WorldWideScience

Sample records for packaging motor assembly

  1. Structure and assembly of the essential RNA ring component of a viral DNA packaging motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Fang; Lu, Changrui; Zhao, Wei; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R; Anderson, Dwight L; Jardine, Paul J; Grimes, Shelley; Ke, Ailong

    2011-05-03

    Prohead RNA (pRNA) is an essential component in the assembly and operation of the powerful bacteriophage 29 DNA packaging motor. The pRNA forms a multimeric ring via intermolecular base-pairing interactions between protomers that serves to guide the assembly of the ring ATPase that drives DNA packaging. Here we report the quaternary structure of this rare multimeric RNA at 3.5 Å resolution, crystallized as tetrameric rings. Strong quaternary interactions and the inherent flexibility helped rationalize how free pRNA is able to adopt multiple oligomerization states in solution. These characteristics also allowed excellent fitting of the crystallographic pRNA protomers into previous prohead/pRNA cryo-EM reconstructions, supporting the presence of a pentameric, but not hexameric, pRNA ring in the context of the DNA packaging motor. The pentameric pRNA ring anchors itself directly to the phage prohead by interacting specifically with the fivefold symmetric capsid structures that surround the head-tail connector portal. From these contacts, five RNA superhelices project from the pRNA ring, where they serve as scaffolds for binding and assembly of the ring ATPase, and possibly mediate communication between motor components. Construction of structure-based designer pRNAs with little sequence similarity to the wild-type pRNA were shown to fully support the packaging of 29 DNA.

  2. Linear motor coil assembly and linear motor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    An ironless linear motor (5) comprising a magnet track (53) and a coil assembly (50) operating in cooperation with said magnet track (53) and having a plurality of concentrated multi-turn coils (31 a-f, 41 a-d, 51 a-k), wherein the end windings (31E) of the coils (31 a-f, 41 a-e) are substantially

  3. Dualities in the analysis of phage DNA packaging motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serwer, Philip; Jiang, Wen

    2012-01-01

    The DNA packaging motors of double-stranded DNA phages are models for analysis of all multi-molecular motors and for analysis of several fundamental aspects of biology, including early evolution, relationship of in vivo to in vitro biochemistry and targets for anti-virals. Work on phage DNA packaging motors both has produced and is producing dualities in the interpretation of data obtained by use of both traditional techniques and the more recently developed procedures of single-molecule analysis. The dualities include (1) reductive vs. accretive evolution, (2) rotation vs. stasis of sub-assemblies of the motor, (3) thermal ratcheting vs. power stroking in generating force, (4) complete motor vs. spark plug role for the packaging ATPase, (5) use of previously isolated vs. new intermediates for analysis of the intermediate states of the motor and (6) a motor with one cycle vs. a motor with two cycles. We provide background for these dualities, some of which are under-emphasized in the literature. We suggest directions for future research. PMID:23532204

  4. Modular assembly of chimeric phi29 packaging RNAs that support DNA packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yun; Shu, Dan; Xiao, Feng; Guo, Peixuan; Qin, Peter Z

    2008-08-08

    The bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor is a protein/RNA complex that can produce strong force to condense the linear-double-stranded DNA genome into a pre-formed protein capsid. The RNA component, called the packaging RNA (pRNA), utilizes magnesium-dependent inter-molecular base-pairing interactions to form ring-shaped complexes. The pRNA is a class of non-coding RNA, interacting with phi29 motor proteins to enable DNA packaging. Here, we report a two-piece chimeric pRNA construct that is fully competent in interacting with partner pRNA to form ring-shaped complexes, in packaging DNA via the motor, and in assembling infectious phi29 virions in vitro. This is the first example of a fully functional pRNA assembled using two non-covalently interacting fragments. The results support the notion of modular pRNA architecture in the phi29 packaging motor.

  5. Herpesvirus capsid assembly and DNA packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heming, Jason D.; Conway, James F.; Homa, Fred L.

    2017-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1) is the causative agent of several pathologies ranging in severity from the common cold sore to life-threatening encephalitic infection. During productive lytic infection, over 80 viral proteins are expressed in a highly regulated manner, resulting in the replication of viral genomes and assembly of progeny virions. The virion of all herpesviruses consists of an external membrane envelope, a proteinaceous layer called the tegument, and an icosahedral capsid containing the double-stranded linear DNA genome. The capsid shell of HSV-1 is built from four structural proteins: a major capsid protein, VP5, which forms the capsomers (hexons and pentons), the triplex consisting of VP19C and VP23 found between the capsomers, and VP26 which binds to VP5 on hexons but not pentons. In addition, the dodecameric pUL6 portal complex occupies one of the 12 capsid vertices, and the capsid vertex specific component (CVSC), a heterotrimer complex of pUL17, pUL25 and pUL36 binds specifically to the triplexes adjacent to each penton. The capsid is assembled in the nucleus where the viral genome is packaged into newly assembled closed capsid shells. Cleavage and packaging of replicated, concatemeric viral DNA requires the seven viral proteins encoded by the UL6, UL15, UL17, UL25, UL28, UL32, and UL33 genes. Considerable advances have been made in understanding the structure of the herpesvirus capsid and the function of several of the DNA packaging proteins by applying biochemical, genetic, and structural techniques. This review is a summary of recent advances with respect to the structure of the HSV-1 virion capsid and what is known about the function of the seven packaging proteins and their interactions with each other and with the capsid shell. PMID:28528442

  6. Industrial packaging and assembly infrastructure for MOEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heeren, Henne

    2004-01-01

    In a mature industry all elements of the supply chain are available and are more or less in balance. Mainstream technologies are defined and well supported by a chain of specialist companies. Those specialist companies, offering services ranging from consultancy to manufacturing subcontracting, are an essential element in the industrialization. There specialization and dedication to one or a few elements in the technology increases professionalism and efficiency. The MOEMS industry however, is still in its infancy. After the birth and growth of many companies aiming at development of products, the appearance of companies aiming at the production of components and systems, we see know the first companies concentrating on the delivering of services to this industry. We can divide them in the like : * Design and Engineering companies * Foundries * Assembly and Packaging providers * Design and simulation software providers For manufacturing suppliers and customers the lack of industry standards and mainstream technologies is a serious drawback. Insight in availability and trends in technology is important to make the right choices in the field of industrialization and production. This awareness was the reason to perform a detailed study to the companies supplying commercial services in this field. This article focuses on one important part of this study: packaging and assembly. This tends to remain a bottleneck at the end of the design cycle, often delaying and sometimes preventing industrialization and commercialization. For nearly all MEMS/MST products literally everything comes together in the packaging and assembly. This is the area of full integration: electrical, mechanical, optical fluidic, magnetic etc. functionalities come together. The problems associated with the concentration of functionalities forms a big headache for the designer. Conflicting demands, of which functionality versus economics is only one, and technical hurdles have to overcome. Besides that

  7. Development of packagings for 'MONJU' blanket fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Kan; Ouchi, Yuichiro; Matsuzaki, Masaaki; Okuda, Yoshihisa

    1995-01-01

    Blanket assemblies for prototype Fast Breeder Reactor 'MONJU' are made at commercial fuel fabrication plants capable of handling deplete Uranium in Japan. For the purpose of transport the assemblies are inserted into a packaging that is set horizontally at the fabrication plants because of compatibility with equipment installed at the plants. On the other hand, the assemblies must be taken out from the packaging set vertically at 'MONJU' due to compatibility. For this reason development of a new packaging, which makes it possible to take assemblies in and out both horizontally and vertically, is needed to carry out transport of assemblies for reload. The development and fabrication of the packagings, taking about two years, were completed in March 1995. The packagings were used in transport of assemblies in June 1995 for the first change. This report introduces the outline of the packaging and confirmation tests done in the process of development. (author)

  8. Proposed Ancestors of Phage Nucleic Acid Packaging Motors (and Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Serwer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available I present a hypothesis that begins with the proposal that abiotic ancestors of phage RNA and DNA packaging systems (and cells include mobile shells with an internal, molecule-transporting cavity. The foundations of this hypothesis include the conjecture that current nucleic acid packaging systems have imprints from abiotic ancestors. The abiotic shells (1 initially imbibe and later also bind and transport organic molecules, thereby providing a means for producing molecular interactions that are links in the chain of events that produces ancestors to the first molecules that are both information carrying and enzymatically active, and (2 are subsequently scaffolds on which proteins assemble to form ancestors common to both shells of viral capsids and cell membranes. Emergence of cells occurs via aggregation and merger of shells and internal contents. The hypothesis continues by using proposed imprints of abiotic and biotic ancestors to deduce an ancestral thermal ratchet-based DNA packaging motor that subsequently evolves to integrate a DNA packaging ATPase that provides a power stroke.

  9. Fixture for aligning motor assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shervington, Roger M.; Vaghani, Vallabh V.; Vanek, Laurence D.; Christensen, Scott A.

    2009-12-08

    An alignment fixture includes a rotor fixture, a stator fixture and a sensor system which measures a rotational displacement therebetween. The fixture precisely measures rotation of a generator stator assembly away from a NULL position referenced by a unique reference spline on the rotor shaft. By providing an adjustable location of the stator assembly within the housing, the magnetic axes within each generator shall be aligned to a predetermined and controlled tolerance between the generator interface mounting pin and the reference spline on the rotor shaft. Once magnetically aligned, each generator is essentially a line replaceable unit which may be readily mounted to any input of a multi-generator gearbox assembly with the assurance that the magnetic alignment will be within a predetermined tolerance.

  10. Bearing assemblies, apparatuses, and motor assemblies using the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Timothy N.; Cooley, Craig H.; Knuteson, Cody W.

    2015-12-29

    Various embodiments of the invention relate to bearing assemblies, apparatuses and motor assemblies that include geometric features configured to impart a selected amount of heat transfer and/or hydrodynamic film formation. In an embodiment, a bearing assembly may include a plurality of superhard bearing pads distributed circumferentially about an axis. At least some of the plurality of superhard bearing pads may include a plurality of sub-superhard bearing elements defining a bearing surface. At least some of the plurality of sub-superhard bearing elements may be spaced from one another by one or more voids to impart a selected amount of heat transfer and hydrodynamic film formation thereon during operation. The bearing assembly may also include a support ring that carries the plurality of superhard bearing pads. In addition, at least a portion of the sub-superhard bearing elements may extend beyond the support ring.

  11. An RNA Domain Imparts Specificity and Selectivity to a Viral DNA Packaging Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Jardine, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT During assembly, double-stranded DNA viruses, including bacteriophages and herpesviruses, utilize a powerful molecular motor to package their genomic DNA into a preformed viral capsid. An integral component of the packaging motor in the Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage ϕ29 is a viral genome-encoded pentameric ring of RNA (prohead RNA [pRNA]). pRNA is a 174-base transcript comprised of two domains, domains I and II. Early studies initially isolated a 120-base form (domain I only) that retains high biological activity in vitro; hence, no function could be assigned to domain II. Here we define a role for this domain in the packaging process. DNA packaging using restriction digests of ϕ29 DNA showed that motors with the 174-base pRNA supported the correct polarity of DNA packaging, selectively packaging the DNA left end. In contrast, motors containing the 120-base pRNA had compromised specificity, packaging both left- and right-end fragments. The presence of domain II also provides selectivity in competition assays with genomes from related phages. Furthermore, motors with the 174-base pRNA were restrictive, in that they packaged only one DNA fragment into the head, whereas motors with the 120-base pRNA packaged several fragments into the head, indicating multiple initiation events. These results show that domain II imparts specificity and stringency to the motor during the packaging initiation events that precede DNA translocation. Heteromeric rings of pRNA demonstrated that one or two copies of domain II were sufficient to impart this selectivity/stringency. Although ϕ29 differs from other double-stranded DNA phages in having an RNA motor component, the function provided by pRNA is carried on the motor protein components in other phages. IMPORTANCE During virus assembly, genome packaging involves the delivery of newly synthesized viral nucleic acid into a protein shell. In the double-stranded DNA phages and herpesviruses, this is accomplished by a powerful

  12. An RNA Domain Imparts Specificity and Selectivity to a Viral DNA Packaging Motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Jardine, Paul J; Grimes, Shelley

    2015-12-01

    During assembly, double-stranded DNA viruses, including bacteriophages and herpesviruses, utilize a powerful molecular motor to package their genomic DNA into a preformed viral capsid. An integral component of the packaging motor in the Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage ϕ29 is a viral genome-encoded pentameric ring of RNA (prohead RNA [pRNA]). pRNA is a 174-base transcript comprised of two domains, domains I and II. Early studies initially isolated a 120-base form (domain I only) that retains high biological activity in vitro; hence, no function could be assigned to domain II. Here we define a role for this domain in the packaging process. DNA packaging using restriction digests of ϕ29 DNA showed that motors with the 174-base pRNA supported the correct polarity of DNA packaging, selectively packaging the DNA left end. In contrast, motors containing the 120-base pRNA had compromised specificity, packaging both left- and right-end fragments. The presence of domain II also provides selectivity in competition assays with genomes from related phages. Furthermore, motors with the 174-base pRNA were restrictive, in that they packaged only one DNA fragment into the head, whereas motors with the 120-base pRNA packaged several fragments into the head, indicating multiple initiation events. These results show that domain II imparts specificity and stringency to the motor during the packaging initiation events that precede DNA translocation. Heteromeric rings of pRNA demonstrated that one or two copies of domain II were sufficient to impart this selectivity/stringency. Although ϕ29 differs from other double-stranded DNA phages in having an RNA motor component, the function provided by pRNA is carried on the motor protein components in other phages. During virus assembly, genome packaging involves the delivery of newly synthesized viral nucleic acid into a protein shell. In the double-stranded DNA phages and herpesviruses, this is accomplished by a powerful molecular motor

  13. Power Electronic Packaging Design, Assembly Process, Reliability and Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Power Electronic Packaging presents an in-depth overview of power electronic packaging design, assembly,reliability and modeling. Since there is a drastic difference between IC fabrication and power electronic packaging, the book systematically introduces typical power electronic packaging design, assembly, reliability and failure analysis and material selection so readers can clearly understand each task's unique characteristics. Power electronic packaging is one of the fastest growing segments in the power electronic industry, due to the rapid growth of power integrated circuit (IC) fabrication, especially for applications like portable, consumer, home, computing and automotive electronics. This book also covers how advances in both semiconductor content and power advanced package design have helped cause advances in power device capability in recent years. The author extrapolates the most recent trends in the book's areas of focus to highlight where further improvement in materials and techniques can d...

  14. The application of NISA II FEM package in seismic qualification of small class IE electric motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fancev, T.; Saban, I.; Grgic, D.

    1995-01-01

    According to the IEEE standards 323/1974 and 344/1975, seismic qualification of class IE equipment is appropriate combination of test and analysis methods. Complex equipment and assemblies are usually tested through seismic testing. The analysis is recommended for simple equipment that can be easily modeled to correctly predict its response. This article deals with the application of NISA II FEM package in 3D FE modeling and mode shape calculations of small power low voltage electric motors. (author)

  15. 75 FR 67770 - General Motors Company, Formerly Known as General Motors Corporation, Orion Assembly Plant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ..., Formerly Known as General Motors Corporation, Orion Assembly Plant, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Aerotek Automotive, Ryder and Premier Manufacturing Support Services, Lake Orion, MI; Amended... of General Motors Company, formerly known as General Motors Corporation, Orion Assembly Plant, Lake...

  16. Substrate interactions and promiscuity in a viral DNA packaging motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aathavan, K; Politzer, Adam T; Kaplan, Ariel; Moffitt, Jeffrey R; Chemla, Yann R; Grimes, Shelley; Jardine, Paul J; Anderson, Dwight L; Bustamante, Carlos

    2009-10-01

    The ASCE (additional strand, conserved E) superfamily of proteins consists of structurally similar ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities involving metabolism and transport of proteins and nucleic acids in all forms of life. A subset of these enzymes consists of multimeric ringed pumps responsible for DNA transport in processes including genome packaging in adenoviruses, herpesviruses, poxviruses and tailed bacteriophages. Although their mechanism of mechanochemical conversion is beginning to be understood, little is known about how these motors engage their nucleic acid substrates. Questions remain as to whether the motors contact a single DNA element, such as a phosphate or a base, or whether contacts are distributed over several parts of the DNA. Furthermore, the role of these contacts in the mechanochemical cycle is unknown. Here we use the genome packaging motor of the Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage varphi29 (ref. 4) to address these questions. The full mechanochemical cycle of the motor, in which the ATPase is a pentameric-ring of gene product 16 (gp16), involves two phases-an ATP-loading dwell followed by a translocation burst of four 2.5-base-pair (bp) steps triggered by hydrolysis product release. By challenging the motor with a variety of modified DNA substrates, we show that during the dwell phase important contacts are made with adjacent phosphates every 10-bp on the 5'-3' strand in the direction of packaging. As well as providing stable, long-lived contacts, these phosphate interactions also regulate the chemical cycle. In contrast, during the burst phase, we find that DNA translocation is driven against large forces by extensive contacts, some of which are not specific to the chemical moieties of DNA. Such promiscuous, nonspecific contacts may reflect common translocase-substrate interactions for both the nucleic acid and protein translocases of the ASCE superfamily.

  17. 75 FR 54388 - General Motors Company Formerly Known as General Motors Corporation, Orion Assembly Plant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... Formerly Known as General Motors Corporation, Orion Assembly Plant Including On-Site Leased Workers From Aerotek Automotive Lake Orion, MI; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker... Motors Corporation, Orion Assembly Plant, Lake Orion, Michigan. The notice was published in the Federal...

  18. Coil assembly for use with an electric motor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Coil assemblies ( 2 ) of electric motors ( 1 ) produce heat that can be a disadvantage when needing the electric motor ( 1 ) for high precision positioning applications. To reduce the negative impact of the heat, the coils ( 26 a , 26 b , 26 c) are arranged in an internally cooled housing ( 21 ).

  19. Structural and Molecular Basis for Coordination in a Viral DNA Packaging Motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Huzhang; Saha, Mitul; Reyes-Aldrete, Emilio; Sherman, Michael B; Woodson, Michael; Atz, Rockney; Grimes, Shelley; Jardine, Paul J; Morais, Marc C

    2016-03-01

    Ring NTPases are a class of ubiquitous molecular motors involved in basic biological partitioning processes. dsDNA viruses encode ring ATPases that translocate their genomes to near-crystalline densities within pre-assembled viral capsids. Here, X-ray crystallography, cryoEM, and biochemical analyses of the dsDNA packaging motor in bacteriophage phi29 show how individual subunits are arranged in a pentameric ATPase ring and suggest how their activities are coordinated to translocate dsDNA. The resulting pseudo-atomic structure of the motor and accompanying functional analyses show how ATP is bound in the ATPase active site; identify two DNA contacts, including a potential DNA translocating loop; demonstrate that a trans-acting arginine finger is involved in coordinating hydrolysis around the ring; and suggest a functional coupling between the arginine finger and the DNA translocating loop. The ability to visualize the motor in action illuminates how the different motor components interact with each other and with their DNA substrate. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Structural and Molecular Basis for Coordination in a Viral DNA Packaging Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huzhang Mao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ring NTPases are a class of ubiquitous molecular motors involved in basic biological partitioning processes. dsDNA viruses encode ring ATPases that translocate their genomes to near-crystalline densities within pre-assembled viral capsids. Here, X-ray crystallography, cryoEM, and biochemical analyses of the dsDNA packaging motor in bacteriophage phi29 show how individual subunits are arranged in a pentameric ATPase ring and suggest how their activities are coordinated to translocate dsDNA. The resulting pseudo-atomic structure of the motor and accompanying functional analyses show how ATP is bound in the ATPase active site; identify two DNA contacts, including a potential DNA translocating loop; demonstrate that a trans-acting arginine finger is involved in coordinating hydrolysis around the ring; and suggest a functional coupling between the arginine finger and the DNA translocating loop. The ability to visualize the motor in action illuminates how the different motor components interact with each other and with their DNA substrate.

  1. Molecular motor assembly of a biomimetic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Active biological molecules and functional structures can be fabricated into a bio-mimetic system by using molecular assembly method. Such materials can be used for the drug delivery, disease diagnosis and therapy, and new nanodevice construction.

  2. Magnetic Field and Torque Output of Packaged Hydraulic Torque Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Yan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic torque motors are one key component in electro-hydraulic servo valves that convert the electrical signal into mechanical motions. The systematic characteristics analysis of the hydraulic torque motor has not been found in the previous research, including the distribution of the electromagnetic field and torque output, and particularly the relationship between them. In addition, conventional studies of hydraulic torque motors generally assume an evenly distributed magnetic flux field and ignore the influence of special mechanical geometry in the air gaps, which may compromise the accuracy of analyzing the result and the high-precision motion control performance. Therefore, the objective of this study is to conduct a detailed analysis of the distribution of the magnetic field and torque output; the influence of limiting holes in the air gaps is considered to improve the accuracy of both numerical computation and analytical modeling. The structure and working principle of the torque motor are presented first. The magnetic field distribution in the air gaps and the magnetic saturation in the iron blocks are analyzed by using a numerical approach. Subsequently, the torque generation with respect to the current input and assembly errors is analyzed in detail. This shows that the influence of limiting holes on the magnetic field is consistent with that on torque generation. Following this, a novel modified equivalent magnetic circuit is proposed to formulate the torque output of the hydraulic torque motor analytically. The comparison among the modified equivalent magnetic circuit, the conventional modeling approach and the numerical computation is conducted, and it is found that the proposed method helps to improve the modeling accuracy by taking into account the effect of special geometry inside the air gaps.

  3. Studies of viral DNA packaging motors with optical tweezers: a comparison of motor function in bacteriophages φ29, λ, and T4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Douglas E.; Fuller, Derek N.; Raymer, Dorian M.; Rickgauer, Peter; Grimes, Shelley; Jardine, Paul J.; Anderson, Dwight L.; Catalano, Carlos E.; Kottadiel, Vishal; Rao, Venigalla B.

    2007-09-01

    A key step in the assembly of many viruses is the packaging of double-stranded DNA into a viral procapsid (an empty protein shell) by the action of an ATP-powered portal motor complex. We have developed methods to measure the packaging of single DNA molecules into single viral proheads in real time using optical tweezers. We can measure DNA binding and initiation of translocation, the DNA translocation dynamics, and the filling of the capsid against resisting forces. In addition to studying bacteriophage φ29, we have recently extended these methods to study the E. coli bacteriophages λ and T4, two important model systems in molecular biology. The three systems have different capsid sizes/shapes, genome lengths, and biochemical and structural differences in their packaging motors. Here, we compare and contrast these three systems. We find that all three motors translocate DNA processively and generate very large forces, each exceeding 50 piconewtons, ~20x higher force than generated by the skeletal muscle myosin 2 motor. This high force generation is required to overcome the forces resisting the confinement of the stiff, highly charged DNA at high density within the viral capsids. However, there are also striking differences between the three motors: they exhibit different DNA translocation rates, degrees of static and dynamic disorder, responses to load, and pausing and slipping dynamics.

  4. Multiscale modeling and simulation of microtubule-motor-protein assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tong; Blackwell, Robert; Glaser, Matthew A.; Betterton, M. D.; Shelley, Michael J.

    2015-12-01

    Microtubules and motor proteins self-organize into biologically important assemblies including the mitotic spindle and the centrosomal microtubule array. Outside of cells, microtubule-motor mixtures can form novel active liquid-crystalline materials driven out of equilibrium by adenosine triphosphate-consuming motor proteins. Microscopic motor activity causes polarity-dependent interactions between motor proteins and microtubules, but how these interactions yield larger-scale dynamical behavior such as complex flows and defect dynamics is not well understood. We develop a multiscale theory for microtubule-motor systems in which Brownian dynamics simulations of polar microtubules driven by motors are used to study microscopic organization and stresses created by motor-mediated microtubule interactions. We identify polarity-sorting and crosslink tether relaxation as two polar-specific sources of active destabilizing stress. We then develop a continuum Doi-Onsager model that captures polarity sorting and the hydrodynamic flows generated by these polar-specific active stresses. In simulations of active nematic flows on immersed surfaces, the active stresses drive turbulent flow dynamics and continuous generation and annihilation of disclination defects. The dynamics follow from two instabilities, and accounting for the immersed nature of the experiment yields unambiguous characteristic length and time scales. When turning off the hydrodynamics in the Doi-Onsager model, we capture formation of polar lanes as observed in the Brownian dynamics simulation.

  5. Multiscale modeling and simulation of microtubule–motor-protein assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tong; Blackwell, Robert; Glaser, Matthew A.; Betterton, M. D.; Shelley, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Microtubules and motor proteins self-organize into biologically important assemblies including the mitotic spindle and the centrosomal microtubule array. Outside of cells, microtubule-motor mixtures can form novel active liquid-crystalline materials driven out of equilibrium by adenosine triphosphate–consuming motor proteins. Microscopic motor activity causes polarity-dependent interactions between motor proteins and microtubules, but how these interactions yield larger-scale dynamical behavior such as complex flows and defect dynamics is not well understood. We develop a multiscale theory for microtubule-motor systems in which Brownian dynamics simulations of polar microtubules driven by motors are used to study microscopic organization and stresses created by motor-mediated microtubule interactions. We identify polarity-sorting and crosslink tether relaxation as two polar-specific sources of active destabilizing stress. We then develop a continuum Doi-Onsager model that captures polarity sorting and the hydrodynamic flows generated by these polar-specific active stresses. In simulations of active nematic flows on immersed surfaces, the active stresses drive turbulent flow dynamics and continuous generation and annihilation of disclination defects. The dynamics follow from two instabilities, and accounting for the immersed nature of the experiment yields unambiguous characteristic length and time scales. When turning off the hydrodynamics in the Doi-Onsager model, we capture formation of polar lanes as observed in the Brownian dynamics simulation. PMID:26764729

  6. Multiscale modeling and simulation of microtubule-motor-protein assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tong; Blackwell, Robert; Glaser, Matthew A; Betterton, M D; Shelley, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Microtubules and motor proteins self-organize into biologically important assemblies including the mitotic spindle and the centrosomal microtubule array. Outside of cells, microtubule-motor mixtures can form novel active liquid-crystalline materials driven out of equilibrium by adenosine triphosphate-consuming motor proteins. Microscopic motor activity causes polarity-dependent interactions between motor proteins and microtubules, but how these interactions yield larger-scale dynamical behavior such as complex flows and defect dynamics is not well understood. We develop a multiscale theory for microtubule-motor systems in which Brownian dynamics simulations of polar microtubules driven by motors are used to study microscopic organization and stresses created by motor-mediated microtubule interactions. We identify polarity-sorting and crosslink tether relaxation as two polar-specific sources of active destabilizing stress. We then develop a continuum Doi-Onsager model that captures polarity sorting and the hydrodynamic flows generated by these polar-specific active stresses. In simulations of active nematic flows on immersed surfaces, the active stresses drive turbulent flow dynamics and continuous generation and annihilation of disclination defects. The dynamics follow from two instabilities, and accounting for the immersed nature of the experiment yields unambiguous characteristic length and time scales. When turning off the hydrodynamics in the Doi-Onsager model, we capture formation of polar lanes as observed in the Brownian dynamics simulation.

  7. Genome packaging in viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Siyang; Rao, Venigalla B.; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Genome packaging is a fundamental process in a viral life cycle. Many viruses assemble preformed capsids into which the genomic material is subsequently packaged. These viruses use a packaging motor protein that is driven by the hydrolysis of ATP to condense the nucleic acids into a confined space. How these motor proteins package viral genomes had been poorly understood until recently, when a few X-ray crystal structures and cryo-electron microscopy structures became available. Here we discu...

  8. Extended cage adjustable speed electric motors and drive packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John S.

    1999-01-01

    The rotor cage of a motor is extended, a second stator is coupled to this extended rotor cage, and the windings have the same number of poles. The motor torque and speed can be controlled by either injecting energy into or extracting energy out from the rotor cage. The motor produces less harmonics than existing doubly-fed motors. Consequently, a new type of low cost, high efficiency drive is produced.

  9. Packaging signals in single-stranded RNA viruses: nature's alternative to a purely electrostatic assembly mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockley, Peter G; Twarock, Reidun; Bakker, Saskia E; Barker, Amy M; Borodavka, Alexander; Dykeman, Eric; Ford, Robert J; Pearson, Arwen R; Phillips, Simon E V; Ranson, Neil A; Tuma, Roman

    2013-03-01

    The formation of a protective protein container is an essential step in the life-cycle of most viruses. In the case of single-stranded (ss)RNA viruses, this step occurs in parallel with genome packaging in a co-assembly process. Previously, it had been thought that this process can be explained entirely by electrostatics. Inspired by recent single-molecule fluorescence experiments that recapitulate the RNA packaging specificity seen in vivo for two model viruses, we present an alternative theory, which recognizes the important cooperative roles played by RNA-coat protein interactions, at sites we have termed packaging signals. The hypothesis is that multiple copies of packaging signals, repeated according to capsid symmetry, aid formation of the required capsid protein conformers at defined positions, resulting in significantly enhanced assembly efficiency. The precise mechanistic roles of packaging signal interactions may vary between viruses, as we have demonstrated for MS2 and STNV. We quantify the impact of packaging signals on capsid assembly efficiency using a dodecahedral model system, showing that heterogeneous affinity distributions of packaging signals for capsid protein out-compete those of homogeneous affinities. These insights pave the way to a new anti-viral therapy, reducing capsid assembly efficiency by targeting of the vital roles of the packaging signals, and opens up new avenues for the efficient construction of protein nanocontainers in bionanotechnology.

  10. Structural and Shielding Safety of a Transport Package for Radioisotope Sealed Source Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Kiseog; Cho, Ilje; Kim, Donghak [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    As some kinds of radioisotope (RI) sealed source are produced by HANARO research reactor, a demand of RI transport package is increasing gradually. Foreign countries, which produce the various RIs, have the intrinsic model of the RI transport package. It is necessary to develop a RI and its transport package simultaneously. It is difficult to design a shielding part for this transport package because the passage for this source assembly should be provided from the center of shielding part to the outside of the package. In order to endure the accident conditions such as a 9 m drop and puncture, this transport package consists of the guide tubes, a gamma shield and a shock absorber. This paper describe that a shielding and structural safety of RI sealed source transport package are evaluated under the accident conditions.

  11. Structural and Shielding Safety of a Transport Package for Radioisotope Sealed Source Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Kiseog; Cho, Ilje; Kim, Donghak

    2006-01-01

    As some kinds of radioisotope (RI) sealed source are produced by HANARO research reactor, a demand of RI transport package is increasing gradually. Foreign countries, which produce the various RIs, have the intrinsic model of the RI transport package. It is necessary to develop a RI and its transport package simultaneously. It is difficult to design a shielding part for this transport package because the passage for this source assembly should be provided from the center of shielding part to the outside of the package. In order to endure the accident conditions such as a 9 m drop and puncture, this transport package consists of the guide tubes, a gamma shield and a shock absorber. This paper describe that a shielding and structural safety of RI sealed source transport package are evaluated under the accident conditions

  12. Full scale tests on remote handled FFTF fuel assembly waste handling and packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, C.R.; Cash, R.J.; Dawson, S.A.; Strode, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    Handling and packaging of remote handled, high activity solid waste fuel assembly hardware components from spent FFTF reactor fuel assemblies have been evaluated using full scale components. The demonstration was performed using FFTF fuel assembly components and simulated components which were handled remotely using electromechanical manipulators, shielding walls, master slave manipulators, specially designed grapples, and remote TV viewing. The testing and evaluation included handling, packaging for current and conceptual shipping containers, and the effects of volume reduction on packing efficiency and shielding requirements. Effects of waste segregation into transuranic (TRU) and non-transuranic fractions also are discussed

  13. RNA packaging motor: From structure to quantum mechanical modelling and sequential-stochastic mechanism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Telenius, J.; Wallin, A. E.; Straka, Michal; Zhang, H.; Mancini, E. J.; Tůma, R.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 9, 3/4 (2008), s. 351-369 ISSN 1748-670X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : virus * assembly * molecular motor * density functional * mutagenesis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  14. Reliability of CGA/LGA/HDI Package Board/Assembly (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffaroam. Reza

    2014-01-01

    Package manufacturers are now offering commercial-off-the-shelf column grid array (COTS CGA) packaging technologies in high-reliability versions. Understanding the process and quality assurance (QA) indicators for reliability are important for low-risk insertion of these advanced electronics packages. The previous reports, released in January of 2012 and January of 2013, presented package test data, assembly information, and reliability evaluation by thermal cycling for CGA packages with 1752, 1517, 1509, and 1272 inputs/outputs (I/Os) and 1-mm pitch. It presented the thermal cycling (-55C either 100C or 125C) test results for up to 200 cycles. This report presents up to 500 thermal cycles with quality assurance and failure analysis evaluation represented by optical photomicrographs, 2D real time X-ray images, dye-and-pry photomicrographs, and optical/scanning electron Microscopy (SEM) cross-sectional images. The report also presents assembly challenge using reflowing by either vapor phase or rework station of CGA and land grid array (LGA) versions of three high I/O packages both ceramic and plastic configuration. A new test vehicle was designed having high density interconnect (HDI) printed circuit board (PCB) with microvia-in-pad to accommodate both LGA packages as well as a large number of fine pitch ball grid arrays (BGAs). The LGAs either were assembled onto HDI PCB as an LGA or were solder paste print and reflow first to form solder dome on pads before assembly. Both plastic BGAs with 1156 I/O and ceramic LGAs were assembled. It also presented the X-ray inspection results as well as failures due to 200 thermal cycles. Lessons learned on assembly of ceramic LGAs are also presented.

  15. Packaging and transport case of test fuel assembly irradiated in the Creys-Malville reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geffroy, J.; Vivien, J.; Pouard, M.; Dujardin, G.N.; Veron, B.; Michoux, H.

    1986-06-01

    Some irradiated fuel assemblies from the fast neutron Creys Malville reactor will be sent to hot laboratories to follow fuel behavior. These test assemblies will be examined after a limited cooling time and transport is realized at high residual power (about 10kW) and cladding temperature should not rise over 500deg C. The fuel assemblies are not dismantled and transported into sodium. The assembly is placed into a case containing sodium plugged and put into a packaging. Dimensioning, thermal behavior, radiation protection and containment are examined [fr

  16. A Motor Drive Electronics Assembly for Mars Curiosity Rover: An Example of Assembly Qualification for Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolawa, Elizabeth; Chen, Yuan; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Tudryn Weber, Carissa

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the technology development and infusion of the motor drive electronics assembly, along with the technology qualification and space qualification, is described and detailed. The process is an example of the qualification methodology for extreme environmen

  17. Packaging signals in two single-stranded RNA viruses imply a conserved assembly mechanism and geometry of the packaged genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykeman, Eric C; Stockley, Peter G; Twarock, Reidun

    2013-09-09

    The current paradigm for assembly of single-stranded RNA viruses is based on a mechanism involving non-sequence-specific packaging of genomic RNA driven by electrostatic interactions. Recent experiments, however, provide compelling evidence for sequence specificity in this process both in vitro and in vivo. The existence of multiple RNA packaging signals (PSs) within viral genomes has been proposed, which facilitates assembly by binding coat proteins in such a way that they promote the protein-protein contacts needed to build the capsid. The binding energy from these interactions enables the confinement or compaction of the genomic RNAs. Identifying the nature of such PSs is crucial for a full understanding of assembly, which is an as yet untapped potential drug target for this important class of pathogens. Here, for two related bacterial viruses, we determine the sequences and locations of their PSs using Hamiltonian paths, a concept from graph theory, in combination with bioinformatics and structural studies. Their PSs have a common secondary structure motif but distinct consensus sequences and positions within the respective genomes. Despite these differences, the distributions of PSs in both viruses imply defined conformations for the packaged RNA genomes in contact with the protein shell in the capsid, consistent with a recent asymmetric structure determination of the MS2 virion. The PS distributions identified moreover imply a preferred, evolutionarily conserved assembly pathway with respect to the RNA sequence with potentially profound implications for other single-stranded RNA viruses known to have RNA PSs, including many animal and human pathogens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Push plate, mounting assembly, circuit board, and method of assembling thereof for ball grid array packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Mark R.; Montague, Stephen

    2017-05-16

    A push plate that includes springs in the form of cantilever flexures and an inspection window is disclosed. The push plate provides a known, uniform, down force and minimal torque to a package to be tested. The cantilevers have a known, calculable down force producing stiffness. The window provides for viewing of the package during testing.

  19. A Squirrel Cage Type Electric Motor Rotor Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-05

    cage motor, but also provides efficiencies approaching those of permanent magnet motors . With the above and other objects in view, as will...and active motor life relative to known permanent magnet motors . Referring to FIG. 4, there is illustrated an alternative embodiment in which...part the.known advantages of a squirrel cage motor, and further provides improved efficiencies approaching those of permanent magnet motors . It is to

  20. Interaction of packaging motor with the polymerase complex of dsRNA bacteriophage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisal, Jiri; Kainov, Denis E.; Lam, TuKiet T.; Emmett, Mark R.; Wei Hui; Gottlieb, Paul; Marshall, Alan G.; Tuma, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Many viruses employ molecular motors to package their genomes into preformed empty capsids (procapsids). In dsRNA bacteriophages the packaging motor is a hexameric ATPase P4, which is an integral part of the multisubunit procapsid. Structural and biochemical studies revealed a plausible RNA-translocation mechanism for the isolated hexamer. However, little is known about the structure and regulation of the hexamer within the procapsid. Here we use hydrogen-deuterium exchange and mass spectrometry to delineate the interactions of the P4 hexamer with the bacteriophage phi12 procapsid. P4 associates with the procapsid via its C-terminal face. The interactions also stabilize subunit interfaces within the hexamer. The conformation of the virus-bound hexamer is more stable than the hexamer in solution, which is prone to spontaneous ring openings. We propose that the stabilization within the viral capsid increases the packaging processivity and confers selectivity during RNA loading

  1. Retroviral Gag protein-RNA interactions: Implications for specific genomic RNA packaging and virion assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Erik D; Musier-Forsyth, Karin

    2018-03-31

    Retroviral Gag proteins are responsible for coordinating many aspects of virion assembly. Gag possesses two distinct nucleic acid binding domains, matrix (MA) and nucleocapsid (NC). One of the critical functions of Gag is to specifically recognize, bind, and package the retroviral genomic RNA (gRNA) into assembling virions. Gag interactions with cellular RNAs have also been shown to regulate aspects of assembly. Recent results have shed light on the role of MA and NC domain interactions with nucleic acids, and how they jointly function to ensure packaging of the retroviral gRNA. Here, we will review the literature regarding RNA interactions with NC, MA, as well as overall mechanisms employed by Gag to interact with RNA. The discussion focuses on human immunodeficiency virus type-1, but other retroviruses will also be discussed. A model is presented combining all of the available data summarizing the various factors and layers of selection Gag employs to ensure specific gRNA packaging and correct virion assembly. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Modeling and simulation for microelectronic packaging assembly manufacturing, reliability and testing

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Although there is increasing need for modeling and simulation in the IC package design phase, most assembly processes and various reliability tests are still based on the time consuming ""test and try out"" method to obtain the best solution. Modeling and simulation can easily ensure virtual Design of Experiments (DoE) to achieve the optimal solution. This has greatly reduced the cost and production time, especially for new product development. Using modeling and simulation will become increasingly necessary for future advances in 3D package development.  In this book, Liu and Liu allow people

  3. Compression of the DNA substrate by a viral packaging motor is supported by removal of intercalating dye during translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Aparna Banerjee; Ray, Krishanu; Black, Lindsay W

    2012-12-11

    Viral genome packaging into capsids is powered by high-force-generating motor proteins. In the presence of all packaging components, ATP-powered translocation in vitro expels all detectable tightly bound YOYO-1 dye from packaged short dsDNA substrates and removes all aminoacridine dye from packaged genomic DNA in vivo. In contrast, in the absence of packaging, the purified T4 packaging ATPase alone can only remove up to ∼1/3 of DNA-bound intercalating YOYO-1 dye molecules in the presence of ATP or ATP-γ-S. In sufficient concentration, intercalating dyes arrest packaging, but rare terminase mutations confer resistance. These distant mutations are highly interdependent in acquiring function and resistance and likely mark motor contact points with the translocating DNA. In stalled Y-DNAs, FRET has shown a decrease in distance from the phage T4 terminase C terminus to portal consistent with a linear motor, and in the Y-stem DNA compression between closely positioned dye pairs. Taken together with prior FRET studies of conformational changes in stalled Y-DNAs, removal of intercalating compounds by the packaging motor demonstrates conformational change in DNA during normal translocation at low packaging resistance and supports a proposed linear "DNA crunching" or torsional compression motor mechanism involving a transient grip-and-release structural change in B form DNA.

  4. California; Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District; VOCs from Motor Vehicle Assembly Coating Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is proposing to approve a revision to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District portion of the California SIP concerning emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from motor vehicle assembly coating operations.

  5. Development of a New Method for Assembling a Bipolar DC Motor as a Teaching Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yuki; Sakaki, Kei; Sakaki, Mamoru

    2017-05-01

    A simple handmade motor is a commonly used teaching aid for explaining the theory of the DC motor in science classes around the world. Kits that can be used by children to craft a simple motor are commercially available, and videos of assembling these motors are easily found on the internet. Although the design of this motor is simple, it is unipolar, meaning that the rotor consists of a single dipole. Thus, the Lorentz force acts only on one side of the coil per revolution. This decreases the energy conversion efficiency and requires the learners to turn the rotor using their hands in order to initiate rotation.

  6. INVESTIGATION OF THE PRESENCE OF DRUGSTORE BEETLES WITHIN CELOTEX ASSEMBLIES IN RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loftin, B; Glenn Abramczyk, G

    2008-06-04

    During normal operations at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Hanford, WA, drugstore beetles, (Stegobium paniceum (L.) Coleoptera: Anobiidae), were found within the fiberboard subassemblies of two 9975 Shipping Packages. Initial indications were that the beetles were feeding on the Celotex{trademark} assemblies within the package. Celotex{trademark} fiberboard is used in numerous radioactive material packages serving as both a thermal insulator and an impact absorber for both normal conditions of transport and hypothetical accident conditions. The Department of Energy's Packaging Certification Program (EM-63) directed a thorough investigation to determine if the drugstore beetles were causing damage that would be detrimental to the safety performance of the Celotex{trademark}. The Savannah River National Laboratory is conducting the investigation with entomological expertise provided by Clemson University. The two empty 9975 shipping packages were transferred to the Savannah River National Laboratory in the fall of 2007. This paper will provide details and results of the ongoing investigation.

  7. Experimental and computational studies on the DNA translocation mechanism of the T4 viral packaging motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliori, Amy; Arya, Gaurav; Smith, Douglas E.

    2012-10-01

    Bacteriophage T4 is a double stranded DNA virus that infects E.coli by injecting the viral genome through the cellular wall of a host cell. The T4 genome must be ejected from the viral capsid with sufficient force to ensure infection. To generate high ejection forces, the genome is packaged to high density within the viral capsid. A DNA translocation motor, in which the protein gp17 hydrolyzes ATP and binds to the DNA, is responsible for translocating the genome into the capsid during viral maturation of T4. This motor generates forces in excess of 60 pN and packages DNA at rates exceeding 2000 base pairs/second (bp/s)1. Understanding these small yet powerful motors is important, as they have many potential applications. Though much is known about the activity of these motors from bulk and single molecule biophysical techniques, little is known about their detailed molecular mechanism. Recently, two structures of gp17 have been obtained: a high-resolution X-ray crystallographic structure showing a monomeric compacted form of the enzyme, and a cryo-electron microscopic structure of the extended form of gp17 in complex with actively packaging prohead complexes. Comparison of these two structures indicates several key differences, and a model has been proposed to explain the translocation action of the motor2. Key to this model are a set of residues forming ion pairs across two domains of the gp17 molecule that are proposed to be involved in force generation by causing the collapse of the extended form of gp17. Using a dual optical trap to measure the rates of DNA packaging and the generated forces, we present preliminary mutational data showing that these several of these ion pairs are important to motor function. We have also performed preliminary free energy calculations on the extended and collapsed state of gp17, to confirm that these interdomain ion pairs have large contributions to the change in free energy that occurs upon the collapse of gp17 during the

  8. Advanced drive package saves energy. Synchronous reluctance motor with frequency converter; Energiesparpaket der Zukunft. Synchronreluktanzmotor und Frequenzumrichter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donabauer, Fred [ABB Automation Products GmbH, Ladenburg (Germany); Lendenmann, Heinz [ABB AB, Vaesteras (Sweden)

    2011-07-01

    The drive package consisting of a synchronous reluctance motor and a frequency converters with Direct Torque Control (DTC) reaches a high level of efficiency and can make a substantial contribution to energy saving in many drive applications. The motor needs no permanent magnets or excitation system. The synchronous reluctance motor is up to two sizes smaller than an induction motor with a similar output and its power density is up to 40% higher than that of an induction motor. A frequency converter with DTC enables exact speed control without requiring an encoder. (orig.)

  9. Evaluation of Solid Rocket Motor Component Data Using a Commercially Available Statistical Software Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanski, Philip L.

    2015-01-01

    Commercially available software packages today allow users to quickly perform the routine evaluations of (1) descriptive statistics to numerically and graphically summarize both sample and population data, (2) inferential statistics that draws conclusions about a given population from samples taken of it, (3) probability determinations that can be used to generate estimates of reliability allowables, and finally (4) the setup of designed experiments and analysis of their data to identify significant material and process characteristics for application in both product manufacturing and performance enhancement. This paper presents examples of analysis and experimental design work that has been conducted using Statgraphics®(Registered Trademark) statistical software to obtain useful information with regard to solid rocket motor propellants and internal insulation material. Data were obtained from a number of programs (Shuttle, Constellation, and Space Launch System) and sources that include solid propellant burn rate strands, tensile specimens, sub-scale test motors, full-scale operational motors, rubber insulation specimens, and sub-scale rubber insulation analog samples. Besides facilitating the experimental design process to yield meaningful results, statistical software has demonstrated its ability to quickly perform complex data analyses and yield significant findings that might otherwise have gone unnoticed. One caveat to these successes is that useful results not only derive from the inherent power of the software package, but also from the skill and understanding of the data analyst.

  10. An Evaluation of Automotive Interior Packages Based on Human Ocular and Joint Motor Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Rakumatsu, Takeshi; Horiue, Masayoshi; Miyazaki, Tooru; Nishikawa, Kazuo; Nouzawa, Takahide; Tsuji, Toshio

    This paper proposes a new evaluation method of an automotive interior package based on human oculomotor and joint-motor properties. Assuming the long-term driving situation in the express high way, the three evaluation indices were designed on i) the ratio of head motion at gazing the driving items; ii) the load torque for maintaining the standard driving posture; and iii) the human force manipulability at the end-point of human extremities. Experiments were carried out for two different interior packages with four subjects who have the special knowledge on the automobile development. Evaluation results demonstrate that the proposed method can quantitatively analyze the driving interior in good agreement with the generally accepted subjective opinion in the automobile industry.

  11. Molecular interactions and residues involved in force generation in the T4 viral DNA packaging motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliori, Amy D; Smith, Douglas E; Arya, Gaurav

    2014-12-12

    Many viruses utilize molecular motors to package their genomes into preformed capsids. A striking feature of these motors is their ability to generate large forces to drive DNA translocation against entropic, electrostatic, and bending forces resisting DNA confinement. A model based on recently resolved structures of the bacteriophage T4 motor protein gp17 suggests that this motor generates large forces by undergoing a conformational change from an extended to a compact state. This transition is proposed to be driven by electrostatic interactions between complementarily charged residues across the interface between the N- and C-terminal domains of gp17. Here we use atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to investigate in detail the molecular interactions and residues involved in such a compaction transition of gp17. We find that although electrostatic interactions between charged residues contribute significantly to the overall free energy change of compaction, interactions mediated by the uncharged residues are equally if not more important. We identify five charged residues and six uncharged residues at the interface that play a dominant role in the compaction transition and also reveal salt bridging, van der Waals, and solvent hydrogen-bonding interactions mediated by these residues in stabilizing the compact form of gp17. The formation of a salt bridge between Glu309 and Arg494 is found to be particularly crucial, consistent with experiments showing complete abrogation in packaging upon Glu309Lys mutation. The computed contributions of several other residues are also found to correlate well with single-molecule measurements of impairments in DNA translocation activity caused by site-directed mutations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The ATPase of the phi29 DNA packaging motor is a member of the hexameric AAA+ superfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Chad; De Donatis, Gian Marco; Fang, Huaming; Guo, Peixuan

    2013-08-15

    The AAA+ superfamily of proteins is a class of motor ATPases performing a wide range of functions that typically exist as hexamers. The ATPase of phi29 DNA packaging motor has long been a subject of debate in terms of stoichiometry and mechanism of action. Here, we confirmed the stoichiometry of phi29 motor ATPase to be a hexamer and provide data suggesting that the phi29 motor ATPase is a member of the classical hexameric AAA+ superfamily. Native PAGE, EMSA, capillary electrophoresis, ATP titration, and binomial distribution assay show that the ATPase is a hexamer. Mutations in the known Walker motifs of the ATPase validated our previous assumptions that the protein exists as another member of this AAA+ superfamily. Our data also supports the finding that the phi29 DNA packaging motor uses a revolution mechanism without rotation or coiling (Schwartz et al., this issue). Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Peptide assembly-driven metal-organic framework (MOF) motors for micro electric generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikezoe, Yasuhiro; Fang, Justin; Wasik, Tomasz L; Uemura, Takashi; Zheng, Yongtai; Kitagawa, Susumu; Matsui, Hiroshi

    2015-01-14

    Peptide-metal-organic framework (Pep-MOF) motors, whose motions are driven by anisotropic surface tension gradients created via peptide self-assembly around frameworks, can rotate microscopic rotors and magnets fast enough to generate an electric power of 0.1 μW. A new rigid Pep-MOF motor can be recycled by refilling the peptide fuel into the nanopores of the MOF. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Shortened outage duration and increased safety with head assembly upgrade packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leanne, M.; Lisien, P.E.; Plute, K.; Duran, J.

    2007-01-01

    To significantly reduce outage critical path duration and personnel radiation exposure, and to increase personnel safety, Westinghouse Electric Co., LLC has designed and installed upgrades to the existing head assemblies of operating pressurized water reactors. These upgrades are known as Head Assembly Upgrade Packages (HAUPs) or Simplified Head Assemblies (SHAs). Custom configurations are created from a set of standard elements to optimize the design for each unique containment, head assembly configuration, and licensing basis. Two primary options are available for implementation: a full HAUP or targeted component and system upgrades. Plants may achieve much of the outage savings, dose reduction, and safety improvements even with a more limited hardware scope. A range of improvements can be offered from integral missile shields, to redesigned duct work, radiation shields, and cable layout and connection optimization. The hardware changes are customized to target the scope that adds the most value for a given plant. While combining upgrades with a reactor vessel head (RVH) replacement adds some flexibility, it is not necessary. Some plants have chosen to implement targeted upgrades prior to a replacement RVH outage and then complete the remainder of the full HAUP during the replacement RVH outage. Three-dimensional computer aided design tools are used in the conceptual and detailed design phases to identify and avoid interferences between existing and replacement plant components. State-of-the-art computational fluid dynamics models for control drive mechanism (CDM) cooling systems are used to demonstrate the ability to maintain or improve the original design performance while greatly simplifying the disassembly/re-assembly activities. Likewise, state-of-the-art finite element analysis methods allow optimization of structural components while meeting code limits for design basis accident conditions. (authors)

  15. Fingerprinting of Peptides with a Large Channel of Bacteriophage Phi29 DNA Packaging Motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhouxiang; Wang, Shaoying; Zhao, Zhengyi; Zhou, Zhi; Haque, Farzin; Guo, Peixuan

    2016-09-01

    Nanopore technology has become a highly sensitive and powerful tool for single molecule sensing of chemicals and biopolymers. Protein pores have the advantages of size amenability, channel homogeneity, and fabrication reproducibility. But most well-studied protein pores for sensing are too small for passage of peptide analytes that are typically a few nanometers in dimension. The funnel-shaped channel of bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor has previously been inserted into a lipid membrane to serve as a larger pore with a narrowest N-terminal constriction of 3.6 nm and a wider C-terminal end of 6 nm. Here, the utility of phi29 motor channel for fingerprinting of various peptides using single molecule electrophysiological assays is reported. The translocation of peptides is proved unequivocally by single molecule fluorescence imaging. Current blockage percentage and distinctive current signatures are used to distinguish peptides with high confidence. Each peptide generated one or two distinct current blockage peaks, serving as typical fingerprint for each peptide. The oligomeric states of peptides can also be studied in real time at single molecule level. The results demonstrate the potential for further development of phi29 motor channel for detection of disease-associated peptide biomarkers. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Artificial muscle-like function from hierarchical supramolecular assembly of photoresponsive molecular motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiawen; Leung, Franco King-Chi; Stuart, Marc C A; Kajitani, Takashi; Fukushima, Takanori; van der Giessen, Erik; Feringa, Ben L

    2018-02-01

    A striking feature of living systems is their ability to produce motility by amplification of collective molecular motion from the nanoscale up to macroscopic dimensions. Some of nature's protein motors, such as myosin in muscle tissue, consist of a hierarchical supramolecular assembly of very large proteins, in which mechanical stress induces a coordinated movement. However, artificial molecular muscles have often relied on covalent polymer-based actuators. Here, we describe the macroscopic contractile muscle-like motion of a supramolecular system (comprising 95% water) formed by the hierarchical self-assembly of a photoresponsive amphiphilic molecular motor. The molecular motor first assembles into nanofibres, which further assemble into aligned bundles that make up centimetre-long strings. Irradiation induces rotary motion of the molecular motors, and propagation and accumulation of this motion lead to contraction of the fibres towards the light source. This system supports large-amplitude motion, fast response, precise control over shape, as well as weight-lifting experiments in water and air.

  17. Artificial muscle-like function from hierarchical supramolecular assembly of photoresponsive molecular motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Jiawen; Leung, Franco King-Chi; Stuart, Marc C A; Kajitani, Takashi; Fukushima, Takanori; van der Giessen, Erik; Feringa, Ben L

    A striking feature of living systems is their ability to produce motility by amplification of collective molecular motion from the nanoscale up to macroscopic dimensions. Some of nature's protein motors, such as myosin in muscle tissue, consist of a hierarchical supramolecular assembly of very large

  18. Artificial muscle-like function from hierarchical supramolecular assembly of photoresponsive molecular motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiawen; Leung, Franco King-Chi; Stuart, Marc C. A.; Kajitani, Takashi; Fukushima, Takanori; van der Giessen, Erik; Feringa, Ben L.

    2018-02-01

    A striking feature of living systems is their ability to produce motility by amplification of collective molecular motion from the nanoscale up to macroscopic dimensions. Some of nature's protein motors, such as myosin in muscle tissue, consist of a hierarchical supramolecular assembly of very large proteins, in which mechanical stress induces a coordinated movement. However, artificial molecular muscles have often relied on covalent polymer-based actuators. Here, we describe the macroscopic contractile muscle-like motion of a supramolecular system (comprising 95% water) formed by the hierarchical self-assembly of a photoresponsive amphiphilic molecular motor. The molecular motor first assembles into nanofibres, which further assemble into aligned bundles that make up centimetre-long strings. Irradiation induces rotary motion of the molecular motors, and propagation and accumulation of this motion lead to contraction of the fibres towards the light source. This system supports large-amplitude motion, fast response, precise control over shape, as well as weight-lifting experiments in water and air.

  19. Speech production in people who stutter: Testing the motor plan assembly hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, P.H.H.M. van; Hulstijn, W.; Peters, H.F.M.

    1996-01-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that persons who stutter, when compared to persons who do not stutter, are less able to assemble abstract motor plans for short verbal responses. Subjects were adult males who stutter and age- and sex-matched control speakers, who were

  20. The effect of work pace on workload, motor variability and fatigue during simulated light assembly work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, T.; Mathiassen, S.E.; Visser, B.; Looze, M.D. de; Dieën, J.V. van

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of work pace on workload, motor variability and fatigue during light assembly work. Upper extremity kinematics and electromyography (EMG) were obtained on a cycle-to-cycle basis for eight participants during two conditions, corresponding to "normal" and "high" work

  1. Package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is duty of the seller to pack the goods in a manner which assures their safe arrival and enables their handling in transit and at the place of destination. The problem of packing is relevant in two main respects. First of all the buyer is in certain circumstances entitled to refuse acceptance of the goods if they are not properly packed. Second, the package is relevant to calculation of price and freight based on weight. In the case of export trade, the package should conform to the legislation in the country of destination. The impact of package on environment is regulated by environment protection regulation of Republic if Serbia.

  2. Ebola virus VP24 interacts with NP to facilitate nucleocapsid assembly and genome packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banadyga, Logan; Hoenen, Thomas; Ambroggio, Xavier; Dunham, Eric; Groseth, Allison; Ebihara, Hideki

    2017-08-09

    Ebola virus causes devastating hemorrhagic fever outbreaks for which no approved therapeutic exists. The viral nucleocapsid, which is minimally composed of the proteins NP, VP35, and VP24, represents an attractive target for drug development; however, the molecular determinants that govern the interactions and functions of these three proteins are still unknown. Through a series of mutational analyses, in combination with biochemical and bioinformatics approaches, we identified a region on VP24 that was critical for its interaction with NP. Importantly, we demonstrated that the interaction between VP24 and NP was required for both nucleocapsid assembly and genome packaging. Not only does this study underscore the critical role that these proteins play in the viral replication cycle, but it also identifies a key interaction interface on VP24 that may serve as a novel target for antiviral therapeutic intervention.

  3. 77 FR 19718 - Ford Motor Company Twin Cities Assembly Plant Vehicle Operations Division Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-81,038] Ford Motor Company Twin... February 9, 2012, applicable to workers of Ford Motor Company, Twin Cities Assembly Plant, Vehicle..., and Pacer International were employed on-site at the St. Paul, Minnesota location of Ford Motor...

  4. Peptide Assembly-Driven Metal-Organic Framework (MOF) Motors for Micro Electric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikezoe, Yasuhiro; Fang, Justin; Wasik, Tomasz L.; Uemura, Takashi; Zheng, Yongtai; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    Peptide-MOF motors, whose motions are driven by anisotropic surface gradients created via peptide self-assembly around nanopores of MOFs, can rotate microscopic rotors and magnet fast enough to generate electric power of 0.1 µW. To make the peptide-MOF generator recyclable, a new MOF is applied as a host motor engine, which has a more rigid framework with higher H2O affinity so that peptide release occurs more efficiently via guest exchange without the destruction of MOF. PMID:25418936

  5. Localization of adenovirus morphogenesis players, together with visualization of assembly intermediates and failed products, favor a model where assembly and packaging occur concurrently at the periphery of the replication center.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela N Condezo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Adenovirus (AdV morphogenesis is a complex process, many aspects of which remain unclear. In particular, it is not settled where in the nucleus assembly and packaging occur, and whether these processes occur in a sequential or a concerted manner. Here we use immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy (immunoEM to trace packaging factors and structural proteins at late times post infection by either wildtype virus or a delayed packaging mutant. We show that representatives of all assembly factors are present in the previously recognized peripheral replicative zone, which therefore is the AdV assembly factory. Assembly intermediates and abortive products observed in this region favor a concurrent assembly and packaging model comprising two pathways, one for capsid proteins and another one for core components. Only when both pathways are coupled by correct interaction between packaging proteins and the genome is the viral particle produced. Decoupling generates accumulation of empty capsids and unpackaged cores.

  6. Packaging signals in single-stranded RNA viruses: nature?s alternative to a purely electrostatic assembly mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Stockley, Peter G.; Twarock, Reidun; Bakker, Saskia E.; Barker, Amy M.; Borodavka, Alexander; Dykeman, Eric; Ford, Robert J.; Pearson, Arwen R.; Phillips, Simon E. V.; Ranson, Neil A.; Tuma, Roman

    2013-01-01

    The formation of a protective protein container is an essential step in the life-cycle of most viruses. In the case of single-stranded (ss)RNA viruses, this step occurs in parallel with genome packaging in a co-assembly process. Previously, it had been thought that this process can be explained entirely by electrostatics. Inspired by recent single-molecule fluorescence experiments that recapitulate the RNA packaging specificity seen in vivo for two model viruses, we present an alternative the...

  7. Final Approval of California Air Plan Revision; Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District; VOCs From Motor Vehicle Assembly Coating Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is taking final action to approve a revision to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) portion of the California SIP concerning the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from motor vehicle assembly coating operations.

  8. All-polymeric sensing platform based on packaged self-assembled bottle microresonator (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernini, Romeo; Grimaldi, Immacolata A.; Persichetti, Gianluca; Testa, Genni

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, microbottle resonators that support non-degenerate whispering gallery modes (WGMs), propagating by successive total internal reflections close to the resonator surface and all along its axis, have been widely investigated due to their potential applications in optical sensing, microlasers and nonlinear optics. To overcome some drawbacks of the standard silica microbottle resonators, we focused our attention on polymers such as SU-8 resist and NOA resins. A drop of polymeric material is dispensed onto a fiber stem, providing a mechanical support for the bottle resonator, and is photo-polymerized by an UV lamp. The interrogation system, usually constituted by a tapered silica fiber evanescently coupled with the microresonator, is substituted by a more stable planar waveguide realized in SU-8 by means of standard photolithography technique. Moreover, for guarantying the stability to surrounding disturbance of the coupling between the microbottle resonator and the planar waveguide, the fiber stem is glued to substrate. Two drilled holes in the substrate allow the rise of the glue at the ends of the fiber stem and the fixing of sensor on PMMA substrate. In the present work, we presented an integrated full polymeric platform with self-assembled bottle microresonators packaged in a stable structure. SU-8 and NOA based microbottles are realized and morphologically characterized. The low autofluorescence emission and long term stability make the NOA based bottles suitable to be employed in a great variety of conditions. Bulk sensing measurements are performed by using water:ethanol solutions and a bulk sensitivity of 120 nm/RIU is estimated.

  9. MEMS packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu , Tai-Ran

    2004-01-01

    MEMS Packaging discusses the prevalent practices and enabling techniques in assembly, packaging and testing of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The entire spectrum of assembly, packaging and testing of MEMS and microsystems, from essential enabling technologies to applications in key industries of life sciences, telecommunications and aerospace engineering is covered. Other topics included are bonding and sealing of microcomponents, process flow of MEMS and microsystems packaging, automated microassembly, and testing and design for testing.The Institution of Engineering and Technology is

  10. Single-molecule packaging initiation in real time by a viral DNA packaging machine from bacteriophage T4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafabakhsh, Reza; Kondabagil, Kiran; Earnest, Tyler; Lee, Kyung Suk; Zhang, Zhihong; Dai, Li; Dahmen, Karin A; Rao, Venigalla B; Ha, Taekjip

    2014-10-21

    Viral DNA packaging motors are among the most powerful molecular motors known. A variety of structural, biochemical, and single-molecule biophysical approaches have been used to understand their mechanochemistry. However, packaging initiation has been difficult to analyze because of its transient and highly dynamic nature. Here, we developed a single-molecule fluorescence assay that allowed visualization of packaging initiation and reinitiation in real time and quantification of motor assembly and initiation kinetics. We observed that a single bacteriophage T4 packaging machine can package multiple DNA molecules in bursts of activity separated by long pauses, suggesting that it switches between active and quiescent states. Multiple initiation pathways were discovered including, unexpectedly, direct DNA binding to the capsid portal followed by recruitment of motor subunits. Rapid succession of ATP hydrolysis was essential for efficient initiation. These observations have implications for the evolution of icosahedral viruses and regulation of virus assembly.

  11. Abstracts of digital computer code packages. Assembled by the Radiation Shielding Information Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGill, B.; Maskewitz, B.F.; Anthony, C.M.; Comolander, H.E.; Hendrickson, H.R.

    1976-01-01

    The term ''code package'' is used to describe a miscellaneous grouping of materials which, when interpreted in connection with a digital computer, enables the scientist--user to solve technical problems in the area for which the material was designed. In general, a ''code package'' consists of written material--reports, instructions, flow charts, listings of data, and other useful material and IBM card decks (or, more often, a reel of magnetic tape) on which the source decks, sample problem input (including libraries of data) and the BCD/EBCDIC output listing from the sample problem are written. In addition to the main code, and any available auxiliary routines are also included. The abstract format was chosen to give to a potential code user several criteria for deciding whether or not he wishes to request the code package

  12. Abstracts of digital computer code packages. Assembled by the Radiation Shielding Information Center. [Radiation transport codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGill, B.; Maskewitz, B.F.; Anthony, C.M.; Comolander, H.E.; Hendrickson, H.R.

    1976-01-01

    The term ''code package'' is used to describe a miscellaneous grouping of materials which, when interpreted in connection with a digital computer, enables the scientist--user to solve technical problems in the area for which the material was designed. In general, a ''code package'' consists of written material--reports, instructions, flow charts, listings of data, and other useful material and IBM card decks (or, more often, a reel of magnetic tape) on which the source decks, sample problem input (including libraries of data) and the BCD/EBCDIC output listing from the sample problem are written. In addition to the main code, and any available auxiliary routines are also included. The abstract format was chosen to give to a potential code user several criteria for deciding whether or not he wishes to request the code package. (RWR)

  13. WESTINGHOUSE 17X17 MOX PWR ASSEMBLY - WASTE PACKAGE CRITICALITY ANALYSIS (SCPB: N/A)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.W. Davis

    1996-01-01

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) to compare the criticality potential of Westinghouse 17 x 17 mixed oxide (MOX) PWR fuel with the Design Basis spent nuclear fuel (SNF) analyzed previously (Ref. 5.1, 5.2). The basis of comparison will be the conceptual design Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) PWR waste package concepts. The objectives of this evaluation are to show that the criticality potential of the MOX fuel is equal to or lower than the DBF or, if necessary, indicate what additional measures are required to make it so

  14. Packaging of a unit-length viral genome: the role of nucleotides and the gpD decoration protein in stable nucleocapsid assembly in bacteriophage lambda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qin; Maluf, Nasib Karl; Catalano, Carlos Enrique

    2008-11-28

    The developmental pathways for a variety of eukaryotic and prokaryotic double-stranded DNA viruses include packaging of viral DNA into a preformed procapsid structure, catalyzed by terminase enzymes and fueled by ATP hydrolysis. In most instances, a capsid expansion process accompanies DNA packaging, which significantly increases the volume of the capsid to accommodate the full-length viral genome. "Decoration" proteins add to the surface of the expanded capsid lattice, and the terminase motors tightly package DNA, generating up to approximately 20 atm of internal capsid pressure. Herein we describe biochemical studies on genome packaging using bacteriophage lambda as a model system. Kinetic analysis suggests that the packaging motor possesses at least four ATPase catalytic sites that act cooperatively to effect DNA translocation, and that the motor is highly processive. While not required for DNA translocation into the capsid, the phage lambda capsid decoration protein gpD is essential for the packaging of the penultimate 8-10 kb (15-20%) of the viral genome; virtually no DNA is packaged in the absence of gpD when large DNA substrates are used, most likely due to a loss of capsid structural integrity. Finally, we show that ATP hydrolysis is required to retain the genome in a packaged state subsequent to condensation within the capsid. Presumably, the packaging motor continues to "idle" at the genome end and to maintain a positive pressure towards the packaged state. Surprisingly, ADP, guanosine triphosphate, and the nonhydrolyzable ATP analog 5'-adenylyl-beta,gamma-imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP) similarly stabilize the packaged viral genome despite the fact that they fail to support genome packaging. In contrast, the poorly hydrolyzed ATP analog ATP-gammaS only partially stabilizes the nucleocapsid, and a DNA is released in "quantized" steps. We interpret the ensemble of data to indicate that (i) the viral procapsid possesses a degree of plasticity that is required to

  15. The large terminase DNA packaging motor grips DNA with its ATPase domain for cleavage by the flexible nuclease domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Brendan J.; Hayes, Janelle A.; Stone, Nicholas P.; Xu, Rui-Gang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Many viruses use a powerful terminase motor to pump their genome inside an empty procapsid shell during virus maturation. The large terminase (TerL) protein contains both enzymatic activities necessary for packaging in such viruses: the adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) that powers DNA translocation and an endonuclease that cleaves the concatemeric genome at both initiation and completion of genome packaging. However, how TerL binds DNA during translocation and cleavage remains mysterious. Here we investigate DNA binding and cleavage using TerL from the thermophilic phage P74-26. We report the structure of the P74-26 TerL nuclease domain, which allows us to model DNA binding in the nuclease active site. We screened a large panel of TerL variants for defects in binding and DNA cleavage, revealing that the ATPase domain is the primary site for DNA binding, and is required for nuclease activity. The nuclease domain is dispensable for DNA binding but residues lining the active site guide DNA for cleavage. Kinetic analysis of DNA cleavage suggests flexible tethering of the nuclease domains during DNA cleavage. We propose that interactions with the procapsid during DNA translocation conformationally restrict the nuclease domain, inhibiting cleavage; TerL release from the capsid upon completion of packaging unlocks the nuclease domains to cleave DNA. PMID:28082398

  16. Abstracts of digital computer code packages assembled by the Radiation Shielding Information Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, B.J.; Maskewitz, B.F.

    1985-04-01

    This publication, ORNL/RSIC-13, Volumes I to III Revised, has resulted from an internal audit of the first 168 packages of computing technology in the Computer Codes Collection (CCC) of the Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC). It replaces the earlier three documents published as single volumes between 1966 to 1972. A significant number of the early code packages were considered to be obsolete and were removed from the collection in the audit process and the CCC numbers were not reassigned. Others not currently being used by the nuclear R and D community were retained in the collection to preserve technology not replaced by newer methods, or were considered of potential value for reference purposes. Much of the early technology, however, has improved through developer/RSIC/user interaction and continues at the forefront of the advancing state-of-the-art.

  17. Abstracts of digital computer code packages assembled by the Radiation Shielding Information Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, B.J.; Maskewitz, B.F.

    1985-04-01

    This publication, ORNL/RSIC-13, Volumes I to III Revised, has resulted from an internal audit of the first 168 packages of computing technology in the Computer Codes Collection (CCC) of the Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC). It replaces the earlier three documents published as single volumes between 1966 to 1972. A significant number of the early code packages were considered to be obsolete and were removed from the collection in the audit process and the CCC numbers were not reassigned. Others not currently being used by the nuclear R and D community were retained in the collection to preserve technology not replaced by newer methods, or were considered of potential value for reference purposes. Much of the early technology, however, has improved through developer/RSIC/user interaction and continues at the forefront of the advancing state-of-the-art

  18. Analysis of the initiating events in HIV-1 particle assembly and genome packaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebla B Kutluay

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 Gag drives a number of events during the genesis of virions and is the only viral protein required for the assembly of virus-like particles in vitro and in cells. Although a reasonable understanding of the processes that accompany the later stages of HIV-1 assembly has accrued, events that occur at the initiation of assembly are less well defined. In this regard, important uncertainties include where in the cell Gag first multimerizes and interacts with the viral RNA, and whether Gag-RNA interaction requires or induces Gag multimerization in a living cell. To address these questions, we developed assays in which protein crosslinking and RNA/protein co-immunoprecipitation were coupled with membrane flotation analyses in transfected or infected cells. We found that interaction between Gag and viral RNA occurred in the cytoplasm and was independent of the ability of Gag to localize to the plasma membrane. However, Gag:RNA binding was stabilized by the C-terminal domain (CTD of capsid (CA, which participates in Gag-Gag interactions. We also found that Gag was present as monomers and low-order multimers (e.g. dimers but did not form higher-order multimers in the cytoplasm. Rather, high-order multimers formed only at the plasma membrane and required the presence of a membrane-binding signal, but not a Gag domain (the CA-CTD that is essential for complete particle assembly. Finally, sequential RNA-immunoprecipitation assays indicated that at least a fraction of Gag molecules can form multimers on viral genomes in the cytoplasm. Taken together, our results suggest that HIV-1 particle assembly is initiated by the interaction between Gag and viral RNA in the cytoplasm and that this initial Gag-RNA encounter involves Gag monomers or low order multimers. These interactions per se do not induce or require high-order Gag multimerization in the cytoplasm. Instead, membrane interactions are necessary for higher order Gag multimerization and subsequent

  19. Thermo-mechanical behavior of power electronic packaging assemblies: From characterization to predictive simulation of lifetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalverny, O.; Alexis, J.

    2018-02-01

    This article deals with thermo-mechanical behavior of power electronic modules used in several transportation applications as railway, aeronautic or automotive systems. Due to a multi-layered structures, involving different materials with a large variation of coefficient of thermal expansion, temperature variations originated from active or passive cycling (respectively from die dissipation or environmental constraint) induces strain and stresses field variations, giving fatigue phenomenon of the system. The analysis of the behavior of these systems and their dimensioning require the implementation of complex modeling strategies by both the multi-physical and the multi-scale character of the power modules. In this paper we present some solutions for studying the thermomechanical behavior of brazed assemblies as well as taking into account the interfaces represented by the numerous metallizations involved in the process assembly.

  20. Nucleic Acid Binding by Mason-Pfizer Monkey Virus CA Promotes Virus Assembly and Genome Packaging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Füzik, T.; Píchalová, R.; Schur, F. K. M.; Strohalmová, Karolína; Křížová, Ivana; Hadravová, Romana; Rumlová, Michaela; Briggs, J. A. G.; Ulbrich, P.; Ruml, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 9 (2016), s. 4593-4603 ISSN 0022-538X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-15326S; GA MŠk LO1302; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1304 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : M-PMV * virus assembly * capsid protein Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.663, year: 2016

  1. Designing a nine cysteine-less DNA packaging motor from bacteriophage T4 reveals new insights into ATPase structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondabagil, Kiran; Dai, Li; Vafabakhsh, Reza; Ha, Taekjip; Draper, Bonnie; Rao, Venigalla B

    2014-11-01

    The packaging motor of bacteriophage T4 translocates DNA into the capsid at a rate of up to 2000 bp/s. Such a high rate would require coordination of motor movements at millisecond timescale. Designing a cysteine-less gp17 is essential to generate fluorescently labeled motors and measure distance changes between motor domains by FRET analyses. Here, by using sequence alignments, structural modeling, combinatorial mutagenesis, and recombinational rescue, we replaced all nine cysteines of gp17 and introduced single cysteines at defined positions. These mutant motors retained in vitro DNA packaging activity. Single mutant motors translocated DNA molecules in real time as imaged by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. We discovered, unexpectedly, that a hydrophobic or nonpolar amino acid next to Walker B motif is essential for motor function, probably for efficient generation of OH(-) nucleophile. The ATPase Walker B motif, thus, may be redefined as "β-strand (4-6 hydrophobic-rich amino acids)-DE-hydrophobic/nonpolar amino acid". Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Application of constraint satisfaction algorithms for conditioning and packing activated control rod assemblies in MOSAIK"R-casks. Application of constraint satisfaction algorithms for conditioning and packaging 160 control rod assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, P.J.

    2017-01-01

    In the wake of the decommissioning of numerous nuclear power plants in Germany, techniques to reduce the number of costly waste casks or containers are sought after. The large bandwidth of limits (dose rate, mass, individual nuclide activities, chemical composition...) the waste packages have to comply with for both interim storage facilities and the repository Konrad render the manual planning of packaging concepts prohibitive. However, in the past, the planning for packaging has been performed in this way, albeit on the basis of several facilitating assumptions. Surprisingly, to the best of our knowledge, the automated computer-assisted generation of packaging plans for radioactive waste has not been demonstrated previously. In this talk we demonstrate how the conditioning and packing of 160 control rod assemblies was optimised using constraint satisfaction algorithms. These algorithms can be executed by a computer in a few minutes, thus considerably accelerating the generation of packaging plans, while optimising the utilisation of the waste casks and containers with respect to mass, activity, dose rate, etc. This automated and computer-assisted procedure took into account complex logistical boundary conditions present during decommissioning, such as space requirements, the sequence of the waste and the (lack of) availability of suitable waste casks. In addition, packaging concepts based on several scenarios (cask availability, space requirements,...) were easily and automatically generated once the packaging rules had been coded. We demonstrate the successful application of these algorithms to a real packaging campaign of control rod assemblies of a boiling water reactor, for which excellent results were achieved. We also present an outlook of a much larger scale project, in which the logistics and storage of radioactive waste packages is mathematically optimised. Finally, we give prospects on these techniques to others, similar logistical problems currently

  3. Development of super-synchronization speed control assembly for 2500 kW double-fed motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huajun; Xuan Weimin; Peng Jianfei; Hu Haotian; Wang Shujing; Kang Li; Xu Lirong; Huang Zhaorong; Wang Xiaoping; Du Cang; Liu Ling

    2007-01-01

    The super-synchronization speed control assemblies for the two 2500 kW induction motors have been developed successfully in order to meet the need for toroidal field increasing in HL-2A tokamak. Based on the a.c./a.c. cycloconverter, the speed of each 2500 kW motor has been regulated by means of vector control technology for double-fed motor. The highest rotate speed of the two 80 MVA generator sets have been increased from 1488 rpm rated speed to 1650 rpm and the released energy of each generator set in one pulse discharge can reach 500 MJ. Therefore the toroidal field system is able to reach 2.8T for experiment. (authors)

  4. Self-assembled micro-structured sensors for food safety in paper based food packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakovirta, M., E-mail: marko.hakovirta@storaenso.com; Aksoy, B.; Hakovirta, J.

    2015-08-01

    Natural self-assembled microstructured particles (diatomaceous earth) were used to develop a gas sensor paper with detection mechanism based on visible and distinct color changes of the sensor paper when exposed to volatile basic nitrogen compounds. The coating formulation for paper was prepared by applying diatomites, polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH), and pH sensitive dyes on acidic paper substrate. The surface coating was designed to allow a maximum gas flow through the diatomite sensors. The produced sensor paper was tested for sensitivity using different ammonia concentrations and we observed a sensitivity lower limit at 63 ppm. As a comparison, the results show comparable sensitivity levels to carbon nanotube based sensor technologies reported in literature. - Highlights: • Novel sensor paper was developed using micro-structured diatomaceous earth and pH sensitive dye. • The functionality is based on pH sensitive dye to indicate spoilage of meat or fish by color change. • Diatomaceous earth was successfully immobilized to the polyvinyl alcohol coating. • The coating was engineered to maximize the exposure of the diatom morphology. • The sensor paper achieved very high sensitivities for ammonia gas detection.

  5. Self-assembled micro-structured sensors for food safety in paper based food packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakovirta, M.; Aksoy, B.; Hakovirta, J.

    2015-01-01

    Natural self-assembled microstructured particles (diatomaceous earth) were used to develop a gas sensor paper with detection mechanism based on visible and distinct color changes of the sensor paper when exposed to volatile basic nitrogen compounds. The coating formulation for paper was prepared by applying diatomites, polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH), and pH sensitive dyes on acidic paper substrate. The surface coating was designed to allow a maximum gas flow through the diatomite sensors. The produced sensor paper was tested for sensitivity using different ammonia concentrations and we observed a sensitivity lower limit at 63 ppm. As a comparison, the results show comparable sensitivity levels to carbon nanotube based sensor technologies reported in literature. - Highlights: • Novel sensor paper was developed using micro-structured diatomaceous earth and pH sensitive dye. • The functionality is based on pH sensitive dye to indicate spoilage of meat or fish by color change. • Diatomaceous earth was successfully immobilized to the polyvinyl alcohol coating. • The coating was engineered to maximize the exposure of the diatom morphology. • The sensor paper achieved very high sensitivities for ammonia gas detection

  6. Motor adaptation capacity as a function of age in carrying out a repetitive assembly task at imposed work paces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, Martine Annie; Guélin, Jean-Charles; Desbrosses, Kévin; Wild, Pascal

    2017-10-01

    The working population is getting older. Workers must adapt to changing conditions to respond to the efforts required by the tasks they have to perform. In this laboratory-based study, we investigated the capacities of motor adaptation as a function of age and work pace. Two phases were identified in the task performed: a collection phase, involving dominant use of the lower limbs; and an assembly phase, involving bi-manual motor skills. Results showed that senior workers were mainly limited during the collection phase, whereas they had less difficulty completing the assembly phase. However, senior workers did increase the vertical force applied while assembling parts, whatever the work pace. In younger and middle-aged subjects, vertical force was increased only for the faster pace. Older workers could adapt to perform repetitive tasks under different time constraints, but adaptation required greater effort than for younger workers. These results point towards a higher risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders among seniors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Structure and mechanism of the ATPase that powers viral genome packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Brendan J; Hayes, Janelle A; Stone, Nicholas P; Duffy, Caroline M; Sankaran, Banumathi; Kelch, Brian A

    2015-07-21

    Many viruses package their genomes into procapsids using an ATPase machine that is among the most powerful known biological motors. However, how this motor couples ATP hydrolysis to DNA translocation is still unknown. Here, we introduce a model system with unique properties for studying motor structure and mechanism. We describe crystal structures of the packaging motor ATPase domain that exhibit nucleotide-dependent conformational changes involving a large rotation of an entire subdomain. We also identify the arginine finger residue that catalyzes ATP hydrolysis in a neighboring motor subunit, illustrating that previous models for motor structure need revision. Our findings allow us to derive a structural model for the motor ring, which we validate using small-angle X-ray scattering and comparisons with previously published data. We illustrate the model's predictive power by identifying the motor's DNA-binding and assembly motifs. Finally, we integrate our results to propose a mechanistic model for DNA translocation by this molecular machine.

  8. From one to many: dynamic assembly and collective behavior of self-propelled colloidal motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Duan, Wentao; Ahmed, Suzanne; Sen, Ayusman; Mallouk, Thomas E

    2015-07-21

    The assembly of complex structures from simpler, individual units is a hallmark of biology. Examples include the pairing of DNA strands, the assembly of protein chains into quaternary structures, the formation of tissues and organs from cells, and the self-organization of bacterial colonies, flocks of birds, and human beings in cities. While the individual behaviors of biomolecules, bacteria, birds, and humans are governed by relatively simple rules, groups assembled from many individuals exhibit complex collective behaviors and functions that do not exist in the absence of the hierarchically organized structure. Self-assembly is a familiar concept to chemists who study the formation and properties of monolayers, crystals, and supramolecular structures. In chemical self-assembly, disorder evolves to order as the system approaches equilibrium. In contrast, living assemblies are typically characterized by two additional features: (1) the system constantly dissipates energy and is not at thermodynamic equilibrium; (2) the structure is dynamic and can transform or disassemble in response to stimuli or changing conditions. To distinguish them from equilibrium self-assembled structures, living (or nonliving) assemblies of objects with these characteristics are referred to as active matter. In this Account, we focus on the powered assembly and collective behavior of self-propelled colloids. These nano- and microparticles, also called nano- and micromotors or microswimmers, autonomously convert energy available in the environment (in the form of chemical, electromagnetic, acoustic, or thermal energy) into mechanical motion. Collections of these colloids are a form of synthetic active matter. Because of the analogy to living swimmers of similar size such as bacteria, the dynamic interactions and collective behavior of self-propelled colloids are interesting in the context of understanding biological active matter and in the development of new applications. The progression

  9. Spinal muscular atrophy: Selective motor neuron loss and global defect in the assembly of ribonucleoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Christine E; Kolb, Stephen J

    2018-08-15

    Spinal muscular atrophy is caused by deletions or mutations in the SMN1 gene that result in reduced expression of the SMN protein. The SMN protein is an essential molecular chaperone that is required for the biogenesis of multiple ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes including spliceosomal small nuclear RNPs (snRNPs). Reductions in SMN expression result in a reduced abundance of snRNPs and to downstream RNA splicing alterations. SMN is also present in axons and dendrites and appears to have important roles in the formation of neuronal mRNA-protein complexes during development or neuronal repair. Thus, SMA is an exemplar, selective motor neuron disorder that is caused by defects in fundamental RNA processing events. A detailed molecular understanding of how motor neurons fail, and why other neurons do not, in SMA will yield important principals about motor neuron maintenance and neuronal specificity in neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 76 FR 53660 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 [Docket No. NHTSA-2011-0078] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... integration of electrical signals from vehicle crash sensors would work with the requested mechanical seat... (350,000) of the vehicles were stopped in the traffic lane prior to the crash event (pg. 22, Table 7...

  11. 77 FR 19155 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assembly Anchorages; Incorporation by Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... LeSabre, MY 2002 Toyota MR-2, MY 1995 Plymouth Neon, MY 1995 Toyota Previa, MY 2000 Chevrolet S-10, MY... FAD2 2005 VW Passat Pass Pass. 2005 Acura RL Pass Pass. 2005 Toyota Avalon Pass Pass. 2005 Buick... levels of government.'' NHTSA rules can preempt in two ways. First, the National Traffic and Motor...

  12. 76 FR 10403 - General Motors Company, Pontiac Assembly; Pontiac, MI; Notice of Negative Determination on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... Agricultural Implement Workers of America (UAW) stated that production of standard cab and extended cab GMC... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-72,554] General Motors Company... October 25, 2010 (75 FR 65513). Workers at GM-Pontiac are engaged in employment related to the production...

  13. Assembling an ignimbrite: Compositionally defined eruptive packages in the 1912 Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes ignimbrite, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierstein, J.; Wilson, C.J.N.

    2005-01-01

    The 1912 Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes (VTTS) ignimbrite was constructed from 9 compositionally distinct, sequentially emplaced packages, each with distinct proportions of rhyolite (R), dacite (D), and andesite (A) pumices that permit us to map package boundaries and flow paths from vent to distal extents. Changing pumice proportions and interbedding relationships link ignimbrite formation to coeval fall deposition during the first ???16 h (Episode I) of the eruption. Pumice compositional proportions in the ignimbrite were estimated by counts on ???100 lapilli at multiple levels in vertical sections wherever accessible and more widely over most of the ignimbrite surface in the VTTS. The initial, 100% rhyolite ignimbrite package (equivalent to regional fall Layer A and occupying ???3.5 h) was followed by packages with increasing proportions of andesite, then dacite, emplaced over ???12.5 h and equivalent to regional fall Layers B1-B3. Coeval fall deposits are locally intercalated with the ignimbrite and show parallel changes in R:D (rhyolite:dacite) proportions, but lack significant amounts of andesite. Andesite was thus dominantly a low-fountaining component in the eruption column and is preferentially represented in packages filling the VTTS north of the vent. The most extensive packages (3 and 4) occur in B1 and early B2 times where flow mobility and volume were optimized; earlier all-rhyolite flows (Package 1) were highly energetic but less voluminous, while later packages (5-9) were both less voluminous and emplaced at lower velocities. Package boundaries are expressed as one or more of the following: sharp color changes corresponding to compositional variations; persistent finer-grained basal parts of flow units; compaction swales filled by later packages; erosional channels cut by the flows that fill them; lobate accumulations of one package; and (mostly south of the vent) intercalated fall deposit layers. Clear flow-unit boundaries are best developed between

  14. OptoZIF Drive: a 3D printed implant and assembly tool package for neural recording and optical stimulation in freely moving mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, David S.; Schroeder, Joseph B.; Telian, Gregory I.; Zhang, Zhengyang; Sunil, Smrithi; Ritt, Jason T.

    2016-12-01

    Objective. Behavioral neuroscience studies in freely moving rodents require small, light-weight implants to facilitate neural recording and stimulation. Our goal was to develop an integrated package of 3D printed parts and assembly aids for labs to rapidly fabricate, with minimal training, an implant that combines individually positionable microelectrodes, an optical fiber, zero insertion force (ZIF-clip) headstage connection, and secondary recording electrodes, e.g. for electromyography (EMG). Approach. Starting from previous implant designs that position recording electrodes using a control screw, we developed an implant where the main drive body, protective shell, and non-metal components of the microdrives are 3D printed in parallel. We compared alternative shapes and orientations of circuit boards for electrode connection to the headstage, in terms of their size, weight, and ease of wire insertion. We iteratively refined assembly methods, and integrated additional assembly aids into the 3D printed casing. Main results. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the OptoZIF Drive by performing real time optogenetic feedback in behaving mice. A novel feature of the OptoZIF Drive is its vertical circuit board, which facilities direct ZIF-clip connection. This feature requires angled insertion of an optical fiber that still can exit the drive from the center of a ring of recording electrodes. We designed an innovative 2-part protective shell that can be installed during the implant surgery to facilitate making additional connections to the circuit board. We use this feature to show that facial EMG in mice can be used as a control signal to lock stimulation to the animal’s motion, with stable EMG signal over several months. To decrease assembly time, reduce assembly errors, and improve repeatability, we fabricate assembly aids including a drive holder, a drill guide, an implant fixture for microelectode ‘pinning’, and a gold plating fixture. Significance. The

  15. The Effect of Care Package on Motor Development among 12-Month-Old Infants in Saqqez-Iran: A Randomized Clinical Trial Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamile Ahmadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The initial years of life particularly the first two years are regarded as the most important brain development period. This study attempted to determine the effect of care package on motor development in 12-month-old infants in Saqqez-Iran. Materials and Methods:This study was a clinical trial conducted in 2016 on 70 infants of 12 months of age selected randomly in intervention and control groups in Saqqez-Iran. The care package was taught to mothers of infants in intervention group by the researchers based on the book "Ages and Stages Learning Activities 0-5 years". These teachings for gross motor, included walking, pulling and pushing the toys, swinging, playing with ball, crawling, etc. and for fine motor skills included building towers, painting, filling a box with household items and emptying it, giving children books, stringing, etc. Motor skills (gross and fine were measured by Age and Stage Questionnaire (ASQ-2 screening tool before intervention, 4 and 8 weeks after the intervention. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 software. Results: In the intervention group, 56.2% and in the control group 51.4% were female, respectively. Results showed that 4 and 8 weeks after the intervention in gross movement, average scores in the intervention group were more than the control group (P = 0.02, and mean score in three times (before intervention, 4 and 8 weeks after the intervention was significant difference (P = 0.002. Also, for fine movement, results showed that in this area average scores in the intervention group were more than the control group (P=0.02; and the average score was a significant difference in that three times (P=0.01. Conclusion: Results revealed that the impact of care package in intervention group compared with control group in level of significance led to an improvement in motor skills domain (gross and fine movement in 12-month-old infants in this study.

  16. Heat transfer enhancement for spent nuclear fuel assembly disposal packages using metallic void fillers: A prevention technique for solidification shrinkage-induced interfacial gaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yongsoo, E-mail: yspark@alum.mit.edu; McKrell, Thomas J.; Driscoll, Michael J.

    2017-06-15

    This study considers replacing the externally accessible void spaces inside a disposal package containing a spent nuclear fuel assembly (SNFA) with high heat conducting metal to increase the effective thermal conductivity of the package and simplify the heat transfer mechanism inside the package by reducing it to a conduction dominant problem. The focus of the study is on preventing the gaps adjacent to the walls of the package components, produced by solidification shrinkage of poured liquid metal. We approached the problem by providing a temporary coating layer on the components to avoid direct build-up of thick metal oxides on their surface to promote metallic bonding at the interfaces under a non-inert environment. Laboratory scale experiments without SNFA were performed with Zn coated low carbon steel canisters and Zamak-3 void filler under two different filling temperature conditions – below and above the melting point of Zn (designated BMP and AMP respectively). Gap formation was successfully prevented in both cases while we confirmed an open gap in a control experiment, which used an uncoated canister. Minor growth of Al-Fe intermetallic phases was observed at the canister/filler interface of the sample produced under the BMP condition while their growth was significant and showed irregularly distributed morphology in the sample produced under the AMP condition, which has a potential to mitigate excessive residual stresses caused by shrinkage prevention. A procedure for the full-scale application was specified based on the results. - Highlights: •A void filling technique is introduced to enhance SNFA package heat transfer. •The technique is demonstrated via experiments using the Fe-Al-Zn system. •A procedure for the full scale application is proposed based on the results.

  17. Motor Assembly Plant Saves$85,000 with Compressed Air System Improvements (Bodine Electric's Chicago Facility): Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) BestPractices Technical Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wogsland, J.

    2001-01-01

    This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the Bodine Electric motor assembly plant project

  18. Layer by layer assembly of a biocatalytic packaging film: lactase covalently bound to low-density polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Dana E; Talbert, Joey N; Goddard, Julie M

    2013-06-01

    Active packaging is utilized to overcome limitations of traditional processing to enhance the health, safety, economics, and shelf life of foods. Active packaging employs active components to interact with food constituents to give a desired effect. Herein we describe the development of an active package in which lactase is covalently attached to low-density polyethylene (LDPE) for in-package production of lactose-free dairy products. The specific goal of this work is to increase the total protein content loading onto LDPE using layer by layer (LbL) deposition, alternating polyethylenimine, glutaraldehyde (GL), and lactase, to enhance the overall activity of covalently attached lactase. The films were successfully oxidized via ultraviolet light, functionalized with polyethylenimine and glutaraldehyde, and layered with immobilized purified lactase. The total protein content increased with each additional layer of conjugated lactase, the 5-layer sample reaching up to 1.3 μg/cm2 . However, the increase in total protein did not lend to an increase in overall lactase activity. Calculated apparent Km indicated the affinity of immobilized lactase to substrate remains unchanged when compared to free lactase. Calculated apparent turnover numbers (kcat ) showed with each layer of attached lactase, a decrease in substrate turnover was experienced when compared to free lactase; with a decrease from 128.43 to 4.76 s(-1) for a 5-layer conjugation. Our results indicate that while LbL attachment of lactase to LDPE successfully increases total protein mass of the bulk material, the adverse impact in enzyme efficiency may limit the application of LbL immobilization chemistry for bioactive packaging use. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Automation Study for Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant Hand Held Signal Flight Assembly, Rocket Barrel Assembly, 40 MM Signal, Final Packaging/Pack-Out, and Star Finishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    wood protectors in the HHS Rocket Barrel Assembly Operations. d) Use of hot melt sealant rather than lacquer on the end of the assembled Hand Held...4OL.UA8LYADHRlE CG411!cLVPAM-1 ~LW7m~I~o~c~c LCA ~TM18UX"Y.31nSRGU-11 STiIM ASSELYJMACE FINh1TZ1A1*4CWAJKRZAM’ WAOiNt rs~my" LOCATM1ED 0~7 LOCA1ED’ IWCM-1W...Moorfeed Fairview, PA Indianapolis, IN Voice Synthesis Module Square D Micro Chip Technology Palatine, IL Chandler, AZ 85224 Vacuum Unit Venturi’s

  20. Supramolecular assembly/reassembly processes: molecular motors and dynamers operating at surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Artur; Samorì, Paolo

    2011-04-01

    Among the many significant advances within the field of supramolecular chemistry over the past decades, the development of the so-called "dynamers" features a direct relevance to materials science. Defined as "combinatorial dynamic polymers", dynamers are constitutional dynamic systems and materials resulting from the application of the principles of supramolecular chemistry to polymer science. Like supramolecular materials in general, dynamers are reversible dynamic multifunctional architectures, capable of modifying their constitution by exchanging, recombining, incorporating components. They may exhibit a variety of novel properties and behave as adaptive materials. In this review we focus on the design of responsive switchable monolayers, i.e. monolayers capable to undergo significant changes in their physical or chemical properties as a result of external stimuli. Scanning tunneling microscopy studies provide direct evidence with a sub-nanometre resolution, on the formation and dynamic response of these self-assembled systems featuring controlled geometries and properties.

  1. Validation of the REL2005 code package on Gd-poisoned PWR type assemblies through the CAMELEON experimental program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaise, Patrick; Vidal, Jean-Francois; Santamarina, Alain

    2009-01-01

    This paper details the validation of Gd-poisoned 17x17 PWR lattices, through several configurations of the CAMELEON experimental program, by using the newly qualified REL2005 French code package. After a general presentation of the CAMELEON program that took place in the EOLE critical Facility in Cadarache, one describes the new REL2005 code package relying on the deterministic transport code APOLLO2.8 based on characteristics method (MOC), and its new CEA2005 library based on the latest JEFF-3.1.1 nuclear data evaluation. For critical masses, the average Calculation-to-Experiment C/E's on the k eff are (136 ± 80) pcm and (300 ± 76) pcm for the reference 281 groups MOC and optimized 26 groups MOC schemes respectively. These values include also a drastic improvement of about 250 pcm due to the change in the library from JEF2.2 to JEFF3.1. For pin-by-pin radial power distributions, reference and REL2005 results are very close, with maximum discrepancies of the order of 2%, i.e., in the experimental uncertainty limits. The Optimized REL2005 code package allows to predict the reactivity worth of the Gd-clusters (averaged on 9 experimental configurations) to be C/E Δρ(Gd clusters) = +1.3% ± 2.3%. (author)

  2. Modeling and Parameter Identification of the Vibration Characteristics of Armature Assembly in a Torque Motor of Hydraulic Servo Valves under Electromagnetic Excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghui Peng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The resonance of the armature assembly is the main problem leading to the fatigue of the spring pipe in a torque motor of hydraulic servo valves, which can cause the failure of servo valves. To predict the vibration characteristics of the armature assembly, this paper focuses on the mathematical modeling of the vibration characteristics of armature assembly in a hydraulic servo valve and the identification of parameters in the models. To build models more accurately, the effect of the magnetic spring is taken into account. Vibration modal analysis is performed to obtain the mode shapes and natural frequencies, which are necessary to implement the identification of damping ratios in the mathematical models. Based on the mathematical models for the vibration characteristics, the harmonic responses of the armature assembly are analyzed using the finite element method and measured under electromagnetic excitations. The simulation results agree well with the experimental studies.

  3. The design of the motor bracket for reduction of structure-borne noise in package air-conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Hyoun Jin; Lee, Sung Jin; Oh, Jae Eung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Tae Ho [WiniaMando, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Yoon [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    As the economic power is improved and the customer's demand is hard to please, the noise and vibration is the most important yardstick that can determine the quality of the product. Especially, as the air-conditioner's demand increase suddenly, the product of quality and the noise is becoming a decisive factor of determining whether purchase the product or not. Therefore, every manufactory is investing a lot of money and research to cut down the unpleasantness induced from noise and vibration. And they are emphasizing their product's difference by advertising a silence very actively. With these reason, the demand of a silent indoor air-conditioner is the essential research filed when the product is developed. In this study, the noise and vibration is visualized in the space and frequency domain by using experimental methods such as Operational Deflection Shape (ODS), modal testing and sound intensity. Also the location of noise source and its characteristic is analyzed in an acoustical point of view to reduce the structure borne noise that come from the fan motor, and the pertinent control method is suggested. Furthermore, the most suitable shape of the motor bracket is suggested by applying FEM and DOE (Design of Experiments) in the noise and vibration point a view.

  4. The design of the motor bracket for reduction of structure-borne noise in package air-conditioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Hyoun Jin; Lee, Sung Jin; Oh, Jae Eung; Kang, Tae Ho; Lee, Jung Yoon

    2006-01-01

    As the economic power is improved and the customer's demand is hard to please, the noise and vibration is the most important yardstick that can determine the quality of the product. Especially, as the air-conditioner's demand increase suddenly, the product of quality and the noise is becoming a decisive factor of determining whether purchase the product or not. Therefore, every manufactory is investing a lot of money and research to cut down the unpleasantness induced from noise and vibration. And they are emphasizing their product's difference by advertising a silence very actively. With these reason, the demand of a silent indoor air-conditioner is the essential research filed when the product is developed. In this study, the noise and vibration is visualized in the space and frequency domain by using experimental methods such as Operational Deflection Shape (ODS), modal testing and sound intensity. Also the location of noise source and its characteristic is analyzed in an acoustical point of view to reduce the structure borne noise that come from the fan motor, and the pertinent control method is suggested. Furthermore, the most suitable shape of the motor bracket is suggested by applying FEM and DOE (Design of Experiments) in the noise and vibration point a view

  5. A practical approach to burn-up credit use in package design approval for PWR uranium oxide spent fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroger, H.; Reiche, I.

    2009-01-01

    TN International has applied for a license for the TN 24 E transport and storage cask with the German competent authority using a new Burn-up Credit (BUC) approach for PWR uranium oxide fuel assemblies based on actinides and six selected fission products. In order to enable the use of BUC for fission products, various experimental data have to be provided for the two important aspects of the criticality calculation. Firstly, post-irradiation examination (PIE) experiments for the verification of the calculated fission product concentrations have to be provided for each selected fission product. These data are then used to validate the depletion calculations. Secondly, experimental data for the criticality calculations in the form of critical benchmark experiments have to be provided. The submitted data will be investigated for their applicability to the TN 24 E transport and storage cask. Since the application is limited to six fission products only, the conservatism of the BUC approach can be further justified, as the reduction in reactivity from the remaining fission products (about 190) is not taken credit for. (authors)

  6. Reflective Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The aluminized polymer film used in spacecraft as a radiation barrier to protect both astronauts and delicate instruments has led to a number of spinoff applications. Among them are aluminized shipping bags, food cart covers and medical bags. Radiant Technologies purchases component materials and assembles a barrier made of layers of aluminized foil. The packaging reflects outside heat away from the product inside the container. The company is developing new aluminized lines, express mailers, large shipping bags, gel packs and insulated panels for the building industry.

  7. Instructional Package of Development of Skill in Using Fine Motor of Children for Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangsawang, T.

    2018-02-01

    This research has the following purposes: 1) to find the efficiency of the self-learning activity set on development of skill in using fine motor of children with intellectual disabilities., 2) to compare the abilities to use the small muscles after the study more than before the study of children with intellectual disabilities, who made study with the self-learning activity on development of small muscles use., 3) to study the satisfaction of the children with intellectual disabilities using the self-learning activity on development of small muscles use. The sample groups on the research are the children with intellectual disabilities of the special education Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Provincial Nakhon Nayok Center in the school year 2016, for 7 children. The tools used on the research consist of the self-learning activity on development of small muscles use for the children with intellectual disabilities of the special, the observation form of abilities of small muscles before and after using the activity set and the observation form of satisfaction of the children with intellectual disabilities of the special towards the self-learning activity set on development of small muscles for the children with intellectual disabilities of the special. The statistics used on the research include the percentage, mean value, standard deviation and the t-test for dependent sample. From the research, it was found that the self-learning activity set on development of small muscles use for children with intellectual disabilities of the special is efficient based on the criteria in average equal to 77.78/76.51, the educational coefficient of the student after the study higher than before the study with average points before the study equal to 55.14 and S.D. value equal to 3.72. The average points after the study equal to 68.86, S.D. value equal to 2.73, t-test value before and after the study equal to 7.94, which are different significantly on statistics at the level 0.05 and the

  8. ANALISIS IDENTIFIKASI MASALAH DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN METODE FAILURE MODE AND EFFECT ANALYSIS (FMEA DAN RISK PRIORITY NUMBER (RPN PADA SUB ASSEMBLY LINE (Studi Kasus : PT. Toyota Motor Manufacturing Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nia Budi Puspitasari

    2017-07-01

    Abstract The failure rate is a problem that has always attempted to be minimized by a company in order to improve the quality of products, and also were conducted by oleh Toyota Motor Manufacturing Indonesia (PT. TMMIN which is consistent in producting a quality product.  Knowing that in 2016 there is a defect GAP at 50 ppm, PT. TMMIN needs to identify the failures that occur in their company. FMEA is a method to identify and analyze the failure modes in detail that can able to know the cause and impact of each failures, so we get the proper repairment. FMEA that is used in PT. TMMIN case study indicate various modes of failure in assembly-line, then known the alternatives to repair for any prioritize failures. The priorities failures can be seen in the Risk Priority Number (RPN. Based on the RPN resulting, we can obtain the priority failures in  assembly-line of PT. TMMIN that are about the part installation errors, failures due to foreign objects in the part, and the failure of the piston assembly errors.

  9. Specificity of interactions among the DNA-packaging machine components of T4-related bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Song; Rao, Venigalla B

    2011-02-04

    Tailed bacteriophages use powerful molecular motors to package the viral genome into a preformed capsid. Packaging at a rate of up to ∼2000 bp/s and generating a power density twice that of an automobile engine, the phage T4 motor is the fastest and most powerful reported to date. Central to DNA packaging are dynamic interactions among the packaging components, capsid (gp23), portal (gp20), motor (gp17, large "terminase"), and regulator (gp16, small terminase), leading to precise orchestration of the packaging process, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we analyzed the interactions between small and large terminases of T4-related phages. Our results show that the gp17 packaging ATPase is maximally stimulated by homologous, but not heterologous, gp16. Multiple interaction sites are identified in both gp16 and gp17. The specificity determinants in gp16 are clustered in the diverged N- and C-terminal domains (regions I-III). Swapping of diverged region(s), such as replacing C-terminal RB49 region III with that of T4, switched ATPase stimulation specificity. Two specificity regions, amino acids 37-52 and 290-315, are identified in or near the gp17-ATPase "transmission" subdomain II. gp16 binding at these sites might cause a conformational change positioning the ATPase-coupling residues into the catalytic pocket, triggering ATP hydrolysis. These results lead to a model in which multiple weak interactions between motor and regulator allow dynamic assembly and disassembly of various packaging complexes, depending on the functional state of the packaging machine. This might be a general mechanism for regulation of the phage packaging machine and other complex molecular machines.

  10. Newnes electronics assembly handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Newnes Electronics Assembly Handbook: Techniques, Standards and Quality Assurance focuses on the aspects of electronic assembling. The handbook first looks at the printed circuit board (PCB). Base materials, basic mechanical properties, cleaning of assemblies, design, and PCB manufacturing processes are then explained. The text also discusses surface mounted assemblies and packaging of electromechanical assemblies, as well as the soldering process. Requirements for the soldering process; solderability and protective coatings; cleaning of PCBs; and mass solder/component reflow soldering are des

  11. Components of Adenovirus Genome Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahi, Yadvinder S.; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses (AdVs) are icosahedral viruses with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genomes. Genome packaging in AdV is thought to be similar to that seen in dsDNA containing icosahedral bacteriophages and herpesviruses. Specific recognition of the AdV genome is mediated by a packaging domain located close to the left end of the viral genome and is mediated by the viral packaging machinery. Our understanding of the role of various components of the viral packaging machinery in AdV genome packaging has greatly advanced in recent years. Characterization of empty capsids assembled in the absence of one or more components involved in packaging, identification of the unique vertex, and demonstration of the role of IVa2, the putative packaging ATPase, in genome packaging have provided compelling evidence that AdVs follow a sequential assembly pathway. This review provides a detailed discussion on the functions of the various viral and cellular factors involved in AdV genome packaging. We conclude by briefly discussing the roles of the empty capsids, assembly intermediates, scaffolding proteins, portal vertex and DNA encapsidating enzymes in AdV assembly and packaging. PMID:27721809

  12. RH Packaging Operations Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-01-01

    This procedure provides operating instructions for the RH-TRU 72-B Road Cask, Waste Shipping Package. In this document, ''Packaging'' refers to the assembly of components necessary to ensure compliance with the packaging requirements (not loaded with a payload). ''Package'' refers to a Type B packaging that, with its radioactive contents, is designed to retain the integrity of its containment and shielding when subject to the normal conditions of transport and hypothetical accident test conditions set forth in 10 CFR Part 71. Loading of the RH 72-B cask can be done two ways, on the RH cask trailer in the vertical position or by removing the cask from the trailer and loading it in a facility designed for remote-handling (RH). Before loading the 72-B cask, loading procedures and changes to the loading procedures for the 72-B cask must be sent to CBFO at sitedocuments at wipp.ws for approval

  13. Advanced flip chip packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Yi-Shao; Wong, CP

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Flip Chip Packaging presents past, present and future advances and trends in areas such as substrate technology, material development, and assembly processes. Flip chip packaging is now in widespread use in computing, communications, consumer and automotive electronics, and the demand for flip chip technology is continuing to grow in order to meet the need for products that offer better performance, are smaller, and are environmentally sustainable. This book also: Offers broad-ranging chapters with a focus on IC-package-system integration Provides viewpoints from leading industry executives and experts Details state-of-the-art achievements in process technologies and scientific research Presents a clear development history and touches on trends in the industry while also discussing up-to-date technology information Advanced Flip Chip Packaging is an ideal book for engineers, researchers, and graduate students interested in the field of flip chip packaging.

  14. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing 'Short' 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing 'Tall' 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing Shielded Container Payload Assembly; 1.7, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.8, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence, except as noted.

  15. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-05-27

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing "Short" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing "Tall" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing Shielded Container Payload Assembly; 1.7, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.8, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence, except as noted.

  16. Packaging fluency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocanu, Ana; Chrysochou, Polymeros; Bogomolova, Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Research on packaging stresses the need for packaging design to read easily, presuming fast and accurate processing of product-related information. In this paper we define this property of packaging as “packaging fluency”. Based on the existing marketing and cognitive psychology literature on pac...

  17. ROBATEL RS 24 packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robatel, M.; Bochard, C.

    1986-01-01

    The ROBATEL RS 24 packaging for light-water reactor fuel assemblies is discussed. The cask uses a strength frame of carbon steel sheets, lead gamma ray shielding, neutron shielding of aluminous concrete, a thermal protection system for the gamma shielding, and a natural convection thermal transfer system

  18. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing 'Short' 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing 'Tall' 85-gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.7, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence.

  19. Microelectronic packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, M; Schultze, J Walter

    2004-01-01

    Microelectronic Packaging analyzes the massive impact of electrochemical technologies on various levels of microelectronic packaging. Traditionally, interconnections within a chip were considered outside the realm of packaging technologies, but this book emphasizes the importance of chip wiring as a key aspect of microelectronic packaging, and focuses on electrochemical processing as an enabler of advanced chip metallization.Divided into five parts, the book begins by outlining the basics of electrochemical processing, defining the microelectronic packaging hierarchy, and emphasizing the impac

  20. Submersible canned motor mixer pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guardiani, R.F.; Pollick, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    A mixer pump is described used in a waste tank for mobilizing high-level radioactive liquid waste having a column assembly containing power cables, a motor housing with electric motor means which includes a stator can of a stator assembly and a rotor can of a rotor assembly, and an impeller assembly with an impeller connected to a shaft of the rotor assembly. The column assembly locates the motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to lubricate radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the impeller and electric motor means act to grind down large particles in the liquid waste flow. These larger particles are received in slots in the static bearing members of the radial bearing assemblies. Only solid waste particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass there through, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the mixer pump. 10 figs

  1. The portal protein plays essential roles at different steps of the SPP1 DNA packaging process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isidro, Anabela; Henriques, Adriano O.; Tavares, Paulo

    2004-01-01

    A large number of viruses use a specialized portal for entry of DNA to the viral capsid and for its polarized exit at the beginning of infection. These families of viruses assemble an icosahedral procapsid containing a portal protein oligomer in one of its 12 vertices. The viral ATPase (terminase) interacts with the portal vertex to form a powerful molecular motor that translocates DNA to the procapsid interior against a steep concentration gradient. The portal protein is an essential component of this DNA packaging machine. Characterization of single amino acid substitutions in the portal protein gp6 of bacteriophage SPP1 that block DNA packaging identified sequential steps in the packaging mechanism that require its action. Gp6 is essential at early steps of DNA packaging and for DNA translocation to the capsid interior, it affects the efficiency of DNA packaging, it is a central component of the headful sensor that determines the size of the packaged DNA molecule, and is essential for closure of the portal pore by the head completion proteins to prevent exit of the DNA encapsidated. Functional regions of gp6 necessary at each step are identified within its primary structure. The similarity between the architecture of portal oligomers and between the DNA packaging strategies of viruses using portals strongly suggests that the portal protein plays the same roles in a large number of viruses

  2. Mechanisms of DNA Packaging by Large Double-Stranded DNA Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Venigalla B.; Feiss, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Translocation of viral double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) into the icosahedral prohead shell is catalyzed by TerL, a motor protein that has ATPase, endonuclease, and translocase activities. TerL, following endonucleolytic cleavage of immature viral DNA concatemer recognized by TerS, assembles into a pentameric ring motor on the prohead’s portal vertex and uses ATP hydrolysis energy for DNA translocation. TerL’s N-terminal ATPase is connected by a hinge to the C-terminal endonuclease. Inchworm models propose that modest domain motions accompanying ATP hydrolysis are amplified, through changes in electrostatic interactions, into larger movements of the C-terminal domain bound to DNA. In phage φ29, four of the five TerL subunits sequentially hydrolyze ATP, each powering translocation of 2.5 bp. After one viral genome is encapsidated, the internal pressure signals termination of packaging and ejection of the motor. Current focus is on the structures of packaging complexes and the dynamics of TerL during DNA packaging, endonuclease regulation, and motor mechanics. PMID:26958920

  3. Packaging microservices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montesi, Fabrizio; Thrane, Dan Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    We describe a first proposal for a new packaging system for microservices based on the Jolie programming language, called the Jolie Package Manager (JPM). Its main features revolve around service interfaces, which make the functionalities that a service provides and depends on explicit. For the f......We describe a first proposal for a new packaging system for microservices based on the Jolie programming language, called the Jolie Package Manager (JPM). Its main features revolve around service interfaces, which make the functionalities that a service provides and depends on explicit...

  4. Structure-Function Analysis of the DNA Translocating Portal of the Bacteriophage T4 Packaging Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Sanchez, Victor; Gao, Song; Kim, Hyung Rae; Kihara, Daisuke; Sun, Lei; Rossmann, Michael G.; Rao, Venigalla B.

    2013-01-01

    Tailed bacteriophages and herpesviruses consist of a structurally well conserved dodecameric portal at a special five-fold vertex of the capsid. The portal plays critical roles in head assembly, genome packaging, neck/tail attachment, and genome ejection. Although the structures of portals from phages φ29, SPP1 and P22 have been determined, their mechanistic roles have not been well understood. Structural analysis of phage T4 portal (gp20) has been hampered because of its unusual interaction with the E. coli inner membrane. Here, we predict atomic models for the T4 portal monomer and dodecamer, and fit the dodecamer into the cryoEM density of the phage portal vertex. The core structure, like that from other phages, is cone-shaped with the wider end containing the “wing” and “crown” domains inside the phage head. A long “stem” encloses a central channel, and a narrow “stalk” protrudes outside the capsid. A biochemical approach was developed to analyze portal function by incorporating plasmid-expressed portal protein into phage heads and determining the effect of mutations on head assembly, DNA translocation, and virion production. We found that the protruding loops of the stalk domain are involved in assembling the DNA packaging motor. A loop that connects the stalk to the channel might be required for communication between the motor and portal. The “tunnel” loops that project into the channel are essential for sealing the packaged head. These studies established that the portal is required throughout the DNA packaging process, with different domains participating at different stages of genome packaging. PMID:24126213

  5. Structure-function analysis of the DNA translocating portal of the bacteriophage T4 packaging machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Sanchez, Victor; Gao, Song; Kim, Hyung Rae; Kihara, Daisuke; Sun, Lei; Rossmann, Michael G; Rao, Venigalla B

    2014-03-06

    Tailed bacteriophages and herpesviruses consist of a structurally well conserved dodecameric portal at a special 5-fold vertex of the capsid. The portal plays critical roles in head assembly, genome packaging, neck/tail attachment, and genome ejection. Although the structures of portals from phages φ29, SPP1, and P22 have been determined, their mechanistic roles have not been well understood. Structural analysis of phage T4 portal (gp20) has been hampered because of its unusual interaction with the Escherichia coli inner membrane. Here, we predict atomic models for the T4 portal monomer and dodecamer, and we fit the dodecamer into the cryo-electron microscopy density of the phage portal vertex. The core structure, like that from other phages, is cone shaped with the wider end containing the "wing" and "crown" domains inside the phage head. A long "stem" encloses a central channel, and a narrow "stalk" protrudes outside the capsid. A biochemical approach was developed to analyze portal function by incorporating plasmid-expressed portal protein into phage heads and determining the effect of mutations on head assembly, DNA translocation, and virion production. We found that the protruding loops of the stalk domain are involved in assembling the DNA packaging motor. A loop that connects the stalk to the channel might be required for communication between the motor and the portal. The "tunnel" loops that project into the channel are essential for sealing the packaged head. These studies established that the portal is required throughout the DNA packaging process, with different domains participating at different stages of genome packaging. © 2013.

  6. Direct interaction of the bacteriophage SPP1 packaging ATPase with the portal protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Leonor; Cuervo, Ana; Tavares, Paulo

    2010-03-05

    DNA packaging in tailed bacteriophages and other viruses requires assembly of a complex molecular machine at a specific vertex of the procapsid. This machine is composed of the portal protein that provides a tunnel for DNA entry, an ATPase that fuels DNA translocation (large terminase subunit), and most frequently, a small terminase subunit. Here we characterized the interaction between the terminase ATPase subunit of bacteriophage SPP1 (gp2) and the procapsid portal vertex. We found, by affinity pulldown assays with purified proteins, that gp2 interacts with the portal protein, gp6, independently of the terminase small subunit gp1, DNA, or ATP. The gp2-procapsid interaction via the portal protein depends on gp2 concentration and requires the presence of divalent cations. Competition experiments showed that isolated gp6 can only inhibit gp2-procapsid interactions and DNA packaging at gp6:procapsid molar ratios above 10-fold. Assays with gp6 carrying mutations in distinct regions of its structure that affect the portal-induced stimulation of ATPase and DNA packaging revealed that none of these mutations impedes gp2-gp6 binding. Our results demonstrate that the SPP1 packaging ATPase binds directly to the portal and that the interaction is stronger with the portal embedded in procapsids. Identification of mutations in gp6 that allow for assembly of the ATPase-portal complex but impair DNA packaging support an intricate cross-talk between the two proteins for activity of the DNA translocation motor.

  7. RF and microwave microelectronics packaging II

    CERN Document Server

    Sturdivant, Rick

    2017-01-01

    Reviews RF, microwave, and microelectronics assembly process, quality control, and failure analysis Bridges the gap between low cost commercial and hi-res RF/Microwave packaging technologies Engages in an in-depth discussion of challenges in packaging and assembly of advanced high-power amplifiers This book presents the latest developments in packaging for high-frequency electronics. It is a companion volume to “RF and Microwave Microelectronics Packaging” (2010) and covers the latest developments in thermal management, electrical/RF/thermal-mechanical designs and simulations, packaging and processing methods, and other RF and microwave packaging topics. Chapters provide detailed coverage of phased arrays, T/R modules, 3D transitions, high thermal conductivity materials, carbon nanotubes and graphene advanced materials, and chip size packaging for RF MEMS. It appeals to practicing engineers in the electronic packaging and high-frequency electronics domain, and to academic researchers interested in underst...

  8. Structure and assembly of bacteriophage T4 head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Black Lindsay W

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The bacteriophage T4 capsid is an elongated icosahedron, 120 nm long and 86 nm wide, and is built with three essential proteins; gp23*, which forms the hexagonal capsid lattice, gp24*, which forms pentamers at eleven of the twelve vertices, and gp20, which forms the unique dodecameric portal vertex through which DNA enters during packaging and exits during infection. The past twenty years of research has greatly elevated the understanding of phage T4 head assembly and DNA packaging. The atomic structure of gp24 has been determined. A structural model built for gp23 using its similarity to gp24 showed that the phage T4 major capsid protein has the same fold as that found in phage HK97 and several other icosahedral bacteriophages. Folding of gp23 requires the assistance of two chaperones, the E. coli chaperone GroEL and the phage coded gp23-specific chaperone, gp31. The capsid also contains two non-essential outer capsid proteins, Hoc and Soc, which decorate the capsid surface. The structure of Soc shows two capsid binding sites which, through binding to adjacent gp23 subunits, reinforce the capsid structure. Hoc and Soc have been extensively used in bipartite peptide display libraries and to display pathogen antigens including those from HIV, Neisseria meningitides, Bacillus anthracis, and FMDV. The structure of Ip1*, one of the components of the core, has been determined, which provided insights on how IPs protect T4 genome against the E. coli nucleases that degrade hydroxymethylated and glycosylated T4 DNA. Extensive mutagenesis combined with the atomic structures of the DNA packaging/terminase proteins gp16 and gp17 elucidated the ATPase and nuclease functional motifs involved in DNA translocation and headful DNA cutting. Cryo-EM structure of the T4 packaging machine showed a pentameric motor assembled with gp17 subunits on the portal vertex. Single molecule optical tweezers and fluorescence studies showed that the T4 motor packages

  9. Package materials, waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The schedules for waste package development for the various host rocks were presented. The waste form subtask activities were reviewed, with the papers focusing on high-level waste, transuranic waste, and spent fuel. The following ten papers were presented: (1) Waste Package Development Approach; (2) Borosilicate Glass as a Matrix for Savannah River Plant Waste; (3) Development of Alternative High-Level Waste Forms; (4) Overview of the Transuranic Waste Management Program; (5) Assessment of the Impacts of Spent Fuel Disassembly - Alternatives on the Nuclear Waste Isolation System; (6) Reactions of Spent Fuel and Reprocessing Waste Forms with Water in the Presence of Basalt; (7) Spent Fuel Stabilizer Screening Studies; (8) Chemical Interactions of Shale Rock, Prototype Waste Forms, and Prototype Canister Metals in a Simulated Wet Repository Environment; (9) Impact of Fission Gas and Volatiles on Spent Fuel During Geologic Disposal; and (10) Spent Fuel Assembly Decay Heat Measurement and Analysis

  10. Submersible canned motor transfer pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guardiani, R.F.; Pollick, R.D.; Nyilas, C.P.; Denmeade, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    A transfer pump is described which is used in a waste tank for transferring high-level radioactive liquid waste from a waste tank and having a column assembly, a canned electric motor means, and an impeller assembly with an upper impeller and a lower impeller connected to a shaft of a rotor assembly. The column assembly locates a motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller assembly which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste, into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to cool and/or lubricate the radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the upper impeller and electric motor means grind large particles in the liquid waste flow. Slots in the static bearing member of the radial bearing assemblies further grind down the solid waste particles so that only particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass there through, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the transfer pump. The column assembly is modular so that sections can be easily assembled, disassembled and/or removed. A second embodiment employs a stator jacket which provides an alternate means for cooling the electric motor means and lubricating and/or cooling the bearing assemblies, and a third embodiment employs a variable level suction device which allows liquid waste to be drawn into the transfer pump from varying and discrete levels in the waste tank. 17 figs

  11. RASPLAV package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The RASPLAV package for investigation of post-accident mass transport and heat transfer processes is presented. The package performs three dimensional thermal conduction calculations in space nonuniform and temperature dependent conductivities and variable heat sources, taking into account phase transformations. The processes of free-moving bulk material, mixing of melting fuel due to advection and dissolution, and also evaporation/adsorption are modelled. Two-dimensional hydrodynamics with self-consistent heat transfer are also performed. The paper briefly traces the ways the solution procedures are carried out in the program package and outlines the major results of the simulation of reactor vessel melting after a core meltdown. The theoretical analysis and the calculations in this case were carried out in order to define the possibility of localization of the zone reminders. The interactions between the reminders and the concrete are simulated and evaluation of the interaction parameters is carried out. 4 refs. (R.Ts)

  12. Electric motor for laser-mechanical drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Daryl L.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2015-07-07

    A high power laser drilling system utilizing an electric motor laser bottom hole assembly. A high power laser beam travels within the electric motor for advancing a borehole. High power laser drilling system includes a down hole electrical motor having a hollow rotor for conveying a high power laser beam through the electrical motor.

  13. Electric motor for laser-mechanical drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Daryl L.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2017-10-10

    A high power laser drilling system utilizing an electric motor laser bottom hole assembly. A high power laser beam travels within the electric motor for performing a laser operation. A system includes a down hole electrical motor having a hollow rotor for conveying a high power laser beam having a wavelength less than 1060 nm through the electrical motor.

  14. Tritium waste package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmassler, Rich; Ciebiera, Lloyd; Tulipano, Francis J.; Vinson, Sylvester; Walters, R. Thomas

    1995-01-01

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium xide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen add oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB.

  15. Portal protein functions akin to a DNA-sensor that couples genome-packaging to icosahedral capsid maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokareddy, Ravi K.; Sankhala, Rajeshwer S.; Roy, Ankoor; Afonine, Pavel V.; Motwani, Tina; Teschke, Carolyn M.; Parent, Kristin N.; Cingolani, Gino

    2017-01-01

    Tailed bacteriophages and herpesviruses assemble infectious particles via an empty precursor capsid (or ‘procapsid') built by multiple copies of coat and scaffolding protein and by one dodecameric portal protein. Genome packaging triggers rearrangement of the coat protein and release of scaffolding protein, resulting in dramatic procapsid lattice expansion. Here, we provide structural evidence that the portal protein of the bacteriophage P22 exists in two distinct dodecameric conformations: an asymmetric assembly in the procapsid (PC-portal) that is competent for high affinity binding to the large terminase packaging protein, and a symmetric ring in the mature virion (MV-portal) that has negligible affinity for the packaging motor. Modelling studies indicate the structure of PC-portal is incompatible with DNA coaxially spooled around the portal vertex, suggesting that newly packaged DNA triggers the switch from PC- to MV-conformation. Thus, we propose the signal for termination of ‘Headful Packaging' is a DNA-dependent symmetrization of portal protein. PMID:28134243

  16. Thiokol Solid Rocket Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on thiokol solid rocket motors. The topics include: 1) Communications; 2) Military and government intelligence; 3) Positioning satellites; 4) Remote sensing; 5) Space burial; 6) Science; 7) Space manufacturing; 8) Advertising; 9) Space rescue space debris management; 10) Space tourism; 11) Space settlements; 12) Hazardous waste disposal; 13) Extraterrestrial resources; 14) Fast package delivery; and 15) Space utilities.

  17. Global Structure of a Three-Way Junction in a Phi29 Packaging RNA Dimer Determined Using Site-Directed Spin Labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaojun; Tung, Chang-Shung; Sowa, Glenna; Hatmal, Ma' mon M.; Haworth, Ian S.; Qin, Peter Z.

    2012-02-08

    The condensation of bacteriophage phi29 genomic DNA into its preformed procapsid requires the DNA packaging motor, which is the strongest known biological motor. The packaging motor is an intricate ring-shaped protein/RNA complex, and its function requires an RNA component called packaging RNA (pRNA). Current structural information on pRNA is limited, which hinders studies of motor function. Here, we used site-directed spin labeling to map the conformation of a pRNA three-way junction that bridges binding sites for the motor ATPase and the procapsid. The studies were carried out on a pRNA dimer, which is the simplest ring-shaped pRNA complex and serves as a functional intermediate during motor assembly. Using a nucleotide-independent labeling scheme, stable nitroxide radicals were attached to eight specific pRNA sites without perturbing RNA folding and dimer formation, and a total of 17 internitroxide distances spanning the three-way junction were measured using Double Electron-Electron Resonance spectroscopy. The measured distances, together with steric chemical constraints, were used to select 3662 viable three-way junction models from a pool of 65 billion. The results reveal a similar conformation among the viable models, with two of the helices (HT and HL) adopting an acute bend. This is in contrast to a recently reported pRNA tetramer crystal structure, in which HT and HL stack onto each other linearly. The studies establish a new method for mapping global structures of complex RNA molecules, and provide information on pRNA conformation that aids investigations of phi29 packaging motor and developments of pRNA-based nanomedicine and nanomaterial.

  18. DESIGN AND EXPERIENCE WITH THE WS/HS ASSEMBLY MOVEMENT USING LABVIEW VIS, NATIONAL INSTRUMENT MOTION CONTROLLERS, AND COMPUMOTOR ELECTRONIC DRIVE UNITS AND MOTORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, D.S.; Day, L.A.

    2001-01-01

    The Low-Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA), designed and built at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, is part of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) program and provides a platform for measuring high-power proton beam-halo formation. The technique used for measuring the beam halo employs nine combination Wire Scanner and Halo Scraper (WS/HS) devices. This paper will focus on the experience gained in the use of National Instrument (NI) LabVIEW VIs and motion controllers, and Compumotor electronic drive units and motors. The base configuration couples a Compumotor motor driven by a Parker-Hannifin Gemini GT Drive unit. The drive unit is controlled by a NI PXI-7344 controller card, which in turn is controlled by a PC running custom built NI LabVIEW VIs. The function of the control VI's is to interpret instructions from the main control system, the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), and carry out the corresponding motion commands. The main control VI has to run all nineteen WS/HS motor axes used in the accelerator. A basic discussion of the main accelerator control system, EPICs which is hosted on a VXI platform, and its interface with the PC based LabVIEW motion control software will be included

  19. 49 CFR 178.348 - Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle... SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.348 Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle. ...

  20. 49 CFR 178.347 - Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle... SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.347 Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle. ...

  1. 49 CFR 178.346 - Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle... SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.346 Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle. ...

  2. 75 FR 26794 - New United Motor Manufacturing, Inc., Formerly a Joint Venture of General Motors Corporation and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... Manufacturing, Inc., Formerly a Joint Venture of General Motors Corporation and Toyota Motor Corporation... United Motor Manufacturing, Inc., formerly a joint venture of General Motors Corporation and Toyota Motor... reviewed the certification for workers of the subject firm. The workers assemble the Toyota Corolla and the...

  3. Lively package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaremko, G.

    1997-01-01

    Progress on the Lloydminster Heavy Oil Interpretive Centre, sponsored by the Lloydminster Oilfield Technical Society and expected to open in late 1998, was discussed. Some $150,000 of the $750,000 budget is already in the bank, and another $150,000 is in the pipeline. The Centre will be added to an existing and well-established visitor's site. It is reported to contain a lively and imaginatively-designed exhibit package, and promises to become a combination of educational tool and tourist attraction for the town of Lloydminster, Saskatchewan, in the heart of heavy oil country

  4. Genome Segregation and Packaging Machinery in Acanthamoeba polyphaga Mimivirus Is Reminiscent of Bacterial Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelikani, Venkata; Ranjan, Tushar; Zade, Amrutraj; Shukla, Avi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genome packaging is a critical step in the virion assembly process. The putative ATP-driven genome packaging motor of Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (APMV) and other nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) is a distant ortholog of prokaryotic chromosome segregation motors, such as FtsK and HerA, rather than other viral packaging motors, such as large terminase. Intriguingly, APMV also encodes other components, i.e., three putative serine recombinases and a putative type II topoisomerase, all of which are essential for chromosome segregation in prokaryotes. Based on our analyses of these components and taking the limited available literature into account, here we propose for the first time a model for genome segregation and packaging in APMV that can possibly be extended to NCLDV subfamilies, except perhaps Poxviridae and Ascoviridae. This model might represent a unique variation of the prokaryotic system acquired and contrived by the large DNA viruses of eukaryotes. It is also consistent with previous observations that unicellular eukaryotes, such as amoebae, are melting pots for the advent of chimeric organisms with novel mechanisms. IMPORTANCE Extremely large viruses with DNA genomes infect a wide range of eukaryotes, from human beings to amoebae and from crocodiles to algae. These large DNA viruses, unlike their much smaller cousins, have the capability of making most of the protein components required for their multiplication. Once they infect the cell, these viruses set up viral replication centers, known as viral factories, to carry out their multiplication with very little help from the host. Our sequence analyses show that there is remarkable similarity between prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea) and large DNA viruses, such as mimivirus, vaccinia virus, and pandoravirus, in the way that they process their newly synthesized genetic material to make sure that only one copy of the complete genome is generated and is meticulously placed inside

  5. Open-Ended Electric Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Mauri

    1975-01-01

    Presents complete instructions for assembling an electric motor which does not require large amounts of power to operate and which is inexpensive as well as reliable. Several open-ended experiments with the motor are included as well as information for obtaining a kit of parts and instructions. (BR)

  6. Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel Waste Package Misload Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.K. Knudson

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to estimate the probability of misloading a commercial spent nuclear fuel waste package with a fuel assembly(s) that has a reactivity (i.e., enrichment and/or burnup) outside the waste package design. The waste package designs are based on the expected commercial spent nuclear fuel assemblies and previous analyses (Macheret, P. 2001, Section 4.1 and Table 1). For this calculation, a misloaded waste package is defined as a waste package that has a fuel assembly(s) loaded into it with an enrichment and/or burnup outside the waste package design. An example of this type of misload is a fuel assembly designated for the 21-PWR Control Rod waste package being incorrectly loaded into a 21-PWR Absorber Plate waste package. This constitutes a misloaded 21-PWR Absorber Plate waste package, because the reactivity (i.e., enrichment and/or burnup) of a 21-PWR Control Rod waste package fuel assembly is outside the design of a 21-PWR Absorber Plate waste package. These types of misloads (i.e., fuel assembly with enrichment and/or burnup outside waste package design) are the only types that are evaluated in this calculation. This calculation utilizes information from ''Frequency of SNF Misload for Uncanistered Fuel Waste Package'' (CRWMS M and O 1998) as the starting point. The scope of this calculation is limited to the information available. The information is based on the whole population of fuel assemblies and the whole population of waste packages, because there is no information about the arrival of the waste stream at this time. The scope of this calculation deviates from that specified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Risk and Criticality Department'' (BSC 2002a, Section 2.1.30) in that only waste package misload is evaluated. The remaining issues identified (i.e., flooding and geometry reconfiguration) will be addressed elsewhere. The intended use of the calculation is to provide information and inputs to the Preclosure Safety Analysis

  7. Portal protein functions akin to a DNA-sensor that couples genome-packaging to icosahedral capsid maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokareddy, Ravi K.; Sankhala, Rajeshwer S.; Roy, Ankoor; Afonine, Pavel V.; Motwani, Tina; Teschke, Carolyn M.; Parent, Kristin N.; Cingolani, Gino (Rutgers); (LBNL); (Connecticut); (TJU); (MSU)

    2017-01-30

    Tailed bacteriophages and herpesviruses assemble infectious particles via an empty precursor capsid (or ‘procapsid’) built by multiple copies of coat and scaffolding protein and by one dodecameric portal protein. Genome packaging triggers rearrangement of the coat protein and release of scaffolding protein, resulting in dramatic procapsid lattice expansion. Here, we provide structural evidence that the portal protein of the bacteriophage P22 exists in two distinct dodecameric conformations: an asymmetric assembly in the procapsid (PC-portal) that is competent for high affinity binding to the large terminase packaging protein, and a symmetric ring in the mature virion (MV-portal) that has negligible affinity for the packaging motor. Modelling studies indicate the structure of PC-portal is incompatible with DNA coaxially spooled around the portal vertex, suggesting that newly packaged DNA triggers the switch from PC- to MV-conformation. Thus, we propose the signal for termination of ‘Headful Packaging’ is a DNA-dependent symmetrization of portal protein.

  8. Ceramic ball grid array package stress analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, S. H. B. S.; Aziz, M. H. A.; Ong, N. R.; Sauli, Z.; Alcain, J. B.; Retnasamy, V.

    2017-09-01

    The ball grid array (BGA), a form of chip scale package (CSP), was developed as one of the most advanced surface mount devices, which may be assembled by an ordinary surface ball bumps are used instead of plated nickel and gold (Ni/Au) bumps. Assembly and reliability of the BGA's printed circuit board (PCB), which is soldered by conventional surface mount technology is considered in this study. The Ceramic Ball Grid Array (CBGA) is a rectangular ceramic package or square-shaped that will use the solder ball for external electrical connections instead of leads or wire for connections. The solder balls will be arranged in an array or grid at the bottom of the ceramic package body. In this study, ANSYS software is used to investigate the stress on the package for 2 balls and 4 balls of the CBGA package with the various force range of 1-3 Newton applied to the top of the die, top of the substrate and side of the substrate. The highest maximum stress was analyzed and the maximum equivalent stress was observed on the solder ball and the die. From the simulation result, the CBGA package with less solder balls experience higher stress compared to the package with many solder balls. Therefore, less number of solder ball on the CBGA package results higher stress and critically affect the reliability of the solder balls itself, substrate and die which can lead to the solder crack and also die crack.

  9. Examination of shipping package 9975-04985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-01

    Package 9975-04985 was examined following the identification of several unexpected conditions during surveillance activities. A heavy layer of corrosion product on the shield and the shield outer diameter being larger that allowed by drawing tolerances contributed to a very tight fit between the upper fiberboard assembly and shield. The average corrosion rate for the shield is estimated to be 0.0018 inch/year or less, which falls within the bounding rate of 0.002 inch/year that has been previously recommended for these packages. Several apparent foreign objects were noted within the package. One object observed on the air shield was identified as tape. The other objects were comprised of mostly fine fibers from the cane fiberboard. It is postulated that the upper and lower fiberboard assemblies were able to rub against each other due to the upper fiberboard assembly being held tight to the shield, and a few stray cane chips became frayed under vibratory motions.

  10. CH Packaging Operations for High Wattage Waste at LANL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-01-01

    This procedure provides instructions for assembling the following contact-handled (CH) packaging payloads: - Drum payload assembly - Standard Waste Box (SWB) assembly - Ten-Drum Overpack (TDOP) In addition, this procedure also provides operating instructions for the TRUPACT-II CH waste packaging. This document also provides instructions for performing ICV and OCV preshipment leakage rate tests on the following packaging seals, using a nondestructive helium (He) leak test: - ICV upper main O-ring seal - ICV outer vent port plug O-ring seal - OCV upper main O-ring seal - OCV vent port plug O-ring seal

  11. CH Packaging Operations for High Wattage Waste at LANL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-01-01

    This procedure provides instructions for assembling the following contact-handled (CH) packaging payloads: - Drum payload assembly - Standard Waste Box (SWB) assembly - Ten-Drum Overpack (TDOP) In addition, this procedure also provides operating instructions for the TRUPACT-II CH waste packaging. This document also provides instructions for performing ICV and OCV preshipment leakage rate tests on the following packaging seals, using a nondestructive helium (He) leak test: - ICV upper main O-ring seal - ICV outer vent port plug O-ring seal - OCV upper main O-ring seal - OCV vent port plug O-ring seal

  12. CH Packaging Operations for High Wattage Waste at LANL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-01-01

    This procedure provides instructions for assembling the following contact-handled (CH) packaging payloads: - Drum payload assembly - Standard Waste Box (SWB) assembly - Ten-Drum Overpack (TDOP) In addition, this procedure provides operating instructions for the TRUPACT-II CH waste packaging. This document also provides instructions for performing ICV and OCV preshipment leakage rate tests on the following packaging seals, using a nondestructive helium (He) leak test: - ICV upper main O-ring seal - ICV outer vent port plug O-ring seal - OCV upper main O-ring seal - OCV vent port plug O-ring seal

  13. Motor Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Jorn

    2017-01-01

    Motor neurons translate synaptic input from widely distributed premotor networks into patterns of action potentials that orchestrate motor unit force and motor behavior. Intercalated between the CNS and muscles, motor neurons add to and adjust the final motor command. The identity and functional...... in in vitro preparations is far from complete. Nevertheless, a foundation has been provided for pursuing functional significance of intrinsic response properties in motoneurons in vivo during motor behavior at levels from molecules to systems....

  14. Science packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Primary science teachers in Scotland have a new updating method at their disposal with the launch of a package of CDi (Compact Discs Interactive) materials developed by the BBC and the Scottish Office. These were a response to the claim that many primary teachers felt they had been inadequately trained in science and lacked the confidence to teach it properly. Consequently they felt the need for more in-service training to equip them with the personal understanding required. The pack contains five disks and a printed user's guide divided up as follows: disk 1 Investigations; disk 2 Developing understanding; disks 3,4,5 Primary Science staff development videos. It was produced by the Scottish Interactive Technology Centre (Moray House Institute) and is available from BBC Education at £149.99 including VAT. Free Internet distribution of science education materials has also begun as part of the Global Schoolhouse (GSH) scheme. The US National Science Teachers' Association (NSTA) and Microsoft Corporation are making available field-tested comprehensive curriculum material including 'Micro-units' on more than 80 topics in biology, chemistry, earth and space science and physics. The latter are the work of the Scope, Sequence and Coordination of High School Science project, which can be found at http://www.gsh.org/NSTA_SSandC/. More information on NSTA can be obtained from its Web site at http://www.nsta.org.

  15. Sequential action of ATPase, ATP, ADP, Pi and dsDNA in procapsid-free system to enlighten mechanism in viral dsDNA packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Chad; Fang, Huaming; Huang, Lisa; Guo, Peixuan

    2012-03-01

    Many cells and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses contain an AAA(+) ATPase that assembles into oligomers, often hexamers, with a central channel. The dsDNA packaging motor of bacteriophage phi29 also contains an ATPase to translocate dsDNA through a dodecameric channel. The motor ATPase has been investigated substantially in the context of the entire procapsid. Here, we report the sequential action between the ATPase and additional motor components. It is suggested that the contact of ATPase to ATP resulted in its conformational change to a higher binding affinity toward dsDNA. It was found that ATP hydrolysis led to the departure of dsDNA from the ATPase/dsDNA complex, an action that is speculated to push dsDNA to pass the connector channel. Our results suggest that dsDNA packaging goes through a combined effort of both the gp16 ATPase for pushing and the channel as a one-way valve to control the dsDNA translocation direction. Many packaging models have previously been proposed, and the packaging mechanism has been contingent upon the number of nucleotides packaged per ATP relative to the 10.5 bp per helical turn for B-type dsDNA. Both 2 and 2.5 bp per ATP have been used to argue for four, five or six discrete steps of dsDNA translocation. Combination of the two distinct roles of gp16 and connector renews the perception of previous dsDNA packaging energy calculations and provides insight into the discrepancy between 2 and 2.5 bp per ATP.

  16. Large transport packages for decommissioning waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, M.S.T.

    1988-08-01

    This document reports progress on a study of large transport packages for decommissioning waste and is the semi-annual report for the period 1 January - 30 June 1988. The main tasks performed during the period related to the assembly of package design criteria ie those aspects of manufacture, handling, storage, transport and disposal which impose constraints on design. This work was synthesised into a design specification for packages which formed the conclusion of that task and was the entry into the final task - the development of package design concepts. The design specifications, which concentrated on the Industrial Package category of the IAEA Transport Regulations, has been interpreted for the two main concepts (a) a self-shielded package disposed of in its entirety and (b) a package with returnable shielding. Preliminary information has been prepared on the cost of providing the package as well as transport to a repository and disposal. There is considerable uncertainty about the cost of disposal and variations of over a factor of 10 are possible. Under these circumstances there is merit in choosing a design concept which is relatively insensitive to disposal cost variations. The initial results indicate that on these grounds the package with returnable shielding is preferred. (author)

  17. SPADE - software package to aid diffraction experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farren, J.; Giltrap, J.W.

    1978-10-01

    A software package is described which enables the DEC PDP-11/03 microcomputer to execute several different X-ray diffraction experiments and other similar experiments where stepper motors are driven and data is gathered and processed in real time. (author)

  18. Waste package performance allocation system study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memory, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The Waste Package Performance Allocation system study was performed in order to provide a technical basis for the selection of the waste package period of substantially complete containment and its resultant contribution to the overall total system performance. This study began with a reference case based on the current Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) baseline design and added a number of alternative designs. The waste package designs were selected from the designs being considered in detail during Advanced Conceptual Design (ACD). The waste packages considered were multi-barrier packages with a 0.95 cm Alloy 825 inner barrier and a 10, 20, or 45 cm thick carbon steel outer barrier. The waste package capacities varied from 6 to 12 to 21 Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel assemblies. The vertical borehole and in-drift emplacement modes were also considered, as were thermal loadings of 25, 57, and 114 kW/acre. The repository cost analysis indicated that the 21 PWR in-drift emplacement mode option with the 10 cm and 20 cm outer barrier thicknesses are the least expensive and that the 12 PWR in-drift case has approximately the same cost as the 6 PWR vertical borehole. It was also found that the cost increase from the 10 cm outer barrier waste package to the 20 cm waste package was less per centimeter than the increase from the 20 cm outer barrier waste package to the 45 cm outer barrier waste package. However, the repository cost was nearly linear with the outer barrier thickness for the 21 PWR in-drift case. Finally, corrosion rate estimates are provided and the relationship of repository cost versus waste package lifetime is discussed as is cumulative radionuclide release from the waste package and to the accessible environment for time periods of 10,000 years and 100,000 years

  19. Development of fresh fuel packaging for ATR demonstration reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurakami, J.; Kurita, I.

    1993-01-01

    Related to development of the demonstration advanced thermal reactor, it is necessary and important to develop transport packaging which is used for transporting fresh fuel assemblies. Therefore, the packaging is now being developed in Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). Currently, PNC is fabricating two prototype packagings based on the final design, and land cruising and vibration tests, handling performance tests and prototype packaging tests will be executed with prototype packagings in order to experimentally confirm the soundness of packaging and its contents and the propriety of design technique. This paper describes the summary of general specifications and structures of this packaging and the summary of preliminary safety analysis of package. (J.P.N.)

  20. Assessment of microelectronics packaging for high temperature, high reliability applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uribe, F.

    1997-04-01

    This report details characterization and development activities in electronic packaging for high temperature applications. This project was conducted through a Department of Energy sponsored Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between Sandia National Laboratories and General Motors. Even though the target application of this collaborative effort is an automotive electronic throttle control system which would be located in the engine compartment, results of this work are directly applicable to Sandia`s national security mission. The component count associated with the throttle control dictates the use of high density packaging not offered by conventional surface mount. An enabling packaging technology was selected and thermal models defined which characterized the thermal and mechanical response of the throttle control module. These models were used to optimize thick film multichip module design, characterize the thermal signatures of the electronic components inside the module, and to determine the temperature field and resulting thermal stresses under conditions that may be encountered during the operational life of the throttle control module. Because the need to use unpackaged devices limits the level of testing that can be performed either at the wafer level or as individual dice, an approach to assure a high level of reliability of the unpackaged components was formulated. Component assembly and interconnect technologies were also evaluated and characterized for high temperature applications. Electrical, mechanical and chemical characterizations of enabling die and component attach technologies were performed. Additionally, studies were conducted to assess the performance and reliability of gold and aluminum wire bonding to thick film conductor inks. Kinetic models were developed and validated to estimate wire bond reliability.

  1. Coupling with concentric contact around motor shaft for line start synchronous motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melfi, Michael J.; Burdeshaw, Galen E.

    2017-10-03

    A method comprises providing a line-start synchronous motor. The motor has a stator, a rotor core disposed within the stator, and a motor shaft. In accordance with a step of the method, a coupling for coupling a load to the motor is provided. The coupling has a motor shaft attachment portion configured to provide substantially concentric contact around the shaft at the end of the motor shaft. The coupling has a load attachment portion configured to operatively connect to a load. In accordance with a step of the method, a load is coupled to the motor with the coupling, and driven from start to at least near synchronous speed during steady state operation of the motor with a load coupled thereto. The motor shaft attachment portion may comprise a bushing assembly with matching and opposed tapered surfaces that cooperate to secure the motor shaft attachment portion around the motor shaft.

  2. New package systems for EDF recycling policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leboucher, I.; Michels, L.; Hugon, F.C. [COGEMA Logistics (AREVA Group) (France); Penoty, C. [EDF - Electricite de France (France); Froment, A. [COGEMA (AREVA Group) (France)

    2004-07-01

    Since the beginning of the nineties, EDF (Electricite France) has been carrying out a policy towards increasing burn-up. As a consequence and to keep energetic performances of the MOX (Mixed OXide uranium and plutonium) fresh fuel assemblies at parity with UO2 fuel, the concentration in plutonium increased up to 7.1%, soon up to 8.65% and even more. To take into account the increased dose rate and the increased thermal power of these MOX fresh fuels in the transportation system, COGEMA LOGISTICS designed, manufactured and licensed the MX8 package to replace the previous packaging. Simultaneously new high-secured transport system was developed. Due to the capacity of the reactor pool, the spent fuel assemblies must be evacuated with a short cooling time and high residual power. Because of the neutron source of these future MOX spent fuel assemblies, the TNa12/2 packaging, which has been in operation since 1980's to transport UO2 or MOX spent fuel to COGEMA La Hague, from EDF, other European and Japanese NPP lacks flexibility. COGEMA LOGISTICS is designing a new cask (TN trademark 112) to transport the future EDF MOX spent fuel assemblies. The TN trademark 112 has to comply with the 1996 edition of the IAEA transport regulations and with the transport and handling equipment presently used for the transport of spent fuel in France. It can be loaded with 12 assemblies, either MOX or UO2. This paper gives a description of two packages belonging to the new generation: - one for fresh MOX fuel assemblies transportation, used on EDF's power plants for MOX reloads, - one for spent MOX fuel assemblies transportation, presently under development with a first transport planned for mid-2007.

  3. New package systems for EDF recycling policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leboucher, I.; Michels, L.; Hugon, F.C.; Penoty, C.; Froment, A.

    2004-01-01

    Since the beginning of the nineties, EDF (Electricite France) has been carrying out a policy towards increasing burn-up. As a consequence and to keep energetic performances of the MOX (Mixed OXide uranium and plutonium) fresh fuel assemblies at parity with UO2 fuel, the concentration in plutonium increased up to 7.1%, soon up to 8.65% and even more. To take into account the increased dose rate and the increased thermal power of these MOX fresh fuels in the transportation system, COGEMA LOGISTICS designed, manufactured and licensed the MX8 package to replace the previous packaging. Simultaneously new high-secured transport system was developed. Due to the capacity of the reactor pool, the spent fuel assemblies must be evacuated with a short cooling time and high residual power. Because of the neutron source of these future MOX spent fuel assemblies, the TN 12/2 packaging, which has been in operation since 1980's to transport UO2 or MOX spent fuel to COGEMA La Hague, from EDF, other European and Japanese NPP lacks flexibility. COGEMA LOGISTICS is designing a new cask (TN trademark 112) to transport the future EDF MOX spent fuel assemblies. The TN trademark 112 has to comply with the 1996 edition of the IAEA transport regulations and with the transport and handling equipment presently used for the transport of spent fuel in France. It can be loaded with 12 assemblies, either MOX or UO2. This paper gives a description of two packages belonging to the new generation: - one for fresh MOX fuel assemblies transportation, used on EDF's power plants for MOX reloads, - one for spent MOX fuel assemblies transportation, presently under development with a first transport planned for mid-2007

  4. A data base processor semantics specification package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishwick, P. A.

    1983-01-01

    A Semantics Specification Package (DBPSSP) for the Intel Data Base Processor (DBP) is defined. DBPSSP serves as a collection of cross assembly tools that allow the analyst to assemble request blocks on the host computer for passage to the DBP. The assembly tools discussed in this report may be effectively used in conjunction with a DBP compatible data communications protocol to form a query processor, precompiler, or file management system for the database processor. The source modules representing the components of DBPSSP are fully commented and included.

  5. Visualization of uncorrelated, tandem symmetry mismatches in the internal genome packaging apparatus of bacteriophage T7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fei; Liu, Zheng; Vago, Frank; Ren, Yue; Wu, Weimin; Wright, Elena T; Serwer, Philip; Jiang, Wen

    2013-04-23

    Motor-driven packaging of a dsDNA genome into a preformed protein capsid through a unique portal vertex is essential in the life cycle of a large number of dsDNA viruses. We have used single-particle electron cryomicroscopy to study the multilayer structure of the portal vertex of the bacteriophage T7 procapsid, the recipient of T7 DNA in packaging. A focused asymmetric reconstruction method was developed and applied to selectively resolve neighboring pairs of symmetry-mismatched layers of the portal vertex. However, structural features in all layers of the multilayer portal vertex could not be resolved simultaneously. Our results imply that layers with mismatched symmetries can join together in several different relative orientations, and that orientations at different interfaces assort independently to produce structural isomers, a process that we call combinatorial assembly isomerism. This isomerism explains rotational smearing in previously reported asymmetric reconstructions of the portal vertex of T7 and other bacteriophages. Combinatorial assembly isomerism may represent a new regime of structural biology in which globally varying structures assemble from a common set of components. Our reconstructions collectively validate previously proposed symmetries, compositions, and sequential order of T7 portal vertex layers, resolving in tandem the 5-fold gene product 10 (gp10) shell, 12-fold gp8 portal ring, and an internal core stack consisting of 12-fold gp14 adaptor ring, 8-fold bowl-shaped gp15, and 4-fold gp16 tip. We also found a small tilt of the core stack relative to the icosahedral fivefold axis and propose that this tilt assists DNA spooling without tangling during packaging.

  6. Introduction of SCIENCE code package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Haoliang; Li Jinggang; Zhu Ya'nan; Bai Ning

    2012-01-01

    The SCIENCE code package is a set of neutronics tools based on 2D assembly calculations and 3D core calculations. It is made up of APOLLO2F, SMART and SQUALE and used to perform the nuclear design and loading pattern analysis for the reactors on operation or under construction of China Guangdong Nuclear Power Group. The purpose of paper is to briefly present the physical and numerical models used in each computation codes of the SCIENCE code pack age, including the description of the general structure of the code package, the coupling relationship of APOLLO2-F transport lattice code and SMART core nodal code, and the SQUALE code used for processing the core maps. (authors)

  7. Photonic hybrid assembly through flexible waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wörhoff, K.; Prak, A.; Postma, F.; Leinse, A.; Wu, K.; Peters, T. J.; Tichem, M.; Amaning-Appiah, B.; Renukappa, V.; Vollrath, G.; Balcells-Ventura, J.; Uhlig, P.; Seyfried, M.; Rose, D.; Santos, R.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Flintham, B.; Wale, M.; Robbins, D.

    2016-01-01

    Fully automated, high precision, cost-effective assembly technology for photonic packages remains one of the main challenges in photonic component manufacturing. Next to the cost aspect the most demanding assembly task for multiport photonic integrated circuits (PICs) is the high-precision (±0.1 μm)

  8. Photonic hybrid assembly through flexible waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wörhoff, Kerstin; Prak, Albert; postma, F; Leinse, A; Wu, K.; Peters, T.J.; Tichem, M.; Amaning-Appiah, B.; Renukappa, V.; Vollrath, G.; Balcells-Ventura, J.; Uhlig, P.; Seyfried, M.; Rose, D.; Santos, Raquel; Leijtens, XJM; Flintham, B.; Wale, M.; Robbins, D.; Vivien, Laurent; Pavesi, Lorenzo; Pelli, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Fully automated, high precision, cost-effective assembly technology for photonic packages remains one of the main challenges in photonic component manufacturing. Next to the cost aspect the most demanding assembly task for multiport photonic integrated circuits (PICs) is the high-precision (±0.1

  9. Repulsive DNA-DNA interactions accelerate viral DNA packaging in phage Phi29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Nicholas; delToro, Damian; Grimes, Shelley; Jardine, Paul J; Smith, Douglas E

    2014-06-20

    We use optical tweezers to study the effect of attractive versus repulsive DNA-DNA interactions on motor-driven viral packaging. Screening of repulsive interactions accelerates packaging, but induction of attractive interactions by spermidine(3+) causes heterogeneous dynamics. Acceleration is observed in a fraction of complexes, but most exhibit slowing and stalling, suggesting that attractive interactions promote nonequilibrium DNA conformations that impede the motor. Thus, repulsive interactions facilitate packaging despite increasing the energy of the theoretical optimum spooled DNA conformation.

  10. Waste package performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes work undertaken to assess the life-expectancy and post-failure nuclide release behavior of high-level and waste packages in a geologic repository. The work involved integrating models of individual phenomena (such as heat transfer, corrosion, package deformation, and nuclide transport) and using existing data to make estimates of post-emplacement behavior of waste packages. A package performance assessment code was developed to predict time to package failure in a flooded repository and subsequent transport of nuclides out of the leaking package. The model has been used to evaluate preliminary package designs. The results indicate, that within the limitation of model assumptions and data base, packages lasting a few hundreds of years could be developed. Very long lived packages may be possible but more comprehensive data are needed to confirm this

  11. Bacteriophage Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia A. Aksyuk

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophages have been a model system to study assembly processes for over half a century. Formation of infectious phage particles involves specific protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions, as well as large conformational changes of assembly precursors. The sequence and molecular mechanisms of phage assembly have been elucidated by a variety of methods. Differences and similarities of assembly processes in several different groups of bacteriophages are discussed in this review. The general principles of phage assembly are applicable to many macromolecular complexes.

  12. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Masafumi.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent scattering of gaseous fission products released from fuel assemblies stored in an fbr type reactor. Constitution; A cap provided with means capable of storing gas is adapted to amount to the assembly handling head, for example, by way of threading in a storage rack of spent fuel assemblies consisting of a bottom plate, a top plate and an assembly support mechanism. By previously eliminating the gas inside of the assembly and the cap in the storage rack, gaseous fission products upon loading, if released from fuel rods during storage, are stored in the cap and do not scatter in the storage rack. (Horiuchi, T.)

  13. Sequence assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheibye-Alsing, Karsten; Hoffmann, S.; Frankel, Annett Maria

    2009-01-01

    Despite the rapidly increasing number of sequenced and re-sequenced genomes, many issues regarding the computational assembly of large-scale sequencing data have remain unresolved. Computational assembly is crucial in large genome projects as well for the evolving high-throughput technologies and...... in genomic DNA, highly expressed genes and alternative transcripts in EST sequences. We summarize existing comparisons of different assemblers and provide a detailed descriptions and directions for download of assembly programs at: http://genome.ku.dk/resources/assembly/methods.html....

  14. Packaging for Food Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilwell, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Most of the key areas of concern in packaging the three principle food forms for the space station were covered. It can be generally concluded that there are no significant voids in packaging materials availability or in current packaging technology. However, it must also be concluded that the process by which packaging decisions are made for the space station feeding program will be very synergistic. Packaging selection will depend heavily on the preparation mechanics, the preferred presentation and the achievable disposal systems. It will be important that packaging be considered as an integral part of each decision as these systems are developed.

  15. Waste Package Lifting Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H. Marr

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation

  16. Merganser Download Package

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data download package contains an Esri 10.0 MXD, file geodatabase and copy of this FGDC metadata record. The data in this package are used in support of the...

  17. Creative Thinking Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Clive

    1972-01-01

    A look at the latest package from a British managment training organization, which explains and demonstrates creative thinking techniques, including brainstorming. The package, designed for groups of twelve or more, consists of tapes, visuals, and associated exercises. (Editor/JB)

  18. DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION OF SHIPPING PACKAGE 9975-06100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W.

    2014-11-07

    Destructive and non-destructive examinations have been performed on specified components of shipping package 9975-06100. This package was selected for examination based on several characteristics: - This was the first destructively examined package in which the fiberboard assembly was fabricated from softwood fiberboard. - The package contained a relatively high heat load to contribute to internal temperature, which is a key environmental factor for fiberboard degradation. - The package has been stored in the middle or top of a storage array since its receipt in K- Area, positions that would contribute to increased service temperatures. No significant changes were observed for attributes that were measured during both field surveillance and destructive examination. Except for the axial gap, all observations and test results met identified criteria, or were collected for information and trending purposes. The axial gap met the 1 inch maximum criterion during field surveillance, but was just over the criterion during SRNL measurements. When re-measured at a later date, it again met the criterion. The bottom of the lower fiberboard assembly and the drum interior had two small stains at matching locations, suggestive of water intrusion. However, the fiberboard assembly did not contain any current evidence of excess moisture. No evidence of a degraded condition was found in this package. Despite exposure to the elevated temperatures of this higher-then-average wattage package, properties of the fiberboard and O-rings are consistent with those of new packages.

  19. Packaging Printing Today

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislav Bolanča; Igor Majnarić; Kristijan Golubović

    2015-01-01

    Printing packaging covers today about 50% of all the printing products. Among the printing products there are printing on labels, printing on flexible packaging, printing on folding boxes, printing on the boxes of corrugated board, printing on glass packaging, synthetic and metal ones. The mentioned packaging are printed in flexo printing technique, offset printing technique, intaglio halftone process, silk – screen printing, ink ball printing, digital printing and hybrid printing process. T...

  20. Trends in Food Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Dana B.

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses developments in food packaging, processing, and preservation techniques in terms of packaging materials, technologies, consumer benefits, and current and potential food product applications. Covers implications due to consumer life-style changes, cost-effectiveness of packaging materials, and the ecological impact of…

  1. Recent improvements in program packages SHUFFLE and FAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavic, S.; Kromar, M.; Zefran, B.

    1996-01-01

    Program packages SHUFFLE and FAR were developed at 'Jozef Stefan' Institute to monitor all changes of fuel assemblies during a nuclear power plant operation. Both packages were written in the Clipper language which is suitable for data base applications and allows straightforward communications with other available data bases. Packages currently run on PC machines under DOS operating system. Both packages are in routine use at a nuclear power plant Krsko, but they can be applied to any PWR power plant without significant modification. Experiences obtained from the utility in past few years triggered several improvements and new features. (author)

  2. Reliability of industrial packaging for microsystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reus, Roger De; Christensen, Carsten; Weichel, Steen

    1998-01-01

    . Protective coatings of amorphous silicon carbide and tantalum oxide are suitable candidates with etch rates below 0.1 Angstrom/h in aqueous solutions with pH II at temperatures up to 140 degrees C. Si-Ta-N films exhibit etch rates around 1 Angstrom/h. Parylene C coatings did not etch but peeled off after......Packaging concepts for silicon-based micromachined sensors exposed to harsh environments are explored. By exposing the sensors directly to the media and applying protection at the wafer level the packaging and assembly will be simplified as compared to conventional methods of fabrication...

  3. SCALE criticality safety verification and validation package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, S.M.; Emmett, M.B.; Jordan, W.C.

    1998-01-01

    Verification and validation (V and V) are essential elements of software quality assurance (QA) for computer codes that are used for performing scientific calculations. V and V provides a means to ensure the reliability and accuracy of such software. As part of the SCALE QA and V and V plans, a general V and V package for the SCALE criticality safety codes has been assembled, tested and documented. The SCALE criticality safety V and V package is being made available to SCALE users through the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC) to assist them in performing adequate V and V for their SCALE applications

  4. Active Packaging Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Bastarrachea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Active food packaging involves the packaging of foods with materials that provide an enhanced functionality, such as antimicrobial, antioxidant or biocatalytic functions. This can be achieved through the incorporation of active compounds into the matrix of the commonly used packaging materials, or by the application of coatings with the corresponding functionality through surface modification. The latter option offers the advantage of preserving the packaging materials’ bulk properties nearly intact. Herein, different coating technologies like embedding for controlled release, immobilization, layer-by-layer deposition, and photografting are explained and their potential application for active food packaging is explored and discussed.

  5. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing 'Short' 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing 'Tall' 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.7, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed.

  6. High aspect ratio, remote controlled pumping assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steve B.; Milanovich, Fred P.

    1995-01-01

    A miniature dual syringe-type pump assembly which has a high aspect ratio and which is remotely controlled, for use such as in a small diameter penetrometer cone or well packer used in water contamination applications. The pump assembly may be used to supply and remove a reagent to a water contamination sensor, for example, and includes a motor, gearhead and motor encoder assembly for turning a drive screw for an actuator which provides pushing on one syringe and pulling on the other syringe for injecting new reagent and withdrawing used reagent from an associated sensor.

  7. The Model of Brushless Dc Motor Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelijus Pitrėnas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The research considered the operation, control, mathematical and simulation models of BLDC motor. A simplified idealized simulation model was designed and tested using Matlab Simulink software package. The simulation model uses Hall effect sensor signals for determining the rotor position. Simulation was done for Maxon, EC-4 pole 22 BL A series motor. The obtained model testing results deviate from the data supplied by the motor manufacturer by as little as 0.2–10.6%; consequently, the implemented model is suitable for BLDC motor control study and research.Article in Lithuanian

  8. Severities of transportation accidents involving large packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, A.W.; Foley, J.T. Jr.; Hartman, W.F.; Larson, D.W.

    1978-05-01

    The study was undertaken to define in a quantitative nonjudgmental technical manner the abnormal environments to which a large package (total weight over 2 tons) would be subjected as the result of a transportation accident. Because of this package weight, air shipment was not considered as a normal transportation mode and was not included in the study. The abnormal transportation environments for shipment by motor carrier and train were determined and quantified. In all cases the package was assumed to be transported on an open flat-bed truck or an open flat-bed railcar. In an earlier study, SLA-74-0001, the small-package environments were investigated. A third transportation study, related to the abnormal environment involving waterways transportation, is now under way at Sandia Laboratories and should complete the description of abnormal transportation environments. Five abnormal environments were defined and investigated, i.e., fire, impact, crush, immersion, and puncture. The primary interest of the study was directed toward the type of large package used to transport radioactive materials; however, the findings are not limited to this type of package but can be applied to a much larger class of material shipping containers.

  9. Severities of transportation accidents involving large packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, A.W.; Foley, J.T. Jr.; Hartman, W.F.; Larson, D.W.

    1978-05-01

    The study was undertaken to define in a quantitative nonjudgmental technical manner the abnormal environments to which a large package (total weight over 2 tons) would be subjected as the result of a transportation accident. Because of this package weight, air shipment was not considered as a normal transportation mode and was not included in the study. The abnormal transportation environments for shipment by motor carrier and train were determined and quantified. In all cases the package was assumed to be transported on an open flat-bed truck or an open flat-bed railcar. In an earlier study, SLA-74-0001, the small-package environments were investigated. A third transportation study, related to the abnormal environment involving waterways transportation, is now under way at Sandia Laboratories and should complete the description of abnormal transportation environments. Five abnormal environments were defined and investigated, i.e., fire, impact, crush, immersion, and puncture. The primary interest of the study was directed toward the type of large package used to transport radioactive materials; however, the findings are not limited to this type of package but can be applied to a much larger class of material shipping containers

  10. Advancements in meat packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillin, Kenneth W

    2017-10-01

    Packaging of meat provides the same or similar benefits for raw chilled and processed meats as other types of food packaging. Although air-permeable packaging is most prevalent for raw chilled red meat, vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging offer longer shelf life. The major advancements in meat packaging have been in the widely used plastic polymers while biobased materials and their integration into composite packaging are receiving much attention for functionality and sustainability. At this time, active and intelligent packaging are not widely used for antioxidant, antimicrobial, and other functions to stabilize and enhance meat properties although many options are being developed and investigated. The advances being made in nanotechnology will be incorporated into food packaging and presumably into meat packaging when appropriate and useful. Intelligent packaging using sensors for transmission of desired information and prompting of subsequent changes in packaging materials, environments or the products to maintain safety and quality are still in developmental stages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Edible packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Krochta, John M

    2010-01-01

    Research groups and the food and pharmaceutical industries recognize edible packaging as a useful alternative or addition to conventional packaging to reduce waste and to create novel applications for improving product stability, quality, safety, variety, and convenience for consumers. Recent studies have explored the ability of biopolymer-based food packaging materials to carry and control-release active compounds. As diverse edible packaging materials derived from various by-products or waste from food industry are being developed, the dry thermoplastic process is advancing rapidly as a feasible commercial edible packaging manufacturing process. The employment of nanocomposite concepts to edible packaging materials promises to improve barrier and mechanical properties and facilitate effective incorporation of bioactive ingredients and other designed functions. In addition to the need for a more fundamental understanding to enable design to desired specifications, edible packaging has to overcome challenges such as regulatory requirements, consumer acceptance, and scaling-up research concepts to commercial applications.

  12. Formation of a Multiple Protein Complex on the Adenovirus Packaging Sequence by the IVa2 Protein▿

    OpenAIRE

    Tyler, Ryan E.; Ewing, Sean G.; Imperiale, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    During adenovirus virion assembly, the packaging sequence mediates the encapsidation of the viral genome. This sequence is composed of seven functional units, termed A repeats. Recent evidence suggests that the adenovirus IVa2 protein binds the packaging sequence and is involved in packaging of the genome. Study of the IVa2-packaging sequence interaction has been hindered by difficulty in purifying the protein produced in virus-infected cells or by recombinant techniques. We report the first ...

  13. The electric motor handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, R.W.; Feltham, P. (eds.)

    2004-05-01

    This handbook outlines the important role that electric motors play in modern society. It covers the field of motor applications from various motor types to their use and repair. It also presents practical applications of electric motors and methods on motor efficiency. More than half of all electricity generated, and 75 per cent of all industrial electricity consumption is consumed by electric motors. Electrical personnel must be aware of all factors involved in electric motors in order to choose and apply the appropriate size of electric motor. These factors include efficiency, sizing and proper application. The efficient use and maximum life expectancy of electric motors depends on proper motor protection, control and maintenance. This handbook includes articles from leading experts on electric motors in modern electrical systems. The content includes: design considerations; proper electric motor sizing techniques; optimal electric motor application; electric motor protection technology; electric motor control principles; electric motor maintenance and troubleshooting; induction electric motors; electric motor bearing currents; electric motor bearing lubrication; electromagnetism; electric motor enclosures; electric motor testing; electric motor repair; DC electric motor; electric motor starters; electric motor brushes; industrial electric motors; electric motor diagrams; AC electric motors; electric motor wiring; electric motor service; electric motor rewinding; electric motor winding; diagram of electric motor wiring; electric motor kit; and, troubleshooting electric motors. A directory of motor manufacturers and suppliers was also included. refs., tabs., figs.

  14. Efficient flow and human centred assembly by an interactive approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikhout, S.M.; Helmes, R.B.M.; Rhijn, J.W. van

    2004-01-01

    Due to fluctuations on the market, manufacturing of many product variations, and wish for fine-tuning between production and assembly a fan and motor manufacturing company wanted to improve their assembly line. The aims were efficient flow and human centered assembly in the new product line.

  15. Controlling Precision Stepper Motors in Flight Using (Almost) No Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, David

    2010-01-01

    This concept allows control of high-performance stepper motors with minimal parts count and minimal flight software complexity. Although it uses a small number of common flight-qualified parts and simple control algorithms, it is capable enough to meet demanding system requirements. Its programmable nature makes it trivial to implement changes to control algorithms both during integration & test and in flight. Enhancements such as microstepping, half stepping, back-emf compensation, and jitter reduction can be tailored to the requirements of a large variety of stepper motor based applications including filter wheels, focus mechanisms, antenna tracking subsystems, pointing and mobility. The hardware design (using an H-bridge motor controller IC) was adapted from JPL's MER mission, still operating on Mars. This concept has been fully developed and incorporated into the MCS instrument on MRO, currently operating in Mars orbit. It has been incorporated into the filter wheel mechanism and linear stage (focus) mechanism for the AMT instrument. On MCS/MRO, two of these circuits control the elevation and azimuth of the MCS telescope/radiometer assembly, allowing the instrument to continuously monitor the limb of the Martian atmosphere. Implementation on MCS/MRO resulted in a 4:1 reduction in the volume and mass required for the motor driver electronics (100:25 square inches of PCB space), producing a very compact instrument. In fact, all of the electronics for the MCS instrument are packaged within the movable instrument structure. It also saved approximately 3 Watts of power. Most importantly, the design enabled MCS to meet very its stringent maximum allowable torque disturbance requirements.

  16. Lithium niobate packaging challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, E.J.; Holmes, R.J.; Jander, R.B.; Schelling, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    The use of lithium niobate integrated optic devices outside of the research laboratory is predicated on the development of a sound packaging method. The authors present a discussion of the many issues that face the development of a viable, robust packaging technology. The authors emphasize the interaction of lithium niobate's physical properties with available packaging materials and technologies. The broad range of properties (i.e. electro-optic, piezo-electric, pyro-electric, photorefractive...) that make lithium niobate an interesting material in many device applications also make it a packaging challenge. The package design, materials and packaging technologies must isolate the device from the environment so that lithium niobate's properties do not adversely affect the device performance

  17. Packaged die heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberger, Richard; Ohme, Bruce Walker; Jensen, Ronald J.

    2011-06-21

    A heater for heating packaged die for burn-in and heat testing is described. The heater may be a ceramic-type heater with a metal filament. The heater may be incorporated into the integrated circuit package as an additional ceramic layer of the package, or may be an external heater placed in contact with the package to heat the die. Many different types of integrated circuit packages may be accommodated. The method provides increased energy efficiency for heating the die while reducing temperature stresses on testing equipment. The method allows the use of multiple heaters to heat die to different temperatures. Faulty die may be heated to weaken die attach material to facilitate removal of the die. The heater filament or a separate temperature thermistor located in the package may be used to accurately measure die temperature.

  18. Packaging for Sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Helen; Fitzpatrick, Leanne

    2012-01-01

    The packaging industry is under pressure from regulators, customers and other stakeholders to improve packaging’s sustainability by reducing its environmental and societal impacts. This is a considerable challenge because of the complex interactions between products and their packaging, and the many roles that packaging plays in the supply chain. Packaging for Sustainability is a concise and readable handbook for practitioners who are trying to implement sustainability strategies for packaging. Industry case studies are used throughout the book to illustrate possible applications and scenarios. Packaging for Sustainability draws on the expertise of researchers and industry practitioners to provide information on business benefits, environmental issues and priorities, environmental evaluation tools, design for environment, marketing strategies, and challenges for the future.

  19. Packaging radioactive wastes for geologic disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benton, H.A.

    1996-01-01

    The M ampersand O contractor for the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management is developing designs of waste packages that will contain the spent nuclear fuel assemblies from commercial and Navy reactor plants and various civilian and government research reactor plants, as well as high-level wastes vitrified in glass. The safe and cost effective disposal of the large and growing stockpile of nuclear waste is of national concern and has generated political and technical debate. This paper addresses the technical aspects of disposing of these wastes in large and robust waste packages. The paper discusses the evolution of waste package design and describes the current concepts. In addition, the engineering and regulatory issues that have governed the development are summarized and the expected performance in meeting the requirements are discussed

  20. MARS software package status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhgirej, I.L.; Talanov, V.V.

    2000-01-01

    The MARS software package is intended for simulating the nuclear-electromagnetic cascades and the secondary neutrons and muons transport in the heterogeneous medium of arbitrary complexity in the magnetic fields presence. The inclusive approach to describing the particle production in the nuclear and electromagnetic interactions and by the unstable particles decay is realized in the package. The MARS software package was actively applied for solving various radiation physical problems [ru

  1. Reliability of CCGA and PBGA assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    2005-01-01

    Area Array Packages (AAPs) with 1.27 mm pitch have been the packages of the choice for commercial applications; they are now started to be implemented for use in military and aerospace applications. Thermal cycling characteristics of plastic BGA (PBGA) and CSP assemblies, because of their wide usage for commercial applications, have been extensively reported in literature. Thermal cycling represents the on-off environmental condition for most electronic products and therefore is a key factor that defines reliability.

  2. User friendly packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    Most consumers have experienced occasional problems with opening packaging. Tomato sauce from the tinned mackerel splattered all over the kitchen counter, the unrelenting pickle jar lid, and the package of sliced ham that cannot be opened without a knife or a pair of scissors. The research project...... “User-friendly Packaging” aims to create a platform for developing more user-friendly packaging. One intended outcome of the project is a guideline that industry can use in development efforts. The project also points the way for more extended collaboration between companies and design researchers. How...... can design research help industry in packaging innovation?...

  3. The ZOOM minimization package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischler, Mark S.; Sachs, D.

    2004-01-01

    A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete

  4. Plasma physics plotting package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyman, D.H.

    1981-02-01

    We describe a package of plotting routines that do up to six two- or three-dimensional plots on a frame with minimal loss of resolution. The package now runs on a PDP-10 with PLOT-10 TCS primitives and on a Control Data Corporation-7600 and a Cray-1 with TV80LIB primitives on the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center network. The package is portable to other graphics systems because only the primitive plot calls are used from the underlying system's graphics package

  5. Active food packaging technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Murat; Floros, John D

    2004-01-01

    Active packaging technologies offer new opportunities for the food industry, in the preservation of foods. Important active packaging systems currently known to date, including oxygen scavengers, carbon dioxide emitters/absorbers, moisture absorbers, ethylene absorbers, ethanol emitters, flavor releasing/absorbing systems, time-temperature indicators, and antimicrobial containing films, are reviewed. The principle of operation of each active system is briefly explained. Recent technological advances in active packaging are discussed, and food related applications are presented. The effects of active packaging systems on food quality and safety are cited.

  6. Reciprocating linear motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldowsky, Michael P. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A reciprocating linear motor is formed with a pair of ring-shaped permanent magnets having opposite radial polarizations, held axially apart by a nonmagnetic yoke, which serves as an axially displaceable armature assembly. A pair of annularly wound coils having axial lengths which differ from the axial lengths of the permanent magnets are serially coupled together in mutual opposition and positioned with an outer cylindrical core in axial symmetry about the armature assembly. One embodiment includes a second pair of annularly wound coils serially coupled together in mutual opposition and an inner cylindrical core positioned in axial symmetry inside the armature radially opposite to the first pair of coils. Application of a potential difference across a serial connection of the two pairs of coils creates a current flow perpendicular to the magnetic field created by the armature magnets, thereby causing limited linear displacement of the magnets relative to the coils.

  7. Parkinson's Disease Subtypes Identified from Cluster Analysis of Motor and Non-motor Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Jesse; Chaudhuri, Kallol R; Bielza, Concha; de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesus; Larrañaga, Pedro; Martinez-Martin, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is now considered a complex, multi-peptide, central, and peripheral nervous system disorder with considerable clinical heterogeneity. Non-motor symptoms play a key role in the trajectory of Parkinson's disease, from prodromal premotor to end stages. To understand the clinical heterogeneity of Parkinson's disease, this study used cluster analysis to search for subtypes from a large, multi-center, international, and well-characterized cohort of Parkinson's disease patients across all motor stages, using a combination of cardinal motor features (bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor, axial signs) and, for the first time, specific validated rater-based non-motor symptom scales. Two independent international cohort studies were used: (a) the validation study of the Non-Motor Symptoms Scale ( n = 411) and (b) baseline data from the global Non-Motor International Longitudinal Study ( n = 540). k -means cluster analyses were performed on the non-motor and motor domains (domains clustering) and the 30 individual non-motor symptoms alone (symptoms clustering), and hierarchical agglomerative clustering was performed to group symptoms together. Four clusters are identified from the domains clustering supporting previous studies: mild, non-motor dominant, motor-dominant, and severe. In addition, six new smaller clusters are identified from the symptoms clustering, each characterized by clinically-relevant non-motor symptoms. The clusters identified in this study present statistical confirmation of the increasingly important role of non-motor symptoms (NMS) in Parkinson's disease heterogeneity and take steps toward subtype-specific treatment packages.

  8. Humidity Data for 9975 Shipping Packages with Softwood Fiberboard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-01-12

    The 9975 surveillance program is developing a technical basis to support extending the storage period of 9975 packages in K-Area Complex beyond the currently approved 15 years. A key element of this effort is developing a better understanding of degradation of the fiberboard assembly under storage conditions. This degradation is influenced greatly by the moisture content of the fiberboard, which is not well characterized on an individual package basis. Direct measurements of humidity and fiberboard moisture content have been made on two test packages with softwood fiberboard and varying internal heat levels from 0 up to 19W. Comparable measurements with cane fiberboard have been reported previously. With an internal heat load, a temperature gradient in the fiberboard assembly leads to varying relative humidity in the air around the fiberboard. However, the absolute humidity tends to remain approximately constant throughout the package, especially at lower heat loads.

  9. Development of gold based solder candidates for flip chip assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chidambaram, Vivek; Hald, John; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2009-01-01

    Flip chip technology is now rapidly replacing the traditional wire bonding interconnection technology in the first level packaging applications due to the miniaturization drive in the microelectronics industry. Flip chip assembly currently involves the use of high lead containing solders...

  10. Motor homopolar

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Muñoz, Agustín

    2007-01-01

    Mostramos la construcción de un modelo de motor homopolar, uno de los más antiguos tipos de motores eléctricos. Se caracterizan porque el campo magnético del imán mantiene siempre la misma polaridad (de ahí su nombre, del griego homos, igual), de modo que, cuando una corriente eléctrica atraviesa el campo magnético, aparece una fuerza que hace girar los elementos no fijados mecánicamente. En el sencillísimo motor homopolar colgado (Schlichting y Ucke 2004), el imán puede girar ...

  11. River Data Package for the 2004 Composite Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Guensch, Gregory R.; Patton, Gregory W.

    2004-08-01

    Beginning in fiscal year 2003, the DOE Richland Operations Office initiated activities, including the development of data packages, to support the 2004 Composite Analysis. The river data package provides calculations of flow and transport in the Columbia River system. This document presents the data assembled to run the river module components for the section of the Columbia River from Vernita Bridge to the confluence with the Yakima River.

  12. CYPROS - Cybernetic Program Packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Tyssø

    1980-10-01

    Full Text Available CYPROS is an interactive program system consisting of a number of special purpose packages for simulation, identification, parameter estimation and control system design. The programming language is standard FORTRAN IV and the system is implemented on a medium size computer system (Nord-10. The system is interactive and program control is obtained by the use of numeric terminals. Output is rapidly examined by extensive use of video colour graphics. The subroutines included in the packages are designed and documented according to standardization rules given by the SCL (Scandinavian Control Library organization. This simplifies the exchange of subroutines throughout the SCL system. Also, this makes the packages attractive for implementation by industrial users. In the simulation package, different integration methods are available and it can be easily used for off-line, as well as real time, simulation problems. The identification package consists of programs for single-input/single-output and multivariablc problems. Both transfer function models and state space models can be handled. Optimal test signals can be designed. The control package consists of programs based on multivariable time domain and frequency domain methods for analysis and design. In addition, there is a package for matrix and time series manipulation. CYPROS has been applied successfully to industrial problems of various kinds, and parts of the system have already been implemented on different computers in industry. This paper will, in some detail, describe the use and the contents of the packages and some examples of application will be discussed.

  13. User friendly packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    Most consumers have experienced occasional problems with opening packaging. Tomato sauce from the tinned mackerel splattered all over the kitchen counter, the unrelenting pickle jar lid, and the package of sliced ham that cannot be opened without a knife or a pair of scissors. The research project...

  14. NRF TRIGA packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, M.D.

    1995-11-01

    Training Reactor Isotopes, General Atomics (TRIGA reg-sign) Reactors are in use at four US Department of Energy (DOE) complex facilities and at least 23 university, commercial, or government facilities. The development of the Neutron Radiography Facility (NRF) TRIGA packaging system began in October 1993. The Hanford Site NRF is being shut down and requires an operationally user-friendly transportation and storage packaging system for removal of the TRIGA fuel elements. The NRF TRIGA packaging system is designed to remotely remove the fuel from the reactor and transport the fuel to interim storage (up to 50 years) on the Hanford Site. The packaging system consists of a cask and an overpack. The overpack is used only for transport and is not necessary for storage. Based upon the cask's small size and light weight, small TRIGA reactors will find it versatile for numerous refueling and fuel storage needs. The NRF TRIGA packaging design also provides the basis for developing a certifiable and economical packaging system for other TRIGA reactor facilities. The small size of the NRF TRIGA cask also accommodates placing the cask into a larger certified packaging for offsite transport. The Westinghouse Hanford Company NRF TRIGA packaging, as described herein can serve other DOE sites for their onsite use, and the design can be adapted to serve university reactor facilities, handling a variety of fuel payloads

  15. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weddle, D.C.; Novotny, R.; Cron, J.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''

  16. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  17. The BINSYN Program Package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert P. Linnell

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The BINSYN program package, recently expanded to calculate synthetic spectra of cataclysmic variables, is being further extended to include synthetic photometry of ordinary binary stars in addition to binary stars with optically thick accretion disks. The package includes a capability for differentials correction optimization of eclipsing binary systems using synthetic photometry.

  18. The LCDROOT Analysis Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Toshinori

    2001-01-01

    The North American Linear Collider Detector group has developed simulation and analysis program packages. LCDROOT is one of the packages, and is based on ROOT and the C++ programing language to maximally benefit from object oriented programming techniques. LCDROOT is constantly improved and now has a new topological vertex finder, ZVTOP3. In this proceeding, the features of the LCDROOT simulation are briefly described

  19. Grooming. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Pamela

    This learning activity package on grooming for health workers is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

  20. Application of stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    This book is divided into three parts, which is about practical using of stepping motor. The first part has six chapters. The contents of the first part are about stepping motor, classification of stepping motor, basic theory og stepping motor, characteristic and basic words, types and characteristic of stepping motor in hybrid type and basic control of stepping motor. The second part deals with application of stepping motor with hardware of stepping motor control, stepping motor control by microcomputer and software of stepping motor control. The last part mentions choice of stepping motor system, examples of stepping motor, measurement of stepping motor and practical cases of application of stepping motor.

  1. Waste package performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, D.H.; Stula, R.T.; Kirstein, B.E.

    1982-01-01

    A performance assessment model for multiple barrier packages containing unreprocessed spent fuel has been applied to several package designs. The resulting preliminary assessments were intended for use in making decisions about package development programs. A computer model called BARIER estimates the package life and subsequent rate of release of selected nuclides. The model accounts for temperature, pressure (and resulting stresses), bulk and localized corrosion, and nuclide retardation by the backfill after water intrusion into the waste form. The assessment model assumes a post-closure, flooded, geologic repository. Calculations indicated that, within the bounds of model assumptions, packages could last for several hundred years. Intact backfills of appropriate design may be capable of nuclide release delay times on the order of 10 7 yr for uranium, plutonium, and americium. 8 references, 6 figures, 9 tables

  2. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Hideaki; Sakai, Takao; Ishida, Tomio; Yokota, Norikatsu.

    1992-01-01

    The lower ends of a plurality of plate-like shape memory alloys are secured at the periphery of the upper inside of the handling head of a fuel assembly. As the shape memory alloy, a Cu-Zn alloy, a Ti-Pd alloy or a Fe-Ni alloy is used. When high temperature coolants flow out to the handling head, the shape memory alloy deforms by warping to the outer side more greatly toward the upper portion thereof with the temperature increase of the coolants. As the result, the shape of the flow channel of the coolants is changed so as to enlarge at the exit of the upper end of the fuel assembly. Then, the pressure loss of the coolants in the fuel assembly is decreased by the enlargement. Accordingly, the flow rate of the coolants in the fuel assembly is increased to lower the temperature of the coolants. Further, high temperature coolants and low temperature coolants are mixed sufficiently just above the fuel assembly. This can suppress the temperature fluctuation of the mixed coolants in the upper portion of the reactor core, thereby enabling to decrease a fatigue and failures of the structural components in the upper portion of the reactor core. (I.N.)

  3. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Masafumi; Matsuzuka, Ryuji.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a fuel assembly which can decrease pressure loss of coolant to uniform temperature. Structure: A sectional area of a flow passage in the vicinity of an inner peripheral surface of a wrapper tube is limited over the entire length to prevent the temperature of a fuel element in the outermost peripheral portion from being excessively decreased to thereby flatten temperature distribution. To this end, a plurality of pincture-frame-like sheet metals constituting a spacer for supporting a fuel assembly, which has a plurality of fuel elements planted lengthwise and in given spaced relation within the wrapper tube, is disposed in longitudinal grooves and in stacked fashion to form a substantially honeycomb-like space in cross section. The fuel elements are inserted and supported in the space to form a fuel assembly. (Kamimura, M.)

  4. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, Mamoru; Yoshioka, Ritsuo

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively utilize nuclear fuels by increasing the reactivity of a fuel assembly and reduce the concentration at the central region thereof upon completion of the burning. Constitution: A fuel assembly is bisected into a central region and a peripheral region by disposing an inner channel box within a channel box. The flow rate of coolants passing through the central region is made greater than that in the peripheral region. The concentration of uranium 235 of the fuel rods in the central region is made higher. In such a structure, since the moderating effect in the central region is improved, the reactivity of the fuel assembly is increased and the uranium concentration in the central region upon completion of the burning can be reduced, fuel economy and effective utilization of uranium can be attained. (Kamimura, M.)

  5. Repulsive DNA-DNA interactions accelerate viral DNA packaging in phage phi29

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Nicholas; delToro, Damian; Grimes, Shelley; Jardine, Paul J.; Smith, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    We use optical tweezers to study the effect of attractive versus repulsive DNA-DNA interactions on motor-driven viral packaging. Screening of repulsive interactions accelerates packaging, but induction of attractive interactions by spermidine3+ causes heterogeneous dynamics. Acceleration is observed in a fraction of complexes, but most exhibit slowing and stalling, suggesting that attractive interactions promote nonequilibrium DNA conformations that impede the motor. Thus, repulsive interacti...

  6. Packaging Printing Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Bolanča

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Printing packaging covers today about 50% of all the printing products. Among the printing products there are printing on labels, printing on flexible packaging, printing on folding boxes, printing on the boxes of corrugated board, printing on glass packaging, synthetic and metal ones. The mentioned packaging are printed in flexo printing technique, offset printing technique, intaglio halftone process, silk – screen printing, ink ball printing, digital printing and hybrid printing process. The possibilities of particular printing techniques for optimal production of the determined packaging were studied in the paper. The problem was viewed from the technological and economical aspect. The possible printing quality and the time necessary for the printing realization were taken as key parameters. An important segment of the production and the way of life is alocation value and it had also found its place in this paper. The events in the field of packaging printing in the whole world were analyzed. The trends of technique developments and the printing technology for packaging printing in near future were also discussed.

  7. Consumer response to packaging design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, Nigel D.; Herpen, van Erica; Lans, van der Ivo A.; Ligthart, Tom N.; Trijp, van Hans C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Building on theories of cue utilization, this paper investigates whether and how packaging sustainability influences consumer perceptions, inferences and attitudes towards packaged products. A framework is tested in an empirical study among 249 students using soup products varying in packaging

  8. Drop testing of the Westinghouse fresh nuclear fuel package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shappert, L.B.; Sanders, C.F.

    1993-01-01

    The Westinghouse Columbia Fuel Fabrication Facility has decided to develop and certify a new fresh fuel package design (type A, fissile) that has the capability to transport more highly enriched fuel than was previously possible. A prototype package was tested in support of the Safety Analysis Report of the Packaging (SARP). This paper provides detailed information on the tests and test results. A first prototype test was carried out at the STF, and the design did not give the safety margin that Westinghouse wanted for their containers. The data from the test were used to redesign the connection between the clamping frame and the pressure pad, and the tests were reinitiated. Three packages were then tested at the STF. All packages met the acceptance criteria and acceleration information was obtained that provided an indication of the behavior of the cradle and strongback which holds the fuel assemblies and nuclear poison in place. (J.P.N.)

  9. Mechanical Assessment of the Waste Package Subject to Vibratory Motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Gross

    2004-10-14

    The purpose of this document is to provide an integrated overview of the calculation reports that define the response of the waste package and its internals to vibratory ground motion. The calculation reports for waste package response to vibratory ground motion are identified in Table 1-1. Three key calculation reports describe the potential for mechanical damage to the waste package, fuel assemblies, and cladding from a seismic event. Three supporting documents have also been published to investigate sensitivity of damage to various assumptions for the calculations. While these individual reports present information on a specific aspect of waste package and cladding response, they do not describe the interrelationship between the various calculations and the relationship of this information to the seismic scenario class for Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA). This report is designed to fill this gap by providing an overview of the waste package structural response calculations.

  10. Mechanical Assessment of the Waste Package Subject to Vibratory Motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. Gross

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an integrated overview of the calculation reports that define the response of the waste package and its internals to vibratory ground motion. The calculation reports for waste package response to vibratory ground motion are identified in Table 1-1. Three key calculation reports describe the potential for mechanical damage to the waste package, fuel assemblies, and cladding from a seismic event. Three supporting documents have also been published to investigate sensitivity of damage to various assumptions for the calculations. While these individual reports present information on a specific aspect of waste package and cladding response, they do not describe the interrelationship between the various calculations and the relationship of this information to the seismic scenario class for Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA). This report is designed to fill this gap by providing an overview of the waste package structural response calculations

  11. Fuzzy control of small servo motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maor, Ron; Jani, Yashvant

    1993-01-01

    To explore the benefits of fuzzy logic and understand the differences between the classical control methods and fuzzy control methods, the Togai InfraLogic applications engineering staff developed and implemented a motor control system for small servo motors. The motor assembly for testing the fuzzy and conventional controllers consist of servo motor RA13M and an encoder with a range of 4096 counts. An interface card was designed and fabricated to interface the motor assembly and encoder to an IBM PC. The fuzzy logic based motor controller was developed using the TILShell and Fuzzy C Development System on an IBM PC. A Proportional-Derivative (PD) type conventional controller was also developed and implemented in the IBM PC to compare the performance with the fuzzy controller. Test cases were defined to include step inputs of 90 and 180 degrees rotation, sine and square wave profiles in 5 to 20 hertz frequency range, as well as ramp inputs. In this paper we describe our approach to develop a fuzzy as well as PH controller, provide details of hardware set-up and test cases, and discuss the performance results. In comparison, the fuzzy logic based controller handles the non-linearities of the motor assembly very well and provides excellent control over a broad range of parameters. Fuzzy technology, as indicated by our results, possesses inherent adaptive features.

  12. Packaging Concerns/Techniques for Large Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews packaging challenges and options for electronic parts. The presentation includes information about non-hermetic packages, space challenges for packaging and complex package variations.

  13. Hermeticity of electronic packages

    CERN Document Server

    Greenhouse, Hal; Romenesco, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    This is a book about the integrity of sealed packages to resist foreign gases and liquids penetrating the seal or an opening (crack) in the packageùespecially critical to the reliability and longevity of electronics. The author explains how to predict the reliability and the longevity of the packages based on leak rate measurements and the assumptions of impurities. Non-specialists in particular will benefit from the author's long involvement in the technology. Hermeticity is a subject that demands practical experience, and solving one problem does not necessarily give one the background to so

  14. Hermeticity of electronic packages

    CERN Document Server

    Greenhouse, Hal

    2000-01-01

    This is a book about the integrity of sealed packages to resist foreign gases and liquids penetrating the seal or an opening (crack) in the package-especially critical to the reliability and longevity of electronics. The author explains how to predict the reliability and the longevity of the packages based on leak rate measurements and the assumptions of impurities. Non-specialists in particular will benefit from the author's long involvement in the technology. Hermeticity is a subject that demands practical experience, and solving one problem does not necessarily give one the background to so

  15. Safety Analysis Report - Packages, 9965, 9968, 9972-9975 Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanton, P.

    2000-01-01

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) documents the analysis and testing performed on four type B Packages: the 9972, 9973, 9974, and 9975 packages. Because all four packages have similar designs with very similar performance characteristics, all of them are presented in a single SARP. The performance evaluation presented in this SARP documents the compliance of the 9975 package with the regulatory safety requirements. Evaluations of the 9972, 9973, and 9974 packages support that of the 9975. To avoid confusion arising from the inclusion of four packages in a single document, the text segregates the data for each package in such a way that the reader interested in only one package can progress from Chapter 1 through Chapter 9. The directory at the beginning of each chapter identifies each section that should be read for a given package. Sections marked ''all'' are generic to all packages

  16. Valve assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandling, M.

    1981-01-01

    An improved valve assembly, used for controlling the flow of radioactive slurry, is described. Radioactive contamination of the air during removal or replacement of the valve is prevented by sucking air from the atmosphere through a portion of the structure above the valve housing. (U.K.)

  17. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjertsen, R.K.; Bassler, E.A.; Huckestein, E.A.; Salton, R.B.; Tower, S.N.

    1988-01-01

    A fuel assembly adapted for use with a pressurized water nuclear reactor having capabilities for fluid moderator spectral shift control is described comprising: parallel arranged elongated nuclear fuel elements; means for providing for axial support of the fuel elements and for arranging the fuel elements in a spaced array; thimbles interspersed among the fuel elements adapted for insertion of a rod control cluster therewithin; means for structurally joining the fuel elements and the guide thimbles; fluid moderator control means for providing a volume of low neutron absorbing fluid within the fuel assembly and for removing a substantially equivalent volume of reactor coolant water therefrom, a first flow manifold at one end of the fuel assembly sealingly connected to a first end of the moderator control tubes whereby the first ends are commonly flow connected; and a second flow manifold, having an inlet passage and an outlet passage therein, sealingly connected to a second end of the moderator control tubes at a second end of the fuel assembly

  18. London 2012 packaging guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    These guidelines are intended to provide supplemental advice to suppliers and licensees regarding the provisions of the LOCOG Sustainable Sourcing Code that relate to packaging design and materials selection.

  19. Type B Drum packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, W.S.

    1995-11-01

    The Type B Drum package is a container in which a single drum containing Type B quantities of radioactive material will be packaged for shipment. The Type B Drum containers are being developed to fill a void in the packaging and transportation capabilities of the US Department of Energy (DOE), as no double containment packaging for single drums of Type B radioactive material is currently available. Several multiple-drum containers and shielded casks presently exist. However, the size and weight of these containers present multiple operational challenges for single-drum shipments. The Type B Drum containers will offer one unshielded version and, if needed, two shielded versions, and will provide for the option of either single or double containment. The primary users of the Type B Drum container will be any organization with a need to ship single drums of Type B radioactive material. Those users include laboratories, waste retrieval facilities, emergency response teams, and small facilities

  20. Materials for advanced packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, CP

    2017-01-01

    This second edition continues to be the most comprehensive review on the developments in advanced electronic packaging technologies, with a focus on materials and processing. Recognized experts in the field contribute to 22 updated and new chapters that provide comprehensive coverage on various 3D package architectures, novel bonding and joining techniques, wire bonding, wafer thinning techniques, organic substrates, and novel approaches to make electrical interconnects between integrated circuit and substrates. Various chapters also address advances in several key packaging materials, including: Lead-free solders Flip chip underfills Epoxy molding compounds Conductive adhesives Die attach adhesives/films Thermal interface materials (TIMS) Materials for fabricating embedded passives including capacitors, inductors, and resistors Materials and processing aspects on wafer-level chip scale package (CSP) and MicroElectroMechanical system (MEMS) Contributors also review new and emerging technologies such as Light ...

  1. Food irradiation and packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcast, David

    1988-01-01

    This outline review was written for 'Food Manufacture'. It deals with the known effects of irradiation on current packaging materials (glass, cellulosics, organic polymers and metals), and their implications for the effective application of the process. (U.K.)

  2. FLEXIBLE FOOD PACKAGING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains equipment to fabricate and test prototype packages of many types and sizes (e.g., bags, pouches, trays, cartons, etc.). This equipment can...

  3. BCRA R Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    BCRA is an R package that projects absolute risk of invasive breast cancer according to NCI’s Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT) algorithm for specified race/ethnic groups and age intervals.

  4. Heterogeneous MEMS device assembly and integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topart, Patrice; Picard, Francis; Ilias, Samir; Alain, Christine; Chevalier, Claude; Fisette, Bruno; Paultre, Jacques E.; Généreux, Francis; Legros, Mathieu; Lepage, Jean-François; Laverdière, Christian; Ngo Phong, Linh; Caron, Jean-Sol; Desroches, Yan

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, smart phone applications have both raised the pressure for cost and time to market reduction, and the need for high performance MEMS devices. This trend has led the MEMS community to develop multi-die packaging of different functionalities or multi-technology (i.e. wafer) approaches to fabricate and assemble devices respectively. This paper reports on the fabrication, assembly and packaging at INO of various MEMS devices using heterogeneous assembly at chip and package-level. First, the performance of a giant (e.g. about 3 mm in diameter), electrostatically actuated beam steering mirror is presented. It can be rotated about two perpendicular axes to steer an optical beam within an angular cone of up to 60° in vector scan mode with an angular resolution of 1 mrad and a response time of 300 ms. To achieve such angular performance relative to mirror size, the microassembly was performed from sub-components fabricated from 4 different wafers. To combine infrared detection with inertial sensing, an electroplated proof mass was flip-chipped onto a 256×1 pixel uncooled bolometric FPA and released using laser ablation. In addition to the microassembly technology, performance results of packaged devices are presented. Finally, to simulate a 3072×3 pixel uncooled detector for cloud and fire imaging in mid and long-wave IR, the staggered assembly of six 512×3 pixel FPAs with a less than 50 micron pixel co-registration is reported.

  5. The ENSDF Java Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonzogni, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    A package of computer codes has been developed to process and display nuclear structure and decay data stored in the ENSDF (Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File) library. The codes were written in an object-oriented fashion using the java language. This allows for an easy implementation across multiple platforms as well as deployment on web pages. The structure of the different java classes that make up the package is discussed as well as several different implementations

  6. Energy and packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boustead, I; Hancock, G F

    1981-01-01

    Information is given on the energy and raw materials required in the production and use of containers used to package beer, cider, and carbonated soft drinks in the United Kingdom. Topics covered include: methodology of energy analysis, primary and secondary fuels, transport, packaging materials, including glass, aluminum, iron, steel, and tinplate, container production, including plastic bottles, distribution of empty containers, filling and packing, distribution, and disposal. (LEW)

  7. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the WIPP management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR 71.11. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document provides the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packaging. The intent of these instructions is to standardize operations. All users will follow these instructions or equivalent instructions that assure operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARPs

  8. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT Shipping Package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event there is a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the SARP and/or C of C shall govern. C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SAR P charges the WIPP Management and Operation (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR 71.11. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packaging. The intent of these instructions is to standardize these operations. All users will follow these instructions or equivalent instructions that assure operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARPs

  9. Packaging of structural health monitoring components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Seth S.; Spearing, S. Mark; Shi, Yong; Dunn, Christopher T.

    2004-07-01

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) technologies have the potential to realize economic benefits in a broad range of commercial and defense markets. Previous research conducted by Metis Design and MIT has demonstrated the ability of Lamb waves methods to provide reliable information regarding the presence, location and type of damage in composite specimens. The present NSF funded program was aimed to study manufacturing, packaging and interface concepts for critical SHM components. The intention is to be able to cheaply manufacture robust actuating/sensing devices, and isolate them from harsh operating environments including natural, mechanical, or electrical extremes. Currently the issues related to SHM system durability have remained undressed. During the course of this research several sets of test devices were fabricated and packaged to protect the piezoelectric component assemblies for robust operation. These assemblies were then tested in hot and wet conditions, as well as in electrically noisy environments. Future work will aim to package the other supporting components such as the battery and wireless chip, as well as integrating all of these components together for operation. SHM technology will enable the reduction or complete elimination of scheduled inspections, and will allow condition-based maintenance for increased reliability and reduced overall life-cycle costs.

  10. Insulation assembly for electric machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Frederick W.; Titmuss, David F.; Parish, Harold; Campbell, John D.

    2013-10-15

    An insulation assembly is provided that includes a generally annularly-shaped main body and at least two spaced-apart fingers extending radially inwards from the main body. The spaced-apart fingers define a gap between the fingers. A slot liner may be inserted within the gap. The main body may include a plurality of circumferentially distributed segments. Each one of the plurality of segments may be operatively connected to another of the plurality of segments to form the continuous main body. The slot liner may be formed as a single extruded piece defining a plurality of cavities. A plurality of conductors (extendable from the stator assembly) may be axially inserted within a respective one of the plurality of cavities. The insulation assembly electrically isolates the conductors in the electric motor from the stator stack and from other conductors.

  11. Comparative Packaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Oziomek, Thomas V.

    2009-01-01

    Future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit will require the food system to remain safe, acceptable and nutritious. Development of high barrier food packaging will enable this requirement by preventing the ingress and egress of gases and moisture. New high barrier food packaging materials have been identified through a trade study. Practical application of this packaging material within a shelf life test will allow for better determination of whether this material will allow the food system to meet given requirements after the package has undergone processing. The reason to conduct shelf life testing, using a variety of packaging materials, stems from the need to preserve food used for mission durations of several years. Chemical reactions that take place during longer durations may decrease food quality to a point where crew physical or psychological well-being is compromised. This can result in a reduction or loss of mission success. The rate of chemical reactions, including oxidative rancidity and staling, can be controlled by limiting the reactants, reducing the amount of energy available to drive the reaction, and minimizing the amount of water available. Water not only acts as a media for microbial growth, but also as a reactant and means by which two reactants may come into contact with each other. The objective of this study is to evaluate three packaging materials for potential use in long duration space exploration missions.

  12. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the pplication.' They further state: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations

  13. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.' They further state: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations

  14. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.' It further states: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M and O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1.8, 'Deliberate Misconduct.' Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, 'Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material,' certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, 'Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance,' regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these

  15. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package (also known as the 'RH-TRU 72-B cask') and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.' It further states: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M and O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8, 'Deliberate Misconduct.' Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, 'Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material,' certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, 'Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance,' regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous

  16. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Tokunobu.

    1990-01-01

    A fuel assembly used in a FBR type nuclear reactor comprises a plurality of fuel rods and a moderator guide member (water rod). A moderator exit opening/closing mechanism is formed at the upper portion of the moderator guide member for opening and closing a moderator exit. In the initial fuel charging operation cycle to the reactor, the moderator exit is closed by the moderator exit opening/closing mechanism. Then, voids are accumulated at the inner upper portion of the moderator guide member to harden spectrum and a great amount of plutonium is generated and accumulated in the fuel assembly. Further, in the fuel re-charging operation cycle, the moderator guide member is used having the moderator exit opened. In this case, voids are discharged from the moderator guide member to decrease the ratio, and the plutonium accumulated in the initial charging operation cycle is burnt. In this way, the fuel economy can be improved. (I.N.)

  17. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echigoya, Hironori; Nomata, Terumitsu.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To render the axial distribution relatively flat. Constitution: First nuclear element comprises a fuel can made of zircalloy i.e., the metal with less neutron absorption, which is filled with a plurality of UO 2 pellets and sealed by using a lower end plug, a plenum spring and an upper end plug by means of welding. Second fuel element is formed by substituting a part of the UO 2 pellets with a water tube which is sealed with water and has a space for allowing the heat expansion. The nuclear fuel assembly is constituted by using the first and second fuel elements together. In such a structure, since water reflects neutrons and decrease their leakage to increase the temperature, reactivity is added at the upper portion of the fuel assembly to thereby flatten the axial power distribution. Accordingly, stable operation is possible only by means of deep control rods while requiring no shallow control rods. (Sekiya, K.)

  18. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Mitsuo.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the corrosion rate and suppress the increase of radioactive corrosion products in reactor water of nuclear fuel assemblies for use in BWR type reactors having spacer springs made of nickel based deposition reinforced type alloys. Constitution: Spacer rings made of nickel based deposition reinforced type alloy are incorporated and used as fuel assemblies after applying treatment of dipping and maintaining at high temperature water followed by heating in steams. Since this can remove the nickel leaching into reactor water at the initial stage, Co-58 as the radioactive corrosion products in the reactor water can be reduced, and the operation at in-service inspection or repairement can be facilitated to improve the working efficiency of the nuclear power plant. The dipping time is desirably more than 10 hours and more desirably more than 30 hours. (Horiuchi, T. )

  19. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shoichi; Hirano, Yasushi.

    1998-01-01

    A one-half or more of entire fuel rods in a fuel assembly comprises MOX fuel rods containing less than 1wt% of burnable poisons, and at least a portion of the burnable poisons comprises gadolinium. Then, surplus reactivity at an initial stage of operation cycle is controlled to eliminate burnable poisons remained unburnt at a final stage, as well as increase thermal reactivity. In addition, the content of fission plutonium is determined to greater than the content of uranium 235, and fuel rods at corner portions are made not to incorporate burnable poisons. Fuel rods not containing burnable poisons are disposed at positions in adjacent with fuel rods facing to a water rod at one or two directions. Local power at radial center of the fuel assembly is increased to flatten the distortion of radial power distribution. (N.H.)

  20. Application of GA package in functional packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousova, D. A.; Noskova, E. E.; Kapulin, D. V.

    2018-05-01

    The approach to application program for the task of configuration of the elements of the commutation circuit for design of the radio-electronic equipment on the basis of the genetic algorithm is offered. The efficiency of the used approach for commutation circuits with different characteristics for computer-aided design on radio-electronic manufacturing is shown. The prototype of the computer-aided design subsystem on the basis of a package GA for R with a set of the general functions for optimization of multivariate models is programmed.

  1. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    5th April, 2016 – Ordinary General Assembly of the Staff Association! In the first semester of each year, the Staff Association (SA) invites its members to attend and participate in the Ordinary General Assembly (OGA). This year the OGA will be held on Tuesday, April 5th 2016 from 11:00 to 12:00 in BE Auditorium, Meyrin (6-2-024). During the Ordinary General Assembly, the activity and financial reports of the SA are presented and submitted for approval to the members. This is the occasion to get a global view on the activities of the SA, its financial management, and an opportunity to express one’s opinion, including taking part in the votes. Other points are listed on the agenda, as proposed by the Staff Council. Who can vote? Only “ordinary” members (MPE) of the SA can vote. Associated members (MPA) of the SA and/or affiliated pensioners have a right to vote on those topics that are of direct interest to them. Who can give his/her opinion? The Ordinary General Asse...

  2. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Sei; Ando, Ryohei; Mitsutake, Toru.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention concerns a fuel assembly suitable to a BWR-type reactor and improved especially with the nuclear characteristic, heat performance, hydraulic performance, dismantling or assembling performance and economical property. A part of poison rods are formed as a large-diameter/multi-region poison rods having a larger diameter than a fuel rod. A large number of fuel rods are disposed surrounding a large diameter water rod and a group of the large-diameter/multi-region poison rods in adjacent with the water rod. The large-diameter water rod has a burnable poison at the tube wall portion. At least a portion of the large-diameter poison rods has a coolant circulation portion allowing coolants to circulate therethrough. Since the large-diameter poison rods are disposed at a position of high neutron fluxes, a large neutron multiplication factor suppression effect can be provided, thereby enabling to reduce the number of burnable poison rods relative to fuels. As a result, power peaking in the fuel assembly is moderated and a greater amount of plutonium can be loaded. In addition the flow of cooling water which tends to gather around the large diameter water rod can be controlled to improve cooling performance of fuels. (N.H.)

  3. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.

  4. Food Packaging Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The photos show a few of the food products packaged in Alure, a metallized plastic material developed and manufactured by St. Regis Paper Company's Flexible Packaging Division, Dallas, Texas. The material incorporates a metallized film originally developed for space applications. Among the suppliers of the film to St. Regis is King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Ma'ssachusetts. Initially used by NASA as a signal-bouncing reflective coating for the Echo 1 communications satellite, the film was developed by a company later absorbed by King-Seeley. The metallized film was also used as insulating material for components of a number of other spacecraft. St. Regis developed Alure to meet a multiple packaging material need: good eye appeal, product protection for long periods and the ability to be used successfully on a wide variety of food packaging equipment. When the cost of aluminum foil skyrocketed, packagers sought substitute metallized materials but experiments with a number of them uncovered problems; some were too expensive, some did not adequately protect the product, some were difficult for the machinery to handle. Alure offers a solution. St. Regis created Alure by sandwiching the metallized film between layers of plastics. The resulting laminated metallized material has the superior eye appeal of foil but is less expensive and more easily machined. Alure effectively blocks out light, moisture and oxygen and therefore gives the packaged food long shelf life. A major packaging firm conducted its own tests of the material and confirmed the advantages of machinability and shelf life, adding that it runs faster on machines than materials used in the past and it decreases product waste; the net effect is increased productivity.

  5. Design package for vacuum wand for fuel retrieval system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROACH, H.L.

    1999-01-01

    This is a design package that contains the details for the design, fabrication, and testing of a vacuum wand that will pick up sludge and corrosion products generated during fuel assembly handling operations at K-Basin. This document contains requirements, development design information, design calculations, tests, and test reports

  6. Food packages for Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohey, M. F.; Sauer, R. L.; Westover, J. B.; Rockafeller, E. F.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews food packaging techniques used in space flight missions and describes the system developed for the Space Shuttle. Attention is directed to bite-size food cubes used in Gemini, Gemini rehydratable food packages, Apollo spoon-bowl rehydratable packages, thermostabilized flex pouch for Apollo, tear-top commercial food cans used in Skylab, polyethylene beverage containers, Skylab rehydratable food package, Space Shuttle food package configuration, duck-bill septum rehydration device, and a drinking/dispensing nozzle for Space Shuttle liquids. Constraints and testing of packaging is considered, a comparison of food package materials is presented, and typical Shuttle foods and beverages are listed.

  7. Motor carrier evaluation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portsmouth, James

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ), Transportation Management Program (TMP) has the overall responsibility to provide a well-managed transportation program for the safe, efficient, and economical transportation of DOE-owned materials. The DOE-TMP has established an excellent safety record in the transportation of hazardous materials including radioactive materials and radioactive wastes. This safety record can be maintained only through continued diligence and sustained effort on the part of the DOE-TMP, its field offices, and the contractors' organizations. Key elements in the DOE'S effective hazardous and radioactive materials shipping program are (1) integrity of packages, (2) strict adherence to regulations and procedures, (3) trained personnel, (4) complete management support, and (5) use of the best commercial carriers. The DOE Motor Carrier Evaluation Program was developed to better define the criteria and methodology needed to identify motor carriers for use in the transportation of Highway Route Controlled Quantities (HRCQ), Truck Load (TL) quantities of radioactive materials, hazardous materials and waste. (author)

  8. Packaging Design Criteria for the MCO Cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FLANAGAN, B.D.

    2000-01-01

    Approximately 2,100 metric tons of unprocessed, irradiated, nuclear fuel elements are presently stored in the K Basins (including approximately 700 additional elements from the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant, N Reactor, and 327 Laboratory). To permit cleanup of the K Basins and fuel conditioning, the fuel will be transported from the 100 K Area to a Canister Storage Building (CSB) in the 200 East Area. The purpose of this packaging design criteria is to provide criteria for the design, fabrication, and use of a packaging system to transport the large quantities of irradiated nuclear fuel elements positioned within Multi-canister Overpacks. Concurrent with the K Basin cleanup, 72 Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor Core 2 fuel assemblies will be transported from T Plant to the CSB to provide space at T Plant for K Basin sludge canisters

  9. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.' They further state: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant| (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations(CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations

  10. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.' They further state: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations

  11. Welding robot package; Arc yosetsu robot package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, S. [Yaskawa Electric Corp., Kitakyushu (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    For the conventional high-speed welding robot, the welding current was controlled mainly for reducing the spatters during short circuits and for stabilizing the beads by the periodic short circuits. However, an increase of deposition amount in response to the speed is required for the high-speed welding. Large-current low-spatter welding current region control was added. Units were integrated into a package by which the arc length is kept in short without dispersion of arc length for welding without defects such as undercut and unequal beads. In automobile industry, use of aluminum parts is extended for the light weight. The welding is very difficult, and automation is not so progressing in spite of the poor environment. Buckling of welding wire is easy to occur, and supply of wire is obstructed by the deposition of chipped powders on the torch cable, which stay within the contact chip resulting in the deposition. Dislocation of locus is easy to occur at the corner of rectangular pipe during the welding. By improving these troubles, an aluminum MIG welding robot package has been developed. 13 figs.

  12. PAVE: Program for assembling and viewing ESTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bomhoff Matthew

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New sequencing technologies are rapidly emerging. Many laboratories are simultaneously working with the traditional Sanger ESTs and experimenting with ESTs generated by the 454 Life Science sequencers. Though Sanger ESTs have been used to generate contigs for many years, no program takes full advantage of the 5' and 3' mate-pair information, hence, many tentative transcripts are assembled into two separate contigs. The new 454 technology has the benefit of high-throughput expression profiling, but introduces time and space problems for assembling large contigs. Results The PAVE (Program for Assembling and Viewing ESTs assembler takes advantage of the 5' and 3' mate-pair information by requiring that the mate-pairs be assembled into the same contig and joined by n's if the two sub-contigs do not overlap. It handles the depth of 454 data sets by "burying" similar ESTs during assembly, which retains the expression level information while circumventing time and space problems. PAVE uses MegaBLAST for the clustering step and CAP3 for assembly, however it assembles incrementally to enforce the mate-pair constraint, bury ESTs, and reduce incorrect joins and splits. The PAVE data management system uses a MySQL database to store multiple libraries of ESTs along with their metadata; the management system allows multiple assemblies with variations on libraries and parameters. Analysis routines provide standard annotation for the contigs including a measure of differentially expressed genes across the libraries. A Java viewer program is provided for display and analysis of the results. Our results clearly show the benefit of using the PAVE assembler to explicitly use mate-pair information and bury ESTs for large contigs. Conclusion The PAVE assembler provides a software package for assembling Sanger and/or 454 ESTs. The assembly software, data management software, Java viewer and user's guide are freely available.

  13. PAVE: program for assembling and viewing ESTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderlund, Carol; Johnson, Eric; Bomhoff, Matthew; Descour, Anne

    2009-08-26

    New sequencing technologies are rapidly emerging. Many laboratories are simultaneously working with the traditional Sanger ESTs and experimenting with ESTs generated by the 454 Life Science sequencers. Though Sanger ESTs have been used to generate contigs for many years, no program takes full advantage of the 5' and 3' mate-pair information, hence, many tentative transcripts are assembled into two separate contigs. The new 454 technology has the benefit of high-throughput expression profiling, but introduces time and space problems for assembling large contigs. The PAVE (Program for Assembling and Viewing ESTs) assembler takes advantage of the 5' and 3' mate-pair information by requiring that the mate-pairs be assembled into the same contig and joined by n's if the two sub-contigs do not overlap. It handles the depth of 454 data sets by "burying" similar ESTs during assembly, which retains the expression level information while circumventing time and space problems. PAVE uses MegaBLAST for the clustering step and CAP3 for assembly, however it assembles incrementally to enforce the mate-pair constraint, bury ESTs, and reduce incorrect joins and splits. The PAVE data management system uses a MySQL database to store multiple libraries of ESTs along with their metadata; the management system allows multiple assemblies with variations on libraries and parameters. Analysis routines provide standard annotation for the contigs including a measure of differentially expressed genes across the libraries. A Java viewer program is provided for display and analysis of the results. Our results clearly show the benefit of using the PAVE assembler to explicitly use mate-pair information and bury ESTs for large contigs. The PAVE assembler provides a software package for assembling Sanger and/or 454 ESTs. The assembly software, data management software, Java viewer and user's guide are freely available.

  14. Controllable molecular motors engineered from myosin and RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omabegho, Tosan; Gurel, Pinar S.; Cheng, Clarence Y.; Kim, Laura Y.; Ruijgrok, Paul V.; Das, Rhiju; Alushin, Gregory M.; Bryant, Zev

    2018-01-01

    Engineering biomolecular motors can provide direct tests of structure-function relationships and customized components for controlling molecular transport in artificial systems1 or in living cells2. Previously, synthetic nucleic acid motors3-5 and modified natural protein motors6-10 have been developed in separate complementary strategies to achieve tunable and controllable motor function. Integrating protein and nucleic-acid components to form engineered nucleoprotein motors may enable additional sophisticated functionalities. However, this potential has only begun to be explored in pioneering work harnessing DNA scaffolds to dictate the spacing, number and composition of tethered protein motors11-15. Here, we describe myosin motors that incorporate RNA lever arms, forming hybrid assemblies in which conformational changes in the protein motor domain are amplified and redirected by nucleic acid structures. The RNA lever arm geometry determines the speed and direction of motor transport and can be dynamically controlled using programmed transitions in the lever arm structure7,9. We have characterized the hybrid motors using in vitro motility assays, single-molecule tracking, cryo-electron microscopy and structural probing16. Our designs include nucleoprotein motors that reversibly change direction in response to oligonucleotides that drive strand-displacement17 reactions. In multimeric assemblies, the controllable motors walk processively along actin filaments at speeds of 10-20 nm s-1. Finally, to illustrate the potential for multiplexed addressable control, we demonstrate sequence-specific responses of RNA variants to oligonucleotide signals.

  15. Reactor Coolant Pump Motor Maintenance Experience in Krsko NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukovic, J.; Besirevic, A.; Boljat, Z.

    2016-01-01

    After thirty years of service as well as maintenance in Krsko NPP both original Reactor Coolant Pump (RCP) motors are remanufactured by original vendor Westinghouse and a new one was purchased. Design function of the RCP motor is to drive Reactor Coolant Pump and for coast-down feature during Design Basis Accident. This paper will give a view on maintenance issues of RCP motor during the thirty years of service and maintenance in Krsko NPP to be kept functionally operational. During the processes of remanufacturing inspection and disassembly it was made possible to get a deeper perspective in the motor condition and the wear or fatigue of the motor parts. Parameters like bearing & winding temperature, absolute and relative vibration greatly affect motor operation if not kept inside design margins. Rotational speed causes heat generation at the bearings which is then associated with oil temperatures and as a consequence bearing temperatures. That is why the most critical parts of the motor are the components of upper and lower bearing assembly. The condition of motor stator and rotor assembly technical characteristics shall be explained with respect to influence of demanding environmental conditions that the motor is exposed. Assessment shall be made how does the wear of critical RCP motor parts can influence reliable performance of the motor if not maintained in proper way. Information on upgrades that were done on RCP motor shall be shared: Oil Spillage Protection System (OSPS), Stator upgrades, Dynamic Port, etc. (author).

  16. Waste package characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sannen, L.; Bruggeman, M.; Wannijn, J.P

    1998-09-01

    Radioactive wastes originating from the hot labs of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN contain a wide variety of radiotoxic substances. The accurate characterisation of the short- and long-term radiotoxic components is extremely difficult but required in view of geological disposal. This paper describes the methodology which was developed and adopted to characterise the high- and medium-level waste packages at the SCK-CEN hot laboratories. The proposed method is based on the estimation of the fuel inventory evacuated in a particular waste package; a calculation of the relative fission product contribution on the fuel fabrication and irradiation footing; a comparison of the calculated, as expected, dose rate and the real measured dose rate of the waste package. To cope with the daily practice an appropriate fuel inventory estimation route, a user friendly computer programme for fission product and corresponding dose rate calculation, and a simple dose rate measurement method have been developed and implemented.

  17. Waste package characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannen, L.; Bruggeman, M.; Wannijn, J.P.

    1998-09-01

    Radioactive wastes originating from the hot labs of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN contain a wide variety of radiotoxic substances. The accurate characterisation of the short- and long-term radiotoxic components is extremely difficult but required in view of geological disposal. This paper describes the methodology which was developed and adopted to characterise the high- and medium-level waste packages at the SCK-CEN hot laboratories. The proposed method is based on the estimation of the fuel inventory evacuated in a particular waste package; a calculation of the relative fission product contribution on the fuel fabrication and irradiation footing; a comparison of the calculated, as expected, dose rate and the real measured dose rate of the waste package. To cope with the daily practice an appropriate fuel inventory estimation route, a user friendly computer programme for fission product and corresponding dose rate calculation, and a simple dose rate measurement method have been developed and implemented

  18. Waste package reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.; Sastre, C.

    1983-01-01

    Proof of future performance of a complex system such as a high-level nuclear waste package over a period of hundreds to thousands of years cannot be had in the ordinary sense of the word. The general method of probabilistic reliability analysis could provide an acceptable framework to identify, organize, and convey the information necessary to satisfy the criterion of reasonable assurance of waste package performance according to the regulatory requirements set forth in 10 CFR 60. General principles which may be used to evaluate the qualitative and quantitative reliability of a waste package design are indicated and illustrated with a sample calculation of a repository concept in basalt. 8 references, 1 table

  19. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujibayashi, Toru.

    1970-01-01

    Herein disclosed is a fuel assembly in which a fuel rod bundle is easily detachable by rotating a fuel rod fastener rotatably mounted to the upper surface of an upper tie-plate supporting a fuel bundle therebelow. A locking portion at the leading end of each fuel rod protrudes through the upper tie-plate and is engaged with or separated from the tie-plate by the rotation of the fastener. The removal of a desired fuel rod can therefore be remotely accomplished without the necessity of handling pawls, locking washers and nuts. (Owens, K.J.)

  20. Assembling consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assembling Consumption marks a definitive step in the institutionalisation of qualitative business research. By gathering leading scholars and educators who study markets, marketing and consumption through the lenses of philosophy, sociology and anthropology, this book clarifies and applies...... the investigative tools offered by assemblage theory, actor-network theory and non-representational theory. Clear theoretical explanation and methodological innovation, alongside empirical applications of these emerging frameworks will offer readers new and refreshing perspectives on consumer culture and market...... societies. This is an essential reading for both seasoned scholars and advanced students of markets, economies and social forms of consumption....

  1. SPHINX experimenters information package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarick, T.A.

    1996-08-01

    This information package was prepared for both new and experienced users of the SPHINX (Short Pulse High Intensity Nanosecond X-radiator) flash X-Ray facility. It was compiled to help facilitate experiment design and preparation for both the experimenter(s) and the SPHINX operational staff. The major areas covered include: Recording Systems Capabilities,Recording System Cable Plant, Physical Dimensions of SPHINX and the SPHINX Test cell, SPHINX Operating Parameters and Modes, Dose Rate Map, Experiment Safety Approval Form, and a Feedback Questionnaire. This package will be updated as the SPHINX facilities and capabilities are enhanced

  2. Nirex - The complete package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, N.A.; Rarok, M.

    2002-01-01

    Through continuous interaction with its customers, Nirex had identified the need for a comprehensive range of waste containers, reflecting the variety of wastes and operational undertakings. The current range consists of five standard containers. Standardisation is introduced across all waste packages to enable the safe and efficient operation of future waste management facilities. The practical lessons learned during the development of standard containers are in turn reflected in the container design work that Nirex has undertaken. They are also fed into the advice given to customers during evaluation of waste packaging proposals. (author)

  3. Ada Namelist Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, Allan R.

    1991-01-01

    Ada Namelist Package, developed for Ada programming language, enables calling program to read and write FORTRAN-style namelist files. Features are: handling of any combination of types defined by user; ability to read vectors, matrices, and slices of vectors and matrices; handling of mismatches between variables in namelist file and those in programmed list of namelist variables; and ability to avoid searching entire input file for each variable. Principle benefits derived by user: ability to read and write namelist-readable files, ability to detect most file errors in initialization phase, and organization keeping number of instantiated units to few packages rather than to many subprograms.

  4. 3D packaging of a microfluidic system with sensory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Anthony; Kelly, Gerard; Alderman, John C.

    1997-09-01

    Among the main benefits of microsystem technology are its contributions to cost reductio, reliability and improved performance. however, the packaging of microsystems, and particularly microsensor, has proven to be one of the biggest limitations to their commercialization and the packaging of silicon sensor devices can be the most costly part of their fabrication. This paper describes the integration of 3D packaging of a microsystem. Central to the operation of the 3D demonstrator is a micromachined silicon membrane pump to supply fluids to a sensing chamber constructed about the active area of a sensor chip. This chip carries ISFET based chemical sensors, pressure sensors and thermal sensors. The electronics required for controlling and regulating the activity of the various sensors ar also available on this chip and as other chips in the 3D assembly. The demonstrator also contains a power supply module with optical fiber interconnections. All of these modules are integrated into a single plastic- encapsulated 3D vertical multichip module. The reliability of such a structure, initially proposed by Val was demonstrated by Barrett et al. An additional module available for inclusion in some of our assemblies is a test chip capable of measuring the packaging-induced stress experienced during and after assembly. The packaging process described produces a module with very high density and utilizes standard off-the-shelf components to minimize costs. As the sensor chip and micropump include micromachined silicon membranes and microvalves, the packaging of such structures has to allow consideration for the minimization of the packaging-induced stresses. With this in mind, low stress techniques, including the use of soft glob-top materials, were employed.

  5. Instrument for analysis of electric motors based on slip-poles component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Howard D.; Ayers, Curtis W.; Casada, Donald A.

    1996-01-01

    A new instrument for monitoring the condition and speed of an operating electric motor from a remote location. The slip-poles component is derived from a motor current signal. The magnitude of the slip-poles component provides the basis for a motor condition monitor, while the frequency of the slip-poles component provides the basis for a motor speed monitor. The result is a simple-to-understand motor health monitor in an easy-to-use package. Straightforward indications of motor speed, motor running current, motor condition (e.g., rotor bar condition) and synthesized motor sound (audible indication of motor condition) are provided. With the device, a relatively untrained worker can diagnose electric motors in the field without requiring the presence of a trained engineer or technician.

  6. Laser diode package with enhanced cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deri, Robert J [Pleasanton, CA; Kotovsky, Jack [Oakland, CA; Spadaccini, Christopher M [Oakland, CA

    2011-09-13

    A laser diode package assembly includes a reservoir filled with a fusible metal in close proximity to a laser diode. The fusible metal absorbs heat from the laser diode and undergoes a phase change from solid to liquid during the operation of the laser. The metal absorbs heat during the phase transition. Once the laser diode is turned off, the liquid metal cools off and resolidifies. The reservoir is designed such that that the liquid metal does not leave the reservoir even when in liquid state. The laser diode assembly further includes a lid with one or more fin structures that extend into the reservoir and are in contact with the metal in the reservoir.

  7. Jidosha's Motors

    OpenAIRE

    Shirakawa Okuma, Rosely; Calderón Orejuela, Javier

    2016-01-01

    La tesis narra la situación de una empresa concesionaria de vehículos nuevos, Jidosha's Motors, perteneciente a una corporación japonesa que cuenta con una cultura muy arraigada de ética y de cumplimiento. Se plantean respuestas, se identifican problemas y sus alternativas de solución para una toma adecuada de decisiones por parte de los directivos, siguiendo una estructura de análisis de situaciones de negocios (ASN). Tesis

  8. Packaging Solutions : Delivering customer value through Logistical Packaging: A Case Study at Stora Enso Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Shan, Kun; Julius, Joezer

    2015-01-01

    AbstractBackground;Despite of the significant role of packaging within logistics and supply chain management, packaging is infrequently studied as focal point in supply chain. Most of the previous logistics research studies tend to explain the integration between packaging and logistics through logistical packaging. In very rare cases, the studies mentioned about customer value. Therefore the major disadvantage of these studies is that, they didn’t consider logistical packaging and customer v...

  9. Propulsion Wheel Motor for an Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figuered, Joshua M. (Inventor); Herrera, Eduardo (Inventor); Waligora, Thomas M. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Farrell, Logan Christopher (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Winn, Ross Briant (Inventor); Eggleston, IV, Raymond Edward (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); hide

    2016-01-01

    A wheel assembly for an electric vehicle includes a wheel rim that is concentrically disposed about a central axis. A propulsion-braking module is disposed within an interior region of the wheel rim. The propulsion-braking module rotatably supports the wheel rim for rotation about the central axis. The propulsion-braking module includes a liquid cooled electric motor having a rotor rotatable about the central axis, and a stator disposed radially inside the rotor relative to the central axis. A motor-wheel interface hub is fixedly attached to the wheel rim, and is directly attached to the rotor for rotation with the rotor. The motor-wheel interface hub directly transmits torque from the electric motor to the wheel rim at a 1:1 ratio. The propulsion-braking module includes a drum brake system having an electric motor that rotates a cam device, which actuates the brake shoes.

  10. AN ADA NAMELIST PACKAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Ada Namelist Package, developed for the Ada programming language, enables a calling program to read and write FORTRAN-style namelist files. A namelist file consists of any number of assignment statements in any order. Features of the Ada Namelist Package are: the handling of any combination of user-defined types; the ability to read vectors, matrices, and slices of vectors and matrices; the handling of mismatches between variables in the namelist file and those in the programmed list of namelist variables; and the ability to avoid searching the entire input file for each variable. The principle user benefits of this software are the following: the ability to write namelist-readable files, the ability to detect most file errors in the initialization phase, a package organization that reduces the number of instantiated units to a few packages rather than to many subprograms, a reduced number of restrictions, and an increased execution speed. The Ada Namelist reads data from an input file into variables declared within a user program. It then writes data from the user program to an output file, printer, or display. The input file contains a sequence of assignment statements in arbitrary order. The output is in namelist-readable form. There is a one-to-one correspondence between namelist I/O statements executed in the user program and variables read or written. Nevertheless, in the input file, mismatches are allowed between assignment statements in the file and the namelist read procedure statements in the user program. The Ada Namelist Package itself is non-generic. However, it has a group of nested generic packages following the nongeneric opening portion. The opening portion declares a variety of useraccessible constants, variables and subprograms. The subprograms are procedures for initializing namelists for reading, reading and writing strings. The subprograms are also functions for analyzing the content of the current dataset and diagnosing errors. Two nested

  11. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Kunitoshi; Azekura, Kazuo.

    1992-01-01

    In a reactor core of a heavy water moderated light water cooled pressure tube type reactor, no sufficient effects have been obtained for the transfer width to a negative side of void reactivity change in a region of a great void coefficient. Then, a moderation region divided into upper and lower two regions is disposed at the central portion of a fuel assembly. Coolants flown into the lower region can be discharged to the cooling region from an opening disposed at the upper end portion of the lower region. Light water flows from the lower region of the moderator region to the cooling region of the reactor core upper portion, to lower the void coefficient. As a result, the reactivity performance at low void coefficient, i.e., a void reaction rate is transferred to the negative side. Thus, this flattens the power distribution in the fuel assembly, increases the thermal margin and enables rapid operaiton and control of the reactor core, as well as contributes to the increase of fuel burnup ratio and reduction of the fuel cycle cost. (N.H.)

  12. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaki, Masao; Nishida, Koji; Karasawa, Hidetoshi; Kanazawa, Toru; Orii, Akihito; Nagayoshi, Takuji; Kashiwai, Shin-ichi; Masuhara, Yasuhiro

    1998-01-01

    The present invention concerns a fuel assembly, for a BWR type nuclear reactor, comprising fuel rods in 9 x 9 matrix. The inner width of the channel box is about 132mm and the length of the fuel rods which are not short fuel rods is about 4m. Two water rods having a circular cross section are arranged on a diagonal line in a portion of 3 x 3 matrix at the center of the fuel assembly, and two fuel rods are disposed at vacant spaces, and the number of fuel rods is 74. Eight fuel rods are determined as short fuel rods among 74 fuel rods. Assuming the fuel inventory in the short fuel rod as X(kg), and the fuel inventory in the fuel rods other than the short fuel rods as Y(kg), X and Y satisfy the relation: X + Y ≥ 173m, Y ≤ - 9.7X + 292, Y ≤ - 0.3X + 203 and X > 0. Then, even when the short fuel rods are used, the fuel inventory is increased and fuel economy can be improved. (I.N.)

  13. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fushimi, Atsushi; Shimada, Hidemitsu; Aoyama, Motoo; Nakajima, Junjiro

    1998-01-01

    In a fuel assembly for an n x n lattice-like BWR type reactor, n is determined to 9 or greater, and the enrichment degree of plutonium is determined to 4.4% by weight or less. Alternatively, n is determined to 10 or greater, and the enrichment degree of plutonium is determined to 5.2% by weight or less. An average take-out burnup degree is determined to 39GWd/t or less, and the matrix is determined to 9 x 9 or more, or the average take-out burnup degree is determined to 51GWd/t, and the matrix is determined to 10 x 10 or more and the increase of the margin of the maximum power density obtained thereby is utilized for the compensation of the increase of distortion of power distribution due to decrease of the kinds of plutonium enrichment degree, thereby enabling to reduce the kind of the enrichment degree of MOX fuel rods to one. As a result, the manufacturing step for fuel pellets can be simplified to reduce the manufacturing cost for MOX fuel assemblies. (N.H.)

  14. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Mardi 5 mai à 11 h 00 Salle 13-2-005 Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : 1- Adoption de l’ordre du jour. 2- Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 22 mai 2014. 3- Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2014. 4- Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2014. 5- Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2014. 6- Programme 2015. 7- Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2015 et taux de cotisation pour 2015. 8- Pas de modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposée. 9- Élections des membres de la Commission é...

  15. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : Adoption de l’ordre du jour. Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 5 avril 2016. Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2016. Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2016. Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2016. Programme de travail 2017. Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2017 Approbation du taux de cotisation pour 2018. Modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposées. Élections des membres de la Commission électorale. Élections des vérifica...

  16. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Mardi 5 avril à 11 h 00 BE Auditorium Meyrin (6-2-024) Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : Adoption de l’ordre du jour. Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 5 mai 2015. Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2015. Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2015. Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2015. Programme de travail 2016. Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2016 Approbation du taux de cotisation pour 2017. Modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposée. Élections des membres de la Commissio...

  17. General assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Mardi 5 mai à 11 h 00 Salle 13-2-005 Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : Adoption de l’ordre du jour. Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 22 mai 2014. Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2014. Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2014. Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2014. Programme 2015. Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2015 et taux de cotisation pour 2015. Pas de modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposée. Élections des membres de la Commission électorale. &am...

  18. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomata, Terumitsu.

    1993-01-01

    Among fuel pellets to be loaded to fuel cans of a fuel assembly, fuel pellets having a small thermal power are charged in a region from the end of each of spacers up to about 50mm on the upstream of coolants that flow vertically at the periphery of fuel rods. Coolants at the periphery of fuel rods are heated by the heat generation, to result in voids. However, since cooling effect on the upstream of the spacers is low due to influences of the spacers. Further, since the fuel pellets disposed in the upstream region have small thermal power, a void coefficient is not increased. Even if a thermal power exceeding cooling performance should be generated, there is no worry of causing burnout in the upstream region. Even if burnout should be caused, safety margin and reliability relative to burnout are improved, to increase an allowable thermal power, thereby enabling to improve integrity and reliability of fuel rods and fuel assemblies. (N.H.)

  19. Grasp Assist Device with Shared Tendon Actuator Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Bergelin, Bryan J. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A grasp assist device includes a glove with first and second tendon-driven fingers, a tendon, and a sleeve with a shared tendon actuator assembly. Tendon ends are connected to the respective first and second fingers. The actuator assembly includes a drive assembly having a drive axis and a tendon hook. The tendon hook, which defines an arcuate surface slot, is linearly translatable along the drive axis via the drive assembly, e.g., a servo motor thereof. The flexible tendon is routed through the surface slot such that the surface slot divides the flexible tendon into two portions each terminating in a respective one of the first and second ends. The drive assembly may include a ball screw and nut. An end cap of the actuator assembly may define two channels through which the respective tendon portions pass. The servo motor may be positioned off-axis with respect to the drive axis.

  20. Interactions Between HIV-1 Gag and Viral RNA Genome Enhance Virion Assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dilley, Kari A; Nikolaitchik, Olga A; Galli, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    between Gag and viral RNA are required for the enhancement of particle production. Taken together, these studies are consistent with our previous hypothesis that specific dimeric viral RNA:Gag interactions are the nucleation event of infectious virion assembly, ensuring that one RNA dimer is packaged......Most HIV-1 virions contain two copies of full-length viral RNA, indicating that genome packaging is efficient and tightly regulated. However, the structural protein Gag is the only component required for the assembly of noninfectious virus-like particles and the viral RNA is dispensable...... in this process. The mechanism that allows HIV-1 to achieve such high efficiency of genome packaging when a packageable viral RNA is not required for virus assembly is currently unknown. In this report, we examined the role of HIV-1 RNA in virus assembly and found that packageable HIV-1 RNA enhances particle...

  1. Radioactive waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  2. The Swarm Magnetometry Package

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merayo, José M.G.; Jørgensen, John Leif; Friis-Christensen, Eigil

    2008-01-01

    The Swarm mission under the ESA's Living Planet Programme is planned for launch in 2010 and consists of a constellation of three satellites at LEO. The prime objective of Swarm is to measure the geomagnetic field with unprecedented accuracy in space and time. The magnetometry package consists...

  3. Learning Activity Package, Algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Diane

    A set of ten teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in beginning algebra and nine in intermediate algebra, these units cover sets, properties of operations, number systems, open expressions, solution sets of equations and inequalities in one and two variables, exponents, factoring and polynomials, relations and functions, radicals,…

  4. Geothermal Greenhouse Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, K. [P.E.; Boyd, T. [ed.

    1997-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide a foundation of background information for developers of geothermal greenhouses. The material is divided into seven sections covering such issues as crop culture and prices, operating costs for greenhouses, heating system design, vendors and a list of other sources of information.

  5. Openability of tamperproof packaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Del Castillo C., A.; Wever, R.; Buijs, P.J.; Stevels, A.

    2007-01-01

    Communication, product protection and presentation are three key aspects in the world of packaging nowadays. Due to a retail landscape consisting of large stores, displaying packed products on the shelves in self-service environments, these aspects become increasingly important, not only for Fast

  6. Packaging LLW and ILW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, R.H.; Owen, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    Low level waste (LLW) accounts for 70-80% by volume of all radioactive wastes produced by the nuclear industry. It has low specific activity, negligible actinide content and requires little, if any, shielding to protect workers. Volume reduction for LLW of high volume but low density may be achieved by incineration and compaction as appropriate, before packaging for disposal by near surface burial. Intermediate level waste (ILW) is treated and packed to convert it into a stable form to minimize any release of activity and make handling easier. The matrix chosen for immobilization, usually cement, polymers or bitumen, depends on the nature of the waste and the acceptance criteria of the disposal facility. The special case of LLW and ILW which will arise from reactor decommissioning is discussed. Packaging methods adopted by individual countries are reviewed. The range of costs involved for packaging ILW is indicated. There is no international consensus on the performance required from packaged waste to ensure its suitability both for interim storage and final disposal. (UK)

  7. Aquaculture Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K. [editors

    1998-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements.

  8. CH Packaging Maintenance Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2002-01-01

    This procedure provides instructions for performing inner containment vessel (ICV) and outer containment vessel (OCV) maintenance and periodic leakage rate testing on the following packaging seals and corresponding seal surfaces using a nondestructive helium (He) leak test. In addition, this procedure provides instructions for performing ICV and OCV structural pressure tests

  9. Printer Graphics Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    Printer Graphics Package (PGP) is tool for making two-dimensional symbolic plots on line printer. PGP created to support development of Heads-Up Display (HUD) simulation. Standard symbols defined with HUD in mind. Available symbols include circle, triangle, quadrangle, window, line, numbers, and text. Additional symbols easily added or built up from available symbols.

  10. Type B drum packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, J.C.

    1994-08-01

    The Type B drum packages (TBD) are conceptualized as a family of containers in which a single 208 L or 114 L (55 gal or 30 gal) drum containing Type B quantities of radioactive material (RAM) can be packaged for shipment. The TBD containers are being developed to fill a void in the packaging and transportation capabilities of the U.S. Department of Energy as no container packaging single drums of Type B RAM exists offering double containment. Several multiple-drum containers currently exist, as well as a number of shielded casks, but the size and weight of these containers present many operational challenges for single-drum shipments. As an alternative, the TBD containers will offer up to three shielded versions (light, medium, and heavy) and one unshielded version, each offering single or optional double containment for a single drum. To reduce operational complexity, all versions will share similar design and operational features where possible. The primary users of the TBD containers are envisioned to be any organization desiring to ship single drums of Type B RAM, such as laboratories, waste retrieval activities, emergency response teams, etc. Currently, the TBD conceptual design is being developed with the final design and analysis to be completed in 1995 to 1996. Testing and certification of the unshielded version are planned to be completed in 1996 to 1997 with production to begin in 1997 to 1998

  11. Waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  12. The Assurance Challenges of Advanced Packaging Technologies for Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Advances in microelectronic parts performance are driving towards finer feature sizes, three-dimensional geometries and ever-increasing number of transistor equivalents that are resulting in increased die sizes and interconnection (I/O) counts. The resultant packaging necessary to provide assemble-ability, environmental protection, testability and interconnection to the circuit board for the active die creates major challenges, particularly for space applications, Traditionally, NASA has used hermetically packaged microcircuits whenever available but the new demands make hermetic packaging less and less practical at the same time as more and more expensive, Some part types of great interest to NASA designers are currently only available in non-hermetic packaging. It is a far more complex quality and reliability assurance challenge to gain confidence in the long-term survivability and effectiveness of nonhermetic packages than for hermetic ones. Although they may provide more rugged environmental protection than the familiar Plastic Encapsulated Microcircuits (PEMs), the non-hermetic Ceramic Column Grid Array (CCGA) packages that are the focus of this presentation present a unique combination of challenges to assessing their suitability for spaceflight use. The presentation will discuss the bases for these challenges, some examples of the techniques proposed to mitigate them and a proposed approach to a US MIL specification Class for non-hermetic microcircuits suitable for space application, Class Y, to be incorporated into M. IL-PRF-38535. It has recently emerged that some major packaging suppliers are offering hermetic area array packages that may offer alternatives to the nonhermetic CCGA styles but have also got their own inspectability and testability issues which will be briefly discussed in the presentation,

  13. Stepping-Motion Motor-Control Subsystem For Testing Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Charles E.

    1992-01-01

    Control subsystem closed-loop angular-position-control system causing motor and bearing under test to undergo any of variety of continuous or stepping motions. Also used to test bearing-and-motor assemblies, motors, angular-position sensors including rotating shafts, and like. Monitoring subsystem gathers data used to evaluate performance of bearing or other article under test. Monitoring subsystem described in article, "Monitoring Subsystem For Testing Bearings" (GSC-13432).

  14. Hazardous materials package performance regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, N.A.; Glass, R.E.; McClure, J.D.; Finley, N.C.

    1992-01-01

    The hazardous materials (hazmat) packaging development and certification process is currently defined by two different regulatory philosophies, one based on specification packagings and the other based on performance standards. With specification packagings, a packaging is constructed according to an agreed set of design specifications. In contrast, performance standards do not specify the packaging design; they specify performance standards that a packaging design must be able to pass before it can be certified for transport. The packaging can be designed according to individual needs as long as it meets these performance standards. Performance standards have been used nationally and internationally for about 40 years to certify radioactive materials (RAM) packagings. It is reasonable to state that for RAM transport, performance specifications have maintained transport safety. A committee of United Nation's experts recommended the performance standard philosophy as the preferred regulation method for hazmat packaging. Performance standards for hazmat packagings smaller than 118 gallons have been adopted in 49CFR178. Packagings for materials that are classified as toxic-by-inhalation must comply with the performance standards by October 1, 1993, and packagings for all other classes of hazardous materials covered must comply by October 1, 1996. For packages containing bulk (in excess of 188 gallons) quantities of materials that are extremely toxic by inhalation, there currently are no performance requirements. This paper discusses a Hazmat Packaging Performance Evaluation (HPPE) project to look at the subset of bulk packagings that are larger than 2000 gallons. The objectives of this project are the evaluate current hazmat specification packagings and develop supporting documentation for determining performance requirements for packagings in excess of 2000 gallons that transport hazardous materials that have been classified as extremely toxic by inhalation (METBI)

  15. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Makoto; Ogiya, Shunsuke.

    1989-01-01

    For improving the economy of a BWR type reactor by making the operation cycle longer, the fuel enrichment degree has to be increased further. However, this makes the subcriticality shallower in the upper portion of the reactor core, to bring about a possibility that the reactor shutdown becomes impossible. In the present invention, a portion of fuel rod is constituted as partial length fuel rods (P-fuel rods) in which the entire stack length in the effective portion is made shorter by reducing the concentration of fissionable materials in the axial portion. A plurality of moderator rods are disposed at least on one diagonal line of a fuel assembly and P-fuel rods are arranged at a position put between the moderator rods. This makes it possible to reactor shutdown and makes the axial power distribution satisfactory even if the fuel enrichment degree is increased. (T.M.)

  16. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bando, Masaru.

    1993-01-01

    As neutron irradiation progresses on a fuel assembly of an FBR type reactor, a strong force is exerted to cause ruptures if the arrangement of fuel elements is not displaced, whereas the fuel elements may be brought into direct contact with each other not by way of spacers to cause burning damages if the arrangement is displaced. In the present invention, the circumference of fuel elements arranged in a normal triangle lattice is surrounded by a wrapper tube having a hexagonal cross section, wire spacers are wound therearound, and deformable spacers are distributed to optional positions for fuel elements in the wrapper tube. Interaction between the fuel elements caused by irradiation is effectively absorbed, thereby enabling to delay the occurrence of the rupture and burning damages of the elements. (N.H.)

  17. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Makoto.

    1991-01-01

    In a fuel assembly in which spectral shift type moderator guide members are arranged, the moderator guide member has a flow channel resistance member, that provides flow resistance against the moderators, in the upstream of a moderator flowing channel, by which the ratio of removing coolants is set greater at the upstream than downstream. With such a constitution, the void distribution increasing upward in the channel box except for the portion of the moderator guide member is moderated by the increase of the area of the void region that expands downward in the guide member. Accordingly, the axial power distribution is flattened throughout the operation cycle and excess distortion is eliminated to improve the fuel integrity. (T.M.)

  18. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wataumi, Kazutoshi; Tajiri, Hiroshi.

    1992-01-01

    In a fuel assembly of a BWR type reactor, a pellet to be loaded comprises an external layer of fissile materials containing burnable poisons and an internal layer of fissile materials not containing burnable poison. For example, there is provided a dual type pellet comprising an external layer made of UO 2 incorporated with Gd 2 O 3 at a predetermined concentration as the burnable poisons and an internal layer made of UO 2 not containing Gd 2 O 3 . The amount of the burnable poisons required for predetermined places is controlled by the thickness of the ring of the external layer. This can dissipate an unnecessary poisoning effect at the final stage of the combustion cycle. Further, since only one or a few kinds of powder mixture of the burnable poisons and the fissile materials is necessary, production and product control can be facilitated. (I.N.)

  19. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Yoko; Aoyama, Motoo; Oyama, Jun-ichi.

    1995-01-01

    Burnable poison-incorporating fuel rods of a first group are disposed in a region in adjacent with a water rod having a large diameter (neutron moderator rod) disposed to the central portion of a fuel assembly. Burnable poison-incorporating fuel rods of a second group are disposed to a region other than peripheral zone in adjacent with a channel box and corners positioned at an inner zone, in adjacent with the channel box. The average concentration of burnable poisons of the burnable poison-incorporating fuel rods of the first group is made greater than that of the second group. With such a constitution, when the burnable poisons of the first group are burnt out, the burnable poisons of the second group are also burnt out at the same time. Accordingly, an amount of burnable poisons left unburnt at the final stage of the operation cycle is reduced, to improve the reactivity. This can improve the economical property. (I.N.)

  20. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Ritsuo.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the operation performance of a BWR type reactor by improving the distribution of the uranium enrichment and the incorporation amount of burnable poisons in fuel assemblies. Constitution: The average enrichment of uranium 235 is increased in the upper portion as compared with that in the lower portion, while the incorporation amount of burnable poisons is increased in an upper portion as compared with that in the lower portion. The difference in the incorporation amount of the burnable poisons between the upper and lower portions is attained by charging two kinds of fuel rods; the ones incorporated with the burnable poisons over the entire length and the others incorporated with the burnable poisons only in the upper portions. (Seki, T.)

  1. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.S. Domski

    2003-07-21

    The work associated with the development of this model report was performed in accordance with the requirements established in ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of SR and LA'' (BSC 2002a). The in-package chemistry model and in-package chemistry model abstraction are developed to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a failed waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry. The purpose of this work is to provide the abstraction model to the Performance Assessment Project and the Waste Form Department for development of geochemical models of the waste package interior. The scope of this model report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model and in-package chemistry model abstraction. The in-package chemistry model will consider chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) and codisposed high-level waste glass (HLWG) and N Reactor spent fuel (CDNR). The in-package chemistry model includes two sub-models, the first a water vapor condensation (WVC) model, where water enters a waste package as vapor and forms a film on the waste package components with subsequent film reactions with the waste package materials and waste form--this is a no-flow model, the reacted fluids do not exit the waste package via advection. The second sub-model of the in-package chemistry model is the seepage dripping model (SDM), where water, water that may have seeped into the repository from the surrounding rock, enters a failed waste package and reacts with the waste package components and waste form, and then exits the waste package with no accumulation of reacted water in the waste package. Both of the submodels of the in-package chemistry model are film models in contrast to past in-package chemistry models where all of the waste package pore space was filled with water. The

  2. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P.S. Domski

    2003-01-01

    The work associated with the development of this model report was performed in accordance with the requirements established in ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of SR and LA'' (BSC 2002a). The in-package chemistry model and in-package chemistry model abstraction are developed to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a failed waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry. The purpose of this work is to provide the abstraction model to the Performance Assessment Project and the Waste Form Department for development of geochemical models of the waste package interior. The scope of this model report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model and in-package chemistry model abstraction. The in-package chemistry model will consider chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) and codisposed high-level waste glass (HLWG) and N Reactor spent fuel (CDNR). The in-package chemistry model includes two sub-models, the first a water vapor condensation (WVC) model, where water enters a waste package as vapor and forms a film on the waste package components with subsequent film reactions with the waste package materials and waste form--this is a no-flow model, the reacted fluids do not exit the waste package via advection. The second sub-model of the in-package chemistry model is the seepage dripping model (SDM), where water, water that may have seeped into the repository from the surrounding rock, enters a failed waste package and reacts with the waste package components and waste form, and then exits the waste package with no accumulation of reacted water in the waste package. Both of the submodels of the in-package chemistry model are film models in contrast to past in-package chemistry models where all of the waste package pore space was filled with water. The current in-package

  3. Interface thermal characteristics of flip chip packages - A numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandasamy, Ravi; Mujumdar, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Flip chip ball grid array (FC-BGA) packages are commonly used for high inputs/outputs (I/O) ICs; they have been proven to provide good solutions for a variety of applications to maximize thermal and electrical performance. A fundamental limitation to such devices is the thermal resistance at the top of the package, which is characterized θ JC parameter. The die-to-lid interface thermal resistance is identified as a critical issue for the thermal management of electronic packages. This paper focuses on the effect of the interface material property changes on the interface thermal resistance. The effect of package's junction to case (Theta-JC or θ JC ) thermal performance is investigated for bare die, flat lid and cup lid packages using a validated thermal model. Thermal performance of a cup or flat lid attached and bare die packages were investigated for different interface materials. Improved Theta-JC performance was observed for the large die as compared to the smaller die. Several parametric studies were carried out to understand the effects of interface bond line thickness (BLT), different die sizes, the average void size during assembly and thermal conductivity of interface materials on package thermal resistance

  4. Packaging design criteria for the Hanford Ecorok Packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercado, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    The Hanford Ecorok Packaging (HEP) will be used to ship contaminated water purification filters from K Basins to the Central Waste Complex. This packaging design criteria documents the design of the HEP, its intended use, and the transportation safety criteria it is required to meet. This information will serve as a basis for the safety analysis report for packaging

  5. Dual Use Packaging, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA seeks down-weighted packaging compatible with microwave preparation and perhaps high hydrostatic pressure processing. New packaging must satisfy NASA's 3-year...

  6. Food packaging history and innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Sara J

    2009-09-23

    Food packaging has evolved from simply a container to hold food to something today that can play an active role in food quality. Many packages are still simply containers, but they have properties that have been developed to protect the food. These include barriers to oxygen, moisture, and flavors. Active packaging, or that which plays an active role in food quality, includes some microwave packaging as well as packaging that has absorbers built in to remove oxygen from the atmosphere surrounding the product or to provide antimicrobials to the surface of the food. Packaging has allowed access to many foods year-round that otherwise could not be preserved. It is interesting to note that some packages have actually allowed the creation of new categories in the supermarket. Examples include microwave popcorn and fresh-cut produce, which owe their existence to the unique packaging that has been developed.

  7. Electronic manufacturing and packaging in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael J.; Boulton, William R. (Editor); Kukowski, John A.; Meieran, Eugene S.; Pecht, Michael; Peeples, John W.; Tummala, Rao R.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the status of electronic manufacturing and packaging technology in Japan in comparison to that in the United States, and its impact on competition in electronic manufacturing in general. In addition to electronic manufacturing technologies, the report covers technology and manufacturing infrastructure, electronics manufacturing and assembly, quality assurance and reliability in the Japanese electronics industry, and successful product realization strategies. The panel found that Japan leads the United States in almost every electronics packaging technology. Japan clearly has achieved a strategic advantage in electronics production and process technologies. Panel members believe that Japanese competitors could be leading U.S. firms by as much as a decade in some electronics process technologies. Japan has established this marked competitive advantage in electronics as a consequence of developing low-cost, high-volume consumer products. Japan's infrastructure, and the remarkable cohesiveness of vision and purpose in government and industry, are key factors in the success of Japan's electronics industry. Although Japan will continue to dominate consumer electronics in the foreseeable future, opportunities exist for the United States and other industrial countries to capture an increasingly large part of the market. The JTEC panel has identified no insurmountable barriers that would prevent the United States from regaining a significant share of the consumer electronics market; in fact, there is ample evidence that the United States needs to aggressively pursue high-volume, low-cost electronic assembly, because it is a critical path leading to high-performance electronic systems.

  8. 3000 Horsepower super conductive field acyclic motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, R.

    1983-01-01

    A 3000 hp acyclic motor was assembled and tested utilizing superconducting field coils. The magnet assembly is designed as a quadrupole magnet, utilizing a multifilamentary niobium titanium superconductor. Each magnet coil is 18 inches in diameter and 10 inches long, and operates at rated current of 200 amperes, providing 5.8 tesla in the bore of the coils in the motor configuration. The average winding current density is 10,600 A/cm 2 . The acyclic motor is of a drum-type design with liquid metal current collectors, and is designed to model full-scale machinery for ship propulsion applications. Laboratory test data verified the electrical and electromagnetic design to be within three percent of the calculated values

  9. Group constants calculation for fuel assemblies containing burnable absorbers; Prorachun grupnih konstanti gorivnih elemenata koji sadrzhe sagorive apsorbere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, B [Institut Rudjer Boskovic, Zagreb (Yugoslavia); Pevec, D [Elektrotehnicki Fakultet, Zagreb Univ. (Yugoslavia); Urli, N; Shmuc, T [Institut Rudjer Boskovic, Zagreb (Yugoslavia)

    1988-07-01

    The upgrading of the computer code package PSU-LEOPARD/MCRAC is described. The upgraded package enables modelling of fuel assemblies containing burnable absorbers in the form of borosilicate glass rodlets, or, integral fuel burnable absorbers. The package is tested using the NPP Krsko core data. (author)

  10. Fair Package Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahaie, Sébastien; Parkes, David C.

    We consider the problem of fair allocation in the package assignment model, where a set of indivisible items, held by single seller, must be efficiently allocated to agents with quasi-linear utilities. A fair assignment is one that is efficient and envy-free. We consider a model where bidders have superadditive valuations, meaning that items are pure complements. Our central result is that core outcomes are fair and even coalition-fair over this domain, while fair distributions may not even exist for general valuations. Of relevance to auction design, we also establish that the core is equivalent to the set of anonymous-price competitive equilibria, and that superadditive valuations are a maximal domain that guarantees the existence of anonymous-price competitive equilibrium. Our results are analogs of core equivalence results for linear prices in the standard assignment model, and for nonlinear, non-anonymous prices in the package assignment model with general valuations.

  11. Anticounterfeit packaging technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchir Y Shah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Packaging is the coordinated system that encloses and protects the dosage form. Counterfeit drugs are the major cause of morbidity, mortality, and failure of public interest in the healthcare system. High price and well-known brands make the pharma market most vulnerable, which accounts for top priority cardiovascular, obesity, and antihyperlipidemic drugs and drugs like sildenafil. Packaging includes overt and covert technologies like barcodes, holograms, sealing tapes, and radio frequency identification devices to preserve the integrity of the pharmaceutical product. But till date all the available techniques are synthetic and although provide considerable protection against counterfeiting, have certain limitations which can be overcome by the application of natural approaches and utilization of the principles of nanotechnology.

  12. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington TRU Solutions, LLC

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the SARP and/or C of C shall govern. The C of C states: ''...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, ''Operating Procedures,'' of the application.'' It further states: ''...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, ''Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M and O) contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR (section) 71.11, ''Deliberate Misconduct.'' Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the RH-TRU 72-B packaging. This Program Guidance standardizes instructions for all users. Users shall follow these instructions. Following these instructions assures that operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARP. This document is available on the Internet at: ttp://www.ws/library/t2omi/t2omi.htm. Users are responsible for ensuring they are using the current revision and change notices. Sites may prepare their own document using the word

  13. Irradiation of packaged food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcast, D.

    1990-01-01

    Food irradiation is used to improve the safety of food by killing insects and microorganisms, to inhibit sprouting in crops such as onions and potatoes and to control ripening in agricultural produce. In order to prevent re-infestation and re-contamination it is essential that the food is suitably packed. Consequently, the packaging material is irradiated whilst in contact with the food, and it is important that the material is resistant to radiation-induced changes. In this paper the nature of the irradiation process is reviewed briefly, together with the known effects of irradiation on packaging materials and their implications for the effective application of food irradiation. Recent research carried out at the Leatherhead Food RA on the possibility of taint transfer into food is described. (author)

  14. Technology transfer packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizon, G.A.; Bleasdale, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear power is firmly established in many developed countries'energy policies and is being adopted by emerging nations as an attractive way of gaining energy self sufficiency. The early users of nuclear power had to develop the technology that they needed, which now, through increasing world wide experience, has been rationalised to meet demanding economic and environmental pressures. These justifiable pressures, can lead to existing suppliers of nuclear services to consider changing to more appropriate technologies and for new suppliers to consider licensing proven technology rather then incurring the cost of developing new alternatives. The transfer of technology, under license, is made more straight forward if the owner conveniently groups appropriate technology into packages. This paper gives examples of 'Technology Packages' and suggests criteria for the specification, selection and contractual requirements to ensure successful licensing

  15. Integration of Flex Nozzle System and Electro Hydraulic Actuators to Solid Rocket Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayani, Kishore Nath; Bajaj, Dinesh Kumar

    2017-10-01

    A rocket motor assembly comprised of solid rocket motor and flex nozzle system. Integration of flex nozzle system and hydraulic actuators to the solid rocket motors are done after transportation to the required place where integration occurred. The flex nozzle system is integrated to the rocket motor in horizontal condition and the electro hydraulic actuators are assembled to the flex nozzle systems. The electro hydraulic actuators are connected to the hydraulic power pack to operate the actuators. The nozzle-motor critical interface are insulation diametrical compression, inhibition resin-28, insulation facial compression, shaft seal `O' ring compression and face seal `O' ring compression.

  16. Amdahl 470 Chip Package

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    In the late 70s the larger IBM computers were water cooled. Amdahl, an IBM competitor, invented an air cooling technology for it's computers. His company worked hard, developing a computer that was faster and less expensive than the IBM System/360 mainframe computer systems. This object contains an actual Amdahl series 470 computer logic chip with an air cooling device mounted on top. The package leads and cooling tower are gold-plated.

  17. Aquaculture information package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K.

    1998-08-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background information to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements. A bibliography containing 68 references is also included.

  18. The CASA Software Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Dirk

    2018-03-01

    CASA is the standard science data analysis package for ALMA and VLA but it can also be used for the analysis of data from other observatories. In this talk, I will give an overview of the structure and features of CASA, who develops it, and the present status and plans, and then show typical analysis workflows for ALMA data with special emphasis on the handling of single dish data and its combination with interferometric data.

  19. The Ettention software package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahmen, Tim; Marsalek, Lukas; Marniok, Nico; Turoňová, Beata; Bogachev, Sviatoslav; Trampert, Patrick; Nickels, Stefan; Slusallek, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel software package for the problem “reconstruction from projections” in electron microscopy. The Ettention framework consists of a set of modular building-blocks for tomographic reconstruction algorithms. The well-known block iterative reconstruction method based on Kaczmarz algorithm is implemented using these building-blocks, including adaptations specific to electron tomography. Ettention simultaneously features (1) a modular, object-oriented software design, (2) optimized access to high-performance computing (HPC) platforms such as graphic processing units (GPU) or many-core architectures like Xeon Phi, and (3) accessibility to microscopy end-users via integration in the IMOD package and eTomo user interface. We also provide developers with a clean and well-structured application programming interface (API) that allows for extending the software easily and thus makes it an ideal platform for algorithmic research while hiding most of the technical details of high-performance computing. - Highlights: • Novel software package for “reconstruction from projections” in electron microscopy. • Support for high-resolution reconstructions on iterative reconstruction algorithms. • Support for CPU, GPU and Xeon Phi. • Integration in the IMOD software. • Platform for algorithm researchers: object oriented, modular design.

  20. The Ettention software package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahmen, Tim, E-mail: Tim.Dahmen@dfki.de [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence GmbH (DFKI), 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Marsalek, Lukas [Eyen SE, Na Nivách 1043/16, 141 00 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Marniok, Nico [Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Turoňová, Beata [Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); IMPRS-CS, Max-Planck Institute for Informatics, Campus E 1.4, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Bogachev, Sviatoslav [Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Trampert, Patrick; Nickels, Stefan [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence GmbH (DFKI), 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Slusallek, Philipp [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence GmbH (DFKI), 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    We present a novel software package for the problem “reconstruction from projections” in electron microscopy. The Ettention framework consists of a set of modular building-blocks for tomographic reconstruction algorithms. The well-known block iterative reconstruction method based on Kaczmarz algorithm is implemented using these building-blocks, including adaptations specific to electron tomography. Ettention simultaneously features (1) a modular, object-oriented software design, (2) optimized access to high-performance computing (HPC) platforms such as graphic processing units (GPU) or many-core architectures like Xeon Phi, and (3) accessibility to microscopy end-users via integration in the IMOD package and eTomo user interface. We also provide developers with a clean and well-structured application programming interface (API) that allows for extending the software easily and thus makes it an ideal platform for algorithmic research while hiding most of the technical details of high-performance computing. - Highlights: • Novel software package for “reconstruction from projections” in electron microscopy. • Support for high-resolution reconstructions on iterative reconstruction algorithms. • Support for CPU, GPU and Xeon Phi. • Integration in the IMOD software. • Platform for algorithm researchers: object oriented, modular design.

  1. SCAMPI: A code package for cross-section processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, C.V.; Petrie, L.M.; Bowman, S.M.; Broadhead, B.L.; Greene, N.M.; White, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    The SCAMPI code package consists of a set of SCALE and AMPX modules that have been assembled to facilitate user needs for preparation of problem-specific, multigroup cross-section libraries. The function of each module contained in the SCANTI code package is discussed, along with illustrations of their use in practical analyses. Ideas are presented for future work that can enable one-step processing from a fine-group, problem-independent library to a broad-group, problem-specific library ready for a shielding analysis

  2. SCAMPI: A code package for cross-section processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks, C.V.; Petrie, L.M.; Bowman, S.M.; Broadhead, B.L.; Greene, N.M.; White, J.E.

    1996-04-01

    The SCAMPI code package consists of a set of SCALE and AMPX modules that have been assembled to facilitate user needs for preparation of problem-specific, multigroup cross-section libraries. The function of each module contained in the SCANTI code package is discussed, along with illustrations of their use in practical analyses. Ideas are presented for future work that can enable one-step processing from a fine-group, problem-independent library to a broad-group, problem-specific library ready for a shielding analysis.

  3. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirukawa, Koji; Sakurada, Koichi.

    1992-01-01

    In a fuel assembly for a BWR type reactor, water rods or water crosses are disposed between fuel rods, and a value with a spring is disposed at the top of the coolant flow channel thereof, which opens a discharge port when pressure is increased to greater than a predetermined value. Further, a control element for the amount of coolant flow rate is inserted retractable to a control element guide tube formed at the lower portion of the water rod or the water cross. When the amount of control elements inserted to the control element guide tube is small and the inflown coolant flow rate is great, the void coefficient at the inside of the water rod is less than 5%. On the other hand, when the control elements are inserted, the flow resistance is increased, so that the void coefficient in the water rod is greater than 80%. When the pressure in the water rod is increased, the valve with the spring is raised to escape water or steams. Then, since the variation range of the change of the void coefficient can be controlled reliably by the amount of the control elements inserted, and nuclear fuel materials can be utilized effectively. (N.H.)

  4. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraiwa, Koji; Ueda, Makoto

    1989-01-01

    In a fuel assembly used for a light water cooled reactor such as a BWR type reactor, a water rod is divided axially into an upper outer tube and a lower outer tube by means of a plug disposed from the lower end of a water rod to a position 1/4 - 1/2 of the entire length for the water rod. Inlet apertures and exit apertures for moderators are respectively perforated for the divided outer tube and upper and lower portions. Further, an upper inner tube with less neutron irradiation growing amount than the outer tube is perforated on the plug in the outer tube, while a lower inner tube with greater neutron irradiation growing amount than the outer tube is suspended from the lower surface of the plug in the outer tube. Then, the opening area for the exit apertures disposed to the upper outer tube and the lower outer tube is controlled depending on the difference of the neutron irradiation growing amount between the upper inner tube and the upper outer tube, and the difference of the neutron irradiation growing amount between the lower inner tube and the lower outer tube. This enables effective spectral shift operation and improve the fuel economy. (T.M.)

  5. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hajime.

    1995-01-01

    In a fuel assembly having fuel rods of different length, fuel pellets of mixed oxides of uranium and plutonium are loaded to a short fuel rod. The volume ratio of a pellet-loaded portion to a plenum portion of the short fuel rod is made greater than the volume ratio of a fuel rod to which uranium fuel pellets are loaded. In addition, the volume of the plenum portion of the short fuel rod is set greater depending on the plutonium content in the loaded fuel pellets. MOX fuel pellets are loaded on the short fuel rods having a greater degree of freedom relevant to the setting for the volume of the plenum portion compared with that of a long rod fuel, and the volume of the plenum portion is ensured greater depending on the plutonium content. Even if a large amount of FP gas and He gas are discharged from the MOX fuels compared with that from the uranium fuels, the internal pressure of the MOX fuel rod during operation is maintained substantially identical with that of the uranium fuel rod, so that a risk of generating excess stresses applied to the fuel cladding tubes and rupture of fuels are greatly reduced. (N.H.)

  6. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Akiyoshi; Bessho, Yasunori; Aoyama, Motoo; Koyama, Jun-ichi; Hirakawa, Hiromasa; Yamashita, Jun-ichi; Hayashi, Tatsuo

    1998-01-01

    In a fuel assembly of a BWR type reactor in which a water rod of a large diameter is disposed at the central portion, the cross sectional area perpendicular to the axial direction comprises a region a of a fuel rod group facing to a wide gap water region to which a control rod is inserted, a region b of a fuel rod group disposed on the side of the wide gap water region other than the region a, a region d of a fuel rod group facing to a narrow gap water region and a region c of a fuel rod group disposed on the side of the narrow gap water region other than the region d. When comparing an amount of fission products contained in the four regions relative to that in the entire regions and average enrichment degrees of fuel rods for the four regions, the relative amount and the average enrichment degree of the fuel rod group of the region a is minimized, and the relative amount and the average enrichment degree of the fuel rod group in the region b is maximized. Then, reactor shut down margin during cold operation can be improved while flattening the power in the cross section perpendicular to the axial direction. (N.H.)

  7. Automated ensemble assembly and validation of microbial genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The continued democratization of DNA sequencing has sparked a new wave of development of genome assembly and assembly validation methods. As individual research labs, rather than centralized centers, begin to sequence the majority of new genomes, it is important to establish best practices for genome assembly. However, recent evaluations such as GAGE and the Assemblathon have concluded that there is no single best approach to genome assembly. Instead, it is preferable to generate multiple assemblies and validate them to determine which is most useful for the desired analysis; this is a labor-intensive process that is often impossible or unfeasible. Results To encourage best practices supported by the community, we present iMetAMOS, an automated ensemble assembly pipeline; iMetAMOS encapsulates the process of running, validating, and selecting a single assembly from multiple assemblies. iMetAMOS packages several leading open-source tools into a single binary that automates parameter selection and execution of multiple assemblers, scores the resulting assemblies based on multiple validation metrics, and annotates the assemblies for genes and contaminants. We demonstrate the utility of the ensemble process on 225 previously unassembled Mycobacterium tuberculosis genomes as well as a Rhodobacter sphaeroides benchmark dataset. On these real data, iMetAMOS reliably produces validated assemblies and identifies potential contamination without user intervention. In addition, intelligent parameter selection produces assemblies of R. sphaeroides comparable to or exceeding the quality of those from the GAGE-B evaluation, affecting the relative ranking of some assemblers. Conclusions Ensemble assembly with iMetAMOS provides users with multiple, validated assemblies for each genome. Although computationally limited to small or mid-sized genomes, this approach is the most effective and reproducible means for generating high-quality assemblies and enables users to

  8. Ensuring socially responsible packaging design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    Most consumers have experienced occasional problems with opening packaging. Tomato sauce from the tinned mackerel splattered all over the kitchen counter, the unrelenting pickle jar lid, and the package of sliced ham that cannot be opened without a knife or a pair of scissors. The research project...... "User‐friendly Packaging" aims to create a platform for developing more user‐friendly packaging. One intended outcome of the project is a guideline that industry can use in development efforts. The project also points the way for more extended collaboration between companies and design researchers. How...... can design research help industry in packaging innovation?...

  9. Packaging based on polymeric materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Slobodan M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past two years the consumption of common in the developed countries world wide (high tonnage polymers for packaging has approached a value of 50 wt.%. In the same period more than 50% of the packaging units on the world market were made of polymeric materials despite the fact that polymeric materials present 17 wt.% of all packaging materials. The basic properties of polymeric materials and their environmental and economical advantages, providing them such a position among packaging materials, are presented in this article. Recycling methods, as well as the development trends of polymeric packaging materials are also presented.

  10. Plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This document describes the functional design of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE standard for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This system will support completion of stabilization and packaging campaigns of the inventory at a number of affected sites before the year 2002. The package will be standard for all sites and will provide a minimum of two uncontaminated, organics free confinement barriers for the packaged material

  11. Destructive examination of shipping package 9975-02101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Destructive and non-destructive examinations have been performed on the components of shipping package 9975-02101 as part of the comprehensive Model 9975 package surveillance program. This package is one of ten high-wattage packages that were selected for field surveillance in FY15, and was identified to contain several non-conforming conditions. Most of these conditions (mold, stains, drum corrosion, calculated fiberboard dimensions and fiberboard damage) relate to the accumulation of water in the outer and lower portions of the cane fiberboard assembly. In the short term, this causes local but reversible changes in the fiberboard properties. Long-term effects can include the permanent loss of fiberboard properties (thus far observed only in the bottom fiberboard layers) and reduced drum integrity due to corrosion. The observed conditions must be fully evaluated by KAC to ensure the safety function of the package is being maintained. Three of the other nine FY15 high-wattage packages examined in the K-Area Complex showed similar behavior. Corrosion of the overpack drum has been seen primarily in those packages with relatively severe fiberboard degradation. Visual examination of the drums in storage for external corrosion should be considered as a screening tool to identify additional packages with potential fiberboard degradation. Where overpack drum corrosion has been observed, it is typically heaviest adjacent to the stitch welds along the bottom edge. It is possible that changes to the stitch weld design would reduce the degree of corrosion in this area, but would not eliminate it. Several factors can contribute to the concentration of moisture in the fiberboard, including higher than average initial moisture content, higher internal temperature (due to internal heat load and placement with the array of packages), and the creation of additional moisture as the fiberboard begins to degrade.

  12. Certification test for safety of new fuel transportation package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aritomi, Masanori; Sugawa, Osami; Suga, Masao.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this certification test is to prove the safety of new fuel transportation package against a fire of actual size caused by traffic accidents. After the fire test, the fuel assemblies were covered with coal-tar like material vaporized from anti-shock material used in the container. Surface color of BWR-type fuel assembly was dark grey that is supposed to be the color of oxide of Zircaloy. As for PWR-type fuel assembly, the condition encountered during fire test caused no change to the outlook of the rod element. Both the BWR and PWR type fuel rod elements showed no deformation and were completely sound. Therefore it may be concluded that the container protected the mimic fuel assemblies against fire of 30 minutes duration and caused no damage. This report is the result of the above experiments and examinations, and we appreciate the cooperation of those who are concerned. (J.P.N.)

  13. Fine motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gross (large, general) motor control. An example of gross motor control is waving an arm in greeting. Problems ... out the child's developmental age. Children develop fine motor skills over time, by practicing and being taught. To ...

  14. Power Electronics Packaging Reliability | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packaging Reliability Power Electronics Packaging Reliability A photo of a piece of power electronics laboratory equipment. NREL power electronics packaging reliability research investigates the electronics packaging around a semiconductor switching device determines the electrical, thermal, and

  15. Molecular automata assembly: principles and simulation of bacterial membrane construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahoz-Beltra, R

    1997-01-01

    The motivation to understand the basic rules and principles governing molecular self-assembly may be relevant to explain in the context of molecular biology the self-organization and biological functions exhibited within cells. This paper presents a molecular automata model to simulate molecular self-assembly introducing the concept of molecular programming to simulate the biological function or operation performed by an assembled molecular state machine. The method is illustrated modelling Escherichia coli membrane construction including the assembly and operation of ATP synthase as well as the assembly of the bacterial flagellar motor. Flagellar motor operation was simulated using a different approach based on state machine definition used in virtual reality systems. The proposed methodology provides a modelling framework for simulation of biological functions performed by cellular components and other biological systems suitable to be modelled as molecular state machines.

  16. Evaluation of efficiency of axial profiling in WWER-440 fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananjev, Yu. A.; Kurakin, K. Yu.; Artemov, V.G.; Ivanov, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    The present report deals with consideration of fuel enrichment axial profiling in WWER-440 assemblies. The study is performed on improving the effectiveness of fuel utilization using the example of implementing the axial profiling in the assemblies of the second generation. For simulation of fuel loadings the computer code package SAPFIR 9 5 and RC is used that allows for correct consideration of specific features of assemblies design changes. The methodical approach to assessment of effectiveness of implementing the axial profiling is considered with the use of capabilities of the mentioned code package. In conclusion the recommendations are given on using the fuel enrichment axial profiling in WWER-440 assemblies (Authors)

  17. Motor control for a brushless DC motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, William J. (Inventor); Faulkner, Dennis T. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to a motor control system for a brushless DC motor having an inverter responsively coupled to the motor control system and in power transmitting relationship to the motor. The motor control system includes a motor rotor speed detecting unit that provides a pulsed waveform signal proportional to rotor speed. This pulsed waveform signal is delivered to the inverter to thereby cause an inverter fundamental current waveform output to the motor to be switched at a rate proportional to said rotor speed. In addition, the fundamental current waveform is also pulse width modulated at a rate proportional to the rotor speed. A fundamental current waveform phase advance circuit is controllingly coupled to the inverter. The phase advance circuit is coupled to receive the pulsed waveform signal from the motor rotor speed detecting unit and phase advance the pulsed waveform signal as a predetermined function of motor speed to thereby cause the fundamental current waveform to be advanced and thereby compensate for fundamental current waveform lag due to motor winding reactance which allows the motor to operate at higher speeds than the motor is rated while providing optimal torque and therefore increased efficiency.

  18. Packaging - Materials review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Matthias [Hoppecke Advanced Battery Technology GmbH, 08056 Zwickau (Germany)

    2014-06-16

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  19. Packaging - Materials review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  20. Packaging - Materials review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  1. Wafer-level vacuum/hermetic packaging technologies for MEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Mitchell, Jay; Welch, Warren; Lee, Sangwoo; Najafi, Khalil

    2010-02-01

    An overview of wafer-level packaging technologies developed at the University of Michigan is presented. Two sets of packaging technologies are discussed: (i) a low temperature wafer-level packaging processes for vacuum/hermeticity sealing, and (ii) an environmentally resistant packaging (ERP) technology for thermal and mechanical control as well as vacuum packaging. The low temperature wafer-level encapsulation processes are implemented using solder bond rings which are first patterned on a cap wafer and then mated with a device wafer in order to encircle and encapsulate the device at temperatures ranging from 200 to 390 °C. Vacuum levels below 10 mTorr were achieved with yields in an optimized process of better than 90%. Pressures were monitored for more than 4 years yielding important information on reliability and process control. The ERP adopts an environment isolation platform in the packaging substrate. The isolation platform is designed to provide low power oven-control, vibration isolation and shock protection. It involves batch flip-chip assembly of a MEMS device onto the isolation platform wafer. The MEMS device and isolation structure are encapsulated at the wafer-level by another substrate with vertical feedthroughs for vacuum/hermetic sealing and electrical signal connections. This technology was developed for high performance gyroscopes, but can be applied to any type of MEMS device.

  2. Emerging Chitosan-Based Films for Food Packaging Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongxia; Qian, Jun; Ding, Fuyuan

    2018-01-17

    Recent years have witnessed great developments in biobased polymer packaging films for the serious environmental problems caused by the petroleum-based nonbiodegradable packaging materials. Chitosan is one of the most abundant biopolymers after cellulose. Chitosan-based materials have been widely applied in various fields for their biological and physical properties of biocompatibility, biodegradability, antimicrobial ability, and easy film forming ability. Different chitosan-based films have been fabricated and applied in the field of food packaging. Most of the review papers related to chitosan-based films are focusing on antibacterial food packaging films. Along with the advances in the nanotechnology and polymer science, numerous strategies, for instance direct casting, coating, dipping, layer-by-layer assembly, and extrusion, have been employed to prepare chitosan-based films with multiple functionalities. The emerging food packaging applications of chitosan-based films as antibacterial films, barrier films, and sensing films have achieved great developments. This article comprehensively reviews recent advances in the preparation and application of engineered chitosan-based films in food packaging fields.

  3. Transport experience of new ''TNF-XI'' powder package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, I.; Fujiwara, T.; Naigeon, P.

    2004-01-01

    Since the Tokai criticality accident in 1999, there has been no specialized manufacturer conducting uranium re-conversion in Japan. For this reason, Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd. (NFI) imports from overseas almost all the uranium oxide powder used for manufacturing pellets for nuclear fuel assemblies. To date, an NT-IX package has been used for transporting the uranium oxide powder. However, due to the adoption of IAEA TS-R-1 into Japanese domestic regulations, we have begun to use a new TNF-XI powder package because the NT-IX package can suffer major deformation under the drop test III condition. The TNF-XI package was jointly developed by COGEMA LOGISTICS of France and NFI from 2000, and started to be used for actual transportation in 2003. This package has improved transport efficiency, handling operability and safety performance in comparison to its predecessor. This paper describes the characteristics of the new TNF-XI package and its actual transportation records and performance

  4. Magnetic self-assembly of small parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetye, Sheetal B.

    Modern society's propensity for miniaturized end-user products is compelling electronic manufacturers to assemble and package different micro-scale, multi-technology components in more efficient and cost-effective manners. As the size of the components gets smaller, issues such as part sticking and alignment precision create challenges that slow the throughput of conventional robotic pick-n-place systems. As an alternative, various self-assembly approaches have been proposed to manipulate micro to millimeter scale components in a parallel fashion without human or robotic intervention. In this dissertation, magnetic self-assembly (MSA) is demonstrated as a highly efficient, completely parallel process for assembly of millimeter scale components. MSA is achieved by integrating permanent micromagnets onto component bonding surfaces using wafer-level microfabrication processes. Embedded bonded powder methods are used for fabrication of the magnets. The magnets are then magnetized using pulse magnetization methods, and the wafers are then singulated to form individual components. When the components are randomly mixed together, self-assembly occurs when the intermagnetic forces overcome the mixing forces. Analytical and finite element methods (FEM) are used to study the force interactions between the micromagnets. The multifunctional aspects of MSA are presented through demonstration of part-to-part and part-to-substrate assembly of 1 mm x 1mm x 0.5 mm silicon components. Part-to-part assembly is demonstrated by batch assembly of free-floating parts in a liquid environment with the assembly yield of different magnetic patterns varying from 88% to 90% in 20 s. Part-to-substrate assembly is demonstrated by assembling an ordered array onto a fixed substrate in a dry environment with the assembly yield varying from 86% to 99%. In both cases, diverse magnetic shapes/patterns are used to control the alignment and angular orientation of the components. A mathematical model is

  5. Packaging-radiation disinfestation relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highland, H.A.

    1985-01-01

    Foods that are susceptible to insect infestation can be irradiated to destroy the infestation; however, the food must be kept essentially insect-free until consumed, or it must be disinfested again, perhaps repeatedly. Insect-resistant packages can be used to prevent reinfestation, but there are certain requirements that must be fulfilled before a package can be made insect resistant. These include the use of insect-light construction and packaging materials that resist boring insects. The relative insect resistance of various packages and packaging materials is discussed, as are behavior traits such as egressive boring that enables insects to escape from packages and the ability of insects to climb on various packaging materials. Some successful and unsuccessful attempts to make various types of packages insect resistant are discussed, as are factors that must be considered in the selection or development of insect-resistant packages for radiation disinfested foods. The latter factors include biological and physical environments, length of storage periods, stresses on packages during shipment, types of storage facilities, governmental regulations, health requirements, and others

  6. Radioactive material packaging performance testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, T.; Cruse, J.M.

    1991-02-01

    To provide uniform packaging of hazardous materials on an international level, the United Nations has developed packaging recommendations that have been implemented worldwide. The United Nations packaging recommendations are performance oriented, allowing for a wide variety of package materials and systems. As a result of this international standard, efforts in the United States are being directed toward use of performance-oriented packaging and elimination of specification (designed) packaging. This presentation will focus on trends, design evaluation, and performance testing of radioactive material packaging. The impacts of US Department of Transportation Dockets HM-181 and HM-169A on specification and low-specific activity radioactive material packaging requirements are briefly discussed. The US Department of Energy's program for evaluating radioactive material packings per US Department of Transportation Specification 7A Type A requirements, is used as the basis for discussing low-activity packaging performance test requirements. High-activity package testing requirements are presented with examples of testing performed at the Hanford Site that is operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. 5 refs., 2 tabs

  7. THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF THE INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT OF THE PROCESS OF ASSEMBLY AND THREADING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Skorkin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of this article is the issues related to the integrated management of assembling operations of fastening and threading elements at all stages of their implementation. The goal is to develop the generalized structure of the data management system of the process of assembly and threading. The objectives are: to justify the principles of managing the assembly and threading process at each stage of the assembly to improve the efficiency of these operations, to study the power, accuracy and performance characteristics of the connections and to draw the conclusion that suggested the theory of assembly management is efficient. The following results are obtained. The article presents the analytical dependencies of the force indexes of threading in the course of the package and sheet assembly, including the tightening force while joining; the assembly of a multilayered package of dissimilar sheet materials was analyzed. On the basis of the theoretical analysis, the dependences of the power indices of threading during the package and sheet assembly were determined. The assembly of the package of sheet materials was investigated, including a multilayered package of dissimilar materials of a “metal-plastic” type. Conclusions. The process of assembling threaded joints with the use of management principles was used; these principles enable increasing the efficiency of the assembly process, reducing the complexity of the basic operations, and improving the quality of the joints obtained. The use adaptive control of the screwing speed on the main threading transitions is suggested for reducing the torque.  The technology of making threaded joints with given properties is developed, the main ways of increasing the efficiency of assembly and threading processes are determined on the basis of the integrated control system for the assembly process.

  8. Safety Analysis Report for packaging (onsite) steel waste package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2000-07-13

    The steel waste package is used primarily for the shipment of remote-handled radioactive waste from the 324 Building to the 200 Area for interim storage. The steel waste package is authorized for shipment of transuranic isotopes. The maximum allowable radioactive material that is authorized is 500,000 Ci. This exceeds the highway route controlled quantity (3,000 A{sub 2}s) and is a type B packaging.

  9. Safety Analysis Report for packaging (onsite) steel waste package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2000-01-01

    The steel waste package is used primarily for the shipment of remote-handled radioactive waste from the 324 Building to the 200 Area for interim storage. The steel waste package is authorized for shipment of transuranic isotopes. The maximum allowable radioactive material that is authorized is 500,000 Ci. This exceeds the highway route controlled quantity (3,000 A 2 s) and is a type B packaging

  10. Role of the CCA bulge of prohead RNA of bacteriophage ø29 in DNA packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Morais, Marc C; Anderson, Dwight L; Jardine, Paul J; Grimes, Shelley

    2008-11-14

    The oligomeric ring of prohead RNA (pRNA) is an essential component of the ATP-driven DNA packaging motor of bacteriophage ø29. The A-helix of pRNA binds the DNA translocating ATPase gp16 (gene product 16) and the CCA bulge in this helix is essential for DNA packaging in vitro. Mutation of the bulge by base substitution or deletion showed that the size of the bulge, rather than its sequence, is primary in DNA packaging activity. Proheads reconstituted with CCA bulge mutant pRNAs bound the packaging ATPase gp16 and the packaging substrate DNA-gp3, although DNA translocation was not detected with several mutants. Prohead/bulge-mutant pRNA complexes with low packaging activity had a higher rate of ATP hydrolysis per base pair of DNA packaged than proheads with wild-type pRNA. Cryoelectron microscopy three-dimensional reconstruction of proheads reconstituted with a CCA deletion pRNA showed that the protruding pRNA spokes of the motor occupy a different position relative to the head when compared to particles with wild-type pRNA. Therefore, the CCA bulge seems to dictate the orientation of the pRNA spokes. The conformational changes observed for this mutant pRNA may affect gp16 conformation and/or subsequent ATPase-DNA interaction and, consequently, explain the decreased packaging activity observed for CCA mutants.

  11. Destructive examination of shipping package 9975-02644

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-11-23

    Destructive and non-destructive examinations have been performed on the components of shipping package 9975-02644 as part of a comprehensive SRS surveillance program for plutonium material stored in the K-Area Complex (KAC). During the field surveillance inspection of this package in KAC, three non-conforming conditions were noted: the axial gap of 1.389 inch exceeded the 1 inch maximum criterion, the exposed height of the lead shield was greater than the 4.65 inch maximum criterion, and the difference between the upper assembly inside height and the exposed height of the lead shield was less than the 0.425 inch minimum criterion. All three of these observations relate to axial shrinkage of the lower fiberboard assembly. In addition, liquid water (condensation) was observed on the interior of the drum lid, the thermal blanket and the air shield.

  12. HPLOT: the graphics interface package for the HBOOK histogramming package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, H.

    1978-01-01

    The subroutine package HPLOT described in this report, enables the CERN histogramming package HBOOK to produce high-quality pictures by means of high-resolution devices such as plotters. HPLOT can be implemented on any scientific computing system with a Fortran IV compiler and can be interfaced with any graphics package; spectral routines in addition to the basic ones enable users to embellish their histograms. Examples are also given of the use of HPLOT as a graphics package for plotting simple pictures without histograms. (Auth.)

  13. Safety Analysis Report for Packaging, Y-12 National Security Complex, Model ES-3100 Package with Bulk HEU Contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, James [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Goins, Monty [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Paul, Pran [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilkinson, Alan [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilson, David [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-03

    This safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) presents the results of the safety analysis prepared in support of the Consolidated Nuclear Security, LLC (CNS) request for licensing of the Model ES-3100 package with bulk highly enriched uranium (HEU) contents and issuance of a Type B(U) Fissile Material Certificate of Compliance. This SARP, published in the format specified in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 7.9 and using information provided in UCID-21218 and NRC Regulatory Guide 7.10, demonstrates that the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) ES-3100 package with bulk HEU contents meets the established NRC regulations for packaging, preparation for shipment, and transportation of radioactive materials given in Title 10, Part 71, of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) [10 CFR 71] as well as U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations for packaging and shipment of hazardous materials given in Title 49 CFR. To protect the health and safety of the public, shipments of adioactive materials are made in packaging that is designed, fabricated, assembled, tested, procured, used, maintained, and repaired in accordance with the provisions cited above. Safety requirements addressed by the regulations that must be met when transporting radioactive materials are containment of radioactive materials, radiation shielding, and assurance of nuclear subcriticality.

  14. stepping motor - hydraulic motor servo drives for an nc milling machine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    stepping motor Drive Assembly especially Designed for CNC systems". 13th Machine Tool Design and. Research. (MTDR) conference,. University of Birmingham, 1972. 2 Ertongur, N.A. "Investigation into the instability in an electro hydraulic control system for machine tools" Ph.D. Thesis, University of. Birmingham, UK. 1966 ...

  15. The Ettention software package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmen, Tim; Marsalek, Lukas; Marniok, Nico; Turoňová, Beata; Bogachev, Sviatoslav; Trampert, Patrick; Nickels, Stefan; Slusallek, Philipp

    2016-02-01

    We present a novel software package for the problem "reconstruction from projections" in electron microscopy. The Ettention framework consists of a set of modular building-blocks for tomographic reconstruction algorithms. The well-known block iterative reconstruction method based on Kaczmarz algorithm is implemented using these building-blocks, including adaptations specific to electron tomography. Ettention simultaneously features (1) a modular, object-oriented software design, (2) optimized access to high-performance computing (HPC) platforms such as graphic processing units (GPU) or many-core architectures like Xeon Phi, and (3) accessibility to microscopy end-users via integration in the IMOD package and eTomo user interface. We also provide developers with a clean and well-structured application programming interface (API) that allows for extending the software easily and thus makes it an ideal platform for algorithmic research while hiding most of the technical details of high-performance computing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Packaging supplier inspection guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stromberg, H.M.; Gregg, R.E.; Kido, C.; Boyle, C.D.

    1991-05-01

    This is document is a guide for conducting quality assurance inspections of transportations packaging suppliers, where suppliers are defined as designers, fabricators, distributors, users, or owners of transportation packaging. This document can be used during an inspection to determine regulatory compliance within the requirements of 10 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71, Subpart H (10 CFR 71.101--71.135). The guidance described in this document provides a framework for an inspection. It provides the inspector with the flexibility to adapt the methods and concepts presented here to meet the needs of the particular facility being inspected. The guide was developed to ensure a structured and consistent approach for inspections. The method treats each activity at a supplier facility as a separate entity (or functional element), and combines the activities within the framework of an ''inspection tree.'' The method separates each functional element into several areas of performance and then identifies guidelines, based on regulatory requirements, to be used to qualitatively rate each area. This document was developed to serve as a field manual to facilitate the work of inspectors. 1 ref., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  17. Tamper indicating packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, M.J.; Bartberger, J.C.; Welch, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    Protecting sensitive items from undetected tampering in an unattended environment is crucial to the success of non-proliferation efforts relying on the verification of critical activities. Tamper Indicating Packaging (TIP) technologies are applied to containers, packages, and equipment that require an indication of a tamper attempt. Examples include: the transportation and storage of nuclear material, the operation and shipment of surveillance equipment and monitoring sensors, and the retail storage of medicine and food products. The spectrum of adversarial tampering ranges from attempted concealment of a pin-hole sized penetration to the complete container replacement, which would involve counterfeiting efforts of various degrees. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a technology base for advanced TIP materials, sensors, designs, and processes which can be adapted to various future monitoring systems. The purpose of this technology base is to investigate potential new technologies, and to perform basic research of advanced technologies. This paper will describe the theory of TIP technologies and recent investigations of TIP technologies at SNL

  18. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-02-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  19. High efficiency motors; Motores de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uranga Favela, Ivan Jaime [Energia Controlada de Mexico, S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    This paper is a technical-financial study of the high efficiency and super-premium motors. As it is widely known, more than 60% of the electrical energy generated in the country is used for the operation of motors, in industry as well as in commerce. Therefore the importance that the motors have in the efficient energy use. [Espanol] El presente trabajo es un estudio tecnico-financiero de los motores de alta eficiencia y los motores super premium. Como es ampliamente conocido, mas del 60% de la energia electrica generada en el pais, es utilizada para accionar motores, dentro de la industria y el comercio. De alli la importancia que los motores tienen en el uso eficiente de la energia.

  20. High efficiency motors; Motores de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uranga Favela, Ivan Jaime [Energia Controlada de Mexico, S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    This paper is a technical-financial study of the high efficiency and super-premium motors. As it is widely known, more than 60% of the electrical energy generated in the country is used for the operation of motors, in industry as well as in commerce. Therefore the importance that the motors have in the efficient energy use. [Espanol] El presente trabajo es un estudio tecnico-financiero de los motores de alta eficiencia y los motores super premium. Como es ampliamente conocido, mas del 60% de la energia electrica generada en el pais, es utilizada para accionar motores, dentro de la industria y el comercio. De alli la importancia que los motores tienen en el uso eficiente de la energia.

  1. Packaging printed circuit boards: A production application of interactive graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrill, W. A.

    1975-01-01

    The structure and use of an Interactive Graphics Packaging Program (IGPP), conceived to apply computer graphics to the design of packaging electronic circuits onto printed circuit boards (PCB), were described. The intent was to combine the data storage and manipulative power of the computer with the imaginative, intuitive power of a human designer. The hardware includes a CDC 6400 computer and two CDC 777 terminals with CRT screens, light pens, and keyboards. The program is written in FORTRAN 4 extended with the exception of a few functions coded in COMPASS (assembly language). The IGPP performs four major functions for the designer: (1) data input and display, (2) component placement (automatic or manual), (3) conductor path routing (automatic or manual), and (4) data output. The most complex PCB packaged to date measured 16.5 cm by 19 cm and contained 380 components, two layers of ground planes and four layers of conductors mixed with ground planes.

  2. Mobile work station concept for assembly of large space structures (zero gravity simulation tests)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, W. L., Jr.; Bush, H. G.; Wallsom, R. E.; Jensen, J. K.

    1982-03-01

    The concept presented is intended to enhance astronaut assembly of truss structure that is either too large or complex to fold for efficient Shuttle delivery to orbit. The potential of augmented astronaut assembly is illustrated by applying the result of the tests to a barebones assembly of a truss structure. If this structure were assembled from the same nestable struts that were used in the Mobile Work Station assembly tests, the spacecraft would be 55 meters in diameter and consist of about 500 struts. The struts could be packaged in less than 1/2% of the Shuttle cargo bay volume and would take up approximately 3% of the mass lift capability. They could be assembled in approximately four hours. This assembly concept for erectable structures is not only feasible, but could be used to significant economic advantage by permitting the superior packaging feature of erectable structures to be exploited and thereby reduce expensive Shuttle delivery flights.

  3. K east encapsulation packager modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    This Supporting Document analyzes a proposal for reducing the under-packager volume to decrease the amount of fissile material that could accumulate there. The analysis shows that restricting the under packager volume to no more than 4080 in 3 will assure that if accumulated fissile material beneath the packager is added to the worst-case mass of fissile material in the discharge chute, a k eff of 0.98 will not be exceeded

  4. System issues for multichip packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Maurice G.; Hartley, Neil

    1991-04-01

    It is now generally recognised that the performance of an electronic system is governed by the choice of packaging technology. Never before have the technical and financial implications of a packaging technology choice been more critical and never before has technology interdependence or industry globalisation made the choice more difficult. This paper is aimed at examining the choices available and the system issues resulting from the move from single chip to multichip packaging.

  5. IN-PACKAGE CHEMISTRY ABSTRACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Thomas

    2005-07-14

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for Postclosure Waste Form Modeling'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173246]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as a function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model, which uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model, which is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials, and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed (CDSP) waste packages containing high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor diffusing into the waste package, and (2) seepage water entering the waste package as a liquid from the drift. (1) Vapor-Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H{sub 2}O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Liquid-Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package.

  6. IN-PACKAGE CHEMISTRY ABSTRACTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E. Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for Postclosure Waste Form Modeling'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173246]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as a function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model, which uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model, which is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials, and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed (CDSP) waste packages containing high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor diffusing into the waste package, and (2) seepage water entering the waste package as a liquid from the drift. (1) Vapor-Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H 2 O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Liquid-Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package

  7. R package CityWaterBalance | Science Inventory | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    CityWaterBalance provides a reproducible workflow for studying an urban water system. The network of urban water flows and storages can be modeled and visualized. Any city may be modeled with preassembled data, but data for US cities can be gathered via web services using this package and dependencies, geoknife and dataRetrieval. Urban water flows are difficult to comprehensively quantify. Although many important data sources are openly available, they are published by a variety of agencies in different formats, units, spatial and temporal resolutions. Increasingly, open data are made available via web services, which allow for automated, current retrievals. Integrating data streams and estimating the values of unmeasured urban water flows, however, remains needlessly time-consuming. In order to streamline a reproducible analysis, we have developed the CityWaterBalance package for the open source R language. The CityWaterBalance package for R is based on a simple model of the network of urban water flows and storages. The model may be run with data that has been pre-assembled by the user, or data can be retrieved by functions in CityWaterBalance and dependencies. CityWaterBalance can be used to quickly assemble a quantitative portrait of any urban water system. The systemic effects of water management decisions can be readily explored. Much of the data acquisition process for US cities can already be automated, while the package serves as a place-hold

  8. Packaging of control system software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagar, K.; Kobal, M.; Saje, N.; Zagar, A.; Sabjan, R.; Di Maio, F.; Stepanov, D.

    2012-01-01

    Control system software consists of several parts - the core of the control system, drivers for integration of devices, configuration for user interfaces, alarm system, etc. Once the software is developed and configured, it must be installed to computers where it runs. Usually, it is installed on an operating system whose services it needs, and also in some cases dynamically links with the libraries it provides. Operating system can be quite complex itself - for example, a typical Linux distribution consists of several thousand packages. To manage this complexity, we have decided to rely on Red Hat Package Management system (RPM) to package control system software, and also ensure it is properly installed (i.e., that dependencies are also installed, and that scripts are run after installation if any additional actions need to be performed). As dozens of RPM packages need to be prepared, we are reducing the amount of effort and improving consistency between packages through a Maven-based infrastructure that assists in packaging (e.g., automated generation of RPM SPEC files, including automated identification of dependencies). So far, we have used it to package EPICS, Control System Studio (CSS) and several device drivers. We perform extensive testing on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.5, but we have also verified that packaging works on CentOS and Scientific Linux. In this article, we describe in greater detail the systematic system of packaging we are using, and its particular application for the ITER CODAC Core System. (authors)

  9. Naval Waste Package Design Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.M. Lewis

    2004-01-01

    A design methodology for the waste packages and ancillary components, viz., the emplacement pallets and drip shields, has been developed to provide designs that satisfy the safety and operational requirements of the Yucca Mountain Project. This methodology is described in the ''Waste Package Design Methodology Report'' Mecham 2004 [DIRS 166168]. To demonstrate the practicability of this design methodology, four waste package design configurations have been selected to illustrate the application of the methodology. These four design configurations are the 21-pressurized water reactor (PWR) Absorber Plate waste package, the 44-boiling water reactor (BWR) waste package, the 5-defense high-level waste (DHLW)/United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) Co-disposal Short waste package, and the Naval Canistered SNF Long waste package. Also included in this demonstration is the emplacement pallet and continuous drip shield. The purpose of this report is to document how that design methodology has been applied to the waste package design configurations intended to accommodate naval canistered SNF. This demonstrates that the design methodology can be applied successfully to this waste package design configuration and support the License Application for construction of the repository

  10. Humidity data for 9975 shipping packages with cane fiberboard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The 9975 surveillance program is developing a technical basis to support extending the storage period of 9975 packages in K-Area Complex beyond the currently approved 15 years. A key element of this effort is developing a better understanding of degradation of the fiberboard assembly under storage conditions. This degradation is influenced greatly by the moisture content of the fiberboard, which is not well characterized on an individual package basis. Direct measurements of humidity and fiberboard moisture content have been made on two test packages with cane fiberboard and varying internal heat levels from 0 up to 19W. With an internal heat load, a temperature gradient in the fiberboard assembly leads to varying relative humidity in the air around the fiberboard. However, the absolute humidity tends to remain approximately constant throughout the package. The moisture content of fiberboard varies under the influence of several phenomena. Changes in local fiberboard temperature (from an internal heat load) can cause fiberboard moisture changes through absorption or evaporation. Fiberboard degradation at elevated temperature will produce water as a byproduct. And the moisture level within the package is constantly seeking equilibrium with that of the surrounding room air, which varies on a daily and seasonal basis. One indicator of the moisture condition within a 9975 package might be obtained by measuring the relative humidity in the upper air space, by inserting a humidity probe through a caplug hole. However, the data indicate that for the higher internal heat loads (15 and 19 watts), a large variation in internal moisture conditions produces little or no variation in the air space relative humidity. Therefore, this approach does not appear to be sensitive to fiberboard moisture variations at the higher heat loads which are of most interest to maintaining fiberboard integrity.

  11. Anhydrous Ammonia Training Module. Trainer's Package. Participant's Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudin, Bart; And Others

    This document contains a trainer's and a participant's package for teaching employees on site safe handling procedures for working with anhydrous ammonia, especially on farms. The trainer's package includes the following: a description of the module; a competency; objectives; suggested instructional aids; a training outline (or lesson plan) for…

  12. The Packaging Handbook -- A guide to package design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shappert, L.B.

    1995-01-01

    The Packaging Handbook is a compilation of 14 technical chapters and five appendices that address the life cycle of a packaging which is intended to transport radioactive material by any transport mode in normal commerce. Although many topics are discussed in depth, this document focuses on the design aspects of a packaging. The Handbook, which is being prepared under the direction of the US Department of Energy, is intended to provide a wealth of technical guidance that will give designers a better understanding of the regulatory approval process, preferences of regulators in specific aspects of packaging design, and the types of analyses that should be seriously considered when developing the packaging design. Even though the Handbook is concerned with all packagings, most of the emphasis is placed on large packagings that are capable of transporting large radioactive sources that are also fissile (e.g., spent fuel). These are the types of packagings that must address the widest range of technical topics in order to meet domestic and international regulations. Most of the chapters in the Handbook have been drafted and submitted to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for editing; the majority of these have been edited. This report summarizes the contents

  13. Electronic equipment packaging technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsberg, Gerald L

    1992-01-01

    The last twenty years have seen major advances in the electronics industry. Perhaps the most significant aspect of these advances has been the significant role that electronic equipment plays in almost all product markets. Even though electronic equipment is used in a broad base of applications, many future applications have yet to be conceived. This versatility of electron­ ics has been brought about primarily by the significant advances that have been made in integrated circuit technology. The electronic product user is rarely aware of the integrated circuits within the equipment. However, the user is often very aware of the size, weight, mod­ ularity, maintainability, aesthetics, and human interface features of the product. In fact, these are aspects of the products that often are instrumental in deter­ mining its success or failure in the marketplace. Optimizing these and other product features is the primary role of Electronic Equipment Packaging Technology. As the electronics industry continues to pr...

  14. ORNL's DCAL software package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckerman, K.F.

    2007-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory has released its Dose and Risk Calculation software, DCAL. DCAL, developed with the support of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, consists of a series of computational modules, driven in either an interactive or a batch mode for computation of dose and risk coefficients from intakes of radionuclides or exposure to radionuclides in environmental media. The software package includes extensive libraries of biokinetic and dosimetric data that represent the current state of the art. The software has unique capability for addressing intakes of radionuclides by non-adults. DCAL runs as 32-bit extended DOS and console applications under Windows 98/NT/2000/XP. It is intended for users familiar with the basic elements of computational radiation dosimetry. Components of DCAL have been used to prepare U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Federal Guidance Reports 12 and 13 and several publications of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. (author)

  15. Blasting agent package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, R.

    1971-03-17

    A protected preassembled package for blasting agents susceptible to desensitization by water consists of, in combination: (1) an inner rigid and self-supporting tube, the upper end of which is suited to be connected, or attached, to the discharge end of a loading hose for a blasting agent and the lower end of which is open; and (2) a flexible tubular liner made of water-resistant film, having a diameter greater than that of the inner tube and a length at least equal to the desired depth of its insertion into the borehole, the liner being sleeved over the length of the inner tube, the upper end of the liner being attached to the inner tube and the lower end of the liner being closed so as to prevent substantial discharge of the explosive mixture therefrom when the latter is pumped into it. (24 claims)

  16. AGC-2 Graphite Preirradiation Data Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Swank; Joseph Lord; David Rohrbaugh; William Windes

    2012-10-01

    The NGNP Graphite R&D program is currently establishing the safe operating envelope of graphite core components for a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design. The program is generating quantitative data necessary for predicting the behavior and operating performance of the new nuclear graphite grades. To determine the in-service behavior of the graphite for pebble bed and prismatic designs, the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment is underway. This experiment is examining the properties and behavior of nuclear grade graphite over a large spectrum of temperatures, neutron fluences and compressive loads. Each experiment consists of over 400 graphite specimens that are characterized prior to irradiation and following irradiation. Six experiments are planned with the first, AGC-1, currently being irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and pre-irradiation characterization of the second, AGC-2, completed. This data package establishes the readiness of 512 specimens for assembly into the AGC-2 capsule.

  17. Thirty years of transport package development for spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cory, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    By June 2005, when shipments of spent fuel for reprocessing from Germany are concluded, BNFL flask types will have been responsible for transporting more than 2000 tonnes of heavy metal in Europe in the form of spent fuel. Several thousand more tonnes of spent fuel have been transported by sea from Japan over the last thirty years. The design of spent fuel packages has not stood still for that time. In order to anticipate the changing needs of the nuclear power generation industry, advances have been made both in package design and analysis. Thirty years ago spent fuel burnup and initial enrichment were considerably lower, which was reflected in the different demands placed on the shielding design of packages, and in the design of the internal basket to separate the fuel assemblies. Technical development of both 'wet' (water-filled cavity) and 'dry' packages has progressed in parallel, and the relative merits and peculiarities of each type is explored. BNFL has considerable experience in the operation of both types, and is well placed to comment on practical and functional issues associated with both types. While there have been certain evolutionary changes affecting package design, there have also been more significant changes in the Design Safety Case. These have sometimes been necessary to meet changes in IAEA Regulations, or the challenges posed by the regulators themselves. In other cases advantage has been taken of improvements in analytical techniques to demonstrate increased margins of operational safety. Where possible these margins have also been increased by other means, such as taking advantage of commercial trends to reduce package thermal loads. A key factor over the last thirty years has been the increasing influence of the Regulating Authorities and the development of the IAEA Regulations. The various Competent Authorities now tend to have a higher proportion of technical experts, often recruited from the nuclear industry, and are thus more able to

  18. RNA packaging of MRFV virus-like particles: The interplay between RNA pools and capsid coat protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) can be produced through self-assembly of capsid protein (CP) into particles with discrete shapes and sizes and containing different types of RNA molecules. The general principle that governs particle assembly and RNA packaging is determined by unique interactions between ...

  19. Testing of AWE (A) package design AWG 446Eu4 to IAEA (1985) Regulations Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, L.R.

    1990-10-01

    This report gives details of the tests for normal transport (Type A tests) and accident conditions (Type B tests) carried out on the AWE(A) packaging assembly AWG 446Eu4 and demonstrates the ability of the packaging to remain leaktight after the tests with no damage to the contents. Included in the report are a comprehensive quality plan and test certificates for the leak tests. (author)

  20. Testing of package design AWG 668 to the 1985 IAEA Regulations (as amended 1990)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report gives details of the tests for Normal Transport (Type A Tests) and Accident Conditions (Type B Tests) carried out on the AWE(A) packaging assembly AWG 668 and demonstrates the ability of the packaging to remain leak tight after the tests with no damage to the contents. Included in the report are a comprehensive quality plan and test certificates for the leak tests. (author)

  1. Packaging and transport of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.B.G.

    1976-01-01

    The importance of radioisotope traffic is emphasized. More than a million packages are being transported each year, mostly for medical uses. The involvement of public transport services and the incidental dose to the public (which is very small) are appreciably greater than for movements connected with the nuclear fuel cycle. Modern isotope packages are described, and an outline given of the problems of a large radioisotope manufacturer who has to package many different types of product. Difficulties caused by recent uncoordinated restrictions on the use of passenger aircraft are mentioned. Some specific problems relating to radioisotope packaging are discussed. These include the crush resistance of Type A packages, the closure of steel drums, the design of secure closures for large containers, the Type A packaging of liquids, leak tightness criteria of Type B packages, and the use of 'unit load' overpacks to consign a group of individually approved packages together as a single shipment. Reference is made to recent studies of the impact of radioisotope shipments on the environment. Cost/benefit analysis is important in this field - an important public debate is only just beginning. (author)

  2. Ensuring socially responsible packaging design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    Most consumers have experienced occasional problems with opening packaging. Tomato sauce from the tinned mackerel splattered all over the kitchen counter, the unrelenting pickle jar lid, and the package of sliced ham that cannot be opened without a knife or a pair of scissors. The research project...

  3. Oral Hygiene. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

  4. Solar water heater design package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Package describes commercial domestic-hot-water heater with roof or rack mounted solar collectors. System is adjustable to pre-existing gas or electric hot-water house units. Design package includes drawings, description of automatic control logic, evaluation measurements, possible design variations, list of materials and installation tools, and trouble-shooting guide and manual.

  5. The neutron instrument simulation package, NISP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeger, P.A.; Daemen, L.L.

    2004-01-01

    The Neutron Instrument Simulation Package (NISP) performs complete source-to-detector simulations of neutron instruments, including neutrons that do not follow the expected path. The original user interface (MC( ) Web) is a web-based application, http://strider.lansce.lanl.gov/NISP/Welcome.html. This report describes in detail the newer standalone Windows version, NISP( ) Win. Instruments are assembled from menu-selected elements, including neutron sources, collimation and transport elements, samples, analyzers, and detectors. Magnetic field regions may also be specified for the propagation of polarized neutrons including spin precession. Either interface writes a geometry file that is used as input to the Monte Carlo engine (MC( ) Run) in the user's computer. Both the interface and the engine rely on a subroutine library, MCLIB. The package is completely open source. New features include capillary optics, temperature dependence of Al and Be, revised source files for ISIS, and visualization of neutron trajectories at run time. Also, a single-crystal sample type has been successfully imported from McStas (with more generalized geometry), demonstrating the capability of including algorithms from other sources, and NISP( ) Win may render the instrument in a virtual reality file. Results are shown for two instruments under development.

  6. Summary: High Temperature Downhole Motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, David W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Directional drilling can be used to enable multi-lateral completions from a single well pad to improve well productivity and decrease environmental impact. Downhole rotation is typically developed with a motor in the Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) that develops drilling power (speed and torque) necessary to drive rock reduction mechanisms (i.e., the bit) apart from the rotation developed by the surface rig. Historically, wellbore deviation has been introduced by a “bent-sub,” located in the BHA, that introduces a small angular deviation, typically less than 3 degrees, to allow the bit to drill off-axis with orientation of the BHA controlled at the surface. The development of a high temperature downhole motor would allow reliable use of bent subs for geothermal directional drilling. Sandia National Laboratories is pursuing the development of a high temperature motor that will operate on either drilling fluid (water-based mud) or compressed air to enable drilling high temperature, high strength, fractured rock. The project consists of designing a power section based upon geothermal drilling requirements; modeling and analysis of potential solutions; and design, development and testing of prototype hardware to validate the concept. Drilling costs contribute substantially to geothermal electricity production costs. The present development will result in more reliable access to deep, hot geothermal resources and allow preferential wellbore trajectories to be achieved. This will enable development of geothermal wells with multi-lateral completions resulting in improved geothermal resource recovery, decreased environmental impact and enhanced well construction economics.

  7. Stepping motor adaptor actuator for a commercial uhv linear motion feedthrough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iarocci, M.; Oversluizen, T.

    1989-01-01

    An adaptor coupling has been developed that will allow the attachment of a standard stepping motor to a precision commercial (Varian) uhv linear motion feedthrough. The assembly, consisting of the motor, motor adaptor, limit switches, etc. is clamped to the feedthrough body which can be done under vacuum conditions if necessary. With a 500 step/rev. stepping motor the resolution is 1.27 μm per step. We presently use this assembly in a remote location for the precise positioning of a beam sensing monitor. 2 refs., 3 figs

  8. Method and apparatus for assembling permanent magnet rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, J.S.; Adams, D.J.

    1999-06-22

    A permanent magnet assembly for assembly in large permanent magnet motors and generators includes a two-piece carrier that can be slid into a slot in the rotor and then secured in place using a set screw. The invention also provides an auxiliary carrier device with guide rails that line up with the teeth of the rotor, so that a permanent magnet assembly can be pushed first into a slot, and then down the slot to its proper location. An auxiliary tool is provided to move the permanent magnet assembly into position in the slot before it is secured in place. Methods of assembling and disassembling the magnet assemblies in the rotor are also disclosed. 2 figs.

  9. 19 CFR 191.13 - Packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging materials. 191.13 Section 191.13 Customs... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK General Provisions § 191.13 Packaging materials. (a) Imported packaging material... packaging material when used to package or repackage merchandise or articles exported or destroyed pursuant...

  10. 21 CFR 355.20 - Packaging conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... conditions. (a) Package size limitation. Due to the toxicity associated with fluoride active ingredients, the... (toothpastes and tooth powders) packages shall not contain more than 276 milligrams (mg) total fluorine per... packages shall not contain more than 120 mg total fluorine per package. (3) Exception. Package size...

  11. Structural determinants and mechanism of HIV-1 genome packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kun; Heng, Xiao; Summers, Michael F

    2011-07-22

    Like all retroviruses, the human immunodeficiency virus selectively packages two copies of its unspliced RNA genome, both of which are utilized for strand-transfer-mediated recombination during reverse transcription-a process that enables rapid evolution under environmental and chemotherapeutic pressures. The viral RNA appears to be selected for packaging as a dimer, and there is evidence that dimerization and packaging are mechanistically coupled. Both processes are mediated by interactions between the nucleocapsid domains of a small number of assembling viral Gag polyproteins and RNA elements within the 5'-untranslated region of the genome. A number of secondary structures have been predicted for regions of the genome that are responsible for packaging, and high-resolution structures have been determined for a few small RNA fragments and protein-RNA complexes. However, major questions regarding the RNA structures (and potentially the structural changes) that are responsible for dimeric genome selection remain unanswered. Here, we review efforts that have been made to identify the molecular determinants and mechanism of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genome packaging. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. CDIAC catalog of numeric data packages and computer model packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boden, T.A.; Stoss, F.W.

    1993-05-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center acquires, quality-assures, and distributes to the scientific community numeric data packages (NDPs) and computer model packages (CMPs) dealing with topics related to atmospheric trace-gas concentrations and global climate change. These packages include data on historic and present atmospheric CO 2 and CH 4 concentrations, historic and present oceanic CO 2 concentrations, historic weather and climate around the world, sea-level rise, storm occurrences, volcanic dust in the atmosphere, sources of atmospheric CO 2 , plants' response to elevated CO 2 levels, sunspot occurrences, and many other indicators of, contributors to, or components of climate change. This catalog describes the packages presently offered by CDIAC, reviews the processes used by CDIAC to assure the quality of the data contained in these packages, notes the media on which each package is available, describes the documentation that accompanies each package, and provides ordering information. Numeric data are available in the printed NDPs and CMPs, in CD-ROM format, and from an anonymous FTP area via Internet. All CDIAC information products are available at no cost

  13. The single SNR fuel assembly container (ESBB) to transport unirradiated SNR 300 fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilbert, F.; Hottenrott, G.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper a new type B(U) package design is presented. The Single SNR Fuel Assembly Container (ESBB) is designed for the transport and storage of a single SNR 300 fuel assembly. This package is the main component for the future interim storage of the fuel assemblies in heavy storage casks. Its benefits are that it is compatible with the Category I transport system of Nuclear Cargo + Service NCS) used in Germany and that it can be easily handled at the current storage locations as well as in an interim storage facility. In total 205 fuel assemblies are currently stored in Hanau, Germany and Dounreay, U.K. Former studies have shown, that heavy transport and storage casks can be handled there only with considerable efforts. But the required category I transport to an interim storage is not reasonably feasible. To overcome these problems the ESBB was designed. It consists of a stainless steel tube with welded bottom, a welded plug as closure system and shock absorbers 26 packages at maximum can be transported in one batch with the NCS security vehicle. The safety analysis shows that the package complies with IAEA 1996. Standard calculations methods and computer codes like HEATING 7.2 (Childs 1993) have been used for the analysis. Criticality safety assessment is based on conservative assumptions as required in IAEA 1996. Drop tests carried out by BAM will be used to verify the design. These tests are scheduled for mid 1998. For the validation of the design prototypes have already been manufactured. Handling tests show that the design complies with the requirements. Preliminary drop tests show that the certification drop tests will be passed positively. (authors)

  14. Modal properties of the flexural vibrating package of rods linked by spacer grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeman V.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the modelling and modal analysis of the large package of identical parallel rods linked by transverse springs (spacer grids placed on several level spacings. The rod discretization by finite element method is based on Rayleigh beam theory. For the cyclic and central symmetric package of rods (such as fuel rods in nuclear fuel assembly the system decomposition on the identical revolved rod segments was applied. A modal synthesis method with condensation is used for modelling of the whole system. The presented method is the first step for modelling the nuclear fuel assembly vibration caused by excitation determined by the support plate motion of the reactor core.

  15. Waste Package Misload Probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudsen, J.K.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this calculation is to calculate the probability of occurrence for fuel assembly (FA) misloads (i.e., Fa placed in the wrong location) and FA damage during FA movements. The scope of this calculation is provided by the information obtained from the Framatome ANP 2001a report. The first step in this calculation is to categorize each fuel-handling events that occurred at nuclear power plants. The different categories are based on FAs being damaged or misloaded. The next step is to determine the total number of FAs involved in the event. Using the information, a probability of occurrence will be calculated for FA misload and FA damage events. This calculation is an expansion of preliminary work performed by Framatome ANP 2001a

  16. RHIC beam position monitor assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, P.R.; Grau, M.C.; Ryan, W.A.; Shea, T.J.; Sikora, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    Design calculations, design details, and fabrication techniques for the RHIC BPM Assemblies are discussed. The 69 mm aperture single plane detectors are 23 cm long short-circuited 50 ohm strip transmission lines subtending 80 degrees. They are mounted on the sextupole end of the Corrector-Quadrupole-Sextupole package and operate at liquid helium temperature. The 69 cm aperture was selected to be the same as that of the beampipe in the CQS package, the 23 cm length is a compromise between mechanical stability and electrical sensitivity to the long low-intensity proton and heavy ion bunches to be found in RHIC during commissioning, and the 80 degree subtended angle maximizes linear aperture. The striplines are aligned after brazing to maintain electrical-to-mechanical centers within 0.1 mm radius, eliminating the need for individual calibration. Because the cryogenic feedthrus isolate the UHV beam vacuum only from the HV insulating vacuum, and do not see liquid helium, a replaceable mini-ConFlat design was chosen to simplify fabrication, calibration, and maintenance

  17. RHIC Beam Position Monitor Assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, P.R.; Grau, M.C.; Ryan, W.A.; Shea, T.J.; Sikora, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    Design calculations, design details, and fabrication techniques for the RHIC BPM Assemblies are discussed. The 69 mm aperture single plane detectors are 23 cm long short-circuited 50 ohm strip transmission lines subtending 80 degrees. They are mounted on the sextupole end of the Corrector-Quadrupole-Sextupole package and operate at liquid helium temperature. The 69 cm aperture was selected to be the same as that of the beampipe in the CQS package, dc 23 cm length is a compromise between mechanical stability and electrical sensitivity to the long low-intensity proton and heavy ion bunches to be found in RHIC during commissioning, and the 80 degree subtended angle maximizes linear aperture. The striplines are aligned after brazing to maintain electrical-to-mechanical centers within 0.1 mm radius, eliminating the need for individual calibration. Because the cryogenic feedthrus isolate the UHV beam vacuum only from the HV insulating vacuum, and do not see liquid helium, a replaceable mini-ConFlat design was chosen to simplify fabrication, calibration, and maintenance

  18. Self-assembled DNA Structures for Nanoconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hao; Yin, Peng; Park, Sung Ha; Li, Hanying; Feng, Liping; Guan, Xiaoju; Liu, Dage; Reif, John H.; LaBean, Thomas H.

    2004-09-01

    In recent years, a number of research groups have begun developing nanofabrication methods based on DNA self-assembly. Here we review our recent experimental progress to utilize novel DNA nanostructures for self-assembly as well as for templates in the fabrication of functional nano-patterned materials. We have prototyped a new DNA nanostructure known as a cross structure. This nanostructure has a 4-fold symmetry which promotes its self-assembly into tetragonal 2D lattices. We have utilized the tetragonal 2D lattices as templates for highly conductive metallic nanowires and periodic 2D protein nano-arrays. We have constructed and characterized a DNA nanotube, a new self-assembling superstructure composed of DNA tiles. We have also demonstrated an aperiodic DNA lattice composed of DNA tiles assembled around a long scaffold strand; the system translates information encoded in the scaffold strand into a specific and reprogrammable barcode pattern. We have achieved metallic nanoparticle linear arrays templated on self-assembled 1D DNA arrays. We have designed and demonstrated a 2-state DNA lattice, which displays expand/contract motion switched by DNA nanoactuators. We have also achieved an autonomous DNA motor executing unidirectional motion along a linear DNA track.

  19. Electric motor handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, B J

    2013-01-01

    Electric Motor Handbook aims to give practical knowledge in a wide range of capacities such as plant design, equipment specification, commissioning, operation and maintenance. The book covers topics such as the modeling of steady-state motor performance; polyphase induction, synchronous, and a.c. commutator motors; ambient conditions, enclosures, cooling and loss dissipation; and electrical supply systems and motor drives. Also covered are topics such as variable-speed drives and motor control; materials and motor components; insulation types, systems, and techniques; and the installation, sit

  20. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator licensed hardware package and certification tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldmann, L.H.; Averette, H.S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the Licensed Hardware package and the Certification Test portions of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System. This package has been designed to meet those portions of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 71) relating to ''Type B'' shipments of radioactive materials. The detailed information for the anticipated license is presented in the safety analysis report for packaging, which is now in process and undergoing necessary reviews. As part of the licensing process, a full-size Certification Test Article unit, which has modifications slightly different than the Licensed Hardware or production shipping units, is used for testing. Dimensional checks of the Certification Test Article were made at the manufacturing facility. Leak testing and drop testing were done at the 300 Area of the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The hardware includes independent double containments to prevent the environmental spread of 238 Pu, impact limiting devices to protect portions of the package from impacts, and thermal insulation to protect the seal areas from excess heat during accident conditions. The package also features electronic feed-throughs to monitor the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator's temperature inside the containment during the shipment cycle. This package is designed to safely dissipate the typical 4500 thermal watts produced in the largest Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators. The package also contains provisions to ensure leak tightness when radioactive materials, such as a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator for the Cassini Mission, planned for 1997 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, are being prepared for shipment. These provisions include test ports used in conjunction with helium mass spectrometers to determine seal leakage rates of each containment during the assembly process

  1. Handling device for nuclear fuel assemblies and assembly appropriate for such a device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cransac, J.P.; Jaquelin, R.; Renaux, C.

    1985-01-01

    The handling device comprises a guide tube of which axis is vertical, in which a grab moves, hanging from a chain, under the action of a back-geared motor. The grab being stopped in its rotation in the guide tube, an assembly can be gripped with a bayonet system while controlling the rotation of the grab - guide tube system a back-geared motor. The device can be hanged from the small or large rotating plug of a fast neutron reactor. It can be used in a handling flask [fr

  2. An Arginine Finger Regulates the Sequential Action of Asymmetrical Hexameric ATPase in the Double-Stranded DNA Translocation Motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhengyi; De-Donatis, Gian Marco; Schwartz, Chad; Fang, Huaming; Li, Jingyuan; Guo, Peixuan

    2016-10-01

    Biological motors are ubiquitous in living systems. Currently, how the motor components coordinate the unidirectional motion is elusive in most cases. Here, we report that the sequential action of the ATPase ring in the DNA packaging motor of bacteriophage ϕ29 is regulated by an arginine finger that extends from one ATPase subunit to the adjacent unit to promote noncovalent dimer formation. Mutation of the arginine finger resulted in the interruption of ATPase oligomerization, ATP binding/hydrolysis, and DNA translocation. Dimer formation reappeared when arginine mutants were mixed with other ATPase subunits that can offer the arginine to promote their interaction. Ultracentrifugation and virion assembly assays indicated that the ATPase was presenting as monomers and dimer mixtures. The isolated dimer alone was inactive in DNA translocation, but the addition of monomer could restore the activity, suggesting that the hexameric ATPase ring contained both dimer and monomers. Moreover, ATP binding or hydrolysis resulted in conformation and entropy changes of the ATPase with high or low DNA affinity. Taking these observations together, we concluded that the arginine finger regulates sequential action of the motor ATPase subunit by promoting the formation of the dimer inside the hexamer. The finding of asymmetrical hexameric organization is supported by structural evidence of many other ATPase systems showing the presence of one noncovalent dimer and four monomer subunits. All of these provide clues for why the asymmetrical hexameric ATPase gp16 of ϕ29 was previously reported as a pentameric configuration by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) since the contact by the arginine finger renders two adjacent ATPase subunits closer than other subunits. Thus, the asymmetrical hexamer would appear as a pentamer by cryo-EM, a technology that acquires the average of many images. Copyright © 2016 Zhao et al.

  3. Handbook on linear motor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    This book guides the application for Linear motor. It lists classification and speciality of Linear Motor, terms of linear-induction motor, principle of the Motor, types on one-side linear-induction motor, bilateral linear-induction motor, linear-DC Motor on basic of the motor, linear-DC Motor for moving-coil type, linear-DC motor for permanent-magnet moving type, linear-DC motor for electricity non-utility type, linear-pulse motor for variable motor, linear-pulse motor for permanent magneto type, linear-vibration actuator, linear-vibration actuator for moving-coil type, linear synchronous motor, linear electromagnetic motor, linear electromagnetic solenoid, technical organization and magnetic levitation and linear motor and sensor.

  4. Fuel assembly guide tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1979-01-01

    This invention is directed toward a nuclear fuel assembly guide tube arrangement which restrains spacer grid movement due to coolant flow and which offers secondary means for supporting a fuel assembly during handling and transfer operations

  5. The development of the code package PERMAK--3D//SC--1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolobov, P. A.; Oleksuk, D. A.

    2011-01-01

    Code package PERMAK-3D//SC-1 was developed for performing pin-by-pin coupled neutronic and thermal hydraulic calculation of the core fragment of seven fuel assemblies and was designed on the basis of 3D multigroup pin-by-pin code PERMAK-3D and 3D (subchannel) thermal hydraulic code SC-1 The code package predicts axial and radial pin-by-pin power distribution and coolant parameters in stimulated region (enthalpies,, velocities,, void fractions,, boiling and DNBR margins).. The report describes some new steps in code package development. Some PERMAK-3D//SC-1 outcomes of WWER calculations are presented in the report. (Authors)

  6. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Thomas

    2004-11-09

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model that uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model that is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed waste packages that contain both high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor that diffuses into the waste package, and (2) seepage water that enters the waste package from the drift as a liquid. (1) Vapor Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H2O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Water Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package. TSPA-LA uses the vapor influx case for the nominal scenario for simulations where the waste

  7. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E. Thomas

    2004-01-01

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model that uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model that is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed waste packages that contain both high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor that diffuses into the waste package, and (2) seepage water that enters the waste package from the drift as a liquid. (1) Vapor Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H2O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Water Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package. TSPA-LA uses the vapor influx case for the nominal scenario for simulations where the waste package has been

  8. Perfume Packaging, Seduction and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Petersson McIntyre

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines gender and cultural sense-making in relation to perfumes and their packaging. Gendered meanings of seduction, choice, consumption and taste are brought to the fore with the use of go-along interviews with consumers in per-fume stores. Meeting luxury packages in this feminized environment made the interviewed women speak of bottles as objects to fall in love with and they de-scribed packages as the active part in an act of seduction where they were expect-ing packages to persuade them into consumption. The interviewed men on the other hand portrayed themselves as active choice-makers and stressed that they were always in control and not seduced by packaging. However, while their ways of explaining their relationship with packaging on the surface seems to confirm cultural generalizations in relation to gender and seduction, the article argues that letting oneself be seduced is no less active than seducing. Based on a combination of actor network theories and theories of gender performativity the article points to the agency of packaging for constructions of gender and understands the inter-viewees as equally animated by the flows of passion which guide their actions.

  9. Naval Waste Package Design Sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Schmitt

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to determine the sensitivity of the structural response of the Naval waste packages to varying inner cavity dimensions when subjected to a comer drop and tip-over from elevated surface. This calculation will also determine the sensitivity of the structural response of the Naval waste packages to the upper bound of the naval canister masses. The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of through-wall stress intensities in the outer corrosion barrier. This calculation is intended for use in support of the preliminary design activities for the license application design of the Naval waste package. It examines the effects of small changes between the naval canister and the inner vessel, and in these dimensions, the Naval Long waste package and Naval Short waste package are similar. Therefore, only the Naval Long waste package is used in this calculation and is based on the proposed potential designs presented by the drawings and sketches in References 2.1.10 to 2.1.17 and 2.1.20. All conclusions are valid for both the Naval Long and Naval Short waste packages

  10. Radioactive material packaging performance testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, T.

    1992-06-01

    In an effort to provide uniform packaging of hazardous material on an international level, recommendations for the transport of dangerous goods have been developed by the United Nations. These recommendations are performance oriented and contrast with a large number of packaging specifications in the US Department of Transportation's hazard materials regulations. This dual system presents problems when international shipments enter the US Department of Transportation's system. Faced with the question of continuing a dual system or aligning with the international system, the Research and Special Programs Administration of the US Department of Transportation responded with Docket HM-181. This began the transition toward the international transportation system. Following close behind is Docket HM-169A, which addressed low specific activity radioactive material packaging. This paper will discuss the differences between performance-oriented and specification packaging, the transition toward performance-oriented packaging by the US Department of Transportation, and performance-oriented testing of radioactive material packaging by Westinghouse Hanford Company. Dockets HM-181 and HM-169A will be discussed along with Type A (low activity) and Type B (high activity) radioactive material packaging evaluations

  11. High power density superconducting motor for control applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, J; Granados, X; Lloberas, J; Torres, R; Grau, J; Maynou, R; Bosch, R

    2008-01-01

    A high dynamics superconducting low power motor for control applications has been considered for design. The rotor is cylindrical with machined bulks that generate the field by trapping flux in a four poles configuration. The toothless iron armature is wound by copper, acting iron only as magnetic screen. Details of the magnetic assembling, cryogenics and electrical supply conditioning will be reported. Improvements due to the use of a superconducting set are compared with performances of equivalent conventional motors

  12. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) concrete-lined waste packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, T.

    1997-09-25

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed a package to ship Type A, non-transuranic, fissile excepted quantities of liquid or solid radioactive material and radioactive mixed waste to the Central Waste Complex for storage on the Hanford Site.

  13. Benchmarking of FA2D/PARCS Code Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grgic, D.; Jecmenica, R.; Pevec, D.

    2006-01-01

    FA2D/PARCS code package is used at Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing (FER), University of Zagreb, for static and dynamic reactor core analyses. It consists of two codes: FA2D and PARCS. FA2D is a multigroup two dimensional transport theory code for burn-up calculations based on collision probability method, developed at FER. It generates homogenised cross sections both of single pins and entire fuel assemblies. PARCS is an advanced nodal code developed at Purdue University for US NRC and it is based on neutron diffusion theory for three dimensional whole core static and dynamic calculations. It is modified at FER to enable internal 3D depletion calculation and usage of neutron cross section data in a format produced by FA2D and interface codes. The FA2D/PARCS code system has been validated on NPP Krsko operational data (Cycles 1 and 21). As we intend to use this code package for development of IRIS reactor loading patterns the first logical step was to validate the FA2D/PARCS code package on a set of IRIS benchmarks, starting from simple unit fuel cell, via fuel assembly, to full core benchmark. The IRIS 17x17 fuel with erbium burnable absorber was used in last full core benchmark. The results of modelling the IRIS full core benchmark using FA2D/PARCS code package have been compared with reference data showing the adequacy of FA2D/PARCS code package model for IRIS reactor core design.(author)

  14. A novel in-plane mode rotary ultrasonic motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xiaolong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic motors have the merits of high ratio of torque to volume, high positioning precision, intrinsic holding torque, etc., compared to the conventional electromagnetic motors. There have been several potential applications for this type of motor in aerospace exploration, but bearings and bonding mechanism of the piezoelectric ring in the motors limit the performance of them in the space operation conditions. It is known that the Langevin type transducer has excellent energy efficiency and reliability. Hence using the Langevin type transducer in ultrasonic motors may improve the reliability of piezoelectric motors for space applications. In this study, a novel in-plane mode rotary ultrasonic motor is designed, fabricated, and characterized. The proposed motor operates in in-plane vibration mode which is excited by four Langevin-type bending vibrators separately placed around a ring-shaped stator. Two tapered rotors are assembled to the inner ring of the stator and clamped together by a screw nut. In order to make the motor more stable and convenient to fix, a thin cylindrical support is placed under the stator ring. Due to its no-bearing structure and Langevin transducer excitation, the prototype ultrasonic motor may operate well in aeronautic and astronautic environments.

  15. Pilot Fullerton plans menu as packaged food and beverages float around him

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Pilot C. Gordon Fullerton, wearing the communications carrier assembly (ASSY) mini headset (HDST), beings food preparation on the middeck. Canned goods, sealed packages, beverage containers, etc are attached with velcro to meal tray assemblies (secured on middeck forward lockers) and freefloat around Fullerton. JSC water dispenser kit and portrait of G.W.S. Abbey appears behind Fullerton on port side bulkhead and potable water tank appears below him.

  16. Interacting adiabatic quantum motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruch, Anton; Kusminskiy, Silvia Viola; Refael, Gil; von Oppen, Felix

    2018-05-01

    We present a field-theoretic treatment of an adiabatic quantum motor. We explicitly discuss a motor called the Thouless motor which is based on a Thouless pump operating in reverse. When a sliding periodic potential is considered to be the motor degree of freedom, a bias voltage applied to the electron channel sets the motor in motion. We investigate a Thouless motor whose electron channel is modeled as a Luttinger liquid. Interactions increase the gap opened by the periodic potential. For an infinite Luttinger liquid the coupling-induced friction is enhanced by electron-electron interactions. When the Luttinger liquid is ultimately coupled to Fermi liquid reservoirs, the dissipation reduces to its value for a noninteracting electron system for a constant motor velocity. Our results can also be applied to a motor based on a nanomagnet coupled to a quantum spin Hall edge.

  17. Chronic motor tic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic vocal tic disorder; Tic - chronic motor tic disorder ... Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start ...

  18. Emotional response towards food packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Lewis Xinwei; Corsi, Armando M.; Chrysochou, Polymeros

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate consumers’ emotional responses to food packaging. More specifically, we use self-report and physiological measures to jointly assess emotional responses to three typical food packaging elements: colours (lowwavelength vs. high-wavelength), images (positive vs. negative...... response that can only be measured by self-report measures. We propose that a joint application of selfreport and physiological measures can lead to richer information and wider interpretation of consumer emotional responses to food packaging elements than using either measure alone....

  19. Polymer Directed Protein Assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Protein aggregation and protein self-assembly is an important occurrence in natural systems, and is in some form or other dictated by biopolymers. Very obvious influences of biopolymers on protein assemblies are, e. g., virus particles. Viruses are a multi-protein assembly of which the morphology is

  20. Nuclear reactor fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Y.; Tashima, J.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of nuclear reactor fuel assemblies arranged in the form of a lattice wherein there is attached to the interface of one of two adjacent fuel assemblies a plate spring having a concave portion curved toward said interface and to the interface of the other fuel assembly a plate spring having a convex portion curved away from said interface

  1. Characterization of integrated circuit packaging materials

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    Chapters in this volume address important characteristics of IC packages. Analytical techniques appropriate for IC package characterization are demonstrated through examples of the measurement of critical performance parameters and the analysis of key technological problems of IC packages. Issues are discussed which affect a variety of package types, including plastic surface-mount packages, hermetic packages, and advanced designs such as flip-chip, chip-on-board and multi-chip models.

  2. Opto-mechanical assembly procurement for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    House, W.; Simon, T.

    1999-01-01

    A large number of the small optics procurements for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will be in the form of completely assembled, tested, and cleaned subsystems. These subsystems will be integrated into the NIF at LLNL. To accomplish this task, the procurement packages will include, optical and mechanical drawings, acceptance test and cleanliness requirements. In January 1999, the first such integrated opto-mechanical assembly was received and evaluated at LLNL. With the successful completion of this important trial procurement, we were able to establish the viability of purchasing clean, ready to install, opto-mechanical assemblies from vendors within the optics industry. 32 vendors were chosen from our supplier database for quote, then five were chosen to purchase from. These five vendors represented a cross section of the optics industry. From a ''value'' catalog supplier (that did the whole job internally) to a partnership between three specialty companies, these vendors demonstrated they have the ingenuity and capability to deliver cost competitive, NIF-ready, opto- mechanical assemblies. This paper describes the vendor selection for this procurement, technical requirements including packaging, fabrication, coating, and cleanliness specifications, then testing and verification. It also gives real test results gathered from inspections performed at LLNL that show how our vendors scored on the various requirements. Keywords: Opto-Mechanical, assembly, NIF, packaging, shipping, specifications, procurement, MIL-STD-1246C, surface cleanliness

  3. Initial waste package interaction tests: status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shade, J.W.; Bradley, D.J.

    1980-12-01

    This report describes the results of some initial investigations of the effects of rock media on the release of simulated fission products from a sngle waste form, PNL reference glass 76-68. All tests assemblies contained a minicanister prepared by pouring molten, U-doped 76-68 glass into a 2-cm-dia stanless steel tube closed at one end. The tubes were cut to 2.5 to 7.5 cm in length to expose a flat glass surface rimmed by the canister wall. A cylindrical, whole rock pellet, cut from one of the rock materials used, was placed on the glass surface then both the canister and rock pellet were packed in the same type of rock media ground to about 75 μm to complete the package. Rock materials used were a quartz monzonite basalt and bedded salt. These packages were run from 4 to 6 weeks in either 125 ml digestion bombs or 850 ml autoclaves capable of direct solution sampling, at either 250 or 150 0 C. Digestion bomb pressures were the vapor pressure of water, 600 psig at 250 0 C, and the autoclaves were pressurized at 2000 psig with an argon overpressure. In general, the solution chemistry of these initial package tests suggests that the rock media is the dominant controlling factor and that rock-water interaction may be similar to that observed in some geothermal areas. In no case was uranium observed in solution above 15 ppB. The observed leach rates of U glass not in contact with potential sinks (rock surfaces and alteration products) have been observed to be considerably higher. Thus the use of leach rates and U concentrations observed from binary leach experiments (waste-form water only) to ascertain long-term environmental consequences appear to be quite conservative compared to actual U release in the waste package experiments. Further evaluation, however, of fission product transport behavior and the role of alteration phases as fission product sinks is required

  4. Piezoelectric Motors, an Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Karl Spanner; Burhanettin Koc

    2016-01-01

    Piezoelectric motors are used in many industrial and commercial applications. Various piezoelectric motors are available in the market. All of the piezoelectric motors use the inverse piezoelectric effect, where microscopically small oscillatory motions are converted into continuous or stepping rotary or linear motions. Methods of obtaining long moving distance have various drive and functional principles that make these motors categorized into three groups: resonance-drive (piezoelectric ult...

  5. Packaging the product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newson, Roy; Lewis, Meriel

    1993-01-01

    Full text: Traditionally, when the nuclear industry produces a brochure or video programme, the platform of our arguments is reasoned, factual, abstract, far-sighted and convoluted. It is all about things and processes: energy plants, machinery, numbers and percentages. Yet we know that people are interested only in people, in emotions, in reality, and in basic values about next week or next month. And this is probably the biggest incongruity. Our painstaking, in-depth research backed by technical evidence and statistics is no match for the other side's anecdotal speech making. Our perfectly designed graphics cannot compete against those visual cliches that can give instant life to an abstract idea. In the UK, pioneering work for the British Nuclear Forum's, the Nuclear Industry Education Programme (NIEP) breaks through the traditional approach, allowing passion and feeling to stimulate debate. Material about nuclear power produced for young people often promotes knowledge acquisition about particular aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle without conceptual or value change. NIEP materials build on the experience of developing packages that fully meet curriculum objectives, follow educational best practice, and place nuclear power in a real energy context. But they also make a positive contribution to the meaning a young person attaches to a concept such as radiation. Essentially, the materials are in tune with the way young people make sense of their experience of the real world and the issues in it. For further information about AEA Technology's public acceptance programmes, contact: Roy Newson or Meriel Lewis on +44 235 433650, fax +44 235 432123. (author)

  6. Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David H [Redondo Beach, CA

    2012-04-10

    Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies are provided. In an embodiment, by way of example only, a sensor mount assembly includes a busbar, a main body, a backing surface, and a first finger. The busbar has a first end and a second end. The main body is overmolded onto the busbar. The backing surface extends radially outwardly relative to the main body. The first finger extends axially from the backing surface, and the first finger has a first end, a second end, and a tooth. The first end of the first finger is disposed on the backing surface, and the tooth is formed on the second end of the first finger.

  7. Programmed Nanomaterial Assemblies in Large Scales: Applications of Synthetic and Genetically- Engineered Peptides to Bridge Nano-Assemblies and Macro-Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, Hiroshi

    2014-09-09

    Work is reported in these areas: Large-scale & reconfigurable 3D structures of precise nanoparticle assemblies in self-assembled collagen peptide grids; Binary QD-Au NP 3D superlattices assembled with collagen-like peptides and energy transfer between QD and Au NP in 3D peptide frameworks; Catalytic peptides discovered by new hydrogel-based combinatorial phage display approach and their enzyme-mimicking 2D assembly; New autonomous motors of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) powered by reorganization of self-assembled peptides at interfaces; Biomimetic assembly of proteins into microcapsules on oil-in-water droplets with structural reinforcement via biomolecular recognition-based cross-linking of surface peptides; and Biomimetic fabrication of strong freestanding genetically-engineered collagen peptide films reinforced by quantum dot joints. We gained the broad knowledge about biomimetic material assembly from nanoscale to microscale ranges by coassembling peptides and NPs via biomolecular recognition. We discovered: Genetically-engineered collagen-like peptides can be self-assembled with Au NPs to generate 3D superlattices in large volumes (> μm{sup 3}); The assembly of the 3D peptide-Au NP superstructures is dynamic and the interparticle distance changes with assembly time as the reconfiguration of structure is triggered by pH change; QDs/NPs can be assembled with the peptide frameworks to generate 3D superlattices and these QDs/NPs can be electronically coupled for the efficient energy transfer; The controlled assembly of catalytic peptides mimicking the catalytic pocket of enzymes can catalyze chemical reactions with high selectivity; and, For the bacteria-mimicking swimmer fabrication, peptide-MOF superlattices can power translational and propellant motions by the reconfiguration of peptide assembly at the MOF-liquid interface.

  8. Packaging systems for animal origin food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The main task of food packaging is to protect the product during storage and transport against the action of biological, chemical and mechanical factors. The paper presents packaging systems for food of animal origin. Vacuum and modified atmosphere packagings were characterised together with novel types of packagings, referred to as intelligent packaging and active packaging. The aim of this paper was to present all advantages and disadvantages of packaging used for meat products. Such list enables to choose the optimal type of packaging for given assortment of food and specific conditions of the transport and storing.

  9. Applications of Active Packaging in Breads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Göncü

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Changes on consumer preferences lead to innovations and improvements in new packaging technologies. With these new developments passive packaging technologies aiming to protect food nowadays have left their place to active and intelligent packaging technologies that have other various functions beside protection of food. Active packaging is defined as an innovative packaging type and its usage increases the shelf life of food significantly. Applications of active packaging have begun to be used for packaging of breads. In this study active packaging applications in breads have been reviewed.

  10. Electric Motor Thermal Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, Kevin S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Thermal management enables more efficient and cost-effective motors. This Annual Merit Review presentation describes the technical accomplishments and progress in electric motor thermal management R&D over the last year. This project supports a broad industry demand for data, analysis methods, and experimental techniques to improve and better understand motor thermal management.

  11. Programmable dc motor controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, J. E.

    1982-11-01

    A portable programmable dc motor controller, with features not available on commercial instruments was developed for controlling fixtures during welding processes. The controller can be used to drive any dc motor having tachometer feedback and motor requirements not exceeding 30 volts, 3 amperes. Among the controller's features are delayed start time, upslope time, speed, and downslope time.

  12. Soldering in electronics assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Judd, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Soldering in Electronics Assembly discusses several concerns in soldering of electronic assemblies. The book is comprised of nine chapters that tackle different areas in electronic assembly soldering. Chapter 1 discusses the soldering process itself, while Chapter 2 covers the electronic assemblies. Chapter 3 talks about solders and Chapter 4 deals with flux. The text also tackles the CS and SC soldering process. The cleaning of soldered assemblies, solder quality, and standards and specifications are also discussed. The book will be of great use to professionals who deal with electronic assem

  13. Nuclear fuel string assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ip, A.K.; Koyanagi, K.; Tarasuk, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    A method of fabricating rodded fuels suitable for use in pressure tube type reactors and in pressure vessel type reactors is described. Fuel rods are secured as an inner and an outer sub-assembly, each rod attached between mounting rings secured to the rod ends. The two sub-assemblies are telescoped together and positioned by spaced thimbles located between them to provide precise positioning while permittng differential axial movement between the sub-assemblies. Such sub-assemblies are particularly suited for mounting as bundle strings. The method provides particular advantages in the assembly of annular-section fuel pins, which includes booster fuel containing enriched fuel material. (LL)

  14. Nuclear reactor fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmonier, Pierre; Mesnage, Bernard; Nervi, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    This invention refers to fuel assemblies for a liquid metal cooled fast neutron reactor. Each assembly is composed of a hollow vertical casing, of regular polygonal section, containing a bundle of clad pins filled with a fissile or fertile substance. The casing is open at its upper end and has a cylindrical foot at its lower end for positioning the assembly in a housing provided in the horizontal diagrid, on which the core assembly rests. A set of flat bars located on the external surface of the casing enables it to be correctly orientated in its housing among the other core assemblies [fr

  15. New Packaging for Amplifier Slabs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thorsness, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Suratwala, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Steele, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rogowski, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-03-18

    The following memo provides a discussion and detailed procedure for a new finished amplifier slab shipping and storage container. The new package is designed to maintain an environment of <5% RH to minimize weathering.

  16. Dual Use Packaging, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA calculation that over a kg of packaging waste are generated per day for a 6 member crew. This represents over 1.5 metric tons of waste during a Mars mission....

  17. Nested Cohort - R software package

    Science.gov (United States)

    NestedCohort is an R software package for fitting Kaplan-Meier and Cox Models to estimate standardized survival and attributable risks for studies where covariates of interest are observed on only a sample of the cohort.

  18. CompareTests-R package

    Science.gov (United States)

    CompareTests is an R package to estimate agreement and diagnostic accuracy statistics for two diagnostic tests when one is conducted on only a subsample of specimens. A standard test is observed on all specimens.

  19. Packages for radiactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R. de.

    1983-01-01

    The development of multi-stage type package for sea disposal of compactable nuclear wastes, is presented. The basic requirements for the project followed the NEA and IAEA recommendations and observations of the solutions adopted by others countries. The packages of preliminary design was analysed, by computer, under several conditions arising out of its nature, as well as their conditions descent, dumping and durability in the deep of sea. The designed pressure equalization mechanic and the effect compacting on the package, by prototypes and specific tests, were studied. These prototypes were also submitted to the transport tests of the 'Regulament for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials'. Based on results of the testes and the re-evaluation of the preliminary design, final indications and specifications for excuting the package design, are presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  20. Objectives for radioactive waste packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, R.H.

    1982-04-01

    The report falls under the headings: introduction; the nature of radioactive wastes; how to manage radioactive wastes; packaging of radioactive wastes (supervised storage; disposal); waste form evaluation and test requirements (supervised storage; disposal); conclusions. (U.K.)

  1. Packaging Review Guide for Reviewing Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiSabatino, A; Biswas, D; DeMicco, M; Fisher, L E; Hafner, R; Haslam, J; Mok, G; Patel, C; Russell, E

    2007-04-12

    This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for Department of Energy (DOE) review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE Order 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his or her review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. This PRG is generally organized at the section level in a format similar to that recommended in Regulatory Guide 7.9 (RG 7.9). One notable exception is the addition of Section 9 (Quality Assurance), which is not included as a separate chapter in RG 7.9. Within each section, this PRG addresses the technical and regulatory bases for the review, the manner in which the review is accomplished, and findings that are generally applicable for a package that meets the approval standards. This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for DOE review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE O 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. The primary objectives of this PRG are to: (1) Summarize the regulatory requirements for package approval; (2) Describe the technical review procedures by which DOE determines that these requirements have been satisfied; (3) Establish and maintain the quality and uniformity of reviews; (4) Define the base from which to evaluate proposed changes in scope

  2. Examination of shipping packages 9975-01641, 9975-01692, 9975-03373, 9975-02101 AND 9975-02713

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-01-01

    SRNL has assisted in the examination of five 9975 shipping packages following storage of nuclear material in K-Area Complex (KAC). Two packages (9975-01641 and -01692) with water intrusion resulting from a roof leak were selected for detailed examination after internal fiberboard degradation (mold) was observed. 9975-01692 contained regions of saturated fiberboard and significant mold, while the second package was less degraded. A third package (9975-03373) was removed from storage for routine surveillance activities, and set aside for further examination after a musty odor was noted inside. No additional degradation was noted in 9975-03373, but the lower assembly could not be removed from the drum for detailed examination. Two additional packages (9975-02101 and -02713) identified for further examination were among a larger group selected for surveillance as part of a specific focus on high-wattage packages. These two packages displayed several non-conforming conditions, including the following: (1) the axial gap criterion was exceeded, (2) a significant concentration of moisture was found in the bottom fiberboard layers, with active mold in this area, (3) condensation and/or water stains were observed on internal components (drum, lid, air shield), and (4) both drums contained localized corrosion along the bottom lip. It is recommended that a new screening check be implemented for packages that are removed from storage, as well as high wattage packages remaining in storage. An initial survey for corrosion along the drum bottom lip of high wattage packages could identify potential degraded packages for future surveillance focus. In addition, after packages have been removed from storage (and unloaded), the drum bottom lip and underside should be inspected for corrosion. The presence of corrosion could signal the need to remove the lower fiberboard assembly for further inspection of the fiberboard and drum prior to recertification of the package.

  3. AliPDU Package Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    "Martin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    "AliPDU Package" is a set of script, panels, and datapoints designed in WinCC to manage and monitor PDU's. PDU is an essential component in the data center, in order to make data center working properly through the monitoring of power distribution and environmental condition of the data center. In this project "AliPDU Package" is upgraded so it can be used to monitor environmental condition of data center using PDU's and external environmental sensor connected to PDU.

  4. AliPDU Package Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    AliPDU Package is a set of script, panels, and datapoints designed in WinCC to manage and monitor PDU's. PDU is an essential component in the data center, in order to make data center working properly through the monitoring of power distribution and environmental condition of the data center. In this project "AliPDU Package" is upgraded so it can be used to monitor environmental condition of data center using PDU's and external environmental sensor connected to PDU.

  5. Watermarking spot colors in packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Alastair; Filler, TomáÅ.¡; Falkenstern, Kristyn; Bai, Yang

    2015-03-01

    In January 2014, Digimarc announced Digimarc® Barcode for the packaging industry to improve the check-out efficiency and customer experience for retailers. Digimarc Barcode is a machine readable code that carries the same information as a traditional Universal Product Code (UPC) and is introduced by adding a robust digital watermark to the package design. It is imperceptible to the human eye but can be read by a modern barcode scanner at the Point of Sale (POS) station. Compared to a traditional linear barcode, Digimarc Barcode covers the whole package with minimal impact on the graphic design. This significantly improves the Items per Minute (IPM) metric, which retailers use to track the checkout efficiency since it closely relates to their profitability. Increasing IPM by a few percent could lead to potential savings of millions of dollars for retailers, giving them a strong incentive to add the Digimarc Barcode to their packages. Testing performed by Digimarc showed increases in IPM of at least 33% using the Digimarc Barcode, compared to using a traditional barcode. A method of watermarking print ready image data used in the commercial packaging industry is described. A significant proportion of packages are printed using spot colors, therefore spot colors needs to be supported by an embedder for Digimarc Barcode. Digimarc Barcode supports the PANTONE spot color system, which is commonly used in the packaging industry. The Digimarc Barcode embedder allows a user to insert the UPC code in an image while minimizing perceptibility to the Human Visual System (HVS). The Digimarc Barcode is inserted in the printing ink domain, using an Adobe Photoshop plug-in as the last step before printing. Since Photoshop is an industry standard widely used by pre-press shops in the packaging industry, a Digimarc Barcode can be easily inserted and proofed.

  6. TRU waste transportation package development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eakes, R.G.; Lamoreaux, G.H.; Romesberg, L.E.; Sutherland, S.H.; Duffey, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    Inventories of the transuranic wastes buried or stored at various US DOE sites are tabulated. The leading conceptual design of Type-B packaging for contact-handled transuranic waste is the Transuranic Package Transporter (TRUPACT), a large metal container comprising inner and outer tubular steel frameworks which are separated by rigid polyurethane foam and sheathed with steel plate. Testing of TRUPACT is reported. The schedule for its development is given. 6 figures

  7. Food Packaging for Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Helén

    2011-01-01

    Packaging has been on the environmental agenda for decades. It has been discussed and debated within the society mainly as an environmental problem. Production, distribution and consumption of food and drinks contribute significant to the environmental impact. However, consumers in the EU waste about 20% of the food they buy. The function of packaging in reducing the amount of food losses is an important but often neglected environmental issue. This thesis focuses on the functions of packagin...

  8. Examination Of Shipping Packages 9975-01818, 9975-01903 AND 9975-02287

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daugherty, W.

    2009-01-01

    Three 9975 shipping packages were examined to investigate the non-conforming condition of an axial air gap greater than 1 inch. This condition typically indicates the presence of excess moisture in the fiberboard overpack, and may be accompanied by degradation in the fiberboard properties. The package with the largest axial air gap (9975-01818, with an air gap of 1.437 inches) was found to contain significant excess moisture, and the lower fiberboard assembly was covered with mold and was significantly degraded in strength. This condition is very similar to that observed previously in package 9975-01819. Both packages (-1818 and -1819) appear to contain a similar amount of excess moisture, which was previously estimated for 9975-01819 as ∼2.5 liters. The condition of 9975-01818 was also evidenced by several rust spots along the bottom chime of the drum, although no significant rust was noted on the closure bolts. Packages 9975-01903 and 9975-02287 were also examined. The axial air gap in these two packages was less than in 9975-01818, but still exceeded 1 inch. These two packages contained elevated moisture levels, although not significantly higher than seen in other 'typical' packages. The fiberboard in these two packages was of sound integrity, and appeared generally consistent with undegraded material. A few small patches of mold on and near the bottom of the fiberboard in 9975-01903 appeared dormant. No mold was observed on package 9975-02287. The SPA will provide recommendations on possible follow-up activities with these three packages. This might include a demonstration in SRNL of whether removal of the caplugs from similar packages would facilitate removal of excess moisture. Future efforts should also include an assessment of using the 1 inch axial gap criterion as a valid indicator of fiberboard degradation.

  9. Packagings in the silicon era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beone, G.; Mione, A.; Orsini, A.; Forasassi, G.

    1993-01-01

    ENEA is studying, with the collaboration of the DCMN of the Pisa University, a new packaging to collect wastes in various facilities while proceeding to find a final disposal. Following a survey on the wastes that could be transported in the future, it was agreed to design a packaging able to contain an industrial drum, with a maximum capacity of 220 litres and a total weight less than 4000 N, previously filled with solid wastes in bulk or in a solid binding material. The packaging, to be approved as a Type B in agreement with the IAEA Regulations, will be useful to transport not only radioactive wastes but any kind of dangerous goods and also those not in agreement with the UNO Regulations. The 1/2 scale model of the packaging is formed by two concentric vessels of mild steel obtained by welding commercial shells to cylindrical walls and joined through a flange. The new packaging under development presents features that seem to be proper for its envisaged waste collection main use such as construction simplicity, relatively low cost, time and use endurance, low maintenance requirements. The design analysis and testing program ongoing at present allowed for the preliminary definition of the packaging geometry and confirmed the necessity of further investigations in some key areas as the determination of actual behaviour of the silicon foam, used as energy absorbing/thermal insulating material, in the specific conditions of interest. (J.P.N.)

  10. Motor/generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickam, Christopher Dale [Glasford, IL

    2008-05-13

    A motor/generator is provided for connecting between a transmission input shaft and an output shaft of a prime mover. The motor/generator may include a motor/generator housing, a stator mounted to the motor/generator housing, a rotor mounted at least partially within the motor/generator housing and rotatable about a rotor rotation axis, and a transmission-shaft coupler drivingly coupled to the rotor. The transmission-shaft coupler may include a clamp, which may include a base attached to the rotor and a plurality of adjustable jaws.

  11. Piezoelectric Motors, an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Spanner

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric motors are used in many industrial and commercial applications. Various piezoelectric motors are available in the market. All of the piezoelectric motors use the inverse piezoelectric effect, where microscopically small oscillatory motions are converted into continuous or stepping rotary or linear motions. Methods of obtaining long moving distance have various drive and functional principles that make these motors categorized into three groups: resonance-drive (piezoelectric ultrasonic motors, inertia-drive, and piezo-walk-drive. In this review, a comprehensive summary of piezoelectric motors, with their classification from initial idea to recent progress, is presented. This review also includes some of the industrial and commercial applications of piezoelectric motors that are presently available in the market as actuators.

  12. Motor degradation prediction methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.

    1996-12-01

    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor`s duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures.

  13. Neuroplasticity & Motor Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Lundbye

    Practice of a new motor task is usually associated with an improvement in performance. Indeed, if we stop practicing and return the next day to the same task, we find that our performance has been maintained and may even be better than it was at the start of the first day. This improvement...... is a measure of our ability to form and store a motor memory of the task. However, the initial memory of the task is labile and may be subject to interference. During and following motor learning plastic changes occur within the central nervous system. On one hand these changes are driven by motor practice......, on the other hand the changes underlie the formation of motor memory and the retention of improved motor performance. During motor learning changes may occur at many different levels within the central nervous system dependent on the type of task and training. Here, we demonstrate different studies from our...

  14. The use of dual material seals for packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temus, C.J.; Nichols, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    The use of dual material seals, metal and elastomeric for a transportation package, provides a viable option for packages requiring high temperature seal capability. Allowing the seal area to go to higher temperatures then allowed for all elastomeric seal reduce the necessity of providing thermal protection during a postulated accident condition fire. It also increases the options for impact limiting features that do not also mitigate the affects of accident thermal events. Typically, high temperature seals require the use of metal O-rings. Only one seal (typically identified as the containment seal) needs to survive the hypothetical accident conditions, including the high temperatures that may occur during the prescribed hypothetical thermal event. However, to expedite the assembly leakage rate testing of radioactive material packages, a dual O-ring seal arrangement is often used to allow creation of a relatively small volume test cavity between the seals. For any package that is being used on a frequent basis, the total cost of seals can be significantly reduced by using an elastomeric seal as the secondary seal. The elastomeric seal is not the containment boundary seal and does not need to survive the high temperature condition. To get the dual material O-ring seals to seat properly, a different approach has to be taken than with closure of a radioactive material package that does not use metallic O-ring(s). A metal O-ring requires an application of a seating force while the elastomeric package requires a certain percentage of deformation. This is further complicated when the seating force is developed using a multi-bolt closure. Because of the nature of multi-bolt closures, elastic interaction prevents the equal application of force. This paper develops the methods involved in properly closing and establishing containment when using dual material seals with a multi-bolt closure. These methods were demonstrated in two production casks requiring testing leak

  15. Prevention policies addressing packaging and packaging waste: Some emerging trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tencati, Antonio; Pogutz, Stefano; Moda, Beatrice; Brambilla, Matteo; Cacia, Claudia

    2016-10-01

    Packaging waste is a major issue in several countries. Representing in industrialized countries around 30-35% of municipal solid waste yearly generated, this waste stream has steadily grown over the years even if, especially in Europe, specific recycling and recovery targets have been fixed. Therefore, an increasing attention starts to be devoted to prevention measures and interventions. Filling a gap in the current literature, this explorative paper is a first attempt to map the increasingly important phenomenon of prevention policies in the packaging sector. Through a theoretical sampling, 11 countries/states (7 in and 4 outside Europe) have been selected and analyzed by gathering and studying primary and secondary data. Results show evidence of three specific trends in packaging waste prevention policies: fostering the adoption of measures directed at improving packaging design and production through an extensive use of the life cycle assessment; raising the awareness of final consumers by increasing the accountability of firms; promoting collaborative efforts along the packaging supply chains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Model 9975 Life Extension Package 1 - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daugherty, W.

    2011-01-01

    Life extension package LE1 (9975-03382) was instrumented and subjected to a temperature/humidity environment that bounds KAMS package storage conditions for 92 weeks. During this time, the maximum fiberboard temperature was ∼180 F, and was established by a combination of internal heat (12 watts) and external heat (∼142 F). The relative humidity external to the package was maintained at 80 %RH. This package was removed from test in November 2010 after several degraded conditions were observed during a periodic examination. These conditions included degraded fiberboard (easily broken, bottom layer stuck to the drum), corrosion of the drum, and separation of the air shield from the upper fiberboard assembly. Several tests and parameters were used to characterize the package components. Results from these tests generally indicate agreement between this full-scale shipping package and small-scale laboratory tests on fiberboard and O-ring samples. These areas of agreement include the rate of fiberboard weight loss, change in fiberboard thermal conductivity, fiberboard compression strength, and O-ring compression set. In addition, this package provides an example of the extent to which moisture within the fiberboard can redistribute in the presence of a temperature gradient such as might be created by a 12 watt internal heat load. Much of the moisture near the fiberboard ID surface migrated towards the OD surface, but there was not a significant axial moisture gradient during most of the test duration. Only during the last inspection period (i.e. after 92 weeks exposure during the second phase) did enough moisture migrate to the bottom fiberboard layers to cause saturation. A side effect of moisture migration is the leaching of soluble compounds from the fiberboard. In particular, the corrosion observed on the drum appears related primarily to the leaching and concentration of chlorides. In most locations, this attack appears to be general corrosion, with shallow

  17. Method for assembling dynamoelectric machine end shield parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Methods, apparatus, and systems are provided for automatically assembling end shield assemblies of subassemblies for electric motors. In a preferred form, a system and methods are provided that utilize a non-palletized, non-synchronous concept to convey end shields through a number of assembly stations. At process stations situated along a conveyor, operations are performed on components. One method includes controlling traffic of sub-assemblies by toggle type escapements. A stop or latch of unique design stops end shield components in midstream, and ''lifts'' of unique design disengage parts from the conveyor and also support such parts during various operations. Photo-optic devices and proximity and reed switch mechanisms are utilized for control purposes. The work stations involved in one system include a unique assembly and pressing station involving oil well covers; a unique feed wick seating system; a unique lubricant adding operation; and unique ''building block'' mechanisms and methods

  18. A simplified approach to design for assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moultrie, James; Maier, Anja

    2014-01-01

    The basic principles of design for assembly (DfA) are well established. This paper presents a short review of the development of DfA approaches before presenting a new tool in which these principles are packaged for use in teams, both in an industrial and an educational context. The fundamental...... consideration in the design of this tool is to encourage wide team participation from across an organisation and is thus physical rather than software-based. This tool builds on the process developed by Appleton whilst at the University of Cambridge. In addition to the traditional analysis of component fitting...

  19. Flexible manufacturing for photonics device assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Shin-yee; Young, K.D.

    1994-01-01

    The assembly of photonics devices such as laser diodes, optical modulators, and optoelectronics (OE) multi-chip modules usually requires the placement of micron-size devices, and sub-micron precision attachment between optical fibers and diodes or waveguide modulators (pigtailing). This is a labor-intensive process. Studies done by the OE industry have shown that 95% of the cost of a pigtailed photonic device is attributed to the current practice of manual alignment and bonding techniques. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the authors are working to reduce the cost of packaging OE devices, through the use of automation

  20. 30 CFR 18.80 - Approval of machines assembled with certified or explosion-proof components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of machines assembled with certified... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Machines Assembled With Certified or Explosion-Proof Components, Field...

  1. Design and fabrication of a foldable 3D silicon based package for solid state lighting applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolovskij, R; Liu, P; Van Zeijl, H W; Mimoun, B; Zhang, G Q

    2015-01-01

    Miniaturization of solid state lighting (SSL) luminaires as well as reduction of packaging and assembly costs are of prime interest for the SSL lighting industry. A novel silicon based LED package for lighting applications is presented in this paper. The proposed design consists of 5 rigid Si tiles connected by flexible polyimide hinges with embedded interconnects (ICs). Electrical, optical and thermal characteristics were taken into consideration during design. The fabrication process involved polyimide (PI) application and patterning, aluminium interconnect integration in the flexible hinge, LED reflector cavity formation and metalization followed by through wafer DRIE etching for chip formation and release. A method to connect chip front to backside without TSVs was also integrated into the process. Post-fabrication wafer level assembly included LED mounting and wirebond, phosphor-based colour conversion and silicone encapsulation. The package formation was finalized by vacuum assisted wrapping around an assembly structure to form a 3D geometry, which is beneficial for omnidirectional lighting. Bending tests were performed on the flexible ICs and optical performance at different temperatures was evaluated. It is suggested that 3D packages can be expanded to platforms for miniaturized luminaire applications by combining monolithic silicon integration and system-in-package (SiP) technologies. (paper)

  2. Electric Motor Thermal Management R&D. Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, Kevin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-01

    With the push to reduce component volumes, lower costs, and reduce weight without sacrificing performance or reliability, the challenges associated with thermal management increase for power electronics and electric motors. Thermal management for electric motors will become more important as the automotive industry continues the transition to more electrically dominant vehicle propulsion systems. The transition to more electrically dominant propulsion systems leads to higher-power duty cycles for electric drive systems. Thermal constraints place significant limitations on how electric motors ultimately perform, and as thermal management improves, there will be a direct trade-off between motor performance, efficiency, cost, and the sizing of electric motors to operate within the thermal constraints. The goal of this research project is to support broad industry demand for data, analysis methods, and experimental techniques to improve and better understand motor thermal management. Work in FY15 focused on two areas related to motor thermal management: passive thermal performance and active convective cooling. Passive thermal performance emphasized the thermal impact of materials and thermal interfaces among materials within an assembled motor. The research tasks supported the publication of test methods and data for thermal contact resistances and direction-dependent thermal conductivity within an electric motor. Active convective cooling focused on measuring convective heat-transfer coefficients using automatic transmission fluid (ATF). Data for average convective heat transfer coefficients for direct impingement of ATF jets was published. Also, experimental hardware for mapping local-scale and stator-scale convective heat transfer coefficients for ATF jet impingement were developed.

  3. Finite element analysis of permanent magnet motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boglietti, A.; Chiampi, M.; Tartaglia, M.; Chiarabaglio, D.

    1989-01-01

    The analysis of permanent magnet D.C. brushless motors, supplied by current control inverters, is developed employing a finite element package tailored for such devices. The study is devoted to predicting the performance of a set of four poles machines, under different operating conditions (no-load, rated load). The over-load conditions are also considered including the saturation effect. Moreover the influence of such design parameters, as the tooth shape and the number of magnet segments, is investigated. Computed results are found in satisfactory agreement with experimental ones

  4. 21 CFR 820.130 - Device packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Device packaging. 820.130 Section 820.130 Food and... QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Labeling and Packaging Control § 820.130 Device packaging. Each manufacturer shall ensure that device packaging and shipping containers are designed and constructed to protect the...

  5. 40 CFR 157.27 - Unit packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unit packaging. 157.27 Section 157.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Child-Resistant Packaging § 157.27 Unit packaging. Pesticide products...

  6. 76 FR 30551 - Specifications for Packagings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... design qualification test and each periodic retest on a packaging, a test report must be prepared. The... where the design qualification tests are conducted, for as long as the packaging is produced and for at... report; (5) Manufacturer of the packaging; (6) Description of the packaging design type (e.g. dimensions...

  7. Transportation Packages to Support Savannah River Site Missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opperman, E.

    2001-01-01

    The Savannah River Site's missions have expanded from primarily a defense mission to one that includes environmental cleanup and the stabilization, storage, and preparation for final disposition of nuclear materials. The development of packaging and the transportation of radioactive materials are playing an ever-increasing role in the successful completion of the site's missions. This paper describes the Savannah River Site and the three strategic mission areas of (1) nuclear materials stewardship, (2) environmental stewardship, and (3) nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship. The materials and components that need to be shipped, and associated packaging, will be described for each of the mission areas. The diverse range of materials requiring shipment include spent fuel, irradiated target assemblies, excess plutonium and uranium materials, high level waste canisters, transuranic wastes, mixed and low level wastes, and nuclear weapons stockpile materials and components. Since many of these materials have been in prolonged storage or resulted from disassembly of components, the composition, size and shape of the materials present packaging and certification challenges that need to be met. Over 30 different package designs are required to support the site's missions. Approximately 15 inbound shipping-legs transport materials into the Savannah River Site and the same number (15) of outgoing shipment-legs are carrying materials from the site for further processing or permanent disposal

  8. Experimental Approaches to Study Genome Packaging of Influenza A Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Isel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The genome of influenza A viruses (IAV consists of eight single-stranded negative sense viral RNAs (vRNAs encapsidated into viral ribonucleoproteins (vRNPs. It is now well established that genome packaging (i.e., the incorporation of a set of eight distinct vRNPs into budding viral particles, follows a specific pathway guided by segment-specific cis-acting packaging signals on each vRNA. However, the precise nature and function of the packaging signals, and the mechanisms underlying the assembly of vRNPs into sub-bundles in the cytoplasm and their selective packaging at the viral budding site, remain largely unknown. Here, we review the diverse and complementary methods currently being used to elucidate these aspects of the viral cycle. They range from conventional and competitive reverse genetics, single molecule imaging of vRNPs by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and high-resolution electron microscopy and tomography of budding viral particles, to solely in vitro approaches to investigate vRNA-vRNA interactions at the molecular level.

  9. Utilization of Pb-free solders in MEMS packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaduray, Guna S.

    2003-01-01

    Soldering of components within a package plays an important role in providing electrical interconnection, mechanical integrity and thermal dissipation. MEMS packages present challenges that are more complex than microelectronic packages because they are far more sensitive to shock and vibration and also require precision alignment. Soldering is used at two major levels within a MEMS package: at the die attach level and at the component attach level. Emerging environmental regulations worldwide, notably in Europe and Japan, have targeted the elimination of Pb usage in electronic assemblies, due to the inherent toxicity of Pb. This has provided the driving force for development and deployment of Pb-free solder alloys. A relatively large number of Pb-free solder alloys have been proposed by various researchers and companies. Some of these alloys have also been patented. After several years of research, the solder alloy system that has emerged is based on Sn as a major component. The electronics industry has identified different compositions for different specific uses, such as wave soldering, surface mount reflow, etc. The factors that affect choice of an appropriate Pb-free solder can be divided into two major categories, those related to manufacturing, and those related to long term reliability and performance.

  10. Portal control of viral prohead expansion and DNA packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Krishanu; Oram, Mark; Ma, Jinxia; Black, Lindsay W.

    2009-01-01

    Bacteriophage T4 terminase packages DNA in vitro into empty small or large proheads (esps or elps). In vivo maturation of esps yields the more stable and voluminous elps required to contain the 170 kb T4 genome. Functional proheads can be assembled containing portal-GFP fusion proteins. In the absence of terminase activity these accumulated in esps in vivo, whereas wild-type portals were found in elps. By nuclease protection assay dsDNAs of lengths 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 5, 11, 20, 40 or 170 kb were efficiently packaged into wild-type elps in vitro, but less so into esps and gp20-GFP elps; particularly with DNAs shorter than 11 kb. However, 0.1 kb substrates were equally efficiently packaged into all types of proheads as judged by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. These data suggest the portal controls the expansion of the major capsid protein lattice during prohead maturation, and that this expansion is necessary for DNA protection but not for packaging.

  11. Packaged and hybrid integrated all-optical flip-flop memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; McDougall, R.; Hill, M.T.; Maxwell, G.D.; Zhang, S.; Harmon, R.; Huijskens, Frans; Rivers, L.; Dorren, H.J.S.; Poustie, A.

    2006-01-01

    A fully-packaged hybrid-integrated all-optical flip-flop, where InP-based semiconductor optical amplifiers are assembled onto a planar silica waveguide board, is demonstrated. It is shown experimentally that the flip-flop can dynamically toggle between its two states by injecting 150 ps optical

  12. Safety Analysis Report - Packages, 9965, 9968, 9972-9975 Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Alstine, M.N.

    1999-01-01

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) documents the performance of the 9965 B, 9968 B, 9972 B(U), 9973 B(U), 9974 B(U), and 9975 B(U) packages in satisfying the regulatory safety requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 711 and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Series No. 6, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, 1985 edition2. Results of the analysis and testing performed on the 9965 B, 9968 B, 9972 B(U), 9973 B(U), 9974 B(U), and 9975 B(U) packages are presented in this SARP, which was prepared in accordance with U.S. Department of energy (DOE) Order 5480.33 and in the format specified in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guides 7.94 and 7.10.5

  13. Safety analysis report - packages 9965, 9968, 9972-9975 packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Alstine, M.N.

    1997-10-01

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) documents the performance of the 9965 B( ), 9968 B( ), 9972 B(U), 9973 B(U), 9974 B(U), and 9975 B(U) packages in satisfying the regulatory safety requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 10 CFR 71 and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Series No. 6, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, 1985 edition. Results of the analysis and testing performed on the 9965 B(), 9968 B(), 9972 B(U), 9973 B(U), and 9975 B(U) packages are presented in this SARP, which was prepared in accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.3 and in the format specified in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guides 7.9 and 7.10

  14. Automated packaging platform for low-cost high-performance optical components manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Robert T.

    2004-05-01

    Delivering high performance integrated optical components at low cost is critical to the continuing recovery and growth of the optical communications industry. In today's market, network equipment vendors need to provide their customers with new solutions that reduce operating expenses and enable new revenue generating IP services. They must depend on the availability of highly integrated optical modules exhibiting high performance, small package size, low power consumption, and most importantly, low cost. The cost of typical optical system hardware is dominated by linecards that are in turn cost-dominated by transmitters and receivers or transceivers and transponders. Cost effective packaging of optical components in these small size modules is becoming the biggest challenge to be addressed. For many traditional component suppliers in our industry, the combination of small size, high performance, and low cost appears to be in conflict and not feasible with conventional product design concepts and labor intensive manual assembly and test. With the advent of photonic integration, there are a variety of materials, optics, substrates, active/passive devices, and mechanical/RF piece parts to manage in manufacturing to achieve high performance at low cost. The use of automation has been demonstrated to surpass manual operation in cost (even with very low labor cost) as well as product uniformity and quality. In this paper, we will discuss the value of using an automated packaging platform.for the assembly and test of high performance active components, such as 2.5Gb/s and 10 Gb/s sources and receivers. Low cost, high performance manufacturing can best be achieved by leveraging a flexible packaging platform to address a multitude of laser and detector devices, integration of electronics and handle various package bodies and fiber configurations. This paper describes the operation and results of working robotic assemblers in the manufacture of a Laser Optical Subassembly

  15. MILK WITH INCREASED CONCENTRATION OF MELATONIN PACKAGING FACTORS ON CONSUMER PURCHASE INTENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Patricia Milagres

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The conjoint analysis of factors was used employed to develop a label for the packaging of milk with increased concentration of melatonin. Three factors were selected with three or two levels for the assembly of packaging: packaging design (“blue design with stars and pouring milk”, “white without drawing” and “blue stars with and without drawing”, name (“milk night “and” melatonin “ and informative text about getting natural melatonin by night milking, and the benefits of this compound (“with” and “without”. Twelve packaging designs were created based on a complete factorial arrangement. The designs were presented to 144 consumers who were asked to assess purchase intent of each package. For the joint analysis of factors, the ideal product or more likely to purchase for the most consumers would be blue with stars and packaging design of milk pouring, named milk night and in the presence of informational text, demonstrating that consumers like a package that brings the product and that contains information described. Therefore, the packaging has a major influence on consumer choice and can contribute positively or negatively to the acceptance of food.

  16. JTEC Panel report on electronic manufacturing and packaging in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael J.; Boulton, William R. (Editor); Kukowski, John; Meieran, Gene; Pecht, Michael; Peeples, John; Tummala, Rao; Dehaemer, Michael J.; Holdridge, Geoff (Editor); Gamota, George

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the status of electronic manufacturing and packaging technology in Japan in comparison to that in the United States, and its impact on competition in electronic manufacturing in general. In addition to electronic manufacturing technologies, the report covers technology and manufacturing infrastructure, electronics manufacturing and assembly, quality assurance and reliability in the Japanese electronics industry, and successful product realization strategies. The panel found that Japan leads the United States in almost every electronics packaging technology. Japan clearly has achieved a strategic advantage in electronics production and process technologies. Panel members believe that Japanese competitors could be leading U.S. firms by as much as a decade in some electronics process technologies.

  17. Assembly tool design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanamori, Naokazu; Nakahira, Masataka; Ohkawa, Yoshinao; Tada, Eisuke; Seki, Masahiro

    1996-06-01

    The reactor core of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is assembled with a number of large and asymmetric components within a tight tolerance in order to assure the structural integrity for various loads and to provide the tritium confinement. In addition, the assembly procedure should be compatible with remote operation since the core structures will be activated by 14-MeV neutrons once it starts operation and thus personal access will be prohibited. Accordingly, the assembly procedure and tool design are quite essential and should be designed from the beginning to facilitate remote operation. According to the ITER Design Task Agreement, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has performed design study to develop the assembly procedures and associated tool design for the ITER tokamak assembly. This report describes outlines of the assembly tools and the remaining issues obtained in this design study. (author)

  18. Reference waste package environment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glassley, W.E.

    1986-01-01

    One of three candidate repository sites for high-level radioactive waste packages is located at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in rhyolitic tuff 700 to 1400 ft above the static water table. Calculations indicate that the package environment will experience a maximum temperature of ∼230 0 C at 9 years after emplacement. For the next 300 years the rock within 1 m of the waste packages will remain dehydrated. Preliminary results suggest that the waste package radiation field will have very little effect on the mechanical properties of the rock. Radiolysis products will have a negligible effect on the rock even after rehydration. Unfractured specimens of repository rock show no change in hydrologic characteristics during repeated dehydration-rehydration cycles. Fractured samples with initially high permeabilities show a striking permeability decrease during dehydration-rehydration cycling, which may be due to fracture healing via deposition of silica. Rock-water interaction studies demonstrate low and benign levels of anions and most cations. The development of sorptive secondary phases such as zeolites and clays suggests that anticipated rock-water interaction may produce beneficial changes in the package environment

  19. Hazardous materials package performance regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, N.A.; Glass, R.E.; McClure, J.D.; Finley, N.C.

    1993-01-01

    Two regulatory philosophies, one based on 'specification' packaging standards and the other based on 'performance' packaging standards, currently define the hazmat packaging certification process. A main concern when setting performance standards is determining the appropriate standards necessary to assure adequate public protection. This paper discusses a Hazmat Packaging Performance Evaluation (HPPE) project being conducted at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Department of Transportation Research and Special Programs Administration. In this project, the current bulk packagings (larger than 2000 gallons) for transporting Materials Extremely Toxic By Inhalation (METBI) are being evaluated and performance standards will be recommended. A computer software system, HazCon, has been developed which can calculate the dispersion of dense, neutral, and buoyant gases. HazCon also has a database of thermodynamic and toxicity data for the METBI materials, a user-friendly menu-driven format for creating input data sets for calculating dispersion of the METBI in the event of an accidental release, and a link between the METBI database and the dense gas dispersion code (which requires thermodynamic properties). The primary output of HazCon is a listing of mass concentrations of the released material at distances downwind from the release point. (J.P.N.)

  20. Nanocellulose in green food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilarinho, Fernanda; Sanches Silva, Ana; Vaz, M Fátima; Farinha, José Paulo

    2017-01-26

    The development of packaging materials with new functionalities and lower environmental impact is now an urgent need of our society. On one hand, the shelf-life extension of packaged products can be an answer to the exponential increase of worldwide demand for food. On the other hand, uncertainty of crude oil prices and reserves has imposed the necessity to find raw materials to replace oil-derived polymers. Additionally, consumers' awareness toward environmental issues increasingly pushes industries to look with renewed interest to "green" solutions. In response to these issues, numerous polymers have been exploited to develop biodegradable food packaging materials. Although the use of biopolymers has been limited due to their poor mechanical and barrier properties, these can be enhanced by adding reinforcing nanosized components to form nanocomposites. Cellulose is probably the most used and well-known renewable and sustainable raw material. The mechanical properties, reinforcing capabilities, abundance, low density, and biodegradability of nanosized cellulose make it an ideal candidate for polymer nanocomposites processing. Here we review the potential applications of cellulose based nanocomposites in food packaging materials, highlighting the several types of biopolymers with nanocellulose fillers that have been used to form bio-nanocomposite materials. The trends in nanocellulose packaging applications are also addressed.