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  1. AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF MANUFACTURING STRATEGY OF PACKAGING PRODUCT-MANUFACTURING COMPANIES IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradip P. Patil

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents finding of a survey on manufacturing strategy implementation (MSI adopted by the Indian packaging product manufacturing companies (IPPMC. Though the companies differ in terms of prod uct types (shape, method, content and material of packaging, conversion system, sales volume and sophistication of machinery used, they share common purpose that are used for packaging the product s . With growth in demand for consumer products, packaging f orms basis of differentiating products from competitors. The survey shows emphasis on implementation of manufacturing strategy, key decision areas, identifies competitive priorities, order winners. To get insight, three companies are selected for detailed case studies.

  2. Electronic manufacturing and packaging in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael J.; Boulton, William R. (Editor); Kukowski, John A.; Meieran, Eugene S.; Pecht, Michael; Peeples, John W.; Tummala, Rao R.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the status of electronic manufacturing and packaging technology in Japan in comparison to that in the United States, and its impact on competition in electronic manufacturing in general. In addition to electronic manufacturing technologies, the report covers technology and manufacturing infrastructure, electronics manufacturing and assembly, quality assurance and reliability in the Japanese electronics industry, and successful product realization strategies. The panel found that Japan leads the United States in almost every electronics packaging technology. Japan clearly has achieved a strategic advantage in electronics production and process technologies. Panel members believe that Japanese competitors could be leading U.S. firms by as much as a decade in some electronics process technologies. Japan has established this marked competitive advantage in electronics as a consequence of developing low-cost, high-volume consumer products. Japan's infrastructure, and the remarkable cohesiveness of vision and purpose in government and industry, are key factors in the success of Japan's electronics industry. Although Japan will continue to dominate consumer electronics in the foreseeable future, opportunities exist for the United States and other industrial countries to capture an increasingly large part of the market. The JTEC panel has identified no insurmountable barriers that would prevent the United States from regaining a significant share of the consumer electronics market; in fact, there is ample evidence that the United States needs to aggressively pursue high-volume, low-cost electronic assembly, because it is a critical path leading to high-performance electronic systems.

  3. JTEC Panel report on electronic manufacturing and packaging in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael J.; Boulton, William R. (Editor); Kukowski, John; Meieran, Gene; Pecht, Michael; Peeples, John; Tummala, Rao; Dehaemer, Michael J.; Holdridge, Geoff (Editor); Gamota, George

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the status of electronic manufacturing and packaging technology in Japan in comparison to that in the United States, and its impact on competition in electronic manufacturing in general. In addition to electronic manufacturing technologies, the report covers technology and manufacturing infrastructure, electronics manufacturing and assembly, quality assurance and reliability in the Japanese electronics industry, and successful product realization strategies. The panel found that Japan leads the United States in almost every electronics packaging technology. Japan clearly has achieved a strategic advantage in electronics production and process technologies. Panel members believe that Japanese competitors could be leading U.S. firms by as much as a decade in some electronics process technologies.

  4. Advanced Manufacturing Systems in Food Processing and Packaging Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sani, Mohd Shafie; Aziz, Faieza Abdul

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, several advanced manufacturing systems in food processing and packaging industry are reviewed, including: biodegradable smart packaging and Nano composites, advanced automation control system consists of fieldbus technology, distributed control system and food safety inspection features. The main purpose of current technology in food processing and packaging industry is discussed due to major concern on efficiency of the plant process, productivity, quality, as well as safety. These application were chosen because they are robust, flexible, reconfigurable, preserve the quality of the food, and efficient.

  5. Advanced Manufacturing Systems in Food Processing and Packaging Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafie Sani, Mohd; Aziz, Faieza Abdul

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, several advanced manufacturing systems in food processing and packaging industry are reviewed, including: biodegradable smart packaging and Nano composites, advanced automation control system consists of fieldbus technology, distributed control system and food safety inspection features. The main purpose of current technology in food processing and packaging industry is discussed due to major concern on efficiency of the plant process, productivity, quality, as well as safety. These application were chosen because they are robust, flexible, reconfigurable, preserve the quality of the food, and efficient.

  6. Automated packaging platform for low-cost high-performance optical components manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Robert T.

    2004-05-01

    Delivering high performance integrated optical components at low cost is critical to the continuing recovery and growth of the optical communications industry. In today's market, network equipment vendors need to provide their customers with new solutions that reduce operating expenses and enable new revenue generating IP services. They must depend on the availability of highly integrated optical modules exhibiting high performance, small package size, low power consumption, and most importantly, low cost. The cost of typical optical system hardware is dominated by linecards that are in turn cost-dominated by transmitters and receivers or transceivers and transponders. Cost effective packaging of optical components in these small size modules is becoming the biggest challenge to be addressed. For many traditional component suppliers in our industry, the combination of small size, high performance, and low cost appears to be in conflict and not feasible with conventional product design concepts and labor intensive manual assembly and test. With the advent of photonic integration, there are a variety of materials, optics, substrates, active/passive devices, and mechanical/RF piece parts to manage in manufacturing to achieve high performance at low cost. The use of automation has been demonstrated to surpass manual operation in cost (even with very low labor cost) as well as product uniformity and quality. In this paper, we will discuss the value of using an automated packaging platform.for the assembly and test of high performance active components, such as 2.5Gb/s and 10 Gb/s sources and receivers. Low cost, high performance manufacturing can best be achieved by leveraging a flexible packaging platform to address a multitude of laser and detector devices, integration of electronics and handle various package bodies and fiber configurations. This paper describes the operation and results of working robotic assemblers in the manufacture of a Laser Optical Subassembly

  7. 21 CFR 509.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 509.15 Section 509.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. (a) Polychlorinated...). These accidents in turn caused the contamination of food products intended for human consumption (meat...

  8. 21 CFR 109.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 109.15 Section 109.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. (a) Polychlorinated...). These accidents in turn caused the contamination of food products intended for human consumption (meat...

  9. 21 CFR 181.22 - Certain substances employed in the manufacture of food-packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... food-packaging materials. 181.22 Section 181.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... of food-packaging materials. Prior to the enactment of the food additives amendment to the Federal... manufacturing practice for food-packaging materials includes the restriction that the quantity of any of these...

  10. Critical review of controlled release packaging to improve food safety and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Chen, Mo; Xu, Chenyi; Yam, Kit L

    2018-03-19

    Controlled release packaging (CRP) is an innovative technology that uses the package to release active compounds in a controlled manner to improve safety and quality for a wide range of food products during storage. This paper provides a critical review of the uniqueness, design considerations, and research gaps of CRP, with a focus on the kinetics and mechanism of active compounds releasing from the package. Literature data and practical examples are presented to illustrate how CRP controls what active compounds to release, when and how to release, how much and how fast to release, in order to improve food safety and quality.

  11. Binding behavior of CRP and anti-CRP antibody analyzed with SPR and AFM measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soo-Keun; Kim, Hyun-Chul; Cho, Sang-Joon; Jeong, Sang Won; Jeon, Won Bae

    2008-01-01

    Atomic force microscope (AFM) was exploited to take picture of the molecular topology of C-reactive protein (CRP) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution. An explicit molecular image of CRP demonstrated a pentagonal structure composed of five subunits. Dimensions of the doughnut-shaped CRP molecule measured by AFM were about 25 nm in outside diameter and 10 nm in central pore diameter, and the height of CRP molecule was about 4 nm which was comparable to the value determined by X-ray crystallography. Bis(N-succinimido)-11,11'-dithiobis (undecyl succinate) (DSNHS) was synthesized for use as a linker for immobilizing anti-CRP antibody (anti-CRP) onto the gold surface of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor chip. DSNHS formed self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on the gold surface. By use of an AFM tip, a pattern of ditch was engraved within the SAM of DSNHS, and anti-CRP was immobilized on the engraved SAM through replacement of N-hydroxysuccinimide group on the outside surface of DSNHS by the amine group of anti-CRP. Formation of CRP/anti-CRP complex on the gold surface of SPR sensor chip was clearly demonstrated by measuring SPR angle shift. A consecutive series of SAM, SAM/anti-CRP, and SAM/anti-CRP/CRP complexes was generated on a SPR sensor chip, and the changes in depth of the ditch were monitored by taking AFM images of the complexes. Comparative analysis of the depth differences indicates that binding of CRP to anti-CRP occurs in a planar mode

  12. The profitability drivers in packaging materials reuse for manufacturers in business to business environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Samuel; Deleuran, Brian; Jacobsen, Peter

    Purpose –The purpose of this paper is to explore the profitability drivers for a firm’s operation of a reverse supply chain (RSC) that takes back and reuses packaging materials. Results apply specifically to original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in business to business environments. Design......’s theoretical basis is the RSC literature’s business perspective formulated by Guide and Van Wassenhove. Findings – The drivers of profitability in packaging materials reuse are 1) the amount of avoided costs of purchasing new packaging materials, 2) the firm’s ability to reduce costs of reverse logistics...... as between the drivers and their sub-level antecedents. Originality/value – The study provides exploratory insights into the economics of reusing packaging materials and identifies the drivers that are decisive for a firm’s ability to reuse packaging materials profitably....

  13. Wafer-level micro-optics: trends in manufacturing, testing, packaging, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelkel, Reinhard; Gong, Li; Rieck, Juergen; Zheng, Alan

    2012-11-01

    Micro-optics is an indispensable key enabling technology (KET) for many products and applications today. Probably the most prestigious examples are the diffractive light shaping elements used in high-end DUV lithography steppers. Highly efficient refractive and diffractive micro-optical elements are used for precise beam and pupil shaping. Micro-optics had a major impact on the reduction of aberrations and diffraction effects in projection lithography, allowing a resolution enhancement from 250 nm to 45 nm within the last decade. Micro-optics also plays a decisive role in medical devices (endoscopes, ophthalmology), in all laser-based devices and fiber communication networks (supercomputer, ROADM), bringing high-speed internet to our homes (FTTH). Even our modern smart phones contain a variety of micro-optical elements. For example, LED flashlight shaping elements, the secondary camera, and ambient light and proximity sensors. Wherever light is involved, micro-optics offers the chance to further miniaturize a device, to improve its performance, or to reduce manufacturing and packaging costs. Wafer-scale micro-optics fabrication is based on technology established by semiconductor industry. Thousands of components are fabricated in parallel on a wafer. We report on the state of the art in wafer-based manufacturing, testing, packaging and present examples and applications for micro-optical components and systems.

  14. Towards co-packaging of photonics and microelectronics in existing manufacturing facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janta-Polczynski, Alexander; Cyr, Elaine; Bougie, Jerome; Drouin, Alain; Langlois, Richard; Childers, Darrell; Takenobu, Shotaro; Taira, Yoichi; Lichoulas, Ted W.; Kamlapurkar, Swetha; Engelmann, Sebastian; Fortier, Paul; Boyer, Nicolas; Barwicz, Tymon

    2018-02-01

    The impact of integrated photonics on optical interconnects is currently muted by challenges in photonic packaging and in the dense integration of photonic modules with microelectronic components on printed circuit boards. Single mode optics requires tight alignment tolerance for optical coupling and maintaining this alignment in a cost-efficient package can be challenging during thermal excursions arising from downstream microelectronic assembly processes. In addition, the form factor of typical fiber connectors is incompatible with the dense module integration expected on printed circuit boards. We have implemented novel approaches to interfacing photonic chips to standard optical fibers. These leverage standard high throughput microelectronic assembly tooling and self-alignment techniques resulting in photonic packaging that is scalable in manufacturing volume and in the number of optical IOs per chip. In addition, using dense optical fiber connectors with space-efficient latching of fiber patch cables results in compact module size and efficient board integration, bringing the optics closer to the logic chip to alleviate bandwidth bottlenecks. This packaging direction is also well suited for embedding optics in multi-chip modules, including both photonic and microelectronic chips. We discuss the challenges and rewards in this type of configuration such as thermal management and signal integrity.

  15. A Dual Band Additively Manufactured 3D Antenna on Package with Near-Isotropic Radiation Pattern

    KAUST Repository

    Su, Zhen; Klionovski, Kirill; Bilal, Rana Muhammad; Shamim, Atif

    2018-01-01

    presents a novel 3D dual band near-isotropic wideband GSM antenna to fulfill these requirements. The antenna has been realized on the package of electronics through additive manufacturing to ensure efficient utilization of available space and lower cost

  16. Solid-phase classical complement activation by C-reactive protein (CRP) is inhibited by fluid-phase CRP-C1q interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoewall, Christopher; Wetteroe, Jonas; Bengtsson, Torbjoern; Askendal, Agneta; Almroth, Gunnel; Skogh, Thomas; Tengvall, Pentti

    2007-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) interacts with phosphorylcholine (PC), Fcγ receptors, complement factor C1q and cell nuclear constituents, yet its biological roles are insufficiently understood. The aim was to characterize CRP-induced complement activation by ellipsometry. PC conjugated with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (PC-KLH) was immobilized to cross-linked fibrinogen. A low-CRP serum with different amounts of added CRP was exposed to the PC-surfaces. The total serum protein deposition was quantified and deposition of IgG, C1q, C3c, C4, factor H, and CRP detected with polyclonal antibodies. The binding of serum CRP to PC-KLH dose-dependently triggered activation of the classical pathway. Unexpectedly, the activation was efficiently down-regulated at CRP levels >150 mg/L. Using radial immunodiffusion, CRP-C1q interaction was observed in serum samples with high CRP concentrations. We propose that the underlying mechanism depends on fluid-phase interaction between C1q and CRP. This might constitute another level of complement regulation, which has implications for systemic lupus erythematosus where CRP is often low despite flare-ups

  17. Electrochemical investigations of the interaction of C-reactive protein (CRP) with a CRP antibody chemically immobilized on a gold surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennessey, Hooman; Afara, Nadia; Omanovic, Sasha; Padjen, Ante L.

    2009-01-01

    A possibility of using a range of dc and ac electrochemical techniques to probe associative interactions of C-reactive protein (CRP) with CRP antibody (aCRP) immobilized on a gold electrode surface was investigated. It was demonstrated that the investigated electrochemical techniques can be used efficiently to probe these interactions over a wide CRP concentration range, from 1.15 x 10 -5 to 1.15 mg L -1 . The measured sensitivity of the techniques is in the following decreasing order: differential pulse voltammetry, charge-transfer resistance obtained from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and double-layer capacitance deduced from EIS measurements which gave the poorest sensitivity. Measurements of kinetic parameters demonstrated that the associative interactions of CRP with the immobilized aCRP reached quasi-equilibrium after 20-30 min. The kinetics of these interactions was modeled successfully using a two-step kinetic model. In this model, the first step represents reversible CRP-aCRP associative-dissociative interactions, while the second step represents the irreversible transformation of the bound CRP into a thermodynamically stable configuration. It was demonstrated that the thermodynamically stable configuration of CRP starts prevailing after 7 min of interaction of CRP with the immobilized aCRP.

  18. Long term behaviour of low and intermediate level waste packages under repository conditions. Results of a co-ordinated research project 1997-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-06-01

    The development and application of approaches and technologies that provide long term safety is an essential issue in the disposal of radioactive waste. For low and intermediate level radioactive waste, engineered barriers play an important role in the overall safety and performance of near surface repositories. Thus, developing a strong technical basis for understanding the behaviour and performance of engineered barriers is an important consideration in the development and establishment of near surface repositories for radioactive waste. In 1993, a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Performance of Engineered Barrier Materials in Near Surface Disposal Facilities for Radioactive Waste was initiated by the IAEA with the twin goals of addressing some of the gaps in the database on radionuclide isolation and long term performance of a wide variety of materials and components that constitute the engineered barriers system (IAEA-TECDOC-1255 (2001)). However, during the course of the CRP, it was realized that that the scope of the CRP did not include studies of the behaviour of waste packages over time. Given that a waste package represents an important component of the overall near surface disposal system and the fact that many Member States have active R and D programmes related to waste package testing and evaluation, a new CRP was launched, in 1997, on Long Term Behaviour of Low and Intermediate Level Waste Packages Under Repository Conditions. The CRP was intended to promote research activities on the subject area in Member States, share information on the topic among the participating countries, and contribute to advancing technologies for near surface disposal of radioactive waste. Thus, this CRP complements the afore mentioned CRP on studies of engineered barriers. With the active participation and valuable contributions from twenty scientists and engineers from Argentina, Canada, Czech Republic, Egypt, Finland, India, Republic of Korea, Norway, Romania

  19. Rapid and Low-Cost CRP Measurement by Integrating a Paper-Based Microfluidic Immunoassay with Smartphone (CRP-Chip)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Meili; Wu, Jiandong; Ma, Zimin; Peretz-Soroka, Hagit; Zhang, Michael; Komenda, Paul; Tangri, Navdeep; Liu, Yong; Rigatto, Claudio; Lin, Francis

    2017-01-01

    Traditional diagnostic tests for chronic diseases are expensive and require a specialized laboratory, therefore limiting their use for point-of-care (PoC) testing. To address this gap, we developed a method for rapid and low-cost C-reactive protein (CRP) detection from blood by integrating a paper-based microfluidic immunoassay with a smartphone (CRP-Chip). We chose CRP for this initial development because it is a strong biomarker of prognosis in chronic heart and kidney disease. The microfluidic immunoassay is realized by lateral flow and gold nanoparticle-based colorimetric detection of the target protein. The test image signal is acquired and analyzed using a commercial smartphone with an attached microlens and a 3D-printed chip–phone interface. The CRP-Chip was validated for detecting CRP in blood samples from chronic kidney disease patients and healthy subjects. The linear detection range of the CRP-Chip is up to 2 μg/mL and the detection limit is 54 ng/mL. The CRP-Chip test result yields high reproducibility and is consistent with the standard ELISA kit. A single CRP-Chip can perform the test in triplicate on a single chip within 15 min for less than 50 US cents of material cost. This CRP-Chip with attractive features of low-cost, fast test speed, and integrated easy operation with smartphones has the potential to enable future clinical PoC chronic disease diagnosis and risk stratification by parallel measurements of a panel of protein biomarkers. PMID:28346363

  20. Identification of the subunit of cAMP receptor protein (CRP) that functionally interacts with CytR in CRP-CytR-mediated transcriptional repression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meibom, K L; Kallipolitis, B H; Ebright, R H

    2000-01-01

    At promoters of the Escherichia coli CytR regulon, the cAMP receptor protein (CRP) interacts with the repressor CytR to form transcriptionally inactive CRP-CytR-promoter or (CRP)(2)-CytR-promoter complexes. Here, using "oriented heterodimer" analysis, we show that only one subunit of the CRP dimer......, the subunit proximal to CytR, functionally interacts with CytR in CRP-CytR-promoter and (CRP)(2)-CytR-promoter complexes. Our results provide information about the architecture of CRP-CytR-promoter and (CRP)(2)-CytR-promoter complexes and rule out the proposal that masking of activating region 2 of CRP...

  1. Allexiviruses may have acquired inserted sequences between the CP and CRP genes to change the translation reinitiation strategy of CRP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Naoto; Shimura, Hanako; Masuta, Chikara

    2018-06-01

    Allexiviruses are economically important garlic viruses that are involved in garlic mosaic diseases. In this study, we characterized the allexivirus cysteine-rich protein (CRP) gene located just downstream of the coat protein (CP) gene in the viral genome. We determined the nucleotide sequences of the CP and CRP genes from numerous allexivirus isolates and performed a phylogenetic analysis. According to the resulting phylogenetic tree, we found that allexiviruses were clearly divided into two major groups (group I and group II) based on the sequences of the CP and CRP genes. In addition, the allexiviruses in group II had distinct sequences just before the CRP gene, while group I isolates did not. The inserted sequence between the CP and CRP genes was partially complementary to garlic 18S rRNA. Using a potato virus X vector, we showed that the CRPs affected viral accumulation and symptom induction in Nicotiana benthamiana, suggesting that the allexivirus CRP is a pathogenicity determinant. We assume that the inserted sequences before the CRP gene may have been generated during viral evolution to alter the termination-reinitiation mechanism for coupled translation of CP and CRP.

  2. Cellulosic pulps of cereal straws as raw material for the manufacture of ecological packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas González, Fátima; González, Zoilo; Sánchez, Rafael; Jiménez, Luis; Rodríguez Pascual, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the potential application of four types of cereal straws: oats, maize, rapeseed, and barley, in order to obtain cellulose pulp through the Specel® process for use in the manufacture of 100% biodegradable and ecological packaging. Raw materials were chemically characterized to determine alcohol-extractives, ash, lignin, holocellulose, and α-cellulose. Cellulosic pulps obtained from raw materials were characterized to determine yield, Kappa number, and viscosit...

  3. Spent fuel and high level waste: Chemical durability and performance under simulated repository conditions. Results of a coordinated research project 1998-2004. Part 2: Results of a previously unpublished CRP: Performance of high level waste forms and packages under repository conditions. Results of a co-ordinated research project 1991-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-07-01

    The objective of the CRP (Coordinated Research Projekt) on the 'Performance of High Level Waste Forms and Packages under Repository Conditions' was to contribute to the development and implementation of proper and sound technologies for HLW and spent fuel management. Special emphasis was given to the identification of various waste form properties and the study of their long term durability in simulated repository conditions. Another objective was to promote the co-operation and exchange of information between Member States on experimental concerning behaviour of the waste form. The CRP was composed of research contracts and agreements with Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Canada, China, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, India, Japan, Russia, and the United States of America. The publication includes 14 individual contributions of the participants to the CRP, which are indexed separately.

  4. [Impact of metabolic syndrome on CRP levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodilla, E; Costa, J A; Mares, S; Miralles, A; González, C; Sánchez, C; Pascual, J M

    2006-09-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is considered a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. The aim of the study was to assess whether the metabolic syndrome (MS) and parameters involved in its diagnosis might influence serum CRP values. Cross-sectional study in outpatients of a HTA and Vascular Risk clinic. MS was diagnosed according to National Cholesterol Educational Program ATP-III guidelines, and hs-CRP was analyzed by nephelometry. A total of 1,969 patients (47% male) were evaluated and distributed into four groups: 1) 1,220 non-diabetics without MS; 2) 384 non-diabetics with MS; 3) 153 diabetics without MS, and 4) 212 diabetics with MS. Patients with MS had higher CRP in both non-diabetic 3.0 (1.7-4.4) mg/l vs. 1.7 (0.9-3.4) mg/l; p=0.001 (MW), and diabetic patients: 2.8 (1.5-4.6) mg/l vs. 2.2 (0.9-4.3) mg/l; p=0.01 (MW). Diabetic patients without MS had CRP values not different to non-diabetic without MS. CRP values increased in relation to the number of parameters included in the MS from 1.7 (2.2) mg/l, in patients without any parameters, to 4.2 (2.8) mg/l in patients who fulfilled five parameters (p=0.001) (KW). In multiple regression analysis abdominal obesity (p=0.001), TG (p=0.001) and glucose (p=0.02) were associated with CRP levels after correcting for other factors. Abdominal obesity (OR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.5-2.4; p=0.001) and TG (OR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1 -1.7; p=0.003), but not glucose were independent factors related to the presence of high levels of CRP (>3 mg/l) in a logistic regression analysis. Diabetic and non-diabetic patients with MS have high CRP levels. Of the five components of MS, the most closely related to CRP is abdominal obesity.

  5. CRP in acute appendicitis--is it a necessary investigation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalesh, T; Shankar, M; Shankar, R

    2004-01-01

    Appendectomy is one of the commonest procedures in surgery. In spite of various investigations used to improve the accuracy of diagnosis, the rate of normal appendices removed is still about 15-30%. Many studies have investigated the role of C-reactive protein (CRP) in acute appendicitis, but with conflicting results. In a prospective, double blind study, blood for the measurement of serum C-reactive protein was collected pre-operatively from 192 children before going to the operating theatre for appendectomy. The histopathology was grouped into positive (acute appendicitis) and negative (normal appendix) and this was correlated with CRP values. CRP was normal in 14 out of 33 negative explorations (normal appendix on histopathology). The specificity and sensitivity of serum CRP was 42% and 91% respectively. The predictive value of a positive (raised CRP) and negative (normal CRP) test is 88% and 48% respectively. We conclude that neither raised nor normal CRP value is helpful in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. CRP is not a good tool for helping the surgeon make the diagnosis of appendicitis and it should not be measured in suspected appendicitis.

  6. High variation in manufacturer-declared serving size of packaged discretionary foods in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskelberg, Hila; Neal, Bruce; Dunford, Elizabeth; Flood, Victoria; Rangan, Anna; Thomas, Beth; Cleanthous, Xenia; Trevena, Helen; Zheng, Jazzmin Miaobing; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Gill, Timothy; Wu, Jason H Y

    2016-05-28

    Despite the potential of declared serving size to encourage appropriate portion size consumption, most countries including Australia have not developed clear reference guidelines for serving size. The present study evaluated variability in manufacturer-declared serving size of discretionary food and beverage products in Australia, and how declared serving size compared with the 2013 Australian Dietary Guideline (ADG) standard serve (600 kJ). Serving sizes were obtained from the Nutrition Information Panel for 4466 packaged, discretionary products in 2013 at four large supermarkets in Sydney, Australia, and categorised into fifteen categories in line with the 2013 ADG. For unique products that were sold in multiple package sizes, the percentage difference between the minimum and the maximum serving size across different package sizes was calculated. A high variation in serving size was found within the majority of food and beverage categories - for example, among 347 non-alcoholic beverages (e.g. soft drinks), the median for serving size was 250 (interquartile range (IQR) 250, 355) ml (range 100-750 ml). Declared serving size for unique products that are available in multiple package sizes also showed high variation, particularly for chocolate-based confectionery, with median percentage difference between minimum and maximum serving size of 183 (IQR 150) %. Categories with a high proportion of products that exceeded the 600 kJ ADG standard serve included cakes and muffins, pastries and desserts (≥74 % for each). High variability in declared serving size may confound interpretation and understanding of consumers interested in standardising and controlling their portion selection. Future research is needed to assess if and how standardising declared serving size might affect consumer behaviour.

  7. 10 CFR 431.82 - Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... gases. Manufacturer of a commercial packaged boiler means any person who manufactures, produces... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers. 431.82... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Packaged Boilers § 431.82 Definitions concerning commercial...

  8. The cyclic AMP receptor protein, CRP, is required for both virulence and expression of the minimal CRP regulon in Yersinia pestis biovar microtus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Lingjun; Han, Yanping; Yang, Lei; Geng, Jing; Li, Yingli; Gao, He; Guo, Zhaobiao; Fan, Wei; Li, Gang; Zhang, Lianfeng; Qin, Chuan; Zhou, Dongsheng; Yang, Ruifu

    2008-11-01

    The cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) is a bacterial regulator that controls more than 100 promoters, including those involved in catabolite repression. In the present study, a null deletion of the crp gene was constructed for Yersinia pestis bv. microtus strain 201. Microarray expression analysis disclosed that at least 6% of Y. pestis genes were affected by this mutation. Further reverse transcription-PCR and electrophoretic mobility shift assay analyses disclosed a set of 37 genes or putative operons to be the direct targets of CRP, and thus they constitute the minimal CRP regulon in Y. pestis. Subsequent primer extension and DNase I footprinting assays mapped transcriptional start sites, core promoter elements, and CRP binding sites within the DNA regions upstream of pla and pst, revealing positive and direct control of these two laterally acquired plasmid genes by CRP. The crp disruption affected both in vitro and in vivo growth of the mutant and led to a >15,000-fold loss of virulence after subcutaneous infection but a pestis and, particularly, is more important for infection by subcutaneous inoculation. It can further be concluded that the reduced in vivo growth phenotype of the crp mutant should contribute, at least partially, to its attenuation of virulence by both routes of infection. Consistent with a previous study of Y. pestis bv. medievalis, lacZ reporter fusion analysis indicated that the crp deletion resulted in the almost absolute loss of pla promoter activity. The plasminogen activator encoded by pla was previously shown to specifically promote Y. pestis dissemination from peripheral infection routes (subcutaneous infection [flea bite] or inhalation). The above evidence supports the notion that in addition to the reduced in vivo growth phenotype, the defect of pla expression in the crp mutant will greatly contribute to the huge loss of virulence of this mutant strain in subcutaneous infection.

  9. International co-ordinated research project on low and intermediate level waste package performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayal, R. [International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA, Vienna (Austria)

    2001-07-01

    As part of IAEA's mandate to facilitate the transfer and exchange of information amongst Member States, the Agency is currently coordinating an international R and D project, involving 12 developed and developing countries, on Performance of Low and Intermediate Level Waste Packages under Disposal Conditions. This paper will review the current status of the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) and summarize the key findings of the work completed to date within the context of the CRP in the participating Member States. (author)

  10. International co-ordinated research project on low and intermediate level waste package performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayal, R.

    2001-01-01

    As part of IAEA's mandate to facilitate the transfer and exchange of information amongst Member States, the Agency is currently coordinating an international R and D project, involving 12 developed and developing countries, on Performance of Low and Intermediate Level Waste Packages under Disposal Conditions. This paper will review the current status of the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) and summarize the key findings of the work completed to date within the context of the CRP in the participating Member States. (author)

  11. Serum C-Reactive Protein (CRP), Target for Therapy or Trouble?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Virginia B; Jordan, Joanne M

    2007-02-07

    High sensitivity serum C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) has come into clinical use as a marker of risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). In addition to a role as a marker of disease, CRP has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of CVD. Specific small-molecule inhibitors of CRP have recently been developed with the intent of mitigating cardiac damage during acute myocardial infarction. However, the use of CRP, both as a risk marker and a disease target are controversial for several reasons. Serum hs-CRP concentrations can be elevated on the basis of genetics, female gender, and non-Caucasian ethnicity. It is not clear, in these contexts, that elevations of hs-CRP have any pathological significance. As a non-specific indicator of inflammation, CRP is also not a specific indicator of a single disease state such as cardiovascular disease but elevated concentrations can be seen in association with other comorbidities including obesity and pulmonary disease. In sharp contrast to the proposed inhibition of CRP for cardiovascular disease treatment, the infusion of CRP has been shown to have profound therapeutic benefits for autoimmune disease and septic shock. The balance between the risks and benefits of these competing views of the role of CRP in disease and disease therapy is reminiscent of the ongoing controversy regarding the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for musculoskeletal disease and their cardiovascular side effects. Soon, NSAIDs may not be the only agents about which Rheumatologists and Cardiologists may spar.

  12. 21 CFR 820.130 - Device packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Device packaging. 820.130 Section 820.130 Food and... QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Labeling and Packaging Control § 820.130 Device packaging. Each manufacturer shall ensure that device packaging and shipping containers are designed and constructed to protect the...

  13. 76 FR 30551 - Specifications for Packagings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... design qualification test and each periodic retest on a packaging, a test report must be prepared. The... where the design qualification tests are conducted, for as long as the packaging is produced and for at... report; (5) Manufacturer of the packaging; (6) Description of the packaging design type (e.g. dimensions...

  14. Serum C-Reactive Protein (CRP, Target for Therapy or Trouble?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia B. Kraus

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available High sensitivity serum C-reactive protein (hs-CRP has come into clinical use as a marker of risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD. In addition to a role as a marker of disease, CRP has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of CVD. Specific small-molecule inhibitors of CRP have recently been developed with the intent of mitigating cardiac damage during acute myocardial infarction. However, the use of CRP, both as a risk marker and a disease target are controversial for several reasons. Serum hs-CRP concentrations can be elevated on the basis of genetics, female gender, and non-Caucasian ethnicity. It is not clear, in these contexts, that elevations of hs-CRP have any pathological significance. As a non-specific indicator of inflammation, CRP is also not a specific indicator of a single disease state such as cardiovascular disease but elevated concentrations can be seen in association with other comorbidities including obesity and pulmonary disease. In sharp contrast to the proposed inhibition of CRP for cardiovascular disease treatment, the infusion of CRP has been shown to have profound therapeutic benefits for autoimmune disease and septic shock. The balance between the risks and benefits of these competing views of the role of CRP in disease and disease therapy is reminiscent of the ongoing controversy regarding the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs for musculoskeletal disease and their cardiovascular side effects. Soon, NSAIDs may not be the only agents about which Rheumatologists and Cardiologists may spar.

  15. Inflammation, insulin resistance, and diabetes--Mendelian randomization using CRP haplotypes points upstream.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J Brunner

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Raised C-reactive protein (CRP is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. According to the Mendelian randomization method, the association is likely to be causal if genetic variants that affect CRP level are associated with markers of diabetes development and diabetes. Our objective was to examine the nature of the association between CRP phenotype and diabetes development using CRP haplotypes as instrumental variables.We genotyped three tagging SNPs (CRP + 2302G > A; CRP + 1444T > C; CRP + 4899T > G in the CRP gene and measured serum CRP in 5,274 men and women at mean ages 49 and 61 y (Whitehall II Study. Homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c were measured at age 61 y. Diabetes was ascertained by glucose tolerance test and self-report. Common major haplotypes were strongly associated with serum CRP levels, but unrelated to obesity, blood pressure, and socioeconomic position, which may confound the association between CRP and diabetes risk. Serum CRP was associated with these potential confounding factors. After adjustment for age and sex, baseline serum CRP was associated with incident diabetes (hazard ratio = 1.39 [95% confidence interval 1.29-1.51], HOMA-IR, and HbA1c, but the associations were considerably attenuated on adjustment for potential confounding factors. In contrast, CRP haplotypes were not associated with HOMA-IR or HbA1c (p = 0.52-0.92. The associations of CRP with HOMA-IR and HbA1c were all null when examined using instrumental variables analysis, with genetic variants as the instrument for serum CRP. Instrumental variables estimates differed from the directly observed associations (p = 0.007-0.11. Pooled analysis of CRP haplotypes and diabetes in Whitehall II and Northwick Park Heart Study II produced null findings (p = 0.25-0.88. Analyses based on the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (1,923 diabetes cases, 2,932 controls using three SNPs in tight linkage disequilibrium with our

  16. Prospective associations of C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and CRP genetic risk scores with risk of total knee and hip replacement for osteoarthritis in a diverse cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadyab, A H; Terkeltaub, R; Kooperberg, C; Reiner, A; Eaton, C B; Jackson, R D; Krok-Schoen, J L; Salem, R M; LaCroix, A Z

    2018-05-22

    To examine associations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and polygenic CRP genetic risk scores (GRS) with risk of end-stage hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA), defined as incident total hip (THR) or knee replacement (TKR) for OA. This study included a cohort of postmenopausal white, African American, and Hispanic women from the Women's Health Initiative. Women were followed from baseline to date of THR or TKR, death, or December 31, 2014. Medicare claims data identified THR and TKR. Hs-CRP and genotyping data were collected at baseline. Three CRP GRS were constructed: 1) a 4-SNP GRS comprised of genetic variants representing variation in the CRP gene among European populations; 2) a multilocus 18-SNP GRS of genetic variants significantly associated with CRP levels in a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies; and 3) a 5-SNP GRS of genetic variants significantly associated with CRP levels among African American women. In analyses conducted separately among each race and ethnic group, there were no significant associations of ln hs-CRP with risk of THR or TKR, after adjusting for age, body mass index, lifestyle characteristics, chronic diseases, hormone therapy use, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use. CRP GRS were not associated with risk of THR or TKR in any ethnic group. Serum levels of ln hs-CRP and genetically-predicted CRP levels were not associated with risk of THR or TKR for OA among a diverse cohort of women. Copyright © 2018 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of a crp* mutant of the E. coli cAMP receptor protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Y.L.; Garges, S.; Adhya, S.; Krakow, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    One of the crp* mutants previously isolated to activate lac promoter in vivo has been characterized with regard to its biochemical properties. CRP*592 shows a more open conformation than CRP as indicated by its sensitivity to proteolytic attack. Dithionitrobenzoic acid mediated intersubunit crosslinking of CRP requires cAMP; this reaction occurs with unliganded CRP*592. Binding of CRP to its site on the lac promoter and activation of abortive initiation is effected by cAMP but not by cGMP. CRP*592 can activate abortive initiation in the presence of cAMP or cGMP and also at a high CRP*592 concentration in the absence of cyclic nucleotide. DNase I footprinting shows that cAMP-CRP* binds to its site on lac P + while unliganded CRP* and cGMP-CRP* form a stable complex with the [ 32 P]lac P + only in the presence of RNA polymerase. While cGMP binds to CRP it cannot replace cAMP in effecting the conformation necessary for site specific promoter binding; the weakly active unliganded CRP*592 can be shifted to a functional conformation by cAMP, cGMP and RNA polymerase

  18. Integrated computer aided design simulation and manufacture

    OpenAIRE

    Diko, Faek

    1989-01-01

    Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Manufacture (CAM) have been investigated and developed since twenty years as standalone systems. A large number of very powerful but independent packages have been developed for Computer Aided Design,Aanlysis and Manufacture. However, in most cases these packages have poor facility for communicating with other packages. Recently attempts have been made to develop integrated CAD/CAM systems and many software companies a...

  19. Unit-of-Use Versus Traditional Bulk Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany So

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The choice between unit-of-use versus traditional bulk packaging in the US has long been a continuous debate for drug manufacturers and pharmacies in order to have the most efficient and safest practices. Understanding the benefits of using unit-of-use packaging over bulk packaging by US drug manufacturers in terms of workflow efficiency, economical costs and medication safety in the pharmacy is sometimes challenging.Methods: A time-saving study comparing the time saved using unit-of-use packaging versus bulk packaging, was examined. Prices between unit-of-use versus bulk packages were compared by using the Red Book: Pharmacy’s Fundamental Reference. Other articles were reviewed on the topics of counterfeiting, safe labeling, and implementation of unit-of-use packaging. Lastly, a cost-saving study was reviewed showing how medication adherence, due to improved packaging, could be cost-effective for patients.Results: When examining time, costs, medication adherence, and counterfeiting arguments, unit-of-use packaging proved to be beneficial for patients in all these terms.

  20. Unit-of-Use Versus Traditional Bulk Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany So

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The choice between unit-of-use versus traditional bulk packaging in the US has long been a continuous debate for drug manufacturers and pharmacies in order to have the most efficient and safest practices. Understanding the benefits of using unit-of-use packaging over bulk packaging by US drug manufacturers in terms of workflow efficiency, economical costs and medication safety in the pharmacy is sometimes challenging. Methods: A time-saving study comparing the time saved using unit-of-use packaging versus bulk packaging, was examined. Prices between unit-of-use versus bulk packages were compared by using the Red Book: Pharmacy's Fundamental Reference. Other articles were reviewed on the topics of counterfeiting, safe labeling, and implementation of unit-of-use packaging. Lastly, a cost-saving study was reviewed showing how medication adherence, due to improved packaging, could be cost-effective for patients. Results: When examining time, costs, medication adherence, and counterfeiting arguments, unit-of-use packaging proved to be beneficial for patients in all these terms.   Type: Student Project

  1. Lipids, atherosclerosis and CVD risk: is CRP an innocent bystander?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, B G; Zacho, J

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate recent human studies with respect to the interpretation of whether elevated plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) cause cardiovascular disease (CVD), or whether elevated CRP levels more likely is an innocent bystander. DATA SYNTHESIS: Elevated CRP concentrations...... and vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaques, and thus simply an innocent bystander in CVD....

  2. Software design practice using two SCADA software packages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, K.P.; Christensen, Georg Kronborg; Frederiksen, P. K.

    1996-01-01

    Typical software development for manufacturing control is done either by specialists with consideral real-time programming experience or done by the adaptation of standard software packages for manufacturing control. After investigation and test of two commercial software packages: "InTouch" and ......Touch" and "Fix", it is argued, that a more efficient software solution can be achieved by utilising an integrated specification for SCADA and PLC-programming. Experiences gained from process control is planned investigated for descrete parts manufacturing....

  3. A model to determine the radiological implications of non-fixed radioactive contamination on the surfaces of packages and conveyances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, J.S.; Warner Jones, S.M.; Lizot, M.T.; Perrin, M.L.; Thierfeld, S.; Schroedl, E.; Schwarz, G.; Rawl, R.; Munakata, M.; Hirose, M.

    2004-01-01

    The surfaces of packages and conveyances used to transport radioactive materials can sometimes become contaminated with radioactive material. This usually occurs as a result of the transfer of radioactive material from areas in which these packages and conveyances are handled. This contamination may subsequently be transferred to transport equipment, workers and to areas accessible to the public. This can represent a significant radiation safety issue that requires careful management. The current regulatory limits for non-fixed contamination on packages and conveyances have been in use for over 40 years, and are based on a simple exposure model. However, the bases on which these limits were derived have been subject to changes, as a result of successive revisions of international recommendations. In recognition of this need for a review and analysis of the current contamination limits an IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on the ''Radiological Aspects of Package and Conveyance Non-Fixed Contamination'' was initiated to review the scientific basis for the current regulatory limits for surface contamination. The CRP was also to develop guidance material for evaluating the radiological significance of surface contamination to workers and the public in light of state-of-the-art research, technical developments and current transport practices. The specific objectives of the work undertaken within this multi-national CRP were, in accordance with the terms of reference: To ensure that appropriate models exist for all package types including consideration of the aspects pertinent for assessing and revising a surface contamination model for transport. To collect - where possible - contamination, operational and dosimetric data to ensure modelling consistency. To use models for assessing the limitations and optimisation of radiation doses incurred in transport operations, and to consider preventive methods for package and conveyance contamination

  4. Procedures, manufacturing and inspection of metallic packages for containment of wastes from Cs-137; Procedimentos, fabricacao e inspecao de embalagens metalicas para contencao de rejeitos do Cs-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Mucio Jose Drummond de; Moreira, Marcilio Soares [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    The participation of technicians from the Supervision of Test and Metrology of CDTN - Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, is described in several steps before the manufacturing of 16 (15 units + prototype) metallic packages for containment of wastes from Cs-137. The wastes were generated in the radiological accident that took place in Goiania in 1987. Inspections performed during the manufacturing of these packages in the period of March 10.th to May 18.th, 1993 in the Metalurgica Tocantins Ltda in Goiania are also described. Manufacturing and inspection criteria were performed according to rules and procedures specified in the bid number 03/91, presented in November 1991, by the environmental state secretary (Secretaria do Desenvolvimento Urbano e Meio Ambiente - SDUMA) from Goiania State. (author) 7 figs., 1 tab.

  5. [hsCRP protein in children and adolescents with diabetes type 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głowińska-Olszewska, Barbara; Urban, Mirosława; Peczyńska, Jadwiga; Koput, Alicja

    2007-01-01

    HsCRP protein is known as a novel marker of low grade inflammatory state, which characterises an atherosclerotic process in its early stages. Contrary to a large amount of data on inflammatory markers in diabetes type 2 and metabolic syndrome in adults, little is known so far about the inflammatory process in diabetes type 1, especially in children. The aim of the study was to estimate the level of hsCRP protein in children and adolescents with diabetes type 1 depending on coexisting additional risk factors for atherosclerosis and microvascular complications. 127 children and adolescents with diabetes duration 6.7+/-3.3 years, aged 14.9+/-3.1, were studied. The control group consisted of 52 healthy children aged 14.9+/-2.8 years, matched acc. to gender. HsCRP level was assessed with use of immunoturbidymetric, latex augmented method (Tina-quant CRP (Latex) HS, Roche). HsCRP in the whole study group was nearly significantly higher compared to control group: 0.17+/-0.2 vs. 0.078+/-0.1 mg/dl, p=0.072. In diabetic hypertensive children (n=38) we found significantly higher levels of hsCRP compared to controls (0.27+/-0.3 vs. 0.07 mg/dl, p=0.008) and compared to diabetic normotensive children (0.13+/-0.22 mg/dl; p=0.024). Diabetic obese patients (n=23) had significantly higer hsCRP compared to controls (0.24+/-0.3 vs. 0.07+/-0.1 mg/dl, p=0.04). In 14 studied diabetic children we found coexisting hypertension and obesity, and we found further increase in hsCRP level - 0.28+/-0.3 mg/dl. In diabetic children with microangiopathy hsCRP level was 0.22+/-0.2 mg/dl, and it was insignificantly higher compared to controls and to diabetic children without complications. Correlation analysis showed interrelations between hsCRP and systolic blood pressure (r=0.2; p=0.04) and HbA1c (r=0.25; p=0.015). In stepwise regression analysis hsCRP was related to systolic blood pressure, HbA1c and the triglycerides level (R=0.37; p=0.003). In children and adolescents with diabetes type 1 we

  6. Edible packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Krochta, John M

    2010-01-01

    Research groups and the food and pharmaceutical industries recognize edible packaging as a useful alternative or addition to conventional packaging to reduce waste and to create novel applications for improving product stability, quality, safety, variety, and convenience for consumers. Recent studies have explored the ability of biopolymer-based food packaging materials to carry and control-release active compounds. As diverse edible packaging materials derived from various by-products or waste from food industry are being developed, the dry thermoplastic process is advancing rapidly as a feasible commercial edible packaging manufacturing process. The employment of nanocomposite concepts to edible packaging materials promises to improve barrier and mechanical properties and facilitate effective incorporation of bioactive ingredients and other designed functions. In addition to the need for a more fundamental understanding to enable design to desired specifications, edible packaging has to overcome challenges such as regulatory requirements, consumer acceptance, and scaling-up research concepts to commercial applications.

  7. C-Reactive Protein (CRP) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be caused by a number of different pathological conditions such as arthritis , lupus , or inflammatory bowel ... clinchem.org . Accessed October 2011. Lowry, F. (2010 March 23). CRP Test Guides Antibiotic Prescribing for Respiratory ...

  8. The quality assurance topical report - International co-operation for manufacturing of nuclear packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.; Bonifacio, A.; Kingsley, K.; Bittner, R.; Ankrum, G.T.; Wieser, K.E.

    1987-01-01

    The paper addresses the manufacturing quality assurance (QA) concerns associated with fabrication of radioactive material packaging in one country for use in another. A case study is discussed which shows a method of implementation that has been successfully practised for casks fabricated in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) for use in the USA. The casks utilized are the Castor series, which are fabricated in the FRG from ductile cast iron. Although international efforts have helped to standardize QA measures, detailed implementation can vary from country to country. A means of co-ordinating requirements between countries was required. The vehicle used to accomplish this was the Quality Assurance Topical Report (QATR), which is an administrative QA document that clearly defines the roles and responsibilities of all affected organizations. The close correlation of requirements is documented in the QATR. In addition, a programme is described which permits the USA competent authority to depend on the FRG authority for inspection and enforcement procedures. It is of great importance that the fabrication and inspection of any component important to safety be properly controlled and documented. The USA requirements for these QA measures are enforced by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Enforcement of applicable regulations in the FRG is the responsibility of the competent authority, Bundesanstalt fuer Materialpruefung (BAM). As a part of the development of this QATR, NRC and BAM representatives met to establish a mutual understanding of QA. As a result, the QATR concept has been approved by both BAM and the NRC. A problem with manufacturing equipment in a foreign country is the need to periodically send company representatives to witness hold points and to review manufacturing records. The methods described in the QATR provide a practical and workable alternative by permitting the BAM to serve as the purchaser (or utility) agent. The utility is only required

  9. Association of CRP gene polymorphism with CRP levels and Coronary Artery Disease in Type 2 Diabetes in Ahvaz, southwest of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Mohammad Ali; Askari Sede, Saeed; Rashtchizadeh, Nadereh; Mohammadzadeh, Ghorban; Majidi, Shahla

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We evaluated the association between four polymorphisms in the CRP gene with serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, prevalence and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Methods: We performed coronary angiography for 308 T2DM patients and classified them into two groups: T2DM with CAD and T2DM without CAD. All patients were from Ahvaz, Iran. serum levels of CRP, glucose and lipid profile were measured. Genotyping was performed by PCR/RFLP, and the severity of coronary artery disease was determined by Gensini score. Results: The GG genotype of SNP rs279421 was associated with the increased risk of CAD (OR= 2.38; 95% CI: 1.12- 5.8; p= 0.02) and CA, TT, TA genotypes and A allele of SNP rs3091244 and GA genotypes and A allele of SNP rs3093062 were significantly associated with increased CRP levels. None of genotypes or alleles was associated with Gensini score. We found that the haplotype 7 (AGCG) was associated with decreased risk of CAD (OR= 0.11; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.66; p= 0.017) and the Gensini score was correlated with increased levels of CRP, only in CAD group. Conclusion: Although genetic polymorphisms were influenced on serum RP levels, none of the alleles and genotypes raising or falling C-reactive protein levels was consistently associated with an increased prevalence of CAD or protected from that. PMID:25337466

  10. Correlation of CRP, fasting serum triglycerides and obesity as cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdous, Samar

    2014-05-01

    To determine the correlation of C-reactive protein (CRP) with fasting triglycerides (TG) among pre-obese and obese patients without established diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). A comparative cross-sectional study. Mayo Hospital, Lahore, from January to June 2010. Patients with BMI > 23 kg/m2 aged between 18 - 65 years were inducted and above variables were studied. Patients with signs of fluid retention, collagen vascular disease, CAD, patients on corticosteroids, immunomodulators or lipid lowering medications and febrile patients were not recruited. Body mass index was also determined. Independent sample t-test was applied to see the mean difference of age, CRP level and triglycerides level in relation to gender. Chi-square test was used to see the association between qualitative variables. ANOVA was applied to see CRP and fasting serum TG level in relation to BMI categories. Pearson correlation and simple linear regression was applied to see the dependency of CRP and triglycerides with BMI. P-value ² 0.05 was taken as significant. Raised CRP was major finding among all groups of BMI. Most of obese and pre-obese patients were young and middle aged and belonged to pre-obese group followed by class-1 and class-2 obesity. CRP level increased with body mass index. No such trend was observed for triglycerides. There was an intermediate positive correlation between CRP and BMI and triglycerides and BMI showed a weak negative correlation. If BMI increases by 1 unit on the average, CRP rises by 0.239 times and this unit rise was significant. Whereas 1 unit rise increase in triglycerides on the average cause CRP to decrease -0.006 times but this value was insignificant. Raised CRP and high fasting TG were major findings in all age groups especially among young and middle aged people. Obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and raised CRP are interrelated suggesting that obesity is not only linked to hypertriglyceridemia but vascular inflammation among pre-obese and obese

  11. Packaging Concerns and Techniques for Large Devices: Challenges for Complex Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is going to have to accept the use of non-hermetic packages for complex devices. There are a large number of packaging options available. Space application subjects the packages to stresses that they were probably not designed for (vacuum for instance). NASA has to find a way of having assurance in the integrity of the packages. There are manufacturers interested in qualifying non-hermetic packages to MIL-PRF-38535 Class V. Government space users are agreed that Class V should be for hermetic packages only. NASA is working on a new Class for non-hermetic packages for M38535 Appendix B, "Class Y". Testing for package integrity will be required but can be package specific as described by a Package Integrity Test Plan. The plan is developed by the manufacturer and approved by DSCC and government space.

  12. Transport packages for nuclear material and waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The regulations and responsibilities concerning the transport packages of nuclear materials and waste are given in the guide. The approval procedure, control of manufacturing, commissioning of the packaging and the control of use are specified. (13 refs.)

  13. Correlation of CRP, Fasting Serum Triglycerides and Obesity as Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firdous, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the correlation of C-reactive protein (CRP) with fasting triglycerides (TG) among pre-obese and obese patients without established diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). Study Design: A comparative cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Mayo Hospital, Lahore, from January to June 2010. Methodology: Patients with BMI > 23 kg/m2 aged between 18 - 65 years were inducted and above variables were studied. Patients with signs of fluid retention, collagen vascular disease, CAD, patients on corticosteroids, immunomodulators or lipid lowering medications and febrile patients were not recruited. Body mass index was also determined. Independent sample t-test was applied to see the mean difference of age, CRP level and triglycerides level in relation to gender. Chisquare test was used to see the association between qualitative variables. ANOVA was applied to see CRP and fasting serum TG level in relation to BMI categories. Pearson correlation and simple linear regression was applied to see the dependency of CRP and triglycerides with BMI. P-value A = 0.05 was taken as significant. Results: Raised CRP was major finding among all groups of BMI. Most of obese and pre-obese patients were young and middle aged and belonged to pre-obese group followed by class-1 and class-2 obesity. CRP level increased with body mass index. No such trend was observed for triglycerides. There was an intermediate positive correlation between CRP and BMI and triglycerides and BMI showed a weak negative correlation. If BMI increases by 1 unit on the average, CRP rises by 0.239 times and this unit rise was significant. Whereas 1 unit rise increase in triglycerides on the average cause CRP to decrease -0.006 times but this value was insignificant. Conclusion: Raised CRP and high fasting TG were major findings in all age groups especially among young and middle aged people. Obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and raised CRP are interrelated suggesting that obesity is not

  14. Computational prediction of cAMP receptor protein (CRP binding sites in cyanobacterial genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Zhengchang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP, also known as catabolite gene activator protein (CAP, is an important transcriptional regulator widely distributed in many bacteria. The biological processes under the regulation of CRP are highly diverse among different groups of bacterial species. Elucidation of CRP regulons in cyanobacteria will further our understanding of the physiology and ecology of this important group of microorganisms. Previously, CRP has been experimentally studied in only two cyanobacterial strains: Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Anabaena sp. PCC 7120; therefore, a systematic genome-scale study of the potential CRP target genes and binding sites in cyanobacterial genomes is urgently needed. Results We have predicted and analyzed the CRP binding sites and regulons in 12 sequenced cyanobacterial genomes using a highly effective cis-regulatory binding site scanning algorithm. Our results show that cyanobacterial CRP binding sites are very similar to those in E. coli; however, the regulons are very different from that of E. coli. Furthermore, CRP regulons in different cyanobacterial species/ecotypes are also highly diversified, ranging from photosynthesis, carbon fixation and nitrogen assimilation, to chemotaxis and signal transduction. In addition, our prediction indicates that crp genes in modern cyanobacteria are likely inherited from a common ancestral gene in their last common ancestor, and have adapted various cellular functions in different environments, while some cyanobacteria lost their crp genes as well as CRP binding sites during the course of evolution. Conclusion The CRP regulons in cyanobacteria are highly diversified, probably as a result of divergent evolution to adapt to various ecological niches. Cyanobacterial CRPs may function as lineage-specific regulators participating in various cellular processes, and are important in some lineages. However, they are dispensable in some other lineages. The

  15. Transport experience of new ''TNF-XI'' powder package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, I.; Fujiwara, T.; Naigeon, P.

    2004-01-01

    Since the Tokai criticality accident in 1999, there has been no specialized manufacturer conducting uranium re-conversion in Japan. For this reason, Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd. (NFI) imports from overseas almost all the uranium oxide powder used for manufacturing pellets for nuclear fuel assemblies. To date, an NT-IX package has been used for transporting the uranium oxide powder. However, due to the adoption of IAEA TS-R-1 into Japanese domestic regulations, we have begun to use a new TNF-XI powder package because the NT-IX package can suffer major deformation under the drop test III condition. The TNF-XI package was jointly developed by COGEMA LOGISTICS of France and NFI from 2000, and started to be used for actual transportation in 2003. This package has improved transport efficiency, handling operability and safety performance in comparison to its predecessor. This paper describes the characteristics of the new TNF-XI package and its actual transportation records and performance

  16. IAEA/CRP for decommissioning techniques for research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Zin; Won, H. J.; Kim, K. N.; Lee, K. W.; Jung, C. H

    2001-03-01

    The following were studied through the project entitled 'IAEA/CRP for decommissioning techniques for research reactors 1. Decontamination technology development for TRIGA radioactive soil waste - Electrokinetic soil decontamination experimental results and its mathematical simulation 2. The 2nd IAEA/CRP for decommissioning techniques for research reactors - Meeting results and program 3. Hosting the 2001 IAEA/RCA D and D training course for research reactors and small nuclear facilities.

  17. IAEA/CRP for decommissioning techniques for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Won Zin; Won, H. J.; Kim, K. N.; Lee, K. W.; Jung, C. H.

    2001-03-01

    The following were studied through the project entitled 'IAEA/CRP for decommissioning techniques for research reactors 1. Decontamination technology development for TRIGA radioactive soil waste - Electrokinetic soil decontamination experimental results and its mathematical simulation 2. The 2nd IAEA/CRP for decommissioning techniques for research reactors - Meeting results and program 3. Hosting the 2001 IAEA/RCA D and D training course for research reactors and small nuclear facilities

  18. Relationship of HS CRP and Sacroiliac Joint Inflammation in Undifferentiated Spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Te-Jung; Chang, Cheng-Chiang; Chen, Liang-Cheng; Chu, Heng-Yi; Hsu, Chun-Sheng; Chang, Shin-Tsu

    2018-01-01

    Elevation of serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level has been demonstrated as a risk factor for varying diseases, as well as a biomarker for predicting recovery after operation of lumber disc herniation. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between serum hs-CRP and sacroiliac (SI) joint inflammation in patients with undifferentiated spondyloarthritis (uSpA). In this retrospective study, we enrolled patients with uSpA who underwent hs-CRP testing between January 2007 and September 2013. Serum hs-CRP was analyzed at our central laboratory. All enrolled patients underwent skeletal scintigraphic scan with quantitative sacroiliac measurement. A total of 29 patients were enrolled with mean age 32.27 years and female:male ratio of 6:23. Pearson's correlation coefficient showed a significant difference between hs-CRP in serum and SI/S ratio in uSpA, particularly the middle part of the sacroiliac joint, either right side or left side. The significantly high concentration of serum hs-CRP might indicate a systemic inflammatory response to flare-up of the SI joint and might be an indicator of SI inflammation in uSpA.

  19. Relationship of HS CRP and Sacroiliac Joint Inflammation in Undifferentiated Spondyloarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Te-Jung; Chang, Cheng-Chiang; Chen, Liang-Cheng; Chu, Heng-Yi; Hsu, Chun-Sheng; Chang, Shin-Tsu

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective Elevation of serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level has been demonstrated as a risk factor for varying diseases, as well as a biomarker for predicting recovery after operation of lumber disc herniation. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between serum hs-CRP and sacroiliac (SI) joint inflammation in patients with undifferentiated spondyloarthritis (uSpA). Methods In this retrospective study, we enrolled patients with uSpA who underwent hs-CRP testing between January 2007 and September 2013. Serum hs-CRP was analyzed at our central laboratory. All enrolled patients underwent skeletal scintigraphic scan with quantitative sacroiliac measurement. Results A total of 29 patients were enrolled with mean age 32.27 years and female:male ratio of 6:23. Pearson’s correlation coefficient showed a significant difference between hs-CRP in serum and SI/S ratio in uSpA, particularly the middle part of the sacroiliac joint, either right side or left side. The significantly high concentration of serum hs-CRP might indicate a systemic inflammatory response to flare-up of the SI joint and might be an indicator of SI inflammation in uSpA. PMID:29785410

  20. Japan's technology and manufacturing infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, William R.; Meieran, Eugene S.; Tummala, Rao R.

    1995-02-01

    The JTEC panel found that, after four decades of development in electronics and manufacturing technologies, Japanese electronics companies are leaders in the development, support, and management of complex, low-cost packaging and assembly technologies used in the production of a broad range of consumer electronics products. The electronics industry's suppliers provide basic materials and equipment required for electronic packaging applications. Panelists concluded that some Japanese firms could be leading U.S. competitors by as much as a decade in these areas. Japan's technology and manufacturing infrastructure is an integral part of its microelectronics industry's success.

  1. Serum hsCRP: A Novel Marker for Prediction of Cerebrovascular Accidents (Stroke).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patgiri, Dibyaratna; Pathak, Mauchumi Saikia; Sharma, Pradeep; Kutum, Tridip; Mattack, Nirmali

    2014-12-01

    Strokes are caused by disruption of the blood supply to the brain. This may result from either blockage or rupture of a blood vessel. Yearly 15 million people worldwide suffer a stroke. India ranks second worldwide in terms of deaths from stroke. The incidence of stroke increases with age affecting the economically productive middle aged population. Hypertension and male sex are other risk factors for stroke. C-Reactive Protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein whose concentration rises in blood following inflammation. Formerly, assays for CRP detected its rise only after significant inflammation. However, recently developed high sensitivity assays (hsCRP) enable the measurement of CRP in individuals who are apparently healthy. Several studies indicate that hsCRP is elevated in individuals who are at risk of developing Coronary Artery Disease or Cerebrovascular events, the elevation may be found years before the first detection of vascular problems. In the absence of other biochemical markers, the present study aimed to evaluate the predictive and diagnostic role of hsCRP in stroke. The study consisted of 50 patients of acute stroke admitted in Gauhati Medical College and Hospital. The control population consisted of two groups - 50 age and sex matched controls with hypertension (Hypertensive control group) and 50 age and sex matched controls with no obvious disease constituted the Normal control group. hsCRP levels were measured in all the groups and compared statistically. hsCRP is an acute phase reactant whose concentration rises in stroke as well as in those at risk. The rise may be identified even before the appearance of risk factors. Hence, hsCRP may be useful as a predictive and diagnostic marker in stroke.

  2. Study on the strategy of participation in CRP and effective technical cooperation with the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myung Ro; Choi, P. H.; Kim, K. P.; Shim, J. S.; Shim, M. W.; Min, D.Y.

    2003-07-01

    This project aims to promote the participation from Korea in the IAEA CRP, and provide the CRP projects being undertaken in Korea with R and D funds. In order to achieve these goals, this project supported 24 CRP projects with 50,000,000 won in total. In addition, an analysis on the IAEA CRP announcement for 2003 was undertaken by this project, and promoted participation in the the CRP. As a result, 29 new CRP proposals for 2003 were submitted to the IAEA Finally, some recommendations on the CRP strategy of Korea were proposed

  3. High CRP values predict poor survival in patients with penile cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffens, Sandra; Kuczyk, Markus A; Schrader, Andres J; Al Ghazal, Andreas; Steinestel, Julie; Lehmann, Rieke; Wegener, Gerd; Schnoeller, Thomas J; Cronauer, Marcus V; Jentzmik, Florian; Schrader, Mark

    2013-01-01

    High levels of circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) have recently been linked to poor clinical outcome in various malignancies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of the preoperative serum CRP level in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis. This retrospective analysis included 79 penile cancer patients with information about their serum CRP value prior to surgery who underwent either radical or partial penectomy at two German high-volume centers (Ulm University Medical Center and Hannover Medical School) between 1990 and 2010. They had a median (mean) follow-up of 23 (32) months. A significantly elevated CRP level (>15 vs. ≤ 15 mg/l) was found more often in patients with an advanced tumor stage (≥pT2) (38.9 vs. 11.6%, p=0.007) and in those with nodal disease at diagnosis (50.0 vs. 14.6%, p=0.007). However, high CRP levels were not associated with tumor differentiation (p=0.53). The Kaplan-Meier 5-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) rate was 38.9% for patients with preoperative CRP levels above 15 mg/l and 84.3% for those with lower levels (p=0.001). Applying multivariate analysis and focusing on the subgroup of patients without metastasis at the time of penile surgery, both advanced local tumor stage (≥pT2; HR 8.8, p=0.041) and an elevated CRP value (>15 mg/l; HR 3.3, p=0.043) were identified as independent predictors of poor clinical outcome in patients with penile cancer. A high preoperative serum CRP level was associated with poor survival in patients with penile cancer. If larger patient populations confirm its prognostic value, its routine use could enable better risk stratification and risk-adjusted follow-up of patients with SCC of the penis

  4. EFFECT OF CRP ON SOME OF THE IN VITRO PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF LDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Nayeri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract    BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is the most important underlying cause of cardiovascular diseases (CVD which recently has been classified as an inflammatory disorder. Accumulation of large amounts of oxidized LDL in the intima during local inflammation reaction led to increase several factors such as C -reactive protein (CRP. It has also been reported that CRP is able to bind with modified forms of LDL as well as oxidized LDL. These findings suggest possible positive or negative involvement of this protein in atherogenesis. The main objective of the present study was to assess the influence of CRP on LDL oxidation and the possible physical \\changes of LDL in the presence of CRP in vitro.    METHODS: In this study, the susceptibility of purified LDL to oxidation was assayed by monitoring of formation of conjugated dienes in different physiological concentrations of CRP (0 - 0.5 -2  µg/ml using a shimadzu spectrophotometer. Electrophoresis was used to determine the electrophoretic mobility of LDL in those conditions.    RESULTS: CRP significantly reduced the susceptibility of Cu++ -induced LDL oxidation through increasing the lag timeand there was positive relationship between these findings and CRP concentration (P < 0.05. CRP caused a significant reduction in the electrophotretic mobility of LDL compared to native LDL (n-LDL (P<0.05.     CONCLUSION: A considerable reduction was shown in LDL oxidation, in higher concentration of CRP, via an unknown mechanism. The electrophoretic mobility of LDL, in the oxidative condition, decreases in the presence of CRP compared to n-LDL, which can be indicative of the effect of this protein on the physical and chemical properties of LDL. It seems that, other pathway than LDL oxidation is responsible for the effect of CRP on the atherogenesis processes.      Keywords: Atherosclerosis, Creactive protein, Low-density lipoprotein, Inflammation.  

  5. Effects of haying on breeding birds in CRP grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igl, Lawrence D.; Johnson, Douglas H.

    2016-01-01

    The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) is a voluntary program that is available to agricultural producers to help protect environmentally sensitive or highly erodible land. Management disturbances of CRP grasslands generally are not allowed unless authorized to provide relief to livestock producers during severe drought or a similar natural disaster (i.e., emergency haying and grazing) or to improve the quality and performance of the CRP cover (i.e., managed haying and grazing). Although CRP grasslands may not be hayed or grazed during the primary bird-nesting season, these disturbances may have short-term (1 yr after disturbance) and long-term (≥2 yr after disturbance) effects on grassland bird populations. We assessed the effects of haying on 20 grassland bird species in 483 CRP grasslands in 9 counties of 4 states in the northern Great Plains, USA between 1993 and 2008. We compared breeding bird densities (as determined by total-area counts) in idle and hayed fields to evaluate changes 1, 2, 3, and 4 years after haying. Haying of CRP grasslands had either positive or negative effects on grassland birds, depending on the species, the county, and the number of years after the initial disturbance. Some species (e.g., horned lark [Eremophila alpestris], bobolink [Dolichonyx oryzivorus]) responded positively after haying, and others (e.g., song sparrow [Melospiza melodia]) responded negatively. The responses of some species changed direction as the fields recovered from haying. For example, densities for common yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas), sedge wren (Cistothorus platensis), and clay-colored sparrow (Spizella pallida) declined the first year after haying but increased in the subsequent 3 years. Ten species showed treatment × county interactions, indicating that the effects of haying varied geographically. This long-term evaluation on the effects of haying on breeding birds provides important information on the strength and direction of changes in

  6. Experimental and theoretical analyses of package-on-package structure under three-point bending loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Su; Wang Xi-Shu; Ren Huai-Hui

    2012-01-01

    High density packaging is developing toward miniaturization and integration, which causes many difficulties in designing, manufacturing, and reliability testing. Package-on-Package (PoP) is a promising three-dimensional high-density packaging method that integrates a chip scale package (CSP) in the top package and a fine-pitch ball grid array (FBGA) in the bottom package. In this paper, in-situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation is carried out to detect the deformation and damage of the PoP structure under three-point bending loading. The results indicate that the cracks occur in the die of the top package, then cause the crack deflection and bridging in the die attaching layer. Furthermore, the mechanical principles are used to analyse the cracking process of the PoP structure based on the multi-layer laminating hypothesis and the theoretical analysis results are found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  7. A Dual Band Additively Manufactured 3D Antenna on Package with Near-Isotropic Radiation Pattern

    KAUST Repository

    Su, Zhen

    2018-04-06

    Internet of things (IoT) applications need wireless connectivity on devices with very small footprints, and in RF obscure environments. The antenna for such applications must work on multiple GSM bands (preferred choice for network connectivity), provide near isotropic radiation pattern to maintain orientation insensitive communication, be small in size so that it can be integrated with futuristic miniaturized IoT devices, and be low in cost to be implemented on billions of devices. This paper presents a novel 3D dual band near-isotropic wideband GSM antenna to fulfill these requirements. The antenna has been realized on the package of electronics through additive manufacturing to ensure efficient utilization of available space and lower cost. The proposed antenna consists of a meander line antenna that is folded on the faces of a 3D package with two variations, 0.375λ length for narrowband version and 0.67λ length for the wideband version. Theoretical conditions to achieve near isotropic radiation pattern with bent wire antennas on a 3D surface have been derived. The antenna has been optimized to operate with embedded electronics and a large metallic battery. The antenna provides 8.9% and 34.4% bandwidths, at 900 and 1800 MHz respectively with decent near isotropic radiation behavior.

  8. Performance of code 'FAIR' in IAEA CRP on FUMEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swami Prasad, P.; Dutta, B.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Kakodkar, A.

    1996-01-01

    A modern fuel performance analysis code FAIR has been developed for analysing high burnup fuel pins of water/heavy water cooled reactors. The code employs finite element method for modelling thermo mechanical behaviour of fuel pins and mechanistic models for modelling various physical and chemical phenomena affecting the behaviour of nuclear reactor fuel pins. High burnup affects such as pellet thermal conductivity degradation, enhanced fission gas release and radial flux redistribution are incorporated in the code FAIR. The code FAIR is capable of performing statistical analysis of fuel pins using Monte Carlo technique. The code is implemented on BARC parallel processing system ANUPAM. The code has recently participated in an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) coordinated research program (CRP) on fuel modelling at extended burnups (FUMEX). Nineteen agencies from different countries participated in this exercise. In this CRP, spread over a period of three years, a number of high burnup fuel pins irradiated at Halden reactor are analysed. The first phase of the CRP is a blind code comparison exercise, where the computed results are compared with experimental results. The second phase consists of modifications to the code based on the experimental results of first phase and statistical analysis of fuel pins. The performance of the code FAIR in this CRP has been very good. The present report highlights the main features of code FAIR and its performance in the IAEA CRP on FUMEX. 14 refs., 5 tabs., ills

  9. Safety analysis of spent fuel packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akamatsu, Hiroshi; Taniuchi, Hiroaki; Tai, Hideto

    1987-01-01

    Many types of spent fuel packagings have been manufactured and been used for transport of spent fuels discharged from nuclear power plant. These spent fuel packagings need to be assesed thoroughly about safety transportation because spent fuels loaded into the packaging have high radioactivity and generation of heat. This paper explains the outline of safety analysis of a packaging, Safety analysis is performed for structural, thermal, containment, shielding and criticality factors, and MARC-CDC, TRUMP, ORIGEN, QAD, ANISN, KENO, etc computer codes are used for such analysis. (author)

  10. RECENT TRENDS IN PACKAGING SYSTEMS FOR PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dobrucka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:  In recent years, pharmaceutical packaging market was one of the fastest growing areas of the packaging industry. At the same time the packaging manufacturers put high demands on quality and safety. Methods: Review of innovations in packaging systems for pharmaceutical products was made including newest information of researches and achievements of recent years. Results and conclusion: Observed in recent years the development of pharmaceutical packaging market expanded due to with the huge technological advances that allow introduction of new packaging. Also, in this study presented intelligent packaging in pharmacy and innovation in child-resistance packaging.

  11. Haplotypes in the CRP Gene Associated with Increased BMI and Levels of CRP in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes or Obesity from Southwestern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    América Martínez-Calleja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We evaluated the association between four polymorphisms in the CRP gene with circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP, type 2 diabetes (T2D, obesity, and risk score of coronary heart disease. Methods. We studied 402 individuals and classified them into four groups: healthy, obese, T2D obese, and T2D without obesity, from Guerrero, Southwestern Mexico. Blood levels of CRP, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and leukocytes were measured. Genotyping was performed by PCR/RFLP, and the risk score for coronary heart disease was determined by the Framingham's methodology. Results. The TT genotype of SNP rs1130864 was associated with increased body mass index and T2D patients with obesity. We found that the haplotype 2 (TGAG was associated with increased levels of CRP (β=0.3; 95%CI: 0.1, 0.5; P=0.005 and haplotype 7 (TGGG with higher body mass index (BMI (β=0.2; 95%CI: 0.1, 0.3; P<0.001. The risk score for coronary heart disease was associated with increased levels of CRP, but not with any polymorphism or haplotype. Conclusions. The association between the TT genotype of SNP rs1130864 with obesity and the haplotype 7 with BMI may explain how obesity and genetic predisposition increase the risk of diseases such as T2D in the population of Southwestern Mexico.

  12. C-reactive protein (+1444C>T) polymorphism influences CRP response following a moderate inflammatory stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aiuto, Francesco; Casas, Juan P; Shah, Tina; Humphries, Steve E; Hingorani, Aroon D; Tonetti, Maurizio S

    2005-04-01

    Elevations in C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration are associated with an increased risk of future coronary events in prospective studies and it has been suggested that CRP could be used to aid risk prediction. A +1444C>T polymorphism in the CRP gene has been associated with differences in CRP concentration. We investigated the effect of this polymorphism on the CRP response to periodontal therapy, an intermediate inflammatory stimulus. Clinical parameters, CRP, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations were evaluated in 55 consecutive patients suffering from periodontitis at baseline, 1, 7 and 30 days after an intensive course of periodontal treatment. In a multivariate analysis individuals homozygous for the +1444T allele showed higher CRP concentrations (day 1, 21.10+/-4.81 mg/L and day 7, 4.89+/-0.74 mg/L) compared with C-allele carriers (day 1, 12.37+/-1.61 mg/L and day 7, 3.08+/-2.00 mg/L). This effect was independent of conventional cardiovascular risk factors and inflammatory factors known to affect CRP concentrations. CRP genotype may need to be considered when CRP values are used in coronary risk prediction.

  13. Sensory impacts of food-packaging interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Susan E; Webster, Janet B

    2009-01-01

    Sensory changes in food products result from intentional or unintentional interactions with packaging materials and from failure of materials to protect product integrity or quality. Resolving sensory issues related to plastic food packaging involves knowledge provided by sensory scientists, materials scientists, packaging manufacturers, food processors, and consumers. Effective communication among scientists and engineers from different disciplines and industries can help scientists understand package-product interactions. Very limited published literature describes sensory perceptions associated with food-package interactions. This article discusses sensory impacts, with emphasis on oxidation reactions, associated with the interaction of food and materials, including taints, scalping, changes in food quality as a function of packaging, and examples of material innovations for smart packaging that can improve sensory quality of foods and beverages. Sensory evaluation is an important tool for improved package selection and development of new materials.

  14. Food irradiation and packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcast, David

    1988-01-01

    This outline review was written for 'Food Manufacture'. It deals with the known effects of irradiation on current packaging materials (glass, cellulosics, organic polymers and metals), and their implications for the effective application of the process. (U.K.)

  15. Application of Green Environmentally Friendly Materials in Food Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Jixia Li

    2017-01-01

    With social development, requirements on the spiritual and material life have increased. However, some environmental issues appear, for example, in food packaging. Application of environment-friendly materials in food packaging has been more and more attractive. This study analyses the characteristics of degradable food packaging material and the existing problems, proposes the manufacturing of food packaging with poly(lactic acid)/nanocrystalline cellulose composite material, tests its therm...

  16. Study of High Sensitive-CRP and Cardiac Marker Enzymes in Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikrishna R,

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inflammation has been proposed as a contributor to different stages in the pathogenesis of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD. High sensitive C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP, an acute-phase plasma protein synthesized by the liver, is the most extensively studied systemic marker of inflammation. Elevated hsCRP concentrations early in Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS, prior to the tissue necrosis, may be a surrogate marker for cardiovascular co-morbidities. The cardiac marker enzymes Creatine Kinase myocardial bound (CK-MB, Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH have been known to be increased in coronary artery diseases. Objective: The aim of the study was to measure hs-CRP levels and other cardiac marker enzymes in ACS patients and to compare the levels of hs-CRP with other cardiac marker enzymes between ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI and Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI patients. Material and Methods: The study group consisted of 207 consecutive patients admitted to Sri Siddhartha Medical College Hospital within the first 6 hours from the onset of chest pain. Patients were diagnosed as Unstable Angina (UA, (n=84; STEMI (n=63 and NSTEMI (n=60. ACS patients were compared with 211 healthy age and sex matched controls. Hs-CRP, CK-MB, AST and LDH levels were measured by standard methods in both groups at baseline and forcases at 36-48 hours i.e. Peak levels. Results: ACS patients had significantly (p<0.05 higher levels of hs-CRP, CKMB, AST and LDH in comparison to controls at baseline. Hs-CRP, CK-MB, AST and LDH levels were significantly higher in STEMI patients compared to NSTEMI patients (p<0.05 at baseline. There was a significant difference regarding peak hs-CRP levels between the two groups, as STEMI patients had significantly higher peak hs-CRP levels compared to NSTEMI patients (p<0.05. Conclusion: STEMI patients have significantly higher peak hsCRP levels compared to NSTEMI patients. These data

  17. Prognostic value of suPAR and hs-CRP on cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Marie Zöga; Diederichsen, Søren Zöga; Mickley, Hans

    2018-01-01

    Background and aims: Studies have shown that soluble urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (suPAR) and CRP (both inflammatory markers) and coronary artery calcification (CAC) are independent risk predictors for cardiovascular (CV) disease. The aim of this study is to assess whether suPAR and CRP...... have an increased predictive prognostic value beyond the traditional CV risk factors and the CAC score. Methods: A population sample of 1179 subjects, free of CV disease was included. The subjects underwent traditional CV risk evaluation, CAC assessment and blood sampling for suPAR and CRP. CV events...

  18. Design of cAMP-CRP-activated promoters in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin-Hansen, P; Holst, B; Søgaard-Andersen, L

    1991-01-01

    We have studied the deoP2 promoter of Escherichia coli to define features that are required for optimal activation by the complex of adenosine 3',5' monophosphate (cAMP) and the cAMP receptor protein (CRP). Systematic mutagenesis of deoP2 shows that the distance between the CRP site and the -10...

  19. 1st RCM of IAEA CRP on Prediction of Axial and Radial Creep in HWR Pressure Tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Expected outcome: Improved understanding of pressure tube creep mechanism by studying the effect of intrinsic (material response) as well as extrinsic parameters (operating conditions). • Improvement of material characterization technology: many laboratories participating in this CRP will conduct the microstructure characterization for the first time. • Recommendation for manufacturing to achieve optimal PT performance: The database will enable the identification of best pressure tube performance by comparison of data. • Improvement in aging management procedure: (channel selection for PT deformation management, etc.). • Safety enhancement for operating HWRs by reducing the uncertainty in the prediction of PT deformation

  20. C-Reactive Protein (CRP) and its Association with Periodontal Disease: A Brief Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Tushika; Pandey, Anita; D, Deepa; Asthana, Ashish K

    2014-07-01

    Periodontal disease is a chronic infection of the gums characterised by a loss of attachment between the tooth and bone, and bone loss. C-reactive protein (CRP) elevation is a part of the acute phase response to acute and chronic inflammation. Many epidemiological studies have shown that serum CRP levels were elevated in patients with chronic periodontitis. CRP levels increase to hundreds of μg/ml within hours following infection. It out-performs erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in terms of responsiveness and specificity for inflammation. While CRP elevation is suggestive of inflammation or infection in the appropriate clinical context, it can also occur with obesity and renal dysfunction. Conversely, a lack of CRP elevation in inflammation may be seen with hepatic failure, as well as during flares of conditions such as systemic lupus erythematosus.

  1. Vegetable and Fruit Intakes Are Associated with hs-CRP Levels in Pre-Pubertal Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Navarro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of diet on inflammation in children remains unclear. We aimed to analyze the influence of diet on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP levels in a pre-pubertal population free of other influences that may affect hs-CRP levels. We determined hs-CRP levels in 571 six- to eight-year-old children using an hs-CRP ELISA kit. Information on food and nutrient intake was obtained through a food-frequency questionnaire. Overall dietary quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI. We found that girls in the highest tertile of hs-CRP levels had a higher intake of saturated fatty acid, and lower intakes of fiber and vitamin E and a lower HEI score when compared to those in tertiles 1 and 2. We also observed a significant decrease in fruit and vegetable intakes by hs-CRP tertile. Factor analysis showed that a dietary pattern that was loaded most strongly with vegetable, fruit, fiber and vitamin A and E intakes correlated negatively (−0.132, p < 0.05 with hs-CRP. No such association was found in boys. In conclusion, our data show that girls with a poorer quality diet show higher hs-CRP levels already at a pre-pubertal age.

  2. Factors Affecting Conservation Practice Behavior of CRP Participants in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwudili Onianwa; Gerald Wheelock; Shannon Hendrix

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the factors that affect conservation practice choices of CRP farmers in Alabama. From over 9,000 contracts enrolled in the state between 1986 and 1995, 594 were randomly selected for the study. A multiple-regression analysis was employed to analyze the data. Results indicate that education, ratio ofcropland in CRP, farm size, gender, prior crop...

  3. Haplotypes in the CRP gene associated with increased BMI and levels of CRP in subjects with type 2 diabetes or obesity from Southwestern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Calleja, América; Quiróz-Vargas, Irma; Parra-Rojas, Isela; Muñoz-Valle, José Francisco; Leyva-Vázquez, Marco A; Fernández-Tilapa, Gloria; Vences-Velázquez, Amalia; Cruz, Miguel; Salazar-Martínez, Eduardo; Flores-Alfaro, Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the association between four polymorphisms in the CRP gene with circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), type 2 diabetes (T2D), obesity, and risk score of coronary heart disease. We studied 402 individuals and classified them into four groups: healthy, obese, T2D obese, and T2D without obesity, from Guerrero, Southwestern Mexico. Blood levels of CRP, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and leukocytes were measured. Genotyping was performed by PCR/RFLP, and the risk score for coronary heart disease was determined by the Framingham's methodology. The TT genotype of SNP rs1130864 was associated with increased body mass index and T2D patients with obesity. We found that the haplotype 2 (TGAG) was associated with increased levels of CRP (β = 0.3; 95%CI: 0.1, 0.5; P = 0.005) and haplotype 7 (TGGG) with higher body mass index (BMI) (β = 0.2; 95%CI: 0.1, 0.3; P obesity and the haplotype 7 with BMI may explain how obesity and genetic predisposition increase the risk of diseases such as T2D in the population of Southwestern Mexico.

  4. Effects of retail style or food service style packaging type and storage time on sensory characteristics of bacon manufactured from commercially sourced pork bellies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, B K; Bohrer, B M; Holmer, S F; Boler, D D; Dilger, A C

    2014-06-01

    Objectives were to characterize differences in pork bellies that were stored frozen for different durations prior to processing and characterize sensory properties of the bacon derived from those bellies when stored in either retail or food service style packaging. Bellies (n = 102) were collected from 4 different time periods, fresh bellies (never frozen) and bellies frozen for 2, 5, or 7 mo, and manufactured into bacon under commercial conditions. Food service bacon was packaged in oxygen-permeable polyvinyl lined boxes layered on wax-covered lined paper and blast frozen (-33 °C) for 45 or 90 d after slicing. Retail bacon was vacuum-packaged in retail packages and refrigerated (2 °C) in the dark for 60 or 120 d after slicing. At the end of respective storage times after slicing, bacon was analyzed for sensory attributes and lipid oxidation. Off-flavor and oxidized odor of bacon increased (P food service packaged bacon from frozen bellies, but was unchanged (P ≥ 0.07) with time in food service packaged bacon from fresh bellies. Lipid oxidation was also unchanged (P ≥ 0.21) over time in retail packaged bacon, with the exception of bellies frozen for 5 mo, which was increased from day 0 to day 90. Overall, off-flavor, oxidized odor, and lipid oxidation increased as storage time after processing increased. Freezing bellies before processing may exacerbate lipid oxidation as storage time after processing was extended. Bacon can be packaged and managed several different ways before it reaches the consumer. This research simulated food service (frozen) and retail packaged (refrigerated) bacon over a range of storage times after slicing. Off-flavor and oxidized odor increased as storage time after processing increased in both packaging types. Lipid oxidation increased as storage time after slicing increased to a greater extent in food service packaging. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Indonesia's experience with IAEA-CRP on radiation protection in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasukha

    2001-01-01

    IAEA-CRP on Radiation Doses in Diagnostic Radiology and Methods for Dose Reduction has as participants some Asian and East European countries. Indonesia is one of participants that followed the IAEA program. This paper is not a discussion of CRP-results since it will be published as a TECDOC soon. But the work on evaluation of examination frequencies, film reject rate analysis, patient dose measurements, image quality before and after Quality Control (QC) and QC itself, gave some experiences to investigators to be explored and presented. Experiences could be in the form of problems, how to solve problems and some suggestions, starting from no QC up to complicated QC to be faced in conventional radiography to CT-scan and fluoroscopy units. These valuable experiences of Indonesia are proven exercise of IAEA-CRP as a good start for next CRP or national projects in diagnostic radiology. (author)

  6. 27 CFR 19.384 - Preparation of bottling or packaging record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... packaging record. 19.384 Section 19.384 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Than Denaturation and Manufacture of Articles Bottling, Packaging, and Removal of Products § 19.384 Preparation of bottling or packaging record. The proprietor shall prepare a record for each batch of spirits...

  7. MetR and CRP bind to the Vibrio harveyi lux promoters and regulate luminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Jaidip; Miyamoto, Carol M; Zouzoulas, Athina; Lang, B Franz; Skouris, Nicolas; Meighen, Edward A

    2002-10-01

    The induction of luminescence in Vibrio harveyi at the later stages of growth is controlled by a quorum-sensing mechanism in addition to nutritional signals. However, the mechanism of transmission of these signals directly to the lux promoters is unknown and only one regulatory protein, LuxR, has been shown to bind directly to lux promoter DNA. In this report, we have cloned and sequenced two genes, crp and metR, coding for the nutritional regulators, CRP (cAMP receptor protein) and MetR (a LysR homologue), involved in catabolite repression and methionine biosynthesis respectively. The metR gene was cloned based on a general strategy to detect lux DNA-binding proteins expressed from a genomic library, whereas the crp gene was cloned based on its complementation of an Escherichia coli crp mutant. Both CRP and MetR were shown to bind to lux promoter DNA, with CRP being dependent on the presence of cAMP. Expression studies indicated that the two regulators had opposite effects on luminescence: CRP was an activator and MetR a repressor. Disruption of crp decreased luminescence by about 1,000-fold showing that CRP is a major activator of luminescence the same as LuxR, whereas disruption of MetR resulted in activation of luminescence over 10-fold, confirming its function as a repressor. Comparison of the levels of the autoinducers involved in quorum sensing excreted by V. harveyi, and the crp and metR mutants, showed that autoinducer production was not significantly different, thus indicating that the nutritional signals do not affect luminescence by changing the levels of the signals required for quorum sensing. Indeed, the large effects of these nutritional sensors show that luminescence is controlled by multiple signals related to the environment and the cell density which must be integrated at the molecular level to control expression at the lux promoters.

  8. The correlation between changes of C-reactive protein (CRP level and size of infarct in stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Aboutalebi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of C-reactive protein (CRP during different stages of stroke had been shown in several studies. There is still no definite document about the correlation of CRP level and size of infarct in stroke. We studied the correlation of the acute level of CRP with size of infarct in stroke. Methods: A total of 90 consecutive patients with acute stroke admitted in Fatemeh Zahra University Hospital in Bushehr city were studied. Levels of CRP were measured at admission time and 48 hours later. Sizes of infarct and types of stroke were determined with Computerized Tomography scanning. The excluded patients were those with infection, stroke in brain stem, a delay more than 24 hours after attack of stroke and Transient Ischemic Attacks. CRP level was measured quantitatively using ELISA method. Results: No correlation between the first CRP levels and variables of age, size of infarct and type of stroke was detected. Size of infarct was correlated with the second CRP (r=0.41, P<0.001 and the difference in CRP levels (r=0.45, P<0.001. The CRP difference was significant in ischemic, hemorrhagic and territory infarcts (P<0.01. But there was no difference between the first and the second CRP in lacunar infarcts. Conclusion: We found no correlation between the CRP levels of the 24 first hours after acute stroke with size of infarct in stroke. But the increase of CRP levels which were measured in 48 hours after the stroke had correlation with size of infarct irrespective of types of stroke. More studies could reveal the cause and effect of CRP in size of infarct in stroke.

  9. Plasticity of regulation of mannitol phosphotransferase system operon by CRP-cAMP complex in Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan Yan; Zhang, Hong Zhi; Liang, Wei Li; Zhang, Li Juan; Zhu, Jun; Kan, Biao

    2013-10-01

    The complex of the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) and cAMP is an important transcriptional regulator of numerous genes in prokaryotes. The transport of mannitol through the phosphotransferase systems (PTS) is regulated by the CRP-cAMP complex. The aim of the study is to investigate how the CRP-cAMP complex acting on the mannitol PTS operon mtl of the Vibrio cholerae El Tor biotype. The crp mutant strain was generated by homologous recombination to assess the need of CRP to activate the mannitol PTS operon of V. cholerae El Tor. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) and the reporter plasmid pBBRlux were used to confirm the role that the CRP-cAMP complex playing on the mannitol PTS operon mtl. In this study, we confirmed that CRP is strictly needed for the activation of the mtl operon. We further experimentally identified five CRP binding sites within the promoter region upstream of the mannitol PTS operon mtl of the Vibrio cholerae El Tor biotype and found that these sites display different affinities for CRP and provide different contributions to the activation of the operon. The five binding sites collectively confer the strong activation of mannitol transfer by CRP in V. cholerae, indicating an elaborate and subtle CRP activation mechanism. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  10. Green fiber bottle: Towards a sustainable package

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didone, Mattia; Tosello, Guido; Howard, Thomas J.

    The Green Fiber Bottle is a fully biodegradable bottle made from molded paper pulp.Its development depends on the establishment of the manufacturing technology. Impulse drying, an innovative way of drying, has the potential to improve significantly the manufacturing process of the Green Fiber Bot...... Bottle, towards a sustainable packaging...

  11. Increased hsCRP is associated with higher risk of aortic valve replacement in patients with aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blyme, Adam; Nielsen, Olav W.; Asferg, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate relations between inflammation and aortic valve stenosis (AS) by measuring high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, at baseline (hsCRP0) and after 1 year (hsCRP1) and exploring associations with aortic valve replacement (AVR). Design We examined 1423 patients from...... the Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis study. Results During first year of treatment, hsCRP was reduced both in patients later receiving AVR (2.3 [0.9–4.9] to 1.8 [0.8–5.4] mg/l, p CRP1...... predicted later AVR (HR = 1.17, p CRP0 (HR = 0.96, p = 0.33), aortic valve area (AVA) and other risk factors. A higher rate of AVR was observed in the group with high hsCRP0 and an increase during the first year (AVRhighCRP0CRP1inc=47.3% versus AVRhighCRP0CRP1dec=27.5%, p

  12. 49 CFR 178.360-2 - Manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manufacture. 178.360-2 Section 178.360-2 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Specifications for Packagings for Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 178.360-2 Manufacture. The ends of the vessel...

  13. ChIP-exo interrogation of Crp, DNA, and RNAP holoenzyme interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latif, Haythem; Federowicz, Stephen; Ebrahim, Ali

    2018-01-01

    Numerous in vitro studies have yielded a refined picture of the structural and molecular associations between Cyclic-AMP receptor protein (Crp), the DNA motif, and RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme. In this study, high-resolution ChIP-exonuclease (ChIP-exo) was applied to study Crp binding in vivo...

  14. Anti-bacterial activity of Achatina CRP and its mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sandip; Barman, Soma; Mandal, Narayan Chandra; Bhattacharya, Shelley

    2014-07-01

    The physiological role of C-reactive protein (CRP), the classical acute-phase protein, is not well documented, despite many reports on biological effects of CRP in vitro and in model systems in vivo. It has been suggested that CRP protects mice against lethal toxicity of bacterial infections by implementing immunological responses. In Achatina fulica CRP is a constitutive multifunctional protein in haemolymph and considered responsible for their survival in the environment for millions of years. The efficacy of Achatina CRP (ACRP) was tested against both Salmonella typhimurium and Bacillus subtilis infections in mice where endogenous CRP level is negligible even after inflammatory stimulus. Further, growth curves of the bacteria revealed that ACRP (50 microg/mL) is bacteriostatic against gram negative salmonellae and bactericidal against gram positive bacilli. ACRP induced energy crises in bacterial cells, inhibited key carbohydrate metabolic enzymes such as phosphofructokinase in glycolysis, isocitrate dehydrogenase in TCA cycle, isocitrate lyase in glyoxylate cycle and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase in gluconeogenesis. ACRP disturbed the homeostasis of cellular redox potential as well as reduced glutathione status, which is accompanied by an enhanced rate of lipid peroxidation. Annexin V-Cy3/CFDA dual staining clearly showed ACRP induced apoptosis-like death in bacterial cell population. Moreover, immunoblot analyses also indicated apoptosis-like death in ACRP treated bacterial cells, where activation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP) and caspase-3 was noteworthy. It is concluded that metabolic impairment by ACRP in bacterial cells is primarily due to generation of reactive oxygen species and ACRP induced anti-bacterial effect is mediated by metabolic impairment leading to apoptosis-like death in bacterial cells.

  15. High-affinity RNA aptamers to C-reactive protein (CRP): newly developed pre-elution methods for aptamer selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orito, N; Umekage, S; Sakai, E; Tanaka, T; Kikuchi, Y; Sato, K; Kawauchi, S; Tanaka, H

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a modified SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) method to obtain RNA aptamers with high affinity to C-reactive protein (CRP). CRP is a clinical biomarker present in plasma, the level of which increases in response to infections and noninfectious inflammation. The CRP level is also an important prognostic indicator in patients with several syndromes. At present, CRP content in blood is measured immunochemically using antibodies. To develop a more sensitive method using RNA aptamers, we have attempted to obtain high-affinity RNA aptamers to CRP. We succeeded in obtaining an RNA aptamer with high affinity to CRP using a CRP-immobilized Sepharose column and pre-elution procedure. Pre-elution is a method that removes the weak binding portion from a selected RNA population by washing for a short time with buffer containing CRP. By surface plasmon-resonance (SPR) analysis, the affinity constant of this aptamer for CRP was calculated to be K D = 2.25x10 -9 (M). The secondary structure, contact sites with CRP protein, and application of this aptamer will be described.

  16. The Australian experience following plain packaging: the impact on tobacco branding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenland, Steven J

    2016-12-01

    Brands are critical to tobacco marketing. Industry stakeholders predicted that plain packaging, by removing key tangible branding dimensions, would restrict new products and brand differentiation. However, manufacturers respond innovatively to limit regulatory impact. This study investigates brand strategy following plain packaging's introduction to Australia. Brand portfolios were determined using 2006-15 tobacco ingredient reports. These detail the brand and variant names sold and are provided annually as part of a voluntary agreement between the Australian Government and leading manufacturers. Post-plain packaging brand ranges were verified using retail price lists and a supermarket retail audit using a method used previously to verify a period of pre-plain packaging data. The verification process identified some data inaccuracies from one manufacturer which resulted in the issuing of corrected data. After plain packaging the leading manufacturers continued with extensive brand ranges differentiated by price. All launched new products. While total brand numbers fell from 29 to 24, the mean number of variants for the leading 12 brands grew from 8.9 to 9.7. Substantial variant name modifications occurred with 50 new or modified names in 2012-13. Among leading brands, the incidence of variant colour names increased from 49.5 to 79.3%. New brands and variants were not inhibited by the introduction of plain packaging in Australia. After plain packaging, leading brand variant numbers expanded by 9 to 116 and colour variant names increased by 73.6% and became the norm-lighter colours (blue, gold and silver) dominated, perpetuating notions of less harmful cigarettes. [Correction added on 09 September 2016, after first online publication: The figures in the last sentence of the Abstract are now corrected from 'expanded by 116' to 'expanded by 9 to 116'.]. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Packaging and transport of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.B.G.

    1976-01-01

    The importance of radioisotope traffic is emphasized. More than a million packages are being transported each year, mostly for medical uses. The involvement of public transport services and the incidental dose to the public (which is very small) are appreciably greater than for movements connected with the nuclear fuel cycle. Modern isotope packages are described, and an outline given of the problems of a large radioisotope manufacturer who has to package many different types of product. Difficulties caused by recent uncoordinated restrictions on the use of passenger aircraft are mentioned. Some specific problems relating to radioisotope packaging are discussed. These include the crush resistance of Type A packages, the closure of steel drums, the design of secure closures for large containers, the Type A packaging of liquids, leak tightness criteria of Type B packages, and the use of 'unit load' overpacks to consign a group of individually approved packages together as a single shipment. Reference is made to recent studies of the impact of radioisotope shipments on the environment. Cost/benefit analysis is important in this field - an important public debate is only just beginning. (author)

  18. Diagnostic value of CRP and Lp(a) in coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbağci, Ayşe Binnur; Tarakçioğlu, Mehmet; Aksoy, Mehmet; Kocabaş, Ramazan; Nacak, Muradiye; Aynacioğlu, A Sükrü; Sivrikoz, Cumhur

    2002-06-01

    Increased lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] concentration was reported to be an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). Recent epidemiological studies affirmed the value of C-reactive protein (CRP) as the strongest, univariate predictor of the cardiovascular events. We decided to establish cut-off levels providing maximum diagnostic efficiency for CHD. In this study we measured CRP and Lp(a) concentrations in patients with angiographically demonstrated CHD (group A, n: 120), patients without any angiographically demonstrable lesion (group B, n: 62) and a group of healthy subjects (group C, n: 41). Data were evaluated correcting for lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, smoking, age, and body mass index in men and women. ROC curve based cut-off values (comparing group A versus groups B and C) and associated diagnostic performances of the assays were evaluated. Significant increases were noted in serum CRP concentrations in men and women, in groups A vs. B,A vs. C, B vs. C. Lp(a) concentrations were not different among groups in men but were higher in group A vs. B and C in women. Optimal cut-off levels for CRP in women and men were found as 2.1 and 3.0 mg/l with the diagnostic values of 0.792 and 0.770, respectively. For Lp(a) optimal cut-off levels were found as 22.6 and 9.8 mg/dl with the diagnostic values of 0.612 and 0.596 in women and men, respectively. The CRP level is quite efficient for separation of patients from controls. Therefore keeping in mind the lack of specificity, the CRP level may be a useful tool in the diagnosis of coronary heart disease. However, the Lp(a) level is not efficient enough to support the use of Lp(a) measurement for management of coronary heart disease.

  19. CRP and suPAR are differently related to anthropometry and subclinical organ damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngbæk, Stig; Sehestedt, Thomas; Marott, Jacob L

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low-grade inflammation is a marker for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The inflammatory biomarkers C-reactive protein (CRP) and soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) independently predict CVD. We tested the hypothesis that these biomarkers reflect different aspects...... of the inflammation associated with CVD. METHODS: We studied 2273 subjects without CVD. Log-transformed CRP and suPAR were included in general linear and logistic regression models to compare associations with measures of anthropometry and subclinical organ damage (SOD). Owing to interactions on body mass index (BMI......) (P3: 1.31 (1.16-1.47), whereas log-CRP was not (1.00 (0.89-1.11))). CONCLUSIONS: CRP is positively associated with anthropometric measures, whereas suPAR is linked to endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis....

  20. 77 FR 48992 - Tobacco Product Manufacturing Facility Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... manufacture, preproduction design validation (including a process to assess the performance of a tobacco... about the manufacturing practices and processes unique to your facility and regulated tobacco products... process, package, label, and distribute different types of regulated tobacco products (cigarettes...

  1. Application of GA package in functional packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousova, D. A.; Noskova, E. E.; Kapulin, D. V.

    2018-05-01

    The approach to application program for the task of configuration of the elements of the commutation circuit for design of the radio-electronic equipment on the basis of the genetic algorithm is offered. The efficiency of the used approach for commutation circuits with different characteristics for computer-aided design on radio-electronic manufacturing is shown. The prototype of the computer-aided design subsystem on the basis of a package GA for R with a set of the general functions for optimization of multivariate models is programmed.

  2. Application of electron irradiation to food containers and packaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Koji

    2010-01-01

    Problems caused by microbial contamination and hazardous chemicals have attracted much attention in the food industry. The number of systems such as hygienic management systems and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) systems adopted in the manufacturing process is increasing. As manufacturing process control has become stricter, stricter control is also required for microbial control for containers and packaging materials (from disinfection to sterilization). Since safe and reliable methods for sterilizing food containers and packaging materials that leave no residue are required, electron beam sterilization used for medical equipment has attracted attention from the food industry. This paper describes an electron irradiation facility, methods for applying electron beams to food containers and packaging materials, and products irradiated with electron beams. (author)

  3. Biofunctionalized gold nanoparticle-conducting polymer nanocomposite based bioelectrode for CRP detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sujeet K; Sharma, Vikash; Kumar, Devendra; Rajesh

    2014-10-01

    An electrochemical impedance immunosensing method for the detection and quantification of C-reactive protein (αCRP) in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) is demonstrated. The protein antibody, Ab-αCRP, has been covalently immobilized on a platform comprising of electrochemically deposited 3-mercaptopropionic acid-capped gold nanoparticles Au(MPA)-polypyrrole (PPy) nanocomposite film of controlled thickness onto an indium tin oxide-coated glass plate. The free carboxyl groups present on the nanocomposite film have been used to site-specifically immobilize the Ab-αCRP biomolecules through a stable acyl amino ester intermediate generated by N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethyl carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide. The nanocomposite film was characterized by atomic force microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and electrochemical techniques. The bioelectrode was electrochemically analyzed using modified Randles circuit in terms of constant phase element (CPE), electron transfer resistance (R et), and Warburg impedance (Z w). The value of n, a CPE exponent used as a gauge of heterogeneity, for the Au-PPy nanocomposite film was found to be 0.56 which is indicative of a rather rough morphology and porous structure. A linear relationship between the increased ∆R et values and the logarithmic value of protein antigen, Ag-αCRP, concentrations was found in the range of 10 ng to 10 μg mL(-1) with a R et sensitivity of 46.27 Ω cm(2)/decade of [Ag-αCRP] in PBS (pH 7.4).

  4. Evaluation of trade-offs in costs and environmental impacts for returnable packaging implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarupan, Lerpong; Kamarthi, Sagar V.; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2004-02-01

    The main thrust of returnable packaging these days is to provide logistical services through transportation and distribution of products and be environmentally friendly. Returnable packaging and reverse logistics concepts have converged to mitigate the adverse effect of packaging materials entering the solid waste stream. Returnable packaging must be designed by considering the trade-offs between costs and environmental impact to satisfy manufacturers and environmentalists alike. The cost of returnable packaging entails such items as materials, manufacturing, collection, storage and disposal. Environmental impacts are explicitly linked with solid waste, air pollution, and water pollution. This paper presents a multi-criteria evaluation technique to assist decision-makers for evaluating the trade-offs in costs and environmental impact during the returnable packaging design process. The proposed evaluation technique involves a combination of multiple objective integer linear programming and analytic hierarchy process. A numerical example is used to illustrate the methodology.

  5. The ratio of CRP to prealbumin levels predict mortality in patients with hospital-acquired acute kidney injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Chuanming

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal and human studies suggest that inflammation and malnutrition are common in acute kidney injury (AKI patients. However, only a few studies reported CRP, a marker of inflammation, albumin, prealbumin and cholesterol, markers of nutritional status were associated with the prognosis of AKI patients. No study examined whether the combination of inflammatory and nutritional markers could predict the mortality of AKI patients. Methods 155 patients with hospital-acquired AKI were recruited to this prospective cohort study according to RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Lost or End Stage Kidney criteria. C-reactive protein (CRP, and the nutritional markers (albumin, prealbumin and cholesterol measured at nephrology consultation were analyzed in relation to all cause mortality of these patients. In addition, CRP and prealbumin were also measured in healthy controls (n = 45, maintenance hemodialysis (n = 70 and peritoneal dialysis patients (n = 50 and then compared with AKI patients. Results Compared with healthy controls and end-stage renal disease patients on maintenance hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, patients with AKI had significantly higher levels of CRP/prealbumin (p 28 days. Similarly, the combined factors including the ratio of CRP to albumin (CRP/albumin, CRP/prealbumin and CRP/cholesterol were also significantly higher in the former group (p p = 0.027 while the others (CRP, albumin, prealbumin, cholesterol, CRP/albumin and CRP/cholesterol became non-significantly associated. The hazard ratio was 1.00 (reference, 1.85, 2.25 and 3.89 for CRP/prealbumin increasing according to quartiles (p = 0.01 for the trend. Conclusions Inflammation and malnutrition were common in patients with AKI. Higher level of the ratio of CRP to prealbumin was associated with mortality of AKI patients independent of the severity of illness and it may be a valuable addition to SOFA score to independent of the severity of illness and it may be a

  6. Application of Green Environmentally Friendly Materials in Food Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixia Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available With social development, requirements on the spiritual and material life have increased. However, some environmental issues appear, for example, in food packaging. Application of environment-friendly materials in food packaging has been more and more attractive. This study analyses the characteristics of degradable food packaging material and the existing problems, proposes the manufacturing of food packaging with poly(lactic acid/nanocrystalline cellulose composite material, tests its thermal and mechanical properties, and applies it to the design of food packaging. The results demonstrate that the thermal and mechanical properties of the material could satisfy the requirements of food packaging and that the material is applicable to the design of food packaging in the future. This work provides a reference for the application of green, environment-friendly materials in the design of food packaging.

  7. Evaluation of Usefulness of hs-CRP and Ferritin Assays in Patients with Nasal Polyps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Partyka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chronic nature of the nasal polyps, tendency to recurrence, and lack of satisfying treatment need the diagnostic’s parameters which show early inflammatory state as ferritin and hs-CRP. The Aim of Study. Assessment of hs-CRP and ferritin blood levels in nasal polyps patients in evaluation of treatment efficacy. Methods. All 38 patients were divided into 2 groups. Group I included 19 patients with anti-inflammatory therapy 2 weeks after surgery. Group II included 19 patients without anti-inflammatory therapy 2 weeks after surgery. The levels of hs-CRP and ferritin have been assessed before and 2 and 6 weeks after surgical treatment. Results. Research showed statistically significant difference of ferritin’s concentration between examined groups 6 weeks after surgery (P<0.05 and statistically significant difference of hs-CRP concentration 2 and 6 weeks after surgery (P<0.05. Conclusion. (1 The analysis of serum ferritin and hs-CRP concentrations can be useful in early postoperative detection of inflammatory state in patients with nasal polyps and for the effectiveness of therapy. (2 Lack of correlation between mean ferritin and hs-CRP serum levels, at each diagnostic and monitoring stage, shows that they are independent and cannot be determined interchangeably.

  8. M4/12 package project - development of a package for transport of new MOX fuel in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, B.R.; Porter, I.; Ashley, P. [BNFL, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    BNFL has a requirement to deliver new MOX fuel from the Sellafield MOX Plant (SMP) to its customers in mainland Europe. To satisfy this requirement, a transport system has been developed which complies with national and international regulations and conventions relating to the transport of Category 1 materials. Fundamental to this system is the transport package. BNFL has designed, developed, and is manufacturing a new transport package, the M4/12, This paper gives a brief overview of the overall transport system and then goes on to describe the development of the M4/12 package with particular emphasis on the novel features of the design.

  9. M4/12 package project - development of a package for transport of new MOX fuel in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye, B.R.; Porter, I.; Ashley, P.

    2004-01-01

    BNFL has a requirement to deliver new MOX fuel from the Sellafield MOX Plant (SMP) to its customers in mainland Europe. To satisfy this requirement, a transport system has been developed which complies with national and international regulations and conventions relating to the transport of Category 1 materials. Fundamental to this system is the transport package. BNFL has designed, developed, and is manufacturing a new transport package, the M4/12, This paper gives a brief overview of the overall transport system and then goes on to describe the development of the M4/12 package with particular emphasis on the novel features of the design

  10. Use of gamma-irradiation technology in the manufacture of biopolymer-based packaging films for shelf-stable foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, Duclerc F.; Rodrigues, Juliana A.F.R.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2005-01-01

    Gamma irradiation is an alternative method for the manufacture of sterilized packaging with increased storage stability and microbiological safety. Biopolymer-based packaging films are a potential solution to many environmental problems that have emerged from the production and accumulation of significant amounts of synthetic polymeric waste. This work was undertaken to verify the effectiveness of low-dose gamma-irradiation in obtaining biopolymer-based packaging films for shelf-stable foods. PHB polyester poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) is an interesting biodegradable polymer that has been intensely investigated as cast and sheet films, with applications in the food industry and medicine. The films obtained are, however, typically brittle, and many scientists have attempted to reduce this brittleness by blending PHB with other polymers. In the present work, PHB was blended with PEG (polyethyleneglycol) to obtain films by the casting method that were then irradiated at a dose rate of 5.72 kGy/h with a 60 Co source. Samples were melted at 200 deg. C and quenched to 0 deg. C in order to evaluate film crystallinity levels by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). DSC analyses were performed with the samples (10 mg) under N 2 atmosphere, heating from -50 to 200 deg. C (10 deg. C min -1 ), cooling from 200 to -50 deg. C (10 deg. C min -1 ); and heating from -50 to 200 deg. C (10 deg. C min -1 ). The thermal and mechanical resistances of the films after irradiation at low doses (5, 10, 20 kGy) are discussed. Water vapour transmission decreased with increasing irradiation dose, indicating that the films' performance as water vapour barrier had improved. Critical loss of the mechanical properties was observed at 40 kGy

  11. Use of gamma-irradiation technology in the manufacture of biopolymer-based packaging films for shelf-stable foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Duclerc F.; Rodrigues, Juliana A. F. R.; Lugão, Ademar B.

    2005-07-01

    Gamma irradiation is an alternative method for the manufacture of sterilized packaging with increased storage stability and microbiological safety. Biopolymer-based packaging films are a potential solution to many environmental problems that have emerged from the production and accumulation of significant amounts of synthetic polymeric waste. This work was undertaken to verify the effectiveness of low-dose gamma-irradiation in obtaining biopolymer-based packaging films for shelf-stable foods. PHB polyester poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) is an interesting biodegradable polymer that has been intensely investigated as cast and sheet films, with applications in the food industry and medicine. The films obtained are, however, typically brittle, and many scientists have attempted to reduce this brittleness by blending PHB with other polymers. In the present work, PHB was blended with PEG (polyethyleneglycol) to obtain films by the casting method that were then irradiated at a dose rate of 5.72 kGy/h with a 60Co source. Samples were melted at 200 °C and quenched to 0 °C in order to evaluate film crystallinity levels by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). DSC analyses were performed with the samples (10 mg) under N2 atmosphere, heating from -50 to 200 °C (10 °C min-1), cooling from 200 to -50 °C (10 °C min-1); and heating from -50 to 200 °C (10 °C min-1). The thermal and mechanical resistances of the films after irradiation at low doses (5, 10, 20 kGy) are discussed. Water vapour transmission decreased with increasing irradiation dose, indicating that the films' performance as water vapour barrier had improved. Critical loss of the mechanical properties was observed at 40 kGy.

  12. Green Manufacturing Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Green Manufacturing: Fundamentals and Applications introduces the basic definitions and issues surrounding green manufacturing at the process, machine and system (including supply chain) levels. It also shows, by way of several examples from different industry sectors, the potential for substantial improvement and the paths to achieve the improvement. Additionally, this book discusses regulatory and government motivations for green manufacturing and outlines the path for making manufacturing more green as well as making production more sustainable. This book also: • Discusses new engineering approaches for manufacturing and provides a path from traditional manufacturing to green manufacturing • Addresses regulatory and economic issues surrounding green manufacturing • Details new supply chains that need to be in place before going green • Includes state-of-the-art case studies in the areas of automotive, semiconductor and medical areas as well as in the supply chain and packaging areas Green Manufactu...

  13. Package Technology for Manufacture of Caprolactam Developed by SINOPEC Commands Internationally Leading Position

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ In October one of SINOPEC's ten core projects to be tackled- "Development of package technology for the 140kt/a caprolactam unit" had passed the technical appraisal organized by the SINOPEC Group.This package technology integrates new techniques relating to the production of cyclohexanone via oxidation of ethylene oxide,the production of cyclohexanone-oxime through ammoximation of cyclohexanone,the triple rearrangement of cyclohexanoneoxime,and the purification ofcaprolactam.The overall package technology has reached the internationally advanced level with independent intellectual property rights,and has filed or has been granted a lot of Chinese and overseas patents.This package technology has been successfully adopted in commercial scale at the Baling Petrochemical Company.

  14. WHITE PAPER: DEMONSTRATION OF EQUIVALENCY OF CANE AND SOFTWOOD BASED CELOTEX FOR 9975 PACKAGING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varble, J

    2007-01-01

    Cane-based Celotex(trademark) has been used extensively in various DOE packages as a thermal insulator and impact absorber. Cane-based Celotex(trademark) for the 9975 was manufactured by Knight-Celotex Fiberboard at their Marrero Plant in Louisiana. However, Knight-Celotex Fiberboard shut down their Marrero Plant in early 2007 due to impacts from hurricane Katrina and other economic factors. Therefore, cane-based Celotex(trademark) is no longer available for use in the manufacture of new 9975 packages. Knight-Celotex Fiberboard has Celotex(trademark) manufacturing plants in Danville, VA and Sunbury, PA that use softwood and hardwood, respectively, as a raw material in the manufacturing of Celotex(trademark). The purpose of this White Paper is to demonstrate that softwood-based Celotex(trademark) from the Knight-Celotex Danville Plant has performance equivalent to cane-based Celotex(trademark) from the Knight-Celotex Marrero Plant for transportation in a 9975 package

  15. Analysis of OLAB, BNP and CRP levels in the plasma of patients with cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Tongxin; Wang Zizheng; Wang Shukui; Fu Lei; Luo Jun

    2004-01-01

    To explore the mechanism of coronary heart disease and the effect of therapy on unstable angina pectoris (UAP) OLAB, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and supersensitive C reaction protein(CRP) levels in the plasma of patients with coronary heart disease were detected. The OLAB, BNP and CRP levels and their correlations in the plasma of 124 patients with coronary heart disease and 30 controls were determined by chemiluminescence and ELISA technique, respectively. The OLAB, BNP and CRP levels of 48 UAP patients after PTCA were also analyzed. The BNP and CRP levels of patients with coronary heart disease, especially acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and UAP patients to stable angina pectoris (SAP) patients were higher than those of controls (P<0.01). The OLAB levels in AMI patients was higher than UAP, SAP and controls (P<0.05). There was a significant difference of OLAB, BNP and CRP levels in UAP patients before and after PTCA therapy (P<0.05). OLAB, BNP and CRP, which is involved in the developing procedure of coronary heart disease, may be used to predict the long-term cardiac function recover. OLAB, BNP and CRP levels in UAP patients were decreased significantly after PTCA and may also be considered as the therapy effect observing markers. OLAB takes part in the whole procedure of coronary atherosclerosis and the occurrence and ending of AMI. (authors)

  16. Utilization of biobased polymers in food packaging: Assessment of materials, production and commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food packaging contains and protects food, keeps it safe and secure, retains food quality and freshness, and increases shelf-life of food. Packaging should be affordable and biodegradable. Packaging is the core of the businesses of fast-foods, ready meals, on-the-go beverages, snacks and manufacture...

  17. Development of waste packages for TRU-disposal. 5. Development of cylindrical metal package for TRU wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mine, Tatsuya; Mizubayashi, Hiroshi; Asano, Hidekazu; Owada, Hitoshi; Otsuki, Akiyoshi

    2005-01-01

    Development of the TRU waste package for hulls and endpieces compression canisters, which include long-lived and low sorption nuclides like C-14 is essential and will contribute a lot to a reasonable enhancement of safety and economy of the TRU-disposal system. The cylindrical metal package made of carbon steel for canisters to enhance the efficiency of the TRU-disposal system and to economically improve their stacking conditions was developed. The package is a welded cylindrical construction with a deep drawn upper cover and a disc plate for a bottom cover. Since the welding is mainly made only for an upper cover and a bottom disc plate, this package has a better containment performance for radioactive nuclide and can reduce the cost for construction and manufacturing including its welding control. Furthermore, this package can be laid down in pile for stacking in the circular cross section disposal tunnel for the sedimentary rock, which can drastically minimize the space for disposal tunnel as mentioned previously in TRU report. This paper reports the results of the study for application of newly developed metal package into the previous TRU-disposal system and for the stacking equipment for the package. (author)

  18. Taking plastics packaging to the future through improving barrier properties

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, Philip W

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available , trimethylaluminium) + O2, Ar ? Covalently bonded to substrate ? adhesion ?; brittleness ? ? Process variables: power, pressure, O2 % ? BIF PET: 5 ? 200x; PP: 2 ? 60x ? Prone to pinholes (contaminants), microcracks: Supporting the Manufacturing and Materials... the Manufacturing and Materials Industry in its quest for global competitiveness orting the Manufacturing and Materials Industry in it quest for global competitiveness CSIR Manufacturing and Materials Technology Taking Plastics Packaging to the Future Through...

  19. DEMONSTRATION OF EQUIVALENCY OF CANE AND SOFTWOOD BASED CELOTEX FOR MODEL 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, R; Jason Varble, J

    2008-01-01

    Cane-based Celotex(trademark) has been used extensively in various Department of Energy (DOE) packages as a thermal insulator and impact absorber. Cane-based Celotex(trademark) fiberboard was only manufactured by Knight-Celotex Fiberboard at their Marrero Plant in Louisiana. However, Knight-Celotex Fiberboard shut down their Marrero Plant in early 2007 due to impacts from hurricane Katrina and other economic factors. Therefore, cane-based Celotex(trademark) fiberboard is no longer available for use in the manufacture of new shipping packages requiring the material as a component. Current consolidation plans for the DOE Complex require the procurement of several thousand new Model 9975 shipping packages requiring cane-based Celotex(trademark) fiberboard. Therefore, an alternative to cane-based Celotex(trademark) fiberboard is needed. Knight-Celotex currently manufactures Celotex(trademark) fiberboard from other cellulosic materials, such as hardwood and softwood. A review of the relevant literature has shown that softwood-based Celotex(trademark) meets all parameters important to the Model 9975 shipping package

  20. Large transport packages for decommissioning waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, M.S.T.

    1988-08-01

    This document reports progress on a study of large transport packages for decommissioning waste and is the semi-annual report for the period 1 January - 30 June 1988. The main tasks performed during the period related to the assembly of package design criteria ie those aspects of manufacture, handling, storage, transport and disposal which impose constraints on design. This work was synthesised into a design specification for packages which formed the conclusion of that task and was the entry into the final task - the development of package design concepts. The design specifications, which concentrated on the Industrial Package category of the IAEA Transport Regulations, has been interpreted for the two main concepts (a) a self-shielded package disposed of in its entirety and (b) a package with returnable shielding. Preliminary information has been prepared on the cost of providing the package as well as transport to a repository and disposal. There is considerable uncertainty about the cost of disposal and variations of over a factor of 10 are possible. Under these circumstances there is merit in choosing a design concept which is relatively insensitive to disposal cost variations. The initial results indicate that on these grounds the package with returnable shielding is preferred. (author)

  1. CRP-Cyclic AMP Regulates the Expression of Type 3 Fimbriae via Cyclic di-GMP in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ting Lin

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae is the predominant pathogen isolated from liver abscesses of diabetic patients in Asian countries. However, the effects of elevated blood glucose levels on the virulence of this pathogen remain largely unknown. Type 3 fimbriae, encoded by the mrkABCDF genes, are important virulence factors in K. pneumoniae pathogenesis. In this study, the effects of exogenous glucose and the intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP signaling pathway on type 3 fimbriae expression regulation were investigated. The production of MrkA, the major subunit of type 3 fimbriae, was increased in glucose-rich medium, whereas cAMP supplementation reversed the effect. MrkA production was markedly increased by cyaA or crp deletion, but slightly decreased by cpdA deletion. In addition, the mRNA levels of mrkABCDF genes and the activity of PmrkA were increased in Δcrp strain, as well as the mRNA levels of mrkHIJ genes that encode cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP-related regulatory proteins that influence type 3 fimbriae expression. Moreover, the activities of PmrkHI and PmrkJ were decreased in ΔlacZΔcrp strain. These results indicate that CRP-cAMP down-regulates mrkABCDF and mrkHIJ at the transcriptional level. Further deletion of mrkH or mrkI in Δcrp strain diminished the production of MrkA, indicating that MrkH and MrkI are required for the CRP regulation of type 3 fimbriae expression. Furthermore, the high activity of PmrkHI in the ΔlacZΔcrp strain was diminished in ΔlacZΔcrpΔmrkHI, but increased in the ΔlacZΔcrpΔmrkJ strain. Deletion of crp increased the intracellular c-di-GMP concentration and reduced the phosphodiesterase activity. Moreover, we found that the mRNA levels of multiple genes related to c-di-GMP metabolism were altered in Δcrp strain. These indicate that CRP regulates type 3 fimbriae expression indirectly via the c-di-GMP signaling pathway. In conclusion, we found evidence of a coordinated regulation of type 3 fimbriae expression by the CRP

  2. The enhanced UV-sensitivity of Escherichia coli uvr A crp strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skavronskaya, A.G.; Aleshkin, G.I.

    1979-01-01

    Mutations in genes cya and crp do not affect the UV cell sensitivity of Escherichia coli of wild type in relation to repairs of UV-injuries and UV induced mutations yield. Mutations in gene crp (protein defect of catabolitic activator - cap) result in UV sensitivity decrease of E. coli uvrA strain, imperfect as to the first stage of excision repairs not decreasing the quantity of revertants, induced by the UV-light

  3. High-sensitivity CRP discriminates HNF1A-MODY from other subtypes of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Tim J; Shields, Beverley M; Lawry, Jane; Owen, Katharine R; Gloyn, Anna L; Ellard, Sian; Hattersley, Andrew T

    2011-08-01

    Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) as a result of mutations in hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-α (HNF1A) is often misdiagnosed as type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes. Recent work has shown that high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels are lower in HNF1A-MODY than type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, or glucokinase (GCK)-MODY. We aim to replicate these findings in larger numbers and other MODY subtypes. hs-CRP levels were assessed in 750 patients (220 HNF1A, 245 GCK, 54 HNF4-α [HNF4A], 21 HNF1-β (HNF1B), 53 type 1 diabetes, and 157 type 2 diabetes). hs-CRP was lower in HNF1A-MODY (median [IQR] 0.3 [0.1-0.6] mg/L) than type 2 diabetes (1.40 [0.60-3.45] mg/L; P MODY (1.45 [0.46-2.88] mg/L; P MODY (0.60 [0.30-1.80] mg/L; P MODY (0.60 [0.10-2.8] mg/L; P = 0.07). hs-CRP discriminated HNF1A-MODY from type 2 diabetes with hs-CRP MODY than other forms of diabetes and may be used as a biomarker to select patients for diagnostic HNF1A genetic testing.

  4. A modern depleted uranium manufacturing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagula, T.A.

    1995-07-01

    The Specific Manufacturing Capabilities (SMC) Project located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and operated by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co. (LMIT) for the Department of Energy (DOE) manufactures depleted uranium for use in the U.S. Army MIA2 Abrams Heavy Tank Armor Program. Since 1986, SMC has fabricated more than 12 million pounds of depleted uranium (DU) products in a multitude of shapes and sizes with varying metallurgical properties while maintaining security, environmental, health and safety requirements. During initial facility design in the early 1980's, emphasis on employee safety, radiation control and environmental consciousness was gaining momentum throughout the DOE complex. This fact coupled with security and production requirements forced design efforts to focus on incorporating automation, local containment and computerized material accountability at all work stations. The result was a fully automated production facility engineered to manufacture DU armor packages with virtually no human contact while maintaining security, traceability and quality requirements. This hands off approach to handling depleted uranium resulted in minimal radiation exposures and employee injuries. Construction of the manufacturing facility was complete in early 1986 with the first armor package certified in October 1986. Rolling facility construction was completed in 1987 with the first certified plate produced in the fall of 1988. Since 1988 the rolling and manufacturing facilities have delivered more than 2600 armor packages on schedule with 100% final product quality acceptance. During this period there was an annual average of only 2.2 lost time incidents and a single individual maximum radiation exposure of 150 mrem. SMC is an example of designing and operating a facility that meets regulatory requirements with respect to national security, radiation control and personnel safety while achieving production schedules and product quality

  5. Elevated CRP levels during first trimester of pregnancy and subsequent preeclampsia: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beigi A

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whatever its etiology, the inflammatory reactions of preeclampsia lead to the activation of endothelium and result in vascular damage. CRP is considered a sensitive index of systemic inflammation, so it is used as predictive factor for disease. This study was carried out to test the screening and predictive abilities of the CRP test in order to detect and diagnose pregnant women prone to preeclampsia prior to the onset of symptoms.Methods: In this prospective cohort study, conducted in Arash Hospital between 2005 and 2006, we determined the CRP levels of 201 pregnant women at 10-16 weeks of pregnancy. Based on exclusion criteria and illness, 31 patients were excluded and 170 patients were followed until the end of their pregnancies.Results: In this study, the mean serum CRP values of those who had preeclamptic and those who had normal pregnancies were compared and the statistical differences were significant: 6.18 mg/L for preeclamptic patients compared with 4.12 mg/L for normal patients (p=0.003. Using a chi-square test, we found that patients whose CRP level was ≥4 were six times more likely to have preeclampsia than those with CRP levels <4 (k=9.4; p=0.002; OR=6.15; 95% CI=0.69-22.28.Conclusion: This study confirms the results of previous reports indicating a significant relationship between rising serum CRP in the first trimester of pregnancy and preeclampsia at third trimester. More studies consisting of other inflammation factors are necessary to find an acceptable and reasonable screening test to diagnose pregnant women who are prone to preeclampsia.

  6. Marketing energy conservation options to Northwest manufactured home buyers. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.; Mohler, B.L.; Taylor, Z.T.; Lee, A.D.; Onisko, S.A.

    1985-10-01

    Manufactured, or HUD-Code, homes comprise a growing share of the housing stock in the Northwest, as well as nationally. Their relatively low cost has made them especially attractive to lower income families, first-time home-buyers, and retired persons. The characteristics of manufactured home (MH) buyers, the unique energy consumption characteristics of the homes, and their increasing market share make this market an especially critical one for energy consumption and conservation planning in the Northwest. This study relies on extensive, existing survey data and new analyses to develop information that can potentially assist the design of a marketing plan to achieve energy conservation in new manufactured homes. This study has the objective of assisting BPA in the development of a regional approach in which numerous organizations and parties would participate to achieve conservation in new manufactured homes. A previous survey and information collected for this study from regional dealers and manufacturers provide an indication of the energy conservation options being sold to manufactured home buyers in the PNW. Manufacturers in the Northwest appear to sell homes that usually exceed the HUD thermal requirements. Manufacturers typically offer efficiency improvements in packages that include fixed improvements in insulation levels, glazing, and infiltration control. Wholesale costs of these packages range from about $100 to $1500. Typical packages include significant upgrades in floor insulation values with modest upgrades in ceilings and walls. This study identifies trends and impacts that a marketing plan should consider to adequately address the financial concerns of manufactured home buyers.

  7. Food Packaging Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The photos show a few of the food products packaged in Alure, a metallized plastic material developed and manufactured by St. Regis Paper Company's Flexible Packaging Division, Dallas, Texas. The material incorporates a metallized film originally developed for space applications. Among the suppliers of the film to St. Regis is King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Ma'ssachusetts. Initially used by NASA as a signal-bouncing reflective coating for the Echo 1 communications satellite, the film was developed by a company later absorbed by King-Seeley. The metallized film was also used as insulating material for components of a number of other spacecraft. St. Regis developed Alure to meet a multiple packaging material need: good eye appeal, product protection for long periods and the ability to be used successfully on a wide variety of food packaging equipment. When the cost of aluminum foil skyrocketed, packagers sought substitute metallized materials but experiments with a number of them uncovered problems; some were too expensive, some did not adequately protect the product, some were difficult for the machinery to handle. Alure offers a solution. St. Regis created Alure by sandwiching the metallized film between layers of plastics. The resulting laminated metallized material has the superior eye appeal of foil but is less expensive and more easily machined. Alure effectively blocks out light, moisture and oxygen and therefore gives the packaged food long shelf life. A major packaging firm conducted its own tests of the material and confirmed the advantages of machinability and shelf life, adding that it runs faster on machines than materials used in the past and it decreases product waste; the net effect is increased productivity.

  8. 21 CFR 201.122 - Drugs for processing, repacking, or manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs for processing, repacking, or manufacturing... for processing, repacking, or manufacturing. A drug in a bulk package, except tablets, capsules, or... manufacturing, processing, or repacking”; and if in substantially all dosage forms in which it may be dispensed...

  9. Cytoskeleton-interacting LIM-domain protein CRP1 suppresses cell proliferation and protects from stress-induced cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latonen, Leena; Jaervinen, Paeivi M.; Laiho, Marikki

    2008-01-01

    Members of the cysteine-rich protein (CRP) family are actin cytoskeleton-interacting LIM-domain proteins known to act in muscle cell differentiation. We have earlier found that CRP1, a founding member of this family, is transcriptionally induced by UV radiation in human diploid fibroblasts [M. Gentile, L. Latonen, M. Laiho, Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis provoked by UV radiation-induced DNA damage are transcriptionally highly divergent responses, Nucleic Acids Res. 31 (2003) 4779-4790]. Here we show that CRP1 is induced by growth-inhibitory signals, such as increased cellular density, and cytotoxic stress induced by UV radiation or staurosporine. We found that high levels of CRP1 correlate with differentiation-associated morphology towards the myofibroblast lineage and that expression of ectopic CRP1 suppresses cell proliferation. Following UV- and staurosporine-induced stresses, expression of CRP1 provides a survival advantage evidenced by decreased cellular death and increased cellular metabolic activity and attachment. Our studies identify that CRP1 is a novel stress response factor, and provide evidence for its growth-inhibitory and cytoprotective functions

  10. Qualification of package units; Qualifizierung von Package Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brombacher, M.; Walter, U. [Bayer AG, Leverkusen (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    The use of package units in pharmaceutical plants is increasing. If they are involved in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals and have an influence on the quality of the end product, the user is required to validate the processes used. Parallel to the growing demands with respect to the automation of these units, the importance of PCS equipment has increased and with this the necessity for its qualification. Experience to date shows that the manufacturer's awareness of these requirements can be heightened still further. This paper describes approaches for improving the present situation and should be interpreted not as criticism but as providing an opportunity to increase the knowledge base and work together to define solutions which satisfy the guidelines. (orig.) [German] Der Einsatz von Package Units in Pharma-Anlagen erfaehrt zunehmende Verbreitung. Wenn sie an der Herstellung von Arzneimitteln beteiligt sind und auf die Qualitaet des Endprodukts Einfluss nehmen, unterliegen sie der Validierungspflicht, die der Anwender zu gewaehrleisten hat. Entsprechend den wachsenden Anforderungen an die Automatisierung dieser Einheiten ist auch der Stellenwert der PLT-Ausruestung angestiegen und mit ihm die Notwendigkeit von deren Qualifizierung. Die bisherige Praxis zeigt, dass die Sensbilitaet der Hersteller diesen Anforderungen gegenueber noch besser entwickelt werden kann. Der Beitrag zeigt Wege auf, um die derzeitige Situation zu verbessern und sollte nicht als Kritik sondern als Chance aufgefasst werden, den Wissensstand auszugleichen und gemeinsam zu richtliniengerechten Loesungen zu kommen. (orig.)

  11. Free-world microelectronic manufacturing equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilby, J. S.; Arnold, W. H.; Booth, W. T.; Cunningham, J. A.; Hutcheson, J. D.; Owen, R. W.; Runyan, W. R.; McKenney, Barbara L.; McGrain, Moira; Taub, Renee G.

    1988-12-01

    Equipment is examined and evaluated for the manufacture of microelectronic integrated circuit devices and sources for that equipment within the Free World. Equipment suitable for the following are examined: single-crystal silicon slice manufacturing and processing; required lithographic processes; wafer processing; device packaging; and test of digital integrated circuits. Availability of the equipment is also discussed, now and in the near future. Very adequate equipment for most stages of the integrated circuit manufacturing process is available from several sources, in different countries, although the best and most widely used versions of most manufacturing equipment are made in the United States or Japan. There is also an active market in used equipment, suitable for manufacture of capable integrated circuits with performance somewhat short of the present state of the art.

  12. 7 CFR 1410.22 - CRP conservation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... productive capability of the soil, improve water quality, protect wildlife or wetlands, protect a public well... plans and revisions of such plans shall be subject to the approval of CCC. (f) Mid-cover management... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false CRP conservation plan. 1410.22 Section 1410.22...

  13. Modeling and simulation for microelectronic packaging assembly manufacturing, reliability and testing

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Although there is increasing need for modeling and simulation in the IC package design phase, most assembly processes and various reliability tests are still based on the time consuming ""test and try out"" method to obtain the best solution. Modeling and simulation can easily ensure virtual Design of Experiments (DoE) to achieve the optimal solution. This has greatly reduced the cost and production time, especially for new product development. Using modeling and simulation will become increasingly necessary for future advances in 3D package development.  In this book, Liu and Liu allow people

  14. Clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of biocompound IMMUNEPOTENT CRP in the third-molar extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moises A. Franco-Molina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A controlled, parallel, randomized and comparative trial was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory efficacy of IMMUNEPOTENT CRP versus ibuprofen in patients after third-molar surgery over seven days. The anti-inflammatory efficacy of IMMUNEPOTENT CRP was evaluated using the method of Amin and Laskin, and the analysis of cytokine production (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, INF-γ in saliva was done by flow cytometry. The swelling process after surgery was significant (p < 0.05 and the treatments with IMMUNEPOTENT CRP or ibuprofen controlled this process properly; no difference between the groups was found (p < 0.05. Both treatments were shown to modulate the cytokine production. These results demonstrate the anti-inflammatory activity of the natural compound IMMUNEPOTENT CRP and suggest it could be used in clinical dental practice.

  15. Current good manufacturing practice in manufacturing, processing, packing, or holding of drugs; revision of certain labeling controls. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the packaging and labeling control provisions of the current good manufacturing practice (CGMP) regulations for human and veterinary drug products by limiting the application of special control procedures for the use of cut labeling to immediate container labels, individual unit cartons, or multiunit cartons containing immediate containers that are not packaged in individual unit cartons. FDA is also permitting the use of any automated technique, including differentiation by labeling size and shape, that physically prevents incorrect labeling from being processed by labeling and packaging equipment when cut labeling is used. This action is intended to protect consumers from labeling errors more likely to cause adverse health consequences, while eliminating the regulatory burden of applying the rule to labeling unlikely to reach or adversely affect consumers. This action is also intended to permit manufacturers to use a broader range of error prevention and labeling control techniques than permitted by current CGMPs.

  16. High-normal levels of hs-CRP predict the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver in healthy men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieun Lee

    Full Text Available We performed a follow-up study to address whether high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP levels within the normal range can predict the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in healthy male subjects. Among15347 male workers between 30 and 59 years old who received annual health check-ups in 2002, a NAFLD-free cohort of 4,138 was followed through December 2009. Alcohol consumption was assessed with a questionnaire. At each visit, abdominal ultrasonography was performed to identify fatty liver disease. The COX proportional hazard model was used to evaluate the relationship between hs-CRP and incident NAFLD. During the follow-up period, 28.8% (1191 of 4138 of participants developed NAFLD. The hazard ratios of NAFLD were increased by hs-CRP categories within the normal range in the non-adjusted model and age-adjusted model. After adjusting for age, exercise, smoking, BMI, systolic BP, triglyceride, and fasting glucose, these incidences were only increased between the lowest and the highest hs-CRP categories. The risk for NAFLD increased as the hs-CRP level increased (p< 0.001. As the hs-CRP level increased within the healthy cohort, the risk of developing NAFLD increased. This trend remained true even if the hs-CRP level remained within the normal range. hs-CRP can be used as a predictor of NAFLD, as well as other obesity-associated diseases. Therefore, individuals with higher hs-CRP levels (even within the normal range may require appropriate follow-up and management to prevent NAFLD development.

  17. Pretransplant Levels of CRP and Interleukin-6 Family Cytokines; Effects on Outcome after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor Henrik Tvedt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Several pretransplant factors, including CRP (C-reactive protein levels, reflect the risk of complications after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. IL-6 induces CRP increase, and we therefore investigated the effects of pretransplant IL-6, soluble IL-6 receptors, IL-6 family cytokines and CRP serum levels on outcome for 100 consecutive allotransplant recipients. All patients had related donors, none had active infections and 99 patients were in complete remission before conditioning. The incidence of acute graft versus host disease (aGVHD requiring treatment was 40%, survival at Day +100 82%, and overall survival 48%. Despite a significant correlation between pretransplant CRP and IL-6 levels, only CRP levels significantly influenced transplant-related mortality (TRM. However, CRP did not influence overall survival (OS. Pretransplant IL-31 influenced late TRM. Finally, there was a significant association between pretransplant IL-6 and early postconditioning weight gain (i.e., fluid retention, and this fluid retention was a risk factor for aGVHD, TRM and OS. To conclude, pretransplant CRP, IL-31 and early posttransplant fluid retention were independent risk factors for TRM and survival after allotransplantation.

  18. Identification of a novel centrosomal protein CrpF46 involved in cell cycle progression and mitosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Yi; Shen Enzhi; Zhao Na; Liu Qian; Fan Jinling; Marc, Jan; Wang Yongchao; Sun Le; Liang Qianjin

    2008-01-01

    A novel centrosome-related protein Crp F46 was detected using a serum F46 from a patient suffering from progressive systemic sclerosis. We identified the protein by immunoprecipitation and Western blotting followed by tandem mass spectrometry sequencing. The protein Crp F46 has an apparent molecular mass of ∼ 60 kDa, is highly homologous to a 527 amino acid sequence of the C-terminal portion of the protein Golgin-245, and appears to be a splice variant of Golgin-245. Immunofluorescence microscopy of synchronized HeLa cells labeled with an anti-Crp F46 monoclonal antibody revealed that Crp F46 localized exclusively to the centrosome during interphase, although it dispersed throughout the cytoplasm at the onset of mitosis. Domain analysis using Crp F46 fragments in GFP-expression vectors transformed into HeLa cells revealed that centrosomal targeting is conferred by a C-terminal coiled-coil domain. Antisense Crp F46 knockdown inhibited cell growth and proliferation and the cell cycle typically stalled at S phase. The knockdown also resulted in the formation of poly-centrosomal and multinucleate cells, which finally became apoptotic. These results suggest that Crp F46 is a novel centrosome-related protein that associates with the centrosome in a cell cycle-dependent manner and is involved in the progression of the cell cycle and M phase mechanism

  19. High Volume Manufacturing and Field Stability of MEMS Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jack

    Low volume MEMS/NEMS production is practical when an attractive concept is implemented with business, manufacturing, packaging, and test support. Moving beyond this to high volume production adds requirements on design, process control, quality, product stability, market size, market maturity, capital investment, and business systems. In a broad sense, this chapter uses a case study approach: It describes and compares the silicon-based MEMS accelerometers, pressure sensors, image projection systems, and gyroscopes that are in high volume production. Although they serve several markets, these businesses have common characteristics. For example, the manufacturing lines use automated semiconductor equipment and standard material sets to make consistent products in large quantities. Standard, well controlled processes are sometimes modified for a MEMS product. However, novel processes that cannot run with standard equipment and material sets are avoided when possible. This reliance on semiconductor tools, as well as the organizational practices required to manufacture clean, particle-free products partially explains why the MEMS market leaders are integrated circuit manufacturers. There are other factors. MEMS and NEMS are enabling technologies, so it can take several years for high volume applications to develop. Indeed, market size is usually a strong function of price. This becomes a vicious circle, because low price requires low cost - a result that is normally achieved only after a product is in high volume production. During the early years, IC companies reduced cost and financial risk by using existing facilities for low volume MEMS production. As a result, product architectures are partially determined by capabilities developed for previous products. This chapter includes a discussion of MEMS product architecture with particular attention to the impact of electronic integration, packaging, and surfaces. Packaging and testing are critical, because they are

  20. Clinical significance of determination of serum SA, CEA and CRP levels in patients with colo-rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Jie; Hu Junyan; Sun Shuming; Cheng Benkun

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical usefulness of determination of serum SA, CEA and CRP levels in patients with colorectal cancer. Methods: Serum SA (with colorimetry), CEA (with CLIA) and CRP (with ILIA) levels were measured in 120 patients with colo-rectal cancer. Results: (1) Serum SA, CEA and CRP levels increased significantly as the disease stage advanced from Duke A through Duke D. (2) As the malignancy of the growth advanced from well-differentiated to anaplastic, the serum SA and CRP levels increased significantly while the reverse was true for serum CEA levels. (3) In 68 post-operative patients followed 1-5 years, the serum levels of SA, CEA and CRP were significantly higher in the patients with recurrence (n=29) than those in patients without recurrence (n=39) (P<0.01). Conclusion: Serum SA CEA and CRP levels were closely related to the disease process in patients with colo-rectal cancer. (authors)

  1. Packaging of silicon sensors for microfluidic bio-analytical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wimberger-Friedl, Reinhold; Prins, Menno; Megens, Mischa; Dittmer, Wendy; Witz, Christiane de; Nellissen, Ton; Weekamp, Wim; Delft, Jan van; Ansems, Will; Iersel, Ben van

    2009-01-01

    A new industrial concept is presented for packaging biosensor chips in disposable microfluidic cartridges to enable medical diagnostic applications. The inorganic electronic substrates, such as silicon or glass, are integrated in a polymer package which provides the electrical and fluidic interconnections to the world and provides mechanical strength and protection for out-of-lab use. The demonstrated prototype consists of a molded interconnection device (MID), a silicon-based giant magneto-resistive (GMR) biosensor chip, a flex and a polymer fluidic part with integrated tubing. The various processes are compatible with mass manufacturing and run at a high yield. The devices show a reliable electrical interconnection between the sensor chip and readout electronics during extended wet operation. Sandwich immunoassays were carried out in the cartridges with surface functionalized sensor chips. Biological response curves were determined for different concentrations of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on the packaged biosensor, which demonstrates the functionality and biocompatibility of the devices. The new packaging concept provides a platform for easy further integration of electrical and fluidic functions, as for instance required for integrated molecular diagnostic devices in cost-effective mass manufacturing

  2. Packaging of structural health monitoring components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Seth S.; Spearing, S. Mark; Shi, Yong; Dunn, Christopher T.

    2004-07-01

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) technologies have the potential to realize economic benefits in a broad range of commercial and defense markets. Previous research conducted by Metis Design and MIT has demonstrated the ability of Lamb waves methods to provide reliable information regarding the presence, location and type of damage in composite specimens. The present NSF funded program was aimed to study manufacturing, packaging and interface concepts for critical SHM components. The intention is to be able to cheaply manufacture robust actuating/sensing devices, and isolate them from harsh operating environments including natural, mechanical, or electrical extremes. Currently the issues related to SHM system durability have remained undressed. During the course of this research several sets of test devices were fabricated and packaged to protect the piezoelectric component assemblies for robust operation. These assemblies were then tested in hot and wet conditions, as well as in electrically noisy environments. Future work will aim to package the other supporting components such as the battery and wireless chip, as well as integrating all of these components together for operation. SHM technology will enable the reduction or complete elimination of scheduled inspections, and will allow condition-based maintenance for increased reliability and reduced overall life-cycle costs.

  3. Systems assessment of transcriptional regulation on central carbon metabolism by Cra and CRP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Donghyuk; Seo, Sang Woo; Gao, Ye; Nam, Hojung; Guzman, Gabriela I; Cho, Byung-Kwan; Palsson, Bernhard O

    2018-04-06

    Two major transcriptional regulators of carbon metabolism in bacteria are Cra and CRP. CRP is considered to be the main mediator of catabolite repression. Unlike for CRP, in vivo DNA binding information of Cra is scarce. Here we generate and integrate ChIP-exo and RNA-seq data to identify 39 binding sites for Cra and 97 regulon genes that are regulated by Cra in Escherichia coli. An integrated metabolic-regulatory network was formed by including experimentally-derived regulatory information and a genome-scale metabolic network reconstruction. Applying analysis methods of systems biology to this integrated network showed that Cra enables optimal bacterial growth on poor carbon sources by redirecting and repressing glycolysis flux, by activating the glyoxylate shunt pathway, and by activating the respiratory pathway. In these regulatory mechanisms, the overriding regulatory activity of Cra over CRP is fundamental. Thus, elucidation of interacting transcriptional regulation of core carbon metabolism in bacteria by two key transcription factors was possible by combining genome-wide experimental measurement and simulation with a genome-scale metabolic model.

  4. Threat-related amygdala activity is associated with peripheral CRP concentrations in men but not women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Johnna R.; Prather, Aric A.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2017-01-01

    Increased levels of peripheral inflammatory markers, including C-Reactive Protein (CRP), are associated with increased risk for depression, anxiety, and suicidality. The brain mechanisms that may underlie the association between peripheral inflammation and internalizing problems remain to be determined. The present study examines associations between peripheral CRP concentrations and threat-related amygdala activity, a neural biomarker of depression and anxiety risk, in a sample of 172 young adult undergraduate students. Participants underwent functional MRI scanning while performing an emotional face matching task to obtain a measure of threat-related amygdala activity to angry and fearful faces; CRP concentrations were assayed from dried blood spots. Results indicated a significant interaction between CRP and sex: in men, but not women, higher CRP was associated with higher threat-related amygdala activity. These results add to the literature finding associations between systemic levels of inflammation and brain function and suggest that threat-related amygdala activity may serve as a potential pathway through which heightened chronic inflammation may increase risk for mood and anxiety problems. PMID:28183031

  5. Azcatl-CRP: An ant colony-based system for searching full power control rod patterns in BWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Juan Jose [Dpto. Sistemas Nucleares, ININ, Carr. Mexico-Toluca Km. 36.5, Salazar, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: jjortiz@nuclear.inin.mx; Requena, Ignacio [Dpto. Ciencias Computacion e I.A. ETSII Informatica, University of Granada, C. Daniel Saucedo Aranda s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain)]. E-mail: requena@decsai.ugr.es

    2006-01-15

    We show a new system named AZCATL-CRP to design full power control rod patterns in BWRs. Azcatl-CRP uses an ant colony system and a reactor core simulator for this purpose. Transition and equilibrium cycles of Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant (LVNPP) reactor core in Mexico were used to test Azcatl-CRP. LVNPP has 109 control rods grouped in four sequences and currently uses control cell core (CCC) strategy in its fuel reload design. With CCC method only one sequence is employed for reactivity control at full power operation. Several operation scenarios are considered, including core water flow variation throughout the cycle, target different axial power distributions and Haling conditions. Azcatl-CRP designs control rod patterns (CRP) taking into account safety aspects such as k {sub eff} core value and thermal limits. Axial power distributions are also adjusted to a predetermined power shape.

  6. Carbon debt of Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) grasslands converted to bioenergy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Ilya; Zenone, Terenzio; Jasrotia, Poonam; Chen, Jiquan; Hamilton, Stephen K; Robertson, G Philip

    2011-08-16

    Over 13 million ha of former cropland are enrolled in the US Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), providing well-recognized biodiversity, water quality, and carbon (C) sequestration benefits that could be lost on conversion back to agricultural production. Here we provide measurements of the greenhouse gas consequences of converting CRP land to continuous corn, corn-soybean, or perennial grass for biofuel production. No-till soybeans preceded the annual crops and created an initial carbon debt of 10.6 Mg CO(2) equivalents (CO(2)e)·ha(-1) that included agronomic inputs, changes in C stocks, altered N(2)O and CH(4) fluxes, and foregone C sequestration less a fossil fuel offset credit. Total debt, which includes future debt created by additional changes in soil C stocks and the loss of substantial future soil C sequestration, can be constrained to 68 Mg CO(2)e·ha(-1) if subsequent crops are under permanent no-till management. If tilled, however, total debt triples to 222 Mg CO(2)e·ha(-1) on account of further soil C loss. Projected C debt repayment periods under no-till management range from 29 to 40 y for corn-soybean and continuous corn, respectively. Under conventional tillage repayment periods are three times longer, from 89 to 123 y, respectively. Alternatively, the direct use of existing CRP grasslands for cellulosic feedstock production would avoid C debt entirely and provide modest climate change mitigation immediately. Incentives for permanent no till and especially permission to harvest CRP biomass for cellulosic biofuel would help to blunt the climate impact of future CRP conversion.

  7. Preliminary design package for solar hot water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogle, Val; Aspinwall, David B.

    1977-12-01

    The information necessary to evaluate the preliminary design of the Solar Engineering and Manufacturing Company's (SEMCO) solar hot water system is presented. This package includes technical information, schematics, drawings and brochures. This system, being developed by SEMCO, consists of the following subsystems: collector, storage, transport, control, auxiliary energy, and Government-furnished site data acquisition. The two units being manufactured will be installed at Loxahatchee, Florida, and Macon, Georgia.

  8. Syncytin-1, an endogenous retroviral protein, triggers the activation of CRP via TLR3 signal cascade in glial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuling; Liu, Zhongchun; Wang, Peigang; Li, Shan; Zeng, Jie; Tu, Xiaoning; Yan, Qiujin; Xiao, Zheman; Pan, Mengxian; Zhu, Fan

    2018-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric disorder that impacts on social functioning and quality of life, and there is accumulating evidence that inflammation is a potential pathogenic mechanism of schizophrenia. However, the mechanism of inflammation possibly occurred in schizophrenia has not been well understood. The endogenous retroviral protein syncytin-1 and inflammatory marker CRP are both abnormally expressed in schizophrenia patients. CRP is one of the markers of bacterial infection generally. Less clear is whether virus or viral protein can trigger the activation of CRP. Here, we detected a robust increase of the levels of syncytin-1 and CRP in schizophrenia patients, and displayed a positive correlation and marked consistency between expressions of syncytin-1 and CRP in schizophrenia patients. Furthermore, overexpression of syncytin-1 significantly elevated the levels of CRP, TLR3, and IL-6 in both human microglia and astrocytes. TLR3 deficiency impaired the expressions of CRP and IL-6 induced by syncytin-1. Importantly, we observed a cellular co-localization and a direct interaction between syncytin-1 and TLR3. Additionally, knockdown of IL-6 inhibited the syncytin-1-induced CRP expression. Thus, the totality of these results showed that viral protein syncytin-1 could trigger the activation of CRP, which might explain the elevated CRP in sterile inflammation and exhibit a novel mechanism for regulation of inflammation by syncytin-1 in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. CRP and SAA1 Haplotypes Are Associated with Both C-Reactive Protein and Serum Amyloid A Levels: Role of Suppression Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Lin Ko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To test the statistical association of the CRP and SAA1 locus variants with their corresponding circulating levels and metabolic and inflammatory biomarker levels by using mediation analysis, a sample population of 599 Taiwanese subjects was enrolled and five CRP and four SAA1 variants were genotyped. Correlation analysis revealed that C-reactive protein (CRP and serum amyloid A (SAA levels were significantly associated with multiple metabolic phenotypes and inflammatory marker levels. Our data further revealed a significant association of CRP and SAA1 variants with both CRP and SAA levels. Mediation analysis revealed that SAA levels suppressed the association between SAA1 genotypes/haplotypes and CRP levels and that CRP levels suppressed the association between CRP haplotypes and SAA levels. In conclusion, genetic variants at the CRP and SAA1 loci independently affect both CRP and SAA levels, and their respective circulating levels act as suppressors. These results provided further evidence of the role of the suppression effect in biological science and may partially explain the missing heritability in genetic association studies.

  10. Changes of BNP, ANP, ET and CRP levels in the plasma of patients with acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Tongxing; Wang Zizheng; Wang Shukui; Luo Jun

    2004-01-01

    To explore the pathogenesis and provide evidence for the diagnosis, therapy and prognosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) by observing the levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), endothelins (ET), C-reactive protein (CRP) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in plasma of the patients, BNP, ET, CRP and ANP levels in plasma of 46 AMI patients before and after therapy and 30 normal controls were detected by ELISA and immunoradiometric assay, respectively. Results showed that there were significant differences in BNP, ET, CRP and ANP levels in patients with AMI before and after therapy (P 0.05) after thrombolysis and other supporting therapy, the decreased BNP, ET and CRP were still significantly higher than those of control ( P<0.05). The changes of BNP, ANP, ET and CRP indicate that they involved in the occurrence and development of AMI, especially in the formation and disruption of atheromatous plaque and thrombosis. So the detection of BNP, ANP, ET and CRP levels was significant to the diagnosis, therapy and prognosis judgement

  11. 21 CFR 111.410 - What requirements apply to packaging and labels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements apply to packaging and labels? 111.410 Section 111.410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING...

  12. Design and fabrication of transport/storage packaging for spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagahama, Hayao; Kakunai, Haruo

    1989-01-01

    Dry storage in containers is one of several methods for storing spent fuel dischaged from nuclear power plants. Kobe Steel and Transnucleaire (France) have jointly developed large-capacity, safe transport/storage packaging for use in this storage method. This paper outlines the packaging, the manufacturing of a prototype model, and an active storage demonstration test involving the prototype model. (author)

  13. Development of High Temperature Capacitor Technology and Manufacturing Capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2011-05-15

    The goal of the Development of High Temperature Capacitor Technology and Manufacturing Capability program was to mature a production-ready supply chain for reliable 250°C FPE (fluorinated polyester) film capacitors by 2011. These high-temperature film capacitors enable both the down hole drilling and aerospace industries by enabling a variety of benefits including: - Deeper oil exploration in higher temperature and pressure environments - Enabling power electronic and control equipment to operate in higher temperature environments - Enabling reduced cooling requirements of electronics - Increasing reliability and life of capacitors operating below rated temperature - Enabling capacitors to handle higher electrical losses without overheating. The key challenges to bringing the FPE film capacitors to market have been manufacturing challenges including: - FPE Film is difficult to handle and wind, resulting in poor yields - Voltage breakdown strength decreases when the film is wound into capacitors (~70% decrease) - Encapsulation technologies must be improved to enable higher perature operation - Manufacturing and test cycle time is very long As a direct result of this program most of the manufacturing challenges have been met. The FPE film production metalization and winding yield has increased to over 82% from 70%, and the voltage breakdown strength of the wound capacitors has increased 270% to 189 V/μm. The high temperature packaging concepts are showing significant progress including promising results for lead attachments and hermetic packages at 200°C and non-hermetic packages at 250°C. Manufacturing and test cycle time will decrease as the market for FPE capacitors develops.

  14. Radioactive material package seal tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, M.M.; Humphreys, D.L.; Edwards, K.R.

    1990-01-01

    General design or test performance requirements for radioactive materials (RAM) packages are specified in Title 10 of the US Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 1983). The requirements for Type B packages provide a broad range of environments under which the system must contain the RAM without posing a threat to health or property. Seals that provide the containment system interface between the packaging body and the closure must function in both high- and low-temperature environments under dynamic and static conditions. A seal technology program, jointly funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) and the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), was initiated at Sandia National Laboratories. Experiments were performed in this program to characterize the behavior of several static seal materials at low temperatures. Helium leak tests on face seals were used to compare the materials. Materials tested include butyl, neoprene, ethylene propylene, fluorosilicone, silicone, Eypel, Kalrez, Teflon, fluorocarbon, and Teflon/silicone composites. Because most elastomer O-ring applications are for hydraulic systems, manufacturer low-temperature ratings are based on methods that simulate this use. The seal materials tested in this program with a fixture similar to a RAM cask closure, with the exception of silicone S613-60, are not leak tight (1.0 x 10 -7 std cm 3 /s) at manufacturer low-temperature ratings. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  15. Cigarette package design: opportunities for disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difranza, J R; Clark, D M; Pollay, R W

    2002-06-15

    To learn how cigarette packages are designed and to determine to what extent cigarette packages are designed to target children. A computer search was made of all Internet websites that post tobacco industry documents using the search terms: packaging, package design, package study, box design, logo, trademark and design study. All documents were retrieved electronically and analyzed by the first author for recurrent themes. Cigarette manufacturers devote a great deal of attention and expense to package design because it is central to their efforts to create brand images. Colors, graphic elements, proportioning, texture, materials and typography are tested and used in various combinations to create the desired product and user images. Designs help to create the perceived product attributes and project a personality image of the user with the intent of fulfilling the psychological needs of the targeted type of smoker. The communication of these images and attributes is conducted through conscious and subliminal processes. Extensive testing is conducted using a variety of qualitative and quantitative research techniques. The promotion of tobacco products through appealing imagery cannot be stopped without regulating the package design. The same marketing research techniques used by the tobacco companies can be used to design generic packaging and more effective warning labels targeted at specific consumers.

  16. Applying unit process life cycle inventor (UPLCI) methodology in product/packaging combinatons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Luttikhuis, Ellen; Toxopeus, Marten E.; Overcash, M.; Nee, Andrew Y.C.; Song, Bin; Ong, Soh-Khim

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses how the UPLCI approach can be used for determining the inventory of the manufacturing phases of product/packaging combinations. The UPLCI approach can make the inventory of the manufacturing process of the product that is investigated more accurate. The life cycle of

  17. Increased LDL cholesterol and CRP in infants of mothers with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Louise Skakkebæk; Svarrer, Eva Martha Madsen; Damm, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Proatherogenic stimuli during foetal life may predispose to development of atherosclerosis in adulthood. Elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and C-reactive protein (CRP) expression is associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis.......Proatherogenic stimuli during foetal life may predispose to development of atherosclerosis in adulthood. Elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and C-reactive protein (CRP) expression is associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis....

  18. CRP-dependent positive autoregulation and proteolytic degradation regulate competence activator Sxy of Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaskólska, Milena; Gerdes, Kenn

    2015-01-01

    is positively autoregulated at the level of transcription by a mechanism that requires cAMP receptor protein (CRP), cyclic AMP (cAMP) and a CRP-S site in the sxy promoter. Similarly, we found no evidence that Sxy expression in E. coli was regulated at the translational level. However, our analysis revealed...

  19. Design for manufacturability from 1D to 4D for 90-22 nm technology nodes

    CERN Document Server

    Balasinski, Artur

    2013-01-01

    This book explains integrated circuit design for manufacturability (DfM) at the product level (packaging, applications) and applies engineering DfM principles to the latest standards of product development at 22 nm technology nodes.  It is a valuable guide for layout designers, packaging engineers and quality engineers, covering DfM development from 1D to 4D, involving IC design flow setup, best practices, links to manufacturing and product definition, for process technologies down to 22 nm node, and product families including memories, logic, system-on-chip and system-in-package.

  20. Validating continuous digital light processing (cDLP) additive manufacturing accuracy and tissue engineering utility of a dye-initiator package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Jonathan; Wang, Martha O; Kim, Kyobum

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the accuracy of tissue engineering scaffold rendering via the continuous digital light processing (cDLP) light-based additive manufacturing technology. High accuracy (i.e., <50 µm) allows the designed performance of features relevant to three scale spaces: cell-scaffold, scaffold-tissue, and tissue-organ interactions. The biodegradable polymer poly (propylene fumarate) was used to render highly accurate scaffolds through the use of a dye-initiator package, TiO 2  and bis (2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)phenylphosphine oxide. This dye-initiator package facilitates high accuracy in the Z dimension. Linear, round, and right-angle features were measured to gauge accuracy. Most features showed accuracies between 5.4–15% of the design. However, one feature, an 800 µm diameter circular pore, exhibited a 35.7% average reduction of patency. Light scattered in the x, y directions by the dye may have reduced this feature's accuracy. Our new fine-grained understanding of accuracy could be used to make further improvements by including corrections in the scaffold design software. Successful cell attachment occurred with both canine and human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Highly accurate cDLP scaffold rendering is critical to the design of scaffolds that both guide bone regeneration and that fully resorb. Scaffold resorption must occur for regenerated bone to be remodeled and, thereby, achieve optimal strength. (paper)

  1. Validating continuous digital light processing (cDLP) additive manufacturing accuracy and tissue engineering utility of a dye-initiator package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Jonathan; Wang, Martha O; Thompson, Paul; Busso, Mallory; Belle, Vaijayantee; Mammoser, Nicole; Kim, Kyobum; Fisher, John P; Siblani, Ali; Xu, Yueshuo; Welter, Jean F; Lennon, Donald P; Sun, Jiayang; Caplan, Arnold I; Dean, David

    2014-03-01

    This study tested the accuracy of tissue engineering scaffold rendering via the continuous digital light processing (cDLP) light-based additive manufacturing technology. High accuracy (i.e., <50 µm) allows the designed performance of features relevant to three scale spaces: cell-scaffold, scaffold-tissue, and tissue-organ interactions. The biodegradable polymer poly (propylene fumarate) was used to render highly accurate scaffolds through the use of a dye-initiator package, TiO2 and bis (2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)phenylphosphine oxide. This dye-initiator package facilitates high accuracy in the Z dimension. Linear, round, and right-angle features were measured to gauge accuracy. Most features showed accuracies between 5.4-15% of the design. However, one feature, an 800 µm diameter circular pore, exhibited a 35.7% average reduction of patency. Light scattered in the x, y directions by the dye may have reduced this feature's accuracy. Our new fine-grained understanding of accuracy could be used to make further improvements by including corrections in the scaffold design software. Successful cell attachment occurred with both canine and human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Highly accurate cDLP scaffold rendering is critical to the design of scaffolds that both guide bone regeneration and that fully resorb. Scaffold resorption must occur for regenerated bone to be remodeled and, thereby, achieve optimal strength.

  2. Extreme temperature packaging: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. Wayne

    2016-05-01

    Consumer electronics account for the majority of electronics manufactured today. Given the temperature limits of humans, consumer electronics are typically rated for operation from -40°C to +85°C. Military applications extend the range to -65°C to +125°C while underhood automotive electronics may see +150°C. With the proliferation of the Internet of Things (IoT), the goal of instrumenting (sensing, computation, transmission) to improve safety and performance in high temperature environments such as geothermal wells, nuclear reactors, combustion chambers, industrial processes, etc. requires sensors, electronics and packaging compatible with these environments. Advances in wide bandgap semiconductors (SiC and GaN) allow the fabrication of high temperature compatible sensors and electronics. Integration and packaging of these devices is required for implementation into actual applications. The basic elements of packaging are die attach, electrical interconnection and the package or housing. Consumer electronics typically use conductive adhesives or low melting point solders for die attach, wire bonds or low melting solder for electrical interconnection and epoxy for the package. These materials melt or decompose in high temperature environments. This paper examines materials and processes for high temperature packaging including liquid transient phase and sintered nanoparticle die attach, high melting point wires for wire bonding and metal and ceramic packages. The limitations of currently available solutions will also be discussed.

  3. The 52Cr(p, γ)53Mn reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuister, P.H.

    The 52Cr(p, γ)53Mn reaction was investigated in the energy region Ep = 1.36–2.26 MeV. The resonance energies, the corresponding 53Mn excitation energies and the resonance strengths of 199 resonances, assigned to this reaction, are reported. The excitation energies and gamma-ray branchings of 13

  4. Correlation between Serum High Sensitivity CRP Level and Inhospital Cardiac Events in the Patients with Unstable Angina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kazerani

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Several studies have been performed to evaluate correlation of serum high sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP level with the prognosis of the patients with diagnosis of unstable angina, and by now different results were reported. The aim of this study was to assess correlation between serum hs-CRP level and inhospital prognosis and cardiac events in the patients with unstable angina. Materials & Methods: This descriptive analytic study was performed from Sep 2004 till Feb 2006 in Shahid Beheshti hospital. Kermanshah, Iran. Sera were collected from 250 patients for hs-CRP measurement. Exclusion criteria were: acute ST elevation MI, non ST elevation MI, patients with history of recent infection, patients with recent trauma and patients with serum high sensitive CRP level more than 10 mg/lit. Patients were divided into two groups, first group whose serum hs-CRP level was less than 3 mg/lit and second group whose serum hs-CRP level was between 3 and 10 mg/lit. They were followed for recurrent chest pain, arrhythmias, pulmonary edema, acute myocardial infarction and in hospital death. Results were analyzed using x² and t-test. Results: Mean age were 57±7.8 and 58±11.5 years in first group and second group respectively. There was statistically significant difference in some cardiac complications such as dyspnea, duration of hospitalization, recurrent chest pain, CCU admission (p<0.001 and in hospital myocardial infarction (p=0.03, between two groups. Some complications did not have significant difference such as pulmonary edema, cardiogenic shock, arrhythmia, S3, S4 and pulmonary rates .There was no mortality in both groups. Conclusion: According to the results, we can use serum hs-CRP level for risk stratification in the patients with diagnosis of unstable angina. Obviously the patients with high serum hs-CRP level need more attention whether early invasive management help these patients, may be the matter of later studies.

  5. IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) on 'Analytical and experimental benchmark analyses of accelerator driven systems'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abanades, Alberto; Aliberti, Gerardo; Gohar, Yousry; Talamo, Alberto; Bornos, Victor; Kiyavitskaya, Anna; Carta, Mario; Janczyszyn, Jerzy; Maiorino, Jose; Pyeon, Cheolho; Stanculescu, Alexander; Titarenko, Yury; Westmeier, Wolfram

    2008-01-01

    In December 2005, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has started a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Analytical and Experimental Benchmark Analyses of Accelerator Driven Systems'. The overall objective of the CRP, performed within the framework of the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWGFR) of IAEA's Nuclear Energy Department, is to increase the capability of interested Member States in developing and applying advanced reactor technologies in the area of long-lived radioactive waste utilization and transmutation. The specific objective of the CRP is to improve the present understanding of the coupling of an external neutron source (e.g. spallation source) with a multiplicative sub-critical core. The participants are performing computational and experimental benchmark analyses using integrated calculation schemes and simulation methods. The CRP aims at integrating some of the planned experimental demonstration projects of the coupling between a sub-critical core and an external neutron source (e.g. YALINA Booster in Belarus, and Kyoto University's Critical Assembly (KUCA)). The objective of these experimental programs is to validate computational methods, obtain high energy nuclear data, characterize the performance of sub-critical assemblies driven by external sources, and to develop and improve techniques for sub-criticality monitoring. The paper summarizes preliminary results obtained to-date for some of the CRP benchmarks. (authors)

  6. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis CRP/FNR family transcription regulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akif, Mohd; Akhter, Yusuf; Hasnain, Seyed E.; Mande, Shekhar C.

    2006-01-01

    The CRP/FNR family transcription factor from M. tuberculosis H37Rv has been crystallized in space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 in the absence of cAMP. The crystals show the presence of a dimeric molecule in the asymmetric unit. CRP/FNR family members are transcription factors that regulate the transcription of many genes in Escherichia coli and other organisms. Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv contains a probable CRP/FNR homologue encoded by the open reading frame Rv3676. The deletion of this gene is known to cause growth defects in cell culture, in bone marrow-derived macrophages and in a mouse model of tuberculosis. The mycobacterial gene Rv3676 shares ∼32% sequence identity with prototype E. coli CRP. The structure of the protein might provide insight into transcriptional regulation in the pathogen by this protein. The M. tuberculosis CRP/FNR transcription regulator was crystallized in space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 54.1, b = 84.6, c = 101.2 Å. The crystal diffracted to a resolution of 2.9 Å. Matthews coefficient and self-rotation function calculations reveal the presence of two monomers in the asymmetric unit

  7. Belgian Contribution to the IAEA CRP-IV Programme on Assuring Structural Integrity of Reactor Pressure Vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Walle, E.; Chaouadi, R.; Scibetta, M.; Puzzolante, J.L.; Fabry, A.; Van de Velde, J.

    1997-10-01

    This report contains the actual status of the Belgian contribution to the IAEA CRP-IV program. Besides Charpy-V impact tests on as-received CRP-IV JRQ-specimens, fracture toughness tests were performed on two geometries: PCCV-specimens and CRB-specimens. The Charpy-V impact results correspond very well with the as-received CRP-III results. The fracture toughness data are also very consistent with identical tests recently performed on remaining as-received CRP-III material. Irradiated broken Charpy-V samples were reconstituted and tested in PCCV-mode. This was done in order to investigate the evolution of the ASME-curve versus the evolution of the mastercurve with irradiation. Initial results were reported. A new CHIVAS-irradiation in the CALLISTO-loop of the BR-2-reactor to support this investigation, is under preparation

  8. Failure of CRP decline within three days of hospitalization is associated with poor prognosis of Community-acquired Pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Bang; Baunbæk Egelund, Gertrud Louise; Jensen, Andreas Vestergaard

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein (CRP) is a well-known acute phase protein used to monitor the patient's response during treatment in infectious diseases. Mortality from Community-acquired Pneumonia (CAP) remains high, particularly in hospitalized patients. Better risk prediction during hospitaliza......BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein (CRP) is a well-known acute phase protein used to monitor the patient's response during treatment in infectious diseases. Mortality from Community-acquired Pneumonia (CAP) remains high, particularly in hospitalized patients. Better risk prediction during...... hospitalization could improve management and ultimately reduce mortality levels. The aim of this study was to evaluate CRP on the 3rd day (CRP3) of hospitalization as a predictor for 30 days mortality. METHODS: A retrospective multicentre cohort study of adult patients admitted with CAP at three Danish hospitals....... Predictive associations of CRP3 (absolute levels and relative decline) and 30 days mortality were analysed using receiver operating characteristics and logistic regression. RESULTS: Eight hundred and fourteen patients were included and 90 (11%) died within 30 days. The area under the curve for CRP3 level...

  9. Acrolein stimulates the synthesis of IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP) in thrombosis model mice and cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Ryotaro; Hayashi, Daisuke; Ikuo, Yukiko; Nishimura, Kazuhiro; Ishii, Itsuko; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Chiba, Kan; Toida, Toshihiko; Kashiwagi, Keiko; Igarashi, Kazuei

    2013-12-01

    Measurements of protein-conjugated acrolein (PC-Acro), IL-6, and C-reactive protein (CRP) in plasma were useful for identifying silent brain infarction with high sensitivity and specificity. The aim of this study was to determine whether acrolein causes increased production of IL-6 and CRP in thrombosis model mice and cultured cells. In mice with photochemically induced thrombosis, acrolein produced at the locus of infarction increased the level of IL-6 and then CRP in plasma. This was confirmed in cell culture systems - acrolein stimulated the production of IL-6 in mouse neuroblastoma Neuro-2a cells, mouse macrophage-like J774.1 cells, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), and IL-6 in turn stimulated the production of CRP in human hepatocarcinoma cells. The level of IL-6 mRNA was increased by acrolein through an increase in phosphorylation of the transcription factors, c-Jun, and NF-κB p65. Furthermore, CRP stimulated IL-6 production in mouse macrophage-like J774.1 cells and HUVEC. IL-6 functioned as a protective factor against acrolein toxicity in Neuro-2a cells and HUVEC. These results show that acrolein stimulates the synthesis of IL-6 and CRP, which function as protecting factors against acrolein toxicity, and that the combined measurement of PC-Acro, IL-6, and CRP is effective for identification of silent brain infarction. The combined measurements of protein-conjugated acrolein (PC-Acro), IL-6, and C-reactive protein (CRP) in plasma were useful for identifying silent brain infarction. The aim of this study was to determine whether acrolein causes increased production of IL-6 and CRP, and indeed acrolein increased IL-6 synthesis and IL-6 in turn increased CRP synthesis. Furthermore, IL-6 decreased acrolein toxicity in several cell lines. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  10. Clinical significance of changes of plasma TNF-α and CRP levels in patients with acute cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaoyang; Xiao Changqing; He Yunnan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of the changes of serum TNF-α and CRP levels in patients with acute cerebral infarction. Methods: Serum TNF-α (with RIA) and CRP (with scatter velocity turbidimetry) levels were determined in 50 patients with acute cerebral infarction and 62 controls. Results: The serum levels of TNF-α and CRP in patients with acute cerebral infarction were significantly higher than those in controls (P <0.01). Moreover, the levels were positively correlated with the size of the infarction (P<0.05). Conclusion: Changes of serum TNF-α and CRP levels during acute stage of cerebral infarction were closely related the clinical progression of the disease process. (authors)

  11. Contributions to and expectations from the CRP - Argonne National Laboratory (USA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahalan, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    For us, the chief benefit of the CRP will be validation of multidimensional fluid dynamics capabilities for analysis of outlet plenum temperature distributions. As reactor designers seek new fuel handling features to reduce costs, upper internal structure configurations are becoming more compact, and higher fidelity analysis techniques are required to assess thermal stresses. Argonne currently has 1) a reactor systems analysis code with an experimentally-based model for plenum stratification, 2) the COMMIX code (parent of the JAEA AQUA code), and 3) commercial fluid dynamics analysis codes. It is anticipated that all or some combination of these capabilities will be employed to perform the CRP analysis

  12. Dietary supplement good manufacturing practices: preparing for compliance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mead, William J

    2012-01-01

    "Dietary Supplement GMP is a one-stop "how-to" road map to the final dietary supplement GMP regulations recently issued by the FDA covering the manufacture, packaging, and holding of dietary supplement...

  13. Cigarette package design: opportunities for disease prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollay RW

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To learn how cigarette packages are designed and to determine to what extent cigarette packages are designed to target children. Methods A computer search was made of all Internet websites that post tobacco industry documents using the search terms: packaging, package design, package study, box design, logo, trademark and design study. All documents were retrieved electronically and analyzed by the first author for recurrent themes. Data Synthesis Cigarette manufacturers devote a great deal of attention and expense to package design because it is central to their efforts to create brand images. Colors, graphic elements, proportioning, texture, materials and typography are tested and used in various combinations to create the desired product and user images. Designs help to create the perceived product attributes and project a personality image of the user with the intent of fulfilling the psychological needs of the targeted type of smoker. The communication of these images and attributes is conducted through conscious and subliminal processes. Extensive testing is conducted using a variety of qualitative and quantitative research techniques. Conclusion The promotion of tobacco products through appealing imagery cannot be stopped without regulating the package design. The same marketing research techniques used by the tobacco companies can be used to design generic packaging and more effective warning labels targeted at specific consumers.

  14. A robust quantitative solid phase immunoassay for the acute phase protein C-reactive protein (CRP) based on cytidine 5 '-diphosphocholine coupled dendrimers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Pedersen, H. G.; Jensen, A. L.

    2009-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is an important acute phase protein, being used as a sensitive indicator of inflammation and infection and is also associated with the risk of cardiovascular problems. The present paper describes a robust and sensitive ELISA for CRP, based on the affinity of CRP for phosp......C-reactive protein (CRP) is an important acute phase protein, being used as a sensitive indicator of inflammation and infection and is also associated with the risk of cardiovascular problems. The present paper describes a robust and sensitive ELISA for CRP, based on the affinity of CRP...... was applied to determination of pig and human CRP using commercially available antibodies against human CRP. The assay was shown to be more sensitive than previously published immunoassays employing albumin-coupled cytidine diphosphocholine. The coating was stable for at least 30 days at room temperature...

  15. Application value of Serum Hs-CRP, IL-6 and plasma FIB joint detection in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Ji

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To discuss the application value of High sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and fibrinogen (FIB joint detection in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Methods: A total of 181 COPD cases were divided to be COPD stable phase group (65 cases and COPD acute exacerbation phase group (116 cases per the course of disease. COPD acute exacerbation phase group was classified into grade I (39 cases, grade II (43 cases and grade III (34 cases based on pulmonary function. Then survival group (87 cases and death group (29 cases were divided based on illness transition. Meanwhile, 80 cases of healthy people at the same phase were set to be healthy group. Differences in levels of Serum hs-CRP, IL-6 and FIB in these groups were analyzed, and according to these indexes, prognostic potency of COPD acute exacerbation phase could be evaluated. Results: Difference in serum hs-CRP, IL-6 and FIB levels in COPD stable phase group, COPD acute exacerbation phase group and healthy group were statistical significant (P<0.05. both for healthy group CRP, IL-6 and FIB levels in grade I, II, III of pulmonary function in the COPD acute exacerbation phase group were statistical significant (P<0.05 both for grade 1 < grade 2 < grade 3. Result of person analyzing showed significant positive correlation on grading of pulmonary function and serum hs-CRP, IL-6 and FIB levels, the correlation coefficient was 0.573. Differences of hs-CRP, IL-6 and FIB levels between survival group and death group were statistical significant. Serum hs-CRP, IL-6 and FIB levels were utilized respectively to evaluate area under curve of receiver operating characteristic in prognostic COPD acute exacerbation phase group, namely, 0.836, 0.815, 0.776. Sensitivities of “death”, which was evaluated by the various indexes, respectively showed as: 72.41%, 65.51% and 75

  16. Effect of flurbiprofen aretilon on serum hs-CRP, IL-6 levels in patients undergoing esophageal cancer surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiakai

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of flurbiprofen axetil on serum high sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the patients undergoing esophageal cancer surgery. Methods: Thirty patients were divided into 2 groups with 15 cases each. The patients in groups A were given flurbiprofen axetil and those in group B were not as the controls. Serum hs-CRP (immuno-turbidity method) and IL-6 (RIA) levels were determined before anesthesia induction and after extubation. Results: The levels of serum hs-CRP, IL-6 were significantly higher in group B than those in group A (P<0.05). Conclusion: Flurbiprofen axetil could reduce serum hs-CRP, IL-6 levels in patients undergoing Esophageal cancer surgery. (authors)

  17. A Prospective Study to Compare the Diagnostic Value of Serum Procalcitonin and Crp in Early Onset Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar Verma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Neonatal sepsis is the most common cause of death in newborns in developing countries. Prompt diagnosis is the critical determinant in its outcome. As manifestations are often vague, clinically it is difficult to differentiate sepsis from non-infective conditions. Timely diagnosis is important as delay in initiation of antimicrobials can prove fatal. On the other hand empirical use of antibiotics not only increases the risk of antibiotic resistance but also delays the diagnosis of true condition. Procalcitonin (PCT has been well evaluated in late onset sepsis but data pertaining to Early Onset Sepsis (EOS are still lacking. We compared the diagnostic value of PCT and CRP (C-Reactive Protein in EOS. Aim: To compare the diagnostic value of serum PCT and CRP in early onset sepsis. Materials and Methods: It was a prospective observational study conducted in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the Department of Paediatrics, Dr.S.N. Medical College, Jodhpur, India. All neonates delivered in hospitals attached to this medical college or referred here within 7 days of life and having ≥2 perinatal risk factors for sepsis or displaying clinical sepsis were included in the study. All enrolled neonates were subjected to sepsis screen, PCT levels and blood culture at birth or admission which ever was the earliest. PCT levels ≥ 0.5 ng/ml and CRP levels above 8mg/l were considered positive for EOS. Results: Sensitivity and negative predictive value of PCT were higher than CRP (90.12% vs. 50.62% and 93.33% vs. 79.06% respectively. Also it had a higher positive predictive value of 40.56% than CRP where it was 37.61%. CRP was more specific (68.95% vs. 51.4% with overall higher diagnostic accuracy (0.64 vs. 0.61 in comparison to PCT. Conclusion: PCT is more sensitive and has a higher negative predictive value than CRP in early onset sepsis. Higher positive predictive value and specificity of CRP suggest that, PCT should not be used alone rather

  18. UK manufacturers construction joint venture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This report examines the legal and commercial framework for UK manufacturers to collaborate in a construction venture for a small combustion/steam cycle power plant fueled with biomass. The integration of technology and project plan, the working capital and capitalisation, financial aspects, the market plan, turnkey packages, joint venture entities, and collaboration are discussed. (UK)

  19. Crevicular Fluid and Serum Concentrations of Progranulin and High Sensitivity CRP in Chronic Periodontitis and Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study was designed to correlate the serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF levels of progranulin (PGRN and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs CRP in chronic periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. Design. PGRN and hs CRP levels were estimated in 3 groups: healthy, chronic periodontitis, and type 2 DM with chronic periodontitis. Results. The mean PGRN and hs CRP concentrations in serum and GCF were the highest for group 3 followed by group 2 and the least in group 1. Conclusion. PGRN and hs CRP may be biomarkers of the inflammatory response in type 2 DM and chronic periodontitis.

  20. Crevicular Fluid and Serum Concentrations of Progranulin and High Sensitivity CRP in Chronic Periodontitis and Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyanka, N.; Kumari, Minal; Kalra, Nitish; Arjun, P.; Naik, Savitha B.; Pradeep, A. R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. This study was designed to correlate the serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of progranulin (PGRN) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs CRP) in chronic periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Design. PGRN and hs CRP levels were estimated in 3 groups: healthy, chronic periodontitis, and type 2 DM with chronic periodontitis. Results. The mean PGRN and hs CRP concentrations in serum and GCF were the highest for group 3 followed by group 2 and the least in group 1. Conclusion. PGRN and hs CRP may be biomarkers of the inflammatory response in type 2 DM and chronic periodontitis. PMID:24191130

  1. Ultrasound and radionuclide images of liver. An IAEA (CRP) group study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, M.; Bergmann, H.; Padhy, A.K.; Fukuhisa, K.

    1996-01-01

    Liver diseases are many and vary widely in etiology and pathology. Pattern of liver diseases also vary depending on the geographical and demographical factors. Alcoholic cirrhosis is more common in industrialised countries whereas post necrotic or post hepatitic cirrhosis is more common in developing countries. Abscesses and parasitic cysts are more common in less privileged countries whereas cancer seems to be equally prevalent in all parts of the world. These differences in geographic pathology of liver diseases influence the education, training, learning process and skills of medical personnel who interpret liver images obtained from various imaging modalities. Thus the skills of liver image interpretation becomes an important variable which determines the ultimate value of a given imaging modality. In different countries, the training of nuclear medicine physicians vary in scope and content. The coordinated research programme (CRP), ''Evaluation of imaging procedures in the diagnosis of liver diseases (Phase II)'' endeavoured to address all these aspects mentioned above. This CRP was started in 1989 as a logical sequence to its predecessor, ''Evaluation of nuclear medicine procedures for the diagnosis of liver diseases''. Apart from Japan, nine other countries participated in the CRP. The objective of the CRP was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the radiocolloid liver imaging and the standard grey scale ultrasound imaging of liver in different types of liver diseases with a view to determine the relative merit of each imaging modality in the diagnosis of a given type of liver disease. The intention was that if one shows distinctive superiority in term of its diagnostic value, then that modality can be recommended as a front line investigation in a given type of liver disease. This approach not only gives certain cost effectiveness in patient care, but also reduces demand on resources that are already under strain in developing countries

  2. Assessment of Quality Assurance Measures for Radioactive Material Transport Packages not Requiring Competent Authority Design Approval - 13282

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komann, Steffen; Groeke, Carsten; Droste, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    The majority of transports of radioactive materials are carried out in packages which don't need a package design approval by a competent authority. Low-active radioactive materials are transported in such packages e.g. in the medical and pharmaceutical industry and in the nuclear industry as well. Decommissioning of NPP's leads to a strong demand for packages to transport low and middle active radioactive waste. According to IAEA regulations the 'non-competent authority approved package types' are the Excepted Packages and the Industrial Packages of Type IP-1, IP-2 and IP-3 and packages of Type A. For these types of packages an assessment by the competent authority is required for the quality assurance measures for the design, manufacture, testing, documentation, use, maintenance and inspection (IAEA SSR 6, Chap. 306). In general a compliance audit of the manufacturer of the packaging is required during this assessment procedure. Their regulatory level in the IAEA regulations is not comparable with the 'regulatory density' for packages requiring competent authority package design approval. Practices in different countries lead to different approaches within the assessment of the quality assurance measures in the management system as well as in the quality assurance program of a special package design. To use the package or packaging in a safe manner and in compliance with the regulations a management system for each phase of the life of the package or packaging is necessary. The relevant IAEA-SSR6 chap. 801 requires documentary verification by the consignor concerning package compliance with the requirements. (authors)

  3. Assessment of Quality Assurance Measures for Radioactive Material Transport Packages not Requiring Competent Authority Design Approval - 13282

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komann, Steffen; Groeke, Carsten; Droste, Bernhard [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Unter den Eichen 44-46, 12203 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The majority of transports of radioactive materials are carried out in packages which don't need a package design approval by a competent authority. Low-active radioactive materials are transported in such packages e.g. in the medical and pharmaceutical industry and in the nuclear industry as well. Decommissioning of NPP's leads to a strong demand for packages to transport low and middle active radioactive waste. According to IAEA regulations the 'non-competent authority approved package types' are the Excepted Packages and the Industrial Packages of Type IP-1, IP-2 and IP-3 and packages of Type A. For these types of packages an assessment by the competent authority is required for the quality assurance measures for the design, manufacture, testing, documentation, use, maintenance and inspection (IAEA SSR 6, Chap. 306). In general a compliance audit of the manufacturer of the packaging is required during this assessment procedure. Their regulatory level in the IAEA regulations is not comparable with the 'regulatory density' for packages requiring competent authority package design approval. Practices in different countries lead to different approaches within the assessment of the quality assurance measures in the management system as well as in the quality assurance program of a special package design. To use the package or packaging in a safe manner and in compliance with the regulations a management system for each phase of the life of the package or packaging is necessary. The relevant IAEA-SSR6 chap. 801 requires documentary verification by the consignor concerning package compliance with the requirements. (authors)

  4. Fully Roll-to-Roll Gravure Printable Wireless (13.56 MHz) Sensor-Signage Tags for Smart Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hwiwon; Park, Hyejin; Park, Yongsu; Jung, Minhoon; Kim, Byung Chul; Wallace, Gordon; Cho, Gyoujin

    2014-06-01

    Integration of sensing capabilities with an interactive signage through wireless communication is enabling the development of smart packaging wherein wireless (13.56 MHz) power transmission is used to interlock the smart packaging with a wireless (13.56 MHz) reader or a smart phone. Assembly of the necessary componentry for smart packaging on plastic or paper foils is limited by the manufacturing costs involved with Si based technologies. Here, the issue of manufacturing cost for smart packaging has been obviated by materials that allow R2R (roll-to-roll) gravure in combination with R2R coating processes to be employed. R2R gravure was used to print the wireless power transmission device, called rectenna (antenna, diode and capacitor), and humidity sensor on poly(ethylene terephtalate) (PET) films while electrochromic signage units were fabricated by R2R coating. The signage units were laminated with the R2R gravure printed rectenna and sensor to complete the prototype smart packaging.

  5. A Novel Inversion Method of Manufacturing Flaws in the Packaging of Conformal Load-Bearing Antenna Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Composite material is widely used in the conformal load-bearing antenna structure (CLAS, and the manufacturing flaws in the packaging process of the CLAS will lead to the degradation of its wave-transparent property. For this problem, a novel inverse method of the flaw’s dimension by antenna-radome system’s far field data has been proposed. Two steps are included in the inversion: the first one is the inversion from the far filed data to the transmission coefficient of the CLAS’s radome; the second one is the inversion from the transmission coefficient to the flaw’s dimension. The inversion also has a good potential for the separable multilayer composite material radome. A 12.5 GHz CLAS with microstrip antenna array is used in the simulation, which indicates the effectiveness of the novel inversion method. Finally, the error analysis of the inversion method is presented by numerical simulation; the results is that the inversed error could be less than 10%, if the measurement error of far field data is less than 0.45 dB in amplitude and ±5° in phase.

  6. Degradation Behavior and Accelerated Weathering of Composite Boards Produced from Waste Tetra Pak® Packaging Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nural Yilgor; Coskun Kose; Evren Terzi; Aysel Kanturk Figen; Rebecca Ibach; S. Nami Kartal; Sabriye Piskin

    2014-01-01

    Manufacturing panels from Tetra Pak® (TP) packaging material might be an alternative to conventional wood-based panels. This study evaluated some chemical and physical properties as well as biological, weathering, and fire performance of panels with and without zinc borate (ZnB) by using shredded TP packaging cartons. Such packaging material, a worldwide well-known...

  7. Clinical diagnostic value of determination of plasma ET, Hcy and serum hs-CRP contents in patients with coronary heart diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Jingying; Zhu Xueming

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical diagnostic value of determination of plasma ET, Hcy and serum hs-CRP contents in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods: Plasma ET, Hcy(with RIA) and serum hs-CRP (with immune turbidimetry) contents were determined in 38 patients with CHD and 35 controls. Results: Plasma ET, Hcy and serum hs-CRP concentration were significantly higher in CHD patients (than those in controls P<0.01). Plasma ET levels were significantly positively correlated with those of plasma Hcy and serum hs-CRP (r=0.6122, 0.5842, P<0.01). Conclusion: Detection of changes of plasma ET, Hcy and serum hs-CRP levels might be of prognostic importance in patients with CHD. (authors)

  8. CRP on Demonstrating Performance of Spent Fuel and Related Storage Systems beyond the Long Term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    At the initial Coordinated Research Project (CRP) planning meeting held in August 2011, international experts in spent fuel performance confirmed the value of further coordination and development of international efforts to demonstrate the performance of spent fuel and related storage system components as durations extend. Furthermore, in recognition that the Extended Storage Collaboration Program (ESCP) managed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in the USA, from now on ESCP, provided a broad context for the research and development work to be performed in the frame of this CRP, it was agreed that its objectives should target specific ESCP needs in order to make a relevant contribution. Accordingly, the experts examined on-going gap analyses - gaps between anticipated technical needs and existing technical data - for identify the specific research objectives. Additionally, during the planning meeting it was pointed out the need to coordinate and cooperate with the OECD/NEA counterparts involved in the organization of the International Workshop planned in autumn 2013 and with the on-going third phase of the CRP on Spent Fuel Performance Assessment and Research (SPAR-III). Given the importance to assess the performance of spent fuel and related important storage system components in order to confirm the viability of very long term storage for supporting the need to extend or renew licenses for storage facilities the CRP was approved by the IAEA in November 2011. While a full range of spent fuel types and storage conditions are deployed around the world, this CRP is focused on existing systems and, more specifically, water reactor fuel in dry storage with the overall research objective to support the technical basis for water reactor spent fuel management as dry storage durations extend. In March 2012 the group of international experts who participated at the initial CRP planning meeting in August 2011 evaluated and recommended for approval 9 research

  9. Chemopreventive and renal protective effects for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA: implications of CRP and lipid peroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darweish MM

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fish oil-derived ω-3 fatty acids, like docosahexanoic (DHA, claim a plethora of health benefits. We currently evaluated the antitumor effects of DHA, alone or in combination with cisplatin (CP in the EAC solid tumor mice model, and monitored concomitant changes in serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP, lipid peroxidation (measured as malondialdehyde; MDA and leukocytic count (LC. Further, we verified the capacity of DHA to ameliorate the lethal, CP-induced nephrotoxicity in rats and the molecular mechanisms involved therein. Results EAC-bearing mice exhibited markedly elevated LC (2-fold, CRP (11-fold and MDA levels (2.7-fold. DHA (125, 250 mg/kg elicited significant, dose-dependent reductions in tumor size (38%, 79%; respectively, as well as in LC, CRP and MDA levels. These effects for CP were appreciably lower than those of DHA (250 mg/kg. Interestingly, DHA (125 mg/kg markedly enhanced the chemopreventive effects of CP and boosted its ability to reduce serum CRP and MDA levels. Correlation studies revealed a high degree of positive association between tumor growth and each of CRP (r = 0.85 and leukocytosis (r = 0.89, thus attesting to a diagnostic/prognostic role for CRP. On the other hand, a single CP dose (10 mg/kg induced nephrotoxicity in rats that was evidenced by proteinuria, deterioration of glomerular filtration rate (GFR, -4-fold, a rise in serum creatinine/urea levels (2–5-fold after 4 days, and globally-induced animal fatalities after 7 days. Kidney-homogenates from CP-treated rats displayed significantly elevated MDA- and TNF-α-, but reduced GSH-, levels. Rats treated with DHA (250 mg/kg, but not 125 mg/kg survived the lethal effects of CP, and showed a significant recovery of GFR; while their homogenates had markedly-reduced MDA- and TNF-α-, but -increased GSH-levels. Significant association was detected between creatinine level and those of MDA (r = 0.81, TNF-α r = 0.92 and GSH (r = -0

  10. The acute effect of cigarette smoking on the high-sensitivity CRP and fibrinogen biomarkers in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Wouter D; Akkermans, Reinier; Heijdra, Yvonne; Weel, Chris van; Schermer, Tjard R J; Scheepers, Paul T J; Lenders, Jacques W M

    2013-04-01

    The evidence on the acute effects of smoking on biomarkers is limited. Our aim was to study the acute effect of smoking on disease-related biomarkers. The acute effect of smoking on serum high sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) and plasma fibrinogen and its association with disease severity was studied by challenging 31 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with cigarette smoking and repeatedly measuring these biomarkers before and after smoking. Fibrinogen and hs-CRP increased directly after smoking by 9.4 mg/dl (95% CI: 4.2-14.5) and 0.13 mg/l (95% CI: 0.03-0.23), respectively. Fibrinogen levels remained elevated after 35 min, whereas hs-CRP normalized. Pearson's correlation coefficient between the hs-CRP change and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease severity was 0.25 (p = 0.06). Fibrinogen and hs-CRP increased directly after smoking in the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Their association with disease risk and/or progression remains to be demonstrated.

  11. Results of the IAEA CRP on studies of advanced reactor technology options for effective incineration of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maschek, W.; Stanculescu, A.; ); Gopalakrishnan, V.

    2007-01-01

    The IAEA has initiated a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Studies of Advanced Reactor Technology Options for Effective Incineration of Radioactive Waste'. The overall objective of the CRP, performed within the framework of IAEA's Nuclear Power Technology Development Section's Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR), is to increase the capability of Member States in developing and applying advanced technologies in the area of long-lived radioactive waste utilization and transmutation. More specifically, the final goal of the CRP is to deepen the understanding of the dynamics of transmutation systems, especially systems with high minor actinide content. Currently, 20 institutions from 15 member states and one international organization are participating in this CRP. The current author list comprises the participants of the last CRP Vienna meeting. The CRP concentrates on the assessment of the transient behaviour of various transmutation systems. For a sound assessment of the transient and accident behaviour, neutron kinetics and dynamics methods and codes have to be qualified, especially as the margins for the safety relevant neutronics parameters are generally becoming small in a transmutation system. Hence, the availability of adequate and qualified methods for the analysis of the various systems is an important point of the exercise. A benchmarking effort between the codes and nuclear data used for the analyses has been performed, which will help specifying the range of validity of methods, and also formulate requirements for future theoretical and experimental research. Should transient experiments become available during the course of the CRP, experimental benchmarking work will also be pursued

  12. Serum Pentraxin 3 and hs-CRP Levels in Children with Severe Pulmonary Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemşit Karakurt

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulmonary arterial hypertension secondary to untreated left-to-right shunt defects leads to increased pulmonary blood flow, endothelial dysfunction, increased pulmonary vascular resistance, vascular remodelling, neointimal and plexiform lesions. Some recent studies have shown that inflammation has an important role in the pathophysiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate serum pentraxin 3 and high sensitive (hs-C reactive protein (hs-CRP levels in children with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH secondary to untreated congenital heart defects and evaluate the role of inflammation in pulmonary hypertension. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Methods: After ethics committee approval and receiving consent from parents, there were 31 children were selected for the study with severe PAH, mostly with a left-to-right shunt, who had been assessed by cardiac catheterisation and were taking specific pulmonary vasodilators. The control group consisted of 39 age and gender matched healthy children. After recording data about all the patients including age, gender, weight, haemodynamic studies and vasodilator testing, a physical examination was done for all subjects. Blood was taken from patients and the control group using peripheral veins to analyse serum Pentraxin 3, N-terminal pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide (NT-ProBNP and hs-CRP levels. Serum Pentraxin-3 levels were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and expressed as ng/mL. Serum hs-CRP levels were measured with an immunonephelometric method and expressed as mg/dL. The serum concentration of NT-proBNP was determined by a chemiluminescent immunumetric assay and expressed as pg/mL. Results: Serum Pentraxin- 3 levels were determined to be 1.28±2.12 (0.12-11.43 in the PAH group (group 1 and 0.40±0.72 (0.07-3.45 in group 2. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups (p<0.01. Serum hs-CRP levels

  13. Manufacture of Third-Generation Lentivirus for Preclinical Use, with Process Development Considerations for Translation to Good Manufacturing Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gándara, Carolina; Affleck, Valerie; Stoll, Elizabeth Ann

    2018-02-01

    Lentiviral vectors are used in laboratories around the world for in vivo and ex vivo delivery of gene therapies, and increasingly clinical investigation as well as preclinical applications. The third-generation lentiviral vector system has many advantages, including high packaging capacity, stable gene expression in both dividing and post-mitotic cells, and low immunogenicity in the recipient organism. Yet, the manufacture of these vectors is challenging, especially at high titers required for direct use in vivo, and further challenges are presented by the process of translating preclinical gene therapies toward manufacture of products for clinical investigation. The goals of this paper are to report the protocol for manufacturing high-titer third-generation lentivirus for preclinical testing and to provide detailed information on considerations for translating preclinical viral vector manufacture toward scaled-up platforms and processes in order to make gene therapies under Good Manufacturing Practice that are suitable for clinical trials.

  14. Book of Knowledge (BOK) for NASA Electronic Packaging Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this document is to update the NASA roadmap on packaging technologies (initially released in 2007) and to present the current trends toward further reducing size and increasing functionality. Due to the breadth of work being performed in the area of microelectronics packaging, this report presents only a number of key packaging technologies detailed in three industry roadmaps for conventional microelectronics and a more recently introduced roadmap for organic and printed electronics applications. The topics for each category were down-selected by reviewing the 2012 reports of the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductor (ITRS), the 2013 roadmap reports of the International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative (iNEMI), the 2013 roadmap of association connecting electronics industry (IPC), the Organic Printed Electronics Association (OE-A). The report also summarizes the results of numerous articles and websites specifically discussing the trends in microelectronics packaging technologies.

  15. Large transport packages for decommissioning waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, M.S.T.

    1988-03-01

    The main tasks performed during the period related to the influence of manufacture, transport and disposal on the design of such packages. It is deduced that decommissioning wastes will be transported under the IAEA Transport Regulations under either the Type B or Low Specific Activity (LSA) categories. If the LSA packages are self-shielded, reinforced concrete is the preferred material of construction. But the high cost of disposal implies that there is a strong reason to investigate the use of returnable shields for LSA packages and in such cases they are likely to be made of ferrous metal. Economic considerations favour the use of spheroidal graphite cast iron for this purpose. Transport operating hazards have been investigated using a mixture of desk studies, routes surveys and operations data from the railway organisations. Reference routes were chosen in the Federal Republic of Germany, France and the United Kingdom. This work has led to a description of ten accident scenarios and an evaluation of the associated accident probabilities. The effect of disposal on design of packages has been assessed in terms of the radiological impact of decommissioning wastes, an in addition corrosion and gas evolution have been examined. The inventory of radionuclides in a decommissioning waste package has low environmental impact. If metal clad reinforced concrete packages are to be used, the amount of gas evolution is such that a vent would need to be included in the design. Similar unclad packages would be sufficiently permeable to gases to prevent a pressure build-up. (author)

  16. Fully Roll-to-Roll Gravure Printable Wireless (13.56 MHz) Sensor-Signage Tags for Smart Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hwiwon; Park, Hyejin; Park, Yongsu; Jung, Minhoon; Kim, Byung Chul; Wallace, Gordon; Cho, Gyoujin

    2014-01-01

    Integration of sensing capabilities with an interactive signage through wireless communication is enabling the development of smart packaging wherein wireless (13.56 MHz) power transmission is used to interlock the smart packaging with a wireless (13.56 MHz) reader or a smart phone. Assembly of the necessary componentry for smart packaging on plastic or paper foils is limited by the manufacturing costs involved with Si based technologies. Here, the issue of manufacturing cost for smart packaging has been obviated by materials that allow R2R (roll-to-roll) gravure in combination with R2R coating processes to be employed. R2R gravure was used to print the wireless power transmission device, called rectenna (antenna, diode and capacitor), and humidity sensor on poly(ethylene terephtalate) (PET) films while electrochromic signage units were fabricated by R2R coating. The signage units were laminated with the R2R gravure printed rectenna and sensor to complete the prototype smart packaging. PMID:24953037

  17. Association between Periodontopathogens and CRP Levels in Patients with Periodontitis in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Pejcic

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Recent epidemiological studies have shown that individuals with periodontitis have a significantly higher risk of developing coronary heart disease, which might be attributed to the complex microbiota in the dental plaque. Periodontopathogens have been reported as risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This study evaluated association of chronic periodontitis and periodontopathogens with CRP in systemically healthy Serbian adults. Materials and methods. Serum C-reactive protein levels were measured in 24 patients with moderate periodontitis, 26 patients with severe periodontitis, and 25 periodontally healthy subjects. Periodontal health indicators included gingival bleeding on probing and periodontal disease status. Patients with moderate periodontitis had low attachment loss and pocket depths of 5 mm. The control group with healthy gingiva had gingival sulcus of 5 mol/L was greater in the higher clinical AL group compared to the group with less attachment loss. Presence of periodontopathogens was also associated with elevated CRP levels and poor periodontal status. Conclusions. PD and subgingival periodontopathogens are associated with increased CRP levels. These findings suggest that periodontal infection may contribute to systemic inflammatory burden in otherwise healthy individuals.

  18. Early prediction of treatment response by serum CRP levels in patients with advanced esophageal cancer who underwent definitive chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, Masayuki; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Okamura, Shinichi

    2010-01-01

    Serum C reactive protein (CRP) has been shown to be associated with the progression of esophageal cancer. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between treatment response and serum CRP levels in time course during definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in terms of early prediction of CRT response by serum CRP. The subjects of this study were 36 patients with cT3/cT4 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma who underwent definitive CRT in our hospital. Serum CRP levels during definitive CRT (pretreatment, 1W, 2W and 3W after CRT initiation) were compared between CR and non-CR group. In addition, partition model was constructed to discriminate CR with non-CR and the prediction accuracy was evaluated. The patients were consisted of 28 males and 8 females. At pretreatment diagnosis, tumors were categorized as T3 (n=21) and T4 (n=15). Thirty four patients received FP-based chemotherapy and 2 patients received docetaxel-based chemotherapy. Treatment responses were categorized as CR (n=8), partial response (PR) (n=14), no change (NC) (n=2) and progressive disease (PD) (n=12). Serum CRP levels at the time of 2W after CRT initiation (CRT2W) in CR group were low compared to those in non-CR group (p=0.071). The partition model was constructed based on CRP levels at CRT2W. The prediction accuracies to discriminate CR from non-CR by CRP ≤0.1 were 50%, 82%, and 75% in sensitivity, specificity and accuracy, respectively. Serum CRP is a useful biomarker for an early prediction of CRT response. (author)

  19. Innovative Approaches to Large Component Packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitag, A.; Hooper, M.; Posivak, E.; Sullivan, J.

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive waste disposal often times requires creative approaches in packaging design, especially for large components. Innovative design techniques are required to meet the needs for handling, transporting, and disposing of these large packages. Large components (i.e., Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) heads and even RPVs themselves) require special packaging for shielding and contamination control, as well as for transport and disposal. WMG Inc designed and used standard packaging for RPV heads without control rod drive mechanisms (CRDMs) attached for five RPV heads and has also more recently met an even bigger challenge and developed the innovative Intact Vessel Head Transport System (IVHTS) for RPV heads with CRDMs intact. This packaging system has been given a manufacturer's exemption by the United States Department of Transportation (USDOT) for packaging RPV heads. The IVHTS packaging has now been successfully used at two commercial nuclear power plants. Another example of innovative packaging is the large component packaging that WMG designed, fabricated, and utilized at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). In 2002, West Valley's high-level waste vitrification process was shut down in preparation for D and D of the West Valley Vitrification Facility. Three of the major components of concern within the Vitrification Facility were the Melter, the Concentrate Feed Makeup Tank (CFMT), and the Melter Feed Holdup Tank (MFHT). The removal, packaging, and disposition of these three components presented significant radiological and handling challenges for the project. WMG designed, fabricated, and installed special packaging for the transport and disposal of each of these three components, which eliminated an otherwise time intensive and costly segmentation process that WVDP was considering. Finally, WMG has also designed and fabricated special packaging for both the Connecticut Yankee (CY) and San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS) RPVs. This paper

  20. Preterm delivery predicted by soluble CD163 and CRP in women with symptoms of preterm delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Ida; Grove, Jakob; Thorsen, Poul

    2005-01-01

    : High levels of sCD163 or CRP are associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery in women with symptoms of delivery. Good prediction of preterm delivery before 34 weeks of gestation was obtained by a combination of preterm prelabour rupture of membranes (PPROM), overweight, relaxin, CRP and s...

  1. Manufacturer Allowances and Retailer Pass-Through Rates in a Competitive Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Sang Yong Kim; Richard Staelin

    1999-01-01

    A commonly held belief has grocery and mass merchandise retailers gaining power relative to the upstream consumer package goods manufacturers. One of the major justifications for this belief is that manufacturers are now giving retailers more side payments such as trade allowances, slotting allowances, etc. However, a number of researchers have shown that these concessions have not translated into increased profit for the retailer relative to the manufacturer. This paper explores, via an anal...

  2. Evaluation of serum homocysteine, high-sensitivity CRP, and RBC folate in patients with alopecia areata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Yousefi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alopecia areata (AA is a common type of hair loss with an autoimmune basis. As the role of homocysteine (Hcys, folate, and CRP has been considered in some autoimmune diseases. Objectives: To evaluate homocysteine, folate and CRP level in AA. Methods: This study was performed on 29 patients who had AA for at least 6 months affecting more than 20% of scalp, and 32 healthy controls. Levels of serum Hcys, blood high-sensitivity CRP, and RBC folate were measured in all subjects. Results: The mean level of RBC folate was significantly lower in the patient group than that in controls (P < 0.001. Also, the level of RBC folate was significantly lower in patients with extensive forms of disease (alopecia totalis/alopecia universalis in comparison with more localized form (patchy hair loss (P < 0.05. Patients with higher "Severity of Alopecia Total" (SALT score had lower RBC folate, as well. Serum Hcys and blood high-sensitivity CRP levels did not show a significant difference in two groups. Conclusion: Patients with alopecia areata have lower level of RBC folate which is in negative correlation with both severity and extension of AA.

  3. Diagnostic value of soluble CD163 serum levels in patients suspected of meningitis: comparison with CRP and procalcitonin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Troels Bygum; Larsen, Klaus; Kristiansen, Thomas Birk

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the diagnostic value of sCD163 serum levels with CRP and PCT in meningitis and bacterial infection. An observational cohort study was conducted between February 2001 and February 2005. The study population comprised 55 patients suspected of meningi......The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the diagnostic value of sCD163 serum levels with CRP and PCT in meningitis and bacterial infection. An observational cohort study was conducted between February 2001 and February 2005. The study population comprised 55 patients suspected...... marker for distinguishing bacterial infection from non-bacterial disease (specificity 0.91; sensitivity 0.47). However, the overall diagnostic accuracy of CRP (AUC =0.91) and PCT (AUC =0.87) were superior (p... infection, the AUC of sCD163 (0.83) did not differ significantly from those of CRP or PCT. All markers had AUCs CRP and PCT had high diagnostic value and were superior as markers of bacterial infection compared to s...

  4. Overview of NASA Langley's Piezoelectric Ceramic Packaging Technology and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Robert G.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past decade, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has developed several actuator packaging concepts designed to enhance the performance of commercial electroactive ceramics. NASA LaRC focused on properly designed actuator and sensor packaging for the following reasons, increased durability, protect the working material from the environment, allow for proper mechanical and electrical contact, afford "ready to use" mechanisms that are scalable, and develop fabrication methodology applicable to any active material of the same physical class. It is more cost effective to enhance or tailor the performance of existing systems, through innovative packaging, than to develop, test and manufacture new materials. This approach led to the development of several solid state actuators that include THUNDER, the Macrofiber Composite or (MFC) and the Radial Field Diaphragm or (RFD). All these actuators are fabricated using standard materials and processes derived from earlier concepts. NASA s fabrication and packaging technology as yielded, piezoelectric actuators and sensors that are easy to implement, reliable, consistent in properties, and of lower cost to manufacture in quantity, than their predecessors (as evidenced by their continued commercial availability.) These piezoelectric actuators have helped foster new research and development in areas involving computational modeling, actuator specific refinements, and engineering system redesign which led to new applications for piezo-based devices that replace traditional systems currently in use.

  5. Manufactured Home Energy Audit (MHEA)Users Manual (Version 7)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gettings, M.B.

    2003-01-27

    The Manufactured Home Energy Audit (MHEA) is a software tool that predicts manufactured home energy consumption and recommends weatherization retrofit measures. It was developed to assist local weatherization agencies working with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program. Whether new or experienced, employed within or outside the Weatherization Assistance Program, all users can benefit from incorporating MHEA into their manufactured home weatherization programs. DOE anticipates that the state weatherization assistance programs that incorporate MHEA into their programs will find significant growth in the energy and cost savings achieved from manufactured home weatherization. The easy-to-use MHEA uses a relatively standard Windows graphical interface for entering simple inputs and provides understandable, usable results. The user enters information about the manufactured home construction, heating equipment, cooling equipment appliances, and weather site. MHEA then calculates annual energy consumption using a simplified building energy analysis technique. Weatherization retrofit measures are evaluated based on the predicted energy savings after installation of the measure, the measure cost, and the measure life. Finally, MHEA recommends retrofit measures that are energy and cost effective for the particular home being evaluated. MHEA evaluates each manufactured home individually and takes into account local weather conditions, retrofit measure costs, and fuel costs. The recommended package of weatherization retrofit measures is tailored to the home being evaluated. More traditional techniques apply the same package of retrofit measures to all manufactured homes, often the same set of measures that are installed into site-built homes. Effective manufactured home weatherization can be achieved only by installing measures developed specifically for manufactured homes. The unique manufactured home construction characteristics require that

  6. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) as a simple and independent prognostic factor in extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya-Jun; Li, Zhi-Ming; Xia, Yi; Huang, Jia-Jia; Huang, Hui-Qiang; Xia, Zhong-Jun; Lin, Tong-Yu; Li, Su; Cai, Xiu-Yu; Wu-Xiao, Zhi-Jun; Jiang, Wen-Qi

    2013-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a biomarker of the inflammatory response, and it shows significant prognostic value for several types of solid tumors. The prognostic significance of CRP for lymphoma has not been fully examined. We evaluated the prognostic role of baseline serum CRP levels in patients with extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL). We retrospectively analyzed 185 patients with newly diagnosed ENKTL. The prognostic value of the serum CRP level was evaluated for the low-CRP group (CRP≤10 mg/L) versus the high-CRP group (CRP>10 mg/L). The prognostic value of the International Prognostic Index (IPI) and the Korean Prognostic Index (KPI) were evaluated and compared with the newly developed prognostic model. Patients in the high-CRP group tended to display increased adverse clinical characteristics, lower rates of complete remission (P60 years, hypoalbuminemia, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase levels were independent adverse predictors of OS. Based on these four independent predictors, we constructed a new prognostic model that identified 4 groups with varying OS: group 1, no adverse factors; group 2, 1 factor; group 3, 2 factors; and group 4, 3 or 4 factors (PKPI in distinguishing between the low- and intermediate-low-risk groups, the intermediate-low- and high-intermediate-risk groups, and the high-intermediate- and high-risk groups. Our results suggest that pretreatment serum CRP levels represent an independent predictor of clinical outcome for patients with ENKTL. The prognostic value of the new prognostic model is superior to both IPI and KPI.

  7. Challenges in the Packaging of MEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malshe, A.P.; Singh, S.B.; Eaton, W.P.; O' Neal, C.; Brown, W.D.; Miller, W.M.

    1999-03-26

    The packaging of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is a field of great importance to anyone using or manufacturing sensors, consumer products, or military applications. Currently much work has been done in the design and fabrication of MEMS devices but insufficient research and few publications have been completed on the packaging of these devices. This is despite the fact that packaging is a very large percentage of the total cost of MEMS devices. The main difference between IC packaging and MEMS packaging is that MEMS packaging is almost always application specific and greatly affected by its environment and packaging techniques such as die handling, die attach processes, and lid sealing. Many of these aspects are directly related to the materials used in the packaging processes. MEMS devices that are functional in wafer form can be rendered inoperable after packaging. MEMS dies must be handled only from the chip sides so features on the top surface are not damaged. This eliminates most current die pick-and-place fixtures. Die attach materials are key to MEMS packaging. Using hard die attach solders can create high stresses in the MEMS devices, which can affect their operation greatly. Low-stress epoxies can be high-outgassing, which can also affect device performance. Also, a low modulus die attach can allow the die to move during ultrasonic wirebonding resulting to low wirebond strength. Another source of residual stress is the lid sealing process. Most MEMS based sensors and devices require a hermetically sealed package. This can be done by parallel seam welding the package lid, but at the cost of further induced stress on the die. Another issue of MEMS packaging is the media compatibility of the packaged device. MEMS unlike ICS often interface with their environment, which could be high pressure or corrosive. The main conclusion we can draw about MEMS packaging is that the package affects the performance and reliability of the MEMS devices. There is a

  8. Design requirements for SRB production control system. Volume 3: Package evaluation, modification and hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The software package evaluation was designed to analyze commercially available, field-proven, production control or manufacturing resource planning management technology and software package. The analysis was conducted by comparing SRB production control software requirements and conceptual system design to software package capabilities. The methodology of evaluation and the findings at each stage of evaluation are described. Topics covered include: vendor listing; request for information (RFI) document; RFI response rate and quality; RFI evaluation process; and capabilities versus requirements.

  9. Genotoxicity of clays with potential use in biopolymers for food packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Anoop Kumar; Mortensen, Alicja; Hadrup, Niels

    Genotoxicity of clays with potential use in biopolymers for food packaging Plastics produced from biopolymers are of commercial interest as they are manufactured from renewable resources such as agricultural crop wastes and have the potential to meet environmental and health requirements. Biopoly......Genotoxicity of clays with potential use in biopolymers for food packaging Plastics produced from biopolymers are of commercial interest as they are manufactured from renewable resources such as agricultural crop wastes and have the potential to meet environmental and health requirements...... in crude suspensions (suspended in cell culture medium) and crude suspensions filtrated through a 0.2 µm pore size filter in order to investigate the potential effect of “nanoparticles” only. The two clays showed noticeable differences in genotoxicity; both crude and filtered suspensions of Cloisite...

  10. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum IGF-II, CRP levels after treatment in pediatric patients with broncho-pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Chuanbin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II), CRP levels after treatment in pediatric patients with bronchopneumonia. Methods: Serum IGF-II levels were measured with RIA and serum CRP levels with immune method both before and after treatment in 33 pediatric patients with bronchopneumonia and 35 controls. Results: Before treatment the serum levels of IGF-II, CRP were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Determination of serum IGF-II, CRP levels is clinically useful in the management of pediatric patients with bronchopneumonia. (authors)

  11. Clinical significance of determination of serum hypersensitive C reactive protein (HS-CRP) levels in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Chunxi; Zhang Fengju; Wang Kejun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between changes in serum HS-CRP levels and the status of atherosclerotic plaques in patients with ACS. Methods: Serum HS-CRP levels were measured in 35 patients with ACS at admission, 1 week and 1 month later as well as in 30 controls without recent infection. Results: HS-CRP levels in patients with ACS were significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.01). The levels were highest at admission and fell gradually. Conclusion: HS-CRP could be a marker reflecting the status of atherosclerotic plaques in patients with ACS. (authors)

  12. Report revision master: an energy analysis of consumer products packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    This report serves as a foundation for quantifying the potential for energy conservation in the Canadian consumer products packaging sector. Investigation was made of energy consumption, waste management, and energy conservation potential in the various stages of the packaging and consumption process: raw material acquisition, material and packaging manufacture, package filling and distribution, consumer use, post-consumption options (energy recovery, disposal, recycling), and cleaning and transportation (if applicable) between each stage. The food and beverage industry was singled out as the most important sector because of its large consumption of packaging. Significant opportunities for energy conservation were found, although any savings accomplished through packaging changes appear to be difficult to implement. Packaging energy savings seem to be able to be achieved only through a product-by-product, industry-by-industry initiative by means of product and package standardization. An efficient example of this is the milk distribution system, where refillable plastic jugs require only 1.4 MBtu per 3000 quarts delivered (as compared with, for example, 68.9 MBtu for disposable aluminium soft drink cans). Other conclusions are made concerning the optimization of packaging energy, with respect to types of packaging, energy requirements related to use of packaged products, impact of government policies and of retailing techiques, consumer lifestyles, and the like. 95 refs., 3 figs., 54 tabs.

  13. 27 CFR 40.527 - Authorization to package processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authorization to package processed tobacco. 40.527 Section 40.527 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  14. Association of the C-Reactive Protein Gene (CRP rs1205 C>T Polymorphism with Aortic Valve Calcification in Patients with Aortic Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Wypasek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Elevation in C-reactive protein (CRP levels have been shown in patients with aortic valve stenosis (AS. Minor allele of the CRP gene (CRP rs1205 C>T polymorphism has been associated with lower plasma CRP concentrations in cohorts of healthy and atherosclerotic patients. Considering the existing similarities between atherosclerosis and AS, we examined the effect of CRP rs1205 C>T polymorphism on the AS severity. Three hundred consecutive Caucasian patients diagnosed with AS were genotyped for the rs1205 C>T polymorphism using the TaqMan assay. Severity of the AS was assessed using transthoracic echocardiography. The degree of calcification was analyzed semi-quantitatively. Carriers of the rs1205 T allele were characterized by elevated serum CRP levels (2.53 (1.51–3.96 vs. 1.68 (0.98–2.90 mg/L, p < 0.001 and a higher proportion of the severe aortic valve calcification (70.4% vs. 55.1%, p = 0.01 compared with major homozygotes. The effect of CRP rs1205 polymorphism on CRP levels is opposite in AS-affected than in unaffected subjects, suggesting existence of a disease-specific molecular regulatory mechanism. Furthermore, rs1205 variant allele predisposes to larger aortic valve calcification, potentially being a novel genetic risk marker of disease progression.

  15. 75 FR 1596 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status, Reynolds Packaging LLC (Aluminum Foil Liner Stock...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... Status, Reynolds Packaging LLC (Aluminum Foil Liner Stock), Louisville, Kentucky Pursuant to its...-purpose subzone at the aluminum foil liner stock manufacturing and distribution facilities of Reynolds... manufacturing and distribution of aluminum foil liner stock and aluminum foil at the facilities of Reynolds...

  16. Validity and predictive ability of the juvenile arthritis disease activity score based on CRP versus ESR in a Nordic population-based setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordal, E B; Zak, M; Aalto, K

    2012-01-01

    To compare the juvenile arthritis disease activity score (JADAS) based on C reactive protein (CRP) (JADAS-CRP) with JADAS based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (JADAS-ESR) and to validate JADAS in a population-based setting.......To compare the juvenile arthritis disease activity score (JADAS) based on C reactive protein (CRP) (JADAS-CRP) with JADAS based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (JADAS-ESR) and to validate JADAS in a population-based setting....

  17. Study of High Sensitive C-Reactive Protein (HS-CRP) After Cardiac Rehabilitation Program in Patients Undergoing Isolated CABG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari Moghadam, Adel; Azizinejad, Saied

    2016-12-01

    Although cardiac rehabilitation is known as a tool to reduce the overall risk of cardiovascular complications, its specific role in the reduction of hs-CRP as a marker of inflammation and a proven marker of cardiovascular risk needs further investigation. The present study aims at elucidating the effects of a full course of conventional cardiac rehabilitation program for the period of eight weeks, on the levels of hs-CRP in patients who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass surgery. In this case study, 30 consecutive patients who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass surgery (isolated CABGS), and a full 8-week cardiac rehabilitation program in Tehran Heart Center, were investigated. A group of 30 similar patients, who enrolled in the same period of rehabilitation program but did not participate in practice, was considered as a control group. Serum levels of hs-CRP in both groups were measured retrospectively and in similar days before the start of rehabilitation program and at the end of it (or 8 weeks after initial registration for the control group). Levels of hs-CRP in the rehabilitation group and control group were 5.9 7.7 and 6.3 6.9 respectively before start of the program which was not statistically meaningful ( P -Value = 0.833). However, after the program, level of hs-CRP in the two tested groups changed to 2.3 5.1 and 5.7 6.1 respectively which showed a meaningful correlation ( P -Value = 0.023). These results also showed that decrease in hs-CRP level in the rehabilitated group but not in the control group was statistically meaningful (with P -Value of 0.037 and 0.0723 respectively). In patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery, participating in a full course of cardiac rehabilitation for 8 weeks has resulted in a significant reduction in hs-CRP levels as a marker of cardiovascular risk.

  18. Type B plutonium transport package development that uses metallic filaments and composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, J.D.; Moya, J.L.; McClure, J.D.; Hohnstreiter, G.F.; Golliher, K.G.

    1991-01-01

    A new package was developed for transporting Pu and U quantities that are currently carried in DOT-6M packages. It uses double containment with threaded closures and elastomeric seals. A composite overpack of metallic wire mesh and ceramic or quartz cloth insulation is provided for protection in accidents. Two prototypes were subjected to dynamic crush tests. A thermal computer model was developed and benchmarked by test results to predict package behavior in fires. The material performed isotropically in a global fashion. A Type B Pu transport package can be developed for DOE Pu shipments for less than $5000 if manufactured in quantity. 5 figs, 6 refs

  19. Multi-Marker Strategy in Heart Failure: Combination of ST2 and CRP Predicts Poor Outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Dupuy

    Full Text Available Natriuretic peptides (BNP and NT-proBNP are recognized as gold-standard predictive markers in Heart Failure (HF. However, currently ST2 (member of the interleukin 1 receptor family has emerged as marker of inflammation, fibrosis and cardiac stress. We evaluated ST2 and CRP as prognostic markers in 178 patients with chronic heart failure in comparison with other classical markers such as clinical established parameters but also biological markers: NT-proBNP, hs-cTnT alone or in combination. In multivariate analysis, subsequent addition of ST2 led to age, CRP and ST2 as the only remaining predictors of all-cause mortality (HR 1.03, HR 1.61 and HR 2.75, respectively as well as of cardiovascular mortality (HR 1.00, HR 2.27 and HR 3.78, respectively. The combined increase of ST2 and CRP was significant for predicting worsened outcomes leading to identify a high risk subgroup that individual assessment of either marker. The same analysis was performed with ST2 in combination with Barcelona score. Overall, our findings extend previous data demonstrating that ST2 in combination with CRP as a valuable tool for identifying patients at risk of death.

  20. Use and application of gelatin as potential biodegradable packaging materials for food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Hanani, Z A; Roos, Y H; Kerry, J P

    2014-11-01

    The manufacture and potential application of biodegradable films for food application has gained increased interest as alternatives to conventional food packaging polymers due to the sustainable nature associated with their availability, broad and abundant source range, compostability, environmentally-friendly image, compatibility with foodstuffs and food application, etc. Gelatin is one such material and is a unique and popularly used hydrocolloid by the food industry today due to its inherent characteristics, thereby potentially offering a wide range of further and unique industrial applications. Gelatin from different sources have different physical and chemical properties as they contain different amino acid contents which are responsible for the varying characteristics observed upon utilization in food systems and when being utilized more specifically, in the manufacture of films. Packaging films can be successfully produced from all gelatin sources and the behaviour and characteristics of gelatin-based films can be altered through the incorporation of other food ingredients to produce composite films possessing enhanced physical and mechanical properties. This review will present the current situation with respect to gelatin usage as a packaging source material and the challenges that remain in order to move the manufacture of gelatin-based films nearer to commercial reality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical significance of measurement of serum hs-CRP, TNF-α and M-CSF levels after treatment in patients with periodontitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yunming

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the significance of changes of serum hs-CRP, TNF-α and M-CSF levels after treatment in patients with periodontitis. Methods: Serum TNF-α, M-CSF (with RIA), hs-CRP (with immuneturbitity method) levels were determined in 38 patients with periodontitis both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum hs-CRP, TNF-α and M-CSF levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Detection of serum hs-CRP, TNF-α and M-CSF levels might reflect the progress of disease in patients with periodontitis. (authors)

  2. Analysis of relationship between blood lipid metabolism levels and hs-CRP levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Fengjian

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between blood lipid metabolism levels and hs-CRP levels in the patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Methods: The levels of plasma blood lipid (with biochemistry) and serum hs-CRP(with high-sensitive immuno turbidimetry) were determined in 96 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as well as 68 normal controls. Results: The plasma blood lipid levels in 96 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were significantly lower than those in 68 controls, plasma TC and LDL-C levels were not much difference (P>0.05), plasma HDL-C level was significantly difference (P<0.05), but TG and Lp (a) levels were very prominently difference (P<0.01). And the plasma hs-CRP level was significantly increased also (P<0.01). The close relationship was between blood lipid and hs-CRP levels. Conclusion: The study of relationship between blood lipid levels and hs-CRP levels in patients with COPD was helpful for understand the disease process as well as possible mechanisms. (authors)

  3. IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) on 'Analytical and experimental benchmark analyses of accelerator driven systems'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abanades, Alberto [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain); Aliberti, Gerardo; Gohar, Yousry; Talamo, Alberto [ANL, Argonne (United States); Bornos, Victor; Kiyavitskaya, Anna [Joint Institute of Power Eng. and Nucl. Research ' Sosny' , Minsk (Belarus); Carta, Mario [ENEA, Casaccia (Italy); Janczyszyn, Jerzy [AGH-University of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland); Maiorino, Jose [IPEN, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Pyeon, Cheolho [Kyoto University (Japan); Stanculescu, Alexander [IAEA, Vienna (Austria); Titarenko, Yury [ITEP, Moscow (Russian Federation); Westmeier, Wolfram [Wolfram Westmeier GmbH, Ebsdorfergrund (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    In December 2005, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has started a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Analytical and Experimental Benchmark Analyses of Accelerator Driven Systems'. The overall objective of the CRP, performed within the framework of the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWGFR) of IAEA's Nuclear Energy Department, is to increase the capability of interested Member States in developing and applying advanced reactor technologies in the area of long-lived radioactive waste utilization and transmutation. The specific objective of the CRP is to improve the present understanding of the coupling of an external neutron source (e.g. spallation source) with a multiplicative sub-critical core. The participants are performing computational and experimental benchmark analyses using integrated calculation schemes and simulation methods. The CRP aims at integrating some of the planned experimental demonstration projects of the coupling between a sub-critical core and an external neutron source (e.g. YALINA Booster in Belarus, and Kyoto University's Critical Assembly (KUCA)). The objective of these experimental programs is to validate computational methods, obtain high energy nuclear data, characterize the performance of sub-critical assemblies driven by external sources, and to develop and improve techniques for sub-criticality monitoring. The paper summarizes preliminary results obtained to-date for some of the CRP benchmarks. (authors)

  4. Relationship of the Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet and Its Main Components with CRP Levels in the Spanish Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahoz, Carlos; Castillo, Elisa; Mostaza, Jose M; de Dios, Olaya; Salinero-Fort, Miguel A; González-Alegre, Teresa; García-Iglesias, Francisca; Estirado, Eva; Laguna, Fernando; Sanchez, Vanesa; Sabín, Concesa; López, Silvia; Cornejo, Victor; de Burgos, Carmen; Garcés, Carmen

    2018-03-20

    Background: Adherence to a Mediterranean diet seems to be inversely associated with C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration. A 14-point Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS) has been developed to assess dietary compliance. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess whether each of the MEDAS questions as well as their final score were associated with the levels of CRP in general Spanish population. Cross-sectional analysis of 1411 subjects (mean age 61 years, 43.0% males) randomly selected from the general population. CRP levels were determined by a commercial ELISA kit. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was measured by the 14-point MEDAS. Results: There was an inverse correlation between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and the CRP concentration, even after adjusting by age, gender, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, body mass index, statin treatment and hypertension treatment ( p = 0.041). Subjects who consume ≥2 servings of vegetables per day ( p = 0.003), ≥3 pieces of fruit per day ( p = 0.003), ≥1 serving of butter, margarine, or cream per day ( p = 0.041) or ≥3 servings of fish/seafood per week ( p = 0.058) had significantly lower levels of CRP. Conclusions : Adherence to a Mediterranean-type diet measured by a simple questionnaire is associated with lower CRP concentration. However, this association seems to be particularly related to a higher consumption of vegetables, fruits, dairy products, and fish.

  5. Final evaluation report for Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company, ARROW-PAK packaging, Docket 95-40-7A, Type A container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, D.L.

    1995-11-01

    The report documents the U.S. Department of Transportation Specification 7A Type A (DOT-7A) compliance test results of the ARROW-PAK packaging. The ARROW-PAK packaging system consists of Marlex M-8000 Driscopipe (Series 8000 [gas] or Series 8600 [industrial]) resin pipe, manufactured by Phillips-Driscopipe, Inc., and is sealed with two dome-shaped end caps manufactured from the same materials. The patented sealing process involves the use of electrical energy to heat opposing faces of the pipe and end caps, and hydraulic rams to press the heated surfaces together. This fusion process produces a homogeneous bonding of the end cap to the pipe. The packaging may be used with or without the two internal plywood spacers. This packaging was evaluated and tested in October 1995. The packaging configuration described in this report is designed to ship Type A quantities of solid radioactive materials, Form No. 1, Form No. 2, and Form No. 3

  6. Test and evaluation report for Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company, arrow-pak packaging, docket 95-40-7A, type A container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    This report incorporates the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Facility Safety Analysis (DOE/EH-32) approval letter for packaging use. This report documents the U.S. Department of Transportation Specification 7A Type A (DOT-7A) compliance test results of the Arrow-Pak packaging. The Arrow-Pak packaging system consists of Marlex M-8000 Driscopipe, manufactured by Phillips-Driscopipe, Inc., and is sealed with two dome-shaped end caps manufactured from the same materials. The patented sealing process involves the use of electrical energy to heat opposing faces of the pipe and end caps, and hydraulic rams to press the heated surfaces together. This fusion process produces a homogeneous bonding of the end cap to the pipe. The packaging may be used with or without the two internal plywood spacers. This packaging configuration described in this report is designed to ship Type A quantities of solid radioactive materials

  7. Exploiting Nanotechnology and Radiation Technologies to Develop New Eco-Sustainable Nanomaterials for Food Packaging Suitable for Sterilization by Irradiation. Chapter 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestre, C.; Pezzuto, M.; Duraccio, D.; Marra, A.; Cimmino, S. [Istituto di Chimica e Tecnologia dei Polimeri, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerhe, Via Campi Flegrei 34, 80078, Pozzuoli, Napoli (Italy)

    2014-07-15

    The objective of the study is to develop new food packaging nanomaterials based on biopolymers (PLA) to be used in prepackaged foods intended for radiation. The processing conditions were optimized, and the properties of the systems before irradiation were studied. From these studies, the following conclusions were drawn: 1) The final properties of polymer nanocomposites depend on their structure and morphology, and 2) Improved properties can be achieved only if a good dispersion and distribution are realized in the polymer nanomaterials. The team at Istituto di Chimica e Tecnologia dei Polimeri, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerhe (ICTP/CNR) participated in the IAEA CRP on “Application of Radiation Processing Technology in the Development of Advanced Packaging Materials for Food Products”. (author)

  8. Tandem DNA-bound cAMP-CRP complexes are required for transcriptional repression of the deoP2 promoter by the CytR repressor in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte; Møllegaard, N E; Douthwaite, S R

    1990-01-01

    region, and is sufficient for activation; the second site, CRP-2, centred around -93, is indispensable for repression. Here we demonstrate, by means of in vivo titration, that CytR interaction with deoP2 depends not only on CRP-2, but also on CRP-1 and the length and possibly the sequence separating...... these two sites. Also, point mutations in either CRP site reduce or abolish CytR titration; however, no co-operativity is observed in the interaction of CytR with the two CRP binding sites. Furthermore, the reduction in CytR titration parallels the reduction in binding of cAMP-CRP to the mutated CRP sites...

  9. High-sensitive CRP as a predictive marker of long-term outcome in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alberdi-Saugstrup, Mikel; Zak, Marek; Nielsen, Susan

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate whether C-reactive protein (CRP), including variation within the normal range, is predictive of long-term disease outcome in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA). Consecutive patients with newly diagnosed JIA were included prospectively from defined geographic areas of the Nordic...... countries from 1997 to 2000. Inclusion criteria were availability of a baseline serum sample within 12 months after disease onset and 8-year clinical assessment data. Systemic onset JIA was not included. CRP was measured by high-sensitive ELISA (detection limit of 0.2 mg/l). One hundred and thirty...... participants with a median follow-up time of 97 months (range 95–100) were included. At follow-up, 38% of the patients were in remission off medication. Absence of remission was associated with elevated level of CRP at baseline (odds ratio (OR) 1.33, confidence interval (CI) 1.08–1.63, p = 0.007). By applying...

  10. Assessment of prescribing information for generic drugs manufactured in the Middle East and marketed in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebran, N.; Al-Haldari, K.

    2006-01-01

    Little research has assessed the quality of manufacturer provided prescribing information or documented difference in key aspects of drug information among different marketed generic products of the same drug particularly in Middle East and Arabian Gulf. We assessed the quality of written prescribing information for selected generic drugs marketed in Saudi Arabia and manufactured in various countries of Middle East. We assessed the correctness and completeness of information pertaining to indications, dosage cautions/contraindications, side effects and drug interactions in 37 packages inserts for generic products registered in Saudi Arabia and manufactured in the Middle East, including atenolol (6 inserts), fluoxetine (4 inserts), ciprofloxacin (11 inserts), melformin (7 inserts) and omeprazole (9 inserts). We also described deficiencies in quality and quantity of manufacturers provided information that could be misleading to patients and prescribes. We found substantial disagreement in information between generic packages inserts versus the British National Formulary and the package insert of the brand product marketed in Saudi Arabia. A cumulative average of 63.16% of drug information indicators were in agreement with these standard references. Section headings with the least conformity with study references were those related to dosage (57, 28%) and side effects (54+-30%). Our results indicate that national authorities should implement appropriate measures aimed at removing misleading and incorrect information in generic package inserts and incorporating crucial prescribing information that is missing. National authorities in the Middle East and Arabian Gulf should strengthen collaboration and information interchange among each other and with international agencies to maintain common quality standards for delivering information through package inserts. (author)

  11. Clinical Significance of Determination of the Serum Levels of NT-proBNP and hs-CRP in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Zhaojun; Zheng Jing; Sun Weili; Yuan Yuan; Tao Jian; Li Weipeng

    2010-01-01

    To explore the clinical significance the serum levels of N-Terminal proB-Type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in patients with acute coronary syndrome,the serum levels of NT-proBNP and hs-CRP in patients and normal controls were determined by ECi Immunity Analyzer and radioimmunoassay respectively. The results showed that the serum levels of NT-proBNP and hs-CRP in patients with acute coronary syndrome were significantly higher than that of controls (P<0.05). The diagnostic specificity for acute coronary syndrome was 100% by combined detection of NT-proBNP and hs-CRP. The results suggest that the combined detection of serum NT-proBNP and hs-CRP levels are very important to evaluate heart function in patients with acute coronary syndrome. (authors)

  12. Correlation of Serum Levels of Vitronectin, Malondialdehyde and Hs-CRP With Disease Severity in Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Yaghoubi

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: The association and correlation between VN, MDA and hs-CRP indicate their involvement in the atherosclerosis process that may lead to progression of CAD. Also, these findings suggested that serum levels of VN, MDA and hs-CRP can help as diagnostic and monitoring markers in CAD patients and as markers of disease severity.

  13. Integrated microfluidic system for rapid screening of CRP aptamers utilizing systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao-June; Lin, Hsin-I; Shiesh, Shu-Chu; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2010-03-15

    The systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) is an experimental procedure that allows screening of given molecular targets by desired binding affinities from an initial random pool of oligonucleotides and oligomers. The final products of SELEX are usually referred as aptamers, which are recognized as promising molecules for a variety of biomedical applications. However, SELEX is an iterative process requiring multiple rounds of extraction and amplification that demands significant time and labor. Therefore, this study presents a novel, automatic, miniature SELEX platform. As a demonstration, the rapid screening of C-reactive protein (CRP) aptamers was performed. By utilizing microfluidic technologies and magnetic beads conjugated with CRP, aptamers with a high affinity to CRP were extracted from a random single-strand deoxyribonucleic acid (ssDNA) pool. These aptamers were further amplified by an on-chip polymerase chain reaction (PCR) process. After five consecutive extraction and amplification cycles, a specific aptamer with the highest affinity was screened automatically. The screened aptamers were used as a recognition molecule for the detection of CRP. The developed microsystem demonstrated fast screening of CRP aptamers and can be used as a powerful tool to select analyte-specific aptamers for biomedical applications. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The traveller: a new look for PWR fresh fuel packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayley, B.; Stilwell, W.E.; Kent, N.A.

    2004-01-01

    The Traveller PWR fresh fuel shipping package represents a radical departure from conventional PWR fuel package designs. This paper follows the development effort from the establishment of goals and objectives, to intermediate testing and analysis, to final testing and licensing. The discussion starts with concept origination and covers the myriad iterations that followed until arriving at a design that would meet the demanding licensing requirements, last for 30 years, and would be easy to load and unload fuel, easy to handle, inexpensive to manufacture and transport, and simple and inexpensive to maintain

  15. Report on the Development of a Close Range Photogrammetry (CRP) Educational Technician Program (Museum and Archive Use).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobelin, Joel

    A close range photogrammetry (CRP) technician training program was developed at Miami-Dade Community College and used to teach the technology to 16 students. Although the results of the study show that it is possible to teach CRP in a two-year program, the technology is too new in the United States to support a sustaining educational program. The…

  16. Time dependent transition of the levels of protein-conjugated acrolein (PC-Acro), IL-6 and CRP in plasma during stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Madoka; Kato, Naoki; Uemura, Takeshi; Mizoi, Mutsumi; Nakamura, Mizuho; Saiki, Ryotaro; Hatano, Keisuke; Sato, Kunitomo; Kakizaki, Shota; Nakamura, Aya; Ishii, Takuya; Terao, Tohru; Murayama, Yuichi; Kashiwagi, Keiko; Igarashi, Kazuei

    2017-06-01

    Measurement of plasma levels of protein-conjugated acrolein (PC-Acro) together with IL-6 and CRP can be used to identify silent brain infarction (SBI) with high sensitivity and specificity. The aim of this study was to determine how these biomarkers vary during stroke. Levels of PC-Acro, IL-6 and CRP in plasma were measured on day 0, 2, 7 and 14 after the onset of ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. After the onset of stroke, the level of PC-Acro in plasma was elevated corresponding to the size of stroke. It returned to near control levels by day 2, and remained similar through day 14. The degree of the decrease in PC-Acro on day 2 was greater when the size of brain infarction or hemorrhage was larger. An increase in IL-6 and CRP occurred after the increase in PC-Acro, and it was well correlated with the size of the injury following infarction or hemorrhage. The results suggest that acrolein becomes a trigger for the production of IL-6 and CRP, as previously observed in a mouse model of stroke and in cell culture systems. The increase in IL-6 and CRP was also correlated with poor outcome judging from mRS. The results indicate that the degree of the decrease in PC-Acro and the increase in IL-6 and CRP from day 0 to day 2 was correlated with the size of brain infarction, and the increase in IL-6 and CRP with poor outcome at discharge.

  17. ADA 和 CRP 在结核性脑膜炎和化脓性脑膜炎诊断中的应用%Application of ADA and CRP in the Diagnosis of Tuberculous Meningitis and Purulent Meningitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄赟; 黄仕辉; 徐荣金

    2016-01-01

    Objective Through the detection of meningitis patients blood and CSF (cerebrospinal fluid)in Ada (ADA)con-tent detected at the same time,blood CRP (C -reactive protein)content,for differential diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis and purulent meningitis.Method The blood and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with tuberculous meningitis and purulent meningitis in our hospital were detected by ADA and CRP.Meanwhile,The detection results of ADA and CRP were compared and analyzed with the control group of virus and other meningitis.Results By comparing the tuberculous and pyogenic meningitis and the con-trol group,blood and CSF of ADA content was significantly higher in patients with tuberculous meningitis,and the difference was quite obvious.When P <0.05,there was statistic significance;compared with tuberculousmeningitis and matched groups,CPR content in the blood of Purulen meningitis patient was obviously higher and the difference was quite distinctive.When P <0.05, there was statistic significance.Conclusion ADA joint CRP detection of early differential diagnosis of tuberculous and pyogenic meningitis has great value.%目的:通过检测脑膜炎患者血液和 CSF(脑脊液)中的 ADA(腺苷脱氨酶)含量,同时检测患者血液中的CRP(C -反应蛋白)含量,用以鉴别结核性脑膜炎和化脓性脑膜炎。方法:选取儿科结核性脑膜炎和化脓性脑膜炎患者的血及脑脊液作 ADA 和血 CRP 进行生化检测,同时以病毒性及其他脑膜炎作对照组,对 ADA 和 CRP 的检测结果进行比对分析。结果:通过对结核性和化脓性及对照组脑膜炎的比较,结核性脑膜炎患者血和 CSF 中的 ADA 含量明显增高,差异明显,具有统计学意义(P <0.05);CRP 在化脓性脑膜炎患者血液中的含量较结核性和对照组明显增加,差异明显,具有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论:ADA 联合 CRP 检测对早期鉴别诊断结核性与化脓性脑膜炎有较大价值。

  18. Prediction of drug-packaging interactions via molecular dynamics (MD) simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, Peter; Brunsteiner, Michael; Khinast, Johannes

    2012-07-15

    The interaction between packaging materials and drug products is an important issue for the pharmaceutical industry, since during manufacturing, processing and storage a drug product is continuously exposed to various packaging materials. The experimental investigation of a great variety of different packaging material-drug product combinations in terms of efficacy and safety can be a costly and time-consuming task. In our work we used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in order to evaluate the applicability of such methods to pre-screening of the packaging material-solute compatibility. The solvation free energy and the free energy of adsorption of diverse solute/solvent/solid systems were estimated. The results of our simulations agree with experimental values previously published in the literature, which indicates that the methods in question can be used to semi-quantitatively reproduce the solid-liquid interactions of the investigated systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 27 CFR 19.402 - Inventories of bottled and packaged spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories of bottled and... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Processing Operations Other Than Denaturation and Manufacture of Articles Inventories § 19.402 Inventories of bottled and packaged...

  20. Clinical application of combined detection of serum hs-CRP, GMP-140 and cTnI in patients with coronary heart diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Jibao; Wu Zhaozeng

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum hs-CRP, GMP-140 and cTnI levels in patients with coronary heart diseases. Methods: Serum GMP-140 (with RIA), cTnI (with ELISA) and hs-CRP (with immuno turbidity method) levels were determined in 91 patients with coronary heart diseases (42 SAP, 34UAP, 15AMI) and 35 controls. Results: Serum hs-CRP, GMP-140, cTnI levels in patients with coronary heart diseases were significantly higher than those in controls (P <0.01). Among the patients with of coronary heart diseases, the magnitude of changes of the levels of serum hs-CRP, GMP-140 and cTnI levels in AMI and UAP groups were significantly larger than those in SAP group (P < 0.05). Serum hs-CRP levels were positively correlated with serum GMP-140 and cTnI levels (r = 0.6214, 0.6023, P < 0.01). Conclusion: Serum hs-CRP, GMP140 and cTnI levels were closely related to the diseases process of coronary heart diseases and were of great clinical importance for assessment of the disease and outcome prediction. (authors)

  1. Is DAS28-CRP with three and four variables interchangeable in individual patients selected for biological treatment in daily clinical practice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Rintek

    2011-01-01

    DAS28 is a widely used composite score for the assessment of disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is often used as a treatment decision tool in the daily clinic. Different versions of DAS28 are available. DAS28-CRP(3) is calculated based on three variables: swollen...... and tender joint counts and CRP. DAS28-CRP(4) also includes patient global assessment. Thresholds for low and high disease activity are the same for the two scores. Based on the Bland-Altman method, the interchangeability between DAS28-CRP with three and four variables was examined in 319 RA patients...... selected for initiating biological treatment. Data were extracted from the Danish registry for biological treatment in rheumatology (DANBIO). Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the predictability of the DAS28 scores by several measures of disease activity. The overall mean DAS28-CRP was 4...

  2. Correlation of Progranulin, Granulin, Adiponectin and Vaspin with Metaflammation (hs-CRP in Indonesian Obese Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalia E Napitupulu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is closely related to chronic, low grade systemic inflammation (metaflammation and it leads to further metabolic complications such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, and type 2 diabetes due to the adipocytokine imbalance. This study was carried out to assess the correlation between progranulin, granulin, adiponectin and visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor (Vaspin with metaflammation (high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP in centrally obese men. METHODS: This study was observational with a cross sectional design involving 60 men aged 30-60 years, consisted of 43 obese men (waist circumference (WC ≥90 cm and 13 non obese men (WC 105 cm. CONCLUSIONS: We found metaflammation (hs-CRP was significantly correlated with Vaspin, but not with progranulin, granulin and adiponectin, in obese men. We suggest the possibility of a dynamic expression of adipokines related to WC that are subjected to adipocytes hypertrophy-hyperplasia phenomenon. KEYWORDS: progranulin, granulin, adiponectin, Vaspin, hs-CRP, metaflammation, central obesity.

  3. Clinical significance of changes of serum hs-CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α levels after treatment in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Wen; Wang Ying

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum hs-CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α levels in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Methods: Serum hs-CRP (with immuno turbidity method), IL-6, TNF-α (with RIA) levels were determined in 31 patients with polycystic ovary syndrome both before and after six, month's treatment as well as 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum hs-CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α levels in the 31 patients with polycystic ovary syndrome were significantly higher than those in controls (P 0.05). Serum hs-CRP levels were positive correlate with serum IL-6, TNF-α levels (r=0.6014, 0.5982, P<0.01). Conclusion: Serum hs-CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α levels were correlated to the development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). (authors)

  4. BfR removes anthraquinone from its list of recommendations for food packaging

    OpenAIRE

    German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment

    2013-01-01

    The substance anthraquinone is used in the production of paper and cardboard, including food packaging. Anthraquinone contained in the packaging can contaminate food. The Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) took the publication of an expert opinion of the European Food Safety Agency (EFSA) published in 2012 as an opportunity to reassess the use of anthraquinone in the manufacture of paper intended for food contact. In its opinion on anthraquinone as an active pesticide ingredient,...

  5. A mutant crp allele that differentially activates the operons of the fuc regulon in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y; Lin, E C

    1988-05-01

    L-Fucose is used by Escherichia coli through an inducible pathway mediated by a fucP-encoded permease, a fucI-encoded isomerase, a fucK-encoded kinase, and a fucA-encoded aldolase. The adolase catalyzes the formation of dihydroxyacetone phosphate and L-lactaldehyde. Anaerobically, lactaldehyde is converted by a fucO-encoded oxidoreductase to L-1,2-propanediol, which is excreted. The fuc genes belong to a regulon comprising four linked operons: fucO, fucA, fucPIK, and fucR. The positive regulator encoded by fucR responds to fuculose 1-phosphate as the effector. Mutants serially selected for aerobic growth on propanediol became constitutive in fucO and fucA [fucO(Con) fucA(Con)], but noninducible in fucPIK [fucPIK(Non)]. An external suppressor mutation that restored growth on fucose caused constitutive expression of fucPIK. Results from this study indicate that this suppressor mutation occurred in crp, which encodes the cyclic AMP-binding (or receptor) protein. When the suppressor allele (crp-201) was transduced into wild-type strains, the recipient became fucose negative and fucose sensitive (with glycerol as the carbon and energy source) because of impaired expression of fucA. The fucPIK operon became hyperinducible. The growth rate on maltose was significantly reduced, but growth on L-rhamnose, D-galactose, L-arabinose, glycerol, or glycerol 3-phosphate was close to normal. Lysogenization of fuc+ crp-201 cells by a lambda bacteriophage bearing crp+ restored normal growth ability on fucose. In contrast, lysogenization of [fucO(Con)fucA(Con)fucPIK(Non)crp-201] cells by the same phage retarded their growth on fucose.

  6. Quality assurance requirements for packaging and transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, R.F.; MacDonald, C.E.; Doda, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    This paper discusses the new quality assurance regulations of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for packaging and transportation of radioactive materials. These regulations became effective on October 18, 1977. Background information concerning these regulations and packaging and transportation history is included. The quality assurance program is described with indications of how it is composed of general (administrative) provisions which must meet the 18 quality assurance criteria and be approved by the NRC; specific provisions which appear in the DOT and NRC regulations and in the individual package design approval; and other specific procedures which are not required by regulations but which are necessary for the proper control of quality. The quality assurance program is to be developed using a graded approach for the application of pertinent criteria and optimizing the required degree of safety and control efforts involved in achieving this level of safety. The licensee-user is responsible for all phases of quality assurance for packaging activities including: design, manufacture, test, use, maintenance and repair. The package design phase is considered to be particularly important in producing adequate safety in operational activities concerning packaging and transportation of radioactive materials

  7. The Effect of Epoxy Molding Compound Floor Life to Reliability Performance and mold ability for QFN Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanpunga, Udom; Ugsornrat, Kessararat; Thorlor, Panakamol; Sumithpibul, Chalermsak

    2017-09-01

    This research studied about an epoxy molding compound (EMC) floor life to reliability performance of integrated circuit (IC) package. Molding is the process for protecting the die of IC package form mechanical and chemical reaction from external environment by shaping EMC. From normal manufacturing process, the EMC is stored in the frozen at 5oC and left at around room temperature for aging time or floor life before molding process. The EMC floor life effect to its properties and reliability performance of IC package. Therefore, this work interested in varied the floor life of EMC before molding process to analyze properties of EMC such as spiral flow length, gelation time, and viscosity. In experiment, the floor life of EMC was varied to check the effect of its property to reliability performance. The EMC floor life were varied from 0 hours to 60 hours with a step of 12 hours and observed wire sweep, incomplete EMC, and delamination inside the packages for 3x3, 5x5 and 8x8 mm2 of QFN packages. The evaluation showed about clearly effect of EMC floor life to IC packaging reliability. EMC floor life is not any concern for EMC property, moldabilty, and reliability from 0 hours to 48 hours for molding process of 3x3,5x5 and 8x8 mm2 QFN packaging manufacturing

  8. TECHNICAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS OF PACKAGING PRODUCTION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rudawska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to customer driven economies, today’s world markets are characterized by high fluctuations in market demand and the frequent arrival of new technologies and new products. To stay competitive in such markets manufacturing companies require continuous improvements both in technical and organizational areas of their activity. The paper presents results of the diagnosis provided in the manufacturing area of the company producing cardboard packages and recommendations to make the production process more efficient. Especially, among the proposed technical and organizational recommendations the most important ones are: automation of certain elements of the production process and changes in production plant layout.

  9. Elevated levels of Hs-CRP and IL-6 after delivery are associated with depression during the 6 months post partum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Zhang, Yang; Gao, Yutao; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2016-09-30

    The objective of this study is to determine whether inflammatory markers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) and interleukin (IL)-6) early in the postpartum period contribute to the development of postpartum depression (PPD). From 4 May 2014 to 30 June 2014, all eligible women not on medication for depression giving birth at the Beijing Chao-Yang hospital were consecutively recruited and followed up for 6 months. Depression symptoms were measured with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and inflammatory biomarkers (Hs-CRP and IL-6) were tested. During the study period, 296 women were enrolled and completed follow-up. In these women, 45 (15.2%) were considered as meeting the criteria for PPD. Serum levels of Hs-CRP and IL-6 in women with PPD were significantly higher than those without PPD (all P<0.0001). Receiver operating characteristics to predict PPD demonstrated areas under the curve of IL-6 of 0.861 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.801-0.922), which was superior to Hs-CRP (0.837 (95% CI, 0.781-0.894), P<0.01). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, IL-6 and Hs-CRP were independent predictors of PPD. The present study demonstrates a strong relationship between elevated serum Hs-CRP and IL-6 levels at admission and the development of PPD within 6 months. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hidden costs of antiretroviral treatment: the public health efficiency of drug packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu-Crespo, Àngels; Llibre, Josep M; Cardona-Peitx, Glòria; Sala-Piñol, Ferran; Clotet, Bonaventura; Bonafont-Pujol, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    While the overall percentage of unused antiretroviral medicines returned to the hospital pharmacy is low, their cost is quite high. Adverse events, treatment failure, pharmacokinetic interactions, pregnancy, or treatment simplification are common reasons for unplanned treatment changes. Socially inefficient antiretroviral packages prevent the reuse of drugs returned to the hospital pharmacy. We defined antiretroviral package categories based on the excellence of drug packaging and analyzed the number of pills and costs of drugs returned during a period of 1 year in a hospital-based HIV unit attending to 2,413 treated individuals. A total of 6,090 pills (34% of all returned antiretrovirals) - with a cost of 47,139.91 € - would be totally lost, mainly due to being packed up in the lowest efficiency packages. Newer treatments are packaged in low-excellence categories of packages, thus favoring the maintenance of these hidden costs in the near future. Therefore, costs of this low-efficiency drug packaging, where medication packages are started but not completed, in high-cost medications are substantial and should be properly addressed. Any improvement in the packaging by the manufacturer, and favoring the choice of drugs supplied through efficient packages (when efficacy, toxicity, and convenience are similar), should minimize the treatment expenditures paid by national health budgets.

  11. Development of the advanced package system for miscellaneous LLW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, K.

    1991-01-01

    Miscellaneous LLW (low-level radioactive miscellaneous solid wastes) such as parts of machines, pieces of piping, HEPA filter, incineration ashes from nuclear power plants will be disposed in shallow land after stuffing into 200 liter steel drums. The package system of these miscellaneous LLW is required to contain such radionuclides as 14 C, 137 Cs and etc. for a few hundred years. The advanced package system for miscellaneous LLW has been developed. This package system is composed of steel drums with resin mortar inner liner and non shrinkage fills with high flowability. Resin mortar liners have stronger water permeability resistance and higher compressive strength than other cement mortars. Strong water permeability resistance of resin mortar liners prevent underground water from infiltration into fills and solid wastes. On the other hand, as the high flowabilities and non shrinkage of this fills give very low gross void fraction of the package system and have strong adsorption ability of radionuclides. In addition, steel drums with resin mortar inner liners have merits in their high density, uniformity and simplicity in manufacturing. Consequently, this package system is promising candidate barrier for the containment of radionuclides from miscellaneous LLW. (J.P.N.)

  12. NASA, We Have a Challenge and It's Food Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Current Packaging: Freeze Dried Foods Packaging ? The thermoformed base is fabricated from Combitherm PAXX230 [a coextrusion of nylon/medium-density polyethylene (MDPE)/nylon/ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVOH)/nylon/MDPE/linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE)]. ? The lid is fabricated from Combitherm PAXX115 (a coextrusion of nylon/EVOH/nylon/LF adhesive/HV polyethylene/LLDPE) ? Natural form (Bite size) foods ? The bite-size food package is fabricated from Combitherm PAXX115, a coextrusion of nylon/EVOH/nylon/LF adhesive/HV polyethylene/LLDPE. ? Overwrap ? Packages are wrapped in a white pouch,.003-mm thick, fabricated from a laminate of polyester/polyethylene/aluminum foil/Surlyn®. This overwrap is removed before the food is prepared and heated. Requirements ? High barrier packaging - low oxygen and water vapor transmission rates ? No aluminum layer ? Mass - Retortable, microwavable, high pressure use. Small Business Innovative Research Program - 7 years ? 8 Phase I contracts ? 4 Phase II contracts ? Two workshops to bring together food packaging experts ? Three internal research tasks ? Public Outreach - average of 3 presentations/yr. for 8 years describing NASA's challenges ? Department of Defense Collaboration - Combat Feeding Program No significant improvement in food packaging capabilities after these efforts. It was unlikely that a food packaging solution could be found within the food science community ? There was a need to go outside to other industries such as pharmaceutical or electrical ? Although a positive result was preferred, a negative result would also be useful ? Two Innovation Techniques were used as a comparison ? InnoCentive - Theoretical Challenge to identify new technologies ? Yet2.com - A matchmaker between NASA and commercial packaging manufacturers

  13. Association of Irisin and CRP Levels with the Radiographic Severity of Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yongtao; Xu, Wei; Xie, Zonggang; Dong, Qirong

    2016-02-01

    Irisin, a recently identified myokine, is implicated in protecting mice from obesity. This study was designed to examine the relation of irisin levels in serum and synovial fluid (SF) with the radiographic severity of osteoarthritis (OA). Our study included 215 patients with knee OA. Irisin levels in serum and SF were evaluated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The progression of OA was assessed using Kellgren-Lawrence grading system. Knee OA patients had lower serum irisin concentrations and increased serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels compared with healthy controls. There were markedly decreased irisin levels in both the serum and the SF, as well as increased serum CRP levels of knee OA patients with Kellgren and Lawrence (KL) grade 4 compared with patients classified as KL grade 2 and 3. Furthermore, patients with KL grade 3 showed markedly reduced serum and SF levels of irisin, as well as increased serum CRP levels compared with patients classified as KL grade 2. Irisin levels in serum and SF of knee OA patients were negatively correlated with disease severity evaluated by KL grading criteria. Irisin levels in the serum and SF of knee OA patients were negatively correlated with disease severity evaluated by the radiographic KL grading criteria.

  14. The association of C-reactive protein and CRP genotype with coronary heart disease: findings from five studies with 4,610 cases amongst 18,637 participants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie A Lawlor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether C-reactive protein (CRP is causally related to coronary heart disease (CHD. Genetic variants that are known to be associated with CRP levels can be used to provide causal inference of the effect of CRP on CHD. Our objective was to examine the association between CRP genetic variant +1444C>T (rs1130864 and CHD risk in the largest study to date of this association. METHODS AND RESULTS: We estimated the association of CRP genetic variant +1444C>T (rs1130864 with CRP levels and with CHD in five studies and then pooled these analyses (N = 18,637 participants amongst whom there were 4,610 cases. CRP was associated with potential confounding factors (socioeconomic position, physical activity, smoking and body mass whereas genotype (rs1130864 was not associated with these confounders. The pooled odds ratio of CHD per doubling of circulating CRP level after adjustment for age and sex was 1.13 (95%CI: 1.06, 1.21, and after further adjustment for confounding factors it was 1.07 (95%CI: 1.02, 1.13. Genotype (rs1130864 was associated with circulating CRP; the pooled ratio of geometric means of CRP level among individuals with the TT genotype compared to those with the CT/CC genotype was 1.21 (95%CI: 1.15, 1.28 and the pooled ratio of geometric means of CRP level per additional T allele was 1.14 (95%CI: 1.11, 1.18, with no strong evidence in either analyses of between study heterogeneity (I(2 = 0%, p>0.9 for both analyses. There was no association of genotype (rs1130864 with CHD: pooled odds ratio 1.01 (95%CI: 0.88, 1.16 comparing individuals with TT genotype to those with CT/CC genotype and 0.96 (95%CI: 0.90, 1.03 per additional T allele (I(20.6 for both meta-analyses. An instrumental variables analysis (in which the proportion of CRP levels explained by rs1130864 was related to CHD suggested that circulating CRP was not associated with CHD: the odds ratio for a doubling of CRP level was 1.04 (95%CI: 0.61, 1.80. CONCLUSIONS

  15. Osteoprotegerin improves risk detection by traditional cardiovascular risk factors and hsCRP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogelvang, Rasmus; Haahr-Pedersen, Sune Ammentorp; Bjerre, Mette

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the association of plasma osteoprotegerin (OPG) to hospitalisation for ischaemic heart disease (IHD), ischaemic stroke and all-cause mortality, and the effect of combining plasma OPG and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)....

  16. Clinical significance of determination of serum hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and E-selectin levels in patients with coronary heart diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Chunxiu

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the significance of determination of serum contents of hs-CRP and E-Selectin in patients with coronary heart diseases (CHD). Methods: Serum hs-CRP Contents were determined with immuno-turbidity and E-Selectin contents were determined with ELISA in 58 patients with CHD (35SAP, 20UAP, 13AMI) and 35 controls. Results: Serum levels of hs-CRP and E-Selectin in CHD patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: The serum levels of hs-CRP and E-Selectin were correlated to the development of CHD, but not to the coronary artery calibers. (authors)

  17. Utilizing an Adaptive Grey Model for Short-Term Time Series Forecasting: A Case Study of Wafer-Level Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Jung Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The wafer-level packaging process is an important technology used in semiconductor manufacturing, and how to effectively control this manufacturing system is thus an important issue for packaging firms. One way to aid in this process is to use a forecasting tool. However, the number of observations collected in the early stages of this process is usually too few to use with traditional forecasting techniques, and thus inaccurate results are obtained. One potential solution to this problem is the use of grey system theory, with its feature of small dataset modeling. This study thus uses the AGM(1,1 grey model to solve the problem of forecasting in the pilot run stage of the packaging process. The experimental results show that the grey approach is an appropriate and effective forecasting tool for use with small datasets and that it can be applied to improve the wafer-level packaging process.

  18. High-sensitivity c-reactive protein (hs-CRP) value with 90 days mortality in patients with heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nursyamsiah; Hasan, R.

    2018-03-01

    Hospitalization in patients with chronic heart failure is associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity that during treatment and post-treatment. Despite the various therapies available today, mortality and re-hospitalization rates within 60 to 90 days post-hospitalization are still quite high. This period is known as the vulnerable phase. With the prognostic evaluation tools in patients with heart failure are expected to help identify high-risk individuals, then more rigorous monitoring and interventions can be undertaken. To determine whether hs-CRP have an impact on mortality within 90 days in hospitalized patients with heart failure, an observational cohort study was conducted in 39 patients with heart failure who were hospitalized due to worsening chronic heart failure. Patients were followed for up to 90 days after initial evaluation with the primary endpoint is death. Hs-CRP value >4.25 mg/L we found 70% was dead and hs-CRP value <4.25 mg/L only 6.9% was dead whereas the survival within 90 days. p:0.000.In conclusion, there were differences in hs-CRP values between in patients with heart failure who died and survival within 90 days.

  19. 21 CFR 701.12 - Name and place of business of manufacturer, packer, or distributor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Name and place of business of manufacturer, packer, or distributor. 701.12 Section 701.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... business of manufacturer, packer, or distributor. (a) The label of a cosmetic in package form shall specify...

  20. Why cellular communication during plant reproduction is particularly mediated by CRP signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bircheneder, Susanne; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Secreted cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs) represent one of the main classes of signalling peptides in plants. Whereas post-translationally modified small non-CRP peptides (psNCRPs) are mostly involved in signalling events during vegetative development and interactions with the environment, CRPs are overrepresented in reproductive processes including pollen germination and growth, self-incompatibility, gamete activation and fusion as well as seed development. In this opinion paper we compare the involvement of both types of peptides in vegetative and reproductive phases of the plant lifecycle. Besides their conserved cysteine pattern defining structural features, CRPs exhibit hypervariable primary sequences and a rapid evolution rate. As a result, CRPs represent a pool of highly polymorphic signalling peptides involved in species-specific functions during reproduction and thus likely represent key players to trigger speciation in plants by supporting reproductive isolation. In contrast, precursers of psNCRPs are proteolytically processed into small functional domains with high sequence conservation and act in more general processes. We discuss parallels in downstream processes of CRP signalling in both reproduction and defence against pathogenic fungi and alien pollen tubes, with special emphasis on the role of ROS and ion channels. In conclusion we suggest that CRP signalling during reproduction in plants has evolved from ancient defence mechanisms. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Obesity, Inflammation and Acute Myocardial Infarction - Expression of leptin, IL-6 and high sensitivity-CRP in Chennai based population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendran Karthick

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity, characterised by increased fat mass and is currently regarded as a pro-inflammatory state and often associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD including Myocardial infarction. There is an upregulation of inflammatory markers such as interleukin-6, interleukin-6 receptor and acute phase protein CRP in Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI patients but the exact mechanism linking obesity and inflammation is not known. It is of our interest to investigate if serum leptin (ob gene product is associated with AMI and correlated with inflammatory proteins namely Interleukin-6 (IL-6 and high sensitivity - C reactive protein (hs-CRP. Results Serum leptin levels were significantly higher in AMI patients when compared to Non-CVD controls. IL-6 and hs-CRP were also elevated in the AMI group and leptin correlated positively with IL-6 and hs-CRP. Incidentally this is the first report from Chennai based population, India. Conclusions The strong correlation between serum levels of leptin and IL-6 implicates an involvement of leptin in the upregulation of inflammatory cytokines during AMI. We hypothesise that the increase in values of IL-6, hs-CRP and their correlation to leptin in AMI patients could be due to participation of leptin in the signaling cascade after myocardial ischemia.

  2. Obesity, Inflammation and Acute Myocardial Infarction - Expression of leptin, IL-6 and high sensitivity-CRP in Chennai based population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Karthick; Devarajan, Nalini; Ganesan, Manohar; Ragunathan, Malathi

    2012-08-14

    Obesity, characterised by increased fat mass and is currently regarded as a pro-inflammatory state and often associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) including Myocardial infarction. There is an upregulation of inflammatory markers such as interleukin-6, interleukin-6 receptor and acute phase protein CRP in Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) patients but the exact mechanism linking obesity and inflammation is not known. It is of our interest to investigate if serum leptin (ob gene product) is associated with AMI and correlated with inflammatory proteins namely Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and high sensitivity - C reactive protein (hs-CRP). Serum leptin levels were significantly higher in AMI patients when compared to Non-CVD controls. IL-6 and hs-CRP were also elevated in the AMI group and leptin correlated positively with IL-6 and hs-CRP. Incidentally this is the first report from Chennai based population, India. The strong correlation between serum levels of leptin and IL-6 implicates an involvement of leptin in the upregulation of inflammatory cytokines during AMI. We hypothesise that the increase in values of IL-6, hs-CRP and their correlation to leptin in AMI patients could be due to participation of leptin in the signaling cascade after myocardial ischemia.

  3. Correlation of hs-CRP with environmental risk factors of nephropathy in type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Prakash Sah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the association of hs-CRP levels with environmental risk factors of diabetic nephropathy like smoking, drinking alcohol, diet, age of diabetic patient, duration of diabetes, medication of diabetes, and blood pressure medication. A hospital-based quantitative study was conducted at the Department of Clinical Biochemistry of Manipal Teaching Hospital (MTH Pokhara, Nepal, with 89 patients suffering from type 2 diabetes. Blood samples (n=89 from the patients were collected and the serums were separated. On the other hand, data on environmental risk factors of nephropathy were collected by using standard questionnaire. In this study, serum hs-CRP level was not found to be correlated with smoking (p=0.111, alcohol consumption (p=0.722, diet (p=0.496, duration of diabetes (p=0.519, age of diabetic patient (p=0.369, medication of diabetes (p=0.734, and blood pressure medication (p=0.625. Hence, our study concludes that serum hs-CRP value in type 2 diabetic patients is insignificantly correlated with the risk factors especially smoking, drinking alcohol, diet, duration of diabetes, age of diabetic patient, medication of diabetes, and medication of blood pressure.

  4. Long-Term Waste Package Degradation Studies at the Yucca Mountain Potential High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mon, K. G.; Bullard, B. E.; Longsine, D. E.; Mehta, S.; Lee, J. H.; Monib, A. M.

    2002-01-01

    The Site Recommendation (SR) process for the potential repository for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level nuclear waste (HLW) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada is underway. Fulfillment of the requirements for substantially complete containment of the radioactive waste emplaced in the potential repository and subsequent slow release of radionuclides from the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) into the geosphere will rely on a robust waste container design, among other EBS components. Part of the SR process involves sensitivity studies aimed at elucidating which model parameters contribute most to the drip shield and waste package degradation characteristics. The model parameters identified included (a) general corrosion rate model parameters (temperature-dependence and uncertainty treatment), and (b) stress corrosion cracking (SCC) model parameters (uncertainty treatment of stress and stress intensity factor profiles in the Alloy 22 waste package outer barrier closure weld regions, the SCC initiation stress threshold, and the fraction of manufacturing flaws oriented favorably for through-wall penetration by SCC). These model parameters were reevaluated and new distributions were generated. Also, early waste package failures due to improper heat treatment were added to the waste package degradation model. The results of these investigations indicate that the waste package failure profiles are governed by the manufacturing flaw orientation model parameters and models used

  5. Ultra-Sensitive C-Reactive Protein (US-CRP) in Patients With Periodontal Disease and Risk of Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriza, Catalina Latorre; Arregoces, Francina Escobar; Porras, Juliana Velosa; Camargo, Maria Beatriz Ferro; Morales, Alvaro Ruiz

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the US-CRP values associated with periodontal disease are risk markers for Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) and to determine if the US-CRP levels associated with recent AMI are higher in patients with Periodontal disease. In order to meet the goal of the study, a case control study design was conducted. The analysis sample consisted of 401 adults (30 - 75 years old), living in Bogota D.C., Colombia, from the Hospital Universitario San Ignacio, the Faculty of Dentistry at the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, and the Fundacion Cardio Infantil. Patients with current infections, antibiotic use in the last 3 months, periodontal treatment at least six months before the baseline of this study, mouth ulcerations caused by any type of prosthesis, candidiasis, stomatitis, or less than 7 teeth in mouth were excluded. Periodontal examination for the case group and the control group was conducted by three previously calibrated examiners. Periodontal disease was diagnosed by the presence of bleeding on probing and attachment loss. The Chronic Periodontitis diagnosis was confirmed with these clinical signs, according to the 1999 Armitage classification. The assessment of the US-CRP was performed using the IMMULITE method containing one monoclonal and one polyclonal anti-CRP antibody. This method provides a measurement range of 0.1 - 500 mg/L. Statistical analysis of variables was performed with OR and confidence intervals. A multivariate analysis was performed to determine the association between the US-CRP increase, periodontal disease and acute myocardial infarction, adjusting for smoking and other confounding factors identified in the analysis. The study population was constituted by 401 patients, 56.1% (225) males, with a mean age of 52.6. When groups were compared it was observed that, in those patients with AMI and chronic severe or moderate periodontitis, 24.2% had HDL-C values lower than 40 mg/dl, 78.8% had LDL-C values

  6. CRP genotype and haplotype associations with serum C-reactive protein level and DAS28 in untreated early rheumatoid arthritis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Christian Gytz; Steffensen, Rudi; Bøgsted, Martin

    2014-01-01

    investigated: rs11265257, rs1130864, rs1205, rs1800947, rs2808632, rs3093077 and rs876538. The genotype and haplotype associations with CRP and DAS28 levels were evaluated using linear regression analysis adjusted for age, sex and treatment. RESULTS: The minor allele of rs1205 C > T was associated......INTRODUCTION: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CRP gene are implicated in the regulation of the constitutional C-reactive protein (CRP) expression and its response to proinflammatory stimuli. Previous reports suggest that these effects may have an impact on clinical decision...

  7. SMART PACKAGING FOR FOOD PRESERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rodríguez-Sauceda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges of the food industry is the preservation of its products, that is, to prevent them from being attacked by microorganisms that decompose them hauling economic losses and severe health damage to the consumer. Today, competition in the food industry is very high and any company that does not offer the quality products is doomed to fail. Consumers demand more and the industry still stands offering what is asked: quality, security and safety. The package, in addition to fulfilling its core functions is becoming a means of sophisticated interactions with content and a record of relevant information for both the end consumer and intermediate players in the value chain and concepts are born of active and intelligent packaging. A smart container is defined as a system that monitors the condition of the packaged product, being able to register and provide information about product quality or condition of the container, showing the possible "abnormal" practices that have suffered the product or the container during the entire supply chain, such as transportation or storage. These systems monitor the mechanisms of altered food due to physiological, chemical and biological processes that respond and communicate changes in the status of the product as time-temperature, Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, microbial growth, etc. There are different types of smart packaging such as time-temperature indicators, color indicators, indicators of pathogens and indicators of leaks, to name a few. Through literature review, arguments that demonstrate the usefulness and necessity of the use of smart packaging to preserve the quality and safety of the product it contains, from manufacturing to the time it is used by consumers were found, as these besides communicating or providing information about their state, acting as a marketing tool.

  8. First (Kick-Off) Research Coordination Meeting (RCM) of the IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Sodium Properties and Safe Operation of Experimental Facilities in Support of the Development and Deployment of Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    General information on recent IAEA activities in the field of fast reactors, including on-going and planned FR-related CRPs, as well as a review of the NAPRO CRP content, objectives, participants, planning and expected outcomes/deliverables, was provided. It was reminded that the NAPRO CRP is being organized in 3 main Work Packages (WP): • WP 1: collection, expert assessment and dissemination of consistent Na property data such as: surface tension, saturation vapor pressure and emissivity, thermo-dynamic behavior of ternary oxides in Na, and solubility - diffusivity of metallic impurities, etc. • WP 2: development of guidelines and best practices for Na facility design and operation, including fill and drain, purification, out-gassing prior to filling, Na storage, component handling, drying of Na piping after repair, etc. • WP 3: development of guidelines and best practices for Na facility safety, including prevention and mitigation of Na leaks, prevention and detection of Na fires, assessment of Na impact in the environment after accidental release, hydrogen hazards in cleaning facilities, etc

  9. There Is No Further Gain from Calculating Disease Activity Score in 28 Joints with High Sensitivity Assays of C-Reactive Protein Because of High Intraindividual Variability of CRP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen Hansen, Inger Marie; Asmussen Andreasen, Rikke; Antonsen, Steen

    2016-01-01

    Background/Purpose: The threshold for reporting of C-reactive protein (CRP) differs from laboratory to laboratory. Moreover, CRP values are affected by the intra individual biological variability.[1] With respect to disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) and Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), precise...... threshold for reporting CRP is important due to the direct effects of CRP on calculating DAS28, patient classification and subsequent treatment decisions[2] Methods: This study consists of two sections: a theoretical consideration discussing the performance of CRP in calculating DAS28 with regard...... to the biological variation and reporting limit for CRP and a cross sectional study of all RA patients from our department (n=876) applying our theoretical results. In the second section, we calculate DAS28 twice with actual CRP and CRP=9, the latter to elucidate the positive consequences of changing the lower...

  10. Test–retest reliability of the Disease Activity Score 28 CRP (DAS28-CRP), the Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI) and the Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) in rheumatoid arthritis when based on patient self-assessment of tender and swollen joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Cecilie; Dreyer, Lene; Egsmose, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    and physician-derived scores. Thirty out-clinic RA patients with stable disease were included. A joint count was performed two times 1 week apart by the patient and by an experienced physician. Test-retest reliability was expressed as the least significant difference (LSD), as the LSD in percent of the mean...... score (%LSD) and as intra-individual coefficients of variation (CVi). Mean scores based on physician vs. patient joint counts (visit 1) were: DAS28-CRP(4v) 3.5 ± 1.0 vs. 3.6 ± 1.1 (not significant (NS)), DAS28-CRP(3v) 3.4 ± 0.9 vs. 3.5 ± 0.9 (NS), SDAI 14.2 ± 9.4 vs.14.1 ± 9.4 (NS) and CDAI 13.4 ± 9.......3 vs. 13.3 ± 9.4 (NS). The LSDs (%LSD) for duplicate assessments of patient-derived scores (visit 2 vs. 1) were: DAS28-CRP(4v) 0.8 (23.2), DAS28-CRP(3v) 0.9 (25.2), SDAI 8.3 (59.9) and CDAI 8.4 (63.8). Similar LSDs were found for differences between duplicate assessments of physician-derived scores...

  11. Packaging Logistics” for improving performance in supply chains: the role of meta-standards implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús García-Arca

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Integrated packaging design process arises as one key factor that could contribute to increasing the efficiency and sustainability of supply chains. This approach is called “packaging logistics”. Another managerial approach that is related to efficiency and sustainability is the implementation of “meta-standards” (ISO 9000 and ISO 14000. As both “packaging logistics” and “meta-standards” can contribute positively towards supply chain efficiency and sustainability, it becomes relevant to examine the relationship between them. In this study, we explore the potential relation between “meta-standards” (ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 and the implementation of the key aspects of “packaging logistics”. In addition, we explore the relation between “packaging logistics” and aspects of performance. This is accomplished through an exploratory study of the packaging design process of Spanish manufacturers in the food industry.

  12. DC-SIGN activation mediates the differential effects of SAP and CRP on the innate immune system and inhibits fibrosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Nehemiah; Pilling, Darrell; Gomer, Richard H

    2015-07-07

    Fibrosis is caused by scar tissue formation in internal organs and is associated with 45% of deaths in the United States. Two closely related human serum proteins, serum amyloid P (SAP) and C-reactive protein (CRP), strongly affect fibrosis. In multiple animal models, and in Phase 1 and Phase 2 clinical trials, SAP affects several aspects of the innate immune system to reduce fibrosis, whereas CRP appears to potentiate fibrosis. However, SAP and CRP bind the same Fcγ receptors (FcγR) with similar affinities, and why SAP and CRP have opposing effects is unknown. Here, we report that SAP but not CRP binds the receptor DC-SIGN (SIGN-R1) to affect the innate immune system, and that FcγR are not necessary for SAP function. A polycyclic aminothiazole DC-SIGN ligand and anti-DC-SIGN antibodies mimic SAP effects in vitro. In mice, the aminothiazole reduces neutrophil accumulation in a model of acute lung inflammation and, at 0.001 mg/kg, alleviates pulmonary fibrosis by increasing levels of the immunosuppressant IL-10. DC-SIGN (SIGN-R1) is present on mouse lung epithelial cells, and SAP and the aminothiazole potentiate IL-10 production from these cells. Our data suggest that SAP activates DC-SIGN to regulate the innate immune system differently from CRP, and that DC-SIGN is a target for antifibrotics.

  13. Effects of synbiotic food consumption on glycemic status and serum hs-CRP in pregnant women: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Asemi, Zatolla

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of synbiotic food consumption on glycemic status and serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels of Iranian pregnant women. This randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed among 52 pregnant women, primigravida, aged 18-35 year old, in their third trimester. After a 2-wk run-in period, subjects were randomly assigned to consume either a synbiotic (n=26) or control food (n=26) for 9 weeks. The synbiotic food consisted of a probiotic Lactobacillus sporogenes (1×107 CFU), 0.04 g inulin as prebiotic with 0.38 g isomalt, 0.36 g sorbitol and 0.05 g stevia as sweetener per 1 g. Control food (the same substance without probiotic bacteria and inulin) was packed in identical 9-gram packages. Patients were asked to consume the synbiotic and control foods two times a day. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and after a 9-wk intervention for quantification of related factors. Consumption of a synbiotic food did not show any significant change regarding the impact of insulin actions in the synbiotic group; nonetheless, compared to the control food, it resulted in a significant decrease in serum insulin levels (-0.26 vs. 6.34 µIU/mL, P=0.014) and HOMA-IR (-0.13 vs. 1.13, P=0.033), a significant difference in HOMA-B (5.30 vs. 34.22, P=0.040) and a significant rise in QUICKI score (0.002 vs. -0.02, P=0.022). Consumption of a synbiotic food for 9 weeks by pregnant women had beneficial effects on insulin actions compared to the control food, but did not affect FPG and serum hs-CRP concentrations.

  14. Calculations of IAEA-CRP-6 Benchmark Case 1 through 7 for a TRISO-Coated Fuel Particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Min; Lee, Y. W.; Chang, J. H.

    2005-01-01

    IAEA-CRP-6 is a coordinated research program of IAEA on Advances in HTGR fuel technology. The CRP examines aspects of HTGR fuel technology, ranging from design and fabrication to characterization, irradiation testing, performance modeling, as well as licensing and quality control issues. The benchmark section of the program treats simple analytical cases, pyrocarbon layer behavior, single TRISO-coated fuel particle behavior, and benchmark calculations of some irradiation experiments performed and planned. There are totally seventeen benchmark cases in the program. Member countries are participating in the benchmark calculations of the CRP with their own developed fuel performance analysis computer codes. Korea is also taking part in the benchmark calculations using a fuel performance analysis code, COPA (COated PArticle), which is being developed in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. The study shows the calculational results of IAEACRP- 6 benchmark cases 1 through 7 which describe the structural behaviors for a single fuel particle

  15. Association of serum hs-CRP and lipids with obesity in school children in a 12-month follow-up study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishide, Ritsuko; Ando, Michiko; Funabashi, Hidemitsu; Yoda, Yoshiko; Nakano, Masataka; Shima, Masayuki

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the association of serum lipids and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) with obesity in school children and to explore whether hs-CRP levels could be used to predict the presence or absence of obesity 12 months later. The subjects were school children (6-11 years old) in Japan. Blood sampling and physical measurements were performed in school (2001); low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides, and hs-CRP levels were measured. Data from children who could be followed 12 months later were analyzed. Subjects weighing 20% or more over his/her standard weight were regarded as obese, and the association of obesity with serum parameters was analyzed. Data from 612 subjects were analyzed (follow-up rate, 75.4%). The mean of each serum parameter was significantly higher (inverse for HDL-C; lower) in obese than that in non-obese children. Logistic regression analysis for obesity at baseline showed that the odds ratio (OR) of hs-CRP was the highest [OR, 2.15; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.65-2.78 for an interquartile rage (IQR) increase]; the association with triglycerides and LDL-C/HDL-C was significant. At the 12-month follow-up, the OR of high hs-CRP remained the highest of all serum parameters (2.09; 95% CI, 1.63-2.69 for an IQR increase). High levels of triglycerides, LDL-C/HDL-C, and hs-CRP increased the risk of obesity in school children. Hs-CRP is considered to be a better predictor of obesity 12 months later than is LDL-C/HDL-C.

  16. Tobacco plain packaging: Evidence based policy or public health advocacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeganey, Neil; Russell, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    In December 2012, Australia became the first country to require all tobacco products be sold solely in standardised or 'plain' packaging, bereft of the manufacturers' trademarked branding and colours, although retaining large graphic and text health warnings. Following the publication of Sir Cyril Chantler's review of the evidence on the effects of plain tobacco packaging, the Ministers of the United Kingdom Parliament voted in March 2015 to implement similar legislation. Support for plain packaging derives from the belief that tobacco products sold in plain packs have reduced appeal and so are more likely to deter young people and non-smokers from starting tobacco use, and more likely to motivate smokers to quit and stay quit. This article considers why support for the plain packaging policy has grown among tobacco control researchers, public health advocates and government ministers, and reviews Australian survey data that speak to the possible introductory effect of plain packaging on smoking prevalence within Australia. The article concludes by emphasising the need for more detailed research to be undertaken before judging the capacity of the plain packaging policy to deliver the multitude of positive effects that have been claimed by its most ardent supporters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Waste transport and storage: Packaging refused due to failure in fulfilling QC/QA requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, N.C.; Brandao, R.O.; Cavalcante, V.L.

    2001-01-01

    The Brazilian Nuclear Programme comprises several nuclear and radioactive facilities including Angra I Nuclear Power Plant, in operation since 1981, and Angra II, scheduled to start its operation by the end of 1999. Among the other ones there are uranium mining and milling facilities, four research reactors and one industrial facility of monazite sands processing. The already existing waste generation and near future ones claim to a solution regarding waste disposal. Although site selection criteria for waste repository in Brazil has already been defined, political and psychosocial aspects have strong impact. Trauma generated by Goiania's radiological accident has led to difficulties when decisions about this matter have to be taken. As a consequence, the waste generated by Angra I is still in a provisional facility at the plant's site. Wastes from the medical sources are stored in research institutes while waste generated from monazite sands is kept in a dam system. In order to overpack non-qualified packages containing waste of Angra I NPP, 70 lost concrete shielding packagings had to be provided. Based on successfully designed and tested prototype, packagings and respective lids specifications were written, approved and released for serial production. As part of packaging certification process, Brazilian Competent Authority performed a regulatory inspection and audit. Various findings, such as weaknesses in quality control and quality assurance records, unacceptable test results as well as failure in modify the concrete composition during a testified packaging manufacturing, led Competent Authority to refuse the packagings as containers until complementary tests could be performed. Further tests and evaluations led the Competent Authority to conclude that the manufacturer failed to both comply with requirements established in packaging specification and fulfill quality control/quality assurance requirements. As responsible by federal law for the reception and

  18. Decal Electronics: Printable Packaged with 3D Printing High-Performance Flexible CMOS Electronic Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.; Cordero, Marlon D.; Nassar, Joanna M.; Hanna, Amir; Kutbee, Arwa T.; Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    High-performance complementary metal oxide semiconductor electronics are flexed, packaged using 3D printing as decal electronics, and then printed in roll-to-roll fashion for highly manufacturable printed flexible high-performance electronic systems.

  19. Decal Electronics: Printable Packaged with 3D Printing High-Performance Flexible CMOS Electronic Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2016-10-14

    High-performance complementary metal oxide semiconductor electronics are flexed, packaged using 3D printing as decal electronics, and then printed in roll-to-roll fashion for highly manufacturable printed flexible high-performance electronic systems.

  20. Reliability test and failure analysis of high power LED packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhaohui; Zhang Qin; Wang Kai; Luo Xiaobing; Liu Sheng

    2011-01-01

    A new type application specific light emitting diode (LED) package (ASLP) with freeform polycarbonate lens for street lighting is developed, whose manufacturing processes are compatible with a typical LED packaging process. The reliability test methods and failure criterions from different vendors are reviewed and compared. It is found that test methods and failure criterions are quite different. The rapid reliability assessment standards are urgently needed for the LED industry. 85 0 C/85 RH with 700 mA is used to test our LED modules with three other vendors for 1000 h, showing no visible degradation in optical performance for our modules, with two other vendors showing significant degradation. Some failure analysis methods such as C-SAM, Nano X-ray CT and optical microscope are used for LED packages. Some failure mechanisms such as delaminations and cracks are detected in the LED packages after the accelerated reliability testing. The finite element simulation method is helpful for the failure analysis and design of the reliability of the LED packaging. One example is used to show one currently used module in industry is vulnerable and may not easily pass the harsh thermal cycle testing. (semiconductor devices)

  1. Fumaric acid esters can block pro-inflammatory actions of human CRP and ameliorate metabolic disturbances in transgenic spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Šilhavý

    Full Text Available Inflammation and oxidative stress have been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic disturbances. Esters of fumaric acid, mainly dimethyl fumarate, exhibit immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidative effects. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that fumaric acid ester (FAE treatment of an animal model of inflammation and metabolic syndrome, the spontaneously hypertensive rat transgenically expressing human C-reactive protein (SHR-CRP, will ameliorate inflammation, oxidative stress, and metabolic disturbances. We studied the effects of FAE treatment by administering Fumaderm, 10 mg/kg body weight for 4 weeks, to male SHR-CRP. Untreated male SHR-CRP rats were used as controls. All rats were fed a high sucrose diet. Compared to untreated controls, rats treated with FAE showed significantly lower levels of endogenous CRP but not transgenic human CRP, and amelioration of inflammation (reduced levels of serum IL6 and TNFα and oxidative stress (reduced levels of lipoperoxidation products in liver, heart, kidney, and plasma. FAE treatment was also associated with lower visceral fat weight and less ectopic fat accumulation in liver and muscle, greater levels of lipolysis, and greater incorporation of glucose into adipose tissue lipids. Analysis of gene expression profiles in the liver with Affymetrix arrays revealed that FAE treatment was associated with differential expression of genes in pathways that involve the regulation of inflammation and oxidative stress. These findings suggest potentially important anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and metabolic effects of FAE in a model of inflammation and metabolic disturbances induced by human CRP.

  2. Electronic packaging: new results in singulation by Laser Microjet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Frank; Sibailly, Ochelio; Richerzhagen, Bernold

    2004-07-01

    Cutting electronic packages that are produced in a matrix array fashion is an important process and deals with the ready-to-use devices. Thus an increase in the singulation yield is directly correlated to an increase in benefit. Due to the usage of different substrate materials, the saws encounter big problems in terms of lifetime and constancy of cut quality in these applications. Today"s equipment manufacturers are not yet in the position to propose an adequate solution for all types of packages. Compared to classical laser cutting, the water-jet guided laser technology minimizes the heat damages in any kind of sample. This new material processing method consists in guiding a laser beam inside a hair thin, lowpressure water-jet by total internal reflection, and is applied to package singulation since two years approximately. Using a frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser guided by a water jet, an LTCC-ceramics based package is singulated according to a scribe and break process. Speeds of 2-10 mm/s are reached in the LTTC and 40 mm/s in the mold compound. The process is wear-free and provides very good edge quality of the LTCC and the mold compound as well as reliable separation of the packages.

  3. In vitro evaluation of microbial contamination of orthodontic brackets as received from the manufacturer using microbiological and molecular tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Gerzson, Darlene R; Simon, Daniel; Dos Anjos, Aline Lima; Freitas, Maria Perpétua Mota

    2015-11-01

    To test the null hypothesis that orthodontic brackets as supplied by manufacturers do not have microbial contamination. The sample comprised 140 brackets of four different commercially available brands, used directly from the manufacturer's packaging, divided into 14 groups (n  =  10 brackets each). Of the 140 pieces, 60 were full cases and 80 were replacement brackets. Materials were tested to detect bacterial growth, analyze types of bacteria present (biochemical test), and identify bacteria (molecular test with polymerase chain reaction [PCR]). In two of 12 groups the brackets showed microbial contamination: group 1, Morelli full case brackets, and group 12, Abzil-3M Unitek replacement brackets. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis were the bacteria identified in groups 1 and 12, respectively (suggested by the biochemical test and confirmed by PCR). Brackets of two brands (Morelli and Abzil-3M Unitek) were found to be contaminated by bacteria in the original packages supplied by the manufacturers, which suggests a risk for patient contamination. These data suggest that the manufacturers of these materials should improve the quality control of the packaging used, including sterilization, for the security of patient health.

  4. Post-MI depression and levels of serum IL-6 and CRP in AMI patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Tiejun

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between the presence and severity of post-MI depression and the increased inflammatory activity, as marked by the serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) after myocardial infarction. Methods: Serum IL-6 and CRP levels were measured in 58 AMI patients within 36 hours after onset of event. Depression was evaluated by self-reporting standardized questionnaire, using a validated Chinese version of Hospiatla Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)-Depression Subscale (7 items) within 7 days. Demographic and medical data including LVEF, NYHA cardiac function grading, atherosclerosis severity shown from angiography as well as cardiac risk factors were recorded. Results: Serum levels of IL-6 and CRP were higher in depressive AMI patients than those in non-depressive ones (0.93 ± 0.64 vs 0.48 ± 0.37 ng/L, P<0.05 and 0.96 ± 0.41 vs 0.47 ± 0.26 mg/dL, P<0.05). Neither levels of IL-6 nor HADS-D scores were found to be correlated to the severity of atherosclerosis shown in angiography. Conclusion: Presence and severity of post-MI depression is associated with increased activity of inflammation in patients after myocardial infarction. (authors)

  5. Equilibrium moisture content of waste mixtures from post-consumer carton packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacelos, M S; Freire, J T

    2012-01-01

    The manufacturing of boards and roof tiles is one of the routes to reuse waste from the recycled-carton-packaging process. Such a process requires knowledge of the hygroscopic behaviour of these carton-packaging waste mixtures in order to guarantee the quality of the final product (e.g. boards and roof tiles). Thus, with four carton-packaging waste mixtures of selected compositions (A, B, C and D), the sorption isotherms were obtained at air temperature of 20, 40 and 60 degrees C by using the static method. This permits one to investigate which model can relate the equilibrium moisture content of the mixture with that of a pure component through the mass fraction of each component in the mixtures. The results show that the experimental data can be well described by the weighted harmonic mean model. This suggests that the mean equilibrium moisture content of the carton-packaging mixture presents a non-linear relationship with each single, pure compound.

  6. Material flow analysis for an industry - A case study in packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amey, E.B.; Sandgren, K.

    1996-01-01

    The basic materials used in packaging are glass, metals (primarily aluminum and steel), an ever-growing range of plastics, paper and paperboard, wood, textiles for bags, and miscellaneous other materials (such as glues, inks, and other supplies). They are fabricated into rigid, semi-rigid, or flexible containers. The most common forms of these containers include cans, drums, bottles, cartons, boxes, bags, pouches, and wraps. Packaging products are, for the most part, low cost, bulky products that are manufactured close to their customers. There is virtually no import or export of packaging products. A material flow analysis can be developed that looks at all inputs to an industrial sector, inventories the losses in processing, and tracks the fate of the material after its useful life. An example is presented that identifies the material inputs to the packaging industry, and addresses the ultimate fate of the materials used. ?? 1996 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  7. Development of New Low-Cost, High-Performance, PV Module Encapsulant/Packaging Materials: Final Technical Progress Report, 22 October 2002 - 15 November 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, R.

    2008-04-01

    Report on objectives to work with U.S.-based PV module manufacturers (c-Si, a-Si, CIS, other thin films) to develop/qualify new low-cost, high-performance PV module encapsulant/packaging materials, and processes using the packaging materials.

  8. Clinical significance of measurment of changes of serum IGF-I, hs-CRP levels after treatment in patients with hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Conggang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum IGF-I,hs-CRP levels after treatment in patients with hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Methods: Serum IGF-I, hs-CRP(with RIA), and serum hs-CRP with immuno-turbidity methods levels were determined both before and after treatment in 36 cases of hyperthyroidism 30 cases of hypothyroidism as well as 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum IGF-I levels in patients with hyperthyroidism were significantly higher and the levels in patients with hypothyroidism were significantly lower than those in controls (both P<0.01). After treatment for 3 months,the levels were much corrected, but still remained significantly different from those in controls (P<0.05). Before treatment serum hs-CRP levels in both groups of patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01), but after treatment,the levels were not much different from those in controls. Conclusion: Serum levels of IGF-I and hs-CRP were closely related to the disease process in patients with hyperthyroidism as well as in patients with hypothyroidism, and were much corrected after trentment.(authors)

  9. Calculations of the IAEA-CRP-6 Benchmark Cases by Using the ABAQUS FE Model for a Comparison with the COPA Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Moon-Sung; Kim, Y. M.; Lee, Y. W.; Jeong, K. C.; Kim, Y. K.; Oh, S. C.

    2006-01-01

    The fundamental design for a gas-cooled reactor relies on an understanding of the behavior of a coated particle fuel. KAERI, which has been carrying out the Korean VHTR (Very High Temperature modular gas cooled Reactor) Project since 2004, is developing a fuel performance analysis code for a VHTR named COPA (COated Particle fuel Analysis). COPA predicts temperatures, stresses, a fission gas release and failure probabilities of a coated particle fuel in normal operating conditions. Validation of COPA in the process of its development is realized partly by participating in the benchmark section of the international CRP-6 program led by IAEA which provides comprehensive benchmark problems and analysis results obtained from the CRP-6 member countries. Apart from the validation effort through the CRP-6, a validation of COPA was attempted by comparing its benchmark results with the visco-elastic solutions obtained from the ABAQUS code calculations for the same CRP-6 TRISO coated particle benchmark problems involving creep, swelling, and pressure. The study shows the calculation results of the IAEA-CRP-6 benchmark cases 5 through 7 by using the ABAQUS FE model for a comparison with the COPA results

  10. A localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) immunosensor for CRP detection using 4-chloro-1-naphtol (4-CN) precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Su-Ji; Park, Jin-Ho; Byun, Ju-Young; Ahn, Young-Deok; Kim, Min-Gon

    2017-07-01

    In this study, C-reactive protein (CRP) was detected by monitoring of LSPR shift promoted by precipitation of 4-chloro-1-naphthol (4-CN). The precipitation occurred by horseradish peroxide (HRP) catalyst which is modified at CRP-detection antibody utilized in sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on gold nano bipyramid (GNBP) substrate. Due to 4-CN precipitates which are located nearby the surface of GNBP, local refractive index (RI) and molecular density were greatly increased. This phenomenon eventually induced strong spectral red-shift of absorption band of GNBP. An excellent linear relationship (R2=0.9895) between the LSPR shift and CRP concentration was obtained in the range from 100 pg/mL to 100 ng/mL and limit of detection (LOD) was reached to 87 pg/mL.

  11. Measures of International Manufacturing and Trade of Clean Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel-Cox, Jill; Sandor, Debbie; Keyser, David; Mann, Margaret

    2017-05-25

    The technologies that produce clean energy, such as solar photovoltaic panels and lithium ion batteries for electric vehicles, are globally manufactured and traded. As demand and deployment of these technologies grows exponentially, the innovation to reach significant economies of scale and drive down energy production costs becomes less in the technology and more in the manufacturing of the technology. Manufacturing innovations and other manufacturing decisions can reduce costs of labor, materials, equipment, operating costs, and transportation, across all the links in the supply chain. To better understand the manufacturing aspect of the clean energy economy, we have developed key metrics for systematically measuring and benchmarking international manufacturing of clean energy technologies. The metrics are: trade, market size, manufacturing value-added, and manufacturing capacity and production. These metrics were applied to twelve global economies and four representative technologies: wind turbine components, crystalline silicon solar photovoltaic modules, vehicle lithium ion battery cells, and light emitting diode packages for efficient lighting and other consumer products. The results indicated that clean energy technologies are being developed via complex, dynamic, and global supply chains, with individual economies benefiting from different technologies and links in the supply chain, through both domestic manufacturing and global trade.

  12. Comparison between clinical significance of serum proinflammatory proteins (IL-6 and CRP) and classic tumor markers (CEA and CA 19-9) in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukaszewicz-Zając, Marta; Mroczko, Barbara; Gryko, Mariusz; Kędra, Bogusław; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2011-06-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a second most common cause of cancer-related death and represents an inflammation-driven malignancy. It has been suggested that interleukin 6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) play a potential role in the growth and progression of GC. The aim of the present study was to compare clinical significance of IL-6 and CRP with classic tumor markers-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen (CA 19-9) in GC patients. The study included 92 patients with GC and 70 healthy subjects. The serum concentrations of IL-6, CEA and CA 19-9 were determined using immunoenzyme assays, whereas CRP using immunoturbidimetric method. We defined the diagnostic criteria and prognostic value for proteins tested. In GC patients, the serum concentrations of all the proteins tested were significantly higher than in healthy subjects. The IL-6, CEA and CA 19-9 levels correlated with nodal metastases, while CRP with tumor stage, gastric wall invasion, presence of nodal and distant metastases. Diagnostic sensitivity of IL-6 was higher (85%) than those of other markers (CRP 66%, CA 19-9 34%, CEA 22%) and increased in combined use with CRP or CEA (88%). The area under ROC curve for IL-6 was larger than those of CRP and classic tumor markers (CEA and CA 19-9). None of the proteins tested was independent prognostic factor for the survival of GC patients. Our findings indicate better usefulness of serum proinflammatory proteins-IL-6 and CRP than classic tumor markers-CEA and CA 19-9 in the diagnosis of GC.

  13. Time dependent transition of the levels of protein-conjugated acrolein (PC-Acro, IL-6 and CRP in plasma during stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madoka Yoshida

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: The results indicate that the degree of the decrease in PC-Acro and the increase in IL-6 and CRP from day 0 to day 2 was correlated with the size of brain infarction, and the increase in IL-6 and CRP with poor outcome at discharge.

  14. Agreement between the DAS28-CRP assessed with 3 and 4 variables in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with biological agents in the daily clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Rintek

    2013-01-01

    The Disease Activity Score-28-C-reactive Protein 4 [DAS28-CRP(4)] composite measure for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is based on 4 variables: tender and swollen joint counts, CRP, and patient global assessment. DAS28-CRP(3) includes only 3 variables, because patient global assessment has been omitted...

  15. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum hs-CRP, sICAM-1 and TNF-α levels in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Qiuyue

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between changes of serum sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) levels and development of the disease in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM). Methods: Serum levels of TNF-α and sICAM-1(with RIA) and hs-CRP(with immunoturbidimetry) were measured in 30 patients with GDM and 30 normal pregnant women as controls. Results: The serum hs-CRP, sICAM-1 and TNF-α contents in the patients with GDM were all significantly higher than those in normal pregnant women (all P<0.01).The serum hs-CRP levels were mutually positivety correlated with TNF-α and sICAM-1 levels (r=0.6097, 0.7213, all P<0.01). Conclusion: Determination of changes of serum hs-CRP, TNF-α and sICAM-1 levels in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus would be helpful for outcome prediction. (authors)

  16. Utilization of Pb-free solders in MEMS packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaduray, Guna S.

    2003-01-01

    Soldering of components within a package plays an important role in providing electrical interconnection, mechanical integrity and thermal dissipation. MEMS packages present challenges that are more complex than microelectronic packages because they are far more sensitive to shock and vibration and also require precision alignment. Soldering is used at two major levels within a MEMS package: at the die attach level and at the component attach level. Emerging environmental regulations worldwide, notably in Europe and Japan, have targeted the elimination of Pb usage in electronic assemblies, due to the inherent toxicity of Pb. This has provided the driving force for development and deployment of Pb-free solder alloys. A relatively large number of Pb-free solder alloys have been proposed by various researchers and companies. Some of these alloys have also been patented. After several years of research, the solder alloy system that has emerged is based on Sn as a major component. The electronics industry has identified different compositions for different specific uses, such as wave soldering, surface mount reflow, etc. The factors that affect choice of an appropriate Pb-free solder can be divided into two major categories, those related to manufacturing, and those related to long term reliability and performance.

  17. The impact of diurnal fasting during Ramadan on the lipid profile, hs-CRP, and serum leptin in stable cardiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khafaji, Hadi Abdul Ridha Hadi; Bener, Abdulbari; Osman, Mohammed; Al Merri, Ajayeb; Al Suwaidi, Jassim

    2012-01-01

    To study the effect of strict prolonged fasting on lipid profile, serum leptin, and high- sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in patients with different stable cardiac illnesses and look for associated new cardiac events and any correlation between entire variables. A total of 56 patients of different stable cardiac illnesses were followed in our cardiology outpatient for 3 months. Data concerning their ability to fast were collected: New York Heart Association class of congestive cardiac failure, angina class, previous myocardial infarction, previous coronary artery bypass graft, percutaneous coronary intervention, severity of valvular lesion, metallic prosthetic valve, and traditional risk factors (diabetes mellitus, insulin requirement, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking habit, and obesity). Detailed clinical examination and electrocardiography were performed in all patients in three consecutive visits before, during, and after Ramadan. Echocardiographic and angiographic findings and medication plans were collected from patient records. Lipid profile, serum leptin, and hs-CRP were assessed before, during, and after Ramadan. All patients fasted during Ramadan: 80.4% were male, 67.9% were aged >50 years, 71.4% had no change in their symptoms during fasting while 28.6% felt better. No patient has deteriorated. 91.1% of the patients were compliant with medicine during Ramadan, 73.2% after. 89.3% were compliant with diet during Ramadan with no significant change in body weight in the follow-up period. No cardiac or noncardiac morbidity or mortality was reported. High- density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) decreased significantly during compared to before fasting (P = 0.012). Low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) significantly increased during compared to before fasting (P = 0.022). No statistically significant changes were observed in total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), serum leptin, or hs-CRP. Significant correlation was observed between

  18. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-8 M-CSF levels after treatment in patients with endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaochao; Zhou Dongxia; Zhang Limin; Liu Hongshu

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the significance of changes of serum hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-8 and M-CSF levels after treatment in patients with endometriosis. Methods: Serum IL-6, IL-8, M -CSF(with RIA), hs-CRP(with immuneturbidity method)levels were determined in 33 patients with endometriosis both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-8 and M-CSF levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Detection of serum hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-8 and M-CSF levels might reflect the progress of diseases in patients with endometriosis. (authors)

  19. Waste Package Component Design Methodology Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D.C. Mecham

    2004-01-01

    requirements of the YMP. Four waste package configurations have been selected to illustrate the application of the methodology during the licensing process. These four configurations are the 21-pressurized water reactor absorber plate waste package (21-PWRAP), the 44-boiling water reactor waste package (44-BWR), the 5 defense high-level radioactive waste (HLW) DOE spent nuclear fuel (SNF) codisposal short waste package (5-DHLWDOE SNF Short), and the naval canistered SNF long waste package (Naval SNF Long). Design work for the other six waste packages will be completed at a later date using the same design methodology. These include the 24-boiling water reactor waste package (24-BWR), the 21-pressurized water reactor control rod waste package (21-PWRCR), the 12-pressurized water reactor waste package (12-PWR), the 5 defense HLW DOE SNF codisposal long waste package (5-DHLWDOE SNF Long), the 2 defense HLW DOE SNF codisposal waste package (2-MC012-DHLW), and the naval canistered SNF short waste package (Naval SNF Short). This report is only part of the complete design description. Other reports related to the design include the design reports, the waste package system description documents, manufacturing specifications, and numerous documents for the many detailed calculations. The relationships between this report and other design documents are shown in Figure 1

  20. Waste Package Component Design Methodology Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Mecham

    2004-07-12

    and operational requirements of the YMP. Four waste package configurations have been selected to illustrate the application of the methodology during the licensing process. These four configurations are the 21-pressurized water reactor absorber plate waste package (21-PWRAP), the 44-boiling water reactor waste package (44-BWR), the 5 defense high-level radioactive waste (HLW) DOE spent nuclear fuel (SNF) codisposal short waste package (5-DHLWDOE SNF Short), and the naval canistered SNF long waste package (Naval SNF Long). Design work for the other six waste packages will be completed at a later date using the same design methodology. These include the 24-boiling water reactor waste package (24-BWR), the 21-pressurized water reactor control rod waste package (21-PWRCR), the 12-pressurized water reactor waste package (12-PWR), the 5 defense HLW DOE SNF codisposal long waste package (5-DHLWDOE SNF Long), the 2 defense HLW DOE SNF codisposal waste package (2-MC012-DHLW), and the naval canistered SNF short waste package (Naval SNF Short). This report is only part of the complete design description. Other reports related to the design include the design reports, the waste package system description documents, manufacturing specifications, and numerous documents for the many detailed calculations. The relationships between this report and other design documents are shown in Figure 1.

  1. FSSC 22000 Packaging Implementation: a Plastics Industry Research

    OpenAIRE

    Cantanhede, Vanessa; Pereira, Karen Signori; Barreto, Daniel Weingart

    2018-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the outcomes of an exploratory research carried out in companies, which are located in Brazil. They are FSSC-22000-certified food plastic packaging manufacturers. In order to identify the key aspects of the implementation process and certification, a questionnaire was developed and sent to twenty certified organizations. Out of them, eleven of which participating companies responded in a collaborative way. Based on the data obtained, improving competitiveness and...

  2. Performance and Reliability of Bonded Interfaces for High-Temperature Packaging. Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVoto, Douglas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Current generation automotive power electronics packages utilize silicon devices and lead-free solder alloys. To meet stringent technical targets for 2020 and beyond (for cost, power density, specific power, efficiency and reliability), wide-bandgap devices are being considered since they offer advantages such as operation at higher frequencies, voltages, and temperatures. Traditional power electronics packages must be redesigned to utilize the full potential of wide-bandgap devices, and the die- and substrate-attach layers are key areas where new material development and validation is required. Present solder alloys do not meet the performance requirements for these new package designs while also meeting cost and hazardous substance restrictions. Sintered silver (Ag) promises to meet the needs for die- and substrate-attach interfaces but synthesis optimization and reliability evaluation must be completed. Sintered Ag material was proposed as an alternative solution in power electronics packages almost 20 years back. However, synthesis pressure requirements up 40 MPa caused a higher complexity in the production process and more stringent flatness specifications for the substrates. Recently, several manufacturers have developed sintered Ag materials that require lower (3-5 MPa) or even no bonding pressures. Degradation mechanisms for these sintered Ag materials are not well known and need to be addressed. We are addressing these aspects to some extent in this project. We are developing generalized (i.e., independent of geometry) stress intensity factor versus cycles-to-failure relations for sintered Ag. Because sintered Ag is a relatively new material for automotive power electronics, the industry currently does not have a good understanding of recommended synthesis parameters or expected reliability under prescribed conditions. It is an important deliverable of this project to transfer findings to industry to eliminate barriers to using sintered Ag as a viable and

  3. Investigating possible biological targets of Bj-CRP, the first cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP) isolated from Bothrops jararaca snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodovicho, Marina E; Costa, Tássia R; Bernardes, Carolina P; Menaldo, Danilo L; Zoccal, Karina F; Carone, Sante E; Rosa, José C; Pucca, Manuela B; Cerni, Felipe A; Arantes, Eliane C; Tytgat, Jan; Faccioli, Lúcia H; Pereira-Crott, Luciana S; Sampaio, Suely V

    2017-01-04

    Cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs) are commonly described as part of the protein content of snake venoms, nevertheless, so far, little is known about their biological targets and functions. Our study describes the isolation and characterization of Bj-CRP, the first CRISP isolated from Bothrops jararaca snake venom, also aiming at the identification of possible targets for its actions. Bj-CRP was purified using three chromatographic steps (Sephacryl S-200, Source 15Q and C18) and showed to be an acidic protein of 24.6kDa with high sequence identity to other snake venom CRISPs. This CRISP was devoid of proteolytic, hemorrhagic or coagulant activities, and it did not affect the currents from 13 voltage-gated potassium channel isoforms. Conversely, Bj-CRP induced inflammatory responses characterized by increase of leukocytes, mainly neutrophils, after 1 and 4h of its injection in the peritoneal cavity of mice, also stimulating the production of IL-6. Bj-CRP also acted on the human complement system, modulating some of the activation pathways and acting directly on important components (C3 and C4), thus inducing the generation of anaphylatoxins (C3a, C4a and C5a). Therefore, our results for Bj-CRP open up prospects for better understanding this class of toxins and its biological actions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of oxaliplatin, leucovorin and fluorouracil on serum tumor markers, VEGF, CRP and matrix metalloproteinases in patients with advanced esophageal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Lei

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effects of oxaliplatin, leucovorin and fluorouracil on serum tumor markers, VEGF, CRP and matrix metalloproteinases in patients with advanced esophageal cancer. Methods: From March 2012 to March 2017 a total of 248 patients with advanced esophageal cancer were selected as the study subjects. According to random data table, they were divided into control group (n=123 and observation group (n=125 according to random data table. The control group was treated with cisplatin combined with fluorouracil, leucovorin chemotherapy, and patients in the observation group received oxaliplatin, leucovorin and fluorouracil chemotherapy, all patients were treated for 2 cycles. The changes of serum tumor markers, VEGF, CRP and matrix metalloproteinase levels in the two groups before and after treatment was compared. Results: Before treatment, there was no significant difference of the levels of serum CA125, CA19-9, CEA, VEGF, CRP, MMP-2 and MMP-9 between the control group and the observation group. Compared with the group before treatment, the levels of CA125, CA19-9, CEA, VEGF, CRP, MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the two groups were significantly lower. After treatment, the level of CA125, CA19-9, CEA, VEGF, CRP, MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the observation group was significantly lower than those of the control group. Conclusion: Oxaliplatin, leucovorin and fluorouracil chemotherapy can effectively reduce the levels of serum tumor markers, VEGF, CRP and matrix metalloproteinase in patients with advanced esophageal cancer, it has important clinical value.

  5. An Evaluation of the Healthiness of the Indian Packaged Food and Beverage Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexandra; Dunford, Elizabeth; Crossley, Rachel; Thout, Sudhir Raj; Rayner, Mike; Neal, Bruce

    2017-10-09

    Availability of less-healthy packaged food and beverage products has been implicated as an important driver of obesity and diet-related disease. An increasing number of packaged foods and beverages are sold in India. Our objective was to evaluate the healthiness of packaged foods sold by India's largest manufacturers. Healthiness was assessed using the Australian Health Star Rating (HSR) system and the World Health Organization's European Regional Office (WHO Euro) Nutrient Profile Model. Sales-value-weighted mean healthiness and the proportions of "healthy" products (using a validated HSR cut-off of ≥3.5, and products meeting WHO Euro criteria as healthy enough to market to children) were calculated overall, by company and by food category. Nutrient information for 943 products sold by the 11 largest Indian manufacturers was obtained from nutrient labels, company websites or directly from the manufacturer. Healthiness was low overall (mean HSR 1.8 out of 5.0 stars) with a low proportion defined as "healthy" by both HSR (17%) and also by WHO Euro criteria (8%). There were marked differences in the healthiness of similar products within food categories. Substantial variation between companies (minimum sales-value-weighted mean HSR 0.5 for Company G, versus maximum HSR 3.0 for Company F) was a result of differences in the types of products sold and the nutritional composition of individual products. There are clear opportunities for India's largest food companies to improve both the nutritional quality of individual products and to improve their product mix to include a greater proportion of healthy products.

  6. Studies on the relationship between plasma CRP and TNF-α, IL-1β levels in aged patients with acute coronary syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Nanping; Wang Xiangang; Hu Chengjin; Wang Ruishan

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between plasma TNF-α, IL-1β and CRP levels in aged patients with coronary heart disease and to define the inflammation marker which might recognize and predict acute coronary syndrome. Methods: Radioimmunoassay was used to detect plasma levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and CRP. Results: Plasma levels of TNF-α and IL-β in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) were significantly higher than those in controls (p<0.05; p<0.01) and stable coronary heart disease (SCHD) (p<0.05; p<0.01). Plasma CRP levels in patients with ACS (7.99 +- 11.9 ml/L) were also significantly higher than those in controls (0.99 +- 1.5 mg/L; p<0.01) and patients with SCHD (2.71 +- 5.45 mg/L; p<0.05). There was positive correlation between CRP level and TNF-α (r=0.0545; p<0.01) as well as IL-β (r=0.31, p<0.05). Conclusion: The abnormal expression of cytokines in aged patients with coronary heart disease was correlative to inflammation marker CRP, which suggested that the abnormal expression to the occurrence of acute coronary syndrome and might serve as a marker of unstable atherosclerosis plaque

  7. Additive manufacturing of polymer-derived ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Zak C.; Zhou, Chaoyin; Martin, John H.; Jacobsen, Alan J.; Carter, William B.; Schaedler, Tobias A.

    2016-01-01

    The extremely high melting point of many ceramics adds challenges to additive manufacturing as compared with metals and polymers. Because ceramics cannot be cast or machined easily, three-dimensional (3D) printing enables a big leap in geometrical flexibility. We report preceramic monomers that are cured with ultraviolet light in a stereolithography 3D printer or through a patterned mask, forming 3D polymer structures that can have complex shape and cellular architecture. These polymer structures can be pyrolyzed to a ceramic with uniform shrinkage and virtually no porosity. Silicon oxycarbide microlattice and honeycomb cellular materials fabricated with this approach exhibit higher strength than ceramic foams of similar density. Additive manufacturing of such materials is of interest for propulsion components, thermal protection systems, porous burners, microelectromechanical systems, and electronic device packaging.

  8. Industrial packaging and assembly infrastructure for MOEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heeren, Henne

    2004-01-01

    In a mature industry all elements of the supply chain are available and are more or less in balance. Mainstream technologies are defined and well supported by a chain of specialist companies. Those specialist companies, offering services ranging from consultancy to manufacturing subcontracting, are an essential element in the industrialization. There specialization and dedication to one or a few elements in the technology increases professionalism and efficiency. The MOEMS industry however, is still in its infancy. After the birth and growth of many companies aiming at development of products, the appearance of companies aiming at the production of components and systems, we see know the first companies concentrating on the delivering of services to this industry. We can divide them in the like : * Design and Engineering companies * Foundries * Assembly and Packaging providers * Design and simulation software providers For manufacturing suppliers and customers the lack of industry standards and mainstream technologies is a serious drawback. Insight in availability and trends in technology is important to make the right choices in the field of industrialization and production. This awareness was the reason to perform a detailed study to the companies supplying commercial services in this field. This article focuses on one important part of this study: packaging and assembly. This tends to remain a bottleneck at the end of the design cycle, often delaying and sometimes preventing industrialization and commercialization. For nearly all MEMS/MST products literally everything comes together in the packaging and assembly. This is the area of full integration: electrical, mechanical, optical fluidic, magnetic etc. functionalities come together. The problems associated with the concentration of functionalities forms a big headache for the designer. Conflicting demands, of which functionality versus economics is only one, and technical hurdles have to overcome. Besides that

  9. A case study on Simulation and Design optimization to improve Productivity in cooling tower manufacturing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranav Nithin, R.; Gopikrishnan, S.; Sumesh, A.

    2018-02-01

    Cooling towers are the heat transfer devices commonly found in industries which are used to extract the high temperature from the coolants and make it reusable in various plants. Basically, the cooling towers has Fills made of PVC sheets stacked together to increase the surface area exposure of the cooling liquid flowing through it. This paper focuses on the study in such a manufacturing plant where fills are being manufactured. The productivity using the current manufacturing method was only 6 to 8 fills per day, where the ideal capacity was of 14 fills per day. In this plant manual labor was employed in the manufacturing process. A change in the process modification designed and implemented will help the industry to increase the productivity to 14. In this paper, initially the simulation study was done using ARENA the simulation package and later the new design was done using CAD Package and validated using Ansys Mechanical APDL. It’s found that, by the implementation of the safe design the productivity can be increased to 196 Units.

  10. Hidden costs of HIV treatment in Spain: inefficiency of the antiretroviral drug packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llibre-Codina, Josep M; Andreu-Crespo, Angels; Cardona-Peitx, Gloria; Sala-Piñol, Ferran; Clotet-Sala, Bonaventura; Bonafont-Pujol, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Antiretroviral drugs in Spain are delivered by law only in hospital pharmacies. Commercial packages meet variable quality standards when dispensed drugs are returned due to treatment changes or adherence problems Nearly 20-25% of the initial regimens will be changed at 48 weeks for different reasons. We evaluated the economic impact on public health system of the inability of using returned drugs due to inefficient packaging. We defined socially efficient packaging as the best adapted one to being delivered in unit dose to outpatients and classified: Class A - Drug packed in unit doses with complete info (name of drug, dosage in mg, lot, and expiring date) in each unit, maintaining complete information of the drug if returned when the external package is opened. Class B - packed in blisters with complete info in the blister, but not in unit doses, without special conservation conditions (should be re-packed in unit doses in the pharmacy before its dispensation to assure a class A excellence). Class C - packed in plastic containers with complete info written only on a label over the container, would allow repackaging only before its initial delivery, but not when returned. Class D - drug packed in plastic containers with manufacturer's warning that the product cannot be placed outside of the original package due to special conditions of conservation (fridge, humidity) that doesn't allow a unit dose repackaging or reusing an opened container. We analysed a 12-month period (July 2011-June 2012) in a hospital-based HIV outpatient pharmacy that serves 2413 treated individuals. Patients generated 23,574 visits to pharmacy, and received 48,325 drug packages, with 2.529.137 pills delivered. The patients suffered 1051 treatment changes for any reason. A total amount of 122.945€ in treatment were returned to pharmacy in opened packages during the study period. 47.139.91€ would be totally lost, mainly due to being packaged in class C and D boxes, the equivalent of

  11. Change in levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum cortisol in morbidly obese patients after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Tovar, Jaime; Oller, Inmaculada; Galindo, Isabel; Llavero, Carolina; Arroyo, Antonio; Calero, Alicia; Diez, María; Zubiaga, Lorea; Calpena, Rafael

    2013-06-01

    C-Reactive protein (CRP) has been associated with the macro- and microvascular effects of hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Referring to serum cortisol, it has been proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome, and it has been demonstrated that weight loss normalizes cortisol levels and improves insulin resistance. The aims of this study were to analyze CRP and cortisol levels pre- and postoperatively in morbidly obese patients undergoing a laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and to correlate them with weight loss and parameters associated with cardiovascular risk. A prospective study of all the morbidly obese patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy as bariatric procedure between October 2007 and May 2011 was performed. A total of 40 patients were included in the study. CRP levels decreased significantly 12 months after surgery (median reduction of 8.9 mg/l; p = 0.001). Serum cortisol levels decreased significantly 6 months after surgery (median reduction of 34.9 μg/dl; p = 0.001). CRP values reached the normal range (cortisol, a significant association was observed with the cardiovascular risk predictor (triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio) from the 6th month after surgery onward (Pearson correlation coefficient, 0.559; p = 0.008). CRP levels are increased preoperatively and in the postoperative course up to 1 year after surgery. Serum cortisol levels remain elevated until the 6th month after surgery. From this moment onward, serum cortisol is associated with the cardiovascular risk predictor reflecting the cardiovascular risk decreasement during the weight loss.

  12. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-8 Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-8 Burial Ground, also referred to as the Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 8, 318-8, and the Early Solid Waste Burial Ground. During its period of operation, the 618-8 site is speculated to have been used to bury uranium-contaminated waste derived from fuel manufacturing, and construction debris from the remodeling of the 313 Building

  13. A large multi-centre European study validates high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) as a clinical biomarker for the diagnosis of diabetes subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thanabalasingham, G.; Shah, N.; Vaxillaire, M.

    2011-01-01

    CRP) levels are lower in UK patients with hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF1A)-MODY than in other diabetes subtypes. In this large multi-centre study we aimed to assess the clinical validity of hsCRP as a diagnostic biomarker, examine the genotype-phenotype relationship and compare different hsCRP assays....... High-sensitivity CRP levels were analysed in individuals with HNF1A-MODY (n = 457), glucokinase (GCK)-MODY (n = 404), hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4A)-MODY (n = 54) and type 2 diabetes (n = 582) from seven European centres. Three common assays for hsCRP analysis were evaluated. We excluded 121......) a parts per thousand yenaEuro parts per thousand 0.91, p a parts per thousand currency signaEuro parts per thousand 1 x 10(-5)). Across the seven centres, the C-statistic for distinguishing HNF1A-MODY from young adult-onset type 2 diabetes ranged from 0.79 to 0.97, indicating high discriminative accuracy...

  14. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator licensed hardware package and certification tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldmann, L.H.; Averette, H.S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the Licensed Hardware package and the Certification Test portions of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System. This package has been designed to meet those portions of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 71) relating to ''Type B'' shipments of radioactive materials. The detailed information for the anticipated license is presented in the safety analysis report for packaging, which is now in process and undergoing necessary reviews. As part of the licensing process, a full-size Certification Test Article unit, which has modifications slightly different than the Licensed Hardware or production shipping units, is used for testing. Dimensional checks of the Certification Test Article were made at the manufacturing facility. Leak testing and drop testing were done at the 300 Area of the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The hardware includes independent double containments to prevent the environmental spread of 238 Pu, impact limiting devices to protect portions of the package from impacts, and thermal insulation to protect the seal areas from excess heat during accident conditions. The package also features electronic feed-throughs to monitor the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator's temperature inside the containment during the shipment cycle. This package is designed to safely dissipate the typical 4500 thermal watts produced in the largest Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators. The package also contains provisions to ensure leak tightness when radioactive materials, such as a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator for the Cassini Mission, planned for 1997 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, are being prepared for shipment. These provisions include test ports used in conjunction with helium mass spectrometers to determine seal leakage rates of each containment during the assembly process

  15. In-core fuel management code package validation for BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    The main goal of the present CRP (Coordinated Research Programme) was to develop benchmarks which are appropriate to check and improve the fuel management computer code packages and their procedures. Therefore, benchmark specifications were established which included a set of realistic data for running in-core fuel management codes. Secondly, the results of measurements and/or operating data were also provided to verify and compare with these parameters as calculated by the in-core fuel management codes or code packages. For the BWR it was established that the Mexican Laguna Verde 1 BWR would serve as the model for providing data on the benchmark specifications. It was decided to provide results for the first 2 cycles of Unit 1 of the Laguna Verde reactor. The analyses of the above benchmarks are performed in two stages. In the first stage, the lattice parameters are generated as a function of burnup at different voids and with and without control rod. These lattice parameters form the input for 3-dimensional diffusion theory codes for over-all reactor analysis. The lattice calculations were performed using different methods, such as, Monte Carlo, 2-D integral transport theory methods. Supercell Model and transport-diffusion model with proper correction for burnable absorber. Thus the variety of results should provide adequate information for any institute or organization to develop competence to analyze In-core fuel management codes. 15 refs, figs and tabs

  16. Design and high-volume manufacture of low-cost molded IR aspheres for personal thermal imaging devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelazny, A. L.; Walsh, K. F.; Deegan, J. P.; Bundschuh, B.; Patton, E. K.

    2015-05-01

    The demand for infrared optical elements, particularly those made of chalcogenide materials, is rapidly increasing as thermal imaging becomes affordable to the consumer. The use of these materials in conjunction with established lens manufacturing techniques presents unique challenges relative to the cost sensitive nature of this new market. We explore the process from design to manufacture, and discuss the technical challenges involved. Additionally, facets of the development process including manufacturing logistics, packaging, supply chain management, and qualification are discussed.

  17. 49 CFR 173.426 - Excepted packages for articles containing natural uranium or thorium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... outer surface of the uranium or thorium is enclosed in an inactive sheath made of metal or other durable... uranium or thorium. 173.426 Section 173.426 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation....426 Excepted packages for articles containing natural uranium or thorium. A manufactured article in...

  18. Coordinated research project (CRP) on studies of advanced reactor technology options for effective incineration of radioactive waste - Scope and objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanculescu, A.

    2002-01-01

    The overall objective of the CRP is to perform R and D tasks contributing towards the proof of practicality for long-lived waste transmutation. For a sound assessment of the transient and accident behaviour, the neutron kinetics and dynamics have to be qualified, especially as the margins for the safety relevant neutronics parameters are becoming small in a 'dedicated' transmuter. The CRP will integrate benchmarking of transient/accident simulation codes focussing on the phenomena and effects relevant to various critical and sub-critical systems under severe neutron flux changes and rearrangements. The CRP will investigate future needs both for theoretical means (data, codes) and experimental information related to the various transmutation systems. The final goals of the CRP are to (a) deepen the understanding of the dynamics of transmutation systems, e.g., the accelerator driven system, especially systems with deteriorated safety parameters, (b) qualify the available methods and specify their range of validity, and (c) formulate requirements for future theoretical developments. Should transient experiments be available, the CRP might also pursue experimental benchmarking work. In any case, based on the results, the CRP will conclude on the potential need of transient experiments and make appropriate proposals for experimental programs. The CRP will consider various transmuter and actinides incinerator concepts, from traditional to very advanced, both critical and sub-critical. No optimization will be performed, experience and good engineering judgment is used to define the design parameters of the various concepts. The generic dynamic behavior of the different systems will be assessed and inter-comparisons will be performed. The concepts are derived from those proposed by the participants in this RCM. Later additions might be considered. The studies will include static, kinetics and dynamics calculations. Influence of burnup on transient behavior will be

  19. Snap-lock bags with red band: A study of manufacturing characteristics, thermal and chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Yvonne Hui Ying; Koh, Alaric C W; Lim, Shing Min; Yew, Sok Yee

    2015-10-01

    Drug packaging is commonly submitted to the Forensic Chemistry and Physics Laboratory of the Health Sciences Authority, Singapore, for examination. The drugs seized are often packaged in plastic bags. These bags are examined for linkages to provide law enforcement with useful associations between the traffickers and drug abusers. The plastic bags submitted may include snap-lock bags, some with a red band located above the snap-lock closure and some without. Current techniques for examination involve looking at the physical characteristics (dimensions, thickness and polarising patterns) and manufacturing marks of these bags. In cases where manufacturing marks on the main body of the bags are poor or absent, the manufacturing characteristics present on the red band can be examined. A study involving approximately 1000 bags was conducted to better understand the variations in the manufacturing characteristics of the red band. This understanding is crucial in helping to determine associations/eliminations between bags. Two instrumental techniques, namely differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were explored to evaluate the effectiveness of examining the chemical composition to discriminate the bags. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationship of obesity with serum concentrations of leptin, CRP and IL-6 in breast cancer survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babaei, Z; Mosapour, A.; Moslemi, D.; Parsian, H.; Pouramir, M.; Khafri, S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the adverse effect of obesity on quality of life among women with breast cancer, including alteration in some inflammatory markers. The aim of this study was to determine the status of serum levels of leptin, IL-6 and CRP in obese, overweight and normal weight breast cancer survivors in order to determine the relationship between inflammatory markers’ levels and obesity. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 75 women with breast cancer, 30 obese, 15 overweight and 30 normal weight patients. Serum leptin, IL-6, CRP, total protein, albumin and lipid profile as well as anthropometric parameters were measured in three groups. Results: Serum leptin levels of obese patients were significantly higher than those of overweight and normal weight patients ( P < 0.05). Higher serum CRP and lower albumin levels were observed in obese patients in comparison with normal weight patients ( P < 0.05). HDL-C level was significantly different between overweight and normal weight patients ( P < 0.05). Significant differences in serum IL-6 levels were not observed between the study groups ( P > 0.05). Moreover, multiple regression analysis showed that leptin was significantly associated with BMI ( P < 0.001), while albumin was negatively correlated with BMI ( P < 0.05). CRP levels were significantly correlated with BMI and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) ( P < 0.05). Conclusions: In conclusion, high leptin levels and alteration in acute phase proteins in obese patients may exaggerate the inflammation status. As inflammation has the potential to increase the susceptibility of the patients to metastasis development, it is necessary to decline its rate.

  1. Transportation and packaging issues involving the disposition of surplus plutonium as MOX fuel in commercial LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, S.B.; Welch, D.E.; Best, R.E.; Schmid, S.P.

    1997-08-01

    This report provides a view of anticipated transportation, packaging, and facility handling operations that are expected to occur at mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication and commercial reactor facilities. This information is intended for use by prospective contractors to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) who plan to submit proposals to DOE to manufacture and irradiate MOX fuel assemblies in domestic commercial light-water reactors. The report provides data to prospective consortia regarding packaging and pickup of MOX nuclear fuel assemblies at a MOX fuel manufacturing plant and transport and delivery of the MOX assemblies to nuclear power plants. The report also identifies areas where data are incomplete either because of the status of development or lack of sufficient information and specificity regarding the nuclear power plant(s) where deliveries will take place

  2. The manufacturing of depleted uranium biological shield components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metelkin, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    The unique combination of the physical and mechanical properties of uranium made it possible to manufacture biological shield components of transport package container (TPC) for transportation nuclear power plant irradiated fuel and radionuclides of radiation diagnostic instruments. Protective properties are substantially dependent on the nature radionuclide composition of uranium, that why I recommended depleted uranium after radiation chemical processing. Depleted uranium biological shield (DUBS) has improved specific mass-size characteristics compared to a shield made of lead, steel or tungsten. Technological achievements in uranium casting and machining made it possible to manufacture DUBS components of TPC up to 3 tons of mass and up to 2 metres of the maximum size. (authors)

  3. An evaluation of current European packaging regulations on the core logistics operations of a paper packaking manufacturer in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Georgakoudis, Elias D; Tipi, Nicoleta S.; Bamford, Colin

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the packaging sector in the Greek logistics market. It seeks to\\ud evaluate in the broader sense the packaging operations and the potential problems such\\ud as barriers that a number of local laws, based on the European Packaging Directive\\ud 94/62/EC, might be generated in the individual markets. More specifically, the Greek\\ud market is a special field, where the effects caused by a number of measures formulated\\ud by the European Union, generate discrepancies compared...

  4. ASPECTS OF MATHEMATICAL MODELING AND INTERPRETATION OF A MANUFACTURING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela ALDEA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the paper developing we started from a model that allows a detailed decoding of causalrelationships and getting the laws that determine the evolution of the phenomenon.The model chosen for the study is a discrete event system applicable to optimize the transport systemused in pottery. In order to simulate the manufacturing process we chose Matlab package that contains pntoollibrary, by which can be realized modeling of analyzed graphs. Since the timings of manufacture are very highand the process simulation is conducted with difficulty, we divided the graph according to the transport system.

  5. M1 Macrophages but Not M2 Macrophages Are Characterized by Upregulation of CRP Expression via Activation of NFκB: a Possible Role for Ox-LDL in Macrophage Polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Marielle; Shur, Anna; Tendler, Yvgeny

    2018-04-23

    Arterial macrophages comprise a heterogeneous population: pro-inflammatory (M1) and anti-inflammatory (M2). Since C-reactive protein (CRP) is produced by macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions, understanding of CRP regulation in macrophages could be crucial to decipher inflammatory patterns in atherogenesis. We aimed to analyze CRP expression in M1/M2 macrophages and to question whether it involves NFκB signaling pathway. Furthermore, we questioned whether oxidative stress affect macrophage phenotype and modulate macrophage CRP expression. M1/M2 macrophage polarization was validated using THP-1 macrophages. CRP mRNA and protein expression were determined using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Involvement of NFκB was determined by nuclear translocation of p50 subunit and the use of NFκB inhibitor. Involvement of oxidative stress in macrophage phenotypes induction was studied using oxidized-LDL (Ox-LDL) and antioxidants. M1 macrophages were characterized by elevated CRP mRNA expression (by 67%), CRP protein levels (by 108%), and upregulation of NFκB activation compared to control, but these features were not shared by M2 macrophages. Macrophages incubation with Ox-LDL led to a moderate M1 phenotype combined with a M2 phenotype, correlated with increased CRP mRNA expression. Antioxidants inhibited by up to 86% IL6 expression but did not significantly affect IL10 secretion. Antioxidants significantly inhibited CRP expression in M1 macrophages, but not in M2 macrophages. Elevated expression of CRP was characteristic of M1 macrophages rather than M2 through NFκB activation. Oxidative stress could be one of the endogenous triggers for macrophage activation to a mixed M1 and M2 phenotype, in association with increased expression of CRP.

  6. Safety Analysis Report - Packages, 9965, 9968, 9972-9975 Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanton, P.

    2000-01-01

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) documents the analysis and testing performed on four type B Packages: the 9972, 9973, 9974, and 9975 packages. Because all four packages have similar designs with very similar performance characteristics, all of them are presented in a single SARP. The performance evaluation presented in this SARP documents the compliance of the 9975 package with the regulatory safety requirements. Evaluations of the 9972, 9973, and 9974 packages support that of the 9975. To avoid confusion arising from the inclusion of four packages in a single document, the text segregates the data for each package in such a way that the reader interested in only one package can progress from Chapter 1 through Chapter 9. The directory at the beginning of each chapter identifies each section that should be read for a given package. Sections marked ''all'' are generic to all packages

  7. CRP-ductin, the mouse homologue of gp-340/deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 (DMBT1), binds gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and interacts with lung surfactant protein D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens; Tornøe, Ida; Nielsen, Ole

    2003-01-01

    CRP-ductin is a protein expressed mainly by mucosal epithelial cells in the mouse. Sequence homologies indicate that CRP-ductin is the mouse homologue of human gp-340, a glycoprotein that agglutinates microorganisms and binds the lung mucosal collectin surfactant protein-D (SP-D). Here we report...... that purified CRP-ductin binds human SP-D in a calcium-dependent manner and that the binding is not inhibited by maltose. The same properties have previously been observed for gp-340 binding of SP-D. CRP-ductin also showed calcium-dependent binding to both gram-positive and -negative bacteria. A polyclonal...... antibody raised against gp-340 reacted specifically with CRP-ductin in Western blots. Immunoreactivity to CRP-ductin was found in the exocrine pancreas, in epithelial cells throughout the gastrointestinal tract and in the parotid ducts. A panel of RNA preparations from mouse tissues was screened for CRP...

  8. A comparison of osteoprotegerin with adiponectin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) as a marker for insulin resistance.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, Eoin P

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is associated with low adiponectin and elevated high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Osteoprotegerin (OPG) has been shown to be elevated in type 2 diabetes, but whether it reflects underlying IR is unclear. We aimed to compare the ability of serum OPG with adiponectin and hsCRP to act as a marker for IR in individuals with normal and abnormal glucose tolerance.

  9. Low temperature co-fired ceramic packaging of CMOS capacitive sensor chip towards cell viability monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halonen, Niina; Kilpijärvi, Joni; Sobocinski, Maciej; Datta-Chaudhuri, Timir; Hassinen, Antti; Prakash, Someshekar B; Möller, Peter; Abshire, Pamela; Kellokumpu, Sakari; Lloyd Spetz, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Cell viability monitoring is an important part of biosafety evaluation for the detection of toxic effects on cells caused by nanomaterials, preferably by label-free, noninvasive, fast, and cost effective methods. These requirements can be met by monitoring cell viability with a capacitance-sensing integrated circuit (IC) microchip. The capacitance provides a measurement of the surface attachment of adherent cells as an indication of their health status. However, the moist, warm, and corrosive biological environment requires reliable packaging of the sensor chip. In this work, a second generation of low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) technology was combined with flip-chip bonding to provide a durable package compatible with cell culture. The LTCC-packaged sensor chip was integrated with a printed circuit board, data acquisition device, and measurement-controlling software. The packaged sensor chip functioned well in the presence of cell medium and cells, with output voltages depending on the medium above the capacitors. Moreover, the manufacturing of microfluidic channels in the LTCC package was demonstrated.

  10. DEEP DRAWING TECHNOLOGY WITH WALL IRONING IN MASS PACKAGING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Ranđelović

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum is a metal that is being increasingly used in the packaging industry in the modern metal forming technology, but it also provides a good opportunity for effective advertising and product promotion. Processing technologies for aluminum plastic deformation ensure superior packaging that meets the most rigorous demands in the food, pharmaceutical, chemical, and other industries. It is the case of mass production with very little material loss that offers the possibility of multiple recycling. On the other hand, today's products for general purpose consumers cannot be imagined without aggressive advertising that has a major impact on customers. Modern graphics techniques for printing images and different basic surfaces offer great opportunities that manufacturers use widely in the promotion and sale of their products.

  11. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum IGF-II, IL-6, IL-8 and hs-CRP levels after treatment in pediatric patients with bronchopneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guanghui; Chen Chuanbing; Wang Xianwu

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum IGF-II, IL-6, IL-8 and hs-CRP levels after treatment in pediatric patients with bronchopneumonia. Methods: Serum IGF-II, IL-6, IL-8 (with RIA) and hs-CRP (with immunoturbidity method) levels were determined in 36 pediatric patients with bronchopneumonia both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, serum IGF-II, IL-6, IL-8 and hs-CRP levels in the patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Determination of serum IGF-II, IL-6, IL-8 and hs-CRP levels in pediatric patients with bronchopneumonia was important for diagnosis and outcome prediction. (authors)

  12. Simulation of textile manufacturing processes for planning, scheduling, and quality control purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropper, A. E.; Wang, Z.

    1995-08-01

    Simulation, as a management information tool, has been applied to engineering manufacture and assembly operations. The application of the principles to textile manufacturing (fiber to fabric) is discussed. The particular problems and solutions in applying the simulation software package to the yarn production processes are discussed with an indication of how the software achieves the production schedule. The system appears to have application in planning, scheduling, and quality assurance. The latter being a result of the traceability possibilities through a process involving mixing and splitting of material.

  13. Modulation of global low-frequency motions underlies allosteric regulation: demonstration in CRP/FNR family transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Thomas L; Townsend, Philip D; Burnell, David; Jones, Matthew L; Richards, Shane A; McLeish, Tom C B; Pohl, Ehmke; Wilson, Mark R; Cann, Martin J

    2013-09-01

    Allostery is a fundamental process by which ligand binding to a protein alters its activity at a distinct site. There is growing evidence that allosteric cooperativity can be communicated by modulation of protein dynamics without conformational change. The mechanisms, however, for communicating dynamic fluctuations between sites are debated. We provide a foundational theory for how allostery can occur as a function of low-frequency dynamics without a change in structure. We have generated coarse-grained models that describe the protein backbone motions of the CRP/FNR family transcription factors, CAP of Escherichia coli and GlxR of Corynebacterium glutamicum. The latter we demonstrate as a new exemplar for allostery without conformation change. We observe that binding the first molecule of cAMP ligand is correlated with modulation of the global normal modes and negative cooperativity for binding the second cAMP ligand without a change in mean structure. The theory makes key experimental predictions that are tested through an analysis of variant proteins by structural biology and isothermal calorimetry. Quantifying allostery as a free energy landscape revealed a protein "design space" that identified the inter- and intramolecular regulatory parameters that frame CRP/FNR family allostery. Furthermore, through analyzing CAP variants from diverse species, we demonstrate an evolutionary selection pressure to conserve residues crucial for allosteric control. This finding provides a link between the position of CRP/FNR transcription factors within the allosteric free energy landscapes and evolutionary selection pressures. Our study therefore reveals significant features of the mechanistic basis for allostery. Changes in low-frequency dynamics correlate with allosteric effects on ligand binding without the requirement for a defined spatial pathway. In addition to evolving suitable three-dimensional structures, CRP/FNR family transcription factors have been selected to

  14. Prognostic Impact of Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio, Platelet Count, CRP, and Albumin Levels in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Patients Treated with FOLFIRI-Bevacizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaç, Mehmet; Uysal, Mükremin; Karaağaç, Mustafa; Korkmaz, Levent; Er, Zehra; Güler, Tunç; Börüban, Melih Cem; Bozcuk, Hakan

    2017-06-01

    Metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is a lethal disease and fluorouracil-leucovorin-irinotecan (FOLFIRI) plus bevacizumab (bev) is a standard approach. Hence, there is a strong need for identifying new prognostic factors to show the efficacy of FOLFIRI-bev. This is a retrospective study including patients (n = 90) with mCRC from two centers in Turkey. Neutrophil/lymphocyte (N/L) ratio, platelet count, albumin, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were recorded before FOLFIRI-bev therapy. The efficacy of these factors on progression-free survival (PFS) was analyzed with Kaplan Meier and Cox regression analysis. And the cutoff value of N/L ratio was analyzed with ROC analysis. The median age was 56 years (range 21-80). Forty-seven percent of patients with N/L ratio >2.5 showed progressive disease versus 43 % in patients with N/L ratio ratio >2.5 versus 13.5 months for the patients with N/L ratio analysis, high baseline neutrophil count, LDH, N/L ratio, and CRP were all significantly associated with poor prognosis. At multivariate Cox regression analysis, CRP was confirmed to be a better independent prognostic factor. CRP variable was divided into above the upper limit of normal (ULN) and normal value. The median PFSs of the patients with normal and above ULN were 11.3 versus 5.8 months, respectively (p = 0.022). CRP and N/L ratio are potential predictors for advanced mCRC treated with FOLFIRI-bev.

  15. Effect of modified atmosphere packaging and irradiation in combination on content of nitrosamines in cooked pork sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, I H; Kim, W J; Jo, C; Ahn, H J; Kim, J H; Byun, M W

    2003-06-01

    The effect of modified atmosphere packaging and irradiation in combination on nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR) levels in pork sausage was studied. Emulsion-type cooked pork sausage was manufactured and packaged in aerobic, CO2 (100%), N2 (100%), and CO2/N2 (25%/75%) environments, respectively, and irradiated at 0, 5, 10, and 20 kGy with gamma irradiation. The nitrosamine contents were significantly reduced by irradiation, and the reduction of nitrosamines was more extensive with modified atmosphere packaging than with aerobic packaging. The correlation coefficient between irradiation dose and nitrosamine content indicated that irradiation can reduce the levels of nitrosamines. The combination of irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging is effective in enhancing the chemical safety of sausage by reducing nitrosamines, if present, as well as enhancing the microbial safety of cooked pork sausage.

  16. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum hs-CRP, TNF-α and E2 levels in female children with simple obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Jie; Xu Weiqin; Zhou Hong; Liu Hongshu

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum hs-CRP, TNF-α and E 2 levels in female children with simple obesity. Methods: Serum levels of TNF-α, E 2 (with RIA) and hs-CRP (with immunity turbidity) were detected in 34 female children with simple obesity and 35 controls. Results: In the children with simple obesity, the serum hs-CRP, TNF- α and E 2 levels were significantly higher than those in controls (P 2 levels were mutually positively correlated (r=0.6182, 0.5784, P 2 levels is of help for assessment of severity of obesity as well as outcome prediction in female children. (authors)

  17. Hidden costs of antiretroviral treatment: the public health efficiency of drug packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreu-Crespo À

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Àngels Andreu-Crespo,1,* Josep M Llibre,2,3,* Glòria Cardona-Peitx,1 Ferran Sala-Piñol,1 Bonaventura Clotet,2,4 Xavier Bonafont-Pujol1 1Pharmacy Department, 2HIV Unit and “Lluita contra la SIDA” Foundation, University Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, 3Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 4Universitat de Vic-Universitat Central de Catalunya (UVIC-UCC, Vic, Barcelona, Spain *These authors contributed equally to the work Abstract: While the overall percentage of unused antiretroviral medicines returned to the hospital pharmacy is low, their cost is quite high. Adverse events, treatment failure, pharmacokinetic interactions, pregnancy, or treatment simplification are common reasons for unplanned treatment changes. Socially inefficient antiretroviral packages prevent the reuse of drugs returned to the hospital pharmacy. We defined antiretroviral package categories based on the excellence of drug packaging and analyzed the number of pills and costs of drugs returned during a period of 1 year in a hospital-based HIV unit attending to 2,413 treated individuals. A total of 6,090 pills (34% of all returned antiretrovirals – with a cost of 47,139.91€ – would be totally lost, mainly due to being packed up in the lowest efficiency packages. Newer treatments are packaged in low-excellence categories of packages, thus favoring the maintenance of these hidden costs in the near future. Therefore, costs of this low-efficiency drug packaging, where medication packages are started but not completed, in high-cost medications are substantial and should be properly addressed. Any improvement in the packaging by the manufacturer, and favoring the choice of drugs supplied through efficient packages (when efficacy, toxicity, and convenience are similar, should minimize the treatment expenditures paid by national health budgets. Keywords: antiretroviral treatment, cost efficacy, drug packaging, treatment change

  18. Reliability of CGA/LGA/HDI Package Board/Assembly (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffaroam. Reza

    2014-01-01

    Package manufacturers are now offering commercial-off-the-shelf column grid array (COTS CGA) packaging technologies in high-reliability versions. Understanding the process and quality assurance (QA) indicators for reliability are important for low-risk insertion of these advanced electronics packages. The previous reports, released in January of 2012 and January of 2013, presented package test data, assembly information, and reliability evaluation by thermal cycling for CGA packages with 1752, 1517, 1509, and 1272 inputs/outputs (I/Os) and 1-mm pitch. It presented the thermal cycling (-55C either 100C or 125C) test results for up to 200 cycles. This report presents up to 500 thermal cycles with quality assurance and failure analysis evaluation represented by optical photomicrographs, 2D real time X-ray images, dye-and-pry photomicrographs, and optical/scanning electron Microscopy (SEM) cross-sectional images. The report also presents assembly challenge using reflowing by either vapor phase or rework station of CGA and land grid array (LGA) versions of three high I/O packages both ceramic and plastic configuration. A new test vehicle was designed having high density interconnect (HDI) printed circuit board (PCB) with microvia-in-pad to accommodate both LGA packages as well as a large number of fine pitch ball grid arrays (BGAs). The LGAs either were assembled onto HDI PCB as an LGA or were solder paste print and reflow first to form solder dome on pads before assembly. Both plastic BGAs with 1156 I/O and ceramic LGAs were assembled. It also presented the X-ray inspection results as well as failures due to 200 thermal cycles. Lessons learned on assembly of ceramic LGAs are also presented.

  19. Starting manufacturing phase of ITER upper ports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utin, Yuri, E-mail: yuri.utin@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Alekseev, Alexander; Sborchia, Carlo; Choi, Changho; Albin, Vincent; Barabash, Vladimir; Davis, James [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Fabritsiev, Sergey [NTC Sintez, Efremov Inst., 189631 Metallostroy, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Giraud, Benoit; Guirao, Julio [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Koenig, Werner [MAN Diesel & Turbo SE, Werftstrasse 17, Deggendorf (Germany); Kedrov, Igor; Kuzmin, Evgeny [NTC Sintez, Efremov Inst., 189631 Metallostroy, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Levesy, Bruno; Martinez, Jean-Marc [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Prebeck, Markus [MAN Diesel & Turbo SE, Werftstrasse 17, Deggendorf (Germany); Privalova, Elena [NTC Sintez, Efremov Inst., 189631 Metallostroy, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ranzinger, Franz [MAN Diesel & Turbo SE, Werftstrasse 17, Deggendorf (Germany); Savrukhin, Petr [Russian Federation ITER Domestic Agency, Kurchatov sq.1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Schiller, Thomas [MAN Diesel & Turbo SE, Werftstrasse 17, Deggendorf (Germany); and others

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The port plugs are attached to the ports with high-strength fasteners. • Tightening of the fasteners via inductive heating was tested. • A concept for the port/plug sealing with metal-type gaskets has progressed. • Manufacturing design of the Upper Ports is in progress. • A full-scale mock-up of double-wall part of the port stub extension is in manufacturing process – acceptable final tolerances are expected. - Abstract: The ITER Vacuum Vessel (VV) features upper, equatorial and lower ports. The upper and regular equatorial ports are occupied by the port plugs. Although the port design has been overall completed in the past, the design of some remaining interfaces was still in progress: in particular, the Sealing Flange package, which includes the high-vacuum seals and the plug fasteners. As the ITER construction phase has started, the procurement of the VV ports has been launched. The VV upper ports will be procured by the Russian Federation Domestic Agency. The main suppliers were selected and the manufacturing design of the first parts is in full progress now. Since the VV is classified at nuclear level N2, the design and manufacture of its components are to be compliant with the French RCC-MR code and regulations for nuclear pressure equipment in France. These regulations make a strong impact to the port design and manufacturing process.

  20. Starting manufacturing phase of ITER upper ports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utin, Yuri; Alekseev, Alexander; Sborchia, Carlo; Choi, Changho; Albin, Vincent; Barabash, Vladimir; Davis, James; Fabritsiev, Sergey; Giraud, Benoit; Guirao, Julio; Koenig, Werner; Kedrov, Igor; Kuzmin, Evgeny; Levesy, Bruno; Martinez, Jean-Marc; Prebeck, Markus; Privalova, Elena; Ranzinger, Franz; Savrukhin, Petr; Schiller, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The port plugs are attached to the ports with high-strength fasteners. • Tightening of the fasteners via inductive heating was tested. • A concept for the port/plug sealing with metal-type gaskets has progressed. • Manufacturing design of the Upper Ports is in progress. • A full-scale mock-up of double-wall part of the port stub extension is in manufacturing process – acceptable final tolerances are expected. - Abstract: The ITER Vacuum Vessel (VV) features upper, equatorial and lower ports. The upper and regular equatorial ports are occupied by the port plugs. Although the port design has been overall completed in the past, the design of some remaining interfaces was still in progress: in particular, the Sealing Flange package, which includes the high-vacuum seals and the plug fasteners. As the ITER construction phase has started, the procurement of the VV ports has been launched. The VV upper ports will be procured by the Russian Federation Domestic Agency. The main suppliers were selected and the manufacturing design of the first parts is in full progress now. Since the VV is classified at nuclear level N2, the design and manufacture of its components are to be compliant with the French RCC-MR code and regulations for nuclear pressure equipment in France. These regulations make a strong impact to the port design and manufacturing process.

  1. Proinsulin, adiponectin and hsCRP in reproductive age women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)--the effect of metformin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruszyńska, Aleksandra; Słowińska-Srzednicka, Jadwiga; Jeske, Wojciech; Zgliczyński, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) often suffer from obesity and insulin resistance. The role of proinsulin, which is known to be an indicator of fertility outcomes in PCOS women, and that of adiponectin, in the pathogenesis of PCOS is not well elucidated. Our objective was to determine proinsulin, adiponectin, hsCRP and other hormonal and metabolic parameters in PCOS women before and after metformin treatment. Two PCOS groups of patients of reproductive age (90 lean and 88 obese or overweight) with two control groups, adjusted for body mass index (BMI), were compared at baseline. 32 PCOS women were studied at baseline, after three and six months of metformin (1,000 mg/day) treatment. Clinical, anthropometric, biochemical and hormonal parameters were assessed. Proinsulin and hsCRP levels were the highest in obese PCOS women and were statistically different than in lean PCOS women (proinsulin: 11.4 v. 6.9 pmol/L; hsCRP 2.46 v. 0.47 mg/L, p treatment only in obese PCOS women. PCOS, when accompanied by obesity, is associated with elevated proinsulin concentrations, which correlates with higher hsCRP and increased FAI. Proinsulin level decreases due to metformin treatment. Our results suggest that obese or overweight PCOS and lean PCOS are characterised by different hormonal and metabolic parameters and have a different response to metformin treatment.

  2. Investigating the Effect of Inflammation on Atrial Fibrillation Occurrence by Measuring Highly Sensitive C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Hassanzadeh Delui

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most prevalent cardiac arrhythmias that cardiologists and internists encounter. The goal of this article is to clarify an overview of the evidence linking inflammation to AF existence, which may highlight the effect of some pharmacological agents that have genuine potential to reduce the clinical burden of AF by modulating inflammatory pathways. Materials and Methods: In a case-control study, 50 patients with atrial fibrillation (AF with different etiologies and 50 patients with sinus rhythm and similar bases were selected. Sampling for highly sensitive c-reactive (hs-CRP was done on the patients presenting with AF to the Ghaem hospital between October 2006 and June 2007. Results: Mean age of the patients was 62 years with maximum of 90 and minimum of 36 and standard deviation of 13.80. The most frequent age group was 71-80years. Fifty-four percent of patients were male and 46% were female. Mean serum hs-CRP levels in AF patients with hypertension (HTN ,Ischemic heart disease(IHD, Valvular heart disease (VHD, HTN+IHD and hyperthyroidism were 8.10, 9.40, 8.68, 10.16 and 5.98 mg/Lit; respectively. There was significant difference between hs-CRP levels in hypertensive patients in the two groups (P=0.010. Similar results were observed in IHD patients, VHD patients and HTN+IHD patients in two groups (P=0.015, P=0.037, P=0.000. Conclusion: In addition to some risk factors like baseline cardiac diseases, aging, thyrotoxicosis, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia and cardiac surgery, there also appears to be consistent links between hs-CRP, a marker of inflammation, and the pathogenesis of AF. Introduction: Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most prevalent cardiac arrhythmias that cardiologists and internists encounter. The goal of this article is to clarify an overview of the evidence linking inflammation to AF existence, which may highlight the effect of some pharmacological agents that have genuine potential to

  3. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels and its relationship with components of polycystic ovary syndrome in Indian adolescent women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganie, Mohd Ashraf; Hassan, Saqib; Nisar, Sobia; Shamas, Nasir; Rashid, Aafia; Ahmed, Ishfaq; Douhat, Syed; Mudassar, Syed; Jan, Vicar M; Rashid, Fouzia

    2014-11-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a risk marker for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. In polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), limited data are available on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels and its relationship with components of PCOS especially in Indian women. The objective was to determine serum hs-CRP concentration in adolescent women with and without PCOS and to assess possible correlations of serum hs-CRP levels with components of PCOS in Indian women. One hundred and sixty women with PCOS and sixty non-PCOS women having normal menstrual cycles were included. Clinical assessment included anthropometry, Ferriman-Gallwey (FG) score and blood pressure (BP) measurement. Laboratory evaluation included estimation of T4, TSH, LH, FSH, total testosterone, prolactin, cortisol, 17OHP, hs-CRP, lipid profile, and insulin, and glucose after 2-h oral glucose tolerance test. Homeostasis Model Assessment Insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI) and glucose intolerance was calculated. FG score, LH, FSH, total Testosterone, HOMA-IR and QUICKI were significantly different among women with or without PCOS (p women having PCOS, there was no significant difference between the groups (p > 0.05). A significant and positive correlation was found between hs-CRP and body mass index (BMI) (r = 0.308, p Indian adolescent women suggest that hs-CRP levels may not per se be associated with PCOS, rather can be related to fat mass in this subset of subjects.

  4. Clinical significance of determination of changes in serum hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-18 levels after treatment in patients with acute conjunctivitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jun

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of serum hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-18 levels in patients with acute conjunctivitis after treatment. Methods: Serum IL-6, IL-10 (with RIA) hs-CRP (with Immuno-turbidity) and IL-18 (with ELISA) levels were measured in 38 patients with acute conjunctivitis both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: The serum hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-18 levels in the patients before treatment were significantly higher than those in the controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Measurement of the changes of serum hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-18 levels after treatment might be inportant for outcome prediction in patients with acute conjunctivitis. (authors)

  5. Design, development and production of the TNF-XI new powder package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naigeon, P.; Brut, S.; Fujiwara, T.; Cohen, M.E.

    2004-01-01

    The TNF-XI was jointly developed by COGEMA LOGISTICS of France and Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd. (NFI) of Japan. The design and development of this package were started in 2000 and it was first used in 2003. The package design was based on the COGEMA LOGISTICS TN trademark UO2 package, which is cylindrical. To optimize the use of space and to facilitate operations, the TNF-XI incorporates four cavities. Each cavity is similar to one TN trademark U02. The overall shape of the package is approximately a one-meter cube, which allows it to be easily arranged and stacked in a transport container. It has a total weight of nearly 1 metric ton when loaded with 300 kg of uraniferous oxide material. The powder (or pellets) is placed inside NFI pails, and three pails are placed inside each cavity. The test results and analyses were documented in the French, Japanese, and United States 'Safety Analysis Reports' in order to get approvals in these countries. Additionally, the French license was validated in other countries. The 'Safety Analysis Reports' were prepared by COGEMA LOGISTICS in France, NFI in Japan and PACKAGING TECHNOLOGY, Inc. in the USA. In order to transform the TNF-XI design into a fleet of 800 packagings, a successful mass production process had to be developed and put into place by COGEMA LOGISTICS and the fabricator MECAGEST. Adopting mass production methods was challenging - not only because of the large quantity of packages, but also because of the rate of production (50 units per month minimum), quality requirements and the need to keep low packaging costs. This resulted in a significant challenge for mass producing the packaging: what was needed was a robust, efficient, and well-organized process. During the development of the manufacturing process, we also worked on shortening the learning curve

  6. The Trends of CRP Levels at Different Waist-to-Hip Ratios Among Normotensive Overweight and Obese Patients: A Pilot Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firdous, S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the correlation between CRP (C-reactive protein) and Waist to Hip Ratio (WHR) among over weight and obese patients with normal blood pressure. Study Design: An analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Medical indoor and outpatient clinics of Mayo Hospital, Lahore, from March to August 2013. Methodology: Willing patients with Body Mass Index (BMI) of > 23 kg/m2, normal blood pressures, and age between 18 - 65 years were inducted in the study. Patients with signs of fluid retention, collagen vascular disease, CAD, on corticosteroids, immunomodulators or lipid lowering medications, hypertensives and febrile patients were excluded. Patients were considered to be at low risk for cardiovascular events if WHR among males and females was < 0.95 and < 0.80, respectively. Similarly, males and females with WHR > 1 and > 0.85, respectively were taken as high risk. Levels in-between these ranges were taken as moderate risk. Data was analyzed on SPSS 15. Descriptive statistics were determined. The p-value was calculated by ANOVA and independent sample t-test among males and females respectively, to compare WHR in relation to different CRP levels and < 0.05 was taken as significant. Results: There were 34 male and 74 female patients. The gender-wise mean WHR did not show statistically significant difference categorized CRP levels (p=0.072 in male, and 0.052 in females). There was an increasing trend in CRP levels as WHR increased among females, but this was statistically insignificant (p=0.05). Conclusion: Although the impact of central obesity on cardiac health is well known, however, WHR alone is an unreliable indicator of systemic inflammation and raised CRP level. (author)

  7. Evaluating Penetration Ability of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Larvae into Multilayer Polypropylene Packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheff, Deanna S; Sehgal, Blossom; Subramanyam, Bhadriraju

    2018-04-18

    The larvae of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), can invade or penetrate packaging materials and infest food products. Energy bars with three polypropylene packaging types were challenged with eggs (first instars), third instars, and fifth instars of P. interpunctella to determine package resistance at 28 °C and 65% r.h. The packing types were also challenged with two male and two female pupae of P. interpunctella under similar conditions in order to determine which package provided the greatest protection against larval penetration. Samples infested with eggs, third instars, and pupae were evaluated after 21 days and 42 days to count the number of larvae, pupae, and adults found inside the packages. Packages challenged with fifth instars were observed after 21 days to count the number of larvae, pupae, and adults inside each package. The number and diameter of the holes were determined in each package, followed by the amount of damage sustained to the energy bar. Third and fifth instars showed a higher tendency to penetrate all of the packaging types. First instars showed a reduction in package penetration ability compared with third and fifth instars. The increase in exposure time resulted in an increase in the damage sustained to the energy bars. Among packaging types, the thickest package (Test A) was most resilient to penetration by all of the larval stages. In conclusion, energy bar manufacturers need to invest more effort into improving packaging designs, creating thicker gauge films, or advancing odor barrier technology, in order to prevent penetration and infestation by P. interpunctella larvae.

  8. Evaluating Penetration Ability of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae Larvae into Multilayer Polypropylene Packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna S. Scheff

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The larvae of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner, can invade or penetrate packaging materials and infest food products. Energy bars with three polypropylene packaging types were challenged with eggs (first instars, third instars, and fifth instars of P. interpunctella to determine package resistance at 28 °C and 65% r.h. The packing types were also challenged with two male and two female pupae of P. interpunctella under similar conditions in order to determine which package provided the greatest protection against larval penetration. Samples infested with eggs, third instars, and pupae were evaluated after 21 days and 42 days to count the number of larvae, pupae, and adults found inside the packages. Packages challenged with fifth instars were observed after 21 days to count the number of larvae, pupae, and adults inside each package. The number and diameter of the holes were determined in each package, followed by the amount of damage sustained to the energy bar. Third and fifth instars showed a higher tendency to penetrate all of the packaging types. First instars showed a reduction in package penetration ability compared with third and fifth instars. The increase in exposure time resulted in an increase in the damage sustained to the energy bars. Among packaging types, the thickest package (Test A was most resilient to penetration by all of the larval stages. In conclusion, energy bar manufacturers need to invest more effort into improving packaging designs, creating thicker gauge films, or advancing odor barrier technology, in order to prevent penetration and infestation by P. interpunctella larvae.

  9. 3. Research Coordination Meeting (RCM) of the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Studies of advanced reactor technology options for effective incineration of radioactive waste'. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    To meet expressed Member States' needs, the IAEA has initiated a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Studies of Advanced Reactor Technology Options for Effective Incineration of Radioactive Waste'. The final goal of the CRP is to deepen the understanding of the dynamics of transmutation systems, e.g. the accelerator driven system, especially systems with deteriorated safety parameters, qualify the available methods, specify the range of validity of methods, and formulate requirements for future theoretical developments. Should transient experiments be available, the CRP will pursue experimental benchmarking work. In any case, based on the results, the CRP will conclude on the potential need of transient experiments and make appropriate proposals for experimental programs. The Technical Meeting in Chennai was the 3rd Research Coordination Meeting (RCM) of the CRP The man objectives of the RCM were to: - Discuss and perform inter-comparisons of the various benchmark results; - Prepare the first draft of the final CRP Report Status of the analyses and inter-comparisons of the results. The main objective of the CRP was to study innovative technology options for incinerating/utilizing radioactive wastes. The CRP's benchmarking exercises focused on eight innovative transmutation 'Domains', which correspond to different critical and sub-critical concepts or groups of concepts: I. Critical fast reactor, solid fuel, with fertile; II. Critical fast reactor, solid fuel, fertile-free; III. ADS, solid fuel, with fertile; IV. ADS, solid fuel, fertile-free; V. Critical reactor and ADS, molten salt fuel, with fertile; VI. Critical reactor and ADS, molten salt fuel, fertile-free; VII. Critical fast reactor and ADS, gas cooled; VIII. Fusion/fission hybrid system. For each of these Domains, the discussions and inter-comparisons considered the following issues: - Reactor-models; - Scenarios/phenomena; - Static analyses; - Dynamic analyses; - Methods; - Codes; - Neutronic data base

  10. Packaging Solutions : Delivering customer value through Logistical Packaging: A Case Study at Stora Enso Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Shan, Kun; Julius, Joezer

    2015-01-01

    AbstractBackground;Despite of the significant role of packaging within logistics and supply chain management, packaging is infrequently studied as focal point in supply chain. Most of the previous logistics research studies tend to explain the integration between packaging and logistics through logistical packaging. In very rare cases, the studies mentioned about customer value. Therefore the major disadvantage of these studies is that, they didn’t consider logistical packaging and customer v...

  11. Impact of Company Size on Manufacturing Improvement Practices: An empirical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syan, C S; Ramoutar, K

    2014-01-01

    There is a constant search for ways to achieve a competitive advantage through new manufacturing techniques. Best performing manufacturing companies tend to use world-class manufacturing (WCM) practices. Although the last few years have witnessed phenomenal growth in the use of WCM techniques, their effectiveness is not well understood specifically in the context of less developed countries. This paper presents an empirical study to investigate the impact of company size on improving manufacturing performance in manufacturing organizations based in Trinidad and Tobago (T and T). Empirical data were collected via a questionnaire survey which was send to 218 manufacturing firms in T and T. Five different company sizes and seven different industry sectors were studied. The analysis of survey data was performed with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. The study signified facilitating and impeding factors towards improving manufacturing performance. Their relative impact/importance is dependent on varying company size and industry sectors. Findings indicate that T and T manufacturers are still practicing traditional approaches, when compared with world class manufacturers. In the majority of organizations, these practices were not 100% implemented even though they started the implementation process more than 5 years ago. The findings provided some insights in formulating more optimal operational strategies, and later develop action plans towards more effective implementation of WCM in T and T manufacturers

  12. Impact of Company Size on Manufacturing Improvement Practices: An empirical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syan, C. S.; Ramoutar, K.

    2014-07-01

    There is a constant search for ways to achieve a competitive advantage through new manufacturing techniques. Best performing manufacturing companies tend to use world-class manufacturing (WCM) practices. Although the last few years have witnessed phenomenal growth in the use of WCM techniques, their effectiveness is not well understood specifically in the context of less developed countries. This paper presents an empirical study to investigate the impact of company size on improving manufacturing performance in manufacturing organizations based in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T). Empirical data were collected via a questionnaire survey which was send to 218 manufacturing firms in T&T. Five different company sizes and seven different industry sectors were studied. The analysis of survey data was performed with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. The study signified facilitating and impeding factors towards improving manufacturing performance. Their relative impact/importance is dependent on varying company size and industry sectors. Findings indicate that T&T manufacturers are still practicing traditional approaches, when compared with world class manufacturers. In the majority of organizations, these practices were not 100% implemented even though they started the implementation process more than 5 years ago. The findings provided some insights in formulating more optimal operational strategies, and later develop action plans towards more effective implementation of WCM in T&T manufacturers.

  13. Long-term corrosion behaviour of low-/medium-level waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jendras, M.; Bach, F.W.; Behrens, S.; Birr, Ch.; Hassel, Th.

    2009-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Storage of low- and medium-level radioactive waste requires safe packages. This means that all materials used for the manufacturing of such packages have to show a sufficient resistance especially against corrosive attacks. Since these packages are generally made from carbon steel an additional coating for corrosion protection - mainly solvent-based polymers - is necessary. However, it is not enough to consider the selection and combination of the materials. Regarding the construction and manufacturing of corrosion-resistant drums for low- and medium-level radioactive waste there also has to be paid closer attention to the joining technologies such as welding. For lifetime prediction of low-/medium-level waste packages reliable experimental data concerning the long-term corrosion behaviour of each material as well as of the components is needed. Therefore sheet metals from carbon steel were galvanized or coated with different solvent-based and water-based corrosion protection materials (epoxy as well as silicone resins). After damaging the anti-corrosion coating of some of these sheets with predefined scratches sets of these samples were stored at higher temperatures in climatic chamber, in simulated waste or aged according to standard DIN EN ISO 9227. All corrosion damages were analyzed by means of metallography (light microscopy as well as scanning electron microscopy of micro-sections). The quantitative influence of the corrosive attacks on the mechanical properties of the materials was examined by mechanical testing according to DIN EN 10002. Besides reduction of tensile strength drastic reduction of percentage of elongation after fracture (from 30 % to 10 %) was found. Further experiments were carried out using components or scaled-down drums joined by means of innovative welding techniques such as Cold Arc or Force Arc. The relevant welding parameters (e.g. welding current, proper volume of shielding gas or wire feed) were

  14. Effect of CRP value on 18F-FDG PET vascular positivity in Takayasu arteritis: a systematic review and per-patient based meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Léa; Chaumet-Riffaud, Philippe; Noel, Nicolas; Lambotte, Olivier; Goujard, Cécile; Durand, Emmanuel; Besson, Florent L

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the association between the CRP value and 18 F-FDG PET vascular positivity in Takayasu arteritis (TAK) through a structured dedicated systematic review and meta-analysis. From January 2000 to December 2016, the PubMed/MEDLINE database was searched for articles specifically dealing with the assessment of vascular inflammation using 18 F-FDG PET and CRP biomarkers in TAK. Inclusion criteria for the qualitative analysis were (1) 18 F-FDG PET used to assess the disease activity, (2) The use of the ACR criteria for the diagnosis of TAK, (3) No case mixed vasculitis (i.e., no giant cell arteritis), and (4) CRP concentration and clinical disease activity available. For the meta-analysis, PET-positive and PET-negative subgroups with the corresponding CRP concentrations were generated based on per patient data. The standard mean difference, which represents the effect of the CRP concentrations on the 18 F-FDG PET vascular uptake, was computed for all studies, and then the results were pooled together. Among the 33 initial citations, nine complete articles including 210 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Five studies found a significant correlation between the 18 F-FDG PET and CRP concentration, one provided a trend towards association and three did not find any association between the two biomarkers. Six studies found a significant association between 18 F-FDG PET and clinical disease activity, one found a trend towards association and the last two studies did not evaluate this correlation. The meta-analysis (121 patients) provided the following results: Standard Mean Deviation = 0.54 [0.15;0.92]; Chi 2  = 3.35; I 2  = 0%; Test for overall effect: Z = 2.70 (P = 0.007). The CRP concentration only moderately reflects the 18 F-FDG PET vascular positivity in TAK, suggesting dissociated information. Standardized longitudinal prospective studies are necessary to assess the value of 18 F-FDG PET as an independent biomarker for

  15. cAMP-CRP acts as a key regulator for the viable but non-culturable state in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosho, Kazuki; Fukushima, Hiroko; Asai, Takehiro; Nishio, Masahiro; Takamaru, Reiko; Kobayashi-Kirschvink, Koseki Joseph; Ogawa, Tetsuhiro; Hidaka, Makoto; Masaki, Haruhiko

    2018-03-01

    A variety of bacteria, including Escherichia coli, are known to enter the viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state under various stress conditions. During this state, cells lose colony-forming activities on conventional agar plates while retaining signs of viability. Diverse environmental stresses including starvation induce the VBNC state. However, little is known about the genetic mechanism inducing this state. Here, we aimed to reveal the genetic determinants of the VBNC state of E. coli. We hypothesized that the VBNC state is a process wherein specific gene products important for colony formation are depleted during the extended period of stress conditions. If so, higher expression of these genes would maintain colony-forming activities, thereby restraining cells from entering the VBNC state. From an E. coli plasmid-encoded ORF library, we identified genes that were responsible for maintaining high colony-forming activities after exposure to starvation condition. Among these, cpdA encoding cAMP phosphodiesterase exhibited higher performance in the maintenance of colony-forming activities. As cpdA overexpression decreases intracellular cAMP, cAMP or its complex with cAMP-receptor protein (CRP) may negatively regulate colony-forming activities under stress conditions. We confirmed this using deletion mutants lacking adenylate cyclase or CRP. These mutants fully maintained colony-forming activities even after a long period of starvation, while wild-type cells lost most of this activity. Thus, we concluded that the lack of cAMP-CRP effectively retains high colony-forming activities, indicating that cAMP-CRP acts as a positive regulator necessary for the induction of the VBNC state in E. coli.

  16. Cystatin C, CRP, log TG/HDLc and metabolic syndrome are associated with microalbuminuria in hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Rafaela do Socorro Souza e Silva [Pós-Graduação em Ciências Médicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Vasconcelos, Daniel França [Área de Cardiologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Freitas, Eduardo [Departamento de Estatística, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Moura, Flavio José Dutra de; Rosa, Tânia Torres; Veiga, Joel Paulo Russomano, E-mail: joelprv@unb.br [Área de Clínica Médica, Nefrologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil)

    2014-01-15

    In patients with systemic hypertension, microalbuminuria is a marker of endothelial damage and is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. To determine the factors that may lead to the occurrence of microalbuminuria in hypertensive patients with serum creatinine lower than 1.5 mg/dL. This cross-sectional study included 133 Brazilians with essential hypertension followed up at a hypertension outpatient clinic. Those with serum creatinine higher than 1.5 mg/dL, as well as those with diabetes mellitus, were excluded. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured, and body mass index (BMI) and GFR estimated by using the CKD-EPI formula were calculated. The serum levels of the following were assessed: CysC, creatinine, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein (CRP) and fasting glucose. Microalbuminuria was determined in 24-hour urine. Hypertensive patients were classified according to the presence of one or more criteria for metabolic syndrome. In a multiple regression analysis, the serum levels of CysC and CRP, the atherogenic index log TG/HDLc and the presence of three or more criteria for metabolic syndrome were positively correlated with microalbuminuria (r{sup 2}: 0.277, p < 0.05). CysC, CRP, log TG/HDLc, and the presence of three or more criteria for metabolic syndrome, regardless of serum creatinine, were associated with microalbuminuria, an early marker of kidney damage and cardiovascular risk in patients with essential hypertension.

  17. Cystatin C, CRP, log TG/HDLc and metabolic syndrome are associated with microalbuminuria in hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Rafaela do Socorro Souza e Silva; Vasconcelos, Daniel França; Freitas, Eduardo; Moura, Flavio José Dutra de; Rosa, Tânia Torres; Veiga, Joel Paulo Russomano

    2014-01-01

    In patients with systemic hypertension, microalbuminuria is a marker of endothelial damage and is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. To determine the factors that may lead to the occurrence of microalbuminuria in hypertensive patients with serum creatinine lower than 1.5 mg/dL. This cross-sectional study included 133 Brazilians with essential hypertension followed up at a hypertension outpatient clinic. Those with serum creatinine higher than 1.5 mg/dL, as well as those with diabetes mellitus, were excluded. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured, and body mass index (BMI) and GFR estimated by using the CKD-EPI formula were calculated. The serum levels of the following were assessed: CysC, creatinine, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein (CRP) and fasting glucose. Microalbuminuria was determined in 24-hour urine. Hypertensive patients were classified according to the presence of one or more criteria for metabolic syndrome. In a multiple regression analysis, the serum levels of CysC and CRP, the atherogenic index log TG/HDLc and the presence of three or more criteria for metabolic syndrome were positively correlated with microalbuminuria (r 2 : 0.277, p < 0.05). CysC, CRP, log TG/HDLc, and the presence of three or more criteria for metabolic syndrome, regardless of serum creatinine, were associated with microalbuminuria, an early marker of kidney damage and cardiovascular risk in patients with essential hypertension

  18. Development and evaluation of measurement devices used to support testing of radioactive material transportation packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uncapher, W.L.; Ammerman, D.J.; Stenberg, D.R.; Bronowski, D.R.; Arviso, M.

    1992-01-01

    Radioactive material package designers use structural testing to verify and demonstrate package performance. A major part of evaluating structural response is the collection of instrumentation measurement data. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has an ongoing program to develop and evaluate measurement devices to support testing of radioactive material packages. Measurement devices developed in support of this activity include evaluation channels, ruggedly constructed linear variable differential transformers, and piezoresistive accelerometers with enhanced measurement capabilities. In addition to developing measurement devices, a method has been derived to evaluate accelerometers and strain gages for measurement repeatability, ruggedness, and manufacturers' calibration data under both laboratory and field conditions. The developed measurement devices and evaluation technique will be discussed and the results of the evaluation will be presented

  19. Packaging fluency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocanu, Ana; Chrysochou, Polymeros; Bogomolova, Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Research on packaging stresses the need for packaging design to read easily, presuming fast and accurate processing of product-related information. In this paper we define this property of packaging as “packaging fluency”. Based on the existing marketing and cognitive psychology literature on pac...

  20. Policy packages to achieve demand reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, Brenda

    2005-01-01

    In many sectors and many countries, energy demand is still increasing, despite decades of policies to reduce demand. Controlling climate change is becoming more urgent, so there is a need to devise policies that will, virtually, guarantee demand reduction. This has to come from policy, at least in the UK, as the conditions do not exist, yet, when the consumers will 'pull' the market for energy efficiency or the manufacturers will use technological development to 'push' it. That virtuous circle has to be created by a mixture of consumer education and restrictions on manufacturers (for instance, permission to manufacture). The wider policy options include higher prices for energy and stronger product policies. An assessment of the effectiveness of different policy packages indicates some guiding principles, for instance that improved product policy must precede higher prices, otherwise consumers are unable to react effectively to price rises. The evidence will be assessed about the ways in which national and EU policies can either reinforce, duplicate or undermine each other. Another area of examination will be timescales: what is the time lag between the implementation of a policy (whether prices or product based) and the level of maximum reductions. In addition, the emphasis given to factors such as equity, raising investment funds and speed of delivery also influence policy design and the extent to which absolute carbon reductions can be expected

  1. Enhancing E. coli tolerance towards oxidative stress via engineering its global regulator cAMP receptor protein (CRP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souvik Basak

    Full Text Available Oxidative damage to microbial hosts often occurs under stressful conditions during bioprocessing. Classical strain engineering approaches are usually both time-consuming and labor intensive. Here, we aim to improve E. coli performance under oxidative stress via engineering its global regulator cAMP receptor protein (CRP, which can directly or indirectly regulate redox-sensing regulators SoxR and OxyR, and other ~400 genes in E. coli. Error-prone PCR technique was employed to introduce modifications to CRP, and three mutants (OM1~OM3 were identified with improved tolerance via H(2O(2 enrichment selection. The best mutant OM3 could grow in 12 mM H(2O(2 with the growth rate of 0.6 h(-1, whereas the growth of wild type was completely inhibited at this H(2O(2 concentration. OM3 also elicited enhanced thermotolerance at 48°C as well as resistance against cumene hydroperoxide. The investigation about intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS, which determines cell viability, indicated that the accumulation of ROS in OM3 was always lower than in WT with or without H(2O(2 treatment. Genome-wide DNA microarray analysis has shown not only CRP-regulated genes have demonstrated great transcriptional level changes (up to 8.9-fold, but also RpoS- and OxyR-regulated genes (up to 7.7-fold. qRT-PCR data and enzyme activity assay suggested that catalase (katE could be a major antioxidant enzyme in OM3 instead of alkyl hydroperoxide reductase or superoxide dismutase. To our knowledge, this is the first work on improving E. coli oxidative stress resistance by reframing its transcription machinery through its native global regulator. The positive outcome of this approach may suggest that engineering CRP can be successfully implemented as an efficient strain engineering alternative for E. coli.

  2. Microelectronic packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, M; Schultze, J Walter

    2004-01-01

    Microelectronic Packaging analyzes the massive impact of electrochemical technologies on various levels of microelectronic packaging. Traditionally, interconnections within a chip were considered outside the realm of packaging technologies, but this book emphasizes the importance of chip wiring as a key aspect of microelectronic packaging, and focuses on electrochemical processing as an enabler of advanced chip metallization.Divided into five parts, the book begins by outlining the basics of electrochemical processing, defining the microelectronic packaging hierarchy, and emphasizing the impac

  3. Low temperature co-fired ceramic packaging of CMOS capacitive sensor chip towards cell viability monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niina Halonen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cell viability monitoring is an important part of biosafety evaluation for the detection of toxic effects on cells caused by nanomaterials, preferably by label-free, noninvasive, fast, and cost effective methods. These requirements can be met by monitoring cell viability with a capacitance-sensing integrated circuit (IC microchip. The capacitance provides a measurement of the surface attachment of adherent cells as an indication of their health status. However, the moist, warm, and corrosive biological environment requires reliable packaging of the sensor chip. In this work, a second generation of low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC technology was combined with flip-chip bonding to provide a durable package compatible with cell culture. The LTCC-packaged sensor chip was integrated with a printed circuit board, data acquisition device, and measurement-controlling software. The packaged sensor chip functioned well in the presence of cell medium and cells, with output voltages depending on the medium above the capacitors. Moreover, the manufacturing of microfluidic channels in the LTCC package was demonstrated.

  4. There Is No Further Gain from Calculating Disease Activity Score in 28 Joints with High Sensitivity Assays of C-Reactive Protein Because of High Intraindividual Variability of CRP: A Cross Sectional Study and Theoretical Consideration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen Hansen, Inger Marie; Asmussen Andreasen, Rikke; Antonsen, Steen

    Background/Purpose: The threshold for reporting of C-reactive protein (CRP) differs from laboratory to laboratory. Moreover, CRP values are affected by the intra individual biological variability.[1] With respect to disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) and Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), precise...... threshold for reporting CRP is important due to the direct effects of CRP on calculating DAS28, patient classification and subsequent treatment decisions[2] Methods: This study consists of two sections: a theoretical consideration discussing the performance of CRP in calculating DAS28 with regard...... to the biological variation and reporting limit for CRP and a cross sectional study of all RA patients from our department (n=876) applying our theoretical results. In the second section, we calculate DAS28 twice with actual CRP and CRP=9, the latter to elucidate the positive consequences of changing the lower...

  5. Modulation of global low-frequency motions underlies allosteric regulation: demonstration in CRP/FNR family transcription factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L Rodgers

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Allostery is a fundamental process by which ligand binding to a protein alters its activity at a distinct site. There is growing evidence that allosteric cooperativity can be communicated by modulation of protein dynamics without conformational change. The mechanisms, however, for communicating dynamic fluctuations between sites are debated. We provide a foundational theory for how allostery can occur as a function of low-frequency dynamics without a change in structure. We have generated coarse-grained models that describe the protein backbone motions of the CRP/FNR family transcription factors, CAP of Escherichia coli and GlxR of Corynebacterium glutamicum. The latter we demonstrate as a new exemplar for allostery without conformation change. We observe that binding the first molecule of cAMP ligand is correlated with modulation of the global normal modes and negative cooperativity for binding the second cAMP ligand without a change in mean structure. The theory makes key experimental predictions that are tested through an analysis of variant proteins by structural biology and isothermal calorimetry. Quantifying allostery as a free energy landscape revealed a protein "design space" that identified the inter- and intramolecular regulatory parameters that frame CRP/FNR family allostery. Furthermore, through analyzing CAP variants from diverse species, we demonstrate an evolutionary selection pressure to conserve residues crucial for allosteric control. This finding provides a link between the position of CRP/FNR transcription factors within the allosteric free energy landscapes and evolutionary selection pressures. Our study therefore reveals significant features of the mechanistic basis for allostery. Changes in low-frequency dynamics correlate with allosteric effects on ligand binding without the requirement for a defined spatial pathway. In addition to evolving suitable three-dimensional structures, CRP/FNR family transcription factors have

  6. The Packaging Handbook -- A guide to package design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shappert, L.B.

    1995-01-01

    The Packaging Handbook is a compilation of 14 technical chapters and five appendices that address the life cycle of a packaging which is intended to transport radioactive material by any transport mode in normal commerce. Although many topics are discussed in depth, this document focuses on the design aspects of a packaging. The Handbook, which is being prepared under the direction of the US Department of Energy, is intended to provide a wealth of technical guidance that will give designers a better understanding of the regulatory approval process, preferences of regulators in specific aspects of packaging design, and the types of analyses that should be seriously considered when developing the packaging design. Even though the Handbook is concerned with all packagings, most of the emphasis is placed on large packagings that are capable of transporting large radioactive sources that are also fissile (e.g., spent fuel). These are the types of packagings that must address the widest range of technical topics in order to meet domestic and international regulations. Most of the chapters in the Handbook have been drafted and submitted to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for editing; the majority of these have been edited. This report summarizes the contents

  7. Novel structural features drive DNA binding properties of Cmr, a CRP family protein in TB complex mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Sridevi; Cheung, Jonah; Cassidy, Michael; Ginter, Christopher; Pata, Janice D; McDonough, Kathleen A

    2018-01-09

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) encodes two CRP/FNR family transcription factors (TF) that contribute to virulence, Cmr (Rv1675c) and CRPMt (Rv3676). Prior studies identified distinct chromosomal binding profiles for each TF despite their recognizing overlapping DNA motifs. The present study shows that Cmr binding specificity is determined by discriminator nucleotides at motif positions 4 and 13. X-ray crystallography and targeted mutational analyses identified an arginine-rich loop that expands Cmr's DNA interactions beyond the classical helix-turn-helix contacts common to all CRP/FNR family members and facilitates binding to imperfect DNA sequences. Cmr binding to DNA results in a pronounced asymmetric bending of the DNA and its high level of cooperativity is consistent with DNA-facilitated dimerization. A unique N-terminal extension inserts between the DNA binding and dimerization domains, partially occluding the site where the canonical cAMP binding pocket is found. However, an unstructured region of this N-terminus may help modulate Cmr activity in response to cellular signals. Cmr's multiple levels of DNA interaction likely enhance its ability to integrate diverse gene regulatory signals, while its novel structural features establish Cmr as an atypical CRP/FNR family member. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  8. An examination of product packaging marketing strategies used to promote pediatric multivitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethan, Danna; Basch, Corey H; Samuel, Lalitha; Quinn, Christine; Dunne, Stephanie

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the nature of marketing strategies for multivitamin and multimineral (MVM) supplement packaging and to assess the extent to which these supplements are marketed as food products. A cross-sectional study of children's supplement packaging was conducted. Descriptive statistics identified common marketing practices. Websites of the three largest retail chain pharmacies in the United States and MVM manufacturers were accessed. The study's sample consisted of packaging for 52 children's MVM supplements. Child-targeted marketing included reference to trademarked characters on 42.3% of MVM packaging (n = 22). More than 80% of the sample (n = 42) listed fruity flavors and almost all packaging included descriptive words related to the MVMs' shape and/or flavor (88.5%, n = 46). Nearly one-fifth of the packaging (n = 10) pictured a food item. With respect to parent-targeted promotional language, almost 83% of the supplement packages (n = 43) included text on the support of bodily structure/function. More than half of the sample (53.8%, n = 28) had promotional language related to dietary practice (e.g. organic, gluten-free). Pediatricians can play a role in ensuring that parents are aware of (1) possible risks associated with MVM overconsumption, and (2) the importance of deriving vitamins and minerals from a balanced diet. Given the high number of exposures to pediatric MVMs among youth and established influence of food marketing on shaping children's perceptions and behaviors, further research is necessary to determine the extent to which children's MVMs are marketed as a food product and perceived as such by children.

  9. Effect of CRP value on {sup 18}F-FDG PET vascular positivity in Takayasu arteritis. A systematic review and per-patient based meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Lea; Chaumet-Riffaud, Philippe [Bicetre University Hospital, Department of Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine, Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France); Noel, Nicolas; Lambotte, Olivier [Bicetre University Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France); Universite Paris Sud, Le Kremlin Bicetre (France); Universite Paris Sud, INSERM UMR 1184, Immunologie des Maladies Virales et Autoimmunes (IMVA), Le Kremlin Bicetre (France); CEA, DSV/iMETI, Division of Immuno-Virology IDMIT, Paris (France); Goujard, Cecile [Bicetre University Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France); Universite Paris Sud, Le Kremlin Bicetre (France); CEA, DSV/iMETI, Division of Immuno-Virology IDMIT, Paris (France); INSERM U1018, CESP, Le Kremlin Bicetre (France); Durand, Emmanuel; Besson, Florent L. [Bicetre University Hospital, Department of Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine, Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France); Universite Paris Sud, Le Kremlin Bicetre (France); Universite Paris Sud, Universite Paris Saclay, CNRS, IR4M - UMR8081, Orsay (France)

    2018-04-15

    The aim of this study was to quantify the association between the CRP value and {sup 18}F-FDG PET vascular positivity in Takayasu arteritis (TAK) through a structured dedicated systematic review and meta-analysis. From January 2000 to December 2016, the PubMed/MEDLINE database was searched for articles specifically dealing with the assessment of vascular inflammation using {sup 18}F-FDG PET and CRP biomarkers in TAK. Inclusion criteria for the qualitative analysis were (1) {sup 18}F-FDG PET used to assess the disease activity, (2) The use of the ACR criteria for the diagnosis of TAK, (3) No case mixed vasculitis (i.e., no giant cell arteritis), and (4) CRP concentration and clinical disease activity available. For the meta-analysis, PET-positive and PET-negative subgroups with the corresponding CRP concentrations were generated based on per patient data. The standard mean difference, which represents the effect of the CRP concentrations on the {sup 18}F-FDG PET vascular uptake, was computed for all studies, and then the results were pooled together. Among the 33 initial citations, nine complete articles including 210 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Five studies found a significant correlation between the {sup 18}F-FDG PET and CRP concentration, one provided a trend towards association and three did not find any association between the two biomarkers. Six studies found a significant association between {sup 18}F-FDG PET and clinical disease activity, one found a trend towards association and the last two studies did not evaluate this correlation. The meta-analysis (121 patients) provided the following results: Standard Mean Deviation = 0.54 [0.15;0.92]; Chi{sup 2} = 3.35; I{sup 2} = 0%; Test for overall effect: Z = 2.70 (P = 0.007). The CRP concentration only moderately reflects the {sup 18}F-FDG PET vascular positivity in TAK, suggesting dissociated information. Standardized longitudinal prospective studies are necessary to assess the value of {sup 18}F

  10. Investigating the Effect of Inflammation on Atrial Fibrillation Occurrence by Measuring Highly Sensitive C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Hassanzadeh Delui

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most prevalent cardiac arrhythmias that cardiologists and internists encounter. The goal of this article is to clarify an overview of the evidence linking inflammation to AF existence, which may highlight the effect of some pharmacological agents that have genuine potential to reduce the clinical burden of AF by modulating inflammatory pathways. Materials and Methods: In a case-control study, 50 patients with atrial fibrillation (AF with different etiologies and 50 patients with sinus rhythm and similar bases were selected. Sampling for highly sensitive c-reactive (hs-CRP was done on the patients presenting with AF to the Ghaem hospital between October 2006 and June 2007. Results: Mean age of the patients was 62 years with maximum of 90 and minimum of 36 and standard deviation of 13.80. The most frequent age group was 71-80years. Fifty-four percent of patients were male and 46% were female. Mean serum hs-CRP levels in AF patients with hypertension (HTN ,Ischemic heart disease(IHD, Valvular heart disease (VHD, HTN+IHD and hyperthyroidism were 8.10, 9.40, 8.68, 10.16 and 5.98 mg/Lit; respectively. There was significant difference between hs-CRP levels in hypertensive patients in the two groups (P=0.010. Similar results were observed in IHD patients, VHD patients and HTN+IHD patients in two groups (P=0.015, P=0.037, P=0.000. Conclusion: In addition to some risk factors like baseline cardiac diseases, aging, thyrotoxicosis, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia and cardiac surgery, there also appears to be consistent links between hs-CRP, a marker of inflammation, and the pathogenesis of AF.

  11. Problems experienced by older people when opening medicine packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbert, Daphne; Notenboom, Kim; Bouvy, Marcel L; van Geffen, Erica C G

    2014-06-01

    Medicine packages can cause problems in daily practice, especially among older people. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of problems experienced by older people when opening medicine packaging and to investigate how patients manage these problems. A convenience sample of 30 community pharmacies participated in this study. They selected a systematic sample of 30 patients over 65 years old with a recent omeprazole prescription, and a questionnaire was administered by telephone for at least 10 patients per pharmacy. A total of 317 patients completed the questionnaire. They received their omeprazole in a bottle (n = 179, 56.5%), push-through blister pack (n = 102, 32.2%) or peel-off blister pack (n = 36, 11.4%). Some 28.4% of all patients experienced one or more problems with opening their omeprazole packaging; most problems occurred with peel-off blisters (n = 24, 66.7% of all respondents using peel-off blisters), followed by push-through blisters (n = 34, 33.3%) and finally bottles (n = 32, 17.9%). The risk of experiencing problems with peel-off blisters and push-through blisters was higher [relative risk 3.7 (95% confidence interval 2.5-5.5) and 1.9 (1.2-2.8), respectively] than the risk of experiencing problems with opening bottles. Two-thirds of respondents reported management strategies for their problems. Most were found for problems opening bottles (n = 24, 75%), followed by push-through blisters (n = 24, 70.6%) and peel-off blisters (n = 14, 58.3%). One in four patients over 65 experienced difficulties opening their omeprazole packaging and not all of them reported a management strategy for their problems. Manufacturers are advised to pay more attention to the user-friendliness of product packaging. In addition, it is important that pharmacy staff clearly instruct patients on how to open their medicine packaging, or assist them in choosing the most appropriate packaging. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  12. Correlation between Interleukin-6 (IL-6, High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hsCRP, Endothelin-1 (ET-1, Asymmetric Dimethylarginine (ADMA and Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR in Central Obese Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri Hidayat

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many studies have shown that obesity was closely related to insulin resistance via several pathways such as inflammation, oxidative stress, lipolysis, and endothelial dysfunction. This study was carried out to observe the correlation between inflammation (IL-6 and hsCRP, lipolysis process (ET-1, and endothelial dysfunction (ADMA and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR in centrally obese men. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study on 62 male subjects aged 30–60 years old with waist circumference (WC >90 cm. IL-6, ET-1 and ADMA levels were measured using ELISA method, while hsCRP and insulin were measured using chemiluminescence method. All blood testings were conducted in Prodia Clinical Laboratory. RESULTS: The results showed that WC was significantly correlated with hsCRP (r=0.294, p=0.022, ET-1 (r=0.257, p=0.047 and ADMA (r=0.338, p=0.009. We also found a significant correlation between hsCRP with HOMA-IR (r=0.324, p=0.021, ADMA with HOMA-IR (r=0.280, p=0.045 and IL-6 with hsCRP (r=0.437, p=0.003. CONCLUSIONS: hsCRP and ADMA have significant correlation with HOMA-IR in centrally obese men. HOMA-IR significantly increases in subjects with ADMA above median and either IL-6 or hsCRP above median, as compared to those in the other groups. Inflammation and endothelial dysfunction are important causal pathways of insulin resistance state in centrally obese men. KEYWORDS: obesity, IL-6, hsCRP, ET-1, ADMA, HOMA-IR.

  13. Coordinated research project on radiation sterilization and decontamination of pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical raw materials. CRP report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    processing to be carried out at any desired temperature, sterilizability of mixed products in kits, offering simultaneous sterilization and modification of polymer based formulations. Radiation sterilization has already demonstrated its advantages over conventional (chemical) methods, with the scale of its application rising. The results of the CRP demonstrated new fields of applications and roles of the process in the decontamination of natural medical herbs, which finds increasing usage worldwide. The process application for synthetic pharmaceuticals sterilization has also been demonstrated. The analytical and processing procedures were elaborated for selected materials. The radiation effects on drugs of different types and on traditional herbal medicine components (e.g.Traditional Chinese Medicines) were investigated, in particular the identification of the products of radiolysis was achieved and evaluation of their role in changing of biological activity of radiation sterilized pharmaceuticals was performed. Some of the methods were introduced to the manufacturer practice. New TC projects in the field were initiated. Despite all these apparent advantages, radiation sterilization of pharmaceuticals has to be addressed on a case by case basis. It has been concluded that radiation sterilization of aqueous solutions and suspensions of most organic substances is difficult if not impossible. The trends and opportunities of using radiation processing for sterilization and decontamination of pharmaceutical raw materials and herbs have been evaluated. Proteins and polysaccharides and their formulations and new biotechnology products are currently being considered for radiation sterilization

  14. Coordinated research project on radiation sterilization and decontamination of pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical raw materials. CRP report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    processing to be carried out at any desired temperature, sterilizability of mixed products in kits, offering simultaneous sterilization and modification of polymer based formulations. Radiation sterilization has already demonstrated its advantages over conventional (chemical) methods, with the scale of its application rising. The results of the CRP demonstrated new fields of applications and roles of the process in the decontamination of natural medical herbs, which finds increasing usage worldwide. The process application for synthetic pharmaceuticals sterilization has also been demonstrated. The analytical and processing procedures were elaborated for selected materials. The radiation effects on drugs of different types and on traditional herbal medicine components (e.g.Traditional Chinese Medicines) were investigated, in particular the identification of the products of radiolysis was achieved and evaluation of their role in changing of biological activity of radiation sterilized pharmaceuticals was performed. Some of the methods were introduced to the manufacturer practice. New TC projects in the field were initiated. Despite all these apparent advantages, radiation sterilization of pharmaceuticals has to be addressed on a case by case basis. It has been concluded that radiation sterilization of aqueous solutions and suspensions of most organic substances is difficult if not impossible. The trends and opportunities of using radiation processing for sterilization and decontamination of pharmaceutical raw materials and herbs have been evaluated. Proteins and polysaccharides and their formulations and new biotechnology products are currently being considered for radiation sterilization.

  15. Processing and characteristics of canola protein-based biodegradable packaging: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yachuan; Liu, Qiang; Rempel, Curtis

    2018-02-11

    Interest increased recently in manufacturing food packaging, such as films and coatings, from protein-based biopolymers. Among various protein sources, canola protein is a novel source for manufacturing polymer films. It can be concentrated or isolated by aqueous extraction technology followed by protein precipitation. Using this procedure, it was claimed that more than 99% of protein was extracted from the defatted canola meal, and protein recovery was 87.5%. Canola protein exhibits thermoplastic properties when plasticizers are present, including water, glycerol, polyethylene glycol, and sorbitol. Addition of these plasticizers allows the canola protein to undergo glass transition and facilitates deformation and processability. Normally, canola protein-based bioplastics showed low mechanical properties, which had tensile strength (TS) of 1.19 to 4.31 MPa. So, various factors were explored to improve it, including blending with synthetic polymers, modifying protein functionality through controlled denaturation, and adding cross-linking agents. Canola protein-based bioplastics were reported to have glass transition temperature, T g , below -50°C but it highly depends on the plasticizer content. Canola protein-based bioplastics have demonstrated comparable mechanical and moisture barrier properties compared with other plant protein-based bioplastics. They have great potential in food packaging applications, including their use as wraps, sacks, sachets, or pouches.

  16. Virtual Reality Simulations and Animations in a Web-Based Interactive Manufacturing Engineering Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, S. K.; Mannan, M. A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a web-based interactive teaching package that provides a comprehensive and conducive yet dynamic and interactive environment for a module on automated machine tools in the Manufacturing Division at the National University of Singapore. The use of Internet technologies in this teaching tool makes it possible to conjure…

  17. Use of a computerized C-reactive protein (CRP based sepsis evaluation in very low birth weight (VLBW infants: a five-year experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Coggins

    Full Text Available Serial C-reactive protein (CRP values may be useful for decision-making regarding duration of antibiotics in neonates. However, established standard of practice for its use in preterm very low birth weight (<1500 g, VLBW infants are lacking.Evaluate compliance with a CRP-guided computerized decision support (CDS algorithm and compare characteristics and outcomes of compliant versus non-compliant cases. Measure correlation between CRPs and white blood count (WBC indices.We examined 3 populations: 1 all preterm VLBW infants born at Vanderbilt 2006-2011 - we assessed provider compliance with CDS algorithm and measured relevant outcomes; 2 all patients with positive blood culture results admitted to the Vanderbilt NICU 2006-2012 - we tested the correlation between CRP and WBC results within 7 days of blood culture phlebotomy; 3 1,000 randomly selected patients out of the 7,062 patients admitted to the NICU 2006-2012 - we correlated time-associated CRP values and absolute neutrophil counts.Of 636 VLBW infants in cohort 1, 569 (89% received empiric antibiotics for suspected early-onset sepsis. In 409 infants (72% the CDS algorithm was followed; antibiotics were discontinued ≤48 hours in 311 (55% with normal serial CRPs and continued in 98 (17% with positive CRPs, resulting in significant reduction in antibiotic exposure (p<0.001 without increase in complications or subsequent infections. One hundred sixty (28% were considered non-compliant because antibiotics were continued beyond 48 hours despite negative serial CRPs and blood cultures. Serial CRPs remained negative in 38 (12% of 308 blood culture-positive infants from cohort 2, but only 4 patients had clinically probable sepsis with single organisms and no immunodeficiency besides extreme prematurity. Leukopenia of any cell type was not linked with CRPs in cohorts 2 and 3.CDS/CRP-guided antibiotic use is safe and effective in culture-negative VLBW infants. CRP results are not affected by low WBC

  18. HIGH-SENSITIVITY C-REACTIVE PROTEIN (hsCRP IN YOUNG ADULTS: RELATION TO AEROBIC CAPACITY, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND RISK FACTORS FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mazurek

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Atheromatosis develops as a result of a chronic inflammatory process of the arteries. Inflammatory biomarkers, particularly high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP, positively correlate with atheromatosis risk factors and can be used to estimate and predict the risk of cardiovascular events. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between hsCRP concentration and BMI, body composition, classical risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, energy expenditure for physical activity (WEE and  ·VO2max. 166 volunteers (78 women and 88 men were included in the examinations. Their mean age was 20.2±0.9 years. Health condition was described by the following variables: smoking, WEE,  ·VO2max, body mass index (BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, fat mass (FM, fat-free mass (FFM, lipid profile, hsCRP, glucose and insulin concentration, and insulin resistance. Between the subgroups created on the basis of hsCRP concentration, in quartiles 1 to 3 and quartile 4, a comparative analysis was carried out. 79.5�0of women and 69.3�0of men had hsCRP values within the references ranges. Moderately high values were found in 14.1�0of women and 22.7�0of men and high in 6.4�0and 7.9�20respectively. Mean values of BMI, FFM, WHR, WEE,  ·VO2max, glucose and triglyceride concentration, and TC/HDL index were significantly lower, while FM and HDL were significantly higher, in women than in men. In the quartile 4 subgroup compared to the quartile 1-3 subgroup, we found significantly lower HDL concentration and a tendency for higher values of BMI (p=0.06 and TC (p=0.07 as well as higher percentages of smoking among men. In young, physically active, healthy persons, serum concentration of hsCRP is not related to physical activity or  ·VO2max.

  19. 27 CFR 19.401 - Inventories of wines and bulk spirits (except in packages) in processing account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories of wines and... DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Processing Operations Other Than Denaturation and Manufacture of Articles Inventories § 19.401 Inventories of wines and bulk spirits (except in packages) in processing account. Each...

  20. WTO Compliance Status of the Conservation Security Program (CSP) and the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schnepf, Randy

    2007-01-01

    .... This report is not a legal opinion, but describes both the CSP and CRP programs, the WTO Annex II provisions that govern compliance, and the potential issues involved in evaluating the compliance status of the two programs. This report will be updated as events warrant.

  1. Technical note: Computer-manufactured inserts for prosthetic sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Joan E; McLean, Jake B; Cagle, John C; Gardner, David W; Allyn, Katheryn J

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this research was to use computer-aided design software and a tabletop 3-D additive manufacturing system to design and fabricate custom plastic inserts for trans-tibial prosthesis users. Shape quality of inserts was tested right after they were inserted into participant's test sockets and again after four weeks of wear. Inserts remained properly positioned and intact throughout testing. Right after insertion the inserts caused the socket to be slightly under-sized, by a mean of 0.11mm, approximately 55% of the thickness of a nylon sheath. After four weeks of wear the under-sizing was less, averaging 0.03mm, approximately 15% of the thickness of a nylon sheath. Thus the inserts settled into the sockets over time. If existing prosthetic design software packages were enhanced to conduct insert design and to automatically generate fabrication files for manufacturing, then computer manufactured inserts may offer advantages over traditional methods in terms of speed of fabrication, ease of design, modification, and record keeping. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Value of HbA1c and hs-CRP Combined Detection in Diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy%HbA1c、hs-CRP 联合检测诊断糖尿病视网膜病变的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李孝才; 孙学芬; 吴建霞; 马雪燕

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨糖化血红蛋白(HbA1c)和高敏 C 反应蛋白(hs-CRP)联合检测诊断糖尿病视网膜病变的价值。方法:选择正常体检者(A 组)、糖尿病无视网膜病变者(B 组)、糖尿病视网膜病变者(C 组)各72例,采用离子交换液相层析法和胶乳增强免疫比浊法测定 HbA1c 及 hs-CRP。结果:无视网膜病变组和视网膜病变组的 HbA1c 和 hs-CRP(mg/L)含量均比健康对照组高,具有统计学意义(P0.05);但是 HbA1c +Hs-CRP 诊断糖尿病视网膜病变的特异为90.3%,分别与 HbA1c 和 hs-CRP 存在明显差异(P 0.05); but specific to the HbA1c of hs CRP in the diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy was 90.3%, respectively and hs CRP and HbA1c exist significant difference (P< 0.05). Conclusion:The detection of HBA1c and Hs-CRPis helpful to early detection of diabetic retinopathy, which can be used asmonitoring indicators for progress and treatment effect in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

  3. Association between CD8 T-cell subsets and CD4/CD8 ratio with HS-CRP level in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabela, S.; Nugroho, A.; Harijanto, P. N.

    2018-03-01

    Due to improved access and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), most HIV-infected persons worldwide are predicted to live longer. Nowadays the cause of death for most HIV-infected persons has changed to serious non-AIDS events (SNAEs) which is due to low-grade viremia. HIV patients with ART who had undergone CD4 cell count above 500/uL and there is an increase in hs-CRP despite an undetectable viral load. Some conditions CD8 cells count do not decrease with CD4 cells repairs. We researched in Prof Kandou General Hospital with a total sample of 35 HIV patients who had received ART with the level of CD4>350/uL. CD8 levels, CD4/CD8 ratio, and hs-CRP were assessed. This research is analytic descriptive with cross-sectional study design and analysis uses Spearman correlation. The mean CD8 during the study was 1291.8 (IQR 319-2610cells/uL), the mean ratio of CD4:CD8 was 0.57 (IQR 0.16-1.24) and median hs-CRP is 2.18 (IQR 0.3-6.6mg/dL). There was a significant positive correlation between CD8 and increased hs-CRP (r=0.369, pCD4/CD8 ratio and hs-CRP (r=-0.370, p<0.05).

  4. Evaluation of Hs-CRP levels and interleukin 18 (-137G/C promoter polymorphism in risk prediction of coronary artery disease in first degree relatives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar G

    Full Text Available Coronary Artery Disease (CAD is clearly a multifactorial disease that develops from childhood and ultimately leads to death. Several reports revealed having a First Degree Relatives (FDRS with premature CAD is a significant autonomous risk factor for CAD development. C - reactive protein (CRP is a member of the pentraxin family and is the most widely studied proinflammatory biomarker. IL-18 is a pleiotrophic and proinflammatory cytokine which is produced mainly by macrophages and plays an important role in the inflammatory cascade.Hs-CRP levels were estimated by ELISA and Genotyping of IL-18 gene variant located on promoter -137 (G/C by Allele specific PCR in blood samples of 300 CAD patients and 300 controls and 100 FDRS. Promoter Binding sites and Protein interacting partners were identified by Alibaba 2.1 and Genemania online tools respectively. Hs-CRP levels were significantly high in CAD patients followed by FDRS when compared to controls. In IL-18 -137 (G/C polymorphism homozygous GG is significantly associated with occurrence of CAD and Hs-CRP levels were significantly higher in GG genotype subjects when compared to GC and CC. IL-18 was found to be interacting with 100 protein interactants.Our results indicate that Hs-CRP levels and IL-18-137(G/C polymorphism may help to identify risk of future events of CAD in asymptomatic healthy FDRS.

  5. Evaluation of Hs-CRP levels and interleukin 18 (-137G/C) promoter polymorphism in risk prediction of coronary artery disease in first degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G, Rajesh Kumar; K, Mrudula Spurthi; G, Kishore Kumar; Kurapati, Mohanalatha; M, Saraswati; T, Mohini Aiyengar; P, Chiranjeevi; G, Srilatha Reddy; S, Nivas; P, Kaushik; K, Sanjib Sahu; H, Surekha Rani

    2015-01-01

    Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is clearly a multifactorial disease that develops from childhood and ultimately leads to death. Several reports revealed having a First Degree Relatives (FDRS) with premature CAD is a significant autonomous risk factor for CAD development. C - reactive protein (CRP) is a member of the pentraxin family and is the most widely studied proinflammatory biomarker. IL-18 is a pleiotrophic and proinflammatory cytokine which is produced mainly by macrophages and plays an important role in the inflammatory cascade. Hs-CRP levels were estimated by ELISA and Genotyping of IL-18 gene variant located on promoter -137 (G/C) by Allele specific PCR in blood samples of 300 CAD patients and 300 controls and 100 FDRS. Promoter Binding sites and Protein interacting partners were identified by Alibaba 2.1 and Genemania online tools respectively. Hs-CRP levels were significantly high in CAD patients followed by FDRS when compared to controls. In IL-18 -137 (G/C) polymorphism homozygous GG is significantly associated with occurrence of CAD and Hs-CRP levels were significantly higher in GG genotype subjects when compared to GC and CC. IL-18 was found to be interacting with 100 protein interactants. Our results indicate that Hs-CRP levels and IL-18-137(G/C) polymorphism may help to identify risk of future events of CAD in asymptomatic healthy FDRS.

  6. Evaluation of Australian soup manufacturer compliance with national sodium reduction targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Rebecca; Probst, Yasmine; Crino, Michelle; Dunford, Elizabeth

    2018-04-01

    Packaged foods dominate Australia's food supply and are important contributors to nutrition-related disease. To help address this problem, the Food and Health Dialogue (FHD) was launched in 2009, setting voluntary sodium reduction targets for various categories of packaged foods. The aim of this study was to examine the food industry's progress and compliance with the FHD sodium reduction targets for soup products. Nutritional information was collected from product labels of all soup products available from four major Australian supermarkets annually between 2011 and 2014. Products were assigned to categories in line with those in the FHD. The proportion of soup products meeting sodium reduction targets was examined by (i) soup category; (ii) FHD participant status; and (iii) manufacturer. A 6% reduction in sodium levels in soups overall was found from 2011 to 2014 (P = 0.002). Significant reductions were observed for FHD participants (P < 0.05 for all) but not for non-participants. In 2014, 67% dry soups and 76% of wet soups met national sodium reduction targets. Despite the majority of soup products meeting the sodium reduction targets specified by the FHD, re-evaluation of the targets may be required to further reduce sodium levels in soups. Manufacturers participating in the FHD are likely to be driving sodium reductions in the Australian soup market, further highlighting the need for continued government leadership in this area to ensure all manufacturers are actively involved in the process. © 2017 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  7. Short communication: Effect of active food packaging materials on fluid milk quality and shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Dana E; Goddard, Julie M

    2014-01-01

    Active packaging, in which active agents are embedded into or on the surface of food packaging materials, can enhance the nutritive value, economics, and stability of food, as well as enable in-package processing. In one embodiment of active food packaging, lactase was covalently immobilized onto packaging films for in-package lactose hydrolysis. In prior work, lactase was covalently bound to low-density polyethylene using polyethyleneimine and glutaraldehyde cross-linkers to form the packaging film. Because of the potential contaminants of proteases, lipases, and spoilage organisms in typical enzyme preparations, the goal of the current work was to determine the effect of immobilized-lactase active packaging technology on unanticipated side effects, such as shortened shelf-life and reduced product quality. Results suggested no evidence of lipase or protease activity on the active packaging films, indicating that such active packaging films could enable in-package lactose hydrolysis without adversely affecting product quality in terms of dairy protein or lipid stability. Storage stability studies indicated that lactase did not migrate from the film over a 49-d period, and that dry storage resulted in 13.41% retained activity, whereas wet storage conditions enabled retention of 62.52% activity. Results of a standard plate count indicated that the film modification reagents introduced minor microbial contamination; however, the microbial population remained under the 20,000 cfu/mL limit through the manufacturer's suggested 14-d storage period for all film samples. This suggests that commercially produced immobilized lactase active packaging should use purified cross-linkers and enzymes. Characterization of unanticipated effects of active packaging on food quality reported here is important in demonstrating the commercial potential of such technologies. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cooperative Actions of CRP-cAMP and FNR Increase the Fosfomycin Susceptibility of Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) by Elevating the Expression of glpT and uhpT under Anaerobic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurabayashi, Kumiko; Tanimoto, Koichi; Tomita, Haruyoshi; Hirakawa, Hidetada

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial infections to anaerobic site are often hard to be treated because the activity of most of antimicrobials decreases under anaerobic conditions. However, fosfomycin rather provides a greater activity under anaerobic conditions than aerobic conditions. Previously, we found that expression of glpT and uhpT , fosfomycin symporters in enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) was upregulated by FNR, a global regulator during the anaerobiosis of the bacterium, which led to increased uptake and susceptibility to this drug. In this study, we showed that expression of glpT and uhpT is induced by CRP-cAMP, the regulator complex under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The activity of CRP-cAMP in EHEC was elevated under anaerobic conditions because levels of both CRP and cAMP were higher in the cells when grown anaerobically than those when grown aerobically. Results of expression study using mutants indicated that CRP-cAMP is indispensable for expression of glpT but not uhpT -whereas that of uhpT requires UhpA that is the response regulator composing of two-component system with the sensor kinase, UhpB. The CRP-cAMP protein bound to a region that overlaps RNA polymerase binding site for glpT and region upstream of UhpA binding site for uhpT . FNR bound to a region further upstream of CRP-cAMP binding site on region upstream of the glpT gene. These combined results suggested that increased antibacterial activity of fosfomycin to EHEC under anaerobic conditions is due to activation of FNR and increment of CRP-cAMP activity. Then, FNR enhances the expression of glpT activated by CRP-cAMP while CRP-cAMP and FNR cooperatively aids the action of UhpA to express uhpT to maximum level.

  9. SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM IN METABOLIC SYNDROME AND ROLE OF CRP IN 50 ADULT PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratik Shah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Metabolic Syndrome (MetS is generally characterised as a clustering of the abnormal levels of blood lipids (low HDL and high triglycerides, impaired fasting glucose, elevated blood pressure, and excess abdominal obesity. The objectives of the study areTo evaluate presence of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in the study population of the patients with metabolic syndrome. To find out relation between Subclinical Hypothyroidism and different parameters of metabolic syndrome. To evaluate whether patients of metabolic syndrome with raised hs-CRP have an increased risk of having hypothyroidism. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 50 adult patients who met with inclusion criteria were selected. Patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS who fulfilled the NCEP-ATP III criteria: 3 out of 5 criteria positive. Patients with liver disorders, renal disorders, congestive cardiac failure, pregnant women, patients on oral contraceptive pills, statins and other medications that alter thyroid functions (e.g. lithium, amiodarone or γ-interferon were excluded from the study. RESULTS A total of 50 patients of metabolic syndrome were enrolled. Out of which 36 were euthyroid, 3 were overt hypothyroid and 11 were subclinical hypothyroid. Out of 11 patients of subclinical hypothyroidism, 9 were female and 2 were male patients. Out of 28 females, 9 (32% were SCH while out of 22 males, 2 (9% were SCH. Out of 50 patients, 3 were overt hypothyroid. All 3 patients had BP >130/85, waist circumference was >88 cm and HDL of 130/85, HDL 150 mg/dL and fasting blood glucose of >100 mg/dL were more associated with male patients. CONCLUSION Subclinical Hypothyroidism was present in 22% of study population and more so in females having metabolic syndrome (32%. Hence, it will be worthwhile to screen female metabolic syndrome patients for thyroid function abnormality. Abnormal blood pressure, triglycerides and HDL cholesterol levels were more associated with subclinical hypothyroidism

  10. Regulating Cannabis Manufacturing: Applying Public Health Best Practices from Tobacco Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orenstein, Daniel G; Glantz, Stanton A

    2018-01-01

    State legalization and regulation of cannabis, despite continued federal illegality, is a massive shift in regulatory approach. Manufactured cannabis, including concentrates, extracts, edibles, tinctures, topicals and other products, has received less attention than more commonly used dried flower, but represents emerging regulatory challenges due to additives, potency, consumption methods, and abuse and misuse potential. In November 2017, the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) released initial cannabis manufacturing regulations as part of a new state regulatory structure. As the largest U.S. medical cannabis market (and largest legal adult use market in the world beginning in 2018), California's regulatory approach will potentially influence national and global policy. Comparing CDPH's initial regulations to tobacco control best practices reveals that, while the regulations recognize the need to protect public health, prioritizing public health over business interests requires stronger approaches to labeling, packaging, and product formulations. Based on tobacco best practices, we recommend that cannabis regulations incorporate large and proportionately sized informational labels, a prominent universal cannabis symbol, rotating and pictorial health warnings, mandatory plain packaging, a comprehensive ban on characterizing flavors and addictive additives, and strict limits on the potency of inhalable products and those easily confused with non-cannabis products.

  11. Food losses, shelf life extension and environmental impact of a packaged cheesecake: A life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Michele Mario; Meleddu, Marta; Piga, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Packaging is associated with a high environmental impact. This is also the case in the food industry despite packaging being necessary for maintaining food quality, safety assurance and preventing food waste. The aim of the present study was to identify improvements in food packaging solutions able to minimize environmental externalities while maximizing the economic sustainability. To this end, the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was applied to evaluate the environmental performance of new packaging solutions. The environmental impact of packaging and food losses and the balance between the two were examined in relation to a cheesecake that is normally packaged in low density polyethylene film and has a limited shelf life due to microbial growth. A shelf life extension was sought via application of the well-established modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) technique. Samples for MAP (N 2 /CO 2 : 70/30) were placed inside multilayer gas barrier trays, which were then wrapped with a multilayer gas and water barrier film (i.e. AerPack packaging); control batches were packaged in gas barrier recycled polyethylene terephthalate (XrPet) trays and wrapped with a XrPet film. Samples were then stored at 20°C and inspected at regular intervals for chemical-physical, microbiological and sensory parameters. Results show that the new packaging solution could considerably extend the shelf life of cheesecakes, thereby reducing food waste and decreasing the overall environmental impact. Moreover, the new packaging allows one to minimize transport costs and to generate economies of scale in manufacturing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. CRP-Mediated Carbon Catabolite Regulation of Yersinia pestis Biofilm Formation Is Enhanced by the Carbon Storage Regulator Protein, CsrA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan P Willias

    Full Text Available The natural transmission of Yersinia pestis is reliant upon biofilm blockage of the flea vector. However, the environmentally-responsive adaptive regulators which facilitate Y. pestis biofilm production in accordance with the flea midgut milieu are not well understood. We seek to establish the impact of available carbon source metabolism and storage upon Y. pestis biofilm production. Our findings demonstrate that Y. pestis biofilm production is subject to carbon catabolite regulation in which the presence of glucose impairs biofilm production; whereas, the sole metabolism of alternate carbon sources promotes robust biofilm formation. This observation is facilitated by the cAMP receptor protein, CRP. In accordance with a stark growth defect, deletion of crp in both CO92 and KIM6+ Y. pestis strains significantly impaired biofilm production when solely utilizing alternate carbon sources. Media supplementation with cAMP, a small-molecule activator of CRP, did not significantly alter Y. pestis biofilm production. Furthermore, CRP did not alter mRNA abundance of previously-characterized hms biofilm synthesis and regulation factors. Therefore, our findings indicate CRP does not confer a direct stimulatory effect, but may indirectly promote Y. pestis biofilm production by facilitating the alternate carbon source expression profile. Additionally, we assessed the impact of the carbon storage regulator protein, CsrA, upon Y. pestis biofilm production. Contrary to what has been described for E. coli, Y. pestis biofilm formation was found to be enhanced by CsrA. Regardless of media composition and available carbon source, deletion of csrA significantly impaired Y. pestis biofilm production. CsrA was found to promote Y. pestis biofilm production independent of glycogen regulation. Loss of csrA did not significantly alter relative hmsH, hmsP, or hmsT mRNA abundance. However, deletion of hmsP in the csrA-deficient mutant enabled excessive biofilm production

  13. Consultancy Meeting on Preparation of the Final Technical Document of the IAEA CRP on Analytical and Experimental Benchmark Analysis of Accelerator Driven Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    With the objective to study the major physics phenomena of the spallation source and its coupling to a subcritical system, between 2005 and 2010 the IAEA carried out a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) called “Analytical and Experimental Benchmark Analyses of Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS)”. The CRP was contributed by 27 institutions from 18 Member States (Argentina, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, China, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Poland, Russian Federation, Spain, Sweden, Ukraine and the USA), which performed a number of analytical and experimental benchmark activities. The main objective of the CRP was to develop, verify and validate calculation tools able to perform detailed ADS calculations, from the high energy proton beam to thermal neutron energies. The purpose of this meeting was to: - Collect and review all the available contributions produced by the CRP participants; - Define structure and content of the final TECDOC; - Assemble the first draft of the TECDOC; - Identify important missing parts; - Distribute tasks and responsibilities for drafting and editing the different sections and sub-sections of the TECDOC; - Agree on the time schedule for the TECDOC finalization, review and publication. The participants were requested to contribute to all the foreseen tasks

  14. MEMS packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu , Tai-Ran

    2004-01-01

    MEMS Packaging discusses the prevalent practices and enabling techniques in assembly, packaging and testing of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The entire spectrum of assembly, packaging and testing of MEMS and microsystems, from essential enabling technologies to applications in key industries of life sciences, telecommunications and aerospace engineering is covered. Other topics included are bonding and sealing of microcomponents, process flow of MEMS and microsystems packaging, automated microassembly, and testing and design for testing.The Institution of Engineering and Technology is

  15. New package systems for EDF recycling policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leboucher, I.; Michels, L.; Hugon, F.C.; Penoty, C.; Froment, A.

    2004-01-01

    Since the beginning of the nineties, EDF (Electricite France) has been carrying out a policy towards increasing burn-up. As a consequence and to keep energetic performances of the MOX (Mixed OXide uranium and plutonium) fresh fuel assemblies at parity with UO2 fuel, the concentration in plutonium increased up to 7.1%, soon up to 8.65% and even more. To take into account the increased dose rate and the increased thermal power of these MOX fresh fuels in the transportation system, COGEMA LOGISTICS designed, manufactured and licensed the MX8 package to replace the previous packaging. Simultaneously new high-secured transport system was developed. Due to the capacity of the reactor pool, the spent fuel assemblies must be evacuated with a short cooling time and high residual power. Because of the neutron source of these future MOX spent fuel assemblies, the TN 12/2 packaging, which has been in operation since 1980's to transport UO2 or MOX spent fuel to COGEMA La Hague, from EDF, other European and Japanese NPP lacks flexibility. COGEMA LOGISTICS is designing a new cask (TN trademark 112) to transport the future EDF MOX spent fuel assemblies. The TN trademark 112 has to comply with the 1996 edition of the IAEA transport regulations and with the transport and handling equipment presently used for the transport of spent fuel in France. It can be loaded with 12 assemblies, either MOX or UO2. This paper gives a description of two packages belonging to the new generation: - one for fresh MOX fuel assemblies transportation, used on EDF's power plants for MOX reloads, - one for spent MOX fuel assemblies transportation, presently under development with a first transport planned for mid-2007

  16. New package systems for EDF recycling policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leboucher, I.; Michels, L.; Hugon, F.C. [COGEMA Logistics (AREVA Group) (France); Penoty, C. [EDF - Electricite de France (France); Froment, A. [COGEMA (AREVA Group) (France)

    2004-07-01

    Since the beginning of the nineties, EDF (Electricite France) has been carrying out a policy towards increasing burn-up. As a consequence and to keep energetic performances of the MOX (Mixed OXide uranium and plutonium) fresh fuel assemblies at parity with UO2 fuel, the concentration in plutonium increased up to 7.1%, soon up to 8.65% and even more. To take into account the increased dose rate and the increased thermal power of these MOX fresh fuels in the transportation system, COGEMA LOGISTICS designed, manufactured and licensed the MX8 package to replace the previous packaging. Simultaneously new high-secured transport system was developed. Due to the capacity of the reactor pool, the spent fuel assemblies must be evacuated with a short cooling time and high residual power. Because of the neutron source of these future MOX spent fuel assemblies, the TNa12/2 packaging, which has been in operation since 1980's to transport UO2 or MOX spent fuel to COGEMA La Hague, from EDF, other European and Japanese NPP lacks flexibility. COGEMA LOGISTICS is designing a new cask (TN trademark 112) to transport the future EDF MOX spent fuel assemblies. The TN trademark 112 has to comply with the 1996 edition of the IAEA transport regulations and with the transport and handling equipment presently used for the transport of spent fuel in France. It can be loaded with 12 assemblies, either MOX or UO2. This paper gives a description of two packages belonging to the new generation: - one for fresh MOX fuel assemblies transportation, used on EDF's power plants for MOX reloads, - one for spent MOX fuel assemblies transportation, presently under development with a first transport planned for mid-2007.

  17. Packaging design criteria for the Hanford Ecorok Packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercado, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    The Hanford Ecorok Packaging (HEP) will be used to ship contaminated water purification filters from K Basins to the Central Waste Complex. This packaging design criteria documents the design of the HEP, its intended use, and the transportation safety criteria it is required to meet. This information will serve as a basis for the safety analysis report for packaging

  18. The yuan-dollar parity and its effects on Mexico's exports of manufacturing goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Manuel Cuevas Ahumada

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the impact of Chinese exchange rate policy on Mexican manufacturing exports in the US market. To that end, an amplified export function which combines demandand supply-side variables is estimated. The empirical evidence shows that, in the long run, a real depreciation of the yuan visà- vis the US dollar reduces Mexican manufacturing sales in the US. The econometric work also suggests that lowering unit labor costs, perhaps by means of a comprehensive and coherent training policy package, could serve the purpose of offsetting the negative effects of an undervalued Chinese currency.

  19. Experimental results to determine the separation performance of the packages used in cryogenic distillation isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornea, A.M.; Stefanescu, I.; Zamfirache, M.; Balteanu, O.; Preda, A.

    2007-01-01

    The cryogenic distillation of the hydrogen isotopes represents the back-end separation process most efficient and usually used in detritiation technologies. In our institute there were made many researches in the field of hydrogen isotopes separation. The first results were obtained based on an experimental installation - Pilot Plant for heavy water production - and in present days using a Detritiation Pilot Plant. In our Institute, was manufactured and patented a lot of hydrophilic package for isotopic distillation of water and hydrogen and also catalysts used for isotopic exchange waterhydrogen. This items was continuously developed in order to increase the isotopic separation efficiency. The goal of this paper is to determine by experimental work the performance of the package manufactured in our institute used in the cryogenic distillation process. To describe the separation performances was developed a mathematical model for the cryogenic distillation of the hydrogen isotopes. In order to determine the characteristics of the package, the installation was operated in the total reflux mode, for different flow rate for the liquid. There were made several experiments considering different operating conditions corresponding to various values for the refrigeration power in the column condenser. From the bottom and the top of the distillation column there were extracted samples in order to determine the isotopic composition. Processing the experimental data obtained from these tests using the Fenske relation, we obtained the separation efficiency function of the power inside the column boiler, operating pressure and also pressure drop along the package. This efficiency is describe by the number of theoretical plates per meter (NTT/m) or by equivalent height of one theoretical plate (IETT). (orig.)

  20. Experimental results to determine the separation performance of the packages used in cryogenic distillation isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornea, A.M.; Stefanescu, I.; Zamfirache, M.; Balteanu, O.; Preda, A.

    2007-07-01

    The cryogenic distillation of the hydrogen isotopes represents the back-end separation process most efficient and usually used in detritiation technologies. In our institute there were made many researches in the field of hydrogen isotopes separation. The first results were obtained based on an experimental installation - Pilot Plant for heavy water production - and in present days using a Detritiation Pilot Plant. In our Institute, was manufactured and patented a lot of hydrophilic package for isotopic distillation of water and hydrogen and also catalysts used for isotopic exchange waterhydrogen. This items was continuously developed in order to increase the isotopic separation efficiency. The goal of this paper is to determine by experimental work the performance of the package manufactured in our institute used in the cryogenic distillation process. To describe the separation performances was developed a mathematical model for the cryogenic distillation of the hydrogen isotopes. In order to determine the characteristics of the package, the installation was operated in the total reflux mode, for different flow rate for the liquid. There were made several experiments considering different operating conditions corresponding to various values for the refrigeration power in the column condenser. From the bottom and the top of the distillation column there were extracted samples in order to determine the isotopic composition. Processing the experimental data obtained from these tests using the Fenske relation, we obtained the separation efficiency function of the power inside the column boiler, operating pressure and also pressure drop along the package. This efficiency is describe by the number of theoretical plates per meter (NTT/m) or by equivalent height of one theoretical plate (IETT). (orig.)

  1. Consultants’ Meeting (Preparatory Meeting) on the IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) “PHENIX End-of-Life Tests”. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The overall objective of the CRP is to improve/validate the Member States' analytical capabilities in the field of fast reactor simulation and design. A necessary condition towards achieving this objective is a wide international verification and validation effort of the analysis methodology and codes currently employed in the fields of fast reactor neutronics, thermal hydraulics and plant dynamics to achieve enhanced safety. Therefore, in providing the required wide international basis of interested Member States, each applying different methodologies, the CRP will contribute towards achieving the stated objective with the help of benchmark exercises focusing on the experimental results obtained during the planned PHENIX End-of-Life (EOL) Tests

  2. Relationship Between Lean Production and Operational Performance in the Manufacturing Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasi, Raja Zuraidah R. M.; Syamsyul Rakiman, Umol; Ahmad, Md Fauzi Bin

    2015-05-01

    Nowadays, more and more manufacturing firms have started to implement lean production system in their operations. Lean production viewed as one of the mechanism to maintain the organisation's position and to compete globally. However, many fail to apply the lean concepts successfully in their operations. Based on previous studies, implementation of lean production in the manufacturing industry is more focused on the relationship between Lean and Operational Performance of one dimension only. Therefore, this study attempted to examine the relationship between Lean Production (LP) and Operational Performance in 4 dimensions which are quality, delivery, cost and flexibility. This study employed quantitative study using questionnaires. Data was collected from 50 manufacturing industries. The data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) 22.0. This study is hoped to shed new understanding on the concept of Lean Production (LP) in regards of Operational Performance covering the 4 dimensions.

  3. Effects of aerobic and anaerobic training programs together with omega-3 supplement on interleukin-17 and CRP plasma levels in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Hamid; Daryanoosh, Farhad; Moatari, Maryam; Hoseinzadeh, Khadijeh

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we studied the effects of two different exercise protocols on IL-17 and CRP plasma levels along with the anti-inflammatory effects of fish oil. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) consumption along with two different types of physical activities on IL-17 and CRP plasma levels in trained male mice. A total of 130 adult male mice of Syrian race with the age of 2 months and the weight of 35±1 grams were selected. At the beginning, 10 mice were killed in order to determine the amounts of pre-test variables. The rest of the mice were randomly divided into 6 groups including control group (n=20), supplement (n=20), aerobic exercise (n=20), anaerobic exercise (n=20), supplementaerobic exercise (n=20), and supplement-anaerobic exercise (n=20). Blood samples were withdrawn from the tail under intraperitoneal ketamine and xylasine anaesthesia. The anaerobic training program included 8 weeks of running on treadmill, 3 sessions per week; the aerobic training program included 8 weeks of running on treadmill, 5 sessions per week. At the end of the training program, the blood sample from each group was taken in order to measure the CRP and IL-17 levels. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the differences among the groups. The results showed that there was a significant difference in IL-17 and CRP plasma levels between the groups after 8 weeks (Ptraining programs, both IL-17 and CRP plasma levels increased, although these observed increases were not same for two measured variables. The results might also show that the effect of the supplement depends on the type of training.

  4. Packaging microservices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montesi, Fabrizio; Thrane, Dan Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    We describe a first proposal for a new packaging system for microservices based on the Jolie programming language, called the Jolie Package Manager (JPM). Its main features revolve around service interfaces, which make the functionalities that a service provides and depends on explicit. For the f......We describe a first proposal for a new packaging system for microservices based on the Jolie programming language, called the Jolie Package Manager (JPM). Its main features revolve around service interfaces, which make the functionalities that a service provides and depends on explicit...

  5. Additive manufacturing of tunable lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Katja; Novak, Tobias; Heinrich, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    Individual additive manufacturing of optical systems based on 3D Printing offers varied possibilities in design and usage. In addition to the additive manufacturing procedure, the usage of tunable lenses allows further advantages for intelligent optical systems. Our goal is to bring the advantages of additive manufacturing together with the huge potential of tunable lenses. We produced tunable lenses as a bundle without any further processing steps, like polishing. The lenses were designed and directly printed with a 3D Printer as a package. The design contains the membrane as an optical part as well as the mechanical parts of the lens, like the attachments for the sleeves which contain the oil. The dynamic optical lenses were filled with an oil. The focal length of the lenses changes due to a change of the radius of curvature. This change is caused by changing the pressure in the inside of the lens. In addition to that, we designed lenses with special structures to obtain different areas with an individual optical power. We want to discuss the huge potential of this technology for several applications. Further, an appropriate controlling system is needed. Wéll show the possibilities to control and regulate the optical power of the lenses. The lenses could be used for illumination tasks, and in the future, for individual measurement tasks. The main advantage is the individuality and the possibility to create an individual design which completely fulfills the requirements for any specific application.

  6. An experimental modeling of trinomial bioengineering- crp, rDNA, and transporter engineering within single cell factory for maximizing two-phase bioreduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Souvik; Ghosh, Sumanta Kumar; Punetha, Vinay Deep; Aphale, Ashish N; Patra, Prabir K; Sahoo, Nanda Gopal

    2017-02-01

    A carbonyl reductase (cr) gene from Candida glabrata CBS138 has been heterologously expressed in cofactor regenerating E. coli host to convert Ethyl-4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate (COBE) into Ethyl-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate (CHBE). The CR enzyme exhibited marked velocity at substrate concentration as high as 363mM with highest turnover number (112.77±3.95s -1 ). Solitary recombineering of such catalytic cell reproduced CHBE 161.04g/L per g of dry cell weight (DCW). Introduction of combinatorially engineered crp (crp*, F136I) into this heterologous E. coli host yielded CHBE 477.54g/L/gDCW. Furthermore, using nerolidol as exogenous cell transporter, the CHBE productivity has been towered to 710.88g/L/gDCW. The CHBE production has thus been upscaled to 8-12 times than those reported so far. qRT-PCR studies revealed that both membrane efflux channels such as acrAB as well as ROS scavenger genes such as ahpCF have been activated by engineering crp. Moreover, membrane protecting genes such as manXYZ together with solvent extrusion associated genes such as glpC have been upregulated inside mutant host. Although numerous proteins have been investigated to convert COBE to CHBE; this is the first approach to use engineering triad involving crp engineering, recombinant DNA engineering and transporter engineering together for improving cell performance during two-phase biocatalysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Design and Implement a MapReduce Framework for Executing Standalone Software Packages in Hadoop-based Distributed Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Chun Chen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Hadoop MapReduce is the programming model of designing the auto scalable distributed computing applications. It provides developer an effective environment to attain automatic parallelization. However, most existing manufacturing systems are arduous and restrictive to migrate to MapReduce private cloud, due to the platform incompatible and tremendous complexity of system reconstruction. For increasing the efficiency of manufacturing systems with minimum modification of existing systems, we design a framework in this thesis, called MC-Framework: Multi-uses-based Cloudizing-Application Framework. It provides the simple interface to users for fairly executing requested tasks worked with traditional standalone software packages in MapReduce-based private cloud environments. Moreover, this thesis focuses on the multiuser workloads, but the default Hadoop scheduling scheme, i.e., FIFO, would increase delay under multiuser scenarios. Hence, we also propose a new scheduling mechanism, called Job-Sharing Scheduling, to explore and fairly share the jobs to machines in the MapReduce-based private cloud. Then, we prototype an experimental virtual-metrology module of a manufacturing system as a case study to verify and analysis the proposed MC-Framework. The results of our experiments indicate that our proposed framework enormously improved the time performance compared with the original package.

  8. Packaging and labeling of pharmaceutical products obtained from the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronin, Michael

    2011-02-15

    For patients, the prescription container label may be the only source of instructions on how to take their medicines. In the United States, the legal requirements for a prescription label are set by federal law and state statutes. The container should be comparable to that which manufacturers use to package drug products and should preserve a product's identity, strength, quality, and purity and prevent contamination. Safety features such as a child-resistant closure should be provided. Pharmaceutical products purchased from international online pharmacies are not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and may not meet US guidelines for labeling and packaging. The study objective was to determine whether commonly purchased pharmaceutical products obtained from international online pharmacies are comparable to products dispensed in the United States with regard to labeling and packaging. During March 2006 through January 2007, 41 pharmaceutical oral dosage form samples were obtained from international Internet pharmacy websites for evaluation: 18 generic simvastatin samples, 18 generic amlodipine samples, and 5 generic sildenafil samples. Contents for each package were observed and recorded and comparison of the prescription labeling and packaging of these products was made with prescription labeling and packaging requirements in the United States. Of the 41 drug products obtained from online pharmacies from 12 different countries, only 1 product (from Canada) would meet both labeling and packaging guidelines for products dispensed in the United States. Of those not meeting the requirements, 7 were dispensed in paper envelopes with label affixed that was either handwritten or typed and contained missing information such as name and address of dispenser, name of prescriber, name of patient, and directions for use. Another 3 products did not have a label affixed to the drug product, but information was printed on a paper document enclosed in the shipping

  9. PRIDE Surveillance Projects Data Packaging Project, Information Package Specification Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelleher, D.M.; Shipp, R. L.; Mason, J. D.

    2009-09-28

    This document contains a specification for a standard XML document format called an information package that can be used to store information and the context required to understand and use that information in information management systems and other types of information archives. An information package consists of packaged information, a set of information metadata that describes the packaged information, and an XML signature that protects the packaged information. The information package described in this specification was designed to be used to store Department of Energy (DOE) and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) information and includes the metadata required for that information: a unique package identifier, information marking that conforms to DOE and NNSA requirements, and access control metadata. Information package metadata can also include information search terms, package history, and notes. Packaged information can be text content, binary content, and the contents of files and other containers. A single information package can contain multiple types of information. All content not in a text form compatible with XML must be in a text encoding such as base64. Package information is protected by a digital XML signature that can be used to determine whether the information has changed since it was signed and to identify the source of the information. This specification has been tested but has not been used to create production information packages. The authors expect that gaps and unclear requirements in this specification will be identified as this specification is used to create information packages and as information stored in information packages is used. The authors expect to issue revised versions of this specification as needed to address these issues.

  10. The efficacy of radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of pediatric arrhythmia and its effects on serum IL-6 and hs-CRP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunli; Jia, Libo; Wang, Zhenzhou; Niu, Ling; An, Xinjiang

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of pediatric arrhythmia and to assess the changes in serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and hs-CRP levels after treatment. Hundred and six children with tachyarrhythmia who were admitted to Xuzhou Children's Hospital from November, 2014 to December, 2015 were recruited for study. The efficacies of radiofrequency in the treatment of different types of arrhythmia were analyzed. Successful ablation was found in 104 cases (98.11%) and recurrence was found in 7 cases (6.73%). Among 62 cases of atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia (AVRT), successful ablation was found in 60 cases (96.77%) and recurrence was found in 3 cases (4.84%). Among 33 cases of atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT), successful ablation was found in 33 cases (100%) and recurrence was found in 2 cases (6.06%). Among 5 cases of ventricular tachycardia (VT), successful ablation was found in 5 cases (100%) and no recurrence was found. Among 4 cases of atrial tachycardia (AT), successful ablation was found in 4 cases (100%) and recurrence was found in 1 case (25%). Among 2 cases of atrial flutter (AFL), successful ablation was found in both (100%) and recurrence was found in 1 case (50%). After operation, the levels of IL-6 and hs-CRP were increased and were continually increased within 6 h after operation. The levels of IL-6 and hs-CRP at 24 h after operation were reduced but still higher than preoperative levels. The duration of radiofrequency and ablation energy were positively correlated with the levels of IL-6 and hs-CRP, while the number of discharges was not significantly correlated with either. In conclusion, radiofrequency ablation is a safe and effective treatment for pediatric arrhythmia. Postoperative monitoring of IL-6 and hs-CRP levels is conducive to understanding postoperative myocardial injury and inflammatory response.

  11. 21 CFR 211.132 - Tamper-evident packaging requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) human drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR...; (ii) Is prominently placed on the package; and (iii) Is so placed that it will be unaffected if the... product or, if the petition seeks an exemption for a drug class, the name of the drug class, and a list of...

  12. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.S. Domski

    2003-07-21

    The work associated with the development of this model report was performed in accordance with the requirements established in ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of SR and LA'' (BSC 2002a). The in-package chemistry model and in-package chemistry model abstraction are developed to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a failed waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry. The purpose of this work is to provide the abstraction model to the Performance Assessment Project and the Waste Form Department for development of geochemical models of the waste package interior. The scope of this model report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model and in-package chemistry model abstraction. The in-package chemistry model will consider chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) and codisposed high-level waste glass (HLWG) and N Reactor spent fuel (CDNR). The in-package chemistry model includes two sub-models, the first a water vapor condensation (WVC) model, where water enters a waste package as vapor and forms a film on the waste package components with subsequent film reactions with the waste package materials and waste form--this is a no-flow model, the reacted fluids do not exit the waste package via advection. The second sub-model of the in-package chemistry model is the seepage dripping model (SDM), where water, water that may have seeped into the repository from the surrounding rock, enters a failed waste package and reacts with the waste package components and waste form, and then exits the waste package with no accumulation of reacted water in the waste package. Both of the submodels of the in-package chemistry model are film models in contrast to past in-package chemistry models where all of the waste package pore space was filled with water. The

  13. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P.S. Domski

    2003-01-01

    The work associated with the development of this model report was performed in accordance with the requirements established in ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of SR and LA'' (BSC 2002a). The in-package chemistry model and in-package chemistry model abstraction are developed to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a failed waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry. The purpose of this work is to provide the abstraction model to the Performance Assessment Project and the Waste Form Department for development of geochemical models of the waste package interior. The scope of this model report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model and in-package chemistry model abstraction. The in-package chemistry model will consider chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) and codisposed high-level waste glass (HLWG) and N Reactor spent fuel (CDNR). The in-package chemistry model includes two sub-models, the first a water vapor condensation (WVC) model, where water enters a waste package as vapor and forms a film on the waste package components with subsequent film reactions with the waste package materials and waste form--this is a no-flow model, the reacted fluids do not exit the waste package via advection. The second sub-model of the in-package chemistry model is the seepage dripping model (SDM), where water, water that may have seeped into the repository from the surrounding rock, enters a failed waste package and reacts with the waste package components and waste form, and then exits the waste package with no accumulation of reacted water in the waste package. Both of the submodels of the in-package chemistry model are film models in contrast to past in-package chemistry models where all of the waste package pore space was filled with water. The current in-package

  14. Quality assurance in the procurement, design and manufacture of nuclear fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides requirements and recommendations for quality assurance programmes that are relevant for the unique features of the procurement, design, manufacture, inspection, testing, packaging, shipping, storage, and receiving inspection of fuel assemblies for nuclear power plants. The generic quality assurance requirements of the Code and related Safety Guides are referred to where applicable, and are duplicated in this document where increased emphasis is desirable

  15. Regulation of crp gene expression by the catabolite repressor/activator, Cra, in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongge; Aboulwafa, Mohammad; Saier, Milton H

    2014-01-01

    Growth of E. coli on several carbon sources is dependent on the catabolite repressor/activator (Cra) protein although a Cra consensus DNA-binding site is not present in the control regions of the relevant catabolic operons. We show that Cra regulates growth by activating expression of the crp gene. It thereby mediates catabolite repression of catabolic operons by an indirect mechanism. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Advancements in meat packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillin, Kenneth W

    2017-10-01

    Packaging of meat provides the same or similar benefits for raw chilled and processed meats as other types of food packaging. Although air-permeable packaging is most prevalent for raw chilled red meat, vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging offer longer shelf life. The major advancements in meat packaging have been in the widely used plastic polymers while biobased materials and their integration into composite packaging are receiving much attention for functionality and sustainability. At this time, active and intelligent packaging are not widely used for antioxidant, antimicrobial, and other functions to stabilize and enhance meat properties although many options are being developed and investigated. The advances being made in nanotechnology will be incorporated into food packaging and presumably into meat packaging when appropriate and useful. Intelligent packaging using sensors for transmission of desired information and prompting of subsequent changes in packaging materials, environments or the products to maintain safety and quality are still in developmental stages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Color in packaging design : Case: ZheJiang JinSheng packaging Co,Ltd

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Cuicui

    2010-01-01

    Color occupies an important position in packaging design, with the improvement of living standard, the higher requirement of color design in packaging. The aim of this thesis was to discuss key issues concerning aesthetics of packaging design. Topics will include an overview of the packaging design, the influence factor of packaging design, and introduce the aesthetics from packaging aspect. This thesis will also identify common problems of the production process, and list the phases of ho...

  18. Packaging for Sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Helen; Fitzpatrick, Leanne

    2012-01-01

    The packaging industry is under pressure from regulators, customers and other stakeholders to improve packaging’s sustainability by reducing its environmental and societal impacts. This is a considerable challenge because of the complex interactions between products and their packaging, and the many roles that packaging plays in the supply chain. Packaging for Sustainability is a concise and readable handbook for practitioners who are trying to implement sustainability strategies for packaging. Industry case studies are used throughout the book to illustrate possible applications and scenarios. Packaging for Sustainability draws on the expertise of researchers and industry practitioners to provide information on business benefits, environmental issues and priorities, environmental evaluation tools, design for environment, marketing strategies, and challenges for the future.

  19. Guidelines for sea dumping packages of radioactive waste. Revised version.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-04-01

    The purpose of these Guidelines is to establish general requirements and provide practical information for the design and manufacture of packages for sea dumping of radioactive waste, in accordance with the terms of the OECD Council Decision establishing a Multilateral Consultation and Surveillance Mechanism for Sea Dumping of Radioactive Waste. These Guidelines are in compliance with the IAEA Revised Definition and Recommendations of 1978, for applying the London Dumping Convention to radioactive waste, and are intended for application under the responsibility of the appropriate national authorities of countries participating in the NEA Mechanism

  20. CDIAC catalog of numeric data packages and computer model packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boden, T.A.; Stoss, F.W.

    1993-05-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center acquires, quality-assures, and distributes to the scientific community numeric data packages (NDPs) and computer model packages (CMPs) dealing with topics related to atmospheric trace-gas concentrations and global climate change. These packages include data on historic and present atmospheric CO 2 and CH 4 concentrations, historic and present oceanic CO 2 concentrations, historic weather and climate around the world, sea-level rise, storm occurrences, volcanic dust in the atmosphere, sources of atmospheric CO 2 , plants' response to elevated CO 2 levels, sunspot occurrences, and many other indicators of, contributors to, or components of climate change. This catalog describes the packages presently offered by CDIAC, reviews the processes used by CDIAC to assure the quality of the data contained in these packages, notes the media on which each package is available, describes the documentation that accompanies each package, and provides ordering information. Numeric data are available in the printed NDPs and CMPs, in CD-ROM format, and from an anonymous FTP area via Internet. All CDIAC information products are available at no cost

  1. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum IL-6, hs-CRP and saliva secretory IgA levels after treatment in patients with periodontitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Tongwu

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum IL-6, hs-CRP and saliva secretory IgA levels after treatment in patients with periodontitis. Methods: Serum IL-6, saliva secretory IgA (with RIA) and serum hs-CRP (with immuno-tarbility method) levels were measured in 42 patients with periodontitis both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment serum IL-6, hs-CRP and saliva secretory IgA levels in the patients wree significantly higher than those in controls (P 0.05). However, the saliva secreatory IgA levels were still significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: There was disturbance of immunomodulation in patients with periodontitis as expressed by the changes of cytokines levels in the course of the diseases. (authors)

  2. Evaluation of the results of the IAEA/FAO CRP on tropical transfer factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twining, J.

    1998-01-01

    Future development of tropical countries will include nuclear power. This is particularly true following the recent attention given to the urgent need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. From this, it is apparent that there is a need to have the ability to undertake dose assessments within tropical and sub-tropical regions. This includes knowledge of appropriate biological transfer factors for the region. However, most previous transfer factor studies were undertaken within temperate regions, predominantly in the Northern Hemisphere. Following a preliminary data survey, there was thus found to be a paucity of data for tropical and sub-tropical regions (excluding marine ecosystems). In an attempt to rectify this situation, the IAEA and FAO instigated a cooperative research program (CRP) entitled 'Transfer of radionuclides from air, soil and freshwater to the food chain of man in tropical and subtropical environments.' This paper is a synopsis of the findings of the three year CRP project. It is important to recognize that the data used in this presentation are derived from contributors and their colleagues in several countries. A list of chief investigators is given. Dr Martin Frissel, Secretary, European IUR, deserves a special mention for his collation of the CRP data. Some of his figures were used in the presentation or reproduced in this synopsis. The participants undertook regional literature and data surveys, field sampling and experimental investigations. The experimental studies were run by following, as closely as practicable, a suite of standard protocols that helped to reduce variability and errors. The experimental studies comprised two main groups: soil to plant, and: freshwater to fish. Quality assurance on analytical work was performed using intercomparison tests with standard reference materials. The reporting of data was also standardised to facilitate collation and subsequent multivariate statistical analysis. The statistical analysis of the entire

  3. Clinical significance of determination of the levels of serum IL-6, TNF-α and hs-CRP in patients with DM2 complicated with coronary heart disease (CHD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Juan; Zhao Qian; Zhang Dajun

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the significance of changes of serum IL-6, TNF-α, hs-CRP levels in development of coronary heart disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Serum IL-6, TNF-α (with RIA). hs-CRP (with CLIA) and FPG, TG, cholesterol (with biochemistry) contents were measured in (1) DM2 patients complicated with CHD, n=40 and (2) DlVI2 patients without CHD, n=48. Results: The BMI and FPG, TG levels were significantly higher in patients complicated with heart disease than those in patients without CHD (P<0.05) with the exception of cholesterol. The levels of IL-6, TNF-α and hs-CRP were also significantly higher in patients with heart disease than those in patients without heart disease (P<0.05). Conclusion: The high levels of IL-6, TNF-α and hs-CRP played important role in the development of coronary heart disease. Monitoring those levels might be helpful in assessment of treatment efficacy and outcome prediction. (authors)

  4. Waste package performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes work undertaken to assess the life-expectancy and post-failure nuclide release behavior of high-level and waste packages in a geologic repository. The work involved integrating models of individual phenomena (such as heat transfer, corrosion, package deformation, and nuclide transport) and using existing data to make estimates of post-emplacement behavior of waste packages. A package performance assessment code was developed to predict time to package failure in a flooded repository and subsequent transport of nuclides out of the leaking package. The model has been used to evaluate preliminary package designs. The results indicate, that within the limitation of model assumptions and data base, packages lasting a few hundreds of years could be developed. Very long lived packages may be possible but more comprehensive data are needed to confirm this

  5. Application of humidity-controlled dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA-RH) to moisture-sensitive edible casein films for use in food packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protein-based and other hydrophilic thin films are promising materials for the manufacture of edible food packaging and other food and non-food applications. Calcium caseinate (CaCas) films are highly hygroscopic and physical characterization under broad environmental conditions is critical to appli...

  6. The influence of statin treatment on the inflammatory biomarkers YKL-40 and HsCRP in patients with stable coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Naja Dam; Harutyunyan, Marina J; Mathiasen, Anders Bruun

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The inflammatory biomarker YKL-40 is elevated and associated with mortality in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim was to investigate the influence of statin treatment and lipid status on serum YKL-40 and Hs-CRP in patients with stable CAD. DESIGN: Serum YKL-40......, HsCRP, total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c and triglycerides levels were measured in 404 statin treated and in 404 matched non-statin treated patients with stable CAD. RESULTS: YKL-40 was significantly higher in non-statin treated 110 µg/l (median) compared with 65 µg/l in statin treated (p ...

  7. Use of the Inverse Approach for the Manufacture and Decoration of Food Cans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffett, G.A.; Forgas, A.; Neamtu, L.; Naceur, H.; Batoz, J.L.; Guo, Y.Q.

    2005-01-01

    Innovation is a key objective in the metal packaging industry in order to produce new concepts, designs, shapes and printing. Simulation technology now allows both the can design as well as the manufacturing process to be carefully analysed before any physical prototypes or dies have been manufactured. These simulations are traditionally carried out using incremental simulation methodologies. However, much information may also be attained by using the inverse approach: the initial blank format for the can body as well as its lid may be optimised much faster, the actual decoration of the can may be evaluated and even calculated when deformation printing techniques are utilised. This paper presents some of the technical details relating to the inverse approach employed in Stampack to carry out simulations important for the manufacture of food cans that are shown via industrial

  8. Active Packaging Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Bastarrachea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Active food packaging involves the packaging of foods with materials that provide an enhanced functionality, such as antimicrobial, antioxidant or biocatalytic functions. This can be achieved through the incorporation of active compounds into the matrix of the commonly used packaging materials, or by the application of coatings with the corresponding functionality through surface modification. The latter option offers the advantage of preserving the packaging materials’ bulk properties nearly intact. Herein, different coating technologies like embedding for controlled release, immobilization, layer-by-layer deposition, and photografting are explained and their potential application for active food packaging is explored and discussed.

  9. Safety Analysis Report for packaging (onsite) steel waste package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2000-01-01

    The steel waste package is used primarily for the shipment of remote-handled radioactive waste from the 324 Building to the 200 Area for interim storage. The steel waste package is authorized for shipment of transuranic isotopes. The maximum allowable radioactive material that is authorized is 500,000 Ci. This exceeds the highway route controlled quantity (3,000 A 2 s) and is a type B packaging

  10. PRIDE Surveillance Projects Data Packaging Project Information Package Specification Version 1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelleher, D. M.; Shipp, R. L.; Mason, J. D.

    2010-08-31

    Information Package Specification version 1.1 describes an XML document format called an information package that can be used to store information in information management systems and other information archives. An information package consists of package information, the context required to understand and use that information, package metadata that describes the information, and XML signatures that protect the information. The information package described in this specification was designed to store Department of Energy (DOE) and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) information and includes the metadata required for that information: a unique package identifier, information marking that conforms to DOE and NNSA requirements, and access control metadata. It is an implementation of the Open Archival Information System (OAIS) Reference Model archival information package tailored to meet NNSA information storage requirements and designed to be used in the computing environments at the Y-12 National Security Complex and at other NNSA sites.

  11. Additive Manufacturing Materials Study for Gaseous Radiation Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steer, C.A.; Durose, A.; Boakes, J. [AWE Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques may lead to improvements in many areas of radiation detector construction; notably the rapid manufacturing time allows for a reduced time between prototype iterations. The additive nature of the technique results in a granular microstructure which may be permeable to ingress by atmospheric gases and make it unsuitable for gaseous radiation detector development. In this study we consider the application of AM to the construction of enclosures and frames for wire-based gaseous radiation tracking detectors. We have focussed on oxygen impurity ingress as a measure of the permeability of the enclosure, and the gas charging and discharging curves of several simplistic enclosure shapes are reported. A prototype wire-frame is also presented to examine structural strength and positional accuracy of an AM produced frame. We lastly discuss the implications of this study for AM based radiation detection technology as a diagnostic tool for incident response scenarios, such as the interrogation of a suspect radiation-emitting package. (authors)

  12. Additive Manufacturing Materials Study for Gaseous Radiation Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steer, C.A.; Durose, A.; Boakes, J.

    2015-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques may lead to improvements in many areas of radiation detector construction; notably the rapid manufacturing time allows for a reduced time between prototype iterations. The additive nature of the technique results in a granular microstructure which may be permeable to ingress by atmospheric gases and make it unsuitable for gaseous radiation detector development. In this study we consider the application of AM to the construction of enclosures and frames for wire-based gaseous radiation tracking detectors. We have focussed on oxygen impurity ingress as a measure of the permeability of the enclosure, and the gas charging and discharging curves of several simplistic enclosure shapes are reported. A prototype wire-frame is also presented to examine structural strength and positional accuracy of an AM produced frame. We lastly discuss the implications of this study for AM based radiation detection technology as a diagnostic tool for incident response scenarios, such as the interrogation of a suspect radiation-emitting package. (authors)

  13. HPLOT: the graphics interface package for the HBOOK histogramming package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, H.

    1978-01-01

    The subroutine package HPLOT described in this report, enables the CERN histogramming package HBOOK to produce high-quality pictures by means of high-resolution devices such as plotters. HPLOT can be implemented on any scientific computing system with a Fortran IV compiler and can be interfaced with any graphics package; spectral routines in addition to the basic ones enable users to embellish their histograms. Examples are also given of the use of HPLOT as a graphics package for plotting simple pictures without histograms. (Auth.)

  14. Surface Modeling, Solid Modeling and Finite Element Modeling. Analysis Capabilities of Computer-Assisted Design and Manufacturing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nee, John G.; Kare, Audhut P.

    1987-01-01

    Explores several concepts in computer assisted design/computer assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM). Defines, evaluates, reviews and compares advanced computer-aided geometric modeling and analysis techniques. Presents the results of a survey to establish the capabilities of minicomputer based-systems with the CAD/CAM packages evaluated. (CW)

  15. Package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is duty of the seller to pack the goods in a manner which assures their safe arrival and enables their handling in transit and at the place of destination. The problem of packing is relevant in two main respects. First of all the buyer is in certain circumstances entitled to refuse acceptance of the goods if they are not properly packed. Second, the package is relevant to calculation of price and freight based on weight. In the case of export trade, the package should conform to the legislation in the country of destination. The impact of package on environment is regulated by environment protection regulation of Republic if Serbia.

  16. Packaging-radiation disinfestation relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highland, H.A.

    1985-01-01

    Foods that are susceptible to insect infestation can be irradiated to destroy the infestation; however, the food must be kept essentially insect-free until consumed, or it must be disinfested again, perhaps repeatedly. Insect-resistant packages can be used to prevent reinfestation, but there are certain requirements that must be fulfilled before a package can be made insect resistant. These include the use of insect-light construction and packaging materials that resist boring insects. The relative insect resistance of various packages and packaging materials is discussed, as are behavior traits such as egressive boring that enables insects to escape from packages and the ability of insects to climb on various packaging materials. Some successful and unsuccessful attempts to make various types of packages insect resistant are discussed, as are factors that must be considered in the selection or development of insect-resistant packages for radiation disinfested foods. The latter factors include biological and physical environments, length of storage periods, stresses on packages during shipment, types of storage facilities, governmental regulations, health requirements, and others

  17. Packaging, Transportation and Recycling of NPP Condenser Modules - 12262

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polley, G.M. [Perma-Fix Environmental Services, 575 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Perma-Fix was awarded contract from Energy Northwest for the packaging, transportation and disposition of the condenser modules, water boxes and miscellaneous metal, combustibles and water generated during the 2011 condenser replacement outage at the Columbia Generating Station. The work scope was to package the water boxes and condenser modules as they were removed from the facility and transfer them to the Perma-Fix Northwest facility for processing, recycle of metals and disposition. The condenser components were oversized and overweight (the condenser modules weighed ∼102,058 kg [225,000 lb]) which required special equipment for loading and transport. Additional debris waste was packaged in inter-modals and IP-1 boxes for transport. A waste management plan was developed to minimize the generation of virtually any waste requiring landfill disposal. The Perma-Fix Northwest facility was modified to accommodate the ∼15 m [50-ft] long condenser modules and equipment was designed and manufactured to complete the disassembly, decontamination and release survey. The condenser modules are currently undergoing processing for free release to a local metal recycler. Over three millions pounds of metal will be recycled and over 95% of the waste generated during this outage will not require land disposal. There were several elements of this project that needed to be addressed during the preparation for this outage and the subsequent packaging, transportation and processing. - Staffing the project to support 24/7 generation of large components and other wastes. - The design and manufacture of the soft-sided shipping containers for the condenser modules that measured ∼15 m X 4 m X 3 m [50 ft X 13 ft X 10 ft] and weighed ∼102,058 kg [225,000 lbs] - Developing a methodology for loading the modules into the shipping containers. - Obtaining a transport vehicle for the modules. - Designing and modifying the processing facility. - Movement of the modules at the processing

  18. Packaging Printing Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Bolanča

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Printing packaging covers today about 50% of all the printing products. Among the printing products there are printing on labels, printing on flexible packaging, printing on folding boxes, printing on the boxes of corrugated board, printing on glass packaging, synthetic and metal ones. The mentioned packaging are printed in flexo printing technique, offset printing technique, intaglio halftone process, silk – screen printing, ink ball printing, digital printing and hybrid printing process. The possibilities of particular printing techniques for optimal production of the determined packaging were studied in the paper. The problem was viewed from the technological and economical aspect. The possible printing quality and the time necessary for the printing realization were taken as key parameters. An important segment of the production and the way of life is alocation value and it had also found its place in this paper. The events in the field of packaging printing in the whole world were analyzed. The trends of technique developments and the printing technology for packaging printing in near future were also discussed.

  19. Packaged die heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberger, Richard; Ohme, Bruce Walker; Jensen, Ronald J.

    2011-06-21

    A heater for heating packaged die for burn-in and heat testing is described. The heater may be a ceramic-type heater with a metal filament. The heater may be incorporated into the integrated circuit package as an additional ceramic layer of the package, or may be an external heater placed in contact with the package to heat the die. Many different types of integrated circuit packages may be accommodated. The method provides increased energy efficiency for heating the die while reducing temperature stresses on testing equipment. The method allows the use of multiple heaters to heat die to different temperatures. Faulty die may be heated to weaken die attach material to facilitate removal of the die. The heater filament or a separate temperature thermistor located in the package may be used to accurately measure die temperature.

  20. Safety Analysis Report for packaging (onsite) steel waste package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2000-07-13

    The steel waste package is used primarily for the shipment of remote-handled radioactive waste from the 324 Building to the 200 Area for interim storage. The steel waste package is authorized for shipment of transuranic isotopes. The maximum allowable radioactive material that is authorized is 500,000 Ci. This exceeds the highway route controlled quantity (3,000 A{sub 2}s) and is a type B packaging.

  1. Qualification testing facility for packages to be used for transport and storage of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieru, Gheorghe

    2009-01-01

    The radioactive materials (RAM) packaging have to comply to all modes and transport condition, routine or in accident conditions possibly to occur during transportation operations. It is well known that the safety in the transport of RAM is dependent on packaging appropriate for the contents being shipped rather than on operational and/or administrative actions required for the package. The quality of these packages - type A, B or C has to be proved by performing qualification tests in accordance with the ROMANIAN nuclear regulation conditions provided by CNCAN Order no. 357/22.12.2005- 'Norms for a Safe Transport of Radioactive Material', the IAEA Vienna Recommendation stipulated in the Safety standard TS-R-1- Regulation for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, 2005 Edition, and other applicable international recommendations. The paper will describe the components of the designed testing facilities, and the qualification testing to be performed for all type A, B and C packages subjected to the testing. In addition, a part of the qualification tests for a package (designed and manufactured in INR Pitesti) used for transport and storage of spent fuel LEU elements of a TRIGA nuclear reactor will be described and analyzed. Quality assurance and quality controls measures taken in order to meet technical specification provided by the design are also presented and commented. The paper concludes that the new Romanian Testing Facilities for RAM packages will comply with the national safe standards as well as with the IAEA applicable recommendation provided by the TS-R-1 safety standard. (author)

  2. Packaging Printing Today

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislav Bolanča; Igor Majnarić; Kristijan Golubović

    2015-01-01

    Printing packaging covers today about 50% of all the printing products. Among the printing products there are printing on labels, printing on flexible packaging, printing on folding boxes, printing on the boxes of corrugated board, printing on glass packaging, synthetic and metal ones. The mentioned packaging are printed in flexo printing technique, offset printing technique, intaglio halftone process, silk – screen printing, ink ball printing, digital printing and hybrid printing process. T...

  3. Safety evaluation for packaging CPC metal boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, T.

    1995-01-01

    This Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) provides authorization for the use of Container Products Corporation (CPC) metal boxes, as described in this document, for the interarea shipment of radioactive contaminated equipment and debris for storage in the Central Waste Complex (CWC) or T Plant located in the 200 West Area. Authorization is granted until November 30, 1995. The CPC boxes included in this SEP were originally procured as US Department of Transportation (DOT) Specification 7A Type A boxes. A review of the documentation provided by the manufacturer revealed the documentation did not adequately demonstrate compliance to the 4 ft drop test requirement of 49 CFR 173.465(c). Preparation of a SEP is necessary to document the equivalent safety of the onsite shipment in lieu of meeting DOT packaging requirements until adequate documentation is received. The equivalent safety of the shipment is based on the fact that the radioactive contents consist of contaminated equipment and debris which are not dispersible. Each piece is wrapped in two layers of no less than 4 mil plastic prior to being placed in the box which has an additional 10 mil liner. Pointed objects and sharp edges are padded to prevent puncture of the plastic liner and wrapping

  4. Diagnostic value of soluble CD163 serum levels in patients suspected of meningitis: comparison with CRP and procalcitonin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Troels Bygum; Larsen, Klaus; Kristiansen, Thomas Birk

    2007-01-01

    CD163. However, sCD163 may be helpful in rapid identification of patients with systemic bacterial infection. If used as an adjunct to lumbar puncture, PCT and CRP had very high diagnostic accuracy for distinguishing between bacterial and viral infection in patients with spinal fluid pleocytosis. However......-operating characteristic AUCs (areas under curves). Patients were classified by 2 sets of diagnostic criteria into: A) purulent meningitis, serous meningitis or non-meningitis, and B) systemic bacterial infection, local bacterial infection or non-bacterial disease. An elevated serum level of sCD163 was the most specific......The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the diagnostic value of sCD163 serum levels with CRP and PCT in meningitis and bacterial infection. An observational cohort study was conducted between February 2001 and February 2005. The study population comprised 55 patients suspected...

  5. Make or buy decisions in and levels of logistics outsourcing: an empirical analysis in the food manufacturing industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsin-I Hsiao, L.; Kemp, R.G.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the determinants of outsourcing of different levels of logistics activities in the food manufacturing industry. In our research, four different levels of logistics activities were examined: (1st level) transportation, (2nd level) packaging, (3rd level)

  6. What is included with your online e-cigarette order? An analysis of e-cigarette shipping, product and packaging features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Amanda Y; Derrick, Jason C; Abrantes, Anthony S; Williams, Rebecca S

    2016-06-29

    The electronic cigarette industry is growing, with youth using e-cigarettes at higher rates than they are using cigarettes, and retail and online sales projected to reach $10 billion in 2017. Minimal regulation of the production and marketing of e-cigarettes exists to date, which has allowed companies to promote unsupported claims. We assessed the shipping, product features and packaging of a wide variety of e-cigarettes purchased online by adults and youth. The most popular internet e-cigarette vendors were identified from a larger study of internet tobacco vendors. Between August 2013 and June 2014, adults made 56 purchase attempts from online vendors, and youth made 98 attempts. Packages received were assessed for exterior and internal packaging features, including product information, health warnings and additional materials. We analysed a total of 125 orders featuring 86 unique brands of e-cigarettes. The contents were rarely indicated on package exteriors. Product information came with just 60% of orders and just 38.4% included an instruction manual. Only 44.6% of products included a health warning, and some had unsupported claims, such as lack of secondhand smoke exposure. Additionally, some products were leaking e-liquid and battery fluid on arrival. A large variety of e-cigarette products are manufactured and marketed to consumers. Many products do not include instructions for use, and unsupported claims are being presented to consumers. Effective federal regulation of the manufacturing, packaging, product information and health claims surrounding e-cigarettes is necessary to ensure consumers are presented with accurate e-cigarette use information. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. A National Survey of Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) Participants on Environmental Effects, Wildlife Issues, and Vegetation Management on Program Lands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allen, Arthur

    2003-01-01

    A national survey of Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) contractees was completed to obtain information about environmental and social effects of the program on participants, farms, and communities...

  8. Thermal Management of Power Semiconductor Packages - Matching Cooling Technologies with Packaging Technologies (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, K.; Moreno, G.

    2010-04-27

    Heat removal for power semiconductor devices is critical for robust operation. Because there are different packaging options, different thermal management technologies, and a range of applications, there is a need for a methodology to match cooling technologies and package configurations to target applications. To meet this need, a methodology was developed to compare the sensitivity of cooling technologies on the overall package thermal performance over a range of power semiconductor packaging configurations. The results provide insight into the trade-offs associated with cooling technologies and package configurations. The approach provides a method for comparing new developments in power semiconductor packages and identifying potential thermal control technologies for the package. The results can help users select the appropriate combination of packaging configuration and cooling technology for the desired application.

  9. Co-ordinated research project: Comparative international studies of osteoporosis using isotope techniques (CRP: E4.30.06)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Since the last RCM held in 1996, most participants have made good progress towards the objective of measuring bone mineral density (BMD) in at least 25 subjects of both sexes in each of the 5-year age ranges between 15 and 50 years (i.e. a minimum of 350 subjects in each study group). Some participants have also collected and analysed a number of bone samples, as specified in the protocols for the CRP. One of the most important tasks within the CRP is to 'normalize' the data from different DEXA machines and study centres so as to allow a meaningful comparison of the BMD measurements between centres and study groups. To this end, a European Spine Phantom (ESP) has recently been circulating among the participating centres, who have reported their results to the Central Reference Laboratory (CRL). Central evaluation of the data has so far only been done for a few of the participating centres

  10. NRF TRIGA packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, M.D.

    1995-11-01

    Training Reactor Isotopes, General Atomics (TRIGA reg-sign) Reactors are in use at four US Department of Energy (DOE) complex facilities and at least 23 university, commercial, or government facilities. The development of the Neutron Radiography Facility (NRF) TRIGA packaging system began in October 1993. The Hanford Site NRF is being shut down and requires an operationally user-friendly transportation and storage packaging system for removal of the TRIGA fuel elements. The NRF TRIGA packaging system is designed to remotely remove the fuel from the reactor and transport the fuel to interim storage (up to 50 years) on the Hanford Site. The packaging system consists of a cask and an overpack. The overpack is used only for transport and is not necessary for storage. Based upon the cask's small size and light weight, small TRIGA reactors will find it versatile for numerous refueling and fuel storage needs. The NRF TRIGA packaging design also provides the basis for developing a certifiable and economical packaging system for other TRIGA reactor facilities. The small size of the NRF TRIGA cask also accommodates placing the cask into a larger certified packaging for offsite transport. The Westinghouse Hanford Company NRF TRIGA packaging, as described herein can serve other DOE sites for their onsite use, and the design can be adapted to serve university reactor facilities, handling a variety of fuel payloads

  11. Effects of Atorvastatin calcium combined with Aspirin on serum levels of Hcy, NSE, UA, hs-CRP and inflammatory factors of patients with cerebral infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Qin Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effects of Atorvastatin calcium combined with Aspirin on serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy, neuron-specific enolase (NSE, uric acid (UA, high sensitity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP and inflammatory factors of patients with cerebral infarction. Methods: 100 cases of patients with cerebral infarction from March 2014 to May 2016 were treated in the Department of Neurology of our hospital and affiliated to Huazhong University of Science and Technology of traditional Chinese medicine and Western Medicine. The subjects were divided into the control group (n=50 and the treatment group (n=50 randomly. The control group was treated with Aspirin, the treatment group were treated with Atorvastatin calcium combined with Aspirin. The two groups were treated for 28 d. The serum levels of Hcy, NSE, UA, hs- CRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6, interleukin-8 (IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α of the two groups before and after treatment were compared. Results: There were no significantly differences of the serum levels of the Hcy, NSE, UA and hs-CRP of the two groups before treatment (P>0.05. After treatment, the serum levels of the Hcy, NSE, UA and hs-CRP of the two groups were significantly lower than before treatment, and that of the treatment group were significantly lower than the control group (P0.05. After treatment, the serum levels of the IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α of the two groups were significantly lower than before treatment, and that of the treatment group were significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Atorvastatin calcium combined with Aspirin can significantly reduce the serum levels of Hcy, NSE, UA, hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α of the patients with cerebral infarction.

  12. Power module packaging with double sided planar interconnection and heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhenxian; Marlino, Laura D.; Ning, Puqi; Wang, Fei

    2015-05-26

    A double sided cooled power module package having a single phase leg topology includes two IGBT and two diode semiconductor dies. Each IGBT die is spaced apart from a diode semiconductor die, forming a switch unit. Two switch units are placed in a planar face-up and face-down configuration. A pair of DBC or other insulated metallic substrates is affixed to each side of the planar phase leg semiconductor dies to form a sandwich structure. Attachment layers are disposed on outer surfaces of the substrates and two heat exchangers are affixed to the substrates by rigid bond layers. The heat exchangers, made of copper or aluminum, have passages for carrying coolant. The power package is manufactured in a two-step assembly and heating process where direct bonds are formed for all bond layers by soldering, sintering, solid diffusion bonding or transient liquid diffusion bonding, with a specially designed jig and fixture.

  13. Efficacy of controlled-release KMnO4 (CRP) for controlling dissolved TCE plume in groundwater: a large flow-tank study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Sun; Kim, Jeong Hee; Lee, Ki Churl; Kim, Yang Bin; Schwartz, Franklin W; Lee, Eung Seok; Woo, Nam Chil; Lee, Myoung Ki

    2009-02-01

    A well-based, reactive barrier system using controlled-release potassium permanganate (CRP system) was recently developed as a long-term treatment option for dilute plumes of chlorinated solvents in groundwater. In this study, we performed large-scale (L x W x D = 8 m x 4 m x 2 m) flow-tank experiments to examine remedial efficacy of the CRP system. A total of 110 CRP rods (OD x L=5 cm x 150 cm) were used to construct a well-based CRP system (L x W x D = 3 m x 4 m x 1.5 m) comprising three discrete barriers installed at 1-m interval downstream. Natural sands having oxidant demand of 3.7 g MnO(4)(-)kg(-1) for 500 mg L(-1)MnO(4)(-) were used as porous media. After MnO(4)(-) concentrations were somewhat stabilized (0.5-6.0 mg L(-1)), trichloroethylene (TCE) plume was flowed through the flow-tank for 53 d by supplying 1.19 m(3)d(-1) of TCE solution. Mean initial TCE concentrations were 87 microg L(-1) for first 20 d and 172 microg L(-1) for the next 33 d. During TCE treatment, flow velocity (0.60md(-1)), pH (7.0-8.2), and concentrations of dissolved metals ([Al]=0.7 mg L(-1), [Fe]=0.01 mg L(-1)) showed little variations. The MnO(2)(s) contents in the sandy media measured after the TCE treatment ranged from 21 to 26 mg kg(-1), slightly increased from mean baseline value of 17 mg kg(-1). Strengths of the TCE plume considerably diminished by the CRP system. For the 87 microg L(-1) plume, TCE concentrations decreased by 38% (53), 67% (29), and 74% (23 microg L(-1)) after 1st, 2nd, and 3rd barriers, respectively. For the 172 microg L(-1) plume, TCE concentrations decreased by 27% (125), 46% (93), and 65% (61 microg L(-1)) after 1st, 2nd, and 3rd barriers, respectively. Incomplete destruction of TCE plume was attributed to the lack of lateral dispersion in the unpumped well-based barrier system. Development of delivery systems that can facilitate lateral spreading and mixing of permanganate with contaminant plume is warranted.

  14. A study of elemental migration from poly(ethylene terephthalate) of food packagings to simulated solutions by radiometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Eufemia Paez; Saki, Mitiko; Silva, Leonardo G.A.

    2007-01-01

    Brazilian plastic production for food packagings, in recent years, has grown in the same proportion as food consumption. Considering that the plastic manufacturing involves catalytic processes and the use of additives, when the foods are in direct contact with these materials, the components present in plastics may migrate to the food. The Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) has established boundary-values of migrants as well as procedures to evaluate migration of elements and substances from plastic packaging to food. In this study elemental composition of poly (ethylene terephthalate) - PET - packaging and results of elemental migration were obtained. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used to determine elemental concentrations in PET packagings and the radiometric method was applied for elemental migration determination. This radiometric method consisted of irradiating the PET samples with neutrons, followed by migration exposition and radioactivity measurement in food-simulated solution. Experimental conditions used for migration were 10 days exposure period at 40 deg C. Migration was evaluated for soft drink, juice and water PET packaging. The analytical results indicated that PET packagings contain Co and Sb and those elements are transferred to the simulated solutions. However, these migration results were lower than the maximum tolerance values established by ANVISA. The migration detection limits also indicated high sensitivity of the radiometric method. (author)

  15. CRP, but not TNF-α or IL-6, decreases after weight loss in patients with morbid obesity exposed to intensive weight reduction and balneological treatment*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rość, Danuta; Adamczyk, Przemysław; Boinska, Joanna; Szafkowski, Robert; Ponikowska, Irena; Stankowska, Katarzyna; Góralczyk, Barbara; Ruszkowska-Ciastek, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the degree of homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in patients with morbid obesity exposed to a three-week low-calorie diet and balneotherapy. Methods: The study included 33 patients (25 females and 8 males; mean age 46 years) with body mass index (BMI) values of >40 kg/m2. Evaluations of CRP, IL-6, TNF-α, lipid profile, HOMA-IR, and fasting glucose were carried out before (baseline data) and three weeks after the treatment. The control group consisted of 20 healthy volunteers (15 females and 5 males) with a mean age of 39 years and BMI values of ≤24.9 kg/m2. Results: In the blood of patients with morbid obesity we found significantly elevated levels of CRP, TNF-α, triglycerides, HOMA-IR and fasting glucose, but a decreased level of high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, compared with the healthy individuals. The treatment resulted in about a 9.4% reduction in body weight from 122.5 to 111.0 kg and a significant decrease in the concentration of CRP, but no change in TNF-α or IL-6. HOMA-IR was significantly reduced. Conclusions: The decrease in CRP level without changes in TNF-α or IL-6 concentrations after the low-calorie diet and balneological treatment, suggests that an essential amount of adipose tissue must be removed before proper adipocyte function is restored. The decrease in HOMA-IR indicates an improvement in insulin sensitivity, which is beneficial in obese patients. PMID:25990058

  16. Packaging for Food Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilwell, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Most of the key areas of concern in packaging the three principle food forms for the space station were covered. It can be generally concluded that there are no significant voids in packaging materials availability or in current packaging technology. However, it must also be concluded that the process by which packaging decisions are made for the space station feeding program will be very synergistic. Packaging selection will depend heavily on the preparation mechanics, the preferred presentation and the achievable disposal systems. It will be important that packaging be considered as an integral part of each decision as these systems are developed.

  17. Waste Package Lifting Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H. Marr

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation

  18. A Natural Component-Based Oxygen Indicator with In-Pack Activation for Intelligent Food Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Keehoon; Jang, Nan Young; Jeon, Junsu

    2016-12-28

    Intelligent food packaging can provide consumers with reliable and correct information on the quality and safety of packaged foods. One of the key constituents in intelligent packaging is a colorimetric oxygen indicator, which is widely used to detect oxygen gas involved in food spoilage by means of a color change. Traditional oxygen indicators consisting of redox dyes and strong reducing agents have two major problems: they must be manufactured and stored under anaerobic conditions because air depletes the reductant, and their components are synthetic and toxic. To address both of these serious problems, we have developed a natural component-based oxygen indicator characterized by in-pack activation. The conventional oxygen indicator composed of synthetic and artificial components was redesigned using naturally occurring compounds (laccase, guaiacol, and cysteine). These natural components were physically separated into two compartments by a fragile barrier. Only when the barrier was broken were all of the components mixed and the function as an oxygen indicator was begun (i.e., in-pack activation). Depending on the component concentrations, the natural component-based oxygen indicator exhibited different response times and color differences. The rate of the color change was proportional to the oxygen concentration. This novel colorimetric oxygen indicator will contribute greatly to intelligent packaging for healthier and safer foods.

  19. Certification of packagings: compliance with DOT specification 7A packaging requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edling, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine which of the packagings currently listed in CFR 49 Section 173.395 a.1-5, meet the Specification 7A requirements (CFR 49 Section 173.350). According to DOT HM-111 the present listing of various authorized DOT specifications in Section 173.394 and Section 173.395 (Type A containers) of ICC Tariff No. 27 would be deleted with complete reliance being placed on the use of DOT 7A, Type A general packaging specification. Each user of a Specification 7A package would be required to document and maintain on file for one year a written record of his determination of compliance with the DOT Specification 7A performance requirements. All the specification packagings listed in CFR 49 Section 173.395a.1-5 were tested and shown to meet the Specification 7A criteria; however, in many cases qualifications were placed on their use. Forty-nine specification packagings were tested and shown to meet the DOT Specification 7A performance requirements and since there were several styles of some specific packagings, this amounts to greater than 80 packagings. The extensive testing generally indicated a high degree of containment integrity in the packagings tested and the documentation discussed is a valuable tool for shippers of Type A quantities of radioactive materials

  20. Targeted disruption of the mouse Csrp2 gene encoding the cysteine- and glycine-rich LIM domain protein CRP2 result in subtle alteration of cardiac ultrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoll Doris

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cysteine and glycine rich protein 2 (CRP2 encoded by the Csrp2 gene is a LIM domain protein expressed in the vascular system, particularly in smooth muscle cells. It exhibits a bimodal subcellular distribution, accumulating at actin-based filaments in the cytosol and in the nucleus. In order to analyze the function of CRP2 in vivo, we disrupted the Csrp2 gene in mice and analysed the resulting phenotype. Results A ~17.3 kbp fragment of the murine Csrp2 gene containing exon 3 through 6 was isolated. Using this construct we confirmed the recently determined chromosomal localization (Chromosome 10, best fit location between markers D10Mit203 proximal and D10Mit150 central. A gene disruption cassette was cloned into exon 4 and a mouse strain lacking functional Csrp2 was generated. Mice lacking CRP2 are viable and fertile and have no obvious deficits in reproduction and survival. However, detailed histological and electron microscopic studies reveal that CRP2-deficient mice have subtle alterations in their cardiac ultrastructure. In these mice, the cardiomyocytes display a slight increase in their thickness, indicating moderate hypertrophy at the cellular level. Although the expression of several intercalated disc-associated proteins such as β-catenin, N-RAP and connexin-43 were not affected in these mice, the distribution of respective proteins was changed within heart tissue. Conclusion We conclude that the lack of CRP2 is associated with alterations in cardiomyocyte thickness and hypertrophy.

  1. Requirements for timber and cadmium used in shielding for fissile material transport packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    This Code of Practice has been prepared as a guide for designers who require packaging for fissile materials. It should be noted that this document covers design requirements only and it is not a manufacturing specification which can be quoted on a manufacturing contract without qualification. Compliance with the regulations regarding the safe transport of fissile materials may be achieved by the provision of an effective shield embodying:- (a) a moderating material -usually one rich in hydrogen, such as wood - in order to thermalise incoming neutrons, and (b) a material - such as cadmium - with a large absorption cross-section for thermal neutrons, located between the moderator and the fissile material, in order to capture the incoming neutrons. This Code describes the requirements in two sections, one for each of these materials. (author)

  2. Materials selection for a transport packaging of Mo-99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Debora H.S.; Lucchesi, Raquel F.; Mancini, Victor A.; Rossi, Jesualdo L.; Fiore, Marina

    2015-01-01

    The radiopharmaceuticals are radioactive isotopes used in nuclear medicine for more accurate diagnosis and treatment of diseases or dysfunctions. Currently, the most important radionuclide for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic purposes is technetium-99m ( 99m Tc), a product of the radioactive decay of molybdenum-99 (Mo-99). The aim of this work was the materials selection that can enable the manufacture of a package for Mo-99 transport with the aid of CES EduPack program and the methodology developed by Ashby. The ESTAR program was used to check the occurrence of Bremsstrahlung and the XCOM program was used to calculate the attenuation coefficient of gamma radiation from some of the selected materials for the shield; after, the thickness required for radiation shielding was calculated. From the results, the materials selected as potential candidates for the manufacture of the shielding were the tungsten alloys. Related to the thermal insulation and the impact protection, woods, plywoods and particle boards stand out. With regard to internal and external coatings, the selected materials focus on groups of steels and nickel alloys. (author)

  3. Anhydrous Ammonia Training Module. Trainer's Package. Participant's Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudin, Bart; And Others

    This document contains a trainer's and a participant's package for teaching employees on site safe handling procedures for working with anhydrous ammonia, especially on farms. The trainer's package includes the following: a description of the module; a competency; objectives; suggested instructional aids; a training outline (or lesson plan) for…

  4. Prognostic impact of hs-CRP and IL-6 in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation treated with electrical cardioversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Kristoffer Mads Aaris; Therkelsen, Susette Krohn; Bruunsgaard, Helle

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the role of inflammatory processes in the development of atrial fibrillation (AF) and the prognostic impact of inflammatory markers in predicting long-term risk of AF recurrence after electrical cardioversion (CV). METHODS: High-sensitivity C......-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured in 56 patients with persistent AF (lasting mean 128 days (range 14-960), mean age 65 years (34-84)), 19 healthy volunteers and 19 patients with permanent AF. Patients with persistent AF underwent CV. Blood samples were taken prior to CV and after 1......, 30 and 180 days. RESULTS: The immediate success rate of CV was 88%, while the total recurrence rate after 180 days was 68%. Patients with permanent AF had significantly higher levels of hs-CRP and IL-6 than patients with persistent AF (p = 0.0011, p

  5. Green Packaging Development. : A way to efficient, effective and more environmental friendly packaging solutions.

    OpenAIRE

    Mian Muhammad, Masoud

    2011-01-01

    Growing pressure on the packaging design to enhance the environmental and logistics performance of a packaging system stresses the packaging designers to search new design strategies that not only fulfill logistics requirements in the supply chain, but also reduce the CO 2emissions during the packaging life cycle. This thesis focuses on the packaging design process and suggests some improvements by considering its logistics performance and CO 2emissions. A Green packaging development model wa...

  6. Visualization of Environmental Waste by Manufacturing : Equip VSM with Green Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Juebin; Lu, Shan

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is a subtask of the research project “Green Production System”, which is jointly launched and run by Volvo/Volvo Technology, Haldex, Saab and All-Emballage J.E. AB as industrial party, and Mälardalen University as academic party. The whole project is dedicated to develop “green production system” to be a competitive mean to Swedish automotive and manufacturing industry through four work packages, which are “Wet preconditions and frames of a green production system”, “Visualization...

  7. Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis of IAEA CRP HTGR Benchmark Using McCARD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Sang Hoon; Shim, Hyung Jin

    2016-01-01

    The benchmark consists of 4 phases starting from the local standalone modeling (Phase I) to the safety calculation of coupled system with transient situation (Phase IV). As a preliminary study of UAM on HTGR, this paper covers the exercise 1 and 2 of Phase I which defines the unit cell and lattice geometry of MHTGR-350 (General Atomics). The objective of these exercises is to quantify the uncertainty of the multiplication factor induced by perturbing nuclear data as well as to analyze the specific features of HTGR such as double heterogeneity and self-shielding treatment. The uncertainty quantification of IAEA CRP HTGR UAM benchmarks were conducted using first-order AWP method in McCARD. Uncertainty of the multiplication factor was estimated only for the microscopic cross section perturbation. To reduce the computation time and memory shortage, recently implemented uncertainty analysis module in MC wielandt calculation was adjusted. The covariance data of cross section was generated by NJOY/ERRORR module with ENDF/B-VII.1. The numerical result was compared with evaluation result of DeCART/MUSAD code system developed by KAERI. IAEA CRP HTGR UAM benchmark problems were analyzed using McCARD. The numerical results were compared with Serpent for eigenvalue calculation and DeCART/MUSAD for S/U analysis. In eigenvalue calculation, inconsistencies were found in the result with ENDF/B-VII.1 cross section library and it was found to be the effect of thermal scattering data of graphite. As to S/U analysis, McCARD results matched well with DeCART/MUSAD, but showed some discrepancy in 238U capture regarding implicit uncertainty.

  8. IN-PACKAGE CHEMISTRY ABSTRACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Thomas

    2005-07-14

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for Postclosure Waste Form Modeling'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173246]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as a function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model, which uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model, which is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials, and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed (CDSP) waste packages containing high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor diffusing into the waste package, and (2) seepage water entering the waste package as a liquid from the drift. (1) Vapor-Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H{sub 2}O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Liquid-Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package.

  9. IN-PACKAGE CHEMISTRY ABSTRACTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E. Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for Postclosure Waste Form Modeling'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173246]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as a function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model, which uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model, which is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials, and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed (CDSP) waste packages containing high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor diffusing into the waste package, and (2) seepage water entering the waste package as a liquid from the drift. (1) Vapor-Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H 2 O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Liquid-Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package

  10. Hazardous materials package performance regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, N.A.; Glass, R.E.; McClure, J.D.; Finley, N.C.

    1992-01-01

    The hazardous materials (hazmat) packaging development and certification process is currently defined by two different regulatory philosophies, one based on specification packagings and the other based on performance standards. With specification packagings, a packaging is constructed according to an agreed set of design specifications. In contrast, performance standards do not specify the packaging design; they specify performance standards that a packaging design must be able to pass before it can be certified for transport. The packaging can be designed according to individual needs as long as it meets these performance standards. Performance standards have been used nationally and internationally for about 40 years to certify radioactive materials (RAM) packagings. It is reasonable to state that for RAM transport, performance specifications have maintained transport safety. A committee of United Nation's experts recommended the performance standard philosophy as the preferred regulation method for hazmat packaging. Performance standards for hazmat packagings smaller than 118 gallons have been adopted in 49CFR178. Packagings for materials that are classified as toxic-by-inhalation must comply with the performance standards by October 1, 1993, and packagings for all other classes of hazardous materials covered must comply by October 1, 1996. For packages containing bulk (in excess of 188 gallons) quantities of materials that are extremely toxic by inhalation, there currently are no performance requirements. This paper discusses a Hazmat Packaging Performance Evaluation (HPPE) project to look at the subset of bulk packagings that are larger than 2000 gallons. The objectives of this project are the evaluate current hazmat specification packagings and develop supporting documentation for determining performance requirements for packagings in excess of 2000 gallons that transport hazardous materials that have been classified as extremely toxic by inhalation (METBI)

  11. Lithium niobate packaging challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, E.J.; Holmes, R.J.; Jander, R.B.; Schelling, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    The use of lithium niobate integrated optic devices outside of the research laboratory is predicated on the development of a sound packaging method. The authors present a discussion of the many issues that face the development of a viable, robust packaging technology. The authors emphasize the interaction of lithium niobate's physical properties with available packaging materials and technologies. The broad range of properties (i.e. electro-optic, piezo-electric, pyro-electric, photorefractive...) that make lithium niobate an interesting material in many device applications also make it a packaging challenge. The package design, materials and packaging technologies must isolate the device from the environment so that lithium niobate's properties do not adversely affect the device performance

  12. Comparison between clinical significance of serum proinflammatory proteins (IL-6 and CRP) and classic tumor markers (CEA and CA 19-9) in gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Łukaszewicz-Zając, Marta; Mroczko, Barbara; Gryko, Mariusz; Kędra, Bogusław; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2010-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a second most common cause of cancer-related death and represents an inflammation-driven malignancy. It has been suggested that interleukin 6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) play a potential role in the growth and progression of GC. The aim of the present study was to compare clinical significance of IL-6 and CRP with classic tumor markers—carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen (CA 19-9) in GC patients. The study included 92 patients with GC and 70 ...

  13. User friendly packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    Most consumers have experienced occasional problems with opening packaging. Tomato sauce from the tinned mackerel splattered all over the kitchen counter, the unrelenting pickle jar lid, and the package of sliced ham that cannot be opened without a knife or a pair of scissors. The research project...... “User-friendly Packaging” aims to create a platform for developing more user-friendly packaging. One intended outcome of the project is a guideline that industry can use in development efforts. The project also points the way for more extended collaboration between companies and design researchers. How...... can design research help industry in packaging innovation?...

  14. Packaging Review Guide for Reviewing Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiSabatino, A; Biswas, D; DeMicco, M; Fisher, L E; Hafner, R; Haslam, J; Mok, G; Patel, C; Russell, E

    2007-04-12

    This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for Department of Energy (DOE) review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE Order 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his or her review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. This PRG is generally organized at the section level in a format similar to that recommended in Regulatory Guide 7.9 (RG 7.9). One notable exception is the addition of Section 9 (Quality Assurance), which is not included as a separate chapter in RG 7.9. Within each section, this PRG addresses the technical and regulatory bases for the review, the manner in which the review is accomplished, and findings that are generally applicable for a package that meets the approval standards. This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for DOE review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE O 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. The primary objectives of this PRG are to: (1) Summarize the regulatory requirements for package approval; (2) Describe the technical review procedures by which DOE determines that these requirements have been satisfied; (3) Establish and maintain the quality and uniformity of reviews; (4) Define the base from which to evaluate proposed changes in scope

  15. DNA Packaging by λ-Like Bacteriophages: Mutations Broadening the Packaging Specificity of Terminase, the λ-Packaging Enzyme

    OpenAIRE

    Feiss, Michael; Reynolds, Erin; Schrock, Morgan; Sippy, Jean

    2010-01-01

    The DNA-packaging specificities of phages λ and 21 depend on the specific DNA interactions of the small terminase subunits, which have support helix-turn-recognition helix-wing DNA-binding motifs. λ-Terminase with the recognition helix of 21 preferentially packages 21 DNA. This chimeric terminase's ability to package λDNA is reduced ∼20-fold. Phage λ with the chimeric terminase is unable to form plaques, but pseudorevertants are readily obtained. Some pseudorevertants have trans-acting suppre...

  16. The paradox of packaging optimization – a characterization of packaging source reduction in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sluisveld, M.A.E.; Worrell, E.

    2013-01-01

    The European Council Directive 94/62/EC for Packaging and Packaging Waste requires that Member States implement packaging waste prevention measures. However, consumption and subsequently packaging waste figures are still growing annually. It suggests that policies to accomplish packaging waste

  17. The Effect of 12 Weeks of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT on Homocysteine and CRP Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Body Composition in Overweight Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ebrahim Bahram

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: High levels of homocysteine inflammatory markers and C-Reactive Protein (CRP cause many complications, including atherosclerosis, venous thrombosis, and cardiovascular problems. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of 12-weekHigh Intensity Interval Training (HIIT on homocysteine, CRP, and body composition in overweight men. Materials & Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 20 students of Kashan University of Medical Sciences with a body mass index between 25 and 30 kg/m2, were purposefully selected and were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. The experimental group had practiced in the HIIT program with the intensity of up to 90 percent of maximum heart rate for 12 weeks. Before and after exercise, the amount of homocysteine, CRP, weight, body fat percentage, body mass index, and waist-to-hip ratio were calculated. The data were analyzed by using dependent and independent t-test at a significance level of P<0.05. Results: The results showed that12 weeks of HIIT had significant effects on reducing serum levels of homocysteine and HSCRP, body weight, body fat percentage, BMI, and WHR in the experimental group compared to the control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: It seems that 12 weeks of intense interval training as a non-invasive method can have a positive effect on reducing the amount of homocysteine, HS-CRP, and some anthropometric indexes of obesity and overweight.

  18. Experience gained during Manufacture and Testing of the W7-X Superconducting Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanner, M.; Sborchia, C.; Risse, K.; Viebke, H.; Baldzuhn, J.

    2006-01-01

    The W7-X basic device is presently being assembled at the Greifswald branch of IPP. The specific field configurations of this helical advanced stellarator are realised by a symmetric arrangement of 50 non-planar and 20 planar superconducting coils. In order to sustain the large electromagnetic forces and moments, all coils are bolted to a massive coil support structure and supported against each other by inter-coil support elements. Cooling of superconductor and the casing is provided by supercritical helium. For all coils the same cable-in-conduit conductor is used. This conductor is formed by a NbTi cable which is co-extruded in an aluminium jacket. Low-resistive electrical joints connect the conductor layers within a winding package and potential break provide electrical insulation of the helium pipes. After insulation and vacuum pressure impregnation, the winding packages are embedded in stainless steel casings, which are then finish-machined and equipped with cooling pipes. During a rapid shut-down of the magnet system the windings may experience voltages up to several kilovolts. High voltage tests under degraded vacuum conditions (Paschen tests) provide a sensitive method to detect weak points in the electrical insulation. Manufacture of the magnets is in a well advanced stage. All winding packages are completed, many of them are integrated in the casings and several coils have already been delivered for cold testing. These tests are performed in a cryogenic test facility at CEA Saclay. Tests at nominal operating conditions and quench tests confirmed the electric layout and the specified margin. Design changes have been implemented during fabrication due to more detailed structural analyses. Some manufacturing processes had to be modified and re-qualified to allow repair of weaknesses defects found during tests. The presentation will give an overview of the production status of the superconducting coils, the experiences gained during fabrication of the

  19. Summary report for IAEA CRP on lifetime prediction for the first wall of a fusion machine (JAERI contribution)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Satoshi; Araki, Masanori; Akiba, Masato

    1993-03-01

    IAEA Coordinated Research Program (CRP) on 'Lifetime Prediction for the First Wall of a Fusion Machine' was started in 1989. Five participants, Joint Research Centre (JRC-Ispra), The NET team, Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK), Russian Research Center and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, contributed in this activity. The purpose of the CRP is to evaluate the thermal fatigue behavior of the first wall of a next generation fusion machine by means of numerical methods and also to contribute the design activities for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). Thermal fatigue experiments of a first wall mock-up which were carried out in JRC-Ispra were selected as a first benchmark exercise model. All participants performed finite element analyses with various analytical codes to predict the lifetime of the simulated first wall. The first benchmark exercise has successfully been finished in 1992. This report summarizes a JAERI's contribution for this first benchmark exercise. (author)

  20. Neural Implants, Packaging for Biocompatible Implants, and Improving Fabricated Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agger, Elizabeth Rose

    We have completed the circuit design and packaging procedure for an NIH-funded neural implant, called a MOTE (Microscale Optoelectronically Transduced Electrode). Neural recording implants for mice have greatly advanced neuroscience, but they are often damaging and limited in their recording location. This project will result in free-floating implants that cause less damage, provide rapid electronic recording, and increase range of recording across the cortex. A low-power silicon IC containing amplification and digitization sub-circuits is powered by a dual-function gallium arsenide photovoltaic and LED. Through thin film deposition, photolithography, and chemical and physical etching, the Molnar Group and the McEuen Group (Applied and Engineering Physics department) will package the IC and LED into a biocompatible implant approximately 100microm3. The IC and LED are complete and we have begun refining this packaging procedure in the Cornell NanoScale Science & Technology Facility. ICs with 3D time-resolved imaging capabilities can image microorganisms and other biological samples given proper packaging. A portable, flat, easily manufactured package would enable scientists to place biological samples on slides directly above the Molnar group's imaging chip. We have developed a packaging procedure using laser cutting, photolithography, epoxies, and metal deposition. Using a flip-chip method, we verified the process by aligning and adhering a sample chip to a holder wafer. In the CNF, we have worked on a long-term metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitor characterization project. Former Fellow and continuing CNF user Kwame Amponsah developed the original procedure for the capacitor fabrication, and another former fellow, Jonilyn Longenecker, revised the procedure and began the arduous process of characterization. MIM caps are useful to clean room users as testing devices to verify electronic characteristics of their active circuitry. This project's objective is to

  1. Evaluation of bionanocomposites as packaging material on properties of soft white cheese during storage period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Ahmed M; El-Sayed, Samah M; Salama, Heba H; El-Sayed, Hoda S; Dufresne, A

    2015-11-05

    Novel bionanocomposites based on chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol)/titanium nanoparticles (CS/PVA/TiO2 nanocomposite) were prepared and used as packaging materials for soft white cheese. The prepared bionanocomposites were characterized using XRD, SEM, TEM and FT-IR. The CS/PVA/TiO2 bionanocomposites exhibited good mechanical properties. Furthermore, the obtained bionanocomposites exhibited superior antibacterial activity against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus), gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli) bacteria and fungi (Candidia albicans). The soft white cheese was manufactured and packaged within the CS/PVA/TiO2 nanocomposite films and stored at 7 °C for 30 days. The color, rheological and chemical properties of cheese were evaluated, also the influence of CS/PVA/TiO2 bionanocomposites on microbiological analysis of soft white cheese was assessed, the results indicated that the total bacterial counts, mold & yeast and coliform decreased with the increasing storage period and disappeared at the end of storage period compared with control. Consequently, CS/PVA/TiO2 bionanocomposite can be used in food packaging applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Ideal Female Body on the Packaging Design of Traditional Medicine (Jamu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Listia Natadjaja

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Jamu, an Indonesian traditional medicine used for treating ailments or sicknesses  is also well known as a product for slimming especially for women.  Through its packaging design, jamu for women depict female body in the form of photograph and illustrations. The female body is constructed to be seen attractive and become the ideal body. The research aims to read the ideal female body on the packaging design of jamu and to reveal the ideology behind them. We analyzed the packaging design of jamu related to the formation of female body produced by five major manufacturers of traditional medicine that has survived for at least three generations: Air Mancur, Sido Muncul, Jamu Jago, Nyonya Meneer and Jamu Iboe. This analysis uses Roland Barthes' semiotic theory that reveals the linguistic message, the denoted image and rhetoric of the image. Ideal body is still struggling around the stereotype that physically described as thin and also plum with the emphasise on slim waist, big hip and breast. In keeping with the Javanese philosophy, woman's body is identical to the nature. The construction of female body is closely related to social and cultural context. Through the object and the pose, female body is depicted as traditional and modern, natural and cultural.

  3. Prevention policies addressing packaging and packaging waste: Some emerging trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tencati, Antonio; Pogutz, Stefano; Moda, Beatrice; Brambilla, Matteo; Cacia, Claudia

    2016-10-01

    Packaging waste is a major issue in several countries. Representing in industrialized countries around 30-35% of municipal solid waste yearly generated, this waste stream has steadily grown over the years even if, especially in Europe, specific recycling and recovery targets have been fixed. Therefore, an increasing attention starts to be devoted to prevention measures and interventions. Filling a gap in the current literature, this explorative paper is a first attempt to map the increasingly important phenomenon of prevention policies in the packaging sector. Through a theoretical sampling, 11 countries/states (7 in and 4 outside Europe) have been selected and analyzed by gathering and studying primary and secondary data. Results show evidence of three specific trends in packaging waste prevention policies: fostering the adoption of measures directed at improving packaging design and production through an extensive use of the life cycle assessment; raising the awareness of final consumers by increasing the accountability of firms; promoting collaborative efforts along the packaging supply chains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Food packages for Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohey, M. F.; Sauer, R. L.; Westover, J. B.; Rockafeller, E. F.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews food packaging techniques used in space flight missions and describes the system developed for the Space Shuttle. Attention is directed to bite-size food cubes used in Gemini, Gemini rehydratable food packages, Apollo spoon-bowl rehydratable packages, thermostabilized flex pouch for Apollo, tear-top commercial food cans used in Skylab, polyethylene beverage containers, Skylab rehydratable food package, Space Shuttle food package configuration, duck-bill septum rehydration device, and a drinking/dispensing nozzle for Space Shuttle liquids. Constraints and testing of packaging is considered, a comparison of food package materials is presented, and typical Shuttle foods and beverages are listed.

  5. Toward a Digital Thread and Data Package for Metals-Additive Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D B; Witherell, P; Lu, Y; Feng, S

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has been envisioned by many as a driving factor of the next industrial revolution. Potential benefits of AM adoption include the production of low-volume, customized, complicated parts/products, supply chain efficiencies, shortened time-to-market, and environmental sustainability. Work remains, however, for AM to reach the status of a full production-ready technology. Whereas the ability to create unique 3D geometries has been generally proven, production challenges remain, including lack of (1) data manageability through information management systems, (2) traceability to promote product producibility, process repeatability, and part-to-part reproducibility, and (3) accountability through mature certification and qualification methodologies. To address these challenges in part, this paper discusses the building of data models to support the development of validation and conformance methodologies in AM. We present an AM information map that leverages informatics to facilitate part producibility, process repeatability, and part-to-part reproducibility in an AM process. We present three separate case studies to demonstrate the importance of establishing baseline data structures and part provenance through an AM digital thread.

  6. Detection of Parasitic Contamination in Ready to Eat Fresh Packaged Herbs Sold in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhollah Valipour Nouroozi

    2015-09-01

    Results: In the current study, 8.5% of samples were reported to have parasitic contamination. Cyst and oocyst of Cryptosporidium spp (4%, Giardia spp (3% and Entamoeba spp (1.5% were identified in the present study. Conclusion: The study findings highlighted the potentiality of fresh ready-to-eat packaged herbs to serve as a transmission vehicle for parasites. In addition, this study demonstrated the washing method used by manufacturer of this product was not appropriate.

  7. Competent authority approval of package designs in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan-Warren, E.J.

    1999-01-01

    Type B packages and all packages containing fissile material, as well as special form radioactive materials, special arrangements and certain shipments, are required to be approved by the competent authority. In the United Kingdom competent authority approval is carried out on behalf of the Secretary of State by the Radioactive Materials Transport Division (RMTD) of the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR). Competent authority approval of a package design is given only after a detailed assessment of the design by the specialist staff of RMTD. There are three facets to the assessment procedure, namely engineering, criticality and radiation protection, and quality assurance. The engineering assessor ensures that the designer has demonstrated the integrity of the containment and shielding systems under the regulatory conditions. The criticality assessor examines criticality safety and radiation protection measures, and together with the engineering assessor, decides whether this is maintained under regulatory conditions. The quality assurance assessor verifies that the applicant has established the necessary controls to ensure that the design requirements are met. The applicant is responsible for making the case for approval, but the assessment is facilitated if the competent authority is involved with the designer at an early stage in development and during the construction of any test prototype. When a regulatory test programme is required, it is designed and carried out by the applicant, but agreed and witnessed by representatives of RMTD. Following the test programme, the applicant submits a formal application, supported by a design safety report (DSR). The DSR provides a full analysis of the design and the test results, including the behaviour of the package under normal and accident conditions of transport, the manufacturing and maintenance procedures, quality assurance and the emergency provisions for the operation of the package

  8. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Thomas

    2004-11-09

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model that uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model that is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed waste packages that contain both high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor that diffuses into the waste package, and (2) seepage water that enters the waste package from the drift as a liquid. (1) Vapor Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H2O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Water Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package. TSPA-LA uses the vapor influx case for the nominal scenario for simulations where the waste

  9. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E. Thomas

    2004-01-01

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model that uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model that is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed waste packages that contain both high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor that diffuses into the waste package, and (2) seepage water that enters the waste package from the drift as a liquid. (1) Vapor Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H2O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Water Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package. TSPA-LA uses the vapor influx case for the nominal scenario for simulations where the waste package has been

  10. Radioactive material packaging performance testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, T.; Cruse, J.M.

    1991-02-01

    To provide uniform packaging of hazardous materials on an international level, the United Nations has developed packaging recommendations that have been implemented worldwide. The United Nations packaging recommendations are performance oriented, allowing for a wide variety of package materials and systems. As a result of this international standard, efforts in the United States are being directed toward use of performance-oriented packaging and elimination of specification (designed) packaging. This presentation will focus on trends, design evaluation, and performance testing of radioactive material packaging. The impacts of US Department of Transportation Dockets HM-181 and HM-169A on specification and low-specific activity radioactive material packaging requirements are briefly discussed. The US Department of Energy's program for evaluating radioactive material packings per US Department of Transportation Specification 7A Type A requirements, is used as the basis for discussing low-activity packaging performance test requirements. High-activity package testing requirements are presented with examples of testing performed at the Hanford Site that is operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. 5 refs., 2 tabs

  11. Standardised (plain) cigarette packaging increases attention to both text-based and graphical health warnings: experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankleman, M; Sykes, C; Mandeville, K L; Di Costa, S; Yarrow, K

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether standardised cigarette packaging increases the time spent looking at health warnings, regardless of the format of those warnings. A factorial (two pack styles x three warning types) within-subject experiment, with participants randomised to different orders of conditions, completed at a university in London, UK. Mock-ups of cigarette packets were presented to participants with their branded portion in either standardised (plain) or manufacturer-designed (branded) format. Health warnings were present on all packets, representing all three types currently in use in the UK: black & white text, colour text, or colour images with accompanying text. Gaze position was recorded using a specialised eye tracker, providing the main outcome measure, which was the mean proportion of a five-second viewing period spent gazing at the warning-label region of the packet. An opportunity sample of 30 (six male, mean age = 23) young adults met the following inclusion criteria: 1) not currently a smoker; 2) 50% viewing time. These participants spent a greater proportion of the available time gazing at the warning-label region when the branded section of the pack was standardised (following current Australian guidelines) rather than containing the manufacturer's preferred design (mean difference in proportions = 0.078, 95% confidence interval 0.049 to 0.106, p interaction p = 0.295). During incidental viewing of cigarette packets, young adult never-smokers are likely to spend more time looking at health warnings if manufacturers are compelled to use standardised packaging, regardless of the warning design. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. The Integration of an API619 Screw Compressor Package into the Industrial Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, W. J.; Poli, G.; Harrison, D. K.

    2017-08-01

    The Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) is the industrial subset of the Internet of Things (IoT). IIoT incorporates big data technology, harnessing the instrumentation data, machine to machine communication and automation technologies that have existed in industrial settings for years. As industry in general trends towards the IIoT and as the screw compressor packages developed by Howden Compressors are designed with a minimum design life of 25 years, it is imperative this technology is embedded immediately. This paper provides the reader with a description on the Industrial Internet of Things before moving onto describing the scope of the problem for an organisation like Howden Compressors who deploy multiple compressor technologies across multiple locations and focuses on the critical measurements particular to high specification screw compressor packages. A brief analysis of how this differs from high volume package manufacturers deploying similar systems is offered. Then follows a description on how the measured information gets from the tip of the instrument in the process pipework or drive train through the different layers, with a description of each layer, into the final presentation layer. The functions available within the presentation layer are taken in turn and the benefits analysed with specific focus on efficiency and availability. The paper concludes with how packagers adopting the IIoT can not only optimise their package but by utilising the machine learning technology and pattern detection applications can adopt completely new business models.

  13. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weddle, D.C.; Novotny, R.; Cron, J.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''

  14. Nanotechnology in meat processing and packaging: potential applications - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandraiah, Karna; Han, Sung Gu; Chin, Koo Bok

    2015-02-01

    Growing demand for sustainable production, increasing competition and consideration of health concerns have led the meat industries on a path to innovation. Meat industries across the world are focusing on the development of novel meat products and processes to meet consumer demand. Hence, a process innovation, like nanotechnology, can have a significant impact on the meat processing industry through the development of not only novel functional meat products, but also novel packaging for the products.