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Sample records for padina tetrastromatica hauck

  1. Halogenated terpenoids from the brown alga Padina tetrastromatica (HAUCK)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S.; Bhat, K.L.; Das, B.; Kamat, S.Y.; Harnos, S.

    ranging from 14:0 to 22:0 with palmitic acid (16:0, 67.4%) and oleic acid (18:1, 17.1%) being the major constituents, have been isolated from the pet, ether soluble fraction of the methanol extract of the brown alga Padina tetrastromatica...

  2. Seasonal growth, development and morphology of two species of padina adanson: padina tetrastromatica and padina pavonica from the manora coast, Karachi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uddin, W.; Begum, M.; Siddiqui, M. F.

    2015-01-01

    The study was an attempt to investigate some biological aspects dealing with seasonal growth and developmental morphology of two dominant species of brown algae Padina Adanson (Pheaophycota, Dictyotales). Manora Island near Karachi was selected as the area for collection of plants known to have very rich algal flora and Padina is one of the prominent and dominant algae at Manora and found to grow on all types of habitats and on each tide level. It is a perennial alga and shows its presence throughout the year. In order to investigate the seasonal growth and developmental morphology, changes in the plant length, breath, presence of vegetative or reproductive plants, percentage maturity of thallus during the different seasons of a year was observed of the two most common species of genus Padina namely P. tetrastromatica Hauck and P. pavonica (L.) Thivy. The peak season for growth and reproduction is winter, whereas plants found in summer were in small size and mostly in the form of juvenile or early mature stage. There was a slight difference in thallus size and reproductive structures (tetrasporophytes or gametophytes) among the two species and between different areas of the shore, but the pattern of growth and reproduction is same. Environmental factors (Mean air temperature and sea water temperature) show significant negative correlation that influence on the growth and development of Padina species. (author)

  3. Antifouling Activity of Lipidic Metabolites Derived from Padina tetrastromatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Murugan; Iyapparaj, Palanisamy; Anantharaman, Perumal

    2016-07-01

    An attempt has been made to identify the potential seaweed for antifouling property due to the growing need for environmentally safe antifouling systems. The antibacterial, antimicroalgal, and antimussel foot adherence potentials of methanol, dichloromethane, and hexane extracts of the chosen seaweeds such as Padina tetrastromatica, Caulerpa taxifolia, and Amphiroa fragilissima have been compared against copper sulfate. Among the extracts, the maximum antibacterial activities were exhibited by the methanol extract of P. tetrastromatica. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the methanolic extract of P. tetrastromatica was found to be 10 and 1 μg/ml against test biofilm bacteria and diatoms, respectively. The antimussel foot adherence assay indicated that the extract had inhibited the foot adherence of the green mussels Perna viridis with the effective concentration (EC50) of 25.51 ± 0.03 μg/ml, and lethal concentration for 50 % mortality (LC50) was recorded at 280.22 ± 0.12 μg/ml. Based on the prolific results, the crude methanolic extract of P. tetrastromatica was subjected to purification using silica gel column and thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Then, the active compounds of the bioassay-guided fraction (F13) were identified using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), and it was observed that fatty acids were the major components, which may be responsible for the antifouling properties.

  4. Constituents of the brown alga Padina tetrastromatica (Hauck)-II

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S.; Naik, C.G.; Das, B.; Kamat, S.Y.; Bose, A.K.; Nair, M.S.R.

    Three terpenoids, (2R,4S)-4-acetoxy-2-hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethylcyclohexanone (1), 3'R,4'-[(2R,4S)-4-acetoxy-2-hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethylcyclohexylidene] but-3'-en-2'-one or apo-9'-fucoxanthinone (2) and loliolide (3) have been isolated from the CHCl sub...

  5. Production of liquid biofuels (biodiesel and bioethanol) from brown marine macroalgae Padina tetrastromatica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashokkumar, Veeramuthu; Salim, Mohd Razman; Salam, Zainal; Sivakumar, Pandian; Chong, Cheng Tung; Elumalai, Sanniyasi; Suresh, Veeraperumal; Ani, Farid Nasir

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrated concept of biofuels production from brown macroalgae P. tetrastromatica. • The activation energy was determined as Ea = 34.314 kJ mol"−"1. • Brown marine alga produced 7.8% of biodiesel by acid and alkali transesterification. • The fuel properties of Padina biodiesel meet the ASTM specifications. • Spent biomass of Padina yields 16.1% of bioethanol after fermentation process. - Abstract: In this study, an integrated biomass conversion concept of producing liquid biofuels from brown marine macroalga Padina tetrastromatica was investigated. The algal biomass was collected from the Mandapam coastal region and processed under laboratory. Various parameters were studied to extract crude lipids from the biomass. A kinetic study was conducted for extracting the lipids from the biomass, which follows the first order kinetics and the lipid yield was 8.15 wt.%. The activation energy; Ea = 34.314 kJ mol"−"1 and their thermodynamic parameters were determined. Since the crude algal lipids contain high amount of free fatty acids, a sequential transesterification technique was examined and 7.8% of biodiesel (78 mg/g algal biomass) yield was obtained. The biodiesel was analyzed by "1H and "1"3C–NMR spectroscopy and the conversion yield was estimated. Further, the biodiesel fuel properties were investigated and found that all the features fit the required ASTM D6751 specification limits. The residual biomass after lipid extraction was further explored for bioethanol production through the anaerobic fermentation process. The ethanol yield obtained after saccharification and fermentation were estimated and 161 mg/g residue biomass was reported. The theoretical yield of conversion of hydrolysate to bioethanol was estimated and found to be 83.4%. Therefore, this study demonstrates that macroalga P. tetrastromatica biomass has great potential to produce liquid biofuels such as biodiesel and bioethanol.

  6. Attenuation of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in high calorie fed/streptozotocin-treated rats by hydromethanolic extract of Padina tetrastromatica

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    Divya S. Mohan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effect of defatted hydromethanolic extract of Padina tetrastromatica on carbohydrate metabolism and serum lipid profile were evaluated. Diabetes mellitus was induced in male Wistar rats by feeding high calorie/energy diet for two months followed by a single intraperitoneal injecttion of streptozotocin. Diabetic rats were administered with the extract intragastrically at doses of 150, 300, 450, and 600 mg/kg body weight daily for 45 days. Treatment with graded doses showed a dose dependent reduction in blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels. Treatment significantly increased the activity of hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glycogen content while there was significant reduction in the activity of glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase. Serum lipid profile was also brought back to near normal levels in a dose dependent manner. The present study clearly indicates the antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of P. tetrastromatica at an optimum dose of 450 mg/kg body weight.

  7. Use of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to study cadmium-induced changes in Padina tetrastromatica (Hauck)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza, L.; PrabhaDevi; DivyaShridhar, M.P.; Naik, C.G.

    and stored in a vacuum desiccator in airtight containers until further analysis. Analysis for metal concentration Known weight (500 mg dry weight) of both control and cadmium treated dried algal powder was digested in Tefl on bombs in nitric acid...

  8. Assessment of oxidative stress indices in a marine macro brown alga Padina tetrastromatica (Hauck) from comparable polluted coastal regions of the Arabian Sea, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Maharana, D.; Jena, K.B.; Pise, N.M.; Jagtap, T.G.

    , and antioxidant defences were measured as catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and ascorbic acid (AsA), in order to understand their dissimilarity with respect to pollution levels from selective locations along the central west coast of India...

  9. Anti-influenza activity in the Indian seaweeds - A preliminary investigation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A.; Dhargalkar, V.K.; Sreekumar, P.K.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Rodrigues, R.; Kotnala, S.

    Antiviral activity in four commercially important seaweeds namely; Spatoglossum asperum J. Ag., Padina tetrastromatica Hauck, Sargassum tenerrimum J. Ag. and Stoechospermum marginatum (Ag.) Kuetz was studied on fragments of chorion...

  10. Effect of temperature on 'N' uptake of Chaetomorpha linum (Muller) and Padina tetrastomatica (Hauck)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raikar, V.; Wafar, M.V.M.

    of temperature were tested at 4 different temperatures (20, 25, 30 and 35 degrees C). The irradiance measured during the incubation period was 276 mu E m sup(-2) s sup(-1). The duration of each experiment was 1 h. The experiments were carried out in duplicates...

  11. Isolation of fucoxanthin and fatty acids analysis of Padina australis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fucoxanthin has been successfully isolated from species of Malaysian brown seaweed, namely Padina australis. The purity of the fucoxanthin is >98% as indicated by high performance liquid chromatography analysis. This seaweed also contains a considerable amount of unsaturated fatty acids. Thirteen fatty acids were ...

  12. STS-26 Commander Hauck in fixed based (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Commander Frederick H. Hauck, wearing comunications kit assembly headset and seated in the commanders seat on forward flight deck, looks over his shoulder toward the aft flight deck. A flight data file (FDF) notebook rests on his lap. The STS-26 crew is training in the fixed base (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS) located in JSC Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5.

  13. Characterization of alginates from Ghanaian brown seaweeds: Sargassum spp. and Padina spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhein-Knudsen, Nanna; Ale, Marcel Tutor; Ajalloueian, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    Alginates of four locally harvested Ghanaian brown seaweeds from the Sargassum and Padina genus were assessed for their rheological and chemical characteristics. The seaweeds contained 16–30% by weight of alginate assessed as the sum of d-mannuronic acid (M) and l-guluronic acid (G). In compariso...

  14. On the presence of fertile gametophytes of Padina pavonica (Dictyotales, Phaeophyceae from the Iberian coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Garreta, Amelia

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The gametophytes of Padina pavonica (L. Thivy have received little attention in literature. Both female and predominantly male monoecious gametophytes of P. pavonica are recorded for the first time in the Iberian Peninsula. A detailed description of the morphology and the disposition of oogonia and antheridia is presented. In addition, a comparison with literature data on this and other Padina species is carried out.Los gametófitos de Padina pavonica (L. Thivy han sido escasamente reseñados en la bibliografía. En este trabajo se señala por primera vez en las costas de la Península Ibérica la presencia de gametófitos fértiles de P. pavonica, tanto femeninos como monoicos predominantemente masculinos. Se presenta una detallada descripción de la disposición y la morfología de los oogonios y anteridios. Asimismo, se realiza una comparación con los datos bibliográficos de esta especie y con los de otras especies de Padina

  15. Study of thermodynamics and electronics properties of hybrids of substituted Haucke compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crivello, J.C.

    2005-06-01

    This manuscript presents a combined experimental and theoretical contribution to the study of the substituted Haucke phase AB5. These compounds can reversibly absorb hydrogen under conditions of pressure and temperature satisfactory for many technological applications including hydrogen storage. The thermodynamic characterization of the solid-gas reaction was carried out for mono and poly-substituted compounds. In the respect of good conditions of growth (decomposition) of the hydride phase, we sought to determine the thermodynamic trajectories allowed during some various transformations. The experimental results showed that the rate of transformation and the hierarchy of the return-points memory are the only parameters allowing to draw a general law related to the irreversible character of hysteresis. These systems evolve in 'static' mode, independent of the time and whatever the nature of host materials. Moreover, the effect of substitution elements on electronic properties has been studied using ab initio band structure calculations for the ANi 5 (A=La, Y, Ca) and LaNi 5-x M x compounds, where M is an element of the type s-p (Al, Si, Ge, Sn), of type s (Cu), or a transition metal (Mn, Fe, Co). While dissociating the structural effects, the role of the chemical interaction with hydrogen was analyzed. These results made it possible to identify the factors which control the stability of the hydrides and their maximum absorption capacity. The bulk moduli of these materials were calculated and their variation was discussed in relation to the properties of hydrogen absorption. (author)

  16. Screening of marine algae (Padina sp. from the Lengeh Port, Persian Gulf for antibacterial and antifungal activities

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    Azadeh Taherpour

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of different solvent extracts of Padina sp. against selected human pathogenic bacteria and fungi species such as Escherichia coli, Shigella sp., Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans. Methods: Various solvents including methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform and hexane were used to acquire crude extracts from marine algae Padina sp. After crude preparation, antibacterial and antifungal activities were screened against clinically important human pathogenic bacteria using disc and well diffusion methods. For all the bacterial species used in this research, minimum inhibitory concentration was undertaken considering various solvent extracts of Padina sp. To ensure the accuracy of experiments, a positive control was also included. Results: Confirmed that hexane is the best solvent to extract antimicrobial agents from Padina sp. Among selected bacteria, S. aureus was the most sensitive test microorganism. While, all other microorganisms showed resistance against methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform extracts. In fact, by increasing concentration of hexane extract, inhibition of S. aureus growth or antimicrobial activity was increased. Growth inhibition zone in well method showed better results compared to disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of hexane extract were 15 and 30 mg/mL against S. aureus, respectively. All Padina sp. extracts did not reveal any antifungal activities against fungi species in this study. Conclusions: Brown algae extracts showed sufficient antibacterial properties against S. aureus. Therefore, Padina sp. in this research can be a good candidate to design and manufacture novel antibacterial agents used in pharmaceutical industries.

  17. Antimicrobial activities of epiphytic bacteria associated of the brown alga Padina pavonica

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    Amel Ben Ali Ismail

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Macroalgae belonging to the genus Padina are known to produce antibacterial compounds that may inhibit growth of human- and animal pathogens. Hitherto, it was unclear whether this antibacterial activity is produced by the macroalga itself or by secondary metabolite producing epiphytic bacteria. Here we report antibacterial activities of epiphytic bacteria isolated from Padina pavonica (Peacocks tail located on northern coast of Tunisia. Eighteen isolates were obtained in pure culture and tested for antimicrobial activities. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences the isolates were closely related to Proteobacteria (12 isolates; 2 Alpha- and 10 Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes (4 isolates and Actinobacteria (2 isolates. The antimicrobial activity was assessed as inhibition of growth of twelve species of pathogenic bacteria (Aeromonas salmonicida, A. hydrophila, Enterobacter xiangfangensis, Enterococcus faecium, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus sp., Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus sp., Vibrio alginoliticus, V. proteolyticus, V. vulnificus and one pathogenic yeast (Candida albicans. Among the Firmicutes, isolate P8, which is closely related to Bacillus pumilus, displayed the largest spectrum of growth inhibition of the pathogenic bacteria tested. The results emphasize the potential use of P. pavonica associated antagonistic bacteria as producers of novel antibacterial compounds.

  18. Uptake of heavy metals by the marine algae Padina gymnospora from Sepetiba Bay (RJ, Brazil) through radiotracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, V.F. de.

    1991-01-01

    The accumulation and the loss of 210 Pb, 51 Cr and 65 Zn by the alga Padina gymnospora is studied through radiotracer experiments. The evaluation of the alga as a bio indicator of these heavy metals pollution is presented. The use of this seaweed species to study the transfer of Pb, Cr, and Zn through the food chain is discussed. (M.A.C.)

  19. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Padina pavonica and Enteromorpha sp. from the Tunisian Mediterranean coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek Besbes Hlila

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the antioxidant and the antimicrobial activities of the marine seaweeds Padina pavonica (P. pavonica and Enteromorpha sp. from the Tunisian Mediterranean coast. Methods: The acetone and water were used for algae extraction to envisage the antimicrobial activity versus Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis and against four Candida. The microdilution method was used to evaluate this activity. In vitro, total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging and 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS were also studied. Results: The highest amount of phenolic compound was found in the P. pavonica acetonic extract [(90.61 ± 0.11 mg catechin equivalent/g extract]. This brown algae sample demonstrated greater DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging ability potential in comparison to other green seaweed, Enteromorpha sp. The maximum antimicrobial activity was shown by the P. pavonica acetonic extract against all the pathogenic strains tested (minimum inhibitory concentrations = minimum inhibitory bactericidal = minimum inhibitory fungicidal concentrations = 0.04 mg/mL. Those activities might be due to phenolic substances present in this fraction. Conclusions: The present results highlight the possible use of P. pavonica as source of antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds.

  20. Association of thraustochytrids and fungi with living marine algae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Nagarkar, S.; Raghukumar, S.

    only in C. clavulatum, Sargassum cinereum and Padina tetrastromatica whilst mycelial fungi occurred in all. Growth experiments in the laboratory indicated that the growth of thraustochytrids was inhibited on live algae, whereas killed algae supported...

  1. Study of thermodynamics and electronics properties of hybrids of substituted Haucke compounds; Contribution a l'etude des proprietes thermodynamiques et electroniques d'hydrures de composes de Haucke substitues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crivello, J.C

    2005-06-15

    This manuscript presents a combined experimental and theoretical contribution to the study of the substituted Haucke phase AB5. These compounds can reversibly absorb hydrogen under conditions of pressure and temperature satisfactory for many technological applications including hydrogen storage. The thermodynamic characterization of the solid-gas reaction was carried out for mono and poly-substituted compounds. In the respect of good conditions of growth (decomposition) of the hydride phase, we sought to determine the thermodynamic trajectories allowed during some various transformations. The experimental results showed that the rate of transformation and the hierarchy of the return-points memory are the only parameters allowing to draw a general law related to the irreversible character of hysteresis. These systems evolve in 'static' mode, independent of the time and whatever the nature of host materials. Moreover, the effect of substitution elements on electronic properties has been studied using ab initio band structure calculations for the ANi{sub 5} (A=La, Y, Ca) and LaNi{sub 5-x}M{sub x} compounds, where M is an element of the type s-p (Al, Si, Ge, Sn), of type s (Cu), or a transition metal (Mn, Fe, Co). While dissociating the structural effects, the role of the chemical interaction with hydrogen was analyzed. These results made it possible to identify the factors which control the stability of the hydrides and their maximum absorption capacity. The bulk moduli of these materials were calculated and their variation was discussed in relation to the properties of hydrogen absorption. (author)

  2. Brown seaweed Padina gymnospora is a prominent natural wound-care product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alegna P. Baliano

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Seaweeds are related to anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial and anti-noceptive effects. This work aimed to verify the potential of seaweed Padina gymnospora (Kützing Sonder 1871 to improve wound healing in vitro. P. gymnospora was collected at a bethonic area in Espirito Santo. Methanolic extract of P. gymnospora was obtained by percolation. To determine cytotoxicity, colorimetric MTT tests were performed against normal fibroblasts (L929, macrophages (RAW 264.7 and human ovarian carcinoma (OVCAR-3 cell lines using concentration range of 12–110 µg ml-1. To evaluate in vitro wound healing, monolayer of fibroblasts L929 was seeded and artificial wounded. Cell proliferation was blocked by 5 µg ml-1 Mytomycin C. Nitric oxide inhibition was quantified with Raw 264.7 by Griess reaction. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC against Staphylococcus aureus was determined. Eletrospray ionization with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FT-ICR MS was applied to detail composition of P. gymnospora methanolic extract. No cytotoxic effect in all cell lines was detected until the maximum concentration of 110 µg ml-1. P. gymnospora promoted significantly migration at the concentration of 25 µg ml-1 (p < 0.05. A prominent inhibition of nitric oxide formation was achieved in a concentration of 20 µg ml-1 of methanolic extract of P. gymnospora (62.06 ± 1.20%. Antibacterial activity against S. aureus could be demonstrated with MIC of 500 µg ml-1. ESI-FT-ICR MS analysis indicated eleven molecules between then, linolenic, oleic and linoleic acid. P. gymnospora favored wound repair in vitro what could be related to its fatty acid composition. In addition, its antimicrobial effect, and NO inhibition activity contribute for a new approach of P. gymnospora as a promise natural product for treatment of cutaneous wound.

  3. Microsensor studies on Padina from a natural CO2 seep: implications of morphology on acclimation to low pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Laurie C; Fink, Artur; Bischof, Kai; de Beer, Dirk

    2015-12-01

    Low seawater pH can be harmful to many calcifying marine organisms, but the calcifying macroalgae Padina spp. flourish at natural submarine carbon dioxide seeps where seawater pH is low. We show that the microenvironment created by the rolled thallus margin of Padina australis facilitates supersaturation of CaCO3 and calcifi-cation via photosynthesis-induced elevated pH. Using microsensors to investigate oxygen and pH dynamics in the microenvironment of P. australis at a shallow CO2 seep, we found that, under saturating light, the pH inside the microenvironment (pHME ) was higher than the external seawater (pHSW ) at all pHSW levels investigated, and the difference (i.e., pHME - pHSW ) increased with decreasing pHSW (0.9 units at pHSW 7.0). Gross photosynthesis (Pg ) inside the microenvironment increased with decreasing pHSW , but algae from the control site reached a threshold at pH 6.5. Seep algae showed no pH threshold with respect to Pg within the pHSW range investigated. The external carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitor, acetazolamide, strongly inhibited Pg of P. australis at pHSW 8.2, but the effect was diminished under low pHSW (6.4-7.5), suggesting a greater dependence on membrane-bound CA for the dehydration of HCO3 (-) ions during dissolved inorganic carbon uptake at the higher pHSW . In comparison, a calcifying green alga, Halimeda cuneata f. digitata, was not inhibited by AZ, suggesting efficient bicarbonate transport. The ability of P. australis to elevate pHME at the site of calcification and its strong dependence on CA may explain why it can thrive at low pHSW . © 2015 Phycological Society of America.

  4. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of the aqueous extract and polysaccharide fraction from brown marine macroalgae Padina sp. from Gulf of Mannar of Peninsular India

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    Nammunayathuputhenkotta Krishnankartha Praveen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of the aqueous extract and polysaccharide fraction from two brown marine macroalga, Padina gymnospora (P. gymnospora and Padina tetrastomatica (P. tetrastomatica harvested from Gulf of Mannar of peninsular India. Methods: The antioxidant activity was evaluated using different in vitro systems, viz., 1,1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2, 2′-azino-bis-3ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS, H2O2/ HO. radical scavenging, Fe2+ ion chelating ability, and reducing potential. Folin–Ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenolic content, and the results were expressed as mg of gallic acid equivalents (GE. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance formation inhibition assay was employed to assess the ability of the samples to inhibit lipid oxidation in a model system. COXII and LOXV inhibition assays were employed to assess the anti-inflammatory potential of aqueous extract and polysaccharide fraction. Results: The aqueous extract fraction of P. tetrastomatica realized high total phenolic content (288 mg GE/g, and its activity towards scavenging short-lived radicals (OH. and H2O2 (27.8% and 68.3%, respectively; 0.6 mg/mL are higher than those registered for Padina gymnospora. Aqueous extract and polysaccharide fractions of P. gymnospora showed higher anti-inflammatory activities against LOXV (56% and 53%, respectively and COXII (30% and 35%, respectively; 1 mg/mL enzymes. The correlation studies confirmed that polysaccharides present with the Padina sp. are responsible for their anti-inflammatory potential. IR spectral data of polysaccharide fraction revealed the presence of polysaccharide in alginate form and also confirmed the presence of sulphated polysaccharides as principle bioactive constituents. Conclusions: The study revealed that these seaweeds possess beneficial value as human food or health additives and can be used as a natural green

  5. Measuring natrium alginate content of brown algae spesies Padina sp. as the basic matter for making dental impression material (Irreversible hydrocolloid impression material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurlindah Hamrun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important procedure in denture fabrication and orthodontic treatment is molding the patient’s detail oral cavity to determine the treatment planning. This procedure does by using alginate impression material or irreversible hydrocolloid which is the basic material is natrium alginate which is imported from abroad because it is extracted from brown algae which habitat is not in Indonesia so it is causes the impression material is relative expensive which is impact to high cost of dental treatment. Indonesia as the archipelago country has availability of abundant brown algae Padina sp. especially in Puntondo-Punaga seashore, South Sulawesi, but it has not cultivate yet by the local society because it is never discover by alginate industry so it is just grow wild and it’s potency is useless. This experiment purposes to identified how much natrium alginate is producted from Padina Sp. extraction as the basic matter of irreversible hydrocolloid. The design of this study is conducted by experimental design with one shot case study method. Early stage research, extraction of alginate in form of natrium alginate. After that it is weighted by using analytical weight in milligram (mg unit. Then, it is compare with the standard natrium alginate to observe the similarity of molecule by using FTIR device. Data were analyzed using uji rerata. Based on extracted Padina sp, produced 12.86 g natrium alginate content or 28,4% from the alga dry weight total was used which is 45 g. Based on FTIR test, showed that extracted natrium alginate is similar with the standard natrium alginate with the found of hidroxyl, carboxylate, and eter group which is composer of natrium alginate. From both of infra red spectrum pattern, it was observed unsignificant difference. Extracted natrium alginate Padinasp is same with the standard natrium alginate and it has content 12.86 g.

  6. Measuring sodium alginate content of brown algae species Padina sp. as the basic matter for making dental impression material (Irreversible hydrocolloid impression material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurlindah Hamrun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important procedures in denture fabrication and orthodontic treatment is molding the patient’s detail oral cavity to determine the treatment planning. This procedure was done by using alginate impression material or irreversible hydrocolloid in which the basic material is sodium alginate imported from abroad because it is extracted from brown algae which its habitat is not in Indonesia so that it is causes the impression material is relatively expensive roomates is impact to high cost of dental treatment. Indonesia as the archipelago country has availability of abundant brown algae Padina sp. Especially in Puntondo-Punaga seashore, South Sulawesi, but it has not Cultivate yet by the local society because it is never discovered by alginate industry so it is just grow wild and its potency is useless. This experiment identified the purposes of how much sodium alginate is produced from Padina Sp. Extraction as the basic matter of irreversible hydrocolloid. The design of this study is experimental design with one shot case study method. In early stage research, extraction of alginate in the form of sodium alginate. After that, they are weighted by using analytical weight in milligrams (mg unit. Then, it is compare with the standard sodium alginate to observe the similarity of molecules by using FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra Red device. Data were Analyzed using mean differences. Based on Padina extracted, produced 12.86 g of sodium alginate content or 28.4% from the cleaning algae was used roomates total weight is 45 g. Based on FTIR test, showed that sodium alginate is extracted similar to the standard sodium alginate with the found of hydroxyl, carboxylic acid, ether group and the which is the composer of sodium alginate. In conclusion, from both of infra red spectrum pattern, it was observed unsignificant difference. Extracted sodium alginate Padina is same with the standard sodium alginate and it has 12.86 g content.

  7. The effect of iron-ore particles on the metal content of the brown alga Padina gymnospora (Espirito Santo Bay, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassar, C.A.G.; Salgado, L.T.; Yoneshigue-Valentin, Y.; Amado Filho, G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Iron ore deposits mat be the source of metals found in the brown alga Padina gymnospora. - The iron-ore particles discharged by a pellet processing plant (Espirito Santo Bay, Brazil) cover the seabed of Camburi Beach and consequently, the epibenthic community. In order to determine the importance of the contribution of the iron-ore deposits to the metal concentration in macroalgae of Espirito Santo Bay, four methods of cleaning particulate material adhered to the surface of thalli were tested prior to metal tissue analysis (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) of Padina gymnospora. In addition, heavy metal concentrations were determined in individuals of P. gymnospora from a site (Frade Island) not affected by the iron-ore particles. The most efficient cleaning treatment, a combination of scraping and washing with an ethanol-seawater solution (NA+SC+ET) removed a number of particles on the surface of thalli 10 times higher than that observed in the control (C). Using this treatment, the total-metal concentrations were reduced by 78% for Fe and 50% for Al respect to the control. However, Fe, Al and Cu concentrations after treatment NA+SC+ET were significantly higher than those found at Frade Island. It is suggested that the iron-ore deposit might be a source for metal availability to macroalgae exposed to the dumped material at Espirito Santo Bay

  8. Estimation of induced secondary metabolites in chickpea tissues in response to elicitor preparation of seaweeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, F.; Iqbal, S.

    2000-01-01

    Disease response of plants in terms of induced browning and phytoalexin (induced secondary metabolites) production were recorded in the tissues of Cicer arietinum (Chick pea) treated with the High Molecular Crude Elicitor Preparations, HMWCEP 'Polysaccharides' of Hypnea musciformis (red algae), Padina tetrastromatica (brown algae) and Ulva lactulus (green algae). A UV-visible spectrophotometric method has been developed for the quantification of induced secondary metabolites with time. (author)

  9. Antibacterial activity of Sargassum polycystum C. Agardh and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the antibacterial activity of n-hexane, dichloromethane and methanolic extracts of brown seaweeds (Phaeophyceae), Sargassum polycystum C. Agardh and Padina australis Hauck, was examined using the disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The bioactivity of the seaweed extracts was expressed as ...

  10. Effect of soda ash industry effluent on agarophytes, alginophytes and carrageenophyte of west coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadeja, R N; Tewari, A

    2009-02-15

    This paper presents the results of a study on the impact of the effluent released by the soda ash industry on important red and brown macro algal species Gelidiella acerosa, Gracilaria corticata, Soleria robusta, Sargassum tenerrimum, Padina tetrastromatica in the tidal zone around Veraval, on the west coast of India, in the lowest low water tide of December 2003. The study examined the effect of effluent discharge on availability of biomass and percentage of phyco-colloids extraction such as agar, alginic acid and carrageen of these commercial seaweeds.

  11. Isolation of fucoxanthin and fatty acids analysis of Padina australis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... flame-ionization detector (FID) and a capillary column (Omegawax-. 320; 30 m x 0.32 mm i.d.; Supelco, Bellefonte, PA). The carrier gas was helium at a flow ..... resulted in formation of nuclear condensation, which was clearly evident in inverted microscope. The effect of fucoxanthin disappeared on H1299 ...

  12. Enzymatic saccharification of seaweeds into fermentable sugars by xylanase from marine Bacillus sp. strain BT21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parab, Pankaj; Khandeparker, Rakhee; Amberkar, Ujwala; Khodse, Vishwas

    2017-10-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of seaweed biomass was studied using xylanase produced from marine bacteria Bacillus sp. strain BT21 through solid-state fermentation of wheat bran. Three types of seaweeds, Ahnfeltia plicata , Padina tetrastromatica and Ulva lactuca , were selected as representatives of red, brown, and green seaweeds, respectively. Seaweed biomass was pretreated with hot water. The efficiency of pretreated biomass to release reducing sugar by the action of xylanase as well as the type of monosaccharide released during enzyme saccharification of seaweed biomass was studied. It was seen that pretreated biomass of seaweed A. plicata, U. lactuca , and P. tetrastroma , at 121 °C for 45 min, followed by incubation with 50 IU xylanase released reducing sugars of 233 ± 5.3, 100 ± 6.1 and 73.3 ± 4.1 µg/mg of seaweed biomass, respectively. Gas chromatography analysis illustrated the release of xylose, glucose, and mannose during the treatment process. Hot water pre-treatment process enhanced enzymatic conversion of biomass into sugars. This study revealed the important role of xylanase in saccharification of seaweed, a promising feedstock for third-generation bioethanol production.

  13. Pathway of /sup 14/Co/sub 2/ fixation in marine algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, G V; Karekar, M D [Shivaji Univ., Kolhapur (India). Dept. of Botany

    1973-08-01

    Marine plants have a different metabolic environment which is likely to affect pathways of CO/sub 2/ fixation. It has been observed that in marine alga, Ulva lactuca, during short term light fixation of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/, besides PGA, an appreciable amount of activity was located in aspartate. This curious observation can now be explained on the basis of Hatch, Slack and Kortschak pathway of CO/sub 2/ fixation. In order to trace pathways of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ in marine algae, a wide variety of algal specimens were exposed to NaH/sup 14/CO/sub 3/ in light and the products were analyzed. The algae selected were Ulva lactuca, Sargassum ilicifolium, Sphacelaria sp., Padina tetrastromatica, Chaetomorpha media and Enteromorpha tubulosa. It has been found that the pathways of CO/sub 2/ in the above marine algae differ from the conventional pattern recorded in Chlorella. The early labelling of aspartate and its subsequent utilization indicates that HSK pathway is operative in the marine algae. Malate synthesis is inhibited due to the effect of saline environment on the activity of malic dehydrogenase. Appreciable label in PGA is suggestive of the fact that Calvin and Bassham pathway as well as the HSK route are simultaneously operating. (auth)

  14. Measuring sodium alginate content of brown algae species Padina sp. as the basic matter for making dental impression material (Irreversible hydrocolloid impression material)

    OpenAIRE

    Nurlindah Hamrun; Suci Amalia Rachman

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important procedures in denture fabrication and orthodontic treatment is molding the patient’s detail oral cavity to determine the treatment planning. This procedure was done by using alginate impression material or irreversible hydrocolloid in which the basic material is sodium alginate imported from abroad because it is extracted from brown algae which its habitat is not in Indonesia so that it is causes the impression material is relatively expensive roomates is impact to h...

  15. Measuring natrium alginate content of brown algae spesies Padina sp. as the basic matter for making dental impression material (Irreversible hydrocolloid impression material)

    OpenAIRE

    Nurlindah Hamrun; Suci Amalia Rachman

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important procedure in denture fabrication and orthodontic treatment is molding the patient’s detail oral cavity to determine the treatment planning. This procedure does by using alginate impression material or irreversible hydrocolloid which is the basic material is natrium alginate which is imported from abroad because it is extracted from brown algae which habitat is not in Indonesia so it is causes the impression material is relative expensive which is impact to high cost ...

  16. Checklist of Macroalgae in Waisai Coast, Raja Ampat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Suryandari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Macroalgae are very abundant organisms in Indonesian coastal zone. They comprise 8.6% of the total marine organisms.The aim of the research was to identify macroalgae in Waisai Coast Raja Ampat. The results showed that 38 macroalgae were found in Waisai Coast Raja Ampat but only 29 species of macroalgae can be identified. Macroalgae found in Waisai Coast Raja Ampat are green algae, red algae and brown algae. Green algae found and identified are Caulerpa macra (Weber-van Bosse Draisma & Prud’homme, Caulerpa racemosa var. macrophysa (Sonder wx Kutzing W.R.Taylor,  Caulerpa sertularoides (S. Gmelin Howe f. brevipes (J. Agardh Svedilus, Caulerpa cupressoides (Vahl C. Agardh, Halimeda discoidea Decaisne, Halimeda Opuntia (Linnaeus J.V. Lamoroux, Halimeda tuna (J. Ellis & Solander J.V. Lamoroux, Halimeda cylindraceae Decaisne, Halimeda macroloba Decaisne, Avrainvillea erecta (Berkeley A. Gepp & E.S. Gepp, Codium geppiorum O.C.Schmidt, Boergesenia forbesii (Hardvey Feldmann, Valonia ventricosa J. Agardh, Dictyosphaeria cavernosa (Forsskål Børgesen, Chaetomorpha spiralisOkamura, Anadyomene wrightii Harvey ex. J. E. Gray, Neomeris annulata Dickie. Red algae species found and successfully identified areAcanthophora spicifera (M. Vahl Børgesen, Laurencia papilosa (C. Agardh Greville, Gracilaria salicornia (C. Agardh E.Y. Dawson, Amphiora fragilissima (Linnaeus J.V. Lamoroux, Hypnea pannosa J. Agardh. Brown algae species  found and identified are Hormophysa cuneiformis (J.F. Gmelin P.C. Silva, Sargassum aquifolium (Turner C. Agardh, Sargassum polycystum C. Agardh, Turbinaria ornata (Turner J. Agardh, Padina australis Hauck, Canistrocarpus cervicornis (Kutzing De Paula & De Clerck Hydroclathrus clatratus (C. Agardh M. Howe. The only species found in Indonesia is Sargassum aquifolium.

  17. Seasonal variations in biochemical composition of some seaweeds from Goa coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Rajagopal, M.D.; Wafar, M.V.M.

    high in H. musciformis, whereas P. tetrastromatica, C. media and U. fasciata were rich in protein. The biochemical constituents in general did not show marked seasonal variations and it was attributed to the reproductive pattern of the algae studied...

  18. Halocarbon emissions by selected tropical seaweeds: species-specific and compound-specific responses under changing pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithoo-Singh, Paramjeet Kaur; Keng, Fiona S-L; Phang, Siew-Moi; Leedham Elvidge, Emma C; Sturges, William T; Malin, Gill; Abd Rahman, Noorsaadah

    2017-01-01

    Five tropical seaweeds, Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty ex P.C. Silva, Padina australis Hauck, Sargassum binderi Sonder ex J. Agardh (syn. S. aquifolium (Turner) C. Agardh), Sargassum siliquosum J. Agardh and Turbinaria conoides (J. Agardh) Kützing, were incubated in seawater of pH 8.0, 7.8 (ambient), 7.6, 7.4 and 7.2, to study the effects of changing seawater pH on halocarbon emissions. Eight halocarbon species known to be emitted by seaweeds were investigated: bromoform (CHBr 3 ), dibro-momethane (CH 2 Br 2 ), iodomethane (CH 3 I), diiodomethane (CH 2 I 2 ), bromoiodomethane (CH 2 BrI), bromochlorometh-ane (CH 2 BrCl), bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl 2 ), and dibro-mochloromethane (CHBr 2 Cl). These very short-lived halocarbon gases are believed to contribute to stratospheric halogen concentrations if released in the tropics. It was observed that the seaweeds emit all eight halocarbons assayed, with the exception of K. alvarezii and S. binderi for CH 2 I 2 and CH 3 I respectively, which were not measurable at the achievable limit of detection. The effect of pH on halocarbon emission by the seaweeds was shown to be species-specific and compound specific. The highest percentage changes in emissions for the halocarbons of interest were observed at the lower pH levels of 7.2 and 7.4 especially in Padina australis and Sargassum spp., showing that lower seawater pH causes elevated emissions of some halocarbon compounds. In general the seaweed least affected by pH change in terms of types of halocarbon emission, was P. australis . The commercially farmed seaweed K. alvarezii was very sensitive to pH change as shown by the high increases in most of the compounds in all pH levels relative to ambient. In terms of percentage decrease in maximum quantum yield of photosynthesis ( F v ∕ F m ) prior to and after incubation, there were no significant correlations with the various pH levels tested for all seaweeds. The correlation between percentage decrease in the maximum

  19. Halocarbon emissions by selected tropical seaweeds: species-specific and compound-specific responses under changing pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramjeet Kaur Mithoo-Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Five tropical seaweeds, Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty Doty ex P.C. Silva, Padina australis Hauck, Sargassum binderi Sonder ex J. Agardh (syn. S. aquifolium (Turner C. Agardh, Sargassum siliquosum J. Agardh and Turbinaria conoides (J. Agardh Kützing, were incubated in seawater of pH 8.0, 7.8 (ambient, 7.6, 7.4 and 7.2, to study the effects of changing seawater pH on halocarbon emissions. Eight halocarbon species known to be emitted by seaweeds were investigated: bromoform (CHBr3, dibro­momethane (CH2Br2, iodomethane (CH3I, diiodomethane (CH2I2, bromoiodomethane (CH2BrI, bromochlorometh­ane (CH2BrCl, bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl2, and dibro­mochloromethane (CHBr2Cl. These very short-lived halocarbon gases are believed to contribute to stratospheric halogen concentrations if released in the tropics. It was observed that the seaweeds emit all eight halocarbons assayed, with the exception of K. alvarezii and S. binderi for CH2I2 and CH3I respectively, which were not measurable at the achievable limit of detection. The effect of pH on halocarbon emission by the seaweeds was shown to be species-specific and compound specific. The highest percentage changes in emissions for the halocarbons of interest were observed at the lower pH levels of 7.2 and 7.4 especially in Padina australis and Sargassum spp., showing that lower seawater pH causes elevated emissions of some halocarbon compounds. In general the seaweed least affected by pH change in terms of types of halocarbon emission, was P. australis. The commercially farmed seaweed K. alvarezii was very sensitive to pH change as shown by the high increases in most of the compounds in all pH levels relative to ambient. In terms of percentage decrease in maximum quantum yield of photosynthesis (Fv∕Fm prior to and after incubation, there were no significant correlations with the various pH levels tested for all seaweeds. The correlation between percentage decrease in the maximum quantum yield of

  20. Assessment of in vitro antitumoral and antimicrobial activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of in vitro antitumoral and antimicrobial activities of marine algae harvested from the eastern Mediterranean sea. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... algal extracts obtained from the marine algae Scytosiphon lomentaria, Padina pavonica, Cystoseira mediterranea (Phaeophyceae), Hypnea musciformis and ...

  1. New records of marine water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia: Pontarachnidae) from the Pujada Bay (West Pacific Ocean) and the Andaman Sea (Indian Ocean)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pesic, V.; Chatterjee, T.; Troch, M. de; Ingole, B.S.

    sabangensis Viets, 1984 are known from India and the Philippines, respectively. Materials examined in the present study were collected among sea grasses Thalassia hemprichii (Pujada Bay) and marine macroalgae, Padina (Andaman Sea). The collected sea grasses...

  2. Studies on structure and organization of calcium carbonate deposits in algae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kerkar, V.; Untawale, A.G.

    The structure and organization of calcium carbonate deposits is studied in species of Halimeda, Udotea, Neomeris (Chlorophyta) and Padina (Phaeophyta). It was found that in Halimeda aragonite deposition takes place outside the cell wall...

  3. Inhibition of the development of pathogenic fungi by extracts of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The different marine algae belonged to Chlorophyta (Enteromorpha prolifera and Ulva reticulata), Phaeophyta (Cystoseira myrica, Padina pavonica, Sargassum portieriatum and Turbinaria triquetra) and Rhodophyta (Gracilaria multipartita). Algal extraction was achieved successively by using petroleum ether, diethyl ether, ...

  4. An improved filtered spherical harmonic method for transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, C.; Merton, S.

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the work of R. G. McClarren, C. D. Hauck, and R. B. Lowrie on a filtered spherical harmonic method, we present a new filter for such numerical approximations to the multi-dimensional transport equation. In several test problems, we demonstrate that the new filter produces results with significantly less Gibbs phenomena than the filter used by McClarren, Hauck and Lowrie. This reduction in Gibbs phenomena translates into propagation speeds that more closely match the correct propagation speed and solutions that have fewer regions where the scalar flux is negative. (authors)

  5. Conceptualizing Accessibility for English Language Proficiency Assessments. Research Report. ETS RR-16-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Orth, Danielle; Laitusis, Cara; Thurlow, Martha; Christensen, Laurene

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the second in a series from Educational Testing Service (ETS) that conceptualizes next-generation English language proficiency (ELP) assessment systems for K-12 English learners (ELs) in the United States.The first paper articulated a high-level conceptualization of next-generation ELP assessment systems (Hauck, Wolf, & Mislevy,…

  6. STS-26 crew on fixed based (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS) flight deck

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Commander Frederick H. Hauck (left) and Pilot Richard O. Covey review checklists in their respective stations on the foward flight deck. The STS-26 crew is training in the fixed base (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS) located in JSC Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5.

  7. Assessment of genetic diversity in Indian rice germplasm (Oryza ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-12-11

    Dec 11, 2013 ... 3Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Rice Breeding and Genetics Research Centre, Aduthurai 612 101, India ..... Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology; IRRI, Inter- ..... 83–91, Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station, ... Temnykh S., Park D. W., Ayres N., Cartinhour S., Hauck N.,.

  8. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NWUuser

    2013-09-12

    Sep 12, 2013 ... Afr J Mar Sci 503; Gen N 434 in GG 36413 of 25 April 2013 1-2; Hauck and Sowman Waves of. Change .... definition of the term in the MLRA emphasises the element of consumptive use as ... In other words, fishing activities are ... fishers that is the primary focus of this contribution and it is therefore useful to.

  9. Antimicrobial Activities of Bacteria Associated with the Brown Alga

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismail, A.; Ktari, L.; Bolhuis, H.; Ahmed, M.; Boudabbous, A.; Stal, L.J.; Cretoiu, M.S.; El Bour, M.

    2016-01-01

    Macroalgae belonging to the genus Padina are known to produce antibacterial compounds that may inhibit growth of human- and animal pathogens. Hitherto, it was unclear whether this antibacterial activity is produced by the macroalga itself or by secondary metabolite producing epiphytic bacteria. Here

  10. 017-028 Mamboya.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract—Accumulation and the effects of copper and zinc on the macroalga Padina gymnospora ... Heavy metals are toxic to both plants and animals and since they are not ... pH 8.0, temperature 26 ºC, salinity 36 psu, nitrate ..... common uptake mechanism and/or binding site. ..... Resistance gene-dependent plant defence.

  11. A non-pharmacological intervention to manage behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia and reduce caregiver distress: Design and methods of project ACT3

    OpenAIRE

    Gitlin, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Laura N Gitlin1, Laraine Winter1, Marie P Dennis1, Walter W Hauck21Center for Applied Research on Aging and Health (CARAH), Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Formely Division of Biostatistics, Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Currently Sycamore Consulting, LLC New Hope, PA, USA; 3Funded by the National Institute on Aging and the National Institute on Nursing Research (Grant # R01 AG22254). Clinical...

  12. STS-26 crew trains in JSC fixed-based (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, crewmembers (left to right) Commander Frederick H. Hauck, Pilot Richard O. Covey, Mission Specialist (MS) George D. Nelson, MS David C. Hilmers, and MS John M. Lounge pose on the middeck in fixed-based (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS) located in JSC Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5. A simulation for their anticipated June 1988 flight began 10-20-87.

  13. Attitudes Of Generation Y Towards Luxury Products And Youth-Led Change In Luxury Consumption Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Yazıcı, Belgin

    2016-01-01

    To many people luxury products were once considered hard to access and a privilege to use. Luxury used to mean a product or service only accessible by a small group of people, a product or service that was scarce (Nueno & Quelceh, 1998). However, luxury products have now become more affordable to more consumers, especially for consumers from the middle class who access more money than ever before (Hauck & Stanforth, 2007) and therefore luxury brands have the chance to flourish and...

  14. Novel Anticonvulsant Analogs of Dextromethorphan: Improved Efficacy, Potency, Duration and Side-Effect Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    dextromethorphan (014, [+J-3-aethyl-l7-methylmorphinan) may be, in part, due to its ____________________metabolism to the PCP-like compound... Dextromethorphan : Improved Efficacy, Potency, Duration and Side-Effect Profile1 FRANK C. TORTELLA, LYDIA ROBLES, JEFFREY M. WITKIN and AMY HAUCK NEWMAN... dextromethorphan ; NMDA, N-methyl-D-aspartate; PCP, phencyclidine hydrochloride; DX, dextrorphan; AHN649, [(+)-3- amino-1 7-methylmorphinan]; AHN1 -036

  15. POTENSI RUMPUT LAUT DI PANTAI BAYAH, KABUPATEN LEBAK, BANTEN SEBAGAI ANTIBAKTERI Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triastinurmiatiningsih Triastinurmiatiningsih

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial potency of some seaweed against Escherichia coli has been known. The aim of this research is to know the species of seaweeds from Bayah beach Lebak Banten which may be used as antibacterial against Escherichia coli. Twenty one seaweed species samples from Bayah Beach Lebak Banten were exstracted by organic solvent of absolute methanol according to Espeche, Fraile, and Mayer (1984 and Darusman, Sayuti, Komar & Pamungkas (1992 methods. The antibacterial activities were examined by means of Kirby-Bauer or diffusion method. The results showed antibacterial activities occur from the extract of Boodlea composite, Chaetomorpha crassa, Ulva fasciata, Sargassum crustaefolium, Padina australis and Halimeda gracilis. Sofar, Padina australis extract had shown better inhibitory activities than others.

  16. Pigments Characterization and Molecular Identification of Bacterial Symbionts of Brown Algae Padinasp. Collected from Karimunjawa Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damar Bayu Murti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The search for carotenoids in nature has been extensively studied because of their applications in foods. One treasure of the biopigment source is symbiotic-microorganisms with marine biota. The advantages of symbiont bacteria are easy to culture and sensitize pigments. The use of symbiont bacteria helps to conserve fish, coral reefs, seagrass, and seaweed. Therefore, the bacteria keeps their existence in their ecosystems. In this study, bacterial symbionts were successfully isolated from brown algae Padina sp. The bacterial symbionts had yellow pigment associated with carotenoids. The pigments were characterized using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC with a Photo Diode Array (PDA detector. The carotenoid pigments in the bacterial symbionts were identified as dinoxanthin, lutein and neoxanthin. Molecular identification by using a 16S rRNA gene sequence method, reveals that the bacterial symbionts were closely related to Bacillus marisflavi with a homology of 99%. Keywords :carotenoid pigments, brown algae, Padina, bacterial symbionts, 16S rRNA

  17. TOXICITY PROPENSITIES OF SOME MARINE AND FRESH-WATERALGAE AS THEIR CHEMICAL DEFENSE

    OpenAIRE

    ORHAN, İlkay; WISESPONGPAND, Puntip; ATICI, Tahir; ŞENER, Bilge

    2003-01-01

    Five species of the marine brown-algae, namely Halopteris scoparia (L.) Sauvagau, Padina vickersiae Hoyt, Dictyota dichotoma (Huds) Lam., Scinaia furcellata L., and Sargassum natans (L.) J. Meyer, a species of the marine green-alga, Ulva lactuca L., a species of the sea grass, Posidonia oceanica L., six species of fresh-water green-algae, namely Vaucheria sessilis (Vauch.) De Candolle, Zygnema pectinatum (Vauch.) C.A. Agardh, Maugeotia sp. (C.A. Agardh) Wittrock, Cladophora fracta (Dilw.) Kti...

  18. Vulnerability and acclimation of Mediterranean Sea macroalgae, to environmental stress related to climate change: use of indicators physiological state = Vulnerabilidad y aclimatación de macroalgas del Mar Mediterráneo, frente al estrés ambiental derivado del Cambio Climático: uso de indicadores del estado fisiológico

    OpenAIRE

    Celis Plá, Paula Soledad María

    2015-01-01

    [eng] In this thesis, the vulnerability and capacity of acclimation to environmental stress related to Climate change mainly in Cystoseira tamariscifolia and other species as Ellisolandia elongata, Cystoseira compressa and Padina pavonica are evaluated. The effects of physical stressors as elevated irradiance of PAR (lambda=400-700 nm) and UVR (lambda=280-400 nm) and temperature and chemical stressors as nutrient, heavy metals and CO2, separately and in interaction with different levels were...

  19. Keanekaragaman dan Kerapatan Rumput Laut Alami Perairan Pulau Serangan Denpasar Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Desak Putu Dita Herlinawati

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Serangan Island was a costal area located in the Serangan village, South Denpasar district, near with Sanur and Nusa Dua tourism area. Serangan beach has a biodiversity such as natural macroalgae. This study was conducted in January 2017 at the seaweed cultivation area with the aims of research were to know the variety and density of macroalgae. The method used was a 1x1 m quadrat transect. Sampling was carried out during low tide. Macroalgae found in the area, consist of 12 species namely Ulva lactuca, Chaetomorpha linum. Chaetomorpha aera, Padina australis, Sargassum fluitans, Turbinaria ornate, Gelidium sp., Hypnea cornuta, Hypnea spicifera, Gracilaria salicornia, Acanthophora spicifera, Halimeda opuntia. Those species were belonging to 3 divisi namely Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta, Rhodophyta. The highest density of macroalgae was Padina australis while the lowest density was Chaetomorpha linum. Type of dominated macroalgae was from a group of Phaeophyta (brown algae with highest dominance from the species of Padina australis. Water quality namely acidity (pH was in the range of 7.54 to 7.75, salinity of 31.33-32.00 ppt, the water temperature was 26.50-27.30? C, which all was categorized as the optimal parameters for the growth of macroalgae. Assosiation of biota found were 9 species namely fish of larva, Cypraea lynx (Molusca, Emerita sp., Halodule sp., Synapta maculate, Enhalus acoroides, Cymodocea serrulata, Hermit crab, Ophiuroidea sp. The conditions coastal waters substrate was varied from white sand stone type to stony type by coral pieces.

  20. Naive Physics, Event Perception, Lexical Semantics, and Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    phenomenological primitive. E. J. Gibson, Owsley. Walker . and Megaw-Nyce (1979) found that 3-month-old 156 CHAPTER 8. EVENT PERCEPTION infants extract...Structure-miapping: A theoretical framework for aiialogy. (uugnitu-t>’i 7(2):155-170, April-June 1983. [39] E. J. Gibson. C. J. Owsley, A. Walker ...editor. Thought withoit Lan guagi, chapter 7, pages 168- 184. Clarendon Press. 1988. [90] Jess Stein, Leonore C’. Hauck, and P. Y. Sn. editors. 7’h

  1. Reconfigurable computing the theory and practice of FPGA-based computation

    CERN Document Server

    Hauck, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Reconfigurable Computing marks a revolutionary and hot topic that bridges the gap between the separate worlds of hardware and software design- the key feature of reconfigurable computing is its groundbreaking ability to perform computations in hardware to increase performance while retaining the flexibility of a software solution. Reconfigurable computers serve as affordable, fast, and accurate tools for developing designs ranging from single chip architectures to multi-chip and embedded systems. Scott Hauck and Andre DeHon have assembled a group of the key experts in the fields of both hardwa

  2. Isolation of bioactive compound from marine seaweeds against fish pathogenic bacteria Vibrio alginolyticus (VA09 and characterisation by FTIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasekar Thirunavukkarasu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Fresh marine seaweeds Gracilaria edulis, Gracillaria verrcosa, Acanthospora spicifera, Ulva facita, Ulva lacta (U. lacta, Kappaphycus spicifera, Sargassum ilicifolium, Sargassum wightii (S. wightii, Padina tetramatica and Padina gymonospora were collected from Mandapam (Rameshwaram, Tamil Nadu of South East coast of India and were screened for antibacterial activity. Methods: All the collected seaweeds were extracted by using five different solvent (methanol, isopropanol, acetone, chloroform, diethyl ether to study their extracts against fish pathogenic bacteria V. alginolyticus (VA09 purchased from MTCC. And minimum inhibition carried out by using Resazurin micro-titre assay. Crude extract of S. wightii analysied by FTIR. Results: The methanolic extract of S. wightii produced a maximum zone of inhibition (1.95±0.11 cm, isopropanol extract maximum inhibition was produced by S. wightii (1.93±0.78 cm, Acetone extract of Gracilaria verrcosa showed maximum zone of inhibition (1.36±0.05 cm, chloroform extract of S. wightii produced a maximum zone (1.56±0.25 cm and diethyl ether extract of S. wightii produced maximum zone of inhibition(1.86±0.11 cm. Based on the antibacterial activity S. wightii, U. lacta and Padina tetramatica showed best antibacterial activity against Vibrio harveyi. In this three seaweeds were taken for MIC study. The S. wightii methanolic extract, U. lacta diethyl ether extract and Padina tetramatica methanolic extract showed a higher MIC values, and despectively were 25 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL and 50 mg/mL. FTIR result showed that mostly phenolic compounds were present in the S. wightii. Conclusions: Based on the FTIR result S. wightii have high amount of phenolic compound. Phenolic compound have the good antimicrobial activity. The results clearly show that seaweed S. wightii is an interesting source for biologically active compounds that may be applied for prophylaxis and therapy of bacterial fish diseases and it should

  3. Seaweed fails to prevent ocean acidification impact on foraminifera along a shallow-water CO2 gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Laura R; Smart, Christopher W; Hart, Malcolm B; Milazzo, Marco; Hall-Spencer, Jason M

    2015-05-01

    Ocean acidification causes biodiversity loss, alters ecosystems, and may impact food security, as shells of small organisms dissolve easily in corrosive waters. There is a suggestion that photosynthetic organisms could mitigate ocean acidification on a local scale, through seagrass protection or seaweed cultivation, as net ecosystem organic production raises the saturation state of calcium carbonate making seawater less corrosive. Here, we used a natural gradient in calcium carbonate saturation, caused by shallow-water CO2 seeps in the Mediterranean Sea, to assess whether seaweed that is resistant to acidification (Padina pavonica) could prevent adverse effects of acidification on epiphytic foraminifera. We found a reduction in the number of species of foraminifera as calcium carbonate saturation state fell and that the assemblage shifted from one dominated by calcareous species at reference sites (pH ∼8.19) to one dominated by agglutinated foraminifera at elevated levels of CO2 (pH ∼7.71). It is expected that ocean acidification will result in changes in foraminiferal assemblage composition and agglutinated forms may become more prevalent. Although Padina did not prevent adverse effects of ocean acidification, high biomass stands of seagrass or seaweed farms might be more successful in protecting epiphytic foraminifera.

  4. Pseudoderbesia, nuevo género de algas marinas (Bryopsidaceae, Chlorophyta Pseudoderbesia, nuevo género de algas marinas (Bryopsidaceae, Chlorophyta

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    Calderon Eduardo

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Se aislaron cuatro clones de Pseudoderbesia y se mantuvieron como cultivos unialgales: dos provenientes de la Costa Colombiana del Caribe (P. arbuscula y dos de las Islas Canarias en el Océano Atlántico (Pseudoderbesia sp.. Aunque se conoce solo la fase gametofítica, hay razones suficientes para el establecimiento de un nuevo género. Se describe y discute el crecimiento, variabilidad, producción bajo condiciones de cultivo. Se sugiere la posibilidad que ciertas especies de Derbesia que poseen ramificación dicotómica y filamentos gradualmente atenuados, como D. fastigiata, D. attenuata y D. padinae, sean realmente miembros de Pseudoderbesia. Pseudoderbesia is described as a new genus within the Bryopsidaceae. Four clones of Pseudoderbesia were isolated and kept as unialgal cultures: two from the Caribbean coast of Colombia (P. arbuscula and two from the Canary Islands, Atlantic Ocean (Pseudoderbesia sp.. Although only the gametophytic phase is known, it is distinct enough for the establishement of a new genus. Growth, variability and swarmer production, under culture conditions, are described and discussed. It is suggested, that some little known species of Derbesia with dichotomous branching and gradually attenuated filaments, like D. fastigiata, D. attenuata and D. padinae, could actually be members of Pseudoderbesia.

  5. Observation of Wild Seaweed Species in Labuhanbua Waters, Indonesia: a preliminary assessment for aquaculture development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlania .

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed industry has been growing up and is supplied by either wild or cultivated seaweed crops. This study was aimed to present relevant information regarding ecological availability of wild seaweed in Labuhanbua coastal waters, Sumbawa Regency, West Nusa Tenggara and potential use of important species as candidate species for aquaculture. 46 sampling stations were determined along line transects perpendicular to coastal line; and seaweeds sampling were conducted during low tide by using 1 x 1 m2 quadrat transect. Field data consist of in-situ parameter including number of seaweed species and coverage area of each species; and ex-situ parameters consist of carbohydrate, protein, total C, total N, and total P content of seaweeds. The results showed that 33 species were found and three species has the most widely distribu tion, i.e. Padina sp., Dictyota dichotoma, and Gracilaria salicornia. Turbinaria, Dictyota, Padina, Stoechospermum, Hydroclathrus, Halimeda, and Chaetomorpha might be some important species that could be develop as aquaculture species candidates among other uncultivated species that were found along this study location. They have potencies as human food, livestock feed, neutraceuicals, cosmetics, pulp, textile, biofuel and any other industries; but conversely, they were found in lower density at Labuhanbua coastal waters. These species should be develop through aquaculture technology, involve genetic improvement and possibly genetic engineering. Commercial scale cultivation of those important seaweed species will contribute to industrial needs and prevent decreasing of wild seaweed availability in natural ecosystem.

  6. Studies on in-vitro antioxidant activity of marine edible seaweeds from the east coastal region of Peninsular Malaysia using different extraction methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tam Siow Foon

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the antioxidant activity of two edible marine seaweeds Eucheuma cottonii and Padina sp.. Methods: The two extraction methods such as conventional and soxhlet extraction were used to isolate the secondary metabolites using methanol as a solvent medium. Total phenolic content of crude seaweeds extract were analysed by standard FC method. The different antioxidant assays DPPH, ferric reducing antioxidant power and β-carotene bleaching assays confirmed the antioxidant activities. Results: DPPH and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays showed the positive correlation with expressed higher total phenolic content in the seaweeds extract. Also β-carotene bleaching assay lower activity compare with BHT as reference control. Additionally IR spectra showed the phenolic related functional groups are present in the solvent extract. The phenolic related compounds are mainly responsible for higher rate of antioxidant activity. Conclusions: The methanolic extracts of Padina sp. showed better radical scavenging and higher phenolic contents than the Eucheuma cottonii. And also the soxhlet extraction showed higher yield and better radical scavenging activity compared to conventional method. Moreover the studies confirmed both seaweeds are an effective candidate for the control the free radical scavenging activity.

  7. Calibration of a geophysically based model using soil moisture measurements in mountainous terrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellet, Cécile; Hilbich, Christin; Marmy, Antoine; Hauck, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The use of geophysical methods in the field of permafrost research is well established and crucial since it is the only way to infer the composition of the subsurface material. Since geophysical measurements are indirect, ambiguities in the interpretation of the results can arise, hence the simultaneous use of several methods (e.g. electrical resistivity tomography and refraction seismics) is often necessary. The so-called four-phase model, 4PM (Hauck et al., 2011) constitutes a further step towards clarification of interpretation from geophysical measurements. It uses two well-known petrophysical relationships, namely Archie's law and an extension of Timur's time-averaged equation for seismic P-wave velocities, to quantitatively estimate the different phase contents (air, water and ice) in the ground from tomographic electric and seismic measurements. In this study, soil moisture measurements were used to calibrate the 4PM in order to assess the spatial distribution of water, ice and air content in the ground at three high elevation sites with different ground properties and thermal regimes. The datasets used here were collected as part of the SNF-project SOMOMOUNT. Within the framework of this project a network of six entirely automated soil moisture stations was installed in Switzerland along an altitudinal gradient ranging from 1'200 m. a.s.l. to 3'400 m. a.s.l. The standard instrumentation of each station comprises the installation of Frequency Domain Reflectometry (FDR) and Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) sensors for long term monitoring coupled with repeated Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and Refraction Seismic Tomography (RST) as well as spatial FDR (S-FDR) measurements. The use of spatially distributed soil moisture data significantly improved the 4PM calibration process and a semi-automatic calibration scheme was developed. This procedure was then tested at three different locations, yielding satisfactory two dimensional distributions of water

  8. A new spherical harmonics scheme for multi-dimensional radiation transport I. Static matter configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radice, David; Abdikamalov, Ernazar; Rezzolla, Luciano; Ott, Christian D.

    2013-01-01

    Recent work by McClarren and Hauck (2010) [31] suggests that the filtered spherical harmonics method represents an efficient, robust, and accurate method for radiation transport, at least in the two-dimensional (2D) case. We extend their work to the three-dimensional (3D) case and find that all of the advantages of the filtering approach identified in 2D are present also in the 3D case. We reformulate the filter operation in a way that is independent of the timestep and of the spatial discretization. We also explore different second- and fourth-order filters and find that the second-order ones yield significantly better results. Overall, our findings suggest that the filtered spherical harmonics approach represents a very promising method for 3D radiation transport calculations

  9. Aportación a la flora bentónica de las Islas Baleares. IV. Flora de Ibiza

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    Rull Lluch, J.

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study 21 taxa from different places in Ibiza are presented. 13 of the mare a new references for the Balearic archipelago and the rest are quite unknown species in these islands. The most important record is Discosporangium mesarthrocarpum (Falkenb. Hauk, until now unknown in the Spanish Mediterranean coast and very seldom reported in the rest of the Mediterranean.

    En este trabajo se presentan 21 táxones procedentes de diferentes localidades de la isla de Ibiza, 13 de los cuales suponen nuevas citas para el archipiélago balear y los restantes son especies poco conocidas en estas islas. Se destaca Discosporangium mesarthrocarpum (Falkenb. Hauck, desconocida hasta ahora en las costas mediterráneas españolas y escasamente citada en el resto de este mar.

  10. A new spherical harmonics scheme for multi-dimensional radiation transport I. Static matter configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radice, David, E-mail: david.radice@aei.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute für Gravitationsphysik, Albert Einstein Institute, Potsdam (Germany); Abdikamalov, Ernazar [TAPIR, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Rezzolla, Luciano [Max Planck Institute für Gravitationsphysik, Albert Einstein Institute, Potsdam (Germany); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Ott, Christian D. [TAPIR, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Recent work by McClarren and Hauck (2010) [31] suggests that the filtered spherical harmonics method represents an efficient, robust, and accurate method for radiation transport, at least in the two-dimensional (2D) case. We extend their work to the three-dimensional (3D) case and find that all of the advantages of the filtering approach identified in 2D are present also in the 3D case. We reformulate the filter operation in a way that is independent of the timestep and of the spatial discretization. We also explore different second- and fourth-order filters and find that the second-order ones yield significantly better results. Overall, our findings suggest that the filtered spherical harmonics approach represents a very promising method for 3D radiation transport calculations.

  11. Tropical Atlantic marine macroalgae with bioactivity against virulent and antibiotic resistant Vibrio

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    Giselle Cristina Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activity of ethanol, methanol, hexane and acetone-based extracts of the macroalgae Padina gymnospora (PG, Hypnea musciformes (HM, Ulva fasciata (UF and Caulerpa prolifera (CP was investigated. The disk diffusion method was used to evaluate the algae antimicrobial effect against standard strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enterica and five virulent antibiotic-resistant strains of V. brasiliensis, V. xuii and V. navarrensis (isolated from the hemolymph of Litopenaeus vannamei. Ethanol extracts of PG and HM inhibited all Vibrio strains. E. coli and P. aeruginosa were only susceptible to ethanol extracts of PG. Among the methanol extracts, only UF was bioactive, inhibiting V. navarrensis. The observed inhibitory effect of ethanol extracts of PG, HM and UF against virulent antibiotic-resistant bacteria suggests these macroalgal species constitute a potential source of bioactive compounds.

  12. Antalya İli Batı Kıyıları (Lara – Kalkan'nın Ekonomik Amaçlı Deniz Algleri

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    Furkan DURUCAN

    2014-12-01

    Abstract: This study has been carried out with seasonal samples in five stations in order to determine commercial seaweed in west coast of Antalya Province (Lara, Phaselis, Beymelek, Kaş, Kalkan. At the end of study, Rhodophyta (Corallina elongata Ellis & Solander, Corallina officinalis (Linnaeus, Gelidium capillaceum (S.G. Gmelin Kützing, Gelidium latifolium (Greville Bornet & Thuret, Jania adhaerens Lamouroux, Jania rubens (Linnaeus Lamouroux, Porphyra leucosticta Thuret, Heterokontophyta (Cystoseira compressa (Esper Gerloff et Nizamuddin, Cystoseira crinita Duby, Cystoseira elegans Sauvageau, Cystoseira spinosa Sauvageau, Cystoseira stricta (Montagne Sauvageau, Padina pavonica (Linnaeus Thivy, Sargassum vulgare C. Agardh, Chlorophyta (Enteromorpha intestinalis (L. Nees, Gayralia oxysperma (Kützing K.L. Vinogradova ex Scagel et al. ve Ulva lactuca Linnaeus. Species belong to the families have been determined as an important economic potential in this region. Key Words: Mediterranean, Antalya, seaweeds for economic purposing

  13. Occurrence of the Spotted Sea Hare Aplysia dactylomela (Rang 1828, Aplysiidae in the Yeşilovacık Bay, Norteastern Mediterranean Coast of Turkey

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    Deniz Ayas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The first record of the A. dactylomela from the Mediterranean Sea, in the Strait of Sicily waters was reported in 2002 (Trainito, 2003. Some reports of the A. dactylomela are given in the Mediterranean Sea in Table 1. A specimen of spotted sea hare was seen in a rock pool which was covered with algea. It was first recorded from Yeşilovacık Bay in 2017. Previous record of the species was noted in the Hatay coast of Turkey (Çinar et al. 2006. The present rapid communication reported the first record of A. dactylomela from the Yeşilovacık Bay. One specimen of A. dactylomela was photographed at the infralittoral zone of the Bay on 26 March, 2017, at a depth of 1 m in a rock pool togetter with Padina pavonica (Linnaeus and other algea.

  14. Seasonal proximate and fatty acid variations of some seaweeds from the northeastern Mediterranean coast

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    Sevim Polat

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal nutritional value of red (Jania rubens, Laurencia papillosa, Spyridia filamentosa and Dasya rigidula and brown macroalgae (Padina pavonia and Stypopodium schimperi was evaluated as a dietary supplement for human and animal nutrition based on proximate and fatty acid profiles. The protein content varied from 0.80% (L. papillosa to 3.41% (J. rubens of wet weight with the highest values in winter. The highest lipid levels were recorded in S. schimperi (2.03% in spring, 2.16% in summer, the lowest in S. filamentosa (0.08% in spring. The ash content of J. rubens (46.11-51.63% was significantly higher than that of the other species (2.28-16.57%. Analysis of the fatty acid composition showed that these seaweed species are very rich in n-3 fatty acids.

  15. Brown algae overproduce cell wall polysaccharides as a protection mechanism against the heavy metal toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Leonardo R.; Leal, Raquel N.; Noseda, Miguel; Duarte, Maria Eugenia R.; Pereira, Mariana S.; Mourao, Paulo A.S.; Farina, Marcos; Amado Filho, Gilberto M.

    2010-01-01

    Brown algae are often used as heavy metal biomonitors and biosorbents because they can accumulate high concentrations of metals. Cation-exchange performed by cell wall polysaccharides is pointed out as the main chemical mechanism for the metal sequestration. Here, we biochemically investigated if the brown alga Padina gymnospora living in a heavy metal contaminated area would modify their polysaccharidic content. We exposed non-living biomass to Cd and Pb and studied the metals adsorption and localization. We found that raw dried polysaccharides, sulfate groups, uronic acids, fucose, mannose, and galactose were significantly higher in contaminated algae compared with the control ones. Metal concentrations adsorbed by non-living biomass were rising comparatively to the tested concentrations. Electron microscopy showed numerous granules in the cell walls and X-ray microanalysis revealed Cd as the main element. We concluded that P. gymnospora overproduces cell wall polysaccharides when exposed to high metal concentrations as a defense mechanism.

  16. Interspecific variation in total phenolic content in temperate brown algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Mannino

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine algae synthesize secondary metabolites such as polyphenols that function as defense and protection mechanisms. Among brown algae, Fucales and Dictyotales (Phaeophyceae contain the highest levels of phenolic compounds, mainly phlorotannins, that play multiple roles. Four temperate brown algae (Cystoseira amentacea, Cystoseira compressa, Dictyopteris polypodioides and Padina pavonica were studied for total phenolic contents. Total phenolic content was determined colorimetrically with the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Significant differences in total phenolic content were observed between leathery and sheetlike algae and also within each morphological group. Among the four species, the sheet-like alga D. polypodioides, living in the upper infralittoral zone, showed the highest concentration of phenolic compounds. These results are in agreement with the hypothesis that total phenolic content in temperate brown algae is influenced by a combination of several factors, such as growth form, depth, and exposition to solar radiation.

  17. Ecologia populacional dos Amphipoda (Crustacea dos fitais de Caiobá, Matinhos, Paraná, Brasil Population ecolocy of Amphipoda (Crustacea from the phytals of Caiobá, Matinhos, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete Dubiaski-Silva

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Spalial and temporal density distributions of Amphipoda from the phytals of Caiobá are described. Air temperature oscillated from 16ºC (August and May to 23ºC (March, surface water temperature from 17ºC (August to 25ºC (March and the salinity from 29.3‰ (May to 32.8‰ (August. Two samples of 25cm² (for algae less than 5cm long, 100 cm² (for algae between 5-10cm long and whole plants (for algae more than 10cm long were removed with a spatula from the rocky surface at Caiobá Beach, in August/86, November/86, March/87 and May/87. After sorting, the algal substrata were weighted, their adsorption coefficient calculated and the sediment retained among the thallii weighted. The average distance between the branching was measured for all branched algae. The densities were calculated in relation to the weight of the algal substrate in grams. Eight phytals were considered: Ulva fasciata Delile, Padina gymnospora (Kútzing Vickers, Sargassum cymosum Garth, Porphyra atropurpurea (Olivi De Toni, Gelidium sp., Gymnogongrus griffithsiae (Turner Martius, Pterocladia capillacea (Gmelin Bornet &Thurel and Pterosiphonia pennata (Roth Falkenberg, over which nine Amphipoda species live: Ampithoe ramondi Audouin, 1816, Cymadusa filosa Savigny, 1852, Elasmopus pectenicrus Bate, 1857, Hyale media Dana, 1857, Hyale sp.l, Jassa falcata Montagu, 1895 and Sunampithoe pelagica H. Milne-Edwards, 1830 (Gammaridea. Caprella danilevskii Czerniavski, 1861 and Caprella penantis Leach, 1814 (Caprellidea. Amphipoda densities ranged from 0.27 ind.g-1 to 45.68. ind.g-1. The broad-thallii algae Porphyra, Ulva and Padina harbored lower densities of Amphipoda, whereas those finely branched Pterocladia, Pterosiphonia and Gymnogongrus, the highest values and the less branched Sargassum and Gelidium, intermediate values. The high densities found in the finely branched algae had as main contribution the juvenile recruiting of most Amphipoda. The tide level might have influenced

  18. DFT modeling of the electronic and magnetic structures and chemical bonding properties of intermetallic hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Alam, A.F.

    2009-06-01

    This thesis presents an ab initio study of several classes of intermetallics and their hydrides. These compounds are interesting from both a fundamental and an applied points of view. To achieve this aim two complementary methods, constructed within the DFT, were chosen: (i) pseudo potential based VASP for geometry optimization, structural investigations and electron localization mapping (ELF), and (ii) all-electrons ASW method for a detailed description of the electronic structure, chemical bonding properties following different schemes as well as quantities depending on core electrons such as the hyperfine field. A special interest is given with respect to the interplay between magneto-volume and chemical interactions (metal-H) effects within the following hydrided systems: binary Laves (e.g. ScFe 2 ) and Haucke (e.g. LaNi 5 ) phases on one hand, and ternary cerium based (e.g. CeRhSn) and uranium based (e.g. U 2 Ni 2 Sn) alloys on the other hand. (author)

  19. Magnesium-rich Basalts on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, L. M. V.

    2013-05-01

    X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers on NASA's MESSENGER spacecraft are making key measurements regarding the composition and properties of the surface of Mercury, allowing researchers to more clearly decipher the planet's formation and geologic history. The origin of the igneous rocks in the crust of Mercury is the focus of recent research by Karen Stockstill-Cahill and Tim McCoy (National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution), along with Larry Nittler and Shoshana Weider (Carnegie Institution of Washington) and Steven Hauck II (Case Western Reserve University). Using the well-known MELTS computer code Stockstill-Cahill and coauthors worked with MESSENGER-derived and rock-analog compositions to constrain petrologic models of the lavas that erupted on the surface of Mercury. Rock analogs included a partial melt of the Indarch meteorite and a range of Mg-rich terrestrial rocks. Their work shows the lavas on Mercury are most similar to terrestrial magnesian basalt (with lowered FeO content). The implications of the modeling are that Mg-rich lavas came from high-temperature sources in Mercury's mantle and erupted at high temperature with exceptionally low viscosity into thinly bedded and laterally extensive flows, concepts open to further evaluation by laboratory experiments and by geologic mapping of Mercury's surface using MESSENGER's imaging system and laser altimeter to document flow features and dimensions.

  20. Analysis of AtCry1 and Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Derek; Purvis, Adam; Ahmad, Margaret; Link, Justin J.; Engle, Dorothy

    Cryptochrome is an incredibly versatile protein that influences numerous biological processes such as plant growth, bird migration, and sleep cycles. Due to the versatility of this protein, understanding the mechanism would allow for advances in numerous fields such as crop growth, animal behavior, and sleep disorders. It is known that cryptochrome requires blue light to function, but the exact processes in the regulation of biological activity are still not fully understood. It is believed that the c-terminal domain of the protein undergoes a conformational change when exposed to blue light which allows for biological function. Three different non-functioning mutants were tested during this study to gain insight on the mechanism of cryptochrome. Absorbance spectra showed a difference between two of the mutants and the wild type with one mutant showing little difference. Immunoprecipitation experiments were also conducted to identify the different c-terminal responses of the mutants. By studying non functioning mutants of this protein, the mechanism of the protein can be further characterized. This two-month research experience in Paris allowed us to experience international and interdisciplinary collaborations in science and immerse in a different culture. The Borcer Fund for Student Research, Xavier University, Cincinnati, OH, and John Hauck Foundation.

  1. Osteosynthesis for symptomatic ulnar styloid nonunion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajiwara, Ryoji; Kimori, Kenji; Kawagoe, Hiroyuki; Tsuge, Kenya; Ikuta, Yosikazu

    2008-01-01

    We reviewed cases of osteosynthesis for symptomatic ulnar styloid nonunion. Since 1998, 13 cases of ulnar styloid nonunion have been treated by osteosynthesis. The patients were 10 men and 3 women, with a mean age of 27 years (range 11-65). The nonunion site was located in the middle in one case, in the base in 8 cases, and in the epiphyseal region in 4 cases. Osteosynthesis was performed with tension band wiring in all cases, and cancellous bone graft was performed in 12 of 13 cases. Distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability was found by radiograph or CT in four cases; in two of these, osteosynthesis alone did not improve DRUJ instability and additional DRUJ stabilization was performed. One patient whose treatment failed to correct nonunion did not seek further treatment. In another case, an additional surgery was performed 1 week after the initial surgery to correct displacement of the fragment. The mean follow-up period was 15 months (range 8-45 months). According to Hauck's criteria, final pain was evaluated as excellent in nine cases, good in three cases, including the case resulting in nonunion, and fair in one case. (author)

  2. Kecernaan In Vitro Fraksi Serat (NDF, ADF dan Selulosa Lima Jenis Rumput Laut Coklat dari Pantai Sungai Nipah Kabupaten Pesisir Selatan Sumatera Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.L. Dewi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kecernaan fraksi serat (NDF, ADF dan Selulosa lima jenis rumput laut coklat dari Pantai Sungai Nipah Kabupaten Pesisir Selatan Sumatera Barat secara in vitro. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode eksperimen dengan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK terdiri dari lima perlakuan rumput laut coklat yang berbeda jenis ( A = Padina australis, B = Turbinaria decurrens, C = Turbinaria murayana, D = Sargassum crassifolium dan E = Sargassum binderi dan masing-masing perlakuan diulang 3 kali sebagai kelompok. Kelompok didasarkan atas tiga kali pengambilan cairan rumen kambing yang berbeda. Parameter yang diamati pada penelitian ini adalah kecernaan NDF, kecernaan ADF dan kecernaan selulosa. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan 5 jenis rumput laut coklat berpengaruh sangat nyata (P<0,01 terhadap kecernaan NDF, kecernaan ADF dan kecernaan selulosa. Hasil penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa rumput laut Sargassum crassifolium dan Sargassum binderi memiliki kecernaan NDF tertinggi (15,65% dan 20,56% dan ADF tertinggi (15,43% dan 17,80% dibandingkan dengan jenis rumput laut coklat lainnya.

  3. Phytochemical analysis and antifungal activity of selected seaweeds from Okha coast, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaiah Nirmal Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To deal with the assessment of the chemical composition of carbohydrate, protein, phenol, flavanoid, chlorophyll, and carotenoid and antifungal activity of various marine seaweeds collected from Okha coast, Gujarat during September, 2013. Methods: Biochemical compounds of selected seaweeds were quantified and antifungal activity of these species belonging to red, green, and brown seaweeds was explored and the seaweeds were extracted in acetone, ethanol and chloroform. Results: The carbohydrate content was highest in Cystoseira indica Mairh, protein was highest in Gracilaria corticata J. Agardh and phenol content was highest in Padina boergesenii; flavanoid content was found greater in Cystoseira indica, chlorophyll content was found greater in Monostroma latissimum Wittrock and carotenoid content was more in Dictyopteris acrostichoides Bornet. The highest inhibiting effect was noted for Sargassum tenerrimum J. Agardh and Turbinaria ornata J. Agardh belonging to brown algae, against Aspergillus niger and Penicillium janthinellum in chloroform extracts and ethanolic extracts, which caused opportunistic infection of HIV-infected person, lung disease, aspergillosis, and otomycosis (fungal ear infections. Conclusions: The study reveals that the seaweeds contain high amount of biochemical constituents. Besides, the crude extracts of the seaweeds showed promising activity against the tested fungal pathogens. Therefore, seaweeds collected from Okha coast, Gujarat region are biochemical compounds with potential capacity which make them useful for screening natural products for pharmaceutical industry.

  4. Do the fluorescent red eyes of the marine fish Tripterygion delaisi stand out? In situ and in vivo measurements at two depths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harant, Ulrike K; Santon, Matteo; Bitton, Pierre-Paul; Wehrberger, Florian; Griessler, Thomas; Meadows, Melissa G; Champ, Connor M; Michiels, Nico K

    2018-05-01

    Since the discovery of red fluorescence in fish, much effort has been invested to elucidate its potential functions, one of them being signaling. This implies that the combination of red fluorescence and reflection should generate a visible contrast against the background. Here, we present in vivo iris radiance measurements of Tripterygion delaisi under natural light conditions at 5 and 20 m depth. We also measured substrate radiance of shaded and exposed foraging sites at those depths. To assess the visual contrast of the red iris against these substrates, we used the receptor noise model for chromatic contrasts and Michelson contrast for achromatic calculations. At 20 m depth, T. delaisi iris radiance generated strong achromatic contrasts against substrate radiance, regardless of exposure, and despite substrate fluorescence. Given that downwelling light above 600 nm is negligible at this depth, we can attribute this effect to iris fluorescence. Contrasts were weaker in 5 m. Yet, the pooled radiance caused by red reflection and fluorescence still exceeded substrate radiance for all substrates under shaded conditions and all but Jania rubens and Padina pavonia under exposed conditions. Due to the negative effects of anesthesia on iris fluorescence, these estimates are conservative. We conclude that the requirements to create visual brightness contrasts are fulfilled for a wide range of conditions in the natural environment of T. delaisi .

  5. Biochemical evaluation of antioxidant activity and polysaccharides fractions in seaweeds

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    A. Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study ethanol and water extracts of 15 seaweeds, Dictyota dichotoma var. velutricata, Dictyota indica, Iyengaria stellata, Padina pavonia, Sargassum swartzii, Sargassum variegatum, Stoechospermum marginatum, Stokeyia indica, Jolyna laminarioides, Caulerpa taxifolia, Halimeda tuna, Ulva fasciata, Ulva lactuca, Solieria robusta, and Melanothamnus afaqhusainii, were evaluated for their antioxidant potential by ABTS or 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid, superoxide and total antioxidant capacity (TAC assays.  The activity was concentration dependent and the variation in antioxidant potential was also observed by different assays in both extracts.  Ethanol extract of D. dichotoma var. velutricata, D. indica and S. marginatum demonstrated highest activity by TAC assay.  The antioxidant potential in organic solvent fractions of seaweeds namely P. pavonia, S. swartzii, S. marginatum and M. afaqhusainii was also determined and chloroform fraction of all the four seaweeds showed highest activity by superoxide assay.  Antioxidant activity of extracted fractions of polysaccharides from S. indica, C. taxifolia and D. dichotoma var. velutricata was also evaluated by superoxide method.  Polysaccharide fractions of S. indica obtained from HCl (at 700C and room temperature and water extract demonstrated highest activity respectively.  All the polysaccharide fractions of C. taxifolia showed excellent activity except CaClF70°C. Polysaccharide fractions of D. dichotoma var. velutricata also exhibited very good activity.

  6. A Cytotoxic Hydroperoxy Sterol from the Brown Alga, Nizamuddinia Zanardinii

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    Abdolhossein Rustaiyan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:The marine environment is a unique source of bioactive natural products, of which Nizamuddinia zanardinii is an important brown algae distributed in Oman Sea. Literature revealed that there is no report on phytochemistry and pharmacology of this valuable algae.Methods:Bioguided fractionation of the methanolic extract of Nizamuddinia zanardinii, collected from Oman Sea, led to the isolation of a hydroperoxy sterol. Its structure was determined by analysis of the spectroscopic data as 24-hydroperoxy-24-vinyl cholesterol (HVC. In vitro cytotoxic activity of this compound was evaluated against HT29, MCF7, A549, HepG2 and MDBK cell lines.Results:Although 24(R-hydroproxy-24-vinylcholesterol has been previously reported from Sargassum and Padina species, it is the first report on the presence of this compound from N. zanardinii. This compound exhibited cytotoxicity in all cell lines (IC50, 3.62, 9.09, 17.96, 32.31 and 37.31 μg/mL respectively. HVC was also evaluated for apoptotic activity and demonstrated positive results in terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP Nick End labeling (TUNEL assay suggesting it a candidate for further apoptotic studies.Conclusions:Nizamuddinia zanardinii, a remarkable brown algae of Oman Sea, is a good source of hydroproxy sterols with promising cytotoxic on various cell lines particularly human colon adenocarcinoma.

  7. In vitro investigating of anticancer activity of focuxanthin from marine brown seaweed species

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    M. Karkhane Yousefi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer type among women all over the world. Chemotherapy is the use of anticancer medicines for treating cancer but it has many side effects and cells may become resistant to these chemical medicines. Therefore, finding new compounds of natural origin could be a promising solution to this problem. The aim of the current study was to evaluate anticancer activity of fucoxanthin which is the most important carotenoid found in the marine brown seaweeds and diatoms. fucoxanthin has many properties (antioxidant, antibacterial, anticancer, antiobesity, anti-inflammatory and etc. due to its unique structure. Samples with different concentrations (10, 25 and 50 µg/ml and at various incubation times were collected (6, 24 and 48 hours from four different species (Padina tenuis, Colpomenia sinuosa, Iyengaria stellate and Dictyota indica of brown seaweeds from Qeshm Island, Persian Gulf. Moreover, the anticancer activity of fucoxanthin-containing extracts on breast cancer cells line and normal human skin fibroblast cells line was assessed by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide] assay to specify the cytotoxic effects. The results showed that fucoxanthin extract from Dictyota. indica at 24-hour treatment and 50 µg/ml concentration has the most effective anticancer activity on the breast cancer cells line, without toxic effects to the normal cells. According to the obtained results, it seems that Dictyota. Indica is a good candidate for further analysis and can be introduced to the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  8. Metals in molluscs and algae: a north-south Tyrrhenian Sea baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Finoia, Maria Grazia

    2010-09-15

    We develop a 800 km long relative baseline of metal pollution for the Tyrrhenian Sea, from the north of Naples to south of Sicily (Italy), based on spatio-temporal (1997-2004) concentrations of trace metals in marine organisms and on the bioaccumulative properties of those organisms. The study concerns sites in the gulf of Gaeta-Formia, near Naples, and three islands north, west, and south of Sicily: Ustica, Favignana and Linosa. The five metals are: cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc; the species include: Monodonta turbinata (n=161), Patella caerulea (n=244) and the algae Padina pavonica (n=84). We use Johnson's (1949) [15] probabilistic method to determine the type of distribution that accounts for our data. It is a system of frequency curves that represents the transformation of the standard normal curves. We find an N-S pollution gradient in molluscs considered: the lowest metal pollution occurs around the Sicilian islands. Our method can accurately characterize marine pollution by contributing to: policy-making, coastal resources management, the assessments of environmental damages from marine accidents and other events. The method here presented is a useful tool for pollution comparisons purposes among ecosystems (i.e., risk monitoring) and it is an ideal starting point for its application on a global scale. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Metals in molluscs and algae: A north-south Tyrrhenian Sea baseline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Finoia, Maria Grazia

    2010-01-01

    We develop a 800 km long relative baseline of metal pollution for the Tyrrhenian Sea, from the north of Naples to south of Sicily (Italy), based on spatio-temporal (1997-2004) concentrations of trace metals in marine organisms and on the bioaccumulative properties of those organisms. The study concerns sites in the gulf of Gaeta-Formia, near Naples, and three islands north, west, and south of Sicily: Ustica, Favignana and Linosa. The five metals are: cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc; the species include: Monodonta turbinata (n = 161), Patella caerulea (n = 244) and the algae Padina pavonica (n = 84). We use Johnson's (1949) probabilistic method to determine the type of distribution that accounts for our data. It is a system of frequency curves that represents the transformation of the standard normal curves. We find an N-S pollution gradient in molluscs considered: the lowest metal pollution occurs around the Sicilian islands. Our method can accurately characterize marine pollution by contributing to: policy-making, coastal resources management, the assessments of environmental damages from marine accidents and other events. The method here presented is a useful tool for pollution comparisons purposes among ecosystems (i.e., risk monitoring) and it is an ideal starting point for its application on a global scale.

  10. KONDISI RUMPUT LAUT ALAM DI PERAIRAN PANTAI UJUNG GENTENG, SUKABUMI DAN LABUHANBUA, SUMBAWA: POTENSI KARBON BIRU DAN PENGEMBANGAN BUDIDAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlania Erlania

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sumberdaya rumput laut alam yang berlimpah di perairan Indonesia merefleksikan besarnya potensi penyerapan karbon oleh rumput laut untuk mengurangi gas rumah kaca, CO2, yang merupakan salah satu faktor penyebab terjadinya fenomena perubahan iklim. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis potensi serapan karbon oleh rumput laut alam di kawasan pesisir Labuhanbua, Kabupaten Sumbawa, NTB dan Ujung Genteng, Kabupaten Sukabumi, Jawa Barat. Pengumpulan data lapangan berdasarkan titik-titik pengamatan yang disebar pada transek garis yang tegak lurus terhadap garis pantai; meliputi data luas tutupan, jenis, dan kandungan karbon rumput laut alam yang dominan ditemukan pada kedua lokasi penelitian. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa jenis-jenis rumput laut yang ditemukan di kawasan pantai Ujung Genteng terdiri atas 36 spesies dan di Labuhanbua 28 spesies. Berdasarkan besarnya simpanan karbon dalam bentuk biomassa pada berbagai spesies rumput laut alam di kedua lokasi penelitian, maka Sargassum sp., Padina sp., Dictyota dichotoma, Hydroclathrus clatratus, Gracilaria sp., G. foliifera, G. salicornia, Gelidium sp., dan Turbinaria sp., merupakan spesies potensial yang berperan sebagai media penyimpanan karbon biru, dan semua jenis tersebut dapat dikembangkan melalui aktivitas budidaya.

  11. Heavy metals in benthic organisms from Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil

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    GM. Amado-Filho

    Full Text Available The marine ecosystems of Todos os Santos Bay (TSB, The State of Bahia, Brazil have been impacted by the presence on its coast of a large metropolitan area as well as of chemical and petrochemical activities. Despite its ecological importance, there is a lack of scientific information concerning metal contamination in TSB marine biota. Thus, we analyzed concentrations of metals in four species of marine benthic organisms (two seaweeds, Padina gymnospora and Sargassum sp. one seagrass, Halodule wrightii and one oyster, Crassostrea rhizophorae in three sites from the TSB region that have been most affected by industrial activities. The concentrations of Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophometry. The obtained data indicates that cadmium and copper in seaweeds, oysters and seagrass, as well as Ni concentrations in oysters, were in range of contaminated coastal areas. Cadmium and copper are available to organisms through suspended particles, dissolved fraction of water column and bottom sediment interstitial water. As oysters and other mollusks are used as food sources by the local population, the metal levels found in oysters in TSB may constitute a health risk for this population. Our results suggest implanting a heavy metals biomonitoring program in the TSB marine ecosystems.

  12. Violence in the Mesolithic

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    Mirjana Roksandic

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mesolithic populations of the Danube’s Iron Gates Gorge (Serbia/Romania spanned over 1500 years (from before 7000 BC to around 5500 BC in one of the more favourable foraging environments of Europe. Over most of this period, the dominant economy was foraging, but farming was practiced by communities in the region from around 6500 BC. This research examines individuals from four sites on the Danube (Lepenski Vir, Vlasac, Padina, and Hajdučka Vodenica whose traumatic lesions can be most plausibly interpreted as resulting from violent interactions. Given the number of individuals buried at these sites (MNI = 418, the episodes of violent interactions were few and without evidence of a specific temporal pattern. They probably represent sporadic episodes of interpersonal conflict that do not support the notion of endemic warfare deemed typical of the Mesolithic, or elevated levels of interpersonal/intertribal conflict at the time of contact with farming communities. The difference in the pattern of violence between the Mesolithic sites on the right bank of the Danube and a coeval site of Schela Cladovei on the left bank is explained in terms of differences in archaeological context, geographic location and possibly specific local histories.

  13. Potentially harmful Ostreopsis spp. in the coastal waters of Alexandria - Egypt

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    A. ISMAEL

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ostreopsis spp. has been reported for the first time from the Egyptian Mediterranean waters. Macroalgal samples were collected monthly between June 2005 and December 2007, from the rocks at Abu Qir, from less than 1.5 m depth, and their associated microalgae examined. Populations of two Ostreopsis morphotypes were found to occur in this location, east of Alexandria, viz., O. cf ovata Fukuyo and Ostreopsis morph1. The Ostreopsis spp. was abundant and dominant during the summer. They were more abundant as epiphytes of the brown algae Padina sp. and Sargassum sp., less abundant on the red algae Corallina sp., Jania sp., Laurencia sp. and even less so on the green algae Ulva spp. Ostreopsis cf. ovata was also identified during the summer months on the same macroalgal species, although in a much lower abundance. Ostreopsis spp. alternated in dominance with the benthic cyanobacteria Oscillatoria spp. and the diatom Licmophora sp. Other benthic dinoflagellates recorded at low abundance included Amphidinium carterae, Gymnodinium sp. and Prorocentrum lima.

  14. Heavy metal concentrations in marine green, brown, and red seaweeds from coastal waters of Yemen, the Gulf of Aden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shwafi, Nabil A.; Rushdi, Ahmed I.

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the concentration levels of heavy metals in different species of the main three marine algal divisions from the Gulf of Aden coastal waters, Yemen. The divisions included Chlorophyta—green plants ( Halimeda tuna, Rhizoclonium kochiamum, Caldophora koiei, Enteromorpha compressa, and Caulerpa racemosa species), Phaeophyta—brown seaweeds ( Padina boryana, Turbinaria elatensis, Sargassum binderi, Cystoseira myrica, and Sargassum boveanum species), and Rhodophyta—red seaweeds ( Hypnea cornuta, Champia parvula, Galaxaura marginate, Laurencia paniculata, Gracilaria foliifere, and species). The heavy metals, which included cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), Iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and vanadium (V) were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAs). The concentrations of heavy metals in all algal species are in the order of Fe >> Cu > Mn > Cr > Zn > Ni > Pb > Cd > V > Co. The results also showed that the uptake of heavy metals by different marine algal divisions was in the order of Chlorophyta > Phaeophyta > Rhodophyta. These heavy metals were several order of magnitude higher than the concentrations of the same metals in seawater. This indicates that marine alga progressively uptake heavy metals from seawater.

  15. Physiological performance and thermal tolerance of major Red Sea macrophytes

    KAUST Repository

    Weinzierl, Michael S.

    2017-12-01

    As anthropogenically-forced ocean temperatures continue to rise, the physiological response of marine macrophytes becomes exceedingly relevant. The Red Sea is a semi-isolated sea- the warmest in the world (SST up to 34°C) - already exhibiting signs of rapid warming rates exceeding those of other tropical oceans. This will have profound effects on the physiology of marine organisms, specifically marine macrophytes, which have direct influence on the dynamic carbonate system of the Red Sea. The aim of this paper is to define the physiological capability and thermal optima and limits of six ecologically important Red Sea macrophytes- ranging from seagrasses to calcifying and non-calcifying algae- and to describe the effects of increasing thermal stress on the performance and limits of each macrophyte in terms of activation energy. Of the species considered, Halophila stipulacae, Halimeda optunia, Halimeda monile and Padina pavonica thrive in thermal extremes and may be more successful in future Red Sea warming scenarios. Specifically, Halimeda opuntia increased productivity and calcification rates up to 38°C, making it the most thermally resilient macrophyte. Halophila stipulacae is the most productive seagrass, and hence has the greatest positive effect on Omega saturation state and offers chemical buffer capacity to future ocean acidification.

  16. Lipid content and fatty acid composition of Mediterranean macro-algae as dynamic factors for biodiesel production

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    Dahlia M. El Maghraby

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the total lipid contents and fatty acid profiles, the marine macro-algae Jania rubens (Rhodophyceae, Ulva linza (Chlorophyceae and Padina pavonica (Phaeophyceae were evaluated for biodiesel production during the spring, summer and autumn. Seawater parameters such as pH, salinity and temperature were measured. The total lipid content varied from 1.56% (J. rubens to 4.14% (U. linza of dry weight, with the highest values occurring in spring. The fatty acid methyl ester profiles were analysed using gas chromatography. The highest percentage of total fatty acids was recorded in P. pavonica, with 6.2% in autumn, whereas the lowest was in J. rubens, with 68.6% in summer. The relative amount of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids was significantly higher in P. pavonica than in the other macro-algae. Seasonal variations in pH, salinity and temperature had no significant effect on the total lipid and fatty acid contents. Principal component analysis grouped brown and green algae together, whereas red alga grouped out. Furthermore, methyl ester profiles indicate that brown and green seaweeds are preferred, followed by red seaweeds, which appears to have little potential for oil-based products. Therefore, these seaweeds are not targets for biodiesel production.

  17. Biomonitors and the assessment of ecological impacts: Distribution of herbivorous epifauna in contaminated macroalgal beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, David A.; Johnston, Emma L.; Poore, Alistair G.B.

    2008-01-01

    We determined metal contents of co-occurring algae Padina crassa and Sargassum sp. in Port Jackson (Australia), and relationships between metal levels and the abundance of epifaunal amphipods. Copper, lead and zinc concentrations were amongst the highest yet recorded in these algae. Copper, manganese and lead concentrations were far greater in P. crassa than Sargassum sp., possibly due to the low growth of P. crassa in proximity to contaminated sediments. However, in manipulative experiments the proximity of algae to sediments did not explain these differences. The abundance of herbivorous amphipods correlated negatively with the copper content of P. crassa, but not with the lower concentrations in Sargassum sp. The greater contamination of P. crassa led to patchy distributions of metals in algal beds and recolonisation experiments showed Sargassum sp. acts as a refuge from contaminants for epifauna. The contamination of macroalgae may pose threats to epifauna in harbours around the world. - The accumulation of metals by macroalgae may pose ecological threats to herbivorous epifauna in ports and harbours worldwide

  18. Benthic macroalgae as biological indicators of heavy metal pollution in the marine environments: a biomonitoring approach for pollution assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sukalyan; Bhattacharya, Tanushree; Singh, Gurmeet; Maity, Jyoti Prakash

    2014-02-01

    Metal pollution in the marine coastline environment is an important topical issue in the context of ecological disturbance and climate change. Heavy metal contaminations (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in seawater and surficial sediments, as well as macroalgal diversity, were determined in six different locations along the coast of the Gulf of Kutch in India. The marine coastline environment was found to be enriched with Cd and Zn in comparison to other metals. Significant (p ≤ 0.05) inter-elemental positive-correlations were observed between Fe-Mn, Fe-Cu, Fe-Cr, Fe-Zn, Cr-Cu, Cu-Mn, and Cd-Zn, as well as negative-correlations between Cd-Pb, Ni-Pb, and Zn-Pb. Though genus specific macroalgal responses to heavy metal accumulation were significant, species specific response was insignificant (p ≤ 0.05). The relative abundance of metals in macroalgae followed the order of Fe>Zn>Mn>Cu>Cd>Cr>Ni>Pb. The high uptake of metals in green algae (Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha intestinalis) and brown algae (Padina gymnospora and Dictyota bartayresiana) suggested that these algae may be used as potential biomonitors for heavy metal pollution. Three pollution indicators, Contamination Factor (CF), Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geochemical Index (Igeo) were calculated to determine the degree of metal pollution in the marine coastline and the contribution of anthropogenic influence. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Neuroprotective effect of seaweeds inhabiting South Indian coastal area (Hare Island, Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve): Cholinesterase inhibitory effect of Hypnea valentiae and Ulva reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganthy, N; Karutha Pandian, S; Pandima Devi, K

    2010-01-14

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, which is one of the four leading causes of death in developed nations. Until date the only symptomatic treatment for this disease is based on the "cholinergic hypothesis" where the drugs enhance acetylcholine levels in the brain by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE). In the course for screening cholinesterase inhibitors about eight seaweeds, with wide pharmaceutical applications, were collected from Hare Island, Gulf of Mannar, Marine Biosphere Reserve, Tamil Nadu, India. Inhibitory effect of methanol extract of the seaweeds was studied in vitro by incubating various concentration of the extract with AChE or butyryl cholinesterase (BuChE) and assessing their activities by Ellman's colorimetric method. Kinetic parameters like IC(50), K(i) and V(max) were also analyzed. The results showed that of the eight seaweeds screened Hypnea valentiae, Padina gymnospora, Ulva reticulata and Gracilaria edulis exhibited inhibitory activity to AChE with IC(50) value of 2.6, 3.5, 10 and 3mg/ml respectively, while H. valentiae, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Dictyota dichotoma and U. reticulata showed 50% inhibition to BuChE at concentration 3.9, 7, 6.5 and 10mg/ml respectively. The inhibitory activities of the seaweed extracts were comparable to the standard drug donepezil. Enzyme kinetic analysis showed that algal extracts exhibited mixed type inhibition (partial noncompetitive inhibition). Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Multiverse: Increasing Diversity in Earth and Space Science Through Multicultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peticolas, L. M.; Raftery, C. L.; Mendez, B.; Paglierani, R.; Ali, N. A.; Zevin, D.; Frappier, R.; Hauck, K.; Shackelford, R. L., III; Yan, D.; Thrall, L.

    2015-12-01

    Multiverse at the University of California, Berkeley Space Sciences Laboratory provides earth and space science educational opportunities and resources for a variety of audiences, especially for those who are underrepresented in the sciences. By way of carefully crafted space and earth science educational opportunities and resources, we seek to connect with people's sense of wonder and facilitate making personal ties to science and the learning process in order to, ultimately, bring the richness of diversity to science and make science discovery accessible for all. Our audiences include teachers, students, education and outreach professionals, and the public. We partner with NASA, the National Science Foundation, scientists, teachers, science center and museum educators, park interpreters, and others with expertise in reaching particular audiences. With these partners, we develop resources and communities of practice, offer educator workshops, and run events for the public. We will will present on our pedagogical techniques, our metrics for success, and our evaluation findings of our education and outreach projects that help us towards reaching our vision: We envision a world filled with science literate societies capable of thriving with today's technology, while maintaining a sustainable balance with the natural world; a world where people develop and sustain the ability to think critically using observation and evidence and participate authentically in scientific endeavors; a world where people see themselves and their culture within the scientific enterprise, and understand science within the context that we are all under one sky and on one Earth. Photo Caption: Multiverse Team Members at our Space Sciences Laboratory from left to right: Leitha Thrall, Daniel Zevin, Bryan Mendez, Nancy Ali, Igor Ruderman, Laura Peticolas, Ruth Paglierani, Renee Frappier, Rikki Shackelford, Claire Raftery, Karin Hauck, and Darlene Yan.

  1. C-fiber-related EEG-oscillations induced by laser radiant heat stimulation of capsaicin-treated skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Domnick

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Claudia Domnick1, Michael Hauck1,2,3, Kenneth L Casey3, Andreas K Engel1, Jürgen Lorenz1,3,41Department of Neurophysiology and Pathophysiology; 2Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany; 3Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 4Faculty of Life Sciences, Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, Hamburg, GermanyAbstract: Nociceptive input reaches the brain via two different types of nerve fibers, moderately fast A-delta and slowly conducting C-fibers, respectively. To explore their distinct roles in normal and inflammatory pain we used laser stimulation of normal and capsaicin treated skin at proximal and distal arm sites in combination with time frequency transformation of electroencephalography (EEG data. Comparison of phase-locked (evoked and non-phase-locked (total EEG to laser stimuli revealed three significant pain-related oscillatory responses. First, an evoked response in the delta-theta band, mediated by A-fibers, was reduced by topical capsaicin treatment. Second, a decrease of total power in the alpha-to-gamma band reflected both an A- and C-nociceptor-mediated response with only the latter being reduced by capsaicin treatment. Finally, an enhancement of total power in the upper beta band was mediated exclusively by C-nociceptors and appeared strongly augmented by capsaicin treatment. These findings suggest that phase-locking of brain activity to stimulus onset is a critical feature of A-delta nociceptive input, allowing rapid orientation to salient and potentially threatening events. In contrast, the subsequent C-nociceptive input exhibits clearly less phase coupling to the stimulus. It may primarily signal the tissue status allowing more long-term behavioral adaptations during ongoing inflammatory events that accompany tissue damage.Keywords: C-fibers, oscillations, EEG, laser, capsaicin, inflammatory pain

  2. Epiphytic dinoflagellates associated with ciguatera in the northwestern coast of Cuba

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    Gilma Delgado

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal abundance of epiphytic dinoflagellates associated with ciguatera was studied over two annual cycles (March 1999 to March 2000 and March 2001 to March 2002 in the northwestern coast of Cuba. From 14 species of macroalgae (Phaeophyta, Chlorophyta, and Rhodophyta, 1340 samples were obtained identifying seven species as potentially noxious; five of them are new reports for Cuba’s phytobenthos: Prorocentrum belizeanum Faust, P. concavum Fukuyo, P. mexicanum Tafall, Coolia monotis Meunier, and Ostreopsis lenticularis Fukuyo. ANOVA/MANOVA analysis showed significant spatial differences: lower cell abundance near the shoreline adjacent to a river inlet and higher cell abundance in the deepest area. Prorocentrum lima (Ehrenberg Dodge 1975 was found mainly on Phaeophyta followed by Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta. Gambierdiscus toxicus was found mainly on Phaeophyta followed by Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta. All the species reported in the study area were mainly on Padina spp. (Phaeophyta. Acanthophora spicifera (Rhodophyta did not host dinoflagellate species. Environmental conditions in summer (higher temperature, more nutrients, greater water transparency, and low wind intensity are suitable for macroalgae development, which serves as a substrate for potentially harmful dinoflagellates, and possibly the main vector for spreading ciguatera along the coast of Cuba. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(2: 299-310. Epub 2006 Jun 01.Se estudió la abundancia espacial y temporal de dinoflagelados epífitos asociados a la ciguatera durante dos ciclos anuales (marzo 1999 a marzo 2000, y marzo 2001 a marzo 2002 en la costa del noroeste de Cuba. Recolectamos 14 especies de macroalgas (Phaeophyta, Chlorophyta y Rhodophyta y obtuvimos 1340 muestras. Identificamos siete especies de dinoflagelados potencialmente nocivas, cinco de ellas nuevos registros para el fitobentos cubano: Prorocentrum belizeanum Faust, P. concavum Fukuyo, P. mexicanum Tafall, Coolia monotis

  3. Iron ore particles on four seaweed species from Camburi Beach (Espírito Santo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Aparecida Gomes Nassar

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study estimated the iron-ore concentration found on four species of seaweed. The species tested grow on a site heavily contaminated by this ore, in the city of Vitória, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Under natural conditions, the iron ore reached a temperature 5.0ºC higher than the sand on a sunny day. All the species had iron ore adhered to their fronds. Udotea cyathiformis was the species with the highest iron-ore concentration varing from 0.07 to 0.90 g wet weight, followed by Lobophora variegata (from 0.07 to 0.62 g wet weight, Padina gymnospora (from 0.08 to 0.55 g wet weight and Ulva fasciata (from 0.05 to 0.25 g wet weight. Even after four changes of water over a 12-hour period, the fronds still had particles adhered to their outside cell wall. All the species showed similar tendencies to release the iron, with the highest percentage of particles (40 to 60% released in the first change of water.Minério de ferro particulado sobre quatro macroalgas da Praia de Camburi (Estado do Espírito Santo-Brasil. O presente trabalho determinou a concentração de minério de ferro presente em quatro macroalgas. As espécies testadas ocorrem em um local extremamente contaminado por este particulado, na cidade de Vitória, Estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil. Sob condições naturais, o minério de ferro alcançou um temperatura de até 5,0ºC acima da temperatura da areia em um dia ensolarado.Todas as espécies estudadas apresentavam minério em suas paredes externas. A espécie Udotea cyathiformis apresentou a maior concentração de minério em sua fronde variando de 0,07 a 0,90 g massa úmida, seguida por Lobophora variegata (de 0,07 a 0,62 g massa úmida, Padina gymnospora (de 0,08 a 0,55 g massa úmida e Ulva fasciata (de 0,05 a 0,25 g massa úmida. Mesmo após sucessivas trocas de água, as frondes ainda apresentavam partículas aderidas às suas paredes celulares externas. As espécies apresentaram a mesma tendência de libera

  4. α-, β-caroteno e α-tocoferol em algas marinhas in natura α- and β-carotene, and α-tocopherol in fresh seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Barbosa de Sousa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de 32 espécies de algas marinhas das divisões Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta e Phaeophyta como fontes de α- e β-caroteno e α-tocoferol. Todas as clorofíceas analisadas apresentaram α- e β-caroteno. Os teores máximo e mínimo de α-caroteno foram detectados nas espécies do gênero Caulerpa e em Codium decorticatum, respectivamente; e β-caroteno foi mais baixo em Caulerpa mexicana e mais elevado em Ulva fasciata. Dentre as rodofíceas, 11 espécies apresentaram α-caroteno, com máximo em Botryocladia occidentalis. β-caroteno foi encontrado em todas as algas vermelhas analisadas com teores mínimo e máximo em Gracilaria caudata e Bryothamnion triquetrum, respectivamente. As feofíceas apresentaram apenas β-caroteno, com mínimo e máximo em Dictyopteris delicatula e Padina gymnospora, respectivamente. Na divisão Chlorophyta, α-tocoferol, foi máximo em Codium decorticatum e mínimo em Caulerpa prolifera. Na Rhodophyta, 12 espécies apresentaram α-tocoferol com teor máximo em Enantiocladia duperreyi. Na Phaeophyta, α-tocoferol foi encontrado com valores mínimo e máximo em Lobophora variegata e Dictyota dichotoma, respectivamente.The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of 32 marine macro algae species, members of Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and Phaeophyta, as sources of a-carotene, b-carotene and a-tocopherol. Both b-carotene and a-carotene were found in all species of green macroalgae analyzed. The maximum content of a-carotene was detected in algae belonging to Caulerpa genus and the minimum in Codium decorticatum. The amount of b-carotene found was minimum in Caulerpa mexicana and maximum in Ulva fasciata. Among the Rhodophyta species, eleven contain a-carotene, the maximum content was found in Botryocladia occidentalis. b-Carotene was found in all red macroalgae analyzed presenting the lowest and highest values in Gracilaria caudata and Bryothamnion triquetrum, respectively

  5. A biomonitoring study: trace metals in algae and molluscs from Tyrrhenian coastal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, M.E.; Cecchetti, Gaetano

    2003-01-01

    Marine organisms were evaluated as possible biomonitors of heavy metal contamination in marine coastal areas. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn were measured in the green algae Ulva lactuca L., the brown algae Padina pavonica (L.) Thivy, the bivalve mollusc Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, and the two gastropod molluscs Monodonta turbinata Born and Patella cerulea L. collected at six coastal stations in the area of the Gulf of Gaeta (Tyrrhenian Sea, central Italy). The coastal area of the Regional Park of Gianola and Monte di Scauri (a 'Protected Sea Park' area) was chosen as a control site. Seawater samples were also collected in each site to assess soluble and total metal concentrations and to gain additional information on both the environmental conditions of the area and possible bioaccumulation patterns. Metal concentrations detected in algae and molluscs did not show significant differences among all stations studied. Moreover, statistical analyses (ANOVA, multiple comparison tests, cluster analysis) showed that the Sea Park station was not significantly different from the others. The hypothesis that the Protected Sea Park would be cleaner than the others must therefore be reconsidered. Data from this study were also compared with those previously obtained from uncontaminated sites in the Sicilian Sea, Italy. The results show clearly differences between these two marine ecosystems. The species examined showed great accumulations of metals, with concentration factors (CFs) higher than 10,000 with respect to the concentrations (soluble fractions) in marine waters. Metal concentrations recorded in this area may be used for background levels for intraspecific comparison within the Tyrrhenian area, a body of water about which information is still very scarce

  6. Effects of herbivore exclusion and nutrient enrichment on coral reef macroalgae and cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, R.; Ginsburg, D.; Paul, V.

    2001-05-01

    Although phase shifts on coral reefs from coral-dominated to algal-dominated communities have been attributed to the effects of increased nutrient availability due to eutrophication and reduced herbivore abundance due to overfishing and disease, these factors have rarely been manipulated simultaneously. In addition, few studies have considered the effects of these factors on benthic, filamentous cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) as well as macroalgae. We used a combination of herbivore-exclusion cages and nutrient enrichment to manipulate herbivore abundance and nutrient availability, and measured the impacts of these treatments on macroalgal and cyanobacterial community structure. In the absence of cages, surface cover of the cyanobacterium Tolypothrix sp. decreased, while surface cover of the cyanobacteria Oscillatoria spp. increased. Cyanobacterial cover decreased in partial cages, and Tolypothrix sp. cover decreased further in full cages. Lower cyanobacterial cover and biomass were correlated with higher macroalgal cover and biomass. Dictyota bartayresiana dominated the partial cages, while Padina tenuis and Tolypiocladia glomerulata recruited into the full cages. Palatability assays demonstrated that herbivore-exclusion shifted macroalgal species composition from relatively unpalatable to relatively palatable species. Nutrient enrichment interacted with herbivore exclusion to increase the change in cover of D. bartayresiana in the uncaged and fully caged plots, but did not affect the final biomass of D. bartayresiana among treatments. Nutrient enrichment did not significantly affect the cover or biomass of any other taxa. These results stress the critical role of herbivory in determining coral reef community structure and suggest that the relative palatabilities of dominant algae, as well as algal growth responses to nutrient enrichment, will determine the potential for phase shifts to algal-dominated communities.

  7. Spatiotemporal variability of dimethylsulphoniopropionate on a fringing coral reef: the role of reefal carbonate chemistry and environmental variability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi L Burdett

    Full Text Available Oceanic pH is projected to decrease by up to 0.5 units by 2100 (a process known as ocean acidification, OA, reducing the calcium carbonate saturation state of the oceans. The coastal ocean is expected to experience periods of even lower carbonate saturation state because of the inherent natural variability of coastal habitats. Thus, in order to accurately project the impact of OA on the coastal ocean, we must first understand its natural variability. The production of dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP by marine algae and the release of DMSP's breakdown product dimethylsulphide (DMS are often related to environmental stress. This study investigated the spatiotemporal response of tropical macroalgae (Padina sp., Amphiroa sp. and Turbinaria sp. and the overlying water column to natural changes in reefal carbonate chemistry. We compared macroalgal intracellular DMSP and water column DMSP+DMS concentrations between the environmentally stable reef crest and environmentally variable reef flat of the fringing Suleman Reef, Egypt, over 45-hour sampling periods. Similar diel patterns were observed throughout: maximum intracellular DMSP and water column DMS/P concentrations were observed at night, coinciding with the time of lowest carbonate saturation state. Spatially, water column DMS/P concentrations were highest over areas dominated by seagrass and macroalgae (dissolved DMS/P and phytoplankton (particulate DMS/P rather than corals. This research suggests that macroalgae may use DMSP to maintain metabolic function during periods of low carbonate saturation state. In the reef system, seagrass and macroalgae may be more important benthic producers of dissolved DMS/P than corals. An increase in DMS/P concentrations during periods of low carbonate saturation state may become ecologically important in the future under an OA regime, impacting larval settlement and increasing atmospheric emissions of DMS.

  8. Uptake by benthic algae of critical radionuclides to be released in the liquid effluent of the Angra dos Reis Nuclear Power Plant, R.J., Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, J.R.D.

    1982-06-01

    In vitro interaction of benthic algae from the Angra dos Reis region, R.J., Brazil, was studied with critical radionuclides to be released in the liquid effluent of CNAAA (unit I). 137 Cs- 60 Co - and 125 I uptake and loss by Sargassum filipendula, Padina Vickersiae and Acanthophora Spicifera were observed. Biological half-lives and bioaccumulation factors (B.F.) were estimated. Co and I uptake were fast (apparent equilibrium in 3 to 7 days). Cs uptake was slower (2 to 3 weeks). Loss followed an inverse pattern (fast for Cs, slow for Co and I). B.F. ranged from 10 1 for Cs, to 10 3 for I and 10 3 -10 4 for Co. Higher B.F. for Co and I were found for P. vickersiae (up to 1,4 X 10 4 ) an A. spicifera (up to 7 X 10 3 ) respectively. These species represent important potential media for the transference of Co-I-and-to a much lesser extent - Cs isotopes, through food-webs. They exhibited high capacity to compete with local sandy sediments for the retention of Co and I. High B.F., rapid uptake and moderate to long biological half-lives enable S. filipendula, P. vickersiae and A. specifera to be powerful aids in the monitoring of radioactive contamination by Co and I isotopes. Since the majority of marine organisms tends to exhibit Cs B.F. similars to those reported here, these algae may also be used as monitors for Cs isotopes, the low B.F. being compensated by their abundance, wide distribution and facility of collection. (M.A.) [pt

  9. Biosorption of cesium by native and chemically modified biomass of marine algae: introduce the new biosorbents for biotechnology applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalali-Rad, R.; Ghafourian, H.; Asef, Y.; Dalir, S.T.; Sahafipour, M.H.; Gharanjik, B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Biosorption batch experiments were conducted to determine the cesium binding ability of native biomass and chemically modified biosorbents derived from marine algae, namely ferrocyanide algal sorbents type 1 and type 2 (FASs1 and FASs2). The applicability of the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms for representation of the experimental data was investigated. The cesium sorption performances of the various types of sorbents were compared using the maximum capacities (q max values) obtained from fitting the Langmuir isotherm to the values calculated from the sorption experiments, which FASs type 1 and type 2 showed better sorption performances for cesium. FASs1 and FASs2 derived from formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde crosslinked Padina australis exhibited lower sorption capacities than those prepared from the non-crosslinked one. Most of the cesium ions were bound to FASs1, derived from Sargassum glaucescens and P. australis, in <2 min and equilibrium reached within the first 30 min of contact. Biosorption of cesium by FASs1 derived from P. australis and Cystoseria indica was constantly occurred at a wide range of pH, between 1 and 10, and the highest removal took place at pH 4. The presence of sodium and potassium at 0.5 and 1 mM did not inhibit cesium biosorption by algae biomass. The maximum cesium uptake was acquired using the large particles of FAS2 originated from S. glaucescens (2-4 mm). Desorption of cesium from the metal-laden FASs1 (from P. australis, S. glaucescens and Dictyota indica) was completely achieved applying 0.5 and 1 M NaOH and KOH, although the cesium sorption capacity of the biosorbents (from C. indica and S. glaucescens) decreased by 46-51% after 9 sorption-desorption cycles

  10. STUDI KOMUNITAS RUMPUT LAUT DI PANTAI SANUR DAN PANTAI SAWANGAN NUSA DUA BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GALIH INDRAWATI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims of this research are to analyze structure community population, relative population, variety domination, heterogeneous, and equality of seaweed species in Sanur and Sawangan Beach Nusa Dua.The result of the study shows that in Sanur and Sawangan Beach observed 13 related seaweed species were observed, which are: Ulva reticulata, Chaetomorpha crassa, Bornetella nitida, Halimeda macroloba, Padina australis, Sargassum binderi, Hypnea asperi, Dictyopteris sp, Gracilaria coronapifolia, Gracilaria gracilis, Acanthopora spicifera, Euchema edule, Euchema denticulatum Meanwhile, , Caulerpa racemosa, Boergesiana forbessii, Sargassum crassifolium, Gelidium sp, Turbinaria ornata, Gracilaria foliifera only observed in Sanur Beach and species of Actinotrichia fragilis, Ulva lactuca, Euchema serra, Turbinaria conoides observed in Sawangan Beach, Nusa Dua.Heterogeneous value index (H in Sanur Beach is 0.75 – 1.87 categorized as medium category, except in station five characterized as low category. Domination index (C is 0.10 – 0.28, where there is no dominated species. Equality index value (E is 0.32 – 0.85 in unstable condition, except in station one is stable. In Sawangan Beach, heterogeneous indexes is 1.04 – 1.54, that spread in all stations by medium category. Domination index is 0.14 – 0.30, indicated that there is no dominant species. Equality index is 0.47 – 0.74, by stabile condition in station one, while others station is unstable. Highest relatif population in Sanur Beach is 37.63% in station three (Gracilaria foliifera. In Sawangan Nusa Dua Beach is Hypnea asperi (48.65%.Substrate analysis show that Sanur and Sawangan Beach has mud sand types. Water temperature in both research locations approximately is 28.90 C – 30.40 C, pH 7.00 – 7.80 and dissolved oxygen around 6.8mg/1-7.4mg/l.

  11. Biosorption of cesium by native and chemically modified biomass of marine algae: introduce the new biosorbents for biotechnology applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalali-Rad, R. [Department of Biotechnology, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: rjalali@aeoi.org.ir; Ghafourian, H. [Department of Biotechnology, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Asef, Y. [Department of Biotechnology, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dalir, S.T. [Department of Biotechnology, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sahafipour, M.H. [Department of Biotechnology, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gharanjik, B.M. [Offshore Fisheries Research Center, Chabahar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2004-12-10

    Biosorption batch experiments were conducted to determine the cesium binding ability of native biomass and chemically modified biosorbents derived from marine algae, namely ferrocyanide algal sorbents type 1 and type 2 (FASs1 and FASs2). The applicability of the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms for representation of the experimental data was investigated. The cesium sorption performances of the various types of sorbents were compared using the maximum capacities (q{sub max} values) obtained from fitting the Langmuir isotherm to the values calculated from the sorption experiments, which FASs type 1 and type 2 showed better sorption performances for cesium. FASs1 and FASs2 derived from formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde crosslinked Padina australis exhibited lower sorption capacities than those prepared from the non-crosslinked one. Most of the cesium ions were bound to FASs1, derived from Sargassum glaucescens and P. australis, in <2 min and equilibrium reached within the first 30 min of contact. Biosorption of cesium by FASs1 derived from P. australis and Cystoseria indica was constantly occurred at a wide range of pH, between 1 and 10, and the highest removal took place at pH 4. The presence of sodium and potassium at 0.5 and 1 mM did not inhibit cesium biosorption by algae biomass. The maximum cesium uptake was acquired using the large particles of FAS2 originated from S. glaucescens (2-4 mm). Desorption of cesium from the metal-laden FASs1 (from P. australis, S. glaucescens and Dictyota indica) was completely achieved applying 0.5 and 1 M NaOH and KOH, although the cesium sorption capacity of the biosorbents (from C. indica and S. glaucescens) decreased by 46-51% after 9 sorption-desorption cycles.

  12. Trend in coral-algal phase shift in the Mandapam group of islands, Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machendiranathan, M.; Senthilnathan, L.; Ranith, R.; Saravanakumar, A.; Thangaradjou, T.; Choudhry, S. B.; Sasamal, S. K.

    2016-12-01

    The present study revealed proliferation of macro-algae modifying coral reef ecosystems in a different manner due to diseases and sedimentations in the Mandapam group of islands in the Gulf of Mannar. Benthic surveys were conducted with major attack of seven coral reefs diseases with high sedimentation rate, nine species of fleshy macro-algae ( Turbinaria ornata, Turbinaria conaides, Caulerpa scalpelliformis, Caulerpa racemosa, Kappaphycus alvarezii, Padina gymnosphora, Sargassum wightii, Ulva reticulata and Calurpa lentillifera) proliferation against major corals life forms (Acropora branching, Acropora digitate, Acropora tabulate, coral massive, coral submassive, coral foliose and coral encrusting). The results confirm that diseased corals most favor to macro-algae growth (15.27%) rather than the sedimentation covered corals (8.24 %). In the degradation of coral life forms, massive corals were more highly damaged (7.05%) than any other forms. Within a short period of time (May to September), coral coverage shrank to 17.4% from 21.9%, macro-algae increased 23.51% and the average sedimentation rate attained 77.52 mg cm-2d-1 with persisting coral reef diseases of 17.59%. The Pearson correlation showed that the coral cover decreased with increasing macro-algae growth, which was statistically significant ( r = -0.774, n = 100, P K. alvarezii, P. gymnosphora and C. lentillifera increased with percentages of 6.0, 5.8, 5.7, 4.9, 4.2, 3.7, 2.7 and 1.9, respectively. If this trend continues, the next generation of new recruit corals will undoubtedly lead to a phase shift in Gulf of Mannar corals.

  13. Variation in biochemical constituents and master elements in common seaweeds from Alexandria Coast, Egypt, with special reference to their antioxidant activity and potential food uses: prospective equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Mona M; El Zokm, Gehan M; El-Sayed, Abeer A M

    2017-11-25

    Biochemical constituents and master elements (Pb, Cr, Cd, Fe, Cu, Zn, Hg, B, Al, SO 4 2- , Na, K, Li, Ca, Mg, and F) were investigated in six different seaweed species from Abu Qir Bay in the Egyptian Mediterranean Sea coast. The moisture level ranged from 30.26% in Corallina mediterranea to 77.57% in Padina boryana. On dry weight basis, the ash contents varied from 25.53% in Jania rubens to 88.84% in Sargassum wightii. The protein contents fluctuated from 8.26% in S. wightii to 28.01% in J. rubens. Enteromorpha linza showed the highest lipids (4.66%) and carbohydrate contents (78.95%), whereas C. mediterranea had the lowest lipid (0.5%), and carbohydrate contents (38.12%). Chlorophylls and carotenoid contents varied among the species. Total antioxidant capacity of the tested green seaweeds had the highest activities followed by brown and red seaweeds which had a similar trend of phenol and tannins contents. High reducing power was observed in all tested seaweeds extract except Ulva lactuca. Brown species had the highest amount of elements followed by red and green seaweeds. Notably, SO 4 2- recorded the highest level in the tested green species (108.05 mg/g dry weight (DW)). The Ca/Mg and K/Na ratios reflected highly significant difference between seaweed species. This study keeps an eye on 29 parameters and by applying stepwise multiple regression analysis, prospective equations have been set to describe the interactions between these parameters inside seaweeds. Accordingly, the tested seaweeds can be recommended as a source of healthy food with suitable ion quotient and estimated daily intake values.

  14. Effects of Ocean Acidification and Temperature Increases on the Photosynthesis of Tropical Reef Calcified Macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherner, Fernando; Pereira, Cristiano Macedo; Duarte, Gustavo; Horta, Paulo Antunes; E Castro, Clovis Barreira; Barufi, José Bonomi; Pereira, Sonia Maria Barreto

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a global phenomenon that is considered an important threat to marine ecosystems. Ocean acidification and increased seawater temperatures are among the consequences of this phenomenon. The comprehension of the effects of these alterations on marine organisms, in particular on calcified macroalgae, is still modest despite its great importance. There are evidences that macroalgae inhabiting highly variable environments are relatively resilient to such changes. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate experimentally the effects of CO2-driven ocean acidification and temperature rises on the photosynthesis of calcified macroalgae inhabiting the intertidal region, a highly variable environment. The experiments were performed in a reef mesocosm in a tropical region on the Brazilian coast, using three species of frondose calcifying macroalgae (Halimeda cuneata, Padina gymnospora, and Tricleocarpa cylindrica) and crustose coralline algae. The acidification experiment consisted of three treatments with pH levels below those occurring in the region (-0.3, -0.6, -0.9). For the temperature experiment, three temperature levels above those occurring naturally in the region (+1, +2, +4°C) were determined. The results of the acidification experiment indicate an increase on the optimum quantum yield by T. cylindrica and a decline of this parameter by coralline algae, although both only occurred at the extreme acidification treatment (-0.9). The energy dissipation mechanisms of these algae were also altered at this extreme condition. Significant effects of the temperature experiment were limited to an enhancement of the photosynthetic performance by H. cuneata although only at a modest temperature increase (+1°C). In general, the results indicate a possible photosynthetic adaptation and/or acclimation of the studied macroalgae to the expected future ocean acidification and temperature rises, as separate factors. Such relative resilience may be a result of the

  15. Potential of macroalgae for biodiesel production: Screening and evaluation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abomohra, Abd El-Fatah; El-Naggar, Amal Hamed; Baeshen, Areej Ali

    2018-02-01

    Nowadays, biofuel production is a fast expanding industry and is facing a growing dilemma about a feedstock source capable of keeping up with demand. Recently, macroalgae have been attracting a wide attention as a source for biofuel. In the present study, ten macroalgae were collected and screened as biodiesel feedstocks. As a result of their high biomass production and relatively high lipid content, Ulva lactuca, Padina boryana and Ulva intestinalis showed the highest significant lipids and fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) areal productivities among the studied species. Saturated fatty acids (SAFs) showed insignificant differences in the selected species, with noticeably significant higher polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) content in U. lactuca by 4.2 and 3 times, with respect to P. boryana and U. intestinalis, respectively. The recorded increase in PUFAs was attributed to higher content of C16:4n-3, C18:3n-3 and C18:4n-3. By lipid fractionation, P. boryana showed significant higher concentration of neutral lipids (37.7 mg g -1 CDW, representing 46.7% of total fatty acids) in comparison to U. lactuca and U. intestinalis, which showed 16% and 17% lower neutral lipid fractions, respectively. In addition, biodiesel characteristics of the studied macroalgae complied with that of international standards. Furthermore, oil-free residual biomass can be readily converted into fermentable sugars or biogas due to its high carbohydrates content, which adds to the economics of macroalgae as biofuel feedstock. In conclusion, the present study confirmed that macroalgae represent an attractive alternative renewable feedstock for biodiesel and other biofuels. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Sediment and Nutrient Sources as well as Interspecific Competition Control Growth of 2 Common Species of Coral Reef Macroalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, T.; Fong, P.; Cuker, B.

    2016-02-01

    Aquatic communities worldwide are increasingly subjected to multiple anthropogenic stressors that often result in shifts in structure and function. On coral reefs, human impacts have been associated with phase-shifts from coral to algal domination. We hypothesized that the proliferation of these algal communities, especially on fringing reefs, may be facilitated by human alterations in nutrient enrichment and input of sediments from developed watersheds, which may also influence competitive outcomes among dominant algal species. To evaluate how changes in these abiotic stressors as well as competition may affect the growth of 2 common species of calcifying coral reef algae, Galaxaura fasciculata and Padina boryana, we conducted 3 separate 2 factor mesocosm experiments modeling fringing reefs in Moorea, French Polynesia. In the first experiment, we varied sediment source (marine vs. terrestrial) and water column nutrients (ambient vs. enriched) for each species separately and measured growth after 7 days. While both algae grew faster in enriched compared to ambient nutrients, P. boryana performed best with marine sediment (+27% change in biomass) and G. fasciculata with terrestrial sediment (+14% change in biomass). Next, we varied sediment source (as above) as well as sediment nutrients (ambient/enriched) for each species. While P. boryana lost 44% biomass in the eutrophic terrestrial sediment treatment, G. fasciculata performed the best and gained 19% biomass. Finally, we varied competition (alone/together) and terrestrial sediment nutrients (ambient/enriched). Over the 7 day period, P. boryana lost 64% biomass when in competition with G. fasciculata in the enriched treatment while G. fasciculata gained 38% biomass when in competition with P. boryana in the ambient treatment. These results indicate that, while growth of both species of macroalgae was regulated by nutrients, sediments, and competition, each responded uniquely to these controlling factors.

  17. Antioxidant, antimutagenic and antiproliferative activities in selected seaweed species from Sinaloa, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuna-Ruiz, Idalia; López-Saiz, Carmen-María; Burgos-Hernández, Armando; Velázquez, Carlos; Nieves-Soto, Mario; Hurtado-Oliva, Miguel A

    2016-10-01

    Context Seaweeds from the Mexican Pacific Ocean have not been evaluated as a source of chemoprotectants. Objective The objective of this study is to evaluate chemopreventive activities of the seaweeds Phaephyceae - Padina durvillaei (Dictyotaceae) - Rodhophyceae - Spyridia filamentosa (Spyridiaceae), Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Gracilariaceae) - and Chlorophyceae - Ulva expansa (Ulvaceae), Codium isabelae (Codiaceae), Rhizoclonium riparium (Cladophoraceae) and Caulerpa sertularioides (Caulerpaceae). Materials and methods Methanol, acetone and hexane seaweed extracts were assessed at 30 and 3 mg/mL on antioxidant capacity (DPPH and ABTS assays), 0.003-3.0 mg/plate on antimutagenic activity against AFB1 using Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 tester strains in Ames test, and 12.5 to 100 μg/mL on antiproliferative activity on Murine B-cell lymphoma. Phenols, flavonoids and pigments content were also assessed as antioxidant compounds. Results Extraction yield was higher in methanol than in acetone and hexane extracts (6.4, 2.7 and 1.4% dw). Antioxidant capacity was higher in brown and green than in red seaweed species, particularly in P. durvillaei extracted in acetone (EC50  value= 16.9 and 1.56 mg/mL for DPPH and ABTS). Flavonoids and chlorophylls were identified as mainly antioxidant components; particularly in hexane extracts, which were correlated with the antioxidant capacity. Highest mutagenesis inhibition (> 40%) occurred in R. riparium at the lowest concentration assayed (0.003 mg/plate), while highest antiproliferative inhibition (37 and 72% for 12.5 and 25 μg/mL) occurred in C. sertularioides. Discussion and conclusion Flavonoids and chlorophylls explained the chemopreventive activities assessed in S. filamentosa, R. riparium and C. sertularioides. These seaweeds have a high potential as a source of novel chemoprotectants.

  18. Seaweeds as bioindicators of heavy metals off a hot spot area on the Egyptian Mediterranean Coast during 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams El-Din, N G; Mohamedein, L I; El-Moselhy, Kh M

    2014-09-01

    Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Co, Fe, Mn, and Hg were measured successively in water, sediments, and six macroalgal species belonging to three algal classes during 3 years (2008-2010) from Abu Qir Bay, Alexandria, Egypt: Chlorophyceae (Enteromorpha compressa, Ulva fasciata), Phaeophyceae (Padina boryana), and Rhodophyceae (Jania rubens, Hypnea musciformis, Pterocladia capillacea). The study aimed to assess the bioaccumulation potential of the seaweeds, as well as to evaluate the extent of heavy metal contamination in the selected study site. Metals were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry coupled with MH-10 hydride system. The obtained data showed that the highest mean concentrations of Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn were recorded in E. compressa; Cd, Ni, and Hg exhibited their highest mean concentrations in P. boryana, while Pb and Co were found in J. rubens. Abundance of the heavy metals in the algal species was as follow: Fe > Mn > Zn > Pb > Ni > Co > Cu > Cd > Hg. E. compressa showed the maximum metal pollution index (MPI) which was 11.55. Bioconcentration factor (BCF) for the metals in algae was relatively high with a maximum value for Mn. The Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI) values for the recorded algal species were low, which ranged between 1.00 in P. boryana and 2.72 in E. compressa. Enrichment factors for sediments were low fluctuating between 0.43 for Hg to 2.33 for Mn. Accordingly, the green alga E. compressa, brown alga P. boryana, and red alga J. rubens can be nominated as bioindicators. Based on MPI and PLI indices, Abu Qir Bay in the present study is considered as low-contaminated area.

  19. DISTRIBUTIONAND DIVERSITY OF MACRO ALGAE COMMUNITIES IN THE AMBON BAY

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    Christina Litaay

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Water conditions affected by natural and anthropogenic parameters such as sedimentation and solid waste disposal can influence the growth and distribution of macro algae. Sustainable management efforts can reduce damage on the Gulf coast of Ambon due to human activities and land clearing. This study was conducted in October 2008 using the transect method with 3 replicates in five locations i.e., Tantui, Air Salobar, Hative Besar, Halong, and Lateri. The interior and exterior waters of Ambon Bay contained different habitat conditions due to  sedimentation processes. The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution and diversity of macro algae communities in the Ambon Bay. The results found 21 species of macro- algae consisting of 10 species of Rhodhophyceae, 6 species of Chlorophyceae, and 5 species of Phaeophyceae. The highest density value of seaweed in Tantui was 389.0 g/m² of Chlorophyceae of Halimeda genus. In Air Salobar and Halong, the highest density value was Rhodophyceae of Gracilaria genus of 172.0 g/m² and 155.0 g/m², respectively. For the other genus in the Tantui and Lateri regions were dominated by Ulva at 92.10 gr/m2 and Padina of 20.0 gr/m2, respectively. The highest dominance of macro algae in the Hative Besar was found Chlorophyceae of Halimeda genus of 2.93 %, in the Air Salobar of Phaeophyceae of Turbinaria genus of 1.43 %. The difference values in density and the dominance of macro algae indicated an influence of habitat and environment due to seasons, sediment, and solid waste disposal to the diversity of macro algae. Keywords: Diversity, macro algae, Ambon Bay.

  20. Gıda Sanayiinde Ekstruzyonla İşleme Teknolojisi

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    Şahin Tanju

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Geçtiğimiz son 10-15 yıl içinde ekstruzyonla gıda maddeleri üretimi, hububata dayalı gıda endüstrisinin en hızlı büyüyen bölümü olmuştur. Bu konuda yapılan çalışmalar ekstruzyon yöntemi ile tad, doku ve yapıca farklı çok çeşitli ürünlerin yapılabileceğini göstermiştir (Faubion ve ark. 1982. Ekstruzyonla gıda işleme (Extrusion Cooking basit olarak nemlendirilmiş nişastalı ve proteinli maddelerin bir silindir içinde dönen vida yardımıyla oluşturulan mekanik kesme, yüksek basın ve sıcaklığın birlikte etkisi ile şekillendirilebilir hale getirilip pişirilmesidir. Bu üç faktörün etkisi ile maddenin bünyesindeki nişasta çirişlenir, proteinler denatüre olur, çekme, kesme gibi mekanik etkininde yardımıyla maddenin yapısı tamamen değişir. Başlık da denilen kalıp delikçiklerinden basınç altında dışarı itilirken belirli bir şekle girer dilekten çıktığı anda eksotermik bir genişleme sonucu son şeklini alır. İp, şerit, ince boru gibi şekiller alan ürün daha sonra istenilen uzunluklarda kesilir (Hauck, 1980.

  1. The Role of Carbon in Core Formation Under Highly Reducing Conditions With Implications for the Planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Kaaden, Kathleen E..; McCubbin, Francis M.; Ross, D. Kent; Draper, David S.

    2017-01-01

    Results from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft have shown elevated abundances of carbon on the surface of Mercury. Furthermore, the X-Ray Spectrometer on board MESSENGER measured elevated abundances of sulfur and low abundances of iron, suggesting the planet's oxygen fugacity (fO2) is several log10 units below the Iron-Wüstite (IW) buffer. Similar to the role of other volatiles (e.g. sulfur) on highly reducing planetary bodies, carbon is expected to behave differently than it would under higher fO2. As discussed by Nittler et al. and Hauck et al., under such highly reducing conditions, the majority of the iron partitions into the core. On Mercury, this resulted in a relatively large core and a thin mantle. Using a composition similar to the largest volcanic field on the planet (the northern volcanic plains), Vander Kaaden and McCubbin conducted sink-float experiments to determine the density of melts and minerals on Mercury. They showed that graphite would be the only buoyant mineral in a mercurian magma ocean. Therefore, Vander Kaaden and McCubbin proposed a possible primary flotation crust on the planet composed of graphite. Concurrently, Peplowski et al. used GRS data from MESSENGER to show an average northern hemisphere abundance of C on the planet of 1.4 +/- 0.9 wt%. However, as this result was only at the one-sigma detection limit, possible carbon abundances at the three-sigma detection limit for Mercury range from 0 to 4.1 wt% carbon. Additionally, Murchie et al. investigated the possible darkening agent on Mercury and concluded that coarse-grained graphite could darken high reflectance plains to the low reflectance material. To further test the possibility of elevated abundances of carbon in Mercury's crust, Peplowski et al. used the low-altitude MESSENGER data to show that carbon is the only material consistent with both the visible to near-infrared spectra and the neutron measurements of low

  2. Carbon Solubility in Silicon-Iron-Bearing Metals during Core Formation on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Kaaden, Kathleen E.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Ross, D. Kent; Rapp, Jennifer F.; Danielson, Lisa R.; Keller, Lindsay P.; Righter, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Recent results obtained from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft showed the surface of Mercury has high S abundances (approximately 4 wt%) and low Iron(II) Oxide abundances (less than 2 wt%). Based on these extreme values, the oxygen fugacity of Mercury's surface materials was estimated to be approximately 3 to 7 log(sub 10) units below the IW buffer (Delta IW-3 to Delta IW-7). This highly reducing nature of the planet has resulted in a large core and relatively thin mantle, extending to only approximately 420 km depth (corresponding to a core-mantle boundary pressure of approximately 4-7 GPa) within the planet. Furthermore, MESSENGER results have suggested the presence of carbon on the surface of the planet. Previous experimental results from have also suggested the possibility of a primary floatation crust on Mercury composed of graphite, produced after a global magma ocean event. With these exotic conditions of this compositional end-member planet, it begs the question, what is the core composition of Mercury? Although no definitive conclusion has been reached, previous studies have made advances towards answering this question. Riner et al. and Chen et al. looked at iron sulfide systems and implemented various crystallization and layered core scenarios to try and determine the composition and structure of Mercury's core. Malavergne et al. examined core crystallization scenarios in the presence of sulfur and silicon. Hauck et al. used the most recent geophysical constraints from the MESSENGER spacecraft to model the internal structure of Mercury, including the core, in a iron-sulfur-silicon system. More recently, Chabot et al. conducted a series of metal-silicate partitioning experiments in a iron-sulfur-silicon system. These results showed the core of Mercury has the potential to contain more than 15 wt% silicon. However, with the newest results from MESSENGER's low altitude campaign, carbon is another

  3. In vitro Cell Viability by CellProfiler® Software as Equivalent to MTT Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Luciana S; Macedo, Nayana D; Pimentel, Elisângela F; Fronza, Marcio; Junior, Valdemar L; Borges, Warley S; Cole, Eduardo R; Andrade, Tadeu U; Endringer, Denise C; Lenz, Dominik

    2017-07-01

    This study evaluated in vitro cell viability by the colorimetric MTT stands for 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay compared to image analysis by CellProfiler ® software. Hepatoma (Hepa-1c1c7) and fibroblast (L929) cells were exposed to isolated substances, camptothecin, lycorine, tazettine, albomaculine, 3-epimacronine, trispheridine, galanthine and Padina gymnospora , Sargassum sp. methanolic extract, and Habranthus itaobinus Ravenna ethyl acetate in different concentrations. After MTT assay, cells were stained with Panotic dye kit. Cell images were obtained with an inverted microscope equipped with a digital camera. The images were analyzed by CellProfiler ® . No cytotoxicity at the highest concentration analyzed for 3-epimacronine, albomaculine, galanthine, trispheridine, P. gymnospora extract and Sargassum sp. extract where detected. Tazettine offered cytotoxicity only against the Hepa1c1c7 cell line. Lycorine, camptothecin, and H. itaobinus extract exhibited cytotoxic effects in both cell lines. The viability methods tested were correlated demonstrated by Bland-Atman test with normal distribution with mean difference between the two methods close to zero, bias value 3.0263. The error was within the limits of the confidence intervals and these values had a narrow difference. The correlation between the two methods was demonstrated by the linear regression plotted as R 2 . CellProfiler ® image analysis presented similar results to the MTT assay in the identification of viable cells, and image analysis may assist part of biological analysis procedures. The presented methodology is inexpensive and reproducible. In vitro cell viability assessment with MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay may be replaced by image analysis by CellProfiler ® . The viability methods

  4. Estrutura populacional de Hyale media (Dana (Amphipoda, Gammaridea, Hyalidae, habitante dos fitais de Caiobá, Matinhos, Paraná, Brasil Population structure of the seaweed dweller Hyale media (Dana (Amphipoda, Gammaridea, Hyalidae from Caiobá, Matinhos, Paraná, Brazil

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    Janete Dubiaski-Silva

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of correlation between the total body length and the somites length was carried out in a population of Hyale media (Dana, 1857, in order to know which somite or group of somites has the highest correlation index with the total body length. As the sum of the length of the first to fourth pereonites showed the highest linear correlation index (Y=0.0764+0.2736X; r=0.9723, this meristic parameter was chosen to describe the population structure of the species. The following aspects were treated: distribution of the body size classes in the various phytals, population composition, seasonal fluctuation of population density. relative frequency of the ovigerous females and correlation between the body length and the number of eggs inside the marsupium of the ovigerous females. The amphipods were obtained from the seasonal collections of six phytals from a rocky seashore of Caiobá, Paraná State: Pterosiphonia pennata (Roth Falkenberg. Gymrogongrus griffithsiae (Turner Martius, Pterocladia capillacea (Gmelin Bornet & Thured, Sargassum cymosum Garth, Gelidium sp and Ulva fasciata Delile; they did not occurred in Padina gymnospora (Kútsing Vickers and Porphyra atropurpurea (Olivi De Toni. The air temperature oscillated from 16ºC (winter and autumn to 23ºC (summer, the surface water temperature from 17ºC (winter to 25ºC (summer and the surface water salinity, from 29.3‰ (autumn to 32.8‰ (winter. The density oi Hyale media varied from 0.20 ind.g-1 (in Ulva to 26.37 ind.g-1 (in Pterosiphonia of alga-substratum weigth, and the population was distributed mainly in branched algae. It was determined three size classes in the population, within a range from 0.01 to 2.99mm of pereonits 1-4 length. Small amphipods prefer finely branched algae like Gymnogongrusand Pterosiphonia, whereas broad-thallii or less branched algae such as Sargassum, Pterocladia, Gelidium and Ulva harbour proporcionally high number of large individuais. The life cycle of

  5. Survey of the radioactive background of some specimens of the biota of Rio de Janeiro coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, P.L. dos; Santos Gouvea, R. de C. dos; Azevedo Gouvea, V. de.

    The natural radioactivity of components known to be bioconcentrators of artificial radionuclides in the coast of Rio de Janeiro was determined by means of sistematical gross alpha and beta radiometry. These data constitute the pre-operational survey, determining the radioactivity levels of these organisms and permiting to establish basic values and their temporal variations, which will serve as a referencial for the detection of eventual increases in the radioactivity introduced in the marine environment during the operational phase of nuclear power plants. Uranium and Potassium were also measured in some samples. The maximum and minimum values obtained after six years of experiment, analysing 14 species of algae and 4 species of animals were: for gross alpha radiometry (0,454 + - 0,162)Bq/g in the ashes of the phaeophita Padina vickersiae and (0,473 + - 0,106)Bq/g in the cnidaria Bunodosoma caissarum, (0,067 + - 0,031)Bq/g in the clorophita Ulva Fasciata and (0,091 + - 0,060)Bq/g in the soft tissues of the bivalve Perna perna. The byssus of this animal presented the highest gross alpha concentration : (1,770 + - 0,708)Bq/g, probably due to its high Uranium concentration, which contributes with 71%, complexed with its main constituent, a scleroprotein. The gross beta concentrations were highest in the algae Chetomorpha antennina (6,63 + - 1,80)Bq/g and in the species Bunodosoma caissarum, with a mean value of (2,60 + - 0,74)Bq/g in the ashes. The lowest concentrations were obtained in the rodophita Plocamium brasiliense, (1,64 + - 0,36)Bq/g, and (1,04 + - 0,30)Bq/g in the byssus of Perna perna. By the theoretical concentration of 40 K, calculated from potassium, the strong contribution of that radionuclide in the gross beta activity of the organisms is stressed. Seven samples of ashes were submitted to analyses by three different laboratories and the intercomparison results showed a reasonable agreement. (Author) [pt

  6. Crustáceos decápodos asociados a ensamblajes macroalgales en el litoral rocoso de Córdoba, Caribe colombiano

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    Néstor Hernando Campos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la estructura de las poblaciones de crustáceos decápodos asociados a ensamblajes algales en el litoral rocoso del departamento de Córdoba. Materiales y métodos. Para la recolección de los especímenes se delimitó con un cuadrante de 625 cm2, un área con cinco repeticiones dispuestas al azar en cada estación. Para la separación de las macroalgas desde su disco de fijación en el sustrato, se empleó una espátula metálica. En un recipiente plástico se separaron los crustáceos decápodos del resto del material y se conservaron en alcohol al 70%. Resultados. Se identificaron representantes de 50 especies asociadas a los céspedes algales, agrupadas en 16 familias y 29 géneros. Especies como Acanthonyx petiverii, Epialtus bituberculatus, Eurypanopeus abbreviatus y Pachycheles serratus, presentaron un rango amplio de distribución, siendo características en las dos ecorregiones de estudio. Los cambios en cobertura de algas rojas como Gracilaria mammillaris, Hypnea musciformis y Acanthophora muscoides, determinaron la mayor asociación de crustáceos decápodos en la ecorregión Morrosquillo, mientras que los cambios en cobertura de G. damaecornis y Padina gymnospora, fueron las que determinaron la mayor asociación de crustáceos decápodos en el Darién cordobés. Conclusiones. Los resultados indicaron que las especies de crustáceos decápodos asociados a ensamblajes macroalgales, no se encontraron distribuidas de forma similar en las dos ecorregiones estudiadas, siendo P. armatus la especie con mayor porcentaje de abundancia en la ecorregión Morrosquillo, y E. bituberculatus en el sector comprendido entre los municipios de Moñitos y Los Córdobas.

  7. ESTRUCTURA DE LAS COMUNIDADES MACROALGALES ASOCIADAS AL LITORAL ROCOSO DEL DEPARTAMENTO DE CÓRDOBA, COLOMBIA

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    JORGE A. QUIRÓS-RODRÍGUEZ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El comportamiento ecológico de las comunidades macroalgales en el Caribe cordobés es desconocido, por lo tanto para determinar la diversidad, la abundancia y la distribución de las especies se evaluó la estructura de las comunidades macrolagales asociadas a litoral rocoso del departamento de Córdoba durante los meses de mayo de 2004 hasta octubre de 2005, estableciendo siete puntos de muestreo; cuatro en la ecorregión Morrosquillo y tres en la ecorregión Darién. Para establecer la cobertura de las macroalgas, se utilizó un cuadrante de 625 cm2 con cinco repeticiones dispuestas al azar en cada punto de muestreo. Se reportaron 50 especies de algas bentónicas, de las cuales 27 son rodofitas, 17 clorofitas y 12 feofitas; de las 20 familias encontradas, Dictyotaceae presentó el mayor número de especies (10, seguida por Gracilariaceae (7 y Rhodomelaceae (7 y Halymeniaceae (4. Los géneros con mayor número de especies fueron Gracilaria (6, Padina (5 y Caulerpa (4. La composición de las comunidades macroalgales asociadas al sector comprendido entre Punta Bolívar y Punta Mestizos estuvo integrada por tres divisiones, siendo las rodofitas las que presentaron mayor porcentaje de cobertura (78%, seguida por las clorofitas (14% y finalmente las feofitas (9%. En el sector que comprende el litoral que va desde Punta Broqueles hasta Puerto Escondido, las rodofitas mostraron el mayor porcentaje de cobertura (62%, seguida por las feofitas (23% y finalmente las clorofitas (15%. El análisis de clasificación (UPGMA, registró un coeficiente de afinidad del 57%, indicando que la estructura y la composición de las comunidades algales asociadas se comportaron de manera similar en las dos ecorregiones; este comportamiento mostró la conformación de unidades estables en cada punto de muestreo, manifestando cierta homogeneidad espacial, lo cual puede estar relacionado con el tipo de sustrato y las perturbaciones ambientales propias de cada estación.

  8. Protective effect of Codium tomentosum alga on SH-SY5Y model of neurotoxicity induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6 – OHDA

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    Joana Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson Disease (PD is characterized by the loss of dopaminergic cell bodies in the substantia nigra and oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis seem to be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of different algae extracts on the cell death induced by by 6-OH-dopamine on a neuronal human cell model (SH- SY5Y. The neuroprotective effect of methanolic and dichloromethane algae extract (Padina pavonica, Sargassum muticum, Saccorhiza polyschides, Codium tomentosum, Ulva compressa in the presence of 6-OH-DA was assessed using the MTT method. The activity of caspase-3 and the quantification of hydrogen peroxide (extracellular environment and real time production production were studied in the presence and in the absence of the macroalgae extracts. The highest neuroprotective effect was exhibited by methanolic fractions (1000 µg/ml; 24 hours of S. muticum (115.80 ± 8.53% of viable cells, S. polyschides (106.51 ± 4.26 of viable cells, P. pavonica (95.98 ± 3.95 of viable cells and dichloromethane (1000 µg/ml; 24 hours fraction of C. tomentosum alga (102.22 ± 4.24 of viable cells, when compared with 6-OH-DA condition (100μM; 24 hours (67.40 ± 3.56 of viable cells. For the extracts that exhibited the highest neuroprotective effect was studied the possible alterations induced in the mechanisms of action previous selected. The dichloromethane fraction of Codium tomentosum alga (1000 µg/ml highly reduced the 6-OH-DA induced increase of caspase-3 activity, the less quantity of H2O2 in the extracellular environment and less production of H2O2 on real time (2.58 ± 1.77 UAF mg of protein-1 min-1; 0.0 ± 0.005 µM of H2O2, 54.07 ± 6.66 UAF min-1, respectively when compared with the 6-OH-DA condition at 100μM (4.5 ± 1:35 UAF mg of protein-1 min-1; ± 0.4 0.0019 µM of H2O2; 214.26 ± 8:46 UAF min-1, respectively. These results suggest that Codium tomentosum

  9. Caracterización espacial y biogeográfica de las asociaciones de macroalgas de Bahía del Rincón,Baja California Sur,México

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    R Riosmena-Rodríguez

    2005-06-01

    investigated the historical records and geographical affinities. A total of 72 species were identified (most were red algae: 62%. We found no general trend in the biogeographical affinities, which varied with each taxonomic group. Most brown algae species were tropical-endemic; red algae temperate- cosmopolite and green algae tropical-cosmopolite. In the spatial assemblage structure we found a high similarity between the intertidal areas, but a low similarity in shallow or deeper areas (3-5 m. This pattern was the same when we compared the abundance of the main species. We suggest that there are significant spatial differences in recruitment and development of the assemblages in relation to vertical distribution (depthand position along the shore. There is a clear-cut Gelidium-Jania belt in the intertidal zone and a Padina-Dictyota belt below the low tide. Sporadic and year-round species occur in the intertidal zone, annual and perennial species below the low tide line. Sites differ in recruitment and this affects the abundance of other species (such as coraline and Caulerpa species. Temperature and sedimentation affect seasonality, but community structure is relatively constant throughout the year. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(1-2:97-109. Epub 2005 Jun 24

  10. Absolute chronology and stratigraphy of Lepenski Vir

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    Borić Dušan

    2007-01-01

    . 11, and the new types of contexts that appear around 5900 cal BC. These new contexts included a number of pits, dug primarily in the rear area of the site, outside of the zone with trapezoidal buildings. There are also several domed ovens the function of which remains unclear. Also, crouched inhumations became the dominant burial rite (of possibly migrant individuals during this phase. Some of these crouched burials were found lying on the floors of trapezoidal buildings. This seems to have been the time of significant changes in patterns of habitation of the Lepenski Vir community. Bones of domestic animals were also found in those features assigned to phase III. We have directly dated four samples that come from domestic animals (sheep/goat, cattle and pig found in these contexts at Lepenski Vir. In this way, it was possible to directly date the introduction of domestic animals to the site. The results suggest that the these domestic animals must have been introduced to Lepenski Vir in the post-5900 cal BC period. The upper limit of this Middle Neolithic phase Lepenski Vir III remains to be elucidated further. While previous charcoal dates indicated that the site was used up until around 5400 cal BC, the upper limit of new dates is around 5700 cal BC. Existing dates from the neighbouring site of Padina suggest that some trapezoidal buildings at that site (Houses 15 and 18 might have been used up until 5500 cal BC. It is possible that future dates will move this limit to the end of the Middle Neolithic, i.e. c. 5500 cal BC. At this time, previously occupied sites on the Danube, such as Lepenski Vir, Padina, Vlasac, etc., were abandoned for more than a millennium. Lepenski Vir is used again during the Eneolithic period, when a burial of the Salkuţa culture, AMS dated to around 4300 cal BC, was interred here (see Burial 2, Fig. 25. New radiometric dates from Lepenski Vir, together with all other newly available data, demand a revision of conclusions previously made

  11. A Fine-Tooth Comb to Measure the Accelerating Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    worth recalling that the kind of precision required, 1 cm/s, corresponds, on the focal plane of a typical high-resolution spectrograph, to a shift of a few tenths of a nanometre, that is, the size of some molecules," explains PhD student and team member Constanza Araujo-Hauck from ESO. The new calibration technique comes from the combination of astronomy and quantum optics, in a collaboration between researchers at ESO and the Max Planck Institute for Quantum Optics. It uses ultra-short pulses of laser light to create a 'frequency comb' - light at many frequencies separated by a constant interval - to create just the kind of precise 'ruler' needed to calibrate a spectrograph. After successful tests in the MPQ laboratory in 2007, the team have successfully tested a prototype device using the laser comb at the VTT (Vacuum Tower Telescope) solar telescope in Tenerife, on 8 March 2008, measuring the spectrum of the Sun in infrared light. The results are already impressive, and the technique promises to achieve the accuracy needed to study these big astronomical questions. "In our tests in Tenerife, we have already achieved beyond state-of-the-art accuracy. Now we are going to make the system more versatile, and develop it even further," says team member Tilo Steinmetz, from Menlo Systems GmbH, a spin-off company from the Max Planck Institute, which was founded to commercialise the frequency comb technique. Having tested the technique on a solar telescope, a new version of the system is now being built for the HARPS planet-finder instrument on ESO's 3.6-metre telescope at La Silla in Chile, before being considered for future generations of instruments. One of the ambitious project to be realised with the E-ELT, called CODEX, aims to measure the recently discovered acceleration of the universe directly, by following the velocities of distant galaxies and quasars over a 20-year period. This would let astronomers test Einstein's general relativity and the nature of the recently