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Sample records for packed chicken tissues

  1. Toxinotyping of Clostridium perfringens strains isolated from packed chicken portions

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    Maryam Poursoltani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Clostridium perfringens are classified into five toxin types A to E, on the basis of production of Alpha, Beta, Epsilon and Iota toxins. Some strains are able to produce enterotoxin, can cause food poisoning in human. The bacteria are able to produce NetB and TpeL toxins which are virulence factors in necrotic enteritis in poultry. The aim of this study was to determine the toxin profile of C. perfringens strains isolated from packed chicken portions using Single and Multiplex PCR assays. Materials and Methods: In a crossectional study, 180 sample of chicken portions including wing (n=50, liver (n=50, neck (n=50 and gizzard (n=30 were collected randomly and examined for C. perfringens contamination. For this purpose all of samples were cultured on the 7% sheep defibrinated blood agar, TSN and TSC culture media. All of the isolates were investigated for the presence of alpha, beta, epsilon, iota toxin and virulence (tpeL and netB genes. Results: In the present study, 6 isolates out of 180 samples, were confirmed as C. perfringens by culture and molecular methods. All of the isolates (100% were confirmed as cpa and cpb positive strains and belong to type C of C. perfringens. The netB gene was detected in 5 isolates (83.33% and tpeL gene in three isolates (50%. Conclusions: Our findings show the majority of C. perfringens in broilers are belong to type C which produce necrotic enteritis in poultry and may be transmitted to human through poultry products.

  2. Risk of Salmonellosis from Chicken Parts Prepared from Whole Chickens Sold in Flow Pack Wrappers and Subjected to Temperature Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscar, T P

    2017-09-01

    The flow pack wrapper is a popular packaging choice for retail sale of whole chickens. However, it may provide a favorable environment for growth and spread of Salmonella within the package, leading to an outbreak of salmonellosis. To investigate this possibility, a process risk model was developed that predicted the risk of salmonellosis from chicken parts prepared from whole chickens sold in flow pack wrappers and subjected to proper storage (6 h at 4°C) or improper storage (72 h at 15°C) before preparation. The model had four unit operations (pathogen events): (i) preparation (contamination), (ii) cooking (death), (iii) serving (cross-contamination), and (iv) consumption (dose-response). Data for prevalence, number, and serotype of Salmonella on chicken parts were obtained by whole sample enrichment, real-time PCR. Improper storage increased (P chicken parts from 10.6% (17 of 160) to 41.2% (66 of 160) and incidence of cross-contamination of cooked chicken from 10% (4 of 40) to 52.2% (24 of 46). Improper storage also increased (P chicken part and from 0.048 ± 0.089 to 3.08 ± 1.50 log per cooked chicken part. The predominant serotypes isolated (n = 111) were Typhimurium (34.2%), Typhimurium var 5- (20.7%), Kentucky (12.6%), Enteritidis (11.7%), and Heidelberg (8.1%). When chicken was properly stored before preparation, the model predicted that risk of salmonellosis was low and sporadic with only six cases per 100 simulations of 10 5 chicken parts. However, when 0.1 to 1% of chickens were improperly stored before preparation, the model predicted that salmonellosis would increase (P chicken parts. These results indicated that the flow pack wrapper provided a favorable environment for growth and spread of Salmonella within the package and that even when only a small percentage of packages were subjected to improper storage before preparation, the risk and size of an outbreak of salmonellosis from chicken parts increased significantly.

  3. Chicken Meat Submitted to Gamma Radiation and Packed with or without Oxygen

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    K Pelicia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects on gamma radiation levels on the physical and microbiological characteristics of chicken breast meat. A completely randomized experimental design in a 4x2x3 factorial arrangement was adopted. Treatments consisted of four radiation concentrations (0, 2, 4, or 8kGy, two package sealing methods (with or without vacuum, and three storage times (01, 07, or 14 days, with ten replicates each, totaling 240 chicken breast fillets. Packaging and radiation had no influence (p>0.05 on chicken breast meat pH, water retention capacity, or presence of Salmonella spp. Breast fillets not submitted to radiation and vacuum packed presented higher water retention capacity (p<0.05 than those radiated at 4kGy and vacuum packed. Drip loss in fillets radiated at 8kGy and not vacuum packed was higher (p<0.05 than in non-radiated and non-vacuum packed fillets; however, both were not different from the other treatments. Coliform presence increased with storage time in non-radiated samples; however, when these were vacuum-packed, their development was slower. The results of the present experiment suggest that the use of a low radiation dose (2kGy, combined with vacuum packing, may minimize the harmful effects of storage on chicken breast fillets.

  4. Bacteriological evaluation of refrigerated vacuum and air-packed chicken fillets treated with irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantilla, Samira P.S.; Santos, Erica B.; Mano, Sergio B.; Franco, Robson M.; Vital, Helio C.

    2009-01-01

    Chicken meat is a nutritious food, rich in essential aminoacids and much appreciated by a large fraction of the population. However, it is also highly perishable, typically having a shelf life of 5 to 7 days in refrigeration, depending on the initial microbiological load. Irradiation has been efficiently used to improve safety and extend the shelf lives of many meat products. Its use in combination with refrigeration and exclusion of oxygen is known to greatly enhance the sanitary quality of meat. This work investigated the bacteriological effects of radiation doses of 0; 2.0 and 3.0 kGy on vacuum- and air-packed chicken fillets kept at 1 deg C for up to 18 days. Bacteriological analyses that included enumerating and counting indicated that both the lag phase of the bacterial growth and the shelf life of the samples increased with dose. It was observed that exposure to 3.0 kGy extended the initial 5-day shelf life of the air-packed fillets to 10 days while prolonging to 12 days the shelf life of the vacuum-packed ones. Among the species of bacteria monitored, the lactic bacteria were found to be the most resistant to gamma radiation while coliforms were the most sensitive. (author)

  5. Alteration of Diastereoisomeric and Enantiomeric Profiles of Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in Adult Chicken Tissues, Eggs, and Hatchling Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaobo; Qiao, Lin; Sun, Runxia; Luo, Xiaojun; Zheng, Jing; Xie, Qilai; Sun, Yuxin; Mai, Bixian

    2017-05-16

    The concentrations and enantiomer fractions (EFs) of α-, β-, and γ-hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) were measured in chicken diet sources (soil and chicken feed), home-raised adult chicken (Gallus domesticus) tissues, eggs during incubation, and hatchling chicken tissues. HBCD concentrations were not detected-0.69 ng/g dry weight (dw) and 25.6-48.4 ng/g dw in chicken feed and soil, respectively. HBCDs were detected in all adult chicken tissues, except the brain, at median levels of 13.1-44.0 ng/g lipid weight (lw). The proportions of α-HBCD in total HBCDs increased from 51% in soil to more than 87% in adult chicken tissues. The accumulation ratios (ARs) of α-HBCD from diet to adult chicken tissues were 4.27 for liver, 11.2 for fat, and 7.64-12.9 for other tissues, respectively. The AR and carry-over rate (COR) of α-HBCD from diet to eggs were 22.4 and 0.226, respectively. The concentrations of α-HBCD in hatchling chicken liver (median: 35.4 ng/g lw) were significantly lower than those in hatchling chicken pectoral muscle (median: 130 ng/g lw). The EFs of α-HBCD decreased from soil to adult chicken tissues and from eggs to hatchling chicken liver. Meanwhile, the EFs of γ-HBCD increased from soil to adult chicken tissues. These results indicate the preferential enrichment of (-)-α-HBCD and (+)-γ-HBCD in chickens. The alteration of diastereoisomeric and enantiomeric patterns of HBCDs might be influenced by the different absorption and elimination rates of the six HBCD enantiomers as well as variations in HBCD metabolism in chickens.

  6. Tissue expression and developmental regulation of chicken cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides

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    Achanta Mallika

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cathelicidins are a major family of antimicrobial peptides present in vertebrate animals with potent microbicidal and immunomodulatory activities. Four cathelicidins, namely fowlicidins 1 to 3 and cathelicidin B1, have been identified in chickens. As a first step to understand their role in early innate host defense of chickens, we examined the tissue and developmental expression patterns of all four cathelicidins. Real-time PCR revealed an abundant expression of four cathelicidins throughout the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and urogenital tracts as well as in all primary and secondary immune organs of chickens. Fowlicidins 1 to 3 exhibited a similar tissue expression pattern with the highest expression in the bone marrow and lung, while cathelicidin B1 was synthesized most abundantly in the bursa of Fabricius. Additionally, a tissue-specific regulatory pattern was evident for all four cathelicidins during the first 28 days after hatching. The expression of fowlicidins 1 to 3 showed an age-dependent increase both in the cecal tonsil and lung, whereas all four cathelicidins were peaked in the bursa on day 4 after hatching, with a gradual decline by day 28. An abrupt augmentation in the expression of fowlicidins 1 to 3 was also observed in the cecum on day 28, while the highest expression of cathelicidin B1 was seen in both the lung and cecal tonsil on day 14. Collectively, the presence of cathelicidins in a broad range of tissues and their largely enhanced expression during development are suggestive of their potential important role in early host defense and disease resistance of chickens.

  7. Effect of cooking on enrofloxacin residues in chicken tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolo, M; Pedreira, S; Miranda, J M; Vázquez, B I; Franco, C M; Cepeda, A; Fente, C

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different cooking processes (microwaving, roasting, boiling, grilling and frying) on naturally incurred enrofloxacin residues in chicken muscle. Enrofloxacin and its metabolite, ciprofloxacin, were analysed using a validated LC-MS method with limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ), respectively, of 2 and 5 ng g-1 quinolones in muscle samples. The method was shown to be linear over the range 5-500 ng g-1. Mean intra-day relative standard deviation (RSD) at a concentration of 50 ng g-1 (n = 6) was 6%; inter-day RSD was 12%. A recovery study demonstrated that 65-101%, of the drug and metabolite could be recovered from the tissue. The RSD with naturally incurred roasted chicken breast was 9.18% at a concentration of 11 +/- 1.01 ng g-1 (n = 6). In water, enrofloxacin remained stable for 3 h when heated at 100 degrees C. It was concluded that residue data from raw tissue are valid for estimation of consumer exposure to this drug, as well as the ADI calculations because cooking procedures did not affect enrofloxacin residues, which remained stable during heating. However, there was an apparent decrease in quinolone concentration in tissue because some was lost by exudation into the liquid used for cooking. Conversely, for a cooking procedure with water loss, there was an apparent increase in residue concentration.

  8. Chicken Meat Submitted to Gamma Radiation and Packed with or without Oxygen

    OpenAIRE

    Pelicia, K; Garcia, EA; Molino, AB; Santos, GC; Vieira Filho, JA; Santos, TA; Berto, DA

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects on gamma radiation levels on the physical and microbiological characteristics of chicken breast meat. A completely randomized experimental design in a 4x2x3 factorial arrangement was adopted. Treatments consisted of four radiation concentrations (0, 2, 4, or 8kGy), two package sealing methods (with or without vacuum), and three storage times (01, 07, or 14 days), with ten replicates each, totaling 240 chicken breast fillets. Packaging an...

  9. Study on the abuse of amantadine in tissues of broiler chickens by HPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, X; Yang, S; Zhao, J; Zhang, Y; Zhao, L; Cheng, Y; Hou, C; Xu, Z

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the residual target tissues for better monitoring of amantadine abuse in broiler chickens, 22-day-old commercial Arbor Acres broiler chickens were, respectively, fed with 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg of amantadine for five consecutive days. Plasma, breast, and liver tissue samples from the chickens were collected 0, 4, 16, 24, 48, 96, 144, and 312 h after amantadine withdrawal. The high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was used to detect the concentrations of amantadine. The highest concentration was found in the chicken liver and it took the longest time for amantadine to vanish by metabolism. In the high-dose group, amantadine residues were still detected 312 h after amantadine withdrawal. As the amantadine dose increased, amantadine residues in the chicken liver were more slowly to disappear than in other tissues. Even if approximately the same concentration of amantadine residues was found in chicken breast and plasma samples, it took a shorter time before the residues were eliminated. In the medium- and high-dose groups, the concentrations of amantadine residues in chicken liver samples were substantially higher than those in chicken breast and plasma samples, and it took more time to eliminate them. Therefore, the chicken liver can be used as a target tissue to detect illegal use of amantadine. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. COMPARISON OF SLAUGHTER YIELD AND CARCASS TISSUE COMPOSITION IN BROILER CHICKENS OF VARIOUS ORIGIN

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    DARIUSZ KOKOSZYŃSKI

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Slaughter yield and carcass tissue composition were compared in three different broiler chicken production sets. The highest body weight (1892.5 g, eviscerated carcass weight with neck (1406.9 g and slaughter yield (74.5% were found in Ross 308 chickens, whilst the lowest values of these traits occurred in JV chickens (respectively: 1753.3; 1288.2 g; 73.3%. The highest muscle contents (45.4% breast muscles and leg muscles in carcass and the lowest fattiness (7.9% skin with subcutaneous fat and 1.5% abdominal fat were found in Hubbard Evolution chickens.

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation at various temperatures and packaging conditions on chicken tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rady, A.H.; Maxwell, R.J.; Wierbicki, E.; Phillips, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    A lipid composition study on irradiated chicken muscle is reported. All muscle samples, packed either under air or vacuum, were gamma irradiated (-20 0 C) at 0, 1, 3, 6 and 10 kGy using 137 Cs (dose rate 0.1 kGy/min). Lipids were isolated from the muscle using a dry column extraction method with concomitant isolation of separated neutral and polar fractions. Lipid isolates were converted to their methyl esters and analyzed by capillary column gas chromatography with computer assisted data storage, followed by data consolidation and statistical computer analysis. Separated fatty acid profiles for neutral and polar lipids were obtained as normalized reports (each fatty acid as percentage of total fatty acids) and as gravimetric reports (mg of each fatty acid/100 g tissue). Normalized reports showed only negligible occurrence of significant changes in fatty acid profiles of neutral muscle lipid fractions regardless of irradiation doses (0 to 10 kGy) in either air and vacuum packaging. These differences were not apparent when the data were compiled as gravimetric reports. The polar lipid fractions containing the nutritionally significant ω3 and ω6 fatty acids showed only slight changes in normalized and gravimetric reports and were similarly unaffected with increasing levels of irradiation. Additionally, no new fatty acids or other artifacts due to gamma-irradiation were observed in detectable amounts by gas chromatography in any lipid fractions. (author)

  12. cDNA cloning of chicken orexin receptor and tissue distribution: sexually dimorphic expression in chicken gonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkubo, T; Tsukada, A; Shamoto, K

    2003-12-01

    Orexin-A and -B are known to stimulate food intake in mammals. However, the critical roles of orexins in birds are not fully understood, since orexins have no stimulatory effect on food intake in the chicken. To understand the physiological role(s) of orexins in birds, we have cloned chicken orexin receptor (cOXR) cDNA by RT-PCR, and analysed the tIssue distribution of OXR mRNA in the chicken. The cOXR cDNA is 1869 bp long and encodes 501 amino acids. The cloned cDNA for cOXR corresponds to the type 2 OXR in mammals, and shows approximately 80% similarity to those of mammals at the amino acid level. Expression analysis by RNase protection assay revealed OXR mRNA was distributed widely in brain regions, and expression in the cerebrum, hypothalamus and optic tectum were abundant. In peripheral tIssues, OXR mRNA was expressed in the pituitary gland, adrenal gland and testis, but no mRNA expression was observed in other tIssues examined. Furthermore, we found that the amount of cOXR mRNA was different between testis and ovary, while prepro-orexin mRNA is equally expressed in the gonads of both sexes in the chicken. These data indicate that the orexins have neuroendocrine actions in chickens, which are mediated through hypothalamic receptors as has been observed in mammals. In addition, orexin may have specific role(s) in the regulation of gonadal function in which sex-dependent mechanisms could be involved.

  13. Analysis of iron storage proteins in chicken liver and spleen tissues in comparison with human liver ferritin by Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshtrakh, M.I.; Milder, O.B.; Semionkin, V.A.; Malakheeva, L.I.; Prokopenko, P.G.

    2006-01-01

    Characterization of iron storage proteins in liver and spleen from normal chicken and chicken with lymphoid leukemia in comparison with human liver ferritin were considered by Moessbauer spectroscopy (preliminary results). Small differences in Moessbauer hyperfine parameters for both normal and lymphoid leukemia chicken liver and spleen were observed. The value of quadrupole splitting for human liver ferritin was higher than those for chicken tissues. A decrease of iron content in lymphoid leukemia chicken tissues was also found, however, the reason of this fact (pathology or feeding) was not clear yet. (author)

  14. The local expression of adult chicken heart myosins during development. II. Ventricular conducting tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, E.; de Groot, I. J.; Geerts, W. J.; de Jong, F.; van Horssen, A. A.; Los, J. A.; Moorman, A. F.

    1986-01-01

    The development of the ventricular conducting tissue of the embryonic chicken heart has been studied using a previous finding that morphologically recognizable atrial conducting tissue coexpresses the atrial and the ventricular myosin isoforms. It is found that, by these criteria, at 9 days part of

  15. Tolerance to low temperatures of Toxocara cati larvae in chicken muscle tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taira, Kensuke; Saitoh, Yasuhide; Okada, Natsuki

    2012-01-01

    Infectivity of Toxocara cati larvae in muscle tissue of chickens after storage at 4 degrees C and -25 degrees C was assessed in a mouse bioassay to provide information on the risk of meat-borne toxocarosis. Muscle tissue samples of 30-day old T. cati infections were stored at 4 degrees C for 14...

  16. Quantitation of two endogenous lactose-inhibitable lectins in embryonic and adult chicken tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, E.C.; Barondes, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    Two lactose-binding lectins from chicken tissues, chicken-lactose-lectin-I (CLL-I) and chicken-lactose-lectin-II (CLL-II) were quantified with a radioimmunoassay in extracts of a number of developing and adult chicken tissues. Both lectins could be measured in the same extract without separation, because they showed no significant immunological cross- reactivity. Many embryonic and adult tissues, including brain, heart, intestine, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, pancreas, and spleen, contained one or both lectins, although their concentrations differed markedly. For example, embryonic muscle, the richest source of CLL-I contained only traces of CLL-II whereas embryonic kidney, a very rich source of CLL-II contained substantial CLL-I. In both muscle and kidney, lectin levels in adulthood were much lower than in the embryonic state. In contrast, CLL-I in liver and CLL-II in intestine were 10-fold to 30-fold more concentrated in the adult than in the 15-d embryo. CLL-I and CLL-II from several tissues were purified by affinity chromatography and their identity in the various tissues was confirmed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, and peptide mapping. The results suggest that these lectins might have different functions in the many developing and adult tissues in which they are found

  17. Avian metapneumovirus subtype B experimental infection and tissue distribution in chickens, sparrows, and pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaibeh, S; Shamoun, M

    2012-07-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is a respiratory virus that infects a range of avian hosts, including chickens and turkeys. Migratory and local wild birds are implicated in aMPV spread among farms, countries, and seasonal outbreaks of the disease. A subtype B aMPV isolate from commercial chicken flocks suffering from respiratory disease was experimentally inoculated oculonasally into 7-week old chickens, young pigeons, and sparrows. Chickens showed minimal tracheal rales, whereas pigeons and sparrows were asymptomatic. Shedding of aMPV was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction on homogenates from nasal turbinates. At 5 days postinfection, 5 of 5 chickens, 2 of 5 pigeons, and 1 of 5 sparrows were positive; at 10 or 15 days, none were positive. At 2 and 5 days, aMPV antigens were localized at the ciliated boarder of respiratory epithelium in nasal cavity and trachea of chickens, as well as to the conjunctival epithelium. Pigeons had detectable viral antigens in only the trachea at 2 and 5 days; sparrow tissues did not show any positive staining. At the end of the experiment, at 21 days postinfection, 14 of 15 inoculated chickens seroconverted against aMPV, but none of the inoculated pigeons or sparrows did. The authors believe that pigeons and sparrows have the ability to transmit the virus between chicken farms, although they do not consider pigeons and sparrows as natural hosts for aMPV, given that they failed to seroconvert. In conclusion, pigeons and sparrows are partially susceptible to aMPV infection, probably acting more as mechanical vectors because infection is only temporary and short-lived.

  18. The cellular distribution of histone H5 in embryonic and adult tissues of Xenopus laevis and chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moorman, A. F.; de Boer, P. A.; Lamers, W. H.; Charles, R.

    1986-01-01

    The cellular distribution of histone H5 in embryonic and adult tissues of Xenopus laevis and chicken has been established with monoclonal antibodies to histone H5. Both in Xenopus and in chicken, the protein has presumably a more widespread cellular distribution than hitherto expected but is absent

  19. Multi-locus sequence subtypes of Campylobacter detected on the surface and from internal tissue of retail chicken livers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne campylobacteriosis has been traced to undercooked chicken liver. The objectives of this study were to measure prevalence of Campylobacter associated with chicken livers at retail and determine which subtypes are detected on the surface and inner tissue of livers. Fifteen packages of fres...

  20. Characteristics of nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) and nasal absorption capacity in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Haihong; Yan, Mengfei; Yu, Qinghua; Yang, Qian

    2013-01-01

    As the main mucosal immune inductive site of nasal cavity, nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) plays an important role in both antigen recognition and immune activation after intranasal immunization. However, the efficiency of intranasal vaccines is commonly restricted by the insufficient intake of antigen by the nasal mucosa, resulting from the nasal mucosal barrier and the nasal mucociliary clearance. The distribution of NALT and the characteristic of nasal cavity have already been described in humans and many laboratory rodents, while data about poultry are scarce. For this purpose, histological sections of the chicken nasal cavities were used to examine the anatomical structure and histological characteristics of nasal cavity. Besides, the absorptive capacity of chicken nasal mucosa was also studied using the materials with different particle size. Results showed that the NALT of chicken was located on the bottom of nasal septum and both sides of choanal cleft, which mainly consisted of second lymphoid follicle. A large number of lymphocytes were distributed under the mucosal epithelium of inferior nasal meatus. In addition, there were also diffuse lymphoid tissues located under the epithelium of the concha nasalis media and the walls of nasal cavity. The results of absorption experiment showed that the chicken nasal mucosa was capable to absorb trypan blue, OVA, and fluorescent latex particles. Inactivated avian influenza virus (IAIV) could be taken up by chicken nasal mucosa except for the stratified squamous epithelium sites located on the forepart of nasal cavity. The intake of IAIV by NALT was greater than that of the nasal mucosa covering on non-lymphoid tissue, which could be further enhanced after intranasal inoculation combined with sodium cholate or CpG DNA. The study on NALT and nasal absorptive capacity will be benefit for further understanding of immune mechanisms after nasal vaccination and development of nasal vaccines for poultry.

  1. Microbiological quality and biogenic amines in ready-to-eat grilled chicken fillets under vacuum packing, freezing, and high-dose irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, R F; Lemos, M; Teixeira, C E; Vital, H C; Carneiro, C S; Mársico, E T; Conte Júnior, C A; Mano, S B

    2014-06-01

    The combined effects of cooking, vacuum packing, freezing, and high-dose gamma irradiation in the microbiological conservation and in biogenic amine (BA) contents of ready-to-eat grilled breast chicken fillets are investigated in this work. After seasoning, cooking, and vacuum packing, one-third of the samples were stored at -25°C (T1). The remaining two-thirds were treated with 48 kGy, one-third being stored at -25°C (T2) and the other one-third kept at room temperature (T3). All samples were periodically analyzed to determine growth of heterotrophic aerobic mesophilic bacteria (HAMB) and levels of BA (tyramine, TYM; putrescine, PUT; cadaverine, CAD; spermidine, SPD; histamine, HYM; and spermine, SPM). Variance analysis was performed to determine significant changes in the measured data. Grilling caused HAMB counts in seasoned samples to drop from 5.3 log cfu/g to zero. In addition, no viable HAMB cells were detected in the samples throughout the 12-mo storage time. Regarding the BA analyses, the highest mean levels were measured for SPM and CAD with significantly higher levels (P chicken breast fillets throughout the 12 mo of storage at room temperature. Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. Locations of gut-associated lymphoid tissue in the 3-month-old chicken: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casteleyn, C; Doom, M; Lambrechts, E; Van den Broeck, W; Simoens, P; Cornillie, P

    2010-06-01

    The lymphoid tissue that is associated with the intestinal tract, the so-called gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), is well developed in the chicken. Depending on the location, it is present as aggregations of lymphoid cells, or organized in lymphoid follicles and tonsils. From proximal to distal, the intestinal tract contains a pharyngeal tonsil, diffuse lymphoid tissue and lymphoid follicles in the cervical and thoracic parts of the oesophagus, an oesophageal tonsil, diffuse lymphoid tissue in the proventriculus, a pyloric tonsil, Peyer's patches, Meckel's diverticulum, two caecal tonsils, diffuse lymphoid tissue in the rectum, the bursa of Fabricius, and diffuse lymphoid tissue in the wall of the proctodeum. The lymphoid tissues are frequently covered by a lympho-epithelium that is infiltrated by lymphoid cells. Such an epithelium often contains M or microfold cells, which are specialized in antigen sampling and transport antigens to the underlying lymphoid tissue. A solid knowledge of the avian GALT could contribute to the development of vaccines to be administered orally. Additionally, immune stimulation via pre- and probiotics is based on the presence of a well-developed intestinal immune system.

  3. Identification of Viruses Present in Tissues Collected from Chickens with Hypoglycemia-Spiking Mortality Syndrome (H-SMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissues were collected, over a 10-year period, from broiler chickens diagnosed with severe H-SMS at the Georgia Poultry Lab, in Oakwood, GA. All samples were stored in tissue culture media, with antibiotics and 15% fetal bovine serum, in an ultra-cold freezer @ -80F. Specimens were homogenized,...

  4. The occurence of nitrofuran metabolites in the tissues of chickens exposed to very low dietary concentration in the nitrofurans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCracken, R.J.; Rhijn, van J.A.; Kennedy, D.G.

    2005-01-01

    The global problem of food products contaminated by residues of the banned carcinogenic nitrofuran drugs has prompted research into how such residues accumulate in tissues. In the study described here, two aspects have been investigated where the nitrofurans accumulate in tissues from chickens

  5. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in chicken tissues and eggs from an electronic waste recycling area in southeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofei Qin; Yongjian Yang; Zhanfen Qin; Yan Li; Yaxian Zhao; Xijuan Xia; Shishuai Yan; Mi Tian; Xingru Zhao; Xiaobai XU

    2011-01-01

    The levels and distributions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in chicken tissues from an electronic waste (e-waste)recycling area in southeast China were investigated. Human dietary intake by local residents via chicken muscle and eggs was estimated.The mean PBDEs concentrations in tissues ranged from 15.2 to 3138.1 ng/g lipid weight (lw) and in egg the concentration was 563.5 ng/g lw. The results showed that the level of total PBDEs (∑PBDEs) in the chicken tissue was 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than those reported in the literature. The large difference of ΣPBDEs concentrations between tissues confirmed that the distribution of PBDEs in tissues depend on tissue-specificity rather than the “lipid-compartment”. BDE-209 was the predominant congener (82.5%-94.7% of ∑PBDEs) in all chicken tissues except in brain (34.7% of ∑PBDEs), which indicated that deca-BDE (the major commercial PBDE formulation comprising 65%-70% of total production) was major pollution source in this area and could be bioaccumulated in terrestrial animals. The dietary PBDEs intake of the local residents from chicken muscle and egg, assuming only local bred chickens and eggs were consumed, ranged from 2.2 to 22.5 ng/(day·kg body weight (bw)) with a mean value of 13.5 ng/(day.kg bw), which was one order of magnitude higher than the value reported in previous studies for consumption of all foodstuffs.

  6. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in chicken tissues and eggs from an electronic waste recycling area in southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiaofei; Qin, Zhanfen; Li, Yan; Zhao, Yaxian; Xia, Xijuan; Yan, Shishuai; Tian, Mi; Zhao, Xingru; Xu, Xiaobai; Yang, Yongjian

    2011-01-01

    The levels and distributions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in chicken tissues from an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area in southeast China were investigated. Human dietary intake by local residents via chicken muscle and eggs was estimated. The mean PBDEs concentrations in tissues ranged from 15.2 to 3138.1 ng/g lipid weight (lw) and in egg the concentration was 563.5 ng/g lw. The results showed that the level of total PBDEs (sigmaPBDEs) in the chicken tissue was 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than those reported in the literature. The large difference of sigmaPBDEs concentrations between tissues confirmed that the distribution of PBDEs in tissues depend on tissue-specificity rather than the "lipid-compartment". BDE-209 was the predominant congener (82.5%-94.7% of sigmaPBDEs) in all chicken tissues except in brain (34.7% of sigmaPBDEs), which indicated that deca-BDE (the major commercial PBDE formulation comprising 65%-70% of total production) was major pollution source in this area and could be bioaccumulated in terrestrial animals. The dietary PBDEs intake of the local residents from chicken muscle and egg, assuming only local bred chickens and eggs were consumed, ranged from 2.2 to 22.5 ng/(day x kg body weight (bw)) with a mean value of 13.5 ng/(day x kg bw), which was one order of magnitude higher than the value reported in previous studies for consumption of all foodstuffs.

  7. Establishment of an in vitro system representing the chicken gut-associated lymphoid tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; McClure, Susan Jane; Yeap, Swee Keong; Kristeen-Teo, Ye Wen; Tan, Sheau Wei; McCullagh, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The bursa of Fabricius is critical for B cell development and differentiation in chick embryos. This study describes the production in vitro, from dissociated cell suspensions, of cellular agglomerates with functional similarities to the chicken bursa. Co-cultivation of epithelial and lymphoid cells obtained from embryos at the appropriate developmental stage regularly led to agglomerate formation within 48 hours. These agglomerates resembled bursal tissue in having lymphoid clusters overlaid by well organized epithelium. Whereas lymphocytes within agglomerates were predominantly Bu-1a(+), a majority of those emigrating onto the supporting membrane were Bu-1a(-) and IgM(+). Both agglomerates and emigrant cells expressed activation-induced deaminase with levels increasing after 24 hours. Emigrating cells were actively proliferating at a rate in excess of both the starting cell population and the population of cells remaining in agglomerates. The potential usefulness of this system for investigating the response of bursal tissue to avian Newcastle disease virus (strain AF2240) was examined.

  8. Electrical Impedance Spectroscopic Studies on Broiler Chicken Tissue Suitable for the Development of Practical Phantoms in Multifrequency EIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Kanti Bera

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Phantoms are essential for assessing the system performance in Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT. Saline phantoms with insulator inhomogeneity fail to mimic the physiological structure of real body tissue in several aspects. Saline or any other salt solutions are purely resistive and hence studying multifrequency EIT systems cannot be assessed with saline phantoms because the response of the purely resistive materials do not change over frequency. Animal tissues show a variable response over a wide band of signal frequency due to their complex physiological and physiochemical structures and hence they can suitably be used as bathing medium and inhomogeneity in the phantoms of multifrequency EIT system. An efficient assessment of a multifrequency EIT system with real tissue phantom needs a prior knowledge of the impedance profile of the bathing medium as well as the inhomogeneity. In this direction Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS of broiler chicken muscle tissue paste and broiler chicken fat tissue is conducted from 10 Hz to 2 MHz using an impedance analyzer and their impedance profiles are thoroughly studied. Results show that the broiler chicken muscle tissue paste is less resistive than the fat tissue and hence it can be successfully used as the bathing medium of the phantoms for resistivity imaging in multifrequency EIT. Fat tissue is found more resistive than the muscle tissue which makes it more suitable for the inhomogeneity in phantoms of resistivity imaging study. doi:10.5617/jeb.174 J Electr Bioimp, vol. 2, pp. 48-63, 2011

  9. Proteomic analysis of chicken embryonic trachea and kidney tissues after infection in ovo by avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Xiangang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian infectious bronchitis (IB is one of the most serious diseases of economic importance in chickens; it is caused by the avian infectious coronavirus (IBV. Information remains limited about the comparative protein expression profiles of chicken embryonic tissues in response to IBV infection in ovo. In this study, we analyzed the changes of protein expression in trachea and kidney tissues from chicken embryos, following IBV infection in ovo, using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF MS. Results 17 differentially expressed proteins from tracheal tissues and 19 differentially expressed proteins from kidney tissues were identified. These proteins mostly related to the cytoskeleton, binding of calcium ions, the stress response, anti-oxidative, and macromolecular metabolism. Some of these altered proteins were confirmed further at the mRNA level using real-time RT-PCR. Moreover, western blotting analysis further confirmed the changes of annexin A5 and HSPB1 during IBV infection. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, we have performed the first analysis of the proteomic changes in chicken embryonic trachea and kidney tissues during IBV infection in ovo. The data obtained should facilitate a better understanding of the pathogenesis of IBV infection.

  10. Radioimmunoassay for Lys8, Asn9, neurotensin 8-13: tissue and subcellular distribution of immunoreactivity in chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carraway, R.E.; Ruane, S.E.; Ritsema, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    A sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) for Lys8, Asn9, neurotensin 8-13 (LANT-6) has been developed which utilizes 125I-labeled LANT-6 and rabbit antisera raised towards conjugates of synthetic LANT-6 and bovine thyroglobulin. The antiserum described (TG-22) allows the detection of ca 100 fmol of LANT-6 and crossreacts less than 0.01% with chicken or bovine NT. Dose-response relationships for the native (chicken) and synthetic peptides were indistinguishable. Using this assay the distribution of immunoreactive LANT-6 (iLANT-6) through various tissues of the chicken was studied and compared with that of chicken NT (iNT) determined by RIA. Both iNT and ILANT-6 were found primarily in the brain and gastrointestinal tract, however, their regional distributions were found to differ. Subcellular distribution studies in homogenates of chicken brain indicated that both iNT and iLANT-6 were associated with synaptosome-like and vesicle-like particles. In homogenates of small intestine, pancreas and colon iNT and iLANT-6 appeared to be within osmotically sensitive, sedimentable particles. Analyses using high pressure liquid chromatography established that chicken iLANT-6 co-eluted with the synthetic peptide and that similar substances were present in extracts of rat brain and intestine. These results are consistent with ''messenger' roles for these peptides

  11. Physical and Chemical Changes in Fresh Chilled Muscle Tissue of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L. Packed in a Modified Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ježek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to monitor the course of physical and chemical changes taking place in stored fresh chilled muscle tissue of carp packed in modified atmosphere (MAP, and to determine its shelf life. Samples of muscle tissue of common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L. were packed in MAP (80% O2, 20% CO2 and stored for 15 days at +2 ± 2 °C max. During the storage period, O2 level in packs decreased from 78.7 ± 0.39% (day 1 to 63.8 ± 1.30% (day 15. Decrease in O2 in packs between storage days 7 and 9 was highly significant (p -1 (day 15. Hydrolytic lipid decomposition (FFA was more intensive in carp muscle tissue (2.09 ± 1.07% total lipid as oleic acid than in carp skin (1.01 ± 0.31% total lipid as oleic acid (day 15. Lipid oxidation (PV in skin showed differences from lipid oxidation in muscle tissue. Oxidation processes in muscle correlated positively with the length of storage (r = 0.90. Over the storage period, peroxide levels increased from 2.58 ± 1.19 mekv O2 kg-1 (day 1 to 6.76 ± 1.78 mekv O2 kg-1 (day 15. Because of low TVBN levels in muscle tissue, shelf life was limited mainly by sensory changes (green discoloration, odour deviations, slime production, which were observed from storage day 9 onwards. It was found that the maximum shelf life of carp packed in MAP (80% O2, 20% CO2 was 7 days. The optimum parameter to determine the remaining shelf life of common carp muscle tissue stored at +2 ± 2 °C max is the TVBN level. As concerns shelf life, TVBN levels in carp muscle should not exceed 15 mg 100 g-1. This level of TVBN (max. 15 mg 100 g-1 for carp (MAP 80% O2, 20% CO2 is much more lower in comparison with levels TVBN (max 25 - 35 mg 100 g-1 which have been determined by Commission Regulation (EC No. 2074/2005 for sea fish. For that reason we suggest to amplify the study by other monitoring (higher number of samples, various breeds of carp in different weight categories for all the year. On the basis of these analyses the level

  12. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of ciguatoxin in fish tissue using chicken immunoglobulin Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Empey Campora, Cara; Hokama, Yoshitsugi; Yabusaki, Kenichi; Isobe, Minoru

    2008-01-01

    A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed to detect ciguatoxin (CTX) in fish tissue. The assay utilizes two antibodies, chicken immunoglobulin Y specific to the ABCD domain of CTX and a mouse monoclonal immunoglobulin G-horseradish peroxidase conjugate specific to the JKLM domain of CTX. The sensitivity, working range, cross reactivity, accuracy, precision, and reproducibility were examined.

  13. Tissue integrity is essential for ectopic implantation of human endometrium in the chicken chorioallantoic membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nap, Annemiek W; Groothuis, Patrick G; Demir, Ayse Y; Maas, Jacques W M; Dunselman, Gerard A J; de Goeij, Anton F P M; Evers, Johannes L H

    2003-01-01

    Not all women with patent tubes develop clinically manifest endometriosis. Quality and quantity of endometrium in retrograde menstruation may be the determining factor in the development of the disease. We hypothesize that retrograde shedding of endometrial fragments with preserved integrity facilitates implantation of endometrium in ectopic locations, resulting in endometriotic lesion development. We evaluate the impact of tissue integrity on the success of endometriosis-like lesion development in the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model. Menstrual and non-menstrual (cyclic) endometrium were collected by biopsy, and either minced or enzymatically dispersed. Spontaneously shed menstrual effluent was collected by a menstrual cup, and cells and tissue were isolated. We evaluated whether infiltration or lesion formation in the CAM occurred after transplantation of endometrium onto the CAM. Transplantation of biopsied menstrual and cyclic endometrium fragments, and of endometrium fragments >1 mm(3) isolated from menstrual effluent, resulted in lesion formation. Transplantation of endometrial cells isolated from menstrual effluent did not lead to lesion formation. After transplantation of digested biopsied cyclic endometrium, infiltration in the CAM but no lesions were observed. In the CAM assay, integrity of tissue architecture determines success of implantation of human endometrium in ectopic locations.

  14. Prebiotics modulate immune responses in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhana, Vijaya; Broadway, Mary M; Bruce, Matthew P; Lowenthal, John W; Geier, Mark S; Hughes, Robert J; Bean, Andrew G D

    2009-07-01

    The recent European Union ban on the prophylactic use of in-feed antibiotics has escalated the search for alternatives for use within the poultry industry. When evaluating the efficacy of potential antibiotic alternatives on bird health and productivity, it is important to analyze the competence of the immune cells in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), because it is routinely involved in the surveillance of colonizing microbes as well as in interacting with the ingested feed antigens. Therefore, we studied the effect of the prebiotics mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS) and fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) on the phenotypic and functional competence of immune cells in cecal tonsil (CT), which is a major GALT. Day-old Cobb 500 male broilers were randomized to 4 groups. Control chickens were fed the basal diet only. Chickens in experimental groups received 0.05 g/kg zinc bacitracin or 5 g/kg of either FOS or MOS in addition to basal diet. At the end of 25 d, our comparison of the experimental groups with controls revealed that the addition of prebiotics to diet resulted in a significant reduction in the proportion of B cells and in mitogen responsiveness of lymphocytes in CT. Furthermore, FOS treatment significantly enhanced the IgM and IgG antibody titers in plasma. These findings emphasize the need for the analyses of the gut immune function following treatment with novel feed additives. The knowledge obtained from such analyses may aid in understanding the mechanisms underlying the immune competence of the birds, which needs consideration when selecting and optimizing new feed additives instead of antibiotics for poultry production.

  15. Establishment of an In Vitro System Representing the Chicken Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; McClure, Susan Jane; Yeap, Swee Keong; Kristeen-Teo, Ye Wen; Tan, Sheau Wei; McCullagh, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The bursa of Fabricius is critical for B cell development and differentiation in chick embryos. This study describes the production in vitro, from dissociated cell suspensions, of cellular agglomerates with functional similarities to the chicken bursa. Co-cultivation of epithelial and lymphoid cells obtained from embryos at the appropriate developmental stage regularly led to agglomerate formation within 48 hours. These agglomerates resembled bursal tissue in having lymphoid clusters overlaid by well organized epithelium. Whereas lymphocytes within agglomerates were predominantly Bu-1a+, a majority of those emigrating onto the supporting membrane were Bu-1a− and IgM+. Both agglomerates and emigrant cells expressed activation-induced deaminase with levels increasing after 24 hours. Emigrating cells were actively proliferating at a rate in excess of both the starting cell population and the population of cells remaining in agglomerates. The potential usefulness of this system for investigating the response of bursal tissue to avian Newcastle disease virus (strain AF2240) was examined. PMID:23185307

  16. Establishment of an in vitro system representing the chicken gut-associated lymphoid tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorjahan Banu Alitheen

    Full Text Available The bursa of Fabricius is critical for B cell development and differentiation in chick embryos. This study describes the production in vitro, from dissociated cell suspensions, of cellular agglomerates with functional similarities to the chicken bursa. Co-cultivation of epithelial and lymphoid cells obtained from embryos at the appropriate developmental stage regularly led to agglomerate formation within 48 hours. These agglomerates resembled bursal tissue in having lymphoid clusters overlaid by well organized epithelium. Whereas lymphocytes within agglomerates were predominantly Bu-1a(+, a majority of those emigrating onto the supporting membrane were Bu-1a(- and IgM(+. Both agglomerates and emigrant cells expressed activation-induced deaminase with levels increasing after 24 hours. Emigrating cells were actively proliferating at a rate in excess of both the starting cell population and the population of cells remaining in agglomerates. The potential usefulness of this system for investigating the response of bursal tissue to avian Newcastle disease virus (strain AF2240 was examined.

  17. Influence of enrofloxacin traces in drinking water to doxycycline tissue pharmacokinetics in healthy and infected by Mycoplasma gallisepticum broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbylik-Sikorska, Malgorzata; Posyniak, Andrzej; Sniegocki, Tomasz; Sell, Bartosz; Gajda, Anna; Sawicka, Anna; Olszewska-Tomczyk, Monika; Bladek, Tomasz; Tomczyk, Grzegorz; Zmudzki, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Most of antibiotics, administrated in the treatment of poultry diseases are dissolved in drinking water, and it can lead to water supply systems contamination, especially when the regular cleaning is not using. This situation can lead to unconscious administration of low doses of antibiotics to untreated animals. The aim of this study was to clarify the impact of the exposure of enrofloxacin traces (500 μg l(-1)) to doxycycline pharmacokinetics in healthy and experimentally Mycoplasma gallisepticum infected broiler chickens., Two experimental groups, received of enrofloxacin in water and all groups, received 20 mg kg(-1) bw of doxycycline. The compounds concentrations in muscles and livers were determined by LC-MS/MS. The maximum drug tissue concentration (Cmax) of doxycycline was highest in liver obtained from infected chickens which, received enrofloxacin traces (ENR + DC/MG). It was about 40% higher than in healthy chickens from group I which received only doxycycline. It was found that the concentration-time curve AUC(0-t) values in group ENR + DC/MG were almost 75% higher than in the group (DC) and 35% higher than in group (ENR + DC) which also received enrofloxacin traces. The constant exposure of broiler chickens on enrofloxacin traces as well as infection, may significantly influenced on doxycycline tissue pharmacokinetic profile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Isomyosin expression in developing chicken atria: a marker for the development of conductive tissue?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, I. J.; Sanders, E.; Visser, S. D.; Lamers, W. H.; de Jong, F.; Los, J. A.; Moorman, A. F.

    1987-01-01

    Isomyosin expression patterns in embryonic chicken atria during the first two weeks of development were analyzed immunohistochemically. In the 3-days embryonic chicken heart (HH19-20), strong coexpression of both isomyosins can be found as band-like zones at the lateral sides of the sinoatrial

  19. The conducting tissue in the adult chicken atria. A histological and immunohistochemical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, I. J.; Hardy, G. P.; Sanders, E.; Los, J. A.; Moorman, A. F.

    1985-01-01

    A three-dimensional reconstruction from serial sections of adult chicken heart was made to verify whether Purkinje cells, that can be recognized by a number of well-known histological criteria, form specialized tracts in the adult chicken atria. This reconstruction revealed a loosely arranged

  20. Cellular localization of peptide hydrolases in chicken embryo tissues and influence of gamma irradiation on their activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khristov, D; Marinopolski, G

    1975-01-01

    Studied was the influence of chicken embryo irradiation at 600 R and 1000 R gamma rays on the activity of tissue peptide hydrolases in mitochondrial-lysosomal, microsomal and supernatant (cell hyaloplasm) cell fractions. The investigation was performed 50 to 168 hours post irradiation. The wole tissue (of the whole embryo) was examined following irradiation of 4-day-old embryos whose liver, muscle and brain tissues were post irradiation examined on day 12 and 16 of incubation. Prior to treatment, the tissues were threfold rinsed with sucrose solution to eliminate proeinase inhibitors. Lysosome membranes were destroyed by adding 0.5 % desoxycholate. It was found that: Peptide hydrolase activity of mitochondrial-lysosomal cell fractions of tissues of whole 6-day chicken embryos is 4-5 times as high as that of cell hyaloplasm. Peptide hydrolase activity of mitochondrial-lysosomal fractions of liver tissues decreases on day 18 and 19 post incubation, while the same fraction of muscle and brain tissues shows high activity. Peptide hydrolase activity of microsomal fraction and of cell hyaloplasm rises during embryonal development and exceeds the activity of liver tissue mitochondrial fraction. Peptide hydrolase activity of mitochondrial-lysosomal fraction of tissue of whole 6-day-old embryos 50 hours post irradiation is higher than the activity of non-irradiated embryos. Later the activity of this fraction diminishes and on the 168 hr post irradiation it drops below the normal. Microsomal fraction and cell hyaloplasm activity likewise show deviation from the norm. Peptide hydrolase activity of mitochondrial-lysosomal fraction of liver, muscle and brain tissue of 14 and 18-day-old embryos is higher than the control 50 hours post irradiation and then declines. The activity of mitochondrial-lysosomal fraction of embryo brain tissue changes most strikingly on irradiation, while other brain cell fractions change less compared with liver and muscle fractions.

  1. Cellular localization of peptide hydrolases in chicken embryo tissues and influence of gamma irradiation on their activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khristov, D.; Marinopolski, G.

    1975-01-01

    Studied was the influence of chicken embryo irradiation at 600 R and 1000 R gamma rays on the activity of tissue peptide hydrolases in mitochondrial-lysosomal, microsomal and supernatant (cell hyaloplasm) cell fractions. The investigation was performed 50 to 168 hours post irradiation. The wole tissue (of the whole embryo) was examined following irradiation of 4-day-old embryos whose liver, muscle and brain tissues were post irradiation examined on day 12 and 16 of incubation. Prior to treatment, the tissues were threfold rinsed with sucrose solution to eliminate proeinase inhibitors. Lysosome membranes were destroyed by adding 0.5 % desoxycholate. It was found that: Peptide hydrolase activity of mitochondrial-lysosomal cell fractions of tissues of whole 6-day chicken embryos is 4-5 times as high as that of cell hyaloplasm. Peptide hydrolase activity of mitochondrial-lysosomal fractions of liver tissues decreases on day 18 and 19 post incubation, while the same fraction of muscle and brain tissues shows high activity. Peptide hydrolase activity of microsomal fraction and of cell hyaloplasm rises during embryonal development and exceeds the activity of liver tissue mitochondrial fraction. Peptide hydrolase activity of mitochondrial-lysosomal fraction of tissue of whole 6-day-old embryos 50 hours post irradiation is higher than the activity of non-irradiated embryos. Later the activity of this fraction diminishes and on the 168 hr post irradiation it drops below the normal. Microsomal fraction and cell hyaloplasm activity likewise show deviation from the norm. Peptide hydrolase activity of mitochondrial-lysosomal fraction of liver, muscle and brain tissue of 14 and 18-day-old embryos is higher than the control 50 hours post irradiation and then declines. The activity of mitochondrial-lysosomal fraction of embryo brain tissue changes most strikingly on irradiation, while other brain cell fractions change less compared with liver and muscle fractions

  2. Survival of experimentally induced Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts in vacuum packed goat meat and dry fermented goat meat sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumayerová, Helena; Juránková, Jana; Saláková, Alena; Gallas, Leo; Kovařčík, Kamil; Koudela, Břetislav

    2014-05-01

    Ingestion of raw or undercooked meat is a potential source of human toxoplasmosis. The aim of this study was to determine the viability of Toxoplasma gondii cysts in vacuum packed (VP) goat meat and in dry fermented sausages (DFS), and evaluate certain physical and chemical parameters, like water activity (aw), pH value, content of salt, dry matter and fat. A portion of muscle tissue from experimentally infected animals was used for production of VP meat with or without addition of 2.5% curing salt, and stored at 4 °C or at -20 °C. Results of bioassay showed that, samples of vacuum packed Toxoplasma positive meat without salt addition were alive after six weeks at 4 °C. Incubation at -20 °C supported the viability after 3 h, but not after 4 h. After 7 days in 2.5% of curing salt, samples of T. gondii VP goat meat were still viable, but not after 14 days at 4 °C. All the DFS samples were not positive for infective cysts which mean that, they do not pose a risk of T. gondii transmission. These data suggest that vacuum packaging increases the survival of T. gondii cysts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Specific detection of Pasteurella multocida in chickens with fowl cholera and in pig lung tissues using fluorescent rRNA in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbuthia, P.G.; Christensen, H.; Boye, Mette

    2001-01-01

    in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded lung tissues from experimental fowl cholera in chickens and infections in pigs. In chicken lung tissues P. multocida cells were detected singly, in pairs, as microcolonies, and as massive colonies within air capillaries (septa and lumen), parabronchial septa, and blood...... and fast method for specific detection of P. multocida in histological formalin-fixed tissues. The test was replicable and reproducible and is recommended as a supplementary test for diagnosis and as a tool in pathogenesis studies of fowl cholera and respiratory tract infections in pigs due to P. multocida....

  4. Cloning of chicken 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and its tissue distribution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klusoňová, Petra; Kučka, Marek; Ergang, Peter; Mikšík, Ivan; Bryndová, Jana; Pácha, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 111, 3-5 (2008), s. 217-224 ISSN 0960-0760 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6011201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : chicken * corticosterone * 11HSD1 Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.827, year: 2008

  5. Effect of ochratoxin A on the intestinal mucosa and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solcan, Carmen; Pavel, Geta; Floristean, Viorel Cezar; Chiriac, Ioan Sorin Beschea; Şlencu, Bogdan Gabriel; Solcan, Gheorghe

    2015-03-01

    The immunotoxic effect of ochratoxin A (OTA) on the intestinal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue and its cytotoxic action on the intestinal epithelium were studied in broiler chickens experimentally treated with the toxin. From the 7th day of life, 80 male broiler chickens (Ross 308) were randomly divided into four groups of 20 birds each. The three experimental groups (E1-3) were treated with OTA for 28 days (E1: 50 μg/kg body weight [bw]/day; E2: 20 μg/kg bw/day; E3: 1 μg/kg bw/day) and the fourth group served as control. Histological examination of the intestinal mucosa and immunohistochemical staining for identification of CD4+, CD8+, TCR1 and TCR2 lymphocytes in the duodenum, jejunum and ileocaecal junction were performed, and CD4+/CD8+ and TCR1/TCR2 ratios were calculated. OTA toxicity resulted in decreased body weight gain, poorer feed conversion ratio, lower leukocyte and lymphocyte count, and altered intestinal mucosa architecture. After 14 days of exposure to OTA, immunohistochemistry showed a significant reduction of the lymphocyte population in the intestinal epithelium and the lamina propria. After 28 days of exposure, an increase in the CD4+ and CD8+ values in both the duodenum and jejunum of chickens in Groups E1 and E2 was observed, but the TCR1 and TCR2 lymphocyte counts showed a significant reduction. No significant changes were observed in Group E3. The results indicate that OTA induced a decrease in leukocyte and lymphocyte counts and was cytotoxic to the intestinal epithelium and the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, altering the intestinal barrier and increasing susceptibility to various associated diseases.

  6. The association of SNPs in Hsp90β gene 5' flanking region with thermo tolerance traits and tissue mRNA expression in two chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo-Yu; Gan, Jian-Kang; Xiao, Xiong; Jiang, Li-Yan; Zhang, Xi-Quan; Luo, Qing-Bin

    2013-09-01

    Thermo stress induces heat shock proteins (HSPs) expression and HSP90 family is one of them that has been reported to involve in cellular protection against heat stress. But whether there is any association of genetic variation in the Hsp90β gene in chicken with thermo tolerance is still unknown. Direct sequencing was used to detect possible SNPs in Hsp90β gene 5' flanking region in 3 chicken breeds (n = 663). Six mutations, among which 2 SNPs were chosen and genotypes were analyzed with PCR-RFLP method, were found in Hsp90β gene in these 3 chicken breeds. Association analysis indicated that SNP of C.-141G>A in the 5' flanking region of the Hsp90β gene in chicken had some effect on thermo tolerance traits, which may be a potential molecular marker of thermo tolerance, and the genotype GG was the thermo tolerance genotype. Hsp90β gene mRNA expression in different tissues detected by quantitative real-time PCR assay were demonstrated to be tissue dependent, implying that different tissues have distinct sensibilities to thermo stress. Besides, it was shown time specific and varieties differences. The expression of Hsp90β mRNA in Lingshan chickens in some tissues including heart, liver, brain and spleen were significantly higher or lower than that of White Recessive Rock (WRR). In this study, we presume that these mutations could be used in marker assisted selection for anti-heat stress chickens in our breeding program, and WRR were vulnerable to tropical thermo stress whereas Lingshan chickens were well adapted.

  7. DETECTION OF LASALOCID RESIDUES IN THE TISSUES OF BROILER CHICKENS BY A NEW SCREENING TEST TOTAL ANTIBIOTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Levkut, ml.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the microbial growth inhibition test Total antibiotics for the screening of lasalocid residues in the tissues of broiler chickens after its oral administration in medicated feed. The residues were investigated throughout the 5-day withdrawal period /WP/ and also on day 6 representing the first day following the WP. All broiler chicken tissues were positive for lasalocid. The breast muscle was positive (the presence of residues at/above the detection limit /LOD/ of method up to day 1 of the WP, the thigh muscle, gizzard, heart, skin and fat up to day 3 of the WP and the liver and kidneys up to day 4 of the WP. When evaluating the dubious results (the presence of residues just below the LOD of method, the breast muscle was suspect positive up to day 3 of the WP and the gizzard, skin and fat up to day 4 of the WP. No positive or dubious results were detected on day 5 of the WP. The LOD of Bacillus stearothermophilus var. calidolactis for maduramycin was 500 µg.l-1.doi:10.5219/140

  8. A survey of spontaneous occurrence of ochratoxin A residues in chicken tissues and concurrence with histopathological changes in liver and kidneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milicevic, Dragan; Jovanovic, Milijan; Matekalosverak, Vesna; Radicevic, Tatjana; Petrovic, Milan M.; Lilic, Slobodan

    2011-01-01

    Toxicological and histopathological investigations of tissues of commercially slaughtered chickens were carried out to provide a preliminary evaluation of the incidence of occurrence of ochratoxin A (OTA) in chicken sold in Serbian retail market. In addition, the etiology of nephropathies of these chickens was elucidated. The majority of these tissue samples were not found to contain measurable amounts of OTA. Moreover, the OTA levels found in analyzed tissues were generally low and there was no positive correlation between the presence of OTA and the frequency of histopathological changes. Histopathological changes such as degenerative changes in the kidneys and liver differed from the classical description of the mycotoxic nephropathy, indicating that the chicken nephropathy observed in Serbia may have a multitoxic etiology with possible synergistic effect between microorganisms and natural toxins, usually present in low concentrations. The low OTA results also suggested that chicken meat available in the retail market in Serbia are unlikely to pose any significant adverse health risk to the consumers with respect to OTA toxicity.

  9. GC and GC-MS studies of the effects of gamma-irradiation on olive oil and chicken skin tissue fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuominen, J.; Kiutamo, T.; Sjoeberg, A.M.; Leinonen

    1991-01-01

    Reduction of the microbial cell count in a frozen packaged chicken by ionizing radiation is an advantageous method with a microbiologically optimum dose of 4 kGy (5). However, the detection of irradiation in poultry is a problem in food analysis. Our study focused on to the possible changes in the fatty acid composition and formation of long-chain hydrocarbons in the chicken fat. The composition of chicken fat is complex. Therefore, our study was started with some pure fatty acids and a vegetable oil consisting mainly of triglycerides of fatty acids and having, qualitatively, the same fatty acids as the chicken. Pure olive oil (a retail oil from Italy) was chosen for the purpose. Later, also fat extracted from chicken skin was analysed. All samples were analysed as irradiated and non-irradiated. The results show that no new radiolytically induced fatty acids or other related compounds could be detected by using a BP-21 polar capillary column and flame ionization detector. Moreover, the composition of the major fatty acids remained constant. In the qualitative analysis of hydrocarbons produced by irradiation, it was shown that there is a distinct difference in the hydrocarbon pattern between non-irradiated and irradiated chicken skin tissues. (5 figs, 2 tabs, 6 refs)

  10. Toxoplasmosis in sentinel chickens (Gallus domesticus) in New England farms: seroconversion, distribution of tissue cysts in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle by bioassay in mice and cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free-range chickens are a good indicator of soil contamination with oocysts because they feed from the ground and they are also an important source of infection for cats that in turn shed oocysts after eating tissues of intermediate hosts. Little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in chic...

  11. Cytokine gene expression profiles in chicken spleen and intestinal tissues during Ascaridia galli infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pleidrup, Janne A.; Norup, Liselotte R.; Dalgaard, Tina S.

    2014-01-01

    In the poultry production industry, chickens with access to outdoor areas are exposed to a wide range of parasites e.g. the helminth Ascaridia galli. By real-time quantitative RTPCR, the relative gene expression of the T helper 1 (Th1) cytokine IFN-gamma, the T helper 2 (Th2) cytokine IL-13...... expression of jejunal IFN-gamma and IL-13 was observed. Finally, at the expected period of an adaptive immune response (days 14-21) a general decreased expression of IFN-gamma and TGF-beta 4 in spleen and IFN-gamma in jejunum was followed by a decreased expression of IFN-gamma and IL-10 at day 21 in caecal...

  12. Comparison of protoporphyrin IX content and related gene expression in the tissues of chickens laying brown-shelled eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangqi; Chen, Sirui; Duan, Zhongyi; Qu, Lujiang; Xu, Guiyun; Yang, Ning

    2013-12-01

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), an immediate precursor of heme, is the main pigment resulting in the brown coloration of eggshell. The brownness and uniformity of the eggshell are important marketing considerations. In this study, 9 chickens laying darker brown shelled eggs and 9 chickens laying lighter brown shelled eggs were selected from 464 individually caged layers in a Rhode Island Red pureline. The PpIX contents were measured with a Microplate Reader at the wavelength of 412 nm and were compared in different tissues of the 2 groups. Although no significant difference in serum, bile, and excreta was found between the 2 groups, PpIX content in the shell gland and eggshell of the darker group was higher than in those of the lighter group, suggesting that PpIX was synthesized in the shell gland. We further determined the expression levels of 8 genes encoding enzymes involved in the heme synthesis and transport in the liver and shell gland at 6 h postoviposition by quantitative PCR. The results showed that expression of aminolevulinic acid synthase-1 (ALAS1) was higher in the liver of hens laying darker brown shelled eggs, whereas in the shell gland the expression levels of ALAS1, coproporphyrinogen oxidase (CPOX), ATP-binding cassette family members ABCB7 and ABCG2, and receptor for feline leukemia virus, subgroup C (FLVCR) were significantly higher in the hens laying darker brown shelled eggs. Our results demonstrated that hens laying darker brown shelled eggs could deposit more PpIX onto the eggshell and the brownness of the eggshell was dependent on the total quantity of PpIX in the eggshell. More heme was synthesized in the liver and shell gland of hens laying darker brown shelled eggs than those of hens laying lighter brown shelled eggs. High expression level of ABCG2 might facilitate the accumulation of PpIX in the shell gland.

  13. Changes in tissue morphology and collagen composition during the repair of cortical bone in the adult chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glimcher, M J; Shapiro, F; Ellis, R D; Eyre, D R

    1980-09-01

    An animal model was developed to study the histology and collagen chemistry of healing cortical bone. A hole was cut through the cortex of the mid-shaft of the humerus of the adult chicken, which allowed for repair at a mechanically stable site. After one to two weeks the collagen of the repair tissue, which consisted principally of woven bone, contained almost three times as much hydroxylysine as the collagen of normal adult bone and thus resembled the collagen of embryonic long bones. By eight weeks, when lamellar one predominated, the hydroxylysine content had fallen to normal levels. Type I was the major genetic type of collagen present throughout. No type-II collagen, characteristic of cartilage, was detected; this was consistent with the histological findings. The results established that hydroxylysine-rich type-I collagen can be made by osteoblasts of adult animals as well as by those of embryos and early postnates. In order to understand the biological characteristics of fracture healing, it is vital to study not only the macroscopic organization of the repair tissue but also the chemical properties of its molecular components. The strength of healing fractured bone, and indeed of normal bone, depends largely on the properties of the structural protein collagen. To date, it is not known whether the collagen in healing fractures is the same as that in normal bone, or whether it has distinct chemical features that may suit it for bone repair.

  14. Pelacakan Secara Imunohistokimiawi Antigen Virus pada Ayam yang Diinfeksi dengan Virus Penyakit Tetelo (IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL DETECTION OF VIRAL ANTIGEN IN TISSUE OF CHICKENS EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED WITH NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anak Agung Ayu Mirah Adi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the distribution of Newcastle disease virus (NDV following infection, chickenswere experimentally infected with visceretropic velogenic NDV isolate. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbsagainst the NDV LaSota vaccine strain were then produced to detect viral antigen in the infectedorgans. The mAbs were firstly tested for their specificity by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA using NDV and normal allantoic fluids as antigens. Eight mAbs specific against NDVwere isolated and two mAbs were used for immunodetection of NDV antigen in chicken’s tissues.By immunohistochemistry labeled streptavidin-biotin (LSAB staining NDV–antigen was detectedin paraffin embedded tissues of NDV-infected chickens. NDV antigen was not detected in noninfected chickens. In the infected chickens, high intensity of NDV antigen was detected in thelymphoid tissues, lung and intestine. The NDV antigen with a lesser intensity was detected in thebrain, trachea, liver and myocardium. This study shows that although viscerotropic velogenicNDV isolate can infect almost all organs, the main target of infection are lung, intestine andlymphoids tissues

  15. Interleukin 4 increases CCR9 expression and homing of lymphocytes to gut-associated lymphoid tissue in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annamalai, Thavamathi; Selvaraj, Ramesh K

    2012-01-15

    The effects of in vitro and in vivo IL-4 supplementation on thymocyte and splenocyte CCR9 mRNA amount and migration were studied. Thymocytes, splenocytes, splenocytes+thymocytes (2:1), and splenocytes+bursocyte cells (2:1) were supplemented with either 0 or 5 ng/ml IL-4 for 5d. CCR9 mRNA was undetectable in all experimental groups supplemented with 0 ng/ml IL-4. IL-4 treatment (5 ng/ml) upregulated (P=0.01) CCR9 mRNA only in the splenocyte+thymocyte cell culture. IL-4-mediated CCR9 mRNA induction in the splenocyte+thymocyte cell culture was dependent on the in vitro dose of IL-4 supplementation. IL-4-treated splenocyte+thymocyte cells when injected in vivo preferentially migrated to cecal tonsils. In vivo supplementation of IL-4 was achieved through in ovo injection of recombinant chicken IL-4 plasmid. Cecal tonsils in chicks hatched from IL-4-plasmid-injected eggs weighed more, had a higher amount of CCR9 mRNA, and had a higher percentage of CD8(+) cells than cecal tonsils from chicks hatched from PBS-injected eggs. It could be concluded that IL-4 induces CCR9 mRNA in thymocytes and splenocytes and directs the migration of cells to gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Plant Antimicrobial Agents Containing Marinades on Storage Stability and Microbiological Quality of Broiler Chicken Cuts Packed with Modified Atmosphere Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakomi, H-L; Maukonen, J; Honkapää, K; Storgårds, E; Quirin, K-W; Yang, B; Saarela, M

    2017-10-01

    The food industry, including the meat industry, is currently looking for natural preservatives to prevent the growth of harmful microbes in foods. The potential of plant-derived antimicrobial extracts to increase the shelf life and to delay the microbiological spoilage of marinated broiler chicken cuts in modified atmosphere packages during cold storage was investigated in this study. We evaluated the impact of aqueous ethanolic extracts of Finnish sea buckthorn berries and lingonberries and supercritical CO 2 -extracted herbal extracts from an antimicrobial blend and oregano leaves on the shelf life of broiler meat. The commercial antimicrobial blend extract and the oregano extract inhibited the growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Brochothrix thermosphacta in the marinated samples. The antimicrobial blend extract also reduced the growth of psychrotrophic aerobic bacteria, whereas the sea buckthorn and lingonberry extracts did not. Only minor antimicrobial activity against Enterobacteriaceae by all the extracts was observed. Plate count analysis, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, and quantitative real-time PCR indicated that LAB, which are the major spoilage group in marinated modified atmosphere-packaged poultry products, were not significantly affected by the berry extracts studied. During this shelf-life study, LAB isolates of Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc were identified in the marinated samples. Antimicrobial blends and oregano leaf extracts can act as antimicrobial agents in marinade blends, although tailoring of the dose is needed because of their strong taste. Further studies for exploiting synergistic effects of plant extracts could contribute to the development of potential and more effective antimicrobial blends. Studies are needed in meat matrices and in product applications to demonstrate the efficacy of these compounds.

  17. Clarifying tetrapod embryogenesis by a dorso-ventral analysis of the tissue flows during early stages of chicken development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Vincent

    2012-09-01

    The formation of an animal body remains largely a mystery. It is still not clear whether anything like an organization plan or an "archetype" as coined by Darwin himself, actually exists, or whether animals are organized by a succession of stop-and-go genetic, non-linear, instructions with no global pattern. Nevertheless, it was recognized long ago that the early stages of amniote development consist of large scale rotatory movements over a discoidal blastula (Wetzel, 1924). Such rotatory movements reshuffle a mass inside a finite volume, and thus may have to bear physical conservation laws which contribute to establish the plan of animals in a global fashion. In this article I use dual dorso-ventral imaging of the chicken blastula, to show experimentally that the global movement of early vertebrate embryogenesis is organized with a very simple topology, around and away of a series of hyperbolic points in the vector flow of movement. At the first hyperbolic point, a layer of tissue (the mesoderm) ingresses and moves as a viscous sheet radially. It is found that the sheet flows away with a scaling law for the radius R(t)∼exp(t/τ). Also, the movement of this mesoderm changes the flow on the other layer (the ectoderm) by the principle of action and reaction. By mesoderm wetting the ectoderm, the first hyperbolic point migrates from the anal region, to the umbilical region. The final location of the hyperbolic point defines eventually the central part of the body (the umbilical region). Thus, the formation of the vertebrate body is fixed, as a global movement, by the dynamics of singular points in the visco-elastic flow, governed by mechanical forces within the tissue. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of doxycycline concentrations in chicken tissues as a consequence of permanent exposure to enrofloxacin traces in drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbylik-Sikorska Małgorzata

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The main problem in poultry farming is the difficulty in producing food of animal origin without using antibacterial agents. Because most antibacterial compounds are dispensed in water, some water supply systems can be contaminated by antibiotics which are then administered to the animals unintentionally. This can lead to unexpected increases in antibiotic residues in food of animal origin. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the constant exposure of chicken broilers to enrofloxacin affects the withdrawal time of a therapeutic doxycycline that is intentionally administered to the chickens.

  19. Characterization of lymphocyte subsets over a 24-hour period in Pineal-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (PALT in the chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNulty John A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Homeostatic trafficking of lymphocytes in the brain has important relevance to the understanding of CNS disease processes. The pineal gland of the chicken contains large accumulations of lymphocytes that suggest an important role related to homeostatic circadian neuro-immune interactions. The purpose of this initial study was to characterize the lymphocyte subsets in the pineal gland and quantitate the distribution and frequency of lymphocyte phenotypes at two time points over the 24-hour light:dark cycle. Results PALT comprised approximately 10% of the total pineal area. Image analysis of immunocytochemically stained sections showed that the majority of lymphocytes were CD3+ (80% with the remaining 20% comprising B-cells and monocytes (Bu-1+, which tended to distribute along the periphery of the PALT. T-cell subsets in PALT included CD4+ (75–80%, CD8+ (20–25%, TCRαβ/Vβ1+ (60%, and TCRγδ+ (15%. All of the T-cell phenotypes were commonly found within the interfollicular septa and follicles of the pineal gland. However, the ratios of CD8+/CD4+ and TCRγδ+/TCRαβ/Vβ1+ within the pineal tissue were each 1:1, in contrast to the PALT where the ratios of CD8+/CD4+ and TCRγδ+/TCRαβ/Vβ1+ each approximated 1:4. Bu-1+ cells were only rarely seen in the pineal interstitial spaces, but ramified Bu-1+ microglia/macrophages were common in the pineal follicles. Effects of the 24-h light:dark cycle on these lymphocyte-pineal interactions were suggested by an increase in the area of PALT, a decline in the density of TCRαβ/Vβ1+ cells, and a decline in the area density of Bu-1+ microglia at the light:dark interphase (1900 h compared to the dark:light interphase (0700 h. Conclusion The degree of lymphocyte infiltration in the pineal suggests novel mechanisms of neuro-immune interactions in this part of the brain. Our results further suggest that these interactions have a temporal component related to the 24-hour light

  20. Effects of chromium-enriched bacillus subtilis KT260179 supplementation on chicken growth performance, plasma lipid parameters, tissue chromium levels, cecal bacterial composition and breast meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiajun; Qian, Kun; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Yayuan; Wu, Yijing

    2016-11-08

    Both chromium (Cr) and probiotic bacillus own the virtues of regulating animal metabolism and meat quality. Purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of supplemental Cr and bacillus in the form of chromium-enriched Bacillus subtilis KT260179 (CEBS) on chicken growth performance, plasma lipid parameters, tissue chromium levels, cecal bacterial composition and breast meat quality. Six hundred of 1-day-old Chinese Huainan Partridge chickens were divided into four groups randomly: Control, inorganic Cr, Bacillus subtilis, and CEBS. The feed duration was 56 days. After 28 days of treatment, broiler feed CEBS or normal B. subtilis had higher body weights than control broiler, and after 56 days, chickens given either CEBS or B. subtilis had greater body weights than control broiler or those given inorganic Cr. Plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels declined significantly in the CEBS group compared with the control, whereas plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased significantly. The concentration of Cr in blood and breast muscle increased after CEBS and inorganic Cr supplementation. B. subtilis and CEBS supplementation caused a significant increase in the numbers of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium in the caecum, while the numbers of Escherichia coli and Salmonella decreased significantly compared to the control. Feed adding CEBS increased the lightness, redness, and yellowness of breast meat, improved the water-holding capacity, decreased the shear force and cooking loss. In all, CEBS supplementation promoted body growth, improved plasma lipid parameters, increased tissue Cr concentrations, altered cecal bacterial composition and improved breast meat quality.

  1. Molecular cloning of a Bangladeshi strain of very virulent infectious bursal disease virus of chickens and its adaptation in tissue culture by site-directed mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.R.; Raue, R.; Mueller, H.

    2005-01-01

    Full-length cDNA of both genome segments of a Bangladeshi strain of very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (BD 3/99) were cloned in plasmid vectors along with the T7 promoter tagged to the 5'-ends. Mutations were introduced in the cloned cDNA to bring about two amino acid exchanges (Q253H and A284T) in the capsid protein VP2. Transfection of primary chicken embryo fibroblast cells with RNA transcribed in vitro from the full-length cDNA resulted in the formation of mutant infectious virus particles that grow in tissue culture. The pathogenicity of this molecularly-cloned, tissue-culture- adapted virus (BD-3tc) was tested in commercial chickens. The parental wild-type strain, BD 3/99, was included for comparison. The subclinical course of the disease and delayed bursal atrophy in BD-3tc-inoculated birds suggested that these amino acid substitutions made BD-3tc partially attenuated. (author)

  2. Power Packing

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-16

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about how to pack a lunch safely, to help keep you from getting sick.  Created: 8/16/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/16/2011.

  3. Packing Smart

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-22

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about packing a lunch that's not boring and is full of the power and energy kids need to make it through the day.  Created: 8/22/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/22/2011.

  4. The effect of oxytetracycline on the amount of calcium and phosphorus of blood and density of bone tissue in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    aziz Norouzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effects of oxytetracycline on the amount of calcium and phosphorus of blood and bone tissue density in broiler chickens. For this purpose, 72 day-old Ross chicks of, 308 strain in a completely randomized design in two groups: the control group (without dietary antibiotic and the treatment group (with a diet containing oxytetracycline 50%, 3 gr per kg of diet with 6 replicates in the same environmental conditions and management were studied for 42 days. In this experiment, the diameter of femoral shaft and ratio of various tissues of the femur and skull were studied. Blood parameters included calcium and phosphorus. In the group treated with oxytetracycline, femur shaft diameter was significantly decreased with the addition of drug to diet (p

  5. Chicken Picadillo

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/chickenpicadillo.html Chicken Picadillo To use the sharing features on this ... together on a busy weeknight Ingredients 1 pound chicken breast, boneless, skinless, cut into thin strips 2 ...

  6. Chicken Stew

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/chickenstew.html Chicken Stew To use the sharing features on this ... leftovers for lunch the next day! Ingredients 8 chicken pieces (breasts or legs) 1 cup water 2 ...

  7. Effects of exogenous inosine monophosphate on growth performance, flavor compounds, enzyme activity, and gene expression of muscle tissues in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Junshu; Liu, Peifeng; Xu, Liangmei; Huan, Hailin; Zhou, Weiren; Xu, Xiaoming; Shi, Zhendan

    2018-04-01

    The goal of this experiment was to examine effects of diets supplemented with exogenous inosine monophosphate (IMP) on the growth performance, flavor compounds, enzyme activity and gene expression of chicken. A total of 1,500 healthy, 1-day-old male 3-yellow chickens were used for a 52-d experimental period. Individuals were randomly divided into 5 groups (group I, II, III, IV, V) with 6 replicates per group, and fed a basal diet supplemented with 0.0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3% IMP, respectively. There was no significant response to the increasing dietary IMP level in average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed:gain ratio (F/G) (P ≥ 0.05). IMP content of the breast and thigh muscle showed an exponential and linear response to the increasing dietary IMP level (P exogenous IMP was fed. There were significant effects of IMP level in diet on free amino acids (FAA) (exponential, linear and quadratic effect, P exogenous IMP was fed. Dietary IMP supplementation had a quadratic effect on 5΄-NT and the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzyme activity in the breast muscle (P exogenous IMP group had the highest (AMPD1) gene expression of the breast muscle and ATIC gene expression of the thigh muscle. These results indicate that dietary IMP did not affect the growth performance of chicken, the diet with 0.2 to 0.3% exogenous IMP is optimal to improve the meat flavor quality in chicken.

  8. Pharmacokinetics, tissue residues and efficacy of D-Tylo50/25® (tylosin-doxycycline combination) in broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Aboubakr; Mohamed Elbadawy

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pharmacokinetic study of a commercial tylosin-doxycycline combination product (D-Tylo50/25®) was conducted in broiler chickens following intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) administration at doses of 50 mg/kgb. wt. (tylosin) and 25 mg/kg b. wt. (doxycycline). Methods: Serum drug concentrations were determined by a validated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using UV detection. Results: A rapid and nearly complete absorption of both drugs with a mean PO bioavailabili...

  9. Molecular characterization of chicken syndecan-2 proteoglycan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ligong; Couchman, John R; Smith, Jacqueline

    2002-01-01

    A partial syndecan-2 sequence (147 bp) was obtained from chicken embryonic fibroblast poly(A)+ RNA by reverse transcription-PCR. This partial sequence was used to produce a 5'-end-labelled probe. A chicken liver cDNA library was screened with this probe, and overlapping clones were obtained......Da. Western blotting of chicken embryonic fibroblast cell lysates with species-specific monoclonal antibody mAb 8.1 showed that chicken syndecan-2 is substituted with heparan sulphate, and that the major form of chicken syndecan-2 isolated from chicken fibroblasts is consistent with the formation of SDS......-resistant dimers, which is common for syndecans. A 5'-end-labelled probe hybridized to two mRNA species in chicken embryonic fibroblasts, while Northern analysis with poly(A)+ RNAs from different tissues of chicken embryos showed wide and distinct distributions of chicken syndecan-2 during embryonic development...

  10. Chronic Dietary Intake of Enniatin B in Broiler Chickens Has Low Impact on Intestinal Morphometry and Hepatic Histology, and Shows Limited Transfer to Liver Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Fraeyman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fusarium mycotoxin enniatin B (ENN B is a so-called emerging mycotoxin frequently contaminating poultry feed. To investigate the impact of chronic ENN B exposure on animal health, broiler chickens were fed either a diet naturally contaminated with ENN B (2352 µg/kg or a control diet (135 µg/kg for 2, 7, 14, or 21 days. ENN B concentrations were determined in plasma and liver using a validated ultra-high performance liquid chromatography—tandem mass spectrometry UHPLC-MS/MS method. Liver was evaluated histologically, and the villus length and crypt depth of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were measured. Histopathology of the livers did not reveal major abnormalities. Feeding an ENN B-contaminated diet could possibly inhibit the proliferation of enterocytes in the duodenal crypts, but did not affect villus length, crypt depth, or villus length-crypt depth ratio of the jejunum and ileum. ENN B levels in plasma and liver were significantly higher in the ENN B-fed group and ranged between <25–264 pg/mL and <0.05–0.85 ng/g, respectively. ENN B carry-over rates from feed to liver tissue were 0.005–0.014% and 0.034–0.109% in the ENN B and control group, respectively. Carry-over rates were low and indicated a limited contribution of poultry tissue-derived products to the total dietary ENN B intake for humans. The above results support the opinion of the European Food Safety Authority stating that adverse health effects from ENN B in broiler chickens are unlikely.

  11. Dopamine D2-like receptors (DRD2 and DRD4) in chickens: Tissue distribution, functional analysis, and their involvement in dopamine inhibition of pituitary prolactin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Can; Mo, Chunheng; Liu, Haikun; Wu, Chao; Li, Zhengyang; Li, Juan; Wang, Yajun

    2018-04-20

    Dopamine (DA) D2-like (and D1-like) receptors are suggested to mediate the dopamine actions in the anterior pituitary and/or CNS of birds. However, the information regarding the structure, functionality, and expression of avian D2-like receptors have not been fully characterized. In this study, we cloned two D2-like receptors (cDRD2, cDRD4) from chicken brain using RACE PCR. The cloned cDRD4 is a 378-amino acid receptor, which shows 57% amino acid (a.a.) identity with mouse DRD4. As in mammals, two cDRD2 isoforms, cDRD2L (long isoform, 437 a.a.) and cDRD2S (short isoform, 408 a.a.), which differ in their third intracellular loop, were identified in chickens. Using cell-based luciferase reporter assays or Western blot, we demonstrated that cDRD4, cDRD2L and cDRD2S could be activated by dopamine and quinpirole (a D2-like receptor agonist) dose-dependently, and their activation inhibits cAMP signaling pathway and stimulates MAPK/ERK signaling cascade, indicating that they are functional receptors capable of mediating dopamine actions. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that cDRD2 and cDRD4 are widely expressed in chicken tissues with abundant expression noted in anterior pituitary, and their expressions are likely controlled by their promoters near exon 1, as demonstrated by dual-luciferase reporter assays in DF-1 cells. In accordance with cDRD2/cDRD4 expression in the pituitary, DA or quinpirole could partially inhibit vasoactive intestinal peptide-induced prolactin expression in cultured chick pituitary cells. Together, our data proves the functionality of DRD2 and DRD4 in birds and aids to uncover the conserved roles of DA/D2-like receptor system in vertebrates, such as its action on the pituitary. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Ion microscopic imaging of calcium transport in the intestinal tissue of vitamin D-deficient and vitamin D-replete chickens: A 44Ca stable isotope study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, S.; Fullmer, C.S.; Smith, C.A.; Wasserman, R.H.; Morrison, G.H.

    1990-01-01

    The intestinal absorption of calcium includes at least three definable steps; transfer across the microvillar membrane, movement through the cytosolic compartment, and energy-dependent extrusion into the lamina propria, Tracing the movement of calcium through the epithelium has been hampered by lack of suitable techniques and, in this study, advantage was taken of ion microscopy in conjunction with cryosectioning and use of the stable isotope 44Ca to visualize calcium in transit during the absorptive process. The effect of vitamin D, required for optimal calcium absorption, was investigated. Twenty millimolar 44Ca was injected into the duodenal lumen in situ of vitamin D-deficient and vitamin D-replete chickens. At 2.5, 5.0, and 20.0 min after injection, duodenal tissue was obtained and processed for ion microscopic imaging. At 2.5 min. 44Ca was seen to be concentrated in the region subjacent to the microvillar membrane in tissue from both groups. At 5.0 and 20.0 min, a similar pattern of localization was evident in D-deficient tissues. In D-replete tissues, the distribution of 44Ca became more homogenous, indicating that vitamin D increased the rate of transfer of Ca2+ from the apical to the basolateral membrane, a function previously ascribed to the vitamin D-induced calcium-binding protein (28-kDa calbindin-D). Quantitative aspects of the calcium absorptive process were determined in parallel experiments with the radionuclide 47Ca. Complementary information on the localization of the naturally occurring isotopes of calcium (40Ca) and potassium (39K) is also described

  13. Determination of Oxytetracycline and 4-Epi-Oxytetracycline Residues in Feathers and Edible Tissues of Broiler Chickens Using Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, Javiera; Pokrant, Ekaterina; Krogh, Magdalena; Briceño, Cristóbal; Hidalgo, Héctor; Maddaleno, Aldo; Araya-Jordán, Carolina; Martín, Betty San

    2017-04-01

    Antibiotics have been widely used in poultry production for the treatment of bacterial diseases. However, drug residues can remain in products derived from animals after the cessation of the drug therapies. Feathers, in particular, have shown an affinity for antibiotics such as tetracycline, suggesting the persistence of these drugs in nonedible tissue. After the birds are slaughtered, feathers are ground into feather meals, which are used as organic fertilizer or an ingredient in animal diets, thereby entering into the food chain and becoming a potential risk for public health. To evaluate the depletion of oxytetracycline (OTC) and its metabolite 4-epi-oxytetracycline (4-epi-OTC) in the muscles, liver, and feathers, 64 broiler chickens, bred under controlled conditions, were treated orally with a commercial formulation of 10% OTC for 7 days. The analytes were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. OTC and 4-epi-OTC were found in the feathers for 46 days, whereas they were found in the muscle and liver for only 12 and 6 days, respectively. These results prove that the analytes remain in feathers in higher concentrations than they do in edible tissues after treatment with tetracyclines. Thus, feather meals represent a potential source of antimicrobial residue contamination in the food chain.

  14. Chicken Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…

  15. Gamma radiation and chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toropilova, D.; Takac, L.; Toropila, M.; Tomko, M. M.

    2014-01-01

    In our work, we focused the effect of low doses of gamma radiation on metabolic parameters in chickens. In the first group of chickens we monitor changes of the concentration in glucose and cholesterol after whole body irradiation dose of chicken (3 Gy). In the second group of chickens we studied the combined effect of radiation and intraperitoneal application solution of zinc chloride to changes of the concentration in glucose and total cholesterol. In the tissues of organisms are found only in a very small amount of microelements however are of particular importance in a number of enzymatic catalytic and regulatory processes. Zinc is found in all cells of the body. However, it is the highest percentage of zinc contained in muscle and bone cells. Resorption takes place in the small intestine, especially in the duodenum. For both groups of chickens, we performed analyzes on the 3 rd , 7 th , 14 th , 21 st and 30 day. Results and an overview of the work can be helpful in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and in preventing diseases from exposure to radiation, but also in the case of the consequences after nuclear accidents. (authors)

  16. Prairie Chicken

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — An outline of the general range occupied by greayter and lesser prairie chickens. The range was delineated by expert opinion, then varified by local wildlife...

  17. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodzik, Marta; Sawosz, Filip; Sawosz, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    factors of chicken embryo pectoral muscles. ND, Gln, and Gln/ND solutions (50 mg/L) were injected into fertilized broiler chicken eggs at the beginning of embryogenesis. Muscle tissue was dissected at day 20 of incubation and analysed for gene expression of FGF2, VEGF-A, and MyoD1. ND and especially Gln...

  18. Subsequent somatic axis and bone tissue metabolism responses to a low-zinc diet with or without phytase inclusion in broiler chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siemowit Muszyński

    Full Text Available Zinc is required for normal bone development and cartilage formation. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of with adding organic Zn (alone or phytase inclusion at the reduced dose to growing male Ross 308 chickens on somatic axis and bone tissue metabolism. 200 one-day old broilers were divided into the negative control group fed diet without Zn or phytase inclusion, positive control group receiving Zn in the 100% of daily recommended dose from ZnO, and two experimental groups fed diet introduced Zn in 25% of daily recommendation as a glycine chelate (Zn-Gly with or without phytase inclusion (500 FTU·kg-1. Supplemental organic Zn increased bone Zn and Mg content, serum IGF-1, growth hormone and leptin concentration. Additional phytase inclusion increased body weight gain, blood plasma Ca, Fe, Zn and osteocalcin concentration and tibia ash percentage when compared to the Zn-deprived control. Bone geometry, yield and ultimate strengths were enhanced in both organic Zn supplemented groups, and the overall mechanical strength parameters of bone were better in these groups than in the positive control group supplemented with standard dose of inorganic Zn. Also marked improvements in the thickness of articular and the growth plate cartilages as well as real bone volume and thickness of metaphyseal trabeculae were achieved in all broilers fed Zn-supplemented diet irrespective of phytase inclusion, however, the highest cancellous bone mass and the best trabecular structure were noted after ZnO supplementation. In concludion, although dietary organic Zn given to growing broilers in 25% of daily recommended dose improved general bone properties and mechanical strength, the obtained results do not allow to unambiguously state that organic Zn supplementation at this level, even after phytase inclusion, is sufficient for proper bone development.

  19. Subsequent somatic axis and bone tissue metabolism responses to a low-zinc diet with or without phytase inclusion in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszyński, Siemowit; Tomaszewska, Ewa; Kwiecień, Małgorzata; Dobrowolski, Piotr; Tomczyk-Warunek, Agnieszka

    2018-01-01

    Zinc is required for normal bone development and cartilage formation. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of with adding organic Zn (alone or phytase inclusion) at the reduced dose to growing male Ross 308 chickens on somatic axis and bone tissue metabolism. 200 one-day old broilers were divided into the negative control group fed diet without Zn or phytase inclusion, positive control group receiving Zn in the 100% of daily recommended dose from ZnO, and two experimental groups fed diet introduced Zn in 25% of daily recommendation as a glycine chelate (Zn-Gly) with or without phytase inclusion (500 FTU·kg-1). Supplemental organic Zn increased bone Zn and Mg content, serum IGF-1, growth hormone and leptin concentration. Additional phytase inclusion increased body weight gain, blood plasma Ca, Fe, Zn and osteocalcin concentration and tibia ash percentage when compared to the Zn-deprived control. Bone geometry, yield and ultimate strengths were enhanced in both organic Zn supplemented groups, and the overall mechanical strength parameters of bone were better in these groups than in the positive control group supplemented with standard dose of inorganic Zn. Also marked improvements in the thickness of articular and the growth plate cartilages as well as real bone volume and thickness of metaphyseal trabeculae were achieved in all broilers fed Zn-supplemented diet irrespective of phytase inclusion, however, the highest cancellous bone mass and the best trabecular structure were noted after ZnO supplementation. In concludion, although dietary organic Zn given to growing broilers in 25% of daily recommended dose improved general bone properties and mechanical strength, the obtained results do not allow to unambiguously state that organic Zn supplementation at this level, even after phytase inclusion, is sufficient for proper bone development.

  20. Study of chicken liver and spleen by Moessbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshtrakh, M. I., E-mail: oshtrakh@mail.utnet.ru [Ural State Technical University-UPI, Division of Applied Biophysics, Faculty of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control (Russian Federation); Milder, O. B.; Semionkin, V. A. [Ural State Technical University-UPI, Faculty of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation); Malakheeva, L. I. [Simbio Holding, Science Consultation Department (Russian Federation); Prokopenko, P. G. [Russian State Medical University, Faculty of Biochemistry (Russian Federation)

    2005-09-15

    A preliminary study of purified normal human liver ferritin, normal chicken liver and spleen tissues in lyophilized form showed differences in room temperature Moessbauer hyperfine parameters. An additional study of liver and spleen tissues with lower iron content from chicken with lymphoid leukemia indicated small differences between the quadrupole splittings in these samples compared with those in normal tissues.

  1. Study of chicken liver and spleen by Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshtrakh, M. I.; Milder, O. B.; Semionkin, V. A.; Malakheeva, L. I.; Prokopenko, P. G.

    2005-01-01

    A preliminary study of purified normal human liver ferritin, normal chicken liver and spleen tissues in lyophilized form showed differences in room temperature Moessbauer hyperfine parameters. An additional study of liver and spleen tissues with lower iron content from chicken with lymphoid leukemia indicated small differences between the quadrupole splittings in these samples compared with those in normal tissues.

  2. The effect of pomegranate seed oil and grapeseed oil on cis-9, trans-11 CLA (rumenic acid), n-3 and n-6 fatty acids deposition in selected tissues of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białek, A; Białek, M; Lepionka, T; Kaszperuk, K; Banaszkiewicz, T; Tokarz, A

    2018-04-23

    The aim of this study was to determine whether diet modification with different doses of grapeseed oil or pomegranate seed oil will improve the nutritive value of poultry meat in terms of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, as well as rumenic acid (cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid) content in tissues diversified in lipid composition and roles in lipid metabolism. To evaluate the influence of applied diet modification comprehensively, two chemometric methods were used. Results of cluster analysis demonstrated that pomegranate seed oil modifies fatty acids profile in the most potent way, mainly by an increase in rumenic acid content. Principal component analysis showed that regardless of type of tissue first principal component is strongly associated with type of deposited fatty acid, while second principal component enables identification of place of deposition-type of tissue. Pomegranate seed oil seems to be a valuable feed additive in chickens' feeding. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Chicken and Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Chicken and Food Poisoning Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Americans eat more chicken every year than any other meat. Chicken can ...

  4. Characterization of the chicken muscle insulin receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamo, M.; Simon, J.; Rosebrough, R.W.; McMurtry, J.P.; Steele, N.C.; LeRoith, D.

    1987-01-01

    Insulin receptors are present in chicken skeletal muscle. Crude membrane preparations demonstrated specific 125 I-insulin binding. The nonspecific binding was high (36-55% of total binding) and slightly lower affinity receptors were found than are typically observed for crude membrane insulin binding in other chicken tissues. Affinity crosslinking of 125 I-insulin to crude membranes revealed insulin receptor alpha-subunits of Mr 128K, intermediate between those of liver (134K) and brain (124K). When solubilized and partially purified on wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) affinity columns, chicken muscle insulin receptors exhibited typical high affinity binding, with approximately 10(-10) M unlabeled insulin producing 50% inhibition of the specific 125 I-insulin binding. WGA purified chicken muscle insulin receptors also exhibited insulin-stimulated autophosphorylation of the beta-subunit, which appeared as phosphorylated bands of 92- and 81K. Both bands were immunoprecipitated by anti-receptor antiserum (B10). WGA purified membranes also demonstrated dose-dependent insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of the exogenous substrate poly(Glu,Tyr)4:1. However, unlike chicken liver, chicken muscle insulin receptor number and tyrosine kinase activity were unaltered by 48 hr of fasting or 48 hr of fasting and 24 hr of refeeding. Thus, despite the presence of insulin receptors in chicken muscle showing normal coupling to receptor tyrosine kinase activity, nutritional alterations modulate these parameters in a tissue-specific manner in chickens

  5. Characterization of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and its receptor in chickens: Tissue expression, functional analysis, and fasting-induced up-regulation of hypothalamic MCH expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lin; Lv, Can; Zhang, Jiannan; Mo, Chunheng; Lin, Dongliang; Li, Juan; Wang, Yajun

    2017-06-05

    Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a neuropeptide expressed in the brain and exerts its actions through interaction with the two known G protein-coupled receptors, namely melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 and 2 (MCHR1 and MCHR2) in mammals. However, the information regarding the expression and functionality of MCH and MCHR(s) remains largely unknown in birds. In this study, using RT-PCR and RACE PCR, we amplified and cloned a MCHR1-like receptor, which is named cMCHR4 according to its evolutionary origin, and a MCHR2 from chicken brain. The cloned cMCHR4 was predicted to encode a receptor of 367 amino acids, which shares high amino acid identities with MCHR4 of ducks (90%), western painted turtles (85%), and coelacanths (77%), and a comparatively low identity to human MCHR1 (58%) and MCHR2 (38%), whereas chicken MCHR2 encodes a putative C-terminally truncated receptor and is likely a pseudogene. Using cell-based luciferase reporter assays or Western blot, we further demonstrated that chicken (and duck) MCHR4 could be potently activated by chicken MCH 1-19 , and its activation can elevate calcium concentration and activate MAPK/ERK and cAMP/PKA signaling pathways, indicating an important role of MCHR4 in mediating MCH actions in birds. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that both cMCH and cMCHR4 mRNA are expressed in various brain regions including the hypothalamus, and cMCH expression in the hypothalamus of 3-week-old chicks could be induced by 36-h fasting, indicating that cMCH expression is correlated with energy balance. Taken together, characterization of chicken MCH and MCHR4 will aid to uncover the conserved roles of MCH across vertebrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Tunable random packings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumay, G; Vandewalle, N

    2007-01-01

    We present an experimental protocol that allows one to tune the packing fraction η of a random pile of ferromagnetic spheres from a value close to the lower limit of random loose packing η RLP ≅0.56 to the upper limit of random close packing η RCP ≅0.64. This broad range of packing fraction values is obtained under normal gravity in air, by adjusting a magnetic cohesion between the grains during the formation of the pile. Attractive and repulsive magnetic interactions are found to affect stongly the internal structure and the stability of sphere packing. After the formation of the pile, the induced cohesion is decreased continuously along a linear decreasing ramp. The controlled collapse of the pile is found to generate various and reproducible values of the random packing fraction η

  7. Mean total arsenic concentrations in chicken 1989-2000 and estimated exposures for consumers of chicken.

    OpenAIRE

    Lasky, Tamar; Sun, Wenyu; Kadry, Abdel; Hoffman, Michael K

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate mean concentrations of total arsenic in chicken liver tissue and then estimate total and inorganic arsenic ingested by humans through chicken consumption. We used national monitoring data from the Food Safety and Inspection Service National Residue Program to estimate mean arsenic concentrations for 1994-2000. Incorporating assumptions about the concentrations of arsenic in liver and muscle tissues as well as the proportions of inorganic and organic a...

  8. Packing Degenerate Graphs Greedily

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Allen, P.; Böttcher, J.; Hladký, J.; Piguet, Diana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 61, August (2017), s. 45-51 ISSN 1571-0653 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ16-07822Y Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : tree packing conjecture * graph packing * graph processes Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics

  9. Packing force data correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiman, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    One of the issues facing valve maintenance personnel today deals with an appropriate methodology for installing and setting valve packing that will minimize leak rates, yet ensure functionality of the the valve under all anticipated operating conditions. Several variables can affect a valve packing's ability to seal, such as packing bolt torque, stem finish, and lubrication. Stem frictional force can be an excellent overall indicator of some of the underlying conditions that affect the sealing characteristics of the packing and the best parameter to use when adjusting the packing. This paper addresses stem friction forces, analytically derives the equations related to these forces, presents a methodology for measuring these forces on valve stems, and attempts to correlate the data directly to the underlying variables

  10. Detection of infectious bursal disease virus in various lymphoid tissues of experimentally infected specific pathogen free chickens by different reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabell, Susanne; Handberg, Kurt; Kusk, Mette

    2005-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is a worldwide distributed immunosuppressive viral disease in young chickens, controlled by vaccination. Emergence of several strains of IBD virus (IBDV) has created a demand for strain-specific diagnostic tools. In the present experiment, five different reverse...... included vaccine strain D78, classical strain Faragher 52/70, and the very virulent Danish strain DK01 The presence of the virus infection was confirmed by histopathologic evaluation of bursa lesions. The largest number of positive samples was obtained with a strain-specific two-step multiplex (MPX) RT...

  11. Creating leptin-like biofunctions by active immunization against chicken leptin receptor in growing chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, M M; Wu, S Q; Shao, X B; Li, X W; Chen, Z; Ying, S J; Shi, Z D

    2015-01-01

    In this study, immunization against chicken leptin receptor (cLEPR) extracellular domain (ECD) was applied to investigate leptin regulation and LEPR biofunction in growing chicken pullets. A recombinant protein (cLEPR ECD) based on the cLEPR complemenary DNA sequence corresponding to the 582nd to 796th amino acid residues of cLEPR mature peptide was prepared and used as antigen. Immunization against cLEPR ECD in growing chickens increased anti-cLEPR ECD antibody titers in blood, enhanced proportions of phosphorylated janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and served as signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) protein in liver tissue. Chicken live weight gain and abdominal fat mass were significantly decreased (P chickens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Optimized packings with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pintér, János

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents a selection of case studies that address a substantial range of optimized object packings (OOP) and their applications. The contributing authors are well-recognized researchers and practitioners. The mathematical modelling and numerical solution aspects of each application case study are presented in sufficient detail. A broad range of OOP problems are discussed: these include various specific and non-standard container loading and object packing problems, as well as the stowing of hazardous and other materials on container ships, data centre resource management, automotive engineering design, space station logistic support, cutting and packing problems with placement constraints, the optimal design of LED street lighting, robust sensor deployment strategies, spatial scheduling problems, and graph coloring models and metaheuristics for packing applications. Novel points of view related to model development and to computational nonlinear, global, mixed integer optimization and heuristic st...

  13. Cell packing structures

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut; Jiang, Caigui; Hö binger, Mathias; Wang, Jun; Bompas, Philippe; Wallner, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    optimization schemes for the computation of quad-based support structures. Hex-dominant structures may be designed via Voronoi tessellations, power diagrams, sphere packings and various extensions of these concepts. Apart from the obvious application as load

  14. Shelving 6 pack crisps

    OpenAIRE

    Garriga Torrecillas, Núria; Otrubova, Natalie; Worm, Robert; Larroque, Thibaut

    2017-01-01

    6-Pack crisps are one of the main products sold by PepsiCo using the standard shelf storage options offered by Tesco PLC. While presenting specific packaging involves a multitude of variables. This report focusses on cognitive recognition, brand confusion and product attractiveness. PepsiCo asked the research team to investigate innovative ways of presenting the crisp 6-pack variant on instore displays. research shows that attraction is crucial in the form of expected rewards. The combination...

  15. Estimation of anisotropy factor spectrum for determination of optical properties in biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Misako; Honda, Norihiro; Ishii, Katsunori; Awazu, Kunio

    2017-07-01

    Spectroscopic setup for measuring anisotropy factor g spectrum of biological tissues was constructed. g of chicken liver tissue was lower than chicken breast tissue. High absorption of hemoglobin can have an influence on g spectrum.

  16. The expression characteristics of mt-ND2 gene in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenwen; Hou, Lingling; Wang, Ting; Lu, Weiwei; Tao, Yafei; Chen, Wen; Du, Xiaohui; Huang, Yanqun

    2016-09-01

    Subunit 2 of NADH dehydrogenase (ND2) is encoded by the mt-ND2 gene and plays a critical role in controlling the production of the mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. Our study focused on exploring the mt-ND2 tissue expression patterns and the effects of energy restriction and dietary fat (linseed oil, corn oil, sesame oil or lard) level (2.5% and 5%) on its expression in chicken. The results showed that mt-ND2 gene was expressed in the 15 tissues of hybrid chickens with the highest level in heart and lowest level in pancreas tissue; 30% energy restriction did not significantly affect mt-ND2 mRNA level in chicken liver tissue. Both the mt-ND2 mRNA levels in chicken pectoralis (p chicken age (p chicken age (p chicken age.

  17. Effect of egg composition and oxidoreductase on adaptation of Tibetan chicken to high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, C L; He, L J; Li, P C; Liu, H Y; Wei, Z H

    2016-07-01

    Tibetan chickens have good adaptation to hypoxic conditions, which can be reflected by higher hatchability than lowland breeds when incubated at high altitude. The objective of this trial was to study changes in egg composition and metabolism with regards the adaptation of Tibetan chickens to high altitude. We measured the dry weight of chicken embryos, egg yolk, and egg albumen, and the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) in breast muscle, heart, and liver from embryos of Tibetan chicken and Dwarf chicken (lowland breed) incubated at high (2,900 m) and low (100 m) altitude. We found that growth of chicken embryos was restricted at high altitude, especially for Dwarf chicken embryos. In Tibetan chicken, the egg weight was lighter, but the dry weight of egg yolk was heavier than that of Dwarf chicken. The LDH activities of the three tissues from the high altitude groups were respectively higher than those of the lowland groups from d 15 to hatching, except for breast muscle of Tibetan chicken embryos on d 15. In addition, under the high altitude environment, the heart tissue from Tibetan chicken had lower LDH activity than that from Dwarf chicken at d 15 and 18. The lactic acid content of blood from Tibetan chicken embryos was lower than that of Dwarf chicken at d 12 and 15 of incubation at high altitude. There was no difference in SDH activity in the three tissues between the high altitude groups and the lowland groups except in three tissues of hatchlings and at d 15 of incubation in breast muscle, nor between the two breeds at high altitude except in the heart of hatchlings. Consequently, the adaptation of Tibetan chicken to high altitude may be associated with higher quantities of yolk in the egg and a low metabolic oxygen demand in tissue, which illuminate the reasons that the Tibetan chicken have higher hatchability with lower oxygen transport ability. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Identification of irradiated chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegelberg, A.; Heide, L.; Boegl, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    Frozen chicken and chicken parts were irradiated at a dose of 5 kGy with Co-60. The irradiated chicken and chicken parts were identified by determination of three radiation-induced hydrocarbons from the lipid fraction. Isolation was carried out by high-vacuum distillation with a cold-finger apparatus. The detection of the hydrocarbons was possible in all irradiated samples by gaschromatography/mass spectrometry. (orig.) [de

  19. Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Morrissey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In vivo gene therapy directed at tissues of mesenchymal origin could potentially augment healing. We aimed to assess the duration and magnitude of transene expression in vivo in mice and ex vivo in human tissues. Methods. Using bioluminescence imaging, plasmid and adenoviral vector-based transgene expression in murine quadriceps in vivo was examined. Temporal control was assessed using a doxycycline-inducible system. An ex vivo model was developed and optimised using murine tissue, and applied in ex vivo human tissue. Results. In vivo plasmid-based transgene expression did not silence in murine muscle, unlike in liver. Although maximum luciferase expression was higher in muscle with adenoviral delivery compared with plasmid, expression reduced over time. The inducible promoter cassette successfully regulated gene expression with maximum levels a factor of 11 greater than baseline. Expression was re-induced to a similar level on a temporal basis. Luciferase expression was readily detected ex vivo in human muscle and tendon. Conclusions. Plasmid constructs resulted in long-term in vivo gene expression in skeletal muscle, in a controllable fashion utilising an inducible promoter in combination with oral agents. Successful plasmid gene transfection in human ex vivo mesenchymal tissue was demonstrated for the first time.

  20. Battery Pack Thermal Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-14

    This presentation describes the thermal design of battery packs at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. A battery thermal management system essential for xEVs for both normal operation during daily driving (achieving life and performance) and off-normal operation during abuse conditions (achieving safety). The battery thermal management system needs to be optimized with the right tools for the lowest cost. Experimental tools such as NREL's isothermal battery calorimeter, thermal imaging, and heat transfer setups are needed. Thermal models and computer-aided engineering tools are useful for robust designs. During abuse conditions, designs should prevent cell-to-cell propagation in a module/pack (i.e., keep the fire small and manageable). NREL's battery ISC device can be used for evaluating the robustness of a module/pack to cell-to-cell propagation.

  1. A radioimmunoassay for chicken avidin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulomaa, M.S.; Elo, H.A.; Tuohimaa, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    A double-antibody solid-phase radioimmunoassay for chicken avidin is reported. Avidin was labelled with 125 I by the chloramine-T method. The bound and free avidin were separated with a second antibody bound to a solid matrix. In the logit-log scale the standard curve was linear from 1-2 to 100-200ng of avidin/ml. Cross-reaction of ovalbumin was less than 0.015%. Saturation of biotin-binding sites of avidin with an excess of biotin decreased radioimmunoassay values by about 15%. Recovery studies indicated that avidin can be assayed from all chicken tissues studied with radioimmunoassay, whereas the [ 14 C]biotin/bentonite method gave poor recoveries for avidin in the liver and kidney. Radioimmunoassay and the [ 14 C]biotin/bentonite method gave similar concentrations for oviduct avidin. (author)

  2. Economics Action Pack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald's Corp., Oak Brook, IL.

    One of five McDonald's Action Packs, this learning package introduces intermediate grade students to basic economic concepts. The fourteen activities include the topics of consumption (4 activities), production (5), the market system (3), a pretest, and a posttest. Specific titles under consumption include The Wonderful Treasure Tree (introduction…

  3. Optimal Packed String Matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben-Kiki, Oren; Bille, Philip; Breslauer, Dany

    2011-01-01

    In the packed string matching problem, each machine word accommodates – characters, thus an n-character text occupies n/– memory words. We extend the Crochemore-Perrin constantspace O(n)-time string matching algorithm to run in optimal O(n/–) time and even in real-time, achieving a factor – speed...

  4. Comparative study of the iron cores in human liver ferritin, its pharmaceutical models and ferritin in chicken liver and spleen tissues using Moessbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alenkina, I.V.; Semionkin, V.A. [Faculty of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Faculty of Experimental Physics, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Oshtrakh, M.I. [Faculty of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Klepova, Yu.V.; Sadovnikov, N.V. [Faculty of Physiology and Biotechnology, Ural State Agricultural Academy, Ekaterinburg, (Russian Federation); Dubiel, S.M. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Application of the Moessbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution (4096 channels) for a study of iron-containing biological species is of great interest. Improving the velocity resolution allows to reveal small variations in the electronic structure of iron, and to obtain hyperfine parameters with smaller instrumental (systematic) errors in comparison with measurements performed in 512 channels or less. It also allows a more reliable fitting of complex Moessbauer spectra. In the present study the Moessbauer spectroscopy with the high velocity resolution was used for a comparative analysis of ferritin and its pharmaceutically important models as well as iron storage proteins in a chicken liver and a spleen. The ferritin, an iron storage protein, consists of a nanosized polynuclear iron core formed by a ferrihydrite surrounded by a protein shell. Iron-polysaccharide complexes contain {beta}-FeOOH iron cores coated with various polysaccharides. The Moessbauer spectra of the ferritin and commercial products Imferon, MaltoferR and Ferrum Lek as well as those of the chicken liver and spleen tissues were measured with the high velocity resolution at 295 and 90 K. They were fitted using two models: (1) with a homogeneous iron core (an approximation using one quadrupole doublet), and (2) with a heterogeneous iron core (an approximation using several quadrupole doublets). The model (1) can be used as the first approximation fit to visualize small variations in the hyperfine parameters. Using this model, differences in the Moessbauer hyperfine parameters were obtained in both 295 and 90 K Moessbauer spectra. However, this model was considered as a rough approximation because the measured Moessbauer spectra had non-Lorentzian line shapes. Therefore, the spectra of the ferritin, Imferon, MaltoferR and Ferrum Lek as well as those of the liver and spleen tissues were fitted again using the model (2) in which a different number of the quadrupole doublets was

  5. Generation of antiviral transgenic chicken using spermatogonial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted in order to generate anti-viral transgenic chickens through transfected spermatogonial stem cell with fusion gene EGFP-MMx. After injecting fusion gene EGFP-MMx into testes, tissues frozen section, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and dot blot of testes was performed at 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 ...

  6. The Six Pack Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik; Ritter, Thomas

    Ever seen a growth strategies fail because it was not connect ed to the firm’s customer base? Or a customer relationship strategy falters just because it was the wrong thing to do with that given customer? This article presents the six pack model, a tool that makes growth profitable and predictable....... Not all customers can and should grow – thus a firm needs to classify its customers in order to implement the right customer strategy....

  7. Argo packing friction research update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanTassell, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper focuses on the issue of valve packing friction and its affect on the operability of motor- and air-operated valves (MOVs and AOVs). At this time, most nuclear power plants are required to perform postmaintenance testing following a packing adjustment or replacement. In many cases, the friction generated by the packing does not impact the operability window of a valve. However, to date there has not been a concerted effort to substantiate this claim. To quantify the effects of packing friction, it has become necessary to develop a formula to predict the friction effects accurately. This formula provides a much more accurate method of predicting packing friction than previously used factors based strictly on stem diameter. Over the past 5 years, Argo Packing Company has been developing and testing improved graphite packing systems at research facilities, such as AECL Chalk River and Wyle Laboratories. Much of this testing has centered around reducing and predicting friction that is related to packing. In addition, diagnostic testing for Generic Letter 89-10 MOVs and AOVs has created a significant data base. In July 1992 Argo asked several utilities to provide running load data that could be used to quantify packing friction repeatability and predictability. This technical paper provides the basis to predict packing friction, which will improve calculations for thrust requirements for Generic Leter 89-10 and future AOV programs. In addition, having an accurate packing friction formula will improve packing performance when low running loads are identified that would indicate insufficient sealing force

  8. Bibliographic review of works accomplished about irradiated chicken, fish and fish products , spices and condiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardes, B.; Dias Filho, M.

    1983-07-01

    Table of foods that can be irradiated and its respective nominal doses are shown. Bibliographic reviews of works performed about irradiated chicken, fish and fish products, spices and condiments are shown. The irradiation purpose in chicken were to increase the shelf-life and to eliminate the pathogenic microorganism in chicken stored below 10 0 C; in fish and fish products the purposes were to control the insect infestation in dry-fish during the storage and the sell exposure to reduce the macrobian charge in packed and non packed fish and in fish products. To reduce pathogenic microorganism in packing and unpacking fish; in spices and condiments to control the insect infestation, to reduce the microbial contamination. (L.M.J.)

  9. To Pack or Not to Pack? A Randomized Trial of Vaginal Packing After Vaginal Reconstructive Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Lauren B; Crisp, Catrina C; Oakley, Susan H; Mazloomdoost, Donna; Kleeman, Steven D; Benbouajili, Janine M; Ghodsi, Vivian; Pauls, Rachel N

    2016-01-01

    Placement of vaginal packing after pelvic reconstructive surgery is common; however, little evidence exists to support the practice. Furthermore, patients have reported discomfort from the packs. We describe pain and satisfaction in women treated with and without vaginal packing. This institutional review board-approved randomized-controlled trial enrolled patients undergoing vaginal hysterectomy with prolapse repairs. The primary outcome was visual analog scales (VASs) for pain on postoperative day 1. Allocation to "packing" ("P") or "no-packing" ("NP") arms occurred intraoperatively at the end of surgery. Visual analog scales regarding pain and satisfaction were completed early on postoperative day 1 before packing removal. Visual analog scale scores for pain, satisfaction, and bother attributable to packing were recorded before discharge. All packing and perineal pads were weighed to calculate a "postoperative vaginal blood loss." Perioperative data were collected from the hospital record. Our sample size estimation required 74 subjects. Ninety-three women were enrolled. After exclusions, 77 were randomized (P, 37; NP, 40). No differences were found in surgical information, hemoglobin levels, or narcotic use between groups. However, "postoperative vaginal blood loss" was greater in packed subjects (P discharge (P, 35.0 vs NP, 40.0; P = 0.43] were not significantly different between treatment arms. Likewise, VAS scores for satisfaction before removal of packing (P, 81.0 vs NP, 90.0; P = 0.08] and before discharge (P, 90.0 vs NP, 90.5; P = 0.60] were not significantly different. Packed patients noted lower nursing verbal pain scores (P = 0.04) and used less ketorolac (P = 0.01). Bother from packing was low overall. Although there was no difference based on VAS, women receiving vaginal packing had lower nursing documented pain and used less ketorolac than packed women. Vaginal packing may provide benefit and can remain part of the surgical practice.

  10. Tetranectin in slow intra- and extrafusal chicken muscle fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, X; Gilpin, B; Iba, K

    2001-01-01

    Tetranectin is a C-type lectin that occurs in the mammalian musculoskeletal system. In the present report we describe the first studies on an avian tetranectin. A full-length chicken tetranectin cDNA was isolated. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of chicken tetranectin with mouse...... and human tetranectin showed an identity of 67 and 68%, respectively. Northern blot analysis demonstrated broad expression of chicken tetranectin mRNA, which was first detected on embryonic day 4. Tetranectin protein was detected in chicken serum and egg yolk. Since muscle is one of few tissues in which...... tetranectin protein is retained, we examined the distribution of tetranectin in various muscle types in chicken. Myofibers strongly positive for tetranectin were observed in several muscles including m. tibialis ant. and m. sartorius (from embryonic day 10 to adult). Using antibodies to fast and slow myosin...

  11. Antiviral Activity of Lambda Interferon in Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Antje; Soubies, Sebastien; Härtle, Sonja; Schusser, Benjamin; Kaspers, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are essential components of the antiviral defense system of vertebrates. In mammals, functional receptors for type III IFN (lambda interferon [IFN-λ]) are found mainly on epithelial cells, and IFN-λ was demonstrated to play a crucial role in limiting viral infections of mucosal surfaces. To determine whether IFN-λ plays a similar role in birds, we produced recombinant chicken IFN-λ (chIFN-λ) and we used the replication-competent retroviral RCAS vector system to generate mosaic-transgenic chicken embryos that constitutively express chIFN-λ. We could demonstrate that chIFN-λ markedly inhibited replication of various virus strains, including highly pathogenic influenza A viruses, in ovo and in vivo, as well as in epithelium-rich tissue and cell culture systems. In contrast, chicken fibroblasts responded poorly to chIFN-λ. When applied in vivo to 3-week-old chickens, recombinant chIFN-λ strongly induced the IFN-responsive Mx gene in epithelium-rich organs, such as lungs, tracheas, and intestinal tracts. Correspondingly, these organs were found to express high transcript levels of the putative chIFN-λ receptor alpha chain (chIL28RA) gene. Transfection of chicken fibroblasts with a chIL28RA expression construct rendered these cells responsive to chIFN-λ treatment, indicating that receptor expression determines cell type specificity of IFN-λ action in chickens. Surprisingly, mosaic-transgenic chickens perished soon after hatching, demonstrating a detrimental effect of constitutive chIFN-λ expression. Our data highlight fundamental similarities between the IFN-λ systems of mammals and birds and suggest that type III IFN might play a role in defending mucosal surfaces against viral intruders in most if not all vertebrates. PMID:24371053

  12. Transcriptional analysis of abdominal fat in chickens divergently selected on bodyweight at two ages reveals novel mechanisms controlling adiposity: validating visceral adipose tissue as a dynamic endocrine and metabolic organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnyk, C W; Carré, W; Wang, X; Porter, T E; Simon, J; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Duclos, M J; Aggrey, S E; Cogburn, L A

    2017-08-16

    Decades of intensive genetic selection in the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) have enabled the remarkable rapid growth of today's broiler (meat-type) chickens. However, this enhanced growth rate was accompanied by several unfavorable traits (i.e., increased visceral fatness, leg weakness, and disorders of metabolism and reproduction). The present descriptive analysis of the abdominal fat transcriptome aimed to identify functional genes and biological pathways that likely contribute to an extreme difference in visceral fatness of divergently selected broiler chickens. We used the Del-Mar 14 K Chicken Integrated Systems microarray to take time-course snapshots of global gene transcription in abdominal fat of juvenile [1-11 weeks of age (wk)] chickens divergently selected on bodyweight at two ages (8 and 36 wk). Further, a RNA sequencing analysis was completed on the same abdominal fat samples taken from high-growth (HG) and low-growth (LG) cockerels at 7 wk, the age with the greatest divergence in body weight (3.2-fold) and visceral fatness (19.6-fold). Time-course microarray analysis revealed 312 differentially expressed genes (FDR ≤ 0.05) as the main effect of genotype (HG versus LG), 718 genes in the interaction of age and genotype, and 2918 genes as the main effect of age. The RNA sequencing analysis identified 2410 differentially expressed genes in abdominal fat of HG versus LG chickens at 7 wk. The HG chickens are fatter and over-express numerous genes that support higher rates of visceral adipogenesis and lipogenesis. In abdominal fat of LG chickens, we found higher expression of many genes involved in hemostasis, energy catabolism and endocrine signaling, which likely contribute to their leaner phenotype and slower growth. Many transcription factors and their direct target genes identified in HG and LG chickens could be involved in their divergence in adiposity and growth rate. The present analyses of the visceral fat transcriptome in

  13. Are happy chickens safer chickens? Poultry welfare and disease susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Tom

    2006-08-01

    1. Contaminated chicken meat remains an internationally important vehicle for human infection with Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. In addition, the last 20 years has seen an international pandemic of human salmonellosis caused by the contamination of eggs with Salmonella Enteritidis. 2. It has been a long held scientific view that Campylobacter spp. and most, if not all of the common zoonotic salmonella, are essentially commensal in chickens. They usually form part of the gut flora and contaminate chicken carcases, for example, by faecal spillage at slaughter. Even when certain salmonella serovars like S. Enteritidis are invasive in laying hens overt evidence of clinical disease is rare and the birds appear to behave normally. 3. Are these bacteria just 'passing through' the avian host and only transient members of the bacterial flora or is there a more dynamic perspective to this infection/colonisation process? Chickens mount antibody responses to both pathogens, which indicate something other than commensalism. Such immune responses, however, do not always result in the clearance of the pathogen. 4. Not all animals in a group will carry salmonella or campylobacter, even under experimental conditions, and will vary, especially those that are outbred, in their responses to pathogen challenge. Identifying the reasons behind this could have important implications for disease control. 5. Both salmonella and campylobacter are more likely to be found in animals, which are compromised and this may explain at least part of the variations seen. Animals are more susceptible to infection when they are in a poor environment, fed a poor diet and/or under physical or psychological stress. 6. Work in this area has naturally focused on pathogens of medical significance and has shown that neurotransmitters such as noradrenaline can markedly alter pathogen behaviour. Other host responses like Interferon gamma can also affect host tissues in a way, which facilitates invasion by

  14. Cell packing structures

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut

    2015-03-03

    This paper is an overview of architectural structures which are either composed of polyhedral cells or closely related to them. We introduce the concept of a support structure of such a polyhedral cell packing. It is formed by planar quads and obtained by connecting corresponding vertices in two combinatorially equivalent meshes whose corresponding edges are coplanar and thus determine planar quads. Since corresponding triangle meshes only yield trivial structures, we focus on support structures associated with quad meshes or hex-dominant meshes. For the quadrilateral case, we provide a short survey of recent research which reveals beautiful relations to discrete differential geometry. Those are essential for successfully initializing numerical optimization schemes for the computation of quad-based support structures. Hex-dominant structures may be designed via Voronoi tessellations, power diagrams, sphere packings and various extensions of these concepts. Apart from the obvious application as load-bearing structures, we illustrate here a new application to shading and indirect lighting. On a higher level, our work emphasizes the interplay between geometry, optimization, statics, and manufacturing, with the overall aim of combining form, function and fabrication into novel integrated design tools.

  15. ExactPack Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, Robert Jr. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Israel, Daniel M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Doebling, Scott William [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Woods, Charles Nathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kaul, Ann [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Walter, John William Jr [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rogers, Michael Lloyd [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-05-09

    For code verification, one compares the code output against known exact solutions. There are many standard test problems used in this capacity, such as the Noh and Sedov problems. ExactPack is a utility that integrates many of these exact solution codes into a common API (application program interface), and can be used as a stand-alone code or as a python package. ExactPack consists of python driver scripts that access a library of exact solutions written in Fortran or Python. The spatial profiles of the relevant physical quantities, such as the density, fluid velocity, sound speed, or internal energy, are returned at a time specified by the user. The solution profiles can be viewed and examined by a command line interface or a graphical user interface, and a number of analysis tools and unit tests are also provided. We have documented the physics of each problem in the solution library, and provided complete documentation on how to extend the library to include additional exact solutions. ExactPack’s code architecture makes it easy to extend the solution-code library to include additional exact solutions in a robust, reliable, and maintainable manner.

  16. Effect of micronized pea seeds (Pisum sativum L.) as a substitute of soybean meal on tissue fatty acid composition and quality of broiler chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiczorowska, Bożena; Samolińska, Wioletta; Andrejko, Dariusz

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of micronized pea seeds introduced into feed mixes for broilers on the slaughter yield, blood lipid parameters, content of fatty acids in selected tissues, and meat quality. The studies involved 150 1-day-old Ross 308 chicks split into three groups (for 42 days). The feed rations differed in terms of the source of proteins: in the control group (C), it was post-extraction soybean meal (SBM) 100%; in group I, SBM 50% and micronized peas 50%; and in group II, micronized peas only, 100%. Irradiated pea seeds added to the feed ration for chicks reduced the fattening grade of carcasses (P seeds in feed mixes decreased the share of saturated fatty acids in the muscles and abdominal fat and had a positive effect on the n-6/n-3 ratio, hypocholesterolemic / hypercholesterolemic ratio, as well as the atherogenic and thrombogenic indices (P < 0.05). © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. Flooding characteristics of Goodloe packing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begovich, J.M.; Watson, J.S.

    1976-08-01

    Experimental flooding data for the countercurrent flow of air and water in a 7.62-cm-diam glass column filled with Goodloe packing were compared with a correlation reported by the packing manufacturer. Flooding rates observed in this study were as low as one-half those predicted by the correlation. Rearranging the packing by inverting the column and removing some packing segments yielded results similar to the correlation for liquid-to-gas (L/G) mass flow rate ratios greater than 10, but the experimental flooding curve fell significantly below the correlation at lower L/G ratios. When the column was repacked with new packing, the results were essentially the same as those obtained in the inverted column. Thus, it is believed that a carefully packed column is more likely to yield flooding rates similar to those obtained in the new or inverted columns rather than rates predicted by the original correlation

  18. Multi-tissue transcriptomic study reveals the main role of liver in the chicken adaptive response to a switch in dietary energy source through the transcriptional regulation of lipogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Désert , Colette; Baeza , Elisabeth; Aite , Meziane; Boutin , Morgane; Le Cam , Aurélie; Montfort , Jérôme; Houee-Bigot , M.; Blum , Yuna; Roux , Pierre-François; Hennequet-Antier , Christelle; Berri , Cécile; Metayer-Coustard , Sonia; Collin , Anne; Allais , Sophie; Le Bihan , Elisabeth

    2018-01-01

    The 178 microarrays are MIAME compliant and available in Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) through GEO Series accession number GSE104042 andplatform number GPL19630.; Background: Because the cost of cereals is unstable and represents a large part of production charges for meattype chicken, there is an urge to formulate alternative diets from more cost-effective feedstuff. We have recently shown that meat-type chicken source is prone to adapt to dietary starch substitution with fat and fiber. The ...

  19. Packing for food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewski, A G [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee approved the use of radiation treatment of foods. Nowadays food packaging are mostly made of plastics, natural or synthetic, therefore effect of irradiation on these materials is crucial for packing engineering for food irradiation technology. By selecting the right polymer materials for food packaging it can be ensured that the critical elements of material and product performance are not compromised. When packaging materials are in contact with food at the time of irradiation that regulatory approvals sometimes apply. The review of the R-and-D and technical papers regarding material selection, testing and approval is presented in the report. The most information come from the USA where this subject is well elaborated, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reports are reviewed as well. The report can be useful for scientists and food irradiation plants operators. (author)

  20. Packing for food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee approved the use of radiation treatment of foods. Nowadays food packaging are mostly made of plastics, natural or synthetic, therefore effect of irradiation on these materials is crucial for packing engineering for food irradiation technology. By selecting the right polymer materials for food packaging it can be ensured that the critical elements of material and product performance are not compromised. When packaging materials are in contact with food at the time of irradiation that regulatory approvals sometimes apply. The review of the R-and-D and technical papers regarding material selection, testing and approval is presented in the report. The most information come from the USA where this subject is well elaborated, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reports are reviewed as well. The report can be useful for scientists and food irradiation plants operators. (author)

  1. Polarizable protein packing

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Albert H.

    2011-01-24

    To incorporate protein polarization effects within a protein combinatorial optimization framework, we decompose the polarizable force field AMOEBA into low order terms. Including terms up to the third-order provides a fair approximation to the full energy while maintaining tractability. We represent the polarizable packing problem for protein G as a hypergraph and solve for optimal rotamers with the FASTER combinatorial optimization algorithm. These approximate energy models can be improved to high accuracy [root mean square deviation (rmsd) < 1 kJ mol -1] via ridge regression. The resulting trained approximations are used to efficiently identify new, low-energy solutions. The approach is general and should allow combinatorial optimization of other many-body problems. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput Chem, 2011 Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Effect of inulin supplementation and dietary fat source on performance, blood serum metabolites, liver lipids, abdominal fat deposition, and tissue fatty acid composition in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, S; Ortiz, L T; Alzueta, C; Rebolé, A; Treviño, J; Rodríguez, M L

    2010-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding inulin to diets containing 2 different types of fat as energy sources on performance, blood serum metabolites, liver lipids, and fatty acids of abdominal adipose tissue and breast and thigh meat. A total of 240 one-day-old female broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 1 of 6 treatments with 8 replicates per treatment and 5 chicks per pen. The experiment consisted of a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments including 3 concentrations of inulin (0, 5, and 10 g/kg of diet) and 2 types of fat [palm oil (PO) and sunflower oil (SO)] at an inclusion rate of 90 g/kg of diet. The experimental period lasted from 1 to 34 d. Dietary fat type did not affect BW gain but impaired feed conversion (P abdominal fat deposition and serum lipid and glucose concentrations. Triacylglycerol contents in liver were higher in the birds fed PO diets. Dietary fat type also modified fatty acids of abdominal and i.m. fat, resulting in a higher concentration of C16:0 and C18:1n-9 and a lower concentration of C18:2n-6 in the birds fed PO diets. The addition of inulin to diets modified (P = 0.017) BW gain quadratically without affecting feed conversion. Dietary inulin decreased the total lipid concentration in liver (P = 0.003) and that of triacylglycerols and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (up to 31%) in blood serum compared with the control groups. The polyunsaturated fatty acid:saturated fatty acid ratio increased in abdominal and i.m. fat when inulin was included in the SO-containing diets. The results from the current study suggest that the addition of inulin to broiler diets has a beneficial effect on blood serum lipids by decreasing triacylglyceride concentrations The results also support the use of inulin to increase the capacity of SO for enhancing polyunsaturated fatty acid:saturated fatty acid ratio of i.m. fat in broilers.

  3. The Chicken Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Charles A.

    2000-01-01

    Uses the chicken problem for sixth grade students to scratch the surface of systems of equations using intuitive approaches. Provides students responses to the problem and suggests similar problems for extensions. (ASK)

  4. Eggcited about Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carolyn; Brown, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe St Peter's Primary School's and Honiton Primary School's experiences of keeping chickens. The authors also describe the benefits they bring and the reactions of the children. (Contains 5 figures.)

  5. Random packing of digitized particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, de A.C.J.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    The random packing of regularly and irregularly shaped particles has been studied extensively. Within this paper, packing is studied from the perspective of digitized particles. These digitized particles are developed for and used in cellular automata systems, which are employed for the simple

  6. Random packing of digitized particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Korte, A.C.J.; Brouwers, Jos

    2012-01-01

    The random packing of regularly and irregularly shaped particles has been studied extensively. Within this paper, packing is studied from the perspective of digitized particles. These digitized particles are developed for and used in cellular automata systems, which are employed for the simple

  7. BNGS B valve packing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumming, D.

    1995-01-01

    The Bruce B Valve Packing Program began in 1987. The early history and development were presented at the 1992 International CANDU Maintenance conference. This presentation covers the evolution of the Bruce B Valve Packing Program over the period 1992 to 1995. (author)

  8. Heuristics for Multidimensional Packing Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeblad, Jens

    for a minimum height container required for the items. The main contributions of the thesis are three new heuristics for strip-packing and knapsack packing problems where items are both rectangular and irregular. In the two first papers we describe a heuristic for the multidimensional strip-packing problem...... that is based on a relaxed placement principle. The heuristic starts with a random overlapping placement of items and large container dimensions. From the overlapping placement overlap is reduced iteratively until a non-overlapping placement is found and a new problem is solved with a smaller container size...... of this heuristic are among the best published in the literature both for two- and three-dimensional strip-packing problems for irregular shapes. In the third paper, we introduce a heuristic for two- and three-dimensional rectangular knapsack packing problems. The two-dimensional heuristic uses the sequence pair...

  9. Labeling and analysis of chicken taste buds using molecular markers in oral epithelial sheets

    OpenAIRE

    Rajapaksha, Prasangi; Wang, Zhonghou; Venkatesan, Nandakumar; Tehrani, Kayvan F.; Payne, Jason; Swetenburg, Raymond L.; Kawabata, Fuminori; Tabata, Shoji; Mortensen, Luke J.; Stice, Steven L.; Beckstead, Robert; Liu, Hong-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    In chickens, the sensory organs for taste are the taste buds in the oral cavity, of which there are ~240?360 in total number as estimated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). There is not an easy way to visualize all taste buds in chickens. Here, we report a highly efficient method for labeling chicken taste buds in oral epithelial sheets using the molecular markers Vimentin and ?-Gustducin. Immediate tissue fixation following incubation with sub-epithelially injected proteases enabled us t...

  10. Packing Nonspherical Particles: All Shapes Are Not Created Equal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torquato, Salvatore

    2012-02-01

    Over the past decade there has been increasing interest in the effects of particle shape on the characteristics of dense particle packings, since deviations from sphericity can lead to more realistic models of granular media, nanostructured materials, and tissue architecture. It is clear the that the broken rotational symmetry of a nonspherical particle is a crucial aspect in determining its resulting packing characteristics, but given the infinite variety of possible shapes (ellipsoids, superballs, regular and irregular polyhedra, etc.) it is desirable to formulate packing organizing principles based the particle shape. Such principles are beginning to be elucidated; see Refs. 1 and 2 and references therein. Depending upon whether the particle has central symmetry, inequivalent principle axes, and smooth or flat surfaces, we can describe the nature of its densest packing (which is typically periodic) as well as its disordered jammed states (which may or may not be isostatic). Changing the shape of a particle can dramatically alter its packing attributes. This tunability capability via particle shape could be used to tailor many-particle systems (e.g., colloids and granular media) to have designed crystal, liquid and glassy states. [4pt] [1] S. Torquato and F. H. Stillinger, ``Jammed Hard-Particle Packings: From Kepler to Bernal and Beyond," Rev. Modern Phys. 82, 2633 (2010). [0pt] [2] Y. Jiao and S. Torquato, Communication: ``A Packing of Truncated Tetrahedra That Nearly Fills All of Space and its Melting Properties," J. Chem. Phys. 135, 151101 (2011).

  11. Nasal packing with ventilated nasal packs; a comparison with traditional vaseline nasal pack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, J.; Siddiqui, M.W.; Abbas, A.; Sami, M.; Ayub, Z.

    2017-01-01

    To compare the benefits of ventilated nasal packing with traditional vaseline guaze nasal packing. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at CMH Multan, from Jun 2014 to Dec 2014. Material and Methods: In this study, sample size of 80 patients was calculated using WHO calculator. Patients were divided in two groups using lottery method endotracheal tube and piece of surgical glove filled with ribbon guaze was utilized for fabricated ventilated nasal pack and compared with traditional nasal packs. Nasal obstruction and sleep disturbance were studied at eight hours and twenty-four hours following surgery using visual analog scale. Results: Mean nasal obstruction with ventilated nasal pack was 45.62 +- 6.17 and with Vaseline nasal pack was 77.67 +- 4.85 which was statistically significant (p=0.001) in both the groups. Mean sleep disturbance in both the groups was 46.32 +- 5.23 and 68.75 +- 2.70 respectively which was statistically significant (p=0.001) in both the groups. Conclusion: Patients with ventilated nasal packs were found to have better tolerance to nasal packs due to less nasal obstruction and sleep disturbance

  12. The effect of environmental temperature on immune response and metabolism of the young chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henken, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of environmental temperature on immune response and metabolism was studied in young chickens. Immunization was performed by injecting intramuscularly 0.5 ml packed SRBC (sheep red blood cells) in both thighs of 32 days old pullets ( WarrenSSL ). The

  13. On the dose distribution in chicken carcasses irradiated with electron beams for control of pathogenic microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mager, B.; Ehlermann, D.A.E.

    1999-01-01

    Whole chicken carcasses packed as commercial batches (cardboard boxes containing 8-12 carcasses) can be irradiated with bremsstrahlung, which permits compliance with the required quotient of 2.0 of maximal and minimal radiation dose, so that this radiation treatment is equal to treatment with γ radiation from cobalt sources. (orig./CB) [de

  14. Pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Run; Yang, Xia; Chen, Lu; Chang, Hong-tao; Liu, Hong-ying; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Xin-wei; Wang, Chuan-qing

    2014-01-01

    Shigellosis in chickens was first reported in 2004. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens and the possibility of cross-infection between humans and chickens. The pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens was examined via infection of three-day-old SPF chickens with Shigella strain ZD02 isolated from a human patient. The virulence and invasiveness were examined by infection of the chicken intestines and primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed Shigella can cause death via intraperitoneal injection in SPF chickens, but only induce depression via crop injection. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy revealed the Shigella can invade the intestinal epithelia. Immunohistochemistry of the primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells infected with Shigella showed the bacteria were internalized into the epithelial cells. Electron microscopy also confirmed that Shigella invaded primary chicken intestinal epithelia and was encapsulated by phagosome-like membranes. Our data demonstrate that Shigella can invade primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and chicken intestinal mucosa in vivo, resulting in pathogenicity and even death. The findings suggest Shigella isolated from human or chicken share similar pathogenicity as well as the possibility of human-poultry cross-infection, which is of public health significance.

  15. Outbreak of food-poisoning caused by Salmonella virchow in spit-roasted chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, A B; Turner, G C; Lowry, D M

    1968-12-28

    Salmonella virchow food-poisoning acquired from eating chicken caused illness in at least 50 people who attended a tennis club function in Liverpool, and in many other people in the Merseyside area. In some cases the illness was severe, with positive blood cultures, and 35 people were admitted to hospital.The source of infection was a retail shop which received deep-frozen chickens already contaminated with S. virchow from a packing-station in Cheshire. These chickens were spit-roasted after inadequate thawing and subsequently handled under unhygienic conditions. The result was a massive build-up of salmonella contamination in the shop and in the chicken portions sold.S. virchow was isolated from over 160 patients and contacts in the Merseyside area during the outbreak and many continued to excrete the organism in the faeces after four months. Antibiotic treatment was not recomended because there was no evidence that it shortened the duration of excretion.A high rate of contamination of chickens from a packing-station by a salmonella type capable of causing serious disease in man is clearly a public health problem which cannot be ignored.The use of rotary spits for roasting chickens requires thorough investigation and appraisal, because as operated at present they evidently constitute a public health hazard.

  16. Asian-Style Chicken Wraps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/asianstylechickenwraps.html Asian-Style Chicken Wraps To use the sharing features on this ... Tbsp lime juice (or about 2 limes) For chicken: 1 Tbsp peanut oil or vegetable oil 1 ...

  17. Deterministic indexing for packed strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Skjoldjensen, Frederik Rye

    2017-01-01

    Given a string S of length n, the classic string indexing problem is to preprocess S into a compact data structure that supports efficient subsequent pattern queries. In the deterministic variant the goal is to solve the string indexing problem without any randomization (at preprocessing time...... or query time). In the packed variant the strings are stored with several character in a single word, giving us the opportunity to read multiple characters simultaneously. Our main result is a new string index in the deterministic and packed setting. Given a packed string S of length n over an alphabet σ...

  18. Generation of chickens expressing Cre recombinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, Philip A; Pedersen, Darlene; Ching, Kathryn; Collarini, Ellen J; Izquierdo, Shelley; Jacob, Roy; van de Lavoir, Marie-Cecile

    2016-10-01

    Cre recombinase has been extensively used for genome engineering in transgenic mice yet its use in other species has been more limited. Here we describe the generation of transgenic chickens expressing Cre recombinase. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive chicken primordial germ cells were stably transfected with β-actin-Cre-recombinase using phiC31 integrase and transgenic chickens were generated. Cre recombinase activity was verified by mating Cre birds to birds carrying a floxed transgene. Floxed sequences were only excised in offspring from roosters that inherited the Cre recombinase but were excised in all offspring from hens carrying the Cre recombinase irrespective of the presence of the Cre transgene. The Cre recombinase transgenic birds were healthy and reproductively normal. The Cre and GFP genes in two of the lines were closely linked whereas the genes segregated independently in a third line. These founders allowed development of GFP-expressing and non-GFP-expressing Cre recombinase lines. These lines of birds create a myriad of opportunities to study developmentally-regulated and tissue-specific expression of transgenes in chickens.

  19. Chicken from Farm to Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on fresh chicken. However, if chicken is processed, additives such as MSG, salt, or sodium erythorbate may be added but must be listed on the label. [ Top of Page ] Foodborne Organisms Associated with Chicken As on any perishable meat, fish, or poultry, bacteria can be found on raw ...

  20. The pursuit of perfect packing

    CERN Document Server

    Weaire, Denis

    2008-01-01

    Coauthored by one of the creators of the most efficient space packing solution, the Weaire-Phelan structure, The Pursuit of Perfect Packing, Second Edition explores a problem of importance in physics, mathematics, chemistry, biology, and engineering: the packing of structures. Maintaining its mathematical core, this edition continues and revises some of the stories from its predecessor while adding several new examples and applications. The book focuses on both scientific and everyday problems ranging from atoms to honeycombs. It describes packing models, such as the Kepler conjecture, Voronoï decomposition, and Delaunay decomposition, as well as actual structure models, such as the Kelvin cell and the Weaire-Phelan structure. The authors discuss numerous historical aspects and provide biographical details on influential contributors to the field, including emails from Thomas Hales and Ken Brakke. With examples from physics, crystallography, engineering, and biology, this accessible and whimsical bo...

  1. New iodine filter pack design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackbee, B.A.

    1977-10-01

    To enable Naval Emergency Monitoring Teams to fulfil their role in the field it was necessary to locate or design a replacement filter pack for the collection of radioactive iodine air samples. Collaboration with the Berkeley Laboratories of the Central Electricity Generating Board provided the necessary starting point for a suitable type of package. Further development by NGTE (West Drayton) yielded the improved filter pack which is the subject of this memorandum. (author)

  2. Studies on radurization of chicken meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harikumar, P.; Ninjoor, V.; Kumta, U.S.

    1976-01-01

    Process parameters for the preservation of chicken meat by low dose γ-radiation have been defined. Leg muscle and breast muscle samples were separately packed in polythylene pouches with without vacuum and exposed to γ-radiation (0.10 - 0.25 Mrad) at ice temperature. The irradiated samples along with the unirradiated controls were stored at 0-4 degC. The quality attributes of the samples were assessed in terms of the organoleptic score and biochemical parameters such as TMAN, TVBN and TBA values. The results showed that the unirradiated samples spoiled during 10 days storage while irradiated samples were acceptable upto 21 days. Vacuum packaging prior to irradiation was found to suppress the TVBN, and TBA values throughout the storage period. This resulted in the enhanced acceptibility of the product during storage. (author)

  3. Strategy for Developing Local Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofjan Iskandar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken industry in Indonesia offer jobs for people in the village areas . The balance in development industry of selected and local chicken has to be anticipated as there has been threat of reducing importation of grand parent stock of selected chicken due to global avian influenza . In the mean time, high appreciation to the local chicken has been shown by the existence of local chicken farms in the size of business scale . For local chicken business, the government has been built programs, projects, and infrastructures, although the programs and projects were dropped scattered in to several institutions, which were end up with less significant impact to the people. Therefore, it is the time that the government should put more efforts to integrate various sources . focusing in enhancing local chicken industry .

  4. Chicken Astrovirus Infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    35 nm in diameter with a ... named chicken astrovirus (CAstV) isolated from broiler chicks (Baxendale and Mebatsion, 2004). CAstV has .... successfully used the RT-PCR method to detect CAstV in field samples from across the USA while Day et ...

  5. The pursuit of perfect packing

    CERN Document Server

    Weaire, Denis

    2000-01-01

    In 1998 Thomas Hales dramatically announced the solution of a problem that has long teased eminent mathematicians: what is the densest possible arrangement of identical spheres? The Pursuit of Perfect Packing recounts the story of this problem and many others that have to do with packing things together. The examples are taken from mathematics, physics, biology, and engineering, including the arrangement of soap bubbles in foam, atoms in a crystal, the architecture of the bee''s honeycomb, and the structure of the Giant''s Causeway. Using an informal style and with key references, the book also includes brief accounts of the lives of many of the scientists who devoted themselves to problems of packing over many centuries, together with wry comments on their efforts. It is an entertaining introduction to the field for both specialists and the more general public.

  6. Domain Discretization and Circle Packings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    A circle packing is a configuration of circles which are tangent with one another in a prescribed pattern determined by a combinatorial triangulation, where the configuration fills a planar domain or a two-dimensional surface. The vertices in the triangulation correspond to centers of circles...... to domain discretization problems such as triangulation and unstructured mesh generation techniques. We wish to ask ourselves the question: given a cloud of points in the plane (we restrict ourselves to planar domains), is it possible to construct a circle packing preserving the positions of the vertices...... and constrained meshes having predefined vertices as constraints. A standard method of two-dimensional mesh generation involves conformal mapping of the surface or domain to standardized shapes, such as a disk. Since circle packing is a new technique for constructing discrete conformal mappings, it is possible...

  7. Cylinder valve packing nut studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blue, S.C. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Paducah, KY (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The design, manufacture, and use of cylinder valve packing nuts have been studied to improve their resistance to failure from stress corrosion cracking. Stress frozen photoelastic models have been analyzed to measure the stress concentrations at observed points of failure. The load effects induced by assembly torque and thermal expansion of stem packing were observed by strain gaging nuts. The effects of finishing operations and heat treatment were studied by the strain gage hole boring and X-ray methods. Modifications of manufacturing and operation practices are reducing the frequency of stress corrosion failures.

  8. Preliminary Survey of Ectoparasites Infesting Chickens (Gallus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ectoparasites of chickens in four areas of Sokoto metropolis, Nigeria, on 160 chickens raised under free-range ... 90% mortality of local free range chickens. Arthropod ... some cases premature death. ... from the birds by displaying the feathers.

  9. Oral lipase activities and fat-taste receptors for fat-taste sensing in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yuko; Kawabata, Fuminori; Nishimura, Shotaro; Tabata, Shoji

    2018-01-01

    It has been reported that a functional fat-taste receptor, GPR120, is present in chicken oral tissues, and that chickens can detect fat taste in a behavioral test. However, although triglycerides need to be digested to free fatty acids to be recognized by fat-taste receptors such as GPR120, it remains unknown whether lipase activities exist in chicken oral tissues. To examine this question, we first cloned another fat-taste receptor candidate gene, CD36, from the chicken palate. Then, using RT-PCR, we determined that GPR120 and CD36 were broadly expressed in chicken oral and gastrointestinal tissues. Also by RT-PCR, we confirmed that several lipase genes were expressed in both oral and gastrointestinal tissues. Finally, we analyzed the lipase activities of oral tissues by using a fluorogenic triglyceride analog as a lipase substrate. We found there are functional lipases in oral tissues as well as in the stomach and pancreas. These results suggested that chickens have a basic fat-taste reception system that incorporates a triglycerides/oral-lipases/free fatty acids/GPR120 axis and CD36 axis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Towards optimal packed string matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben-Kiki, Oren; Bille, Philip; Breslauer, Dany

    2014-01-01

    -size string-matching instruction wssm is available in contemporary commodity processors. The other word-size maximum-suffix instruction wslm is only required during the pattern pre-processing. Benchmarks show that our solution can be efficiently implemented, unlike some prior theoretical packed string...

  11. Effects of abhydrolase domain containing 5 gene (ABHD5) expression and variations on chicken fat metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Hongjia; Liu, Qing; Xu, Jiguo; Zeng, Fang; Pang, Xiaolin; Jebessa, Endashaw; Liang, Shaodong; Nie, Qinghua; Zhang, Xiquan

    2016-01-01

    Abhydrolase domain containing 5 gene (ABHD5), also known as comparative gene identification 58 (CGI-58), is a member of the α/β-hydrolase family as a protein cofactor of ATGL stimulating its triacylglycerol hydrolase activity. In this study, we aim to characterize the expression and variations of ABHD5 and to study their functions in chicken fat metabolism. We compared the ABHD5 expression level in various tissues and under different nutrition conditions, identified the variations of ABHD5, and associated them with production traits in an F2 resource population of chickens. Overexpression analysis with two different genotypes and siRNA interfering analysis of ABHD5 were performed in chicken preadipocytes. Chicken ABDH5 was expressed widely and most predominantly in adipose tissue. Five SNPs of the ABHD5 gene were identified and genotyped in the F2 resource population. The c.490C > T SNP was associated with subcutaneous fat thickness (P  C SNP was also associated with chicken body weight (P chicken preadipocytes, overexpression of wild type ABDH5 did not affect the mRNA level of ATGL (adipose triglyceride lipase) but markedly decreased (P chickens with a high fat diet. These results suggest that expression and variations of ABHD5 may affect fat metabolism through regulating the activity of ATGL in chickens. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. Anticoccidial activity of the methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca root in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anosa, George Nnamdi; Okoro, O Josephine

    2011-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the anticoccidial activity of the methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca root in chickens. The chickens were divided into six groups of 12 chickens each. Each chicken in five groups was infected with 8,000 infective coccidia (Eimeria tenella) oocysts at day 28 of age while one group served as uninfected control. At day 7 post-infection, two chickens remaining in each group were sacrificed for postmortem examination to confirm coccidiosis. Also at day 7 post-infection, each chicken in four infected groups was given graded doses (250, 500 and 1,000 mg/kg b.w.) of the extract or amprolium (conventional drug). Two groups (an infected and uninfected group) did not receive treatment. Parameters used to assess progress of infection and response to treatment included clinical signs typical of coccidiosis, oocyst count per gramme of faeces (OPG) and packed cell volume (PCV). Treatment of previously infected chickens with M. paradisiaca root extract resulted in a progressive decrease in severity of observed clinical signs, marked reductions in OPG and a gradual increase in PCV. In each case, the changes were dose dependent. There was no significant difference in mean OPG and mean PCV of the extract (at 1,000 mg/kg b.w.) and amprolium-treated groups at termination of the study (at day 50 of age). In the acute toxicity study, the extract was found to be non-toxic to the chickens even at the highest dose of 4,000 mg/kg b.w. The results of this study demonstrated that the extract has anticoccidial activity in a dose-dependent manner and at a dosage of 1,000 mg/kg b.w. had similar efficacy with amprolium in the treatment of chicken coccidiosis.

  13. The Maximum Resource Bin Packing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyar, J.; Epstein, L.; Favrholdt, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    Usually, for bin packing problems, we try to minimize the number of bins used or in the case of the dual bin packing problem, maximize the number or total size of accepted items. This paper presents results for the opposite problems, where we would like to maximize the number of bins used...... algorithms, First-Fit-Increasing and First-Fit-Decreasing for the maximum resource variant of classical bin packing. For the on-line variant, we define maximum resource variants of classical and dual bin packing. For dual bin packing, no on-line algorithm is competitive. For classical bin packing, we find...

  14. Hardness of approximation for strip packing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamaszek, Anna Maria; Kociumaka, Tomasz; Pilipczuk, Marcin

    2017-01-01

    Strip packing is a classical packing problem, where the goal is to pack a set of rectangular objects into a strip of a given width, while minimizing the total height of the packing. The problem has multiple applications, for example, in scheduling and stock-cutting, and has been studied extensively......)-approximation by two independent research groups [FSTTCS 2016,WALCOM 2017]. This raises a questionwhether strip packing with polynomially bounded input data admits a quasi-polynomial time approximation scheme, as is the case for related twodimensional packing problems like maximum independent set of rectangles or two...

  15. Biological mechanisms discriminating growth rate and adult body weight phenotypes in two Chinese indigenous chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Tengfei; Zhao, Sumei; Rong, Hua; Gu, Dahai; Li, Qihua; Huang, Ying; Xu, Zhiqiang; Chu, Xiaohui; Tao, Linli; Liu, Lixian; Ge, Changrong; Te Pas, Marinus F W; Jia, Junjing

    2017-06-20

    Intensive selection has resulted in increased growth rates and muscularity in broiler chickens, in addition to adverse effects, including delayed organ development, sudden death syndrome, and altered metabolic rates. The biological mechanisms underlying selection responses remain largely unknown. Non-artificially-selected indigenous Chinese chicken breeds display a wide variety of phenotypes, including differential growth rate, body weight, and muscularity. The Wuding chicken breed is a fast growing large chicken breed, and the Daweishan mini chicken breed is a slow growing small chicken breed. Together they form an ideal model system to study the biological mechanisms underlying broiler chicken selection responses in a natural system. The objective of this study was to study the biological mechanisms underlying differential phenotypes between the two breeds in muscle and liver tissues, and relate these to the growth rate and body development phenotypes of the two breeds. The muscle tissue in the Wuding breed showed higher expression of muscle development genes than muscle tissue in the Daweishan chicken breed. This expression was accompanied by higher expression of acute inflammatory response genes in Wuding chicken than in Daweishan chicken. The muscle tissue of the Daweishan mini chicken breed showed higher expression of genes involved in several metabolic mechanisms including endoplasmic reticulum, protein and lipid metabolism, energy metabolism, as well as specific immune traits than in the Wuding chicken. The liver tissue showed fewer differences between the two breeds. Genes displaying higher expression in the Wuding breed than in the Daweishan breed were not associated with a specific gene network or biological mechanism. Genes highly expressed in the Daweishan mini chicken breed compared to the Wuding breed were enriched for protein metabolism, ABC receptors, signal transduction, and IL6-related mechanisms. We conclude that faster growth rates and larger

  16. Valve packing manual. A maintenance application guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikin, J.A.; McCutcheon, R.G.; Cumming, D.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1970, AECL Chalk River Mechanical Equipment Development (MED) branch has invested over 175 person years in testing related to improving valve packing performance. Successful developments, including, 'live-loading', reduced packing heights, and performance-based packing qualification testing have been implemented. Since 1986, MED and the Integrated Valve Actuator Program Task Force - Valve Packing Steering Committee (IVAP-VPSC) have been involved in the development of combination die-formed graphite packing for use in CANDU plants. Many reports, articles, and specifications have been issued. Due to the large amount of test data and reports, a more user-friendly document has been prepared for everyday use. The Valve Packing Manual is based on many years of MED research and testing, as well as operating experience from CANDU nuclear generating stations (NGS). Since 1986, packing research and testing has been funded by the CANDU Owners Group (COG), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and participating valve packing manufacturers. The Valve Packing Manual (VPM) provides topical summaries of all work related to valve packing done since 1985. It includes advances in configuration design, stem packing friction, materials specifications, and installation procedures. This paper provides an overview on the application of the VPM with a focus on qualification testing, packing configuration, and stem packing friction. (author)

  17. Expressed microRNA associated with high rate of egg production in chicken ovarian follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, N; Gaur, U; Zhu, Q; Chen, B; Xu, Z; Zhao, X; Yang, M; Li, D

    2017-04-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) is a highly conserved class of small noncoding RNA about 19-24 nucleotides in length that function in a specific manner to post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression in organisms. Tissue miRNA expression studies have discovered a myriad of functions for miRNAs in various aspects, but a role for miRNAs in chicken ovarian tissue at 300 days of age has not hitherto been reported. In this study, we performed the first miRNA analysis of ovarian tissues in chickens with low and high rates of egg production using high-throughput sequencing. By comparing low rate of egg production chickens with high rate of egg production chickens, 17 significantly differentially expressed miRNAs were found (P chickens with high rates of egg production, suggesting that these miRNAs have an important role in ovary development and reproductive management of chicken. Furthermore, we uncovered that a significantly up-regulated miRNA-gga-miR-200a-3p-is ubiquitous in reproduction-regulation-related pathways. This miRNA may play a special central role in the reproductive management of chicken, and needs to be further studied for confirmation. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  18. Oxidative Stress and Metabolic Perturbations in Wooden Breast Disorder in Chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Abasht

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to characterize metabolic features of the breast muscle (pectoralis major in chickens affected with the Wooden Breast myopathy. Live birds from two purebred chicken lines and one crossbred commercial broiler population were clinically examined by manual palpation of the breast muscle (pectoralis major at 47-48 days of age. Metabolite abundance was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS using breast muscle tissue samples from 16 affected and 16 unaffected chickens. Muscle glycogen content was also quantified in breast muscle tissue samples from affected and unaffected chickens. In total, levels of 140 biochemicals were significantly different (FDR1.3 or <0.77 between affected and unaffected chickens. Glycogen content measurements were considerably lower (1.7-fold in samples taken from Wooden Breast affected birds when compared with samples from unaffected birds. Affected tissues exhibited biomarkers related to increased oxidative stress, elevated protein levels, muscle degradation, and altered glucose utilization. Affected muscle also showed elevated levels of hypoxanthine, xanthine, and urate molecules, the generation of which can contribute to altered redox homeostasis. In conclusion, our findings show that Wooden Breast affected tissues possess a unique metabolic signature. This unique profile may identify candidate biomarkers for diagnostic utilization and provide mechanistic insight into altered biochemical processes contributing to tissue hardening associated with the Wooden Breast myopathy in commercial chickens.

  19. Thermal inactivation of Salmonella Typhimurium in chicken shawirma (gyro).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaili, Tareq M; Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Shaker, Reyad R; Olaimat, Amin N; Jaradat, Ziad W; Holley, Richard A

    2013-08-16

    This study explored the thermal characteristics (D- and z-values) of Salmonella Typhimurium in raw chicken shawirma. Marinated and non-marinated chicken breasts with skin were inoculated with S. Typhimurium 112 or S. Typhimurium 144. Inoculated samples were ground, packed in sterile bags and submerged in a water bath at 54, 56, 58 and 60°C for 2.5 to 72min. The mean D-values of S. Typhimurium strains in inoculated, non-marinated, ground raw chicken breast, as well as those of S. Typhimurium 15h after exposure to the marinade (inoculated before marinating, IBM) or after brief exposure (30min) to the marinade (inoculated after marinating, IAM) ranged from 9.15 to 12.44, 2.89 to 3.92, 1.06 to 1.30 and 0.32 to 0.52min at 54, 56, 58 and 60°C, respectively. Generally, no significant differences (P>0.05) were found among the D-values of S. Typhimurium in all chicken samples. However, the D-values of S. Typhimurium in raw ground chicken shawirma IBM were the lowest. The z-values of S. Typhimurium in all products ranged from 3.78 to 4.58°C. It was concluded that thorough cooking of the outside of the shawirma meat cylinder or cone before removal of slices at foodservice counters can enhance the safety of the product. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Improving the hygienic quality of chicken through radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torgby-Tetteh, W.

    2010-06-01

    Irradiation is considered one of the most efficient technological processes for the reduction of microorganisms in food, It can be used to improve the safety of food products, and to extend their shelf lives. The aim of this study was to improve the hygienic quality of chicken through radiation processing. As part of the study a microbial assessment of broiler chicken thighs from three retail outlets (supermarket, local markets and farms) was conducted. The total viable count and total coliform counts were determined. Hygienic quality indicator organisms such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated and microbial counts made. Radiation sensitivity test to determine the D 10 (decimal reduction does) of E. coli on chicken at refrigeration and frozen temperature were conducted. D 10 values were 0.22 ± 0.02 and 0.32 ± 0.03 kGy at refrigerated and frozen temperatures respectively. A storage test consisting of an uninoculated pack experiment and a challenge test to explore the effect of irradiation and frozen food storage on the total viable count and survival of E. coli was conducted. Chicken thigh samples were treated with 0 (non irradiated), 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 kGy of gamma irradiation and held frozen for 56 days. The control and irradiated samples were stored at -18 o C and underwent microbial analysis and sensory evaluation at 7 days intervals. It was observed that irradiation and frozen storage reduced microbial loads. There were significant differences in sensory quality characteristics during freezing storage in chicken meat. The combination of irradiation and frozen storage resulted in greater overall reductions on microbial loads thus improving hygienic quality. (au)

  1. Tray Pack Prototype Plant Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    Creamed Corn o Eggs w/Ham o Blueberry Dessert o Chicken ala king o Cherry Dessert * Egg Loaf w/Mushrooms* o Potato Salad * Orange Nut Cake* * Cherry...Steak o Pork Slices w/Gravy o Turkey Sl.w/Gravy o Swedish Meatballs o Ham Slices o Beef Pot Roast o Franks in Brine o Spaghetti w/ Meatballs o...Beef Tips w/Gravy * Egg Loaf w/Cheese* o Beef and Macaroni o Escalloped Potat. o Spanish Rice 2 6w % % P EI, o Beans w/Pork o Macaroni Salad o

  2. Public health risk of trace metals in fresh chicken meat products on the food markets of a major production region in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Zhang, Wenfeng; Chen, Gang; Cheng, Hefa; Tao, Shu

    2018-03-01

    Because most chickens are reared in intensive farms, where a range of feed additives are used routinely, concerns have been raised on the potential public health risk of chicken product consumption. This study was conducted to characterize the contents of trace metals in fresh chicken tissues (354 samples) on the food markets in Guangdong province of southern China, a major region of chicken production with heavy per capita chicken consumption, and to assess the public health risk from chronic dietary exposure to the trace metals through chicken consumption. With the exception of Cr, Ni, and Pb, the contents of trace metals were generally higher in the chicken giblets (livers, gizzards, hearts, and kidneys) compared to muscles (breasts and drumsticks). Chicken tissues from the urban markets generally contained higher levels of As, Cu, Mn, and Zn than those from the rural markets, while the contents of Pb were typically higher in the chicken muscles from the rural markets. Results of statistical analyses indicate that Cu, Zn, and As in the chicken tissues derived mainly from the feeds, which is consistent with the widespread use of Cu, Zn, and phenylarsenic compounds as feed supplements/additives in intensive poultry farming. No non-carcinogenic risk is found with the consumption of fresh chicken meat products on the food markets, while approximately 70% of the adult population in Guangzhou and 30% of those in Lianzhou have bladder and lung cancer risk above the serious or priority level (10 -4 ), which arises from the inorganic arsenic contained in the chicken tissues. These findings indicate that the occurrence of inorganic arsenic at elevated levels in chicken tissues on the food markets in Guangdong province poses a significant public health risk, thus the use of phenylarsenic feed additives in China's poultry farming should be significantly reduced and eventually phased out. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hypostatic jammed packings of frictionless nonspherical particles

    OpenAIRE

    VanderWerf, Kyle; Jin, Weiwei; Shattuck, Mark D.; O'Hern, Corey S.

    2017-01-01

    We perform computational studies of static packings of a variety of nonspherical particles including circulo-lines, circulo-polygons, ellipses, asymmetric dimers, and dumbbells to determine which shapes form hypostatic versus isostatic packings and to understand why hypostatic packings of nonspherical particles can be mechanically stable despite having fewer contacts than that predicted from na\\"ive constraint counting. To generate highly accurate force- and torque-balanced packings of circul...

  4. Safer v. Estate of Pack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-11

    The Superior Court of New Jersey, Appellate Division, recognized "a physician's duty to warn those known to be at risk of avoidable harm from a genetically transmissible condition." During the 1950s, Dr. George Pack treated Donna Shafer's father for a cancerous blockage of the colon and multiple polyposis. In 1990, Safer was diagnosed with the same condition, which she claims is inherited, and, if not diagnosed and treated, invariably will lead to metastic colorectal cancer. Safer alleged that Dr. Pack knew the hereditary nature of the disease, yet failed to warn the immediate family, thus breaching his professional duty to warn. The court did not follow the analysis of the trial court, that a physician has no legal duty to warn the child of a patient of the genetic risk of disease because no physician and patient relationship exists between the doctor and the child.

  5. Fast Searching in Packed Strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Given strings P and Q the (exact) string matching problem is to find all positions of substrings in Q matching P. The classical Knuth-Morris-Pratt algorithm [SIAM J. Comput., 1977] solves the string matching problem in linear time which is optimal if we can only read one character at the time....... However, most strings are stored in a computer in a packed representation with several characters in a single word, giving us the opportunity to read multiple characters simultaneously. In this paper we study the worst-case complexity of string matching on strings given in packed representation. Let m...... word-RAM with logarithmic word size we present an algorithm using time O(n/log(sigma) n + m + occ) Here occ is the number of occurrences of P in Q. For m = o(n) this improves the O(n) bound...

  6. Market trials of irradiated chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, John A.; Olson, Dennis G.

    1998-01-01

    The potential market for irradiated chicken breasts was investigated using a mail survey and a retail trial. Results from the mail survey suggested a significantly higher level of acceptability of irradiated chicken than did the retail trial. A subsequent market experiment involving actual purchases showed levels of acceptability similar to that of the mail survey when similar information about food irradiation was provided

  7. Random packing of colloids and granular matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouterse, A.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis deals with the random packing of colloids and granular matter. A random packing is a stable disordered collection of touching particles, without long-range positional and orientational order. Experimental random packings of particles with the same shape but made of different materials

  8. Complications of balloon packing in epistaxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeeren, Lenka; Derks, Wynia; Fokkens, Wytske; Menger, Dirk Jan

    2015-01-01

    Although balloon packing appears to be efficient to control epistaxis, severe local complications can occur. We describe four patients with local lesions after balloon packing. Prolonged balloon packing can cause damage to nasal mucosa, septum and alar skin (nasal mucosa, the cartilaginous skeleton

  9. Intestinal volvulus with coagulative hepatic necrosis in a chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridy, Mohie; Goryo, Masanobu; Sasaki, Jun; Okada, Kosuke

    2010-04-01

    A 7-week-old SPF chicken inoculated at 4 weeks of age with chicken anemia virus was puffed up depressed and had ruffled feathers and a good body condition. Intestinal volvulus involving the jejunum and part of the duodenum forming two loops with one knob was observed. Microscopically, venous infarction of the obstructed loops, periportal and sublobular multifocal coagulative hepatic necrosis and granulomatous inflammation of the cecal tonsils were observed. Gram staining revealed no bacteria in hepatic tissue; however, gram-positive bacilli were detected in the necrotic debris in the intestinal lumen. Immunosuppression might have predisposed the chicken to intestinal and cecal tonsil infection that then progressed to volvulus. Loss of the mucosal barrier in infarction might allow bacterial toxins and vasoactive factors to escape into the systemic circulation (toxemia) and be responsible for the hepatic necrosis.

  10. Protection of chickens against infectious bronchitis by a recombinant fowlpox virus co-expressing IBV-S1 and chicken IFNgamma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-Feng; Sun, Yong-Ke; Tian, Zhan-Cheng; Shi, Xing-Ming; Tong, Guang-Zhi; Liu, Sheng-Wang; Zhi, Hai-Dong; Kong, Xian-Gang; Wang, Mei

    2009-11-23

    A fowlpox virus expressing the chicken infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) S1 gene of the LX4 strain (rFPV-IBVS1) and a fowlpox virus co-expressing the S1 gene and the chicken type II interferon gene (rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma) were constructed. These viruses were assessed for their immunological efficacy on specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens challenged with a virulent IBV. Although the antibody levels in the rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma-vaccinated group were lower than those in the attenuated live IB vaccine H120 group and the rFPV-IBVS1 group, the rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma provided the strongest protection against an IBV LX4 virus challenge (15 out of 16 chickens immunized with rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma were protected), followed by the attenuated live IB vaccine (13/16 protected) and the rFPV-IBVS1 (12/16 protected). Compared to those of the rFPV-IBVS1 and the attenuated live IB vaccine groups, chickens in the rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma group eliminated virus more quickly and decreased the presence of viral antigen more significantly in renal tissue. Examination of affected tissues revealed abnormalities in the liver, spleen, kidney, lung and trachea of chickens vaccinated with the attenuated live IB vaccine and the rFPV-IBVS1 vaccine. In rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma-vaccinated chickens, pathological changes were also observed in those organs, but were milder and lasted shorter. The lesions in the mock control group were the most severe and lasted for at least 20 days. This study demonstrated that chicken type II interferon increased the immunoprotective efficacy of rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma and normal weight gain in vaccinated chickens although it inhibited serum antibody production.

  11. Structure and expression of the chicken calmodulin I gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Q; Berchtold, M W

    1997-01-01

    The chicken calmodulin I (CaMI) gene has been isolated and characterized on the level of cDNA and genomic DNA. The deduced amino acid (aa) sequence is identical to the one of chicken CaMII which consists of 148 aa. The CaMI gene contains six exons. Its intron/exon organization is identical...... to that of the chicken CaMII and the CaMI and CaMIII genes of rat and human. Expression of the CaMI gene was detected in all chicken tissues examined, although at varying levels. The gene is transcribed into four mRNAs of 0.8, 1.4, 1.7 and 4.4 kb as determined by Northern blot analysis. Our results demonstrate...... that the "multigene-one-protein" principle of CaM synthesis is not only applicable to mammals whose CaM is encoded by three different genes, but also to chickens....

  12. Genetic architecture of gene expression in the chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Dragana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The annotation of many genomes is limited, with a large proportion of identified genes lacking functional assignments. The construction of gene co-expression networks is a powerful approach that presents a way of integrating information from diverse gene expression datasets into a unified analysis which allows inferences to be drawn about the role of previously uncharacterised genes. Using this approach, we generated a condition-free gene co-expression network for the chicken using data from 1,043 publically available Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome Arrays. This data was generated from a diverse range of experiments, including different tissues and experimental conditions. Our aim was to identify gene co-expression modules and generate a tool to facilitate exploration of the functional chicken genome. Results Fifteen modules, containing between 24 and 473 genes, were identified in the condition-free network. Most of the modules showed strong functional enrichment for particular Gene Ontology categories. However, a few showed no enrichment. Transcription factor binding site enrichment was also noted. Conclusions We have demonstrated that this chicken gene co-expression network is a useful tool in gene function prediction and the identification of putative novel transcription factors and binding sites. This work highlights the relevance of this methodology for functional prediction in poorly annotated genomes such as the chicken.

  13. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken means...

  14. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.120 Chicken. Chicken has the meaning given the term in...

  15. Intraocular Ossification in the GSP/pe Chicken With Imperfect Albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, K; Kinoshita, K; Mizutani, M; Oshima, A; Yamashita, R; Matsuda, Y

    2015-07-01

    The eyes of 2 male and 2 female GSP/pe chickens, the imperfect albino strain, were investigated at 52 weeks of age. Aged chickens of the GSP/pe colony became blind with bilateral ocular enlargement and opaque lenses. Affected eyes (bilateral in 2 males and unilateral in 2 females) were hard and difficult to section; histologic specimens were processed after decalcification. A large portion of the posterior chamber was occupied by cancellous bone containing fibrous and cartilaginous foci. Osseous tissues developed adjacent to the choroid, and no retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) was detected between osseous tissues and the choroid. Small segments of degenerate neuronal retina were scattered in the osseous tissue. The irises and ciliary bodies were deformed by osseous tissue, and the lenses had severe cataracts. These observations suggest that the intraocular osseous tissue may be derived from RPE in the hereditary incomplete-albino strain of chickens. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Lipoxygenase in chicken muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, S.; Bergman, M.; Sklan, D.

    1988-01-01

    The presence of lipoxygenase-type enzymes was demonstrated in chick muscles. Examination of the oxidation products of [ 14 C]arachidonic acid revealed the presence of 15-lipoxygenase. The enzyme was partially purified by affinity chromatography on linoleoyl-aminoethyl-Sepharose. The enzyme was stable on frozen storage, and activity was almost completely preserved after 12-month storage at -20 degree C. During this period the content of cis,cis-1,4-pentadiene fatty acids decreased slightly. It is suggested that lipoxygenase may be responsible for some of the oxidative changes occurring in fatty acids on frozen storage of chicken meat

  17. Detection of chicken contamination in beef meatball using duplex-PCR Cyt b gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, E. P.; Kartikasari, L. R.; Cahyadi, M.

    2017-04-01

    Beef is one of expensive animal protein sources compared to other meats, on the other hand, chicken is cheap animal protein source. Mixing of chicken into beef meatball is possibly performed to decrease production cost. The aim of this study was to detect chicken contamination in beef meatball using Cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene by duplex-PCR. Sample was designed and prepared as follows, 100% of chicken meatball, 100% of beef meatball and serial level of chicken contaminations in beef meatball (1, 5, 10 and 25%, respectively). Isolation of DNA genome from meatball was according to the guideline of gSYNCTM DNA Extraction Kit for animal tissue. The PCR reaction was carried out using KAPA2G Fast Multiplex Mix. This study found that the DNA genome was succesfully extracted. Moreover, chicken contamination in beef meatball was indicated by the presence of 227 bp DNA band on 2% of agarose gels. Current study revealed that duplex-PCR using Cyt b gene as a genetic marker was able to detect chicken contamination in beef meatball until 1% of chicken meat in the sample. It can be effectively used to identify contamination and also authenticate species origin in animal products to protect consumer from undesirable contents in the food.

  18. Site-specific recombination in the chicken genome using Flipase recombinase-mediated cassette exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong Jo; Lee, Hyung Chul; Kim, Young Min; Hwang, Young Sun; Park, Young Hyun; Park, Tae Sub; Han, Jae Yong

    2016-02-01

    Targeted genome recombination has been applied in diverse research fields and has a wide range of possible applications. In particular, the discovery of specific loci in the genome that support robust and ubiquitous expression of integrated genes and the development of genome-editing technology have facilitated rapid advances in various scientific areas. In this study, we produced transgenic (TG) chickens that can induce recombinase-mediated gene cassette exchange (RMCE), one of the site-specific recombination technologies, and confirmed RMCE in TG chicken-derived cells. As a result, we established TG chicken lines that have, Flipase (Flp) recognition target (FRT) pairs in the chicken genome, mediated by piggyBac transposition. The transgene integration patterns were diverse in each TG chicken line, and the integration diversity resulted in diverse levels of expression of exogenous genes in each tissue of the TG chickens. In addition, the replaced gene cassette was expressed successfully and maintained by RMCE in the FRT predominant loci of TG chicken-derived cells. These results indicate that targeted genome recombination technology with RMCE could be adaptable to TG chicken models and that the technology would be applicable to specific gene regulation by cis-element insertion and customized expression of functional proteins at predicted levels without epigenetic influence. © FASEB.

  19. Osteocyte lacunae features in different chicken bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenis L., Squadrone S., Marchis D., Abete MC.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Directive 2003/126/EC defines the method for the determination of constituents of animal origin for official control of feedingstuffs. One of the hardest problems for microscopist is the differentiation between mammalian and poultry bones on the basis of some characteristics as colour and borders of the fragments, shape and density of osteocyte lacunae. The shape of osteocyte lacuna in poultry and mammals is often described in different way, elliptic or roundish according with the Author(s. The aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics of lacunae in chicken bones of different type. For this purpose, smashed fragments and histological sections of the same bone were compared in order to evaluate the microscopic aspect of lacunae in different breaking and trimming planes. According to the observations carried out, it was possible to infer that chicken osteocyte has a biconvex lens shape; however the different arrangement and some size variation of the osteocytes in the several bone segments influence the microscopic features of corresponding lacunae. Chicken bone is made of a parallel-fibered tissue, without osteons. This structure probably determines the plane fracture of the bone and consequently the different aspect of lacunae (from spindle-shaped to elliptic-roundish we can see in chicken derived PAP (processed animal protein. For example, in the fragments obtained from smashed diaphysis, the prevalence of spindle-shaped lacunae is depending on the preferential breaking of the bone along longitudinal plane. Likewise, for the epiphysis, being made mostly by bone trabeculae with strange directions, the breaking happens along different planes, creating lacunae of various shape. Performing the official check of animal feedingstuffs, the presence of bone fragments with roundish or elliptic osteocyte lacunae induces the analyst to thinking that the meat and bone meal comes respectively from mammals and poultry or vice versa depending to

  20. Evaluation of plasma chemistry and haematological studies on chickens infected with Eimeria tenella and E acervulina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukata, T; Komba, Y; Sasai, K; Baba, E; Arakawa, A

    1997-07-12

    Plasma chemistry and haematological studies were conducted on chickens with coccidiosis. Male White Leghorn chickens, of two weeks old, were inoculated with 5 x 10(4) Eimeria tenella sporulated oocysts or with 1 x 10(6) E acervulina sporulated oocysts. Blood samples were taken four, seven and 11 days after inoculation. A wet chemistry system was applied to measure the plasma activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyltransferase, creatine kinase, amylase and lactate dehydrogenase and the concentrations of creatine, total bilirubin, urate, total cholesterol, total protein, albumin, glucose and triglycerides. A dry chemistry system was applied to measure sodium, potassium, chloride and calcium. The number of red blood cells and packed cell volume were determined by a micro cell counter and blood pH was measured with a blood gas analyser. The erythrocyte count, packed cell volume, sodium and chloride levels in the chickens infected with E tenella were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those of the uninfected controls. The significant decrease in blood pH of the chickens infected with E acervulina suggests malabsorption associated with duodenal lesions induced by the infection.

  1. Comparative study of growth performance, meat quality and haematological parameters of Fayoumi, Rhode Island Red and their reciprocal crossbred chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abida Parveen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 2001 unsexed day-old-chicks of each Fayoumi, Rhode Island Red (RIR, RIR × Fayoumi (RIFI and Fayoumi × RIR (FIRI were obtained from hatchery of Poultry Research Institute, Rawalpindi. The birds were maintained on deep litter system for a period of 20 weeks. The results revealed that the average day old weight was highest in RIR and FIRI, intermediate in RIFI and lowest in Fayoumi chickens. The RIR breed consumed more feed and gained maximum (P0.05 difference among pure and crossbred chickens. There was non-significant (P>0.05 difference in haematological values among all chickens. The total erythrocyte number, haemoglobin and packed cell volume increased with the advancement of age. However, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin values decreased gradually with the advancement of age. It may be concluded that crossbred chickens gained better body weight than Fayoumi and moderate than RIR chickens with lower mortality. The crossbred chickens of FIRI showed better performance in all traits than crossbred chickens of RIFI.

  2. Effect of gamma irradiation followed by moderate temperature a buse on the psychrotrophic and mesophilic microbial association of frozen chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, M. E.

    2001-01-01

    commercially scalded, plucked and eviscerated broilers, aerobically packed into polyethylene bags were irradiated at -18 C. A dose of 2.5 kilo gay was effective in the elimination of salmonella spp and staphylococcus aureus. Psychrotrophic and mesophilic aerobic colony counts of the non-irradiated chicken were of the order 10 4 and 10 5 g -1 , respectively. Radiation resulted in approximately tow long cycles reduction in the count. The surviving microflora in frozen chicken after irradiation consisted mainly of lactobacillus spp. and micrococcus spp. which dominated the mesophilic flora. moraxella spp.amounted to 70% of the total Psychrotrophic flora. The microflora of frozen chicken after temperature abuse at 12 C were mainly of the moraxella-acinetobacter group and to a lesser extent of pseudomonas spp. The results demonstrated that the microflora after temperature abuse irradiated chicken was similar to the microflora of non-abuse irradiated chicken. This supports the view that irradiation of chicken dose not entail a hazard, resulting from a shift in the microflora in case frozen chicken are thawed and stored at increased temperatures.(Author)

  3. Effect of gamma irrigation followed by moderate temperature abuse on the psychrotrophic and mesophilic microbial association of frozen chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, M.E.

    2001-01-01

    Commercially scalded, plucked and eviscerated broilers, aerobically packed into polyethylene bags were irradiated at - 18 deg C. A dose of 2.5 kilogay was effective in the elimination of salmonella spp. and staphylococcus aureus. Psychrotrophic and mesophilic aerobic colony counts of the non-irradiated chicken were of the order 10**4 and 10**5 gE-1, respectively. Radiation resulted in approximately two long cycles reduction in the count. The surviving microflora in frozen chicken after irradiation consisted mainly of lactobacillus spp. and micrococcus spp. which dominated the mesophilic flora. Moraxella spp. amounted to 70% of the total psychrotrophic flora. The microflora of frozen chicken after temperature abuse at 12 deg C were maily of the moraxella-acinetobacter group and to a lesser extent of Pseudomonas spp. The results demonstrated that the microflora after temperature abuse of irradiated chicken was similar to the microflora of non-irradiated chicken. This supports the view that irradiation of chicken does not entail a hazard, resulting from a shift in the micrflora in case frozen chicken are thawed and stored at increased temperatures

  4. Biogas Production from Chicken Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Dalkılıç

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, animal manures are burned for heating in Turkey. It is also used as soil conditioner which has adverse environmental effects. Although, the use of renewable energy sources in Turkey is very limited, the application studies on biogas production from animal manure are increasing. 25-30% of total animal manures produced in Turkey are composed of chicken manure. The works on biogas production from chicken manure are very limited in Turkey. In this paper, biogas production studies from chicken manure in Turkey and in the World are reviewed.

  5. Hypostatic jammed packings of frictionless nonspherical particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWerf, Kyle; Jin, Weiwei; Shattuck, Mark D.; O'Hern, Corey S.

    2018-01-01

    We perform computational studies of static packings of a variety of nonspherical particles including circulo-lines, circulo-polygons, ellipses, asymmetric dimers, dumbbells, and others to determine which shapes form packings with fewer contacts than degrees of freedom (hypostatic packings) and which have equal numbers of contacts and degrees of freedom (isostatic packings), and to understand why hypostatic packings of nonspherical particles can be mechanically stable despite having fewer contacts than that predicted from naive constraint counting. To generate highly accurate force- and torque-balanced packings of circulo-lines and cir-polygons, we developed an interparticle potential that gives continuous forces and torques as a function of the particle coordinates. We show that the packing fraction and coordination number at jamming onset obey a masterlike form for all of the nonspherical particle packings we studied when plotted versus the particle asphericity A , which is proportional to the ratio of the squared perimeter to the area of the particle. Further, the eigenvalue spectra of the dynamical matrix for packings of different particle shapes collapse when plotted at the same A . For hypostatic packings of nonspherical particles, we verify that the number of "quartic" modes along which the potential energy increases as the fourth power of the perturbation amplitude matches the number of missing contacts relative to the isostatic value. We show that the fourth derivatives of the total potential energy in the directions of the quartic modes remain nonzero as the pressure of the packings is decreased to zero. In addition, we calculate the principal curvatures of the inequality constraints for each contact in circulo-line packings and identify specific types of contacts with inequality constraints that possess convex curvature. These contacts can constrain multiple degrees of freedom and allow hypostatic packings of nonspherical particles to be mechanically

  6. Fast searching in packed strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Given strings P and Q the (exact) string matching problem is to find all positions of substrings in Q matching P. The classical Knuth–Morris–Pratt algorithm [SIAM J. Comput. 6 (2) (1977) 323–350] solves the string matching problem in linear time which is optimal if we can only read one character...... at the time. However, most strings are stored in a computer in a packed representation with several characters in a single word, giving us the opportunity to read multiple characters simultaneously. In this paper we study the worst-case complexity of string matching on strings given in packed representation....... Let m⩽n be the lengths P and Q, respectively, and let σ denote the size of the alphabet. On a standard unit-cost word-RAM with logarithmic word size we present an algorithm using timeO(nlogσn+m+occ). Here occ is the number of occurrences of P in Q. For m=o(n) this improves the O(n) bound of the Knuth...

  7. The “Theoreticals” Pack

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    The Particle Zoo is a colourful set of hand-made soft toys representing the particles in the Standard Model and beyond. It includes a “theoreticals” pack where you can find yet undiscovered particles: the best-selling Higgs boson, the graviton, the tachyon, and dark matter. Supersymmetric particle soft toys are also available on demand. But what would happen to the zoo if Nature had prepared some unexpected surprises? Julie Peasley, the zookeeper, is ready to sew new smiling faces…   The "Theoreticals" pack in the Particle Zoo. There is only one place in the world where you can buy a smiling Higgs boson and it’s not at CERN, although this is where scientists hope to observe it. The blue star-shaped particle is the best seller of Julie Peasley’s Particle Zoo – a collection of tens of soft toys representing all sorts of particles, including composite and decaying particles.  Over the years Julie’s zoo ...

  8. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat Reveals Differences between Modern Commercial Broiler Chickens with High and Low Feed Efficiencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Zhuo

    Full Text Available For economic and environmental reasons, chickens with superior feed efficiency (FE are preferred in the broiler chicken industry. High FE (HFE chickens typically have reduced abdominal fat, the major adipose tissue in chickens. In addition to its function of energy storage, adipose tissue is a metabolically active organ that also possesses endocrine and immune regulatory functions. It plays a central role in maintaining energy homeostasis. Comprehensive understanding of the gene expression in the adipose tissue and the biological basis of FE are of significance to optimize selection and breeding strategies. Through gene expression profiling of abdominal fat from high and low FE (LFE commercial broiler chickens, the present study aimed to characterize the differences of gene expression between HFE and LFE chickens. mRNA-seq analysis was carried out on the total RNA of abdominal fat from 10 HFE and 12 LFE commercial broiler chickens, and 1.48 billion of 75-base sequence reads were generated in total. On average, 11,565 genes were expressed (>5 reads/gene/sample in the abdominal fat tissue, of which 286 genes were differentially expressed (DE at q (False Discover Rate 1.3 between HFE and LFE chickens. Expression levels from RNA-seq were confirmed with the NanoString nCounter analysis system. Functional analysis showed that the DE genes were significantly (p < 0.01 enriched in lipid metabolism, coagulation, and immune regulation pathways. Specifically, the LFE chickens had higher expression of lipid synthesis genes and lower expression of triglyceride hydrolysis and cholesterol transport genes. In conclusion, our study reveals the overall differences of gene expression in the abdominal fat from HFE and LFE chickens, and the results suggest that the divergent expression of lipid metabolism genes represents the major differences.

  9. Chicken IL-17F: identification and comparative expression analysis in Eimeria-infected chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woo H; Jeong, Jipseol; Park, Ae R; Yim, Dongjean; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Kwang D; Chang, Hong H; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Lee, Byung-Hyung; Min, Wongi

    2012-11-01

    Interleukin-17F (IL-17F) is a proinflammatory cytokine, which plays an important role in gut homeostasis. A full-length chicken IL-17F (chIL-17F) cDNA with a 510-bp coding region was identified from ConA-activated chicken splenic lymphocytes. ChIL-17F shares 53% amino acid sequence identity with the previously described chicken IL-17 (chIL-17A) and 38-43% with mammalian homologues. The locus harboring chIL-17 and chIL-17F displayed inverted order compared to those of mammals. ChIL-17F transcript expression was high in lymphoblast cell line CU205 and at moderate levels in small and large intestines and liver. ChIL-17F and chIL-17 expression profiles were examined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR in mitogen-stimulated splenic lymphocytes and intestinal areas affected by Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella infections. Expression levels of chIL-17F, like chIL-17, were elevated in mitogen-activated splenic lymphocytes. ChIL-17F, but not chIL-17, expression was upregulated in intestinal tissues affected by E. maxima and E. tenella infections. Recombinant chIL-17F biological activities were similar to that of chIL-17 in primary chicken embryonic fibroblasts. These results suggest that chIL-17F is a unique member of the IL-17 family of cytokines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Oviduct-Specific Expression of Human Neutrophil Defensin 4 in Lentivirally Generated Transgenic Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tongxin; Wu, Hanyu; Cao, Dainan; Li, Qingyuan; Zhang, Yaqiong; Li, Ning; Hu, Xiaoxiang

    2015-01-01

    The expression of oviduct-specific recombinant proteins in transgenic chickens is a promising technology for the production of therapeutic biologics in eggs. In this study, we constructed a lentiviral vector encoding an expression cassette for human neutrophil defensin 4 (HNP4), a compound that displays high activity against Escherichia coli, and produced transgenic chickens that expressed the recombinant HNP4 protein in egg whites. After the antimicrobial activity of the recombinant HNP4 protein was tested at the cellular level, a 2.8-kb ovalbumin promoter was used to drive HNP4 expression specifically in oviduct tissues. From 669 injected eggs, 218 chickens were successfully hatched. Ten G0 roosters, with semens identified as positive for the transgene, were mated with wild-type hens to generate G1 chickens. From 1,274 total offspring, fifteen G1 transgenic chickens were positive for the transgene, which was confirmed by PCR and Southern blotting. The results of the Southern blotting and genome walking indicated that a single copy of the HNP4 gene was integrated into chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 24 of the chickens. As expected, HNP4 expression was restricted to the oviduct tissues, and the levels of both transcriptional and translational HNP4 expression varied greatly in transgenic chickens with different transgene insertion sites. The amount of HNP4 protein expressed in the eggs of G1 and G2 heterozygous transgenic chickens ranged from 1.65 μg/ml to 10.18 μg/ml. These results indicated that the production of transgenic chickens that expressed HNP4 protein in egg whites was successful. PMID:26020529

  11. The occurrence of Toxocara species in naturally infected broiler chickens revealed by molecular approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibaei, M; Sadjjadi, S M; Maraghi, S

    2017-09-01

    Consuming raw and undercooked meat is known to enhance the risk of human toxocariasis because Toxocara species have a wide range of paratenic hosts, including chickens. The aim of this study was to identify species of Toxocara in naturally infected broiler chickens using molecular approaches. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was used for the differentiation of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati larvae recovered from tissues and organs, and identified by microscopic observations. Thirty-three 35- to 47-day-old broiler chickens were used for examination of Toxocara larvae. The duodenum, liver, lungs, heart, kidneys, skeletal muscles and brain of each chicken were examined using the pepsin method, and DNA from each tissue was extracted as the template for PCR assay. The findings revealed that 5 of 33 (15.2%) broiler chickens were infected with Toxocara larvae. Larvae were recovered from the liver (n = 19), duodenum (n = 8), skeletal muscles (n = 8) and brain (n = 2) of broiler chickens naturally infected with Toxocara spp. The results showed that the frequencies of the species in the chickens were T. canis larvae (n = 5, 83.3%) and T. cati larvae (n = 1, 16.7%). Our data from the present study demonstrated the importance of broiler chickens as a paratenic host for the parasite's life cycle in the environment. The implementation of DNA amplification as a routine diagnostic technique is a specific and alternative method for identification of Toxocara larvae, and allowed the observation of specific species under field conditions within the locations where broiler chickens are typically raised and exposed to Toxocara spp. eggs or larvae.

  12. The advantages of hydraulic packing extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, R.S.

    1991-01-01

    Today's competitive environment, coupled with industry's desire to improve the efficiency of plant maintenance and operations, has management continually seeking ways to save time, money, and, at nuclear plants, radiation exposure. One area where a tremendous improvement in efficiency can be realized is valve packing removal. For example, industry experience indicates that up to 70% of the time it takes to repack a valve can be spent just removing the old packing. In some case, the bonnets of small valves are removed to facilitate packing removal and prevent stem and stuffing box damage that can occur when using packing removal picks. In other cases, small valves are simply removed and discarded because it costs less to replace the valves than to remove the packing using conventional methods. Hydraulic packing extraction greatly reduces packing removal time and will not damage the stem nor stuffing box, thus eliminating the need for bonnet removal or valve replacement. This paper will review some of the more common problems associated with manual packing extraction techniques. It will explain how hydraulic packing extraction eliminates or greatly reduces the impact of each of the problem areas. A discussion will be provided of some actual industry operating experiences related to success stories using hydraulic packing extraction. The paper will also briefly describe the operating parameters associated with hydraulic packing extraction tools. Throughout the paper, actual operating experiences from the nuclear power, fossil power, petrochemical, and refinery industries will be used to support the conclusion that hydraulic packing extraction is an alternative that can save time, money, and exposure

  13. Structured packing: an opportunity for energy savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez T, R.H.; Guadarrama G, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    This work emphasizes the advantages about the use of structured packing. This type of packings allows by its geometry to reduce the processing time giving energy savings and throw down the production costs in several industries such as heavy water production plants, petrochemical industry and all industries involved with separation processes. There is a comparative results of energy consumption utilizing the structured vs. Raschig packings. (Author)

  14. The acceptance of gamma irradiated pre-cooked processed chicken meat products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seri Chempaka Mohd Yusof; Muhamad Lebai Juri; Foziah Ali; Salahbiah Abdul Majida; Mariani Deraman; Ros Anita Ahmad Ramli; Rohaizah Ahmad; Zainab Harun; Abdul Salam Babji

    2009-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine suitable dose, microbiological counts including pathogens and sensory evaluation of pre-cooked chicken meat products in assessing the acceptability of irradiated pre-cooked chicken meat products. Packed pre-cooked chicken sausages and burger samples (sealed individually in plastic-polyethylene pouches) were irradiated at the following doses: 2.5 kGy, 3.5 kGy and 5.5 kGy using 60 Co gamma irradiation at MINTec-Sinagama. Acceptability of the sausages was determined through sensory evaluation by 30 members of untrained panelists comprising staff of Malaysian Nuclear Agency. A 5-points hedonic rating scale was used. The attributes evaluated were taste, texture, chewiness, juiciness, aroma, colour, shape and overall acceptance. Samples irradiated with dose of 5.5 kGy were the most acceptable, followed by samples irradiated at 3.5 kGy and 10 kGy. Irradiation at doses up to 3.5 kGy render undetectable microorganisms/fungi and pathogens (faecal coliforms, Salmonella sp., Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) in pre-cooked chicken sausages, and doses up to 5.5 kGy for pre-cooked chicken burgers

  15. Bibliographic review of works accomplished about irradiated chicken, fish and fish products , spices and condiments; Levantamento bibliografico de trabalhos realizados sobre aves, peixes e produtos de peixe, especiarias e condimentos irradiados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardes, B; Dias Filho, M

    1983-07-01

    Table of foods that can be irradiated and its respective nominal doses are shown. Bibliographic reviews of works performed about irradiated chicken, fish and fish products, spices and condiments are shown. The irradiation purpose in chicken were to increase the shelf-life and to eliminate the pathogenic microorganism in chicken stored below 10{sup 0} C; in fish and fish products the purposes were to control the insect infestation in dry-fish during the storage and the sell exposure to reduce the macrobian charge in packed and non packed fish and in fish products. To reduce pathogenic microorganism in packing and unpacking fish; in spices and condiments to control the insect infestation, to reduce the microbial contamination. (L.M.J.).

  16. Meat juice serology for Toxoplasma gondii infection in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Vismarra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an important foodborne zoonosis. Free-range chickens are at particularly high risk of infection and are also excellent indicators of soil contamination by oocysts. In the present study, hearts of 77 freerange chickens were collected at slaughter. T. gondii meat juice enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed with a commercial kit, following validation with positive controls, from experimentally infected chickens, and negative ones. Out of 77 samples, only 66 gave sufficient meat juice for serology. Of these, 24 (36.4% were positive for T. gondii considering the 5*standard deviation values (calculated on the optical density of negative controls, while all the samples were negative considering sample/positive% values. Parasite-specific polymerase chain reaction was carried out on all samples obtained from heart tissue and none were positive for the presence of T. gondii DNA. Results would suggest that further study on the use of meat juice with a validated serological test to detect T. gondii in chickens could lead to widespread epidemiological studies in this important intermediate host. However, sample collection and test specificity require further evaluation.

  17. Development of an effective valve packing program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, K.A.

    1996-12-01

    Current data now shows that graphite valve packing installed within the guidance of a controlled program produces not only reliable stem sealing but predictable running loads. By utilizing recent technological developments in valve performance monitoring for both MOV`s and AOV`s, valve packing performance can be enhanced while reducing maintenance costs. Once known, values are established for acceptable valve packing loads, the measurement of actual valve running loads via the current MOV/AOV diagnostic techniques can provide indication of future valve stem sealing problems, improper valve packing installation or identify the opportunity for valve packing program improvements. At times the full benefit of these advances in material and predictive technology remain under utilized due to simple past misconceptions associated with valve packing. This paper will explore the basis for these misconceptions, provide general insight into the current understanding of valve packing and demonstrate how with this new understanding and current valve diagnostic equipment the key aspects required to develop an effective, quality valve packing program fit together. The cost and operational benefits provided by this approach can be significant impact by the: elimination of periodic valve repacking, reduction of maintenance costs, benefits of leak-free valve operation, justification for reduced Post Maintenance Test Requirements, reduced radiation exposure, improved plant appearance.

  18. The general packed column : an analytical solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, J.L.W.

    2000-01-01

    The transient behaviour of a packed column is considered. The column, uniformly packed on a macroscopic scale, is multi-structured on the microscopic level: the solid phase consists of particles, which may differ in incidence, shape or size, and other relevant physical properties. Transport in the

  19. On contact numbers in random rod packings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouterse, A.; Luding, Stefan; Philipse, A.P.

    2009-01-01

    Random packings of non-spherical granular particles are simulated by combining mechanical contraction and molecular dynamics, to determine contact numbers as a function of density. Particle shapes are varied from spheres to thin rods. The observed contact numbers (and packing densities) agree well

  20. 7 CFR 982.11 - Pack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... according to size, internal quality, and external appearance and condition of hazelnuts packed in accordance... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pack. 982.11 Section 982.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and...

  1. Does Post Septoplasty Nasal Packing Reduce Complications?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Naghibzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main issues in nasal surgery are to stabilize the nose in the good position after surgery and preserve the cartilages and bones in the favorable situation and reduce the risk of deviation recurrence. Also it is necessary to avoid the synechia formation, nasal valve narrowing, hematoma and bleeding. Due to the above mentioned problems and in order to solve and minimize them nasal packing, nasal splint and nasal mold have been advised. Patients for whom the nasal packing used may faced to some problems like naso-pulmonary reflex, intractable pain, sleep disorder, post operation infection and very dangerous complication like toxic shock syndrome. We have two groups of patients and three surgeons (one of the surgeons used post operative nasal packing in his patients and the two others surgeons did not.Complications and morbidities were compared in these two groups. Comparing the two groups showed that the rate of complication and morbidities between these two groups were same and the differences were not valuable, except the pain and discomfort post operatively and at the time of its removal. Nasal packing has several risks for the patients while its effects are not studied. Septoplasty can be safely performed without postoperative nasal packing. Nasal packing had no main findings that compensated its usage. Septal suture is one of the procedures that can be used as alternative method to nasal packing. Therefore the nasal packing after septoplasty should be reserved for the patients with increased risk of bleeding.

  2. Bioaccumulation of selected heavy metals and histopathological and hematobiochemical alterations in backyard chickens reared in an industrial area, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Indrajit; Mukhopadhayay, Sunit Kumar; Patra, Amlan Kumar; Pradhan, Saktipada

    2018-02-01

    This study was carried out to determine the concentrations of four heavy metals, cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), and cobalt (Co), and histopathological lesions in tissues of chickens reared in an industrial area of West Bengal, India. In particular, Mejhia Block was selected as a heavy metal-exposed area and Vatar Block (120 km away from industrially polluted areas) as a reference site. Samples were collected from the backyard chickens in these areas. Concentrations of heavy metals in soil, water, feedstuffs, tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, lung, and muscle), and droppings were greater (p  kidney > lung > spleen > muscle. Heavy metal concentrations were greater in older chickens (> 1 year) than in young chickens (heavy metal exposure. Histological changes revealed necrotic lesions and tubulitis in the kidney, degeneration and necrosis in liver parenchyma, and periarteriolitis, peribronchiolitis, and presence of hemosiderin pigment in the lung of chickens in the exposed site. Results indicated that backyard chickens in heavy metal-exposed site may show pathological lesions in different tissues due to accumulation of heavy metals, and thus, the consumption of chicken meat from the industrially exposed site may pose a potential health risk to local residents of polluted sites.

  3. Chicken pox in pregnancy : an obstetric concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2010-10-01

    Chicken pox is a common viral infection presenting with fever and discrete vesicular lesions. This infection can be widely detected in developing countries, especially for those tropical countries. The pregnant can get chicken pox, and this becomes an important obstetrical concern. In this specific paper, the author hereby details and discusses on chicken pox in pregnancy. Clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are briefly summarized. In addition, the effects of chicken pox on pregnancy as well as the vertical transmission are also documented.

  4. Changes of lipids in irradiated chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moersel, J.T.; Wende, I.; Schwarz, K.

    1991-01-01

    Chickens were irradiated in a 6 deg Co gamma irradiation source. The irradiation has been done to reduce or eliminate Salmonella. The experiments were done to test this decontamination method of chickens if changes of lipids take place. It was to be seen, that peroxidation of lipids was more rapidly as in control. The time of storage of irradiated chickens has to be shorter because of changes in lipids. After irradiation the chickens had trade quality. (orig.) [de

  5. Production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody to chicken type I collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsenmayer, T F; Hendrix, M J; Little, C D

    1979-01-01

    We have shown that lymphocyte-myeloma cell hybridization can be used to produce large amounts of extremely high-titer specific antibodies against type I collagen, a macromolecule normally of low immunogenicity. In a passive hemagglutination assay the antibody had a high titer against chicken type I collagen but showed no activity against chicken type II or rat type I collagen. By using a two-step fluorescence histochemical procedure on sections of embryonic chicken tibia, strong fluorescence was observed in the perichondrium and surrounding connective tissue (known to contain type I collagen) but not over the cartilage (characterized by type II collagen). When used in conjunction with Staphylococcus aureus as a solid phase immunoadsorbant, the antibody was shown to bind to labeled collagen synthesized in vitro by embryonic chicken calvaria. Images PMID:291035

  6. Inverted duplication including Endothelin 3 closely related to dermal hyperpigmentation in Silkie chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming TIAN,Suyun FANG,Yanqiang WANG,Xiaorong GU,Chungang FENG,Rui HAO,Xiaoxiang HU,Ning LI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The dermal hyperpigmentation phenotype in chickens is controlled by the dominant fibromelanosis allele. One of the ten unique characteristics of Silkie chickens is the fibromelanosis phenotype, which is pigmentation in the dermal layer of the skin and connective tissue. In this study, we found a mutation of fibromelanosis, a genomic rearrangement that included an inverted duplication of endothelin3 (EDN3, is responsible. We show that, as a stimulator of melanoblast proliferation, EDN3 expression was increased in silkie embryos and in both skin and muscle throughout adulthood. EDN3 expression led to an increase in expression of the downstream genes EDNRB2 and TYRP2, and was closely relate with the hyperpigmentation phenotype. We examined eight different Chinese chicken breeds showing hyperpigmentation and conclude that this structural genetic variant exists in all fibromelanosis chicken breeds.

  7. Nunukan Chicken: Genetic Characteristics, Phenotype and Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tike Sartika

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nunukan chicken is a local chicken from East Kalimantan which spreads out in Tarakan and Nunukan Islands . The chicken has a specific buff color and Columbian type feather and also has very late feathering (VLF trait . The Nunukan cocks and hens have no wing and tail primary feather; the tail feathers are short and fragile . The VLF trait is known to have association with a K gene on the Z chromosome. The chicken is efficient in protein metabolism . Sulfur amino acids (cystine and methionine that needed for feather growth, could be utilized for meat and egg production . The egg production of Nunukan chicken was better than the Kampung chicken . The average of hen day, hen house and peak production of Nunukan chicken was 45 . 39.1 and 62%, respectively, while the Kampung chicken was 35 .9, 30 .9 and 48%, respectively . Based on genetic analysis, the external genotype characteristic of the Nunukan chicken is ii ce ss Idld pp. It means that the phenotype appearance of the Nunukan chicken was columbian and gold feathering type, yellow and white shank color and single comb type. This phenotype is similar to Merawang Chicken . The genetic introgression of the Nunukan chicken is affected by the Rhode Island Red with the genetic introgression value of 0.964 .

  8. Campylobacter prevalence in retail chicken liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne campylobacteriosis has been linked to undercooked chicken liver. It is unknown how commonly chicken livers are contaminated with Campylobacter. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter on chicken livers available at retail. For each of five weeks, t...

  9. Condensation in Nanoporous Packed Beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ally, Javed; Molla, Shahnawaz; Mostowfi, Farshid

    2016-05-10

    In materials with tiny, nanometer-scale pores, liquid condensation is shifted from the bulk saturation pressure observed at larger scales. This effect is called capillary condensation and can block pores, which has major consequences in hydrocarbon production, as well as in fuel cells, catalysis, and powder adhesion. In this study, high pressure nanofluidic condensation studies are performed using propane and carbon dioxide in a colloidal crystal packed bed. Direct visualization allows the extent of condensation to be observed, as well as inference of the pore geometry from Bragg diffraction. We show experimentally that capillary condensation depends on pore geometry and wettability because these factors determine the shape of the menisci that coalesce when pore filling occurs, contrary to the typical assumption that all pore structures can be modeled as cylindrical and perfectly wetting. We also observe capillary condensation at higher pressures than has been done previously, which is important because many applications involving this phenomenon occur well above atmospheric pressure, and there is little, if any, experimental validation of capillary condensation at such pressures, particularly with direct visualization.

  10. Hawking Colloquium Packed CERN Auditoriums

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Stephen Hawking's week long visit to CERN included an 'exceptional CERN colloquium' which filled six auditoriums. Stephen Hawking during his visit to the ATLAS experiment. Stephen Hawking, Lucasian Professor of Cambridge University, visited the Theory Unit of the Physics Department from 24 September to 1 October 2006. As part of his visit, he gave two lectures in the main auditorium - a theoretical seminar on 'The Semi-Classical Birth of The Universe', attended by about 120 specialists; and a colloquium titled 'The Origin of The Universe'. As a key public figure in theoretical physics, his presence was eagerly awaited on both occasions. Those who wanted to attend the colloquium had to arrive early and be equipped with plenty of patience. An hour before it was due to begin, the 400 capacity of the main auditorium was already full. The lecture, simultaneously broadcast to five other fully packed CERN auditoriums, was attended by an estimated total of 850. Stephen Hawking attracted a large CERN crowd, filling ...

  11. Cloning and characterization of chicken fat mass and obesity associated (Fto) gene: fasting affects Fto expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, A; Krzysik-Walker, S M; Ramachandran, R

    2012-01-01

    Fat mass and obesity associated gene (Fto), also known as Fatso, is a member of the Fe-II and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase superfamily. Recent studies in humans and rodents suggest that Fto is involved in food intake regulation and lipid metabolism, whereas single nucleotide mutations in the Fto gene are associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. The Fto gene is highly conserved from green algae to humans, but little is known about the avian Fto gene or protein. The objectives of the current study were to clone full-length chicken Fto cDNA and to determine the effect of age or feeding status on Fto expression. With the use of rapid amplification of cDNA ends, the full-length chicken Fto cDNA was cloned and found to share 63% to 66% homology with the mammalian Fto nucleotide sequence. Several regions of the chicken Fto protein, including the substrate (2-oxoglutarate) binding domains, were found to be identical to mammalian Fto protein. Western blotting with anti-human Fto antibody and reverse transcription PCR studies showed that Fto protein and gene were ubiquitously expressed in various tissues of the chicken. With the use of quantitative PCR, Fto mRNA levels were found to be higher in liver and skeletal muscle of 8-wk-old chickens than in 4-wk-old chickens. In addition, alterations in feeding status resulted in significant changes in Fto mRNA and Fto protein expression in the liver but not in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of broiler chickens. Taken together, our data suggest that Fto probably plays a significant role in liver function and energy metabolism in the chicken. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alipour Fahimeh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sterol regulatory element binding protein- 1 and -2 (SREBP-1 and -2 are key transcription factors involved in the biosynthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids. The SREBP have mostly been studied in rodents in which lipogenesis is regulated in both liver and adipose tissue. There is, though, a paucity of information on birds, in which lipogenesis occurs essentially in the liver as in humans. Since a prelude to the investigation of the role of SREBP in lipid metabolism regulation in chicken, we review Size and Tissue expression Pattern of SREBP and role of this protein in chickens.

  13. Packing configuration performance for small stem diameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikin, J.A.; Spence, C.G.; Cumming, D.

    1997-01-01

    The extensive use of graphite packing and its excellent track record for large isolating valves in CANDU, Primary Heat Transfer (PHT) systems has resulted in an increased application of graphite packing on the conventional side. Many of these applications are in air operated valves (AOVs) where the packing sets are used on small stem diameters (<1 inch) with frequent short-cycling strokes (± 10% of full stroke). The direct application of the proven packing configurations for large isolated valves to control valve application has generated problems such as stiction, packing wear and, in isolated cases, stem stall. To address this issue, a test program was conducted at AECL, CRL by MED branch. The testing showed that by reconfiguring the packing sets and using PTFE wafers reductions in stem friction of 50% at ambient conditions, a 3 fold at hot conditions are achievable. The test program also demonstrated benefits gained in packing wear with different stem roughness finishes and the potential need to exercise small stems valves that see less than full stroke cycling. The paper describes the tests results and provides field support experience. (author)

  14. Extraction of total RNA in the developing chicken forebrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Rasoul Zaker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gene expression of Gama-Aminobutyric acid (GABA A receptor subunits may change during development. Procedures in molecular biology are required to understand the gene expression profile GABA A R in chicken. The outcome of the results depends on good-quality high-molecular-weight RNA. Several procedures can be used to isolate RNA from the brain of chicken; however, most of them are time-consuming and require disruption of cells or freeze and thaw in the presence of RNase inhibitors. The aim of this experiment was isolation of RNA from chicken embryonic brain tissues using appropriate RNA extraction kit. Materials and Methods: Fertilized eggs from Ross breed (Gallus gallus were incubated at 38°C and 60% relative humidity in a forced-draft incubator and were turned every 3 h. After 3, 7, 14 and 20 days of incubation, eggs were cooled on ice to induce deep anesthesia. Then whole brains were dissected out. As brains could not be excised in a reproducible way from earlier embryos (embryonic days 4 and 6, whole heads were collected. Chicken embryos between day 7 to 20 and 1 day after birth were decapitated, and their brains removed. Samples were immediately inserted into lysis buffer and stored at −70°C. Total RNA was isolated and a contaminating genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA was digested. RNA quality was checked using gel electrophoresis. Results: We obtained 52 mg/ml to 745 mg/ml with A260/280 1.7-2.2. Only high-quality RNA, with no signs of degradation, was used for further experiments. Conclusion: In conclusion, protocol was found to be suitable for the isolation of total RNA from embryonic chicken cells.

  15. Characterizing viscoelasticity of unhydrolyzed chicken sternal cartilage extract suspensions: Towards development of injectable therapeutics formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama, Brian; Mahajan, Gautam; Kothapalli, Chandrasekhar

    2017-08-01

    Exogenous delivery of cartilage extract is being explored as a promising candidate for knee arthritis treatment as it biomimics native cartilage tissue characteristics. In this study, we report on the rheological characterization of aqueous suspensions constituted from a powdered form of unhydrolyzed chicken sternum extract. The effect of particle size (as-received vs. milled), suspension fluid (water vs. PBS), and temperature (37°C vs. 4°C), on the viscoelastic properties of the sternum extract based particulate suspensions were evaluated. Results showed that these suspensions exhibit shear-thinning characteristics as shear rate (γ̇) increases, while viscosity (η), storage (G'), and loss (G″) moduli of the suspensions increased with increasing particulate loading (ϕ: 2.5-10wt%). Reducing the as-received particle size by milling decreased G', G, and η of the suspensions and increased the influence of ϕ on these properties, possibly due to improved particle packing. Replacing water with PBS had no significant effect on the rheological properties, but temperature reduction from 37°C to 4°C increased G', G", and η of the suspensions and lowered the impact of powder loading on viscoelastic properties. The suspension's time-dependent response was typical of viscoelastic materials, characterized by an asymptotical approach to a final stress (stress relaxation) or strain (creep). Results were fit to a power-law model for creep, a general relaxation model for exponential decay in stress, Carreau-Yasuda models for flow curves, and a two-parameter Liu model to identify the maximum powder loading (ϕ m ). Among the various forces involved in particle-particle interactions within these suspensions, electrostatic forces appeared to dominate the most. Such characterization of the viscoelastic nature of these suspensions would help in formulating stable injectable cartilage extract based therapeutics for in vivo applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  16. Hashish Body Packing: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Jesus Soriano-Perez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 42-year-old African male was brought by the police to the emergency department under suspicion of drug smuggling by body-packing. Plain abdominal radiograph showed multiple foreign bodies within the gastrointestinal tract. Contrast-enhanced abdominal CT confirmed the findings, and the patient admitted to have swallowed “balls” of hashish. Body-packing is a recognized method of smuggling drugs across international borders. Body packers may present to the emergency department because of drug toxicity, intestinal obstruction, or more commonly, requested by law-enforcement officers for medical confirmation or exclusion of suspected body packing.

  17. Improved Taxation Rate for Bin Packing Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Walter; Qiu, Xian

    A cooperative bin packing game is a N-person game, where the player set N consists of k bins of capacity 1 each and n items of sizes a 1, ⋯ ,a n . The value of a coalition of players is defined to be the maximum total size of items in the coalition that can be packed into the bins of the coalition. We present an alternative proof for the non-emptiness of the 1/3-core for all bin packing games and show how to improve this bound ɛ= 1/3 (slightly). We conjecture that the true best possible value is ɛ= 1/7.

  18. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwayelu, D O; Todd, D; Olaleye, O D

    2008-12-01

    This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV) in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6% and 4% nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2% amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/CI-8 and NGR/CI-9) were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.

  19. Comparing the efficacy of mature mud pack and hot pack treatments for knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsan, Ayşe; Akkaya, Nuray; Ozgen, Merih; Yildiz, Necmettin; Atalay, Nilgun Simsir; Ardic, Fusun

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy of mature mud pack and hot pack therapies on patients with knee osteoarthritis. This study was designed as a prospective, randomized-controlled, and single-blinded clinical trial. Twenty-seven patients with clinical and radiologic evidence of knee osteoarthritis were randomly assigned into two groups and were treated with mature mud packs (n 15) or hot packs (n=12). Patients were evaluated for pain [based on the visual analog scale (VAS)], function (WOMAC, 6 min walking distance), quality of life [Short Form-36 (SF-36)], and serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) at baseline, post-treatment, and 3 and 6~months after treatment. The mud pack group shows a significant improvement in VAS, pain, stifness, and physical function domains of WOMAC. The difference between groups of pain and physical activity domains is significant at post-treatment in favor of mud pack. For a 6 min walking distance, mud pack shows significant improvement, and the difference is significant between groups in favor of mud pack at post-treatment and 3 and 6 months after treatment. Mud pack shows significant improvement in the pain subscale of SF-36 at the third month continuing until the sixth month after the treatment. Significant improvements are found for the social function, vitality/energy, physical role disability, and general health subscales of SF-36 in favor of the mud pack compared with the hot pack group at post-treatment. A significant increase is detected for IGF-1 in the mud pack group 3 months after treatment compared with the baseline, and the difference is significant between groups 3 months after the treatment. Mud pack is a favorable option compared with hotpack for pain relief and for the improvement of functional conditions in treating patients with knee osteoarthritis.

  20. Comparative pathology of chickens experimentally inoculated with avian influenza viruses of low and high pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, I P; Brugh, M; Fletcher, O J; Rowland, G N; Swayne, D E

    1997-01-01

    Pathologic changes and distribution of viral antigen as determined by immunohistochemistry were compared among 4-wk-old specific-pathogen-free chickens inoculated intratracheally with avian influenza virus (AIV) isolates of either low or high pathogenicity. Viruses of low pathogenicity, previously characterized as mildly pathogenic (MP), included A/chicken/Pennsylvania/21525/83 (H5N2) (MP-Penn) and A/chicken/Alabama/7395/75 (H4N8) (MP-Alab). Viruses of high pathogenicity included A/chicken/Pennsylvania/1370/83 (H5N2), A/chicken/Victoria/A185/85 (H7N7), and A/turkey/Ontario/7732/66 (H5N9). Extremely variable clinical signs ranging from mild respiratory distress to high mortality were present among chickens inoculated with these viruses. Chickens inoculated with highly pathogenic (HP) virus had histologic lesions of necrosis and inflammation in cloacal bursa, thymus, spleen, heart, pancreas, kidney, brain, trachea, lung, and skeletal muscle, whereas chickens inoculated with MP virus had histologic lesions most frequently in lung and trachea or lacked histologic lesions. Immunospecific staining for avian influenza viral proteins was most common in cells within heart, lung, kidney, brain, and pancreas of chicken inoculated with HP viruses, but immunospecific staining was present only and infrequently in trachea and lung of chickens inoculated with MP-Penn AIV. MP-Alab did not produce lesions nor have viral antigen in inoculated chickens but did produce serologic evidence of infection. The pattern of organ involvement and viral antigen distribution in chickens intratracheally inoculated with HP AIV isolates indicates a common capability to spread beyond the respiratory tract and confirms the pantrophic replicative, pathobiologic, and lethal nature of the viruses. However, variability in severity and lesion distribution exists between different HP AIVs. By contrast, MP viruses had the ability to replicate in respiratory or enteric tracts or both and produce lesions

  1. Factors affecting growth and toxin production by Clostridium botulinum type E on irradiated (0.3 Mrad) chicken skins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firstenberg-Eden, R.; Rowley, D.B.; Shattuck, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    A model system (chicken skins with chicken exudate) was used to determine if Clostridium botulinum type E (Beluga) spores, stressed by low dose irradiation, would develop and produce toxin at abuse temperatures of 10 and 30 0 C in the absence of characteristic spoilage. Unstressed spores germinated, multiplied, and produced toxin on vacuum-packed chicken skins, stored at either 30 or 10 0 C. Cell numbers increased faster and toxin was evident sooner at 30 0 C than at 10 0 C. At 30 0 C, growth occurred and toxin was produced more slowly when samples were incubated aerobically than anaerobically. When samples were incubated aerobically at 10 0 C, no toxin was detected within a test period of 14 days. An irradiation dose of 0.3 Mrad at 5 0 C reduced a spore population on vacuum-sealed chicken skins by about 90%. The surviving population produced toxin at 30 0 C under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions, at 10 0 C no toxin was detected even on skins incubated anaerobically. Under the worst conditions (30 0 C, vacuum packed) toxin was not detected prior to characteristic spoilage caused by the natural flora surviving 0.3 Mrad

  2. Microwave Irradiation of Nanohydroxyapatite from Chicken Eggshells and Duck Eggshells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Adzliana Sajahan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to similarity in composition to the mineral component of bones and human hard tissues, hydroxyapatite with chemical formula Ca10(PO46(OH2 has been widely used in medical field. Both chicken and duck eggshells are mainly composed of calcium carbonate. An attempt has been made to fabricate nanohydroxyapatite (nHA by chicken (CES and duck eggshells (DES as calcium carbonate source (CaCO3. CES and DES were reacted with diammonium hydrogen [(NH42HPO4] solution and subjected to microwave heating at 15 mins. Under the effect of microwave irradiation, nHA was produced directly in the solution and involved in crystallographic transformation. Sample characterization was done using by X-ray diffraction (XRD, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM.

  3. Packing circles and spheres on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Schiftner, Alexander; Hö binger, Mathias; Wallner, Johannes; Pottmann, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    Inspired by freeform designs in architecture which involve circles and spheres, we introduce a new kind of triangle mesh whose faces' incircles form a packing. As it turns out, such meshes have a rich geometry and allow us to cover surfaces with circle patterns, sphere packings, approximate circle packings, hexagonal meshes which carry a torsion-free support structure, hybrid tri-hex meshes, and others. We show how triangle meshes can be optimized so as to have the incircle packing property. We explain their relation to conformal geometry and implications on solvability of optimization. The examples we give confirm that this kind of meshes is a rich source of geometric structures relevant to architectural geometry. © 2009 ACM.

  4. Packing in Two and Three Dimensions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martins, Gustavo H

    2003-01-01

    ...), the Multidimensional Knapsack Problem (MD-KP), and the Multidimensional Bin Packing Problem (MD-BPP). In these problems, there is a set of items, with rectangular dimensions, and a set of large containers, or bins, also with rectangular dimensions...

  5. Prevention and suppression of metal packing fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Mark; Rogers, William J; Sam Mannan, M; Ostrowski, Scott W

    2003-11-14

    Structured packing has been widely used because of large surface area that makes possible columns with high capacity and efficiency. The large surface area also contributes to fire hazards because of hydrocarbon deposits that can easily combust and promote combustion of the thin metal packing materials. Materials of high surface area that can fuel fires include reactive metals, such as titanium, and materials that are not considered combustible, such as stainless steel. Column design and material selection for packing construction is discussed together with employee training and practices for safe column maintenance and operations. Presented also are methods and agents for suppression of metal fires. Guidance for prevention and suppression of metal fires is related to incidents involving packing fires in columns.

  6. Packing circles and spheres on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Schiftner, Alexander

    2009-12-01

    Inspired by freeform designs in architecture which involve circles and spheres, we introduce a new kind of triangle mesh whose faces\\' incircles form a packing. As it turns out, such meshes have a rich geometry and allow us to cover surfaces with circle patterns, sphere packings, approximate circle packings, hexagonal meshes which carry a torsion-free support structure, hybrid tri-hex meshes, and others. We show how triangle meshes can be optimized so as to have the incircle packing property. We explain their relation to conformal geometry and implications on solvability of optimization. The examples we give confirm that this kind of meshes is a rich source of geometric structures relevant to architectural geometry.

  7. Packing circles and spheres on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Schiftner, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Inspired by freeform designs in architecture which involve circles and spheres, we introduce a new kind of triangle mesh whose faces\\' incircles form a packing. As it turns out, such meshes have a rich geometry and allow us to cover surfaces with circle patterns, sphere packings, approximate circle packings, hexagonal meshes which carry a torsion-free support structure, hybrid tri-hex meshes, and others. We show how triangle meshes can be optimized so as to have the incircle packing property. We explain their relation to conformal geometry and implications on solvability of optimization. The examples we give confirm that this kind of meshes is a rich source of geometric structures relevant to architectural geometry. © 2009 ACM.

  8. Packing circles and spheres on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Schiftner, Alexander; Hö binger, Mathias; Wallner, Johannes; Pottmann, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    Inspired by freeform designs in architecture which involve circles and spheres, we introduce a new kind of triangle mesh whose faces' incircles form a packing. As it turns out, such meshes have a rich geometry and allow us to cover surfaces with circle patterns, sphere packings, approximate circle packings, hexagonal meshes which carry a torsion-free support structure, hybrid tri-hex meshes, and others. We show how triangle meshes can be optimized so as to have the incircle packing property. We explain their relation to conformal geometry and implications on solvability of optimization. The examples we give confirm that this kind of meshes is a rich source of geometric structures relevant to architectural geometry.

  9. Chicken Soup for the Portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Edward J.

    The popular "Chicken Soup for the Soul" series of books demonstrates the tremendous desire of people in all walks of life to tell their stories. A professor of reading/language arts methods for students in a program leading to teacher certification reads to his classes every day from a wide variety of materials, including stories from…

  10. The Chicken and Egg Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkon, Ivette

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a project on chickens and eggs undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. It describes the three phases of the project and includes photographs and other documentation of the children's work.

  11. Visuospatial selective attention in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Devarajan; Ramamurthy, Deepa L; Schwarz, Jason S; Knudsen, Eric I

    2014-05-13

    Voluntary control of attention promotes intelligent, adaptive behaviors by enabling the selective processing of information that is most relevant for making decisions. Despite extensive research on attention in primates, the capacity for selective attention in nonprimate species has never been quantified. Here we demonstrate selective attention in chickens by applying protocols that have been used to characterize visual spatial attention in primates. Chickens were trained to localize and report the vertical position of a target in the presence of task-relevant distracters. A spatial cue, the location of which varied across individual trials, indicated the horizontal, but not vertical, position of the upcoming target. Spatial cueing improved localization performance: accuracy (d') increased and reaction times decreased in a space-specific manner. Distracters severely impaired perceptual performance, and this impairment was greatly reduced by spatial cueing. Signal detection analysis with an "indecision" model demonstrated that spatial cueing significantly increased choice certainty in localizing targets. By contrast, error-aversion certainty (certainty of not making an error) remained essentially constant across cueing protocols, target contrasts, and individuals. The results show that chickens shift spatial attention rapidly and dynamically, following principles of stimulus selection that closely parallel those documented in primates. The findings suggest that the mechanisms that control attention have been conserved through evolution, and establish chickens--a highly visual species that is easily trained and amenable to cutting-edge experimental technologies--as an attractive model for linking behavior to neural mechanisms of selective attention.

  12. Random close packing in protein cores

    OpenAIRE

    Gaines, Jennifer C.; Smith, W. Wendell; Regan, Lynne; O'Hern, Corey S.

    2015-01-01

    Shortly after the determination of the first protein x-ray crystal structures, researchers analyzed their cores and reported packing fractions $\\phi \\approx 0.75$, a value that is similar to close packing equal-sized spheres. A limitation of these analyses was the use of `extended atom' models, rather than the more physically accurate `explicit hydrogen' model. The validity of using the explicit hydrogen model is proved by its ability to predict the side chain dihedral angle distributions obs...

  13. Granular packing as model glass formers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yujie

    2017-01-01

    Static granular packings are model hard-sphere glass formers. The nature of glass transition has remained a hotly debated issue. We review recent experimental progresses in using granular materials to study glass transitions. We focus on the growth of glass order with five-fold symmetry in granular packings and relate the findings to both geometric frustration and random first-order phase transition theories. (paper)

  14. Integrality gap analysis for bin packing games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, Walter; Qui, X.

    A cooperative bin packing game is an $N$-person game, where the player set $N$ consists of $k$ bins of capacity 1 each and $n$ items of sizes $a_1,\\dots,a_n$. The value $v(S)$ of a coalition $S$ of players is defined to be the maximum total size of items in $S$ that can be packed into the bins of

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation on some minor classes of chicken lipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rady, A.H.; Schwartz, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    Chicken skin and subcutaneous fat from 12 fresh chickens were ground frozen and samples then irradiated in air and vacuum at 2-5 degree C using Cs 137 . Doses of 0,1,3,6 and 10 kGy were used at a dose rate of 100 Gy/min. Extracted lipid was analyzed for individual un esterified fatty acids (UFA), total carotenoids and chlosta-3,5-dien-7-one was determined in the unsaponifiable matter (USM). Results of the study indicated that all individual USF increased markedly at 1 kGy, decreased somewhat at 3 kGy and then increased gradually or leveled off. Total carotenoids in air packed samples decreased sharply at 1 kGy then decreased gradually with higher doses. In vacuum packed samples, only a slight decrease in total carotenoids occurred at 1 kGy followed by a sharp decrease at 3 kGy and then a more gradual decrease paralleling the air packed decrease. Cholesta-3,5-dien-7-one compound was identified in minute amount(10 lipid) in USM of non-irradiated samples, while it showed a dramatic gradual increase in both media with increasing irradiation dose and reached 420-458 μg/g lipid in USM of samples irradiated at 10 kGy

  16. Development of a leadership resource pack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The pack contains notes and presentation material for OSD inspectors to help them prepare for health and safety discussions with senior managers. The successful application of the leadership resource pack depends on an inspector gaining familiarity with the contents of the pack. Flexibility and adaptability were considered crucial factors in developing the contents. The pack is not considered a substitute for an inspector's own experience, knowledge or substitute for prior research. The leadership resource pack is intended as a source of knowledge and good practice that demonstrates how positive leadership can drive a health and safety agenda alongside business considerations. The benefits of the leadership resource pack include: the creation of a flexible tool that inspectors can use to highlight key leadership messages in health and safety; the development of a seven-stage model for characterising senior management commitment; practical examples of how leadership in health and safety management was felt throughout nine organisations; ideas for devising an aide memoire for specific discussions with senior managers. (author)

  17. Decontamination of pesticide packing using ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, C.L.; Mori, M.N.; Kodama, Yasko; Oikawa, H.; Sampa, M.H.O.

    2007-01-01

    The Brazilian agriculture activities have consumed about 288,000 tons of pesticides per year conditioned in about 107,000,000 packing with weight of approximately 23,000 tons. The discharge of empty plastic packing of pesticides can be an environmental concern causing problems to human health, animals, and plants if done without inspection and monitoring. The objective of this work is to study the ionizing radiation effect in the main pesticides used in Brazil for plastic packing decontamination. Among the commercial pesticides, chlorpyrifos has significant importance because of its wide distribution and extensive use and persistence. The radiation-induced degradation of chlorpyrifos in liquid samples and in polyethylene pack was studied by gamma radiolysis. Packing of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) three layer coextruded, named COEX, contaminated with chlorpyrifos, were irradiated using both a multipurpose Co-60 gamma irradiator and a gamma source with 5000 Ci total activity Gamma cell type. The chemical analysis of the chlorpyrifos was made using a gas chromatography associated to the Mass Spectrometry-GCMS from Shimadzu Model QP 5000. Gamma radiation was efficient for removing chlorpyrifos from the plastic packing, in all studied cases

  18. Decontamination of pesticide packing using ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, C.L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-IPEN-CNEN/SP Av. Lineu Prestes 2.242, 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: clduarte@ipen.br; Mori, M.N.; Kodama, Yasko; Oikawa, H.; Sampa, M.H.O. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-IPEN-CNEN/SP Av. Lineu Prestes 2.242, 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-11-15

    The Brazilian agriculture activities have consumed about 288,000 tons of pesticides per year conditioned in about 107,000,000 packing with weight of approximately 23,000 tons. The discharge of empty plastic packing of pesticides can be an environmental concern causing problems to human health, animals, and plants if done without inspection and monitoring. The objective of this work is to study the ionizing radiation effect in the main pesticides used in Brazil for plastic packing decontamination. Among the commercial pesticides, chlorpyrifos has significant importance because of its wide distribution and extensive use and persistence. The radiation-induced degradation of chlorpyrifos in liquid samples and in polyethylene pack was studied by gamma radiolysis. Packing of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) three layer coextruded, named COEX, contaminated with chlorpyrifos, were irradiated using both a multipurpose Co-60 gamma irradiator and a gamma source with 5000 Ci total activity Gamma cell type. The chemical analysis of the chlorpyrifos was made using a gas chromatography associated to the Mass Spectrometry-GCMS from Shimadzu Model QP 5000. Gamma radiation was efficient for removing chlorpyrifos from the plastic packing, in all studied cases.

  19. Hardfacing and packings for improved valve performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikin, J.A.; Patrick, J.N.F.; Inglis, I.

    2003-01-01

    The CANDU Owners Group (COG), Chemistry, Materials and Components (CMC) Program has supported an ongoing program on valve maintenance and performance for several years. An overview is presented of recent work on iron-based hardfacing, packing qualification, friction testing of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) packings, and an investigation of re-torquing valve packing. Based on this program, two new valve-packing materials have been qualified for use in CANDU stations. By doing this, CANDU maintenance can avoid having only one packing qualified for station use, as well as assess the potential impact of the industry trend towards using lower gland loads. The results from corrosion tests by AECL and the coefficient of friction studies at Battelle' s tribology testing facilities on Delcrome 910, an iron-based hardfacing alloy, indicate it is an acceptable replacement for Stellite 6 under certain conditions. This information can be used to update in-line valve purchasing specifications. The renewed interest in friction characteristics, and environmental qualification (EQ) of packing containing PTFE has resulted in a new test program in these areas. The COG-funded valve programs have resulted in modifications to design specifications for nuclear station in-line valves and have led to better maintenance practices and valve reliability. In the end, this means lower costs and cheaper electricity. (author)

  20. Bidispersed Sphere Packing on Spherical Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Timothy; Mascioli, Andrew; Burke, Christopher

    Packing problems on spherical surfaces have a long history, originating in the classic Thompson problem of finding the ground state configuration of charges on a sphere. Such packings contain a minimal number of defects needed to accommodate the curvature; this is predictable using the Gauss-Bonnet theorem from knowledge of the topology of the surface and the local symmetry of the ordering. Famously, the packing of spherical particles on a sphere contains a 'scar' transition, where additional defects over those required by topology appear above a certain critical number of particles and self-organize into chains or scars. In this work, we study the packing of bidispersed packings on a sphere, and hence determine the interaction of bidispersity and curvature. The resultant configurations are nearly crystalline for low values of bidispersity and retain scar-like structures; these rapidly become disordered for intermediate values and approach a so-called Appollonian limit at the point where smaller particles can be entirely accommodated within the voids left by the larger particles. We connect our results with studies of bidispersed packings in the bulk and on flat surfaces from the literature on glassy systems and jamming. Supported by a Cottrell Award from the Research Corporation for Science Advancement.

  1. EFFECT OF CHICKEN BONE-MARROW ADDITION TO BREAST AND LEG MEAT SUBJECTED TO DIFFERENT GRINDING PROCESSES

    OpenAIRE

    POLLONIO, MAR; ANTUNES, AJ

    1993-01-01

    Mechanical deboning makes chicken meat highly suscetible to lipid oxidation. Tissue disruption and the incorporation of unknown amounts of bone marrow are among the main factors involved. This research was undertaken to evaluate the effect of chicken bone marrow addition to breast and leg meat, ground in a regular meat grinder and passed through a mechanical deboner on lipid stability during frozen storage at -18-degrees-C. Breast and leg meat were manually deboned: a portion was processed th...

  2. Comparative evaluation of carcass traits and meat quality in native Aseel chickens and commercial broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, U; Muthukumar, M; Haunshi, S; Niranjan, M; Raju, M V L N; Rama Rao, S V; Chatterjee, R N

    2016-06-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted to analyse the meat quality attributes, composition and carcass traits in Aseel chickens and commercial broilers at market age on the basis of physiological age. A total of 20 Aseel (26 and 56 weeks) and 20 broiler (6 weeks) chickens were divided into two groups on a live weight basis, i.e. large (≥2.5 kg) and small (dressing percentage was significantly higher in larger chickens. Commercial broilers recorded significantly higher meat proportion and lower proportion of bone. The meat:bone ratio was 1.07:1.0 in Aseel and 1.31-1.0 in broiler chicken. Breast muscle content was significantly lower in smaller Aseel chickens. Aseel chicken had stronger and heavier backs and shanks. Abdominal fat percentage was significantly lower in Aseel (0.73-0.78%). The study concluded that the firm texture of Aseel meat was due to the high collagen content and interlocking connective tissue between the muscle fibres. The texture and acceptability of Aseel meat was higher. Aseel cocks had strong legs, lean meat and less abdominal fat, making them a high-value meat bird in addition to their aggressive fighting ability.

  3. Effect of thiabendazole and packing materials on kinnow mandarin during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooqi, W.A.; Ahmad, Maqbool; Hussain, A.M.; Qureshi, M.J.

    1975-01-01

    Effects of thiabendazole and some packing materials (tissue paper, wax paper and polyethylene film) on the shelf-life of Kinnow mandarins during storage at refrigerated and non-refrigerated temperatures were studied. Physiological, and organoleptic characteristics; control of fruit-rot in treated and untreated fruits and residual effect of thiabendazole in the peel and pulp of treated fruits are reported

  4. Effect of thiabendazole and packing materials on kinnow mandarin during storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farooqi, W A; Ahmad, Maqbool; Hussain, A M; Qureshi, M J

    1975-01-01

    Effects of thiabendazole and some packing materials (tissue paper, wax paper and polyethylene film) on the shelf-life of Kinnow mandarins during storage at refrigerated and non-refrigerated temperatures were studied. Physiological, and organoleptic characteristics; control of fruit-rot in treated and untreated fruits and residual effect of thiabendazole in the peel and pulp of treated fruits are reported.

  5. Experimental-confirmation and functional-annotation of predicted proteins in the chicken genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarthy Fiona M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chicken genome was sequenced because of its phylogenetic position as a non-mammalian vertebrate, its use as a biomedical model especially to study embryology and development, its role as a source of human disease organisms and its importance as the major source of animal derived food protein. However, genomic sequence data is, in itself, of limited value; generally it is not equivalent to understanding biological function. The benefit of having a genome sequence is that it provides a basis for functional genomics. However, the sequence data currently available is poorly structurally and functionally annotated and many genes do not have standard nomenclature assigned. Results We analysed eight chicken tissues and improved the chicken genome structural annotation by providing experimental support for the in vivo expression of 7,809 computationally predicted proteins, including 30 chicken proteins that were only electronically predicted or hypothetical translations in human. To improve functional annotation (based on Gene Ontology, we mapped these identified proteins to their human and mouse orthologs and used this orthology to transfer Gene Ontology (GO functional annotations to the chicken proteins. The 8,213 orthology-based GO annotations that we produced represent an 8% increase in currently available chicken GO annotations. Orthologous chicken products were also assigned standardized nomenclature based on current chicken nomenclature guidelines. Conclusion We demonstrate the utility of high-throughput expression proteomics for rapid experimental structural annotation of a newly sequenced eukaryote genome. These experimentally-supported predicted proteins were further annotated by assigning the proteins with standardized nomenclature and functional annotation. This method is widely applicable to a diverse range of species. Moreover, information from one genome can be used to improve the annotation of other genomes and

  6. The use of 2-dodecylcylobutanone for the identification of irradiated chicken meat and eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, M.H.; Crone, A.V.J.; Hamilton, J.T.G.; McMurray, C.H.

    1993-01-01

    A procedure has been developed for the detection of 2-alkylcyclobutones which are useful markers for the identification of irradiated chicken meat and liquid whole egg. The compounds appear to be specific for irradiation since they are not generated by cooking, packing in vacuum or CO 2 and are sufficiently stable to be detected throughout the shelf-life of these products. As the irradiation dose increases there is a linear increase in the amount of these compounds formed in chicken meat and so the method has potenetial for the estimation of irradiation dose. The procedure developed should be applicable for the identification of a range of foods of varying fat and fatty acid compostion. (author)

  7. Carcass characteristics of South African native chicken lines | Van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Venda and Ovambo chicken lines were evaluated. The highest dressed-carcass mass was recorded for Ovambo chickens and the highest percentage breast muscle was recorded for Naked-Neck chickens. Percentage fat and fatty acid ...

  8. Genomic characterization of recent chicken anemia virus isolates in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicken infectious anemiavirus (CIAV) causes diseases in young chickens, which include increased pathogenicity of secondary infectious agents, generalized lymphoid depletion, and immune-repression. In the present study, we have identified 22 CIAV strains isolated from several commercial chicken farm...

  9. A complex genomic rearrangement involving the endothelin 3 locus causes dermal hyperpigmentation in the chicken.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Dorshorst

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Dermal hyperpigmentation or Fibromelanosis (FM is one of the few examples of skin pigmentation phenotypes in the chicken, where most other pigmentation variants influence feather color and patterning. The Silkie chicken is the most widespread and well-studied breed displaying this phenotype. The presence of the dominant FM allele results in extensive pigmentation of the dermal layer of skin and the majority of internal connective tissue. Here we identify the causal mutation of FM as an inverted duplication and junction of two genomic regions separated by more than 400 kb in wild-type individuals. One of these duplicated regions contains endothelin 3 (EDN3, a gene with a known role in promoting melanoblast proliferation. We show that EDN3 expression is increased in the developing Silkie embryo during the time in which melanoblasts are migrating, and elevated levels of expression are maintained in the adult skin tissue. We have examined four different chicken breeds from both Asia and Europe displaying dermal hyperpigmentation and conclude that the same structural variant underlies this phenotype in all chicken breeds. This complex genomic rearrangement causing a specific monogenic trait in the chicken illustrates how novel mutations with major phenotypic effects have been reused during breed formation in domestic animals.

  10. Labeling and analysis of chicken taste buds using molecular markers in oral epithelial sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapaksha, Prasangi; Wang, Zhonghou; Venkatesan, Nandakumar; Tehrani, Kayvan F; Payne, Jason; Swetenburg, Raymond L; Kawabata, Fuminori; Tabata, Shoji; Mortensen, Luke J; Stice, Steven L; Beckstead, Robert; Liu, Hong-Xiang

    2016-11-17

    In chickens, the sensory organs for taste are the taste buds in the oral cavity, of which there are ~240-360 in total number as estimated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). There is not an easy way to visualize all taste buds in chickens. Here, we report a highly efficient method for labeling chicken taste buds in oral epithelial sheets using the molecular markers Vimentin and α-Gustducin. Immediate tissue fixation following incubation with sub-epithelially injected proteases enabled us to peel off whole epithelial sheets, leaving the shape and integrity of the tissue intact. In the peeled epithelial sheets, taste buds labeled with antibodies against Vimentin and α-Gustducin were easily identified and counted under a light microscope and many more taste buds, patterned in rosette-like clusters, were found than previously reported with SEM. Broiler-type, female-line males have more taste buds than other groups and continue to increase the number of taste buds over stages after hatch. In addition to ovoid-shaped taste buds, big tube-shaped taste buds were observed in the chicken using 2-photon microscopy. Our protocol for labeling taste buds with molecular markers will factilitate future mechanistic studies on the development of chicken taste buds in association with their feeding behaviors.

  11. A Harmonic Algorithm for the 3D Strip Packing Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Bansal (Nikhil); X. Han; K. Iwama; M. Sviridenko; G. Zhang (Guochuan)

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractIn the three-dimensional (3D) strip packing problem, we are given a set of 3D rectangular items and a 3D box $B$. The goal is to pack all the items in $B$ such that the height of the packing is minimized. We consider the most basic version of the problem, where the items must be packed

  12. 27 CFR 24.308 - Bottled or packed wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottled or packed wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.308 Bottled or packed wine record. A proprietor who bottles, packs, or receives bottled or packed beverage wine in bond shall...

  13. Emerging Chlamydia psittaci infections in the chicken industry and pathology of Chlamydia psittaci genotype B and D strains in specific pathogen free chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lizi; Kalmar, Isabelle D; Lagae, Stefanie; Vandendriessche, Stien; Vanderhaeghen, Wannes; Butaye, Patrick; Cox, Eric; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2013-03-23

    Sera of 30 Belgian and 10 Northern French chicken farms were tested by a Chlamydia (C.) psittaci major outer membrane protein (MOMP) based ELISA. Ninety-six percent, 93% and 90% of the Belgian broilers, broiler breeders and layers were seropositive. Ninety-one percent of the French broilers were seropositive. In addition, tissues of 5 Belgian and 5 French broiler farms were examined at slaughter. All French farms were culture positive while C. psittaci was cultured from the lungs of 80% of examined Belgian farms. C. psittaci infections are apparently emerging in chickens raised in Belgium and Northern France. We could proof Hill-Evans postulates for chicken-derived C. psittaci genotype B and D strains. Chicken-processing plant employees should be considered a risk group for human psittacosis. There is a need for higher awareness and for efficient risk assessment and management of C. psittaci infections in chickens as chlamydiosis in broilers seems to be underdiagnosed and infections with highly virulent strains do occur. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Intestinal immune response to chicken Coccidiosis in the context of Th1 and Th17 response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccidiosis is one of the most economically important diseases of the chickens caused by several different Eimeria spp. The primary target tissue of Eimeria parasites is the intestinal mucosa and coccidiosis infection destroys intestinal epithelium resulting in nutrient malabsorption, body weight lo...

  15. Comparative Response of the Nigerian Indigenous and Broiler Chickens to a Field Caecal Isolate of Eimeria Oocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Atehmengo Ngongeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Response of Nigerian indigenous (local and broiler chickens to experimental Eimeria infections was investigated by measures of clinical signs, packed cell volume (PCV, body weights (BW, feed consumption, faecal oocyst counts (oocyst per gram, and microscopic intestinal lesions. Three-week-old chickens of each breed received single pulse infections with 2500, 5000, and 100.000 sporulated Eimeria oocysts. Infected birds were dull and passed bloody diarrhoea. OPG showed a dose related response but no significant difference between groups (P>0.05. OPG was significantly higher in local chickens (P<0.05 and varied significantly with time (P<0.05. PCV declined significantly in infected birds within breeds and groups (P<0.05; however, the decline in PCV was significantly greater in broilers (P<0.05. Both breeds had significant BW gains (P<0.05. BW gain varied between groups being significantly higher in the uninfected control broilers than in the infected broilers (P<0.05. Comparatively, broilers gained significantly more BW than their local counterparts (P<0.05. Feed intake increased significantly with time (P<0.05 in both breeds. The Eimeria isolate was pathogenic to both breeds of chicken although clinical signs and lesions were more severe in indigenous chickens suggesting the breed’s more susceptibility.

  16. Enteric disease in broiler chickens following experimental infection with chicken parvovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day-old broiler chickens were inoculated orally with the chicken parvovirus strain, chicken parvovirus-P1. In four independent experiments, characteristic clinical signs of enteric disease including watery, mustard color diarrhea and growth retardation were observed following infection. The virus wa...

  17. Immortalization of chicken preadipocytes by retroviral transduction of chicken TERT and TR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Tianmu; Wu, Chunyan; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Yuxiang; Wang, Ning

    2017-01-01

    The chicken is an important agricultural animal and model for developmental biology, immunology and virology. Excess fat accumulation continues to be a serious problem for the chicken industry. However, chicken adipogenesis and obesity have not been well investigated, because no chicken preadipocyte cell lines have been generated thus far. Here, we successfully generated two immortalized chicken preadipocyte cell lines through transduction of either chicken telomerase reverse transcriptase (chTERT) alone or in combination with chicken telomerase RNA (chTR). Both of these cell lines have survived >100 population doublings in vitro, display high telomerase activity and have no sign of replicative senescence. Similar to primary chicken preadipocytes, these two cell lines display a fibroblast-like morphology, retain the capacity to differentiate into adipocytes, and do not display any signs of malignant transformation. Isoenzyme analysis and PCR-based analysis confirmed that these two cell lines are of chicken origin and are free from inter-species contamination. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the generation of immortal chicken cells by introduction of chTERT and chTR. Our established chicken preadipocyte cell lines show great promise as an in vitro model for the investigation of chicken adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, and obesity and its related diseases, and our results also provide clues for immortalizing other avian cell types. PMID:28486516

  18. Immortalization of chicken preadipocytes by retroviral transduction of chicken TERT and TR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    Full Text Available The chicken is an important agricultural animal and model for developmental biology, immunology and virology. Excess fat accumulation continues to be a serious problem for the chicken industry. However, chicken adipogenesis and obesity have not been well investigated, because no chicken preadipocyte cell lines have been generated thus far. Here, we successfully generated two immortalized chicken preadipocyte cell lines through transduction of either chicken telomerase reverse transcriptase (chTERT alone or in combination with chicken telomerase RNA (chTR. Both of these cell lines have survived >100 population doublings in vitro, display high telomerase activity and have no sign of replicative senescence. Similar to primary chicken preadipocytes, these two cell lines display a fibroblast-like morphology, retain the capacity to differentiate into adipocytes, and do not display any signs of malignant transformation. Isoenzyme analysis and PCR-based analysis confirmed that these two cell lines are of chicken origin and are free from inter-species contamination. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the generation of immortal chicken cells by introduction of chTERT and chTR. Our established chicken preadipocyte cell lines show great promise as an in vitro model for the investigation of chicken adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, and obesity and its related diseases, and our results also provide clues for immortalizing other avian cell types.

  19. Coalescence preference in dense packing of bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeseul; Gim, Bopil; Gim, Bopil; Weon, Byung Mook

    2015-11-01

    Coalescence preference is the tendency that a merged bubble from the contact of two original bubbles (parent) tends to be near to the bigger parent. Here, we show that the coalescence preference can be blocked by densely packing of neighbor bubbles. We use high-speed high-resolution X-ray microscopy to clearly visualize individual coalescence phenomenon which occurs in micro scale seconds and inside dense packing of microbubbles with a local packing fraction of ~40%. Previous theory and experimental evidence predict a power of -5 between the relative coalescence position and the parent size. However, our new observation for coalescence preference in densely packed microbubbles shows a different power of -2. We believe that this result may be important to understand coalescence dynamics in dense packing of soft matter. This work (NRF-2013R1A22A04008115) was supported by Mid-career Researcher Program through NRF grant funded by the MEST and also was supported by Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (2009-0082580) and by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry and Education, Science and Technology (NRF-2012R1A6A3A04039257).

  20. Direct contact condensation in packed beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yi; Klausner, James F.; Mei, Renwei; Knight, Jessica [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    A diffusion driven desalination process was recently described where a very effective direct contact condenser with a packed bed is used to condense water vapor out of an air/vapor mixture. A laboratory scale direct contact condenser has been fabricated as a twin tower structure with two stages, co-current and countercurrent. Experiments have been operated in each stage with respective saturated air inlet temperatures of 36, 40 and 43{sup o}C. The temperature and humidity data have been collected at the inlet and exit of the packed bed for different water to air mass flow ratios that vary between 0 and 2.5. A one-dimensional model based on conservation principles has been developed, which predicts the variation of temperature, humidity, and condensation rate through the condenser stages. Agreement between the model and experiments is very good. It is observed that the countercurrent flow stage condensation effectiveness is significantly higher than that for the co-current stage. The condensation heat and mass transfer rates were found to decrease when water blockages occur within the packed bed. Using high-speed digital cinematography, it was observed that this problem can occur at any operating condition, and is dependent on the packing surface wetting characteristics. This observation is used to explain the requirement for two different empirical constants, depending on packing diameter, suggested by Onda for the air side mass transfer coefficient correlation. (author)

  1. Influence of in-package cold plasma treatment on microbiological shelf life and appearance of fresh chicken breast fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiamei; Zhuang, Hong; Hinton, Arthur; Zhang, Jianhao

    2016-12-01

    The effect of in-package cold plasmas (CP) was studied on microbiological shelf life and surface lightness of fresh chicken fillets (pectoralis major). Chicken fillets were packaged in food trays in air or modified atmosphere (MA) gas (O2:CO2:N2 = 65:30:5) and stored at 4 °C after exposed to an in-package cold plasma (80 kV for 180 s) treatment. Populations of mesophiles, psychrophiles, and pseudomonas spp. were measured as indicators for microbiological shelf life and CIELAB L(∗) values as an indicator for raw meat appearance. Results show that regardless of microbial type, there were no significant differences in microbial counts between the control and CP treated chicken fillets packed in air. However, in the MA packages, microbial counts were consistently lower than the non-treated control during refrigerated storage. Regardless of CP treatment, the microbial counts on the samples packed in air were much higher than in MA. They were more than 6 logs cfu/g in air compared to fewer than 4 logs cfu/g in MA after 7 d storage and fewer than 6 logs cfu/g after 14 d storage. Regardless of CP treatment and gas composition in package, there were no significant differences in the surface L(∗) value between the fillets pre-treatment and those after storage at 4 °C. These results demonstrate that the effects of in-package CP treatments on microbiological shelf life of fresh chicken fillets depend upon headspace composition in packages. When fresh chicken fillets are packed in air, CP treatment has no effect on microbiological shelf life. MA packages with high O2 and CO2 significantly extend shelf life and CP treatment with MA can at least double shelf life of fresh chicken meat (more than 14 days). Regardless of headspace composition, in-package CP does not have negative effects on chicken meat appearance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Microbiology, sensory evaluation and shelf life of irradiated chicken breast fillets stored in air or vacuum

    OpenAIRE

    Mantilla, Samira Pirola Santos; Santos, Érica Barbosa; Vital, Helio de Carvalho; Mano, Sérgio Borges; Freitas, Mônica Queiroz de; Franco, Robson Maia

    2011-01-01

    This work investigated the effects of different packaging methods (air and vacuum) combined with irradiation (0.0, 2.0 and 3.0 kGy) on the preservation of chicken breast fillets stored at 1ºC for up to 18 days by sensorial test, determination of pH and bacterial growth. The findings indicated that the post-irradiation lag phase increased with the dose, leading to an extension in shelf-life. Vacuum-packed samples irradiated at 3.0 kGy exhibited the longest shelf life. Among the analyzed bacter...

  3. Studies On Quality Criteria For Irradiated Breaded Chicken Breast Fillets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HASSAN, I.M.; IBRAHIM, M.T.; MAHMOUD, A.A.; SHAMS EL DIN, N.M.M.; MOHAMMAD, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    Quality criteria of irradiated breaded chicken breast fillets were studied. Fresh boneless and skinless breaded chicken breast meats samples were divided into four separate batches and packed in plastic bags and sealed by an impulse sealer. Samples in plastic bags were exposed to different doses of gamma irradiation (2.5, 5 and 7 kGy) at ambient temperature. Just after irradiation, the samples were stored at 4 ±1 0 C. All samples were evaluated for microbiological, chemical and sensorial properties after irradiation and throughout the storage periods. During storage, the total bacterial count was significantly increased (P<0.05) in all samples with higher rates of increase in non-irradiated samples. In all irradiated samples, Staphylococcus aureus did not detected up to 6 days then detected after 22 days in samples treated with 2.5 kGy as well as 31 days in samples treated with 5 kGy. On the other hand, Staphylococcus aureus was detected after 45 days in samples treated with 7 kGy. Salmonella sp., Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter jejuni could not detected in untreated and treated samples. The protein content showed significant decrease immediately after irradiation and during the refrigerated storage. The TVN values for non-irradiated samples were significantly higher (P<0.05) than irradiated samples. The present data showed significant decrease (P<0.05) in protein solubility percentages of irradiated samples at day 0 and 6 of refrigerated storage. The observed decrease was related to the increase of radiation dose. At the end of storage period (62 days), 2.5 kGy samples were significantly higher in TBA values than other irradiated samples. On the other hand, irradiation was significantly reduced (P<0.05) the amount of major mono unsaturated and poly unsaturated fatty acids. Sensory attributes of breaded chicken breast fillets did not affected by irradiation. It could be concluded that irradiation dose of 5 kGy can be used in chicken samples stored in

  4. Phosphorylation of chicken growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aramburo, C.; Montiel, J.L.; Donoghue, D.; Scanes, C.G.; Berghman, L.R.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that chicken growth hormone (cGH) can be phosphorylated has been examined. Both native and biosynthetic cGH were phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (and γ- 32 P-ATP). The extent of phosphorylation was however less than that observed with ovine prolactin. Under the conditions employed, glycosylated cGH was not phosphorylated. Chicken anterior pituitary cells in primary culture were incubated in the presence of 32 P-phosphate. Radioactive phosphate was incorporated in vitro into the fraction immunoprecipitable with antisera against cGH. Incorporation was increased with cell number and time of incubation. The presence of GH releasing factor (GRF) increased the release of 32 P-phosphate labeled immunoprecipitable GH into the incubation media but not content of immunoprecipitable GH in the cells. The molecular weight of the phosphorylated immunoreactive cGH in the cells corresponded to cGH dimer

  5. Characterization of the Chicken Ovarian Cancer Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodriguez, Gustavo

    2002-01-01

    .... Unlike other ovarian cancer models, which require experimental induction of ovarian tumors, chickens develop ovarian adenocarcinoma spontaneously, with an incidence ranging from 13 to 40 percent...

  6. Characterization of the Chicken Ovarian Cancer Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodriguez, Gustavo C

    2004-01-01

    .... Unlike other ovarian cancer models, which require experimental induction of ovarian tumors, chickens develop ovarian adenocarcinoma spontaneously, with an incidence ranging from 13 to 40 percent...

  7. Characterization of the Chicken Ovarian Cancer Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodriguez, Gustavo C

    2005-01-01

    .... Unlike other ovarian cancer models, which require experimental induction of ovarian tumors, chickens develop ovarian adenocarcinoma spontaneously, with an incidence ranging from 13 to 40 percent...

  8. Characterization of the Chicken Ovarian Cancer Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodriguez, Gustavo

    2003-01-01

    .... Unlike other ovarian cancer models, which require experimental induction of ovarian tumors, chickens develop ovarian adenocarcinoma spontaneously, with an incidence ranging from 13 to 40 percent...

  9. Characterization of the Chicken Ovarian Cancer Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodriquez, Gustavo

    2001-01-01

    .... Unlike other ovarian cancer models, which require experimental induction of ovarian tumors, chickens develop ovarian adenocarcinoma spontaneously, with an incidence ranging from 13 to 40 percent...

  10. Generalized network improvement and packing problems

    CERN Document Server

    Holzhauser, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Michael Holzhauser discusses generalizations of well-known network flow and packing problems by additional or modified side constraints. By exploiting the inherent connection between the two problem classes, the author investigates the complexity and approximability of several novel network flow and packing problems and presents combinatorial solution and approximation algorithms. Contents Fractional Packing and Parametric Search Frameworks Budget-Constrained Minimum Cost Flows: The Continuous Case Budget-Constrained Minimum Cost Flows: The Discrete Case Generalized Processing Networks Convex Generalized Flows Target Groups Researchers and students in the fields of mathematics, computer science, and economics Practitioners in operations research and logistics The Author Dr. Michael Holzhauser studied computer science at the University of Kaiserslautern and is now a research fellow in the Optimization Research Group at the Department of Mathematics of the University of Kaiserslautern.

  11. Packing of ganglioside-phospholipid monolayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majewski, J.; Kuhl, T.L.; Kjær, K.

    2001-01-01

    Using synchrotron grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXD) and reflectivity, the in-plane and out-of-plane structure of mixed ganglioside-phospholipid monolayers was investigated at the air-water interface. Mixed monolayers of 0, 5, 10, 20, and 100 mol% ganglioside GM, and the phospholipid...... monolayers did not affect hydrocarbon tail packing (fluidization or condensation of the hydrocarbon region). This is in contrast to previous investigations of lipopolymer-lipid mixtures, where the packing structure of phospholipid monolayers was greatly altered by the inclusion of lipids bearing hydrophilic...

  12. Used fuel packing plant for CANDU fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzies, I.; Thayer, B.; Bains, N., E-mail: imenzies@atsautomation.com [ATS Automation, Cambridge, ON (Canada); Murchison, A., E-mail: amurchison@nwmo.ca [NWMO, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    Large forgings have been selected to containerize Light Water Reactor used nuclear fuel. CANDU fuel, which is significantly smaller in size, allows novel approaches for containerization. For example, by utilizing commercially available extruded ASME pipe a conceptual design of a Used Fuel Packing Plant for containerization of used CANDU fuel in a long lived metallic container has been developed. The design adopts a modular approach with multiple independent work cells to transfer and containerize the used fuel. Based on current technologies and concepts from proven industrial systems, the Used Fuel Packing Plant can assemble twelve used fuel containers per day considering conservative levels of process availability. (author)

  13. Analysis of Lutein, Zeaxanthin, and Meso-Zeaxanthin in the Organs of Carotenoid-Supplemented Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, David; Prado-Cabrero, Alfonso; Nolan, John M

    2018-02-03

    The macular carotenoids (i.e., lutein (L), zeaxanthin (Z) and meso -zeaxanthin (MZ)) exhibit anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and optical properties that are believed to support human health and function. Studying the accumulation and distribution of these nutrients in tissues and organs, in addition to the eye, is an important step in understanding how these nutrients might support global human function and health (e.g., heart and brain). Chicken is an appropriate animal model with which to study the accumulation of these carotenoids in organs, as the relevant transport molecules and carotenoid binding proteins for L, Z and MZ are present in both humans and chickens. In this experiment, a sample of 3 chickens that were supplemented with L and MZ diacetate (active group) and a sample of 3 chickens that received a standard diet (control group) were analysed. Both groups were analysed for L, Z and MZ concentrations in the brain, eyes, heart, lung, duodenum/pancreas, jejunum/ileum, kidney and breast tissue. L, Z and MZ were identified in all the organs/tissues analysed from the active group. L and Z were identified in all of the organs/tissues analysed from the control group; while, MZ was identified in the eyes of these animals only. The discovery that MZ is accumulated in the tissues and organs of chickens supplemented with this carotenoid is important, given that it is known that a combination of L, Z and MZ exhibits superior antioxidant capacity when compared to any of these carotenoids in isolation.

  14. Proteomic Analysis of Chicken Skeletal Muscle during Embryonic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjia Ouyang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic growth and development of skeletal muscle is a major determinant of muscle mass, and has a significant effect on meat production in chicken. To assess the protein expression profiles during embryonic skeletal muscle development, we performed a proteomics analysis using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ in leg muscle tissues of female Xinghua chicken at embryonic age (E 11, E16, and 1-day post hatch (D1. We identified 3,240 proteins in chicken embryonic muscle and 491 of them were differentially expressed (fold change ≥ 1.5 or ≤ 0.666 and p < 0.05. There were 19 up- and 32 down-regulated proteins in E11 vs. E16 group, 238 up- and 227 down-regulated proteins in E11 vs. D1 group, and 13 up- and 5 down-regulated proteins in E16 vs. D1 group. Protein interaction network analyses indicated that these differentially expressed proteins were mainly involved in the pathway of protein synthesis, muscle contraction, and oxidative phosphorylation. Integrative analysis of proteome and our previous transcriptome data found 189 differentially expressed proteins that correlated with their mRNA level. The interactions between these proteins were also involved in muscle contraction and oxidative phosphorylation pathways. The lncRNA-protein interaction network found four proteins DMD, MYL3, TNNI2, and TNNT3 that are all involved in muscle contraction and may be lncRNA regulated. These results provide several candidate genes for further investigation into the molecular mechanisms of chicken embryonic muscle development, and enable us to better understanding their regulation networks and biochemical pathways.

  15. Crowing Sound Analysis of Gaga' Chicken; Local Chicken from South Sulawesi Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Aprilita Bugiwati, Sri Rachma; Ashari, Fachri

    2008-01-01

    Gaga??? chicken was known as a local chicken at South Sulawesi Indonesia which has unique, specific, and different crowing sound, especially at the ending of crowing sound which is like the voice character of human laughing, comparing with the other types of singing chicken in the world. 287 birds of Gaga??? chicken at 3 districts at the centre habitat of Gaga??? chicken were separated into 2 groups (163 birds of Dangdut type and 124 birds of Slow type) which is based on the speed...

  16. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for flavour deterioration

  17. Flavour chemistry of chicken meat: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, Dinesh D; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-05-01

    Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers' meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for flavour deterioration

  18. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh D. Jayasena

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for

  19. Irradiation to ensure the safety and quality of some ethnic soups, snacks and Yunan chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irawati, Z.; Harsojo; Nurcahya, C.M.; Anas, F.; Natalia, L.

    2009-01-01

    Semi-concentrated black, oxtail, chicken vegetable and chicken sweetcorn soups, precooked spring roll, rissole and croquette snacks, and Yunan chicken were individually packed in a dry laminate pouch of PET 12 μm/LDPE adh.2 μm/Al foil 7 μm /LDPE adh/LLDPE (C4) 50 μm under vacuum followed by freezing for 24 h at -18 deg. C prior to irradiation with doses of 1, 3, 5 and 7 kGy at cryogenic conditions (-79 deg. C). Both the non-irradiated and irradiated prepared meals were then stored in a refrigerator at 5 ± 2 deg. C. The non-irradiated samples and those samples irradiated at 1 kGy were mostly damaged after a week in storage. Gamma irradiation at doses of 5-7 kGy for soups and snacks, and doses of 3-5 kGy for Yunan chicken can reduce the microbial load by about 2-3 log cycles, respectively, without affecting the physicochemical parameters and palatability over 2-3 months. However, the irradiated spring roll was unable to withstand more than 1 month storage. The D 10 values for potential pathogens on Yunan chicken were 0.28 kGy for Salmonella typhimurium, 0.17 kGy for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 0.12 kGy for Escherichia coli O157, 0.66 kGy for Listeria monocytogenes and 0.09 kGy for Campylobacter jejuni. (author)

  20. CHANGES IN THE QUALITY OF DRESSED CHICKEN OBTAINED FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES DURING FROZEN STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar HT

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This present study examines the preservation quality of dressed chicken procured from different sources of processing during storage at –18±1ºC. Breast portion of the dressed birds obtained from three different sources, viz. market/road side slaughtered chicken (MSC, retail slaughtered chicken (RSC, and scientifically slaughtered chicken (SSC, were cut into chunks, divided into 250 g portions, packed in polyethylene bags, stored at –18±1ºC and evaluated at 30 days intervals for changes in quality attributes. Frozen storage had no marked influence on pH change of the samples. SSC samples had higher extract release volume (15.34±0.08 to 13.45±0.93 ml than MSC (13.00±0.19 to 9.91±0.97 ml and RSC samples (13.65±0.24 to 11.70±1.21ml. There was significant increase (P<0.05 in thiobarbituric acid of all three sample types during storage but values were well below the threshold level of spoilage. SSC samples showed lower tyrosine content throughout frozen storage compared to MSC and RSC samples. A significant decline in microbial load, viz. total viable count, coliform count, psychrophilic count and yeast and moulds count were noticed during frozen storage. Organoleptic attributes, viz. appearance, flavour, texture and overall palatability were not affected due to frozen storage except juiciness in MSC samples which decreased (P<0.05 from 6.53±0.13 to 5.96±0.11 on 90 days of storage. Although the scientifically slaughtered chicken had better quality, all the sample types could be stored at –18±1ºC till 90 days without much deterioration in their quality.

  1. Production of crispy bread snacks containing chicken meat and chicken meat powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HULYA CAKMAK

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Chicken meat in two different forms (chicken meat and chicken meat powder were added into white flour and whole wheat blend baguette bread formulations for protein enrichment and finally developing new and healthy snacks. The chicken meat and powder levels were 10% for white flour baguette, and 15% for whole wheat blend. The dried baguette samples were packaged under 100% N2, and physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial properties were evaluated during 3 months of storage. Protein content of chicken meat powder added samples were found statistically higher than chicken meat added samples. Hardness of the snacks was significantly affected from type of chicken meat, such as values were higher for chicken meat added samples than chicken meat powder added samples. Lipid oxidation of the snacks was determined by TBA analysis, and TBA value for whole wheat mixture snack with 15% of chicken meat was the highest among all during storage. The highest overall acceptance score was obtained from white flour snack with 10% chicken meat. There was no coliform bacteria detected during storage and the results of yeast-mold count and aerobic plate count of snacks remained between the quantitative ranges.

  2. Chicken parvovirus and its associations with malabsorption syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkler, F; Lima, D A; Cerva, C; Moraes, L B; Cibulski, S P; Teixeira, T F; Santos, H F; Almeida, L L; Roehe, P M; Franco, A C

    2016-08-01

    Malabsorption syndrome (MAS) is a multifactorial syndrome which is characterized by enteric disorders and reduced growth rates of broilers. Such condition is responsible for significant economic losses to the poultry industry. A possible association between chicken parvovirus (ChPV) infections and the occurrence of MAS has been proposed. However, such association has not to date been elucidated in view that ChPV has been detected in healthy as well as in MAS-affected chickens. This study aimed to detect and quantify ChPV loads in sera and tissues of MAS-affected, as well as in healthy broilers. Fifty nine, 39-day-old broilers (50 diseased, 9 healthy birds), obtained from the same flocks, were examined. The highest ChPV DNA loads were detected in MAS-affected broilers, particularly in fecal samples and intestinal tissues (~5500 genomic copies/300ng of total DNA). The average viral genome load in serum in MAS-affected birds was 1134copies/mL, whereas no viral DNA was found in sera and thymus tissues from healthy animals. These findings reveal that MAS-affected broilers consistently carry ChPV DNA is serum, whereas healthy animals do not. In addition, viral loads in tissues (bursa of Fabricius, spleen, intestine and liver) of MAS-affected birds were significantly higher in comparison to the same tissues from healthy broilers. Although preliminary, the results obtained here indicate an association between the detection of ChPV DNA in serum, in addition to high ChPV viral loads in tissues, and the occurrence of MAS in broilers. Further experiments should be performed to confirm such results. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Immune Responses of Chickens Infected with Wild Bird-Origin H5N6 Avian Influenza Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimin Gao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Since April 2014, new infections of H5N6 avian influenza virus (AIV in humans and domestic poultry have caused considerable economic losses in the poultry industry and posed an enormous threat to human health worldwide. In previous research using gene sequence and phylogenetic analysis, we reported that H5N6 AIV isolated in February 2015 (ZH283 in Pallas’s sandgrouse was highly similar to that isolated in a human in December 2015 (A/Guangdong/ZQ874/2015, whereas a virus (i.e., SW8 isolated in oriental magpie-robin in 2014 was highly similar to that of A/chicken/Dongguan/2690/2013 (H5N6. However, the pathogenicity, transmissibility, and host immune-related response of chickens infected by those wild bird-origin H5N6 AIVs remain unknown. In response, we examined the viral distribution and mRNA expression profiles of immune-related genes in chickens infected with both viruses. Results showed that the H5N6 AIVs were highly pathogenic to chickens and caused not only systemic infection in multiple tissues, but also 100% mortality within 3–5 days post-infection. Additionally, ZH283 efficiently replicated in all tested tissues and transmitted among chickens more rapidly than SW8. Moreover, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that following infection with H5N6, AIVs immune-related genes remained active in a tissue-dependent manner, as well as that ZH283 induced mRNA expression profiles such as TLR3, TLR7, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10, IL-8, and MHC-II to a greater extent than SW8 in the tested tissues of infected chickens. Altogether, our findings help to illuminate the pathogenesis and immunologic mechanisms of H5N6 AIVs in chickens.

  4. Drainage or Packing of the Sella? Transsphenoidal Surgery for Primary Pituitary Abscess: Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soichi Oya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The detailed surgical procedure of the transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary abscess has scarcely been described previously because it is a very rare clinical entity. The authors reported two cases of primary pituitary abscess. In case 1, the anterior wall of the sella turcica was reconstructed with the vomer bone after irrigating the abscess cavity, but the sella was not packed by fat for fear of the persistent infection by devascularized tissues. This led to the postoperative meningocele, the cerebrospinal fluid leak, and bacterial meningitis despite the successful abscess drainage. In case 2, tight sellar packing and reconstruction of the sellar wall were performed to avoid these postoperative complications, which resulted in complete drainage and uneventful postoperative course. Although accumulation of more cases is obviously needed to establish the definitive surgical technique in pituitary abscess surgery, our experience might suggest that packing of the sella is not impeditive for postoperative sufficient drainage.

  5. American Spirit Pack Descriptors and Perceptions of Harm: A Crowdsourced Comparison of Modified Packs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Jennifer L; Richardson, Amanda; Feirman, Shari P; Villanti, Andrea C; Cantrell, Jennifer; Cohn, Amy; Tacelosky, Michael; Kirchner, Thomas R

    2016-08-01

    In 2015, the Food and Drug Administration issued warnings to three tobacco manufacturers who label their cigarettes as "additive-free" and/or "natural" on the grounds that they make unauthorized reduced risk claims. The goal of this study was to examine US adults' perceptions of three American Spirit (AS) pack descriptors ("Made with Organic Tobacco," "100% Additive-Free," and "100% US Grown Tobacco") to assess if they communicate reduced risk. In September 2012, three cross-sectional surveys were posted on Amazon Mechanical Turk. Adult participants evaluated the relative harm of a Marlboro Red pack versus three different AS packs with the descriptors "Made with Organic Tobacco," "100% Additive-Free," or "100% US Grown Tobacco" (Survey 1; n = 461); a Marlboro Red pack versus these AS packs modified to exclude descriptors (Survey 2; n = 857); and unmodified versus modified AS pack images (Survey 3; n = 1001). The majority of Survey 1 participants rated the unmodified AS packs as less harmful than the Marlboro Red pack; 35.4%-58.8% of Survey 2 participants also rated the modified (no claims) packs as less harmful than Marlboro Red. In these surveys, prior use of AS cigarettes was associated with reduced perceptions of risk (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.59-2.40). "Made with Organic Tobacco" and "100% Additive-Free" were associated with reduced perceptions of risk when comparing the modified versus the unmodified AS packs (Survey 3). Data suggest that these AS pack descriptors communicate reduced harm messages to consumers. Findings have implications for regulatory actions related to product labeling and packaging. These findings provide additional evidence that the "Made with Organic Tobacco," "100% Additive-Free," and "100% US Grown" descriptors, as well as other aspects of the AS pack design, communicate reduced harm to non-, current, and former smokers. Additionally, they provide support for the importance of FDA's 2015 warning to Santa Fe Natural Tobacco Company on

  6. Random close packing in protein cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Jennifer C; Smith, W Wendell; Regan, Lynne; O'Hern, Corey S

    2016-03-01

    Shortly after the determination of the first protein x-ray crystal structures, researchers analyzed their cores and reported packing fractions ϕ ≈ 0.75, a value that is similar to close packing of equal-sized spheres. A limitation of these analyses was the use of extended atom models, rather than the more physically accurate explicit hydrogen model. The validity of the explicit hydrogen model was proved in our previous studies by its ability to predict the side chain dihedral angle distributions observed in proteins. In contrast, the extended atom model is not able to recapitulate the side chain dihedral angle distributions, and gives rise to large atomic clashes at side chain dihedral angle combinations that are highly probable in protein crystal structures. Here, we employ the explicit hydrogen model to calculate the packing fraction of the cores of over 200 high-resolution protein structures. We find that these protein cores have ϕ ≈ 0.56, which is similar to results obtained from simulations of random packings of individual amino acids. This result provides a deeper understanding of the physical basis of protein structure that will enable predictions of the effects of amino acid mutations to protein cores and interfaces of known structure.

  7. Granular packings with moving side walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landry, James W.; Grest, Gary Stephen

    2004-01-01

    The effects of movement of the side walls of a confined granular packing are studied by discrete element, molecular dynamics simulations. The dynamical evolution of the stress is studied as a function of wall movement both in the direction of gravity as well as opposite to it. For all wall velocities explored, the stress in the final state of the system after wall movement is fundamentally different from the original state obtained by pouring particles into the container and letting them settle under the influence of gravity. The original packing possesses a hydrostaticlike region at the top of the container which crosses over to a depth-independent stress. As the walls are moved in the direction opposite to gravity, the saturation stress first reaches a minimum value independent of the wall velocity, then increases to a steady-state value dependent on the wall velocity. After wall movement ceases and the packing reaches equilibrium, the stress profile fits the classic Janssen form for high wall velocities, while some deviations remain for low wall velocities. The wall movement greatly increases the number of particle-wall and particle-particle forces at the Coulomb criterion. Varying the wall velocity has only small effects on the particle structure of the final packing so long as the walls travel a similar distance.

  8. Importance of packing in spiral defect chaos

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We develop two measures to characterize the geometry of patterns exhibited by the state of spiral defect chaos, a weakly turbulent regime of Rayleigh-Bénard convection. These describe the packing of contiguous stripes within the pattern by quantifying their length and nearest-neighbor distributions. The distributions ...

  9. Wrap-Attack Pack: Product Packaging Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hwan; Hoffman, K. Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Although many marketing courses discuss traditional concepts pertaining to product strategy, concepts specifically relating to packaging are often glossed over. This exercise, "Wrap-Attack Pack," teaches students about the utilitarian and hedonic design elements of packaging. More specifically, the primary objective is to creatively…

  10. Simple Cloud Chambers Using Gel Ice Packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Masahiro; Kubota, Miki

    2012-01-01

    Although cloud chambers are highly regarded as teaching aids for radiation education, school teachers have difficulty in using cloud chambers because they have to prepare dry ice or liquid nitrogen before the experiment. We developed a very simple and inexpensive cloud chamber that uses the contents of gel ice packs which can substitute for dry…

  11. The new generation of packing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malikov, T.S.; Dzhonmurodov, A.S.; Usmanova, S.R.; Teshaev, Kh.I.; Mukhidinov, Z.K.

    2016-01-01

    Present article is devoted to new generation of packing materials. The methods of extraction and investigation of component composition and properties of whey protein, zein, carboxymethylcellulose, hyaluronic acid and pectins were elaborated in order to further application them in pharmaceutical industry as composite materials and for capsulation of medicines.

  12. Packing frustration in dense confined fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygård, Kim; Sarman, Sten; Kjellander, Roland

    2014-09-07

    Packing frustration for confined fluids, i.e., the incompatibility between the preferred packing of the fluid particles and the packing constraints imposed by the confining surfaces, is studied for a dense hard-sphere fluid confined between planar hard surfaces at short separations. The detailed mechanism for the frustration is investigated via an analysis of the anisotropic pair distributions of the confined fluid, as obtained from integral equation theory for inhomogeneous fluids at pair correlation level within the anisotropic Percus-Yevick approximation. By examining the mean forces that arise from interparticle collisions around the periphery of each particle in the slit, we calculate the principal components of the mean force for the density profile--each component being the sum of collisional forces on a particle's hemisphere facing either surface. The variations of these components with the slit width give rise to rather intricate changes in the layer structure between the surfaces, but, as shown in this paper, the basis of these variations can be easily understood qualitatively and often also semi-quantitatively. It is found that the ordering of the fluid is in essence governed locally by the packing constraints at each single solid-fluid interface. A simple superposition of forces due to the presence of each surface gives surprisingly good estimates of the density profiles, but there remain nontrivial confinement effects that cannot be explained by superposition, most notably the magnitude of the excess adsorption of particles in the slit relative to bulk.

  13. The benefits of using customized procedure packs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, R; Colquhoun, G; Jones, N; Bateman, R

    2001-01-01

    Discrete item purchasing is the traditional approach for hospitals to obtain consumable supplies for theatre procedures. Although most items are relatively low cost, the management and co-ordination of the supply chain, raising orders, controlling stock, picking and delivering to each operating theatre can be complex and costly. Customized procedure packs provide a solution.

  14. Selection for growth rate and body size have altered the expression profiles of somatotropic axis genes in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Xu, Zhiqiang; Duan, Xiaohua; Li, Qihua; Dou, Tengfei; Gu, Dahai; Rong, Hua; Wang, Kun; Li, Zhengtian; Talpur, Mir Zulqarnain; Huang, Ying; Wang, Shanrong; Yan, Shixiong; Tong, Huiquan; Zhao, Sumei; Zhao, Guiping; Su, Zhengchang; Ge, Changrong

    2018-01-01

    The growth hormone / insulin-like growth factor-1 (GH/IGF-1) pathway of the somatotropic axis is the major controller for growth rate and body size in vertebrates, but the effect of selection on the expression of GH/IGF-1 somatotropic axis genes and their association with body size and growth performance in farm animals is not fully understood. We analyzed a time series of expression profiles of GH/IGF-1 somatotropic axis genes in two chicken breeds, the Daweishan mini chickens and Wuding chickens, and the commercial Avian broilers hybrid exhibiting markedly different body sizes and growth rates. We found that growth rate and feed conversion efficiency in Daweishan mini chickens were significantly lower than those in Wuding chickens and Avian broilers. The Wuding and Daweishan mini chickens showed higher levels of plasma GH, pituitary GH mRNA but lower levels of hepatic growth hormone receptor (GHR) mRNA than in Avian broilers. Daweishan mini chickens showed significantly lower levels of plasma IGF-1, thigh muscle and hepatic IGF-1 mRNA than did Avian broilers and Wuding chickens. These results suggest that the GH part of the somatotropic axis is the main regulator of growth rate, while IGF-1 may regulate both growth rate and body weight. Selection for growth performance and body size have altered the expression profiles of somatotropic axis genes in a breed-, age-, and tissue-specific manner, and manner, and alteration of regulatory mechanisms of these genes might play an important role in the developmental characteristics of chickens. PMID:29630644

  15. The Prevalence of Toxoplasma Infection among Free-Ranging Chickens in Southern Iran Using IFA and Nested-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GhR Hatam

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: As consumption of chicken meat may be as one of the sources of human infection, this study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of T. gondii in farm chickens (Gallus gallus domesti­cus in Shiraz, southern Iran. "nMethods: Two hundred and thirty one blood samples were collected from farm chickens by a cluster ran­dom sampling method and tested for toxoplasmosis by indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT. The samples of the brain, heart, and liver of the chickens were tested by a Nested PCR method. The re­sults were analyzed by SPSS software using Chi-Square test and a P value <0.05 was considered statically sig­nificant. "nResults: Out of 58 seropositive chickens, 29 (1:16 in eight, 1:32 in 14, 1:64 in five and 1:128 in two birds and out of seronegative chickens, three were enrolled in the study. The most infected tissue was liver (27 out of 29 and the lowest was the heart (16 out of 29 (α=0.05, P=0.002. None of the seronegative chick­ens was positive in PCR method. Only 2 out of 8 cases with a titer of 1:16 (as cut off point were negative in PCR method whereas the remained were positive. "nConclusion: Based on cultural and food habits in our area, the meat and viscera of chicken may be impor­tant sources of infection in human when consuming semi-cooked meats. Considering the high prevalence of toxoplasmosis in chickens, standards in chicken breeding, education of environmental health personnel and standardization for preparation and handling techniques are required by Health and Veterinary organizations.

  16. Campylobacter jejuni diarrhea model in infant chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanyal, S. C.; Islam, K. M.; Neogy, P. K.; Islam, M.; Speelman, P.; Huq, M. I.

    1984-01-01

    To study the pathogenic mechanisms of Campylobacter jejuni infection, 36- to 72-h-old chickens were fed 10(3) to 10(6) live cells, using strains isolated from 40 patients with watery diarrhea and 6 with bloody mucoid diarrhea from whom no other known enteropathogen was detected. Chickens of Starbro

  17. Ectoparasites and Haemoparasites of Indigenous Chicken ( Gallus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research undertook the study of ectoparasites and haemoparasites found on and in the body of indigenous chicken (Gallus domesticus). Six hundred and nineteen ectoparasites were collected from 375 chicken from 28 households in and around Ibadan city between February and November, 1999. Of these, 455 ...

  18. Enteric parvovirus infections of chickens and turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicken and turkey parvoviruses are members of the Parvovirus family. Comparative sequence analysis of their genome structure revealed that they should form a new genus within the vertebrate Parvovirinae subfamily. The first chicken and turkey parvoviruses were identified by electron microscopy duri...

  19. What's so special about chicken immunology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    What’s so special about chickens? Firstly, chickens are not only an invaluable model for studying immunology, they also provide the world’s main source of meat and will be a key protein source needed to feed the growing human population into the future. Poultry meat production is highly efficient ...

  20. Breeding program for indigenous chicken in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngeno, K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    Ngeno, K. (2015). Breeding program for indigenous chicken in Kenya. Analysis of diversity in indigenous chicken populations. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands

    The objective of this research was to generate knowledge required for the

  1. Transcriptional Innate Immune Response of the Developing Chicken Embryo to Newcastle Disease Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Megan A.; Katani, Robab; Memari, Sahar; Cavanaugh, Meredith; Buza, Joram; Radzio-Basu, Jessica; Mpenda, Fulgence N.; Deist, Melissa S.; Lamont, Susan J.; Kapur, Vivek

    2018-01-01

    Traditional approaches to assess the immune response of chickens to infection are through animal trials, which are expensive, require enhanced biosecurity, compromise welfare, and are frequently influenced by confounding variables. Since the chicken embryo becomes immunocompetent prior to hatch, we here characterized the transcriptional response of selected innate immune genes to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infection in chicken embryos at days 10, 14, and 18 of embryonic development. The results suggest that the innate immune response 72 h after challenge of 18-day chicken embryo is both consistent and robust. The expression of CCL5, Mx1, and TLR3 in lung tissues of NDV challenged chicken embryos from the outbred Kuroiler and Tanzanian local ecotype lines showed that their expression was several orders of magnitude higher in the Kuroiler than in the local ecotypes. Next, the expression patterns of three additional innate-immunity related genes, IL-8, IRF-1, and STAT1, were examined in the highly congenic Fayoumi (M5.1 and M15.2) and Leghorn (Ghs6 and Ghs13) sublines that differ only at the microchromosome bearing the major histocompatibility locus. The results show that the Ghs13 Leghorn subline had a consistently higher expression of all genes except IL-8 and expression seemed to be subline-dependent rather than breed-dependent, suggesting that the innate immune response of chicken embryos to NDV infection may be genetically controlled by the MHC-locus. Taken together, the results suggest that the chicken embryo may represent a promising model to studying the patterns and sources of variation of the avian innate immune response to infection with NDV and related pathogens. PMID:29535762

  2. Transcriptional Innate Immune Response of the Developing Chicken Embryo to Newcastle Disease Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan A. Schilling

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditional approaches to assess the immune response of chickens to infection are through animal trials, which are expensive, require enhanced biosecurity, compromise welfare, and are frequently influenced by confounding variables. Since the chicken embryo becomes immunocompetent prior to hatch, we here characterized the transcriptional response of selected innate immune genes to Newcastle disease virus (NDV infection in chicken embryos at days 10, 14, and 18 of embryonic development. The results suggest that the innate immune response 72 h after challenge of 18-day chicken embryo is both consistent and robust. The expression of CCL5, Mx1, and TLR3 in lung tissues of NDV challenged chicken embryos from the outbred Kuroiler and Tanzanian local ecotype lines showed that their expression was several orders of magnitude higher in the Kuroiler than in the local ecotypes. Next, the expression patterns of three additional innate-immunity related genes, IL-8, IRF-1, and STAT1, were examined in the highly congenic Fayoumi (M5.1 and M15.2 and Leghorn (Ghs6 and Ghs13 sublines that differ only at the microchromosome bearing the major histocompatibility locus. The results show that the Ghs13 Leghorn subline had a consistently higher expression of all genes except IL-8 and expression seemed to be subline-dependent rather than breed-dependent, suggesting that the innate immune response of chicken embryos to NDV infection may be genetically controlled by the MHC-locus. Taken together, the results suggest that the chicken embryo may represent a promising model to studying the patterns and sources of variation of the avian innate immune response to infection with NDV and related pathogens.

  3. Expression and Association of SCD Gene Polymorphisms and Fatty Acid Compositions in Chicken Cross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Furqon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD is an integral membrane protein of endoplasmic reticulum (ER that catalyzes the rate limiting step in the monounsaturated fatty acids from saturated fatty acids. Selection for fatty acids traits based on molecular marker assisted selection is needed to increase a value of chicken meat. This study was designed to analyze expression and associations of SCD gene polymorphisms with fatty acid traits in F2 kampung-broiler chicken cross. A total of 62 F2 kampung-broiler chicken cross (29 males and 33 females were used in this study. Fatty acid traits were measured at 26 weeks of age. Samples were divided into two groups based on fatty acid traits (the highest and the lowest. Primers in exon 2 region were designed from the genomic chicken sequence. The SNP g.37284A>G was detected and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method was then used to genotype. The expression of SCD gene was analyzed using quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR. The result showed that there were three genotypes (AA, AG, and GG found in this study. The SCD|AciI polymorphism was significantly associated with palmitoleic acid (C16:1, fatty acids total and saturated fatty acid in 26 weeks old of F2 kampung-broiler chicken cross (P<0.05. The SCD gene was expressed for polyunsaturated fatty acids in liver tissue in two groups of chickens. In conclusion, the SCD gene could be a candidate gene that affects fatty acids traits in F2 kampung-broiler chicken cross.

  4. The potency of STAT (signal transducers and activators of transcription) 3 protein as growth promoter for chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma'ruf, Anwar; Iswati, Sri; Hidajati, Nove; Damayanti, Ratna

    2017-09-01

    The long-term objective of this study was to produce STAT synthetic protein in chicken during growth period resulting from the increase of growth hormone (GH) as growth promoter. This study used ten male chicken Lohman from PT. Multibreeder Indonesia. The chicken were kept within batteried cage, with a capacity of one chicken in each cage. The chickens were fed twice a day, at 6 a.m. and 6 p.m. with the amount of feed 10% less than standard. On day 21 the chicken were slaughtered to obtain the samples, i.e., adipose, liver and muscles for the following examinations (1) isolation of STAT-3 signaling protein from adipose, liver and muscles of the chicken, (2) analysis of STAT-3 signaling protein using SDS-PAGE method, and (3) identification of STAT-3 signaling protein using Western blot method by means of protein detection using electrophoresis with polyacrylamide gels. Results of examination on protein in hepatic, muscle and adipose of chickens in growth period revealed that STAT protein was positively present in those tissues. This finding was followed-up with SDS-PAGE examination, from which we found the presence of protein band between the markers of 116 kDa and 14.4 kDa. The protein band was supposedly the STAT-3 protein. To prove that protein band formed was the STAT-3, Western blot examination was conducted using rabbit polyclonal antibody STAT-3. The result showed the formation of the protein band, indicating the presence of reaction between antigen (STAT-3 protein) and STAT-3 protein antibody. In conclusion, STAT-3 protein is present in hepatic, muscular, and adipose tissues, with molecular weight of 59.4 kDa.

  5. Expression profiles and associations of adiponectin and adiponectin receptors with intramuscular fat in Tibetan chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R; Lin, Y; Zhi, L; Liao, H; Zuo, L; Li, Z; Xu, Y

    2017-04-01

    1. Adiponectin and its receptors (ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2) are novel endocrine systems that act at various levels to modulate glucose and lipid metabolism. This study was designed to investigate the spatial expression of adiponectin, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 genes in various tissues in Tibetan chicken. The temporal expression of adiponectin and its receptor mRNAs were also studied in adipose tissue, breast muscle and thigh muscle and the correlations of the levels of adiponectin, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 mRNA with the contents of intramuscular fat in breast muscle and thigh muscle of Tibetan chicken were determined. 2. Quantitative real-time PCR detected chicken adiponectin, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 mRNA transcripts in heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. 3. Adipose tissue contained the highest amount of adiponectin mRNA followed by the kidney and liver. The expression levels of ADIPOR1 mRNA were significantly higher in adipose tissue, lung and spleen, and adipose tissue exhibited significantly higher levels of ADIPOR2 mRNA followed by the spleen and lung compared with other tissues. 4. Temporal expression profiles of adiponectin, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 mRNA showed gender differences in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle at certain ages. In adipose tissue, adiponectin mRNA was higher in 154-d-old females and ADIPOR1 mRNA was higher in 154-d-old males: Adiponectin and ADIPOR2 mRNA were higher, and ADIPOR1 mRNA was lower, in thigh muscle in female compared with male chickens. 5. The correlation data showed that, except for adiponectin mRNA, the levels of ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 mRNA in thigh muscle of males were significantly positively correlated with IMF (r = 0.206 for the ADIPOR1 gene and r = 0.676 for the ADIPOR2 gene). 6. Taken together, it was concluded that adiponectin and the ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 genes are ubiquitously expressed in various tissues of Tibetan chicken and the expression of the adiponectin system is gender-dependant at certain ages

  6. Experimental infection with Brazilian Newcastle disease virus strain in pigeons and chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano de Oliveira Torres Carrasco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia and chickens (Gallus gallus in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota, developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil.

  7. Pharmacokinetics of Short- and Long-acting Formulations of Oxytetracycline After Intramuscular Administration in Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gberindyer, Aondover F; Okpeh, Ene R; Semaka, Asaaga A

    2015-12-01

    Both short- and long-acting formulations of oxytetracycline are commonly used in veterinary medicine to treat animals infected with gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, rickettsiae, mycoplasma, and chlamydiae. To compare pharmacokinetics of short- and long-acting oxytetracycline in chickens, injectable formulations from the same pharmaceutical company were administered to healthy 6-week-old broiler chickens in accordance to the labeled instructions. Fourteen chickens were separated into 2 groups: chickens in group A (n = 7) were administered the short-acting formulation (10 mg/kg IM q24h) for 4 consecutive days, whereas those in group B (n = 7) were treated with a single dose (20 mg/kg IM) of the long-acting formulation. Blood samples were collected into heparinized tubes before and at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 24 hours after initial treatment. Thereafter, blood samples were taken every 24 hours up to 120 hours. Plasma concentrations of oxytetracycline were determined by competitive enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay, and pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained. Both formulations delivered therapeutic plasma concentrations of oxytetracycline for approximately 100% of their respective dosing intervals as recommended. However, considering the additional labor, patient stress, and mortalities associated with handling, in addition to rejection of the carcass due to tissue necrosis resulting from multiple injections, we recommend use of the long-acting instead of the short-acting injectable formulation in broiler chickens.

  8. A comparison of mutagen production in fried ground chicken and beef: effect of supplemental creatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knize, M G; Shen, N H; Felton, J S

    1988-11-01

    Ground chicken breast and ground beef with either endogenous or a 10-fold increase in the concentration of creatine were fried at 220 degrees C for 10 min per side. One patty (100 g) of chicken meat yielded 120,000 Salmonella (TA1538) revertants following metabolic activation. The pan residues had 39% of the total activity. Added creatine (10-fold the endogenous level) increased mutagen yields an average of 2-fold. Beef cooked under identical conditions yielded 150,000 revertants/100 g for the meat patties and pan residues combined. Added creatine to beef prior to cooking increased mutagen yields 3-fold. The mutagenic profiles following initial HPLC separation showed that chicken samples with endogenous or added creatine were remarkably similar. Chicken and beef HPLC mutagenicity profiles were also similar to each other, but not identical. This suggests that the general mutagen-forming reactions with the two different types of muscle are qualitatively similar with only minor quantitative differences. The pan residues from both meat types with and without added creatine showed some significant differences in the mutagen peak profile. This work suggests that the types of mutagens formed in chicken are similar to those formed in beef and that creatine appears to be involved in the formation of all the mutagenic compounds produced from fried muscle tissue.

  9. Modified strip packing heuristics for the rectangular variable-sized bin packing problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FG Ortmann

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Two packing problems are considered in this paper, namely the well-known strip packing problem (SPP and the variable-sized bin packing problem (VSBPP. A total of 252 strip packing heuristics (and variations thereof from the literature, as well as novel heuristics proposed by the authors, are compared statistically by means of 1170 SPP benchmark instances in order to identify the best heuristics in various classes. A combination of new heuristics with a new sorting method yields the best results. These heuristics are combined with a previous heuristic for the VSBPP by the authors to find good feasible solutions to 1357 VSBPP benchmark instances. This is the largest statistical comparison of algorithms for the SPP and the VSBPP to the best knowledge of the authors.

  10. Directional differentiation of chicken embryonic stem cells into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chicken embryonic stem (ES) cells are useful for producing transgenic chickens and preserving genetic material in avian species. In this study, the differentiation potential of chicken ES cells was investigated in vitro. Chicken ES cells were differentiated into osteoblasts cultured for 15 to 21 days in the induction media ...

  11. Column-to-column packing variation of disposable pre-packed columns for protein chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiger, Susanne; Hinterberger, Stephan; Jungbauer, Alois

    2017-12-08

    In the biopharmaceutical industry, pre-packed columns are the standard for process development, but they must be qualified before use in experimental studies to confirm the required performance of the packed bed. Column qualification is commonly done by pulse response experiments and depends highly on the experimental testing conditions. Additionally, the peak analysis method, the variation in the 3D packing structure of the bed, and the measurement precision of the workstation influence the outcome of qualification runs. While a full body of literature on these factors is available for HPLC columns, no comparable studies exist for preparative columns for protein chromatography. We quantified the influence of these parameters for commercially available pre-packed and self-packed columns of disposable and non-disposable design. Pulse response experiments were performed on 105 preparative chromatography columns with volumes of 0.2-20ml. The analyte acetone was studied at six different superficial velocities (30, 60, 100, 150, 250 and 500cm/h). The column-to-column packing variation between disposable pre-packed columns of different diameter-length combinations varied by 10-15%, which was acceptable for the intended use. The column-to-column variation cannot be explained by the packing density, but is interpreted as a difference in particle arrangement in the column. Since it was possible to determine differences in the column-to-column performance, we concluded that the columns were well-packed. The measurement precision of the chromatography workstation was independent of the column volume and was in a range of±0.01ml for the first peak moment and±0.007 ml 2 for the second moment. The measurement precision must be considered for small columns in the range of 2ml or less. The efficiency of disposable pre-packed columns was equal or better than that of self-packed columns. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Experimental studies on the coolability of packed beds. Flooding of hot dry packed beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leininger, S.; Kulenovic, R.; Laurien, E.

    2013-01-01

    In case of a severe accident in a nuclear power plant meltdown of the reactor core can occur and form a packed bed in the lower plenum of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) after solidification due to contact with water. The removal of after-heat and the long-term coolability is of essential interest. The efficient injection of cooling water into the packed bed has to be assured without endangering the structural integrity of the reactor pressure vessel. The experiments performed aimed to study the dry-out and the quenching (flooding) of hot dry packed beds. Two different inflow variants, bottom- and top-flooding including the variation of the starting temperature of the packed bed and the injection rate were studied. In case of bottom flooding the quenching time increases with increasing packed bed temperature and decreasing injection rate. In case of top flooding the flow pattern is more complex, in a first phase the water flows preferentially toward the RPV wall, the flow paths conduct the water downwards. The flow resistance of the packed bed increases with increasing bed temperatures. The quenching temperatures increase significantly above average.

  13. Functional properties of bicarbonates and lactic acid on chicken breast retail display properties and cooked meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nakia; Sharma, Vijendra; Brown, Nettie; Mohan, Anand

    2015-02-01

    Whole chicken breast was injected with potassium bicarbonate (PB), sodium bicarbonate (SB), and potassium lactate (K-lactate) and salt, alone or in combination at different concentration levels. The objectives were to 1) investigate the effects of different concentration of PB, SB, and PL on instrumental color, water-holding capacity (WHC), objective tenderness, expressible moisture, and moisture content and 2) evaluate whether sodium-containing ingredients can be replaced with potassium as a potential strategy to reduce total sodium content in the finished product. Results showed that chicken breast tissue marinated with SB and PB had greater moisture retention, display characteristics, and cooked product qualities than chicken breast tissue injected with water and the nonmarinated control. The L* values (lightness) did not change over the period of retail display and were not different compared to the control (P>0.05). The chicken breast enhanced with SB, PB, and K-lactate retained better retail display color than the controls (marinated with water and nonmarinated). Increasing the potassium bicarbonate concentration from 0.5 to 1.5% significantly improved the water-holding capacity (82.17 to 92.61%; Pmeat quality than SB. This study suggests that chicken breast tissue can be marinated with KB as a healthier alternative to phosphate or SB. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. Irradiation of meat products, chicken and use of irradiated spices for sausages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiss, I.F.; Beczner, J.; Zachariev, Gy. (Central Food Research Inst., Budapest (Hungary)); Kovacs, S. (Veterinary and Food Control Centre, Budapest (Hungary))

    1990-01-01

    The shelf-life of packed minced meat has been increased at least threefold at 4{sup 0}C by applying a 2 kGy dose. Results have been confirmed by detailed quantitative microbiological examinations. Sensory evaluations show no significant difference between the unirradiated and irradiated samples. The optimal average dose was 4 kGy for packed-frozen chicken. The number of mesophilic aerobic microbes was reduced by 2, that of psychrotolerant by 2-3 and that of Enterobacteriaceae by 3-4 orders of magnitude by 4 kGy. S. aureus and Salmonella could not be detected in the irradiated samples. in 1984-1985 5100 kg irradiated chickens were marketed labelled as radiation treated. Irradiated spices (5 kGy) were used in the production of sausages (heat-treated and non-heat-treated) under industrial conditions. The microbiological contamination of irradiated spices was lower than that of ethylene oxide treated ones. The cell count in products made with irradiated spices was lower than in those made with unirradiated spices. The sausages proved to be of very good quality. In accordance with the permission, products were marketed and because of the low ratio of spices there was no need to declare them as using irradiated spices. (author).

  15. Irradiation of meat products, chicken and use of irradiated spices for sausages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, I.F.; Beczner, J.; Zachariev, Gy.; Kovacs, S.

    1990-01-01

    The shelf-life of packed minced meat has been increased at least threefold at 4 0 C by applying a 2 kGy dose. Results have been confirmed by detailed quantitative microbiological examinations. Sensory evaluations show no significant difference between the unirradiated and irradiated samples. The optimal average dose was 4 kGy for packed-frozen chicken. The number of mesophilic aerobic microbes was reduced by 2, that of psychrotolerant by 2-3 and that of Enterobacteriaceae by 3-4 orders of magnitude by 4 kGy. S. aureus and Salmonella could not be detected in the irradiated samples. in 1984-1985 5100 kg irradiated chickens were marketed labelled as radiation treated. Irradiated spices (5 kGy) were used in the production of sausages (heat-treated and non-heat-treated) under industrial conditions. The microbiological contamination of irradiated spices was lower than that of ethylene oxide treated ones. The cell count in products made with irradiated spices was lower than in those made with unirradiated spices. The sausages proved to be of very good quality. In accordance with the permission, products were marketed and because of the low ratio of spices there was no need to declare them as using irradiated spices. (author)

  16. Irradiation of meat products, chicken and use of irradiated spices for sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, I. F.; Beczner, J.; Zachariev, Gy.; Kovács, S.

    The shelf-life of packed minced meat has been increased at least threefold at 4°C by applying a 2 kGy dose. Results have been confirmed by detailed quatitative microbiological examinations. Sensory evaluations show no significant difference between the unirradiated samples. The optimal average dose was 4 kGy for packed-frosen chicken. The number of mesophilic aerobic microbes was reduced by 2, that of psychrotolerant by 2-3 and that of Enterbacteriaceae by 3-4 orders of magnitude by 4 kGy. S. aureus and Salmonella could not be detected in the irradiated samples. In sensory evaluations there was no significant difference between untreated and irradiated samples. In 1984-1985 5100 kg irradiated chickens were marketed labelled as radiation treated. Irradiated spices (5 kGy) were used in the production of sausages (heat-treated and non-heat-treated) under industrial conditions. The microbiological contamination of irradiated spices was lower than that of ethylene oxide treated ones. The cell count in products made with irradiated spices was lower than in those made with unirradiated spices. The sausages proved to be of very good quality. In accordance with the permission, products were marketed and because of the low ratio of spices there was no need to declare them as using irradiated spices.

  17. Heavy metals in the snow pack of Semey town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panin, M.S.; Esenzholova, A.Zh.; Toropov, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    The data about the maintenance of heavy metals in the snow pack in various zones of Semey and biogeochemical operation factors of snow pack in Semey are presented in this work. Also the correlation connection between elements is calculated.

  18. Evaluation of Packed Distillation Columns I - Atmospheric Pressure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reynolds, Thaine

    1951-01-01

    .... Four column-packing combinations of the glass columns and four column-packing combinations of the steel columns were investigated at atmospheric pressure using a test mixture of methylcyclohexane...

  19. Valve-stem-packing improvement study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adey, C.W.; Klein, J.J.

    1982-08-01

    By employing questionnaires and face-to-face interviews with valve and valve packing manufacturers, as well as nuclear plant personnel, an understanding of valve stem packing leakage problems from each of the three viewpoints was developed. This information, in-house experience, and available technical literature were used to develop specific recommendations for valve manufacturers, valve packing manufacturers, and nuclear plant valve users. It was generally recommended that each these groups make better use of graphite packing. The questionnaires and interviews indicated that increased usage of graphite packing over the last few years has reduced the incidence of valve packing problems. To confirm this, a survey of Licensee Event Reports (LERs) from 1972 to 1980 was undertaken using the keywords Valve and Packing. A statistical analysis of the LER data confirms that the adoption of graphite packing has significantly reduced valve stem leakage

  20. Microbiological Quality of Blister Pack Tablets in Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Blister pack, Community pharmacy, Good Manufacturing Practice, Microbial contamination,. Quality control ... High levels of microbial contamination in blister-packed tablets ... and their drugs approved by the Jordan Food and Drug ...

  1. Packing of equal discs on a parabolic spiral lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xudong, F.; Bursill, L.A.; Julin, P.

    1989-01-01

    A contact disc model is investigated to determine the most closely-packed parabolic spiral lattice. The most space-efficient packings have divergence angles in agreement with the priority ranking of natural spiral structures

  2. Meal Module, Tray Pack 36-Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-27

    4184 Canadian Bacon 8905-01-1 51-2488 Escal loped Potatoes 8940-01-147-6362 Grape Juice, Instant 8915-01-010-1471 Disposable Unit (Table A-2) as...Chocolate Pudding 8940-01-159-1569 Orange, Juice, Instant 8915-00-530-3414 Disposable Unit (Table A-2) as listed Condiments (Table A-3) as listed...Breakfast 3 Pineapple w/Syrup 8915-00-170-5127 Chicken ala King 8940-01-154-3525 Buttered Noodles 8940-01-151-5844 Apple Dessert 8940-01-147-7855 Grape

  3. The Early Stages of Heart Development: Insights from Chicken Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes G. Wittig

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The heart is the first functioning organ in the developing embryo and a detailed understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in its formation provides insights into congenital malformations affecting its function and therefore the survival of the organism. Because many developmental mechanisms are highly conserved, it is possible to extrapolate from observations made in invertebrate and vertebrate model organisms to humans. This review will highlight the contributions made through studying heart development in avian embryos, particularly the chicken. The major advantage of chick embryos is their accessibility for surgical manipulation and functional interference approaches, both gain- and loss-of-function. In addition to experiments performed in ovo, the dissection of tissues for ex vivo culture, genomic, or biochemical approaches is straightforward. Furthermore, embryos can be cultured for time-lapse imaging, which enables tracking of fluorescently labeled cells and detailed analysis of tissue morphogenesis. Owing to these features, investigations in chick embryos have led to important discoveries, often complementing genetic studies in mice and zebrafish. As well as including some historical aspects, we cover here some of the crucial advances made in understanding early heart development using the chicken model.

  4. Gamma irradiation as a means to eliminate Listeria monocytogenes from frozen chicken meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamat, A.S.; Nair, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    Cells of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 35152 were sensitive to gamma irradiation in phosphate buffer, pH 7.00 (D 10 , dose required for 10% survival—0.15 kGy) at 0–5°C. The cells showed higher radiation survival when irradiated under frozen condition, with a D 10 of 0.3 kGy. The protection offered by shrimp/chicken/kheema homogenates (100 g litre−1) was evidenced by even higher D 10 values (0.5 kGy) at both 0–5°C and cryogenic temperature. Boneless chicken meat samples were artificially inoculated with L monocytogenes ATCC 35152 cells at low (5 × 10 3 ) colony-forming unit (cfu) g −1 and high (5 × 10 6 cfu g −1 ) concentrations and irradiated at 1, 3, 4, 6 kGy doses under cryogenic conditions. The efficacy of the radiation process was evaluated by detecting L monocytogenes during storage at 2–4°C in the irradiated samples. These studies, when repeated with three other serotypes of L monocytogenes, clearly suggested the need for a dose of 3 kGy for elimination of 10 3 cfu cells of L monocytogenes g −1 from air-packed frozen chicken meat. (author)

  5. Contamination profile of Listeria spp. in three types of ready-to-eat chicken meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekroengsin, Sumalin; Keeratipibul, Suwimon; Trakoonlerswilai, Kasame

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated contamination sources of Listeria spp. in frozen, ready-to-eat, roasted, steamed, and fried chicken meat products from a plant in Thailand, as well as the correlation between Listeria contamination in the production environment and the finished product. The cooking processes used in this factory (with a product core temperature of 80 degrees C for 1 min) were confirmed as adequate for eliminating Listeria spp. However, Listeria spp. were detected at the packing stage of roasted and steamed chicken products. An environmental swab test was conducted by means of the zone concept, whereby surfaces in the production area were divided into three zones. Zone 1 was made up of the equipment surfaces that came into direct contact with the products. Zone 2 consisted of equipment surfaces that were not in direct contact with the products, including surfaces that were difficult to be cleaned. Zone 3 included surfaces that did not come in direct contact with the products and were located far from the products. The results showed that the prevalence of Listeria spp. in roasted and steamed products was affected by the prevalence of Listeria contamination in all zones, especially zone 1, which demonstrated the highest correlation. In addition, the prevalence of Listeria contamination in zones 2 and 3 affected the prevalence of Listeria in zone 1. A correlation between Listeria on roasted chicken products and the surfaces of zone 1 at the start of production was also established.

  6. Oral DNA Vaccine in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Davoud Jazayeri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Attenuated Salmonella has been used as a carrier for DNA vaccine. However, in vitro and in vivo studies on the bacteria following transfection of plasmid DNA were poorly studied. In this paper, eukaryotic expression plasmids encoding avian influenza virus (AIV subtype H5N1 genes, pcDNA3.1/HA, NA, and NP, were transfected into an attenuated Salmonella enteric typhimurium SV4089. In vitro stability of the transfected plasmids into Salmonella were over 90% after 100 generations. The attenuated Salmonella were able to invade MCF-7 (1.2% and MCF-10A (0.5% human breast cancer cells. Newly hatched specific-pathogen-free (SPF chicks were inoculated once by oral gavage with 109 colony-forming unit (CFU of the attenuated Salmonella. No abnormal clinical signs or deaths were recorded after inoculation. Viable bacteria were detected 3 days after inoculation by plating from spleen, liver, and cecum. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were carried out for confirmation. Salmonella was not detected in blood cultures although serum antibody immune responses to Salmonella O antiserum group D1 factor 1, 9, and 12 antigens were observed in all the inoculated chickens after 7 days up to 35 days. Our results showed that live attenuated S. typhimurium SV4089 harboring pcDNA3.1/HA, NA, and NP may provide a unique alternative as a carrier for DNA oral vaccine in chickens.

  7. Imaging of drug smuggling by body packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, Giacomo; Guida, Franco; Bocchini, Giorgio; Iaselli, Francesco; Iadevito, Isabella; Scaglione, Mariano

    2015-02-01

    Body packing, pushing, and stuffing are hazardous practices with complex medicolegal and social implications. A radiologist plays both a social and a medicolegal role in their assessment, and it should not be limited only to the identification of the packages but must also provide accurate information about their number and their exact location so as to prevent any package remains in the body packer. Radiologists must also be able to recognize the complications associated with these risky practices. Imaging assessment of body packing is performed essentially through plain abdominal X-ray and computed tomography scans. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, although with some advantages, actually have a limited use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Packing and Disorder in Substituted Fullerenes

    KAUST Repository

    Tummala, Naga Rajesh

    2016-07-15

    Fullerenes are ubiquitous as electron-acceptor and electron-transport materials in organic solar cells. Recent synthetic strategies to improve the solubility and electronic characteristics of these molecules have translated into a tremendous increase in the variety of derivatives employed in these applications. Here, we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to examine the impact of going from mono-adducts to bis- and tris-adducts on the structural, cohesive, and packing characteristics of [6,6]-phenyl-C60-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and indene-C60. The packing configurations obtained at the MD level then serve as input for density functional theory calculations that examine the solid-state energetic disorder (distribution of site energies) as a function of chemical substitution. The variations in structural and site-energy disorders reflect the fundamental materials differences among the derivatives and impact the performance of these materials in thin-film electronic devices.

  9. Homometrism in close-packed structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardix, S.

    1990-01-01

    Homometric structures are non-congruent structures having identical X-ray intensity distributions. It has so far been assumed that such structures, while theoretically interesting, would not be realized in practice. Homometrism in close-packed structures is shown to be a realistic possibility. Some general rules applicable to homometric pairs are presented; it is shown that an infinite number of them can be derived from one-dimensional homometric pairs. An exhaustive search of close-packed structures with periods of up to 26 reveals that the smallest period of a homometric pair is 15 and that their number increases rapidly with the period. Homometrism in polytypic structures is further discussed. (orig.)

  10. School meal sociality or lunch pack individualism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sidse Schoubye; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    the social life of a school class, and how these arrangements involve strategies of both inclusion and exclusion. Two types of school meals are compared in the intervention study: a hot meal based on Nordic ingredients and the normal Danish school meal arrangement in which children bring lunch packs...... to school. The study discusses commensality by examining and comparing lunchtime interactions within the same group of children in the two contrasting meal situations. The results fail to confirm the conventional view that shared meals have greater social impacts and benefits than eating individualized...... foods. The article argues that the social entrepreneurship involved in sharing individual lunch packs might even outweigh some of the benefits of shared meals where everyone is served the same food....

  11. On the perfect hexagonal packing of rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starostin, E L

    2006-01-01

    In most cases the hexagonal packing of fibrous structures or rods extremizes the energy of interaction between strands. If the strands are not straight, then it is still possible to form a perfect hexatic bundle. Conditions under which the perfect hexagonal packing of curved tubular structures may exist are formulated. Particular attention is given to closed or cycled arrangements of the rods like in the DNA toroids and spools. The closure or return constraints of the bundle result in an allowable group of automorphisms of the cross-sectional hexagonal lattice. The structure of this group is explored. Examples of open helical-like and closed toroidal-like bundles are presented. An expression for the elastic energy of a perfectly packed bundle of thin elastic rods is derived. The energy accounts for both the bending and torsional stiffnesses of the rods. It is shown that equilibria of the bundle correspond to solutions of a variational problem formulated for the curve representing the axis of the bundle. The functional involves a function of the squared curvature under the constraints on the total torsion and the length. The Euler-Lagrange equations are obtained in terms of curvature and torsion and due to the existence of the first integrals the problem is reduced to the quadrature. The three-dimensional shape of the bundle may be readily reconstructed by integration of the Ilyukhin-type equations in special cylindrical coordinates. The results are of universal nature and are applicable to various fibrous structures, in particular, to intramolecular liquid crystals formed by DNA condensed in toroids or packed inside the viral capsids

  12. 36 CFR 1002.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as “pack animals” for purposes of transporting equipment. (b) The use of...

  13. 36 CFR 34.10 - Saddle and pack animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Saddle and pack animals. 34... INTERIOR EL PORTAL ADMINISTRATIVE SITE REGULATIONS § 34.10 Saddle and pack animals. The use of saddle and pack animals is prohibited without a permit from the Superintendent. ...

  14. 36 CFR 2.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 2.16... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as “pack animals” for purposes of transporting...

  15. New Structured Packing CUB for Purification of Exhaust Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Novikova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available New structured packing for heat and mass transfer processes named CUB is presented in our article. The packing can be applied in packed towers for exhaust gas cleaning instead random packing, for example, rings type that are the most used in such processes. The advantages of the new packing over random packing are lower pressure drop, capability of purification and as a consequence long-term service of the packing. The researches of intensity of liquid-phase mass-transfer in packed bed depending on liquid spray rate and gas velocity were carried out. Obtained data show that packing CUB is more effective than the most popular type of structured packing under all other conditions being equal. As experimental data shown heat transfer coefficient was up by 17% and mass transfer coefficient was up by 51%. We found out optimal geometry of cross section of the new packing, namely, number of elements and parameters of one element. The new construction of structured packing is applicable for both type of column cross-section round and square.

  16. Packing parameters effect on injection molding of polypropylene nanostructured surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaon, Matteo; Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    having a diameter of 500 nm was employed. The tool insert surface was produced using chemical-based-batch techniques such aluminum anodization and nickel electroplating. During the injection molding process, polypropylene (PP) was employed as material and packing phase parameters (packing time, packing...

  17. Evaluation of Type II Fast Packs for Electrostatic Discharge Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    34 x 8" x 1 3/4") consisting of a reclosable cushioned carrier which mates into an outer fiberboard sleeve. A cushioning insert is used consisting of a... RECLOSABLE CUSHIONED CARRIER TEST LOAD FIGURE 1: Cancel Caddy Pack * CONVOLUTED 4* CUSHIONED I FIGURE 2: Type II Fast Pack (PPP-B-1672) TYPE II FAST PACK

  18. 21 CFR 133.124 - Cold-pack cheese food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cold-pack cheese food. 133.124 Section 133.124 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Cheese and Related Products § 133.124 Cold-pack cheese food. (a)(1) Cold-pack cheese food is the food...

  19. CoolPack – Simulation tools for refrigeration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.; Andersen, Simon Engedal

    1999-01-01

    CoolPack is a collection of programs used for energy analysis and optimisation of refrigeration systems. CoolPack is developed at the Department of Energy Engineering at the Technical University of Denmark. The Danish Energy Agency finances the project. CoolPack is freeware and can be downloaded...

  20. 48 CFR 552.211-87 - Export packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Export packing. 552.211-87... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 552.211-87 Export packing. As prescribed in 511.204(b)(7), insert the following clause: Export Packing (JAN 2010) (a...

  1. Symmetric scrolled packings of multilayered carbon nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin, A. V.; Korznikova, E. A.; Lobzenko, I. P.; Baimova, Yu. A.; Dmitriev, S. V.

    2016-06-01

    Scrolled packings of single-layer and multilayer graphene can be used for the creation of supercapacitors, nanopumps, nanofilters, and other nanodevices. The full atomistic simulation of graphene scrolls is restricted to consideration of relatively small systems in small time intervals. To overcome this difficulty, a two-dimensional chain model making possible an efficient calculation of static and dynamic characteristics of nanoribbon scrolls with allowance for the longitudinal and bending stiffness of nanoribbons is proposed. The model is extended to the case of scrolls of multilayer graphene. Possible equilibrium states of symmetric scrolls of multilayer carbon nanotribbons rolled up so that all nanoribbons in the scroll are equivalent are found. Dependences of the number of coils, the inner and outer radii, lowest vibrational eigenfrequencies of rolled packages on the length L of nanoribbons are obtained. It is shown that the lowest vibrational eigenfrequency of a symmetric scroll decreases with a nanoribbon length proportionally to L -1. It is energetically unfavorable for too short nanoribbons to roll up, and their ground state is a stack of plane nanoribbons. With an increasing number k of layers, the nanoribbon length L necessary for creation of symmetric scrolls increases. For a sufficiently small number of layers k and a sufficiently large nanoribbon length L, the scrolled packing has the lowest energy as compared to that of stack of plane nanoribbons and folded structures. The results can be used for development of nanomaterials and nanodevices on the basis of graphene scrolled packings.

  2. The effect of slaughter operations on the contamination of chicken carcasses with thermotolerant Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Sommer, Helle M; Nielsen, Niels L; Christensen, Bjarke B

    2006-04-25

    To evaluate the effect of specific slaughter operations on the contamination of broiler carcasses with naturally occurring thermotolerant Campylobacter, experiments were carried out in two Danish commercial slaughter plants (Plant I and Plant II). Six broiler flocks determined Campylobacter positive prior to slaughter were investigated at four sampling locations within each slaughter plant. Quantification of thermotolerant Campylobacter in 30 neck skin samples per flock per sampling location showed that the evisceration operation in Plant I led to a significant increase in the Campylobacter concentration of 0.5 log(10) cfu/g in average, whereas no significant changes were observed during this operation in Plant II. Air chilling (Plant I) and water chilling (Plant II), both including a carcass wash prior to the chilling operation, caused similar, but significant reductions of 0.83 and 0.97 log(10) cfu/g, respectively. In packed frozen chickens (Plant II) an additional reduction of 1.38 log(10) cfu/g in average was obtained due to the freezing operation. In packed chilled chickens (Plant I), however, the number of thermotolerant Campylobacter per gram remained at the same level as after air chilling. Enumeration of thermotolerant Campylobacter in 30 intestinal samples per flock showed that in two of the six flocks examined the within flock colonization was very low (defeathering operation was documented. This finding indicates that a reduction in the Campylobacter concentration on chicken carcasses may also be obtained by interventions aimed at reducing the concentration of Campylobacter in the intestines of the living birds.

  3. Unveiling the participation of avian kinin ornithokinin and its receptors in the chicken inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guabiraba, Rodrigo; Garrido, Damien; Bailleul, Geoffrey; Trotereau, Angélina; Pinaud, Mélanie; Lalmanach, Anne-Christine; Chanteloup, Nathalie K; Schouler, Catherine

    2017-06-01

    Vasoactive peptides are key early mediators of inflammation released through activation of different enzymatic systems. The mammalian kinin-kallikrein (K-KLK) system produces bradykinin (BK) through proteolytic cleavage of a kininogen precursor by enzymes named kallikreins. BK acts through specific ubiquitous G-protein coupled receptors (B1R and B2R) to participate in physiological processes and inflammatory responses, such as activation of mononuclear phagocytes. In chickens, the BK-like nonapeptide ornithokinin (OK) has been shown to promote intracellular calcium increase in embryonic fibroblasts and to be vasodilatory in vivo. Also, one of its receptors (B2R) was already cloned. However, the participation of chicken K-KLK system components in the inflammatory response remains unknown and was therefore investigated. We first showed that B1R, B2R and kininogen 1 (KNG1) are expressed in unstimulated chicken tissues and macrophages. We next showed that chicken B1R and B2R are expressed at transcript and protein levels in chicken macrophages and are upregulated by E. coli LPS or avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) infection. Interestingly, exogenous OK induced internalization and degradation of OK receptors protein, notably B2R. Also, OK induced intracellular calcium increase and potentiated zymosan-induced ROS production and Dextran-FITC endocytosis by chicken macrophages. Exogenous OK itself did not promote APEC killing and had no pro-inflammatory effect. However, when combined with LPS or APEC, OK upregulated cytokine/chemokine gene expression and NO production by chicken macrophages. This effect was not blocked by canonical non-peptide B1R or B2R receptor antagonists but was GPCR- and PI3K/Akt-dependent. In vivo, pulmonary colibacillosis led to upregulation of OK receptors expression in chicken lungs and liver. Also, colibacillosis led to significant upregulation of OK precursor KNG1 expression in liver and in cultured hepatocytes (LMH). We therefore provide hitherto

  4. Studies of the transmissibility of the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to the domestic chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Jo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmission of the prion disease bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE occurred accidentally to cattle and several other mammalian species via feed supplemented with meat and bone meal contaminated with infected bovine tissue. Prior to United Kingdom controls in 1996 on the feeding of mammalian meat and bone meal to farmed animals, the domestic chicken was potentially exposed to feed contaminated with the causal agent of BSE. Although confirmed prion diseases are unrecorded in avian species a study was undertaken to transmit BSE to the domestic chicken by parenteral and oral inoculations. Transmissibility was assessed by clinical monitoring, histopathological examinations, detection of a putative disease form of an avian prion protein (PrP in recipient tissues and by mouse bioassay of tissues. Occurrence of a progressive neurological syndrome in the primary transmission study was investigated by sub-passage experiments. Results No clinical, pathological or bioassay evidence of transmission of BSE to the chicken was obtained in the primary or sub-passage experiments. Survival data showed no significant differences between control and treatment groups. Neurological signs observed, not previously described in the domestic chicken, were not associated with significant pathology. The diagnostic techniques applied failed to detect a disease associated form of PrP. Conclusion Important from a risk assessment perspective, the present study has established that the domestic chicken does not develop a prion disease after large parenteral exposures to the BSE agent or after oral exposures equivalent to previous exposures via commercial diets. Future investigations into the potential susceptibility of avian species to mammalian prion diseases require species-specific immunochemical techniques and more refined experimental models.

  5. Metabolism, Distribution, and Elimination of Mequindox in Pigs, Chickens, and Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lingli; Yin, Fujun; Pan, Yuanhu; Chen, Dongmei; Li, Juan; Wan, Dan; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2015-11-11

    Mequindox (MEQ), a quinoxaline-N,N-dioxide antibacterial agent used to control bacterial enteritis in various food-producing animals, is a potential violative residue in food animal-derived products. The disposition and elimination of MEQ in rats, pigs, and chickens was comprehensively investigated to identify the marker residue and target tissue of MEQ in food animals for residue monitoring. Following a single oral administration, 62-71% of MEQ was rapidly excreted via urine and feces in all species within 24 h. Urinary excretion of radioactivity was 84 and 83.5% of the administered dose in rats and pigs, respectively. More than 92% of the administered dose was excreted in all species within 15 days. Radioactivity was found in nearly all tissues at the first 6 h after dosing, with the majority of radioactivity cleared within 4-6 days. The highest radioactivity and longest persisting time were found to be in the liver and kidney. Totals of 11, 12, and 7 metabolites were identified in rats, chickens, and pigs, respectively. No parent drug could be detected in any of the tissues of pigs and chickens. 3-Methyl-2-acetyl quinoxaline (M1), 3-methyl-2-(1-hydroxyethyl) quinoxaline-N4-monoxide (M4), and 3-methyl-2-(1-hydroxyethyl) quinoxaline-1,4-dioxide (M6) were the common and major metabolites of MEQ in all three species. Additionally, 3-methyl-2-(1-hydroxyethyl) quinoxaline (M5), 3-hydroxymethyl-2-ethanol quinoxaline-1,4-dioxide (M7), and 3-methyl-2-(1-hydroxyethyl) quinoxaline-N1-monoxide (M8) were the major metabolites of MEQ in rats, pigs, and chickens, respectively. M1 was designated to be the marker residue of MEQ in pigs and chickens. These results provide scientific data for the determination of marker residues and withdrawal time of MEQ in food animals and improve the understanding of the toxicity and disposition of MEQ in animals.

  6. Toxigenic penicillia spoiling frozen chicken nuggets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigmann, Evelin Francine; Saccomori, Fernanda; Bernardi, Angelica Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Frozen chicken nuggets are classified as pre-prepared frozen meals. These products are convenient to consumers as they are easy to prepare and allow for long storage by freezing. Over the years, spoilage of frozen food products caused by fungi has been a continual problem for the food industry...... of filamentous fungi involved in the spoilage of frozen chicken nuggets and determine their ability to produce mycotoxins under laboratorial conditions. A total of 7 samples of frozen chicken nuggets were analyzed by dilution plating in potato dextrose agar (PDA). These products had been returned by customers...

  7. Campylobacter jejuni infection in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, A Singh; Shivaprasad, H L; Schaberg, D; Wier, F; Weber, S; Bandli, D

    2006-03-01

    Day-old, straight-run broiler chickens were procured from a hatchery located in the Pacific Northwest. The chickens were subdivided individually into nine groups of 20 chickens. The chickens were tagged, housed in isolation chambers on wire, fed commercial broiler feed, and given water ad libitum. Three isolates of Campylobacter jejuni of poultry origin and one of human origin were tested in this study. Various C. jejuni cultures were inoculated into 9-day-old chickens by crop gavage. Four groups of 20 chickens were inoculated at a dose level of 0.5 ml of 1 x 10(2) colony-forming units (CFU)/ml. The other four groups were inoculated with 0.5 ml of 1 X 10(4) CFU/ml. One group of 20 chickens was kept as an uninoculated control group. Four randomly selected chickens from each of the inoculated and uninoculated groups were necropsied at 5, 12, and 19 days postinoculation (DPI). The C. jejuni was cultured and enumerated from a composite of the upper and midintestine and the cecum. Body weights of all chicken groups at 7 days of age and at 5, 12, and 19 DPI were measured and statistically analyzed. No significant differences were present in the mean body weights (MBWs) of 7-day-old, 5 DPI, and 12 DPI male and female broiler chickens inoculated with C. jejuni at both dose levels compared with uninoculated controls. Differences in MBWs of the male and female broilers at 19 DPI were observed in some of the groups. Results of the C. jejuni culture enumeration mean (CEM) of composite intestine samples at 5 DPI from all inoculated chicken groups, irrespective of the dose level, ranged from (2.5 +/- 5.0) x 10(2) to (2.8 +/- 4.8) x 10(5) CFU/g (mean +/- SD). Results of cecum C. jejuni CEM at 5 DPI inoculated at both dose levels ranged from (2.5 +/- 5.0) x 10(6) to (1 +/- 0.0) x 10(7) CFU/g in all treatment groups irrespective of the dose level. CEM results from the composite intestine samples at 12 and 19 DPI increased by 1 log unit, or sometimes more. Results of cecum C. jejuni

  8. Quality Evaluation of Chicken Nugget Formulated with Various Contents of Chicken Skin and Wheat Fiber Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hack-Youn; Kim, Kon-Joong; Lee, Jong-Wan; Kim, Gye-Woong; Choe, Ju-Hui; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of various mixtures of the chicken skin and wheat fiber on the properties of chicken nuggets. Two skin and fiber mixtures (SFM) were prepared using the following formulations; SFM-1: chicken skin (50%), wheat fiber (20%), and ice (30%); and SFM-2: chicken skin (30%), wheat fiber (20%), and ice (50%). Chicken nugget samples were prepared by adding the following amounts of either SFM-1 or SFM-2: 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10%. The water content for samples formulated with SFM-1 or SFM-2 was higher than in the control (pchicken nuggets was higher than that of cooked chicken nuggets for all the samples tested. Chicken nuggets formulated with SFM-1 and SFM-2 displayed higher cooking yields than the control sample. The hardness of the control sample was also lower than the samples containing SFM-1 and SFM-2. The sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between the control and the samples containing SFM. Therefore, the incorporation of a chicken skin and wheat fiber mixture improved the quality of chicken nuggets. PMID:26761796

  9. New raw materials improve packing sealing efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igel, B.; McKeague, L.

    2012-01-01

    End-users and OEM's using or manufacturing on/off and control valves expect a permanent and effective increase in service life together with an increased sealing capability while at the same time minimizing maintenance concerns. Developing materials which provide consistency and repeatability are essential characteristics to optimizing valve performance. “New Generation” materials and yarn allow us to meet this growing demand while complying with the requirements related to chemical purity and an increased level of safety to both plant workers and equipment in the nuclear environment. Through R&D initiatives and developments in new and improved raw materials; a new mechanical packing generation which optimizes friction coefficients and extended life cycle has been introduced to the industry. Lower friction values drastically optimize actuator effort and size improving efficiency for stem operation with significant improvements in flow control of fluids. Combined with new and improved procedures (installation, torque levels and consolidation recommendations), this new packing generation has provided significant improvement in the mechanical behavior of packing materials (independent tests carried out in collaboration with AECL and CETIM) this has provided the opportunity to develop successful Valve Enhancement Programs which offer improved efficiency, valve operation and repeatability. These NEW generation yarns are available with or without wire reinforcement depending on specific operating parameters and conditions. The purpose of this presentation is to demonstrate that new generation material(s). Which are available to the industry for AOV, MOV and Manual valves? - To highlight the steps taken in R&D and manufacturing contributing to the much improved yarns and finished packing products. - Comply and are designed to meet the stringent requirements in the nuclear industry - Simplify valve maintenance without risk to safety or performance - Increase service

  10. The mechanical behaviour of packed particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, R.

    1998-01-01

    Within the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management program, the central concept is to package used fuel in containers that would be deposited in an underground vault in a plutonic rock formation. To provide internal mechanical support for the container, the reference design specifies it to be filled with a matrix of compacted particulate material (called 'packed particulate'), such as quartz sand granules. The focus of this report is on the mechanical properties of the packed-particulate material, based on information drawn from the extant literature. We first consider the packing density of particulate matrices to minimize the remnant porosity and maximize mechanical stability under conditions of external pressure. Practical methods, involving vibratory packing, are reviewed and recommendations made to select techniques to achieve optimum packing density. The behaviour of particulates under compressive loading has been of interest to the powder metallurgy industry (i.e., the manufacture of products from pressed/sintered metal and ceramic powders) since the early decades of this century. We review the evidence showing that in short timescales, stress induced compaction occurs by particle shuffling and rearrangement, elastic distortion, plastic yielding and microfracturing. Analytical expressions are available to describe these processes in a semiquantitative fashion. Time-dependent compaction, mainly via creep mechanisms, is more complex. Much of the theoretical and experimental information is confined to higher temperatures (> 500 degrees C), where deformation rates are more rapid. Thus, for the relatively low ambient temperatures of the waste container (∼100 degrees C), we require analytical techniques to extrapolate the collective particulate creep behaviour. This is largely accomplished by employing current theories of creep deformation, particularly in the form of Deformation Mechanism Maps, which allow estimation of creep rates over a wide range of stress

  11. The mechanical behaviour of packed particulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, R

    1998-01-01

    Within the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management program, the central concept is to package used fuel in containers that would be deposited in an underground vault in a plutonic rock formation. To provide internal mechanical support for the container, the reference design specifies it to be filled with a matrix of compacted particulate material (called 'packed particulate'), such as quartz sand granules. The focus of this report is on the mechanical properties of the packed-particulate material, based on information drawn from the extant literature. We first consider the packing density of particulate matrices to minimize the remnant porosity and maximize mechanical stability under conditions of external pressure. Practical methods, involving vibratory packing, are reviewed and recommendations made to select techniques to achieve optimum packing density. The behaviour of particulates under compressive loading has been of interest to the powder metallurgy industry (i.e., the manufacture of products from pressed/sintered metal and ceramic powders) since the early decades of this century. We review the evidence showing that in short timescales, stress induced compaction occurs by particle shuffling and rearrangement, elastic distortion, plastic yielding and microfracturing. Analytical expressions are available to describe these processes in a semiquantitative fashion. Time-dependent compaction, mainly via creep mechanisms, is more complex. Much of the theoretical and experimental information is confined to higher temperatures (> 500 degrees C), where deformation rates are more rapid. Thus, for the relatively low ambient temperatures of the waste container ({approx}100 degrees C), we require analytical techniques to extrapolate the collective particulate creep behaviour. This is largely accomplished by employing current theories of creep deformation, particularly in the form of Deformation Mechanism Maps, which allow estimation of creep rates over a wide

  12. HETP evaluation of structured packing distillation column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Orlando Jr.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Several tests with a hydrocarbon mixture of known composition (C8-C14, obtained from DETEN Chemistry S.A., have been performed in a laboratory distillation column, having 40mm of nominal diameter and 2.2m high, with internals of Sulzer DX gauze stainless steel structured packing. The main purpose of this work was to evaluate HETP of a structured packing laboratory scale distillation column, operating continuously. Six HETP correlations available in the literature were compared in order to find out which is the most appropriate for structured packing columns working with medium distillates. Prior to the experimental tests, simulation studies using commercial software PRO/II® were performed in order to establish the optimum operational conditions for the distillation, especially concerning operating pressure, top and bottom temperatures, feed location and reflux ratio. The results of PRO/II® were very similar to the analysis of the products obtained during continuous operation, therefore permitting the use of the properties calculated by that software on the theoretical models investigated. The theoretical models chosen for HETP evaluation were: Bravo, Rocha and Fair (1985; Rocha, Bravo and Fair (1993, 1996; Brunazzi and Pagliant (1997; Carlo, Olujić and Pagliant (2006; Olujić et al., (2004. Modifications concerning calculation of specific areas were performed on the correlations in order to fit them for gauze packing HETP evaluation. As the laboratory distillation column was operated continuously, different HETP values were found by the models investigated for each section of the column. The low liquid flow rates in the top section of the column are a source of error for HETP evaluation by the models; therefore, more reliable HETP values were found in the bottom section, in which liquid flow rates were much greater. Among the theoretical models, Olujić et al. (2004 has shown good results relative to the experimental tests. In addition, the

  13. Intake, distribution, and metabolism of decabromodiphenyl ether and its main metabolites in chickens and implications for human dietary exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jing-Xin; Bao, Lian-Jun; Luo, Pei; Shi, Lei; Wong, Charles S.; Zeng, Eddy Y.

    2017-01-01

    Diet is considered as the most important human exposure pathway for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Metabolism and accumulation patterns of PBDEs in different growth periods of chickens are helpful for evaluating human dietary exposure, but such information is scarce. In this study, female chickens were fed with food spiked with BDE-209 at 85 mg kg −1 , and the intake, accumulation, and excretion of BDE-209 and its main metabolites in various tissues were examined. Concentrations of BDE-209 in chicken tissues increased over time in a tissue-specific manner; they were the greatest in liver and generally the lowest in breast meat during the entire exposure period. The kinetic patterns were dependent on both growth-dilution effects and accumulated concentrations of BDE-209. Tissue concentrations of ∑ 8 PBDE (sum of BDE-28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183, and 209) followed the sequence of liver > blood > skin > intestine > stomach > leg meat > breast meat. Different tissue partition coefficients and perfusion rates for blood may have resulted in different PBDE concentrations in tissues. The absorption efficiency of BDE-209 in chicken tissues followed the sequence of liver (0.15 ± 0.032%) > skin (0.14 ± 0.038%) > intestine (0.071 ± 0.021%) > breast meat (0.062 ± 0.020%) > leg meat (0.059 ± 0.016%) > stomach (0.021 ± 0.0095%), likely due in part to facilitated absorption of BDE-209 by transport proteins (P-glycoproteins). On average, 9.3 ± 1.7% of BDE-209 was excreted in feces. Estimated human average dietary intake via the consumption of chicken tissues of ∑ 8 PBDE for adults and children was 319 and 1380 ng day −1 for liver, 211 and 632 ng day −1 for leg meat, and 104 and 311 ng day −1 for breast meat from the contaminated group. Liver clearly poses the highest exposure risk for human consumption, particularly if chickens are fed with contaminated feed. - Highlights: • BDE-209 is the most abundant

  14. Population structure of four Thai indigenous chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekchay, Supamit; Supakankul, Pantaporn; Assawamakin, Anunchai; Wilantho, Alisa; Chareanchim, Wanwisa; Tongsima, Sissades

    2014-03-27

    In recent years, Thai indigenous chickens have increasingly been bred as an alternative in Thailand poultry market. Due to their popularity, there is a clear need to improve the underlying quality and productivity of these chickens. Studying chicken genetic variation can improve the chicken meat quality as well as conserving rare chicken species. To begin with, a minimal set of molecular markers that can characterize the Thai indigenous chicken breeds is required. Using AFLP-PCR, 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from Thai indigenous chickens were obtained by DNA sequencing. From these SNPs, we genotyped 465 chickens from 7 chicken breeds, comprising four Thai indigenous chicken breeds--Pradhuhangdum (PD), Luenghangkhao (LK), Dang (DA) and Chee (CH), one wild chicken--the red jungle fowls (RJF), and two commercial chicken breeds--the brown egg layer (BL) and commercial broiler (CB). The chicken genotypes reveal unique genetic structures of the four Thai indigenous chicken breeds. The average expected heterozygosities of PD=0.341, LK=0.357, DA=0.349 and CH=0.373, while the references RJF= 0.327, CB=0.324 and BL= 0.285. The F(ST) values among Thai indigenous chicken breeds vary from 0.051 to 0.096. The F(ST) values between the pairs of Thai indigenous chickens and RJF vary from 0.083 to 0.105 and the FST values between the Thai indigenous chickens and the two commercial chicken breeds vary from 0.116 to 0.221. A neighbour-joining tree of all individual chickens showed that the Thai indigenous chickens were clustered into four groups which were closely related to the wild RJF but far from the commercial breeds. Such commercial breeds were split into two closely groups. Using genetic admixture analysis, we observed that the Thai indigenous chicken breeds are likely to share common ancestors with the RJF, while both commercial chicken breeds share the same admixture pattern. These results indicated that the Thai indigenous chicken breeds may descend from the

  15. Analysis of Consumers' Preferences and Price Sensitivity to Native Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-A; Jung, Yoojin; Jo, Cheorun; Park, Ji-Young; Nam, Ki-Chang

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed consumers' preferences and price sensitivity to native chickens. A survey was conducted from Jan 6 to 17, 2014, and data were collected from consumers (n=500) living in Korea. Statistical analyses evaluated the consumption patterns of native chickens, preference marketing for native chicken breeds which will be newly developed, and price sensitivity measurement (PSM). Of the subjects who preferred broilers, 24.3% do not purchase native chickens because of the dryness and tough texture, while those who preferred native chickens liked their chewy texture (38.2%). Of the total subjects, 38.2% preferred fried native chickens (38.2%) for processed food, 38.4% preferred direct sales for native chicken distribution, 51.0% preferred native chickens to be slaughtered in specialty stores, and 32.4% wanted easy access to native chickens. Additionally, the price stress range (PSR) was 50 won and the point of marginal cheapness (PMC) and point of marginal expensiveness (PME) were 6,980 won and 12,300 won, respectively. Evaluation of the segmentation market revealed that consumers who prefer broiler to native chicken breeds were more sensitive to the chicken price. To accelerate the consumption of newly developed native chicken meat, it is necessary to develop a texture that each consumer needs, to increase the accessibility of native chickens, and to have diverse menus and recipes as well as reasonable pricing for native chickens.

  16. Alternative fish feed production from waste chicken feathers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Jumini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this This devotion has been done to provide education and training of the utilization of waste chicken manure, making flour chicken feathers as a fish feed alternative, that can overcome some of the problems that waste chicken feathers from the center cutting broiler chickens in the village Krasak enough, it causes pollution, and not used optimally; Low public awareness of awareness of environmental pollution; the lack of public knowledge about the utilization of waste chicken feathers, and processing technology, as well as to address the needs of fish feed more expensive, need alternative feed ingredients. This service program has provided insight to the public about waste chicken feathers so that it can be used as a new entrepreneurial startups. To achieve these objectives have been done of activity as follows: 1 Provide counseling and understanding of the community will be a negative impact on the environment of waste chicken feathers. 2 Provide counseling utilization of waste chicken feathers for people in nearby farms. 3 Make a chicken feather meal of chicken feather waste as an alternative fish feed to improve digestibility of chicken feathers. 3 The formation of the group for increasing the economic income of the family. This service activities program runs quite well with demonstrated some activity, namely: 1 Change Behavior Society (knowledge transfer; 2 Chicken Feather Extension Waste Utilization; 3 Making Unit Waste Chicken Feathers; 4 Establishment of New Business of Diversified Waste Chicken Feathers.

  17. Characterization of village chicken production performance under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With a total population size of about 65 million, chicken make up the largest share in terms of number ... each PA, 40 households were randomly selected, making a total sample size ..... Production potential and qualitative traits of indigenous ...

  18. The chicken foot digital replant training model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanassopoulos, Thanassi; Loh, Charles Yuen Yung

    2015-01-01

    A simple, readily available digital replantation model in the chicken foot is described. This high fidelity model will hopefully allow trainees in hand surgery to gain further experience in replant surgery prior to clinical application.

  19. Structural characterization of the packings of granular regular polygons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuncheng; Dong, Kejun; Yu, Aibing

    2015-12-01

    By using a recently developed method for discrete modeling of nonspherical particles, we simulate the random packings of granular regular polygons with three to 11 edges under gravity. The effects of shape and friction on the packing structures are investigated by various structural parameters, including packing fraction, the radial distribution function, coordination number, Voronoi tessellation, and bond-orientational order. We find that packing fraction is generally higher for geometrically nonfrustrated regular polygons, and can be increased by the increase of edge number and decrease of friction. The changes of packing fraction are linked with those of the microstructures, such as the variations of the translational and orientational orders and local configurations. In particular, the free areas of Voronoi tessellations (which are related to local packing fractions) can be described by log-normal distributions for all polygons. The quantitative analyses establish a clearer picture for the packings of regular polygons.

  20. Association of estradiol on expression of melanocortin receptors and their accessory proteins in the liver of chicken (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Junxiao; Li, Yanmin; Xu, Naiyi; Li, Hong; Li, Cuicui; Han, Ruili; Wang, Yanbin; Li, Zhuanjian; Kang, Xiangtao; Liu, Xiaojun; Tian, Yadong

    2017-01-01

    The melanocortin receptor accessory proteins (MRAP and MRAP2) are small single-pass transmembrane proteins that regulate the biological functions of the melanocortin receptor (MCR) family. MCRs comprise five receptors (MC1R-MC5R) with diverse physiological roles in mammals. Five MCR members and two MRAPs were also predicted in the chicken (Gallus gallus) genome. However, little is known about their expression, regulation and biological functions. In this study, we cloned the MRAP and MRAP2 genes. Sequencing analysis revealed that the functional domains of MRAP and MRAP2 were conserved among species, suggesting that the physiological roles of chicken MRAP and MRAP2 could be similar to their mammalian counterparts. Tissue expression analysis demonstrated that MRAP was expressed in the adrenal gland, liver, spleen, glandular stomach and lungs, while MRAP2 is predominantly expressed in the adrenal gland. All five MCRs were present in the adrenal gland, but showed different expression patterns in other tissues. The MC5R was the only MCR member that was expressed in the chicken liver. The expression levels of MRAP in chicken liver were significantly increased at sexual maturity stage, and were significantly up-regulated (Pchickens and chicken primary hepatocytes were treated with 17β-estradiol in vivo and in vitro, respectively; however, expression levels of PPARγ were down-regulated, and no effect on MC5R was observed. Our results suggested that estrogen could stimulate the expression of MRAP in the liver of chicken through inhibiting the expression of transcription regulation factor PPARγ, and MRAP might play its biological role in a different way rather than forming an MRAP/MC2R complex in chicken liver during the egg-laying period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Heat Stress on the Expression of GABA Receptor mRNA in the HPG Axis of Wenchang Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJ Xie

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We investigated the effect of heat stress (HS on the expression of the GABA receptor in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis of Wenchang chickens. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR was used to quantify the GABA receptor mRNA levels along the HPG axis of chickens under HS (40±0.5 °C for 1-6 weeks. Our results showed that the expression of GABAA and GABAB receptor at the mRNAs levels in the tissues of HPG axis exhibited fluctuation and variability. After HS, the mRNA level of GABAA receptor was significantly reduced in the hypothalamus of 1-week-old and in the pituitary of 3-week-old chickens, but significantly increased in the pituitary of 1-, 4-, and 5-week-old chickens. The GABAB receptor mRNA level significantly declined in the hypothalamus of 1-week-old and in the pituitary of 3-week-old chickens, but was significantly upregulated in the pituitary and testis of 1- and 2-week-old chickens. At other time points, the expressions of GABAA receptor and GABAB receptor showed no significant differences compared with control group. These results indicated that the levels of GABAA receptor and GABAB receptor mRNAs varied in different tissues of the HPG axis in chickens of different ages, displaying temporal and spatial variations. GABA receptor behaved as a positively-regulated gene by HS, i.e., its mRNA was increased by HS; similarly, it was a negatively-regulated gene by HS, when its expression was reduced by HS.

  2. Comparison of three diagnostic methods for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii in free range chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidinejat, H; Nabavi, L; Mayahi, M; Ghourbanpoor, M; Pourmehdi Borojeni, M; Norollahi Fard, S; Shokrollahi, M

    2014-09-01

    Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in free range chickens is an indicator of the prevalence and distribution pattern of T. gondii in the environment. For this purpose, serologic assays especially modified agglutination test (MAT) is the main approach in the literature. The main goal of this study was to compare the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on amplification of first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) of ribosomal DNA gene, ELISA, and MAT to demonstrate T. gondii infection in free range chicken. A total of 106 adult free - range chickens were killed. Blood, whole heart and brain samples were taken. Sera were examined for the presence of T. gondii antibodies by ELISA and MAT as well. Selected tissues were used for PCR and bioassay in mice. The results revealed that 48.11%, 51.89%, 46.23% and 27.36% of chickens were positive in ELISA, MAT, PCR and bioassay in mice respectively. Good correlation between the results of PCR, ELISA and MAT were detected, but not with bioassay in mice. Compared with PCR, the sensitivity and specificity of ELISA were 92.16% and 96.36% respectively and also for MAT, the sensitivity was 81.81% and the specificity was 92.15%. The specific diagnosis of T. gondii infection in chickens is central to a better understanding of the epidemiology and dynamics of transmission among the various host population and is particularly important for planning effective optimal prevention and control programs. Our data in the present study demonstrated that PCR, ELISA and the MAT are helpful and precise methods to detect T. gondii in naturally infected free-range chickens.

  3. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds res...

  4. Differential proliferation and metabolic activity of Sertoli cells in the testes of broiler and layer breeder chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Mélanie; Guibert, Edith; Crochet, Sabine; Chartrin, Pascal; Brillard, Jean-Pierre; Collin, Anne; Froment, Pascal

    2017-07-01

    Decades of genetic selection have generated 2 different, highly specialized types of chickens in which 1 type, known as the layer-type chicken, expresses high laying performance while the other type, known as the broiler-type chicken, is dedicated to the production of fast-growing birds. Selected lines for the latter type often express disorders in their reproductive performance including early sexual maturation and accelerated, non-reversible seasonal decline of their semen production and mating behavior. The aim of the present study was to characterize some metabolic markers of the Sertoli cell populations. Sertoli cells are somatic cells known to support, coordinate, nourish, and protect the germ cell populations from onset to the end of their meiotic process. Comparisons of gonadal development between males of the 2 genetic types taken at their pre-pubertal period indicated that the testes of layer-type chickens are significantly less developed than in broiler-type males taken at the same age. In addition, cultures of purified Sertoli cells from the 2 types revealed in vitro a higher proliferative capacity when issued from layer compared to broiler-type chickens. This was associated with a higher expression of the genes involved in the beta-oxidation of fatty acids (CPT1; PPARβ) as well as a 4-fold increase in the Lactate Dehydrogenase-A expression and activity. In contrast, Sertoli cells from broiler-type chickens presented an elevated activity of citrate synthase and mitochondria, suggesting a better efficacy of aerobic metabolism in Sertoli cells from broiler compared to layer-type chickens. Moreover, the testis from broiler-type chickens seems to be more sensitive to oxidative stress due to the lower global antioxidant capacity compared to layer-type chickens.In conclusion, these results suggest that the metabolic activity of testicular tissues is different in the layer and broiler breeder chickens. The aerobic metabolism more prevalent in broiler

  5. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.O. Oluwayelu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6 % and 4 % nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2 % amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/Cl-8 and NGR/Cl-9 were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.

  6. Insights into the chicken IgY with emphasis on the generation and applications of chicken recombinant monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Warren; Syed Atif, Ali; Tan, Soo Choon; Leow, Chiuan Herng

    2017-08-01

    The advantages of chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) antibodies as immunodiagnostic and immunotherapeutic biomolecules has only been recently recognized. Even so, chicken antibodies remain less-well characterized than their mammalian counterparts. This review aims at providing a current overview of the structure, function, development and generation of chicken antibodies. Additionally, brief but comprehensive insights into current knowledge pertaining to the immunogenetic framework and diversity-generation of the chicken immunoglobulin repertoire which have contributed to the establishment of recombinant chicken mAb-generating methods are discussed. Focus is provided on the current methods used to generate antibodies from chickens with added emphasis on the generation of recombinant chicken mAbs and its derivative formats. The advantages and limitations of established protocols for the generation of chicken mAbs are highlighted. The various applications of recombinant chicken mAbs and its derivative formats in immunodiagnostics and immunotherapy are further detailed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Gentamicin pharmacokinetics in the chicken inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunting, Eric C; Park, Debra L; Durham, Dianne; Girod, Douglas A

    2004-06-01

    Avians have the unique ability to regenerate cochlear hair cells that are lost due to ototoxins or excessive noise. Many methodological techniques are available to damage the hair cells for subsequent scientific study. A recent method utilizes topical application of an ototoxic drug to the round window membrane. The current study examines the pharmacokinetics of gentamicin in the inner ear of chickens following topical application to the round window membrane or a single systemic high dose given intraperitoneally. Chickens were given gentamicin topically or systemically and survived for 1, 4, 12, 24, or 120 h (controls at 4 and 120 h). Serum and perilymph samples were obtained prior to sacrifice and measured for gentamicin levels. Results revealed higher levels of gentamicin in the perilymph of topically treated chickens than systemically treated chickens, with significant amounts of gentamicin still present in both at the latest survival time of 5 days. As expected, systemically treated chickens had much higher levels of gentamicin in the serum than topically treated chickens. Advantages and disadvantages to each method of drug administration are discussed.

  8. Post-mortem changes in chicken muscle : some key biochemical processes involved in the conversion of muscle to meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, F.J.G.

    1999-01-01

    The post mortem changes taking place in poultry muscular tissue and the resulting meat quality, until the moment of consumption of the meat by the consumer are described. Modern broiler chickens grow 'at the edge of what is metabolically possible'. This hypothesis is derived from the fact

  9. THE CONCENTRATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF 2,3,7,8-DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS / - FURANS IN CHICKENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concentrations of 2,3,7,8-Cl substituted dibenzo-p-dioxins/-furans (PCDDs/PCDFs) were determined in the edible tissues of whole chicken fryers and compared with the values found in their abdominal fat. The values are presented both on a whole weight basis and on a lipid-adju...

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of an Avian Metapneumovirus Subtype A Strain Isolated from Chicken (Gallus gallus) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Rizotto, La?s S.; Scagion, Guilherme P.; Cardoso, Tereza C.; Sim?o, Raphael M.; Caserta, Leonardo C.; Benassi, Julia C.; Keid, Lara B.; Oliveira, Tr?cia M. F. de S.; Soares, Rodrigo M.; Arns, Clarice W.; Van Borm, Steven; Ferreira, Helena L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report here the complete genome sequence of an avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) isolated from a tracheal tissue sample of a commercial layer flock. The complete genome sequence of aMPV-A/chicken/Brazil-SP/669/2003 was obtained using MiSeq (Illumina, Inc.) sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome classified the isolate as avian metapneumovirus subtype A.

  11. Viscoelastic gravel-pack carrier fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nehmer, W.L.

    1988-01-01

    The ability of a fluid to flow adequately into the formation during gravel-pack treatments is critical to achieving a good pack. Recent studies have indicated ''fish-eyes'' and/or ''microgels'' present in many polymer gelled carrier fluids will plug pore throats, leading to impaired leakoff and causing formation damage. Intensive manipulation of the polymer gelled fluid using shear and filter devices will help remove the particles, but it adds to the cost of the treatment in terms of equipment and manpower. Excessive shear will degrade the polymer leading to poor gravel suspension, while too little shear will cause filtration problems. A gelled carried fluid using a viscoelastic surfactant system has been found to leak off very efficiently to the formation, and cause no formation damage, without the use of shear/filter devices. Viscoelastic surfactant-base gelled fluids develop viscosity because of the association of surfactant moloecules into large rod-shaped aggregates. There is no hydration of polymer involved, so fish-eyes and microgels will not be formed in the viscoelastic fluid. A surfactant-base system having a yield point allows the gravel carrying properties to be much better than fluids gelled with conventional polymer systems (hydroxyethylcellulose [HEC]). For example, a gravel carried fluid gelled with 80 lb HEC/1,000 gal has a viscosity of about 400 cp at 170 sec/sup -1/; a viscoelastic surfactant-base system having only one-half the viscosity still flows into cores about four times more efficiently than the HEC-base fluid. The rheology, leakoff, formation damage and mixing properties of a viscoelastic, surfactant-base, gravel-pack carrier fluid are discussed

  12. Comparing Online Algorithms for Bin Packing Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epstein, Leah; Favrholdt, Lene Monrad; Kohrt, Jens Svalgaard

    2012-01-01

    The relative worst-order ratio is a measure of the quality of online algorithms. In contrast to the competitive ratio, this measure compares two online algorithms directly instead of using an intermediate comparison with an optimal offline algorithm. In this paper, we apply the relative worst-ord......-order ratio to online algorithms for several common variants of the bin packing problem. We mainly consider pairs of algorithms that are not distinguished by the competitive ratio and show that the relative worst-order ratio prefers the intuitively better algorithm of each pair....

  13. Packing C60 in Boron Nitride Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickelson, W.; Aloni, S.; Han, Wei-Qiang; Cumings, John; Zettl, A.

    2003-04-01

    We have created insulated C60 nanowire by packing C60 molecules into the interior of insulating boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs). For small-diameter BNNTs, the wire consists of a linear chain of C60 molecules. With increasing BNNT inner diameter, unusual C60 stacking configurations are obtained (including helical, hollow core, and incommensurate) that are unknown for bulk or thin-film forms of C60. C60 in BNNTs thus presents a model system for studying the properties of dimensionally constrained ``silo'' crystal structures. For the linear-chain case, we have fused the C60 molecules to form a single-walled carbon nanotube inside the insulating BNNT.

  14. Improvement of village chicken production in a mixed (chicken-ram) farming system in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kondombo, S.R.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords:Village chickens, sheep, production system, feeding, fattening, integration,Burkina Faso.Animal production in general and chickens

  15. Campylobacter jejuni strains of human and chicken origin are invasive in chickens after oral challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Katrine Nørrelund; Bang, Dang Duong; Andresen, Lars Ole

    2006-01-01

    to be associated with the Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS) in humans. The minimum dose for establishing colonization in the clay-old chickens was approximately 2 cfu, whereas two- to threefold higher doses were required for establishing colonization in the 14-day-old chickens. Two of the C jejuni strains were shown...

  16. Microbiological Safety of Chicken Litter or Chicken Litter-Based Organic Fertilizers: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers are usually recycled into the soil to improve the structure and fertility of agricultural land. As an important source of nutrients for crop production, chicken litter may also contain a variety of human pathogens that can threaten humans who consume the contaminated food or water. Composting can inactivate pathogens while creating a soil amendment beneficial for application to arable agricultural land. Some foodborne pathogens may have the potential to survive for long periods of time in raw chicken litter or its composted products after land application, and a small population of pathogenic cells may even regrow to high levels when the conditions are favorable for growth. Thermal processing is a good choice for inactivating pathogens in chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers prior to land application. However, some populations may become acclimatized to a hostile environment during build-up or composting and develop heat resistance through cross-protection during subsequent high temperature treatment. Therefore, this paper reviews currently available information on the microbiological safety of chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers, and discusses about further research on developing novel and effective disinfection techniques, including physical, chemical, and biological treatments, as an alternative to current methods.

  17. Genome-wide host responses against infectious laryngotracheitis virus vaccine infection in chicken embryo lung cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jeongyoon

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV; gallid herpesvirus 1 infection causes high mortality and huge economic losses in the poultry industry. To protect chickens against ILTV infection, chicken-embryo origin (CEO and tissue-culture origin (TCO vaccines have been used. However, the transmission of vaccine ILTV from vaccinated- to unvaccinated chickens can cause severe respiratory disease. Previously, host cell responses against virulent ILTV infections were determined by microarray analysis. In this study, a microarray analysis was performed to understand host-vaccine ILTV interactions at the host gene transcription level. Results The 44 K chicken oligo microarrays were used, and the results were compared to those found in virulent ILTV infection. Total RNAs extracted from vaccine ILTV infected chicken embryo lung cells at 1, 2, 3 and 4 days post infection (dpi, compared to 0 dpi, were subjected to microarray assay using the two color hybridization method. Data analysis using JMP Genomics 5.0 and the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA program showed that 213 differentially expressed genes could be grouped into a number of functional categories including tissue development, cellular growth and proliferation, cellular movement, and inflammatory responses. Moreover, 10 possible gene networks were created by the IPA program to show intermolecular connections. Interestingly, of 213 differentially expressed genes, BMP2, C8orf79, F10, and NPY were expressed distinctly in vaccine ILTV infection when compared to virulent ILTV infection. Conclusions Comprehensive knowledge of gene expression and biological functionalities of host factors during vaccine ILTV infection can provide insight into host cellular defense mechanisms compared to those of virulent ILTV.

  18. Fatal canine distemper infection in a pack of African wild dogs in the Serengeti ecosystem, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goller, Katja V; Fyumagwa, Robert D; Nikolin, Veljko; East, Marion L; Kilewo, Morris; Speck, Stephanie; Müller, Thomas; Matzke, Martina; Wibbelt, Gudrun

    2010-12-15

    In 2007, disease related mortality occurred in one African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) pack close to the north-eastern boundary of the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. Histopathological examination of tissues from six animals revealed that the main pathologic changes comprised interstitial pneumonia and suppurative to necrotizing bronchopneumonia. Respiratory epithelial cells contained numerous eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies and multiple syncytial cells were found throughout the parenchymal tissue, both reacting clearly positive with antibodies against canine distemper virus (CDV) antigen. Phylogenetic analysis based on a 388 nucleotide (nt) fragment of the CDV phosphoprotein (P) gene revealed that the pack was infected with a CDV variant most closely related to Tanzanian variants, including those obtained in 1994 during a CDV epidemic in the Serengeti National Park and from captive African wild dogs in the Mkomazi Game Reserve in 2000. Phylogenetic analysis of a 335-nt fragment of the fusion (F) gene confirmed that the pack in 2007 was infected with a variant most closely related to one variant from 1994 during the epidemic in the Serengeti National Park from which a comparable fragment is available. Screening of tissue samples for concurrent infections revealed evidence of canine parvovirus, Streptococcus equi subsp. ruminatorum and Hepatozoon sp. No evidence of infection with Babesia sp. or rabies virus was found. Possible implications of concurrent infections are discussed. This is the first molecular characterisation of CDV in free-ranging African wild dogs and only the third confirmed case of fatal CDV infection in a free-ranging pack. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Whole cDNA sequence cloning and expression of chicken L-FABP gene and its relationship with lipid deposition of hybrid chickens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying; Wang, Dong; Sun, Dong-Xiao; Xu, Gui-Yun; Li, Jun-Ying; Zhang, Yuan

    2011-07-01

    Liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) is closely related to intracellular transportation and deposition of lipids. A positive differential displayed fragment was found in the liver tissue among Silkie (CC), CAU-brown chicken (CD), and their reciprocal hybrids (CD and DC) at 8 weeks-old using differential display RT-PCR techniques (DDRT-PCR). Through recycling, sequencing, and alignment analysis, the fragment was identified as chicken liver fatty acid-binding protein gene (L-FABP, GenBank accession number AY321365). Reverse Northern dot blot and semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the avian L-FABP gene was over-expressed in the liver tissue of the reciprocal hybrids (CD and DC) compared to their parental lines (CC and DD), which was consistent with the fact that higher abdomen fat weight and wider inter-muscular fat width observed in the reciprocal hybrids. Considering the higher expression of L-FABP may contribute to the increased lipid deposition in the hybrid chickens, the functional study of avian L-FABP is warranted in future.

  20. Sensory characteristics and consumer preference for chicken meat in Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sow, T M A; Grongnet, J F

    2010-10-01

    This study identified the sensory characteristics and consumer preference for chicken meat in Guinea. Five chicken samples [live village chicken, live broiler, live spent laying hen, ready-to-cook broiler, and ready-to-cook broiler (imported)] bought from different locations were assessed by 10 trained panelists using 19 sensory attributes. The ANOVA results showed that 3 chicken appearance attributes (brown, yellow, and white), 5 chicken odor attributes (oily, intense, medicine smell, roasted, and mouth persistent), 3 chicken flavor attributes (sweet, bitter, and astringent), and 8 chicken texture attributes (firm, tender, juicy, chew, smooth, springy, hard, and fibrous) were significantly discriminating between the chicken samples (Pchicken, the live spent laying hen, and the ready-to-cook broiler (imported) were very well represented and clearly distinguished from the live broiler and the ready-to-cook broiler. One hundred twenty consumers expressed their preferences for the chicken samples using a 5-point Likert scale. The hierarchical cluster analysis of the preference data identified 4 homogenous consumer clusters. The hierarchical cluster analysis results showed that the live village chicken was the most preferred chicken sample, whereas the ready-to-cook broiler was the least preferred one. The partial least squares regression (PLSR) type 1 showed that 72% of the sensory data for the first 2 principal components explained 83% of the chicken preference. The PLSR1 identified that the sensory characteristics juicy, oily, sweet, hard, mouth persistent, and yellow were the most relevant sensory drivers of the Guinean chicken preference. The PLSR2 (with multiple responses) identified the relationship between the chicken samples, their sensory attributes, and the consumer clusters. Our results showed that there was not a chicken category that was exclusively preferred from the other chicken samples and therefore highlight the existence of place for development of

  1. Metagenomic Analysis of Chicken Gut Microbiota for Improving Metabolism and Health of Chickens — A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Young Choi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chicken is a major food source for humans, hence it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in nutrient absorption in chicken. In the gastrointestinal tract (GIT, the microbiota plays a central role in enhancing nutrient absorption and strengthening the immune system, thereby affecting both growth and health of chicken. There is little information on the diversity and functions of chicken GIT microbiota, its impact on the host, and the interactions between the microbiota and host. Here, we review the recent metagenomic strategies to analyze the chicken GIT microbiota composition and its functions related to improving metabolism and health. We summarize methodology of metagenomics in order to obtain bacterial taxonomy and functional inferences of the GIT microbiota and suggest a set of indicator genes for monitoring and manipulating the microbiota to promote host health in future.

  2. Chicken Essence Improves Exercise Performance and Ameliorates Physical Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ching Huang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chicken essence (CE is a liquid nutritional supplement made from cooking whole chickens. In traditional Chinese medicine, CE is used to support health, promote healing, increase metabolism, and relieve fatigue. However, few studies have examined the effect of CE on exercise performance and physical fatigue. We aimed to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of CE on fatigue and ergogenic functions following physical challenge in mice. Male ICR mice were divided into four groups to receive vehicle or CE by oral gavage at 0, 845, 1690, or 4225 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. Exercise performance and anti-fatigue function were evaluated by forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of physical fatigue-related biomarkers serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK after physical challenge. CE supplementation dose-dependently elevated endurance and grip strength. CE supplementation significantly decreased lactate, ammonia, and CK levels after physical challenge. Tissue glycogen content, an important energy source for exercise, was significantly increased with CE supplementation. In addition, CE supplementation had few subchronic toxic effects. The supplementation with CE can have a wide spectrum of bioactivities on health promotion, performance improvement and anti-fatigue.

  3. Campylobacter in chicken livers and their destruction by pan frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, R; Hudson, J A; Graham, C

    2006-12-01

    To enumerate Campylobacter spp. on the external surface and internal portions of chicken livers, and to assess the cooking required to inactivate naturally present cells. Of 30 livers tested all yielded Campylobacter spp. on their surfaces and 90% were found to contain the organism in internal tissue. Four (13%) livers contained >10(4) MPN campylobacters, and an additional seven (23%) contained >10(3) MPN campylobacters per liver. The internal temperature of pan-fried livers under the conditions used reached a maximum of 70-80 degrees C, and maintaining this temperature for 2-3 min was necessary to inactivate naturally occurring Campylobacter spp. All isolates identified were either C. jejuni or C. coli. Chicken livers represent a potential source of human campylobacteriosis as they contained >10(4) MPN per liver in 13% of the samples tested. Pan-frying can produce an acceptable product that is safe to eat. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THIS STUDY: The data provided can be used in exposure assessments of Campylobacter in poultry products in terms of both quantitative data and assessing pan-frying and its ability to destroy campylobacters.

  4. Contaminant bacteria in traditional-packed honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hening Tjaturina Pramesti

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Honey may be contaminated by microorganisms during its harvesting, processing, and packaging. Honey selected for clinical purposes must safe, sterile, and contain antimicrobial activity, so it must be evaluated using laboratory testing. The aim of this descriptive laboratory study was to isolate and identify the bacterial contaminant in the traditional-packed honey dealing with the use of honey for medical purposes. the colony forming units of honey sample cultured on blood agar were counted using Stuart bacterial colony counter. The suspected bacterial colonies were isolated and identified based on cultural morphology characteristics. The isolates of suspected bacterial colonies were stained according to Gram and Klein method and then were examined by the biochemical reaction. The results showed that there were two contaminant bacteria. Gram-positive cocci which were presumptively identified as coagulase-negative Staphylococci and gram-positive rods which were presumptively identified as Bacillus subtilis. In conclusion, the contaminant bacteria were regarded as low pathogen bacteria. The subtilin enzyme of B subtilis may cause an allergic reaction and coagulase-negative Staphylococci, Staphylococcus epidermidis is also an opportunist pathogen. Inevitably, for medical purposes, traditional-packed honey must be well filtered, water content above 18%, and standardized sterilization without loss of an antibacterial activity or change in properties.

  5. Mechanised packing for longwall coal faces. Monolithic packing and powered supports for the packhole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, F; Kitching, F

    1978-11-01

    If full advantage is to be taken of the great advances that have taken place in power loading and powered support at the coalface, other operations in that vicinity must be similarly mechanised and automated. The gateside packing is one of the most important of these ancillary operations on the longwall face, and in previous articles F. Carr and F. Kitching, National Coal Board Headquarters, Coalface Operations Mining Engineers have given a very comprehensive resume of the present situation. Subjects covered include the requirements of mechanised packing, the parameters involved, the various working arrangements, the different systems of gate-ends, the types of equipment that are being used, their characteristics, the spread of their application, and the results obtained from them. In this article the authors conclude their survey by dealing with dirt/cement and anhydrite packing, by taking a hard look at powered supports for the packhole, and by expressing their views on the way mechanised packing may be expected to develop in the future.

  6. Electrolysed reduced water decreases reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and improves performance in broiler chickens exposed to medium-term chronic heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, M A K; Kikusato, M; Zulkifli, I; Toyomizu, M

    2013-01-01

    1. The present study was designed to achieve a reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and to improve the performance of broiler chickens exposed to chronic heat stress. 2. Chickens were given a control diet with normal drinking water, or diets supplemented with cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) or grape seed extract (GSE), or a control diet with electrolysed reduced water (ERW) for 19 d after hatch. Thereafter, chickens were exposed to a temperature of either 34°C continuously for a period of 5 d, or maintained at 24°C, on the same diets. 3. The control broilers exposed to 34°C showed decreased weight gain and feed consumption and slightly increased ROS production and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in skeletal muscle. The chickens exposed to 34°C and supplemented with ERW showed significantly improved growth performance and lower ROS production and MDA contents in tissues than control broilers exposed to 34°C. Following heat exposure, CNSL chickens performed better with respect to weight gain and feed consumption, but still showed elevated ROS production and skeletal muscle oxidative damage. GSE chickens did not exhibit improved performance or reduced skeletal muscle oxidative damage. 4. In conclusion, this study suggests that ERW could partially inhibit ROS-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and improve growth performance in broiler chickens under medium-term chronic heat treatment.

  7. MCU-Based Solar Powered Chicken Feeder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenor M. Reyes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Poultry is a great potential industry particularly in Batangas Province. The method of feeding chicken needs to be considered as chicken must be fed regularly to be more productive. The conventional method of feeding chicken is the need to continuously provide the food, be alert and conscious on the food remaining in cages and to feed the chickens in a correct period of time to avoid the decline of the production. Growers also find it difficult to manage their businesses effectively because they need to be around the cages every now and then to monitor the poultry. Timing and exactness are the key to provide a uniform time in feeding the chickens. This will benefit the owner of the business in terms of time and effort. Another advantage of this project is in terms of savings to the owner of the poultry business. This technology was designed to automatically feed chickens at a given period of time and to give alarm when the feeds are running out of supply. The power to be supplied to this prototype will be drawn from the sun by means of solar panels and will be stored in typical car battery. The feeds will be stored in a container and evenly distributed by using a conveyor to the feeding basin of the poultry. It will be more efficient than manual conventional way of feeding because less effort will be needed in feeding the chickens and less feeds will be wasted. In addition to that, the stored power can also be used for lighting purposes for the growers to save energy and energy bills.

  8. Effect of antibiotic, Lacto-lase and probiotic addition in chicken feed on protein and fat content of chicken meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Noor Amiza; Abdullah, Aminah

    2015-09-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the effect of chicken feed additives (antibiotic, Lacto-lase® and probiotic) on protein and fat content of chicken meat. Chicken fed with control diet (corn-soy based diet) served as a control. The treated diets were added with zinc bacitracin (antibiotic), different amount of Lacto-lase® (a mixture of probiotic and enzyme) and probiotic. Chicken were slaughtered at the age of 43-48 days. Each chicken was divided into thigh, breast, drumstick, drumette and wing. Protein content in chicken meat was determined by using macro-Kjeldahl method meanwhile Soxhlet method was used to analyse fat content. The result of the study showed that the protein content of chicken breast was significantly higher (p≤0.05) while thigh had the lowest protein content (p≤0.05). Antibiotic fed chicken was found to have the highest protein content among the treated chickens but there was no significant different with 2g/kg Lacto-lase® fed chicken (p>0.05). All thighs were significantly higher (p≤0.05) in fat content except for drumette of control chicken while breast contained the lowest fat content compared to other chicken parts studied. The control chicken meat contained significantly higher (p≤0.05) amount of fat compared to the other treated chickens. Chicken fed with 2g/kg Lacto-lase® had the lowest (p≤0.05) fat content. The result of this study indicated that the addition of Lacto-lase® as a replacement of antibiotic in chicken feed will not affect the content of protein and fat of chicken meat.

  9. Purification and Partial Characterization of Catalase from Chicken Erythrocytes and the Effect of Various Inhibitors on Enzyme Activity

    OpenAIRE

    AYDEMİR, Tülin; KURU, Kevser

    2003-01-01

    Catalase plays a major role in the protection of tissues from the toxic effects of H2O2 and partially reduced oxygen species. A nearly 136-fold enzyme purification was obtained from chicken erythrocyte by acetone precipitation, ethanol-chloroform treatment, CM-cellulose and Sephadex G-200 chromatography. The specific activity of purified enzyme was 42,556 U/mg. The molecular weight of the native chicken erythrocyte catalase was estimated at 240 kDa by gel filtration. SDS-gel electr...

  10. Performance of Chickens under Semi-scavenging Conditions: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance of Chickens under Semi-scavenging Conditions: A Case Study of ... per household was lost per year due to diseases, predators, accidents, and theft. ... as well as chicken house construction so as to avoid the risks of predators.

  11. Directional differentiation of chicken embryonic stem cells into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-01

    Aug 1, 2011 ... In this study, the differentiation potential of chicken ES cells was investigated ... Key words: Chicken embryonic stem cells, in vitro, directional differentiation, .... synthesized by using the Revert Aid first strand cDNA synthesis kit.

  12. Haematological and serum biochemical profiles of broiler chickens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MOLM) on the haematological and serum biochemical profile of broiler chickens. Fresh Moringa leaves (FML) were shade-dried for four days and milled into meal. A total of two hundred broilers unsexed chickens (Anak strain) were randomly ...

  13. Selenium regulates gene expression of selenoprotein W in chicken skeletal muscle system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Hongfeng; Zhang, Ziwei; Wu, Qiong; Yao, Haidong; Li, Jinlong; Li, Shu; Xu, Shiwen

    2012-01-01

    Selenoprotein W (SelW) is abundantly expressed in skeletal muscles of mammals and necessary for the metabolism of skeletal muscles. However, its expression pattern in skeletal muscle system of birds is still uncovered. Herein, to investigate the distribution of SelW mRNA in chicken skeletal muscle system and its response to different selenium (Se) status, 1-day-old chickens were exposed to various concentrations of Se as sodium selenite in the feed for 35 days. In addition, myoblasts were treated with different concentrations of Se in the medium for 72 h. Then the levels of SelW mRNA in skeletal muscles (wing muscle, pectoral muscle, thigh muscle) and myoblasts were determined on days 1, 15, 25, and 35 and at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. The results showed that SelW was detected in all these muscle components and it increased both along with the growth of organism and the differentiation process of myoblasts. The thigh muscle is more responsive to Se intake than the other two skeletal muscle tissues while the optimal Se supplementation for SelW mRNA expression in chicken myoblasts was 10(-7) M. In summary, Se plays important roles in the development of chicken skeletal muscles. To effect optimal SelW gene expression, Se must be provided in the diet and the media in adequate amounts and neither at excessive nor deficient levels.

  14. ISOLATION STUDIES ON THE PREVALENCE OF SALMONELLAE IN CHICKEN ORGANS, EGGS AND FEED COMPONENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Saraj-Uddin; Sajid, Mahum; Hashmi, Ramiz Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella is an important zoonotic pathogen and its prevalence in the chicken meat and eggs acts as a continuous threat to human population. The current studies covering a time period of three years, was carried out to report the isolation of salmonellae from the chicken tissues, eggs and feed ingredient. A total of 1747 random samples from twelve different sources and 56 locations in Islamabad and Northern Punjab area of Pakistan, were screened for isolation studies according to the already published established protocols. The analysis of 1747 random samples comprising of 1069 (61.19%) chicken organs and 678 (38.81%) allied sources including eggs and feed ingredients, showed that a total of 162 (9.27%) were positive for salmonellae. Isolation prevalence in various chicken organs and allied sources was 86 (8.04%) and 76 (11.20%) respectively. The maximum isolation prevalence was recorded in meat meal (19.35%), followed by fish meal (17.54%), hatchery fluff (14.63%), livers (13.17%), poultry litter (10.89%), and eggs (9.64%). The range of Salmonella isolated varied from 19.35% to 4.72% in various organs and allied sources. Our findings highlighted a potential public health hazard and emphasized the significance of continuous surveillance system in the country to understand the ever changing epidemiological pattern of Salmonella serovers. The endemic prevalence of various serovars can cause outbreaks of human salmonellosis due to the consumption of contaminated meat and eggs as has already been reported worldwide.

  15. Simulation of abuse tolerance of lithium-ion battery packs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spotnitz, Robert M.; Weaver, James; Yeduvaka, Gowri [Battery Design LLC, 2277 DeLucchi Drive, Pleasanton, CA 94588 (United States); Doughty, D.H.; Roth, E.P. [Lithium Battery Department, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States)

    2007-01-01

    A simple approach for using accelerating rate calorimetry data to simulate the thermal abuse resistance of battery packs is described. The thermal abuse tolerance of battery packs is estimated based on the exothermic behavior of a single cell and an energy balance than accounts for radiative, conductive, and convective heat transfer modes of the pack. For the specific example of a notebook computer pack containing eight 18650-size cells, the effects of cell position, heat of reaction, and heat-transfer coefficient are explored. Thermal runaway of the pack is more likely to be induced by thermal runaway of a single cell when that cell is in good contact with other cells and is close to the pack wall. (author)

  16. Evaluation of Bacteriological Quality of Ready-to-eat Chicken Products by Total Viable Count Method

    OpenAIRE

    Ramiz Raja; Asif Iqbal; Yasir Hafiz; Mehboob Willayet; Shakoor Bhat; Mudasir Rather

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation describes the total viable count of ready-to-eat chicken products (chicken patties and chicken rolls) in Srinagar city during two seasons viz. autumn and winter. A total of 120 ready-to-eat chicken products comprising of 60 chicken patties and 60 chicken rolls were tested. The mean bacterial count of 60 chicken patties and 60 chicken rolls was 5.1281 and 4.9395 log10 cfu/g. Bacillus cereus strains were isolated from 25 of chicken patties and 22 of the chicken rolls r...

  17. Multilayer DNA Origami Packed on Hexagonal and Hybrid Lattices

    OpenAIRE

    Ke, Yonggang; Voigt, Niels V.; Gothelf, Kurt V.; Shih, William M.

    2012-01-01

    “Scaffolded DNA origami” has been proven to be a powerful and efficient approach to construct two-dimensional or three-dimensional objects with great complexity. Multilayer DNA origami has been demonstrated with helices packing along either honeycomb-lattice geometry or square-lattice geometry. Here we report successful folding of multilayer DNA origami with helices arranged on a close-packed hexagonal lattice. This arrangement yields a higher density of helical packing and therefore higher r...

  18. SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF NATIVE CHICKEN QUEEN PINEAPPLE-CURED HAM

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Lilibeth A. Roxas; Nikko A. Roxas

    2015-01-01

    The potential of Native Chicken to be processed into palatable ham was conducted making use of Queen Pineapple (QP) crude extract as one of the curing ingredients. Primarily, the main goal is to develop a protocol in the manufacture of processed native chicken ham and determine the organoleptic quality of native chicken ham product. The age of the bird and maturity of the fruit were considered for the best organoleptic quality of chicken ham. In this study, the combine injectio...

  19. Use of lysozyme from chicken egg white as a nitrite replacer in an Italian-type chicken sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalaka Sandun Abeyrathne

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sodium or potassium nitrite is widely used as a curing agent in sausages and other cured meat products. Nitrite has strong antimicrobial and antioxidant effects and generates cured meat color. Nitrite, however, can react with secondary or tertiary amines in meat to form carcinogenic, teratogenic and mutagenic N-nitroso compounds. Several findings have been suggested that high consumption of processed meat may increase the risk of cancer, and emphasized that dietary nitrosamines are positively associated with cancer. Lysozyme is one of the major egg proteins that have antimicrobial and antioxidant characteristics. Therefore, lysozyme can be used in meat processing to prevent microbial growth and oxidative degradation in meat products during storage. This study is focused on evaluating the antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of lysozyme extracted from egg white as a replacer of nitrite in a cooked Italian-type chicken sausage. Methods: Four curing treatments including 100% nitrite (control, 100% lysozyme (treatment 1, 25% nitrite + 75% lysozyme (treatment 2 and 50% nitrite + 50% lysozyme (treatment 3 were used to prepare Italian-type chicken sausage samples. Recipe was developed with 64% (w/w meat, 17% (w/w binder (bread crumble, 12% (w/w ice, 4% (w/w vegetable oil, 2% (w/w salt, 1% (w/w spices (chili, black pepper, cardamom. Prepared samples were cooked in an 80 °C smoke house to a core temperature of 65 °C and cooled in cold water to 20-25 °C subsequently packed in polyethylene and stored in a freezer (-18 °C. The antimicrobial effect lysozyme was tested using Escherichia coli and Salmonella. The growth of these pathogens at 0, 3 and 5 days of storage of spore inoculation was determined. The antioxidant activity of lysozyme was determined using the TBARS value during the 25 d storage period. The redness (a*, lightness (L*, and yellowness (b* of sausages were analyzed using a Minolta color meter (CR 410, Konica Minolta Inc

  20. RAW CHICKEN LEG AND BREAST SENSORY EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Baston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we presented a method of sensorial evaluation for chicken meat (red and white. This is a descriptive method of analysis. It was perform with trained assessors for chicken refrigerated raw meat organoleptical evaluation. The sensorial attributes considered were: external aspect of anatomical part of chicken analyzed by slime, the surface odor, the skin and muscle color and muscular elasticity. Color was determined for the skin and white and red muscles. Our scale of analysis is formed by three values that characterize each quality attribute. The trained assessor appreciated the sensorial quality of raw anatomical part of chicken as excellent, acceptable and unacceptable. The objectives were: to establish the sensorial attributes to be analyzed for each type of muscular fiber, to describe the quality of each considered attribute and to realize a sensorial scale of quantification for the considered sensorial attributes. Our purpose was to determine the quality of the red and white refrigerated raw chicken anatomical parts (respectively for legs and breasts after one week of storage.

  1. Localization of xanthine oxidoreductase activity using the tissue protectant polyvinyl alcohol and final electron acceptor Tetranitro BT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, A.; Frederiks, W. M.; Gossrau, R.; van Noorden, C. J.

    1991-01-01

    We have detected xanthine oxidoreductase activity in unfixed cryostat sections of rat and chicken liver, rat duodenum, and bovine mammary gland using the tissue protectant polyvinyl alcohol, the electron carrier 1-methoxyphenazine methosulfate, the final electron acceptor Tetranitro BT, and

  2. Foodborne disease prevention and broiler chickens with reduced Campylobacter infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Rangstrup-Christensen, Lena; Nordentoft, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Studies have suggested that flies play a linking role in the epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens and that fly screens can reduce the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. We examined the year-round and long-term effects of fly screens in 10 broiler chicken houses (99 flocks...... broiler chicken flocks....

  3. Comparative developmental trajectory of four strains of chicken ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated egg traits, embryonic growth, and early growth rate in four strains of chicken. A total of 1200 hatching eggs, 300 each from four strains of chicken were used for this study. The strains included Nigerian indigenous chicken (NIC), Arbor acre, Hubbard, and Marshall broiler strains. Embryonic weights, yolk ...

  4. Max–min Bin Packing Algorithm and its application in nano-particles filling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Dingju

    2016-01-01

    With regard to existing bin packing algorithms, higher packing efficiency often leads to lower packing speed while higher packing speed leads to lower packing efficiency. Packing speed and packing efficiency of existing bin packing algorithms including NFD, NF, FF, FFD, BF and BFD correlates negatively with each other, thus resulting in the failure of existing bin packing algorithms to satisfy the demand of nano-particles filling for both high speed and high efficiency. The paper provides a new bin packing algorithm, Max–min Bin Packing Algorithm (MM), which realizes both high packing speed and high packing efficiency. MM has the same packing speed as NFD (whose packing speed ranks no. 1 among existing bin packing algorithms); in case that the size repetition rate of objects to be packed is over 5, MM can realize almost the same packing efficiency as BFD (whose packing efficiency ranks No. 1 among existing bin packing algorithms), and in case that the size repetition rate of objects to be packed is over 500, MM can achieve exactly the same packing efficiency as BFD. With respect to application of nano-particles filling, the size repetition rate of nano particles to be packed is usually in thousands or ten thousands, far higher than 5 or 500. Consequently, in application of nano-particles filling, the packing efficiency of MM is exactly equal to that of BFD. Thus the irreconcilable conflict between packing speed and packing efficiency is successfully removed by MM, which leads to MM having better packing effect than any existing bin packing algorithm. In practice, there are few cases when the size repetition of objects to be packed is lower than 5. Therefore the MM is not necessarily limited to nano-particles filling, and can also be widely used in other applications besides nano-particles filling. Especially, MM has significant value in application of nano-particles filling such as nano printing and nano tooth filling.

  5. Chicken astrovirus as an aetiological agent of runting-stunting syndrome in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung-Il; Linnemann, Erich; Icard, Alan H; Durairaj, Vijay; Mundt, Egbert; Sellers, Holly S

    2018-04-01

    Despite descriptions of runting-stunting syndrome (RSS) in broiler chickens dating back over 40 years, the aetiology has not yet been described. A novel chicken astrovirus (CkAstV) was isolated in an LMH liver cell line from the intestines of chickens affected with RSS. Clinical RSS is characterized by retarded growth and cystic crypt lesions in the small intestine. In 1-day-old broiler chickens infected with the CkAstV isolate, virus was only detected in the intestinal epithelial cells during the first few days after infection. Notably, the preferred host cells are the crypt epithelial cells following initial replication in the villous epithelial cells, thus implying viral preference for immature intestinal cells. Nevertheless, the CkAstV isolate did not induce remarkable pathological changes, despite the presence of the virus in situ. Serial chicken-to-chicken passages of the virus induced increased virulence, as displayed by decreased weight gain and the presence of cystic lesions in the small intestine reproducing clinical RSS in chickens. The analysis of the full-length genome sequences from the isolated CkAstV and the CkAstV from the bird-to-bird passages showed >99 % similarity. The data obtained in this study suggest that the CkAstV isolate is capable of inducing RSS following serial bird-to-bird passages in broilers and is as an aetiological agent of the disease.

  6. Meromorphic Vector Fields and Circle Packings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    The objective of the Ph.D. project is to initiate a classification of bifurcations of meromorphic vector fields and to clarify their relation to circle packings. Technological applications are to image analysis and to effective grid generation using discrete conformal mappings. The two branches...... of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions or meromorphic (allowing poles...... as singularities) functions. There already exists a well-developed theory for iterative holomorphic dynamical systems, and successful relations found between iteration theory and flows of vector fields have been one of the main motivations for the recent interest in holomorphic vector fields. Restricting...

  7. Hyperstaticity and loops in frictional granular packings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordesillas, Antoinette; Lam, Edward; Metzger, Philip T.

    2009-06-01

    The hyperstatic nature of granular packings of perfectly rigid disks is analyzed algebraically and through numerical simulation. The elementary loops of grains emerge as a fundamental element in addressing hyperstaticity. Loops consisting of an odd number of grains behave differently than those with an even number. For odd loops, the latent stresses are exterior and are characterized by the sum of frictional forces around each loop. For even loops, the latent stresses are interior and are characterized by the alternating sum of frictional forces around each loop. The statistics of these two types of loop sums are found to be Gibbsian with a "temperature" that is linear with the friction coefficient μ when μ<1.

  8. New Packing Structure of Concentration Solar Receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Shang-Yu; Lee, Yueh-Mu; Shih, Zun-Hao; Hong, Hwen-Fen; Shin, Hwa-Yuh; Kuo, Cherng-Tsong

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a solution to the temperature issue in High Concentration Photovoltaic (HCPV) module device by using different thermal conductive material and packing structure. In general, the open-circuited voltage of a device reduces with the increase of temperature and therefore degrades its efficiency. The thermal conductive material we use in this paper, silicon, has a high thermal conductive coefficient (149 W/m·K) and steady semiconductor properties which are suitable for the application of solar receiver in HCPV module. Solar cell was soldered on a metal-plated Si substrate with a thicker SiO 2 film which acts as an insulating layer. Then it was mounted on an Al-based plate to obtain a better heat dissipating result.

  9. Slow creep in soft granular packings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ishan; Fisher, Timothy S

    2017-05-14

    Transient creep mechanisms in soft granular packings are studied numerically using a constant pressure and constant stress simulation method. Rapid compression followed by slow dilation is predicted on the basis of a logarithmic creep phenomenon. Characteristic scales of creep strain and time exhibit a power-law dependence on jamming pressure, and they diverge at the jamming point. Microscopic analysis indicates the existence of a correlation between rheology and nonaffine fluctuations. Localized regions of large strain appear during creep and grow in magnitude and size at short times. At long times, the spatial structure of highly correlated local deformation becomes time-invariant. Finally, a microscale connection between local rheology and local fluctuations is demonstrated in the form of a linear scaling between granular fluidity and nonaffine velocity.

  10. Sequence of a complete chicken BG haplotype shows dynamic expansion and contraction of two gene lineages with particular expression patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, Jan; Chattaway, John A.; Chan, Andrew C. Y.

    2014-01-01

    complex (MHC), and show striking association with particular autoimmune diseases. In chickens, BG genes encode homologues with somewhat different domain organisation. Only a few BG genes have been characterised, one involved in actin-myosin interaction in the intestinal brush border, and another...... implicated in resistance to viral diseases. We characterise all BG genes in B12 chickens, finding a multigene family organised as tandem repeats in the BG region outside the MHC, a single gene in the MHC (the BF-BL region), and another single gene on a different chromosome. There is a precise cell and tissue...... many hybrid genes, suggesting recombination and/or deletion as major evolutionary forces. We identify BG genes in the chicken whole genome shotgun sequence, as well as by comparison to other haplotypes by fibre fluorescence in situ hybridisation, confirming dynamic expansion and contraction within...

  11. COMPARATIVE HISTOMORPHOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE THYMUS WITH REFERENCE TO ITS IMMUNOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE IN QUAIL, CHICKEN AND DUCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Senapati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparative histomorphological study was conducted on thymus of broiler chicken, duck and quail. The thymus of all three species of post-hatch (adult birds showed a thin connective tissue capsule. However, fine septa originating from the capsule divided the organ into incomplete but distinct lobules in chicken, whereas lobules were ill defined in both quail and duck. Each lobule, in turn, was composed of a peripheral cortex, densely studded with lymphocytes and a central medulla that was enriched with epithelial reticular cells. So, the cortex appeared more basophilic than that of medulla. But the concentration of lymphocyte, an immune competent cell was highest in chicken followed by duck and quail. Hassall’s corpuscles like structures were found inside the medulla as pale stained diffuse body. General histo-architecture was almost similar in all the birds.

  12. NUMERICAL MODELLING OF CHICKEN-FOOT FOUNDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipman Tandjiria

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the chicken-foot foundation using the finite element method. The foundation is considered as a reinforced concrete slab resting on a number of reinforced concrete pipes filled with and surrounded by in-situ soil. The soil and the pipes were modelled by isoparametric solid elements while the slab was modelled by isoparametric thick-plate elements. The study was intended to illustrate the basic mechanism of the chicken-foot foundation. Three cases have been considered for the parametric studies. The parameters investigated are thickness of slab, length of pipes and spacing between pipes. It is shown that such a foundation improves the behaviour of the raft foundation. It is also found that all the parameters used in the parametric studies influence the behaviour of the chicken-foot foundation.

  13. Circular RNA alterations are involved in resistance to avian leukosis virus subgroup-J-induced tumor formation in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinheng; Yan, Yiming; Lei, Xiaoya; Li, Aijun; Zhang, Huanmin; Dai, Zhenkai; Li, Xinjian; Chen, Weiguo; Lin, Wencheng; Chen, Feng; Ma, Jingyun; Xie, Qingmei

    2017-05-23

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup (ALV-J) is an oncogenic neoplasm-inducing retrovirus that causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry. Recent studies have demonstrated circular RNAs (circRNAs) are implicated in pathogenic processes; however, no research has indicated circRNAs are involved in resistance to disease. In this study, over 1800 circRNAs were detected by circRNA sequencing of liver tissues from ALV-J-resistant (n = 3) and ALV-J-susceptible chickens (n = 3). 32 differentially expressed circRNAs were selected for analyzing including 12 upregulated in ALV-J-resistant chickens and 20 upregulated in ALV-J-susceptible chickens, besides, the top five microRNAs (miRNAs) for 12 upregulated circRNAs in ALV-J-resistant chickens were analyzed. Gene ontology and KEGG pathway analyses were performed for miRNA target genes, the predicted genes were mainly involved in immune pathways. This study provides the first evidence that circRNA alterations are involved in resistance to ALV-J-induced tumor formation. We propose circRNAs may help to mediate tumor induction and development in chickens.

  14. Facilitating functional annotation of chicken microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gresham Cathy R

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modeling results from chicken microarray studies is challenging for researchers due to little functional annotation associated with these arrays. The Affymetrix GenChip chicken genome array, one of the biggest arrays that serve as a key research tool for the study of chicken functional genomics, is among the few arrays that link gene products to Gene Ontology (GO. However the GO annotation data presented by Affymetrix is incomplete, for example, they do not show references linked to manually annotated functions. In addition, there is no tool that facilitates microarray researchers to directly retrieve functional annotations for their datasets from the annotated arrays. This costs researchers amount of time in searching multiple GO databases for functional information. Results We have improved the breadth of functional annotations of the gene products associated with probesets on the Affymetrix chicken genome array by 45% and the quality of annotation by 14%. We have also identified the most significant diseases and disorders, different types of genes, and known drug targets represented on Affymetrix chicken genome array. To facilitate functional annotation of other arrays and microarray experimental datasets we developed an Array GO Mapper (AGOM tool to help researchers to quickly retrieve corresponding functional information for their dataset. Conclusion Results from this study will directly facilitate annotation of other chicken arrays and microarray experimental datasets. Researchers will be able to quickly model their microarray dataset into more reliable biological functional information by using AGOM tool. The disease, disorders, gene types and drug targets revealed in the study will allow researchers to learn more about how genes function in complex biological systems and may lead to new drug discovery and development of therapies. The GO annotation data generated will be available for public use via AgBase website and

  15. Irradiation dose control of chicken meat processing with alanine/ESR dosimetric system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagusku, L.; Chen, F.; Kuaye, A.; Castilho, C.J.C.; Baffa, O.

    2007-01-01

    Irradiation of foodstuff is a well-known food preservation technique. In Brazil spices are already irradiated for sanitary and preservation reasons. Chicken meat is an important commodity; Brazil is the second largest world producer and the largest world exporter. The shelf-life of chicken meat is limited by the presence of micro-organisms and enzyme activity and together with other preservation techniques irradiation seems to be an attractive option. In this study the dose delivered to frozen chicken cuts was measured and compared with the prescribed value. Chicken breast cuts were analyzed for 39 days for their microbiological activity, chemical and organoleptic properties. Cylindrical dosimeters were prepared using the weight composition of 80% of DL-alanine (Sigma Co), used without any further treatment except drying, and 20% of paraffin. The dosimeters having 4.7 mm diameter and 12 mm length were inserted in a build-up cap. Dosimeters were placed inside cardboard boxes containing frozen chicken breast cuts, packed in styrofoam trays wrapped with plastic film. The boxes were irradiated in an industrial 60 Co irradiator (Nordion JS 7500) with a dose rate of 4 kGy/h. First derivative ESR signals were obtained in a VARIAN E-4 spectrometer operating at X-band (ν∼9GHz) and equipped with a rectangular cavity (TE-102, model E-231). The cavity was constantly purged with dry nitrogen and modulated at 100 KHz with 0.5 mT peak to peak. A calibration curve was made for a few dosimeters from the same batch and used to obtain the dose from the ESR signal intensity. A batch of six boxes was irradiated at each experiment with prescribed doses of 1.5, 3.0 and 7.0 kGy. Considering that the larger the radiation dose the greater is the probability of finding a product with its sensorial characteristics altered (odor of burned meat), we conclude that a dose of 3 kGy would be more adequate, taking into account the microbiological and sensorial aspects

  16. New series of paper pack vending machines; Paper pack jido hanbaiki no shin series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, M. [Fuji Denki Reiki Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Umino, S. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-07-10

    This paper presents series of paper pack vending machines. These machines may be broadly classified into those of cold drinks and of hot and cold drinks depending on the storage temperature of products. The former is the machine for cooling dairy products at 10{degree}C with a combined stacking by direct-stacked racks and chain-multiracks. The latter is provided with divided storing chambers with each chamber selectively cooled or heated. Products in the hot chamber are canned coffee and the like set at 55{degree}C. The temperature control is performed by a microcomputer. The chain-multiracks are provided with advantages such as capability of handling various kinds of container shapes, storing drinks and foods vertically, replacing products by the change of a shelf attachment with one operation, and storing one liter packs by setting pair columns. The direct-stacked racks are provided with advantages such as versatility of handling various kinds of containers and miniaturization of the mechanism other than the storage part. The installation space was reduced by devising the opening and closing of the door. The control part is capable of setting temperatures differently for cans and paper packs. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Measured Black Carbon Deposition on the Sierra Nevada Snow Pack and Implication for Snow Pack Retreat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, O.L.; Corrigan, C.E.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Cliff, S.S.; Ramanathan, V.

    2010-01-12

    Modeling studies show that the darkening of snow and ice by black carbon deposition is a major factor for the rapid disappearance of arctic sea ice, mountain glaciers and snow packs. This study provides one of the first direct measurements for the efficient removal of black carbon from the atmosphere by snow and its subsequent deposition to the snow packs of California. The early melting of the snow packs in the Sierras is one of the contributing factors to the severe water problems in California. BC concentrations in falling snow were measured at two mountain locations and in rain at a coastal site. All three stations reveal large BC concentrations in precipitation, ranging from 1.7 ng/g to 12.9 ng/g. The BC concentrations in the air after the snow fall were negligible suggesting an extremely efficient removal of BC by snow. The data suggest that below cloud scavenging, rather than ice nuclei, was the dominant source of BC in the snow. A five-year comparison of BC, dust, and total fine aerosol mass concentrations at multiple sites reveals that the measurements made at the sampling sites were representative of large scale deposition in the Sierra Nevada. The relative concentration of iron and calcium in the mountain aerosol indicates that one-quarter to one-third of the BC may have been transported from Asia.

  18. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawosz, Filip; Pineda, Lane Manalili; Hotowy, Anna

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the quantity and quality of nutrients stored in the egg might not be optimal for the fast rate of chicken embryo development in modern broilers, and embryos could be supplemented with nutrients by in ovo injection. Recent experiments showed that in ovo feeding reduces...... broiler eggs was randomly divided into a Control group without injection and injected groups with hydrocolloids of Nano-Ag, ATP or a complex of Nano-Ag and ATP (Nano-Ag/ATP). The embryos were evaluated on day 20 of incubation. The results indicate that the application of ATP to chicken embryos increases...

  19. Specificity of chicken and mammalian transferrins in myogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beach, R.L.; Popiela, Heinz; Festoff, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    Chicken transferrins isolated from eggs, embryo extract, serum or ischiatic-peroneal nerves are able to stimulate incorporation of ( 3 H)thymidine, and promote myogenesis by primary chicken muscles cells in vitro. Mammalian transferrins (bovine, rat, mouse, horse, rabbit, and human) do not promote ( 3 H)thymidine incorporation or myotube development. Comparison of the peptide fragments obtained after chemical or limited proteolytic cleavage demonstrates that the four chicken transferrins are all indistinguishable, but they differ considerably from the mammalian transferrins. The structural differences between chicken and mammalian transferrins probably account for the inability of mammalian transferrins to act as mitogens for, and to support myogenesis of, primary chicken muscle cells. (author)

  20. Effects of dietary Tenebrio molitor meal inclusion in free-range chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasato, I; De Marco, M; Rotolo, L; Renna, M; Lussiana, C; Dabbou, S; Capucchio, M T; Biasibetti, E; Costa, P; Gai, F; Pozzo, L; Dezzutto, D; Bergagna, S; Martínez, S; Tarantola, M; Gasco, L; Schiavone, A

    2016-12-01

    Insects are currently being considered as a novel protein source for animal feeds, because they contain a large amount of protein. The larvae of Tenebrio molitor (TM) have been shown to be an acceptable protein source for broiler chickens in terms of growth performance, but till now, no data on histological or intestinal morphometric features have been reported. This study has had the aim of evaluating the effects of dietary TM inclusion on the performance, welfare, intestinal morphology and histological features of free-range chickens. A total of 140 medium-growing hybrid female chickens were free-range reared and randomly allotted to two dietary treatments: (i) a control group and (ii) a TM group, in which TM meal was included at 75 g/kg. Each group consisted of five pens as replicates, with 14 chicks per pen. Growth performance, haematological and serum parameters and welfare indicators were evaluated, and the animals were slaughtered at the age of 97 days. Two birds per pen (10 birds/treatment) were submitted to histological (liver, spleen, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, kidney, heart, glandular stomach and gut) and morphometric (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) investigations. The inclusion of TM did not affect the growth performance, haematological or serum parameters. The morphometric and histological features were not significantly affected either, thus suggesting no influence on nutrient metabolization, performance or animal health. Glandular stomach alterations (chronic flogosis with epithelial squamous metaplasia) were considered paraphysiological in relation to free-range farming. The observed chronic intestinal flogosis, with concomitant activation of the lymphoid tissue, was probably due to previous parasitic infections, which are very frequently detected in free-range chickens. In conclusion, the findings of this study show that yellow mealworm inclusion does not affect the welfare, productive performances or morphological features of free-range chickens

  1. Distribution of α-Gustducin and Vimentin in premature and mature taste buds in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Nandakumar; Rajapaksha, Prasangi; Payne, Jason; Goodfellow, Forrest; Wang, Zhonghou; Kawabata, Fuminori; Tabata, Shoji; Stice, Steven; Beckstead, Robert; Liu, Hong-Xiang

    2016-10-14

    The sensory organs for taste in chickens (Gallus sp.) are taste buds in the oral epithelium of the palate, base of the oral cavity, and posterior tongue. Although there is not a pan-taste cell marker that labels all chicken taste bud cells, α-Gustducin and Vimentin each label a subpopulation of taste bud cells. In the present study, we used both α-Gustducin and Vimentin to further characterize chicken taste buds at the embryonic and post-hatching stages (E17-P5). We found that both α-Gustducin and Vimentin label distinct and overlapping populations of, but not all, taste bud cells. A-Gustducin immunosignals were observed as early as E18 and were consistently distributed in early and mature taste buds in embryos and hatchlings. Vimentin immunoreactivity was initially sparse at the embryonic stages then became apparent in taste buds after hatch. In hatchlings, α-Gustducin and Vimentin immunosignals largely co-localized in taste buds. A small subset of taste bud cells were labeled by either α-Gustducin or Vimentin or were not labeled. Importantly, each of the markers was observed in all of the examined taste buds. Our data suggest that the early onset of α-Gustducin in taste buds might be important for enabling chickens to respond to taste stimuli immediately after hatch and that distinctive population of taste bud cells that are labeled by different molecular markers might represent different cell types or different phases of taste bud cells. Additionally, α-Gustducin and Vimentin can potentially be used as molecular markers of all chicken taste buds in whole mount tissue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Packing and Cohesive Properties of Some Locally Extracted Starches

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... properties of the particles affect the packing and cohesive properties of the starches, and are important in predicting the behaviour of the starches during handling and use in pharmaceutical preparations. These properties need to be closely controlled in pre-formulation studies. Keywords: Packing and cohesive properties, ...

  3. Characterization of metallic surfaces in phosphorous-bronze ordered packings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandru, Claudia; Titescu, Gh.

    1997-01-01

    Copper and its alloys, particularly the phosphorous bronze, are characterized by a high water wettability as compared with other materials. This feature led to utilization of phosphorous bronze in fabrication of contact elements, a packing type equipping the distillation columns. For heavy water separation by isotopic distillation under vacuum, ordered packings of phosphorous bronze networks were fabricated. The superior performances of these packings are determined by the material and also by the geometrical form and the state of the metallic surface. Thus, a procedure of evaluating the wettability has been developed, based on tests of the network material. The results of the tests constitute a criterion of rating the functional performances of packings, particularly of their efficiencies. Also, investigation techniques of the chemical composition and of the thickness of superficial layer on the packing were developed. It was found that the packing surface presents a layer of about 5-20 μm formed mainly by oxides of copper, tin, and, depending on the packing treatment, of oxides of other elements coming from the treatment agent. The paper presents characterization of phosphorous bronze treated with potassium permanganate, a specific treatment for improving the functional performances of the packings used in the heavy water concentration and re-concentration installations

  4. Duration of Nasal Packs in the Management of Epistaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundi, N. A.; Raza, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To compare the efficacy of nasal packs for 12 and 24 hours in the management of epistaxis. Study Design: Quasi experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital, Nowshera and Heavy Industries Taxilla Hospital, from October 2012 to April 2013. Methodology: A total of 60 patients presenting with epistaxis were selected and were divided into two groups of 30 patients each. Patients in both the groups were managed by nasal packs. In group-A packs were removed after 12 hours while in group-B after 24 hours. Symptoms of headache, lacrimation and recurrence of bleeding were recorded. SPSS 20 was used for data analysis and p-value less than 0.01 was considered significant. Results: There was significant difference for headache between removal of nasal packs after 12 hours and 24 hours (p < 0.001). There was significant difference for excessive lacrimation at 12 and 24 hours (p = 0.001). No significant difference was observed for recurrence of bleed when nasal packs were removed at 12 and 24 hours (p = 0.317). Conclusion: Duration in removal of nasal packs after 12 or 24 hours made a difference in the management of epistaxis. Symptoms of headache and excessive lacrimation were significantly higher when nasal packs were removed after 24 hours. It is recommended that patient could be managed with lesser duration of packs after episode of epistaxis to avoid inconvenience. (author)

  5. Hydrodynamics of multi-phase packed bed micro-reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Márquez Luzardo, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    Why to use packed bed micro-reactors for catalyst testing? Miniaturized packed bed reactors have a large surface-to-volume ratio at the reactor and particle level that favors the heat- and mass-transfer processes at all scales (intra-particle, inter-phase and inter-particle or reactor level). If the

  6. The Performance of Structured Packings in Trickle-Bed Reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank, M.J.W.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Versteeg, G.F.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van

    1999-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to investigate whether the use of structured packings might improve the mass transfer characteristics and the catalyst effectiveness of a trickle-bed reactor. Therefore, the performances of a structured packing, consisting of KATAPAK elements, and a dumped

  7. demonstrating close-packing of atoms using spherical bubble gums

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    chemistry and junior inorganic chemistry courses. However, the subject of three dimen- sional close-packing of atoms has always been difficult for students to understand. In particular, students find it difficult to visualize the packing of atoms in different layers. They cannot clearly identify tetrahedral and octahedral holes, and.

  8. Improved Erythrocyte Osmotic Fragility and Packed Cell Volume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improved Erythrocyte Osmotic Fragility and Packed Cell Volume following administration of Aloe barbadensis Juice Extract in Rats. ... Abstract. Aloe barbadensis is a popular house plant that has a long history of a multipurpose folk remedy. ... Keywords: osmotic fragility, packed cell volume, haemoglobin, Aloe vera ...

  9. Metallic witness packs for behind-armour debris characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verolme, J.L.; Szymczak, M.; Broos, J.P.F.

    1999-01-01

    For the experimental characterization of behind-armour debris so-called metallic witness packs can be used. A metallic witness pack consists of an array of metallic plates interspaced by polystyrene foam sheets. To quantify the fragment mass and velocity from the corresponding hole area and position

  10. 27 CFR 24.255 - Bottling or packing wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in the same tax class when that wine is removed from bond, without benefit of tolerance, when the... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottling or packing wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine Bottling, Packing, and...

  11. Consistency Check for the Bin Packing Constraint Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Julien; Schaus, Pierre; Deville, Yves

    The bin packing problem (BP) consists in finding the minimum number of bins necessary to pack a set of items so that the total size of the items in each bin does not exceed the bin capacity C. The bin capacity is common for all the bins.

  12. Characteristics of illegal and legal cigarette packs sold in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo, Rodrigo; Corral, Juan E; Monzon, Diego; Yoon, Mira; Barnoya, Joaquin

    2016-11-25

    Guatemala, as a party to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), is required to regulate cigarette packaging and labeling and eliminate illicit tobacco trade. Current packaging and labeling characteristics (of legal and illegal cigarettes) and their compliance with the FCTC is unknown. We sought to analyze package and label characteristics of illegal and legal cigarettes sold in Guatemala. We visited the 22 largest traditional markets in the country to purchase illegal cigarettes. All brands registered on tobacco industry websites were purchased as legal cigarettes. Analysis compared labeling characteristics of illegal and legal packs. Most (95%) markets and street vendors sold illegal cigarettes; 104 packs were purchased (79 illegal and 25 legal). Ten percent of illegal and none of the legal packs had misleading terms. Half of the illegal packs had a warning label covering 26 to 50% of the pack surface. All legal packs had a label covering 25% of the surface. Illegal packs were more likely to have information on constituents and emissions (85% vs. 45%, p Guatemala, neither illegal nor legal cigarette packs comply with FCTC labeling mandates. Urgent implementation and enforcement of the FCTC is necessary to halt the tobacco epidemic.

  13. Estradiol inhibits hepatic stellate cell area and collagen synthesis in the chicken liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Shotaro; Teshima, Akifumi; Kawabata, Fuminori; Tabata, Shoji

    2017-11-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the main collagen-producing cells in the liver. The HSC area and amount of collagen fibers are different between male and female chickens. This study was performed to confirm the effect of estradiol on collagen synthesis in the growing chicken liver. Blood estradiol levels in chicks were compared at 4 and 8 weeks of age, and the collagen fibril network in liver tissue was observed at 8 weeks by scanning electron microscopy. Intraperitoneal administrations of estradiol and tamoxifen to male and female chicks, respectively, were performed daily from 5 to 8 weeks of age. The areas of HSCs and collagen contents were measured in the liver tissue. The blood estradiol level was higher in females than in males, and the collagen fibril network was denser in males than in females at 8 weeks of age. Estradiol administration in males induced decreases in the HSC area and collagen content of the liver. Conversely, tamoxifen administration in females induced an increase in the HSC area but did not facilitate collagen synthesis. Based on these results, estradiol inhibits the area and collagen synthesis of HSCs in the growing chicken liver under normal physiological conditions. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  14. Investigation some characteristics of chicken feather’s rachis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paşayev, N.; Kocatepe, S.; Maraş, N.; Soylak, M.; Erol, M.

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, obtaining the natural protein fibers from chicken feathers, which are obtained as a by-product in the production of chicken meat and which cause environmental pollution and important part is waste, has been drawn to the perspective of scientists. So, the investigations about the chicken feather fibers reveal important properties of these fibers. Chicken feather fibers are obtained by mechanical cutting of the barbs which have fibrous structure, the structure branched from rachis and constitute the body of the feather. The rachis part of chicken feather constitutes approximately half of the weight of the feathers. So, it is necessary to examine the properties of the chicken feathers in order to gain their industrialization. This study is concerned with the mechanical and physical properties of the material that is taken as a by-product in the production of fibers from chicken feathers and constitutes the rachis part of the feathers.

  15. PIXE analysis of chinese chicken-blood stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, E.K.; Wang, C.W.; Yu, Y.C.; Liu, T.Y.; Cheng, H.S.; Zhu, H.X.; Yang, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports the chemical compositions of chicken-blood stone Ji Xue Shi measured by Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). The experimental result show that for the red portion of chicken-blood stone, the concentration of Hg is as high as 20 wt%, and the concentration of S can be above 10 wt%. For the non-red portion the main chemical compositions are Al 2 O 3 and SiO 2 . The obtained chemical compositions are close to those of kaolinite for Balin chicken-blood stone, and of pyrophyllite for Changhua chicken-blood stone, respectively. So far many Changhua chicken-blood stones and Balin chicken-blood stones were found in China, the PIXE method can be used to explore the provenance of available chicken-blood stones. (author)

  16. Multilayer DNA Origami Packed on Hexagonal and Hybrid Lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ke, Yonggang; Voigt, Niels Vinther; Shih, William M.

    2012-01-01

    “Scaffolded DNA origami” has been proven to be a powerful and efficient approach to construct two-dimensional or three-dimensional objects with great complexity. Multilayer DNA origami has been demonstrated with helices packing along either honeycomb-lattice geometry or square-lattice geometry....... Here we report successful folding of multilayer DNA origami with helices arranged on a close-packed hexagonal lattice. This arrangement yields a higher density of helical packing and therefore higher resolution of spatial addressing than has been shown previously. We also demonstrate hybrid multilayer...... DNA origami with honeycomb-lattice, square-lattice, and hexagonal-lattice packing of helices all in one design. The availability of hexagonal close-packing of helices extends our ability to build complex structures using DNA nanotechnology....

  17. Multilayer DNA origami packed on hexagonal and hybrid lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yonggang; Voigt, Niels V; Gothelf, Kurt V; Shih, William M

    2012-01-25

    "Scaffolded DNA origami" has been proven to be a powerful and efficient approach to construct two-dimensional or three-dimensional objects with great complexity. Multilayer DNA origami has been demonstrated with helices packing along either honeycomb-lattice geometry or square-lattice geometry. Here we report successful folding of multilayer DNA origami with helices arranged on a close-packed hexagonal lattice. This arrangement yields a higher density of helical packing and therefore higher resolution of spatial addressing than has been shown previously. We also demonstrate hybrid multilayer DNA origami with honeycomb-lattice, square-lattice, and hexagonal-lattice packing of helices all in one design. The availability of hexagonal close-packing of helices extends our ability to build complex structures using DNA nanotechnology. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  18. Random close packing of hard spheres and disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    A simple definition of random close packing of hard spheres is presented, and the consequences of this definition are explored. According to this definition, random close packing occurs at the minimum packing fraction eta for which the median nearest-neighbor radius equals the diameter of the spheres. Using the radial distribution function at more dilute concentrations to estimate median nearest-neighbor radii, lower bounds on the critical packing fraction eta/sub RCP/ are obtained and the value of eta/sub RCP/ is estimated by extrapolation. Random close packing is predicted to occur for eta/sub RCP/ = 0.64 +- 0.02 in three dimensions and eta/sub RCP/ = 0.82 +- 0.02 in two dimensions. Both of these predictions are shown to be consistent with the available experimental data

  19. Pack stability in dip faces fitted with scraper conveyors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartzmann, R

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents an account of an investigation conducted by CERCHAR, at the request of HBNPC, into the problems of goafside pack stability. Winning method and support and stowing techniques are described. Sets out the study methods used: systematic measurement (by direct or remote means) using an instrument developed by CERCHAR to investigate all aspects of in situ pack behaviour: settling, stresses, pressure on supports, etc. Gives the results of the investigation (tables and graphs) load-bearing capacity of the supports, deformation of the surrounding rock, convergence and stresses in the pack (figures, graphs), resistance of support-timber screen, model of in situ pack behaviour. Detailed conclusions (potential techniques, detailed study, practical improvements in packing techniques) are presented.

  20. Statistical theory of correlations in random packings of hard particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuliang; Puckett, James G; Makse, Hernán A

    2014-05-01

    A random packing of hard particles represents a fundamental model for granular matter. Despite its importance, analytical modeling of random packings remains difficult due to the existence of strong correlations which preclude the development of a simple theory. Here, we take inspiration from liquid theories for the n-particle angular correlation function to develop a formalism of random packings of hard particles from the bottom up. A progressive expansion into a shell of particles converges in the large layer limit under a Kirkwood-like approximation of higher-order correlations. We apply the formalism to hard disks and predict the density of two-dimensional random close packing (RCP), ϕ(rcp) = 0.85 ± 0.01, and random loose packing (RLP), ϕ(rlp) = 0.67 ± 0.01. Our theory also predicts a phase diagram and angular correlation functions that are in good agreement with experimental and numerical data.

  1. Variation in the DNA methylation pattern of expressed and nonexpressed genes in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, D N; Errington, L H; Clayton, R M

    1983-01-01

    Using methyl-sensitive and -insensitive restriction enzymes, Hpa II and Msp I, the methylation status of various chicken genes was examined in different tissues and developmental stages. Tissue-specific differences in methylation were found for the delta-crystallin, beta-tubulin, G3PDH, rDNA, and actin genes but not for the histone genes. Developmental decreases in methylation were noted for the delta-crystallin and actin genes in chicken kidney between embryo and adult. Since most of the sequences examined were housekeeping genes, transcriptional differences are apparently not a necessary accompaniment to changes in DNA methylation at the CpG sites examined. The only exception is sperm DNA where the delta-crystallin, beta-tubulin, and actin genes are highly methylated and almost certainly not transcribed. However the G3PDH genes are no more highly methylated in sperm than in other somatic tissues. Many sequences homologous to the rDNA and histone probes used are unmethylated in all tissues examined including sperm, but a methylated rDNA subfraction is more heavily methylated in sperm than in other tissues. We speculate as to the significance of these differences in sperm DNA methylation in the light of possible requirements for early gene activation and the probable deleterious mutagenic effects of heavy methylation within coding sequences.

  2. Genotypes and oxacillin resistance of Staphylococcus aureus from chicken and chicken meat in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupa, P; Bystroń, J; Bania, J; Podkowik, M; Empel, J; Mroczkowska, A

    2014-12-01

    The genotypes and oxacillin resistance of 263 Staphylococcus aureus isolates cultured from chicken cloacae (n = 138) and chicken meat (n = 125) was analyzed. Fifteen spa types were determined in the studied S. aureus population. Among 5 staphylococcal protein A gene (spa) types detected in S. aureus from chicken, t002, t3478, and t13620 were the most frequent. Staphylococcus aureus isolates from meat were assigned to 14 spa types. Among them, the genotypes t002, t056, t091, t3478, and t13620 were dominant. Except for 4 chicken S. aureus isolates belonging to CC398, the remaining 134 isolates were clustered into multilocus sequence clonal complex (CC) 5. Most of meat-derived isolates were assigned to CC5, CC7, and CC15, and to the newly described spa-CC12954 complex belonging to CC1. Except for t011 (CC398), all other spa types found among chicken isolates were also present in isolates from meat. Four S. aureus isolated from chicken and one from meat were identified as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) with oxacillin minimum inhibitory concentrations from 16 to 64 μg/mL. All MRSA were assigned to spa types belonging to ST398, and included 4 animal spa t011 SCCmecV isolates and 1 meat-derived spa t899, SCCmecIV isolate. Borderline oxacillin-resistant S. aureus (BORSA) isolates, shown to grow on plates containing 2 to 3 μg/mL of oxacillin, were found within S. aureus isolates from chicken (3 isolates) and from meat (19 isolates). The spa t091 and t084 dominated among BORSA from chicken meat, whereas t548 and t002 were found within animal BORSA. We report for the first time the presence of MRSA in chicken in Poland. We demonstrate that MRSA CC398 could be found in chicken meat indicating potential of introduction of animal-associated genotypes into the food chain. We also report for the first time the possibility of transmission of BORSA isolates from chicken to meat. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. Hematological, electrolyte and serum biochemical values of the Thai indigenous chickens (Gallus domesticus in northeastern, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchint Simaraks

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Thai indigenous chickens (Gallus domesticus have been domesticated in rural villages in Thailand for a long time. These birds are important to low-income people who live in the rural part of Thailand. However, health problems have been a major cause limiting their population. Hematological, electrolyte and serum biochemical values, which are important for diagnosis of clinical signs and symptoms when affected by diseases, are limited. Blood samples from 40 chickens (20 males and 20 females were used for hematological test while another 18 samples (from 10 males and 8 females were analysed for electrolyte and serum biochemical values. The samples were obtained from Khon Kaen, Kalasin, Roi - Et, Maha Sarakham and Nakhon Ratchasima provinces, northeastern region of Thailand. The results revealed the following information: total red blood cell count, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, total white blood cell count, lymphocyte, heterophil, monocyte, eosinophil, basophil, H:L ratio values of Thai native chickens were 2.26 ± 0.29 × 106 cells/μl, 8.89 ± 1.20 g/dl, 32.18 ± 4.46%, 144.63 ± 18.61 fl, 39.69 ± 4.96 pg, 27.86 ± 3.37 g/dl, 2.04 ± 0.45 × 104 cells/μl, 63.68 ± 9.36%, 23.70 ± 7.21%, 4.20 ± 3.20%, 5.83 ± 3.53%, 2.65 ± 2.09% and 0.40 ± 0.17, respectively. Potassium, sodium and chloride values of Thai native chickens were 5.3 ± 0.8 mmol/l, 155.9 ± 3.1 mmol/l and 116.9 ± 2.7 mmol/l, respectively. Furthermore, serum biochemistry values of Thai native chickens such as total protein, glucose, alkaline phosphatase, uric acid, calcium and cholesterol were 4.6 ± 1.0 mg/dl, 190.2 ± 29.8 mg/dl, 235.9 ± 68.6 U/L, 5.0 ± 1.9 mg/dl, 10.4 ± 1.2 mg/dl and 102.4 ± 30.8 mg/dl, respectively. Besides, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume and eosinophil inthe males were significantly higher than in the females Thai indigenous

  4. Isolation and molecular detection of Pasteurella multocida Type A from naturally infected chickens, and their histopathological evaluation in artificially infected chickens in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayedun Nahar Panna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida type A is the etiologic agent of fowl cholera, a highly contagious and fatal disease of chickens. The present research work was performed for the isolation, identification and molecular detection of P. multocida Type A from chickens. Liver, heart and spleen of suspected dead chicken (n=35 were collected from Gazipur and Pabna districts in Bangladesh. The targeted bacteria from the samples were isolated, identified and characterized based on their morphology, staining, cultural, biochemical characters, pathogenicity test, histopathological study and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. The P. multocida organism was isolated from 11.42% (n=4/35 samples. The organisms were gram negative, non-spore forming rod, non-motile, occurring singly or pairs in Gram staining, whereas in Leishman's stain, bipolar shaped organisms were observed. All the isolates were found positive for oxidase and catalase tests, produced indole, and fermented glucose, mannitol and sucrose. Necrotic foci in liver and congestion with hemorrhages in heart were found on necropsy. After pathogenicity test, the pathological changes were reconfirmed by histopathology depicting congestion, hemorrhage and lymphocyte infiltration in heart, liver and spleen tissues. In type specific PCR reaction, the organisms were confirmed as P. multocida Type A. In conclusion, P. multocida type A is prevalent among poultry in the studied regions; thus, care must be taken to control of the disease. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 338-345

  5. Pathogenicity of Genetically Similar, H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Strains in Chicken and the Differences in Sensitivity among Different Chicken Breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuu, Aya; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Patchimasiri, Tuangthong; Shiina, Takashi; Suzuki, Shingo; Chaichoune, Kridsada; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Hiromoto, Yasuaki; Abe, Haruka; Parchariyanon, Sujira; Saito, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Differences in the pathogenicity of genetically closely related H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) were evaluated in White Leghorn chickens. These viruses varied in the clinical symptoms they induced, including lethality, virus shedding, and replication in host tissues. A comparison of the host responses in the lung, brain, and spleen suggested that the differences in viral replication efficiency were related to the host cytokine response at the early phase of infection, especially variations in the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6. Based on these findings, we inoculated the virus that showed the mildest pathogenicity among the five tested, A/pigeon/Thailand/VSMU-7-NPT/2004, into four breeds of Thai indigenous chicken, Phadu-Hung-Dang (PHD), Chee, Dang, and Luang-Hung-Khao (LHK), to explore effects of genetic background on host response. Among these breeds, Chee, Dang, and LHK showed significantly longer survival times than White Leghorns. Virus shedding from dead Thai indigenous chickens was significantly lower than that from White Leghorns. Although polymorphisms were observed in the Mx and MHC class I genes, there was no significant association between the polymorphisms in these loci and resistance to HPAIV. PMID:27078641

  6. Influence of γ-ray radiation on mechanical character of packing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashiro, Hisao; Sakuma, Toshio

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the results of investigation on coefficient of friction, normal to axial pressure-ratio and compressed strain of packings influenced by γ-ray irradiation, which are necessary to evaluate the mechanical characteristics of packing, using packings made of seven kinds of new materials and conventional asbestos packing A. It resulted that graphite packing was less influenced by the γ-ray exposure, whereas carbon-fiber (pitch) packing, tefron-fiber packing and alamid-fiber packing were much influenced as compared with the graphite packing. (author)

  7. Growth hormone (GH)-releasing activity of chicken GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, S; Gineste, C; Gaylinn, B D

    2014-08-01

    Two peptides with sequence similarities to growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) have been identified by analysis of the chicken genome. One of these peptides, chicken (c) GHRH-LP (like peptide) was previously found to poorly bind to chicken pituitary membranes or to cloned and expressed chicken GHRH receptors and had little, if any, growth hormone (GH)-releasing activity in vivo or in vitro. In contrast, a second more recently discovered peptide, cGHRH, does bind to cloned and expressed cGHRH receptors and increases cAMP activity in transfected cells. The possibility that this peptide may have in vivo GH-releasing activity was therefore assessed. The intravenous (i.v.) administration of cGHRH to immature chickens, at doses of 3-100 μg/kg, significantly increased circulating GH concentrations within 10 min of injection and the plasma GH levels remained elevated for at least 30 min after the injection of maximally effective doses. The plasma GH responses to cGHRH were comparable with those induced by human (h) or porcine (p) GHRH preparations and to that induced by thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH). In marked contrast, the i.v. injection of cGHRH-LP had no significant effect on circulating GH concentrations in immature chicks. GH release was also increased from slaughterhouse chicken pituitary glands perifused for 5 min with cGHRH at doses of 0.1 μg/ml or 1.0 μg/ml, comparable with GH responses to hGHRH1-44. In contrast, the perifusion of chicken pituitary glands with cGHRH-LP had no significant effect on GH release. In summary, these results demonstrate that cGHRH has GH-releasing activity in chickens and support the possibility that it is the endogenous ligand of the cGHRH receptor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. SEPTOPLASTY WITH AND WITHOUT NASAL PACKING: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Septoplasty is one of the most commonly performed surgeries in rhinology to relieve nasal obstruction of patients with distortion in the midline cartilage or septum of the nose to relieve nasal obstruction of patient and findings consistent with nasal endoscopy. The anterior nasal packing routinely done following septoplasty is usually conventional and not evidence based. The purpose of nasal packing is to obtain haemostasis, enhance opposition of septal flaps, avoid septal haematoma formation, close the dead space, avoid synechiae formation, provide support to septal cartilage and prevent its displacement. OBJECTIVE This study intends to evaluate the effects of nasal packing on surgical success and related complications in septoplasty. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present clinical prospective and randomised study was carried out on patients attending Otorhinolaryngology Department of Santhiram Medical College & General Hospital between March 2012 and March 2015. Patients undergoing septoplasty were randomised either to receive anterior nasal packing or to not receive nasal packing postoperatively. RESULTS Levels of pain experienced by patients with nasal packing postoperatively during the initial 24 hours postoperatively and during the removal of the pack were significantly more. Post-operative headache, epiphora, swallowing discomfort and sleep disturbance were more in patients with nasal packing and statistically (p.05. Septal haematoma, adhesions and local infections in both groups were statistically insignificant (p>.05. CONCLUSION Septoplasty enhances the standard of living of patients with septal deviation and nasal obstruction. Our study results suggest that nasal packing after septoplasty is not obligatory. Nasal packing causes considerably more pain and complications, and it should be reserved only for those who have bleeding predisposition.

  9. Prevalence and quantification of Listeria monocytogenes in chicken offal at the retail level in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, C H; Goh, S G; Loo, Y Y; Chang, W S; Lye, Y L; Puspanadan, S; Tang, J Y H; Nakaguchi, Y; Nishibuchi, M; Mahyudin, N A; Radu, S

    2013-06-01

    A total of 216 chicken offal samples (chicken liver = 72; chicken heart = 72; chicken gizzard = 72) from wet markets and hypermarkets in Selangor, Malaysia, were examined for the presence and density of Listeria monocytogenes by using a combination of the most probable number and PCR method. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes in 216 chicken offal samples examined was 26.39%, and among the positive samples, the chicken gizzard showed the highest percentage at 33.33% compared with chicken liver (25.00%) and chicken heart (20.83%). The microbial load of L. monocytogenes in chicken offal samples ranged from Malaysia.

  10. Effects of irradiation on bacterial load and Listeria monocytogenes in raw chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varabioff, Y.; Mitchell, G.E.; Nottingham, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    After irradiation of chickens to a dose of 2.5 kGy, the decrease in the standard plate count (SPC) was similar in air and in vacuum-packaged chickens. During storage at 4 degrees C for 15 d, the SPC increased progressively in both types of packaged chickens. At the end of the storage period, the SPC was higher in air-packaged chicken than in vacuum-packaged chickens. In irradiated chickens, Listeria monocytogenes was only recovered from the vacuum-packaged chickens after 7 d cold storage. In unirradiated chickens, L. monocytogenes proliferated similarly in both air- and vacuum-packaged chickens

  11. Cross-reactivity to fish and chicken meat - a new clinical syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuehn, A; Codreanu-Morel, F; Lehners-Weber, C

    2016-01-01

    fish and chicken meat in patients with allergy to chicken meat without sensitization to hen's eggs. METHODS: Patients with food allergy to fish and chicken meat (n = 29) or chicken meat only (n = 7) were recruited. IgE-reactive chicken proteins were identified (Edman, MS analysis) and quantified (ELISA...... for the fish homologues as well. Fish and chicken meat allergens were highly cross-reactive while high inhibition rates with fish or chicken allergens correlated with the patients' primary sensitization to fish or chicken. In cooked or roasted foods, enolase and aldolase were detectable in chicken breast while...

  12. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes on cooked cured chicken breasts by acidified coating containing allyl isothiocyanate or deodorized Oriental mustard extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaimat, Amin N; Holley, Richard A

    2016-08-01

    Ready-to-eat meats are considered foods at high risk to cause life-threatening Listeria monocytogenes infections. This study screened 5 L. monocytogenes strains for their ability to hydrolyze sinigrin (a glucosinolate in Oriental mustard), which formed allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and reduced L. monocytogenes viability on inoculated vacuum-packed, cooked, cured roast chicken slices at 4 °C. Tests involved incorporation of 25-50 μl/g AITC directly or 100-250 mg/g Oriental mustard extract in 0.5% (w/v) κ-carrageenan/2% (w/v) chitosan-based coatings prepared using 1.5% malic or acetic acid. L. monocytogenes strains hydrolyzed 33.6%-48.4% pure sinigrin in MH broth by 21 d at 25 °C. Acidified κ-carrageenan/chitosan coatings containing 25-50 μl/g AITC or 100-250 mg/g mustard reduced the viability of L. monocytogenes and aerobic bacteria on cooked, cured roast chicken slices by 4.1 to >7.0 log10 CFU/g compared to uncoated chicken stored at 4 °C for 70 d. Coatings containing malic acid were significantly more antimicrobial than those with acetic acid. During storage for 70 d, acidified κ-carrageenan/chitosan coatings containing 25-50 μl/g AITC or 250 mg/g mustard extract reduced lactic acid bacteria (LAB) numbers 3.8 to 5.4 log10 CFU/g on chicken slices compared to uncoated samples. Acidified κ-carrageenan/chitosan-based coatings containing either AITC or Oriental mustard extract at the concentrations tested had the ability to control L. monocytogenes viability and delay growth of potential spoilage bacteria on refrigerated, vacuum-packed cured roast chicken. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Isolation of chicken embryonic stem cell and preparation of chicken chimeric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yani; Yang, Haiyan; Zhang, Zhentao; Shi, Qingqing; Wang, Dan; Zheng, Mengmeng; Li, Bichun; Song, Jiuzhou

    2013-03-01

    Chicken embryonic stem cells (ESCs) were separated from blastoderms at stage-X and cultured in vitro. Alkaline phosphatase activity and stage-specific embryonic antigen-1 staining was conducted to detect ESCs. Then, chicken ESCs were transfected with linearized plasmid pEGFP-N1 in order to produce chimeric chicken. Firstly, the optimal electrotransfection condition was compared; the results showed the highest transfection efficiency was obtained when the field strength and pulse duration was 280 V and 75 μs, respectively. Secondly, the hatchability of shedding methods, drilling a window at the blunt end of egg and drilling a window at the lateral shell of egg was compared, the results showed that the hatchability was the highest for drilling a window at the lateral shell of egg. Thirdly, the hatchability of microinjection (ESCs was microinjected into chick embryo cavity) was compared too, the results showed there were significant difference between the injection group transfected with ESCs and that of other two groups. In addition, five chimeric chickens were obtained in this study and EGFP gene was expressed in some organs, but only two chimeric chicken expressed EGFP gene in the gonad, indicating that the chimeric chicken could be obtained through chick embryo cavity injection by drilling a window at the lateral shell of egg.

  14. Phenotypic and Genotypic Detection of Campylobacter jejuni at Local Chicken and Chicken Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rosyidi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The Objective of this study was to identify the existence of Campylobacter jejuni based on phenotypic and genotypic characteristic in local chicken and chicken meats. Samples of local chicken intestine and meat were tested for the bacterial existence. Phenotypic examination was carried out by means of cultivation followed by gram staining and biochemical tests. Genotypic examination was conducted by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using genus specific16S rRNA gene at 816 bp and membrane-associated protein A (mapA gene at 589 bp as Campylobacter jejuni species-specific gene. The result of phenotypic detection revealed the existence of Campylobacter spp as gram negative, curved rod shape, oxidase positive, urease negative and motile. Genotypic examination also indicated the existence of bacteria using both primers. However, no Campylobacter jejuni detected from meat of the chickens. The results suggest that the method of PCR using a primer detecting species-specific gene of Campylobacter jejuni gives a rapid and accurate detection of the bacteria as compared to that using phenotypic and biochemical test. Identification of Campylobacter spp from chicken meats should be improved with enrichment method and sample collection. (Animal Production 12(2: 128-134 (2010Key Words: Campylobacter jejuni, mapA gene, local chicken

  15. Comparison of non-volatile umami components in chicken soup and chicken enzymatic hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yan; Yang, Xiao; Ding, Qi; Zhang, Yu-Yu; Sun, Bao-Guo; Chen, Hai-Tao; Sun, Ying

    2017-12-01

    Umami taste is an important part to the taste of chicken. To isolate and identify non-volatile umami compounds, fractions from chicken soup and hydrolysate were prepared and analyzed. Amino acids were analyzed by amino acid analyzer. Organic acids and nucleotides were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Separation procedures utilizing ultrafiltration, Sephadex G-15 and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography were used to isolate umami taste peptides. Combined with sensory evaluation and LC-Q-TOF-MS, the amino acid sequences of 12 oligopeptides were determined. The amount of taste compounds was higher in chicken enzymatic hydrolysate than that of chicken soup. Eight oligopeptides from chicken enzymatic hydrolysate were identified, including Ala-Asp, Ala-Met, His-Ser, Val-Glu, Ala-Glu, Asp-Ala-Gly, Glu-Asp and Ala-Glu-Ala. Four oligopeptides from chicken soup were identified, including Val-Thr, Ala-His, Ala-Phe and Thr-Glu. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Experimental induction of chicken amyloid A amyloidosis in white layer chickens by inoculation with inactivated vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Wazir Ahmad; Hirai, Takuya; Niazmand, Mohammad Hakim; Okumura, Naoko; Yamaguchi, Ryoji

    2017-10-01

    We investigated the amyloidogenic potential of inactivated vaccines and the localized production of serum amyloid A (SAA) at the injection site in white layer chickens. Hens in the treated group were injected intramuscularly three times with high doses of inactivated oil-emulsion Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine and multivalent viral and bacterial inactivated oil-emulsion vaccines at two-week intervals. Chickens in the control group did not receive any inoculum. In the treated group, emaciation and granulomas were present, while several chickens died between 4 and 6 weeks after the first injection. Hepatomegaly was seen at necropsy, and the liver parenchyma showed inconsistent discolouration with patchy green to yellowish-brown areas, or sometimes red-brown areas with haemorrhage. Amyloid deposition in the liver, spleen, duodenum, and at injection sites was demonstrated using haematoxylin and eosin staining, Congo red, and immunohistochemistry. The incidence of chicken amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis was 47% (28 of 60) in the treated group. In addition, RT-PCR was used to identify chicken SAA mRNA expression in the liver and at the injection sites. Furthermore, SAA mRNA was detected by in situ hybridization in fibroblasts at the injection sites, and also in hepatocytes. We believe that this is the first report of the experimental induction of systemic AA amyloidosis in white layer chickens following repeated inoculation with inactivated vaccines without the administration of amyloid fibrils or other amyloid-enhancing factors.

  17. Radioimmunoassay for chicken avidin. Comparison with a (/sup 14/C)biotin-binding method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulomaa, M S; Elo, H A; Tuohimaa, P J [Tampere Univ. of Tech. (Finland)

    1978-11-01

    A double-antibody solid-phase radioimmunoassay for chicken avidin is reported. Avidin was labelled with /sup 125/I by the chloramine-T method. The bound and free avidin were separated with a second antibody bound to a solid matrix. In the logit-log scale the standard curve was linear from 1-2 to 100-200ng of avidin/ml. Cross-reaction of ovalbumin was less than 0.015%. Saturation of biotin-binding sites of avidin with an excess of biotin decreased radioimmunoassay values by about 15%. Recovery studies indicated that avidin can be assayed from all chicken tissues studied with radioimmunoassay, whereas the (/sup 14/C)biotin/bentonite method gave poor recoveries for avidin in the liver and kidney. Radioimmunoassay and the (/sup 14/C)biotin/bentonite method gave similar concentrations for oviduct avidin.

  18. Automated packing systems: review of industrial implementations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Paul F.; Batchelor, Bruce G.

    1993-08-01

    A rich theoretical background to the problems that occur in the automation of material handling can be found in operations research, production engineering, systems engineering and automation, more specifically machine vision, literature. This work has contributed towards the design of intelligent handling systems. This paper will review the application of these automated material handling and packing techniques to industrial problems. The discussion will also highlight the systems integration issues involved in these applications. An outline of one such industrial application, the automated placement of shape templates on to leather hides, is also discussed. The purpose of this system is to arrange shape templates on a leather hide in an efficient manner, so as to minimize the leather waste, before they are automatically cut from the hide. These pieces are used in the furniture and car manufacturing industries for the upholstery of high quality leather chairs and car seats. Currently this type of operation is semi-automated. The paper will outline the problems involved in the full automation of such a procedure.

  19. Compressed Subsequence Matching and Packed Tree Coloring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Cording, Patrick Hagge; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2017-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for subsequence matching in grammar compressed strings. Given a grammar of size n compressing a string of size N and a pattern string of size m over an alphabet of size \\(\\sigma \\), our algorithm uses \\(O(n+\\frac{n\\sigma }{w})\\) space and \\(O(n+\\frac{n\\sigma }{w}+m\\log N\\log...... w\\cdot occ)\\) or \\(O(n+\\frac{n\\sigma }{w}\\log w+m\\log N\\cdot occ)\\) time. Here w is the word size and occ is the number of minimal occurrences of the pattern. Our algorithm uses less space than previous algorithms and is also faster for \\(occ=o(\\frac{n}{\\log N})\\) occurrences. The algorithm uses...... a new data structure that allows us to efficiently find the next occurrence of a given character after a given position in a compressed string. This data structure in turn is based on a new data structure for the tree color problem, where the node colors are packed in bit strings....

  20. Production Performance of Indigenous Chicken under Semi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study to evaluate four indigenous chicken – namely: Horasi, Kuchi, Naked neck and Frizzled in order to obtain grand-parent and parent stocks was carried out at Tanzania Livestock Research Institute, Mpwapwa district of Dodoma, Tanzania. The perfomance of the ecotypes were compared so as to come out with the best ...

  1. First week nutrition for broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamot, David

    2017-01-01

    During the first week of life, broiler chickens undergo various developmental changes that are already initiated during incubation. Ongoing development of organs such as the gastro- intestinal tract and the immune system may affect the nutritional requirements during this age period. Despite the

  2. Alternative anticoccidial treatment of broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elmusharaf, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) and electromagnetic fields (EMF) in broiler chickens infected with Eimeria parasites. The question addressed was whether ingestion of MOS or exposure to EMF would counteract the coccidiosis-induced depression of growth performance and

  3. Review of environmental enrichment for broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riber, A.B.; De Weerd, Van H.A.; Jong, De I.C.; Steenfeldt, S.

    2018-01-01

    Welfare problems are commonly found in both conventional and organic production of broiler chickens. In order to reduce the extent of welfare problems, it has been suggested to provide stimulating, enriched environments. The aim of the present paper is to provide a review of the effect on behavior

  4. Responsive Reading: Caring for Chicken Little

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maderazo, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Media images and news about current events have the potential to strike like acorns. In these moments, children, like Chicken Little, need caring adults who can help them understand what is happening. As early childhood educators, one must recognize and provide opportunities to guide children's social and emotional well-being in addition to…

  5. The major histocompatibility complex in the chicken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillemot, F; Kaufman, J F; Skjoedt, K

    1989-01-01

    The chicken B complex is the first non-mammalian MHC characterized at the molecular level. It differs from the human HLA and murine H-2 complexes in the small size of the class I (B-F) and class II (B-L) genes and their close proximity. This proximity accounts for the absence of recombination...

  6. Lymphoid cells in chicken intestinal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P

    1975-01-01

    The intraepithelial lymphoid cells of chicken small intestine were studied by light microscopy using 1 mu Epon sections, and by electron microscopy. Three cell types were found: small lymphocytes, large lymphoid cells, and granular cells. These cells correspond to the theliolymphocytes and globule...

  7. Comparative Study of Human Liver Ferritin and Chicken Liver by Moessbauer Spectroscopy. Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshtrakh, M. I. [Ural State Technical University - UPI, Division of Applied Biophysics, Faculty of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control (Russian Federation); Milder, O. B.; Semionkin, V. A. [Ural State Technical University - UPI, Faculty of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation); Prokopenko, P. G. [Russian State Medical University, Faculty of Biochemistry (Russian Federation); Malakheeva, L. I. [Simbio Holding, Science Consultation Department (Russian Federation)

    2004-12-15

    A comparative study of normal human liver ferritin and livers from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease was made by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Small differences of quadrupole splitting and isomer shift were found for human liver ferritin and chicken liver. Moessbauer parameters for liver from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease were the same.

  8. Comparative Study of Human Liver Ferritin and Chicken Liver by Moessbauer Spectroscopy. Preliminary Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshtrakh, M. I.; Milder, O. B.; Semionkin, V. A.; Prokopenko, P. G.; Malakheeva, L. I.

    2004-01-01

    A comparative study of normal human liver ferritin and livers from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease was made by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Small differences of quadrupole splitting and isomer shift were found for human liver ferritin and chicken liver. Moessbauer parameters for liver from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease were the same.

  9. Effect of special modified clinoptylolite as an antidote used for treatment of radiocaesium contamination of broiler chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poschl, M.; Borkovec, V.; Zelenka, J.; Prochazka, J.

    1994-01-01

    The post-Chernobyl 137 Cs contamination caused gut uptake of this nuclide by ruminants, pigs and laying hens. The application of several clay minerals, stable caesium as well as hexacyanoferrate and related compounds has shown to be effective in reducing the gut uptake. The aim of this study was focused on a possibility of the suppression of gut uptake of 13 '7Cs from the contaminated feed mixture to broiler chicken and/or increasing the rate of excretion of 137 Cs from tissues of broiler chicken by a special food additive (RADECONT, i.e. 98% of clinoptilolite + 2% of FeHCF, made by BIOPOR, CZ). The antidote material RADECONT was added to the feed mixture 2 hours after application of artificially contaminated feed (5kBq of 137 Cs per chicken). The dose of the material was 0.5g per kg body weight and it was repeated daily. The control chickens were given 137 Cs but not antidote in the feed. Lower radiocaesium activities in breast and leg muscles (statistically significant, P 137 Cs administration. The biological half-lives of 137 Cs in the controls treated animals were similar. Application of RADECONT decreased the uptake of radiocaesium in tissues (by up to 20% in muscles) but did not enhance the excretion rate of 137 Cs. (author)

  10. Influence of Chicken Manure Fertilization on Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in Soil and the Endophytic Bacteria of Pakchoi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingxiang Yang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal manure is commonly used as fertilizer for agricultural crops worldwide, even though it is believed to contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance from animal intestines to the soil environment. However, it is unclear whether and how there is any impact of manure fertilization on populations and community structure of antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria (AREB in plant tissues. To investigate the effect of manure and organic fertilizer on endophytic bacterial communities, pot experiments were performed with pakchoi grown with the following treatments: (1 non-treated; (2 chicken manure-treated and (3 organic fertilizer-treated. Manure or organic fertilizer significantly increased the abundances of total cultivable endophytic bacteria (TCEB and AREB in pakchoi, and the effect of chicken manure was greater than that of organic fertilizer. Further, 16S rDNA sequencing and the phylogenetic analysis indicated that chicken manure or organic fertilizer application increased the populations of multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria (MARB in soil and multiple antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria (MAREB in pakchoi. The identical multiple antibiotic-resistant bacterial populations detected in chicken manure, manure- or organic fertilizer-amended soil and the vegetable endophytic system were Brevundimonas diminuta, Brachybacterium sp. and Bordetella sp., suggesting that MARB from manure could enter and colonize the vegetable tissues through manure fertilization. The fact that some human pathogens with multiple antibiotic resistance were detected in harvested vegetables after growing in manure-amended soil demonstrated a potential threat to human health.

  11. Evaluation of Single or Double Hurdle Sanitizer Applications in Simulated Field or Packing Shed Operations for Cantaloupes Contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy C. Webb

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes contamination of cantaloupes has become a serious concern as contaminated cantaloupes led to a deadly outbreak in the United States in 2011. To reduce cross-contamination between cantaloupes and to reduce resident populations on contaminated melons, application of sanitizers in packing shed wash water is recommended. The sanitizing agent of 5% levulinic acid and 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS applied as a single hurdle in either a simulated dump or dip treatment significantly reduced L. monocytogenes to lower levels at the stem scar compared to a simulated dump treatment employing 200 ppm chlorine; however pathogen reductions on the rind tissue were not significantly different. Double hurdle approaches employing two sequential packing plant treatments with different sanitizers revealed decreased reduction of L. monocytogenes at the stem scar. In contrast, application of sanitizers both in the field and at the packing plant led to greater L. monocytogenes population reductions than if sanitizers were only applied at the packing plant.

  12. Association of Marek's Disease induced immunosuppression with activation of a novel regulatory T cells in chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angila Gurung

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Marek's Disease Virus (MDV is an alphaherpesvirus that infects chickens, transforms CD4+ T cells and causes deadly lymphomas. In addition, MDV induces immunosuppression early during infection by inducing cell death of the infected lymphocytes, and potentially due to activation of regulatory T (Treg-cells. Furthermore, immunosuppression also occurs during the transformation phase of the disease; however, it is still unknown how the disease can suppress immune response prior or after lymphoma formation. Here, we demonstrated that chicken TGF-beta+ Treg cells are found in different lymphoid tissues, with the highest levels found in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (cecal tonsil: CT, fostering an immune-privileged microenvironment exerted by TGF-beta. Surprisingly, significantly higher frequencies of TGF-beta+ Treg cells are found in the spleens of MDV-susceptible chicken lines compared to the resistant line, suggesting an association between TGF-beta+ Treg cells and host susceptibility to lymphoma formation. Experimental infection with a virulent MDV elevated the levels of TGF-beta+ Treg cells in the lungs as early as 4 days post infection, and during the transformation phase of the disease in the spleens. In contrast to TGF-beta+ Treg cells, the levels of CD4+CD25+ T cells remained unchanged during the infection and transformation phase of the disease. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that the induction of TGF-beta+ Treg cells is associated with pathogenesis of the disease, as the vaccine strain of MDV did not induce TGF-beta+ Treg cells. Similar to human haematopoietic malignant cells, MDV-induced lymphoma cells expressed high levels of TGF-beta but very low levels of TGF-beta receptor I and II genes. The results confirm that COX-2/ PGE2 pathway is involved in immunosuppression induced by MDV-lymphoma cells. Taken together, our results revealed a novel TGF-beta+ Treg subset in chickens that is activated during MDV infection and tumour

  13. Biologic and genetic characteristics of Toxoplasma gondii isolates in free-range chickens from Nicaragua, Central America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubey, J.P.; Sundar, N.; Pineda, N.

    2006-01-01

    chickens with titers of 1:5 or less did not shed oocysts. T. gondii was isolated by bioassay in mice from 47 chickens with MAT titers of 1:20 or higher. All infected mice from six isolates died of toxoplasmosis. Overall, 41 of 170 (24.1%) mice that became infected after inoculation with chicken tissues...... died of toxoplasmosis. Genotyping of these 48 isolates (47 from mice and 1 from pooled tissues) using polymorphisms at the loci SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB and GRA6 revealed eight genotypes. Six isolates had Type I alleles, three isolate had Type II alleles and six isolates had Type III alleles at all loci...

  14. Meat Quality of Chicken Breast Subjected to Different Thawing Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Freezing is one of the methods to preserve and guarantee the quality of meat until it reaches the consumer. Even though freezing is classified as a mild form of preservation, it causes meat changes resulting from the formation of ice crystals that subsequently affect the tenderness and functionality of meat. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and structural characteristics of chicken half breast submitted to fast freezing (-36 °C for 2 hours and thawed by five different methods (under refrigeration, in a microwave, in a oven with air circulation, placed in cold water, or at room temperature. After thawing, the following parameters were evaluated: moisture content, drip loss (syneresis, water activity (aw, and shear force. Samples were also histologically evaluated by light microscopy. The results indicated that, despite being submitted to fast freezing, thawing affected (p <0.05 most of the physicochemical and structural properties of the meat, except for aw. Thawing in cold water (packed in low-density polyethylene bags and placed in cold water at approximately 10 °C for 2 hours and 15 minutes presented the best results due to lesser damage to the cell structure, as shown by the lower drip loss, higher moisture content, and greater tenderness of the samples compared to those thawed using the other methods. Histological examination showed that muscle fiber structural features and organization were maintained. Thawing at low temperatures seems to cause less damage to the meat structure and allows maintaining of its properties. It was concluded that the meat quality is not related only with the freezing method, but also with the method and conditions used in thawing.

  15. MHC variability in heritage breeds of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, J E; Lund, A R; McCarron, A M; Pinegar, K N; Korver, D R; Classen, H L; Aggrey, S; Utterbach, C; Anthony, N B; Berres, M E

    2016-02-01

    The chicken Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is very strongly associated with disease resistance and thus is a very important region of the chicken genome. Historically, MHC (B locus) has been identified by the use of serology with haplotype specific alloantisera. These antisera can be difficult to produce and frequently cross-react with multiple haplotypes and hence their application is generally limited to inbred and MHC-defined lines. As a consequence, very little information about MHC variability in heritage chicken breeds is available. DNA-based methods are now available for examining MHC variability in these previously uncharacterized populations. A high density SNP panel consisting of 101 SNP that span a 230,000 bp region of the chicken MHC was used to examine MHC variability in 17 heritage populations of chickens from five universities from Canada and the United States. The breeds included 6 heritage broiler lines, 3 Barred Plymouth Rock, 2 New Hampshire and one each of Rhode Island Red, Light Sussex, White Leghorn, Dark Brown Leghorn, and 2 synthetic lines. These heritage breeds contained from one to 11 haplotypes per line. A total of 52 unique MHC haplotypes were found with only 10 of them identical to serologically defined haplotypes. Furthermore, nine MHC recombinants with their respective parental haplotypes were identified. This survey confirms the value of these non-commercially utilized lines in maintaining genetic diversity. The identification of multiple MHC haplotypes and novel MHC recombinants indicates that diversity is being generated and maintained within these heritage populations. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. Microbiological quality and other characteristics of refrigerated chicken meat in contact with cellulose acetate-based film incorporated with rosemary essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane Alexandre Machado de Melo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial active packaging delays or inhibits microorganism growth in packed products, and it can be used in a variety of food systems. The objective of the present research was to develop packaging incorporated with natural antimicrobial agents (active film. The effects of the active film on the spoilage, pathogenic microorganism counts, pH and color of the refrigerated chicken breast cuts were analyzed. Cellulose acetate-based active films incorporating two concentrations (20% and 50%, v/w of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil were manufactured and placed in contact with the chicken breast cuts for six days. An analysis of variance and mean comparison tests (Tukey's test, p<0.05 were performed on the results. The films that contained 20% essential oil and were intercalated with chicken breast samples did not demonstrate significant effects on the control of psychrotrophic or total coliform microorganisms during the storage period; however, the films incorporated with 50% essential oil demonstrated efficacy toward the control of coliforms during the storage of the samples (6 days, 2 ± 2ºC. The pH was related to the psychrotrophic microorganism count and was not influenced by the treatment. The color was not influenced by the time of storage or the treatment. The results demonstrate that active films incorporating 50% rosemary essential oil are effective at controlling certain microorganisms in chicken breast cuts.

  17. Do gray wolves (Canis lupus) support pack mates during aggressive inter-pack interactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Kira A; McIntyre, Richard T

    2016-09-01

    For group-living mammals, social coordination increases success in everything from hunting and foraging (Crofoot and Wrangham in Mind the Gap, Springer, Berlin, 2010; Bailey et al. in Behav Ecol Sociobiol 67:1-17, 2013) to agonism (Mosser and Packer in Anim Behav 78:359-370, 2009; Wilson et al. in Anim Behav 83:277-291, 2012; Cassidy et al. in Behav Ecol 26:1352-1360, 2015). Cooperation is found in many species and, due to its low costs, likely is a determining factor in the evolution of living in social groups (Smith in Anim Behav 92:291-304, 2014). Beyond cooperation, many mammals perform costly behaviors for the benefit of group mates (e.g., parental care, food sharing, grooming). Altruism is considered the most extreme case of cooperation where the altruist increases the fitness of the recipient while decreasing its own fitness (Bell in Selection: the mechanism of evolution. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2008). Gray wolf life history requires intra-pack familiarity, communication, and cooperation in order to succeed in hunting (MacNulty et al. in Behav Ecol doi: 10.1093/beheco/arr159 2011) and protecting group resources (Stahler et al. in J Anim Ecol 82: 222-234, 2013; Cassidy et al. in Behav Ecol 26:1352-1360, 2015). Here, we report 121 territorial aggressive inter-pack interactions in Yellowstone National Park between 1 April 1995 and 1 April 2011 (>5300 days of observation) and examine each interaction where one wolf interferes when its pack mate is being attacked by a rival group. This behavior was recorded six times (17.6 % of interactions involving an attack) and often occurred between dyads of closely related individuals. We discuss this behavior as it relates to the evolution of cooperation, sociality, and altruism.

  18. Fast charge implications: Pack and cell analysis and comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanim, Tanvir R.; Shirk, Matthew G.; Bewley, Randy L.; Dufek, Eric J.; Liaw, Bor Yann

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates the effect of 50-kW (about 2C) direct current fast charging on a full-size battery electric vehicle's battery pack in comparison to a pack exclusively charged at 3.3 kW, which is the common alternating current Level 2 charging power level. Comparable scaled charging protocols are also independently applied to individual cells at three different temperatures, 20 °C, 30 °C, and 40 °C, to perform a comparative analysis with the packs. Dominant cell-level aging modes were identified through incremental capacity analysis and compared with full packs to gain a clear understanding of additional key factors that affect pack aging. While the cell-level study showed a minor impact on performance due to direct current fast charging, the packs showed a significantly higher rate of capacity fade under similar charging protocols. This indicates that pack-level aging cannot be directly extrapolated from cell evaluation. Delayed fast charging, completing shortly before discharge, was found to have less of an impact on battery degradation than conventional alternating current Level 2 charging.

  19. Avoidance of cigarette pack health warnings among regular cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Olivia M; Attwood, Angela; O'Brien, Laura; Brooks, Sabrina; Hedge, Craig; Leonards, Ute; Munafò, Marcus R

    2014-03-01

    Previous research with adults and adolescents indicates that plain cigarette packs increase visual attention to health warnings among non-smokers and non-regular smokers, but not among regular smokers. This may be because regular smokers: (1) are familiar with the health warnings, (2) preferentially attend to branding, or (3) actively avoid health warnings. We sought to distinguish between these explanations using eye-tracking technology. A convenience sample of 30 adult dependent smokers participated in an eye-tracking study. Participants viewed branded, plain and blank packs of cigarettes with familiar and unfamiliar health warnings. The number of fixations to health warnings and branding on the different pack types were recorded. Analysis of variance indicated that regular smokers were biased towards fixating the branding rather than the health warning on all three pack types. This bias was smaller, but still evident, for blank packs, where smokers preferentially attended the blank region over the health warnings. Time-course analysis showed that for branded and plain packs, attention was preferentially directed to the branding location for the entire 10s of the stimulus presentation, while for blank packs this occurred for the last 8s of the stimulus presentation. Familiarity with health warnings had no effect on eye gaze location. Smokers actively avoid cigarette pack health warnings, and this remains the case even in the absence of salient branding information. Smokers may have learned to divert their attention away from cigarette pack health warnings. These findings have implications for cigarette packaging and health warning policy. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Enabling Microliquid Chromatography by Microbead Packing of Microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balvin, Manuel; Zheng, Yun

    2014-01-01

    The microbead packing is the critical element required in the success of on-chip microfabrication of critical microfluidic components for in-situ analysis and detection of chiral amino acids. In order for microliquid chromatography to occur, there must be a stationary phase medium within the microchannel that interacts with the analytes present within flowing fluid. The stationary phase media are the microbeads packed by the process discussed in this work. The purpose of the microliquid chromatography is to provide a lightweight, low-volume, and low-power element to separate amino acids and their chiral partners efficiently to understand better the origin of life. In order to densely pack microbeads into the microchannels, a liquid slurry of microbeads was created. Microbeads were extracted from a commercially available high-performance liquid chromatography column. The silica beads extracted were 5 microns in diameter, and had surface coating of phenyl-hexyl. These microbeads were mixed with a 200- proof ethanol solution to create a microbead slurry with the right viscosity for packing. A microfilter is placed at the outlet via of the microchannel and the slurry is injected, then withdrawn across a filter using modified syringes. After each injection, the channel is flushed with ethanol to enhance packing. This cycle is repeated numerous times to allow for a tightly packed channel of microbeads. Typical microbead packing occurs in the macroscale into tubes or channels by using highly pressurized systems. Moreover, these channels are typically long and straight without any turns or curves. On the other hand, this method of microbead packing is completed within a microchannel 75 micrometers in diameter. Moreover, the microbead packing is completed into a serpentine type microchannel, such that it maximizes microchannel length within a microchip. Doing so enhances the interactions of the analytes with the microbeads to separate efficiently amino acids and amino acid

  1. Scottish young people's perceptions of standardised packs - a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Macgregor

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Standardised cigarette packs were introduced into the UK in May 2016. Retailers could sell old stock until May 2017 after which only the sale of cigarettes and tobacco in standardised packs was allowed. As in Australia, pack shape, colour, opening mechanism and font are regulated, together with the size and position of health warnings and number of cigarettes in a pack. This paper explores Scottish young people's awareness of and views about standardised packs in Spring 2017. Methods The DISPLAY study is a five year study established to evaluate the national tobacco point-of sale (POS promotions ban in four communities in Scotland. This paper is based on the qualitative component, annual focus groups carried out with Secondary 2 (13 year olds and Secondary 4 (15 year olds students in four secondary schools. 16 groups (82 students convened in February - March 2017 explored students' perceptions of standardised packaging. Results There was a high level of awareness of standardised packs prior to their full implementation. Smokers had bought them, and they and other participants had seen them in possession of friends and family members, and in litter. Participants' views of the new packaging were generally negative, described as unappealing and depressing, particularly the pictorial health warnings. Packs were compared unfavourably with previous non-standardised versions. However, there was no consensus on their likely impact. Some participants argued that their impact would be widespread, while others thought that any impact would be confined to young non/occasional smokers and that established smokers would be unaffected. Conclusions In early 2017 young people in Scotland had high awareness and knowledge of standardised tobacco packs before their full implementation. Despite differing views about their likely impact on youth smoking, participants irrespective of smoking status overwhelmingly regarded them as unattractive and less

  2. Improvement of bacteriological quality of frozen chicken by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouchpramool, K.; Prachasitthisak, Y.; Charoen, S.; Kanarat, S.; Kanignunta, K.; Tangwongsupang, S.

    1986-12-01

    The possible use of gamma irradiation at doses of 1.6 to 4.0 kGy to improve bacteriological quality of frozen chicken was investigated. The effects of gamma irradiation on salmonella viability in frozen chicken and on sensory quality of frozen chicken were also evaluated. D 10 -values for different isolated strains of salmonella in frozen chicken varied from 0.41 to 0.57 kGy. A dose of 4 kGy is required for a seven log cycle reduction of salmonella contamination in frozen chicken. Approximately 21 per cent of frozen chicken examined were contaminated with salmonella. Salmonella typhimurium, salmonella virchow, and salmonella java were predominant. Irradiation of frozen chicken at a minimum dose of 3.2 kGy eliminated salmonella, coliform, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus and, in addition, reduced baterial load by 2 log cycles. Faecal streptococci was still present in a 3.2 kGy samples but in a very small percentage and the count was not over 100 colonies per g. Discoloring of chicken meat was noted after a 2 kGy treatment. The sensory quality of frozen chicken irradiated at 3 and 4 kGy tended to decrease during frozen storage but was within the acceptable range on a nine point hedonic scale even after eight months of frozen storage. Dosage at 3.2 kGy appeared to be sufficient for improving bacteriological quality of frozen chicken

  3. The evolution of chicken stem cell culture methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzaneh, M; Attari, F; Mozdziak, P E; Khoshnam, S E

    2017-12-01

    1. The avian embryo is an excellent model for studying embryology and the production of pharmaceutical proteins in transgenic chickens. Furthermore, chicken stem cells have the potential for proliferation and differentiation and emerged as an attractive tool for various cell-based technologies. 2. The objective of these studies is the derivation and culture of these stem cells is the production of transgenic birds for recombinant biomaterials and vaccine manufacture, drug and cytotoxicity testing, as well as to gain insight into basic science, including cell tracking. 3. Despite similarities among the established chicken stem cell lines, fundamental differences have been reported between their culture conditions and applications. Recent conventional protocols used for expansion and culture of chicken stem cells mostly depend on feeder cells, serum-containing media and static culture. 4. Utilising chicken stem cells for generation of cell-based transgenic birds and a variety of vaccines requires large-scale cell production. However, scaling up the conventional adherent chicken stem cells is challenging and labour intensive. Development of a suspension cell culture process for chicken embryonic stem cells (cESCs), chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) and chicken induced pluripotent stem cells (ciPSCs) will be an important advance for increasing the growth kinetics of these cells. 6. This review describes various approaches and suggestions to achieve optimal cell growth for defined chicken stem cells cultures and use in future manufacturing applications.

  4. The Adipose Tissue in Farm Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauerwein, Helga; Bendixen, Emoke; Restelli, Laura

    2014-01-01

    and immune cells. The scientific interest in adipose tissue is largely based on the worldwide increasing prevalence of obesity in humans; in contrast, obesity is hardly an issue for farmed animals that are fed according to their well-defined needs. Adipose tissue is nevertheless of major importance...... in these animals, as the adipose percentage of the bodyweight is a major determinant for the efficiency of transferring nutrients from feed into food products and thus for the economic value from meat producing animals. In dairy animals, the importance of adipose tissue is based on its function as stromal...... and metabolic disorders. We herein provide a general overview of adipose tissue functions and its importance in farm animals. This review will summarize recent achievements in farm animal adipose tissue proteomics, mainly in cattle and pigs, but also in poultry, i.e. chicken and in farmed fish. Proteomics...

  5. Ecology of southern ocean pack ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brierley, Andrew S; Thomas, David N

    2002-01-01

    Around Antarctica the annual five-fold growth and decay of sea ice is the most prominent physical process and has a profound impact on marine life there. In winter the pack ice canopy extends to cover almost 20 million square kilometres--some 8% of the southern hemisphere and an area larger than the Antarctic continent itself (13.2 million square kilometres)--and is one of the largest, most dynamic ecosystems on earth. Biological activity is associated with all physical components of the sea-ice system: the sea-ice surface; the internal sea-ice matrix and brine channel system; the underside of sea ice and the waters in the vicinity of sea ice that are modified by the presence of sea ice. Microbial and microalgal communities proliferate on and within sea ice and are grazed by a wide range of proto- and macrozooplankton that inhabit the sea ice in large concentrations. Grazing organisms also exploit biogenic material released from the sea ice at ice break-up or melt. Although rates of primary production in the underlying water column are often low because of shading by sea-ice cover, sea ice itself forms a substratum that provides standing stocks of bacteria, algae and grazers significantly higher than those in ice-free areas. Decay of sea ice in summer releases particulate and dissolved organic matter to the water column, playing a major role in biogeochemical cycling as well as seeding water column phytoplankton blooms. Numerous zooplankton species graze sea-ice algae, benefiting additionally because the overlying sea-ice ceiling provides a refuge from surface predators. Sea ice is an important nursery habitat for Antarctic krill, the pivotal species in the Southern Ocean marine ecosystem. Some deep-water fish migrate to shallow depths beneath sea ice to exploit the elevated concentrations of some zooplankton there. The increased secondary production associated with pack ice and the sea-ice edge is exploited by many higher predators, with seals, seabirds and whales

  6. Ultratight crystal packing of a 10 kDa protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trillo-Muyo, Sergio [Molecular Biology Institute of Barcelona, Spanish Research Council CSIC, Barcelona Science Park, c/Baldiri Reixac 15-21, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Jasilionis, Andrius [Vilnius University, M. K. Čiurlionio 21/27, 03101 Vilnius (Lithuania); Domagalski, Marcin J. [University of Virginia, 1340 Jefferson Park Avenue, Charlottesville, VA 22908-0736 (United States); Chruszcz, Maksymilian [University of South Carolina, 631 Sumter Street, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Minor, Wladek [University of Virginia, 1340 Jefferson Park Avenue, Charlottesville, VA 22908-0736 (United States); Kuisiene, Nomeda [Vilnius University, M. K. Čiurlionio 21/27, 03101 Vilnius (Lithuania); Arolas, Joan L.; Solà, Maria; Gomis-Rüth, F. Xavier, E-mail: xgrcri@ibmb.csic.es [Molecular Biology Institute of Barcelona, Spanish Research Council CSIC, Barcelona Science Park, c/Baldiri Reixac 15-21, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-03-01

    The crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of a putative U32 peptidase from G. thermoleovorans is reported; it is one of the most tightly packed protein structures reported to date. While small organic molecules generally crystallize forming tightly packed lattices with little solvent content, proteins form air-sensitive high-solvent-content crystals. Here, the crystallization and full structure analysis of a novel recombinant 10 kDa protein corresponding to the C-terminal domain of a putative U32 peptidase are reported. The orthorhombic crystal contained only 24.5% solvent and is therefore among the most tightly packed protein lattices ever reported.

  7. Matching and Compression of Strings with Automata and Word Packing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjoldjensen, Frederik Rye; Gørtz, Inge Li; Thomassen, Carsten

    pattern queries. In the deterministic variant the goal is to solve the string indexing problem without any randomization (at preprocessing time or query time). In the packed variant the strings are stored with several character in a single word, giving us the opportunity to read multiple characters...... in (deterministic) time O (m= + logm + log log ) ; where = w= log is the number of characters packed in a word of size w = (log n). Our query time is always at least as good as the previous best known bounds and whenever several characters are packed in a word, i.e., log w, the query times are faster. Dynamic...

  8. Effect of prebiotic, probiotic and G-probiotic SPL® on certain haematological parameters in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanamanta Nyamagonda

    Full Text Available A total of one hundred unsexed, day old and straight run commercial Cobb - 400 broiler chicks were randomly divided in to five groups consisting of twenty chicks in each group. The control group received only the basal diet (Group I and the treatment groups were administered with prebiotic (Lactose @ 2.5%, probiotic (Lactobacillus acidophilus @ 0.1% and their combination (Lactose @ 2.5% plus Lactobacillus acidophilus @ 0.1% in drinking water, respectively for Group II, Group III and Group IV  and commercial product G-Probiotic Spl® (containing five species of probiotic organisms, three digestive enzymes and liver extract, @ 0.05 % in the feed to Group V from day one to 42 to evaluate the hematological parameters in broiler chickens such as total erythrocyte count, hemoglobin content, packed cell volume and total leukocyte count on day 21 and 42 of the experiment. There were non significant (P>0.05 differences between different groups on both the days of observation with respect to total erythrocyte count, hemoglobin content and packed cell volume. But, the total leukocyte count in treatment groups significantly (P<0.05 differed from control group on day 21 and 42 which may be possibly due to improved immunostimulatory effect and physiological well-being of the birds received  prebiotic and probiotic. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 344-346

  9. Utilization of buffered vinegar to increase the shelf life of chicken retail cuts packaged in carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Monil A; Kurve, Vikram; Smith, Brian S; Campano, Stephen G; Soni, Kamlesh; Schilling, M Wes

    2014-07-01

    Poultry processors commonly place whole parts of broilers in plastic packages and seal them in an atmosphere of 100% carbon dioxide before shipping them to food service and retail customers. This practice extends the shelf life of retail cuts to approximately 12 d under refrigerated conditions. The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial efficacy of vinegar for growth inhibition of mesophilic and lactic acid bacterial counts and enhancement of shelf life in CO2-packaged refrigerated chicken thigh samples. Meat quality, sensory differences, and microbial enumeration were evaluated for chicken thighs that were sprayed with 0, 0.5, or 1.0% vinegar. No differences were observed (P > 0.05) among treatments (control vs. 0.5 and 1.0% vinegar-treated chicken thighs) with respect to pH and Commission Internationale d'Eclairage L*a*b*for both chicken skin and the meat tissue. The difference from the control test indicated that trained panelists were not able to detect a difference (P > 0.05) in flavor between the chicken thigh treatments. The mesophilic and Lactobacillus bacterial counts were enumerated after 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 d of storage. The mesophilic bacterial load for the 1.0% vinegar treatment was less than all other treatments after 8, 12, 16, and 20 d of storage, whereas the 0.5% vinegar treatment had lower bacterial counts at d 12 than both controls and had an approximate shelf life of 16 d. For lactic acid bacteria, the vinegar 1.0% treatment had lower counts than the control treatments at d 12 and 16. The results from the study indicate that a combination of 1.0% vinegar with CO2 packaging can extend the shelf life from 12 to 20 d for chicken retail cuts without negatively affecting the quality and sensory properties of the broiler meat. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of two Toxoplasma gondii isolates in free-range chickens from Uberlândia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, C S; Franco, P S; Silva, N M; Silva, D A O; Ferro, E A V; Pena, H F J; Soares, R M; Gennari, S M; Mineo, J R

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in free-range chickens from Uberlândia, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, and characterize the genotypic and phenotypic features of two isolates of this parasite, considering the importance of these hosts in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis. Serum samples from 108 free-range chickens were obtained from ten different districts, and submitted to the modified agglutination test (MAT) for the presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies, and brain and heart tissue samples from infected chickens were processed for mouse bioassay. An overall seroprevalence of 71·3% was found and antibody titres ranged from 16 to 4096. After confirmation of seropositivity by mouse bioassay, the determination of the T. gondii genotypes of two isolates was performed by PCR-RFLP, using primers for the following markers: SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, new SAG2, Apico and CS3. These T. gondii isolates, designated TgChBrUD1and TgChBrUD2, were obtained from heart samples of free-range chickens. The TgChBrUD1 isolate belonged to ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype 11 and the TgChBrUD2 isolate belonged to ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype 6. Both isolates demonstrated high virulence in a rodent model, with the TgChBrUD1 isolate able to induce brain cysts, in accord with its pattern of multiplication rates in human fibroblast culture. Taken together, these results reveal high prevalence of T. gondii infection in free-range chickens throughout Uberlândia, indicating an important degree of oocyst environmental contamination and the existence of considerable risk for T. gondii transmission to humans by consumption of free-range chicken as a food source.

  11. Keep the Beat Recipes - Chicken and Mushroom Fricassee | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... good for your heart and taste great, too. Chicken and Mushroom Fricassee Serves 4 Ingredients: 1 Tbsp ... onions, raw or frozen 3 Cup low-sodium chicken broth 1 lb skinless chicken legs or thighs ( ...

  12. Transcriptional analysis of abdominal fat in genetically fat and lean chickens reveals adipokines, lipogenic genes and a link between hemostasis and leanness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    enhanced expression of numerous lipogenic genes mainly after onset of divergence, presumably directed by multiple transcription factors. This transcriptional analysis shows that abdominal fat of the chicken serves a dual function as both an endocrine organ and an active metabolic tissue, which could play a more significant role in lipogenesis than previously thought. PMID:23947536

  13. Packing Density Approach for Sustainable Development of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarshan Dattatraya KORE

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the details of optimized mix design for normal strength concrete using particle packing density method. Also the concrete mixes were designed as per BIS: 10262-2009. Different water-cement ratios were used and kept same in both design methods. An attempt has been made to obtain sustainable and cost effective concrete product by use of particle packing density method. The parameters such as workability, compressive strength, cost analysis and carbon di oxide emission were discussed. The results of the study showed that, the compressive strength of the concrete produced by packing density method are closer to that of design compressive strength of BIS code method. By adopting the packing density method for design of concrete mixes, resulted in 11% cost saving with 12% reduction in carbon di oxide emission.

  14. PNGS-A unit 4 composite graphite valve packing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meaney, F.

    1992-01-01

    During the outage of Pickering 4 for retubing and rehabilitation, a composite graphite packing program was completed on 100 conventional valves and 50 nuclear valves. This paper describes component refurbishment, related maintenance, and manpower requirements. 2 figs

  15. The investigation of cooling tower packing in various arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golshayshi, H.R.; Missenden, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of form with corrugated packing on heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics in atmospheric cooling towers has been studied experimentally. The results showed that the heat transfer coefficient decreased with increase in packing pitch and increase in the ratio of rib pitch to rib height. Friction factors were expressed by a dimensional equation which included pitch and distance between the packings, for both smooth and rough surface. From these results, the relationship between packing heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop was deduced. The correlations were verified with additional experimental data taken with 1.1,P/D p /e 5 . This provides a useful semi experimental relation, in the area generally lacking in design and performance data. (author)

  16. Radiation sterilization of plastic packing materials and aseptic packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuoka, Keiko

    1986-01-01

    In the present day of 'satiation', quality, not quantity, is emphasized for foods, the consumers being oriented toward raw and healthy foodstuff. Aseptic Packaging is excellent means of conservation. While conventionally chemicals have been used for sterilization of packing materials for aseptic packaging, the sterilization by radiation is used in part recently. The following are described : history of aseptic packaging and its features, sterilization by radiation, γ-ray sterilization of large-sized containers, the development of an aseptic packaging system using electron rays, the occurrence of offensive odors from packing materials (comparison of odors from various materials, volatile substances occurring in irradiated polyethylene, influence of film grade upon the formation of carboxylic acid, influence of the irradiation conditions upon the occurrences of volatile substances, volatile substances occurring in the irradiation of bag-in-box packing materials), changes in properties of the packing materials. (Mori, K.)

  17. Severe necrotic dermatitis in the combs of line 6-3 chickens is associated with Marek's disease virus-induced immunosuppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek’s disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disorder of domestic chickens is characterized by bursal–thymic atrophy and rapid onset of T-cell lymphomas that infiltrate lymphoid tissues, visceral organs, and peripheral nerves. Marek’s disease virus (MDV), the etiological agent of MD, is a highly cel...

  18. Preparation and evaluation of chicken embryo-adapted fowl adenovirus serotype 4 vaccine in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Muhammad Khalid; Hussain, Iftikhar; Arshad, Muhammad; Muhammad, Ghulam

    2011-02-01

    The current study was planned to develop an efficient vaccine against hydropericardium syndrome virus (HSV). Currently, formalin-inactivated liver organ vaccines failed to protect the Pakistan broiler industry from this destructive disease of economic importance. A field isolate of the pathogenic hydropericardium syndrome virus was adapted to chicken embryos after four blind passages. The chicken embryo-adapted virus was further serially passaged (12 times) to get complete attenuation. Groups of broiler chickens free from maternal antibodies against HSV at the age of 14 days were immunized either with 16th passage attenuated HSV vaccine or commercially formalized liver organ vaccine. The antibody response, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was significantly higher (P attenuated HSV vaccine compared to the group immunized with liver organ vaccine at 7, 14, and 21 days post-immunization. At 24 days of age, the broiler chickens in each group were challenged with 10(3.83) embryo infectious dose(50) of pathogenic HSV and were observed for 7 days post-challenge. Vaccination with the 16th passage attenuated HSV gave 94.73% protection as validated on the basis of clinical signs (5.26%), gross lesions in the liver and heart (5.26%), histopathological lesions in the liver (1.5 ± 0.20), and mortality (5.26%). The birds inoculated with liver organ vaccine showed significantly low (p vaccine proved to be immunogenic and has potential for controlling HSV infections in chickens.

  19. Thinking chickens: a review of cognition, emotion, and behavior in the domestic chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Lori

    2017-03-01

    Domestic chickens are members of an order, Aves, which has been the focus of a revolution in our understanding of neuroanatomical, cognitive, and social complexity. At least some birds are now known to be on par with many mammals in terms of their level of intelligence, emotional sophistication, and social interaction. Yet, views of chickens have largely remained unrevised by this new evidence. In this paper, I examine the peer-reviewed scientific data on the leading edge of cognition, emotions, personality, and sociality in chickens, exploring such areas as self-awareness, cognitive bias, social learning and self-control, and comparing their abilities in these areas with other birds and other vertebrates, particularly mammals. My overall conclusion is that chickens are just as cognitively, emotionally and socially complex as most other birds and mammals in many areas, and that there is a need for further noninvasive comparative behavioral research with chickens as well as a re-framing of current views about their intelligence.

  20. Gas exchange and energy expenditure in chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ali, Abdalla

    ) in this phase may be a crucial parameter predicting metabolic rate and consquently, growth performance of post-hatched chickens. The aim of this investigation was to determine EE in embryos of slow and fast growing lines of chickens. Taking advantage of the indirect calorimetry technique it was also possible....... It is remarkable that the differences between chickens from fast and slow growing lines were already manifested furing their embryonic development....