of children with gastroenteritis, rota virus was found. 9.65% of children had moderate, 78.07% severe, and 12.28% very severe disease as assessed using the Vesikari scoring system. The incidence of infection was highest during winter months. There was no association between any blood group and specific P genotypes. G1P[8] was the commonest cause of gastroenteritis, followed by G1P[11], G3P[8], G9P[8], G2P[4], G2P[6], G9P[4], G9P[11] and G1P[6]. Predominant G genotypes identified were G1 (72.9%), G9 (10.81%), G2 (8.10%) and G3 (8.10%). Sequence analysis of the VP7 gene, placed the G1P[8] strain in lineage 1 and of VP6 gene placed nine G1P[8] strains in subgroup II and one in subgroup I. The VP7 gene segment of two Odisha G1P[8] strains were found to cluster relatively close to the VP7 sequences of Rotarix vaccine. Antigenic differences were found with vaccine strains. Ten G1P[8] strains sequenced for the VP4 gene had 91-93% nucleotide and 92-96% amino acid identity with Rotateq vaccine P[8]). Rotarix vaccine VP4 had 89-91% nucleotide and 90-92% amino acid identity. Our findings indicate genetic variability of rotavirus strains circulating in the region and are significant, given the introduction of rota vaccination in the State. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Rotavirus and other enteropathogens in childhood acute diarrhoea: a study of two centres in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Way S; Rajasekaran, Ganeswrie; Pee, Susan; Karunakaran, Rina; Hassan, Hamimah H; Puthucheary, Savithri D

    2006-09-01

    To study the role of rotavirus in children hospitalised for acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in two urban hospitals in Malaysia. A 12-month prospective study (January to December 2002), in children younger than 14 years with AGE hospitalised to the paediatric units of University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur; and Hospital Sultanah Aminah (HSA), Johor Bahru, Malaysia was conducted. In 2002, 399 and 1307 children with AGE were admitted to UMMC and HSA, respectively. Two hundred and eighty-eight (72%) stool samples from UMMC and 901 (69%) samples from HSA were analysed. Rotavirus was the most common aetiological agent identified in both centres (average 32%; UMMC 35%, HSA 30%, P = 0.94). The peak age group for rotavirus-related hospitalisation was 24-35 months for UMMC and 12-23 months for HSA. Nine percent of patients hospitalised for rotavirus infection in UMMC and 22% of patients in HSA were older than 5 years of age. An outbreak of rotavirus infection within the communities served by both centres resulting in an increase in hospital admissions of rotavirus gastroenteritis was observed in both units from January to March 2002. The peak age group for rotavirus-related hospital admission in this study was much older, between 12 to 35 months. It is uncertain whether this was related to the outbreak of rotavirus gastroenteritis observed within two urban areas from January to March 2002 causing re-infection with rotavirus in older children.

  20. Rotavirus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Sue E.; Ramani, Sasirekha; Tate, Jacqueline E.; Parashar, Umesh D.; Svensson, Lennart; Hagbom, Marie; Franco, Manuel A.; Greenberg, Harry B.; O’Ryan, Miguel; Kang, Gagandeep; Desselberger, Ulrich; Estes, Mary K.

    2017-01-01

    Rotavirus infections are a leading cause of severe, dehydrating gastroenteritis in children rotavirus over a decade ago, rotavirus infections still result in >200,000 deaths annually, mostly in low-income countries. Rotavirus primarily infects enterocytes and induces diarrhoea through the destruction of absorptive enterocytes (leading to malabsorption), intestinal secretion stimulated by rotavirus non-structural protein 4 and activation of the enteric nervous system. In addition, rotavirus infections can lead to antigenaemia (which is associated with more severe manifestations of acute gastroenteritis) and viraemia, and rotavirus can replicate in systemic sites, although this is limited. Reinfections with rotavirus are common throughout life, although the disease severity is reduced with repeat infections. The immune correlates of protection against rotavirus reinfection and recovery from infection are poorly understood, although rotavirus-specific immunoglobulin A has a role in both aspects. The management of rotavirus infection focuses on the prevention and treatment of dehydration, although the use of antiviral and anti-emetic drugs can be indicated in some cases. PMID:29119972

  1. Acute gastroenteritis: from guidelines to real life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung M Chow

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Chung M Chow1, Alexander KC Leung2, Kam L Hon11Department of Paediatrics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, PR China; 2Department of Pediatrics, The University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, CanadaAbstract: Acute gastroenteritis is a very common disease. It causes significant mortality in developing countries and significant economic burden to developed countries. Viruses are ­responsible for approximately 70% of episodes of acute gastroenteritis in children and rotavirus is one of the best studied of these viruses. Oral rehydration therapy is as effective as i­ntravenous therapy in treating mild to moderate dehydration in acute gastroenteritis and is strongly r­ecommended as the first line therapy. However, the oral rehydration solution is described as an underused simple solution. Vomiting is one of the main reasons to explain the underuse of oral rehydration therapy. Antiemetics are not routinely recommended in treating acute gastroenteritis, though they are still commonly prescribed. Ondansetron is one of the best studied antiemetics and its role in enhancing the compliance of oral rehydration therapy and decreasing the rate of hospitalization has been proved recently. The guidelines regarding the recommendation on antiemetics have been changed according to the evidence of these recent studies.Keywords: gastroenteritis, vomiting, antiemetic, ondansetron, rotavirus, oral rehydration therapy, intravenous therapy, guideline

  2. Species C Rotaviruses in Children with Diarrhea in India, 2010-2013: A Potentially Neglected Cause of Acute Gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Sudipta; Kattoor, Jobin Jose; Malik, Yashpal Singh; Sircar, Shubhankar; Deol, Pallavi; Rawat, Vinita; Rakholia, Ritu; Ghosh, Souvik; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Nadia, Touil; Dhama, Kuldeep; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2018-02-17

    All over the world, children and adults are severely affected by acute gastroenteritis, caused by one of the emerging enteric pathogens, rotavirus C (RVC). At present, no extensive surveillance program is running for RVC in India, and its prevalence is largely unknown except cases of local outbreaks. Here, we intended to detect the presence of RVC in diarrheic children visiting or admitted to hospitals in Haldwani (state of Uttarakhand, India), a city located in the foothills of the Himalayas. During 2010-2013, we screened 119 samples for RVC by an RVC VP6 gene-specific RT-PCR. Of these, 38 (31.93%) were found positive, which is higher than the incidence rates reported so far from India. The phylogenetic analysis of the derived nucleotide sequences from one of the human RVC (HuRVC) isolates, designated as HuRVC/H28/2013/India, showed that the study isolate belongs to genotype I2, P2 and E2 for RVC structural genes 6 and 4 (VP6, and VP4) and non-structural gene 4 (NSP4), respectively. Furthermore, the VP6 gene of HuRVC/H28/2013/India shows the highest similarity to a recently-reported human-like porcine RVC (PoRVC/ASM140/2013/India, KT932963) from India suggesting zoonotic transmission. We also report a full-length NSP4 gene sequence of human RVC from India. Under the One-health platforms there is a need to launch combined human and animal RVC surveillance programs for a better understanding of the epidemiology of RVC infections and for implementing control strategies. Reoviridae , possess 11 double-stranded segments of RNA that encode six structural viral proteins (VP1, VP2, VP3, VP4, VP6, VP7) and five/six non-structural proteins (NSP1-NSP5/6) [7]. Based on the antigenic properties of the major inner capsid protein (VP6), RVs are subdivided into eight well-characterized species (A-H) and two putative species viz. I and J [8-10]. Humans and other mammalian species are affected by species A, B, C and H rotaviruses and birds by species D, F and G, and species E has

  3. Rapid versus standard intravenous rehydration in paediatric gastroenteritis: pragmatic blinded randomised clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Patricia C; Willan, Andrew R; Schuh, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine if rapid rather than standard intravenous rehydration results in improved hydration and clinical outcomes when administered to children with gastroenteritis. Design Single centre, two arm, parallel randomised pragmatic controlled trial. Blocked randomisation stratified by site. Participants, caregivers, outcome assessors, investigators, and statisticians were blinded to the treatment assignment. Setting Paediatric emergency department in a tertiary care centre in Toronto, Canada. Participants 226 children aged 3 months to 11 years; complete follow-up was obtained on 223 (99%). Eligible children were aged over 90 days, had a diagnosis of dehydration secondary to gastroenteritis, had not responded to oral rehydration, and had been prescribed intravenous rehydration. Children were excluded if they weighed less than 5 kg or more than 33 kg, required fluid restriction, had a suspected surgical condition, or had an insurmountable language barrier. Children were also excluded if they had a history of a chronic systemic disease, abdominal surgery, bilious or bloody vomit, hypotension, or hypoglycaemia or hyperglycaemia. Interventions Rapid (60 mL/kg) or standard (20 mL/kg) rehydration with 0.9% saline over an hour; subsequent fluids administered according to protocol. Main outcome measures Primary outcome: clinical rehydration, assessed with a validated scale, two hours after the start of treatment. Secondary outcomes: prolonged treatment, mean clinical dehydration scores over the four hour study period, time to discharge, repeat visits to emergency department, adequate oral intake, and physician’s comfort with discharge. Data from all randomised patients were included in an intention to treat analysis. Results 114 patients were randomised to rapid rehydration and 112 to standard. One child was withdrawn because of severe hyponatraemia at baseline. There was no evidence of a difference between the rapid and standard rehydration groups in the

  4. Economic and health burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis for the 2003 birth cohort in eight Latin American and Caribbean countries Carga económica y de morbilidad de la gastroenteritis por rotavirus en la cohorte de nacidos en 2003 en ocho países de América Latina y el Caribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D. Rheingans

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the health and economic burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in hospital and outpatient settings in eight Latin American and Caribbean countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Dominican Republic, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, and Venezuela. METHODS: An economic model was constructed using epidemiological data from published articles, national health administration studies, and country-specific cost estimates. For each of the eight countries, the model estimated the rotavirus outcomes for the 2003 birth cohort during the first five years of life. The main outcome measures included health care costs, transportation costs, lost wages, and disease burden expressed in disability-adjusted life years. Estimates were expressed in 2003 US dollars. All future costs and disability-adjusted life year estimates were discounted at a rate of 3%. Sensitivity analyses evaluated the impact of specific variables on the medical cost of treating rotavirus. RESULTS: For every 1 000 children born during 2003 in the eight Latin American and Caribbean countries studied here, we estimated that rotavirus gastroenteritis would result in an average of 246 outpatient visits, 24 hospitalizations, 0.6 deaths, and US$ 7 971 in direct medical costs during their first five years of life. The incidence of rotavirus-associated outpatient visits and the cost of outpatient visits were predicted to have the largest impact on the total medical cost per child. CONCLUSIONS: Rotavirus gastroenteritis is likely to result in substantial disease and economic burden to health systems in Latin American and Caribbean countries, and the foreseeable burden should be an important consideration in evaluating the cost-effectiveness of vaccination.OBJETIVO: Estimar la carga económica y de morbilidad de la gastroenteritis por rotavirus en hospitales y servicios ambulatorios de ocho países de América Latina y el Caribe (Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Honduras, México, Panamá, Rep

  5. Full genome analysis of rotavirus G9P[8] strains identified in acute gastroenteritis cases reveals genetic diversity: Pune, western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatte, Vaishali S; Chaphekar, Deepa; Gopalkrishna, Varanasi

    2017-08-01

    Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are the major enteric etiological agents of severe acute gastroenteritis among children globally. As G9 RVA now represents as one of the major human RVA genotypes, studies on full genome of this particular genotype are being carried out worldwide. So far, no such studies on G9P[8] RVAs have been reported from Pune, western part of India. Keeping in view of this, the study was undertaken to understand the degree of genetic diversity of the commonly circulating G9P[8] RVA strains. Rotavirus surveillance studies carried out earlier during the years 2009-2011 showed increase in the prevalence of G9P[8] RVAs. Representative G9P[8] RVA strains from the years 2009, 2010, and 2011 were selected for the study. In general, all the G9 RVA strains showed clustering in the globally circulating sublineage of the VP7 gene and showed nucleotide/amino acid identities of 96.8-99.7%/96.9-99.8% with global G9 RV strains. Full genome analysis, of all three RVAs in this study indicated Wa-like genotype constellation G9-P[8]-I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T1-E1-H1. Within the strains nucleotide/amino acid divergence of 0.1-3.4%/0.0-4.1% was noted in all the RVA structural and non-structural genes. In conclusion, the present study highlights intra-genotypic variations throughout the RVA genome. The study further emphasizes the need for surveillance and analysis of the whole genomic constellation of the commonly circulating RVA strains of other regions in the country for understanding to a greater degree of the impact of rotavirus vaccination recently introduced in India. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Management strategies in the treatment of neonatal and pediatric gastroenteritis

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    Ciccarelli S

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Simona Ciccarelli,1 Ilaria Stolfi,1 Giuseppe Caramia2 1Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy; 2Division of Neonatology and Pediatrics, Maternal and Child Hospital "G. Salesi", Ancona, Italy Abstract: Acute gastroenteritis, characterized by the onset of diarrhea with or without vomiting, continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children in mostly resource-constrained nations. Although generally a mild and self-limiting disease, gastroenteritis is one of the most common causes of hospitalization and is associated with a substantial disease burden. Worldwide, up to 40% of children aged less than 5 years with diarrhea are hospitalized with rotavirus. Also, some microorganisms have been found predominantly in resource-constrained nations, including Shigella spp, Vibrio cholerae, and the protozoan infections. Prevention remains essential, and the rotavirus vaccines have demonstrated good safety and efficacy profiles in large clinical trials. Because dehydration is the major complication associated with gastroenteritis, appropriate fluid management (oral or intravenous is an effective and safe strategy for rehydration. Continuation of breastfeeding is strongly recommended. New treatments such as antiemetics (ondansetron, some antidiarrheal agents (racecadotril, and chemotherapeutic agents are often proposed, but not yet universally recommended. Probiotics, also known as “food supplement,” seem to improve intestinal microbial balance, reducing the duration and the severity of acute infectious diarrhea. The European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition and the European Society of Paediatric Infectious Diseases guidelines make a stronger recommendation for the use of probiotics for the management of acute gastroenteritis, particularly those with documented efficacy such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Saccharomyces boulardii. To date, the

  7. A combination of scGOS/lcFOS with Bifidobacterium breve M-16V protects suckling rats from rotavirus gastroenteritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rigo-Adrover, M.; Saldaña-Ruíz, S.; van Limpt, K.; Knipping, K.; Garssen, J.; Knol, J.; Franch, A.; Castell, M.; Pérez-Cano, F.J.

    Purpose: Rotavirus (RV) is the leading cause of severe diarrhoea among infants and young children, and although more standardized studies are needed, there is evidence that probiotics can help to fight against RV and other infectious and intestinal pathologies. On the other hand, the effects of

  8. Monitoring of children with acute gastroenteritis in Madrid, Spain, during 2010-2011: rotavirus genotype distribution after the vaccines introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fauquier, Alicia; González-Galán, Verónica; Arroyo, Sandra; Cabornero, Ana; Ruiz-Burruecos, Ana; Wilhelmi-De Cal, Isabel

    2014-05-01

    A structured surveillance study was conducted on children with diarrhea who were hospitalized in Madrid (Spain) during 2010-2011, in order to describe temporal, geographic, and age-related trends in rotavirus (RV) strains after the introduction of the RV vaccines in our country. A total of 370 children were enrolled, with RV being detected in 117 (31.6%) cases. Coinfections were detected mainly with rotavirus, astrovirus and norovirus. The most prevalent rotavirus G type was G1 (60.7%) followed by G2 (16.09%), G9 (5.9%), and G12 (5.1%). The G12 genotype appeared for the first time in 2008 in Spain, and it has increased to 5.1% of the cases in this report. Some uncommon P genotypes, such as P[14] and P[6], both with a low percentage, were found. The samples with G1 G2, G9 and G12 genotypes appeared in all ages, but were significantly higher in children under 2 years old. A long-term structured surveillance is required in the Spanish post vaccine era, in order to determine the prevalence and variability of RV genotypes. This will especially be needed to distinguish between changes occurring as a result of natural fluctuation in genotype or those (changes) that could be mediated by population immunity to the vaccines. In addition, it will be necessary to study the impact of the current vaccines on the circulating rotavirus strains and on the overall reduction in the prevalence of rotavirus disease among children in Spain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  9. Hospitalization of childhood rotavirus infection from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W S; Veerasingam, P D; Goh, A Y T; Chua, K B

    2003-01-01

    To determine the epidemiology of rotavirus gastroenteritis in children admitted to an urban hospital in a developing country from South-East Asia. Retrospective review of cases of acute gastroenteritis admitted to the children's ward of the University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between 1996 and 1999. During the study period, 333 cases (24%) of 1362 stool samples, obtained from children admitted with acute diarrhoea, were positive for rotavirus. Acute gastroenteritis constituted 8.2%, and rotavirus infection 1.6% of all the paediatric admissions each year. Of the 271 cases analysed, 72% of the affected population were less than 2 years of age. Peak incidence of admissions was between January to March, and September to October. Dehydration was common (92%) but electrolyte disturbances, lactose intolerance (5.2%), prolonged diarrhoea (2.6%) and cow's milk protein intolerance was uncommon. No deaths were recorded. Rotavirus infection was a common cause of childhood diarrhoea that required hospital admission in an urban setting in Malaysia.

  10. Pathogenesis of Rotavirus Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Boshuizen

    2005-01-01

    textabstractRotaviruses comprise a genus within the family of the Reoviridae and are recognized as the single most significant cause of severe gastroenteritis, malnutrition and diarrhea in young children. Each year rotavirus causes the death of about 440.000 children <5 years of age (313). The

  11. Oral administration of Bifidobacterium bifidum G9-1 alleviates rotavirus gastroenteritis through regulation of intestinal homeostasis by inducing mucosal protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Tomohiro; Makizaki, Yutaka; Oikawa, Yosuke; Tanaka, Yoshiki; Maeda, Ayako; Shimakawa, Masaki; Komoto, Satoshi; Moriguchi, Kyoko; Ohno, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Koki

    2017-01-01

    Human rotavirus (RV) infection is a leading cause of dehydrating diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide. Since therapeutic approaches to RV gastroenteritis are limited to alleviation of dehydration with oral rehydration solutions, more direct approaches to palliate symptoms of RV gastroenteritis are required. Treatments with probiotics have been increasingly recognized as alternative safe and low cost treatments for moderate infectious diarrhea. In this study, Bifidobacterium bifidum G9-1 (BBG9-1), which has been used as an intestinal drug for several decades, was shown to have a remarkable protective effect against RV gastroenteritis in a suckling mice model. As well as prophylactic oral administration of BBG9-1 from 2 days before RV infection, therapeutic oral administration of BBG9-1 from 1 day after RV infection significantly alleviated RV-induced diarrhea. Therapeutic administration of BBG9-1 reduced various types of damage in the small intestine, such as epithelial vacuolization and villous shortening, and significantly diminished the infectious RV titer in mixtures of cecal contents and feces. It was also shown that therapeutic administration of BBG9-1 significantly increased the number of acidic mucin-positive goblet cells and the gene expression of mucosal protective factors including MUC2, MUC3, MUC4, TGFβ1 and TFF3 in the small intestine. This led to alleviation of low gut permeability shown as decreased gene expression levels of occludin, claudin-1 and villin-1 after RV infection. Furthermore, in the small intestine, therapeutic administration of BBG9-1 significantly palliated the decreased gene expression of SGLT-1, which plays an important role in water absorption. In the large intestine, administered BBG9-1 was shown to replicate to assimilate undigested nutrients, resulting in normalization of the abnormally high osmotic pressure. These results suggested that water malabsorption caused by RV infection was alleviated in mice administered

  12. Oral administration of Bifidobacterium bifidum G9-1 alleviates rotavirus gastroenteritis through regulation of intestinal homeostasis by inducing mucosal protective factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Kawahara

    Full Text Available Human rotavirus (RV infection is a leading cause of dehydrating diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide. Since therapeutic approaches to RV gastroenteritis are limited to alleviation of dehydration with oral rehydration solutions, more direct approaches to palliate symptoms of RV gastroenteritis are required. Treatments with probiotics have been increasingly recognized as alternative safe and low cost treatments for moderate infectious diarrhea. In this study, Bifidobacterium bifidum G9-1 (BBG9-1, which has been used as an intestinal drug for several decades, was shown to have a remarkable protective effect against RV gastroenteritis in a suckling mice model. As well as prophylactic oral administration of BBG9-1 from 2 days before RV infection, therapeutic oral administration of BBG9-1 from 1 day after RV infection significantly alleviated RV-induced diarrhea. Therapeutic administration of BBG9-1 reduced various types of damage in the small intestine, such as epithelial vacuolization and villous shortening, and significantly diminished the infectious RV titer in mixtures of cecal contents and feces. It was also shown that therapeutic administration of BBG9-1 significantly increased the number of acidic mucin-positive goblet cells and the gene expression of mucosal protective factors including MUC2, MUC3, MUC4, TGFβ1 and TFF3 in the small intestine. This led to alleviation of low gut permeability shown as decreased gene expression levels of occludin, claudin-1 and villin-1 after RV infection. Furthermore, in the small intestine, therapeutic administration of BBG9-1 significantly palliated the decreased gene expression of SGLT-1, which plays an important role in water absorption. In the large intestine, administered BBG9-1 was shown to replicate to assimilate undigested nutrients, resulting in normalization of the abnormally high osmotic pressure. These results suggested that water malabsorption caused by RV infection was alleviated in

  13. Potential cost-effectiveness of vaccination for rotavirus gastroenteritis in eight Latin American and Caribbean countries Efectividad potencial en función del costo de la vacunación contra la gastroenteritis por rotavirus en ocho países de América Latina y el Caribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D. Rheingans

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To estimate the costs, benefits and cost-effectiveness of vaccination for rotavirus gastroenteritis in eight Latin American and Caribbean countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, the Dominican Republic, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, and Venezuela. METHODS: An economic model was constructed to estimate the cost-effectiveness of vaccination from the health care system perspective, using national administrative and published epidemiological evidence, country-specific cost estimates, and vaccine efficacy data. The model was applied to the first five years of life for the 2003 birth cohort in each country. The main health outcome was the disability-adjusted life year (DALY, and the main summary measure was the incremental cost per DALY averted. A 3% discount rate was used for all predicted costs and benefits. Sensitivity analyses evaluated the impact of uncertainty regarding key variables on cost-effectiveness estimates. RESULTS: According to the estimates obtained with the economic model, vaccination would prevent more than 65% of the medical visits, deaths, and treatment costs associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis in the eight countries analyzed here. At a cost of US$ 24 per course (for a two-dose vaccine, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio ranged from US$ 269/DALY in Honduras to US$ 10 656/DALY in Chile. Cost-effectiveness ratios were sensitive to assumptions about vaccine price, mortality, and vaccine efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination would effectively reduce the disease burden and health care costs of rotavirus gastroenteritis in the Latin American and Caribbean countries analyzed here. From the health care system perspective, universal vaccination of infants is predicted to be cost-effective, based on current standards.OBJETIVOS: Estimar los costos, los beneficios y la efectividad en función del costo de la vacunación contra la gastroenteritis por rotavirus en ocho países de América Latina y el Caribe: Argentina, Brasil

  14. Rotavirus infection and the current status of rotavirus vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Chien Chen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Among children, rotaviruses are the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis worldwide and of diarrheal deaths in developing countries. Current vaccines (e.g., Rotarix, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals; RotaTeq, Merck and Company effectively reduce rotaviral gastroenteritis, emergency department visits, and hospitalizations. The tremendous burden of rotavirus-related diarrhea in children across the world continues to drive the remarkable pace of vaccine development. This review assesses the global epidemiological and economic burden of rotavirus diseases, summarizes the relevant principles of the development of rotavirus vaccines, and presents data on the efficacy and effectiveness of currently licensed vaccines in both developed and developing countries.

  15. Outbreak of G2P[4] rotavirus gastroenteritis in a retirement community, Brazil, 2015: An important public health risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchs, Adriana; Madalosso, Geraldine; Cilli, Audrey; Morillo, Simone Guadagnucci; Martins, Sandra Regina; de Souza, Karen Aparecida Farias; Namiyama, Gislene Mitsue; Gonçalves, Cláudia Regina; Carmona, Rita de Cássia Compagnoli; Timenetsky, Maria do Carmo Sampaio Tavares

    The present study described a group A rotavirus (RVA) outbreak in an age-care facility in Brazil, using epidemiologic and molecular diagnostic methods. A descriptive clinical, epidemiological and environmental investigation was conducted. Stool samples were collected and screened for RVA, Norovirus (NoV), Enteric Adenovirus 40/41 (AdV 40/41) and Astrovirus (AstV) using ELISA, RT-PCR, qRT-PCR, electron microscopy and sequencing methods. Outbreak occurred during 26th-29th October, 2015; 28 individuals affected (22 residents; 6 staff). The attack rate was 25.9% and 8.5% among residents (median-age: 85.5 years) and staff (median-age: 28 years), respectively. Female staff was identified as the index case. RVA G2P[4] genotype was detected in 87.5% (7/8). Genetic analysis demonstrated that the outbreak involved one single strain, suggesting a common-source infection. RVA should be considered during outbreaks investigations in residential facilities, and raise the question if the current licensed RVA vaccines for children could also be helpful for the elderly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A combination of scGOS/lcFOS with Bifidobacterium breve M-16V protects suckling rats from rotavirus gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo-Adrover, M; Saldaña-Ruíz, S; van Limpt, K; Knipping, K; Garssen, J; Knol, J; Franch, A; Castell, M; Pérez-Cano, F J

    2017-06-01

    Rotavirus (RV) is the leading cause of severe diarrhoea among infants and young children, and although more standardized studies are needed, there is evidence that probiotics can help to fight against RV and other infectious and intestinal pathologies. On the other hand, the effects of prebiotics have not been properly addressed in the context of an RV infection. The aim of this study was to demonstrate a protective role for a specific scGOS/lcFOS 9:1 prebiotic mixture (PRE) separately, the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve M-16V (PRO) separately and the combination of the prebiotic mixture and the probiotic (synbiotic, SYN) in a suckling rat RV infection model. The animals received the intervention from the 3rd to the 21st day of life by oral gavage. On day 7, RV was orally administered. Clinical parameters and immune response were evaluated. The intervention with the PRO reduced the incidence, severity and duration of the diarrhoea (p Bifidobacterium breve M-16V or a combination of both is highly effective in modulating RV-induced diarrhoea in this preclinical model.

  17. Retrospective hospital based surveillance of intussusception in children in a sentinel paediatric hospital: benefits and pitfalls for use in post-marketing surveillance of rotavirus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Johnsen, C; Justice, F; Donath, S; Bines, J E

    2012-04-27

    Evaluation of the safety of rotavirus vaccines, particularly with respect to the risk of intussusception, is recommended for countries planning to introduce rotavirus vaccines into the National Immunisation Program. However, as prospective studies are costly, require time to conduct and may be difficult to perform in some settings, retrospective hospital based surveillance at sentinel sites has been suggested as an option for surveillance for intussusception following introduction of rotavirus vaccines. To assess the value of retrospective hospital based surveillance to describe clinical and epidemiological features of intussusception in children aged <24 months and to investigate any temporal association between receipt of a rotavirus vaccine and intussusception. A retrospective chart review of all patients diagnosed with intussusception at Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia over an 8-year period including before and after rotavirus vaccine introduction into the National Immunisation Program, was conducted using patients identified by a medical record database (ICD-10-CM 56.1). Patient profile, clinical presentation, treatment and outcome were analysed along with records of immunisation status obtained using the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register. A 9% misclassification rate of discharge diagnosis of intussusception was identified on critical chart review. The incidence rate of intussusception at the Royal Children's Hospital over the study period was 1.91 per 10,000 infants <24 months (95% CI 1.65-2.20). Intestinal resection was required in 6.5% of infants (95% CI 3.6%, 11.0%). Intussusception occurred within 30 days after vaccination in 2 of 27 patients who had received at least 1 dose of a rotavirus vaccine. Valuable data on the incidence, clinical presentation and treatment outcomes of intussusception can be obtained from data retrieved from hospital medical records in a sentinel paediatric hospital using standardised methodology. However

  18. Effect of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine introduction on hospital admissions for diarrhoea and rotavirus in children in Rwanda: a time-series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngabo, Fidele; Tate, Jacqueline E; Gatera, Maurice; Rugambwa, Celse; Donnen, Philippe; Lepage, Philippe; Mwenda, Jason M; Binagwaho, Agnes; Parashar, Umesh D

    2016-02-01

    In May, 2012, Rwanda became the first low-income African country to introduce pentavalent rotavirus vaccine into its routine national immunisation programme. Although the potential health benefits of rotavirus vaccination are huge in low-income African countries that account for more than half the global deaths from rotavirus, concerns remain about the performance of oral rotavirus vaccines in these challenging settings. We conducted a time-series analysis to examine trends in admissions to hospital for non-bloody diarrhoea in children younger than 5 years in Rwanda between Jan 1, 2009, and Dec 31, 2014, using monthly discharge data from the Health Management Information System. Additionally, we reviewed the registries in the paediatric wards at six hospitals from 2009 to 2014 and abstracted the number of total admissions and admissions for diarrhoea in children younger than 5 years by admission month and age group. We studied trends in admissions specific to rotavirus at one hospital that had undertaken active rotavirus surveillance from 2011 to 2014. We assessed changes in rotavirus epidemiology by use of data from eight active surveillance hospitals. Compared with the 2009-11 prevaccine baseline, hospital admissions for non-bloody diarrhoea captured by the Health Management Information System fell by 17-29% from a pre-vaccine median of 4051 to 2881 in 2013 and 3371 in 2014, admissions for acute gastroenteritis captured in paediatric ward registries decreased by 48-49%, and admissions specific to rotavirus captured by active surveillance fell by 61-70%. The greatest effect was recorded in children age-eligible to be vaccinated, but we noted a decrease in the proportion of children with diarrhoea testing positive for rotavirus in almost every age group. The number of admissions to hospital for diarrhoea and rotavirus in Rwanda fell substantially after rotavirus vaccine implementation, including among older children age-ineligible for vaccination, suggesting

  19. Epidemiology of rotavirus-associated hospital admissions in the province of Ferrara, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsella, Maria; Raimondi, Licia; Bergamini, Mauro; Sprocati, Monica; Bigi, Ettore; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Borgna-Pignatti, Caterina; Gabutti, Giovanni

    2009-12-01

    Hospital discharge forms with specific codes for rotavirus gastroenteritis in children 0 to 14 years of age were reviewed in the period 2003-2005 in the province of Ferrara. A total of 4,238 children were admitted to the pediatric departments; 151 patients were diagnosed with rotavirus gastroenteritis. The average annual rate of hospitalization for rotavirus gastroenteritis was 1.54/1,000 children Italy and underline the potential impact of rotavirus vaccination in our province.

  20. Diversity of rotavirus strains circulating in children under 5 years of age admitted to hospital for acute gastroenteritis in Morocco, June 2006 to May 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhafid, Mohammed; Elomari, Nezha; Elqazoui, Maria; Meryem, Azzouzi Idrissi; Rguig, Ahmed; Filali-Maltouf, Abdelkarim; Elaouad, Rajae

    2013-02-01

    Rotavirus vaccine was introduced in Morocco during 2010. In anticipation of introducing rotavirus vaccines, the Ministry of Health in Morocco established a rotavirus surveillance network in June 2006 at four hospitals in Morocco to obtain baseline data on rotavirus disease burden and prevalent strains. From June 2006 to May 2009, stool samples were collected from children under 5 years of age admitted for diarrhea to four sentinel hospitals serving different regions of Morocco. Rotaviruses were detected in stools using enzyme immunoassay, then genotyped by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Samples with adequate stool in which the P or G types could not be determined by RT-PCR were subjected to nucleotide sequence analysis. Overall, 42% (579 of 1,388) of the stools samples tested were positive for rotavirus. Genotyping of 548 (95%) samples demonstrated that G1P[8] (55%) was the most prevalent strain, followed by G9P[8] (11.3%), G2P[4] (9.1%), G4P[8] (0.9%), and G3P[8] (0.4%). Several other strains were identified including G1P[4] (0.2%), G1P[6] (0.9%), G2P[6] (4.3%), G2P[8] (0.2%), G3P[6] (0.4%), G3P[4] (0.2%), and G9P[6] (0.2%). A high prevalence of mixed infections was found (15% of all samples) of which G1G2P[8] (4%) and G1G3P[8] (3.6%) accounted for the majority. Considerable diversity of rotavirus genotypes was present among strains circulating in Morocco prior to the introduction of the vaccine. This study highlighted the need for maintaining active surveillance to monitor changes in rotavirus disease burden and strain dynamics and to detect changes over time that could impact the effectiveness of the vaccination program. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A Systematic Approach to Elucidate Causes of Gastroenteritis Outbreaks of Suspected Viral Etiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Svraka-Latifovic (Sanela)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe main objective of this thesis was to investigate the etiology of outbreaks of viral gastroenteritis that remained without diagnosis after testing for common viral pathogens causing gastroenteritis, e.g. noroviruses, rotaviruses, sapoviruses, adenoviruses, and astroviruses. No

  2. Short term clinical outcome of children with rotavirus infection at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rotavirus infection is the single most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in children under five years of age. Rotavirus gastroenteritis has a high morbidity and mortality in children in Kenya. Objectives: To determine the short term clinical outcome for children admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital with ...

  3. Rotavirus disease course among immunocompromised patients : 5-year observations from a tertiary care medical centre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijning-Verhagen, P; Nipshagen, M D; Graaf, H.; Bonten, M J M

    2017-01-01

    Rotavirus (RV) is highly endemic inside and outside hospital-settings. Immunocompromised children and adults are at risk of complicated rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE), but general rotavirus disease severity in this group remains poorly described and rotavirus testing is not routinely performed

  4. Prevalence and characterization of rotaviruses in children hospitalized for diarrheal disease in a tertiary care hospital, Pune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sae Satish Pol

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diarrhoea remains the second most common cause of death among children below 5 years globally. Among various enteric pathogens, rotavirus appears to be the most important aetiological agent of acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children. Increased understanding of epidemiology of rotavirus infections is needed to improve the vaccine efficacy. Aim: This study aims to determine prevalence rotavirus infection and prevalent circulating strains of rotavirus in and around Pune. Setting and Design: Prospective hospital-based study. The study was approved by Institutional Ethical Committee. Materials and Methods: Stool samples (n = 100 were collected from children aged <5 years, hospitalised for acute diarrhoea in paediatric ward at a tertiary care hospital. Samples were subjected for rotavirus antigen capture ELISA. The viral RNA was subjected to multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to amplify VP7 genotypes G1–G4, G8–G10 and G12 and VP4 genotypes P[4], P[6], P[8], P[9], P[10] and P[11]. Nontypable rotavirus strains were sequenced. Results: About 35% stool samples were positive for rotavirus antigen by ELISA. G9P[4] (28.6% was found to be the most prevalent rotavirus strain. The detection of emerging strain G12P[6] (14.3% and rare reassortant strain G9P[4] was the significant finding. Conclusion: Genotypes found in circulation are not present in the currently used vaccine. Thus, an emergence of newer genotypes over a period calls for the continued surveillance and genomic characterisation of rotaviruses to improve the vaccine efficacy.

  5. Effect of human rotavirus vaccine on severe diarrhea in African infants

    OpenAIRE

    Madhi, Shabir A; Cunliffe, Nigel A; Steele, Duncan; Witte, Desirée; Kirsten, Mari; Louw, Cheryl; Ngwira, Bagrey; Victor, John C; Gillard, Paul H; Cheuvart, Brigitte B; Han, Htay H; Neuzil, Kathleen M

    2016-01-01

    : Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis among young children worldwide. Data are needed to assess the efficacy of the rotavirus vaccine in African children. : We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial in South Africa (3166 infants; 64.1% of the total) and Malawi (1773 infants; 35.9% of the total) to evaluate the efficacy of a live, oral rotavirus vaccine in preventing severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. Healthy infants were randomly assigned in a 1:...

  6. Molecular Diagnosis Of Human Boca virus Gastroenteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, N.N.; Kamel, E.M.; Ismail, G.A.; Emam, E.K.; Saber, S.M.; EL Ashry, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    The idea that human boca virus (HBoV) infection possibly plays a role in gastroenteritis has been suggested because of the frequent manifestation of gastrointestinal symptoms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of HBoV In children with gastroenteritis. We studied the etiologic agents in 100 fecal samples in children suffered from acute gastroenteritis. Bacterial etiological agents were dtected by conventional bacteriological culture, and viral etiologic agents were detected by rotavirus latex agglutination and conventional PCR for HBoV and enteric adenovirus. Enteropathogenic E-Coli (EPEC) was detected in 4% of cases. Rotatavirus, enteric adenovirus and co infection between rotavirus and adenovirus were detected in 14%, 6% and 2% respectively. Human boca virus was detected in 1% of cases without associated respiratory symptoms or co infection with other pathogen which suggests its role in children gastroenteritis

  7. Options for improving effectiveness of rotavirus vaccines in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissera, Marion S; Cowley, Daniel; Bogdanovic-Sakran, Nada; Hutton, Melanie L; Lyras, Dena; Kirkwood, Carl D; Buttery, Jim P

    2017-04-03

    Rotavirus gastroenteritis is a leading global cause of mortality and morbidity in young children due to diarrhea and dehydration. Over 85% of deaths occur in developing countries. In industrialised countries, 2 live oral rotavirus vaccines licensed in 2006 quickly demonstrated high effectiveness, dramatically reducing severe rotavirus gastroenteritis admissions in many settings by more than 90%. In contrast, the same vaccines reduced severe rotavirus gastroenteritis by only 30-60% in developing countries, but have been proven life-saving. Bridging this "efficacy gap" offers the possibility to save many more lives of children under the age of 5. The reduced efficacy of rotavirus vaccines in developing settings may be related to differences in transmission dynamics, as well as host luminal, mucosal and immune factors. This review will examine strategies currently under study to target the issue of reduced efficacy and effectiveness of oral rotavirus vaccines in developing settings.

  8. Rotavirus Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Rotavirus Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Rotavirus Home About Rotavirus Symptoms Transmission Treatment Photos Vaccination ...

  9. Rotavirus Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Rotavirus Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Rotavirus Home About Rotavirus Symptoms Transmission Treatment Photos Vaccination ...

  10. Detection of rotavirus VP7 gene in helmeted guinea fowls and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rotaviruses classified into groups A through H are important etiological agents of gastroenteritis in man and animal. In Nigeria vaccination of infants has continuously been carried out, however the disease is still a burden to the nation which remains one of the countries with the highest cases of rotavirus gastroenteritis.

  11. Human group A rotavirus infections in children in Denmark; detection of reassortant G9 strains and zoonotic P 14 strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midgley, S.; Bottiger, B.; Jensen, T. G.

    2014-01-01

    One of the leading causes of severe childhood gastroenteritis are group A rotaviruses, and they have been found to be associated with similar to 40% of the annual gastroenteritis-associated hospitalizations in young Danish children......One of the leading causes of severe childhood gastroenteritis are group A rotaviruses, and they have been found to be associated with similar to 40% of the annual gastroenteritis-associated hospitalizations in young Danish children...

  12. Rotavirus vaccination in Europe: drivers and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parez, N; Giaquinto, C; Du Roure, C; Martinon-Torres, F; Spoulou, V; Van Damme, P; Vesikari, T

    2014-05-01

    Rotavirus gastroenteritis is a vaccine-preventable disease that confers a high medical and economic burden in more developed countries and can be fatal in less developed countries. Two vaccines with high efficacy and good safety profiles were approved and made available in Europe in 2006. We present an overview of the status of rotavirus vaccination in Europe. We discuss the drivers (including high effectiveness and effect of universal rotavirus vaccination) and barriers (including low awareness of disease burden, perception of unfavourable cost-effectiveness, and potential safety concerns) to the implementation of universal rotavirus vaccination in Europe. By February, 2014, national universal rotavirus vaccination had been implemented in Belgium, Luxembourg, Austria, Finland, Greece, Luxembourg, Norway, and the UK. Four other German states have issued recommendations and reimbursement is provided by sickness funds. Other countries were at various stages of recommending or implementing universal rotavirus vaccination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. History of rotavirus research in children in Malawi: the pursuit of a killer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rotavirus gastroenteritis is a major health problem among Malawian children. Studies spanning 20 years have described the importance, epidemiology and viral characteristics of rotavirus infections in the country. Despite a wide diversity of circulating rotavirus strains causing severe disease in young infants, a clinical trial ...

  14. The role of the intestinal microbiome in rotavirus vaccine immunogenicity : An exploration from correlation to causation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, V.C.

    2018-01-01

    Rotavirus (RV) is one of the leading causes of serious gastroenteritis and diarrheal deaths in children under the age of five across the globe. Rotavirus vaccines (RVV) protect infants, reducing rotavirus disease, diarrheal outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and deaths following introduction into

  15. Rotavirus Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Why get vaccinated?Rotavirus is a virus that causes diarrhea, mostly in babies and young children. The diarrhea can be severe, and lead ... and fever are also common in babies with rotavirus.Before rotavirus vaccine, rotavirus disease was a common ...

  16. Bacterial gastroenteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 340. Craig SA. Gastroenteritis. In: Marx ... Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 94. Mody RK, Griffin PM. ...

  17. Rotavirus antigenemia in children is associated with viremia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Blutt

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Antigenemia is commonly detected in rotavirus-infected children. Although rotavirus RNA has been detected in serum, definitive proof of rotavirus viremia has not been shown. We aimed to analyze a defined patient population to determine if infectious virus could be detected in sera from children with rotavirus antigenemia.Serum samples obtained upon hospitalization from children with gastroenteritis (57 stool rotavirus-positive and 41 rotavirus-negative, children with diagnosed bronchiolitis of known (n = 58 or unknown (n = 17 viral etiology, children with noninfectious, nonchronic conditions (n = 17, and healthy adults (n = 28 were tested for rotavirus antigen by enzyme immunoassay (EIA. Results of serum antigen testing were assessed for association with clinical and immunological attributes of the children. Rotavirus antigenemia was detected in 90% (51/57 of children with rotavirus-positive stools, in 89% (8/9 of children without diarrhea but with rotavirus-positive stools, in 12% (2/17 of children with bronchiolitis of unknown etiology without gastroenteritis, and in 12% (5/41 of children with gastroenteritis but with rotavirus-negative stools. Antigenemia was not detected in sera from children with noninfectious nonchronic conditions, children with bronchiolitis of known etiology and no gastroenteritis, or healthy adults. Neither age nor timing of serum collection within eight days after onset of gastroenteritis significantly affected levels of antigenemia, and there was no correlation between antigenemia and viral genotype. However, there was a negative correlation between serum rotavirus antigen and acute rotavirus-specific serum IgA (r = -0.44, p = 0.025 and IgG (r = -0.40, p = 0.01 titers. We examined 11 antigen-positive and nine antigen-negative sera for infectious virus after three blind serial passages in HT-29 cells using immunofluorescence staining for rotavirus structural and nonstructural proteins. Infectious virus was detected in

  18. Rotavirus Antigenemia in Children Is Associated with Viremia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blutt, Sarah E; Matson, David O; Crawford, Sue E; Staat, Mary Allen; Azimi, Parvin; Bennett, Berkeley L; Piedra, Pedro A; Conner, Margaret E

    2007-01-01

    Background Antigenemia is commonly detected in rotavirus-infected children. Although rotavirus RNA has been detected in serum, definitive proof of rotavirus viremia has not been shown. We aimed to analyze a defined patient population to determine if infectious virus could be detected in sera from children with rotavirus antigenemia. Methods and Findings Serum samples obtained upon hospitalization from children with gastroenteritis (57 stool rotavirus-positive and 41 rotavirus-negative), children with diagnosed bronchiolitis of known (n = 58) or unknown (n = 17) viral etiology, children with noninfectious, nonchronic conditions (n = 17), and healthy adults (n = 28) were tested for rotavirus antigen by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Results of serum antigen testing were assessed for association with clinical and immunological attributes of the children. Rotavirus antigenemia was detected in 90% (51/57) of children with rotavirus-positive stools, in 89% (8/9) of children without diarrhea but with rotavirus-positive stools, in 12% (2/17) of children with bronchiolitis of unknown etiology without gastroenteritis, and in 12% (5/41) of children with gastroenteritis but with rotavirus-negative stools. Antigenemia was not detected in sera from children with noninfectious nonchronic conditions, children with bronchiolitis of known etiology and no gastroenteritis, or healthy adults. Neither age nor timing of serum collection within eight days after onset of gastroenteritis significantly affected levels of antigenemia, and there was no correlation between antigenemia and viral genotype. However, there was a negative correlation between serum rotavirus antigen and acute rotavirus-specific serum IgA (r = −0.44, p = 0.025) and IgG (r = −0.40, p = 0.01) titers. We examined 11 antigen-positive and nine antigen-negative sera for infectious virus after three blind serial passages in HT-29 cells using immunofluorescence staining for rotavirus structural and nonstructural proteins

  19. Frequency of Rotavirus Infection among Children with Diarrhea in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rotaviruses are the major cause of gastroenteritis and diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide. Basic epidemiological data concerning rotaviruses among infants and children are necessary for health planners and care providers in Sudan. Method: Cross-sectional study was conducted at Omdurman ...

  20. The incidence and clinical presentation of infantile rotavirus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. An effective vaccine is needed to protect against severe rotavirus disease, an important cause of gastroenteritis. Since there are no data on the incidence and antigenic diversity of rotavirus infection in Sierra Leone, we studied its epidemiology to enable an effective vaccine strategy to be designed. Methods.

  1. The clinical appearance of neonatal rotavirus infection: Association ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BackgroundRotavirus is the most important aetiological agent causing severe gastroenteritis in children <2 years of age in South Africa and worldwide. Most endemic neonatal nursery strains are thought to be asymptomatic. However, serious conditions have been reported to be associated with rotavirus infection, such as ...

  2. Rotavirus infection in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheyami, Ali M.; Cunliffe, Nigel A.; Hart, C. Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Human rotavirus, an important causative agent of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide, leads to high morbidity in both developing and developed countries. Effective control depends upon an accurate understanding of disease burden and the relative importance of circulating serotypes. We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of rotavirus in Saudi Arabia through a review of 22 published studies of rotavirus and the antilogy diarrhea carried out from 1982 to 2003. The prevalence of rotavirus ranged between 10% to 46% with a median of 30%. Most cases were among children less than 2 years of age, and particularly in first year of life. There were significant differences in the seasonability within Saudi Arabia with increased infection during winter in some cities and during summer in others. G1 was the predominant serotype followed by G4, G3 and G2, in 4 studies where strains have been G-typed. The prevalence of noticeable strains ranged from 11.0% to 31.3%. No data were available on P types... Results of electropherotyping in 4 studies revealed that the long elctropherotype was predominant. Rotavirus is an important cause of severe diarrhea in Saudi children. However, the available data on rotavirus strains in circulation are limited. And there is an urgent need for up-to-date and comprehensive studies to evaluate rotavirus strains in circulation and identify unusual types that could be incorporated into future vaccines. (author)

  3. Acute myositis associated with concurrent infection of rotavirus and norovirus in a 2-year-old girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Yamamoto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rotavirus and norovirus are common pathogens associated with gastroenteritis in children. Although rotavirus occasionally induces central nervous system disease, only 3 cases with rotavirus-induced acute myositis have been reported in the English literature. We recently treated a female patient with acute myositis associated with gastroenteritis induced by concurrent infection with rotavirus and norovirus. Having suffered from gastroenteritis for 3 days, she suddenly developed myositis affecting her lower extremities with concomitant creatine kinase elevation. Herein, we present our patient and review the previous cases including those reported in the Japanese literature.

  4. [Noroviruses: leading cause of gastroenteritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delacour, H; Dubrous, P; Koeck, J L

    2010-04-01

    Although noroviruses were the first viral agents to be linked to gastrointestinal disease, they were long considered a secondary cause far behind rotaviruses. Development of molecular-based diagnostic techniques has provided clearer insight into the epidemiological impact of noroviruses that are now recognized not only as the leading cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks but also as an important cause of sporadic gastroenteritis in both children and adults. Norovirus infection is generally characterized by mild acute vomiting and diarrhea usually lasting for only a few days, but it can lead to more severe and potentially life-threatening symptoms in high-risk groups such as young children, elderly, and immunodeficient persons. It has been demonstrated that they are present in tropical countries. Molecular epidemiological studies have documented the great genetic diversity of noroviruses with regular emergence of variants. Since no vaccine is available, prevention on norovirus infection depends mainly on strict personal and community hygiene measures.

  5. Rotavirus vaccine effectiveness in low-income settings: An evaluation of the test-negative design

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Lauren M.; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Neuzil, Kathleen M.; Victor, John C.

    2017-01-01

    Background The test-negative design (TND), an epidemiologic method currently used to measure rotavirus vaccine (RV) effectiveness, compares the vaccination status of rotavirus-positive cases and rotavirus-negative controls meeting a pre-defined case definition for acute gastroenteritis. Despite the use of this study design in low-income settings, the TND has not been evaluated to measure rotavirus vaccine effectiveness. Methods This study builds upon prior methods to evaluate the use of the T...

  6. Human rotavirus vaccine Rotarix™ provides protection against diverse circulating rotavirus strains in African infants: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Andrew Duncan; Neuzil, Kathleen M; Cunliffe, Nigel A; Madhi, Shabir A; Bos, Pieter; Ngwira, Bagrey; Witte, Desiree; Todd, Stacy; Louw, Cheryl; Kirsten, Mari; Aspinall, Sanet; Van Doorn, Leen Jan; Bouckenooghe, Alain; Suryakiran, Pemmaraju V; Han, Htay Htay

    2012-09-13

    Rotaviruses are the most important cause of severe acute gastroenteritis worldwide in children rotavirus vaccine Rotarix™ significantly reduced severe rotavirus gastroenteritis episodes in a Phase III clinical trial conducted in infants in South Africa and Malawi. This paper examines rotavirus vaccine efficacy in preventing severe rotavirus gastroenteritis, during infancy, caused by the various G and P rotavirus types encountered during the first rotavirus-season. Healthy infants aged 5-10 weeks were enrolled and randomized into three groups to receive either two (10 and 14 weeks) or three doses of Rotarix™ (together forming the pooled Rotarix™ group) or three doses of placebo at a 6,10,14-week schedule. Weekly home visits were conducted to identify gastroenteritis episodes. Rotaviruses were detected by ELISA and genotyped by RT-PCR and nucleotide sequencing. The percentage of infants with severe rotavirus gastroenteritis caused by the circulating G and P types from 2 weeks post-last dose until one year of age and the corresponding vaccine efficacy was calculated with 95% CI. Overall, 4939 infants were vaccinated and 4417 (pooled Rotarix™ = 2974; placebo = 1443) were included in the per protocol efficacy cohort. G1 wild-type was detected in 23 (1.6%) severe rotavirus gastroenteritis episodes from the placebo group. This was followed in order of detection by G12 (15 [1%] in placebo) and G8 types (15 [1%] in placebo). Vaccine efficacy against G1 wild-type, G12 and G8 types were 64.1% (95% CI: 29.9%; 82%), 51.5% (95% CI:-6.5%; 77.9%) and 64.4% (95% CI: 17.1%; 85.2%), respectively. Genotype P[8] was the predominant circulating P type and was detected in 38 (2.6%) severe rotavirus gastroenteritis cases in placebo group. The remaining circulating P types comprised of P[4] (20 [1.4%] in placebo) and P[6] (13 [0.9%] in placebo). Vaccine efficacy against P[8] was 59.1% (95% CI: 32.8%; 75.3%), P[4] was 70.9% (95% CI: 37.5%; 87.0%) and P[6] was 55.2% (95% CI: -6

  7. Bovine rotavirus pentavalent vaccine development in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zade, Jagdish K; Kulkarni, Prasad S; Desai, Sajjad A; Sabale, Rajendra N; Naik, Sameer P; Dhere, Rajeev M

    2014-08-11

    A bovine rotavirus pentavalent vaccine (BRV-PV) containing rotavirus human-bovine (UK) reassortant strains of serotype G1, G2, G3, G4 and G9 has been developed by the Serum Institute of India Ltd, in collaboration with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), USA. The vaccine underwent animal toxicity studies and Phase I and II studies in adults, toddlers and infants. It has been found safe and immunogenic and will undergo a large Phase III study to assess efficacy against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Burden of Norovirus and Rotavirus in Children after Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction, Cochabamba, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAtee, Casey L.; Webman, Rachel; Gilman, Robert H.; Mejia, Carolina; Bern, Caryn; Apaza, Sonia; Espetia, Susan; Pajuelo, Mónica; Saito, Mayuko; Challappa, Roxanna; Soria, Richard; Ribera, Jose P.; Lozano, Daniel; Torrico, Faustino

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of rotavirus vaccine in the field may set the stage for a changing landscape of diarrheal illness affecting children worldwide. Norovirus and rotavirus are the two major viral enteropathogens of childhood. This study describes the prevalence of norovirus and rotavirus 2 years after widespread rotavirus vaccination in Cochabamba, Bolivia. Stool samples from hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and outpatients aged 5–24 months without AGE were recruited from an urban hospital serving Bolivia's third largest city. Both viruses were genotyped, and norovirus GII.4 was further sequenced. Norovirus was found much more frequently than rotavirus. Norovirus was detected in 69/201 (34.3%) of specimens from children with AGE and 13/71 (18.3%) of those without diarrhea. Rotavirus was detected in 38/201 (18.9%) of diarrheal specimens and 3/71 (4.2%) of non-diarrheal specimens. Norovirus GII was identified in 97.8% of norovirus-positive samples; GII.4 was the most common genotype (71.4% of typed specimens). Rotavirus G3P[8] was the most prevalent rotavirus genotype (44.0% of typed specimens) and G2P[4] was second most prevalent (16.0% of typed specimens). This community is likely part of a trend toward norovirus predominance over rotavirus in children after widespread vaccination against rotavirus. PMID:26598569

  9. Burden of Norovirus and Rotavirus in Children After Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction, Cochabamba, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAtee, Casey L; Webman, Rachel; Gilman, Robert H; Mejia, Carolina; Bern, Caryn; Apaza, Sonia; Espetia, Susan; Pajuelo, Mónica; Saito, Mayuko; Challappa, Roxanna; Soria, Richard; Ribera, Jose P; Lozano, Daniel; Torrico, Faustino

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of rotavirus vaccine in the field may set the stage for a changing landscape of diarrheal illness affecting children worldwide. Norovirus and rotavirus are the two major viral enteropathogens of childhood. This study describes the prevalence of norovirus and rotavirus 2 years after widespread rotavirus vaccination in Cochabamba, Bolivia. Stool samples from hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and outpatients aged 5-24 months without AGE were recruited from an urban hospital serving Bolivia's third largest city. Both viruses were genotyped, and norovirus GII.4 was further sequenced. Norovirus was found much more frequently than rotavirus. Norovirus was detected in 69/201 (34.3%) of specimens from children with AGE and 13/71 (18.3%) of those without diarrhea. Rotavirus was detected in 38/201 (18.9%) of diarrheal specimens and 3/71 (4.2%) of non-diarrheal specimens. Norovirus GII was identified in 97.8% of norovirus-positive samples; GII.4 was the most common genotype (71.4% of typed specimens). Rotavirus G3P[8] was the most prevalent rotavirus genotype (44.0% of typed specimens) and G2P[4] was second most prevalent (16.0% of typed specimens). This community is likely part of a trend toward norovirus predominance over rotavirus in children after widespread vaccination against rotavirus. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  10. Impact of rotavirus vaccination on child mortality, morbidity, and rotavirus-related hospitalizations in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inchauste, Lucia; Patzi, Maritza; Halvorsen, Kjetil; Solano, Susana; Montesano, Raul; Iñiguez, Volga

    2017-08-01

    The public health impact of rotavirus vaccination in countries with high child mortality rates remains to be established. The RV1 rotavirus vaccine was introduced in Bolivia in August 2008. This study describes the trends in deaths, hospitalizations, and healthcare visits due to acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and in rotavirus-related hospitalizations, among children rotavirus-related AGE was assessed using data from the active surveillance hospitals. Compared with the 2001-2008 pre-vaccine baseline, the mean number of rotavirus-related hospitalizations was reduced by 40.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 21.7-66.4%) among children rotavirus disease. Over the post-vaccine period, changes in rotavirus epidemiology were observed, manifested by variations in seasonality and by a shift in the mean age of those with rotavirus infection. The significant decrease in main AGE-related health indicators in children rotavirus vaccine provides evidence of a substantial public health impact of rotavirus vaccination in Bolivia, as a measure for protecting children against AGE. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Human rotavirus vaccine Rotarix™ provides protection against diverse circulating rotavirus strains in African infants: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steele Andrew

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotaviruses are the most important cause of severe acute gastroenteritis worldwide in children Rotarix™ significantly reduced severe rotavirus gastroenteritis episodes in a Phase III clinical trial conducted in infants in South Africa and Malawi. This paper examines rotavirus vaccine efficacy in preventing severe rotavirus gastroenteritis, during infancy, caused by the various G and P rotavirus types encountered during the first rotavirus-season. Methods Healthy infants aged 5–10 weeks were enrolled and randomized into three groups to receive either two (10 and 14 weeks or three doses of Rotarix™ (together forming the pooled Rotarix™ group or three doses of placebo at a 6,10,14-week schedule. Weekly home visits were conducted to identify gastroenteritis episodes. Rotaviruses were detected by ELISA and genotyped by RT-PCR and nucleotide sequencing. The percentage of infants with severe rotavirus gastroenteritis caused by the circulating G and P types from 2 weeks post-last dose until one year of age and the corresponding vaccine efficacy was calculated with 95% CI. Results Overall, 4939 infants were vaccinated and 4417 (pooled Rotarix™ = 2974; placebo = 1443 were included in the per protocol efficacy cohort. G1 wild-type was detected in 23 (1.6% severe rotavirus gastroenteritis episodes from the placebo group. This was followed in order of detection by G12 (15 [1%] in placebo and G8 types (15 [1%] in placebo. Vaccine efficacy against G1 wild-type, G12 and G8 types were 64.1% (95% CI: 29.9%; 82%, 51.5% (95% CI:-6.5%; 77.9% and 64.4% (95% CI: 17.1%; 85.2%, respectively. Genotype P[8] was the predominant circulating P type and was detected in 38 (2.6% severe rotavirus gastroenteritis cases in placebo group. The remaining circulating P types comprised of P[4] (20 [1.4%] in placebo and P[6] (13 [0.9%] in placebo. Vaccine efficacy against P[8] was 59.1% (95% CI: 32.8%; 75.3%, P[4] was 70.9% (95% CI: 37.5%; 87

  12. Human Neonatal Rotavirus Vaccine (RV3-BB) to Target Rotavirus from Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bines, Julie E; At Thobari, Jarir; Satria, Cahya Dewi; Handley, Amanda; Watts, Emma; Cowley, Daniel; Nirwati, Hera; Ackland, James; Standish, Jane; Justice, Frances; Byars, Gabrielle; Lee, Katherine J; Barnes, Graeme L; Bachtiar, Novilia S; Viska Icanervilia, Ajeng; Boniface, Karen; Bogdanovic-Sakran, Nada; Pavlic, Daniel; Bishop, Ruth F; Kirkwood, Carl D; Buttery, Jim P; Soenarto, Yati

    2018-02-22

    A strategy of administering a neonatal rotavirus vaccine at birth to target early prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis may address some of the barriers to global implementation of a rotavirus vaccine. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Indonesia to evaluate the efficacy of an oral human neonatal rotavirus vaccine (RV3-BB) in preventing rotavirus gastroenteritis. Healthy newborns received three doses of RV3-BB, administered according to a neonatal schedule (0 to 5 days, 8 weeks, and 14 weeks of age) or an infant schedule (8 weeks, 14 weeks, and 18 weeks of age), or placebo. The primary analysis was conducted in the per-protocol population, which included only participants who received all four doses of vaccine or placebo within the visit windows, with secondary analyses performed in the intention-to-treat population, which included all participants who underwent randomization. Among the 1513 participants in the per-protocol population, severe rotavirus gastroenteritis occurred up to the age of 18 months in 5.6% of the participants in the placebo group (28 of 504 babies), in 1.4% in the neonatal-schedule vaccine group (7 of 498), and in 2.7% in the infant-schedule vaccine group (14 of 511). This resulted in a vaccine efficacy of 75% (95% confidence interval [CI], 44 to 91) in the neonatal-schedule group (PBill and Melinda Gates Foundation and others; Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number, ACTRN12612001282875 .).

  13. Rotavirus vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Catherine; Tate, Jacqueline E; Hyde, Terri B; Cortese, Margaret M; Lopman, Benjamin A; Jiang, Baoming; Glass, Roger I; Parashar, Umesh D

    2014-01-01

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea among children rotavirus vaccines have been efficacious and effective, with many countries reporting substantial declines in diarrheal and rotavirus-specific morbidity and mortality. However, the full public health impact of these vaccines has not been realized. Most countries, including those with the highest disease burden, have not yet introduced rotavirus vaccines into their national immunization programs. Research activities that may help inform vaccine introduction decisions include (1) establishing effectiveness, impact, and safety for rotavirus vaccines in low-income settings; (2) identifying potential strategies to improve performance of oral rotavirus vaccines in developing countries, such as zinc supplementation; and (3) pursuing alternate approaches to oral vaccines, such as parenteral immunization. Policy- and program-level barriers, such as financial implications of new vaccine introductions, should be addressed to ensure that countries are able to make informed decisions regarding rotavirus vaccine introduction. PMID:24755452

  14. DIAGNOSTICS AND THERAPY IN CHILDREN'S ACUTE GASTROENTERITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.D. Bakradze

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The work aimed at studying a series of diagnostic aspects and determination of the possible treatment of children with acute gastroenetrites according to the protocol based on international recommendations and standards. The study involved 130 children, of whom in 71 patients the presence of rotavirus antigen in coprofilters was checked via latex particle agglutination method. In 85% rotavirus infection was confirmed. It was shown that the majority of cases fall on November to may. Infant and early children are the most susceptible to rotavirus gastroenteritis. The analysis of therapy results showed that antibioticsfree treatment of watery diarrhea patients worked well, and prescription of antibacterial therapy for the concomitant bacterial infection does not influence the time of gastroenteritis reduction. The results of dehydration therapy show that oral rehydration is not always effective for the 2nd stage dehydration, especially with late treatment. However, the time of recovery (diarrhea reduction does not depend on the type of rehydration or symptomatic therapy. A diagnostic algorithm that helps use the minimum diagnostic methods in stationary conditions and at the same time provides the optimum scope of therapeutic intervention was worked out.Key words: rotavirus infection, children, rehydration, antibacterial therapy.

  15. Gastroenteritis: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Gastroenteritis: First aid Gastroenteritis: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Gastroenteritis is an inflammation of your stomach and intestines. Common causes are: Viruses. Food or water contaminated by ...

  16. Human neonatal rotavirus vaccine (RV3-BB) targets rotavirus from birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thobari, Jarir At; Satria, Cahya Dewi; Handley, Amanda; Watts, Emma; Cowley, Daniel; Nirwati, Hera; Ackland, James; Standish, Jane; Justice, Frances; Byars, Gabrielle; Lee, Katherine J.; Barnes, Graeme L.; Bachtiar, Novilia S.; Icanervilia, Ajeng Viska; Boniface, Karen; Bogdanovic-Sakran, Nada; Pavlic, Daniel; Bishop, Ruth F.; Kirkwood, Carl D.; Buttery, Jim P.; Soenarto, Yati

    2018-01-01

    Background A birth dose strategy using a neonatal rotavirus vaccine to target early prevention of rotavirus disease may address remaining barriers to global vaccine implementation. Methods We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in Indonesia to evaluate the efficacy of an oral human neonatal rotavirus vaccine (RV3-BB) to prevent rotavirus gastroenteritis. Healthy newborns received three doses of RV3-BB administered in a neonatal schedule at 0-5 days, 8 and 14 weeks or infant schedule at 8, 14 and 18 weeks, or placebo. Laboratory-confirmed rotavirus gastroenteritis was graded using a modified Vesikari score. The primary analysis was efficacy against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis from two weeks after all doses to 18 months in the combined vaccine group (neonatal and infant schedule) compared with placebo. Results Vaccine efficacy against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis to 18 months was 63% in the combined vaccine group (95% CI 34, 80; p<0.001), 75% in the neonatal vaccine group (95% confidence interval [CI] 44, 91; p<0.001) and 51% in the infant vaccine group (95% CI 7, 76; p=0.03) in the per protocol analysis, with similar results in the intention-to-treat analysis. Vaccine efficacy to 12 months was 94% in the neonatal vaccine group (95%CI 56, 99; p=0.006). Vaccine take occurred in 78/83 (94%) in the neonatal vaccine group and 83/84 (99%) in the infant vaccine group. The vaccine was well tolerated, with similar incidence of adverse events in vaccine and placebo recipients. Conclusion RV3-BB was efficacious, immunogenic and well-tolerated when administered in a neonatal or infant schedule in Indonesia. PMID:29466164

  17. Rotavirus epidemiology and vaccine demand: considering Bangladesh chapter through the book of global disease burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud-Al-Rafat, Abdullah; Muktadir, Abdul; Muktadir, Hasneen; Karim, Mahbubul; Maheshwari, Arpan; Ahasan, Mohammad Mainul

    2018-02-01

    Rotavirus is the major cause of gastroenteritis in children throughout the world. Every year, a large number of children aged rotavirus-related diarrhoeal diseases. Though these infections are vaccine-preventable, the vast majority of children in low-income countries suffer from the infection. The situation leads to severe economic loss and constitutes a major public health problem. We searched electronic databases including PubMed and Google scholar using the following words: "features of rotavirus," "epidemiology of rotavirus," "rotavirus serotypes," "rotavirus in Bangladesh," "disease burden of rotavirus," "rotavirus vaccine," "low efficacy of rotavirus vaccine," "inactivated rotavirus vaccine". Publications until July 2017 have been considered for this work. Currently, two live attenuated vaccines are available throughout the world. Many countries have included rotavirus vaccines in national immunization program to reduce the disease burden. However, due to low efficacy of the available vaccines, satisfactory outcome has not yet been achieved in developing countries such as Bangladesh. Poor economic, public health, treatment, and sanitation status of the low-income countries necessitate the need for the most effective rotavirus vaccines. Therefore, the present scenario demands the development of a highly effective rotavirus vaccine. In this regard, inactivated rotavirus vaccine concept holds much promise for reducing the current disease burden. Recent advancements in developing an inactivated rotavirus vaccine indicate a significant progress towards disease prophylaxis and control.

  18. Estimating and comparing the clinical and economic impact of paediatric rotavirus vaccination in Turkey using a simple versus an advanced model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakir, Mustafa; Standaert, Baudouin; Turel, Ozden; Bilge, Zeynep Ece; Postma, Maarten

    2013-01-01

    Background: The burden of rotavirus disease is high in Turkey, reflecting the large birth cohort (> 1.2 million) and the risk of disease. Modelling can help to assess the potential economic impact of vaccination. We compared the output of an advanced model with a simple model requiring fewer data

  19. Perfil de ingresos y urgencias pediátricas en período epidémico de rotavirus en Valladolid: Utilidad de un modelo predictivo Profile of paediatric admissions and emergencies during an epidemic period of rotavirus in Valladolid [Spain]: Utility of a predictive model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Luquero

    2009-02-01

    length of admissions was longer. Conclusion: The activity of the paediatric service increased during the epidemic period. Consequently, implementation of surveillance activities and prevention and control programs for rotavirus in hospitals would seem advisable.

  20. Rotavirus A strains obtained from children with acute gastroenteritis in Mozambique, 2012-2013: G and P genotypes and phylogenetic analysis of VP7 and partial VP4 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    João, Eva Dora; Strydom, Amy; O'Neill, Hester G; Cuamba, Assa; Cassocera, Marta; Acácio, Sozinho; Mandomando, Inácio; Motanyane, Lithabiso; Page, Nicola; de Deus, Nilsa

    2018-01-01

    In Mozambique rotavirus (RV) was shown to be the greatest cause of acute diarrhoea in infants from 0 to 11 months, and in 2015, national rotavirus vaccination was introduced. As with other developing countries, there is very limited active strain characterisation. Rotavirus positive clinical specimens, collected between 2012 and 2013, have now provided information on the genotypes circulating in southern Mozambique prior to vaccine introduction. Genotypes G2 (32.4%), G12 (28.0%), P[4] (41.4%) and P[6] (22.9%) (n = 157) strains were commonly detected with G2P[4] (42.3%) RVs being predominant, specifically during 2013. Phylogenetic evaluation of the VP7 and VP8* encoding genes showed, for the majority of the Mozambican strains, that they clustered with other African strains based on genotype. RVA/Human-wt/MOZ/0153/2013/G2P[4], RVA/Human-wt/MOZ/0308/2012/G2P[4] and RVA/Human-wt/MOZ/0288/2012/G12P[8] formed separate clusters from the other Mozambican strains with similar genotypes, suggesting possible reassortment. Amino acid substitutions in selected epitope regions also supported phylogenetic clustering. As expected, the VP7 and VP8* genes from the Mozambican strains differed from both the RotaTeq ® (SC2-9) G2P[5] and Rotarix ® (A41CB052A) G1P[8] genes. This study provides information on the genetic diversity of rotavirus strains prior to vaccine introduction and generates baseline data for future monitoring of any changes in rotavirus strains in response to vaccine pressure.

  1. Rotavirus vaccine a€“ What are the concerns of the developing countries?

    OpenAIRE

    SHAH, Nitin K

    2010-01-01

    It is estimated that 0.6 million children die annually due to rotavirus diarrhea under the age of 5 years world over. 90% of these deaths occur in developing countries. Western data suggests that current rotavirus vaccines have 85-95% efficacy against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE). There are concerns while using the same in developing countries. Data from African trial has shown 76% efficacy against severe RVGE. Efficacy in malnourished children has been found to be 73% as against 7...

  2. Molecular characterization of rotavirus strains detected during a clinical trial of a human rotavirus vaccine in Blantyre, Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagomi, Toyoko; Nakagomi, Osamu; Dove, Winifred; Doan, Yen Hai; Witte, Desiree; Ngwira, Bagrey; Todd, Stacy; Steele, A Duncan; Neuzil, Kathleen M; Cunliffe, Nigel A

    2014-01-01

    The human, G1P[8] rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix) significantly reduced severe rotavirus gastroenteritis episodes in a clinical trial in South Africa and Malawi, but vaccine efficacy was lower in Malawi (49.5%) than reported in South Africa (76.9%) and elsewhere. The aim of this study was to examine the molecular relationships of circulating wild-type rotaviruses detected during the clinical trial in Malawi to RIX4414 (the strain contained in Rotarix) and to common human rotavirus strains. Of 88 rotavirus-positive, diarrhoeal stool specimens, 43 rotaviruses exhibited identifiable RNA migration patterns when examined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The genes encoding VP7, VP4, VP6 and NSP4 of 5 representative strains possessing genotypes G12P[6], G1P[8], G9P[8], and G8P[4] were sequenced. While their VP7 (G) and VP4 (P) genotype designations were confirmed, the VP6 (I) and NSP4 (E) genotypes were either I1E1 or I2E2, indicating that they were of human rotavirus origin. RNA-RNA hybridization using 21 culture-adapted strains showed that Malawian rotaviruses had a genomic RNA constellation common to either the Wa-like or DS-1 like human rotaviruses. Overall, the Malawi strains appear similar in their genetic make-up to rotaviruses described in countries where vaccine efficacy is greater, suggesting that the lower efficacy in Malawi is unlikely to be explained by the diversity of circulating strains. PMID:22520123

  3. A benefit-risk analysis of rotavirus vaccination, France, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamrani, Adnane; Tubert-Bitter, Pascale; Hill, Catherine; Escolano, Sylvie

    2017-12-01

    IntroductionTwo vaccines available for protection against rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE), Rotarix and RotaTeq, have contributed to a large decrease in the incidence of paediatric diarrhoea in countries where they have been used. However, they have also led to a small increase in the risk of intussusception. Methods: We compare the number of prevented hospitalisations for RVGE to the number of vaccine-induced hospitalised intussusceptions in France. Results: With 9.5% coverage (French 2015 estimation), vaccination was estimated to prevent, annually, a median of 1,074 hospitalisations (2.5th and 97.5th percentiles (2.5th-97.5th): 810-1,378) and 1.4 deaths (2.5th-97.5th: 1.2-1.6) from RVGE. It was also estimated to cause, annually, 5.0 hospitalisations (2.5th-97.5th: 3.2-7.7) and 0.005 deaths (2.5th-97.5th: 0.001-0.015) from intussusception. The benefit-risk ratio is therefore 214 (2.5th-97.5th: 128-362) for hospitalisations and 273 (2.5th-97.5th: 89-1,228) for deaths. Under a hypothetical 92% coverage, rotavirus vaccination with Rotarix would avoid 10,459 (2.5th-97.5th: 7,702-13,498) hospitalisations for RVGE and induce 47.0 (2.5th-97.5th: 25.1-81.4) hospitalisations for intussusception annually, thereby preventing 13.7 (2.5th-97.5th: 11.1-15.2) deaths and inducing 0.05 (2.5th-97.5th: 0.01-0.15) deaths. Conclusion: The benefit-risk ratio in France is similar to that of other European countries.

  4. Annual changes in rotavirus hospitalization rates before and after rotavirus vaccine implementation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Minesh P; Dahl, Rebecca M; Parashar, Umesh D; Lopman, Benjamin A

    2018-01-01

    Hospitalizations for rotavirus and acute gastroenteritis (AGE) have declined in the US with rotavirus vaccination, though biennial peaks in incidence in children aged less than 5 years occur. This pattern may be explained by lower rotavirus vaccination coverage in US children (59% to 73% from 2010-2015), resulting in accumulation of susceptible children over two successive birth cohorts. Retrospective cohort analysis of claims data of commercially insured US children aged rotavirus and for AGE from the 2002-2015 rotavirus seasons were examined. Median age and rotavirus vaccination coverage for biennial rotavirus seasons during pre-vaccine (2002-2005), early post-vaccine (2008-2011) and late post-vaccine (2012-2015) years. Age-stratified hospitalization rates decreased from pre-vaccine to early post-vaccine and then to late post-vaccine years. The clearest biennial pattern in hospitalization rates is the early post-vaccine period, with higher rates in 2009 and 2011 than in 2008 and 2010. The pattern diminishes in the late post-vaccine period. For rotavirus hospitalizations, the median age and the difference in age between biennial seasons was highest during the early post-vaccine period; these differences were not observed for AGE hospitalizations. There was no significant difference in vaccination coverage between biennial seasons. These observations provide conflicting evidence that incomplete vaccine coverage drove the biennial pattern in rotavirus hospitalizations that has emerged with rotavirus vaccination in the US. As this pattern is diminishing with higher vaccine coverage in recent years, further increases in vaccine coverage may reach a threshold that eliminates peak seasons in hospitalizations.

  5. Impact and Effectiveness of Monovalent Rotavirus Vaccine Against Severe Rotavirus Diarrhea in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armah, George; Pringle, Kimberly; Enweronu-Laryea, Christabel C; Ansong, Daniel; Mwenda, Jason M; Diamenu, Stanley K; Narh, Clement; Lartey, Belinda; Binka, Fred; Grytdal, Scott; Patel, Manish; Parashar, Umesh; Lopman, Ben

    2016-05-01

    Ghana was among the first African nations to introduce monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) into its childhood immunization schedule in April 2012. We aimed to assess the impact of vaccine introduction on rotavirus and acute gastroenteritis (AGE) hospitalizations and to estimate vaccine effectiveness (VE). Using data from 2 teaching hospitals, monthly AGE and rotavirus admissions by age were examined 40 months before and 31 months after RV1 introduction using interrupted time-series analyses. From January 2013, we enrolled children vaccination by rotavirus case-patient status, controlling for potential confounders. Vaccine coverage ranged from 95% to 100% for dose 1 and 93% to 100% for dose 2. In the first 3 years after vaccine introduction, the percentage of hospital admissions positive for rotavirus fell from 48% in the prevaccine period to 28% (49% adjusted rate reduction; 95% confidence interval [CI], 32%-63%) postvaccination among vaccine coverage, it was not possible to arrive at robust VE estimates; any-dose VE against rotavirus hospitalization was estimated at 60% (95% CI, -2% to 84%;P= .056). Results from the first 3 years following RV1 introduction suggest substantial reductions of pediatric diarrheal disease as a result of vaccination. Our VE estimate is consistent with the observed rotavirus decrease and with efficacy estimates from elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. Development of a rotavirus vaccine: clinical safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine, RotaTeq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarlet, Max; Schödel, Florian

    2009-12-30

    Initial approaches for rotavirus vaccines were based on the classical "Jennerian" approach and utilized simian and bovine rotavirus strains, which provided cross-protection against human rotavirus strains but did not cause illness in infants and young children because of their species-specific tropism. The demonstrated efficacy of these vaccines was not consistent across studies. Thus, human-animal reassortants containing an animal rotavirus backbone with human rotavirus surface G and/or P proteins were developed, which demonstrated more consistent efficacy than that observed with the non-reassortant rotavirus strains. The pentavalent rotavirus vaccine, RotaTeq, contains 5 human-bovine reassortant rotaviruses consisting of a bovine (WC3) backbone with human rotavirus surface proteins representative of the most common G (G1, G2, G3, G4) or P (P1A[8]) types worldwide. The present review focuses on the development of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine RotaTeq. Results of a large-scale Phase III clinical study showed that three doses of RotaTeq were immunogenic, efficacious, and well tolerated with no increased clinical risk of intussusception. RotaTeq was efficacious against rotavirus gastroenteritis of any severity (74%) and severe disease (98-100%), using a validated clinical scoring system. Reductions in rotavirus-associated hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits, for up to 2 years post-vaccination, were 95% in Europe, 97% in the United States, and 90% in the Latin American/Caribbean regions. RotaTeq was recently shown to be up to 100% effective in routine use in the US in reducing hospitalizations and ED visits and 96% effective in reducing physician visits. Additional studies in 8 different locations in the US have shown 85-95% reduction in rotavirus-associated hospitalizations and/or ED visits in the first 2-2.5 years of routine use.

  7. Impact of rotavirus vaccines in low and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhu, Kulandaipalayam Natarajan Chella; Babji, Sudhir; Ganesan, Santhosh Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Rotavirus vaccines are playing a pivotal role in improving lives of infants and young children in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Many of these countries have adopted the vaccine into their routine immunization, whereas others are considering introduction. This article provides an update on the impact of rotavirus vaccines in LMICs on morbidity and mortality in children aged less than 5 years, and their cost-effectiveness. The WHO, in 2013, updated its recommendation to prioritize introduction of rotavirus vaccines in the routine immunization schedule, without age restrictions. Despite the decreased efficacy of the vaccines in LMICs, data from Sub-Saharan Africa have demonstrated a decrease in rotavirus-related morbidity, with some sites reporting an indirect protective effect on children age ineligible to receive the vaccine. Even with improvements in sanitation, nutritional status in children, and other health-related indices in LMICs, the use of rotavirus vaccines will play an important role in preventing rotavirus-related gastroenteritis. Economic models predict a reduction in economic burden because of rotavirus-related health costs, making vaccine introduction cost-effective in resource-constrained settings. Increasing evidence from impact studies shows the significant impact of rotavirus vaccination on hospitalizations and economic burden because of rotavirus gastroenteritis in LMICs. Universal rotavirus vaccination is recommended, and introductions should be monitored by robust surveillance systems to measure effectiveness and impact.

  8. Global Impact of Rotavirus Vaccination on Childhood Hospitalizations and Mortality From Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Eleanor; Jonesteller, Christine L; Tate, Jacqueline E; Yen, Catherine; Parashar, Umesh D

    2017-06-01

    In 2006, 2 rotavirus vaccines were licensed. We summarize the impact of rotavirus vaccination on hospitalizations and deaths from rotavirus and all-cause acute gastroenteritis (AGE) during the first 10 years since vaccine licensure, including recent evidence from countries with high child mortality. We used standardized guidelines (PRISMA) to identify observational evaluations of rotavirus vaccine impact among children rotavirus AGE were reduced by a median of 67% overall and 71%, 59%, and 60% in countries with low, medium, and high child mortality, respectively. Implementation of rotavirus vaccines has substantially decreased hospitalizations from rotavirus and all-cause AGE. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  9. Effectiveness and impact of rotavirus vaccines in Europe, 2006-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karafillakis, Emilie; Hassounah, Sondus; Atchison, Christina

    2015-04-27

    Prior to the introduction of rotavirus vaccines in 2006, rotavirus was the leading cause of severe gastroenteritis among European children rotavirus vaccines in Europe following the first eight years of routine use. Four publication databases were searched, yielding 276 unique citations from February 1st, 2006 to July 31st, 2014. Twenty four studies on effectiveness (n=9) and impact (n=15) met the inclusion criteria. Across Europe, vaccine effectiveness against rotavirus-related healthcare utilisation ranged from 68% to 98%, consistent with efficacy data from clinical trials. Reductions in rotavirus hospitalisations ranged from 65% to 84%, consistent with findings from post-marketing studies from the US and Latin America. We confirm the significant public health benefit of rotavirus vaccination in Europe and provide further evidence to support implementation of universal rotavirus vaccination in all European countries. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Dose response and efficacy of a live, attenuated human rotavirus vaccine in Mexican infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo M; Guerrero, M Lourdes; Bautista-Márquez, Aurora; Ortega-Gallegos, Hilda; Tuz-Dzib, Fernando; Reyes-González, Leticia; Rosales-Pedraza, Gustavo; Martínez-López, Julia; Castañón-Acosta, Erika; Cervantes, Yolanda; Costa-Clemens, SueAnn; DeVos, Beatrice

    2007-08-01

    Immunization against rotavirus has been proposed as the most cost-effective intervention to reduce the disease burden associated with this infection worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the dose response, immunogenicity, and efficacy of 2 doses of an oral, attenuated monovalent G1[P8] human rotavirus vaccine in children from the same setting in Mexico, where the natural protection against rotavirus infection was studied. From June 2001 through May 2003, 405 healthy infants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 vaccine groups (virus concentrations 10(4.7), 10(5.2), and 10(5.8) infectious units) and to a placebo group and were monitored to the age of 2 years. The vaccine/placebo was administered concurrently with diphtheria-tetanus toxoid-pertussis/hepatitis B/Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine at 2 and 4 months of age. After the administration of the first vaccine/placebo dose, weekly home visits to collect information regarding infant health were conducted. Stool samples were collected during each gastroenteritis episode and tested for rotavirus antigen and serotype. The vaccine was well tolerated and induced a greater rate of seroconversion than observed in infants who received placebo. For the pooled vaccine groups, efficacy after 2 oral doses was 80% and 95% against any and severe rotavirus gastroenteritis, respectively. Efficacy was 100% against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis and 70% against severe gastroenteritis of any cause with the vaccine at the highest virus concentration (10(5.8) infectious units). The predominant infecting rotavirus serotype in this cohort was wild-type G1 (85%). Adverse events, including fever, irritability, loss of appetite, cough, diarrhea, and vomiting, were similar among vaccinees and placebo recipients. This new oral, live, attenuated human rotavirus vaccine was safe, immunogenic, and highly efficacious in preventing any and, more importantly, severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in healthy infants. This vaccine

  11. Rotavirus (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Rotavirus KidsHealth / For Parents / Rotavirus What's in this article? ... the Doctor Print en español El rotavirus About Rotavirus Almost all kids have had a rotavirus infection ...

  12. Detection and sequencing of rotavirus among sudanese children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Diarrheal diseases are a big public health problem worldwide, particularly among developing countries. The current study was conducted to detect and characterize group A rotavirus among admitted children with gastroenteritis to the pediatric hospitals, Sudan. Methods: A total of 755 stool samples were ...

  13. Prevalence of rotavirus diarrhoea among children under five years ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rotavirus (RV) is a major etiological agent of acute infantile gastroenteritis and is associated with 20%-25% of diarrhoea cases in infants. Nigeria continues to be among the first five countries with greatest number of RV disease associated deaths per year. From September 2013-August 2014, 467 stool samples were ...

  14. prevalence of rotavirus diarrhoea among children under five years

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    Correspondence author: aisha2zra@yahoo.com +2348035890640. ABSTRACT. Rotavirus (RV) is a major etiological agent of acute infantile gastroenteritis and is associated with 20%-25% of diarrhoea cases in infants. Nigeria continues to be among the first five countries with greatest number of RV disease associated ...

  15. Rotavirus Type A in Danish Cattle and Swine Herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midgley, Sofie; Gram, Nina; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    Rotavirus group A infection causes gastroenteritis in both humans and a variety of animal species. Both domestic pet species such as cats and dogs, and commercial species such as pigs and cows can be affected. Zoonotic transmission is a possibility and could lead to the introduction into human...

  16. Rotavirus Group A in Danish Cattle and Swine Herds 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midgley, Sofie; Gram, Nina; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    Rotavirus group A infection causes gastroenteritis in both humans and a variety of animal species. Both domestic pet species such as cats and dogs, and commercial species such as pigs and cows can be affected. Zoonotic transmission is a possibility and could lead to the introduction into human...

  17. Rotavirus Viremia and Extraintestinal Viral Infection in the Neonatal Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Sue E.; Patel, Dinesh G.; Cheng, Elly; Berkova, Zuzana; Hyser, Joseph M.; Ciarlet, Max; Finegold, Milton J.; Conner, Margaret E.; Estes, Mary K.

    2006-01-01

    findings alter the previously accepted concept of rotavirus pathogenesis to include not only gastroenteritis but also viremia, and they indicate that rotavirus could cause a broad array of systemic diseases in a number of different organs. PMID:16641274

  18. In vitro neutralisation of rotavirus infection by two broadly specific recombinant monovalent llama-derived antibody fragments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Aladin (Farah); A.W.C. Einerhand (Sandra); J. Bouma (Janneke); S. Bezemer (Sandra); P. Hermans (Pim); D. Wolvers (Danielle); K. Bellamy (Kate); L.G.J. Frenken (Leon); J. Gray (Jim); M. Iturriza-Gómara (Miren)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractRotavirus is the main cause of viral gastroenteritis in young children. Therefore, the development of inexpensive antiviral products for the prevention and/or treatment of rotavirus disease remains a priority. Previously we have shown that a recombinant monovalent antibody fragment

  19. Rotavirus vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang G

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotavirus, the most common cause of severe diarrhea and a leading cause of mortality in children, has been a priority target for vaccine development for the past several years. The first rotavirus vaccine licensed in the United States was withdrawn because of an association of the vaccine with intussusception. However, the need for a vaccine is greatest in the developing world, because the benefits of preventing deaths due to rotavirus disease are substantially greater than the risk of intussusception. Early vaccines were based on animal strains. More recently developed and licenced vaccines are either animal-human reassortants or are based on human strains. In India, two candidate vaccines are in the development process, but have not yet reached efficacy trials. Many challenges regarding vaccine efficacy and safety remain. In addition to completing clinical evaluations of vaccines in development in settings with the highest disease burden and virus diversity, there is also a need to consider alternative vaccine development strategies.

  20. Viral etiology and incidence of acute gastroenteritis in young children attending day-care centers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfeldt, Vibeke; Vesikari, Timo; Pang, Xiao-Li

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to investigate the frequency, morbidity and cause of acute gastroenteritis in children attending day-care centers in Denmark. METHODS: Children with acute diarrhea (> or =2 consecutive loose stools in 24 hours, with duration of ... 19 day-care centers, were included. Gastroenteritis viruses, group A rotavirus, sapoviruses, noroviruses and astroviruses were detected with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays. In addition, stool specimens were cultured for bacterial pathogens. Children who were brought...

  1. Efficacy of Lactobacillus Reuteri DSM 17938 for the Treatment of Acute Gastroenteritis in Children: Protocol of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymański, Henryk; Szajewska, Hania

    2017-08-23

    Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is one of the most common diseases among children. Oral rehydration therapy is the key treatment. However, despite proven efficacy, it remains underused. This is because oral rehydration solution neither reduces the frequency of bowel movements and fluid loss nor shortens the duration of illness. Hence, there is interest in adjunctive treatments. According to the 2014 guidelines developed by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, the use of the following probiotics may be considered in the management of children with AGE in addition to rehydration therapy: Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (low quality of evidence; strong recommendation) and Saccharomyces boulardii (low quality of evidence; strong recommendation). Less compelling evidence is available for Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 (very low quality of evidence; weak recommendation). Considering that evidence on L reuteri remains limited, the goal of the study is to assess the effectiveness of L reuteri DSM 17938 in the treatment of AGE in children. Children vaccinated and not vaccinated against rotavirus will be evaluated separately. This will be a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Children between 1 and 60 months of age with AGE, defined as a change in stool consistency to loose or liquid form (according to the Bristol Stool Form scale or Amsterdam Stool Form scale) and/or an increase in the frequency of evacuations (typically ≥3 in 24 h) lasting for no longer than 5 days, will be recruited. A total of 72 children will receive either L reuteri DSM 17938 at a dose of 2×10 8 colony-forming units twice daily or matching placebo for 5 consecutive days. A similar sample size for rotavirus vaccinated and nonvaccinated children is planned. The primary outcome measure is the duration of diarrhea. Two separate studies and reports for rotavirus vaccinated and nonvaccinated children are planned. The recruitment started in January 2017

  2. Zooanthroponotic transmission of rotavirus in Haryana State of Northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, P; Minakshi, P; Ranjan, K; Basanti, B

    Rotaviruses are the major cause of severe gastroenteritis and mortality in young children and animals. Due to segmented nature of dsRNA genome and wide host range, vast genetic and antigenic diversity exists amongst different isolates of rotaviruses. A total of 230 fecal ovine and caprine samples collected from organized farms and villages in Haryana were screened for rotavirus detection. Samples were screened by latex agglutination test and RNA-PAGE followed by RT-PCR and nucleic acid sequencing. The latex agglutination test showed 25 newborn lamb and 4 kid fecal samples positive for rotavirus. However, RNA-PAGE showed only 9 lamb fecal samples positive for rotavirus. All the samples were subjected to RT-PCR employing vp4 and vp7 gene specific primers of group A rotavirus of ovine, bovine and human origin. Only two samples from lamb (Sheep18/Hisar/2013 and Sheep22/Hisar/2013) showed vp4 and vp7 gene specific amplification with human group A rotavirus (GAR) specific primer. However, they did not show any amplification with ovine and bovine rotavirus specific primers. The nucleotide as well as deduced amino acid sequence analysis of vp4 gene of these isolates showed >98/97% and vp7 gene >95/94% nt/aa identity with human GAR from different regions of the world. Based on nucleotide similarity search, Sheep18/Hisar/2013 and Sheep22/Hisar/2013 isolates were genotyped as G1P[8] and G1P[4]. Phylogenetic analysis also confirmed that these isolates were clustered closely with human rotaviruses from different regions of the world. Earlier, higher prevalence of human rotaviruses was reported from the sample collecting area. The amplification of ovine samples with human rotavirus gene specific primers, sequence identity and phylogenetic analysis strongly suggests the zoonotic transmission of human GAR to sheep.

  3. Pancreatic hyperamylasemia during acute gastroenteritis: incidence and clinical relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pignattari Elena

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many case reports of acute pancreatitis have been reported but, up to now, pancreatic abnormalities during acute gastroenteritis have not been studied prospectively. Objectives To evaluate the incidence and the clinical significance of hyperamylasemia in 507 consecutive adult patients with acute gastroenteritis. Methods The clinical significance of hyperamylasemia, related predisposing factors and severity of gastroenteritis were assessed. Results Hyperamylasemia was detected in 10.2 % of patients studied. Although amylasemia was found over four times the normal values in three cases, the clinical features of acute pancreatitis were recorded in only one case (0.1%. Hyperamylasemia was more likely (17% where a microorganism could be identified in the stools (p Salmonella spp. and in particular S. enteritidis, was the microorganism most frequently associated with hyperamylasemia [17/84 (20.2 % and 10/45 (22.2%, respectively], followed by Rotavirus, Clostridium difficile and Campylobacter spp. Patients with hyperamylasemia had more severe gastroenteritis with an increased incidence of fever (80 % vs 50.6 %, O.R. 3.0; P Conclusions Hyperamylasemia is relatively frequent, and is associated with severe gastroenteritis. However, acute pancreatitis in the setting of acute gastroenteritis, is a rare event.

  4. Effectiveness of Pentavalent Rotavirus Vaccine Under Conditions of Routine Use in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Jacqueline E; Ngabo, Fidele; Donnen, Philippe; Gatera, Maurice; Uwimana, Jeannine; Rugambwa, Celse; Mwenda, Jason M; Parashar, Umesh D

    2016-05-01

    Rotavirus vaccine efficacy is lower in low-income countries than in high-income countries. Rwanda was one of the first low-income countries in sub-Saharan Africa to introduce rotavirus vaccine into its national immunization program. We sought to evaluate rotavirus vaccine effectiveness (VE) in this setting. VE was assessed using a case-control design. Cases and test-negative controls were children who presented with a diarrheal illness to 1 of 8 sentinel district hospitals and 10 associated health centers and had a stool specimen that tested positive (cases) or negative (controls) for rotavirus by enzyme immunoassay. Due to high vaccine coverage almost immediately after vaccine introduction, the analysis was restricted to children 7-18 weeks of age at time of rotavirus vaccine introduction. VE was calculated as (1 - odds ratio) × 100, where the odds ratio was the adjusted odds ratio for the rotavirus vaccination rate among case-patients compared with controls. Forty-eight rotavirus-positive and 152 rotavirus-negative children were enrolled. Rotavirus-positive children were significantly less likely to have received rotavirus vaccine (33/44 [73%] unvaccinated) compared with rotavirus-negative children (81/136 [59%] unvaccinated) (P= .002). A full 3-dose series was 75% (95% confidence interval [CI], 31%-91%) effective against rotavirus gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization or a health center visit and was 65% (95% CI, -80% to 93%) in children 6-11 months of age and 81% (95% CI, 25%-95%) in children ≥12 months of age. Rotavirus vaccine is effective in preventing rotavirus disease in Rwandan children who began their rotavirus vaccine series from 7 to 18 weeks of age. Protection from vaccination was sustained after the first year of life. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  5. Rotavirus Infection in the Auckland Region After the Implementation of Universal Infant Rotavirus Vaccination: Impact on Hospitalizations and Laboratory Implications.

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    McAuliffe, Gary N; Taylor, Susan L; Drinković, Dragana; Roberts, Sally A; Wilson, Elizabeth M; Best, Emma J

    2018-01-01

    In July 2014, New Zealand introduced universal infant vaccination with RotaTeq (Merk & Co.) administered as 3 doses at 6 weeks, 3 and 5 months of age. We sought to assess the impact of rotavirus vaccination on gastroenteritis (GE) hospitalizations in the greater Auckland region and analyze changes in rotavirus testing in the period around vaccine introduction. Hospitalizations, laboratory testing rates and methods were compared between the pre-vaccine period (2009-2013), post-vaccine period (January 2015 to December 2015) and year of vaccine introduction (2014). There was a 68% decline in rotavirus hospitalizations of children Auckland region. However, continued rotavirus testing at pre-vaccine rates risks generating false positive results. Laboratories and clinicians should consider reviewing their testing algorithms before vaccine introduction.

  6. Cost-Effectiveness of Rotavirus Vaccination in France-Accounting for Indirect Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamin, Dan; Atkins, Katherine E; Remy, Vanessa; Galvani, Alison P

    Vaccination against rotavirus has shown great potential for reducing the primary cause of severe childhood gastroenteritis. Previous economic evaluations of rotavirus vaccination in France have not modeled the potential impact of vaccines on disease burden via reduced transmission. To determine the cost-effectiveness of the introduction of pentavalent rotavirus vaccination into the French infant vaccination schedule. We developed an age-structured model of rotavirus transmission calibrated to 6 years of French gastroenteritis incidence and vaccine clinical trial data. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of pentavalent rotavirus vaccination considering that 75% of infants would receive the three-dose vaccine course. Our model predicts that rotavirus vaccination will decrease rotavirus gastroenteritis incidence and associated clinical outcomes in vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals, delay the seasonal peak of infection, and increase the age of infection. From the societal perspective, our base-case scenario predicts that vaccination coverage would be cost-effective at €115 or €135 per vaccine course at €28,500 and €39,500/quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained, respectively, and suggests that almost 95% of the financial benefits will be recouped within the first 5 years following vaccination implementation. From the third-party payer perspective, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios ranged from €12,500 to €20,000/QALY, respectively. Our uncertainty analysis suggests that findings were sensitive to various assumptions including the number of hospitalizations, outpatient visits, and the extent of QALY losses per rotavirus episode. Introducing pentavalent rotavirus vaccination into the French infant vaccination schedule would significantly reduce the burden of rotavirus disease in children, and could be cost-effective under plausible conditions. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by

  7. Rotavirus vaccines: an overview.

    OpenAIRE

    Midthun, K; Kapikian, A Z

    1996-01-01

    Rotavirus vaccine development has focused on the delivery of live attenuated rotavirus strains by the oral route. The initial "Jennerian" approach involving bovine (RIT4237, WC3) or rhesus (RRV) rotavirus vaccine candidates showed that these vaccines were safe, well tolerated, and immunogenic but induced highly variable rates of protection against rotavirus diarrhea. The goal of a rotavirus vaccine is to prevent severe illness that can lead to dehydration in infants and young children in both...

  8. Effectiveness of rotavirus vaccines against hospitalisations in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yoshiyuki; Noguchi, Atsuko; Miura, Shinobu; Ishii, Haruka; Nakagomi, Toyoko; Nakagomi, Osamu; Takahashi, Tsutomu

    2017-07-11

    In Japan, rotavirus hospitalisation occurs at a rate from 2.8 to 13.7 per 1000 child-years among children age less than 5 years, and it imposes a substantial burden to the healthcare system in the country. While both monovalent (RV1) and pentavalent (RV5) rotavirus vaccines are licensed in Japan, neither has been incorporated in the national infant immunization programme. In this study, we estimated vaccine effectiveness (VE) in Japan. This study was conducted in Yuri-Kumiai General Hospital located in a city in the north-western part of Japan. Age-eligible children for rotavirus vaccination were enrolled if they were hospitalized for rotavirus gastroenteritis between September 2013 and August 2016. Rotavirus gastroenteritis was defined by the detection of rotavirus antigen by immunochromatography. "Vaccinated" was defined as infant inoculated with at least one dose of either RV1 or RV5. A conditional logistic regression analysis was performed by modelling the year of birth, year of admission, residence of the children and vaccination status, and by matching the age of cases with that of test-negative controls. The adjusted odds ratio of the vaccinated over unvaccinated was then used to calculate VE in the formula of (1 - adjusted odds ratio) × 100. Out of the 244 patients enrolled, rotavirus antigen was detected in 55 (22.5%) of whom 10 (18.2%) were vaccinated, whereas 94 (49.7%) of 189 test-negative controls were vaccinated. During the study period, the vaccine uptake rate in the controls increased from 36.2% to 61.8%. On the other hand, the vaccination coverage over the three years was 64.2% in Yuri-Honjo city (three quarters of the catchment), and 91.4% in Nikaho city (one quarter of the catchment). The VE was calculated to be 70.4% (95% confidence interval: 36.0-86.4%, P = 0.002). The point estimate of the VE was lower but its 95% confidence interval overlaps those of the efficacies obtained from clinical trials in Japan. The rotavirus vaccine was

  9. Cost effectiveness of a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Awaidy, Salah Thabit; Gebremeskel, Berhanu G; Al Obeidani, Idris; Al Baqlani, Said; Haddadin, Wisam; O'Brien, Megan A

    2014-06-17

    Rotavirus gastroenteritis (RGE) is the leading cause of diarrhea in young children in Oman, incurring substantial healthcare and economic burden. We propose to formally assess the potential cost effectiveness of implementing universal vaccination with a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) on reducing the health care burden and costs associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis (RGE) in Oman A Markov model was used to compare two birth cohorts, including children who were administered the RV5 vaccination versus those who were not, in a hypothetical group of 65,500 children followed for their first 5 years of life in Oman. The efficacy of the vaccine in reducing RGE-related hospitalizations, emergency department (ED) and office visits, and days of parental work loss for children receiving the vaccine was based on the results of the Rotavirus Efficacy and Safety Trial (REST). The outcome of interest was cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained from health care system and societal perspectives. A universal RV5 vaccination program is projected to reduce, hospitalizations, ED visits, outpatient visits and parental work days lost due to rotavirus infections by 89%, 80%, 67% and 74%, respectively. In the absence of RV5 vaccination, RGE-related societal costs are projected to be 2,023,038 Omani Rial (OMR) (5,259,899 United States dollars [USD]), including 1,338,977 OMR (3,481,340 USD) in direct medical costs. However, with the introduction of RV5, direct medical costs are projected to be 216,646 OMR (563,280 USD). Costs per QALY saved would be 1,140 OMR (2,964 USD) from the health care payer perspective. An RV5 vaccination program would be considered cost saving, from the societal perspective. Universal RV5 vaccination in Oman is likely to significantly reduce the health care burden and costs associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis and may be cost-effective from the payer perspective and cost saving from the societal perspective.

  10. Clinical and Molecular Characteristics of Human Rotavirus G8P[8] Outbreak Strain, Japan, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Kenji; Tsugawa, Takeshi; Ono, Mayumi; Ohara, Toshio; Fujibayashi, Shinsuke; Tahara, Yasuo; Kubo, Noriaki; Nakata, Shuji; Higashidate, Yoshihito; Fujii, Yoshiki; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Yoto, Yuko; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2017-06-01

    During March-July 2014, rotavirus G8P[8] emerged as the predominant cause of rotavirus gastroenteritis among children in Hokkaido Prefecture, Japan. Clinical characteristics were similar for infections caused by G8 and non-G8 strains. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses suggest the strains were generated by multiple reassortment events between DS-1-like P[8] strains and bovine strains from Asia.

  11. Rotavirus vaccines and vaccination in Latin America

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    Linhares Alexandre C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, rotaviruses account for more than 125 million cases of infantile gastroenteritis and nearly 1 million deaths per year, mainly in developing countries. Rather than other control measures, vaccination is most likely to have a major impact on rotavirus disease incidence. The peak incidence of rotavirus diarrhea occurs between 6 and 24 months of age. In developing countries, however, cases are not uncommon among children younger than 6 months. G serotypes 1 to 4 are responsible for most disease, but there are indications that in Brazil that G type 5 is of emerging epidemiological importance. Both homotypic and heterotypic responses are elicited during natural rotavirus infection, and the immunological response at the intestinal mucosal surface is probably the more consistent predictor of clinical immunity. With the primary objective of protecting children against life-threatening dehydrating diarrhea, many approaches to rotavirus vaccine development have been attempted. One vaccine, the tetravalent rhesus-human reassortant rotavirus vaccine (RRV-TV, was given licensing approval in the United States of America, introduced to the market, and later withdrawn. A number of studies have found better efficacy of RRV-TV in developed countries than in developing ones. Field trials with a 4 X 10(4 plaque-forming units (PFU preparation of RRV-TV have been carried out in two countries in Latin America, Brazil and Peru. Those trials yielded protective efficacy rates against all rotavirus diarrhea ranging from 18% to 35%. Data from a large catchment trial in Venezuela with a higher RRV-TV dose, of 4 X 10(5 PFU/dose, indicated an efficacy rate of 48% against all rotavirus diarrhea and 88% against severe rotavirus diarrhea. It appears that breast-feeding does not compromise the efficacy of RRV-TV if three doses of the vaccine are administered. Similarly, possible interference of oral poliovirus vaccine with the "take" of the rotavirus vaccine can be

  12. Rotavirus vaccines and vaccination in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre C. Linhares

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, rotaviruses account for more than 125 million cases of infantile gastroenteritis and nearly 1 million deaths per year, mainly in developing countries. Rather than other control measures, vaccination is most likely to have a major impact on rotavirus disease incidence. The peak incidence of rotavirus diarrhea occurs between 6 and 24 months of age. In developing countries, however, cases are not uncommon among children younger than 6 months. G serotypes 1 to 4 are responsible for most disease, but there are indications that in Brazil that G type 5 is of emerging epidemiological importance. Both homotypic and heterotypic responses are elicited during natural rotavirus infection, and the immunological response at the intestinal mucosal surface is probably the more consistent predictor of clinical immunity. With the primary objective of protecting children against life-threatening dehydrating diarrhea, many approaches to rotavirus vaccine development have been attempted. One vaccine, the tetravalent rhesus-human reassortant rotavirus vaccine (RRV-TV, was given licensing approval in the United States of America, introduced to the market, and later withdrawn. A number of studies have found better efficacy of RRV-TV in developed countries than in developing ones. Field trials with a 4 X 10(4 plaque-forming units (PFU preparation of RRV-TV have been carried out in two countries in Latin America, Brazil and Peru. Those trials yielded protective efficacy rates against all rotavirus diarrhea ranging from 18% to 35%. Data from a large catchment trial in Venezuela with a higher RRV-TV dose, of 4 X 10(5 PFU/dose, indicated an efficacy rate of 48% against all rotavirus diarrhea and 88% against severe rotavirus diarrhea. It appears that breast-feeding does not compromise the efficacy of RRV-TV if three doses of the vaccine are administered. Similarly, possible interference of oral poliovirus vaccine with the "take" of the rotavirus vaccine can be

  13. Molecular characterization of rotavirus strains detected during a clinical trial of a human rotavirus vaccine in Blantyre, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagomi, Toyoko; Nakagomi, Osamu; Dove, Winifred; Doan, Yen Hai; Witte, Desiree; Ngwira, Bagrey; Todd, Stacy; Duncan Steele, A; Neuzil, Kathleen M; Cunliffe, Nigel A

    2012-04-27

    The human, G1P[8] rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix™) significantly reduced severe rotavirus gastroenteritis episodes in a clinical trial in South Africa and Malawi, but vaccine efficacy was lower in Malawi (49.5%) than reported in South Africa (76.9%) and elsewhere. The aim of this study was to examine the molecular relationships of circulating wild-type rotaviruses detected during the clinical trial in Malawi to RIX4414 (the strain contained in Rotarix™) and to common human rotavirus strains. Of 88 rotavirus-positive, diarrhoeal stool specimens, 43 rotaviruses exhibited identifiable RNA migration patterns when examined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The genes encoding VP7, VP4, VP6 and NSP4 of 5 representative strains possessing genotypes G12P[6], G1P[8], G9P[8], and G8P[4] were sequenced. While their VP7 (G) and VP4 (P) genotype designations were confirmed, the VP6 (I) and NSP4 (E) genotypes were either I1E1 or I2E2, indicating that they were of human rotavirus origin. RNA-RNA hybridization using 21 culture-adapted strains showed that Malawian rotaviruses had a genomic RNA constellation common to either the Wa-like or the DS-1 like human rotaviruses. Overall, the Malawi strains appear similar in their genetic make-up to rotaviruses described in countries where vaccine efficacy is greater, suggesting that the lower efficacy in Malawi is unlikely to be explained by the diversity of circulating strains. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of human rotavirus vaccine on severe diarrhea in African infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhi, Shabir A; Cunliffe, Nigel A; Steele, Duncan; Witte, Desirée; Kirsten, Mari; Louw, Cheryl; Ngwira, Bagrey; Victor, John C; Gillard, Paul H; Cheuvart, Brigitte B; Han, Htay H; Neuzil, Kathleen M

    2010-01-28

    Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis among young children worldwide. Data are needed to assess the efficacy of the rotavirus vaccine in African children. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial in South Africa (3166 infants; 64.1% of the total) and Malawi (1773 infants; 35.9% of the total) to evaluate the efficacy of a live, oral rotavirus vaccine in preventing severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. Healthy infants were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive two doses of vaccine (in addition to one dose of placebo) or three doses of vaccine--the pooled vaccine group--or three doses of placebo at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age. Episodes of gastroenteritis caused by wild-type rotavirus during the first year of life were assessed through active follow-up surveillance and were graded with the use of the Vesikari scale. A total of 4939 infants were enrolled and randomly assigned to one of the three groups; 1647 infants received two doses of the vaccine, 1651 infants received three doses of the vaccine, and 1641 received placebo. Of the 4417 infants included in the per-protocol efficacy analysis, severe rotavirus gastroenteritis occurred in 4.9% of the infants in the placebo group and in 1.9% of those in the pooled vaccine group (vaccine efficacy, 61.2%; 95% confidence interval, 44.0 to 73.2). Vaccine efficacy was lower in Malawi than in South Africa (49.4% vs. 76.9%); however, the number of episodes of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis that were prevented was greater in Malawi than in South Africa (6.7 vs. 4.2 cases prevented per 100 infants vaccinated per year). Efficacy against all-cause severe gastroenteritis was 30.2%. At least one serious adverse event was reported in 9.7% of the infants in the pooled vaccine group and in 11.5% of the infants in the placebo group. Human rotavirus vaccine significantly reduced the incidence of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis among African infants during the first year of life. (Clinical

  15. Cytokines in the management of rotavirus infection: A systematic review of in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Gopalsamy Rajiv; Santos, Victor Santana; Denadai, Marina; da Silva Calisto, Valdete Kaliane; de Souza Siqueira Quintans, Jullyana; de Oliveira E Silva, Ana Mara; de Souza Araújo, Adriano Antunes; Narain, Narendra; Cuevas, Luis Eduardo; Júnior, Lucindo José Quintans; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz

    2017-08-01

    Rotavirus is a leading cause of childhood diarrhoea. Rotavirus vaccines are effective against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis, but have lower efficacy in low income countries in Africa. Anti-rotavirus treatment is not available. This study reviews the literature of animal studies evaluating whether cytokine mediated pathways of immune activation could improve rotavirus therapy. We performed a systematic review of articles in English published from 2010 to 2016 reporting agents with in vivo antirotavirus activity for the management of rotavirus infection. The search was carried in PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and Web of Science. Animal experiments where cytokines were investigated to assess the outcome of rotavirus therapy were included. A total of 869 publications were identified. Of these, 19 pertained the objectives of the review, and 11 articles described the effect of probiotics/commensals on rotavirus infection and immune responses in animals. Eight further in vivo studies evaluated the immunomodulating effects of herbs, secondary metabolites and food-derived products on cytokine responses of rotavirus-infected animals. Studies extensively reported the regulatory roles for T-helper (Th)1 (interferon gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12) and Th2 (IL-4, IL-6, IL-10) cytokines responses to rotavirus pathogenesis and immunity, inhibiting rotavirus infection through suppression of inflammation by viral inhibition. Th1 and Th2 cytokines stimulate the immune system, inhibiting rotavirus binding and/or replication in animal models. Th1/Th2 cytokine responses have optimal immunomodulating effects to reduce rotavirus diarrhoea and enhance immune responses in experimental rotavirus infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Concomitant Rotavirus and Salmonella Infections in Children with Acute Diarrhea

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    Wen-Tzong Lan

    2009-02-01

    Conclusion: Concomitant rotavirus and Salmonella infections accounted for 3.7% of cases in this study. Patients in group C (30.0% had a significantly higher incidence of hypokalemia than group R (7.3% or S (8.8%. Group C consisted of 33 cases of the 895 reviewed cases (3.7%. In a child with rotavirus gastroenteritis, concomitant infection with Salmonella should be considered if the child has sustained a high fever (≥ 39°C for over 4 days and a green stool with mucus and blood.

  17. Rotavirus vaccines in Israel: Uptake and impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhsen, Khitam; Cohen, Daniel

    2017-07-03

    We present an overview of the impact of universal rotavirus immunization with the pentavalent vaccine, RotaTeq, which was introduced in Israel in 2010. The vaccine is given free of charge at age 2, 4 and 6 months, with an 80% coverage that was shortly achieved during the universal immunization period. Compared to pre-universal immunization years (2008-2010), a reduction of 66-68% in the incidence of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) hospitalizations was observed in 2011-2015 among children aged 0-23 months in central and northern Israel. In southern Israel a reduction of 80-88% in RVGE hospital visit rate was found among Jewish children aged 0-23 months in 2011-2013. Among Bedouins, the respective decline was 62-75%. A significant reduction of 59% was also observed in RVGE clinic visits, presumably representing less severe illness. Indirect benefit was evident in children aged 24-59 months who were ineligible for universal immunization. Vaccine effectiveness against RVGE hospitalization was estimated at 86% in children aged 6-23 months. Changes in the circulating rotavirus genotypes occurred but the contribution of vaccine induced immune pressure is unclear. Universal rotavirus immunization was followed by an impressive decrease in the burden of RVGE in young children in Israel, likely attributed to good vaccine coverage and effectiveness.

  18. Human rotavirus genotypes circulating in Brazil before and after a nationwide rotavirus vaccination program established in 2006

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    Caruzo TAR

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Thabata AR CaruzoGenetics, Evolution and Bioagents Department, Institute of Biology, State University of Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, BrazilAbstract: Accounting for an estimated 600,000 deaths worldwide each year, rotaviruses are recognized as the most important etiologic agents causing severe acute gastroenteritis among children under the age of five years. In Brazil, until rotavirus vaccination was established in the public health system in 2006, acute gastroenteritis striking children under five years and caused by these viruses was clearly associated with 3.5 million episodes of diarrhea, 650,000 visits to outpatient health care facilities, 92,000 hospitalizations, and 850 deaths each year. After the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine in Brazil in March 2006, studies all over the country have been comparing rotavirus genotypes circulating in the recent pre- and postvaccination era. Most of these studies have reported a high prevalence of the G2P[4] genotype and also a decrease in rotavirus detection all over Brazil after the introduction of the vaccine. So far, these are preliminary studies, as a longer period of time is necessary to establish if this high prevalence of G2P[4] is due to selective pressure by the vaccine on the circulating viruses or to a normal genotype fluctuation, and if it will have any impact on vaccine efficacy in the future. This review describes results from the most recent studies addressing this issue and on rotavirus genotypic variability in Brazil.Keywords: human rotavirus, vaccine, genotypes, prevalence, Brazil

  19. Rotavirus Infections - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Rotavirus Infections URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Rotavirus Infections - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  20. Cost-effectiveness of Rotavirus vaccination in Vietnam

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    Goldie Sue J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea leading to hospitalization or disease-specific death among young children. New rotavirus vaccines have recently been approved. Some previous studies have provided broad qualitative insights into the health and economic consequences of introducing the vaccines into low-income countries, representing several features of rotavirus infection, such as varying degrees of severity and age-dependency of clinical manifestation, in their model-based analyses. We extend this work to reflect additional features of rotavirus (e.g., the possibility of reinfection and varying degrees of partial immunity conferred by natural infection, and assess the influence of the features on the cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination. Methods We developed a Markov model that reflects key features of rotavirus infection, using the most recent data available. We applied the model to the 2004 Vietnamese birth cohort and re-evaluated the cost-effectiveness (2004 US dollars per disability-adjusted life year [DALY] of rotavirus vaccination (Rotarix® compared to no vaccination, from both societal and health care system perspectives. We conducted univariate sensitivity analyses and also performed a probabilistic sensitivity analysis, based on Monte Carlo simulations drawing parameter values from the distributions assigned to key uncertain parameters. Results Rotavirus vaccination would not completely protect young children against rotavirus infection due to the partial nature of vaccine immunity, but would effectively reduce severe cases of rotavirus gastroenteritis (outpatient visits, hospitalizations, or deaths by about 67% over the first 5 years of life. Under base-case assumptions (94% coverage and $5 per dose, the incremental cost per DALY averted from vaccination compared to no vaccination would be $540 from the societal perspective and $550 from the health care system perspective. Conclusion

  1. Rotavirus vaccines: safety, efficacy and public health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, J

    2011-09-01

    Rotaviruses are the cause of acute gastroenteritis, and disease is widespread amongst infants and young children throughout the world. Also, rotavirus is associated with significant mortality in developing countries with more than 500 000 children dying each year as a result of the severe dehydration associated with rotavirus disease. Efforts have been ongoing for more than 30 years to develop a safe and effective rotavirus vaccine. Currently, two vaccines, RotaRix and RotaTeq, have been licensed for use in many countries throughout the world following comprehensive safety and efficiency trials. Monitoring their effectiveness after licensure has confirmed that their incorporation into early childhood vaccination schedules can significantly prevent severe rotavirus diarrhoea, which would have resulted in hospitalizations, emergency room visits or increased diarrhoea-related mortality. Although the efficacy of both vaccines is lower at approximately 40-59% in developing countries, their use could significantly reduce the mortality associated with rotavirus disease that is concentrated in these countries. © 2011 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  2. Rotavirus vaccine effectiveness in low-income settings: An evaluation of the test-negative design.

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    Schwartz, Lauren M; Halloran, M Elizabeth; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Neuzil, Kathleen M; Victor, John C

    2017-01-03

    The test-negative design (TND), an epidemiologic method currently used to measure rotavirus vaccine (RV) effectiveness, compares the vaccination status of rotavirus-positive cases and rotavirus-negative controls meeting a pre-defined case definition for acute gastroenteritis. Despite the use of this study design in low-income settings, the TND has not been evaluated to measure rotavirus vaccine effectiveness. This study builds upon prior methods to evaluate the use of the TND for influenza vaccine using a randomized controlled clinical trial database. Test-negative vaccine effectiveness (VE-TND) estimates were derived from three large randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) of monovalent (RV1) and pentavalent (RV5) rotavirus vaccines in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Derived VE-TND estimates were compared to the original RCT vaccine efficacy estimates (VE-RCTs). The core assumption of the TND (i.e., rotavirus vaccine has no effect on rotavirus-negative diarrhea) was also assessed. TND vaccine effectiveness estimates were nearly equivalent to original RCT vaccine efficacy estimates. Neither RV had a substantial effect on rotavirus-negative diarrhea. This study supports the TND as an appropriate epidemiologic study design to measure rotavirus vaccine effectiveness in low-income settings. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Longitudinal Observation on Rotavirus Infection in Children Aged under 5 Years Old Hospitalized in 2 Hospitals of Ukraine in 2006–2015

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    L.I. Chernyshova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. More than 50,000 cases of acute gastroenteritis are registered in children in Ukraine annually. Statistical data concerning rotavirus infection are not correct due to poor capacities of rotavirus laboratory diagnostics in medical units. The aim of the study was to estimate rotavirus infection burden, to analyze and describe rotavirus infection in children aged under 5 years old who were hospitalized into two infectious hospitals (Kyiv and Odessa within 2006–2015 period. Material and Methods. Investigation was carried according to a standard protocol, adopted by WHO. The disease severity was estimated by score scale for clinical manifestations of rotavirus gastroenteritis assessment of Vesikari. Results. At the period from December 2006 to December 2015 20,932 children aged under 5 years old were observed. Those children admitted to hospitals of infectious diseases in Kyiv and Odessa for acute gastroenteritis and met studies inclusive criteria. From them 18,384 (87.33 % children were investigated for rotavirus, i.e. wide majority of all children admitted to hospitals with gastroenteritis. The cause of their hospitalization was rotavirus infection in almost half of all children. It was mentioned that in some periods hospitalization rate for rotavirus as a cause of gastroenteritis was up to 70 % of all cases. In Ukraine incidence of rotavirus diarrhea in hospitalized children up to 5 years old was the highest one among 6 countries of the European region included into Global Rotavirus Surveillance Network. In Ukraine it was 41 % and the region mean value was 24 %. Within the total period of observation half of all hospitalizations caused by rotavirus occurred in children of first two years of life. All time the main viruses causing infection in both hospitals were of 4 genotypes: G1P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8], G4P[8]. Genotype G9P[8] possessed a significant position in Kyiv, but there were years, when it was not identified neither in Kyiv

  4. Development of a multiplex real-time PCR assay for detection of human enteric viruses other than norovirus using samples collected from gastroenteritis patients in Fukui Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowada, Kazuaki; Takeuchi, Kenji; Hirano, Eiko; Toho, Miho; Sada, Kiyonao

    2018-01-01

    There are many varieties of gastroenteritis viruses, of which norovirus (NoV) accounts for over 90% of the viral food poisoning incidents in Japan. However, protocols for rapidly identifying other gastroenteritis viruses need to be established to investigate NoV-negative cases intensively. In this study, a multiplex real-time PCR assay targeting rotavirus A, rotavirus C, sapovirus, astrovirus, adenovirus, and enterovirus was developed using stool samples collected from gastroenteritis patients between 2010 and 2013 in Fukui Prefecture, Japan. Of the 126 samples collected sporadically from pediatric patients with suspected infectious gastroenteritis, 51 were positive for non-NoV target viruses, whereas 27 were positive for NoV, showing a high prevalence of non-NoV viruses in pediatric patients. In contrast, testing in 382 samples of 58 gastroenteritis outbreaks showed that non-NoV viruses were detected in 13 samples, with NoV in 267. Of the 267 NoV-positive patients, only two were co-infected with non-NoV target viruses, suggesting that testing for non-NoV gastroenteritis viruses in NoV-positive samples was mostly unnecessary in outbreak investigations. Given these results, multiplex real-time PCR testing for non-NoV gastroenteritis viruses, conducted separately from NoV testing, may be helpful to deal with two types of epidemiological investigations, regular surveillance of infectious gastroenteritis and urgent testing when gastroenteritis outbreaks occur. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Use of Internet Search Data to Monitor Rotavirus Vaccine Impact in the United States, United Kingdom, and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Minesh P; Lopman, Benjamin A; Tate, Jacqueline E; Harris, John; Esparza-Aguilar, Marcelino; Sanchez-Uribe, Edgar; Richardson, Vesta; Steiner, Claudia A; Parashar, Umesh D

    2018-02-19

    Previous studies have found a strong correlation between internet search and public health surveillance data. Less is known about how search data respond to public health interventions, such as vaccination, and the consistency of responses in different countries. In this study, we aimed to study the correlation between internet searches for "rotavirus" and rotavirus disease activity in the United States, United Kingdom, and Mexico before and after introduction of rotavirus vaccine. We compared time series of internet searches for "rotavirus" from Google Trends with rotavirus laboratory reports from the United States and United Kingdom and with hospitalizations for acute gastroenteritis in the United States and Mexico. Using time and location parameters, Google quantifies an internet query share (IQS) to measure the relative search volume for specific terms. We analyzed the correlation between IQS and laboratory and hospitalization data before and after national vaccine introductions. There was a strong positive correlation between the rotavirus IQS and laboratory reports in the United States (R2 = 0.79) and United Kingdom (R2 = 0.60) and between the rotavirus IQS and acute gastroenteritis hospitalizations in the United States (R2 = 0.87) and Mexico (R2 = 0.69) (P United States and by 70% (95% CI, 55%-86%) in Mexico. In the United Kingdom, there was a loss of seasonal variation after vaccine introduction. Rotavirus internet search data trends mirrored national rotavirus laboratory trends in the United States and United Kingdom and gastroenteritis-hospitalization data in the United States and Mexico; lower correlations were found after rotavirus vaccine introduction. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. Human rotavirus vaccine is highly efficacious when coadministered with routine expanded program of immunization vaccines including oral poliovirus vaccine in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tregnaghi, Miguel W; Abate, Héctor J; Valencia, Alejandra; Lopez, Pio; Da Silveira, Themis Reverbel; Rivera, Luis; Rivera Medina, Doris Maribel; Saez-Llorens, Xavier; Gonzalez Ayala, Silvia Elena; De León, Tirza; Van Doorn, Leen-Jan; Pilar Rubio, Maria Del; Suryakiran, Pemmaraju Venkata; Casellas, Javier M; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo; Smolenov, Igor V; Han, Htay-Htay

    2011-06-01

    The efficacy of a rotavirus vaccine against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis when coadministered with routine Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) vaccines including oral polio vaccine (OPV) was evaluated in this study. Double-blind, randomized (2:1), placebo-controlled study conducted across 6 Latin American countries. Healthy infants (N = 6568) 6 to 12 weeks of age received 2 doses of RIX4414 vaccine or placebo following a 0, 1- to 2-month schedule. Routine vaccines including OPV were coadministered according to local EPI schedule. Vaccine efficacy (VE) against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis caused by circulating wild-type rotavirus from 2 weeks post-Dose 2 until 1 year of age was calculated with 95% confidence interval [CI]. Safety was assessed during the entire study period. Immunogenicity of RIX4414 and OPV was also assessed. During the efficacy follow-up period (mean duration = 7.4 months), 7 and 19 cases of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis were reported in the vaccine and placebo groups, respectively, with a VE of 81.6% (95% CI: 54.4-93.5). VE against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis caused by G1 type was 100% (95% CI: rotavirus types, respectively. There was no difference (P = 0.514) in the incidence of serious adverse events reported in the 2 groups. Antirotavirus IgA seropositivity rate at 1 to 2 months post-Dose 2 was 61.4% (95% CI: 53.7-68.6) in the RIX4414 group; similar seroprotection rates (≥96.0%) against the 3 antipoliovirus types was observed 1 month post-Dose 3 of OPV in both groups. RIX4414 was highly efficacious against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis caused by the circulating wild-type rotavirus (G1 and non-G1) when coadministered with routine EPI vaccines including OPV.

  7. Incidence of Rotavirus Diarrhea in Children Under 6 years Referred to the Pediatric Emergency and Clinic of Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran

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    Ali Sadeghian

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available "nRotavirus is the most important pathogen responsible for acute diarrhea in infants and young children. The incidence of rotavirus infection was studied in 156 children less than six years of age who were suffering from acute gastroenteritis, between February 22, 2006 and February 21, 2007 in Mashhad. Rotavirus antigen was detected by latex agglutination test (Rotascreen in 28.8% of the stool samples examined. The frequency of rotavirus infection was significantly higher among patients under 24 months of age (69% than among children two years old or more (31%. The peak of incidence was in the winter. This study revealed that rotavirus is an important etiological agent of acute gastroenteritis among children in Mashhad.

  8. Prevalence of rotavirus among children under five years of age with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rotavirus (RV) is a major etiological agent of acute infantile gastroenteritis and is associated with 20%-25% of diarrhea cases in infants. Nigeria continues to be among the first five countries with greatest number of RV disease associated deaths per year. The objective was to determine some demographic factors that might ...

  9. Prevalence and factors associated with rotavirus infection among children admitted with acute diarrhea in Uganda

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    Mworozi Edison A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotavirus remains the commonest cause of severe dehydrating diarrhea among children worldwide. Children in developing countries die more because of several factors including poorer access to hydration therapy and greater prevalence of malnutrition. Hitherto, the magnitude of rotavirus disease in Uganda has remained unknown. This study was therefore done to determine the prevalence and factors associated with rotavirus infection among children aged 3-59 months admitted with acute diarrhea to paediatric emergency ward of Mulago Hospital, Uganda Methods Three hundred and ninety children, aged between 3-59 months with acute diarrhoea were recruited. The clinical history, socio-demographic characteristics, physical examination findings and laboratory investigations were recorded. Stool samples were tested for rotavirus antigens using the DAKO IDEIA rotavirus EIA detection kit. Results The prevalence of rotavirus infection was 45.4%. On multivariate analysis rotavirus was significantly associated with a higher education (above secondary level of the mother [OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.1-2.7]; dehydration [OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.1-3.0] and breastfeeding [OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.4-4.0]. Although age was significantly associated with rotavirus on bivariate analysis; this association disappeared on multivariate analysis. No significant association was found between rotavirus infection and nutritional status, HIV status and attendance of day care or school. Conclusions Rotavirus infection is highly prevalent among children with acute diarrhoea admitted to Mulago Hospital in Uganda.

  10. In-season and out-of-season variation of rotavirus genotype distribution and age of infection across 12 European countries before the introduction of routine vaccination, 2007/08 to 2012/13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hungerford, Daniel; Vivancos, Roberto; Read, Jonathan M

    2016-01-01

    distribution and age distribution of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) cases in and out of peak season in 12 countries which were yet to implement routine rotavirus vaccination. In multinomial multivariate logistic regression, adjusting for year, country and age, the odds of infection caused by genotype...

  11. Estimating the herd immunity effect of rotavirus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Suzanne L; Malpica-Llanos, Tanya; Friberg, Ingrid K; Fischer-Walker, Christa; Ashraf, Sania; Walker, Neff

    2015-07-31

    Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of death in children under 5, and an estimated 39% of these deaths are attributable to rotavirus. Currently two live, oral rotavirus vaccines have been introduced on the market; however, the herd immunity effect associated with rotavirus vaccine has not yet been quantified. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to estimate the herd immunity effects associated with rotavirus vaccines. We performed a systematic literature review of articles published between 2008 and 2014 that measured the impact of rotavirus vaccine on severe gastroenteritis (GE) morbidity or mortality. We assessed the quality of published studies using a standard protocol and conducted meta-analyses to estimate the herd immunity effect in children less than one year of age across all years presented in the studies. We conducted these analyses separately for studies reporting a rotavirus-specific GE outcome and those reporting an all-cause GE outcome. In studies reporting a rotavirus-specific GE outcome, four of five of which were conducted in the United States, the median herd effect across all study years was 22% [19-25%]. In studies reporting an all-cause GE outcome, all of which were conducted in Latin America, the median herd effect was 24.9% [11-30%]. There is evidence that rotavirus vaccination confers a herd immunity effect in children under one year of age in the United States and Latin American countries. Given the high variability in vaccine efficacy across regions, more studies are needed to better examine herd immunity effects in high mortality regions. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. The burden of rotavirus disease in Denmark 2009-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Thea Kølsen; Rungø, Christine; Jensen, Claus Sixtus

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study sought to determine the incidence and the burden of severe diarrheal disease in Denmark with emphasis on rotavirus (RV) disease. METHODS: This study was designed as a national prospective disease surveillance of children gastroenteritis...... in Denmark during March 2009 to April 2010, using rapid RV and adenovirus antigen detection. RESULTS: A total of 3100 hospitalizations annually among Danish children gastroenteritis and 1210 (39%) of these to RV disease. The majority of RV...... demonstrated RV-associated hospitalizations throughout the year. Genotyping of a subset of RV-samples demonstrated high frequency of G1 (39%) and G4 (32%). Adenovirus was detected in 350 acute gastroenteritis-associated hospitalizations (11.2%). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we present national disease burden...

  13. Incorporation of a rotavirus vaccine into the national immunisation schedule in the United Kingdom: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagomi, Osamu; Iturriza-Gomara, Miren; Nakagomi, Toyoko; Cunliffe, Nigel A

    2013-11-01

    Rotavirus, the commonest cause of severe acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide, imposes a large health and economic burden on the British society, accounting for an estimated 14,300 hospitalisations and 133,000 general practitioner consultations each year among children aged rotavirus vaccine, Rotarix (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Belgium), was introduced into the UK childhood immunisation programme in 2013. This article provides a review of the product profile of the Rotarix vaccine for use in the national immunisation programme in the UK from an expert perspective. This single G1P[8] strain-based human rotavirus vaccine has demonstrated high efficacy in preventing severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in the first 3 years of life in middle- and high-income countries. In countries that have adopted rotavirus vaccine in childhood immunisation programmes, indirect benefits (herd protection) have been observed among older, unvaccinated children and adults. When the first dose is administered between 6 and 14 weeks of age and the last dose by 24 weeks of age, Rotarix carries a small risk of intussusception within the week of vaccination. However, this small risk may at most result in a negligible population attributable risk at the end of the first year of life. Overall, the rotavirus immunisation programme is expected to provide substantial health benefits to the UK population.

  14. Molecular Epidemiology of Rotavirus in Cats in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturriza-Gómara, M.; Dove, W.; Sandrasegaram, M.; Nakagomi, T.; Nakagomi, O.; Cunliffe, N.; Radford, A. D.; Morgan, K. L.

    2014-01-01

    Rotaviruses are leading causes of gastroenteritis in the young of many species. Molecular epidemiological studies in children suggest that interspecies transmission contributes to rotavirus strain diversity in people. However, population-based studies of rotaviruses in animals are few. We investigated the prevalence, risk factors for infection, and genetic diversity of rotavirus A in a cross-sectional survey of cats housed within 25 rescue catteries across the United Kingdom. Morning litter tray fecal samples were collected during the winter and summer in 2012 from all pens containing kittens and a random sample of those housing adult cats. Group A rotavirus RNA was detected by real-time reverse transcription-PCR, and positive samples were G and P genotyped using nested VP4 and VP7 PCR assays. A total of 1,727 fecal samples were collected from 1,105 pens. Overall, the prevalence of rotavirus was 3.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2 to 4.9%). Thirteen out of 25 (52%; 95% CI, 31.3 to 72.2%) centers housed at least one rotavirus-positive cat. The prevalence of rotavirus was associated with season (odds ratio, 14.8 [95% CI, 1.1 to 200.4]; P = 0.04) but not age or diarrhea. It was higher during the summer (4.7%; 95% CI, 1.2 to 8.3%) than in winter (0.8%; 95% CI, 0.2 to 1.5%). Asymptomatic epidemics of infection were detected in two centers. G genotypes were characterized for 19 (33.3%) of the 57 rotavirus-positive samples and P genotypes for 36 (59.7%). Two rotavirus genotypes were identified, G3P[9] and G6P[9]. This is the first population-based study of rotavirus in cats and the first report of feline G6P[9], which questions the previous belief that G6P[9] in people is of bovine origin. PMID:25411173

  15. Prevalence of rotavirus genotypes in children younger than 5 years of age before the introduction of a universal rotavirus vaccination program: report of rotavirus surveillance in Turkey.

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    Riza Durmaz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Group A rotaviruses are the most common causative agent of acute gastroenteritis among children less than 5 years of age throughout the world. This sentinel surveillance study was aimed to obtain baseline data on the rotavirus G and P genotypes across Turkey before the introduction of a universal rotavirus vaccination program. METHODS: Rotavirus antigen-positive samples were collected from 2102 children less than 5 years of age who attended hospitals participating in the Turkish Rotavirus Surveillance Network. Rotavirus antigen was detected in the laboratories of participating hospitals by commercial serological tests such as latex agglutination, immunochromatographic test or enzyme immunoassay. Rotavirus G and P genotypes were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR using consensus primers detecting the VP7 and VP4 genes, followed by semi-nested type-specific multiplex PCR. RESULTS: RT-PCR found rotavirus RNA in 1644 (78.2% of the samples tested. The highest rate of rotavirus positivity (38.7% was observed among children in the 13 to 24 month age group, followed by children in the age group of 25 to 36 months (28.3%. A total of eight different G types, six different P types, and 42 different G-P combinations were obtained. Four common G types (G1, G2, G3, and G9 and two common P types (P[8] and P[4] accounted for 95.1% and 98.8% of the strains, respectively. G9P[8] was the most common G/P combination found in 40.5% of the strains followed by G1P[8] (21.6%, G2P[8] (9.3%, G2P[4] (6.5%, G3P[8] (3.5%, and finally, G4P[8] (3.4%. These six common genotypes included 83.7% of the strains tested in this study. The rate of uncommon genotypes was 14%. CONCLUSION: The majority of the strains analyzed belonged to the G1-G4 and G9 genotypes, suggesting high coverage of current rotavirus vaccines. This study also demonstrates a dramatic increase in G9 genotype across the country.

  16. Prevalence of Rotavirus Genotypes in Children Younger than 5 Years of Age before the Introduction of a Universal Rotavirus Vaccination Program: Report of Rotavirus Surveillance in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmaz, Riza; Kalaycioglu, Atila Taner; Acar, Sumeyra; Bakkaloglu, Zekiye; Karagoz, Alper; Korukluoglu, Gulay; Ertek, Mustafa; Torunoglu, Mehmet Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background Group A rotaviruses are the most common causative agent of acute gastroenteritis among children less than 5 years of age throughout the world. This sentinel surveillance study was aimed to obtain baseline data on the rotavirus G and P genotypes across Turkey before the introduction of a universal rotavirus vaccination program. Methods Rotavirus antigen-positive samples were collected from 2102 children less than 5 years of age who attended hospitals participating in the Turkish Rotavirus Surveillance Network. Rotavirus antigen was detected in the laboratories of participating hospitals by commercial serological tests such as latex agglutination, immunochromatographic test or enzyme immunoassay. Rotavirus G and P genotypes were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using consensus primers detecting the VP7 and VP4 genes, followed by semi-nested type-specific multiplex PCR. Results RT-PCR found rotavirus RNA in 1644 (78.2%) of the samples tested. The highest rate of rotavirus positivity (38.7%) was observed among children in the 13 to 24 month age group, followed by children in the age group of 25 to 36 months (28.3%). A total of eight different G types, six different P types, and 42 different G–P combinations were obtained. Four common G types (G1, G2, G3, and G9) and two common P types (P[8] and P[4]) accounted for 95.1% and 98.8% of the strains, respectively. G9P[8] was the most common G/P combination found in 40.5% of the strains followed by G1P[8] (21.6%), G2P[8] (9.3%), G2P[4] (6.5%), G3P[8] (3.5%), and finally, G4P[8] (3.4%). These six common genotypes included 83.7% of the strains tested in this study. The rate of uncommon genotypes was 14%. Conclusion The majority of the strains analyzed belonged to the G1–G4 and G9 genotypes, suggesting high coverage of current rotavirus vaccines. This study also demonstrates a dramatic increase in G9 genotype across the country. PMID:25437502

  17. MAVS protein is attenuated by rotavirus nonstructural protein 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satabdi Nandi

    Full Text Available Rotavirus is the single, most important agent of infantile gastroenteritis in many animal species, including humans. In developing countries, rotavirus infection attributes approximately 500,000 deaths annually. Like other viruses it establishes an intimate and complex interaction with the host cell to counteract the antiviral responses elicited by the cell. Among various pattern recognition receptors (PAMPs of the host, the cytosolic RNA helicases interact with viral RNA to activate the Mitochondrial Antiviral Signaling protein (MAVS, which regulates cellular interferon response. With an aim to identify the role of different PAMPs in rotavirus infected cell, MAVS was found to degrade in a time dependent and strain independent manner. Rotavirus non-structural protein 1 (NSP1 which is a known IFN antagonist, interacted with MAVS and degraded it in a strain independent manner, resulting in a complete loss of RNA sensing machinery in the infected cell. To best of our knowledge, this is the first report on NSP1 functionality where a signaling protein is targeted unanimously in all strains. In addition NSP1 inhibited the formation of detergent resistant MAVS aggregates, thereby averting the antiviral signaling cascade. The present study highlights the multifunctional role of rotavirus NSP1 and reinforces the fact that the virus orchestrates the cellular antiviral response to its own benefit by various back up strategies.

  18. Heterogeneity of Rotavirus Vaccine Efficacy Among Infants in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Joann F; Hille, Darcy A; Liu, G Frank; Kaplan, Susan S; Nelson, Micki; Goveia, Michelle G; Mast, T Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea worldwide in young children. Although rotavirus vaccine efficacy is high in developed countries, efficacy is lower in developing countries. Here, we investigated heterogeneity of rotavirus vaccine efficacy by infant characteristics in developing countries. An exploratory, post hoc analysis was conducted using randomized controlled trial data of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) conducted in Africa and Asia (NCT00362648). Infants received either 3 doses of vaccine/placebo and were followed for up to 2 years. Within subgroups, vaccine efficacies and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) against rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) were estimated using Poisson regression. We assessed heterogeneity of efficacy by age at first dose, gender, breastfeeding status and nutrition status. African children receiving the first dose at efficacy (23.7%; 95% CI: -8.2%-46.3%) than those vaccinated at ≥8 weeks (59.1%; 95% CI: 34.0%-74.6%). Marginally statistically significant differences were observed by age at first dose, gender and underweight status in Ghana and gender in Asian countries. Heterogeneity of efficacy was observed for age at first dose in African countries. This was an exploratory analysis; additional studies are needed to validate these results.

  19. Efficacy of a Low-Cost, Heat-Stable Oral Rotavirus Vaccine in Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isanaka, Sheila; Guindo, Ousmane; Langendorf, Celine; Matar Seck, Amadou; Plikaytis, Brian D; Sayinzoga-Makombe, Nathan; McNeal, Monica M; Meyer, Nicole; Adehossi, Eric; Djibo, Ali; Jochum, Bruno; Grais, Rebecca F

    2017-03-23

    Each year, rotavirus gastroenteritis is responsible for about 37% of deaths from diarrhea among children younger than 5 years of age worldwide, with a disproportionate effect in sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in Niger to evaluate the efficacy of a live, oral bovine rotavirus pentavalent vaccine (BRV-PV, Serum Institute of India) to prevent severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. Healthy infants received three doses of the vaccine or placebo at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age. Episodes of gastroenteritis were assessed through active and passive surveillance and were graded on the basis of the score on the Vesikari scale (which ranges from 0 to 20, with higher scores indicating more severe disease). The primary end point was the efficacy of three doses of vaccine as compared with placebo against a first episode of laboratory-confirmed severe rotavirus gastroenteritis (Vesikari score, ≥11) beginning 28 days after dose 3. Among the 3508 infants who were included in the per-protocol efficacy analysis, there were 31 cases of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in the vaccine group and 87 cases in the placebo group (2.14 and 6.44 cases per 100 person-years, respectively), for a vaccine efficacy of 66.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 49.9 to 77.9). Similar efficacy was seen in the intention-to-treat analyses, which showed a vaccine efficacy of 69.1% (95% CI, 55.0 to 78.7). There was no significant between-group difference in the risk of adverse events, which were reported in 68.7% of the infants in the vaccine group and in 67.2% of those in the placebo group, or in the risk of serious adverse events (in 8.3% in the vaccine group and in 9.1% in the placebo group); there were 27 deaths in the vaccine group and 22 in the placebo group. None of the infants had confirmed intussusception. Three doses of BRV-PV, an oral rotavirus vaccine, had an efficacy of 66.7% against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis among infants in Niger. (Funded by M

  20. Distribution of rotavirus genotypes associated with acute diarrhoea in Zimbabwean children less than five years old before and after rotavirus vaccine introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaratirwa, Arnold; Berejena, Chipo; Nziramasanga, Pasipanodya; Ticklay, Ismail; Gonah, Archebald; Nathoo, Kusum; Manangazira, Portia; Mangwanya, Douglas; Marembo, Joan; Mwenda, Jason M; Weldegebriel, Goitom; Seheri, Mapaseka; Tate, Jacqueline E; Yen, Catherine; Parashar, Umesh; Mujuru, Hilda

    2018-04-05

    Sentinel surveillance for diarrhoea is important to monitor changes in rotavirus epidemiological trends and circulating genotypes among children under 5 years before and after vaccine introduction. The Zimbabwe Ministry of Health and Child Care introduced rotavirus vaccine in national immunization program in May 2014. Active hospital-based surveillance for diarrhoea was conducted at 3 sentinel sites from 2008 to 2016. Children aged less than 5 years, who presented with acute gastroenteritis as a primary illness and who were admitted to a hospital ward or treated at the emergency unit, were enrolled and had a stool specimen collected and tested for rotavirus by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Genotyping of positive stools was performed using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and genotyping assays. Pre-vaccine introduction, 10% of all positive stool specimens were genotyped and all adequate positive stools were genotyped post-vaccine introduction. During the pre-vaccine period, a total of 6491 acute gastroenteritis stools were collected, of which 3016 (46%) tested positive for rotavirus and 312 (10%) of the rotavirus positive stools were genotyped. During the post-vaccine period, a total of 3750 acute gastroenteritis stools were collected, of which 937 (25%) tested positive for rotavirus and 784 (84%) were genotyped. During the pre-vaccine introduction the most frequent genotype was G9P[8] (21%) followed by G2P[4] (12%), G1P[8] (6%), G2P[6] (5%), G12P[6] (4%), G9P[6] (3%) and G8P[4] (3%). G1P[8] (30%) was most dominant two years after vaccine introduction followed by G9P[6] (20%), G2P[4] (15%), G9P[8] (11%) and G1P[6] (4%). The decline in positivity rate is an indication of early vaccine impact. Diversity of circulating strains underscores the importance of continued monitoring and strain surveillance after vaccine introduction. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Efficacy and immunogenicity of live-attenuated human rotavirus vaccine in breast-fed and formula-fed European infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesikari, Timo; Prymula, Roman; Schuster, Volker; Tejedor, Juan-C; Cohen, Robert; Bouckenooghe, Alain; Damaso, Silvia; Han, Htay Htay

    2012-05-01

    Rotavirus is the main cause of severe gastroenteritis and diarrhea in infants and young children less than 5 years of age. Potential impact of breast-feeding on the efficacy and immunogenicity of human rotavirus G1P[8] vaccine was examined in this exploratory analysis. Healthy infants (N = 3994) aged 6-14 weeks who received 2 doses of human rotavirus vaccine/placebo according to a 0-1 or 0-2 month schedule were followed for rotavirus gastroenteritis during 2 epidemic seasons. Rotavirus IgA seroconversion rate (anti-IgA antibody concentration ≥ 20 mIU/mL) and geometric mean concentrations were measured prevaccination and 1-2 months post-dose 2. Vaccine efficacy against any and severe rotavirus gastroenteritis was analyzed according to the infants being breast-fed or exclusively formula-fed at the time of vaccination. Antirotavirus IgA seroconversion rate was 85.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 82.4-88.3) in breast-fed and 89.2% (95% CI: 84.2-93) in exclusively formula-fed infants; geometric mean concentrations in the respective groups were 185.8 U/mL (95% CI: 161.4-213.9) and 231.5 U/mL (95% CI: 185.9-288.2). Vaccine efficacy was equally high in breast-fed and exclusively formula-fed children in the first season but fell in breast-fed infants in the second rotavirus season. During the combined 2-year efficacy follow-up period, vaccine efficacy against any rotavirus gastroenteritis was 76.2% (95% CI: 68.7-82.1) and 89.8% (95% CI: 77.6-95.9) and against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis 88.4% (95% CI: 81.6-93) and 98.1% (95% CI: 88.2-100) in the breast-fed and exclusively formula-fed infants, respectively. The difference in immunogenicity of human rotavirus vaccine in breast-fed and exclusively formula-fed infants was small. Vaccine efficacy was equally high in breast-fed and exclusively formula-fed children in the first season. Breast-feeding seemed to reduce slightly the efficacy in the second season.

  2. Rotavirus genotypes in Malaysia and Universal rotavirus vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Way Seah; Lim, Benjamin Tze Ying; Chai, Pei Fan; Kirkwood, Carl D.; Lee, Jimmy Kok Foo

    2012-01-01

    Group A rotavirus (RV-A) genotypes isolated in Malaysia was studied to estimate the effectiveness of a universal RV-A vaccination in Malaysia. A simple mathematical model was used, with input from a two-year, two-center, prospective study on hospitalization of RV-A gastroenteritis (RVGE) in young children, published data on RV-A hospitalizations and genotypes, mortality on childhood GE and published genotype-specific efficacy data on two RV-A vaccines. Assuming a 95% vaccine coverage, the overall projected effectiveness was 75.7 to 88.1% for Rotateq® and 78.7 to 90.6% for Rotarix® against RVGE-related hospitalizations. The projected annual reduction in RVGE-related deaths was 27 to 32 deaths (from 34 deaths) for Rotateq® and 28 to 32 deaths annually forRotarix®. A universal RV-A vaccine is efficacious in reducing RVGE-related hospitalizations and mortality in Malaysia. PMID:23022710

  3. Epidemiology and burden of rotavirus-associated hospitalizations in Ferrara, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabutti, G; Marsella, M; Lazzara, C; Fiumana, E; Cavallaro, A; Borgna-Pignatti, C

    2007-03-01

    Objective of this study was to provide data on hospitalizations for rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) in Ferrara, Italy. The study was conducted analyzing the hospital discharge forms of all children admitted to the Pediatric Department of the University of Ferrara, Arcispedale Sant'Anna, from January 2001 through December 2005. The database was searched for all gastrointestinal diseases and in particular RVGE. During the period under study 3277 children, of which 2038 <60 months of age, were hospitalized; 247 children < 5 years old were admitted for acute gastroenteritis and 89 (4.4% of all and 36% of gastroenteritis-related hospitalizations) had rapid screening tests positive for rotavirus. A seasonal pattern was observed for RVGE with an increase in winter and early spring. The average length of hospital stay was 5.7 days. The median cost of each hospitalized case of RVGE ranged between 1417 and 1595 Euros. The present research confirms that rotavirus gastroenteritis represents an important cause of hospitalization in children and is responsible for significant costs for the Public Health Care System. An effective vaccination program could significantly reduce the incidence of hospitalization and the associated costs.

  4. Pharmacoeconomic spotlight on rotavirus vaccine RIX4414 (Rotarix™) in developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plosker, Greg L

    2012-12-01

    The most common cause of severe diarrhea in infants and young children is rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE), which is associated with significant morbidity, healthcare resource use, and direct and indirect costs in industrialized nations. The monovalent rotavirus vaccine RIX4414 (Rotarix™) is administered as a two-dose oral series in infants and has demonstrated protective efficacy against RVGE in clinical trials conducted in developed countries. In addition, various naturalistic studies have demonstrated 'real-world' effectiveness after the introduction of widespread rotavirus vaccination programs in the community setting. Numerous cost-effectiveness analyses have been conducted in developed countries in which a universal rotavirus vaccination program using RIX4414 was compared with no universal rotavirus vaccination program. There was a high degree of variability in base-case results across studies even when the studies were conducted in the same country, often reflecting differences in the selection of data sources or assumptions used to populate the models. In addition, results were sensitive to plausible changes in a number of key input parameters. As such, it is not possible to definitively state whether a universal rotavirus vaccination program with RIX4414 is cost effective in developed countries, although results of some analyses in some countries suggest this is the case. In addition, international guidelines advocate universal vaccination of infants and children against rotavirus. It is also difficult to draw conclusions regarding the cost effectiveness of rotavirus vaccine RIX4414 relative to that of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine, which is administered as a three-dose oral series. Although indirect comparisons in cost-effectiveness analyses indicate that RIX4414 provided more favorable incremental cost-effectiveness ratios when each vaccine was compared with no universal rotavirus vaccination program, results were generally sensitive to vaccine

  5. Rotavirus Infection and Disease in a Multisite Birth Cohort: Results From the MAL-ED Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Venkata Raghava; Karthikeyan, Ramanujam; Babji, Sudhir; McGrath, Monica; Shrestha, Sanjaya; Shrestha, Jasmin; Mdumah, Estomih; Amour, Caroline; Samie, Amidou; Nyathi, Emanuel; Haque, Rashidul; Qureshi, Shahida; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Lima, Aldo A M; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Svensen, Erling; Bessong, Pascal; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Seidman, Jessica C; Zaidi, Anita K M; Kosek, Margaret N; Guerrant, Richard L; Gratz, Jean; Platts-Mills, James A; Lang, Dennis R; Gottlieb, Michael; Houpt, Eric R; Kang, Gagandeep

    2017-08-01

    In a multicountry birth cohort study, we describe rotavirus infection in the first 2 years of life in sites with and without rotavirus vaccination programs. Children were recruited by 17 days of age and followed to 24 months with collection of monthly surveillance and diarrheal stools. Data on sociodemographics, feeding, and illness were collected at defined intervals. Stools were tested for rotavirus and sera for antirotavirus immunoglobulins by enzyme immunoassays. A total of 1737 children contributed 22646 surveillance and 7440 diarrheal specimens. Overall, rotavirus was detected in 5.5% (408/7440) of diarrheal stools, and 344 (19.8%) children ever had rotavirus gastroenteritis. Household overcrowding and a high pathogen load were consistent risk factors for infection and disease. Three prior infections conferred 74% (P < .001) protection against subsequent infection in sites not using vaccine. In Peru, incidence of rotavirus disease was relatively higher during the second year of life despite high vaccination coverage. Rotavirus infection and disease were common, but with significant heterogeneity by site. Protection by vaccination may not be sustained in the second year of life in settings with high burdens of transmission and poor response to oral vaccines. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Esophageal involvement in eosinophilic gastroenteritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzinger, M A; Daneman, A

    1983-02-01

    The radiologic appearance of esophageal involvement due to eosinophilic gastroenteritis in a 15-year-old boy is presented. The lower two thirds of the esophagus was narrowed and the peristalsis diminished. The mucosa appeared smooth. This is the fourth reported case of esophageal involvement in eosinophilic gastroenteritis.

  7. Efficacy of a Monovalent Human-Bovine (116E) Rotavirus Vaccine in Indian Infants: A Randomised Double Blind Placebo Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Nita; Rongsen-Chandola, Temsunaro; Bavdekar, Ashish; John, Jacob; Antony, Kalpana; Taneja, Sunita; Goyal, Nidhi; Kawade, Anand; Kang, Gagandeep; Rathore, Sudeep Singh; Juvekar, Sanjay; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Arya, Alok; Shaikh, Hanif; Abraham, Vinod; Vrati, Sudhanshu; Proschan, Michael; Kohberger, Robert; Thiry, Georges; Glass, Roger; Greenberg, Harry B; Curlin, George; Mohan, Krishna; Harshavardhan, GVJA; Prasad, Sai; Rao, TS; Boslego, John; Bhan, Maharaj Kishan

    2015-01-01

    Background Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe dehydrating gastroenteritis in developing countries. Safe, effective, and affordable rotavirus vaccines are needed for developing countries. Methods In a double-blind placebo controlled multicentre trial, 6799 infants aged 6 to 7 weeks were randomised to receive three doses of an oral human-bovine natural reassortant vaccine (116E) or placebo at ages 6, 10, and 14 weeks. Primary outcome was severe (≥11 on the Vesikari scale) rotavirus gastroenteritis. Efficacy outcomes and adverse events were ascertained through active surveillance. Findings At analyses, the median age was 17·2 months; over 96% subjects received all three doses of the vaccine/placebo and ~1% were lost to follow up. 4532 and 2267 subjects were randomly assigned to receive vaccine and placebo, respectively. The per protocol analyses included 4354 subjects in the vaccine and 2187 subjects in the placebo group. 71 events of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis were reported in 4752 person years among the vaccinees compared to 76 events in 2360 person years in the placebo recipients; vaccine efficacy against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis was 53·6% (95% CI 35·0–66·9; Protavirus gastroenteritis episode was 55 (95% CI 37–97). The incidence of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis/100 person years was 1·5 in vaccine and 3·2 in placebo group and an incidence rate ratio of 0·46 (95% CI 0·33–0·65). The absolute rate reduction for severe rotavirus gastroenteritis was 1·7 (95% CI 2·5–0·9). Efficacy against severe gastroenteritis of any aetiology was 18·6% (95% CI 1·9–32·3); it was 24·1% (95% CI 5·8–38·7) in the first year of life. The prevalence of immediate, solicited, and serious adverse events were similar in both groups. There were six cases of intussusception amongst 4532 vaccinees and two amongst 2267 placebo recipients (P=0·73). All intussusception cases occurred after the third dose. Among vaccine and placebo recipients

  8. Current status of rotavirus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Min; Chen, Shou-Chien; Chen, Kow-Tong

    2015-11-01

    Rotaviruses remain the major cause of childhood diarrheal disease worldwide and of diarrheal deaths of infants and children in developing countries. The huge burden of childhood rotavirus-related diarrhea in the world continues to drive the remarkable pace of vaccine development. Research articles were searched using terms "rotavirus" and "rotavirus vaccine" in MEDLINE and PubMed. Articles not published in the English language, articles without abstracts, and opinion articles were excluded from the review. After preliminary screening, all articles were reviewed and synthesized to provide an overview of current vaccines and vaccination programs. In this review of the global rotavirus vaccines and vaccination programs, the principles of rotavirus vaccine development and the efficacy of the currently licensed vaccines from both developed and developing countries were summarized. Rotavirus is a common cause of diarrhea in children in both developed and developing countries. Rotavirus vaccination is a cost-effective measure to prevent rotavirus diarrhea.

  9. Viral Etiologies of Acute Dehydrating Gastroenteritis in Pakistani Children: Confounding Role of Parechoviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Masroor Alam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite substantial interventions in the understanding and case management of acute gastroenteritis, diarrheal diseases are still responsible for a notable amount of childhood deaths. Although the rotavirus is known to cause a considerable burden of pediatric diarrheal cases, the roles of other viruses remain undefined for the Pakistani population. This study was based on tertiary care hospital surveillance, from January 2009 to December 2010, including the detection of rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, and human parechovirus in children under the age of five using serological or molecular assays. Rotavirus, human parechovirus, norovirus, and astrovirus were detected in 66%, 21%, 19.5%, and 8.5% subjects, respectively. Human parechovirus genotypes, determined through analysis of VP1 gene sequences, showed a great diversity among co-circulating strains. Eighty percent of hospitalized children had dual or multiple viral infections, while 98% parechovirus positive cases were co-infected with rotavirus. The remarkable diversity of viruses associated with the childhood diarrhea in Pakistan calls for large-scale epidemiological surveys, coupled with case control studies, to ascertain their role in clinical manifestations. In addition, these findings also highlight the need for the implementation of up-to-date health interventions, such as the inclusion of a rotavirus vaccine in routine immunization programs for the improvement of quality in child health care.

  10. Ecological assessment of the direct and indirect effects of routine rotavirus vaccination in Merseyside, UK using data from multiple health systems: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungerford, Daniel; Vivancos, Roberto; French, Neil; Iturriza-Gomara, Miren; Cunliffe, Nigel

    2014-11-25

    Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide. Currently 67 countries include rotavirus vaccine in childhood immunisation programmes, but uptake in Western Europe has been slow. In July 2013, rotavirus vaccine was introduced into the UK's routine childhood immunisation programme. Prior to vaccine introduction in the UK, rotavirus was estimated to result in 750,000 diarrhoea episodes and 80,000 general practice (GP) consultations each year, together with 45% and 20% of hospital admissions and emergency department attendances for acute gastroenteritis, in children under 5 years of age. This paper describes a protocol for an ecological study that will assess rotavirus vaccine impact in the UK, to inform rotavirus immunisation policy in the UK and in other Western European countries. In Merseyside, UK, we will conduct an ecological study using a 'before and after' approach to examine changes in gastroenteritis and rotavirus incidence following the introduction of rotavirus vaccination. Data will be collected on mortality, hospital admissions, nosocomial infection, emergency department attendances, GP consultations and community health consultations to capture all healthcare providers in the region. We will assess both the direct and indirect effects of the vaccine on the study population. Comparisons of outcome indicator rates will be made in relation to vaccine uptake and socioeconomic status. The study has been approved by NHS Research Ethics Committee, South Central-Berkshire REC Reference: 14/SC/1140. Study outputs will be disseminated through scientific conferences and peer-reviewed publications. The study will demonstrate the impact of rotavirus vaccination on the burden of disease from a complete health system perspective. It will identify key areas that require improved data collection tools to maximise the usefulness of this surveillance approach and will provide a template for vaccine evaluations using

  11. Dynamic Modeling of Cost-effectiveness of Rotavirus Vaccination, Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flem, Elmira; Latipov, Renat; Kuatbaeva, Ajnagul; Kristiansen, Ivar Sønbø

    2014-01-01

    The government of Kazakhstan, a middle-income country in Central Asia, is considering the introduction of rotavirus vaccination into its national immunization program. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis of rotavirus vaccination spanning 20 years by using a synthesis of dynamic transmission models accounting for herd protection. We found that a vaccination program with 90% coverage would prevent ≈880 rotavirus deaths and save an average of 54,784 life-years for children <5 years of age. Indirect protection accounted for 40% and 60% reduction in severe and mild rotavirus gastroenteritis, respectively. Cost per life year gained was US $18,044 from a societal perspective and US $23,892 from a health care perspective. Comparing the 2 key parameters of cost-effectiveness, mortality rates and vaccine cost at

  12. Human rotavirus strain Wa downregulates NHE1 and NHE6 expressions in rotavirus-infected Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Honglang; Song, Lijun; Li, Guixian; Chen, Wenfeng; Zhao, Shumin; Zhou, Ruoxia; Shi, Xiaoying; Peng, Zhenying; Zhao, Wenchang

    2017-06-01

    Rotavirus (RV) is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis and fatal dehydration in human infants and neonates of different species. However, the pathogenesis of rotavirus-induced diarrhea is poorly understood. Secretory diarrhea caused by rotavirus may lead to a combination of excessive secretion of fluid and electrolytes into the intestinal lumen. Fluid absorption in the small intestine is driven by Na + -coupled transport mechanisms at the luminal membrane, including Na + /H + exchanger (NHE). Here, we performed qRT-PCR to detect the transcription of NHEs. Western blotting was employed for protein detection. Furthermore, immunocytochemistry was used to validate the NHE's protein expression. Finally, intracellular Ca 2+ concentration was detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The results demonstrated that the NHE6 mRNA and protein expressed in the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (Caco-2). Furthermore, RV-Wa induced decreased expression of the NHE1 and NHE6 in Caco-2 cell in a time-dependent manner. In addition, intracellular Ca 2+ concentration in RV-Wa-infected Caco-2 cells was higher than that in the mock-infected cells. Furthermore, RV-Wa also can downregulate the expression of calmodulin (CaM) and calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) in Caco-2 cells. These findings provides important insights into the mechanisms of rotavirus-induced diarrhea. Further studies on the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms that downregulate NHEs in RV-induced diarrhea are required.

  13. Comparison of electron microscopy, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, solid-phase radioimmunoassay, and indirect immunofluorescence for detection of human rotavirus antigen in faeces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birch, C J; Lehmann, N I; Hawker, A J; Marshall, J A; Gust, I D [Fairfield Hospital for Communicable Diseases, Victoria (Australia). Virology Dept.

    1979-07-01

    Four techniques were compared for their practicability, speed, and sensitivity for the detection of human rotavirus. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were found to be the most sensitive means of identifying rotavirus and, once processed, up to 40 specimens could be examined daily. Electron microscopy, although less sensitive than these techniques, had the advantage of being able to detect other viral agents present in faecal extracts. Indirect immunofluorescence failed to detect rotavirus as often as the other three methods. In laboratories where routine examination of faecal specimens from patients with gastroenteritis is required, ELISA and RIA are useful alternatives to electron microscopy.

  14. Comparison of electron microscopy, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, solid-phase radioimmunoassay, and indirect immunofluorescence for detection of human rotavirus antigen in faeces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birch, C.J.; Lehmann, N.I.; Hawker, A.J.; Marshall, J.A.; Gust, I.D.

    1979-01-01

    Four techniques were compared for their practicability, speed, and sensitivity for the detection of human rotavirus. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were found to be the most sensitive means of identifying rotavirus and, once processed, up to 40 specimens could be examined daily. Electron microscopy, although less sensitive than these techniques, had the advantage of being able to detect other viral agents present in faecal extracts. Indirect immunofluorescence failed to detect rotavirus as often as the other three methods. In laboratories where routine examination of faecal specimens from patients with gastroenteritis is required, ELISA and RIA are useful alternatives to electron microscopy. (author)

  15. Effectiveness of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in a large urban population in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boom, Julie A; Tate, Jacqueline E; Sahni, Leila C; Rench, Marcia A; Hull, Jennifer J; Gentsch, Jon R; Patel, Manish M; Baker, Carol J; Parashar, Umesh D

    2010-02-01

    The goal was to assess the effectiveness of complete (3-dose) or partial (1- or 2-dose) immunization with pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) against rotavirus acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in US clinical practice. A case-control evaluation was conducted in February through June 2008 at an emergency department in Houston, Texas. Case patients with rotavirus AGE (N = 90) were identified through testing for rotavirus in fecal specimens obtained from 205 children 15 days through 23 months of age presenting with AGE. Control groups included rotavirus-negative AGE patients (N = 115), concurrently enrolled patients with acute respiratory infection (ARI) (N = 228), and up to 10 age- and zip code-matched children sampled from the Houston-Harris County Immunization Registry (HHCIR) for each case patient >8 months of age. Immunization data were obtained from parent records, health care providers, and/or the HHCIR. Vaccine effectiveness was calculated as 1 minus odds of RV5 vaccination for case patients versus control patients, after adjustment for age at presentation and birth date. The vaccine effectiveness of a complete RV5 series was 89% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 70%-96%) and 85% (95% CI: 55%-95%) with rotavirus-negative AGE and ARI control patients, respectively. Immunization data were available for 44% of case patients (n = 40) from the HHCIR; the estimated 3-dose vaccine effectiveness with these HHCIR control patients was 82% (95% CI: 19%-96%). A complete RV5 series conferred 100% protection (95% CI: 71%-100%) against severe rotavirus disease requiring hospitalization and 96% protection (95% CI: 72%-99%) against disease requiring intravenous hydration. Vaccine effectiveness of 1 and 2 doses against hospitalization and emergency department visits was 69% (95% CI: 13%-89%) and 81% (95% CI: 13%-96%), respectively, using rotavirus-negative AGE and ARI control groups combined. In this setting, a complete series of RV5 was highly effective against severe rotavirus AGE

  16. One Family's Struggles with Rotavirus

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... getvaxed about GETVAXED print ads go to GETVAXED.ORG cme Immunizations Rotavirus One family's struggles with rotavirus ... free-of-charge. Branded videos contain the "PKIDs.ORG" end slate; unbranded videos are provided for organizations ...

  17. One Family's Struggles with Rotavirus

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... GETVAXED print ads go to GETVAXED.ORG cme Immunizations Rotavirus One family's struggles with rotavirus We provide ... not possible without a visit to your doctor. Immunizations stop disease from spreading. Check with your family ...

  18. Rotavirus infection in children: mono-and combines forms, especially clinics and course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Denisyuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyzed 74 case histories of children under one year with rotavirus infection. The most commonly detected rotavirus gastroenteritis in the form of mono-and combined forms. Mono-infection in 78.3% of cases occurred in the moderate form with a leading syndrome in the form of gastroenteritis, severe dehydration proceeded with symptoms of varying severity. Mixed variants in 98.7% of cases are in the unfavorable premorbid background, in 42.8% of children were registered in the severe forms, and children younger than 6 months were erased within. The diagnosis of intestinal infection was confirmed by PCR, bacteriological and immunological methods.

  19. Projecting the effectiveness of RotaTeq® against rotavirus-related hospitalisations in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Chaouki El Khoury

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available RotaTeq® (Merck & Company, Inc, Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA is an oral pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5 that has shown high and consistent efficacy in preventing rotavirus gastroenteritis (RGE in randomised clinical trials previously conducted in industrialised countries with high medical care resources. To date, the efficacy and effectiveness data for RV5 are available in some Latin American countries, but not Brazil. In this analysis, we projected the effectiveness of RV5 in terms of the percentage reduction in RGE-related hospitalisations among children less than five years of age in four regions of Brazil, using a previously validated mathematical model. The model inputs included hospital-based rotavirus surveillance data from Goiânia, Porto Alegre, Salvador and São Paulo from 2005-2006, which provided the proportions of rotavirus attributable to serotypes G1, G2, G3, G4 and G9, and published rotavirus serotype-specific efficacy from the Rotavirus Efficacy and Safety Trial. The model projected an overall percentage reduction of 93% in RGE-related hospitalisations, with an estimated annual reduction in RGE-related hospitalisations between 42,991-77,383 in the four combined regions of Brazil. These results suggest that RV5 could substantially prevent RGE-related hospitalisations in Brazil.

  20. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics in hospitalized young children with acute gastroenteritis in southern Taiwan: According to major pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Chung

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE can be caused by a wide array of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and parasites. A prospective study to investigate the epidemiology and clinical presentation in young children hospitalized with AGE was conducted in a medical center in southern Taiwan. Methods: Patients aged less than 5 years who was hospitalized due to AGE in National Cheng Kung University Hospital were enrolled from July 2014 to June 2016. The demographic information, clinical features and laboratory data were collected by chart reviews, and stool samples were sent to Centers of Disease Control, Taiwan (Taiwan CDC for a panel of pathogen identification consisting of two viruses, nine bacteria, and five parasites. Results: Totally 441 patients were enrolled in this study. Salmonella spp. was the leading cause of disease (21.8%, followed by norovirus (17.0%, Clostridium difficile (9.5%, and rotavirus (9.3%. Norovirus identification rate was the highest among patients less than 6 months of age, while Salmonella was highest among patients between 2 and 3 years old. Patients with Salmonella infection frequently presented with fever, lethargy, bloody stool, and elevated serum level of C-reactive protein (CRP; norovirus and rotavirus infection frequently presented with vomiting. Salmonella gastroenteritis also resulted in longer hospitalization and more frequent antibiotics administration. C. difficile could be isolated from both gastroenteritis patients and control children. Conclusion: Salmonella spp. was the most common pathogen of AGE in hospitalized children in southern Taiwan during 2014–2016, followed by norovirus and rotavirus. Further monitoring of epidemiology characteristics among cardinal pathogens of pediatric gastroenteritis is necessary. Keywords: Acute gastroenteritis, Children, Epidemiology, Taiwan

  1. Efficacy of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine, RotaTeq®, in Finnish infants up to 3 years of age: the Finnish Extension Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesikari, Timo; Karvonen, Aino; Ferrante, Shannon Allen; Ciarlet, Max

    2010-11-01

    Rotavirus Efficacy and Safety Trial (REST) enrolled nearly 70,000 infants, of whom more than 23,000 were from Finland. REST determined the efficacy of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) against rotavirus-related hospitalisations and emergency department (ED) visits in the first year after vaccination. Finnish infants initially in REST transitioned into the Finnish Extension Study (FES), where they were followed for rotavirus-related hospitalisations and ED visits through their second year of life and beyond. FES identified 150 (31%) additional rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) cases beyond those identified in REST in the Finnish participants. Overall, RV5 reduced RVGE hospitalisations and ED visits, regardless of the rotavirus serotype, by 93.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 90.8-95.9%) for up to 3.1 years following the last vaccine dose. Vaccine efficacy against combined hospitalisations and ED visits between ages 4 months to 11 months, 12 months to 23 months, and 24 months to 35 months was 93.9% (95% CI: 89.1-96.9%), 94.4% (95% CI: 90.2-97.0%), and 85.9% (95% CI: 51.6-97.2%), respectively. The reduction of hospitalisations and ED visits due to any acute gastroenteritis, rotavirus or not, was 62.4% (95% CI: 57.6-66.6%) over the entire follow-up period. The results from FES confirm that RV5 induces high and sustained protection against rotavirus-related hospitalisations and ED visits, and has a very substantial impact on all gastroenteritis-related hospitalisations and ED visits into the third year of life in Finnish children.

  2. Cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in Kenya and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigei, Charles; Odaga, John; Mvundura, Mercy; Madrid, Yvette; Clark, Andrew David

    2015-05-07

    Rotavirus vaccines have the potential to prevent a substantial amount of life-threatening gastroenteritis in young African children. This paper presents the results of prospective cost-effectiveness analyses for rotavirus vaccine introduction for Kenya and Uganda. In each country, a national consultant worked with a national technical working group to identify appropriate data and validate study results. Secondary data on demographics, disease burden, health utilization, and costs were used to populate the TRIVAC cost-effectiveness model. The baseline analysis assumed an initial vaccine price of $0.20 per dose, corresponding to Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance stipulated copay for low-income countries. The incremental cost-effectiveness of a 2-dose rotavirus vaccination schedule was evaluated for 20 successive birth cohorts from the government perspective in both countries, and from the societal perspective in Uganda. Between 2014 and 2033, rotavirus vaccination can avert approximately 60,935 and 216,454 undiscounted deaths and hospital admissions respectively in children under 5 years in Kenya. In Uganda, the respective number of undiscounted deaths and hospital admission averted is 70,236 and 329,779 between 2016 and 2035. Over the 20-year period, the discounted vaccine program costs are around US$ 80 million in Kenya and US$ 60 million in Uganda. Discounted government health service costs avoided are US$ 30 million in Kenya and US$ 10 million in Uganda (or US$ 18 million including household costs). The cost per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted from a government perspective is US$ 38 in Kenya and US$ 34 in Uganda (US$ 29 from a societal perspective). Rotavirus vaccine introduction is highly cost-effective in both countries in a range of plausible 'what-if' scenarios. The involvement of national experts improves the quality of data used, is likely to increase acceptability of the results in decision-making, and can contribute to strengthened national

  3. Molecular characterization of a human G20P[28] rotavirus a strain with multiple genes related to bat rotaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esona, Mathew D; Roy, Sunando; Rungsrisuriyachai, Kunchala; Gautam, Rashi; Hermelijn, Sandra; Rey-Benito, Gloria; Bowen, Michael D

    2018-01-01

    Group A rotaviruses are the major cause of severe gastroenteritis in the young of mammals and birds. This report describes characterization of an unusual G20P[28] rotavirus strain detected in a 24month old child from Suriname. Genomic sequence analyses revealed that the genotype constellation of the Suriname strain RVA/Human-wt/SUR/2014735512/2013/G20P[28] was G20-P[28]-I13-R13-C13-M12-A23-N13-T15-E20-H15. Genes VP1, VP2, VP3, NSP1, NSP2, NSP3, NSP4 and NSP5 were recently assigned novel genotypes by the Rotavirus Classification Working Group (RCWG). Three of the 11 gene segments (VP7, VP4, VP6) were similar to cognate gene sequences of bat-like human rotavirus strain Ecu534 from Ecuador and the VP7, NSP3 and NSP5 gene segments of strain RVA/Human-wt/SUR/2014735512/2013/G20P[28] were found to be closely related to gene sequences of bat rotavirus strain 3081/BRA detected in Brazil. Although distantly related, the VP1 gene of the study strain and bat strain BatLi09 detected in Cameroon in 2014 are monophyletic. The NSP1 gene was found to be most closely related to human strain QUI-35-F5 from Brazil. These findings suggest that strain RVA/Human-wt/SUR/2014735512/2013/G20P[28] represents a zoonotic infection from a bat host. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Protect Your Child from Rotavirus Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Prevent Rotavirus Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... likely to get rotavirus from December to June. Rotavirus Can Cause Dehydration Symptoms of Dehydration Decrease in ...

  5. The Etiology and Pathogenesis of Viral Gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-31

    with subsequent seroconversion or susceptibility to illness in a naturally occurring outbreak of Norwalk virus gastroenteritis among American teen ... anorexia , myalgia and malaise. It can be severe, indeed fatal, in the elderly, infant, debilitated or malnourished pa- tient. Viral gastroenteritis

  6. Introduktion. Om rotavirus. Teknologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejse, Christian

    2012-01-01

    vil skyldes rotavirus. Typisk vil børnene få feber, opkastninger og/eller diarré. Sygdommen går sædvanligvis over af sig selv i løbet af 3 til 7 dage. Nogle børn får dog væske- og saltmangel i en sådan grad, at de må indlægges på hospital til behandling med drop og væske direkte ind i årerne. 85 – 90...... % af danske børn følger det danske børnevaccinationsprogram og bliver vaccineret mod en række infektioner. Der findes i Danmark to velafprøvede og godkendte vacciner mod rotavirus. Begge vacciner gives gennem munden og ikke gennem indsprøjtning i huden, som de øvrige vacciner i det danske...... børnevaccinationsprogram. Verdenssundhedsorganisation (WHO=World Health Organisation) samt nationale og europæiske faglige selskaber har anbefalet at vaccinere mod rotavirus. I en række europæiske lande er vaccination mod rotavirus indført i det nationale børnevaccinationsprogram. Andre europæiske lande har fravalgt...

  7. Multiple enteropathogenic viruses in a gastroenteritis outbreak in a military exercise of the Portuguese Army.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-João, António; Costa, Inês; Mesquita, João R; Oleastro, Mónica; Penha-Gonçalves, Carlos; Nascimento, Maria S J

    2015-07-01

    Gastroenteritis is one of the most common infectious diseases in the military populations and can diminish operational effectiveness and impede force readiness. The present study investigates the cause and the source of an acute gastroenteritis outbreak that occurred during a military exercise of the Portuguese Army, in February 2013. A retrospective investigation was performed and stool samples, food items and water were screened for common foodborne bacteria and viruses, namely Norovirus GI, Norovirus GII, Astrovirus, Rotavirus, Adenovirus and Sapovirus. From the total of 160 soldiers that participated in the military exercise 20 developed gastroenteritis (attack rate of 12.5%). Symptoms were predominantly vomiting (n=17, 85%) and diarrhoea (n=9, 45%). The first cases occurred 24-48h after drinking water from the creek, the plausible origin of the outbreak. The epidemic peak was registered 2 days after and the last cases 6 days after, upon returning to base. No pathogenic bacteria were found in stools however virological analysis revealed the presence of multiple enteropathogenic viruses, namely Norovirus GI (GI.3), Norovirus GII (GII.4 New Orleans 2009), Astrovirus and Sapovirus, as single or co-infections. Food and water samples were not tested for the presence of viruses due to exhaustion of samples on bacteriological analysis. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of a viral gastroenteritis outbreak among military personnel in the Portuguese Army. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Genetic Diversity and Phylogenetic Characteritics of Rotavirus VP4(P Genotypes in Children With Acute Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haghshenas Z

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute gastroenteritis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children in developing countries. Rotaviruses are recognized as the most common etiologic factors of gastroenteritis. In this study, we determined the epidemiologic features, clinical symptoms and molecular structure of rotavirus VP4(P genotypes in children with acute diarrhea in Bahrami Hospital in Tehran Iran, during 2009 for justifying the routine use of rotavirus vaccines in children. Methods: One hundred fifty fecal samples from 150 children with acute diarrhea in Bahrami Pediatric Hospital in Tehran, Iran were collected from January to December 2009. The patients’ mean age was 20.90+18.19 years (ranging from 1 month to 14 years. Fecal samples were transported on ice to the laboratory of virology department of Pasture Institute of Iran. The demographic and clinical data for each case were entered in an author-devised questionnaire. Group A rotavirus was detected by dsRNA-PAGE. Subsequently, rotavirus genotyping (VP4 was performed by semi-nested multiple RT-PCR and the phylogenetic tree of the Rotavirus nucleotides was constructed. The data were analyzed by statistical tests including Wilcoxon signed and Mann-Whitney U. Results: Rotavirus was isolated in 19.3% of the samples, more than 90% of which had long RNA patterns. The predominant genotype (VP4 was P[8] (86% and other genotypes respectively were P[6] (6.9% and P[4] (6.9%. Conclusion: A high prevalence of the P[8] genotype was found to be the cause of acute diarrhea. The analysis of P[8] genotype sequence showed a high level of similarity of the virus in this study with those of other Asian countries.

  9. Engineering and expression of a human rotavirus candidate vaccine in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pêra, Francisco F P G; Mutepfa, David L R; Khan, Ayesha M; Els, Johann H; Mbewana, Sandiswa; van Dijk, Alberdina A A; Rybicki, Edward P; Hitzeroth, Inga I

    2015-12-02

    Human rotaviruses are the main cause of severe gastroenteritis in children and are responsible for over 500 000 deaths annually. There are two live rotavirus vaccines currently available, one based on human rotavirus serotype G1P[8], and the other a G1-G4 P[8] pentavalent vaccine. However, the recent emergence of the G9 and other novel rotavirus serotypes in Africa and Asia has prompted fears that current vaccines might not be fully effective against these new varieties. We report an effort to develop an affordable candidate rotavirus vaccine against the new emerging G9P[6] (RVA/Human-wt/ZAF/GR10924/1999/G9P[6]) strain. The vaccine is based on virus-like particles which are both highly immunogenic and safe. The vaccine candidate was produced in Nicotiana benthamiana by transient expression, as plants allow rapid production of antigens at lower costs, without the risk of contamination by animal pathogens. Western blot analysis of plant extracts confirmed the successful expression of two rotavirus capsid proteins, VP2 and VP6. These proteins assembled into VLPs resembling native rotavirus particles when analysed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Expression of the rotavirus glycoprotein VP7 and the spike protein VP4 was also tried. However, VP7 expression caused plant wilting during the course of the time trial and expression could never be detected for either protein. We therefore created three fusion proteins adding the antigenic part of VP4 (VP8*) to VP6 in an attempt to produce more appropriately immunogenic particles. Fusion protein expression in tobacco plants was detected by western blot using anti-VP6 and anti-VP4 antibodies, but no regular particles were observed by TEM, even when co-expressed with VP2. Our results suggest that the rotavirus proteins produced in N. benthamiana are candidates for a subunit vaccine specifically for the G9P[6] rotavirus strain. This could be more effective in developing countries, thereby possibly providing a higher

  10. Human Noroviruses and Sporadic Gastroenteritis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dan Rutz speaks with Dr. Manish Patel, a medical officer with the Division of Viral Diseases at CDC, about an article in August 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases reporting on nororviruses. Dr. Patel reviewed 235 studies and identified 31 original studies about noroviruses. Norovirus is the leading cause of epidemic gastroenteritis.

  11. Gastroenteritis outbreaks on cruise ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouchtouri, Varvara A; Verykouki, Eleni; Zamfir, Dumitru

    2017-01-01

    When an increased number of acute gastroenteritis (AG) cases is detected among tourists staying at the same accommodation, outbreak management plans must be activated in a timely manner to prevent large outbreaks. Syndromic surveillance data collected between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2013...

  12. Proton pump inhibitors and gastroenteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassing, Robert-Jan; Verbon, Annelies; Visser, Herman de; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H.

    2016-01-01

    An association between proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy and bacterial gastroenteritis has been suggested as well as contradicted. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the use of PPIs and occurrence of bacterial gastroenteritis in the prospective Rotterdam Study. The Rotterdam Study is a population-based cohort study among 14,926 subjects aged 45 years and older with up to 24 years of follow-up. Analyses were performed with a generalized estimating equations method in participants who handed-in a diagnostic stool sample. Furthermore, a nested case–control analysis was performed using the total cohort as a reference group. A bacterial microorganism was isolated in 125 samples, whereas 1174 samples were culture negative. In the generalized estimating equations analysis, we found that participants with a bacterial gastroenteritis were more likely than controls to be current users of PPIs (adjusted OR 1.94; 95 % CI 1.15–3.25). Different sensitivity analyses did not change this result. A considerably higher effect was observed (adjusted OR 6.14; 95 % CI 3.81–9.91), using the total cohort as a reference in a nested case–control analysis. Current PPI therapy is associated with an increased risk of bacterial gastroenteritis. However, by reducing the risk of selection and information bias in our study design, we demonstrated that the effect is lower than previously assumed.

  13. Differences of Rotavirus Vaccine Effectiveness by Country: Likely Causes and Contributing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Desselberger

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rotaviruses are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide and in many other mammalian and avian host species. Since 2006, two live-attenuated rotavirus vaccines, Rotarix® and RotaTeq®, have been licensed in >100 countries and are applied as part of extended program of vaccination (EPI schemes of childhood vaccinations. Whereas the vaccines have been highly effective in high-income countries, they were shown to be considerably less potent in low- and middle-income countries. Rotavirus-associated disease was still the cause of death in >200,000 children of <5 years of age worldwide in 2013, and the mortality is concentrated in countries of sub-Saharan Africa and S.E. Asia. Various factors that have been identified or suggested as being involved in the differences of rotavirus vaccine effectiveness are reviewed here. Recognition of these factors will help to achieve gradual worldwide improvement of rotavirus vaccine effectiveness.

  14. Understanding reduced rotavirus vaccine efficacy in low socio-economic settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A Lopman

    Full Text Available Rotavirus vaccine efficacy ranges from >90% in high socio-economic settings (SES to 50% in low SES. With the imminent introduction of rotavirus vaccine in low SES countries, understanding reasons for reduced efficacy in these settings could identify strategies to improve vaccine performance.We developed a mathematical model to predict rotavirus vaccine efficacy in high, middle and low SES based on data specific for each setting on incidence, protection conferred by natural infection and immune response to vaccination. We then examined factors affecting efficacy.Vaccination was predicted to prevent 93%, 86% and 51% of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in high, middle and low SES, respectively. Also predicted was that vaccines are most effective against severe disease and efficacy declines with age in low but not high SES. Reduced immunogenicity of vaccination and reduced protection conferred by natural infection are the main factors that compromise efficacy in low SES.The continued risk of severe disease in non-primary natural infections in low SES is a key factor underpinning reduced efficacy of rotavirus vaccines. Predicted efficacy was remarkably consistent with observed clinical trial results from different SES, validating the model. The phenomenon of reduced vaccine efficacy can be predicted by intrinsic immunological and epidemiological factors of low SES populations. Modifying aspects of the vaccine (e.g. improving immunogenicity in low SES and vaccination program (e.g. additional doses may bring improvements.

  15. Understanding reduced rotavirus vaccine efficacy in low socio-economic settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopman, Benjamin A; Pitzer, Virginia E; Sarkar, Rajiv; Gladstone, Beryl; Patel, Manish; Glasser, John; Gambhir, Manoj; Atchison, Christina; Grenfell, Bryan T; Edmunds, W John; Kang, Gagandeep; Parashar, Umesh D

    2012-01-01

    Rotavirus vaccine efficacy ranges from >90% in high socio-economic settings (SES) to 50% in low SES. With the imminent introduction of rotavirus vaccine in low SES countries, understanding reasons for reduced efficacy in these settings could identify strategies to improve vaccine performance. We developed a mathematical model to predict rotavirus vaccine efficacy in high, middle and low SES based on data specific for each setting on incidence, protection conferred by natural infection and immune response to vaccination. We then examined factors affecting efficacy. Vaccination was predicted to prevent 93%, 86% and 51% of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in high, middle and low SES, respectively. Also predicted was that vaccines are most effective against severe disease and efficacy declines with age in low but not high SES. Reduced immunogenicity of vaccination and reduced protection conferred by natural infection are the main factors that compromise efficacy in low SES. The continued risk of severe disease in non-primary natural infections in low SES is a key factor underpinning reduced efficacy of rotavirus vaccines. Predicted efficacy was remarkably consistent with observed clinical trial results from different SES, validating the model. The phenomenon of reduced vaccine efficacy can be predicted by intrinsic immunological and epidemiological factors of low SES populations. Modifying aspects of the vaccine (e.g. improving immunogenicity in low SES) and vaccination program (e.g. additional doses) may bring improvements.

  16. Real-World Effectiveness of Pentavalent Rotavirus Vaccine Among Bedouin and Jewish Children in Southern Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshem, Eyal; Givon-Lavi, Noga; Tate, Jacqueline E; Greenberg, David; Parashar, Umesh D; Dagan, Ron

    2016-05-01

    Pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) was introduced into the Israeli National Immunization Program in January 2011. We determined RV5 vaccine effectiveness (VE) in southern Israel, a region characterized by 2 distinct populations: Bedouins living in a low- to middle-income, semirural setting, and Jews living in a high-income, urban setting. We enrolled vaccine-eligible children who visited the emergency department (ED) or were hospitalized due to acute gastroenteritis (AGE) during the first 3 rotavirus seasons after RV5 vaccine introduction (2011-2013). Fecal specimens were tested for rotavirus by enzyme immunoassay and genotyped. Vaccination among laboratory-confirmed rotavirus cases was compared with rotavirus-negative AGE controls. Regression models were used to calculate VE estimates by age, clinical setting, and ethnicity. Of 515 enrolled patients, 359 (70%) were Bedouin. Overall, 185 (36%) patients were rotavirus positive; 79 of 119 (66%) were G1P[8] genotype. The adjusted VE for a full 3-dose course of RV5 against ED visit or hospitalization was 63% (95% confidence interval [CI], 38%-78%). RV5 provided G1P[8] genotype-specific effectiveness of 78% (95% CI, 58%-88%). By age, RV5 VE was 64% (95% CI, 21%-84%) and 71% (95% CI, 39%-86%) among children aged 6-11 months and 12-23 months, respectively. By clinical setting, RV5 VE was 59% (95% CI, 23%-78%) against hospitalization, and 67% (95% CI, 11%-88%) against ED visit. The adjusted VE of a full RV5 course among Bedouin children was 62% (95% CI, 29%-79%). RV5 significantly protected against rotavirus-associated ED visits and hospitalizations in a diverse population of vaccine-eligible children living in southern Israel. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. Impact of rotavirus vaccination on hospitalisations in Belgium: comparing model predictions with observed data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baudouin Standaert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Published economic assessments of rotavirus vaccination typically use modelling, mainly static Markov cohort models with birth cohorts followed up to the age of 5 years. Rotavirus vaccination has now been available for several years in some countries, and data have been collected to evaluate the real-world impact of vaccination on rotavirus hospitalisations. This study compared the economic impact of vaccination between model estimates and observed data on disease-specific hospitalisation reductions in a country for which both modelled and observed datasets exist (Belgium. METHODS: A previously published Markov cohort model estimated the impact of rotavirus vaccination on the number of rotavirus hospitalisations in children aged <5 years in Belgium using vaccine efficacy data from clinical development trials. Data on the number of rotavirus-positive gastroenteritis hospitalisations in children aged <5 years between 1 June 2004 and 31 May 2006 (pre-vaccination study period or 1 June 2007 to 31 May 2010 (post-vaccination study period were analysed from nine hospitals in Belgium and compared with the modelled estimates. RESULTS: The model predicted a smaller decrease in hospitalisations over time, mainly explained by two factors. First, the observed data indicated indirect vaccine protection in children too old or too young for vaccination. This herd effect is difficult to capture in static Markov cohort models and therefore was not included in the model. Second, the model included a 'waning' effect, i.e. reduced vaccine effectiveness over time. The observed data suggested this waning effect did not occur during that period, and so the model systematically underestimated vaccine effectiveness during the first 4 years after vaccine implementation. CONCLUSIONS: Model predictions underestimated the direct medical economic value of rotavirus vaccination during the first 4 years of vaccination by approximately 10% when assessing

  18. Protective Effect of Natural Rotavirus Infection in an Indian Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladstone, Beryl P.; Ramani, Sasirekha; Mukhopadhya, Indrani; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Sarkar, Rajiv; Rehman, Andrea M.; Jaffar, Shabbar; Gomara, Miren Iturriza; Gray, James J.; Brown, David W.G.; Desselberger, Ulrich; Crawford, Sue E.; John, Jacob; Babji, Sudhir; Estes, Mary K.; Kang, Gagandeep

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND More than 500,000 deaths are attributed to rotavirus gastroenteritis annually worldwide, with the highest mortality in India. Two successive, naturally occurring rotavirus infections have been shown to confer complete protection against moderate or severe gastroenteritis during subsequent infections in a birth cohort in Mexico. We studied the protective effect of rotavirus infection on subsequent infection and disease in a birth cohort in India (where the efficacy of oral vaccines in general has been lower than expected). METHODS We recruited children at birth in urban slums in Vellore; they were followed for 3 years after birth, with home visits twice weekly. Stool samples were collected every 2 weeks, as well as on alternate days during diarrheal episodes, and were tested by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase-chain-reaction assay. Serum samples were obtained every 6 months and evaluated for seroconversion, defined as an increase in the IgG antibody level by a factor of 4 or in the IgA antibody level by a factor of 3. RESULTS Of 452 recruited children, 373 completed 3 years of follow-up. Rotavirus infection generally occurred early in life, with 56% of children infected by 6 months of age. Levels of reinfection were high, with only approximately 30% of all infections identified being primary. Protection against moderate or severe disease increased with the order of infection but was only 79% after three infections. With G1P[8], the most common viral strain, there was no evidence of homotypic protection. CONCLUSIONS Early infection and frequent reinfection in a locale with high viral diversity resulted in lower protection than has been reported elsewhere, providing a possible explanation why rotavirus vaccines have had lower-than-expected efficacy in Asia and Africa. (Funded by the Wellcome Trust.) PMID:21793745

  19. Real-time RT-PCR, a necessary tool to support the diagnosis and surveillance of rotavirus in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Cruz Hernández, Sergio Isaac; Anaya Molina, Yazmin; Gómez Santiago, Fabián; Terán Vega, Heidi Lizbeth; Monroy Leyva, Elda; Méndez Pérez, Héctor; García Lozano, Herlinda

    2018-04-01

    Rotavirus produces diarrhea in children under 5 years old. Most of those conventional methods such as polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) have been used for rotavirus detection. However, these techniques need a multi-step process to get the results. In comparison with conventional methods, the real-time RT-PCR is a highly sensitive method, which allows getting the results in only one day. In this study a real-time RT-PCR assay was tested using a panel of 440 samples from patients with acute gastroenteritis, and characterized by PAGE and RT-PCR. The results show that the real-time RT-PCR detected rotavirus from 73% of rotavirus-negative samples analyzed by PAGE and RT-PCR; thus, the percentage of rotavirus-positive samples increased to 81%. The results indicate that this real-time RT-PCR should be part of a routine analysis, and as a support of the diagnosis of rotavirus in Mexico. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Efficacy and immunogenicity of two or three dose rotavirus-vaccine regimen in South African children over two consecutive rotavirus-seasons: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhi, S A; Kirsten, M; Louw, C; Bos, P; Aspinall, S; Bouckenooghe, A; Neuzil, K M; Steele, A D

    2012-04-27

    Human rotavirus vaccine (HRV; i.e., Rotarix) reduced the incidence of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) by 77% (95% Confidence interval: 56-88%) during the first year of life in South Africa. Persistence of HRV-derived protection against RVGE during subsequent rotavirus seasons, although evident in industrialized settings, remains to be established in African settings. This study reports on the efficacy of HRV against severe RVGE over two consecutive rotavirus seasons in South African children. A prospective, double-blind, placebo controlled multi-centered trial in South Africa and Malawi randomly assigned infants in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive either two (10 and 14 weeks; HRV_2D) or three (6, 10 and 14 weeks; HRV_3D) doses of HRV or placebo. The primary analysis involved pooling of HRV_2D and HRV_3D arms. Episodes of gastroenteritis caused by wild-type rotavirus were identified through active follow-up surveillance and graded by the Vesikari scale. 1339 infants (447 in the HRV_2D group, 447 in the HRV_3D group and 445 in the placebo group) were enrolled in Year 2 of the study, including 1035 (77.3%) who were followed up over two consecutive rotavirus seasons (i.e., Cohort 2 subjects). Rotarix was associated with ongoing protection against severe RVGE, preventing 2.5 episodes per 100 vaccinated children over two consecutive rotavirus seasons; vaccine efficacy: 59% (95% Confidence interval: 1-83%). An exploratory analysis indicated better immunogenicity (among Cohort 1 subjects) and a higher point-efficacy estimate over two seasons in the HRV_3D compared to HRV_2D arms of the study in Cohort 2 subjects. Rotarix is associated with significant reductions in severe gastroenteritis episodes through 2 years of life among South African children. Further research is needed to determine the optimal dosing schedule of Rotarix in providing long-term protection against rotavirus illness in African children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Efficacy of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in a high HIV prevalence population in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feikin, Daniel R; Laserson, Kayla F; Ojwando, Joel; Nyambane, Geoffrey; Ssempijja, Victor; Audi, Allan; Nyakundi, Daveline; Oyieko, Janet; Dallas, Michael J; Ciarlet, Max; Neuzil, Kathleen M; Breiman, Robert F

    2012-04-27

    Rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) is a leading cause of death in African children. The efficacy of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (PRV) against severe RVGE evaluated in Ghana, Kenya, and Mali in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, showed a combined regional efficacy of 39.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 19.1,54.7) in nearly 2 years of follow-up. This report concentrates on the Kenya findings. Infants received 3 doses of PRV/placebo at approximately 6-, 10-, and 14-weeks of age. HIV testing was offered to all participants. Data on illness symptoms and signs were collected upon presentation to healthcare facilities, where stools were collected, and analyzed by rotavirus-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The primary endpoint was severe RVGE (Vesikari score ≥ 11), occurring ≥ 14 days following the third dose. At monthly home visits, symptoms of illnesses during the past 2 weeks were solicited and limited physical exams were performed; dehydration was defined by WHO's Integrated Management of Childhood Illness. Vaccine efficacy (VE) against severe RVGE through nearly 2 years of follow-up among 1308 Kenyan children was 63.9% (95% CI: -5.9,89.8). Through the first year of life, VE against severe RVGE was 83.4% (95% CI: 25.5,98.2). From home visits, VE against all-cause gastroenteritis with severe dehydration was 34.4% (95% CI: 5.3,54.6) through the first year and 29.7% (95% CI: 2.5,49.3) through the entire follow-up period. The reduction in incidence of gastroenteritis with severe dehydration in the community during the first year of life (19.0 cases/100 person-years) was almost six times greater than the reduction in severe RVGE presenting to the clinic (3.3/100 person-years). Oral rehydration solution use was lower among PRV recipients (VE 23.1%, 95% CI: 8.8,35.1). An estimated 41% of gastroenteritis with severe dehydration in the first year reported at home was rotavirus-related. PRV significantly reduced severe RVGE in Kenya. The impact

  2. Human Noroviruses and Sporadic Gastroenteritis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-05

    In this podcast, Dan Rutz speaks with Dr. Manish Patel, a medical officer with the Division of Viral Diseases at CDC, about an article in August 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases reporting on nororviruses. Dr. Patel reviewed 235 studies and identified 31 original studies about noroviruses. Norovirus is the leading cause of epidemic gastroenteritis.  Created: 8/5/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 7/30/2008.

  3. Global Seasonality of Rotavirus Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Manish M.; Pitzer, Virginia; Alonso, Wladimir J.; Vera, David; Lopman, Ben; Tate, Jacqueline; Viboud, Cecile; Parashar, Umesh D.

    2012-01-01

    Background A substantial number of surveillance studies have documented rotavirus prevalence among children admitted for dehydrating diarrhea. We sought to establish global seasonal patterns of rotavirus disease before widespread vaccine introduction. Methods We reviewed studies of rotavirus detection in children with diarrhea published since 1995. We assessed potential relationships between seasonal prevalence and locality by plotting the average monthly proportion of diarrhea cases positive for rotavirus according to geography, country development, and latitude. We used linear regression to identify variables that were potentially associated with the seasonal intensity of rotavirus. Results Among a total of 99 studies representing all six geographical regions of the world, patterns of year-round disease were more evident in low- and low-middle income countries compared with upper-middle and high income countries where disease was more likely to be seasonal. The level of country development was a stronger predictor of strength of seasonality (P=0.001) than geographical location or climate. However, the observation of distinctly different seasonal patterns of rotavirus disease in some countries with similar geographical location, climate and level of development indicate that a single unifying explanation for variation in seasonality of rotavirus disease is unlikely. Conclusion While no unifying explanation emerged for varying rotavirus seasonality globally, the country income level was somewhat more predictive of the likelihood of having seasonal disease than other factors. Future evaluation of the effect of rotavirus vaccination on seasonal patterns of disease in different settings may help understand factors that drive the global seasonality of rotavirus disease. PMID:23190782

  4. Rotavirus vaccine impact and socioeconomic deprivation: an interrupted time-series analysis of gastrointestinal disease outcomes across primary and secondary care in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungerford, Daniel; Vivancos, Roberto; Read, Jonathan M; Iturriza-Gόmara, Miren; French, Neil; Cunliffe, Nigel A

    2018-01-29

    Rotavirus causes severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide. The UK introduced the monovalent rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix®) in July 2013. Vaccination is free of charge to parents, with two doses delivered at 8 and 12 weeks of age. We evaluated vaccine impact across a health system in relation to socioeconomic deprivation. We used interrupted time-series analyses to assess changes in monthly health-care attendances in Merseyside, UK, for all ages, from July 2013 to June 2016, compared to predicted counterfactual attendances without vaccination spanning 3-11 years pre-vaccine. Outcome measures included laboratory-confirmed rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) hospitalisations, acute gastroenteritis (AGE) hospitalisations, emergency department (ED) attendances for gastrointestinal conditions and consultations for infectious gastroenteritis at community walk-in centres (WIC) and general practices (GP). All analyses were stratified by age. Hospitalisations were additionally stratified by vaccine uptake and small-area-level socioeconomic deprivation. The uptake of the first and second doses of rotavirus vaccine was 91.4% (29,108/31,836) and 86.7% (27,594/31,836), respectively. Among children aged impact was greatest during the rotavirus season and for vaccine-eligible age groups. In adults aged 65+ years, AGE hospitalisations fell by 25% (95% CI 19-30%; p socioeconomically deprived communities (adjusted incident rate ratio 1.57; 95% CI 1.51-1.64; p impact was greatest among the most deprived populations, despite lower vaccine uptake. Prioritising vaccine uptake in socioeconomically deprived communities should give the greatest health benefit in terms of population disease burden.

  5. Rotavirus Genotypes in Sewage Treatment Plants and in Children Hospitalized with Acute Diarrhea in Italy in 2010 and 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Franco M.; Bonomo, Paolo; Ianiro, Giovanni; Battistone, Andrea; Delogu, Roberto; Germinario, Cinzia; Chironna, Maria; Triassi, Maria; Campagnuolo, Rosalba; Cicala, Antonella; Giammanco, Giovanni M.; Castiglia, Paolo; Serra, Caterina; Gaggioli, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Although the molecular surveillance network RotaNet-Italy provides useful nationwide data on rotaviruses causing severe acute gastroenteritis in children in Italy, scarce information is available on rotavirus circulation in the general Italian population, including adults with mild or asymptomatic infection. We investigated the genotypes of rotaviruses present in urban wastewaters and compared them with those of viral strains from clinical pediatric cases. During 2010 and 2011, 285 sewage samples from 4 Italian cities were tested by reverse transcription-PCRs (RT-PCRs) specific for rotavirus VP7 and VP4 genes. Rotavirus was detected in 172 (60.4%) samples, 26 of which contained multiple rotavirus G (VP7 gene) genotypes, for a total of 198 G types. Thirty-two samples also contained multiple P (VP4 gene) genotypes, yielding 204 P types in 172 samples. Genotype G1 accounted for 65.6% of rotaviruses typed, followed by genotypes G2 (20.2%), G9 (7.6%), G4 (4.6%), G6 (1.0%), G3 (0.5%), and G26 (0.5%). VP4 genotype P[8] accounted for 75.0% of strains, genotype P[4] accounted for 23.0% of strains, and the uncommon genotypes P[6], P[9], P[14], and P[19] accounted for 2.0% of strains altogether. These rotavirus genotypes were also found in pediatric patients hospitalized in the same areas and years but in different proportions. Specifically, genotypes G2, G9, and P[4] were more prevalent in sewage samples than among samples from patients, which suggests either a larger circulation of the latter strains through the general population not requiring medical care or their greater survival in wastewaters. A high level of nucleotide identity in the G1, G2, and G6 VP7 sequences was observed between strains from the environment and those from patients. PMID:25344240

  6. Efficacy, safety and effectiveness of licensed rotavirus vaccines: a systematic review and meta-analysis for Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, Raúl F; Linhares, Alexandre C; Muñoz, Sergio; Seron, Pamela; Lorca, Pedro; DeAntonio, Rodrigo; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo

    2017-01-13

    RotaTeq™ (RV5; Merck & Co. Inc., USA) and Rotarix™ (RV1, GlaxoSmithKline, Belgium) vaccines, developed to prevent rotavirus diarrhea in children under five years old, were both introduced into national immunization programs in 2006. As many countries in Latin America and the Caribbean have included either RV5 or RV1 in their routine childhood vaccination programs, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to analyze efficacy, safety and effectiveness data from the region. We conducted a systematic search in PubMed, EMBASE, Scielo, Lilacs and the Cochrane Central Register, for controlled efficacy, safety and effectiveness studies published between January 2000 until December 2011, on RV5 and RV1 across Latin America (where both vaccines are available since 2006). The primary outcome measures were: rotavirus-related gastroenteritis of any severity; rotavirus emergency department visits and hospitalization; and severe adverse events. The results of the meta-analysis for efficacy show that RV1 reduced the risk of any-severity rotavirus-related gastroenteritis by 65% (relative risk (RR) 0.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.25; 0.50), and of severe gastroenteritis by 82% (RR 0.18, 95%CI 0.12; 0.26) versus placebo. In trials, both vaccines significantly reduced the risk of hospitalization and emergency visits by 85% (RR 0.15, 95%CI 0.09; 0.25) for RV1 and by 90% (RR 0.099, 95%CI 0.012; 0.77) for RV5. Vaccination with RV5 or RV1 did not increase the risk of death, intussusception, or other severe adverse events which were previously associated with the first licensed rotavirus vaccine. Real-world effectiveness studies showed that both vaccines reduced rotavirus hospitalization in the region by around 45-50% for RV5 (for 1 to 3 doses, respectively), and, by around 50-80% for RV1 (for 1 to 2 doses, respectively). For RV1, effectiveness against hospitalization was highest (around 80-96%) for children vaccinated before 12 months of age, compared with 5

  7. PAEDIATRIC SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in increased mortality in developing nations.6,7 However, it has been shown ... Background: The time from birth to the first paediatric surgical consultation of neonates with gastroschisis is a predictor ... of Helsinki and its later amendments. Informed consent was obtained from the parents of the infants included in the study.

  8. Diversity in the Enteric Viruses Detected in Outbreaks of Gastroenteritis from Mumbai, Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Bhardwaj

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Faecal specimens collected from two outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis that occurred in southern Mumbai, India in March and October, 2006 were tested for seven different enteric viruses. Among the 218 specimens tested, 95 (43.6% were positive, 73 (76.8% for a single virus and 22 (23.2% for multiple viruses. Single viral infections in both, March and October showed predominance of enterovirus (EV, 33.3% and 40% and rotavirus A (RVA, 33.3% and 25%. The other viruses detected in these months were norovirus (NoV, 12.1% and 10%, rotavirus B (RVB, 12.1% and 10%, enteric adenovirus (AdV, 6.1% and 7.5%, Aichivirus (AiV, 3% and 7.5% and human astrovirus (HAstV, 3% and 0%. Mixed viral infections were largely represented by two viruses (84.6% and 88.9%, a small proportion showed presence of three (7.7% and 11% and four (7.7% and 0% viruses in the two outbreaks. Genotyping of the viruses revealed predominance of RVA G2P[4], RVB G2 (Indian Bangladeshi lineage, NoV GII.4, AdV-40, HAstV-8 and AiV B types. VP1/2A junction region based genotyping showed presence of 11 different serotypes of EVs. Although no virus was detected in the tested water samples, examination of both water and sewage pipelines in gastroenteritis affected localities indicated leakages and possibility of contamination of drinking water with sewage water. Coexistence of multiple enteric viruses during the two outbreaks of gastroenteritis emphasizes the need to expand such investigations to other parts of India.

  9. Diversity in the enteric viruses detected in outbreaks of gastroenteritis from Mumbai, Western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitambar, Shobha; Gopalkrishna, Varanasi; Chhabra, Preeti; Patil, Pooja; Verma, Harsha; Lahon, Anismrita; Arora, Ritu; Tatte, Vaishali; Ranshing, Sujata; Dhale, Ganesh; Kolhapure, Rajendra; Tikute, Sanjay; Kulkarni, Jagannath; Bhardwaj, Renu; Akarte, Sulbha; Pawar, Sashikant

    2012-03-01

    Faecal specimens collected from two outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis that occurred in southern Mumbai, India in March and October, 2006 were tested for seven different enteric viruses. Among the 218 specimens tested, 95 (43.6%) were positive, 73 (76.8%) for a single virus and 22 (23.2%) for multiple viruses. Single viral infections in both, March and October showed predominance of enterovirus (EV, 33.3% and 40%) and rotavirus A (RVA, 33.3% and 25%). The other viruses detected in these months were norovirus (NoV, 12.1% and 10%), rotavirus B (RVB, 12.1% and 10%), enteric adenovirus (AdV, 6.1% and 7.5%), Aichivirus (AiV, 3% and 7.5%) and human astrovirus (HAstV, 3% and 0%). Mixed viral infections were largely represented by two viruses (84.6% and 88.9%), a small proportion showed presence of three (7.7% and 11%) and four (7.7% and 0%) viruses in the two outbreaks. Genotyping of the viruses revealed predominance of RVA G2P[4], RVB G2 (Indian Bangladeshi lineage), NoV GII.4, AdV-40, HAstV-8 and AiV B types. VP1/2A junction region based genotyping showed presence of 11 different serotypes of EVs. Although no virus was detected in the tested water samples, examination of both water and sewage pipelines in gastroenteritis affected localities indicated leakages and possibility of contamination of drinking water with sewage water. Coexistence of multiple enteric viruses during the two outbreaks of gastroenteritis emphasizes the need to expand such investigations to other parts of India.

  10. Efficacy of a monovalent human-bovine (116E) rotavirus vaccine in Indian infants: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Nita; Rongsen-Chandola, Temsunaro; Bavdekar, Ashish; John, Jacob; Antony, Kalpana; Taneja, Sunita; Goyal, Nidhi; Kawade, Anand; Kang, Gagandeep; Rathore, Sudeep Singh; Juvekar, Sanjay; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Arya, Alok; Shaikh, Hanif; Abraham, Vinod; Vrati, Sudhanshu; Proschan, Michael; Kohberger, Robert; Thiry, Georges; Glass, Roger; Greenberg, Harry B; Curlin, George; Mohan, Krishna; Harshavardhan, G V J A; Prasad, Sai; Rao, T S; Boslego, John; Bhan, Maharaj Kishan

    2014-06-21

    Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe dehydrating gastroenteritis in developing countries. Safe, effective, and affordable rotavirus vaccines are needed in these countries. We aimed to assess the efficacy and tolerability of a monovalent human-bovine rotavirus vaccine for severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in low-resource urban and rural settings in India. We did a randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial at three sites in Delhi (urban), Pune (rural), and Vellore (urban and rural) between March 11, 2011, and Nov 5, 2012. Infants aged 6-7 weeks were randomly assigned (2:1), via a central interactive voice or web response system with a block size of 12, to receive either three doses of oral human-bovine natural reassortant vaccine (116E) or placebo at ages 6-7 weeks, 10 weeks, and 14 weeks. Infants' families, study investigators, paediatricians in referral hospitals, laboratory staff, and committee members were all masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was incidence of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis (≥11 on the Vesikari scale). Efficacy outcomes and adverse events were ascertained through active surveillance. Analysis was by intention to treat and per protocol. The trial is registered with Clinical Trial Registry-India (CTRI/2010/091/000102) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01305109). 4532 infants were assigned to receive the 116E vaccine and 2267 to receive placebo, of whom 4354 (96%) and 2187 (96%) infants, respectively, were included in the primary per-protocol efficacy analysis. 71 events of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis were reported in 4752 person-years in infants in the vaccine group compared with 76 events in 2360 person-years in those in the placebo group; vaccine efficacy against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis was 53·6% (95% CI 35·0-66·9; p=0·0013) and 56·4% (36·6-70·1; protavirus gastroenteritis episode was 55 (95% CI 37-97). The incidence of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis per 100 person-years was 1·5

  11. Molecular Epidemiology of Viral Gastroenteritis in Hajj pilgrimage

    KAUST Repository

    Padron Regalado, Eriko

    2014-05-01

    Hajj is the annual gathering of Islam practitioners in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. During the event, gastrointestinal infections are usually experienced and outbreaks have always been a concern; nevertheless, a deep and integrative study of the etiological agents has never been carried out. Here, I describe for the first time the epidemiology of pathogenic enteric viruses during Hajj 2011, 2012 and 2013. The focus of this study was the common enteric viruses Astrovirus, Norovirus, Rotavirus and Adenovirus. An enzyme Immunoassay established their presence in 14.9%, 15.0% and 6.6% of the reported cases of acute diarrhea for 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. For the three years of study, Astrovirus accounted for the majority of the viral infections. To our knowledge, this is the first time an epidemiological study depicts Astrovirus as the main viral agent of gastroenteritis in a mass gathering event. Hajj is rich in strains of Astrovirus, Norovirus and Rotavirus. A first screening by RT-PCR resulted in ten different genotypes. Strains HAstV 2, HAstV 1 and HAstV 5 were identified for Astrovirus. GI.6, GII.3, GII.4 and GII.1 were described for Norovirus and G1P[8], G4P[8] and G3P[8] were found for Rotavirus. The majority of the Astrovirus isolates could not be genotyped suggesting the presence of a new variant(s). Cases like this encourage the use of metagenomics (and nextgeneration sequencing) as a state-of-the-art technology in clinical diagnosis. A sample containing Adenovirus particles is being used to standardize a process for detection directly from stool samples and results will be obtained in the near future. The overall findings of the present study support the concept of Hajj as a unique mass gathering event that potentiates the transmission of infectious diseases. The finding of Norovirus GII.4 Sydney, a variant originated from Australia, suggests that Hajj is a receptor of infectious diseases worldwide. This work is part of the Hajj project, a collaborative

  12. Shewanella algae in acute gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Dey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shewanella algae is an emerging bacteria rarely implicated as a human pathogen. Previously reported cases of S. algae have mainly been associated with direct contact with seawater. Here we report the isolation of S. algae as the sole etiological agent from a patient suffering from acute gastroenteritis with bloody diarrhoea. The bacterium was identified by automated identification system and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Our report highlights the importance of looking for the relatively rare aetiological agents in clinical samples that does not yield common pathogens. It also underscores the usefulness of automated systems in identification of rare pathogens.

  13. The Battle between Rotavirus and Its Host for Control of the Interferon Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Michelle M.; Sen, Adrish; Greenberg, Harry B.; Patton, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Viral pathogens must overcome innate antiviral responses to replicate successfully in the host organism. Some of the mechanisms viruses use to interfere with antiviral responses in the infected cell include preventing detection of viral components, perturbing the function of transcription factors that initiate antiviral responses, and inhibiting downstream signal transduction. RNA viruses with small genomes and limited coding space often express multifunctional proteins that modulate several aspects of the normal host response to infection. One such virus, rotavirus, is an important pediatric pathogen that causes severe gastroenteritis, leading to ∼450,000 deaths globally each year. In this review, we discuss the nature of the innate antiviral responses triggered by rotavirus infection and the viral mechanisms for inhibiting these responses. PMID:23359266

  14. Silencing the alarms: innate immune antagonism by rotavirus NSP1 and VP3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Marco; Ogden, Kristen M.; Patton, John T.

    2016-01-01

    The innate immune response involves a broad array of pathogen sensors that stimulate the production of interferons (IFN) to induce an antiviral state. Rotavirus, a significant cause of childhood gastroenteritis and a member of the Reoviridae family of segmented, double-stranded RNA viruses, encodes at least two direct antagonists of host innate immunity: NSP1 and VP3. NSP1, a putative E3 ubiquitin ligase, mediates the degradation of cellular factors involved in both IFN induction and downstream signaling. VP3, the viral capping enzyme, utilizes a 2H-phosphodiesterase domain to prevent activation of the cellular oligoadenylate synthase (OAS)-RNase L pathway. Computational, molecular, and biochemical studies have provided key insights into the structural and mechanistic basis of innate immune antagonism by NSP1 and VP3 of group A rotaviruses (RVA). Future studies with non-RVA isolates will be essential to understand how other RV species evade host innate immune responses. PMID:25724417

  15. Emergence of Double- and Triple-Gene Reassortant G1P[8] Rotaviruses Possessing a DS-1-Like Backbone after Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jere, Khuzwayo C; Chaguza, Chrispin; Bar-Zeev, Naor; Lowe, Jenna; Peno, Chikondi; Kumwenda, Benjamin; Nakagomi, Osamu; Tate, Jacqueline E; Parashar, Umesh D; Heyderman, Robert S; French, Neil; Cunliffe, Nigel A; Iturriza-Gomara, Miren

    2018-02-01

    To combat the high burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis, multiple African countries have introduced rotavirus vaccines into their childhood immunization programs. Malawi incorporated a G1P[8] rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix) into its immunization schedule in 2012. Utilizing a surveillance platform of hospitalized rotavirus gastroenteritis cases, we examined the phylodynamics of G1P[8] rotavirus strains that circulated in Malawi before (1998 to 2012) and after (2013 to 2014) vaccine introduction. Analysis of whole genomes obtained through next-generation sequencing revealed that all randomly selected prevaccine G1P[8] strains sequenced ( n = 32) possessed a Wa-like genetic constellation, whereas postvaccine G1P[8] strains ( n = 18) had a DS-1-like constellation. Phylodynamic analyses indicated that postvaccine G1P[8] strains emerged through reassortment events between human Wa- and DS-1-like rotaviruses that circulated in Malawi from the 1990s and hence were classified as atypical DS-1-like reassortants. The time to the most recent common ancestor for G1P[8] strains was from 1981 to 1994; their evolutionary rates ranged from 9.7 × 10 -4 to 4.1 × 10 -3 nucleotide substitutions/site/year. Three distinct G1P[8] lineages chronologically replaced each other between 1998 and 2014. Genetic drift was the likely driver for lineage turnover in 2005, whereas replacement in 2013 was due to reassortment. Amino acid substitution within the outer glycoprotein VP7 of G1P[8] strains had no impact on the structural conformation of the antigenic regions, suggesting that it is unlikely that they would affect recognition by vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies. While the emergence of DS-1-like G1P[8] rotavirus reassortants in Malawi was therefore likely due to natural genotype variation, vaccine effectiveness against such strains needs careful evaluation. IMPORTANCE The error-prone RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and the segmented RNA genome predispose rotaviruses to genetic mutation and

  16. Rotavirus vaccines contribute towards universal health coverage in a mixed public-private healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganathan, Tharani; Jit, Mark; Hutubessy, Raymond; Ng, Chiu-Wan; Lee, Way-Seah; Verguet, Stéphane

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate rotavirus vaccination in Malaysia from the household's perspective. The extended cost-effectiveness analysis (ECEA) framework quantifies the broader value of universal vaccination starting with non-health benefits such as financial risk protection and equity. These dimensions better enable decision-makers to evaluate policy on the public finance of health programmes. The incidence, health service utilisation and household expenditure related to rotavirus gastroenteritis according to national income quintiles were obtained from local data sources. Multiple birth cohorts were distributed into income quintiles and followed from birth over the first five years of life in a multicohort, static model. We found that the rich pay more out of pocket (OOP) than the poor, as the rich use more expensive private care. OOP payments among the poorest although small are high as a proportion of household income. Rotavirus vaccination results in substantial reduction in rotavirus episodes and expenditure and provides financial risk protection to all income groups. Poverty reduction benefits are concentrated amongst the poorest two income quintiles. We propose that universal vaccination complements health financing reforms in strengthening Universal Health Coverage (UHC). ECEA provides an important tool to understand the implications of vaccination for UHC, beyond traditional considerations of economic efficiency. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Nlrp9b inflammasome restricts rotavirus infection in intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shu; Ding, Siyuan; Wang, Penghua; Wei, Zheng; Pan, Wen; Palm, Noah W; Yang, Yi; Yu, Hua; Li, Hua-Bing; Wang, Geng; Lei, Xuqiu; de Zoete, Marcel R; Zhao, Jun; Zheng, Yunjiang; Chen, Haiwei; Zhao, Yujiao; Jurado, Kellie A; Feng, Ningguo; Shan, Liang; Kluger, Yuval; Lu, Jun; Abraham, Clara; Fikrig, Erol; Greenberg, Harry B; Flavell, Richard A

    2017-06-29

    Rotavirus, a leading cause of severe gastroenteritis and diarrhoea in young children, accounts for around 215,000 deaths annually worldwide. Rotavirus specifically infects the intestinal epithelial cells in the host small intestine and has evolved strategies to antagonize interferon and NF-κB signalling, raising the question as to whether other host factors participate in antiviral responses in intestinal mucosa. The mechanism by which enteric viruses are sensed and restricted in vivo, especially by NOD-like receptor (NLR) inflammasomes, is largely unknown. Here we uncover and mechanistically characterize the NLR Nlrp9b that is specifically expressed in intestinal epithelial cells and restricts rotavirus infection. Our data show that, via RNA helicase Dhx9, Nlrp9b recognizes short double-stranded RNA stretches and forms inflammasome complexes with the adaptor proteins Asc and caspase-1 to promote the maturation of interleukin (Il)-18 and gasdermin D (Gsdmd)-induced pyroptosis. Conditional depletion of Nlrp9b or other inflammasome components in the intestine in vivo resulted in enhanced susceptibility of mice to rotavirus replication. Our study highlights an important innate immune signalling pathway that functions in intestinal epithelial cells and may present useful targets in the modulation of host defences against viral pathogens.

  18. Did Large-Scale Vaccination Drive Changes in the Circulating Rotavirus Population in Belgium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzer, Virginia E.; Bilcke, Joke; Heylen, Elisabeth; Crawford, Forrest W.; Callens, Michael; De Smet, Frank; Van Ranst, Marc; Zeller, Mark; Matthijnssens, Jelle

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination can place selective pressures on viral populations, leading to changes in the distribution of strains as viruses evolve to escape immunity from the vaccine. Vaccine-driven strain replacement is a major concern after nationwide rotavirus vaccine introductions. However, the distribution of the predominant rotavirus genotypes varies from year to year in the absence of vaccination, making it difficult to determine what changes can be attributed to the vaccines. To gain insight in the underlying dynamics driving changes in the rotavirus population, we fitted a hierarchy of mathematical models to national and local genotype-specific hospitalization data from Belgium, where large-scale vaccination was introduced in 2006. We estimated that natural- and vaccine-derived immunity was strongest against completely homotypic strains and weakest against fully heterotypic strains, with an intermediate immunity amongst partially heterotypic strains. The predominance of G2P[4] infections in Belgium after vaccine introduction can be explained by a combination of natural genotype fluctuations and weaker natural and vaccine-induced immunity against infection with strains heterotypic to the vaccine, in the absence of significant variation in strain-specific vaccine effectiveness against disease. However, the incidence of rotavirus gastroenteritis is predicted to remain low despite vaccine-driven changes in the distribution of genotypes. PMID:26687288

  19. Nlrp9b inflammasome restricts rotavirus infection in intestinal epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shu; Ding, Siyuan; Wang, Penghua; Wei, Zheng; Pan, Wen; Palm, Noah W; Yang, Yi; Yu, Hua; Li, Hua-Bing; Wang, Geng; Lei, Xuqiu; de Zoete, Marcel R.; Zhao, Jun; Zheng, Yunjiang; Chen, Haiwei; Zhao, Yujiao; Jurado, Kellie A.; Feng, Ningguo; Shan, Liang; Kluger, Yuval; Lu, Jun; Abraham, Clara; Fikrig, Erol; Greenberg, Harry B.; Flavell, Richard A.

    2018-01-01

    Rotavirus, a leading cause of severe gastroenteritis and diarrhoea in young children, accounts for around 215,000 deaths annually worldwide1. Rotavirus specifically infects the intestinal epithelial cells in the host small intestine and has evolved strategies to antagonize interferon and NF-κB signalling2–5, raising the question as to whether other host factors participate in antiviral responses in intestinal mucosa. The mechanism by which enteric viruses are sensed and restricted in vivo, especially by NOD-like receptor (NLR) inflammasomes, is largely unknown. Here we uncover and mechanistically characterize the NLR Nlrp9b that is specifically expressed in intestinal epithelial cells and restricts rotavirus infection. Our data show that, via RNA helicase Dhx9, Nlrp9b recognizes short double-stranded RNA stretches and forms inflammasome complexes with the adaptor proteins Asc and caspase-1 to promote the maturation of interleukin (Il)-18 and gasdermin D (Gsdmd)-induced pyroptosis. Conditional depletion of Nlrp9b or other inflammasome components in the intestine in vivo resulted in enhanced susceptibility of mice to rotavirus replication. Our study highlights an important innate immune signalling pathway that functions in intestinal epithelial cells and may present useful targets in the modulation of host defences against viral pathogens. PMID:28636595

  20. Brachyspira Species and Gastroenteritis in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, L.J.; Boer, de R.F.; Roelfsema, J.H.; Friesema, I.H.M.; Kortbeek, L.M.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Bonten, M.J.M.; Kusters, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Brachyspira species have been implicated as a potential cause of gastroenteritis in humans; this is, however, controversial. In 733 gastroenteritis cases and 464 controls, we found 29 samples positive for Brachyspira species (2.3% of cases and 2.6% of controls; P = 0.77). Brachyspira species were

  1. Gastroenteritis in sentinel general practices, the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, M.A.S. de; Koopmans, M.P.G.; Kortbeek, L.M.; Leeuwen, N.J. van; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Duynhoven, Y.T.H.P. van

    2001-01-01

    From 1996 to 1999, the incidence of gastroenteritis in general practices and the role of a broad range of pathogens in the Netherlands were studied. All patients with gastroenteritis who had visited a general practitioner were reported. All patients who had visited a general practitioner for

  2. Brachyspira Species and Gastroenteritis in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, L J; de Boer, R F; Roelfsema, J H; Friesema, I H M; Kortbeek, L M; Wagenaar, J A; Bonten, M J M; Kusters, J G

    Brachyspira species have been implicated as a potential cause of gastroenteritis in humans; this is, however, controversial. In 733 gastroenteritis cases and 464 controls, we found 29 samples positive for Brachyspira species (2.3% of cases and 2.6% of controls; P = 0.77). Brachyspira species were

  3. Noroviruses associated with acute gastroenteritis in a children's day care facility in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallimore C.I.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Noroviruses (Norwalk-like viruses are an important cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. They are the most common cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis in the adult population and occur in nursing homes for the elderly, geriatric wards, medical wards, and in hotel and restaurant settings. Food-borne outbreaks have also occurred following consumption of contaminated oysters. This study describes the application of a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay using random primers (PdN6 and specific Ni and E3 primers, directed at a small region of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase-coding region of the norovirus genome, and DNA sequencing for the detection and preliminary characterisation of noroviruses in outbreaks of gastroenteritis in children in Brazil. The outbreak samples were collected from children <5 years of age at the Bertha Lutz children's day care facility at Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, that occurred between 1996 and 1998, where no pathogen had been identified. At the Bertha Lutz day care center facility, only Fiocruz's employee children are provided for, and they come from different social, economic and cultural backgrounds. Three distinct genogroup II strains were detected in three outbreaks in 1997/98 and were most closely related to genotypes GII-3 (Mexico virus and GII-4 (Grimsby virus, both of which have been detected in paediatric and adult outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide.

  4. Frequently Asked Questions about Rotavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Scientific Achievement John P. Utz Leadership Award Dr. Charles Mérieux Award for Achievement in Vaccinology and Immunology ... There's no reliable way to predict how rotavirus will affect your child. New and expecting parents should ...

  5. One Family's Struggles with Rotavirus

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... hiv/aids overview current news labs links & resources hpv overview why vaccinate posters buttons and banners videos ... q & a videos chickenpox (varicella) hepatitis b hib hpv pertussis (whooping cough) pneumococcal rotavirus shingles media room ...

  6. One Family's Struggles with Rotavirus

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... immunizations current news Flu's Gonna Lose hepatitis a & b vaccines im/sq how to do kids infect ... vaccine safety q & a videos chickenpox (varicella) hepatitis b hib hpv pertussis (whooping cough) pneumococcal rotavirus shingles ...

  7. One Family's Struggles with Rotavirus

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to do kids infect kids links & resources M.O.V.E. parents for prevention publications schedules & records ... rotavirus shingles media room Flu's Gonna Lose M.O.V.E. newsfeeds PSAs publications infectious disease workshop ...

  8. One Family's Struggles with Rotavirus

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... freed meet keri russell posters grand article rich media video/audio pneumonia tb overview links & resources families ... hib hpv pertussis (whooping cough) pneumococcal rotavirus shingles media room Flu's Gonna Lose M.O.V.E. ...

  9. Clinical research of benign infantile convulsions with mild gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-bing LI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cases of benign infantile convulsions with mild gastroenteritis (BICE treated in our hospital from 2008 to 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. Among the 65 cases of convulsions with acute diarrhea, there were 18 cases of BICE, 15 cases of febrile seizures, 13 cases of epilepsy, 6 cases of viral encephalitis, 6 cases of hyponatremia encephalopathy, 3 cases of hypernatremia encephalopathy, 2 cases of toxic encephalopathy, and 2 cases of hypocalcemia convulsion. The convulsion occurred mostly during the first 2 d of the illness and was in a generalized tonic or tonic-clonic form. Positive rotavirus antigens in the BICE patients were detected in 83.33% (15/18. Phenobarbital was administered after the first convulsion (5-10 mg/kg, and diazepam was given intravenously in case of recurrence (0.10-0.30 mg/kg. BICE occurs frequently in infantile and controlling relapse is the main purpose. The prognosis is good. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.03.019

  10. Probiotics in the treatment of acute rotavirus diarrhoea. A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial using two different probiotic preparations in Bolivian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandy Giuseppe

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests that probiotics reduce rotavirus diarrhoea duration. Although there are several probiotic strains potentially useful, daily practice is often limited by the type and number of products locally available. In general, information about combined products is scarce. In this study we compare the effect of two probiotic products in the treatment of diarrhoea in children less than 2 years of age. Methods A Randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial in children hospitalized for acute rotavirus diarrhoea, in the Paediatric Centre Albina Patino, Cochabamba, Bolivia. Participants were children aged 1 - 23 months, who were randomly assigned to receive one of three treatments: Oral rehydration therapy plus placebo; Oral rehydration solution plus Saccharomyces boulardii; or Oral rehydration solution plus a compound containing Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium longum and Saccharomyces boulardii. Sample size was 20 per group and the outcomes were duration of diarrhoea, of fever, of vomiting and of hospitalization. Results 64 cases finished the protocol. On admission, patients' characteristics were similar. Median duration of diarrhoea (p = 0.04 in children who received the single species product (58 hours was shorter than in controls (84.5 hrs. Comparing children that received the single probiotic product and controls showed shorter duration of fever (18 vs 67 hrs (p = 0.0042 and the mixed probiotic of vomiting (0 vs 42.5 hrs (p = 0.041. There was no effect on duration of hospitalization (p = 0.31. When experimental groups were merged, statistical significance of changes increased (total duration of diarrhoea, fever and vomiting P = 0.025, P = 0.025 and P = 0.014, respectively. Conclusions Both products decreased the duration of diarrhoea compared to oral rehydration solution alone. This decrease was significant only for the single species product which also decreased the duration of

  11. Cost-effectiveness analysis of rotavirus vaccination in China: Projected possibility of scale-up from the current domestic option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shuhui; Tobe, Ruoyan Gai; Mo, Xiuting; Liu, Xiaoyan; Xu, Lingzhong; Li, Shixue

    2016-11-15

    Rotavirus infection causes considerable disease burden of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) hospitalization and death among children less than 5 years in China. Although two rotavirus vaccines (Rotarix and RotaTeq) have been licensed in more than 100 countries in the world, the Lanzhou Lamb rotavirus vaccine (LLR) is the only vaccine licensed in China. This study aims to forecast the potential impacts of the two international vaccines compared to domestic LLR. An economic evaluation was performed using a Markov simulation model. We compared costs at the societal aspect and health impacts with and without a vaccination program by LLR, Rotarix or RotaTeq. Parameters including demographic, epidemiological data, costs and efficacy of vaccines were obtained from literature review. The model incorporated the impact of vaccination on reduction of incidence of rotavirus infection and severity of AGE indicated by hospitalization, inpatient visits and deaths. Outcomes are presented in terms of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) compared to status quo. In a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 infants, the two international vaccines showed very good cost-effectiveness, with ICER of Rotateq and Rotarix shifting from LLR of $1715.11/QALY and $2105.66/QALY, respectively. Rotateq and Rotarix had significantly decreased incidence compared to LLR, particularly among infants aged 6 months to 2 years. RotaTeq is expected to introduce in the national routine immunization program to reduce disease burden of rotavirus infection with universal coverage.

  12. Evaluation of BBL™ Sensi-Discs™ and FTA® cards as sampling devices for detection of rotavirus in stool samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Ka Ian; Esona, Mathew D; Williams, Alice; Ndze, Valantine N; Boula, Angeline; Bowen, Michael D

    2015-09-15

    Rotavirus is the most important cause of severe childhood gastroenteritis worldwide. Rotavirus vaccines are available and rotavirus surveillance is carried out to assess vaccination impact. In surveillance studies, stool samples are stored typically at 4°C or frozen to maintain sample quality. Uninterrupted cold storage is a problem in developing countries because of power interruptions. Cold-chain transportation of samples from collection sites to testing laboratories is costly. In this study, we evaluated the use of BBL™ Sensi-Discs™ and FTA(®) cards for storage and transportation of samples for virus isolation, EIA, and RT-PCR testing. Infectious rotavirus was recovered after 30 days of storage on Sensi-Discs™ at room temperature. We were able to genotype 98-99% of samples stored on Sensi-Discs™ and FTA(®) cards at temperatures ranging from -80°C to 37°C up to 180 days. A field sampling test using samples prepared and shipped from Cameroon, showed that both matrices yielded 100% genotyping success compared with whole stool and Sensi-Discs™ demonstrated 95% concordance with whole stool in EIA testing. The utilization of BBL™ Sensi-Discs™ and FTA(®) cards for stool sample storage and shipment has the potential to have great impact on global public health by facilitating surveillance and epidemiological investigations of rotavirus strains worldwide at a reduced cost. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Evaluation of BBL™ Sensi-Discs™ and FTA® cards as sampling devices for detection of rotavirus in stool samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Ka Ian; Esona, Mathew D.; Williams, Alice; Ndze, Valentine N.; Boula, Angeline; Bowen, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Rotavirus is the most important cause of severe childhood gastroenteritis worldwide. Rotavirus vaccines are available and rotavirus surveillance is carried out to assess vaccination impact. In surveillance studies, stool samples are stored typically at 4°C or frozen to maintain sample quality. Uninterrupted cold storage is a problem in developing countries because of power interruptions. Cold-chain transportation of samples from collection sites to testing laboratories is costly. In this study, we evaluated the use of BBL™ Sensi-Discs™ and FTA® cards for storage and transportation of samples for virus isolation, EIA, and RT-PCR testing. Infectious rotavirus was recovered after 30 days of storage on Sensi-Discs™ at room temperature. We were able to genotype 98–99% of samples stored on Sensi-Discs™ and FTA® cards at temperatures ranging from −80°C to 37°C up to 180 days. A field sampling test using samples prepared and shipped from Cameroon, showed that both matrices yielded 100% genotyping success compared with whole stool and Sensi-Discs™ demonstrated 95% concordance with whole stool in EIA testing. The utilization of BBL™ Sensi-Discs™ and FTA® cards for stool sample storage and shipment has the potential to have great impact on global public health by facilitating surveillance and epidemiological investigations of rotavirus strains worldwide at a reduced cost. PMID:26022083

  14. Efficacy of a monovalent human-bovine (116E) rotavirus vaccine in Indian children in the second year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Nita; Rongsen-Chandola, Temsunaro; Bavdekar, Ashish; John, Jacob; Antony, Kalpana; Taneja, Sunita; Goyal, Nidhi; Kawade, Anand; Kang, Gagandeep; Rathore, Sudeep Singh; Juvekar, Sanjay; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Arya, Alok; Shaikh, Hanif; Abraham, Vinod; Vrati, Sudhanshu; Proschan, Michael; Kohberger, Robert; Thiry, Georges; Glass, Roger; Greenberg, Harry B; Curlin, George; Mohan, Krishna; Harshavardhan, G V J A; Prasad, Sai; Rao, T S; Boslego, John; Bhan, Maharaj Kishan

    2014-08-11

    Rotavirus gastroenteritis is one of the leading causes of diarrhea in Indian children less than 2 years of age. The 116E rotavirus strain was developed as part of the Indo-US Vaccine Action Program and has undergone efficacy trials. This paper reports the efficacy and additional safety data in children up to 2 years of age. In a double-blind placebo controlled multicenter trial, 6799 infants aged 6-7 weeks were randomized to receive three doses of an oral human-bovine natural reassortant vaccine (116E) or placebo at ages 6, 10, and 14 weeks. The primary outcome was severe (≥11 on the Vesikari scale) rotavirus gastroenteritis. Efficacy outcomes and adverse events were ascertained through active surveillance. We randomly assigned 4532 and 2267 subjects to receive vaccine and placebo, respectively, with over 96% subjects receiving all three doses of the vaccine or placebo. The per protocol analyses included 4354 subjects in the vaccine and 2187 subjects in the placebo group. The overall incidence of severe RVGE per 100 person years was 1.3 in the vaccine group and 2.9 in the placebo recipients. Vaccine efficacy against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in children up to 2 years of age was 55.1% (95% CI 39.9 to 66.4; pvaccine efficacy in the second year of life of 48.9% (95% CI 17.4 to 68.4; p=0.0056) was only marginally less than in the first year of life [56.3% (95% CI 36.7 to 69.9; pvaccine dose and all were reported only after the third dose. The sustained efficacy of the 116E in the second year of life is reassuring. The trial is registered with Clinical Trial Registry-India (# CTRI/2010/091/000102) and Clinicaltrials.gov (# NCT01305109). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Molecular characterization of rotavirus strains from pre- and post-vaccination periods in a country with low vaccination coverage: the case of Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyer, Andrej; Sagadin, Martin; Kolenc, Marko; Poljšak-Prijatelj, Mateja

    2014-12-01

    Rotavirus vaccination started in Slovenia in 2007 on a voluntarily basis. The vaccination rate is relatively low (up to 27%) and no increasing trend is observed. We present rotavirus genotype distribution among children hospitalized for rotavirus gastroenteritis in Slovenia. Eight consecutive rotavirus seasons were followed, from 2005/06 to 2012/13, and 113 strains of the most common rotavirus genotypes were randomly selected for molecular characterization of rotavirus VP7 and VP4 (VP8(∗)) genome segments. During the vaccine introduction period, from 2007 to 2013, rotavirus genotype prevalences changed, with G1P[8] decreasing from 74.1% to 8.7% between 2007/08 and 2010/11 seasons, replaced by G4P[8] and G2P[4], with up to 52.0% prevalence. Comparable analysis of VP7 and VP8(∗) genome fragments within G1P[8] genotype lineages revealed considerable differences for rotavirus strains circulating before and during the vaccination period. The G1P[8] rotavirus strains from the pre-vaccination period clustered in a phylogenetic tree within Rotarix®-like VP7 and VP8(∗) lineages. However, since 2007, the majority of G1P[8] strains have shifted to distant genetic lineages with lower nucleotide (88.1-94.0% for VP7 and 86.6-91.1% for VP8(∗)) and amino acid (93.8-95.2% for VP7 and 85.3-94.6% for VP8(∗)) identities to the vaccine Rotarix® strain. This change also resulted in a different deduced amino acid profile at the major VP7 and VP8(∗) antigenic epitopes. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. First genetic characterization of rotavirus C in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhirakovskaia, Elena; Tikunov, Artem; Klemesheva, Vera; Loginovskikh, Natalia; Netesov, Sergey; Tikunova, Nina

    2016-04-01

    Rotaviruses C (RVC) cause sporadic cases and outbreaks of diarrhea in humans and animals worldwide. The aim of this study was to monitor RVC during a surveillance study of sporadic cases of viral gastroenteritis in the Novosibirsk and Omsk regions of Russia from 2006 to 2011. A total of 2144 stool samples from children and adults hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis were tested for RVC by RT-PCR. Sixteen RVC-positive stool samples were detected at a rate of 0.6% (13/2037) in children and 2.8% (3/107) in adults. The low detection rate suggested that RVC infection was an uncommon cause of hospitalization in Russia. The complete VP7, VP4, VP6, and NSP4 gene sequences were determined. It was found that RVCs with at least two different genome backgrounds circulated in Siberia. VP4, VP6, and NSP4 gene sequences of most Russian RVC strains clustered with South Asian strains, while the VP7 gene showed a closer relationship to European strains. Meanwhile, only VP4 and NSP4 sequences of the strain Omsk08-386 clustered with South Asian strains, while its VP6 and VP7 sequences clustered with European strains. This is the first genetic characterization of Russian RVC strains and the first report on the prevalence of RVC in the Asian part of Russia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficacy, Immunogenicity and Safety of a Human Rotavirus Vaccine RIX4414 in Singaporean Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, Kong Boo; Lim, Fong Seng; Quak, Seng Hock; Lee, Bee Wah; Teoh, Yee Leong; Suryakiran, Pemmaraju V; Han, Htay Htay; Bock, Hans L

    2016-02-01

    This was the first study conducted to evaluate the efficacy of 2 oral doses of the human rotavirus vaccine, RIX4414 in Singaporean infants during the first 3 years of life. Healthy infants, 11 to 17 weeks of age were enrolled in this randomised (1:1), double-blinded, placebo-controlled study to receive 2 oral doses of RIX4414 vaccine/placebo following a 0-, 1-month schedule. Vaccine efficacy against severe rotavirus (RV) gastroenteritis (Vesikari score ≥11) caused by wild-type RV strains from a period starting from 2 weeks post-Dose 2 until 2 and 3 years of age was calculated with 95% confidence interval (CI). Immunogenicity and safety of the vaccine were also assessed. Of 6542 infants enrolled, 6466 were included in the efficacy analysis and a subset of 100 infants was included in the immunogenicity analysis. Fewer severe RV gastroenteritis episodes were reported in the RIX4414 group when compared to placebo at both 2 and 3 year follow-up periods. Vaccine efficacy against severe RV gastroenteritis at the respective time points were 93.8% (95% CI, 59.9 to 99.9) and 95.2% (95% CI, 70.5 to 99.9). One to 2 months post-Dose 2 of RIX4414, 97.5% (95% CI, 86.8 to 99.9) of infants seroconverted for anti-RV IgA antibodies. The number of serious adverse events recorded from Dose 1 until 3 years of age was similar in both groups. Two oral doses of RIX4414 vaccine was immunogenic and provided high level of protection against severe RV gastroenteritis in Singaporean children, during the first 3 years of life when the disease burden is highest.

  18. Efficacy of the oral pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sow, Samba O; Tapia, Milagritos; Haidara, Fadima C; Ciarlet, Max; Diallo, Fatoumata; Kodio, Mamoudou; Doumbia, Moussa; Dembélé, Rokiatou D; Traoré, Oumou; Onwuchekwa, Uma U; Lewis, Kristen D C; Victor, John C; Steele, A Duncan; Neuzil, Kathleen M; Kotloff, Karen L; Levine, Myron M

    2012-04-27

    The oral, pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (PRV), RotaTeq was assessed for prevention of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) in young children in two multi-site, randomized, placebo-controlled field trials; one in Asia (Vietnam and Bangladesh) and the other in sub-Saharan Africa (Ghana, Kenya and Mali). The efficacy results for the Mali site of the multi-country trial are presented here. We randomly assigned infants in a 1:1 ratio to receive 3 doses of PRV/placebo at approximately 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age. Gastroenteritis episodes were captured passively at the local health centers and by home visits. The primary study outcome was severe RVGE, as defined by a score of ≥ 11 using the Vesikari Clinical Scoring System occurring ≥ 14 days after the third dose until the end of the study. Other efficacy analyses included efficacy against severe RVGE through the first year and during the second years of life, as well as efficacy after receiving at least one dose of vaccine. In total, 1960 infants were enrolled in the trial at the Mali site and sera were collected on a subset of infants (approximately 150) for immunogenicity testing. In the first year of follow-up, largely due to cultural practices to visit traditional healers as the first point of care, the point estimate of efficacy was unreliable: the per protocol vaccine efficacy against severe RVGE was 1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: -431.7, 81.6); the intention-to-treat vaccine efficacy was 42.9% (95% CI: -125.7, 87.7). During the second year of follow-up, after the surveillance system was modified to adapt to local customs and health care seeking practices, the point estimate of per-protocol vaccine efficacy was 19.2% (95% CI: -23.1,47.3%). 82.5% of Malian infants (95% CI: 70.1,91.3%) who received PRV mounted a seroresponse (≥ 3-fold rise from baseline (prevaccination) to post-dose 3 vaccination) of anti-rotavirus immunoglobulin A antibody, with a post third-dose geometric mean titer (GMT) of 31.3 units

  19. Impact of self-financed rotavirus vaccines on hospital stays and costs in Spain after a 3-year introductory period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo-González, O; Tenías-Burillo, J M; Ruiz-Gonzalo, J

    2017-07-01

    Vaccination has reduced rotavirus hospitalizations by 25% in European regions with low-moderate vaccine availability. We aimed to quantify the reduction in hospital costs after the longest period in which Rotarix® and Rotateq® were simultaneously commercially available in Spain. Cases, length of stay (LOS), and diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) were retrieved from the Minimum Basic Data Set. Healthcare expenditure was estimated through the cost accounting system Gescot®. DRGs were clustered: I, non-bacterial gastroenteritis with complications; II, without complications; III, requiring surgical/other procedures or neonatal cases (highest DRG weights). Comparisons between pre (2003-2005)- and post-vaccine (2007-2009) hospital stays and costs by DRG group were made. Rotaviruses were the most common agents of specific-coded gastroenteritis (N = 1657/5012). LOS and extended LOS of rotaviruses fell significantly in 2007-2009 (β-coefficient = -0·43, 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) -0·68 to -0·17; and odds ratio 0·62, 95% CI 0·50-0·76, respectively). Overall, costs attributable to rotavirus hospitalizations fell approximately €244 per patient (95% CI -365 to -123); the decrease in DRG group III was €2269 per patient (95% CI -4098 to -380). We concluded modest savings in hospital costs, largely attributable to cases with higher DRG weights, and a faster recovery. A universal rotavirus vaccination program deserves being re-evaluated, regarding its potential high impact on both at-risk children and societal costs.

  20. Efficacy, safety and immunogenicity of a human rotavirus vaccine (RIX4414) in Hong Kong children up to three years of age: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Yu-Lung; Nelson, E Anthony S; Poon, Kin-Hung; Chan, Paul K S; Chiu, Susan; Sung, Rita; Leung, Chi Wai; Ng, Daniel; Ma, Yee Man; Chan, Desmond; Lee, Tsz Leung; Tang, Joyce; Kwan, Yat Wah; Ip, Patricia; Ho, Marco; Fung, Lai-Wah Eva; Tang, Haiwen; Suryakiran, P V; Han, Htay Htay; Bock, Hans

    2013-04-26

    A phase III, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial was conducted in Hong Kong to evaluate the efficacy, safety and immunogenicity of a human rotavirus vaccine, RIX4414 (Rotarix) against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in children up to three years of age. Healthy infants aged 6-12 weeks were enrolled between 08-December-2003 and 31-August-2005 and received two oral doses of either RIX4414 vaccine (N=1513) or placebo (N=1512) given 2 months apart. Vaccine efficacy was assessed from two weeks post-Dose 2 until the children were two and three years of age. Anti-rotavirus IgA seroconversion rate was calculated pre-vaccination and 1-2 months post-Dose 2 using ELISA (cut-off=20 U/mL) for 100 infants. Safety was assessed until the children were two years of age; serious adverse events (SAEs) were recorded throughout the study period. In children aged two and three years of life, vaccine efficacy against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis was 95.6% (95% CI: 73.1%-99.9%) and 96.1% (95% CI: 76.5%-99.9%), respectively. The seroconversion rate 1-2 months after the second dose of RIX4414 was 97.5% (95% CI: 86.8%-99.9%). At least one SAE was recorded in 439 and 477 infants who were administered RIX4414 and placebo, respectively (p-value=0.130). Six intussusception cases were reported (RIX4414=4; placebo=2) and none was assessed to be vaccine-related. RIX4414 was efficacious, immunogenic and safe in the prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis for at least two years post-vaccination in Hong Kong children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Paediatric Interventional Uroradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnacle, Alex M.; Wilkinson, A. Graham; Roebuck, Derek J.

    2011-01-01

    Paediatric interventional uroradiology lies at the intersection of the disciplines of paediatric interventional radiology and paediatric endourology. Interdisciplinary collaboration has led to the development of new techniques and refinement of procedures adopted from adult practice. This article reviews the major procedures used in paediatric interventional uroradiology, with emphasis on nephrostomy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, balloon-burst pyeloplasty, and antegrade ureteric stenting.

  2. How do the rotavirus NSP4 and bacterial enterotoxins lead differently to diarrhea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasseur Monique

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rotavirus is the major cause of infantile gastroenteritis and each year causes 611 000 deaths worldwide. The virus infects the mature enterocytes of the villus tip of the small intestine and induces a watery diarrhea. Diarrhea can occur with no visible tissue damage and, conversely, the histological lesions can be asymptomatic. Rotavirus impairs activities of intestinal disaccharidases and Na+-solute symports coupled with water transport. Maldigestion of carbohydrates and their accumulation in the intestinal lumen as well as malabsorption of nutrients and a concomitant inhibition of water reabsorption can lead to a malabsorption component of diarrhea. Since the discovery of the NSP4 enterotoxin, diverse hypotheses have been proposed in favor of an additional secretion component in the pathogenesis of diarrhea. Rotavirus induces a moderate net chloride secretion at the onset of diarrhea, but the mechanisms appear to be quite different from those used by bacterial enterotoxins that cause pure secretory diarrhea. Rotavirus failed to stimulate Cl- secretion in crypt, whereas it stimulated Cl- reabsorption in villi, questioning, therefore, the origin of net Cl- secretion. A solution to this riddle was that intestinal villi do in fact secrete chloride as a result of rotavirus infection. Also, the overall chloride secretory response is regulated by a phospholipase C-dependent calcium signaling pathway induced by NSP4. However, the overall response is weak, suggesting that NSP4 may exert both secretory and subsequent anti-secretory actions, as did carbachol, hence limiting Cl- secretion. All these characteristics provide the means to make the necessary functional distinction between viral NSP4 and bacterial enterotoxins.

  3. Economic impact of a rotavirus vaccination program in Mexico Impacto económico de un programa de vacunación contra rotavirus en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagna Constenla

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cost and benefits of a national rotavirus childhood vaccination program in Mexico. METHODS: A decision-analysis model was designed to take the Mexican health care system's perspective on a comparison of two alternatives: to vaccinate against rotavirus or not. Using published, national data, estimations were calculated for the rotavirus illnesses, deaths, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs that would be averted and the incremental costeffectiveness ratios (US$/DALY of a hypothetical annual birth cohort of 2 285 000 children, with certain assumptions made for cost, coverage, and efficacy rates. RESULTS: With 93% coverage and a vaccine price of US$ 16 per course (2 doses, a rotavirus vaccination program in Mexico would prevent an estimated 651 deaths (or 0.28 deaths per 1 000 children; 13 833 hospitalizations (6.05 hospitalizations per 1 000 children; and 414 927 outpatient visits (182 outpatient visits per 1 000 children for rotavirus-related acute gastroenteritis (AGE. Vaccination is likely to reduce the economic burden of rotavirus AGE in Mexico by averting US$ 14 million (71% of the overall health care burden. At a vaccine price of US$ 16 per course, the cost-effectiveness ratio would be US$ 1 139 per DALY averted. A reduction in the price of the rotavirus vaccination program (US$ 8 per course would yield a lower incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of US$ 303 per DALY averted. CONCLUSIONS: A national rotavirus vaccination program in Mexico is projected to reduce childhood incidence and mortality and to be highly cost-effective based on the World Health Organization's thresholds for cost-effective interventions.OBJETIVOS: Evaluar el costo y los beneficios de un programa nacional de vacunación infantil contra el rotavirus en México. MÉTODOS: Se diseñó un modelo de análisis de decisión, desde la perspectiva del sistema de salud mexicano, para comparar dos alternativas: vacunar contra el rotavirus o no

  4. Detection and characterisation of novel bocavirus (genus Bocaparvovirus and gastroenteritis viruses from asymptomatic pigs in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynda Gunn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Livestock animals have been the assumed source of several human epidemics in recent years, for example, influenza H1N1, rotavirus G8/G9, and MERS-CoV. Surveillance of novel viruses in animals is essential to evaluate the risk to human and animal health and to determine any economic impact, for example, failure to thrive. There is a paucity of data regarding detection and characterisation of gastroenteritis viruses, particularly novel viruses, in porcines in Ireland. Recently, a number of small novel porcine DNA viruses have emerged globally, for example, torque teno sus virus, porcine bocavirus, and parvoviruses 2 & 4, and little is known about the biology and potential pathogenicity of these viruses. Bocaparvovirus is a genetically distinct group of viruses which has been recently detected in humans and animals. Methods: In this study, the presence of gastroenteritis viruses (rotavirus A, porcine circovirus, adenovirus, and porcine bocavirus was investigated in a selection of archived faecal samples from asymptomatic piglets from a commercial farm in Ireland. A total of 104 specimens were pooled and screened using conventional molecular techniques (PCR and RT-PCR, a subset of specimens (n=44 were then examined individually. Viral diversity was then investigated using statistical and phylogenetic techniques. Results: Initial screening showed a high prevalence of PBoV in this farm, with the formation of three distinct groups in phylogenetic analysis. Other viruses were also investigated in this study with the first report of PCV, PAdV and lineage I G5 RVA in Ireland. Some specimens contained >1 virus, with statistical analysis indicating a strong correlation for mixed infections of PBoV and PAdV on this farm. Conclusion: Investigating the diversity of circulating enteric viruses on Irish porcine farms is important to improve the prophylactic tools available and to facilitate the early detection of changes in circulating viruses.

  5. Rotavirus and the Vaccine (Drops) to Prevent It

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Maternal Immunization Resources Related Links Vaccines & Immunizations Rotavirus and the Vaccine (Drops) to Prevent It Language: ... the vaccine. Why should my child get the rotavirus vaccine? The rotavirus vaccine: Protects your child from ...

  6. 75 FR 48706 - Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Rotavirus Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... Vaccine Information Materials for Rotavirus Vaccine AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention... information materials for rotavirus vaccine. DATES: Written comments are invited and must be received on or... (chickenpox), pneumococcal conjugate, rotavirus, hepatitis A, meningococcal, human papillomavirus (HPV), and...

  7. CARBOHYDRATE MALABSORPTION SYNDROME IN CHILDREN WITH VIRAL GASTROENTERITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Meskina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enteric viruses (mainly rotaviruses are the most common cause of infectious diarrhea in infants. One  of the  pathophysiologic mechanisms in rotaviral gastroenteritis is the  reduction of the  surface  activity of enterocyte disaccharidases  and  osmotic  diarrhea. Aim: To determine the clinical significance of metabolic activity of intestinal microbiota in the formation of the osmotic component of viral diarrhea in children of various ages. Materials and methods: The study involved 139 children aged  from 1 month  to 14 years admitted to the hospital in the first 24 to 72 hours of moderate-degree  viral gastroenteritis.  Rotaviral infection was the most prevalent  (90%. Viral etiology was confirmed  by the  reaction  of indirect hemagglutination and multiplex real-time PCR (in feces. Total carbohydrate content in the feces was measured and fecal microflora was investigated by two methods: bacteriological and gas liquid chromatography with the determination of short-chain fatty acids. Results: The mean carbohydrate content in the feces of children below 1.5 years of age was higher than  that  in older children (p = 0.014. There was an inverse correlation between the concentration of rotaviral antigens  and carbohydrate   contents (r = -0,43, p < 0.05 and the production of acetic and propionic acids (R = -0,35, p < 0.01. The carbohydrate content in acute stage of the disease was linearly associated with time to normalization of the stool (r = +0,47, p < 0.01. Previous acute  respiratory or intestinal  infections within 2 months (odds ratio [OR], 14.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.86–51.53, previous  hospitalizations  (OR = 14.17; 95% CI 2.74–74.32 and  past  history of intestinal dysfunction (OR 5.68; 95% CI 1.67–19.76 were predictive of severe  carbohydrate malabsorption in children below 1.5 years of age. Conclusion: The lack of microbiota functional activity (assessed by production of short

  8. Stability of live attenuated rotavirus vaccine with selected preservatives and primary containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Manjari; Jarrahian, Courtney; Zhu, Changcheng; Hosken, Nancy A; McClurkan, Chris L; Koelle, David M; Saxon, Eugene; Roehrig, Andrew; Zehrung, Darin; Chen, Dexiang

    2016-05-11

    Rotavirus infection, which can be prevented by vaccination, is responsible for a high burden of acute gastroenteritis disease in children, especially in low-income countries. An appropriate formulation, packaging, and delivery device for oral rotavirus vaccine has the potential to reduce the manufacturing cost of the vaccine and the logistical impact associated with introduction of a new vaccine, simplify the vaccination procedure, and ensure that the vaccine is safely and accurately delivered to children. Single-dose prefilled presentations can be easy to use; however, they are typically more expensive, can be a bottleneck during production, and occupy a greater volume per dose vis-à-vis supply chain storage and medical waste disposal, which is a challenge in low-resource settings. Multi-dose presentations used thus far have other issues, including increased wastage of vaccine and the need for separate delivery devices. In this study, the goals were to evaluate both the technical feasibility of using preservatives to develop a liquid multi-dose formulation and the primary packaging alternatives for orally delivered, liquid rotavirus vaccines. The feasibility evaluation included evaluation of commonly used preservatives for compatibility with rotavirus vaccines and stability testing of rotavirus vaccine in various primary containers, including Lameplast's plastic tubes, BD's oral dispenser version of Uniject™ (Uniject DP), rommelag's blow-fill-seal containers, and MEDInstill's multi-dose vial and pouch. These presentations were compared to a standard glass vial. The results showed that none of the preservatives tested were compatible with a live attenuated rotavirus vaccine because they had a detrimental effect on the viability of the virus. In the presence of preservatives, vaccine virus titers declined to undetectable levels within 1 month. The vaccine formulation without preservatives maintained a stability profile over 12 months in all primary containers

  9. Parental views on childhood vaccination against viral gastroenteritis-a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugg, Fiona V; Butler, Christopher C; Evans, Meirion R; Wood, Fiona; Francis, Nick A

    2015-08-01

    Gastroenteritis (GE) causes significant morbidity, especially in young children. A vaccine against rotavirus, a common cause of viral GE (vGE), was added to the childhood immunization schedule in the UK in July 2013 and further related vaccines are under development. To explore parents' beliefs about vGE and their attitudes towards vaccinating. Qualitative interview study with parents of children who had recently experienced an episode of GE. Twenty-eight semi-structured interviews were conducted over the phone with parents. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using standard thematic approaches. Parents varied in their perception of the threat posed by GE, and parents who did not perceive GE as serious were less enthusiastic about vaccines. Other parents were supportive of vaccines in general and considered benefits to their child, their family and the wider community. Many parents said that they lacked knowledge about efficacy and effectiveness of GE vaccines but their underlying belief about the seriousness of illness motivated their attitudes. Acceptability of GE vaccines to parents could be improved by providing more information on both the burden of illness and the impact of rotavirus vaccine in other comparable countries. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Whole genome detection of rotavirus mixed infections in human, porcine and bovine samples co-infected with various rotavirus strains collected from sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyaga, Martin M; Jere, Khuzwayo C; Esona, Mathew D; Seheri, Mapaseka L; Stucker, Karla M; Halpin, Rebecca A; Akopov, Asmik; Stockwell, Timothy B; Peenze, Ina; Diop, Amadou; Ndiaye, Kader; Boula, Angeline; Maphalala, Gugu; Berejena, Chipo; Mwenda, Jason M; Steele, A Duncan; Wentworth, David E; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are among the main global causes of severe diarrhea in children under the age of 5years. Strain diversity, mixed infections and untypeable RVA strains are frequently reported in Africa. We analysed rotavirus-positive human stool samples (n=13) obtained from hospitalised children under the age of 5years who presented with acute gastroenteritis at sentinel hospital sites in six African countries, as well as bovine and porcine stool samples (n=1 each), to gain insights into rotavirus diversity and evolution. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis and genotyping with G-(VP7) and P-specific (VP4) typing primers suggested that 13 of the 15 samples contained more than 11 segments and/or mixed G/P genotypes. Full-length amplicons for each segment were generated using RVA-specific primers and sequenced using the Ion Torrent and/or Illumina MiSeq next-generation sequencing platforms. Sequencing detected at least one segment in each sample for which duplicate sequences, often having distinct genotypes, existed. This supported and extended the PAGE and RT-PCR genotyping findings that suggested these samples were collected from individuals that had mixed rotavirus infections. The study reports the first porcine (MRC-DPRU1567) and bovine (MRC-DPRU3010) mixed infections. We also report a unique genome segment 9 (VP7), whose G9 genotype belongs to lineage VI and clusters with porcine reference strains. Previously, African G9 strains have all been in lineage III. Furthermore, additional RVA segments isolated from humans have a clear evolutionary relationship with porcine, bovine and ovine rotavirus sequences, indicating relatively recent interspecies transmission and reassortment. Thus, multiple RVA strains from sub-Saharan Africa are infecting mammalian hosts with unpredictable variations in their gene segment combinations. Whole-genome sequence analyses of mixed RVA strains underscore the considerable diversity of rotavirus sequences and

  11. Paediatric Virology in the Hippocratic Corpus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammas, Ioannis N.; Spandidos, Demetrios A.

    2016-01-01

    Hippocrates (Island of Kos, 460 B.C.-Larissa, 370 B.C.) is the founder of the most famous Medical School of the classical antiquity. In acknowledgement of his pioneering contribution to the new scientific field of Paediatric Virology, this article provides a systematic analysis of the Hippocratic Corpus, with particular focus on viral infections predominating in neonates and children. A mumps epidemic, affecting the island of Thasos in the 5th century B.C., is described in detail. ‘Herpes’, a medical term derived from the ancient Greek word ‘ἕρπειν’, meaning ‘to creep’ or ‘crawl’, is used to describe the spreading of cutaneous lesions in both childhood and adulthood. Cases of children with exanthema ‘resembling mosquito bites’ are presented in reference to varicella or smallpox infection. A variety of upper and lower respiratory tract viral infections are described with impressive accuracy, including rhinitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, laryngitis, bronchiolitis and bronchitis. The ‘cough of Perinthos’ epidemic, an influenza-like outbreak in the 5th century B.C., is also recorded and several cases complicated with pneumonia or fatal outcomes are discussed. Hippocrates, moreover, describes conjunctivitis, otitis, lymphadenitis, meningoencephalitis, febrile convulsions, gastroenteritis, hepatitis, poliomyelitis and skin warts, along with proposed treatment directions. Almost 2,400 years later, Hippocrates' systematic approach and methodical innovations can inspire paediatric trainees and future Paediatric Virology subspecialists. PMID:27446241

  12. One Family's Struggles with Rotavirus

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... thimerosal vaccine safety q & a videos chickenpox (varicella) hepatitis b hib hpv pertussis (whooping cough) pneumococcal rotavirus shingles media room Flu's Gonna Lose M.O.V.E. newsfeeds PSAs publications infectious disease workshop pediatric hepatitis report someone you know has hbv/hcv standard ...

  13. One Family's Struggles with Rotavirus

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    Full Text Available ... immunizations about immunizations current news Flu's Gonna Lose hepatitis a & b vaccines im/sq how to do kids ... abcs of mmr & dtp thimerosal vaccine safety q & a videos chickenpox (varicella) hepatitis b hib hpv pertussis (whooping cough) pneumococcal rotavirus ...

  14. One Family's Struggles with Rotavirus

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    Full Text Available ... and meningitis Stiletto and Extremus posters videos mono pertussis Silence the Sounds of Pertussis Acalla los Sonidos de la Tos Ferina AAP ... a videos chickenpox (varicella) hepatitis b hib hpv pertussis (whooping cough) pneumococcal rotavirus shingles media room Flu's ...

  15. Viral gastroenteritis in daily pediatric practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kracmarova, R.; Plisek, S.

    2011-01-01

    Diarrhoeal disease is one of the most common causes of an acute examination and hospitalisation of a child. Portion of a viral etiology of intestinal diseases is increasing in connection with an improvement of social and economical conditions. The most common viral agents are rotaviruses, caliciviruses, adenoviruses and astroviruses, but also other viruses cause an intestinal disease. The most severe clinical course is expected from the rotaviral and noroviral infection. The dehydratation, which could be less or more severe, often complicated the infection. The treatment is symptomatic. The most important role for the prevention of rotavirus disease is played by the vaccination. (author)

  16. First study conducted in Northern India that identifies group C rotavirus as the etiological agent of severe diarrhea in children in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiku, Vasundhara Razdan; Jiang, Baoming; Kumar, Praveen; Aneja, Satender; Bagga, Arvind; Bhan, Maharaj Kishen; Ray, Pratima

    2017-05-30

    Group C Rotavirus (RVC) is an enteric pathogen responsible for acute gastroenteritis in children and adults globally. At present there are no surveillance studies on group C Rotaviruses in India and therefore their prevalence in India remains unknown. The present study aimed to evaluate group C rotavirus infection among rotavirus (N = 180) by Enzyme immunoassay were screened for group C rotavirus by RT-PCR with VP6, VP7 and VP4 gene specific primers. The PCR products were further sequenced (VP6, VP7, VP4) and analyzed to ascertain their origin and G and P genotypes. Six out of 180 (group A rotavirus negative) samples were found positive for group C rotavirus by VP6 gene specific RT-PCR, of which 3 were also found positive for VP7 and VP4 genes. Phylogenetic analysis of VP7 and VP4 genes of these showed them to be G4 and P[2] genotypes. Overall, the nucleotide sequence data (VP6, VP7 and VP4) revealed a close relationship with the human group C rotavirus with no evidence of animal ancestry. Interestingly, the nucleotide sequence analysis of various genes also indicated differences in their origin. While the identity matrix of VP4 gene (n = 3) showed high amino acid sequence identity (97.60 to 98.20%) with Korean strain, the VP6 gene (n = 6) showed maximum identity with Nigerian strain (96.40 to 97.60%) and VP7 gene (n = 3) with Bangladeshi and USA strains. This is true for all analyzed samples. Our study demonstrated the group C rotavirus as the cause of severe diarrhea in young children in Delhi and provides insights on the origin of group C rotavirus genes among the local strains indicating their source of transmission. Our study also highlights the need for a simple and reliable diagnostic test that can be utilized to determine the disease burden due to group C rotavirus in India.

  17. A large community outbreak of gastroenteritis associated with consumption of drinking water contaminated by river water, Belgium, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braeye, T; DE Schrijver, K; Wollants, E; van Ranst, M; Verhaegen, J

    2015-03-01

    SUMMARY On 6 December 2010 a fire in Hemiksem, Belgium, was extinguished by the fire brigade with both river water and tap water. Local physicians were asked to report all cases of gastroenteritis. We conducted a retrospective cohort study among 1000 randomly selected households. We performed a statistical and geospatial analysis. Human stool samples, tap water and river water were tested for pathogens. Of the 1185 persons living in the 528 responding households, 222 (18·7%) reported symptoms of gastroenteritis during the time period 6-13 December. Drinking tap water was significantly associated with an increased risk for gastroenteritis (relative risk 3·67, 95% confidence interval 2·86-4·70) as was place of residence. Campylobacter sp. (2/56), norovirus GI and GII (11/56), rotavirus (1/56) and Giardia lamblia (3/56) were detected in stool samples. Tap water samples tested positive for faecal indicator bacteria and protozoa. The results support the hypothesis that a point-source contamination of the tap water with river water was the cause of the multi-pathogen waterborne outbreak.

  18. Efficacy and safety of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in Japan: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Satoshi; Nakata, Shuji; Ukae, Susumu; Koizumi, Yoshitugu; Morita, Yasuyuki; Kuroki, Haruo; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Shizuya, Toshiyuki; Schödel, Florian; Brown, Michelle L; Lawrence, Jody

    2013-08-01

    Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis in children under 5 y of age. Estimates of disease burden in Japan suggest that between 26,500 and 78,000 children in this age group need hospitalization each year, resulting in a direct medical cost of 10 to 24 billion Yen. Since being introduced in routine infant immunization schedules in the United States in 2006, the oral live pentavalent rotavirus vaccine RV5 (RotaTeq™) has contributed to dramatic reductions in the incidence of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) and in health care resource utilization. This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a 3-dose regimen of RV5 in healthy infants, age 6 to 12 weeks, at 32 sites across Japan. The results indicate that RV5 was significantly efficacious in preventing any severity [74.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 39.9%, 90.6%; pvaccine. The observed cases of RVGE included rotavirus types G1 (n=19), G3 (n=9), G9 (n=5) and one unspecified G serotype with P1A[8]. No G2 or G4 RVGE cases were observed, and this study was not powered to evaluate efficacy against individual serotypes. RV5 was generally safe and well tolerated in Japanese infants. These results are comparable to those observed in clinical studies conducted in other developed countries. Introduction of the vaccine in Japan may reduce disease burden and associated health care costs.

  19. Prevalence of rotavirus, adenovirus, hepatitis A virus and enterovirus in water samples collected from different region of Peshawar, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tahir; Arshad, Najma; Adnan, Fazal; Sadaf Zaidi, Najam-Us-Sahar; Shahid, Muhammad Talha; Zahoor, Usman; Afzal, Muhammad S; Anjum, Sadia

    2016-12-23

    Viral gastroenteritis and other water-borne diseases are the most neglected areas of research in Pakistan. To determine the quality of water, 4 enteric viruses were studied from different localities of Peshawar, Pakistan. The study validates the viral detection method for Rotavirus (RV), Human adenovirus (HAdV), Enterovirus (EV) and Hepatitis A virus (HAV), directly from water sources of rural areas of Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan. Overall, 95 five water samples were tested; among them, 9.47% were positive for RV, 38.94% for HAdV, 48.42% for EV and 12.63% for HAV. The presence of these viruses in water was directly correlated with meteorological data. High prevalence of EV and HAdV was detected frequently in the wet season from May - September, which can be the potential cause of spreading of gastroenteritis in the population. Environmental surveillance is an additional tool to evaluate the epidemiology of enteric viruses circulating in a given community.

  20. Radiographic and pathologic observations of eosinophilic gastroenteritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Lae Won [Busan Nationa University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sook Hee; Lee, Jung Dal [Busan Gospel Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-10-15

    This report presents two cases with eosinophilic gastroenteritis in detail. The radiographic and pathologic features of eosinophilic gastroenteritis are summarized with emphasis on the differential diagnostic features. Radiographic eosinophilic gastritis should be differentiated from gastric carcinoma and lymphoma, and eosinophilic enteritis from intestinal tuberculosis and intussusception of the small bowel in Korea where these entities are prevent. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is pathologically characterized by diffuse infiltration of the submucosa and muscle coats with eosinophilic in conjunction with hypertrophy of individual muscle fibers. This leads to thickening of the gastrointestinal wall resulting in narrowing and obstruction of the lumen. Eosinophilic venulitis is another characteristic feature which is helpful for differentiation this entity from a parasitic infection.

  1. Radiographic and pathologic observations of eosinophilic gastroenteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Lae Won; Hong, Sook Hee; Lee, Jung Dal

    1974-01-01

    This report presents two cases with eosinophilic gastroenteritis in detail. The radiographic and pathologic features of eosinophilic gastroenteritis are summarized with emphasis on the differential diagnostic features. Radiographic eosinophilic gastritis should be differentiated from gastric carcinoma and lymphoma, and eosinophilic enteritis from intestinal tuberculosis and intussusception of the small bowel in Korea where these entities are prevent. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is pathologically characterized by diffuse infiltration of the submucosa and muscle coats with eosinophilic in conjunction with hypertrophy of individual muscle fibers. This leads to thickening of the gastrointestinal wall resulting in narrowing and obstruction of the lumen. Eosinophilic venulitis is another characteristic feature which is helpful for differentiation this entity from a parasitic infection

  2. Interventional Radiology in Paediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chippington, Samantha J; Goodwin, Susie J

    2015-01-01

    As in adult practice, there is a growing role for paediatric interventional radiology expertise in the management of paediatric pathologies. This review is targeted for clinicians who may refer their patients to paediatric interventional radiology services, or who are responsible for patients who are undergoing paediatric interventional radiology procedures. The article includes a brief overview of the indications for intervention, techniques involved and the commonest complications. Although some of the procedures described are most commonly performed in a tertiary paediatric centre, many are performed in most Children's hospitals.

  3. Concomitant use of an oral live pentavalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine with licensed parenteral pediatric vaccines in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Zoe M; Goveia, Michelle G; Stek, Jon E; Dallas, Michael J; Boslego, John W; DiNubile, Mark J; Heaton, Penny M

    2007-03-01

    A live pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (PRV) containing 5 human-bovine (WC3) reassortants expressing human serotypes G1, G2, G3, G4 and P1A[8] was evaluated in a blinded, placebo-controlled study. Possible interactions between PRV and concomitantly administered licensed pediatric vaccines were investigated in a United States-based nested substudy (Concomitant Use Study) of the Rotavirus Efficacy and Safety Trial. From 2002 to 2003, healthy infants approximately 6 to 12 weeks of age at entry were randomized to receive either 3 oral doses of PRV or placebo at 4- to 10-week intervals. Subjects were also to receive combined Haemophilus influenzae type b and hepatitis B vaccine (2 doses), diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine (3 doses), inactivated poliovirus vaccine (2 doses) and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (3 doses) on the same day; oral poliovirus vaccine was not administered. Immunogenicity was assessed by measuring antibody responses to PRV and antigens contained in the licensed vaccines. Cases of rotavirus gastroenteritis were defined by forceful vomiting and/or -3 watery or looser-than-normal stools within a 24-hour period, and detection of rotavirus antigen in the stool. Safety was assessed by reporting of adverse events using diary cards. The Concomitant Use Study enrolled 662 subjects in the PRV group and 696 subjects in the placebo group. For the 17 antigens in the concomitantly administered vaccines, antibody responses were similar in PRV and placebo recipients, except for moderately diminished antibody responses to the pertactin component of pertussis vaccine. Efficacy of PRV against rotavirus gastroenteritis of any severity was 89.5% (95% CI = 26.5-99.8%). PRV was generally well tolerated when given concomitantly with the prespecified vaccines. In this study, antibody responses to the concomitantly administered vaccines were generally similar in PRV and placebo recipients. PRV was efficacious and well tolerated when given

  4. Rotavirus Immunization in Africa: A Perspective Re-visited

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    trials in developed countries, the history of rotavirus vaccine in Africa has not been good. The earlier rotavirus vaccine candidates, based on bovine rotavirus strains, were ... trials in Peru and Brazil [19,20]. Other more obvious reasons may include vaccine-related issues (such as the antigenic make-up of the bovine rotavirus ...

  5. Serum bicarbonate and dehydration severity in gastroenteritis

    OpenAIRE

    Narchi, H.

    1998-01-01

    The concentration of bicarbonate was measured in serum samples from 106 children with gastroenteritis and dehydration. A concentration less than 22 mmol/l was more common in children with severe dehydration, but the magnitude of bicarbonate reduction was not significantly different with increasing degrees of dehydration. Doctors should not rely on the serum bicarbonate concentration when assessing fluid deficit.



  6. Zoonotic Transmission of Rotavirus in Denmark; a Case Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midgley, Sofie; Gram, N.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    Rotavirus type A infection is a common cause of hospitalisation of children. However, in our laboratory almost 30% of rotavirus positive samples are from adults. Due to this an epidemiological study into the riskfactors for rotavirus infection in adults was set up. All identified rotavirus positive...... adults are sent a questionnaire to identify potential risk factors. Rotavirus type A infection can also occur in a range of animals, including domestic dogs, cats, cattle, horses, and birds. There is some data suggesting direct transmission between animals and humans. Rotavirus typing is carried out...... in Denmark as part of the EuroRotaNet vaccine study. Samples positive for rotavirus are type...

  7. Interferencia de la infección por rotavirus mediante la inhibición de la actividad de la proteína disulfuro isomerasa (DPI de la membrana celular de las líneas MA104 y Caco-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arturo Guerrero Fonseca

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Los rotavirus son la causa más común de gastroenteritis severa en niños menores de cinco años, ocasionando episodios diarreicos agudos responsables de 454.000 a 705.000 muertes anuales a nivel mundial.
     
    Aunque la frecuencia de infección con rotavirus es muy similar a través del mundo, en los países en desarrollo la gastroenteritis rotaviral es la mayor causa de muerte infantil. 
     
    La diarrea rotaviral severa cursa con vómito y fiebre, produciendo deshidratación con shock, desbalance electrolítico, y muerte si esta no es tratada. En los países desarrollados, la infección rotaviral es responsable del 30 - 50% de las hospitalizaciones debidas a gastroenteritis en menores de 5 años. 
    Además, los rotavirus son una causa importante en la gastroenteritis nosocomial.
     
     
     

  8. Diversity of group A rotavirus genes detected in the Triângulo Mineiro region, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Bernardes Dulgheroff

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Group A rotaviruses are the main causative agent of infantile gastroenteritis. The segmented nature of the viral genome allows reassortment of genome segments, which can generate genetic variants. In this study, we characterized the diversity of the VP7, VP4 (VP8*, VP6, NSP4, and NSP5 genes of the rotaviruses that circulated from 2005 to 2011 in the Triângulo Mineiro (TM region of Brazil. Samples with genotypes G2 (sublineages IVa-1 and IVa-3, G1 (sublineage I-A, G9 (lineage III, G12 (lineages II and III, G8 (lineage II, G3 (lineage III, P[4] (sublineages IVa and IVb, P[8] (sublineages P[8]-3.6, P[8]-3.3, and P[8]-3.1, I2 (lineage VII, E2 (lineages VI, XII, and X, and H2 (lineage III were identified. The associations found in the samples were G1, G9, or G12 with P[8]-I1-E1-H1; G2 or G8 with P[4]-I2-E2-H2; G12 with I3-E3-H6; and G3 with P[4]-I2-E3-H3 (previously unreported combination. Reassortment events in G2P[4] strains and an apparent pattern of temporal segregation within the lineages were observed. Five TM samples contained genes that exhibited high nucleotide and amino acid identities with strains of animal origin. The present study includes a period of pre- and post-introduction of rotavirus vaccination in all Brazilian territories, thereby serving as a basis for monitoring changes in the genetic constitution of rotaviruses. The results also contribute to the understanding of the diversity and evolution of rotaviruses in a global context.

  9. Cost-effectiveness analysis of rotavirus vaccination in China: Projected possibility of scale-up from the current domestic option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhui Cui

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotavirus infection causes considerable disease burden of acute gastroenteritis (AGE hospitalization and death among children less than 5 years in China. Although two rotavirus vaccines (Rotarix and RotaTeq have been licensed in more than 100 countries in the world, the Lanzhou Lamb rotavirus vaccine (LLR is the only vaccine licensed in China. This study aims to forecast the potential impacts of the two international vaccines compared to domestic LLR. Methods An economic evaluation was performed using a Markov simulation model. We compared costs at the societal aspect and health impacts with and without a vaccination program by LLR, Rotarix or RotaTeq. Parameters including demographic, epidemiological data, costs and efficacy of vaccines were obtained from literature review. The model incorporated the impact of vaccination on reduction of incidence of rotavirus infection and severity of AGE indicated by hospitalization, inpatient visits and deaths. Outcomes are presented in terms of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs gained and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER compared to status quo. Results In a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 infants, the two international vaccines showed very good cost-effectiveness, with ICER of Rotateq and Rotarix shifting from LLR of $1715.11/QALY and $2105.66/QALY, respectively. Rotateq and Rotarix had significantly decreased incidence compared to LLR, particularly among infants aged 6 months to 2 years. Conclusions RotaTeq is expected to introduce in the national routine immunization program to reduce disease burden of rotavirus infection with universal coverage.

  10. Global Occurrence and Emission of Rotaviruses to Surface Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas M. Kiulia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Group A rotaviruses (RV are the major cause of acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children globally. Waterborne transmission of RV and the presence of RV in water sources are of major public health importance. In this paper, we present the Global Waterborne Pathogen model for RV (GloWPa-Rota model to estimate the global distribution of RV emissions to surface water. To our knowledge, this is the first model to do so. We review the literature to estimate three RV specific variables for the model: incidence, excretion rate and removal during wastewater treatment. We estimate total global RV emissions to be 2 × 1018 viral particles/grid/year, of which 87% is produced by the urban population. Hotspot regions with high RV emissions are urban areas in densely populated parts of the world, such as Bangladesh and Nigeria, while low emissions are found in rural areas in North Russia and the Australian desert. Even for industrialized regions with high population density and without tertiary treatment, such as the UK, substantial emissions are estimated. Modeling exercises like the one presented in this paper provide unique opportunities to further study these emissions to surface water, their sources and scenarios for improved management.

  11. Vitamin A deficiency impairs adaptive B and T cell responses to a prototype monovalent attenuated human rotavirus vaccine and virulent human rotavirus challenge in a gnotobiotic piglet model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep S Chattha

    Full Text Available Rotaviruses (RV are a major cause of gastroenteritis in children. Widespread vitamin A deficiency is associated with reduced efficacy of vaccines and higher incidence of diarrheal infections in children in developing countries. We established a vitamin A deficient (VAD gnotobiotic piglet model that mimics subclinical vitamin A deficiency in children to study its effects on an oral human rotavirus (HRV vaccine and virulent HRV challenge. Piglets derived from VAD and vitamin A sufficient (VAS sows were orally vaccinated with attenuated HRV or mock, with/without supplemental vitamin A and challenged with virulent HRV. Unvaccinated VAD control piglets had significantly lower hepatic vitamin A, higher severity and duration of diarrhea and HRV fecal shedding post-challenge as compared to VAS control pigs. Reduced protection coincided with significantly higher innate (IFNα cytokine and CD8 T cell frequencies in the blood and intestinal tissues, higher pro-inflammatory (IL12 and 2-3 fold lower anti-inflammatory (IL10 cytokines, in VAD compared to VAS control pigs. Vaccinated VAD pigs had higher diarrhea severity scores compared to vaccinated VAS pigs, which coincided with lower serum IgA HRV antibody titers and significantly lower intestinal IgA antibody secreting cells post-challenge in the former groups suggesting lower anamnestic responses. A trend for higher serum HRV IgG antibodies was observed in VAD vs VAS vaccinated groups post-challenge. The vaccinated VAD (non-vitamin A supplemented pigs had significantly higher serum IL12 (PID2 and IFNγ (PID6 compared to vaccinated VAS groups suggesting higher Th1 responses in VAD conditions. Furthermore, regulatory T-cell responses were compromised in VAD pigs. Supplemental vitamin A in VAD pigs did not fully restore the dysregulated immune responses to AttHRV vaccine or moderate virulent HRV diarrhea. Our findings suggest that that VAD in children in developing countries may partially contribute to more

  12. Paediatrics: messages from Munich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Midulla

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe paediatric highlights from the 2014 European Respiratory Society (ERS International Congress in Munich, Germany. Abstracts from the seven groups of the ERS Paediatric Assembly (Respiratory Physiology and Sleep, Asthma and Allergy, Cystic Fibrosis, Respiratory Infection and Immunology, Neonatology and Paediatric Intensive Care, Respiratory Epidemiology, and Bronchology are presented in the context of the current literature.

  13. Genetic diversity of G1P[8] rotavirus VP7 and VP8* antigens in Finland over a 20-year period: No evidence for selection pressure by universal mass vaccination with RotaTeq® vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemming, Maria; Vesikari, Timo

    2013-10-01

    Two live-attenuated oral vaccines (Rotarix™ and Rotateq®) against rotavirus gastroenteritis were licensed in 2006 and have been introduced into National Immunization Programs (NIPs) of several countries. Large scale use of rotavirus vaccines might cause antigenic pressure on circulating rotavirus types or lead to selection of new rotaviruses thus decreasing vaccine efficacy. We examined the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the surface proteins VP7 and VP4 (cleaved to VP8(*) and VP5(*)) of a total of 108 G1P[8] rotavirus strains collected over a 20-year period from 1992, including the years 2006-2009 when rotavirus vaccine (mainly Rotarix™) was available, and the years 2009-2012 after implementation of RotaTeq® vaccine into the NIP of Finland. In G1 VP7 no changes at amino acid level were observed. In VP8(*) periodical fluctuation of the sublineage over the study period was found with multiple changes both at nucleotide and amino acid levels. Most amino acid changes were in the dominant antigenic epitopes of VP8(*). A change in VP8(*) sublineage occurred between 2008 and 2009, with a temporal correlation to the use of Rotarix™ up to 30% coverage in the period. In contrast, no antigenic changes in the VP8(*) protein appeared to be correlated to the exclusive use of RotaTeq® vaccine after 2009. Nevertheless, long-term surveillance of antigenic changes in VP4 and also VP7 proteins in wild-type rotavirus strains is warranted in countries with large scale use of the currently licensed live oral rotavirus vaccines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Robustness of the healthcare utilization results from the Rotavirus Efficacy and Safety Trial (REST evaluating the human-bovine (WC3 reassortant pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Damme Pierre

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Rotavirus Efficacy and Safety Trial was a placebo-controlled Phase III study that evaluated the safety and efficacy of a three-dose pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5 including its effect on healthcare utilization for rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE. The per-protocol (PP analyses, which counted events occurring 14 days after dose 3 among infants without protocol violations, have already been published. This paper evaluates the consistency of the healthcare utilization results based on the modified intention to treat (MITT analyses with the PP analyses. The MITT analyses include all infants receiving at least one dose of vaccine or placebo and follow-up begins after dose 1. The paper also explores the consistency of the results for different subgroups of the study population with different types of surveillance. Methods Data on healthcare utilization for acute gastroenteritis were collected via telephone interviews after administration of the first dose. Parents were either contacted every 6 weeks or every 2 weeks depending on the substudy in which they were enrolled. Those contacted every 2 weeks were also asked to complete symptom diaries. Poisson regression was used to evaluate the effect of RV5 on the rates of RVGE-associated healthcare encounters in all of the analyses. Results In the first 2 years after vaccination, RV5 reduced the combined rate of hospitalizations and emergency department (ED visits 88.9% (95% CI: 84.9, 91.9 for all RVGE regardless of serotype in the MITT analysis compared with a 94.5% (95% CI: 91.2, 96.6 reduction based on the G1-G4 PP analysis. By type of surveillance, the rate reductions for the G1-G4 PP analysis were 91.0% (95% CI: 81.7, 95.5 and 95.9% (95% CI: 92.2, 97.8 among parents contacted every 2 weeks (number evaluable = 4,451 and every 6 weeks (number evaluable = 52,683 respectively. Conclusions Our analyses demonstrated that the effect of RV5 on reducing the rate of hospitalizations

  15. Rapid and sensitive electrochemiluminescence detection of rotavirus by magnetic primer based reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan Fangfang; Zhou Xiaoming; Xing Da

    2013-01-01

    results showed that the detection limit of the assay was 0.2 pg μL −1 of rotavirus. The ECL intensity was linearly with the concentration from 0.2 pg μL −1 to 400 pg μL −1 . What's more, the specificity of this method was confirmed by detecting other fecal specimens of patients with nonrotavirus-associated gastroenteritis. We anticipate that the proposed magnetic primer based RT-PCR with ECL detection strategy will find numerous applications in food safety field and clinical diagnosis.

  16. Rapid and sensitive electrochemiluminescence detection of rotavirus by magnetic primer based reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhan Fangfang; Zhou Xiaoming [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Xing Da, E-mail: xingda@scnu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China)

    2013-01-25

    . In this study, rotavirus in fecal specimens was successfully detected within 1.5 h. Experimental results showed that the detection limit of the assay was 0.2 pg {mu}L{sup -1} of rotavirus. The ECL intensity was linearly with the concentration from 0.2 pg {mu}L{sup -1} to 400 pg {mu}L{sup -1}. What's more, the specificity of this method was confirmed by detecting other fecal specimens of patients with nonrotavirus-associated gastroenteritis. We anticipate that the proposed magnetic primer based RT-PCR with ECL detection strategy will find numerous applications in food safety field and clinical diagnosis.

  17. Safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of two doses of RIX4414 live attenuated human rotavirus vaccine in healthy infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Eliete C; Clemens, Sue Ann C; Oliveira, Consuelo S; Justino, Maria Cleonice A; Rubio, Pilar; Gabbay, Yvone B; da Silva, Veronilce B; Mascarenhas, Joana D P; Noronha, Vânia L; Clemens, Ralf; Gusmão, Rosa Helena P; Sanchez, Nervo; Monteiro, Talita Antônia F; Linhares, Alexandre C

    2007-01-01

    To determine the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of two doses of rotavirus vaccine in healthy Brazilian infants. A randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in Brazil, Mexico and Venezuela. Infants received two oral doses of vaccine or placebo at 2 and 4 months of age, concurrently with routine immunizations, except for oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV). This paper reports results from Belém, Brazil, where the number of subjects per group and the viral vaccine titers were: 194 (10(4.7) focus forming units - FFU), 196 (10(5.2) FFU), 194 (10(5.8) FFU) and 194 (placebo). Anti-rotavirus (anti-RV) antibody response was assessed in 307 subjects. Clinical severity of gastroenteritis episodes was measured using a 20-point scoring system with a score of >or= 11 defined as severe GE. The rates of solicited general symptoms were similar in vaccine and placebo recipients. At 2 months after the second dose, a serum IgA response to RV occurred in 54.7 to 74.4% of vaccinees. No interference was seen in the immunogenicity of routine vaccines. Vaccine efficacy against any rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) was 63.5% (95%CI 20.8-84.4) for the highest concentration (10(5.8) FFU). Efficacy was 81.5% (95%CI 44.5-95.4) against severe RVGE. At its highest concentration (10(5.8) FFU), RIX4414 provided 79.8% (95%CI 26.4-96.3) protection against severe RVGE by G9 strain. RIX4414 was highly immunogenic with a low reactogenicity profile and did not interfere with seroresponse to diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B and Hib antigens. Two doses of RIX4414 provided significant protection against severe GE caused by RV.

  18. Methodology and lessons-learned from the efficacy clinical trial of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, K; Yunus, M; El Arifeen, Shams; Azim, Tasnim; Faruque, A S G; Huq, Ehsanul; Hossain, Ilias; Luby, Stephen P; Victor, John C; Dallas, Michael J; Lewis, Kristen D C; Rivers, Stephen B; Steele, A Duncan; Neuzil, Kathleen M; Ciarlet, Max; Sack, David A

    2012-04-27

    An efficacy clinical trial with pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (PRV), RotaTeq(®), was conducted at Matlab field site of ICDDR,B, Bangladesh from March 2007 to March 2009. The methodology, including operation logistics, and lessons-learned are described in this report. Vaccination was organized at 41 fixed-site clinics twice/month. A total of 1136 infants were randomized 1:1 to receive 3 doses of PRV/placebo at approximately 6-, 10-, and 14-weeks of age with routine vaccines of the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) schedule. Twelve field-workers routinely visited study participants for safety and efficacy follow-up. The study was conducted following good clinical practices and maintaining cold-chain requirements. There were no temperature deviations of clinical vaccine supplies. Data entry was done using the source documents to a central database developed by the sponsor which was linked to web. Among enrolled infants, 1128 (99.3%) received 3 doses of PRV/placebo and efficacy follow-up was conducted for a median of 554 days. For the evaluation of immunogenicity, blood samples were collected from 150 participants predose 1 and from 147 (98%) of the same participants post dose 3. Stool samples were collected from 778 (99.9%) acute gastroenteritis episodes among children who reported to diarrhoea treatment centres. Thirty-nine serious adverse events, including 6 deaths, occurred among study participants. The efficacy of PRV against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis was 42.7% through the entire follow-up period; serum anti-rotavirus IgA response was 78.1%. Inclement weather, difficult transportation, and movement of study participants were some of the challenges identified. This is the first vaccine trial in rural Bangladesh with online data entry. The study was well accepted in the community and was completed successfully. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Response to a large rotavirus outbreak on South Tarawa, Kiribati, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teanibuaka Tabunga

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In July 2013, during annual independence celebrations in Kiribati, staff at Tungaru Central Hospital on South Tarawa reported an increase in children presenting with severe diarrhoea. This report describes the outbreak investigation, findings and response. Method: After notification of the outbreak, all health facilities on South Tarawa began reporting cases of acute diarrhoea and/or vomiting through the early warning syndromic surveillance system on a daily basis. Community awareness was raised and the public was encouraged to present to a health facility if ill with acute gastroenteritis. Specimens were collected and sent for laboratory testing. Results: Between 10 and 24 July 2013, 1118 cases of gastroenteritis were reported; 103 were hospitalized and six died. The median age of cases was one year (range: 0–68 years; 93.4% were aged less than five years. Rotavirus was identified in 81% of specimens tested. The outbreak response included enhanced surveillance, community education, clinical training and changes to in-hospital patient management for infection control. Discussion: This outbreak was the largest diarrhoea outbreak in Kiribati in five years. Factors that may have contributed to the magnitude and severity of the outbreak included high household density, inadequate sanitation infrastructure and a mass gathering – all increasing the chance of transmission – as well as limited clinical response capacity. The current outbreak highlights the importance of clinical management to minimize severe dehydration and death. Rotavirus vaccination should be considered as an adjunct to other comprehensive enteric disease control measures as recommended by the World Health Organization.

  20. Paediatric radiopharmaceutical administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassmann, Michael; Treves, S Ted; Borgwardt, Lise

    2014-01-01

    In 2008 the EANM published their paediatric dosage card. In 2011 the North American consensus guidelines recommended a set of administered activities for paediatric nuclear medicine. During the EANM congress in 2012 a working group of the EANM and the SNMMI met to study the possibility of harmoni...

  1. Safety in paediatric imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, D.; Filice, I.; Murray, D.; Thomas, K.

    2006-01-01

    Those of us working in a dedicated paediatric environment are aware of the important safety issues with regard to paediatrics. Our goal when working with paediatric patients, the goal is to obtain the best quality images while keeping patients safe and their distress to a minimum. This article will discuss some of the issues regarding paediatric safety in a diagnostic imaging department, including radiation doses and the risk to paediatric patients, reducing medication errors, safe sedation practice and environmental safety. Also discussed are some conditions requiring special consideration to maintain patient safety such as epiglottitis and suspected child abuse. Promotion of a patient/family-centered care system will create an environment of trust where parents or guardians will know that their children are being well cared for in a safe, effective environment. (author)

  2. Efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of two doses of a tetravalent rotavirus vaccine RRV-TV in Ghana with the first dose administered during the neonatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armah, George E; Kapikian, Albert Z; Vesikari, Timo; Cunliffe, Nigel; Jacobson, Robert M; Burlington, D Bruce; Ruiz, Leonard P

    2013-08-01

    Oral rhesus/rhesus-human reassortant rotavirus tetravalent vaccine (RRV-TV) was licensed in 1998 but withdrawn in 1999 due to a rare association with intussusception, which occurred disproportionately in infants receiving their first dose at ≥90 days of age. This study examined RRV-TV for the prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RV-GE) in Ghana, West Africa, with infants receiving the first dose during the neonatal period and the second before 60 days of age. In a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in Navrongo, Ghana, we recruited neonates to receive 2 doses of RRV-TV or placebo and followed them to age 12 months. In the intention-to-treat population of 998 infants, we measured a vaccine efficacy of 63.1% against RV-GE of any severity associated with any of the 4 serotypes represented in the vaccine and 60.7% against RV-GE associated with any rotavirus serotype. RRV-TV in a 2-dose schedule with the first dose during the neonatal period is efficacious in preventing RV-GE in rural Ghana. Neonatal dosing results in early protection and may be the optimum schedule to avoid or significantly reduce intussusception, now reported to be associated in international settings with the 2 most widely marketed, licensed, live virus, oral rotavirus vaccines.

  3. Cost-effectiveness of introducing a rotavirus vaccine in developing countries: The case of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia-Mendoza, Atanacio; Bertozzi, Stefano M; Gutierrez, Juan-Pablo; Itzler, Robbin

    2008-01-01

    Background In developing countries rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhoea and diarrhoeal deaths in children under 5. Vaccination could greatly alleviate that burden, but in Mexico as in most low- and middle-income countries the decision to add rotavirus vaccine to the national immunisation program will depend heavily on its cost-effectiveness and affordability. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of including the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in Mexico's national immunisation program. Methods A cost-effectiveness model was developed from the perspective of the health system, modelling the vaccination of a hypothetical birth cohort of 2 million children monitored from birth through 60 months of age. It compares the cost and disease burden of rotavirus in an unvaccinated cohort of children with one vaccinated as recommended at 2, 4, and 6 months. Results Including the pentavalent vaccine in the national immunisation program could prevent 71,464 medical visits (59%), 5,040 hospital admissions (66%), and 612 deaths from rotavirus gastroenteritis (70%). At US$10 per dose and a cost of administration of US$13.70 per 3-dose regimen, vaccination would cost US$122,058 per death prevented, US$4,383 per discounted life-year saved, at a total net cost of US$74.7 million dollars to the health care system. Key variables influencing the results were, in order of importance, case fatality, vaccine price, vaccine efficacy, serotype prevalence, and annual loss of efficacy. The results are also very sensitive to the discount rate assumed when calculated per life-year saved. Conclusion At prices below US $15 per dose, the cost per life-year saved is estimated to be lower than one GNP per capita and hence highly cost effective by the WHO Commission on Macroeconomics and Health criteria. The cost-effectiveness estimates are highly dependent upon the mortality in the absence of the vaccine, which suggests that the vaccine is likely to be

  4. Cost-effectiveness of introducing a rotavirus vaccine in developing countries: The case of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutierrez Juan-Pablo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In developing countries rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhoea and diarrhoeal deaths in children under 5. Vaccination could greatly alleviate that burden, but in Mexico as in most low- and middle-income countries the decision to add rotavirus vaccine to the national immunisation program will depend heavily on its cost-effectiveness and affordability. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of including the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in Mexico's national immunisation program. Methods A cost-effectiveness model was developed from the perspective of the health system, modelling the vaccination of a hypothetical birth cohort of 2 million children monitored from birth through 60 months of age. It compares the cost and disease burden of rotavirus in an unvaccinated cohort of children with one vaccinated as recommended at 2, 4, and 6 months. Results Including the pentavalent vaccine in the national immunisation program could prevent 71,464 medical visits (59%, 5,040 hospital admissions (66%, and 612 deaths from rotavirus gastroenteritis (70%. At US$10 per dose and a cost of administration of US$13.70 per 3-dose regimen, vaccination would cost US$122,058 per death prevented, US$4,383 per discounted life-year saved, at a total net cost of US$74.7 million dollars to the health care system. Key variables influencing the results were, in order of importance, case fatality, vaccine price, vaccine efficacy, serotype prevalence, and annual loss of efficacy. The results are also very sensitive to the discount rate assumed when calculated per life-year saved. Conclusion At prices below US $15 per dose, the cost per life-year saved is estimated to be lower than one GNP per capita and hence highly cost effective by the WHO Commission on Macroeconomics and Health criteria. The cost-effectiveness estimates are highly dependent upon the mortality in the absence of the vaccine, which suggests that the vaccine

  5. Cost-effectiveness analysis of vaccination against rotavirus with RIX4414 in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standaert, Baudouin; Parez, Nathalie; Tehard, Bertrand; Colin, Xavier; Detournay, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    It is estimated that annually 300 000 cases of rotavirus-induced gastroenteritis (RVGE) occur in children aged up to 5 years in France. A two-dose vaccine against rotavirus infection (RIX4414; Rotarix, GlaxoSmithKline), has been shown to be highly effective against severe RVGE. This study evaluated the cost effectiveness of general vaccination against rotavirus using RIX4414 in France. A Markov model simulated RVGE events and the associated outcomes and costs relating to general vaccination of infants against rotavirus infection using RIX4414 (Rotarix) in a birth cohort of children aged up to 5 years in France with a combined adjustment for age distribution with the seasonality of the infection. Costs and outcomes were estimated from a limited societal perspective, including direct medical costs paid out of pocket or by third-party payers, as well as the proportion of direct medical costs reimbursed by the health authorities. Indirect costs were not included in the base-case analysis. The primary outcome measure was the incremental cost per QALY. Vaccination with RIX4414 incurred an incremental cost of 44 583 Euro per QALY at a public price of 57 Euro per vaccine dose. Univariate sensitivity analyses showed that the parameters with the largest influence on the results were the transition probabilities of severe diarrhoea, seeking medical advice and emergency visits, utility scores of diarrhoea (mild) in children and infants, and the discount rate for benefits. Probabilistic multivariate sensitivity analysis confirmed these results. The acceptability curve indicated that 94% of the results were under an informal threshold of 50 000 Euro per QALY. Comparing our results with those of a recently published study using pooled data for two rotavirus vaccine products in France, the main differences are explained by differences in model structure and in data input values. They include a different age distribution of the infection, shorter duration of the at-risk period (3

  6. Etiología y manejo de la gastroenteritis aguda infecciosa en niños y adultos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yalda Lucero, DRA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available La Gastroenteritis Aguda (GEA infecciosa es una patología frecuente y de alto impacto, especialmente en niños menores de cinco años y adultos mayores. En nuestro medio, la causa más frecuente es viral (rotavirus y norovirus seguido de Salmonella, Shigella, E.coli diarreogénicas y Campylobacter. Habitualmente son cuadros autolimitados que no requieren estudio de laboratorio específico y cuyo manejo debe centrarse en la reposición hidro-electrolítica de acuerdo al grado de deshidratación. Existe evidencia sobre beneficio sintomático del uso de probióticos (Lactobacillus GG y S.boulardii; racecadotrilo en cuanto a la diarrea; y ondasetrón para los vómitos. En caso de sospecha de agente invasor (bacteria o parásito debe realizarse un estudio etiológico e iniciar terapia antimicrobiana de acuerdo al microorganismo identificado. La prevención de contagio mediante medidas de saneamiento y adecuada manipulación de agua y alimentos es fundamental. Actualmente se dispone de vacunas efectivas contra algunos de los agentes involucrados (ej. rotavirus, que deben recomendarse en grupos de riesgo.

  7. Concomitant administration of diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis and inactivated poliovirus vaccine derived from Sabin strains (DTaP-sIPV) with pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in Japanese infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Yokokawa, Ruriko; Rong, Han Shi; Kishino, Hiroyuki; Stek, Jon E; Nelson, Margaret; Lawrence, Jody

    2017-06-03

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children. Most children are infected with rotavirus, and the health and economic burdens of rotavirus gastroenteritis on healthcare systems and families are considerable. In 2012 pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) and diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis and inactivated poliovirus vaccine derived from Sabin strains (DTaP-sIPV) were licensed in Japan. We examined the immunogenicity and safety of DTaP-sIPV when administrated concomitantly with RV5 in Japanese infants. A total of 192 infants 6 to 11 weeks of age randomized to Group 1 (N = 96) received DTaP-sIPV and RV5 concomitantly, and Group 2 (N = 96) received DTaP-sIPV and RV5 separately. Antibody titer to diphtheria toxin, pertussis antigens (PT and FHA), tetanus toxin, and poliovirus type 1, 2, and 3 were measured at 4 to 6 weeks following 3-doses of DTaP-sIPV. Seroprotection rates for all components of DTaP-sIPV were 100% in both groups, and the geometric mean titers for DTaP-sIPV in Group 1 were comparable to Group 2. Incidence of systemic AEs (including diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and nasopharyngitis) were lower in Group 1 than in Group 2. All vaccine-related AEs were mild or moderate in intensity. There were no vaccine-related serious AEs, no deaths, and no cases of intussusception during the study. Concomitant administration of DTaP-sIPV and RV5 induced satisfactory immune responses to DTaP-sIPV and acceptable safety profile. The administration of DTaP-sIPV given concomitantly with RV5 is expected to facilitate compliance with the vaccination schedule and improve vaccine coverage in Japanese infants.

  8. Bioinformatic prediction of polymerase elements in the rotavirus VP1 protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGO VÁSQUEZ-DEL CARPIÓ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotaviruses are the major cause of acute gastroenteritis in infants world-wide. The genome consists of eleven double stranded RNA segments. The major segment encodes the structural protein VP1, the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp, which is a minor component of the viral inner core. This study is a detailed bioinformatic assessment of the VP1 sequence. Using various methods we have identified canonical motifs within the VP1 sequence which correspond to motifs previously identified within RdRps of other positive strand, double-strand RNA viruses. The study also predicts an overall structural conservation in the middle region that may correspond to the palm subdomain and part of the fingers and thumb subdomains, which comprise the polymerase core of the protein. Based on this analysis, we suggest that the rotavirus replicase has the minimal elements to function as an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. VP1, besides having common RdRp features, also contains large unique regions that might be responsible for characteristic features observed in the Reoviridae family

  9. Experimental reproduction of rotavirus and Salmonella pullorum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Group A chicks were inoculated with 1 X 106 pfu/ml of rotavirus, group B chicks were inoculated with 1 X 106 cfu/ml of Salmonella pullorum, group C chicks were inoculated with 1 X 106 pfu/ml of rotavirus and 1 X 106 cfu/ml of Salmonella pullorum, while group D birds were given 1ml of PBS alone. Birds in all groups were ...

  10. An outbreak of gastroenteritis associated with astrovirus serotype 1 in a day care center, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMV Silva

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Between June 4th and June 20th1996 rotavirus, adenovirus, and astrovirus (HAstrV were investigated in fecal samples from 27 children under three years old with acute diarrhea, attending the Bertha Lutz day care center, in Rio de Janeiro. All fecal samples were analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, enzyme immunoassays (EIA, and electron microscopy (EM. Nine of them (33% showed positive results for HAstrV by at least one of the employed methodologies. Eight were positive by RT-PCR and EIA, and six by EM. All positive samples were inoculated onto HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma cultured cells for HAstrV isolation and seven were positive after three passages. The sequencing analysis of eight RT-PCR products (449 bp from gene that codifies VP2 protein, showed a total nucleotide identity among them and 98% with HAstrV-1 (strain Oxford type 1. This is the first report of a gastroenteritis outbreak associated with HAstrv-1 in a day care center in Rio de Janeiro and it reinforces the importance of this virus in association with infantile acute gastroenteritis.

  11. Human rotavirus genotypes causing acute watery diarrhea among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-17

    Jun 17, 2014 ... vaccine with strains peculiar to this environment should be introduced. ..... Safety and efficacy of an attenuated vaccine against severe rotavirus ... prevalence of adenovirus serotypes 40 and 41, astrovirus, and rotavirus.

  12. Paediatric Malignancies | Joseph | African Journal of Paediatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    malignancies. Other common malignancies included sarcomas 10(14.71%), neurofibromatosis 9(13.24%), nephroblastoma 8(11.77%), acute lymphoblastic leukaemia 5(7.35%) and retinoblastoma 4(5.88%). The less common paediatric malignancies were melanoma, invasive lobular breast carcinoma and squamous cell ...

  13. [Nasogastric rehydration for treating children with gastroenteritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rébeillé-Borgella, B; Barbier, C; Moussaoui, R; Faisant, A; Michard-Lenoir, A-P; Rubio, A

    2017-06-01

    When oral rehydration is not feasible, enteral rehydration via the nasogastric route has been the ESPGHAN recommended method of rehydration since 2008, rather than intravenous rehydration (IVR), for children with acute gastroenteritis. However, these recommendations are rarely followed in France. Since 2011, in case of failure of oral rehydration, enteral rehydration has been used as a first-line therapy in the Children's Emergency Department at the Grenoble-Alpes University Hospital. The aims of the study were to compare the length of the hospital stay, the duration of initial rehydration, and the incidence of complications and failure with the use of enteral nasogastric versus intravenous rehydration. This study compared two cohorts of children (rehydration via the oral route. The first group (winter 2010-2011) was managed according to the previous protocol (intravenous rehydration). The second group (winter 2011-2012) was managed according the new protocol (nasogastric tube rehydration [NGR]). The rest of the gastroenteritis management was identical in both groups. A total of 132 children were included, 65 were treated with nasogastric tube rehydration (NGR) and 67 with intravenous rehydration. There was a significant reduction in the duration of hospitalization in the post-emergency unit in the NGR group: 23.6h vs 40.1h (Prehydration was also significantly reduced (10.5h vs 22.0h). There was no significant difference regarding serious adverse events. However, the NGR group presented more mild adverse events (22 vs 7, Prehydration reduces the duration of rehydration and the length of the hospital stay without increasing the incidence of serious adverse events for dehydrated children hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Svaer hyperkaliaemi ved gastroenteritis hos kolektomeret patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lasse Bremholm; Winkel, Rasmus; Hansen, Erik Feldager

    2010-01-01

    Severe hyperkalemia is a life-threatening condition that causes primarily cardiac and muscular dysfunction with potentially fatal consequences. This case report describes a case of severe hyperkalemia (9,1 mmol/l) caused by acute prerenal failure due to dehydration. The severe dehydration was cau...... was caused by a combination of reduced fluid intake due to gastroenteritis and a hampered capacity for intestinal fluid absorption, due to previous colectomy. The patient developed classic signs of hyperkalemia with electrocardiogram changes and muscular dysfunction....

  15. Performance of rotavirus vaccines in developed and developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Victoria; Jiang, Baoming; Tate, Jacqueline; Parashar, Umesh D; Patel, Manish M

    2010-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that rotavirus diarrhea results in approximately half a million deaths and approximately 2.4 million hospitalizations in developing countries each year. Two live oral rotavirus vaccines, RotaTeq® (RV 5; Merck) and Rotarix® (RV 1; GlaxoSmithKline) with good efficacy against severe rotavirus disease and a reassuring safety profile could substantially impact the burden of rotavirus disease. In April 2009, WHO provided a recommendation for global introducti...

  16. Complex reassortment events of unusual G9P[4] rotavirus strains in India between 2011 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Yen Hai; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Fujii, Yoshiki; Haga, Kei; Fujimoto, Akira; Takai-Todaka, Reiko; Someya, Yuichi; Nayak, Mukti K; Mukherjee, Anupam; Imamura, Daisuke; Shinoda, Sumio; Chawla-Sarkar, Mamta; Katayama, Kazuhiko

    2017-10-01

    Rotavirus A (RVA) is the predominant etiological agent of acute gastroenteritis in young children worldwide. Recently, unusual G9P[4] rotavirus strains emerged with high prevalence in many countries. Such intergenogroup reassortant strains highlight the ongoing spread of unusual rotavirus strains throughout Asia. This study was undertaken to determine the whole genome of eleven unusual G9P[4] strains detected in India during 2011-2013, and to compare them with other human and animal global RVAs to understand the exact origin of unusual G9P[4] circulating in India and other countries worldwide. Of these 11 RVAs, four G9P[4] strains were double-reassortants with the G9-VP7 and E6-NSP4 genes on a DS-1-like genetic backbone (G9-P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E6-H2). The other strains showed a complex genetic constellation, likely derived from triple reassortment event with the G9-VP7, N1-NSP2 and E6-NSP4 on a DS-1-like genetic backbone (G9-P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N1-T2-E6-H2). Presumably, these unusual G9P[4] strains were generated after several reassortment events between the contemporary co-circulating human rotavirus strains. Moreover, the point mutation S291L at the interaction site between inner and outer capsid proteins of VP6 gene may be important in the rapid spread of this unusual strain. The complex reassortment events within the G9[4] strains may be related to the high prevalence of mixed infections in India as reported in this study and other previous studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Diffuse eosinophilic gastroenteritis with antral obstruction: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Sung Hee; Kim, Young Bok; Lee, Koung Hee

    2000-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare disease characterized by tissue eosinophilia that can involve different layers of the gut wall and cause various gastrointestinal symptoms. We describe the UGI and CT findings of a case of diffuse eosinophilic gastroenteritis with tumor-like antral obstruction due to thickening of the submucosa and muscle layer in a 21-year-old male. (author)

  18. Diffuse eosinophilic gastroenteritis with antral obstruction: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Sung Hee; Kim, Young Bok; Lee, Koung Hee [National Police Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-02-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare disease characterized by tissue eosinophilia that can involve different layers of the gut wall and cause various gastrointestinal symptoms. We describe the UGI and CT findings of a case of diffuse eosinophilic gastroenteritis with tumor-like antral obstruction due to thickening of the submucosa and muscle layer in a 21-year-old male. (author)

  19. Group A Rotavirus Associated with Encephalitis in Red Fox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busi, Chiara; Martella, Vito; Papetti, Alice; Sabelli, Cristiano; Lelli, Davide; Alborali, G Loris; Gibelli, Lucia; Gelmetti, Daniela; Lavazza, Antonio; Cordioli, Paolo; Boniotti, M Beatrice

    2017-09-01

    In 2011, a group A rotavirus was isolated from the brain of a fox with encephalitis and neurologic signs, detected by rabies surveillance in Italy. Intracerebral inoculation of fox brain homogenates into mice was fatal. Genome sequencing revealed a heterologous rotavirus of avian origin, which could provide a model for investigating rotavirus neurovirulence.

  20. Epidemiology of rotavirus diarrhea in children under 5 years in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rotavirus still remains the major cause of diarrhea in children below 5 years. No data on rotavirus epidemiology is available in the Northern regions of Cameroon. We aimed to determine the prevalence of group A rotavirus (RVA) in children below 5 years with diarrhea in two regions of Northern Cameroon ...

  1. electropherotypes and subgroups of group a rotaviruses circulating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emmanuel Ameh

    diarrhea caused by rotaviruses. The virus is a double stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus with 11 segments. Group A rotaviruses show a characteristic 4-2-3-2 pattern following electrophoresis. The VP6 subgroups, I and II exist. This work was carried out to study the prevalence of rotavirus infection among children 0-5 years with ...

  2. Cost-effectiveness analysis of routine rotavirus vaccination in Brazil Análisis de la relación costo-efectividad de la vacunación programada contra rotavirus en Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Coelho de Soárez

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of a universal rotavirus vaccination program among children OBJETIVO: Analizar la relación costo-efectividad de un programa universal de vacunación contra rotavirus en niños de hasta 5 años en Brasil. MÉTODOS: Se consideró una cohorte hipotética anual de aproximadamente 3 300 000 recién nacidos con un seguimiento de 5 años. Mediante un modelo de árbol de decisión se analizaron los posibles efectos clínicos y económicos de la infección por rotavirus con la vacunación programada de niños y sin ella. Las probabilidades y los costos unitarios se tomaron de investigaciones publicadas y de los datos oficiales nacionales. Para evaluar el impacto de diferentes estimados de los parámetros clave se realizó un análisis de sensibilidad. El análisis se efectuó tanto desde la perspectiva del sistema sanitario como de la sociedad. RESULTADOS: Se estimó que el programa de vacunación evitaría aproximadamente 1 735 351 (54% de los 3 210 361 casos de gastroenteritis por rotavirus y 703 (75% de las 933 muertes asociadas con la infección por rotavirus en un período de 5 años. A un precio de la vacuna de 18,6 reales brasileños (R$ por dosis, este programa costaría R$ 121 673 966 y ahorraría R$ 38 536 514 en costos directos al sistema de salud pública y R$ 71 778 377 en costos directos e indirectos a la sociedad. El costo estimado del programa por año de vida salvado sería de R$ 1 028 y R$ 1 713, desde el punto de vista de la sociedad y del sistema de salud, respectivamente. CONCLUSIONES: La estrategia de vacunación universal contra rotavirus presentó una buena relación costo-efectividad según ambas perspectivas. Sin embargo, estos resultados son muy sensibles a cambios en la incidencia de diarreas, la proporción de casos graves, la cobertura de vacunación y el precio de la vacuna.

  3. Paediatric Anxiety Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Johnson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent among children and are associated with serious morbidity. Lifetime prevalence of paediatric anxiety disorders is about fifteen percent. Social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder and separation anxiety disorder are included in the triad of paediatric anxiety disorders. Specific phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder are also commonly seen in children. Overprotection by parents, parental death or separation, female sex, low educational status, family history of anxiety disorder, financial stress in family and adverse childhood experiences are risk factors for the development of anxiety disorders. If not diagnosed and managed at the earliest, paediatric anxiety disorders can cause life threatening problems in the future. Hence early and scientific management of anxiety disorders is essential. Cognitive behavioural therapy is the effective evidence based treatment for paediatric anxiety disorders.

  4. Paediatric talus fracture.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Byrne, Ann-Maria

    2012-01-01

    Paediatric talus fractures are rare injuries resulting from axial loading of the talus against the anterior tibia with the foot in dorsiflexion. Skeletally immature bone is less brittle, with higher elastic resistance than adult bone, thus the paediatric talus can sustain higher forces before fractures occur. However, displaced paediatric talus fractures and those associated with high-energy trauma have been associated with complications including avascular necrosis, arthrosis, delayed union, neurapraxia and the need for revision surgery. The authors present the rare case of a talar neck fracture in a skeletally immature young girl, initially missed on radiological review. However, clinical suspicion on the part of the emergency physician, repeat examination and further radiographic imaging revealed this rare paediatric injury.

  5. Paediatric interventional radiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-29

    Jun 29, 2016 ... Non-operative management is the standard of care in children with blunt solid ... treatment of choice in children with extensive deep venous ... thrombosis. An IVC .... children, a paediatric nurse comfortable with administering.

  6. Challenges in paediatric neurosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragati Ganjoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvements in technique, knowledge and expertise have brought about rapid advances in the fields of paediatric neurosurgery and anaesthesia, and many procedures limited earlier to adults are now being increasingly attempted in neonates and small children, with good outcomes. This article highlights the challenges faced by the operating team while handling some of the technically complex procedures like awake craniotomy, interventional neuroradiology, minimally invasive neurosurgery, procedures in intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging suites, and neonatal emergencies in the paediatric population.

  7. Impact of maternal antibodies and infant gut microbiota on the immunogenicity of rotavirus vaccines in African, Indian and European infants: protocol for a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhu, Kuladaipalayam Natarajan C; Cunliffe, Nigel; Peak, Matthew; Turner, Mark; Darby, Alistair; Grassly, Nicholas; Gordon, Melita; Dube, Queen; Babji, Sudhir; Praharaj, Ira; Verghese, Valsan; Iturriza-Gómara, Miren; Kang, Gagandeep

    2017-03-29

    Gastroenteritis is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among young children living in resource-poor settings, majority of which is attributed to rotavirus. Rotavirus vaccination can therefore have a significant impact on infant mortality. However, rotavirus vaccine efficacy in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia is significantly lower than in high-income countries. Maternally derived antibodies, infant gut microbiota and concomitant oral polio vaccination have been proposed as potential reasons for poor vaccine performance in low-income settings. The overall aim of this study is to compare the role of maternally derived antibodies and infant gut microbiota in determining immune response to rotavirus vaccine in high-income and low-income settings, using the same vaccine and a similar study protocol. The study is an observational cohort in three countries-Malawi, India and UK. Mothers will be enrolled in third trimester of pregnancy and followed up, along with infants after delivery, until the infant completes two doses of oral rotavirus vaccine (along with routine immunisation). The levels of prevaccination maternally derived rotavirus-specific antibodies (IgG) will be correlated with infant seroconversion and antibody titres, 4 weeks after the second dose of rotavirus vaccine. Both within-country and between-country comparisons of gut microbiome will be carried out between children who seroconvert and those who do not. The impact of oral polio vaccine coadministration on rotavirus vaccine response will be studied in Indian infants. Ethical approvals have been obtained from Integrated Research Application System (IRAS, NHS ethics) in UK, College of Medicine Research and Ethics Committee (COMREC) in Malawi and Institutional Review Board (IRB), Christian Medical College, Vellore in India. Participant recruitment and follow-up is ongoing at all three sites. Analysis of data, followed by publication of the results, is expected in 2018. Published by the BMJ

  8. Effectiveness of rotavirus pentavalent vaccine under a universal immunization programme in Israel, 2011-2015: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhsen, K; Anis, E; Rubinstein, U; Kassem, E; Goren, S; Shulman, L M; Ephros, M; Cohen, D

    2018-01-01

    The use of rotavirus pentavalent vaccine (RotaTeq ® ) as a sole vaccine within rotavirus universal immunization programmes remains limited. We examined the effectiveness of RotaTeq in preventing rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) hospitalization in Israel, after the introduction of universal immunization against the disease. A test-negative case-control study included age-eligible children for universal RotaTeq immunization (aged 2-59 months, born in 2011-2015). Cases (n = 98) were patients who tested positive for rotavirus by immunochromatography; those who tested negative (n = 628) comprised the control group. Information on rotavirus immunization history was obtained through linkage with a national immunization registry. Vaccination status was compared between cases and controls, adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were obtained from logistic regression models, and vaccine effectiveness calculated as (1 - aOR)*100. Immunization with RotaTeq was less frequent in RVGE cases (73.5%) than in controls (90.1%), p < 0.001; this association persisted after controlling for potential confounders. Effectiveness of the complete vaccine series was estimated at 77% (95% confidence interval (CI): 49-90) in children aged 6-59 months, and 86% (95% CI: 65-94) in children aged 6-23 months; whereas for the incomplete series, the respective estimates were 72% (95% CI: 28-89) and 75% (95% CI: 30-91). Vaccine effectiveness was estimated at 79% (95% CI: 45-92) against G1P[8]-associated RVGE hospitalizations and 69% (95% CI: 11-89) against other genotype-RVGE hospitalizations. High effectiveness of RotaTeq as the sole rotavirus vaccine in a universal immunization programme was demonstrated in a high-income country. Although partial vaccination conferred protection, completing the vaccine series is warranted to maximize the benefit. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of the two rotavirus genes determining neutralization specificities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offit, P.A.; Blavat, G.

    1986-01-01

    Bovine rotavirus NCDV and simian rotavirus SA-11 represent two distinct rotavirus serotypes. A genetic approach was used to determine which viral gene segments segregated with serotype-specific viral neutralization. There were 16 reassortant rotarviruses derived by coinfection of MA-104 cells in vitro with the SA-11 and NCDV strains. The parental origin of reassortant rotavirus double-stranded RNA segments was determined by gene segment mobility in polyacrylamide gels and by hybridization with radioactively labeled parental viral transcripts. The authors found that two rotavirus gene segments found previously to code for outer capsid proteins vp3 and vp7 cosegreated with virus neutralization specificities

  10. Identification of the two rotavirus genes determining neutralization specificities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offit, P.A.; Blavat, G.

    1986-01-01

    Bovine rotavirus NCDV and simian rotavirus SA-11 represent two distinct rotavirus serotypes. A genetic approach was used to determine which viral gene segments segregated with serotype-specific viral neutralization. There were 16 reassortant rotarviruses derived by coinfection of MA-104 cells in vitro with the SA-11 and NCDV strains. The parental origin of reassortant rotavirus double-stranded RNA segments was determined by gene segment mobility in polyacrylamide gels and by hybridization with radioactively labeled parental viral transcripts. The authors found that two rotavirus gene segments found previously to code for outer capsid proteins vp3 and vp7 cosegreated with virus neutralization specificities.

  11. Rotavirus vaccination within the South African Expanded Programme on Immunisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seheri, L Mapaseka; Page, Nicola A; Mawela, Mothahadini P B; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey; Steele, A Duncan

    2012-09-07

    Diarrhoeal diseases are ranked the third major cause of childhood mortality in South African children less than 5 years, where the majority of deaths are among black children. Acute severe dehydrating rotavirus diarrhoea remains an important contributor towards childhood mortality and morbidity and has been well documented in South Africa. As the preventive strategy to control rotavirus diarrhoea, South Africa became the first country in the WHO African Region to adopt the rotavirus vaccine in the national childhood immunisation programme in August 2009. The rotavirus vaccine in use, Rotarix, GSK Biologicals, is given at 6 and 14 weeks of age, along with other vaccines as part of Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI). Studies which facilitated the introduction of rotavirus vaccine in South Africa included the burden of rotavirus disease and strain surveillance, economic burden of rotavirus infection and clinical trials to assess the safety and efficacy of vaccine candidates. This paper reviews the epidemiology of rotavirus in South Africa, outlines some of the steps followed to introduce rotavirus vaccine in the EPI, and highlights the early positive impact of vaccination in reducing the rotavirus burden of disease based on the post-marketing surveillance studies at Dr George Mukhari hospital, a sentinel site at University of Limpopo teaching hospital in Pretoria, South Africa, which has conducted rotavirus surveillance for >20 years. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Determinants of Rotavirus Transmission: A Lag Nonlinear Time Series Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gaalen, Rolina D; van de Kassteele, Jan; Hahné, Susan J M; Bruijning-Verhagen, Patricia; Wallinga, Jacco

    2017-07-01

    Rotavirus is a common viral infection among young children. As in many countries, the infection dynamics of rotavirus in the Netherlands are characterized by an annual winter peak, which was notably low in 2014. Previous study suggested an association between weather factors and both rotavirus transmission and incidence. From epidemic theory, we know that the proportion of susceptible individuals can affect disease transmission. We investigated how these factors are associated with rotavirus transmission in the Netherlands, and their impact on rotavirus transmission in 2014. We used available data on birth rates and rotavirus laboratory reports to estimate rotavirus transmission and the proportion of individuals susceptible to primary infection. Weather data were directly available from a central meteorological station. We developed an approach for detecting determinants of seasonal rotavirus transmission by assessing nonlinear, delayed associations between each factor and rotavirus transmission. We explored relationships by applying a distributed lag nonlinear regression model with seasonal terms. We corrected for residual serial correlation using autoregressive moving average errors. We inferred the relationship between different factors and the effective reproduction number from the most parsimonious model with low residual autocorrelation. Higher proportions of susceptible individuals and lower temperatures were associated with increases in rotavirus transmission. For 2014, our findings suggest that relatively mild temperatures combined with the low proportion of susceptible individuals contributed to lower rotavirus transmission in the Netherlands. However, our model, which overestimated the magnitude of the peak, suggested that other factors were likely instrumental in reducing the incidence that year.

  13. Malnutrition in paediatric oncology patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional status of paediatric cancer patients at diagnosis ... Professor and Executive Head, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Hospital, .... can lead to decreased oral intake, weight loss.

  14. Genodermatoses in paediatric age group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sunil

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Pattern of genodermatoses in paediatric age group was studied. The relative incidence of genodermatoses in paediatric dermatology out patient department was 0.62%. The commonest genodermatoses observed was ichthyosis.

  15. Drugs for the paediatric heart

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Head, Paediatric Cardiology Service of the Western Cape, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, ... His interests also include the care of complex patients ... The pharmacy only has enalapril available – can you substitute this drug for the ...

  16. Effect of UV-irradiation on rotavirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, Y.A.; Kapitulets, S.P.; Kaverin, N.V.; Amitina, N.N.; Ginevskaya, V.A.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of UV-irradiation on the infectivity of the SAll rotavirus was examined. The time behavior of the inactivation of infectivity generally exhibited the one-hit pattern. The effect was studied with respect to two phenomena, viz. the RNA-protein linkage and the formation of uracil dimers. To determine the number of the latter, purified 3 H-uridine-labelled rotavirus was exposed to UV radiation, and the RNA was extracted and analyzed by paper chromatography in the ascending mode. The formation of photodimers was found to be an important mechanism in the rotavirus inactivation on conventional irradiation, whereas RNA-protein linkages were observed on the application of high doses only. (author). 3 figs., 10 refs

  17. Norwalk virus gastroenteritis following raw oyster consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, R A; Janowski, H T; Lieb, S; Prather, E C; Greenberg, H B

    1982-03-01

    In January, 1980, six out of 13 persons (46%) attending a party in a small northwest Florida town near the Gulf of Mexico became ill with Norwalk virus gastroenteritis after eating raw oysters. Symptoms experienced by the ill persons were principally nausea (100%), vomiting (83%) and diarrhea (50%) and were of brief duration. The symptom complex and epidemiology of Norwalk virus infection closely resemble the gastrointestinal illness commonly referred to as the 24-hour intestinal flu or "stomach flu." Norwalk virus infection was identified in this outbreak by application of a recently developed sensitive and specific serologic radioimmunoassay. Oysters from the incriminated batch had fecal coliform levels above recommended standards; however, recent studies of oyster-harvesting waters have shown only a weak correlation between fecal coliforms and the presence of enteric viruses. Further studies are needed to determine whether modifications of monitoring modalities for oyster-harvesting waters are needed.

  18. African Journal of Paediatric Surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal of Paediatric Surgery aims to promote research, post- graduate training and further education among Paediatric surgeons, Paediatric Surgical Trainees and paramedical personnel in the surgery of newborn infants and children particularly in Africa and other tropical regions of the world.AJPS welcomes ...

  19. African Journal of Paediatric Nephrology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Paediatric Nephrology is the official Journal of the African Paediatric Nephrology Association (AFPNA). The journal is dedicated to increasing awareness and knowledge of Paediatric nephrology in Africa and beyond. We publish research articles on renal diseases in children, on fluid and electrolyte ...

  20. Paediatric interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, Clare

    2014-01-01

    Paediatric interventional radiology (PIR) is a rapidly-growing subspecialty, which offers a wide range of procedures applicable to almost all areas of hospital paediatrics. There are many important differences between paediatric and adult practice in interventional radiology, including disease processes and treatment goals, anatomical considerations, periprocedural patient management, radiation exposure optimisation and legal aspects. The use of retrievable or absorbable interventional devices such as stents will probably become more widespread in PIR practice. Recent advances in the technology of imaging equipment have been accompanied by an increase in the complexity of the work done by the radiographer. These developments present challenges and opportunities related to training and maintenance of skills, staffing arrangements, and the potential for advanced practice. It is likely that specialisation in PIR will become a more common role for radiographers in the future

  1. Group A rotavirus and norovirus display sharply distinct seasonal profiles in Belém, northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Anderson Monteiro Siqueira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Several viruses have been associated with acute gastroenteritis (AGE, and group A rotavirus (RVA and nor-ovirus (NoV are the most prevalent. This study aimed to assess their prevalence among children hospitalised for diarrhoea during a three-year surveillance study. From May 2008-April 2011, overall positivity rates of 21.6% (628/2904 and 35.4% (171/483 were observed for RVA and NoV, respectively. The seasonality observed indicated distinct patterns when both viruses were compared. This finding may explain why hospitalisation for AGE remains constant throughout the year. Continuous AGE monitoring is needed to better assess the patterns of infection.

  2. Epidemiology of group A rotavirus infection after the introduction of monovalent vaccine in the National Immunization Program of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ayed, Mohammed Saeed Zayed; Asaad, Ahmed Morad; Qureshi, Mohamed Ansar; Hawan, Ali Abdullah

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of group A rotavirus (RVA) gastroenteritis and the distribution of the RVA genotypes as well as to determine a possible change in the age of occurrence of the RVA infection in the first 2 years after Rotarix® vaccine introduction in Saudi Arabia. This descriptive study included 850 hospitalized children vaccine introduction, especially in the age group between 1 and 12 months, and a reduction in the circulation of G1P[6]. The parallel rise and spread of G2P[4] in post-vaccination period might pose an impact to long-term vaccine efficacy. Continued surveillance studies in different Saudi regions are crucial to document the effectiveness of Rotarix® vaccine and evaluate the potential emergence of rare/novel RVA genotypes. J. Med. Virol. 89:429-434, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Acute gastroenteritis: evidence-based management of pediatric patients [digest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, KeriAnne; Pade, Kathryn H

    2018-02-01

    Although most cases of acute gastroenteritis require minimal medical intervention, severe dehydration and hypoglycemia may develop in cases of prolonged vomiting and diarrhea. The mainstay of treatment for mild-to-moderately dehydrated patients with acute gastroenteritis should be oral rehydration solution. Antiemetics allow for improved tolerance of oral rehydration solution, and, when used appropriately, can decrease the need for intravenous fluids and hospitalization. This issue reviews the common etiologies of acute gastroenteritis, discusses more-severe conditions that should be considered in the differential diagnosis, and provides evidence-based recommendations for management of acute gastroenteritis in patients with mild-to-moderate dehydration, severe dehydration, and hypoglycemia. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice].

  4. Paediatric airway management: basic aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Knudsen, R J; Rasmussen, L S

    2009-01-01

    Paediatric airway management is a great challenge, especially for anaesthesiologists working in departments with a low number of paediatric surgical procedures. The paediatric airway is substantially different from the adult airway and obstruction leads to rapid desaturation in infants and small...... children. This paper aims at providing the non-paediatric anaesthesiologist with a set of safe and simple principles for basic paediatric airway management. In contrast to adults, most children with difficult airways are recognised before induction of anaesthesia but problems may arise in all children...

  5. Caracterização de genótipos de rotavírus em creches: era pré- e pós-vacinação contra o rotavírus Characterization of rotavirus strains from day care centers: pre- and post-rotavirus vaccine era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone G. Morillo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Em 2006, a vacina contra rotavírus foi incluída no Programa Nacional de Imunização. Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar os resultados da vigilância de genótipos de rotavírus em crianças OBJECTIVES: In 2006 the rotavirus vaccine was included in the Brazilian Immunization Program. The aim of this study was to report the results of a 5-year surveillance study of rotavirus strains in children < 5 years with acute gastroenteritis from day care centers in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted with 30 day care centers from 2004 to 2008 with convenient surveillance fecal specimens, investigated by ELISA, SDS-PAGE, RT-PCR and gene sequencing to genotype characterization. RESULTS: Rotavirus infection was detected in 28.3% of samples (38/134. The most frequent genotypes detected were G9P[8] and G1P[8] in 2004; G1P[8] in 2005; GNTP[NT] in 2006; G2P[4] in 2007; and there were no cases in 2008. Mixed infections were not observed. Detection rate declined from 65.7% (23/35 in 2004 to 50% (9/18 in 2007. CONCLUSIONS: Genotype distribution varied according to collection year, accompanied by a reduction in detection rate. Use of rotavirus vaccine requires implementation of post-marketing surveillance to monitor rotavirus strain diversity and its efficacy against possible new emerging genotypes.

  6. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the carbohydrate-recognizing domain (VP8*) of bovine rotavirus strain NCDV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Xing; Guillon, Annabel; Szyczew, Alex J.; Kiefel, Milton J.; Coulson, Barbara S.; Itzstein, Mark von; Blanchard, Helen

    2008-01-01

    NCDV VP8* 64–224 was expressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized in the presence of a sialic acid derivative. X-ray diffraction data were obtained to a resolution of 2.0 Å and the crystallographic structure was determined by molecular replacement. The infectivity of rotavirus is dramatically enhanced by proteolytic cleavage of its outer layer VP4 spike protein into two functional domains, VP8* and VP5*. The carbohydrate-recognizing domain VP8* is proposed to bind sialic acid-containing host cell-surface glycans and this is followed by a series of subsequent virus–cell interactions. Live attenuated human and bovine rotavirus vaccine candidates for the prevention of gastroenteritis have been derived from bovine rotavirus strain NCDV. The NCDV VP8* 64–224 was overexpressed, purified to homogeneity and crystallized in the presence of an N-acetylneuraminic acid derivative. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.0 Å and the crystallographic structure of NCDV VP8* 64–224 was determined by molecular replacement

  7. FIRST MOLECULAR DETECTION AND VP7 (G GENOTYPING OF GROUP A ROTAVIRUS BY SEMI-NESTED RT-PCR FROM SEWAGE IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatunde Olanrewaju MOTAYO

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Rotavirus is the leading cause of viral gastroenteritis worldwide, and sewage is a major source of the virus dissemination in the environment. Our aim was to detect and genotype rotaviruses from sewages in Nigeria. One hundred and ninety sewage samples were collected between June 2014 and January 2015. The two phase concentration method using PEG 6000 and dextran was used to concentrate sewage samples following WHO protocols. Molecular detection was performed by RT-PCR, and VP7 genotyping by semi-nested multiplex PCR. A total of 14.2% (n = 27 samples tested positive. Monthly distribution showed that June to September had a lower rate (3.7% to 7.4%, while October to January recorded 11% to 26%. Genotype G1 predominated followed by G8, G9, G4 and lastly G2, 7.4% (n = 2 of isolates were nontypeable. This is the first report of rotavirus detection in sewages from Nigeria. Genotype G1 remains the most prevalent genotype. This observation calls for an effort by the governmental authorities to implement a molecular surveillance, both clinical and environmental, in order to provide vital information for the control and the vaccine efficacy not only in Nigeria, but globally.

  8. Gastroenteric tube feeding: Techniques, problems and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstein, Irina; Shastri, Yogesh M; Stein, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Gastroenteric tube feeding plays a major role in the management of patients with poor voluntary intake, chronic neurological or mechanical dysphagia or gut dysfunction, and patients who are critically ill. However, despite the benefits and widespread use of enteral tube feeding, some patients experience complications. This review aims to discuss and compare current knowledge regarding the clinical application of enteral tube feeding, together with associated complications and special aspects. We conducted an extensive literature search on PubMed, Embase and Medline using index terms relating to enteral access, enteral feeding/nutrition, tube feeding, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy/jejunostomy, endoscopic nasoenteric tube, nasogastric tube, and refeeding syndrome. The literature showed common routes of enteral access to include nasoenteral tube, gastrostomy and jejunostomy, while complications fall into four major categories: mechanical, e.g., tube blockage or removal; gastrointestinal, e.g., diarrhea; infectious e.g., aspiration pneumonia, tube site infection; and metabolic, e.g., refeeding syndrome, hyperglycemia. Although the type and frequency of complications arising from tube feeding vary considerably according to the chosen access route, gastrointestinal complications are without doubt the most common. Complications associated with enteral tube feeding can be reduced by careful observance of guidelines, including those related to food composition, administration rate, portion size, food temperature and patient supervision. PMID:25024606

  9. Characteristics of Rotavirus Diarrhea in Hospitalized Children in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora; Shala, Muje; Azemi, Mehmedali; Hoxha-Kamberi, Teuta; Avdiu, Muharrem; Spahiu, Shqipe; Jaha, Luan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diarrhea is a leading cause of child mortality worldwide. Rotavirus is one of the most common causes of severe diarrhea and dehydration in children. Authors reviewed epidemiological and clinical data of the rotavirus diarrhea in Kosovo. Methods: This is a prospective study carried between January 1st and December 31st 2011. All data, comprising demographics, nutrition, clinical presentation, laboratory findings, management and outcome of the rotavirus diarrhea are collected on the...

  10. Clinical characteristics of rotavirus diarrhea in hospitalized Romanian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesanu, Gabriela; Becheanu, Cristina Adriana; Vlad, Raluca Maria; Pacurar, Daniela; Tincu, Iulia Florentina; Smadeanu, Roxana Elena

    2013-01-01

    Clinical characteristics of rotavirus enteritis were evaluated by comparison with acute diarrhea of other etiologies. We reviewed the medical records of children (aged 0-12 months) admitted with acute diarrhea in our hospital between January and December 2011. Of the 839 patients, 49.3% had rotavirus diarrhea. The incidence of severe disease was significantly higher for rotavirus diarrhea (65.2%, P < 0.01) than for other types of diarrheal disease.

  11. Rotavirus I in feces of a cat with diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Tung G; Leutenegger, Christian M; Chan, Roxanne; Delwart, Eric

    2017-06-01

    A divergent rotavirus I was detected using viral metagenomics in the feces of a cat with diarrhea. The eleven segments of rotavirus I strain Felis catus encoded non-structural and structural proteins with amino acid identities ranging from 25 to 79% to the only two currently sequenced members of that viral species both derived from canine feces. No other eukaryotic viral sequences nor bacterial and protozoan pathogens were detected in this fecal sample suggesting the involvement of rotavirus I in feline diarrhea.

  12. Surveillance of Rotavirus Diarrhea in Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Prasetyo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The diarrhea morbidity in Indonesia has increased, however, all the reports had not been done carefully, so that accurate surveillance are essential for improving quality of morbidity data. To determine the prevalence and clinical manifestations of rotavirus diarrhea and to characterize the circulating rotavirus strains, children below 5 years old who were admitted to Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung because of diarrhea, from January 2006 through March 2007 were enrolled in a surveillance study and had stool specimens tested for the presence of rotavirus using enzyme immunoassay (EIA. The strains of rotavirus were determined using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Rotavirus were detected in 47.8% analyzed samples (87/184, G and P-genotype of rotavirus were G[1] (37.5% and P[6] (53.5%. Most subjects were males (56%, 6–11 months of age (35%. Most common clinical manifestations besides diarrhea were dehydration (72.7% and vomiting (50%. Subjects with positive rotavirus more common had dehydration (72% vs 28% and vomiting (61% vs 39%. In conclusion, vomiting and dehydration are the prominent clinical manifestations of diarrhea with positive rotavirus infection. G1 and P6 are the most common genotype of rotavirus.

  13. Suspected zoonotic transmission of rotavirus group A in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midgley, S. E.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2012-01-01

    Group A rotaviruses infect humans and a variety of animals. In July 2006 a rare rotavirus strain with G8P[14] specificity was identified in the stool samples of two adult patients with diarrheoa, who lived in the same geographical area in Denmark. Nucleotide sequences of the VP7, VP4, VP6, and NSP4...... genes of the identified strains were identical. Phylogenetic analyses showed that both Danish G8P[14] strains clustered with rotaviruses of animal, mainly, bovine and caprine, origin. The high genetic relatedness to animal rotaviruses and the atypical epidemiological features suggest that these human G8...

  14. Rotavirus specific maternal antibodies and immune response to RV3-BB neonatal rotavirus vaccine in New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Mee-Yew; Kirkwood, Carl D.; Bines, Julie; Cowley, Daniel; Pavlic, Daniel; Lee, Katherine J.; Orsini, Francesca; Watts, Emma; Barnes, Graeme; Danchin, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    Background: Maternal antibodies, acquired passively via placenta and/or breast milk, may contribute to the reduced efficacy of oral rotavirus vaccines observed in children in developing countries. This study aimed to investigate the effect of rotavirus specific maternal antibodies on the serum IgA response or stool excretion of vaccine virus after any dose of an oral rotavirus vaccine, RV3-BB, in parallel to a Phase IIa clinical trial conducted at Dunedin Hospital, New Zealand. At the time o...

  15. Predominance of norovirus and sapovirus in Nicaragua after implementation of universal rotavirus vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filemón Bucardo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite significant reduction of rotavirus (RV infections following implementation of RotaTeq vaccination in Nicaragua, a large burden of patients with diarrhea persists. METHODS: We conducted a community- and hospital-based study of the burden of RV, norovirus (NV and sapovirus (SV infections as cause of sporadic acute gastroenteritis (GE among 330 children ≤ 5 years of age between September 2009 and October 2010 in two major cities of Nicaragua with a RotaTeq coverage rate of 95%. RESULTS: We found that NV, SV and RV infections altogether accounted for 45% of cases of GE. Notably, NV was found in 24% (79/330 of the children, followed by SV (17%, 57/330 and RV (8%, 25/330. The detection rate in the hospital setting was 27%, 15% and 14% for NV, SV and RV respectively, whereas in the community setting the detection rate of RV was < 1%. Among each of the investigated viruses one particular genogroup or genotype was dominant; GII.4 (82% for NV, GI (46% for SV and G1P[8] (64% in RV. These variants were also found in higher proportions in the hospital setting compared to the community setting. The GII.4.2006 Minerva strain circulating globally since 2006 was the most common among genotyped NV in this study, with the GII.4-2010 New Orleans emerging in 2010. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that NV has become the leading viral cause of gastroenteritis at hospital and community settings in Nicaragua after implementation of RV vaccination.

  16. Prosthetics in Paediatric Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vulićević Zoran

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Premature loss of teeth in children may lead to both functional and esthetic problems. Missing teeth in both anterior and posterior regions may cause malfunctions in mastication and proper pronunciation. If the missing teeth are not replaced, further complications may occur, including adjacent tooth migration, loss of alveolar bone, and irregular occlusion. Considering the sensitive nature of children, loss of teeth may cause the development of insecurities and low self esteem problems. Due to dynamic nature of growth in children and adolescents, prosthetic appliances must not hinder development of orofacial system, and must meet adequate esthetic and functional standards. Dental prosthetic appliances in paediatrics must be planned with respect to the special conditions that led to tooth loss or damage. Multi-disciplinary approach is needed, under constant supervision of paediatric dentist and orthodontist, as well as regular checkups with clinical and radiographical examinations.

  17. Paediatric treadmill friction injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremijenko, Luke; Mott, Jonathan; Wallis, Belinda; Kimble, Roy

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to report on the severity and incidence of children injured by treadmills and to promote the implementation of safety standards. This retrospective review of children with treadmill friction injuries was conducted in a single tertiary-level burns centre in Australia between January 1997 and June 2007. The study revealed 37 children who sustained paediatric treadmill friction injuries. This was a presentation of 1% of all burns. Thirty-three (90%) of the injuries occurred in the last 3.5 years (January 2004 to June 2007). The modal age was 3.2 years. Thirty-three (90%) injuries were either full thickness or deep partial friction burns. Eleven (30%) required split thickness skin grafts. Of those who became entrapped, 100% required skin grafting. This study found that paediatric treadmill friction injuries are severe and increasing in incidence. Australian standards should be developed, implemented and mandated to reduce this preventable and severe injury.

  18. Litigation in paediatrics

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphu, JFA

    2011-03-01

    on the issue. This is understandable. Most individuals are healthy during their childhood and have less need of and less interaction with medical services when compared with adults. However, Paediatric litigation does happen and furthermore it is likely to increase in parallel with other specialties. Carroll and Buddenbaum1 have described the pattern of Paediatric litigation in the US. The annual incidence of malpractice claims has been quoted to be as high as 6.6 claims per 100 Paediatricians per year. Almost 30% of Paediatricians have been sued with many being sued on more than one occasion. Of these cases 36% were settled out of court, 33% were dropped by the plaintiff with the remainder going before the judiciary. The authors point out that in the US medical malpractice is a hotly debated issue. Litigation has a questionable impact on health care quality, cost, and access to services. The AMA believes that rising premiums are resulting in the curtailment of medical care particularly in states with high medico-legal rates. The Physician Insurers Association of America (PIAA) is a trade organisation which insures 60% of all private practicing physicians and surgeons has been a useful source of data. In the 20 year period 1985-2005 among a total of 214,226 claims there were 6363 (2.9%) Paediatric claims which ranked it 10th among the 28 specialties covered. The claims arose in equal numbers from the hospital and Paediatrician’s office settings. Common reasons for Paediatric litigation were errors in diagnosis (32%), incorrect performance of a medical or surgical procedure (13%), failure to monitor or manage a case effectively (10%) and medication error (5%). The top five medico-legal conditions were meningitis, routine infant or child checks, newborn respiratory problems, appendicitis and brain-damaged infants as a co-defendant with Obstetrics. Good quality information about litigation is important because the discussion among doctors is frequently confused by

  19. Renal imaging in paediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porn, U.; Hahn, K.; Fischer, S.

    2003-01-01

    The most frequent renal diseases in paediatrics include urinary tract infections, hydronephrosis, kidney anomalies and reflux. The main reason for performing DMSA scintigraphy in paediatrics is the detection of cortical abnormalities related to urinary tract infection. Because the amount of tracer retained in the tubular cells is associated with the distribution of functioning renal parenchyma in the kidney, it is possible, to evaluate the split renal function. In comparison to ultrasound and intravenous urography the sensitivity in the detection of acute as well as chronic inflammatory changes is very high, however less specific. An indication for a renography in neonates and children is beside an estimation of the total renal function and the calculation of the split renal function, the assessment of renal drainage in patients with unclear dilatation of the collecting system in ultrasound. The analysis of the time activity curve provides, especially for follow-up studies, a reproducible method to assess the urinary outflow. The diuretic scintigraphy allows the detection of urinary obstruction. Subsequently it is possible to image the micturition phase to detect vesico-ureteric reflux (indirect MCU) after drainage of tracer from the renal pelvis. An reflux in the ureters or the pelvicalyceal system is visible on the scintigraphic images and can be confirmed by time activity curves. A more invasive technique is the direct isotope cystography with bladder catheterization. The present paper should give an overview about the role of nuclear medicine in paediatric urology. (orig.) [de

  20. New approaches in oral rotavirus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuate Defo, Zenas; Lee, Byong

    2016-05-01

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe dehydrating diarrhea worldwide, and affects primarily developing nations, in large part because of the inaccessibility of vaccines and high rates of mortality present therein. At present, there exist two oral rotaviral vaccines, Rotarix™ and RotaTeq™. These vaccines are generally effective in their actions: however, associated costs often stymie their effectiveness, and they continue to be associated with a slight risk of intussusception. While different programs are being implemented worldwide to enhance vaccine distribution and monitor vaccine administration for possible intussusception in light of recent WHO recommendation, another major problem persists: that of the reduced efficacy of the existing rotaviral vaccines in developing countries over time. The development of new oral rotavirus vaccine classes - live-attenuated vaccines, virus-like particles, lactic acid bacteria-containing vaccines, combination therapy with immunoglobulins, and biodegradable polymer-encapsulated vaccines - could potentially circumvent these problems.

  1. Molecular epidemiology and genetic evolution of the whole genome of G3P[8] human rotavirus in Wuhan, China, from 2000 through 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Hong Wang

    Full Text Available Rotaviruses are a major etiologic agent of gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide. Since the latter of the 1990s, G3 human rotaviruses referred to as "new variant G3" have emerged and spread in China, being a dominant genotype until 2010, although their genomic evolution has not yet been well investigated.The complete genomes of 33 G3P[8] human rotavirus strains detected in Wuhan, China, from 2000 through 2013 were analyzed. Phylogenetic trees of concatenated sequences of all the RNA segments and individual genes were constructed together with published rotavirus sequences.Genotypes of 11 gene segments of all the 33 strains were assigned to G3-P[8]-I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T1-E1-H1, belonging to Wa genogroup. Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated full genome sequences indicated that all the modern G3P[8] strains were assigned to Cluster 2 containing only one clade of G3P[8] strains in the US detected in the 1970s, which was distinct from Cluster 1 comprising most of old G3P[8] strains. While main lineages of all the 11 gene segments persisted during the study period, different lineages appeared occasionally in RNA segments encoding VP1, VP4, VP6, and NSP1-NSP5, exhibiting various allele constellations. In contrast, only a single lineage was detected for VP7, VP2, and VP3 genes. Remarkable lineage shift was observed for NSP1 gene; lineage A1-2 emerged in 2007 and became dominant in 2008-2009 epidemic season, while lineage A1-1 persisted throughout the study period.Chinese G3P[8] rotavirus strains have evolved since 2000 by intra-genogroup reassortment with co-circulating strains, accumulating more reassorted genes over the years. This is the first large-scale whole genome-based study to assess the long-term evolution of common human rotaviruses (G3P[8] in an Asian country.

  2. Comparasion of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE, immuno-electron microscopy (IEM and enzyme immunoassay (EIA for the rapid diagnosis of rotavirus infection in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. G. Pereira

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Detection of rotavirus RNA by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE proved to be a highly sensitive and rapid diagnostic test. A comparison of this assay with immuno-electron microscopy (IEM and enzyme immunoassay (EIA in 245 faeces from children with gastroenteritis revealed complete agreement between the three assays in 238 (97.14% samples. Among 75 samples positive in at least one of the three assays, negative results were observed in 5 (6.48% by PAGE, in 6 (6.76% by EIA and in none by IEM. Silver staining greatly increased the sensitivity of the PAGE assay. We conclude that although IEM remains the most sensitive and rapid rotavirus diagnostic assay, the PAGE technique has many advantages in its favour, including the non-requirement of expensive equipment, the use of only chemically defined reagents and the capacity to distinguish virus subgroup and variants and to detect non-crossreactive rotaviruses which are missed in serological assays.A evidenciação da presença de ácido ribonucleico (ARN viral por eletroforese em gel de policrilamida (EGPA foi comprovada como um método altamente sensível e rápido para o diagnóstico de infecções por rotavirus. Uma comparação desta prova com a imunomicroscopia eletrônica (IEM e com o ensaio imunoenzimático (EIE no exame de 245 fezes de crianças com gastroenterite revelou completa concordancia entre os três ensaios em 238 (97.14% amostras. Entre 75 amostras positivas pelo menos em um dos três ensaios, resultados negativos foram observados em 5 (6.48% por EGPA, em 6 (6.76% por EIE e em nenhum por IEM. Coloração pela prata aumentou consideravelmente a sensibilidade do ensaio por EGPA. Concluímos que embora a IEM ainda seja a prova mais sensível e rápida para o diagnóstico de infecções por rotavirus, o ensaio por EGPA tem muitas vantagens em seu favor, sendo as principais as de não necessitar equipamentos caros, de empregar exclusivamente reagentes quimicamente definidos, de

  3. [Paediatric emergencies; example of the management of winter epidemics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Jean-Christophe; Bellettre, Xavier; Lejay, Émilie; Desmarest, Marie; Titomanlio, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Every year, epidemics of viral bronchiolitis and gastroenteritis occur with a significant increase in the number of visits (by a factor 1.8) and hospitalisations that can over-exceed bed capacity leading to transfer sick children to other hospitals. This kind of hospital 'crisis' is not limited to paediatrics, big cities or western nations. It is a worldwide worrying problem. Because our hospital sits in the Northern districts of Paris where a large community of m.ncants lives in poverty, our number of visits is high (mean 250 per day), and winter epidemics further jeopardise the difficult equilibrium achieved between quality management and waiting times. Thus, we have taken various initiatives in terms of organisation of the paediatric emergency department and other wards, including a "fast track" clinic, the opening of beds dedicated to winter epidemics, the institution of a "bed manager" in order to more easily find a bed, and a larger use of home hospitalisations. Furthermore, we created a specific committee which may decide on various indicators of tension whether it is necessary to cancel programmed hospitalisations or surgery.in order to resolve the emergency crisis. This kind of organisation can serve as a model for other hospitals facing winter epidemics crises.

  4. Rotavirus diarrhea disease burden in Peru: the need for a rotavirus vaccine and its potential cost savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenkranz, P; Lanata, C F; Penny, M E; Salazar-Lindo, E; Glass, R I

    2001-10-01

    To assess the disease burden of rotavirus diarrhea in Peru as well the need for and the potential cost savings with a rotavirus vaccine in that country. To assess the burden of rotavirus diarrhea in Peru, we reviewed published and unpublished reports where rotavirus was sought as the etiologic agent of diarrhea in children. Rotavirus detection rates obtained from these studies were combined with diarrhea incidence rates from a number of national surveys in order to estimate both the burden of rotavirus diarrhea in the country and its associated medical costs. Rotavirus is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in Peruvian children. In their first 5 years of life, an estimated 1 in 1.6 children will experience an episode of rotavirus diarrhea, 1 in 9.4 will seek medical care, 1 in 19.7 will require hospitalization, and 1 in 375 will die of the disease. Per year, this represents approximately 384,000 cases, 64,000 clinic visits, 30,000 hospitalizations, and 1,600 deaths. The annual cost of medical care alone for these children is approximately US$ 2.6 million--and that does not take into account the indirect or societal costs of the illness and the deaths. Rotavirus immunization provides the prospect of decreasing the morbidity and mortality from diarrhea in Peru, but a vaccine regimen would have to be relatively inexpensive, a few dollars or less per child. Future cost-effectiveness analyses should explore the total costs (medical as well as indirect or societal) associated with rotavirus diarrhea. Newly licensed vaccines should be tested according to both their ability to avert deaths and their efficacy with fewer than three doses. All three of these factors could increase the cost savings associated with a rotavirus vaccine.

  5. Rotavirus diarrhea disease burden in Peru: the need for a rotavirus vaccine and its potential cost savings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ehrenkranz

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the disease burden of rotavirus diarrhea in Peru as well the need for and the potential cost savings with a rotavirus vaccine in that country. Methods. To assess the burden of rotavirus diarrhea in Peru, we reviewed published and unpublished reports where rotavirus was sought as the etiologic agent of diarrhea in children. Rotavirus detection rates obtained from these studies were combined with diarrhea incidence rates from a number of national surveys in order to estimate both the burden of rotavirus diarrhea in the country and its associated medical costs. Results. Rotavirus is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in Peruvian children. In their first 5 years of life, an estimated 1 in 1.6 children will experience an episode of rotavirus diarrhea, 1 in 9.4 will seek medical care, 1 in 19.7 will require hospitalization, and 1 in 375 will die of the disease. Per year, this represents approximately 384 000 cases, 64 000 clinic visits, 30 000 hospitalizations, and 1 600 deaths. The annual cost of medical care alone for these children is approximately US$ 2.6 million--and that does not take into account the indirect or societal costs of the illness and the deaths. Conclusions. Rotavirus immunization provides the prospect of decreasing the morbidity and mortality from diarrhea in Peru, but a vaccine regimen would have to be relatively inexpensive, a few dollars or less per child. Future cost-effectiveness analyses should explore the total costs (medical as well as indirect or societal associated with rotavirus diarrhea. Newly licensed vaccines should be tested according to both their ability to avert deaths and their efficacy with fewer than three doses. All three of these factors could increase the cost savings associated with a rotavirus vaccine.

  6. molecular identification of rotavirus strains associated with diarrhea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. The study was carried out to determine the molecular characteristics of the rotavirus strains associated with diarrhea among children in Kwara state, Nigeria. A total of 150 stool samples were collected from diarrheic children. The stool samples were screened for rotavirus,using Enzyme linked Immunosorbent ...

  7. Molecular identification of rotavirus strains associated with diarrhea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to determine the molecular characteristics of the rotavirus strains associated with diarrhea among children in Kwara state, Nigeria. A total of 150 stool samples were collected from diarrheic children. The stool samples were screened for rotavirus,using Enzyme linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

  8. Human rotavirus genotypes causing acute watery diarrhea among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diarrhea is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in the developing countries. Rotavirus is a major cause of acute watery diarrhea. Aim: This study aims at characterizing the prevalent rotavirus G-genotypes among under.five children presenting with acute watery diarrhea in Benin City, Nigeria.

  9. epidemiology of rotavirus and astrovirus infections in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emmanuel Ameh

    Abstract. Background: Recent estimates attribute 527 000 deaths in children less than five years of age to rotavirus diarrhea annually, with 145 000 occurring in sub-Saharan Africa. Human astroviruses have been identified as one of the most frequent causes of infantile diarrhea, second in incidence only to rotavirus.

  10. An evaluation of the Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Witteveen, April R; Patel, Mahomed S; Roche, Paul W

    2008-09-01

    The Australian Rotavirus Serotyping Program (ARSP) serotypes rotavirus isolates obtained from stool samples sent from Australian laboratories. In collaboration with ARSP the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing evaluated the program for its utility and capacity to monitor effectiveness of the rotavirus vaccines recently introduced into the Australian National Immunisation Program. The system was described using ARSP annual reports and staff interviews. The attributes of the system were assessed by adapting standard guidelines for evaluating a surveillance system. Email surveys or face to face interviews were conducted with staff of ARSP, participating laboratories, rotavirus vaccine manufacturing companies and representatives of the Communicable Diseases Network Australia. The ability of the ARSP to monitor changes in rotavirus serotype epidemiology was assessed. ARSP serotypes rotavirus isolates received from participating laboratories at least bi-annually, with results being reported at least as often. Serotype analyses have informed formulation of rotavirus vaccines and contributed to forecasting the extent of outbreaks caused by novel serotypes. The ARSP will be able to monitor changes in rotavirus serotype epidemiology and identify probable vaccination failures. Enhancement of the representativeness and sensitivity of the system are needed for the data to remain useful in the public health context. Methods for transferring data between the program and state and territory health departments need to be developed.

  11. Rotavirus in the Netherlands : Background information for the Health Council

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberk, J D M; Bruijning, P.C.; de Melker, Hester

    2017-01-01

    Rotavirus can cause a gastrointestinal infection and is common in young children. There are two vaccines available; both have to be administered via the mouth. The Dutch Health Council will advise the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport on how childhood vaccination against rotavirus will be made

  12. Stresshyperglykaemi hos et barn med svaer akut gastroenteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jesper V.

    2002-01-01

    A case of a two years and ten months old girl with severe acute gastroenteritis, dehydration, and hyperglycaemia is described. Transient hyperglycaemia is a common clinical finding in children under stress. We discuss the distinction between hyperglycaemia as a prediabetic state and that as a phy......A case of a two years and ten months old girl with severe acute gastroenteritis, dehydration, and hyperglycaemia is described. Transient hyperglycaemia is a common clinical finding in children under stress. We discuss the distinction between hyperglycaemia as a prediabetic state...

  13. Epidemiological investigation of rotavirus infection in buffalo calves in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samad, M.A.; Ahmed, M.W.

    1990-01-01

    A study on rotavirus infection in buffalo calves in Bangladesh was carried out to detect its association with diarrhoea. An overall 28% incidence of diarrhoeal diseases was recorded in rural buffalo calves. Rotavirus was detected in faecal samples from both diarrhoeic (12%) and non-diarrhoeic (3%) calves by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. An association between diarrhoea and rotavirus infection was recorded in buffalo calves below 1 month of age in both diarrhoeic (27%) and non-diarrhoeic (7%) calves. Rotavirus infection in diarrhoeic buffalo calves was found to be highest in winter (16.7%), followed by summer (9.1%) and lowest in the rainy season (7.7%). Further studies on the epidemiological and prophylactic aspects of rotavirus infection should be conducted to control this infection in Bangladesh. (author). 21 refs, 2 tabs

  14. Rotavirus Vaccines: a story of success with challenges ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Ryan, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 40 years have passed since the discovery of the rotavirus and 10 years since the introduction and progressive dissemination of rotavirus vaccines worldwide. Currently, 92 countries have introduced rotavirus vaccines into national or subnational programs with evident impact in disease reduction. Two vaccines have been widely used, and four additional vaccines have been licensed and are being used in defined regions. In this context, one main issue that remains unsolved is the lower vaccine efficacy/effectiveness in low-income countries. An additional partially answered issue relates to rotavirus strain circulation in vaccinated populations. These issues are discussed in this review. The most imperative challenge ahead is to fulfill the WHO’s recommendation to introduce rotavirus vaccines in all countries. PMID:28928954

  15. Reaching every child with rotavirus vaccine: Report from the 10th African rotavirus symposium held in Bamako, Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sow, Samba O; Steele, A Duncan; Mwenda, Jason M; Armah, George E; Neuzil, Kathleen M

    2017-10-09

    The Center for Vaccine Development - Mali (CVD - Mali), the World Health Organization's regional office in Africa (WHO/AFRO), and the CVD at the University of Maryland School of Medicine hosted the 10th African Rotavirus Symposium in Bamako, Mali on 1-2 June 2016. The symposium is coordinated by WHO/AFRO, the Regional Rotavirus Reference Laboratories, and the African Rotavirus Network (ARN), with support from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. The event brings together leading rotavirus researchers, scientists, and policy-makers from across Africa and the world. Over 150 participants, from 31 countries, including 27 in Africa, joined forces to address the theme "Reaching Every Child in Africa with Rotavirus Vaccines." This symposium, the first in francophone Africa, occurred at an unprecedented time when 33 African countries had introduced rotavirus vaccines into their national immunization programs. The symposium concluded with a Call to Action to introduce rotavirus vaccines in the 21 remaining African countries, to increase access in countries with existing vaccination programs, and to continue surveillance and research on rotavirus and other diarrheal diseases. Copyright © 2017.

  16. Rotavirus Strain Trends During the Postlicensure Vaccine Era: United States, 2008–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Michael D.; Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Slavica; Esona, Mathew D.; Teel, Elizabeth N.; Gautam, Rashi; Sturgeon, Michele; Azimi, Parvin H.; Baker, Carol J.; Bernstein, David I.; Boom, Julie A.; Chappell, James; Donauer, Stephanie; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Englund, Janet A.; Halasa, Natasha B.; Harrison, Christopher J.; Johnston, Samantha H.; Klein, Eileen J.; McNeal, Monica M.; Moffatt, Mary E.; Rench, Marcia A.; Sahni, Leila C.; Selvarangan, Rangaraj; Staat, Mary A.; Szilagyi, Peter G.; Weinberg, Geoffrey A.; Wikswo, Mary E.; Parashar, Umesh D.; Payne, Daniel C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are a significant cause of pediatric gastroenteritis worldwide. The New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN) has conducted active surveillance for RVA at pediatric hospitals and emergency departments at 3–7 geographically diverse sites in the United States since 2006. Methods Over 6 consecutive years, from 2008 to 2013, 1523 samples from NVSN sites that were tested positive by a Rotaclone enzyme immunoassay were submitted to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for genotyping. Results In the 2009, 2010, and 2011 seasons, genotype G3P[8] was the predominant genotype throughout the network, with a 46%–84% prevalence. In the 2012 season, G12P[8] replaced G3P[8] as the most common genotype, with a 70% prevalence, and this trend persisted in 2013 (68.0% prevalence). Vaccine (RotaTeq; Rotarix) strains were detected in 0.6%–3.4% of genotyped samples each season. Uncommon and unusual strains (eg, G8P[4], G3P[24], G2P[8], G3P[4], G3P[6], G24P[14], G4P[6], and G9P[4]) were detected sporadically over the study period. Year, study site, and race were found to be significant predictors of genotype. Conclusions Continued active surveillance is needed to monitor RVA genotypes in the United States and to detect potential changes since vaccine licensure. PMID:27302190

  17. Expression and characterization of human group C rotavirus virus-like particles in insect cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Kristina B.; Lin, S.-C.; Humphrey, Charles; Foytich, Kimberly; Esona, Mathew; Wang Yuhuan; Liu, Merry; Jiang Baoming

    2009-01-01

    Group C rotavirus (GpC RV) is a causative agent of acute gastroenteritis in children and adults. We expressed the three major capsid proteins VP2, VP6 and VP7 of human GpC RV in baculovirus and demonstrated the self-assembly of VP2/6/7 or VP6/7 virus-like particles (VLPs) in insect cells. We examined a number of parameters, including the kinetics of protein synthesis in different cell lines and media, to optimize the most favorable conditions for the synthesis of recombinant viral proteins and the production of VLPs in Sf9 cells. Hyperimmune serum to VP2/6/7 and VP6/7 VLPs recognized individual recombinant proteins of human GpC RV by Western blot analysis. This serum also showed specific reactivities with the corresponding GpC VLPs but not GpA RV by using immune electron microscopy (IEM) and enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The ability to produce an unlimited amount of GpC RV antigen and the availability of high quality antibody will allow us to develop sensitive and specific diagnostic assays to better determine the epidemiology and disease burden of GpC RV in humans.

  18. A gastrointestinal rotavirus infection mouse model for immune modulation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Amerongen Geert

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotaviruses are the single most important cause of severe diarrhea in young children worldwide. The current study was conducted to assess whether colostrum containing rotavirus-specific antibodies (Gastrogard-R® could protect against rotavirus infection. In addition, this illness model was used to study modulatory effects of intervention on several immune parameters after re-infection. Methods BALB/c mice were treated by gavage once daily with Gastrogard-R® from the age of 4 to 10 days, and were inoculated with rhesus rotavirus (RRV at 7 days of age. A secondary inoculation with epizootic-diarrhea infant-mouse (EDIM virus was administered at 17 days of age. Disease symptoms were scored daily and viral shedding was measured in fecal samples during the post-inoculation periods. Rotavirus-specific IgM, IgG and IgG subclasses in serum, T cell proliferation and rotavirus-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH responses were also measured. Results Primary inoculation with RRV induced a mild but consistent level of diarrhea during 3-4 days post-inoculation. All mice receiving Gastrogard-R® were 100% protected against rotavirus-induced diarrhea. Mice receiving both RRV and EDIM inoculation had a lower faecal-viral load following EDIM inoculation then mice receiving EDIM alone or Gastrogard-R®. Mice receiving Gastrogard-R® however displayed an enhanced rotavirus-specific T-cell proliferation whereas rotavirus-specific antibody subtypes were not affected. Conclusions Preventing RRV-induced diarrhea by Gastrogard-R® early in life showed a diminished protection against EDIM re-infection, but a rotavirus-specific immune response was developed including both B cell and T cell responses. In general, this intervention model can be used for studying clinical symptoms as well as the immune responses required for protection against viral re-infection.

  19. Diarrheal Diseases Hospitalization in Yemen before and after Rotavirus Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Amood AL-Kamarany

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to assess the impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction on diarrheal diseases hospitalization and to identify the rotavirus genotypes most prevalent before and after vaccine introduction among children ≤ 5 years of age. Rotarix™ ® rotavirus vaccine is currently licensed for infants in Yemen and was introduced in 2012. The vaccination course consists of two doses. The first dose is administrated at 6 weeks of age and the second dose is completed by 10 weeks. Based on a longitudinal observational study, we assessed the impact of vaccination on rotavirus hospitalization before and after vaccination among children ≤ 5 years of age at the Yemeni-Swedish Hospital (YSH in Taiz, Yemen. Prevaccination covered January 2009–July 2012 during which 2335 fecal samples were collected from children ≤ 5 years old. Postvaccination covered January 2013–December 2014 during which 1114 fecal samples were collected. Rotavirus was detected by Enzyme Linkage Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The incidence of rotavirus hospitalization decreased from 43.79% in 2009 to 10.54% in 2014. Hospitalization due to rotavirus diarrhea was reduced by 75.93%. Vaccine coverage increased from 23% in 2012 to 72% in 2014. Also, the results showed that the most predominant genotypes in prevaccination period were G2P[4] (55.0%, followed by G1P[8] (15.0%, while in postvaccination period G1P[8] (31% was the predominant genotype, followed by G9P[8] (27.5%. In conclusion, rotavirus vaccination in Yemen resulted in sharp reduction in diarrheal hospitalization. A successful rotavirus vaccination program in Yemen will rely upon efficient vaccine delivery systems and sustained vaccine efficacy against diverse and evolving rotavirus strains.

  20. Metastatic paediatric colorectal carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Woods, R

    2012-03-01

    A 16-year-old girl presented to our unit with crampy abdominal pain, change in bowel habit, a subjective impression of weight loss and a single episode of haematochezia. She was found to have a rectosigmoid adenocarcinoma and proceeded to laparoscopic anterior resection, whereupon peritoneal metastases were discovered. She received chemotherapy and is alive and well ten month later with no radiological evidence of disease. Colorectal carcinoma is rare in the paediatric population but is increasing in incidence. Early diagnosis is critical to enable optimal outcomes.

  1. Paediatric nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Costa, H [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Radiation Medicine Centre

    1978-05-01

    The use of radiopharmaceutical agents for the diagnosis of diseases frequently encountered in the paediatric age group is outlined. The agents suitable for scanning of brain, thyroid, kidney, liver and spleen are mentioned and their efficacy in diagnosis of pathological conditions based on practical experience is reported. Bromide partition test for diagnosis of intracranial tuberculosis and /sup 131/I uptake test for thyroid study are also described. Dose of the agent is smaller than that in the case of adults and depends upon the child's body weight.

  2. [Seasonality of rotavirus infection in Venezuela: relationship between monthly rotavirus incidence and rainfall rates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Chávez, Rosabel

    2015-09-01

    In general, it has been reported that rotavirus infection was detected year round in tropical countries. However, studies in Venezuela and Brazil suggest a seasonal behavior of the infection. On the other hand, some studies link infection with climatic variables such as rainfall. This study analyzes the pattern of behavior of the rotavirus infection in Carabobo-Venezuela (2001-2005), associates the seasonality of the infection with rainfall, and according to the seasonal pattern, estimates the age of greatest risk for infection. The analysis of the rotavirus temporal series and accumulated precipitation was performed with the software SPSS. The infection showed two periods: high incidence (November-April) and low incidence (May-October). Accumulated precipitation presents an opposite behavior. The highest frequency of events (73.8% 573/779) for those born in the period with a low incidence of the virus was recorded at an earlier age (mean age 6.5 +/- 2.0 months) when compared with those born in the station of high incidence (63.5% 568/870, mean age 11.7 +/- 2.2 months). Seasonality of the infection and the inverse relationship between virus incidence and rainfall was demonstrated. In addition, it was found that the period of birth determines the age and risk of infection. This information generated during the preaccine period will be helpful to measure the impact of the vaccine against the rotavirus.

  3. Household transmission of rotavirus in a community with rotavirus vaccination in Quininde, Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Lopman

    Full Text Available We studied the transmission of rotavirus infection in households in peri-urban Ecuador in the vaccination era.Stool samples were collected from household contacts of child rotavirus cases, diarrhea controls and healthy controls following presentation of the index child to health facilities. Rotavirus infection status of contacts was determined by RT-qPCR. We examined factors associated with transmissibility (index-case characteristics and susceptibility (household-contact characteristics.Amongst cases, diarrhea controls and healthy control household contacts, infection attack rates (iAR were 55%, 8% and 2%, (n = 137, 130, 137 respectively. iARs were higher from index cases with vomiting, and amongst siblings. Disease ARs were higher when the index child was <18 months and had vomiting, with household contact <10 years and those sharing a room with the index case being more susceptible. We found no evidence of asymptomatic infections leading to disease transmission.Transmission rates of rotavirus are high in households with an infected child, while background infections are rare. We have identified factors associated with transmission (vomiting/young age of index case and susceptibility (young age/sharing a room/being a sibling of the index case. Vaccination may lead to indirect benefits by averting episodes or reducing symptoms in vaccinees.

  4. Phase I trial of RV3-BB rotavirus vaccine: a human neonatal rotavirus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchin, M; Kirkwood, C D; Lee, K J; Bishop, R F; Watts, E; Justice, F A; Clifford, V; Cowley, D; Buttery, J P; Bines, J E

    2013-05-28

    RV3 is a human neonatal rotavirus strain (G3P[6]) that has been associated with asymptomatic neonatal infection and replicates well in the infant gut. RV3-BB rotavirus vaccine has been developed as a rotavirus vaccine candidate for administration at birth. A single-centre, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled Phase I study evaluated the safety and tolerability of a single oral dose of the second generation RV3-BB rotavirus vaccine (8.3×10(6)FFU/mL) in 20 adults, 20 children and 20 infants (10 vaccine and 10 placebo per age cohort). Vaccine take was defined as seroconversion (a 3-fold increase in serum anti-rotavirus IgA or serum neutralising antibody (SNA) from baseline at day 28 post-dose) or evidence of RV3-BB viral replication in the faeces by RT-PCR analysis 3-6 days post-vaccination. RV3-BB presence was confirmed by sequence analysis. The RV3-BB vaccine was well tolerated in all participants, with no pattern of adverse events shown to be associated with the study vaccine. In the infant cohort, vaccine take was demonstrated in 8/9 infants following a single dose of vaccine compared with 2/7 placebo recipients. In the infant vaccine group, 5/9 infants exhibited either IgA or SNA seroconversion and 7/9 infants had evidence of RV3-BB replication on days 3-6, compared with 2/7 infants who seroconverted and 0/10 infants with evidence of replication in the placebo group. Two infants in the placebo group had serological evidence of a rotavirus infection within the 28-day study period: one demonstrated an IgA and the other an SNA response, with wild-type virus replication detected in another infant. A single dose of RV3-BB rotavirus vaccine was well tolerated in adults, children and infants. Most infants (8/9) who received RV3-BB demonstrated vaccine take following a single dose. These data support progression of RV3-BB to Phase II immunogenicity and efficacy trials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Rotavirus morbidity and mortality in children in Brazil Morbilidad y mortalidad por rotavirus en niños en Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Marli Christovam Sartori

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the epidemiology of rotavirus and estimate rotavirus-associated morbidity and mortality in children OBJETIVOS: Analizar la epidemiología del rotavirus y estimar la morbilidad y la mortalidad asociadas con las infecciones por rotavirus en niños < 5 años de edad en Brasil en 2004, antes de incluir la vacuna contra el rotavirus en el Programa Nacional de Inmunizaciones (PNI. MÉTODOS: Para estimar la morbilidad por rotavirus se revisaron los estudios publicados (1999-2006 que abordaban la incidencia de diarrea aguda en niños < 5 años de edad y la frecuencia de las infecciones por rotavirus en niños con diarrea en Brasil. Los casos de diarrea se dividieron en tres categorías de gravedad según el nivel de atención que requirieron: casos leves que solo requirieron atención domiciliaria, casos moderados que requirieron la visita a un servicio ambulatorio de salud y casos graves que requirieron hospitalización. Para estimar la mortalidad por rotavirus se utilizó el número de muertes registradas por diarrea en niños de < 5 años, según el Sistema de Información sobre Mortalidad (SIM del Sistema Único de Salud (SUS de Brasil, y se calculó la proporción de muertes causadas por este virus. RESULTADOS: Se estimó que las infecciones por rotavirus causan anualmente 3 525 053 casos de diarrea, 655 853 visitas a servicios ambulatorios de salud, 92 453 hospitalizaciones y 850 muertes en niños < 5 años de edad en Brasil. CONCLUSIONES: Las infecciones por rotavirus constituyen una importante causa de morbilidad y mortalidad en Brasil.

  6. Campylobacter concisus and Acute Gastroenteritis in Children: Lack of Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmanne, Anne; Martiny, Delphine; Hallin, Marie; Cornelius, Angela; Wautier, Magali; Quach, Caroline; Lepage, Philippe; Vandenberg, Olivier

    2018-03-29

    The role of Campylobacter concisus as a cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) remains to be demonstrated. This prospective study includes 184 cases and 176 controls. It shows no evidence that C. concisus plays a role in AGE. Considering the very low prevalence in cases and controls, if there is an etiological link, it would be moderate and difficult to demonstrate.

  7. Perforated duodenal ulcer: an unusual complication of gastroenteritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, J M; Darby, C R

    1990-01-01

    A 7 year old boy was admitted to hospital with gastroenteritis, which was complicated by an acute perforated duodenal ulcer. After oversewing of the perforation he made an uncomplicated recovery. Peptic ulceration is under-diagnosed in childhood and this leads to delay in diagnosis and appropriate management. Ulceration is associated with severe illness and viral infections, but perforation is rare.

  8. How to Predict Oral Rehydration Failure in Children With Gastroenteritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.H.F. Geurts (Dorien); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte); R. Oostenbrink (Rianne)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES:: Oral rehydration is the standard in most current guidelines for young children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE). Failure of oral rehydration can complicate the disease course, leading to morbidity due to severe dehydration. We aimed to identify prognostic factors of oral

  9. The role of Campylobacter jejuni cytolethal distending toxin in gastroenteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ninell P; Schiellerup, Peter; Boisen, Nadia

    2011-01-01

    The role of Campylobacter jejuni cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) on clinical outcome after gastroenteritis was investigated. Clinical data, blood serum samples, and Campylobacter spp. isolated, from each of 30 patients were collected over a period of 6 months. The CDT encoding genes, cdt...

  10. Outbreaks of gastroenteritis linked to lettuce, Denmark, January 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ethelberg, S.; Lisby, M.; Bottiger, B.

    2010-01-01

    At least 11 linked outbreaks of gastroenteritis with a total of 260 cases have occurred in Denmark in mid January 2010. Investigations showed that the outbreaks were caused by norovirus of several genotypes and by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Lettuce of the lollo bionda type grown in France...

  11. Impact of routine rotavirus vaccination on all-cause and rotavirus hospitalizations during the first four years following vaccine introduction in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibomana, Hassan; Rugambwa, Celse; Mwenda, Jason M; Sayinzoga, Felix; Iraguha, Gisele; Uwimana, Jeanine; Parashar, Umesh D; Tate, Jacqueline E

    2018-05-10

    Rwanda introduced pentavalent rotavirus vaccine into its national immunization program in 2012. To determine the long-term impact of rotavirus vaccine on disease burden in a high burden setting, we examined trends in rotavirus and all-cause diarrhea hospitalizations in the first four years following rotavirus vaccine introduction. We used data from an active surveillance system, from a review of pediatric ward registries, and from the Health Management Information System to describe trends in rotavirus and all-cause diarrhea hospitalizations from January 2009 through December 2016. Percent reductions were calculated to compare the number of all-cause and rotavirus diarrhea hospitalizations pre- and post-rotavirus vaccine introduction. The proportion of diarrhea hospitalizations due to rotavirus declined by 25-44% among all children introduction to 12-13% post-vaccine introduction. In the national hospital discharge data, substantial decreases were observed in all-cause diarrhea hospitalizations among children introduction era. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Sunlight-induced inactivation of human Wa and porcine OSU rotaviruses in the presence of exogenous photosensitizers

    KAUST Repository

    Romero-Maraccini, Ofelia C.; Sadik, Nora J.; Rosado-Lausell, Sahid L.; Pugh, Charles R.; Niu, Xi-Zhi; Croue, Jean-Philippe; Nguyen, Thanh Ha

    2013-01-01

    dark experiments conducted at different temperatures suggest that porcine rotavirus has higher thermostability than human rotavirus. Concentrations of 3′-MAP excited triplet states of 1.8 fM and above resulted in significant human rotavirus inactivation

  13. Paediatric nuclear medicine imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biassoni, Lorenzo; Easty, Marina

    2017-09-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging explores tissue viability and function by using radiotracers that are taken up at cellular level with different mechanism. This imaging technique can also be used to assess blood flow and transit through tubular organs. Nuclear medicine imaging has been used in paediatrics for decades and this field is continuously evolving. The data presented comes from clinical experience and some milestone papers on the subject. Nuclear medicine imaging is well-established in paediatric nephro-urology in the context of urinary tract infection, ante-natally diagnosed hydronephrosis and other congenital renal anomalies. Also, in paediatric oncology, I-123-meta-iodobenzyl-guanidine has a key role in the management of children with neuroblastic tumours. Bone scintigraphy is still highly valuable to localize the source of symptoms in children and adolescents with bone pain when other imaging techniques have failed. Thyroid scintigraphy in neonates with congenital hypothyroidism is the most accurate imaging technique to confirm the presence of ectopic functioning thyroid tissue. Radionuclide transit studies of the gastro-intestinal tract are potentially useful in suspected gastroparesis or small bowel or colonic dysmotility. However, until now a standardized protocol and a validated normal range have not been agreed, and more work is necessary. Research is ongoing on whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with its great advantage of great anatomical detail and no ionizing radiations, can replace nuclear medicine imaging in some clinical context. On the other hand, access to MRI is often difficult in many district general hospitals and general anaesthesia is frequently required, thus adding to the complexity of the examination. Patients with bone pain and no cause for it demonstrated on MRI can benefit from bone scintigraphy with single photon emission tomography and low-dose computed tomography. This technique can identify areas of mechanical stress at

  14. Incidence and cost of rotavirus hospitalizations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Thea Kølsen; Nielsen, Nete Munk; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2007-01-01

    In anticipation of licensure and introduction of rotavirus vaccine into the western market, we used modeling of national hospital registry data to determine the incidence and direct medical costs of annual rotavirus-associated admissions over >11 years in Denmark. Diarrhea-associated hospitalizat......In anticipation of licensure and introduction of rotavirus vaccine into the western market, we used modeling of national hospital registry data to determine the incidence and direct medical costs of annual rotavirus-associated admissions over >11 years in Denmark. Diarrhea......-associated hospitalizations coded as nonspecified viral or presumed infectious have demonstrated a marked winter peak similar to that of rotavirus-associated hospitalizations, which suggests that the registered rotavirus-coded admissions are grossly underestimated. We therefore obtained more realistic estimates by 2...... different models, which indicated 2.4 and 2.5 (for children rotavirus-associated admissions per 1,000 children per year, respectively. These admissions amount to associated direct medical costs of US $1.7-1.8 million per year. Using 2 simple...

  15. Comparison between specific and multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for detection of hepatitis A virus, poliovirus and rotavirus in experimentally seeded oysters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Coelho

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of gastroenteritis have occurred among consumers of raw or undercooked shellfish harvested from faecally polluted waters. A multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was applied for the simultaneous detection of hepatitis A virus (HAV, poliovirus (PV and simian rotavirus (RV-SA11 and compared with specific primers for each genome sequence. Three amplified DNA products representing HAV (192 bp, PV (394 bp and RV (278 bp were identified when positive controls were used. However, when tested on experimentally contaminated raw oysters, this method was not able to detect the three viruses simultaneously. This is probably due to the low concentration of viral RNAs present in oyster extract which were partially lost during the extracts preparation.

  16. Impact and cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecenka, Clint; Parashar, Umesh; Tate, Jacqueline E; Khan, Jahangir A M; Groman, Devin; Chacko, Stephen; Shamsuzzaman, Md; Clark, Andrew; Atherly, Deborah

    2017-07-13

    Diarrheal disease is a leading cause of child mortality globally, and rotavirus is responsible for more than a third of those deaths. Despite substantial decreases, the number of rotavirus deaths in children under five was 215,000 per year in 2013. Of these deaths, approximately 41% occurred in Asia and 3% of those in Bangladesh. While Bangladesh has yet to introduce rotavirus vaccination, the country applied for Gavi support and plans to introduce it in 2018. This analysis evaluates the impact and cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in Bangladesh and provides estimates of the costs of the vaccination program to help inform decision-makers and international partners. This analysis used Pan American Health Organization's TRIVAC model (version 2.0) to examine nationwide introduction of two-dose rotavirus vaccination in 2017, compared to no vaccination. Three mortality scenarios (low, high, and midpoint) were assessed. Benefits and costs were examined from the societal perspective over ten successive birth cohorts with a 3% discount rate. Model inputs were locally acquired and complemented by internationally validated estimates. Over ten years, rotavirus vaccination would prevent 4000 deaths, nearly 500,000 hospitalizations and 3 million outpatient visits in the base scenario. With a Gavi subsidy, cost/disability adjusted life year (DALY) ratios ranged from $58/DALY to $142/DALY averted. Without a Gavi subsidy and a vaccine price of $2.19 per dose, cost/DALY ratios ranged from $615/DALY to $1514/DALY averted. The discounted cost per DALY averted was less than the GDP per capita for nearly all scenarios considered, indicating that a routine rotavirus vaccination program is highly likely to be cost-effective. Even in a low mortality setting with no Gavi subsidy, rotavirus vaccination would be cost-effective. These estimates exclude the herd immunity benefits of vaccination, so represent a conservative estimate of the cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination

  17. The development of paediatric neuroradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwood-Nash, D.C.

    1978-01-01

    The development of paediatric neuroradiology is a specific persuasion within neuroradiology and has increased in scope and significance throughout the last ten years. The emergence of computed tomography has altered the indications for types of neuroradiological procedures in infants and children. The sophistication, accuracy, and safety of standard neuroradiological procedures have been increased by the accuracy and safety of computed tomography, particularly in the premature infant. There is a growing need for education and instruction in paediatric neuroradiological techniques and paediatric neuroradiological diseases within the neuroradiological fraternity as a whole. (orig.) [de

  18. Dynamic modeling of cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination, Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiesleben de Blasio, Birgitte; Flem, Elmira; Latipov, Renat; Kuatbaeva, Ajnagul; Kristiansen, Ivar Sønbø

    2014-01-01

    The government of Kazakhstan, a middle-income country in Central Asia, is considering the introduction of rotavirus vaccination into its national immunization program. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis of rotavirus vaccination spanning 20 years by using a synthesis of dynamic transmission models accounting for herd protection. We found that a vaccination program with 90% coverage would prevent ≈880 rotavirus deaths and save an average of 54,784 life-years for children vaccine cost at vaccination program costs would be entirely offset. To further evaluate efficacy of a vaccine program, benefits of indirect protection conferred by vaccination warrant further study.

  19. Inactivation of human and simian rotaviruses by ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughn, J.M.; Chen, Y.S.; Lindburg, K.; Morales, D.

    1987-09-01

    The inactivation of simian rotavirus Sa-11 and human rotavirus type 2 (Wa) by ozone was compared at 4/sup 0/C by using single-particle virus stocks. Although the human strain was clearly more sensitive, both virus types were rapidly inactivated by ozone concentrations of 0.25 mg/liter or greater at all pH levels tested. Comparison of the virucidal activity of ozone with that of chlorine in identical experiments indicated little significant difference in rotavirus-inactivating efficiencies when the disinfectants were used at concentrations of 0.25 mg/liter or greater.

  20. NEW PREVENTION OPPORTUNITIES OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES. VACCINATION AGAINST ROTAVIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Grechukha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the problem of the burden of rotavirus disease. Rotavirus infection is the leading cause of mortality among children under 5 years of age and is a major problem for a public healthcare. The world is actively engaged in the prevention of rotavirus infection since 2005. There is a lot of data on the efficacy and safety of this vaccine. Different foreign investigations have shown the herd immunity of the vaccine. The authors present data about the effectiveness and safety of vaccines, established during clinical studies of the foreign scientists.

  1. Rotavirus shedding following administration of RV3-BB human neonatal rotavirus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Daniel; Boniface, Karen; Bogdanovic-Sakran, Nada; Kirkwood, Carl D; Bines, Julie E

    2017-08-03

    The RV3-BB human neonatal rotavirus vaccine aims to provide protection from severe rotavirus disease from birth. A phase IIa safety and immunogenicity trial was undertaken in Dunedin, New Zealand between January 2012 and April 2014. Healthy, full-term (≥ 36 weeks gestation) babies, who were 0-5 d old were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive 3 doses of oral RV3-BB vaccine with the first dose given at 0-5 d after birth (neonatal schedule), or the first dose given at about 8 weeks after birth (infant schedule), or to receive placebo (placebo schedule). Vaccine take (serum immune response or stool shedding of vaccine virus after any dose) was detected after 3 doses of RV3-BB vaccine in >90% of participants when the first dose was administered in the neonatal and infant schedules. The aim of the current study was to characterize RV3-BB shedding and virus replication following administration of RV3-BB in a neonatal and infant vaccination schedule. Shedding was defined as detection of rotavirus by VP6 reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in stool on days 3-7 after administration of RV3-BB. Shedding of rotavirus was highest following vaccination at 8 weeks of age in both neonatal and infant schedules (19/30 and 17/27, respectively). Rotavirus was detected in stool on days 3-7, after at least one dose of RV3-BB, in 70% (21/30) of neonate, 78% (21/27) of infant and 3% (1/32) placebo participants. In participants who shed RV3-BB, rotavirus was detectable in stool on day 1 following RV3-BB administration and remained positive until day 4-5 after administration. The distinct pattern of RV3-BB stool viral load demonstrated using a NSP3 quantitative qRT-PCR in participants who shed RV3-BB, suggests that detection of RV3-BB at day 3-7 was the result of replication rather than passage through the gastrointestinal tract.

  2. Outstanding challenges for rotavirus vaccine introduction in low-income countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ustrup, Marte; Madsen, Lizell B; Bygbjerg, Ib C

    2011-01-01

    Rotavirus infections are the most common cause of severe diarrhoea in children worldwide. Two internationally licensed rotavirus vaccines have proven to be efficacious in middle and high-income countries and they could potentially be valuable tools for the prevention of rotavirus....... There is also a need for political commitment to prevent rotavirus infections as well as a need for an overall strengthening of the health systems in low-income countries. If these challenges were met, rotavirus vaccination could substantially improve child health and survival from rotavirus...

  3. Prime immunization with rotavirus VLP 2/6 followed by boosting with an adenovirus expressing VP6 induces protective immunization against rotavirus in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu Jianguo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotavirus (RV is the main cause of severe gastroenteritis in children. An effective vaccination regime against RV can substantially reduce morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of virus-like particles formed by RV VP2 and VP6 (VLP2/6, as well as that of recombinant adenovirus expressing RV VP6 (rAd, in eliciting protective immunities against RV. However, the efficacy of such prime-boost strategy, which incorporates VLP and rAd in inducing protective immunities against RV, has not been addressed. We assessed the immune effects of different regimens in mice, including rAd prime-VLP2/6 boost (rAd+VLP, VLP2/6 prime-rAd boost (VLP+rAd, rAd alone, and VLP alone. Results Mice immunized with the VLP+rAd regimen elicit stronger humoral, mucosal, and cellular immune responses than those immunized with other regimens. RV challenging experiments showed that the highest reduction (92.9% in viral shedding was achieved in the VLP+rAd group when compared with rAd+VLP (25%, VLP alone (75%, or rAd alone (40% treatment groups. The reduction in RV shedding in mice correlated with fecal IgG (r = 0.95773, P = 0.04227 and IgA (r = 0.96137, P = 0.038663. Conclusions A VLP2/6 prime-rAd boost regimen is effective in conferring immunoprotection against RV challenge in mice. This finding may lay the groundwork for an alternative strategy in novel RV vaccine development.

  4. Cuffed endotracheal tubes in paediatrics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cuffed endotracheal tubes (CETTs) in children who are younger than eight years old. Most paediatric ... the smallest functional part of the infant airway, because the ... During the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in ...

  5. Health-related quality of life of the parents of children hospitalized due to acute rotavirus infection: a cross-sectional study in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laizane, Gunta; Kivite, Anda; Stars, Inese; Cikovska, Marita; Grope, Ilze; Gardovska, Dace

    2018-03-15

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea in young children and infants worldwide, representing a heavy public health burden. Limited information is available regarding the impact of rotavirus gastroenteritis on the quality of life of affected children and their families. The objectives of study were to estimate the impact of rotavirus infection on health-related quality of life (HRQL), to assess the social and emotional effects on the families of affected children. This study enrolled all (n = 527) RotaStrip®-positive (with further PCR detection) cases (0-18 years of age) hospitalized from April 2013 to December 2015 and their caregivers. A questionnaire comprising clinical (filled-in by the medical staff) and social (filled by the caregivers) sections was completed per child. Main indicators of emotional burden reported by caregivers were compassion (reported as severe/very severe by 91.1% of parents), worry (85.2%), stress/anxiety (68.0%). Regarding social burden, 79.3% of caregivers reported the need to introduce changes into their daily routine due to rotavirus infection of their child. Regarding economic burden, 55.1% of parents needed to take days off work because of their child's sickness, and 76.1% of parents reported additional expenditures in the family's budget. Objective measures of their child's health status were not associated with HRQL of the family, as were the parent's subjective evaluation of their child's health and some sociodemographic factors. Parents were significantly more worried if their child was tearful (p = 0.006) or irritable (p Parents were more stressful/anxious if their child had a fever (p = 0.003), was tearful (p parents' daily routines were more often reported if the child had a fever (p = 0.02) or insufficient fluid intake (p = 0.04). Objective health status of the child did not influence the emotional, social or economic burden, whereas the parents' subjective perception of the child's health

  6. Patient exposure in paediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacob, O.; Diaconescu, C.; Isac, R.

    2002-01-01

    Because of their longer life expectancy, the risk of late manifestations of detrimental radiation effects is greater in children than in adults and, consequently, paediatric radiology gives ground for more concern regarding radiation protection than radiology of adults. The purpose of our study was to assess, in terms of effective dose, the magnitude of paediatric patient exposure during conventional X-ray examinations, selected for their high frequency or their relatively high doses delivered to patient

  7. Clinical Characteristics of Nosocomial Rotavirus Infection in Children in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Te Lee

    2008-10-01

    Conclusion: NRI may cause significant morbidity in hospitalized children, especially young infants and those with underlying diseases. Infection control with hospital surveillance, strict isolation and cohort care should be adopted to prevent the spread of rotavirus among special care units.

  8. Zoonotic transmission of rotavirus in Denmark; a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midgley, Sofie; Gram, N.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    Rotavirus type A infection is a common cause of hospitalisation of children. In addition, almost 30% of diagnosed persons in Denmark are adults. Rotavirus type A infection can also occur in a range of animals, including domestic dogs, cats, cattle, horses, and birds. There is some data suggesting...... direct transmission between animals and humans. Rotavirus genotyping is carried out in Denmark as part of the EUROTAnet vaccine study. In 2006 a total of 180 samples were successfully typed, and to date 85 samples from 2007 have been typed. 19 samples from pigs and 31 samples from cattle (from 2006...... and 2007) have also been typed. For the human samples all common human G types (1-4 and 9), as well the emerging G12 were identified, and were found in combination with the common P types ([4], [6], and [8]). Two samples contained a G8 P[goat] rotavirus (G8 98% identical to bovine G8, 96% identical to goat...

  9. Equipment-free nucleic acid extraction and amplification on a simple paper disc for point-of-care diagnosis of rotavirus A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xin; Xu, Jin; Lu, Lijuan; Li, Xinxin; Fang, Xueen; Kong, Jilie

    2018-08-14

    The use of paper-based methods for clinical diagnostics is a rapidly expanding research topic attracting a great deal of interest. Some groups have attempted to realize an integrated nucleic acid test on a single microfluidic paper chip, including extraction, amplification, and readout functions. However, these studies were not able to overcome complex modification and fabrication requirements, long turn-around times, or the need for sophisticated equipment like pumps, thermal cyclers, or centrifuges. Here, we report an extremely simple paper-based test for the point-of-care diagnosis of rotavirus A, one of the most common pathogens that causes pediatric gastroenteritis. This paper-based test could perform nucleic acid extraction within 5 min, then took 25 min to amplify the target sequence, and the result was visible to the naked eye immediately afterward or quantitative by the UV-Vis absorbance. This low-cost method does not require extra equipment and is easy to use either in a lab or at the point-of-care. The detection limit for rotavirus A was found to be 1 × 10 3 copies/mL. In addition, 100% sensitivity and specificity were achieved when testing 48 clinical stool samples. In conclusion, the present paper-based test fulfills the main requirements for a point-of-care diagnostic tool, and has the potential to be applied to disease prevention, control, and precision diagnosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effectiveness of the live attenuated rotavirus vaccine produced by a domestic manufacturer in China studied using a population-based case-control design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Shan-Shan; Li, Yue; Wang, Song-Mei; Zhang, Xin-Jiang; Hao, Zhi-Yong; Chen, Ying; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Yan-Hong; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Ma, Jing-Chen; Zhou, Peng; Zhang, Zhen; Jiang, Zhi-Wei; Zhao, Yu-Liang; Wang, Xuan-Yi

    2015-10-01

    A universal rotavirus (RV) immunization program is a potentially cost-effective measure for preventing RV infection in China. However, the efficacy of the only licensed RV vaccine (Lanzhou lamb rotavirus vaccine, LLR), which is made by a domestic manufacturer, has not been proven by a properly designed clinical trial. In October 2011 to March 2012, to measure the potential protection provided by LLR, a case-control study nested in a population-based active diarrhea surveillance study of children control study comparing non-RV viral diarrheal cases with non-diarrheal controls in the same population found that the RV vaccine offered no protection against non-RV diarrhea. Even under a less ideal immunization schedule, the oral LLR conferred a certain level of protection against RV gastroenteritis. However, further studies are needed to understand the full characteristics of the LLR, including its efficacy when administered following the optimal regimen, the potential risk of inducing intussusception, and the direct and indirect protective effects of LLR.

  11. [Immunisation schedule of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics: 2018 recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Pérez, David; Álvarez García, Francisco José; Álvarez Aldeán, Javier; Cilleruelo Ortega, María José; Garcés Sánchez, María; García Sánchez, Nuria; Hernández Merino, Ángel; Méndez Hernández, María; Merino Moína, Manuel; Montesdeoca Melián, Abián; Ruiz-Contreras, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Vaccines of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics annually publishes the immunisation schedule considered optimal for children resident in Spain, according to available evidence on current vaccines. Regarding funded immunisations, 2+1 strategy (2, 4, 11-12 months) with hexavalent (DTPa-IPV-Hib-HB) and 13-valent pneumococcal vaccines are recommended. Administration of the 6-year booster dose with DTPa is recommended, and a poliomyelitis dose for children who had received the 2+1 scheme, as well as Tdap vaccine for adolescents and pregnant women in every pregnancy between 27 and 32 weeks' gestation. The two-dose scheme should be used for MMR (12 months and 2-4 years) and varicella (15 months and 2-4 years). MMRV vaccine could be applied as the second dose if available. Coverage of human papillomavirus vaccination in girls aged 12 with a two dose scheme (0, 6 months) should be improved. Information and recommendation for male adolescents about potential beneficial effects of this immunisation should be provided as well. The new 9 genotypes vaccine is now available, expanding the coverage for both gender. Regarding non-funded immunisations, Committee on Vaccines of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics recommends meningococcal B vaccination, with a 3+1 schedule, and requests to be included in the National Immunisation Program. Tetravalent meningococcal vaccine (MenACWY) is recommended to adolescents (14-18 years) who are going to live in countries with systematic vaccination against ACWY serogroups, and people >6 weeks of age with risk factors or travellers to countries with very high incidence. Vaccination against rotavirus is recommended in all infants. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of rhabdomyolysis in a child after norovirus gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Tomohiro; Yonetani, Ryoko; Ito, Eisuke; Yoneta, Makiko; Maruo, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Tokiko; Sugimoto, Tohru

    2016-11-04

    In children, the most significant cause of rhabdomyolysis or muscle breakdown is viral infection. However, there are no reports that norovirus, a gastroenteric virus that commonly infects children, specifically causes rhabdomyolysis. Here, we report the first pediatric case of norovirus-associated rhabdomyolysis. The patient, a 2-year-old boy with fever, diarrhea, and vomiting, was referred to our hospital with dysstasia and transaminitis. He was diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis. Additionally, norovirus genogroup GII was detected from stool samples by real-time quantitative reverse transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, and thereafter, the norovirus GII.4 variant was identified. However, the association between rhabdomyolysis and the isolated norovirus variant was not clarified. After treatment the patient recovered without renal failure or disseminated intravascular coagulation. Rhabdomyolysis is a disease for which there is a need for early detection and treatment. If abnormal posture or muscle weakness is observed during the course of gastroenteritis, blood and urinary tests should be performed to rule out rhabdomyolysis.

  13. Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis Presenting as Intestinal Obstruction - A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Krishnappa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis is a rare disease characterized by infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract by an increased number of eosinophils as compared to the normal. The anatomic location and intensity of the infiltrate decides the varied clinical symptomatology with which these patients present. The present report deals with four cases, all presenting with clinical signs of intestinal obstruction A laparotomy performed revealed a stricture in the first case, superficial ulcers and adhesions in the second case, an ileocaecal mass in the third case and volvulus formation in the fourth case. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis was confirmed on histopathology in all the four cases. All the four patients experienced relief of symptoms after resection. It is essential to diagnose the disease to differentiate it from other conditions presenting as intestinal obstruction. The cases are presented because of the rarity of occurrence and presentation. Relevant literature has been reviewed.

  14. An Atypical Case of Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis Presenting as Hypovolemic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martillo, Miguel; Abed, Jean; Herman, Michael; Abed, Elie; Shi, Wenjing; Munot, Khushboo; Mankal, Pavan Kumar; Gurunathan, Rajan; Ionescu, Gabriel; Kotler, Donald P

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon condition characterized by focal or diffuse infiltration of eosinophils in the gastrointestinal tract in the absence of secondary causes. The pathogenesis of this condition is not well understood and its clinical presentation depends on the segment and layer of the gastrointestinal tract affected. The definition of eosinophilic gastroenteritis may be difficult, as the normal ranges of eosinophil numbers in normal and abnormal gastric and intestinal mucosa are not standardized. We present the case of a 59-year-old male who came to the hospital with hypovolemic shock and lethargy secondary to severe diarrhea. Laboratory analysis was significant for peripheral eosinophilia, and pathology from both the duodenum and colon showed marked eosinophilic infiltration.

  15. An Atypical Case of Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis Presenting as Hypovolemic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Martillo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon condition characterized by focal or diffuse infiltration of eosinophils in the gastrointestinal tract in the absence of secondary causes. The pathogenesis of this condition is not well understood and its clinical presentation depends on the segment and layer of the gastrointestinal tract affected. The definition of eosinophilic gastroenteritis may be difficult, as the normal ranges of eosinophil numbers in normal and abnormal gastric and intestinal mucosa are not standardized. We present the case of a 59-year-old male who came to the hospital with hypovolemic shock and lethargy secondary to severe diarrhea. Laboratory analysis was significant for peripheral eosinophilia, and pathology from both the duodenum and colon showed marked eosinophilic infiltration.

  16. MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE GASTROENTERITIS IN CHILDREN: WHAT IS NEW?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Zakharova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High prevalence of acute enteric infections in children, the majority of which affects infants, determines the necessity of development of modern recommendation on diagnostics and treatment of such conditions. The authors show data on etiology of enteric infections and results of various Russian and international research on efficacy of treatment of acute gastroenteritis, including information about sorbents, probiotics, antiemetic agents and antibacterial drugs usage. Recommendations on treatment of acute gastroenteritis are based on the modern protocol of the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterologists, Hepatologists and Nutritionists (ESPGHAN, which was published in 2008. According to these recommendations, oral rehydration is one of the main components of treatment, decreasing children’s mortality rates. However due to the absence of the effect of this measure on the intestinal peristalsis, duration of the diarrhea and concomitant symptoms (abdominal pain and distension, additional therapy is necessary. In Russia combinations of enterosorbents and probiotics are used in order to relieve such conditions.

  17. Genetic Factors in the Pathogenesis of Rotavirus Infection in Children

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    I.I. Nezgoda

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of examination of 40 children with a diagnosis of rotavirus infection. We examined and analyzed the clinical course of rotavirus infection depending on the genotype in polymorphism C > T at position 13910 of lactase gene (LCT. It is found that the most severe course of infection is associated with genotypes that are responsible for lactose intolerance — C/C-13910 and C/T-13910.

  18. Effectiveness of Monovalent and Pentavalent Rotavirus Vaccines in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastañaduy, Paul A; Contreras-Roldán, Ingrid; Bernart, Chris; López, Beatriz; Benoit, Stephen R; Xuya, Marvin; Muñoz, Fredy; Desai, Rishi; Quaye, Osbourne; Tam, Ka Ian; Evans-Bowen, Diana K; Parashar, Umesh D; Patel, Manish; McCracken, John P

    2016-05-01

    Concerns remain about lower effectiveness and waning immunity of rotavirus vaccines in resource-poor populations. We assessed vaccine effectiveness against rotavirus in Guatemala, where both the monovalent (RV1; 2-dose series) and pentavalent (RV5; 3-dose series) vaccines were introduced in 2010. A case-control evaluation was conducted in 4 hospitals from January 2012 to August 2013. Vaccine status was compared between case patients (children with laboratory-confirmed rotavirus diarrhea) and 2 sets of controls: nondiarrhea "hospital" controls (matched by birth date and site) and nonrotavirus "test-negative" diarrhea controls (adjusted for age, birth month/year, and site). Vaccine effectiveness ([1 - odds ratio of vaccination] × 100%) was computed using logistic regression models. We evaluated 213 case patients, 657 hospital controls, and 334 test-negative controls. Effectiveness of 2-3 doses of a rotavirus vaccine against rotavirus requiring emergency department visit or hospitalization was 74% (95% confidence interval [CI], 58%-84%) with hospital controls, and 52% (95% CI, 26%-69%) with test-negative controls. Using hospital controls, no significant difference in effectiveness was observed between infants 6-11 months (74% [95% CI, 18%-92%]) and children ≥12 months of age (71% [95% CI, 44%-85%]) (P= .85), nor between complete courses of RV1 (63% [95% CI, 23%-82%]) and RV5 (69% [95% CI, 29%-87%]) (P= .96). An uncommon G12P[8] strain, partially heterotypic to strains in both vaccines, was identified in 89% of cases. RV1 and RV5 were similarly effective against severe rotavirus diarrhea caused by a heterotypic strain in Guatemala. This supports broader implementation of rotavirus vaccination in low-income countries where >90% global deaths from rotavirus occur. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  19. An outbreak of Salmonella gastroenteritis in an urban jail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcabes, P; O'Sullivan, B; Nadal, E; Mouzon, M

    1988-12-01

    An outbreak of gastroenteritis in New York City's largest jail involved 145 cases over a two-month period. The outbreak was unusual in that two Salmonella strains (serogroups B and D) were involved. Management of the outbreak involved screening kitchen workers by culture of stool samples, and education regarding personal hygiene. Obstacles to investigation and management of the outbreak arose out of the special nature of the jail environment; these included jurisdictional problems and high turnover of the inmate population.

  20. Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis as a Rare Cause of Recurrent Epigastric Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Safari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE is a rare inflammatory disorder of gastrointestinal tract characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the bowel wall. It can mimic many gastrointestinal disorders due to its wide spectrum of presentations. Diagnose is mostly based on excluding other disorders and a high suspicion. Here we report a case of 26 year old man with a history of sever epigastric pain followed by nausea, vomiting since a few days before admission with final diagnosis of EGE.

  1. Human rotavirus strains circulating in Venezuela after vaccine introduction: predominance of G2P[4] and reemergence of G1P[8].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizzi, Esmeralda; Piñeros, Oscar A; Oropeza, M Daniela; Naranjo, Laura; Suárez, José A; Fernández, Rixio; Zambrano, José L; Celis, Argelia; Liprandi, Ferdinando

    2017-03-21

    Rotavirus (RV) is the most common cause of severe childhood diarrhea worldwide. Despite Venezuela was among the first developing countries to introduce RV vaccines into their national immunization schedules, RV is still contributing to the burden of diarrhea. Concerns exist about the selective pressure that RV vaccines could exert on the predominant types and/or emergence of new strains. To assess the impact of RV vaccines on the genotype distribution 1 year after the vaccination was implemented, a total of 912 fecal specimens, collected from children with acute gastroenteritis in Caracas from February 2007 to April 2008, were screened, of which 169 (18.5%) were confirmed to be RV positive by PAGE. Rotavirus-associated diarrhea occurred all year-round, although prevailed during the coolest and driest months among unvaccinated children under 24 months old. Of 165 RV strains genotyped for G (VP7) and P (VP4) by seminested multiplex RT-PCR, 77 (46.7%) were G2P[4] and 63 (38.2%) G1P[8]. G9P[8], G3P[8] and G2P[6] were found in a lower proportion (7.3%). Remarkable was also the detection of rotaviruses, but they were rather distant from Rotarix ® vaccine and pre-vaccine strains. Unique amino acid substitutions observed on neutralization domains of the VP7 sequence from Venezuelan post-vaccine G1P[8] could have conditioned their re-emergence and a more efficient dissemination into susceptible population. The results suggest that natural fluctuations of genotypes in combination with forces driving the genetic evolution could determine the spread of novel strains, whose long-term effect on the efficacy of available vaccines should be determined.

  2. Characteristics of Rotavirus Diarrhea in Hospitalized Children in Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora; Shala, Muje; Azemi, Mehmedali; Hoxha-Kamberi, Teuta; Avdiu, Muharrem; Spahiu, Shqipe; Jaha, Luan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diarrhea is a leading cause of child mortality worldwide. Rotavirus is one of the most common causes of severe diarrhea and dehydration in children. Authors reviewed epidemiological and clinical data of the rotavirus diarrhea in Kosovo. Methods: This is a prospective study carried between January 1st and December 31st 2011. All data, comprising demographics, nutrition, clinical presentation, laboratory findings, management and outcome of the rotavirus diarrhea are collected on the specially designed form. Results: 116 children with rotavirus diarrhea are included in the study. The majority boys (74.4%) and children aged 0 – 12 months (82.75%). Mean age of children in the study was 16.38 months. Almost every third child in the study was hypotrophic (29.2%). More than half of the infants (55.2%) were on mixed food, somewhat more than every third was breast feeding (36.45%), and every twelfth (8.33%) was on artificial milk (animal or formula). Apart from diarrhea, present in all patients, vomiting (97.41%) and fever (43.96%) were characteristics of the clinical presentation of the diarrhea. Two thirds of the children had mild grade dehydration (70.7%). All patients recovered with no sequels. Conclusion: Rotavirus continues to be responsible for a significant portion of acute diarrhea in Kosovo. Clinical features, epidemiological data and the agglutination test are safe enough to establish the diagnosis. Treated correctly rotavirus diarrhea has a favorable outcome. PMID:25568634

  3. Milk Oligosaccharides Inhibit Human Rotavirus Infectivity in MA104 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laucirica, Daniel R; Triantis, Vassilis; Schoemaker, Ruud; Estes, Mary K; Ramani, Sasirekha

    2017-09-01

    Background: Oligosaccharides in milk act as soluble decoy receptors and prevent pathogen adhesion to the infant gut. Milk oligosaccharides reduce infectivity of a porcine rotavirus strain; however, the effects on human rotaviruses are less well understood. Objective: In this study, we determined the effect of specific and abundant milk oligosaccharides on the infectivity of 2 globally dominant human rotavirus strains. Methods: Four milk oligosaccharides-2'-fucosyllactose (2'FL), 3'-sialyllactose (3'SL), 6'-sialyllactose (6'SL), and galacto-oligosaccharides-were tested for their effects on the infectivity of human rotaviruses G1P[8] and G2P[4] through fluorescent focus assays on African green monkey kidney epithelial cells (MA104 cells). Oligosaccharides were added at different time points in the infectivity assays. Infections in the absence of oligosaccharides served as controls. Results: When compared with infections in the absence of glycans, all oligosaccharides substantially reduced the infectivity of both human rotavirus strains in vitro; however, virus strain-specific differences in effects were observed. Compared with control infections, the maximum reduction in G1P[8] infectivity was seen with 2'FL when added after the onset of infection (62% reduction, P rotaviruses in MA104 cells, primarily through an effect on the virus. Although breastfed infants are directly protected, the addition of specific oligosaccharides to infant formula may confer these benefits to formula-fed infants. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Inactivated rotavirus vaccine induces protective immunity in gnotobiotic piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhuan; Azevedo, Marli; Saif, Linda J; Gentsch, Jon R; Glass, Roger I; Jiang, Baoming

    2010-07-26

    Live oral rotavirus vaccines that are effective in middle and high income countries have been much less immunogenic and effective among infants in resource-limited settings. Several hypotheses might explain this difference, including neutralization of the vaccine by high levels of maternal antibody in serum and breast milk, severe malnutrition, and interference by other flora and viruses in the gut. We have pursued development of an alternative parenteral rotavirus vaccine with the goal of inducing comparable levels of immunogenicity and efficacy in populations throughout the world regardless of their income levels. In the present study, we assessed the immunogenicity and protection of a candidate inactivated rotavirus vaccine (IRV), the human strain CDC-9 (G1P[8]) formulated with aluminum phosphate, against rotavirus infection in gnotobiotic piglets. Three doses of IRV induced high titers of rotavirus-specific IgG and neutralizing activity in the sera of gnotobiotic piglets and protection against shedding of rotavirus antigen following oral challenge with a homologous virulent human strain Wa (G1P[8]). Our findings demonstrate the proof of concept for an IRV in a large animal model and provide evidence and justification for further clinical development as an alternative candidate vaccine. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. A Gastroenteritis Outbreak Caused by Noroviruses in Greece

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    Yiannis Alamanos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In June 2006, an outbreak alert regarding cases of acute gastroenteritis in a region in North Eastern Greece (population 100,882 inhabitants, triggered investigations to guide control measures. The outbreak started the first days of June, and peaked in July. A descriptive epidemiological study, a virological characterization of the viral agent identified from cases as well as a phylogenetic analysis was performed. From June 5 to September 3, 2006 (weeks 23–44, 1,640 cases of gastroenteritis (45.2% male and 54.8% female, aged 3 months to 89 years were reported. The overall attack rate for the period was 16.3 cases/1,000 inhabitants. About 57% of cases observed were under the age of 15 years. Αnalysis of faecal samples identified Norovirus GII strains. Fifteen different Norovirus GII strains were recorded, presenting a homology of 94.8% (86–97% to GII strains obtained from GenBank. The long duration of the outbreak suggests an important role of person-to-person transmission, while the emergence of the outbreak was possibly due to contaminated potable water, although no viruses were detected in any tested water samples. This outbreak underscores the need for a national surveillance system for acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks.

  6. Salmonella Typhimurium gastroenteritis leading to chronic prosthetic vascular graft infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinan, Milo; Clarke, Michael; Dallman, Tim; Peart, Steven; Wilson, Deborah; Weiand, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Introduction. It is estimated up to 6 % of prosthetic vascular grafts become infected. Staphylococcus aureus is predominant in early infection and coagulase-negative staphylococci are predominant in late infections. Enterobacteriaceae cause 14-40 % of prosthetic vascular graft infections. This is, to our knowledge the first reported case of Salmonella gastroenteritis causing chronic prosthetic vascular graft infection (PVGI). Case presentation. A 57 years old lady presented with signs and symptoms of prosthetic vascular graft infection. Three years earlier, she had undergone a prosthetic axillo-femoral bypass graft for critical limb ischaemia. The infected prosthetic vascular graft was removed and Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated on culture. In the intervening period, Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated from a faecal specimen, collected during an episode of acute gastroenteritis. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) showed that the respective Salmonella Typhimurium isolates differed by only a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). Salmonella Typhimurium was not isolated on culture of a faecal specimen collected five days following cessation of antimicrobial therapy. Six months after removal of the prosthetic graft, the patient remains under follow-up for her peripheral vascular disease, which currently requires no further surgical intervention. Conclusion. This case has clear implications for the management of chronic PVGI. It is vital to collect high-quality surgical specimens for microbiological analysis and empirical choices of antibiotics are unlikely to cover all potential pathogens. It may also be prudent to enquire about a history of acute gastroenteritis when assessing patients presenting with chronic PVGI.

  7. How can a multilevel promotion of breastfeeding reduce the required budget for rotavirus vaccination in Indonesia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zakiyah, N.; Suwantika, A.A.; Postma, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Breast milk is considered to give protection against rotavirus infection since it contains anti-rotavirus maternal antibodies and other nonspecific inhibitors. Multilevel promotion of breastfeeding is a complex intervention that modifies behavioral determinants through multiple levels of

  8. UN MODELO DEL MECANISMO DE ENTRADA DE LOS ROTAVIRUS A LA CÉLULA HOSPEDERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Acosta Losada

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. La infección rotaviral es causa principal de gastroenteritis aguda severa en niños menores de cinco años. La capa protéica externa de la partícula viral está implicada en las interacciones iniciales virus-superficie celular. El mecanismo rotaviral de unión y entrada a la célula parece ser un proceso de múltiples pasos donde las proteínas rotavirales VP4 y VP7 interaccionan con diferentes moléculas de la superficie celular. Objetivo. Proponer un mecanismo de entrada de rotavirus a la célula que incorpore la actividad de la proteína disulfuro isomerasa (PDI. Material y métodos. Utilizando bases de datos electrónicas, se realizó una búsqueda de literatura original y de revisión publicada entre 1990 y 2009 sobre moléculas de la superficie rotaviral o celular participantes en el proceso de entrada del virus. El análisis de los resultados enfatizó las bases moleculares y celulares de las interacciones temporo-espaciales de las proteínas virales y las moléculas de unión/receptoras de la célula. Resultados. Se encontró fundamentos moleculares y celulares para incorporar la actividad de PDI a un mecanismo coherente de vías secuenciales o alternativas previas a la penetración viral. Se propone un mecanismo en que interaccionan las proteínas virales VP4, VP6 y VP7 con las moléculas de la superficie celular ácido siálico, integrinas, Hsc70 y PDI en un proceso endocítico caveola/“raft”-dependiente, caveolina/clatrina-independiente, dinamina-dependiente y sensible a depleción de colesterol. Conclusión. Se amplía el concepto de múltiples pasos en el proceso de entrada de rotavirus, donde la participación de PDI podría ser un blanco potencial de la acción de inhibidores de grupos tiol/disulfuro.

  9. Etiology and Risk Factors of Acute Gastroenteritis in a Taipei Emergency Department: Clinical Features for Bacterial Gastroenteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chao-Chih; Ji, Dar-Der; Wu, Fang-Tzy; Mu, Jung-Jung; Yang, Ji-Rong; Jiang, Donald Dah-Shyong; Lin, Wen-Yun; Chen, Wei-Ting; Yen, Muh-Yong; Wu, Ho-Sheng; Chen, Tony Hsiu-Hsi

    2016-01-01

    Background The causative pathogen is rarely identified in the emergency department (ED), since the results of cultures are usually unavailable. As a result, antimicrobial treatment may be overused. The aim of our study was to investigate the pathogens, risk factors of acute gastroenteritis, and predictors of acute bacterial gastroenteritis in the ED. Methods We conducted a matched case-control study of 627 stool samples and 612 matched pairs. Results Viruses (41.3%) were the leading cause of gastroenteritis, with noroviruses (32.2%) being the most prevalent, followed by bacteria (26.8%) and Giardia lamblia (12.4%). Taking antacids (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.57–6.53), household members/classmates with gastroenteritis (aOR 4.69; 95% CI, 2.76–7.96), attending a banquet (aOR 2.29; 95% CI, 1.64–3.20), dining out (aOR 1.70; 95% CI, 1.13–2.54), and eating raw oysters (aOR 3.10; 95% CI, 1.61–5.94) were highly associated with gastroenteritis. Elders (aOR 1.04; 05% CI, 1.02–1.05), those with CRP >10 mg/L (aOR 2.04; 95% CI, 1.15–3.62), or those who were positive for fecal leukocytes (aOR 2.04; 95% CI, 1.15–3.62) or fecal occult blood (aOR 1.97; 95% CI, 1.03–3.77) were more likely to be hospitalized in ED. In addition, presence of fecal leukocytes (time ratio [TR] 1.22; 95% CI, 1.06–1.41), abdominal pain (TR 1.20; 95% CI, 1.07–1.41), and frequency of vomiting (TR 0.79; 95% CI, 0.64–0.98) were significantly associated with the duration of acute gastroenteritis. Presence of fecal leukocytes (aOR 2.08; 95% CI, 1.42–3.05), winter season (aOR 0.45; 95% CI, 0.28–0.74), frequency of diarrhea (aOR 1.69; 95% CI, 1.01–2.83), and eating shrimp or crab (aOR 1.53; 95% CI, 1.05–2.23) were highly associated with bacterial gastroenteritis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the final model was 0.68 (95% CI, 0.55–0.63). Conclusions Acute bacterial gastroenteritis was highly associated with season

  10. Paediatric acute care: Highlights from the Paediatric Acute Care-Advanced Paediatric Life Support Conference, Gold Coast, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Stephen Ss; Rao, Arjun; Acworth, Jason

    2018-04-25

    The Paediatric Acute Care Conference is an annual conference organised by APLS Australia to advance paediatric acute care topics for clinicians in pre-hospital medicine, EDs, acute paediatrics, intensive care and anaesthesia. The Conference 2017 was held at Surfers Paradise, Queensland. We provide a summary of some of the presentations. © 2018 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  11. Comparative analysis of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine strains and G8 rotaviruses identified during vaccine trial in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heylen, Elisabeth; Zeller, Mark; Ciarlet, Max; Lawrence, Jody; Steele, Duncan; Van Ranst, Marc; Matthijnssens, Jelle

    2015-10-06

    RotaTeqTM is a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine based on a bovine rotavirus genetic backbone in vitro reassorted with human outer capsid genes. During clinical trials of RotaTeqTM in Sub-Saharan Africa, the vaccine efficacy over a 2-year follow-up was lower against the genotypes contained in the vaccine than against the heterotypic G8P[6] and G8P[1] rotavirus strains of which the former is highly prevalent in Africa. Complete genome analyses of 43 complete rotavirus genomes collected during phase III clinical trials of RotaTeqTM in Sub-Saharan Africa, were conducted to gain insight into the high level of cross-protection afforded by RotaTeqTM against these G8 strains. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of a high number of bovine rotavirus gene segments in these human G8 strains. In addition, we performed an in depth analysis on the individual amino acid level which showed that G8 rotaviruses were more similar to the RotaTeqTM vaccine than non-G8 strains. Because RotaTeqTM possesses a bovine genetic backbone, the high vaccine efficacy against G8 strains might be partially explained by the fact that all these strains contain a complete or partial bovine-like backbone. Altogether, this study supports the hypothesis that gene segments other than VP7 and VP4 play a role in vaccine-induced immunity.

  12. Socio-demographic, Epidemiological and Environmental Determinants of Acute Gastroenteritis in Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir Prafulbhai Rupani

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Socio-demographic factors (higher socio-economic status, epidemiological correlates (change in taste of water, another family member been affected with acute gastroenteritis and eating outside food and environmental determinants (waste disposal in a common dump and waste accumulation around house significantly determines the occurrence of cases of acute gastroenteritis. Keywords: case-control studies;diarrhea; epidemiologic determinants; gastroenteritis; social determinants of health. | PubMed

  13. Effect of non-stationary climate on infectious gastroenteritis transmission in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Onozuka, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    Local weather factors are widely considered to influence the transmission of infectious gastroenteritis. Few studies, however, have examined the non-stationary relationships between global climatic factors and transmission of infectious gastroenteritis. We analyzed monthly data for cases of infectious gastroenteritis in Fukuoka, Japan from 2000 to 2012 using cross-wavelet coherency analysis to assess the pattern of associations between indices for the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and El Niño Sou...

  14. Determinants of rotavirus transmission : a lag non-linear time series analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gaalen, Rolina D; van de Kassteele, Jan; Hahné, Susan J M; Bruijning-Verhagen, Patricia; Wallinga, Jacco

    Rotavirus is a common viral infection among young children. As in many countries, the infection dynamics of rotavirus in the Netherlands are characterized by an annual winter peak, which was notably low in 2014. Previous work suggested an association between weather factors and both rotavirus

  15. Health economics of rotavirus immunization in Vietnam : Potentials for favorable cost-effectiveness in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tu, Hong-Anh T.; Rozenbaum, Mark H.; Coyte, Peter C.; Li, Shu Chuen; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Postma, Maarten J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhoea worldwide. Vietnam is situated in the region of high rotavirus infection incidence and eligible for financial support to introduce rotavirus vaccines into the Expanded Program of Immunization (EPI) from the GAVI. This study was

  16. Determinants of Parents' Decision to Vaccinate Their Children against Rotavirus: Results of a Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, E.; Bettinger, J. A.; Halperin, B.; Bradet, R.; Lavoie, F.; Sauvageau, C.; Gilca, V.; Boulianne, N.

    2012-01-01

    Rotavirus disease is a common cause of health care utilization and almost all children are affected by the age of 5 years. In Canada, at the time of this survey (2008-09), immunization rates for rotavirus were less than 20%. We assessed the determinants of a parent's acceptance to have their child immunized against rotavirus. The survey…

  17. Rotavirus Vaccine Response Correlates with the Infant Gut Microbiota Composition in Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, Vanessa; Ali, Asad; Fuentes, Susana; Korpela, Katri; Kazi, Momin; Tate, Jacqueline; Parashar, Umesh; Wiersinga, W. Joost; Giaquinto, Carlo; de Weerth, Carolina; de Vos, Willem M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Rotavirus (RV) is the leading cause of diarrhea-related death in children worldwide, and ninety-five percent of rotavirus deaths occur in Africa and Asia. Rotavirus vaccines (RVV) can dramatically reduce RV deaths, but have low efficacy in low-income settings where they are most needed.

  18. Rotavirus vaccine response correlates with the infant gut microbiota composition in Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, Vanessa C.; Ali, Asad; Fuentes, Susana; Korpela, Katri; Kazi, Momin; Tate, Jacqueline; Parashar, Umesh; Wiersinga, W.J.; Giaquinto, Carlo; Weerth, de Carolina; Vos, de Willem M.

    2017-01-01

    Rotavirus (RV) is the leading cause of diarrhea-related death in children worldwide and ninety-five percent of rotavirus deaths occur in Africa and Asia. Rotavirus vaccines (RVV) can dramatically reduce RV deaths, but have low efficacy in low-income settings where they are most needed. The

  19. One-step multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay for detecting and genotyping wild-type group A rotavirus strains and vaccine strains (Rotarix® and RotaTeq®) in stool samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Slavica; Esona, Mathew D.; Tam, Ka Ian; Quaye, Osbourne; Bowen, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Group A rotavirus (RVA) infection is the major cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in young children worldwide. Introduction of two live-attenuated rotavirus vaccines, RotaTeq® and Rotarix®, has dramatically reduced RVA associated AGE and mortality in developed as well as in many developing countries. High-throughput methods are needed to genotype rotavirus wild-type strains and to identify vaccine strains in stool samples. Quantitative RT-PCR assays (qRT-PCR) offer several advantages including increased sensitivity, higher throughput, and faster turnaround time. Methods. In this study, a one-step multiplex qRT-PCR assay was developed to detect and genotype wild-type strains and vaccine (Rotarix® and RotaTeq®) rotavirus strains along with an internal processing control (Xeno or MS2 RNA). Real-time RT-PCR assays were designed for VP7 (G1, G2, G3, G4, G9, G12) and VP4 (P[4], P[6] and P[8]) genotypes. The multiplex qRT-PCR assay also included previously published NSP3 qRT-PCR for rotavirus detection and Rotarix® NSP2 and RotaTeq® VP6 qRT-PCRs for detection of Rotarix® and RotaTeq® vaccine strains respectively. The multiplex qRT-PCR assay was validated using 853 sequence confirmed stool samples and 24 lab cultured strains of different rotavirus genotypes. By using thermostable rTth polymerase enzyme, dsRNA denaturation, reverse transcription (RT) and amplification (PCR) steps were performed in single tube by uninterrupted thermocycling profile to reduce chances of sample cross contamination and for rapid generation of results. For quantification, standard curves were generated using dsRNA transcripts derived from RVA gene segments. Results. The VP7 qRT-PCRs exhibited 98.8–100% sensitivity, 99.7–100% specificity, 85–95% efficiency and a limit of detection of 4–60 copies per singleplex reaction. The VP7 qRT-PCRs exhibited 81–92% efficiency and limit of detection of 150–600 copies in multiplex reactions. The VP4 qRT-PCRs exhibited 98.8

  20. Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Austine I Omoigberale FWACP (Paed) Professor of Paediatrics, Neonatology & Infectious diseases. Dept of Child Health University of Benin Teaching Hospital Benin City Nigeria isigboge@gmail.com +2348030750641. Dr. Felix Akinbami FWACP (Paed) Professor of Paediatrics & Gastroenterology Dept of Paediatrics

  1. Anaesthesia for paediatric patients: Minimising the risk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to paediatric patients need to be offset against the need for optimal utilisation of national ... Risk stratification of paediatric patients for specific procedures in ... support colleagues in smaller district hospitals by means of telephonic advice, the ... techniques that can minimise risk in the paediatric surgical population. S Afr Med ...

  2. Rotavirus specific maternal antibodies and immune response to RV3-BB neonatal rotavirus vaccine in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mee-Yew; Kirkwood, Carl D.; Bines, Julie; Cowley, Daniel; Pavlic, Daniel; Lee, Katherine J.; Orsini, Francesca; Watts, Emma; Barnes, Graeme; Danchin, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Maternal antibodies, acquired passively via placenta and/or breast milk, may contribute to the reduced efficacy of oral rotavirus vaccines observed in children in developing countries. This study aimed to investigate the effect of rotavirus specific maternal antibodies on the serum IgA response or stool excretion of vaccine virus after any dose of an oral rotavirus vaccine, RV3-BB, in parallel to a Phase IIa clinical trial conducted at Dunedin Hospital, New Zealand. At the time of the study rotavirus vaccines had not been introduced in New Zealand and the burden of rotavirus disease was evident. Methods: Rotavirus specific IgG and serum neutralizing antibody (SNA) levels in cord blood and IgA levels in colostrum and breast milk samples collected ∼4 weeks, ∼20 weeks and ∼28 weeks after birth were measured. Infants were randomized to receive the first dose of vaccine at 0–5 d (neonatal schedule) or 8 weeks (infant schedule). Breast feeding was with-held for 30 minutes before and after vaccine administration. The relationship between rotavirus specific IgG and SNA levels in cord blood and IgA in colostrum and breast milk at the time of first active dose of RV3-BB vaccine and level of IgA response and stool excretion after 3 doses of vaccine was assessed using linear and logistic regression. Results: Forty infants received 3 doses of RV3-BB rotavirus vaccine and were included in the analysis of the neonatal and infant groups. Rotavirus specific IgA in colostrum (neonatal schedule group) and breast milk at 4 weeks (infant schedule group) was identified in 14/21 (67%) and 14/17 (82%) of infants respectively. There was little evidence of an association between IgA in colostrum or breast milk IgA at 4 weeks, or between cord IgG or SNA level, and IgA response or stool excretion after 3 doses of RV3-BB, or after one dose (neonatal schedule) (all p>0.05). Conclusions: The level of IgA in colostrum or breast milk and level of placental Ig

  3. Rotavirus specific maternal antibodies and immune response to RV3-BB neonatal rotavirus vaccine in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mee-Yew; Kirkwood, Carl D; Bines, Julie; Cowley, Daniel; Pavlic, Daniel; Lee, Katherine J; Orsini, Francesca; Watts, Emma; Barnes, Graeme; Danchin, Margaret

    2017-05-04

    Maternal antibodies, acquired passively via placenta and/or breast milk, may contribute to the reduced efficacy of oral rotavirus vaccines observed in children in developing countries. This study aimed to investigate the effect of rotavirus specific maternal antibodies on the serum IgA response or stool excretion of vaccine virus after any dose of an oral rotavirus vaccine, RV3-BB, in parallel to a Phase IIa clinical trial conducted at Dunedin Hospital, New Zealand. At the time of the study rotavirus vaccines had not been introduced in New Zealand and the burden of rotavirus disease was evident. Rotavirus specific IgG and serum neutralizing antibody (SNA) levels in cord blood and IgA levels in colostrum and breast milk samples collected ∼4 weeks, ∼20 weeks and ∼28 weeks after birth were measured. Infants were randomized to receive the first dose of vaccine at 0-5 d (neonatal schedule) or 8 weeks (infant schedule). Breast feeding was with-held for 30 minutes before and after vaccine administration. The relationship between rotavirus specific IgG and SNA levels in cord blood and IgA in colostrum and breast milk at the time of first active dose of RV3-BB vaccine and level of IgA response and stool excretion after 3 doses of vaccine was assessed using linear and logistic regression. Forty infants received 3 doses of RV3-BB rotavirus vaccine and were included in the analysis of the neonatal and infant groups. Rotavirus specific IgA in colostrum (neonatal schedule group) and breast milk at 4 weeks (infant schedule group) was identified in 14/21 (67%) and 14/17 (82%) of infants respectively. There was little evidence of an association between IgA in colostrum or breast milk IgA at 4 weeks, or between cord IgG or SNA level, and IgA response or stool excretion after 3 doses of RV3-BB, or after one dose (neonatal schedule) (all p>0.05). The level of IgA in colostrum or breast milk and level of placental IgG and SNA did not impact on the serum IgA response or

  4. Rotavirus vaccination and herd immunity: an evidence-based review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seybolt LM

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lorna M Seybolt, Rodolfo E BéguéDepartment of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA, USAAbstract: Until recently, rotavirus was the most common cause of diarrhea in infants and young children with over 100 million cases and 400,000 deaths every year worldwide. Yet, its epidemiology is changing rapidly with the introduction of two rotavirus vaccines in the mid 2000s. Both vaccines were shown to be highly efficacious in prelicensure studies to reduce severe rotavirus disease; the efficacy being more pronounced in high- and middle-income countries than in low-income countries. Herd immunity – the indirect protection of unimmunized individuals as a result of others being immunized – was not expected to be a benefit of rotavirus vaccination programs since the vaccines were thought to reduce severe disease but not to decrease virus transmission significantly. Postlicensure studies, however, have suggested that this assumption may need reassessment. Studies in a variety of settings have shown evidence of greater than expected declines in rotavirus disease. While these studies were not designed specifically to detect herd immunity – and few failed to detect this phenomenon – the consistency of the evidence is compelling. These studies are reviewed and described here. While further work is needed, clarifying the presence of herd immunity is not just an academic exercise but an important issue for rotavirus control, especially in lower income countries where the incidence of the disease is highest and the direct protection of the vaccines is lower.Keywords: rotavirus, vaccine, herd immunity, efficacy

  5. Paediatric and adult malignant glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Chris; Perryman, Lara; Hargrave, Darren

    2012-01-01

    Gliomas in children differ from their adult counterparts by their distribution of histological grade, site of presentation and rate of malignant transformation. Although rare in the paediatric population, patients with high-grade gliomas have, for the most part, a comparably dismal clinical outcome...... to older patients with morphologically similar lesions. Molecular profiling data have begun to reveal the major genetic alterations underpinning these malignant tumours in children. Indeed, the accumulation of large datasets on adult high-grade glioma has revealed key biological differences between...... the adult and paediatric disease. Furthermore, subclassifications within the childhood age group can be made depending on age at diagnosis and tumour site. However, challenges remain on how to reconcile clinical data from adult patients to tailor novel treatment strategies specifically for paediatric...

  6. Effective doses in paediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacob, Olga; Diaconescu, Cornelia; Roca, Antoaneta

    2001-01-01

    Because of their longer life expectancy, the risk of late manifestations of detrimental radiation effects is greater in children than in adults and, consequently, paediatric radiology gives ground for more concern regarding radiation protection than radiology of adults. The purpose of our study is to assess in terms of effective doses the magnitude of paediatric patient exposure during conventional X-ray examinations, selected for their high frequency or their relatively high doses to the patient. Effective doses have been derived from measurements of dose-area product (DAP) carried out on over 900 patients undergoing X-ray examinations, in five paediatric units. The conversion coefficients for estimating effective doses are those calculated by the NRPB using Monte-Carlo technique on a series of 5 mathematical phantoms representing 0, 1, 5, 10 and 15 year old children. The annual frequency of X-ray examinations necessary for collective dose calculation are those reported in our last national study on medical exposure, conducted in 1995. The annual effective doses from all medical examinations for the average paediatric patient are as follows: 1.05 mSv for 0 year old, 0.98 mSv for 1 year old, 0.53 mSv for 5 year old, 0.65 mSv for 10 year old and 0.70 mSv for 15 year old. The resulting annual collective effective dose was evaluated at 625 man Sv with the largest contribution of pelvis and hip examinations (34%). The annual collective effective associated with paediatric radiology in Romania represent 5% of the annual value resulting from all diagnostic radiology. Examination of the chest is by far the most frequent procedure for children, accounting for about 60 per cent of all annually performed X-ray conventional examinations. Knowledge of real level of patient dose is an essential component of quality assurance programs in paediatric radiology. (authors)

  7. Molecular Epidemiology of Group A Rotaviruses in Water Sources and Selected Raw Vegetables in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, W. B.; Page, N. A.; Grabow, W. O. K.; Steele, A. D.; Taylor, M. B.

    2006-01-01

    Group A rotaviruses (RVs) are the most important cause of acute viral gastroenteritis in infants and young children. In this study raw and treated drinking water supplies at plants in two geographic areas, as well as selected irrigation water and corresponding raw vegetables in three regions of southern Africa, were screened for the presence of RVs using molecular techniques. Group A RVs were detected in 11.8% of partially treated and 1.7% of finally treated drinking water samples and in 14% of irrigation water samples and 1.7% of corresponding raw vegetable samples. Type-specific reverse transcriptase-PCR and sequence analysis revealed the presence of multiple types (G1, G2, G8, and G9) in irrigation water and single types (G1 or G3) in raw and treated drinking water. Group A RVs detected in all samples consisted of mixed P types (P[4], P[6], P[8], and P[9]), with P[6] predominating. The detection of types G8, G9, and P[6] reflects the emergence of these types in clinical infections. The similarity of environmental types to those in patients with clinical RV infections confirms the value of wastewater screening as a tool for assessing RVs circulating in communities, with the benefit of detecting types that cause both clinical and subclinical infections. The results provide new information on RV types in water and related environments and identify the potential risk of waterborne transmission. In addition, the presence of RVs in drinking water underlines shortcomings in quality specifications. These data provide valuable information regarding the prevalence of RVs in environmental sources, with important implications for vaccine development. PMID:16820443

  8. Human Milk Contains Novel Glycans Th