WorldWideScience

Sample records for pacific salmon 2000-2001

  1. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A.; Tezak, E.P. (National Marine Fisheries Service); Endicott, Rick (Long Live the Kings, Seattle, WA)

    2002-08-01

    In the 2000 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion, NMFS identified six populations of steelhead and several salmon populations that had dropped to critically low levels and continue to decline. Following thorough risk-benefit analyses, captive propagation programs for some or all of the steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations may be required to reduce the risk of extinction, and more programs may be required in the future. Thus, captive propagation programs designed to maintain or rebuild steelhead populations require intensive and rigorous scientific evaluation, much like the other objectives of BPA Project 1993-056-00 currently underway for chinook (O. tshawytscha) and sockeye salmon (O. nerka). Pacific salmon reared to the adult stage in captivity exhibit poor reproductive performance when released to spawn naturally. Poor fin quality and swimming performance, incomplete development of secondary sex characteristics, changes in maturation timing, and other factors may contribute to reduced spawning success. Improving natural reproductive performance is critical for the success of captive broodstock programs in which adult-release is a primary reintroduction strategy for maintaining ESA-listed populations.

  2. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry; Tezak, E.; Endicott, Rick

    2002-08-01

    The efficacy of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival and the fitness of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. The following summarizes some of the work performed and results from the FY 2001 performance period: (1) The incidence of male maturation of age-1 chinook salmon was significantly reduced by reducing growth in the first year of rearing. (2) Experimentally manipulated growth rates of captively-reared coho salmon had significant effects on female maturation rate, egg size, and fecundity, and the effects were stage-specific (i.e., pre-smolt vs. post-smolt). (3) A combination of Renogen and MT239 vaccination of yearling chinook salmon given an acute R. salmoninarum challenge had a significantly longer survival time than the mock-vaccinated group. The survival time was marginally higher than was seen in acutely challenged fish vaccinated with either Renogen or MT239 alone and suggests that a combination vaccine of Renogen and MT239 may be useful as both a prophylactic and therapeutic agent against BKD. (4) Full-sib (inbred) groups of chinook salmon have thus far exhibited lower ocean survival than half-sib and non-related groups. Effects of inbreeding on fluctuating asymmetry did not follow expected patterns. (5) Sockeye salmon were exposed to specific odorants at either the alevin/emergent fry stage or the smolt stage to determine the relative importance of odorant exposure during key developmental periods and the importance of exposure duration. (6) Experimental studies to determine the effects of exercise conditioning on steelhead reproductive behavior and the effects of male body size on chinook salmon fertilization success during natural spawning were completed.

  3. Post-release attributes and survival of hatchery and natural fall chinook salmon in the Snake River : annual report 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Rondorf, Dennis W.; Connor, William P.

    2003-01-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted in 2000, 2001, and years previous to aid in the management and recovery of fall chinook salmon in the Columbia River basin. The report is divided into sections and self-standing chapters. For detailed summaries, we refer the reader to the abstracts given on the second page of each chapter. The Annual Reporting section includes information provided to fishery managers in-season and post-season, and it contains a detailed summary of life history and survival statistics on wild Snake River fall chinook salmon juveniles for the years 1992-2001. The Journal Manuscripts section includes complete copies of papers submitted or published during 2000 and 2001 that were not included in previous annual reports. Publication is a high priority for this project because it provides our results to a wide audience, it ensures that our work meets high scientific standards, and we believe that it is a necessary obligation of a research project. The Bibliography of Published Journal Articles section provides citations for peer-reviewed papers co-authored by personnel of project 199102900 that were published from 1998 to 2001

  4. Post-Release Attributes and Survival of Hatchery and Natural Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River; 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, William P. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID)

    2003-02-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted in 2000, 2001, and years previous to aid in the management and recovery of fall chinook salmon in the Columbia River basin. The report is divided into sections and self-standing chapters. For detailed summaries, we refer the reader to the abstracts given on the second page of each chapter. The Annual Reporting section includes information provided to fishery managers in-season and post-season, and it contains a detailed summary of life history and survival statistics on wild Snake River fall chinook salmon juveniles for the years 1992-2001. The Journal Manuscripts section includes complete copies of papers submitted or published during 2000 and 2001 that were not included in previous annual reports. Publication is a high priority for this project because it provides our results to a wide audience, it ensures that our work meets high scientific standards, and we believe that it is a necessary obligation of a research project. The Bibliography of Published Journal Articles section provides citations for peer-reviewed papers co-authored by personnel of project 199102900 that were published from 1998 to 2001.

  5. 21 CFR 161.170 - Canned Pacific salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned Pacific salmon. 161.170 Section 161.170... § 161.170 Canned Pacific salmon. (a) Identity. (1) Canned Pacific salmon is the food prepared from one... forms of canned Pacific salmon are processed from fish prepared by removing the head, gills, and tail...

  6. Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Congress established the Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund (PCSRF) to monitor the restoration and conservation of Pacific salmon and steelhead populations and...

  7. THE FUTURE OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: ANATOMY OF A CRISIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon are categorized biologically into two groups: Pacific salmon or Atlantic salmon. All seven species of Pacific salmon on both sides of the North Pacific Ocean have declined substantially from historic levels, but large runs still occur in northern British Columbia, Yukon,...

  8. Patterns of change in climate and Pacific salmon production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan J. Mantua

    2009-01-01

    For much of the 20th century a clear north-south inverse production pattern for Pacific salmon had a time dynamic that closely followed that of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), which is the dominant pattern of North Pacific sea surface temperature variability. Total Alaska salmon production was high during warm regimes of the PDO, and total Alaska salmon...

  9. 50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Pacific salmon. 660.412 Section 660.412 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries § 660.412 EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. Pacific salmon essential fish habitat (EFH) includes all those water bodies occupied or...

  10. Blood types in Pacific salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, G.L.; Klontz, G.W.

    1961-01-01

    Intraspecific differences in erythrocyte antigens (blood types) were shown to occur in four species of Pacific salmon, the sockeye or red salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), the chinook or king salmon (0. tshawytscha), the chum salmon (O. keta), and the pink salmon (O. gorbuscha). Antisalmon-erythrocyte sera prepared in rabbits and chickens were used after absorption of species-specific antibodies. Some of these blood types were shown to differ in their frequency of occurrence between different geographic races. In addition, isoimmunizations were conducted on one race of sockeye salmon. Antisera of seven different specificities were prepared and at least eight different patterns of antigenic composition were displayed by the cells tested.

  11. Adult Chinook Salmon Abundance Monitoring in Lake Creek, Idaho, Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faurot, Dave

    2002-12-01

    Underwater time-lapse video technology has been used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) escapement into the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, since 1998. Underwater time- lapse videography is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. The Secesh River is also a control stream under the Idaho Salmon Supplementation study. This project has successfully demonstrated the application of underwater video monitoring to accurately quantify chinook salmon abundance in Lake Creek in 1998, 1999 and 2001. The adult salmon spawner escapement estimate into Lake Creek in 2001 was 697 fish, the largest escapement since the project began. Jack salmon comprised 10% of the spring migration. Snow pack in the drainage was 38% of the average during the winter of 2000/2001. The first fish passage on Lake Creek was recorded on June 9, 19 days after installation of the fish counting station and two weeks earlier than previously reported. Peak net upstream movement of 52 adults occurred on June 22. Peak of total movement activity was July 3. The last fish passed through the Lake Creek fish counting station on September 6. Redd count expansion methods were compared to underwater video determined salmon spawner abundance in Lake Creek in 2001. Expanded index area redd count point estimates and intensive area redd counts in 2001, estimated from 1.3 percent fewer to 56 percent greater number of spawners than underwater video determined spawner abundance. Redd count expansion values had unknown variation associated with the point estimates. Fish per redd numbers in Lake Creek have varied widely. In 2001 there were 2.07 fish per redd. In 1999, there were 3.58 fish per redd, and in 1998, with no jacks returning to spawn, there were 1.02 fish per redd. Migrating salmon in Lake Creek

  12. Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database Across the Pacific Northwest, both public and private agents are working to improve riverine habitat for a...

  13. Environmental variability and chum salmon production at the northwestern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suam; Kang, Sukyung; Kim, Ju Kyoung; Bang, Minkyoung

    2017-12-01

    Chum salmon, Oncorhynchus keta, are distributed widely in the North Pacific Ocean, and about 76% of chum salmon were caught from Russian, Japanese, and Korean waters of the northwestern Pacific Ocean during the last 20 years. Although it has been speculated that the recent increase in salmon production was aided by not only the enhancement program that targeted chum salmon but also by favorable ocean conditions since the early 1990s, the ecological processes for determining the yield of salmon have not been clearly delineated. To investigate the relationship between yield and the controlling factors for ocean survival of chum salmon, a time-series of climate indices, seawater temperature, and prey availability in the northwestern Pacific including Korean waters were analyzed using some statistical tools. The results of cross-correlation function (CCF) analysis and cumulative sum (CuSum) of anomalies indicated that there were significant environmental changes in the North Pacific during the last century, and each regional stock of chum salmon responded to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) differently: for Russian stock, the correlations between PDO index and catch were significantly negative with a time-lag of 0 and 1 years; for Japanese stock, significantly positive with a timelag of 0-2 years; and for Korean stock, positive but no significant correlation. The results of statistical analyses with Korean chum salmon also revealed that a coastal seawater temperature over 14°C and the return rate of spawning adults to the natal river produced a significant negative correlation.

  14. Evaluate Status of Pacific Lamprey in the Clearwater River Drainage, Idaho: Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochnauer, Tim; Claire, Christopher

    2002-12-01

    Recent decline of Pacific lamprey Lampetra tridentata adult migrants to the Snake River drainage has focused attention on the species. Adult Pacific lamprey counted passing Ice Harbor Dam fishway averaged 18,158 during 1962-69 and 361 during 1993-2000. Human resource manipulations in the Snake River and Clearwater River drainages have altered ecosystem habitat in the last 120 years, likely impacting the productive potential of Pacific lamprey habitat. Timber harvest, stream impoundment, road construction, grazing, mining, and community development have dominated habitat alteration in the Clearwater River system and Snake River corridor. Hydroelectric projects in the Snake River corridor impact juvenile/larval Pacific lamprey outmigrants and returning adults. Juvenile and larval lamprey outmigrants potentially pass through turbines, turbine bypass/collection systems, and over spillway structures at the four lower Snake River hydroelectric dams. Clearwater River drainage hydroelectric facilities have impacted Pacific lamprey populations to an unknown degree. The Pacific Power and Light Dam on the Clearwater River in Lewiston, Idaho, restricted chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha passage in the 1927-1940 period, altering the migration route of outmigrating Pacific lamprey juveniles/larvae and upstream adult migrants (1927-1972). Dworshak Dam, completed in 1972, eliminated Pacific lamprey spawning and rearing in the North Fork Clearwater River drainage. Construction of the Harpster hydroelectric dam on the South Fork of the Clearwater River resulted in obstructed fish passage 1949-1963. Through Bonneville Power Administration support, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued investigation into the status of Pacific lamprey populations in Idaho's Clearwater River drainage in 2001. Trapping, electrofishing, and spawning ground redd surveys were used to determine Pacific lamprey distribution, life history strategies, and habitat requirements in the South

  15. Tucannon River Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Brood Program, FY 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumgarner, Joseph D.; Gallinat, Michael P.

    2001-06-01

    This report summarizes the objectives, tasks, and accomplishments of the Tucannon River spring chinook captive brood program from program inception (1997) through April 2001. The WDFW initiated a captive broodstock program in 1997. The overall goal of the Tucannon River captive broodstock program is for the short-term, and eventually long-term, rebuilding of the Tucannon River spring chinook salmon run, with the hope that natural production will eventually sustain itself. The project goal is to rear captive salmon to adults, spawn them, rear their progeny, and release approximately 150,000 smolts annually into the Tucannon River between 2003-2007. These smolt releases, in combination with the current hatchery supplementation program (132,000 smolts), and wild production, is expected to produce 600-700 returning adult spring chinook to the Tucannon River each year from 2005-2010. The Master Plan, Environmental Assessment, and most facility modifications at LFH were completed for the Tucannon River spring chinook captive broodstock program during FY2000 and FY2001. DNA samples collected since 1997 have been sent to the WDFW genetics lab in Olympia for baseline DNA analysis. Results from the genetic analysis are not available at this time. The captive broodstock program is planned to collect fish from five (1997-2001) brood years (BY). The captive broodstock program was initiated with 1997 BY juveniles, and the 2000 BY fish have been selected. As of April 30, 2001, WDFW has 172 BY 1997, 262 BY 1998, 407 BY 1999, and approximately 1,190 BY 2000 fish on hand at LFH. Twelve of 13 mature 97 BY females were spawned in 2000. Total eggtake was 14,813. Mean fecundity was 1,298 eggs/female based on 11 fully spawned females. Egg survival to eye-up was 47.3%. This low survival was expected for three year old captive broodstock females. As of April 30, 2001, WDFW has 4,211 captive broodstock progeny on hand. These fish will be tagged with blank wire tag without fin clips and

  16. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, Progress Report 2000-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleary, Peter; Kucera, Paul; Blenden, Michael

    2003-12-01

    This report summarizes the emigration studies of the Nez Perce Tribe in the Imnaha River subbasin during the 2001 and 2002 migration years. A migration year for the Imnaha River is defined here as beginning July 31 of the previous year and ending July 30 the following year. The conclusion of the studies at the end of migration year 2002 marked the 11th year of the Nez Perce Tribe's Lower Snake River Emigration Studies. The Nez Perce Tribe has participated in the Fish Passage Center's Smolt Monitoring Program for nine of the 11 years. These studies collect and tag juvenile chinook salmon and steelhead at two locations in the fall, rkm 74 and rkm 7, and at rkm 7 during the spring. Data from captured and tagged fish provide an evaluation of hatchery production and releases strategies, post release survival of hatchery chinook salmon, abundance of natural chinook salmon, and downstream survival and arrival timing of natural and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead. The hydrologic conditions that migrating fish encountered in 2001 were characterized as a drought and conditions in 2002 were characterized as below average. Hatchery chinook salmon had a mean fork length that was 34 mm greater in 2001 and 35 mm greater in 2002 than the mean fork length of natural chinook smolts. Hatchery steelhead smolt mean fork lengths were 39 mm greater than natural steelhead smolts in 2001 and 44 mm greater than natural steelhead smolt fork lengths in 2002. A significant difference (p < 0.05) between hatchery and natural chinook salmon and steelhead fork lengths has been documented by these emigration studies from 1997 to 2002. Hatchery chinook salmon were volitionally released in 2001 and 2002 and the 90% arrivals for 2001 and 2002 at the lower rkm 7 trap were within the range of past observations of 22 to 38 days observed in 1999 and 2000. We estimated that 93.9% of the 123,014 hatchery chinook salmon released in 2001 survived to the lower trap and 90.2% of the 303

  17. The effect of exposure to farmed salmon on piscine orthoreovirus infection and fitness in wild Pacific salmon in British Columbia, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Morton

    Full Text Available The disease Heart and Skeletal Muscle Inflammation (HSMI is causing substantial economic losses to the Norwegian salmon farming industry where the causative agent, piscine orthoreovirus (PRV, is reportedly spreading from farmed to wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar with as yet undetermined impacts. To assess if PRV infection is epidemiologically linked between wild and farmed salmon in the eastern Pacific, wild Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus sp. from regions designated as high or low exposure to salmon farms and farmed Atlantic salmon reared in British Columbia (BC were tested for PRV. The proportion of PRV infection in wild fish was related to exposure to salmon farms (p = 0.0097. PRV was detected in: 95% of farmed Atlantic salmon, 37-45% of wild salmon from regions highly exposed to salmon farms and 5% of wild salmon from the regions furthest from salmon farms. The proportion of PRV infection was also significantly lower (p = 0.0008 where wild salmon had been challenged by an arduous return migration into high-elevation spawning habitat. Inter-annual PRV infection declined in both wild and farmed salmon from 2012-2013 (p ≤ 0.002. These results suggest that PRV transfer is occurring from farmed Atlantic salmon to wild Pacific salmon, that infection in farmed salmon may be influencing infection rates in wild salmon, and that this may pose a risk of reduced fitness in wild salmon impacting their survival and reproduction.

  18. 77 FR 75570 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    .... 120330244-2673-02] RIN 0648-BB77 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon AGENCY... Plan for Salmon Fisheries in the EEZ off the Coast of Alaska (FMP). Amendment 12 comprehensively revises and updates the FMP to reflect the North Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Council) salmon...

  19. Long-term Records of Pacific Salmon Abundance From Sediment Core Analysis: Relationships to Past Climatic Change, and Implications for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney, B.

    2002-12-01

    The response of Pacific salmon to future climatic change is uncertain, but will have large impacts on the economy, culture and ecology of the North Pacific Rim. Relationships between sockeye salmon populations and climatic change can be determined by analyzing sediment cores from lakes where sockeye return to spawn. Sockeye salmon return to their natal lake system to spawn and subsequently die following 2 - 3 years of feeding in the North Pacific Ocean. Sockeye salmon abundance can be reconstructed from stable nitrogen isotope analysis of lake sediment cores as returning sockeye transport significant quantities of N, relatively enriched in N-15, from the ocean to freshwater systems. Temporal changes in the input of salmon-derived N, and hence salmon abundance, can be quantified through downcore analysis of N isotopes. Reconstructions of sockeye salmon abundance from lakes in several regions of Alaska show similar temporal patterns, with variability occurring on decadal to millennial timescales. Over the past 2000 years, shifts in sockeye salmon abundance far exceed the historical decadal-scale variability. A decline occurred from about 100 BC - 800 AD, but salmon were consistently more abundant 1200 - 1900 AD. Declines since 1900 AD coincide with the period of extensive commercial fishing. Correspondence between these records and paleoclimatic data suggest that changes in salmon abundance are related to large scale climatic changes over the North Pacific. For example, the increase in salmon abundance c.a. 1200 AD corresponds to a period of glacial advance in southern Alaska, and a shift to drier conditions in western North America. Although the regionally coherent patterns in reconstructed salmon abundance are consistent with the hypothesis that climate is an important driver, the relationships do not always follow patterns observed in the 20th century. A main feature of recorded climate variability in this region is the alternation between multi-decade periods of

  20. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1995-2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock programs are a form of artificial propagation and are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations. However, they differ from standard hatchery techniques in one important respect: fish are cultured in captivity for the entire life cycle. The high fecundity of Pacific salmon, coupled with their potentially high survival in protective culture, affords an opportunity for captive broodstocks to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of this stock: sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from January 1995 to August 2000 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock program and summarizes results since the beginning of the study in 1991. Since initiating captive brood culture in 1991, NMFS has returned 742,000 eyed eggs, 181 pre-spawning adults, and over 90,000 smolts to Idaho for recovery efforts. The first adult returns to the Stanley Basin from the captive brood program began with 7 in 1999, and increased to about 250 in 2000. NMFS currently has broodstock in culture from year classes 1996, 1997, 1998, and 1999 in both the captive broodstock program, and an adult release program. Spawn from NMFS Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstocks is being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  1. Tucannon River spring chinook salmon captive brood program, FY 2000 annual report; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumgarner, Joseph D.; Gallinat, Michael P.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the objectives, tasks, and accomplishments of the Tucannon River spring chinook captive brood program from program inception (1997) through April 2001. The WDFW initiated a captive broodstock program in 1997. The overall goal of the Tucannon River captive broodstock program is for the short-term, and eventually long-term, rebuilding of the Tucannon River spring chinook salmon run, with the hope that natural production will eventually sustain itself. The project goal is to rear captive salmon to adults, spawn them, rear their progeny, and release approximately 150,000 smolts annually into the Tucannon River between 2003-2007. These smolt releases, in combination with the current hatchery supplementation program (132,000 smolts), and wild production, is expected to produce 600-700 returning adult spring chinook to the Tucannon River each year from 2005-2010. The Master Plan, Environmental Assessment, and most facility modifications at LFH were completed for the Tucannon River spring chinook captive broodstock program during FY2000 and FY2001. DNA samples collected since 1997 have been sent to the WDFW genetics lab in Olympia for baseline DNA analysis. Results from the genetic analysis are not available at this time. The captive broodstock program is planned to collect fish from five (1997-2001) brood years (BY). The captive broodstock program was initiated with 1997 BY juveniles, and the 2000 BY fish have been selected. As of April 30, 2001, WDFW has 172 BY 1997, 262 BY 1998, 407 BY 1999, and approximately 1,190 BY 2000 fish on hand at LFH. Twelve of 13 mature 97 BY females were spawned in 2000. Total eggtake was 14,813. Mean fecundity was 1,298 eggs/female based on 11 fully spawned females. Egg survival to eye-up was 47.3%. This low survival was expected for three year old captive broodstock females. As of April 30, 2001, WDFW has 4,211 captive broodstock progeny on hand. These fish will be tagged with blank wire tag without fin clips and

  2. Tucannon River Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program, Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallinat, Michael P.; Bumgarner, Joseph D.

    2002-05-01

    This report summarizes the objectives, tasks, and accomplishments of the Tucannon River spring chinook captive brood during 2001. The WDFW initiated a captive broodstock program in 1997. The overall goal of the Tucannon River captive broodstock program is for the short-term, and eventually long-term, rebuilding of the Tucannon River spring chinook salmon run, with the hope that natural production will sustain itself. The project goal is to rear captive salmon selected from the supplementation program to adults, spawn them, rear their progeny, and release approximately 150,000 smolts annually into the Tucannon River between 2003-2007. These smolt releases, in combination with the current hatchery supplementation program (132,000 smolts) and wild production, are expected to produce 600-700 returning adult spring chinook to the Tucannon River each year from 2005-2010. The captive broodstock program will collect fish from five (1997-2001) brood years (BY). The captive broodstock program was initiated with 1997 BY juveniles, and the 2001 BY fish have been selected. As of Jan 1, 2002, WDFW has 17 BY 1997, 159 BY 1998, 316 BY 1999, 448 BY 2000, and approximately 1,200 BY 2001 fish on hand at LFH. The 2001 eggtake from the 1997 brood year (Age 4) was 233,894 eggs from 125 ripe females. Egg survival was 69%. Mean fecundity based on the 105 fully spawned females was 1,990 eggs/female. The 2001 eggtake from the 1998 brood year (Age 3) was 47,409 eggs from 41 ripe females. Egg survival was 81%. Mean fecundity based on the 39 fully spawned females was 1,160 eggs/female. The total 2001 eggtake from the captive brood program was 281,303 eggs. As of May 1, 2002 we have 171,495 BY 2001 captive brood progeny on hand. A total of 20,592 excess fish were marked as parr (AD/CWT) and will be released during early May, 2002 into the Tucannon River (rkm 40-45). This will allow us to stay within our maximum allowed number (150,000) of smolts released. During April 2002, WDFW volitionally

  3. Research on Captive Broodstock Technology for Pacific Salmon, 1995 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, Penny; Pascho, Ronald; Hershberger, William K. (Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Center, Coastal Zone and Estuarine Studies Division, Seattle, WA)

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes research on captive broodstock technologies conducted during 1995 under Bonneville Power Administration Project 93-56. Investigations were conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) in cooperation with the US Fish and Wildlife Service, University of Washington, and Northwest Biological Science Center (US Geological Survey). Studies encompassed several categories of research, including fish husbandry, reproductive physiology, immunology, pathology, nutrition, and genetics. Captive broodstock programs are being developed and implemented to aid recovery of endangered Pacific salmon stocks. Like salmon hatchery programs, however, captive broodstock programs are not without problems and risks to natural salmon populations. The research projects described in this report were developed in part based on a literature review, Assessment of the Status of Captive Broodstock Technology for Pacific Salmon. The work was divided into three major research areas: (1) research on sockeye salmon; (2) research on spring chinook salmon; and (3) research on quantitative genetic problems associated with captive broodstock programs. Investigations of nutrition, reproductive physiology, fish husbandry, and fish health were integrated into the research on sockeye and spring chinook salmon. A description of each investigation and its major findings and conclusions is presented.

  4. Compendium of Low-Cost Pacific Salmon and Steelhead Trout Production Facilities and Practices in the Pacific Northwest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senn, Harry G.

    1984-09-01

    The purpose was to research low capital cost salmon and steelhead trout production facilities and identify those that conform with management goals for the Columbia Basin. The species considered were chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (O. kisutch), sockeye salmon (O. nerka), and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). This report provides a comprehensive listing of the facilities, techniques, and equipment used in artificial production in the Pacific Northwest. (ACR)

  5. 75 FR 383 - Canned Pacific Salmon Deviating From Identity Standard; Extension of Temporary Permit for Market...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ...] Canned Pacific Salmon Deviating From Identity Standard; Extension of Temporary Permit for Market Testing... test products designated as ``skinless and boneless sockeye salmon'' that deviate from the U.S. standard of identity for canned Pacific salmon. The extension will allow the permit holder to continue to...

  6. Chum Salmon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for CHUM SALMON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  7. Coho Salmon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for COHO SALMON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  8. Pink Salmon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for PINK SALMON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  9. END-OF-YEAR-CLOSURE 2000/2001

    CERN Document Server

    Human Resources Division

    2000-01-01

    As announced in Weekly Bulletin Nº 3/2000, the Laboratory will be closed from Saturday 23 December 2000 to Sunday 7 January 2001 inclusive. This period consists of 16 days: 4 days' official holiday, i.e. 24, 25 and 31 December 2000 and 1 January 2001; 6 days' special paid leave in accordance with Article R II 4.34 of the Staff Regulations, i.e. 27, 28 and 29 December 2000 and 3, 4 and 5 January 2001; 3 Saturdays, i.e. 23 and 30 December 2000 and 6 January 2001; 2 days, 26 December 2000 to compensate for 24 December 2000 and 2 January 2001 to compensate for 31 December 2000 (Article R II 4.33 of the Staff Regulations); 1 Sunday, i.e. 7 January 2001. The first working day in the New Year will be Monday 8 January 2001. Further information will be available from Division Secretariats, specifically concerning the conditions applicable to members of the personnel who are required to work during this period.

  10. SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

  11. A TWO CENTURY HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: LESSONS LEARNED FOR ACHIEVING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achieving ecological sustainability is a daunting challenge. In the Pacific Northwest one of the most highly visible public policy debates concerns the future of salmon populations. Throughout the Pacific Northwest, many wild salmon stocks have declined and some have disappeare...

  12. RESTORING WILD SALMON TO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST: FRAMING THE RISK QUESTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, it is urgent to assess accurately the various options proposed to restore wild salmon. For the past 125 years, a variety of analytic approaches have been employed to assess the ecological consequences of salmon management options. ...

  13. An Assessment of the Status of Captive Broodstock Technology of Pacific Salmon, 1995 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagg, Thomas A.; Mahnaken, Conrad V.W.; Hard, Jeffrey J.

    1995-06-01

    This report provides guidance for the refinement and use of captive broodstock technology for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) by bringing together information on the husbandry techniques, genetic risks, physiology, nutrition, and pathology affecting captive broodstocks. Captive broodstock rearing of Pacific salmon is an evolving technology, as yet without well defined standards. At present, we regard captive rearing of Pacific salmon as problematic: high mortality rates and low egg viability were common in the programs we reviewed for this report. One of the most important elements in fish husbandry is the culture environment itself. Many captive broodstock programs for Pacific salmon have reared fish from smolt-to-adult in seawater net-pens, and most have shown success in providing gametes for recovery efforts. However, some programs have lost entire brood years to diseases that transmitted rapidly in this medium. Current programs for endangered species of Pacific salmon rear most fish full-term to maturity in fresh well-water, since ground water is low in pathogens and thus helps ensure survival to adulthood. Our review suggested that captive rearing of fish in either freshwater, well-water, or filtered and sterilized seawater supplied to land-based tanks should produce higher survival than culture in seawater net-pens.

  14. 77 FR 21716 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    .... 120330244-2242-01] RIN 0648-BB77 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon AGENCY... to the Fishery Management Plan for Salmon Fisheries in the EEZ off the Coast of Alaska (FMP). If... Management Council's (Council's) salmon management policy and to comply with Federal law. This proposed rule...

  15. Comparative Resilience in Five North Pacific Regional Salmon Fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xanthippe Augerot

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past century, regional fisheries for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. have been managed primarily for their provisioning function, not for ecological support and cultural significance. We examine the resilience of the regional salmon fisheries of Japan, the Russian Far East, Alaska, British Columbia, and Washington-Oregon-California (WOC in terms of their provisioning function. Using the three dimensions of the adaptive cycle - capital, connectedness, and resilience - we infer the resilience of the five fisheries based on a qualitative assessment of capital accumulation and connectedness at the regional scale. In our assessment, we evaluate natural capital and connectedness and constructed capital and connectedness. The Russian Far East fishery is the most resilient, followed by Alaska, British Columbia, Japan, and WOC. Adaptive capacity in the fisheries is contingent upon high levels of natural capital and connectedness and moderate levels of constructed capital and connectedness. Cross-scale interactions and global market demand are significant factors in reduced resilience. Greater attention to ecological functioning and cultural signification has the potential to increase resilience in Pacific salmon ecosystems.

  16. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Idaho Supplementation Studies, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beasley, Chris; Tabor, R.A.; Kinzer, Ryan (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2003-04-01

    This report summarizes brood year 1999 juvenile production and emigration data and adult return information for 2000 for streams studied by the Nez Perce Tribe for the cooperative Idaho Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (ISS) project. In order to provide inclusive juvenile data for brood year 1999, we include data on parr, presmolt, smolt and yearling captures. Therefore, our reporting period includes juvenile data collected from April 2000 through June 2001 for parr, presmolts, and smolts and through June 2002 for brood year 1999 yearling emigrants. Data presented in this report include; fish outplant data for treatment streams, snorkel and screw trap estimates of juvenile fish abundance, juvenile emigration profiles, juvenile survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam (LGJ), redd counts, and carcass data. There were no brood year 1999 treatments in Legendary Bear or Fishing Creek. As in previous years, snorkeling methods provided highly variable population estimates. Alternatively, rotary screw traps operated in Lake Creek and the Secesh River provided more precise estimates of juvenile abundance by life history type. Juvenile fish emigration in Lake Creek and the Secesh River peaked during July and August. Juveniles produced in this watershed emigrated primarily at age zero, and apparently reared in downstream habitats before detection as age one or older fish at the Snake and Columbia River dams. Over the course of the ISS study, PIT tag data suggest that smolts typically exhibit the highest relative survival to Lower Granite Dam (LGJ) compared to presmolts and parr, although we observed the opposite trend for brood year 1999 juvenile emigrants from the Secesh River. SURPH2 survival estimates for brood year 1999 Lake Creek parr, presmolt, and smolt PIT tag groups to (LGJ) were 27%, 39%, and 49% respectively, and 14%, 12%, and 5% for the Secesh River. In 2000, we counted 41 redds in Legendary Bear Creek, 4 in Fishing Creek, 5 in Slate Creek, 153 in the

  17. 76 FR 54216 - Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council); Work Session To Review Proposed Salmon Methodology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... Fishery Management Council (Council); Work Session To Review Proposed Salmon Methodology Changes AGENCY.... ACTION: Notice of a public meeting. SUMMARY: The Pacific Fishery Management Council's Salmon Technical Team (STT), Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC) Salmon Subcommittee, and Model Evaluation...

  18. 77 FR 58526 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting; Work Session To Review Proposed Salmon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting; Work Session To Review Proposed Salmon Methodology Changes...), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public meeting. SUMMARY: The Pacific Fishery Management Council's Salmon Technical Team (STT), Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC) Salmon Subcommittee, and Model Evaluation...

  19. 50 CFR Table 1 to Subpart H of... - Pacific Salmon EFH Identified by USGS Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Salmon EFH Identified by USGS... 660—Pacific Salmon EFH Identified by USGS Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC) USGS HUC State(s) Hydrologic Unit... 18010206 CA/OR Upper Klamath River Chinook and coho salmon Iron Gate Dam 18010207 CA Shasta River Chinook...

  20. Investigations into the Early Life-history of Naturally Produced Spring Chinook Salmon and Summer Steelhead in the Grande Ronde River Basin, Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reischauer, Alyssa; Monzyk, Frederick; Van Dyke, Erick

    2003-06-01

    We determined migration timing and abundance of juvenile spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and juvenile steelhead/rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss using rotary screw traps on four streams in the Grande Ronde River basin during the 2001 migratory year (MY 2001) from 1 July 2000 through 30 June 2001. Based on migration timing and abundance, two distinct life-history strategies of juvenile spring chinook and O. mykiss could be distinguished. An 'early' migrant group left upper rearing areas from 1 July 2000 through 29 January 2001 with a peak in the fall. A 'late' migrant group descended from upper rearing areas from 30 January 2001 through 30 June 2001 with a peak in the spring. The migrant population of juvenile spring chinook salmon in the upper Grande Ronde River in MY 2001 was very low in comparison to previous migratory years. We estimated 51 juvenile spring chinook migrated out of upper rearing areas with approximately 12% of the migrant population leaving as early migrants to overwinter downstream. In the same migratory year, we estimated 16,067 O. mykiss migrants left upper rearing areas with approximately 4% of these fish descending the upper Grande Ronde River as early migrants. At the Catherine Creek trap, we estimated 21,937 juvenile spring chinook migrants in MY 2001. Of these migrants, 87% left upper rearing areas early to overwinter downstream. We also estimated 20,586 O. mykiss migrants in Catherine Creek with 44% leaving upper rearing areas early to overwinter downstream. At the Lostine River trap, we estimated 13,610 juvenile spring chinook migrated out of upper rearing areas with approximately 77% migrating early. We estimated 16,690 O. mykiss migrated out of the Lostine River with approximately 46% descending the river as early migrants. At the Minam River trap, we estimated 28,209 juvenile spring chinook migrated out of the river with 36% migrating early. During the same period, we estimated 28,113 O. mykiss with

  1. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achord, Stephen; Axel, Gordon A.; Hockersmith, Eric E.

    2002-07-01

    This report details the 2001 results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior of wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts in the Snake River Basin. The report also discusses trends in the cumulative data collected for this project from Oregon and Idaho streams since 1989. The project was initiated after detection data from passive-integrated-transponder tags (PIT tags) had shown distinct differences in migration patterns between wild and hatchery fish for three consecutive years. National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) investigators first observed these data in 1989. The data originated from tagging and interrogation operations begun in 1988 to evaluate smolt transportation for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

  2. The Sea of Okhotsk and the Bering Sea as the region of natural aquaculture: Organochlorine pesticides in Pacific salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsygankov, Vasiliy Yu.; Lukyanova, Olga N.; Khristoforova, Nadezhda K.

    2016-01-01

    Kuril Islands of the Sea of Okhotsk and the western part of the Bering Sea are an area of natural feeding of Pacific salmon, and the catch area of ones for food market. Food safety of products is an important task of aquaculture. Сoncentrations of HCHs (α-, β-, γ-) and DDT and its metabolites (DDD and DDE) were determined in organs of the pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), chum (O. keta), chinook (O. tshawytscha), and sockeye (O. nerka), which caught from the natural aquaculture region of Russia (near the Kuril Islands (the northern-western part of the Pacific Ocean), the Sea of Okhotsk and the Bering Sea). The average total concentration of OCPs in organs of salmon from Western Pacific is lower than that in salmon from the North Pacific American coast and the Atlantic Ocean. The region can be used to grow smolts, which will be later released into the ocean. - Highlights: • The study area is area of natural feeding of Pacific salmon, and the catch area of ones for food market. • ΣOCPs in salmon muscle increases in the following: chum ≤ pink < chinook < sockeye. • ΣOCPs in salmon from study area is lower than that in ones from the Atlantic Ocean. • The salmon, which feeding in the study area, did not accumulate higher OCPs content.

  3. Analyzing variations in life-history traits of Pacific salmon in the context of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pecquerie, L; Johnson, L.R.; Kooijman, S.A.L.M.; Nisbet, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the response of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) populations to environmental change, we need to understand impacts on all life stages. However, an integrative and mechanistic approach is particularly challenging for Pacific salmon as they use multiple habitats (river, estuarine and

  4. Application of Portfolio Theory in Recovery Planning for Pacific Salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological applications of portfolio theory demonstrate the utility of this analytical framework for understanding the stability of commercial and indigenous Pacific Salmon fisheries. Portfolio theory also has the potential to aid in recovery planning for threatened and endangere...

  5. Yearly energy balance sheets 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The total supply of energy during the year 2001 rose by 7 per cent compared with the year 2000, from 588 TWh to 630 TWh. The supply of nuclear power increased by 27 per cent, whereas electricity from waterpower has remained still at approximately 80 TWh. During the year 2001 Sweden exported 18,5 TWh electricity and the import was 11,1 TWh. The use of petroleum products for electricity production was nearly the same, 3,5 TWh during 2001 compared with 3,6 TWh during 2000. The production of heat from petroleum products increased from 3,2 TWh 2000 to 4,3 TWh 2001. The explanation to that is mainly the large increasing of heavy fuel oil in district heating plants. The use of energy during the year 2001 increased by nearly 1 per cent compared with the year 2000, from 391 TWh to 394 TWh. The use of coal, coke, biomass fuels and petroleum products decreased a little between the years, whereas the use of gases, district heating and electricity rises. The industrial sectors energy use decreases a bit from 156 TWh for the year 2000 to 152 TWh the year 2001. An increasing use of gases and district heating can nevertheless be seen. The energy use within transport sector rises from 87 TWh to 88 TWh. Within the household sector there is an increasing use of energy between the years with a total of 3 TWh, from 91 TWh to 94 TWh. The households continue to reduce their use of petroleum products. The use of electricity and district heating increases, by 6 per cent and 15 per cent respectively, between year 2000 and 2001

  6. Physiological mechanisms of imprinting and homing migration in Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, H

    2012-07-01

    After several years of feeding at sea, salmonids have an amazing ability to migrate long distances from the open ocean to their natal stream to spawn. Three different research approaches from behavioural to molecular biological studies have been used to elucidate the physiological mechanisms underpinning salmonid imprinting and homing migration. The study was based on four anadromous Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp., pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta, sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka and masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou, migrating from the North Pacific Ocean to the coast of Hokkaido, Japan, as well as lacustrine O. nerka and O. masou in Lake Toya, Hokkaido, where the lake serves as the model oceanic system. Behavioural studies using biotelemetry techniques showed swimming profiles from the Bering Sea to the coast of Hokkaido in O. keta as well as homing behaviours of lacustrine O. nerka and O. masou in Lake Toya. Endocrinological studies on hormone profiles in the brain-pituitary-gonad axis of O. keta, and lacustrine O. nerka identified the hormonal changes during homing migration. Neurophysiological studies revealed crucial roles of olfactory functions on imprinting and homing during downstream and upstream migration, respectively. These findings are discussed in relation to the physiological mechanisms of imprinting and homing migration in anadromous and lacustrine salmonids. © 2012 The Author. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  7. Freshwater ecosystems and resilience of Pacific salmon: Habitat Management based on natural variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, P.A.; Dunham, J.B.; Reeves, G.H.

    2009-01-01

    In spite of numerous habitat restoration programs in fresh waters with an aggregate annual funding of millions of dollars, many populations of Pacific salmon remain significantly imperiled. Habitat restoration strategies that address limited environmental attributes and partial salmon life-history requirements or approaches that attempt to force aquatic habitat to conform to idealized but ecologically unsustainable conditions may partly explain this lack of response. Natural watershed processes generate highly variable environmental conditions and population responses, i.e., multiple life histories, that are often not considered in restoration. Examples from several locations underscore the importance of natural variability to the resilience of Pacific salmon. The implication is that habitat restoration efforts will be more likely to foster salmon resilience if they consider processes that generate and maintain natural variability in fresh water. We identify three specific criteria for management based on natural variability: the capacity of aquatic habitat to recover from disturbance, a range of habitats distributed across stream networks through time sufficient to fulfill the requirements of diverse salmon life histories, and ecological connectivity. In light of these considerations, we discuss current threats to habitat resilience and describe how regulatory and restoration approaches can be modified to better incorporate natural variability. ?? 2009 by the author(s).

  8. Freshwater Ecosystems and Resilience of Pacific Salmon: Habitat Management Based on Natural Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Bisson

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In spite of numerous habitat restoration programs in fresh waters with an aggregate annual funding of millions of dollars, many populations of Pacific salmon remain significantly imperiled. Habitat restoration strategies that address limited environmental attributes and partial salmon life-history requirements or approaches that attempt to force aquatic habitat to conform to idealized but ecologically unsustainable conditions may partly explain this lack of response. Natural watershed processes generate highly variable environmental conditions and population responses, i.e., multiple life histories, that are often not considered in restoration. Examples from several locations underscore the importance of natural variability to the resilience of Pacific salmon. The implication is that habitat restoration efforts will be more likely to foster salmon resilience if they consider processes that generate and maintain natural variability in fresh water. We identify three specific criteria for management based on natural variability: the capacity of aquatic habitat to recover from disturbance, a range of habitats distributed across stream networks through time sufficient to fulfill the requirements of diverse salmon life histories, and ecological connectivity. In light of these considerations, we discuss current threats to habitat resilience and describe how regulatory and restoration approaches can be modified to better incorporate natural variability.

  9. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon : Project Progress Report, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venditti, David A.

    2003-10-01

    During 2001, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were hydraulically collected from redds in the East Fork Salmon River (EFSR; N = 311) and the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF; N = 272) to establish brood year 2001 culture cohorts. The eyed-eggs were incubated and reared by family group at the Eagle Fish Hatchery (Eagle). Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease prior to the majority of them being transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through maturity. Smolt transfers included 210 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 242 from the WFYF, and 178 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from Manchester to Eagle included 62 individuals from the LEM, 72 from the WFYF, and 27 from the EFSR. Additional water chilling capacity was added at Eagle in 2001 to test if spawn timing could be advanced by temperature manipulations, and adults from the LEM and WFYF were divided into chilled ({approx} 9 C) and ambient ({approx} 13.5 C) water temperature groups while at Eagle. Twenty-five mature females from the LEM (11 chilled, 14 ambient) were spawned in captivity with 23 males with the same temperature history in 2001. Water temperature group was not shown to affect the spawn timing of these females, but males did mature earlier. Egg survival to the eyed stage of development averaged 37.9% and did not differ significantly between the two temperature groups. A total of 8,154 eyed-eggs from these crosses were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 89) were released into the WFYF to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish

  10. Future of Pacific salmon in the face of environmental change: Lessons from one of the world's remaining productive salmon regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Erik R.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Trammell, Jamie; Rinella, Daniel J.; Floyd, Angelica L.; Grunblatt, Jess; McCarthy, Molly D.; Meyer, Benjamin E.; Morton, John M.; Powell, James E.; Prakash, Anupma; Reimer, Matthew N.; Stuefer, Svetlana L.; Toniolo, Horacio; Wells, Brett M.; Witmer, Frank D. W.

    2017-01-01

    Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. face serious challenges from climate and landscape change, particularly in the southern portion of their native range. Conversely, climate warming appears to be allowing salmon to expand northwards into the Arctic. Between these geographic extremes, in the Gulf of Alaska region, salmon are at historically high abundances but face an uncertain future due to rapid environmental change. We examined changes in climate, hydrology, land cover, salmon populations, and fisheries over the past 30–70 years in this region. We focused on the Kenai River, which supports world-famous fisheries but where Chinook Salmon O. tshawytscha populations have declined, raising concerns about their future resilience. The region is warming and experiencing drier summers and wetter autumns. The landscape is also changing, with melting glaciers, wetland loss, wildfires, and human development. This environmental transformation will likely harm some salmon populations while benefiting others. Lowland salmon streams are especially vulnerable, but retreating glaciers may allow production gains in other streams. Some fishing communities harvest a diverse portfolio of fluctuating resources, whereas others have specialized over time, potentially limiting their resilience. Maintaining diverse habitats and salmon runs may allow ecosystems and fisheries to continue to thrive amidst these changes.

  11. Predation on Pacific salmonid eggs and carcass's by subyearling Atlantic salmon in a tributary of Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Abbett, Ross; Verdoliva, Francis

    2016-01-01

    A binational effort to reintroduce Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) that were extirpated in the Lake Ontario ecosystem for over a century is currently being undertaken by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation and the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. Reintroduction actions include the release of several life stages including fry, fall fingerlings, and yearling smolts. In this study we describe the diet of recently released fall fingerling Atlantic salmon in a tributary of the Salmon River, New York. A specific objective of the study was to determine if juvenile Atlantic salmon would utilize the high caloric food source provided by introduced Pacific salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) that includes eggs and carcass flesh. Salmon eggs and carcass flesh comprised 20.5% of the October to January diet in 2013–14 and 23.9% in 2014–15. The consumption of steelhead (O. mykiss) eggs was a major part of the diet in April in both 2014 (54.1%) and 2015 (33.2%). This study documented that recently released Atlantic salmon will consume the high caloric food material provided by Pacific salmonids and that the consumption of this material extends for several months.

  12. Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) runs and consumer fitness: growth and energy storage in stream-dwelling salmonids increase with salmon spawner density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinella, Daniel J.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Stricker, Craig A.; Heintz, Ron A.; Rinella, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined how marine-derived nutrients (MDN), in the form of spawning Pacific salmon, influenced the nutritional status and δ15N of stream-dwelling fishes. We sampled juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) during spring and fall from 11 south-central Alaskan streams that ranged widely in spawning salmon biomass (0.1–4.7 kg·m–2). Growth rate (as indexed by RNA–DNA ratios), energy density, and δ15N enrichment in spring-sampled fishes increased with spawner biomass, indicating the persistence of spawner effects more than 6 months after salmon spawning. Point estimates suggest that spawner effects on nutrition were substantially greater for coho salmon than Dolly Varden (268% and 175% greater for growth and energy, respectively), indicating that both species benefitted physiologically, but that juvenile coho salmon accrued more benefits than Dolly Varden. Although the data were less conclusive for fall- than spring-sampled fish, they do suggest spawner effects were also generally positive during fall, soon after salmon spawned. In a follow-up analysis where growth rate and energy density were modeled as a function of δ15N enrichment, results suggested that both increased with MDN assimilation, especially in juvenile coho salmon. Our results support the importance of salmon runs to the nutritional ecology of stream-dwelling fishes.

  13. Evidence for geomagnetic imprinting as a homing mechanism in Pacific salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Nathan F; Lohmann, Kenneth J; Putman, Emily M; Quinn, Thomas P; Klimley, A Peter; Noakes, David L G

    2013-02-18

    In the final phase of their spawning migration, Pacific salmon use chemical cues to identify their home river, but how they navigate from the open ocean to the correct coastal area has remained enigmatic. To test the hypothesis that salmon imprint on the magnetic field that exists where they first enter the sea and later seek the same field upon return, we analyzed a 56-year fisheries data set on Fraser River sockeye salmon, which must detour around Vancouver Island to approach the river through either a northern or southern passageway. We found that the proportion of salmon using each route was predicted by geomagnetic field drift: the more the field at a passage entrance diverged from the field at the river mouth, the fewer fish used the passage. We also found that more fish used the northern passage in years with warmer sea surface temperature (presumably because fish were constrained to more northern latitudes). Field drift accounted for 16% of the variation in migratory route used, temperature 22%, and the interaction between these variables 28%. These results provide the first empirical evidence of geomagnetic imprinting in any species and imply that forecasting salmon movements is possible using geomagnetic models. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. SALMON IN CRISIS: IN SEARCH OF A SOLUTION FOR THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

  15. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 2000 Project Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venditti, David A.

    2002-04-01

    During 2000, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were collected to establish captive cohorts from three study streams and included 503 eyed-eggs from East Fork Salmon River (EFSR), 250 from the Yankee Fork Salmon River, and 304 from the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF). After collection, the eyed-eggs were immediately transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery, where they were incubated and reared by family group. Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease before the majority (approximately 75%) were transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through sexual maturity. Smolt transfers included 158 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 193 from the WFYF, and 372 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from the Manchester facility to the Eagle Fish Hatchery included 77 individuals from the LEM, 45 from the WFYF, and 11 from the EFSR. Two mature females from the WFYF were spawned in captivity with four males in 2000. Only one of the females produced viable eggs (N = 1,266), which were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 70) from the Lemhi River were released into Big Springs Creek to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout the study section and displayed a progression of habitat associations and behavior consistent with progressing maturation and the onset of spawning. Fifteen of the 17 suspected redds spawned by captive-reared parents in Big Springs Creek were hydraulically sampled to assess survival to the eyed stage of development. Eyed-eggs were collected from 13 of these, and

  16. Environmental taxes 1991 - 2000 (2001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    The statistics presents statements of environmental taxes for the period 1991-2000 (and budget figure for 2001). Environmental taxes is a collective concept for pollution, energy, transportation and resource related taxes. Income of the government from environmental taxes have increased from 30,0 billions DDK in 1991 to 60,6 billions DDK in 2000 - a little more than a doubling. The environmental taxes' part of the total taxes has increased from 7,5% in 1991 to 9,7% in 2000. In 2000 the energy taxes are 55%, the transportation taxes 38% and the pollution and resource taxes 7% of the environmental taxes. (EHS)

  17. Potential responses to climate change in organisms with complex life histories: evolution and plasticity in Pacific salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.G. Crozier; A.P. Hendry; P.W. Lawson; T.P. Quinn; N.J. Mantua; J. Battin; R.G. Shaw; R.B. Huey

    2008-01-01

    Salmon life histories are finely tuned to local environmental conditions, which are intimately linked to climate. We summarize the likely impacts of climate change on the physical environment of salmon in the Pacific Northwest and discuss the potential evolutionary consequences of these changes, with particular reference to Columbia River Basin spring/summer Chinook (...

  18. Congener Patterns of Persistent Organic Pollutants Establish the Extent of Contaminant Biotransport by Pacific Salmon in the Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerig, Brandon S; Chaloner, Dominic T; Janetski, David J; Rediske, Richard R; O'Keefe, James P; Moerke, Ashley H; Lamberti, Gary A

    2016-01-19

    In the Great Lakes, introduced Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) can transport persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), to new environments during their spawning migrations. To explore the nature and extent of POP biotransport by salmon, we compared 58 PCB and 6 PBDE congeners found in spawning salmon directly to those in resident stream fish. We hypothesized that stream fish exposed to salmon spawners would have congener patterns similar to those of salmon, the presumed contaminant source. Using permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) and nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS), we found that POP congener patterns of Pacific salmon varied among regions in the Great Lakes basin (i.e., Lake Huron, Lake Michigan, or Lake Superior), tissue type (whole fish or eggs), and contaminant type (PCB or PBDE). For stream-resident fish, POP congener pattern was influenced by the presence of salmon, location (i.e., Great Lakes Basin), and species identity (i.e., brook trout [Salvelinus fontinalis] or mottled sculpin [Cottus bairdii]). Similarity in congener patterns indicated that salmon are a source of POPs to brook trout in stream reaches receiving salmon spawners from Lake Michigan and Lake Huron but not from Lake Superior. Congener patterns of mottled sculpin differed from those of brook trout and salmon, suggesting that brook trout and mottled sculpin either use salmon tissue to differing degrees, acquire POPs from different dietary sources, or bioaccumulate or metabolize POPs differently. Overall, our analyses identified the important role of salmon in contaminant biotransport but also demonstrated that the extent of salmon-mediated POP transfer and uptake in Great Lakes tributaries is location- and species-specific.

  19. Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration Project : Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Close, David A.

    2002-11-01

    Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) has significantly declined along the Oregon coast and in the Columbia River Basin (Downey et al. 1993; Close and Jackson 2001). Declines in adults can be partially attributed to hydroelectric dams, which have impeded passage of adult Pacific lamprey in the Columbia and Snake rivers, thus effecting larval recruitment in the basin. Adult pacific lamprey also declined in numbers in the Umatilla River, a tributary of the Columbia River. In addition to hydro power dams in the Columbia River, habitat alterations and chemical treatments have been involved in the collapse of Pacific lamprey populations in the Umatilla River. To initiate the restoration effort, CTUIR began developing a restoration plan in 1998. The goal of the lamprey research and restoration project is to restore natural production of Pacific lampreys in the Umatilla River to self-sustaining and harvestable level. This report is summarizing the studies and restoration efforts concluded in 2001.

  20. Linking oceanic food webs to coastal production and growth rates of Pacific salmon ( Oncorhynchus spp.), using models on three scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Kerim Y.; McFarlane, Gordon A.; King, Jacquelynne R.; Megrey, Bernard A.; Myers, Katherine W.

    2005-03-01

    Three independent modeling methods—a nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton (NPZ) model (NEMURO), a food web model (Ecopath/Ecosim), and a bioenergetics model for pink salmon ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha)—were linked to examine the relationship between seasonal zooplankton dynamics and annual food web productive potential for Pacific salmon feeding and growing in the Alaskan subarctic gyre ecosystem. The linked approach shows the importance of seasonal and ontogenetic prey switching for zooplanktivorous pink salmon, and illustrates the critical role played by lipid-rich forage species, especially the gonatid squid Berryteuthis anonychus, in connecting zooplankton to upper trophic level production in the subarctic North Pacific. The results highlight the need to uncover natural mechanisms responsible for accelerated late winter and early spring growth of salmon, especially with respect to climate change and zooplankton bloom timing. Our results indicate that the best match between modeled and observed high-seas pink salmon growth requires the inclusion of two factors into bioenergetics models: (1) decreasing energetic foraging costs for salmon as zooplankton are concentrated by the spring shallowing of pelagic mixed-layer depth and (2) the ontogenetic switch of salmon diets from zooplankton to squid. Finally, we varied the timing and input levels of coastal salmon production to examine effects of density-dependent coastal processes on ocean feeding; coastal processes that place relatively minor limitations on salmon growth may delay the seasonal timing of ontogenetic diet shifts and thus have a magnified effect on overall salmon growth rates.

  1. Estonie 2000-2001 : La fin des consensus politiques? / Celine Bayou, Matthieu Chillaud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bayou, Celine

    2001-01-01

    Ülevaade Eesti poliitikast ja majandusest aastal 2000-2001. Tabelid: Eesti majandusnäitajad 1993-2000; poliitiliste sündmuste kronoloogia 2000-2001 mai; Eesti erakonnad; valitsuse koosseis juuni 2001

  2. Climate change, pink salmon, and the nexus between bottom-up and top-down forcing in the subarctic Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Alan M; van Vliet, Gus B

    2014-05-06

    Climate change in the last century was associated with spectacular growth of many wild Pacific salmon stocks in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, apparently through bottom-up forcing linking meteorology to ocean physics, water temperature, and plankton production. One species in particular, pink salmon, became so numerous by the 1990s that they began to dominate other species of salmon for prey resources and to exert top-down control in the open ocean ecosystem. Information from long-term monitoring of seabirds in the Aleutian Islands and Bering Sea reveals that the sphere of influence of pink salmon is much larger than previously known. Seabirds, pink salmon, other species of salmon, and by extension other higher-order predators, are tightly linked ecologically and must be included in international management and conservation policies for sustaining all species that compete for common, finite resource pools. These data further emphasize that the unique 2-y cycle in abundance of pink salmon drives interannual shifts between two alternate states of a complex marine ecosystem.

  3. Dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in farmed salmon of various origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl, H. [Bundesforschungszentrum fuer Ernaehrung und Nahrung, Hamburg (Germany); Ruoff, U. [Bundesforschungszentrum fuer Ernaehrung und Nahrung, Kiel (Germany); Schwind, K.H.; Jira, W. [Bundesforschungszentrum fuer Ernaehrung und Nahrung, Kulmbach (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    With a market share of 8.4% in 2001 (approx. 100,000 t) farmed salmon is one of the most important fish species on the German market. The world wide production of salmon in 2001 was approximately 1.2 Mio t. Norway has produced around 450,000 t of Atlantic salmon of which 60,000 t has been exported to Germany. Other important suppliers of salmon to the German market are Scotland, Denmark, Chile and Ireland. The annual amount from Ireland is relatively small, being approximately 2,000 t. Most salmon is raised under conventional farming conditions. During the last years also high priced organically grown salmon is available on the German market, mainly produced in Ireland. With 800 t per year the market share of organically farmed salmon is less than 1%. Within the context of a study to develop methods for the detection of organically produced products taking salmon as example it was checked if the contaminant levels and/or the contaminant patterns are suitable to differentiate between organically and conventionally farmed salmon. Conventionally farmed salmon, referred as to farmed salmon, was collected from different European farms; organically farmed salmon, referred as to organic salmon, came from Ireland as well as wild Atlantic salmon, which was included into the study. In the present study dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs, marker PCBs and a range of organochlorine pesticides (toxaphene, chlordane, DDT, HCB etc.) in the muscle meat of salmon were investigated.

  4. 77 FR 19605 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ...-BB77 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon AGENCY: National Marine... Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) 5-year review, revise habitat research priority objectives, and update EFH... exclusive economic zone (EEZ, 3 to 200 nautical miles) off Alaska are managed under the FMP. The FMP was...

  5. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, La Grande, OR)

    2003-03-01

    Endangered Species Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorizes ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and Grande Ronde River (GR) for research and enhancement purposes. Modification 2 of this permit authorizes ODFW to take adults for spawning and the production and release of smolts for the Captive and Conventional broodstock programs. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted. Herein we report on activities conducted and provide cursory data analyses for the Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon Captive and Conventional broodstock projects from 1 January-31 December 2001.

  6. Annual review 2000-2001; Rapport d'activite 2000-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This report reviews the activities of the LAPP (particle physics laboratory of Annecy-le-Vieux) for the years 2000-2001. The central themes of research are: 1) the standard model and its extension, 2) the study of CP violation (contribution to the experiments BABAR and LHCb), 3) the search for the Higgs'boson (contribution to the experiments ALEPH, L3, ATLAS and CMS), 4) physics of neutrinos (contribution to the experiments NOMAD and OPERA), 5) the study of anti-matter and cosmic radiation (contribution to the experiment AMS and to the project EUSO embarked on the international spatial station), and 6) the search for gravitational waves (contribution to the experiment VIRGO)

  7. Evidence for competition at sea between Norton Sound chum salmon and Asian hatchery chum salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Agler, B.A.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing production of hatchery salmon over the past four decades has led to concerns about possible density-dependent effects on wild Pacific salmon populations in the North Pacific Ocean. The concern arises because salmon from distant regions overlap in the ocean, and wild salmon populations having low productivity may compete for food with abundant hatchery populations. We tested the hypothesis that adult length-at-age, age-at-maturation, productivity, and abundance of a Norton Sound, Alaska, chum salmon population were influenced by Asian hatchery chum salmon, which have become exceptionally abundant and surpassed the abundance of wild chum salmon in the North Pacific beginning in the early 1980s. We found that smaller adult length-at-age, delayed age-at-maturation, and reduced productivity and abundance of the Norton Sound salmon population were associated with greater production of Asian hatchery chum salmon since 1965. Modeling of the density-dependent relationship, while controlling for other influential variables, indicated that an increase in adult hatchery chum salmon abundance from 10 million to 80 million adult fish led to a 72% reduction in the abundance of the wild chum salmon population. These findings indicate that competition with hatchery chum salmon contributed to the low productivity and abundance of Norton Sound chum salmon, which includes several stocks that are classified as Stocks of Concern by the State of Alaska. This study provides new evidence indicating that large-scale hatchery production may influence body size, age-at-maturation, productivity and abundance of a distant wild salmon population.

  8. Snake River sockeye salmon captive broodstock program: hatchery element: annual progress report, 2000.; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, Paul A.; Willard, Catherine

    2001-01-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000 are presented in this report

  9. Large wood and in-stream habitat for juvenile coho salmon and larval lampreys in a Pacific Northwest stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Rosalinda; Dunham, Jason B.; Lightcap, Scott W.; McEnroe, Jeffery R.

    2017-01-01

    The influences of large wood on Pacific salmon are well-studied, but studies of nonsalmonid species such as lampreys are uncommon. To address this need, we evaluated the potential effects of large wood on larval lampreys (Pacific Lamprey, Entosphenus tridentatus; and potentially Western Brook Lamprey Lampetra richardsoni), as well as juvenile Coho Salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, in a small coastal Oregon stream. Our objectives were to 1) identify in-stream habitat characteristics associated with the presence of larval lampreys and abundance of juvenile Coho Salmon; and 2) evaluate how these characteristics were associated with in-stream wood. To address habitat use, we quantified presence of larval lampreys in 92 pools and abundance of juvenile Coho Salmon in 44 pools during summer low flows. We focused on a study reach where large wood was introduced into the stream between 2008 and 2009. Results indicated that presence of larval lampreys was significantly associated with availability of fine sediment and deeper substrate. The abundance of juvenile Coho Salmon (fish/pool) was strongly associated with pool surface area and to a weaker extent with the proportion of cobble and boulder substrates in pools. Pools with wood, regardless of whether they were formed by wood, had significantly greater coverage of fine sediment, deeper substrate, and greater pool surface area. Taken together, these results suggest that in-stream wood can provide habitat associated with presence of larval lampreys and greater abundance of juvenile Coho Salmon.

  10. Evaluating signals of oil spill impacts, climate, and species interactions in Pacific herring and Pacific salmon populations in Prince William Sound and Copper River, Alaska.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J Ward

    Full Text Available The Exxon Valdez oil spill occurred in March 1989 in Prince William Sound, Alaska, and was one of the worst environmental disasters on record in the United States. Despite long-term data collection over the nearly three decades since the spill, tremendous uncertainty remains as to how significantly the spill affected fishery resources. Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii and some wild Pacific salmon populations (Oncorhynchus spp. in Prince William Sound declined in the early 1990s, and have not returned to the population sizes observed in the 1980s. Discerning if, or how much of, this decline resulted from the oil spill has been difficult because a number of other physical and ecological drivers are confounded temporally with the spill; some of these drivers include environmental variability or changing climate regimes, increased production of hatchery salmon in the region, and increases in populations of potential predators. Using data pre- and post-spill, we applied time-series methods to evaluate support for whether and how herring and salmon productivity has been affected by each of five drivers: (1 density dependence, (2 the EVOS event, (3 changing environmental conditions, (4 interspecific competition on juvenile fish, and (5 predation and competition from adult fish or, in the case of herring, humpback whales. Our results showed support for intraspecific density-dependent effects in herring, sockeye, and Chinook salmon, with little overall support for an oil spill effect. Of the salmon species, the largest driver was the negative impact of adult pink salmon returns on sockeye salmon productivity. Herring productivity was most strongly affected by changing environmental conditions; specifically, freshwater discharge into the Gulf of Alaska was linked to a series of recruitment failures-before, during, and after EVOS. These results highlight the need to better understand long terms impacts of pink salmon on food webs, as well as the

  11. Climate change sensitivity index for Pacific salmon habitat in southeast Alaska.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin S Shanley

    Full Text Available Global climate change may become one of the most pressing challenges to Pacific Salmon conservation and management for southeast Alaska in the 21st Century. Predicted hydrologic change associated with climate change will likely challenge the ability of specific stocks to adapt to new flow regimes and resulting shifts in spawning and rearing habitats. Current research suggests egg-to-fry survival may be one of the most important freshwater limiting factors in Pacific Salmon's northern range due to more frequent flooding events predicted to scour eggs from mobile spawning substrates. A watershed-scale hydroclimatic sensitivity index was developed to map this hypothesis with an historical stream gauge station dataset and monthly multiple regression-based discharge models. The relative change from present to future watershed conditions predicted for the spawning and incubation period (September to March was quantified using an ensemble global climate model average (ECHAM5, HadCM3, and CGCM3.1 and three global greenhouse gas emission scenarios (B1, A1B, and A2 projected to the year 2080. The models showed the region's diverse physiography and climatology resulted in a relatively predictable pattern of change: northern mainland and steeper, snow-fed mountainous watersheds exhibited the greatest increases in discharge, an earlier spring melt, and a transition into rain-fed hydrologic patterns. Predicted streamflow increases for all watersheds ranged from approximately 1-fold to 3-fold for the spawning and incubation period, with increased peak flows in the spring and fall. The hydroclimatic sensitivity index was then combined with an index of currently mapped salmon habitat and species diversity to develop a research and conservation priority matrix, highlighting potentially vulnerable to resilient high-value watersheds. The resulting matrix and observed trends are put forth as a framework to prioritize long-term monitoring plans, mitigation

  12. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Research Element, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebdon, J. Lance; Castillo, Jason; Willard, Catherine (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2003-12-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focusing on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. The first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded in 1999, when six jacks and one jill were captured at Idaho Department of Fish and Game's Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2001, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using four strategies: age-0 presmolts were released to all three lakes in October and to Pettit and Alturas lakes in July; age-1 smolts were released to Redfish Lake Creek, and hatchery-produced adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September along with anadromous adult sockeye salmon that returned to the Sawtooth basin and were not incorporated into the captive broodstock program. Kokanee population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September. Only age-0 and age-1 kokanee were captured on Redfish Lake, resulting in a population estimate of 12,980 kokanee. This was the second lowest kokanee abundance estimated since 1990. On Alturas Lake age-0, age-1, and age-2 kokanee were captured, and the kokanee population was estimated at 70,159. This is a mid range kokanee population estimate for Alturas Lake, which has been sampled yearly since 1990. On Pettit Lake only age-1 kokanee were captured, and the kokanee population estimate was 16,931. This estimate is in the midrange of estimates of the kokanee population in Pettit Lake, which has been sampled

  13. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A. (National Marine Fisheries Service)

    2005-11-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Accomplishments detailed in this report and those since the last project review period (FY 2003) are listed below by major objective. Objective 1: (i) Developed tools for monitoring the spawning success of captively reared Chinook salmon that can now be used for evaluating the reintroduction success of ESA-listed captive broodstocks in their natal habitats. (ii) Developed an automated temperature controlled rearing system to test the effects of seawater rearing temperature on reproductive success of Chinook salmon. Objective 2: (i) Determined that Columbia River sockeye salmon imprint at multiple developmental stages and the length of exposure to home water is important for successful imprinting. These results can be utilized for developing successful reintroduction strategies to minimize straying by ESA-listed sockeye salmon. (ii) Developed behavioral and physiological assays for imprinting in sockeye salmon. Objective 3: (i) Developed growth regime to reduce age-two male maturation in spring Chinook salmon, (ii) described reproductive cycle of returning hatchery Snake River spring Chinook salmon relative to captive broodstock, and (iii) found delays in egg development in captive broodstock prior to entry to fresh water. (iv) Determined that loss of Redfish Lake sockeye embryos prior to hatch is largely due to lack of egg fertilization rather than embryonic mortality. Objective 4 : (i) Demonstrated safety and efficacy limits against bacterial kidney disease (BKD) in fall Chinook of attenuated R. salmoninarum vaccine and commercial vaccine Renogen, (ii) improved prophylactic and therapeutic

  14. Annual Report 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The annual report for the year 2000-2001 has been compiled, which offers concise description of tasks achieved and status of on going efforts pertaining to PAEC (Pakistan Atomic Commission) programme. The tasks description are as: highlights of various projects, nuclear power plants, physical sciences and engineering, biosciences, nuclear minerals, human resource development, projects, international relations. At the end of this report financial position of PAEC and list of publication is also available. (A.B.)

  15. Annual Report 2000-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The annual report for the year 2000-2001 has been compiled, which offers concise description of tasks achieved and status of on going efforts pertaining to PAEC (Pakistan Atomic Commission) programme. The tasks description are as: highlights of various projects, nuclear power plants, physical sciences and engineering, biosciences, nuclear minerals, human resource development, projects, international relations. At the end of this report financial position of PAEC and list of publication is also available. (A.B.)

  16. Salmon-Eating Grizzly Bears Exposed to Elevated Levels of Marine Derived Persistent Organic Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J. R.; Ross, P. S.; Whiticar, M. J.

    2004-12-01

    The coastal grizzly bears of British Columbia (BC, Canada) rely heavily on salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean, whereas interior bears do not have access to or readily utilize this marine-derived food source. Since salmon have been shown to accumulate persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from the North Pacific Ocean, we hypothesized that salmon consumption by grizzly bears would be reflected by an increase in the POP burden. To test this hypothesis we collected hair and fat tissue from grizzlies at various locations around BC to compare salmon-eating (coastal) grizzlies to non-salmon-eating (interior) grizzlies. We characterized the feeding habits for each bear sampled by measuring the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signature of their hair. The positive relationship between 13C/12C and 15N/14N isotopic ratios suggests that the majority of the meat portion of the diet of coastal grizzlies is coming from salmon, rather than from terrestrial or freshwater sources. By contrast, stable isotope ratios revealed that interior bears have an almost exclusive vegetarian diet with no marine influence. As hypothesized, the coastal grizzly bears have significantly greater OC pesticide and lower-brominated PBDE congener body burden than the interior grizzlies. We also found a positive relationship between C and N isotope ratios and these same POP contaminants in bear tissue. Overall, these results demonstrate that Pacific salmon represents a significant vector delivering both OC pesticides and PBDEs to BC coastal grizzly bears.

  17. A modeled comparison of direct and food web-mediated impacts of common pesticides on Pacific salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate H Macneale

    Full Text Available In the western United States, pesticides used in agricultural and urban areas are often detected in streams and rivers that support threatened and endangered Pacific salmon. Although concentrations are rarely high enough to cause direct salmon mortality, they can reach levels sufficient to impair juvenile feeding behavior and limit macroinvertebrate prey abundance. This raises the possibility of direct adverse effects on juvenile salmon health in tandem with indirect effects on salmon growth as a consequence of reduced prey abundance. We modeled the growth of ocean-type Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha at the individual and population scales, investigating insecticides that differ in how long they impair salmon feeding behavior and in how toxic they are to salmon compared to macroinvertebrates. The relative importance of these direct vs. indirect effects depends both on how quickly salmon can recover and on the relative toxicity of an insecticide to salmon and their prey. Model simulations indicate that when exposed to a long-acting organophosphate insecticide that is highly toxic to salmon and invertebrates (e.g., chlorpyrifos, the long-lasting effect on salmon feeding behavior drives the reduction in salmon population growth with reductions in prey abundance having little additional impact. When exposed to short-acting carbamate insecticides at concentrations that salmon recover from quickly but are lethal to invertebrates (e.g., carbaryl, the impacts on salmon populations are due primarily to reductions in their prey. For pesticides like carbaryl, prey sensitivity and how quickly the prey community can recover are particularly important in determining the magnitude of impact on their predators. In considering both indirect and direct effects, we develop a better understanding of potential impacts of a chemical stressor on an endangered species and identify data gaps (e.g., prey recovery rates that contribute uncertainty to these

  18. Asymmetric hybridization and introgression between pink salmon and chinook salmon in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Jonathan A.; Todd, Thomas; Greil, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Among Pacific salmon collected in the St. Marys River, five natural hybrids of pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha and chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and one suspected backcross have been detected using morphologic, meristic, and color evidence. One allozyme (LDH, l-lactate dehydrogenase from muscle) and one nuclear DNA locus (growth hormone) for which species-specific fixed differences exist were analyzed to detect additional hybrids and to determine if introgression had occurred. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was used to identify the maternal parent of each hybrid. Evidence of introgression was found among the five previously identified hybrids. All hybrid specimens had chinook salmon mtDNA, indicating that hybridization between chinook salmon and pink salmon in the St. Marys River is asymmetric and perhaps unidirectional. Ecological, physiological, and sexual selection forces may contribute to this asymmetric hybridization. Introgression between these highly differentiated species has implications for management, systematics, and conservation of Pacific salmon.

  19. OFFICIAL HOLIDAYS IN 2000 AND END-OF-YEAR CLOSURE 2000/2001

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des ressources humaines

    2000-01-01

    (Application of Articles RÉII 4.33 and RÉII 4.34 of the Staff Regulations)Official holidays in 2000 (in addition to the end-of-year holidays): Friday, 21st April (Good Friday) Monday, 24th April (Easter Monday) Monday, 1st May Thursday, 1st June (Ascension Day)Monday, 12th June (Whit Monday) Thursday, 7th September ('Jeûne genevois')Annual closure of the site of the Organization and day of special leave granted by the Director-GeneralThe Laboratory will be closed from Saturday, 23rd December 2000 to Sunday, 7th January 2001 inclusive (without deduction of annual leave). The first working day in the New Year will be Monday, 8th January 2001.Human Resources DivisionTel. 74128

  20. Evaluation of the Contribution of Fall Chinook Salmon Reared at Columbia River Hatcheries to the Pacific Salmon Fisheries, 1989 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vreeland, Robert R.

    1989-10-01

    In 1979 this study was initiated to determine the distribution, contribution, and value of artificially propagated fall chinook salmon from the Columbia River. Coded wire tagging (CWT) of hatchery fall chinook salmon began in 1979 with the 1978 brood and was completed in 1982 with the 1981 brood of fish at rearing facilities on the Columbia River system. From 18 to 20 rearing facilities were involved in the study each brood year. Nearly 14 million tagged fish, about 4% of the production, were released as part of this study over the four years, 1979 through 1982. Sampling for recoveries of these tagged fish occurred from 1980 through 1986 in the sport and commercial marine fisheries from Alaska through California, Columbia River fisheries, and returns to hatcheries and adjacent streams. The National Marine Fisheries Service coordinated this study among three fishery agencies: US Fish and Wildfire Service, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fisheries. The objectives of this study were to determine the distribution, fishery contribution, survival, and value of the production of fall chinook salmon from each rearing facility on the Columbia River system to Pacific coast salmon fisheries. To achieve these objectives fish from each hatchery were given a distinctive CWT. 81 refs., 20 figs., 68 tabs.

  1. High-flow, low-head pumps provide safe passage for Pacific salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2004-01-01

    The installation of 29 ultra-low head, high capacity submersible pump and auxiliary equipment at the Rocky Reach Dam in Washington State to allow juvenile salmon safe passage on their journey down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean is described. The reputed cost of the project is US$160 million; its purpose is to get juvenile salmon safely around the Rocky Reach Dam without interfering with the dam's original mission of generating electric power. The project is the most expensive fish bypass on any Columbia River dam. Getting the salmon safely around the dam is intended to reduce the impact of hydroelectric power projects on the basin's salmon stocks which are now estimated at less than 10 per cent of their historic size, despite major hatchery programs. The Columbia River has the second largest volume flow of any river in the United States, and millions of people depend on it for employment in water-related industries, and for transportation. The new horizontally installed propeller pump was developed by ITT Flygt; it utilizes planetary gear reduced to match the motor speed with the propeller rpm. Each 90 kW propeller pump has a flow rate of seven cubic meters per second at a head of 0.55 metres. The auxiliary equipment includes 10 racks of flap gates to prevent reverse flow, electric controls, remote supervision, testing, installation and maintenance facilities. It is anticipated that the new bypass will allow the Chelan County Public Utility Department, owners of the facility, to phase out all current spills, except for a 16 per cent spill for 40 days each spring for Sockeye salmon which tend to travel too deep to use the bypass. Prior to installation of this new facility, 60 to 70 per cent of average daily flow in the spring and summer had to be sacrificed to accommodate all species of salmon and steelhead, with corresponding losses of power generating capacity

  2. Annual review 2000-2001; Rapport d'activite 2000-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This report reviews the activities of the LAPP (particle physics laboratory of Annecy-le-Vieux) for the years 2000-2001. The central themes of research are: 1) the standard model and its extension, 2) the study of CP violation (contribution to the experiments BABAR and LHCb), 3) the search for the Higgs'boson (contribution to the experiments ALEPH, L3, ATLAS and CMS), 4) physics of neutrinos (contribution to the experiments NOMAD and OPERA), 5) the study of anti-matter and cosmic radiation (contribution to the experiment AMS and to the project EUSO embarked on the international spatial station), and 6) the search for gravitational waves (contribution to the experiment VIRGO)

  3. Swedish wind energy research program VKK, Annual report 2000/2001; Vindkraftsprogrammet VKK. Laegesrapport verksamhetsaaret 2000/2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thor, S.E.

    2001-11-01

    This report describes the results that have been achieved during the period July 1, 2000 to June 30, 2001, the last year in the three-year period of the present research programme financed by the Swedish Energy Administration. The yearly budget amounts to 15.6 MSEK (about 1.5 MUSD)

  4. Comprehensive College Plan for 2000-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Antonio Coll., TX.

    The document describes San Antonio College's (Texas) strategic goals and objectives for 2000-2001. San Antonio College's comprehensive planning and evaluation process monitors the achievement of college-wide goals and initiatives supporting the college's Vision and Mission Statement and the Alamo Community College District's Strategic Plan. The…

  5. Pyrethroid insecticides in urban salmon streams of the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weston, D.P., E-mail: dweston@berkeley.edu [Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, 3060 Valley Life Sciences Bldg., Berkeley, CA 94720-3140 (United States); Asbell, A.M., E-mail: aasbell@berkeley.edu [Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, 3060 Valley Life Sciences Bldg., Berkeley, CA 94720-3140 (United States); Hecht, S.A., E-mail: scott.hecht@noaa.gov [NOAA Fisheries, Office of Protected Resources, 510 Desmond Drive S.E., Lacey, WA 98503 (United States); Scholz, N.L., E-mail: nathaniel.scholz@noaa.gov [NOAA Fisheries, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, 2725 Montlake Blvd. E., Seattle, WA 98112 (United States); Lydy, M.J., E-mail: mlydy@siu.edu [Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, 171 Life Sciences II, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Urban streams of the Pacific Northwest provide spawning and rearing habitat for a variety of salmon species, and food availability for developing salmon could be adversely affected by pesticide residues in these waterbodies. Sediments from Oregon and Washington streams were sampled to determine if current-use pyrethroid insecticides from residential neighborhoods were reaching aquatic habitats, and if they were at concentrations acutely toxic to sensitive invertebrates. Approximately one-third of the 35 sediment samples contained measurable pyrethroids. Bifenthrin was the pyrethroid of greatest concern with regards to aquatic life toxicity, consistent with prior studies elsewhere. Toxicity to Hyalella azteca and/or Chironomus dilutus was found in two sediment samples at standard testing temperature (23 deg. C), and in one additional sample at a more environmentally realistic temperature (13 deg. C). Given the temperature dependency of pyrethroid toxicity, low temperatures typical of northwest streams can increase the potential for toxicity above that indicated by standard testing protocols. - Highlights: > Salmon-bearing creeks can be adversely impacted by insecticides from urban runoff. > Pyrethroid insecticides were found in one-third of the creeks in Washington and Oregon. > Two creeks contained concentrations acutely lethal to sensitive invertebrates. > Bifenthrin was of greatest concern, though less than in prior studies. > Standard toxicity testing underestimates the ecological risk of pyrethroids. - Pyrethroid insecticides are present in sediments of urban creeks of Oregon and Washington, though less commonly than in studies elsewhere in the U.S.

  6. Pyrethroid insecticides in urban salmon streams of the Pacific Northwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, D.P.; Asbell, A.M.; Hecht, S.A.; Scholz, N.L.; Lydy, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Urban streams of the Pacific Northwest provide spawning and rearing habitat for a variety of salmon species, and food availability for developing salmon could be adversely affected by pesticide residues in these waterbodies. Sediments from Oregon and Washington streams were sampled to determine if current-use pyrethroid insecticides from residential neighborhoods were reaching aquatic habitats, and if they were at concentrations acutely toxic to sensitive invertebrates. Approximately one-third of the 35 sediment samples contained measurable pyrethroids. Bifenthrin was the pyrethroid of greatest concern with regards to aquatic life toxicity, consistent with prior studies elsewhere. Toxicity to Hyalella azteca and/or Chironomus dilutus was found in two sediment samples at standard testing temperature (23 deg. C), and in one additional sample at a more environmentally realistic temperature (13 deg. C). Given the temperature dependency of pyrethroid toxicity, low temperatures typical of northwest streams can increase the potential for toxicity above that indicated by standard testing protocols. - Highlights: → Salmon-bearing creeks can be adversely impacted by insecticides from urban runoff. → Pyrethroid insecticides were found in one-third of the creeks in Washington and Oregon. → Two creeks contained concentrations acutely lethal to sensitive invertebrates. → Bifenthrin was of greatest concern, though less than in prior studies. → Standard toxicity testing underestimates the ecological risk of pyrethroids. - Pyrethroid insecticides are present in sediments of urban creeks of Oregon and Washington, though less commonly than in studies elsewhere in the U.S.

  7. Juvenile Pacific Salmon in Puget Sound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fresh, Kurt L

    2006-01-01

    Puget sound salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) spawn in freshwater and feed, grow and mature in marine waters, During their transition from freshwater to saltwater, juvenile salmon occupy nearshore ecosystems in Puget Sound...

  8. Positive Darwinian selection in the piston that powers proton pumps in complex I of the mitochondria of Pacific salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, Michael R; Bielawski, Joseph P; Gharrett, Anthony J

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation is well understood, but evolution of the proteins involved is not. We combined phylogenetic, genomic, and structural biology analyses to examine the evolution of twelve mitochondrial encoded proteins of closely related, yet phenotypically diverse, Pacific salmon. Two separate analyses identified the same seven positively selected sites in ND5. A strong signal was also detected at three sites of ND2. An energetic coupling analysis revealed several structures in the ND5 protein that may have co-evolved with the selected sites. These data implicate Complex I, specifically the piston arm of ND5 where it connects the proton pumps, as important in the evolution of Pacific salmon. Lastly, the lineage to Chinook experienced rapid evolution at the piston arm.

  9. Positive Darwinian Selection in the Piston That Powers Proton Pumps in Complex I of the Mitochondria of Pacific Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, Michael R.; Bielawski, Joseph P.; Gharrett, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation is well understood, but evolution of the proteins involved is not. We combined phylogenetic, genomic, and structural biology analyses to examine the evolution of twelve mitochondrial encoded proteins of closely related, yet phenotypically diverse, Pacific salmon. Two separate analyses identified the same seven positively selected sites in ND5. A strong signal was also detected at three sites of ND2. An energetic coupling analysis revealed several structures in the ND5 protein that may have co-evolved with the selected sites. These data implicate Complex I, specifically the piston arm of ND5 where it connects the proton pumps, as important in the evolution of Pacific salmon. Lastly, the lineage to Chinook experienced rapid evolution at the piston arm. PMID:21969854

  10. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Program, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, La Grande, OR)

    2003-03-01

    Endangered Species Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorizes ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and Grande Ronde River (GR) for research and enhancement purposes. Modification 2 of this permit authorizes ODFW to take adults for spawning and the production and release of smolts for the Captive and Conventional broodstock programs. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted. Herein we report on activities conducted and provide cursory data analyses for the Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon Captive and Conventional broodstock projects from 1 January-31 December 2000.

  11. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Conrath: Notes on the Reproductive Biology of Female Salmon Sharks in the Eastern North Pacific Ocean

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Little information has previously been published on the reproductive biology of the salmon shark in the Eastern North Pacific ocean. This data set incorporates basic...

  12. Positive Darwinian selection in the piston that powers proton pumps in complex I of the mitochondria of Pacific salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R Garvin

    Full Text Available The mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation is well understood, but evolution of the proteins involved is not. We combined phylogenetic, genomic, and structural biology analyses to examine the evolution of twelve mitochondrial encoded proteins of closely related, yet phenotypically diverse, Pacific salmon. Two separate analyses identified the same seven positively selected sites in ND5. A strong signal was also detected at three sites of ND2. An energetic coupling analysis revealed several structures in the ND5 protein that may have co-evolved with the selected sites. These data implicate Complex I, specifically the piston arm of ND5 where it connects the proton pumps, as important in the evolution of Pacific salmon. Lastly, the lineage to Chinook experienced rapid evolution at the piston arm.

  13. Transcriptomic responses to emamectin benzoate in Pacific and Atlantic Canada salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis with differing levels of drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Ben J G; Poley, Jordan D; Igboeli, Okechukwu O; Jantzen, Johanna R; Fast, Mark D; Koop, Ben F; Jones, Simon R M

    2015-02-01

    Salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis are an ecologically and economically important parasite of wild and farmed salmon. In Scotland, Norway, and Eastern Canada, L. salmonis have developed resistance to emamectin benzoate (EMB), one of the few parasiticides available for salmon lice. Drug resistance mechanisms can be complex, potentially differing among populations and involving multiple genes with additive effects (i.e., polygenic resistance). Indicators of resistance development may enable early detection and countermeasures to avoid the spread of resistance. Here, we collect sensitive Pacific L. salmonis and sensitive and resistant Atlantic L. salmonis from salmon farms, propagate in laboratory (F1), expose to EMB in bioassays, and evaluate either baseline (Atlantic only) or induced transcriptomic differences between populations. In all populations, induced responses were minor and a cellular stress response was not identified. Pacific lice did not upregulate any genes in response to EMB, but downregulated degradative enzymes and transport proteins at 50 ppb EMB. Baseline differences between sensitive and now resistant Atlantic lice were much greater than responses to exposures. All resistant lice overexpressed degradative enzymes, and resistant males, the most resistant group, overexpressed collagenases to the greatest extent. These results indicate an accumulation of baseline expression differences related to resistance.

  14. Physicochemical characteristics of the hyporheic zone affect redd site selection of chum and fall chinook salmon, Columbia River, 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geist, David R.

    2001-01-01

    Chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) may historically have been the most abundant species of Columbia River salmon, contributing as much as 50% of the total biomass of all salmon in the Pacific Ocean prior to the 1940's (Neave 1961). By the 1950's, however, run sizes to the Columbia River dropped dramatically and in 1999 the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Columbia River chum salmon as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA; NMFS 1999). Habitat degradation, water diversions, harvest, and artificial propagation are the major human-induced factors that have contributed to the species decline (NMFS 1998). Columbia River chum salmon spawn exclusively in the lower river below Bonneville Dam, including an area near Ives Island. The Ives Island chum salmon are part of the Columbia River evolutionary significant unit (ESU) for this species, and are included in the ESA listing. In addition to chum salmon, fall chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) also spawn at Ives Island. Spawning surveys conducted at Ives Island over the last several years show that chum and fall chinook salmon spawned in clusters in different locations (US Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, unpublished data). The presence of redd clusters suggested that fish were selecting specific habitat features within the study area (Geist and Dauble 1998). Understanding the specific features of these spawning areas is needed to quantify the amount of habitat available to each species so that minimum flows can be set to protect fish and maintain high quality habitat

  15. JAERI TANDEM annual report 2000. April 1, 2000 - March 31, 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Suehiro; Ikezoe, Hiroshi; Chiba, Satoshi; Nagame, Yuichiro; Sataka, Masao; Iwamoto, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] (eds.)

    2001-11-01

    This annual report describes research activities which have been performed with the JAERI tandem accelerator and the Van de Graaff accelerator from April 1, 2000 to March 31, 2001. Summary reports of 46 papers, and lists of publication, personnel and cooperative research with universities are contained. (author)

  16. 77 FR 75101 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    .... 120813333-2647-01] RIN 0648-BC28 Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National.... SUMMARY: NMFS proposes regulations to implement Amendment 17 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery...

  17. John Day Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Escapement and Productivity Monitoring; Fish Research Project Oregon, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, Richard W.; Claire, Glenda M.; Seals, Jason

    2002-01-01

    The four objectives of this report are: (1) Estimate annual spawner escapement and number of spring chinook salmon redds in the John Day River basin; (2) Determine sex ratio, age composition, length-at-age of spawners, and proportion of natural spawners that are hatchery origin strays; (3) Determine adequacy of historic index surveys for indexing spawner abundance and for detecting changes in spawner distribution through time; and (4) Estimate smolt-to-adult survival for spring chinook salmon emigrating from the John Day River basin.

  18. 76 FR 81851 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    .... 101206604-1758-02] RIN 0648-BA55 Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National...) to implement Amendment 16 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and...

  19. 76 FR 65673 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    .... 101206604-1620-01] RIN 0648-BA55 Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... implement Amendment 16 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and Recreational...

  20. 78 FR 10557 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    .... 120813333-3107-02] RIN 0648-BC28 Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... implement Amendment 17 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and Recreational...

  1. The Fall 2000 and Fall 2001 SOHO-Ulysses Quadratures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, S. T.; Poletto, G.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    SOHO-Ulysses quadrature occurs when the SOHO-Sun-Ulysses included angle is 90 degrees. It is only at such times that the same plasma leaving the Sun in the direction of Ulysses can first be remotely analyzed with SOHO instruments and then later be sampled in situ by Ulysses instruments. The quadratures in December 2000 and 2001 are of special significance because Ulysses will be near the south and north heliographic poles, respectively, and the solar cycle will be near sunspot maximum. Quadrature geometry is sometimes confusing and observations are influenced by solar rotation. The Fall 2000 and 2001 quadratures are more complex than usual because Ulysses is not in a true polar orbit and the orbital speed of Ulysses about the Sun is becoming comparable to the speed of SOHO about the Sun. In 2000 Ulysses will always be slightly behind the pole but will appear to hang over the pole for over two months because it is moving around the Sun in the same direction as SOHO. In 2001 Ulysses will be slightly in front of the pole so that its footpoint will be directly observable. Detailed plots will be shown of the relative positions of SOHO and Ulysses will their relative positions. In neither case is true quadrature actually achieved, but this works to the observers advantage in 2001.

  2. Species and life-history affects the utility of otolith chemical composition to determine natal stream-of-origin in Pacific salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Christian E.; Swanson, Heidi K.; Volk, Eric C.; Kent, Adam J.R.

    2013-01-01

    To test the utility of otolith chemical composition as a tool for determining the natal stream of origin for salmon, we examined water chemistry and otoliths of juvenile and adult Chum Salmon Oncorhynchus keta and Coho Salmon O. kisutch from three watersheds (five rivers) in the Norton Sound region of Alaska. The two species are characterized by different life histories: Coho Salmon rear in freshwater for up to 3 years, whereas Chum Salmon emigrate from freshwater shortly after emergence. We used laser ablation (LA) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry (MS) to quantify element: Ca ratios for Mg, Mn, Zn, Sr, and Ba, and we used multicollector LA-ICP-MS to determine 87Sr:86Sr ratios in otolith regions corresponding to the period of freshwater residence. Significant differences existed in both water and otolith elemental composition, suggesting that otolith composition could be used to discriminate the natal origin of Coho Salmon and Chum Salmon but only when 87Sr:86Sr ratios were included in the discriminant function analyses. The best discriminant model included 87Sr:86Sr ratios, and without 87Sr:86Sr ratios it was difficult to discriminate among watersheds and rivers. Classification accuracy was 80% for Coho Salmon and 68% for Chum Salmon, indicating that this method does not provide sufficient sensitivity to estimate straying rates of Pacific salmon at the scale we studied.

  3. Rainbow trout movement behavior and habitat occupancy are influenced by sex and Pacific salmon presence in an Alaska river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraley, Kevin M.; Falke, Jeffrey A.; McPhee, Megan V.; Prakash, Anupma

    2018-01-01

    We used spatially continuous field-measured and remotely-sensed aquatic habitat characteristics paired with weekly ground-based telemetry tracking and snorkel surveys to describe movements and habitat occupancy of adult rainbow trout (N = 82) in a runoff-fed, salmon-influenced southcentral Alaska river system. We found that during the ice-free feeding season (June through September) rainbow trout occurrence was associated more with fine-scale (channel unit) characteristics relative to coarse-scale (stream reach) variables. The presence of Pacific salmon (which provide an important seasonal food subsidy), and habitat size were particularly useful predictors. Weekly movement distance differed between pre- and post- spawning salmon arrival, but did not vary by sex. Habitat quality, season, and the arrival of spawning salmon influenced the likelihood of rainbow trout movement, and fish moved farther to seek out higher quality habitats. Because rainbow trout respond to habitat factors at multiple scales and seek out salmon-derived subsidies, it will be important to take a multiscale approach in protecting trout and salmon populations and managing the associated fisheries.

  4. KPI Graduate Executive Summary Report, Summer 2000-Winter 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan Coll. (Ontario).

    Summarizes findings from the Key Performance Indicator Satisfaction Survey administered by Sheridan College in the summer 2000, fall 2000, and winter 2001 terms. This survey was administered in compliance with the Ontario government's efforts to increase the accountability of the Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology through the measurement of…

  5. Annual review 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This report reviews the activities of the LAPP (particle physics laboratory of Annecy-le-Vieux) for the years 2000-2001. The central themes of research are: 1) the standard model and its extension, 2) the study of CP violation (contribution to the experiments BABAR and LHCb), 3) the search for the Higgs'boson (contribution to the experiments ALEPH, L3, ATLAS and CMS), 4) physics of neutrinos (contribution to the experiments NOMAD and OPERA), 5) the study of anti-matter and cosmic radiation (contribution to the experiment AMS and to the project EUSO embarked on the international spatial station), and 6) the search for gravitational waves (contribution to the experiment VIRGO)

  6. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, Andre E.; Taki, Doug (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID); Griswold, Robert G. (Biolines, Stanley, ID)

    2004-08-01

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered. As a result of that petition the Snake River sockeye salmon was officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 91-71, Intergovernmental Contract Number DE-BI79-91bp22548). This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of O. nerka. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery program through the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program (Council). Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), U.S. Forest Service (USFS), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2001 calendar year. Project objectives include: (1) monitor over-winter survival and emigration of juvenile anadromous O. nerka stocked from the captive rearing program; (2) fertilize Redfish Lake, fertilization of Pettit and Alturas lakes was suspended for this year; (3) conduct kokanee (non-anadromous O. nerka) population surveys; (4) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment on Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (5) evaluate potential competition and predation interactions between stocked juvenile O. nerka and a variety of fish species in Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes; (6) monitor limnological parameters of Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity.

  7. Trophic ontogeny of fluvial Bull Trout and seasonal predation on Pacific Salmon in a riverine food web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Erin D.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus are typically top predators in their host ecosystems. The Skagit River in northwestern Washington State contains Bull Trout and Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytschapopulations that are among the largest in the Puget Sound region and also contains a regionally large population of steelhead O. mykiss (anadromous Rainbow Trout). All three species are listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Our objective was to determine the trophic ecology of Bull Trout, especially their role as predators and consumers in the riverine food web. We seasonally sampled distribution, diets, and growth of Bull Trout in main-stem and tributary habitats during 2007 and winter–spring 2008. Consumption rates were estimated with a bioenergetics model to (1) determine the annual and seasonal contributions of different prey types to Bull Trout energy budgets and (2) estimate the potential impacts of Bull Trout predation on juvenile Pacific salmon populations. Salmon carcasses and eggs contributed approximately 50% of the annual energy budget for large Bull Trout in main-stem habitats, whereas those prey types were largely inaccessible to smaller Bull Trout in tributary habitats. The remaining 50% of the energy budget was acquired by eating juvenile salmon, resident fishes, and immature aquatic insects. Predation on listed Chinook Salmon and steelhead/Rainbow Trout was highest during winter and spring (January–June). Predation on juvenile salmon differed between the two study years, likely due to the dominant odd-year spawning cycle for Pink Salmon O. gorbuscha. The population impact on ocean- and stream-type Chinook Salmon was negligible, whereas the impact on steelhead/Rainbow Trout was potentially very high. Due to the ESA-listed status of Bull Trout, steelhead, and Chinook Salmon, the complex trophic interactions in this drainage provide both challenges and opportunities for creative adaptive management strategies.

  8. Feasibility survey of the introduction of new energy/renewable energy in Pacific island countries. Agreed record. Regional Energy Meeting (REM 2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-20

    The Regional Energy Meeting (REM 2000) was held in Tarawa, Kiribati, from September 20 to September 26, 2000. This meeting was sponsored by the South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission. Countries present in the meeting were the Cook Islands, Micronesia, the Fiji Islands, Kiribati, Nauru, Niue, Papua New Guinea, Pitcairn, Samoa, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Japan. In the meeting, a draft Regional Energy Logical Framework Matrix was recognized, and it was advised that the plan should be achieved by June 2001 by cooperation of CROP-EWG (the Committee of the Regional Organizations of the Pacific Working Group). In the meeting, the report on hydrogen fuel and solar energy power generation was presented by CROP-EWG. For the hydrogen fuel and solar energy power generation, efforts have been made, but they are still in a stage of the laboratory level. There is arising a feeling of unrest because the commercial exhibition is being made only in the Pacific region. To advise the order of priority in the energy field, CROP-EWG started the investigation into activities/plans of regional energy organizations. (NEDO)

  9. Interspecies variation in the susceptibility of adult Pacific salmon to toxic urban stormwater runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Jenifer K; Lundin, Jessica I; Cameron, James R; Chow, Michelle I; Davis, Jay W; Incardona, John P; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2018-07-01

    Adult coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) prematurely die when they return from the ocean to spawn in urban watersheds throughout northwestern North America. The available evidence suggests the annual mortality events are caused by toxic stormwater runoff. The underlying pathophysiology of the urban spawner mortality syndrome is not known, and it is unclear whether closely related species of Pacific salmon are similarly at risk. The present study co-exposed adult coho and chum (O. keta) salmon to runoff from a high traffic volume urban arterial roadway. The spawners were monitored for the familiar symptoms of the mortality syndrome, including surface swimming, loss of orientation, and loss of equilibrium. Moreover, the hematology of both species was profiled by measuring arterial pH, blood gases, lactate, plasma electrolytes, hematocrit, and glucose. Adult coho developed behavioral symptoms within a few hours of exposure to stormwater. Various measured hematological parameters were significantly altered compared to coho controls, indicating a blood acidosis and ionoregulatory disturbance. By contrast, runoff-exposed chum spawners showed essentially no indications of the mortality syndrome, and measured blood hematological parameters were similar to unexposed chum controls. We conclude that contaminant(s) in urban runoff are the likely cause of the disruption of ion balance and pH in coho but not chum salmon. Among the thousands of chemicals in stormwater, future forensic analyses should focus on the gill or cardiovascular system of coho salmon. Because of their distinctive sensitivity to urban runoff, adult coho remain an important vertebrate indicator species for degraded water quality in freshwater habitats under pressure from human population growth and urbanization. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. FY2000 Annual Self-Evaluation Report for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RR Labarge

    2000-11-15

    This self-evaluation report offers a summary of results from FY2000 actions to achieve Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's strategy and provides an analysis of the state of their self-assessment process. The result of their integrated planning and assessment process identifies Laboratory strengths and opportunities for improvement. Critical elements of that process are included in this report; namely, a high-level summary of external oversight activities, progress against Operations Improvement Initiatives, and a summary of Laboratory strengths and areas for improvement developed by management from across the laboratory. Some key areas targeted for improvement in FY2001 are: systems approach to resource management; information protection; integrated safety management flow-down to the benchtop; cost management; integrated assessment; Price Anderson Amendments Act (PAAA) Program; and travel risk mitigation.

  11. The Riverscape Analysis Project: Using Remote Sensing to Leverage Salmon Science and Management Applications Around the Pacific Rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcote, S.; Maumenee, N.; Lucotch, J.; Whited, D.; Bansack, T.; Kimball, J. S.; Stanford, J.

    2009-12-01

    The Salmonid Rivers Observatory Network (SaRON) is an intensive field research project which aims to describe the relation between salmon productivion and diversity in relation to environmental drivers and physical complexity of riverine shifting habitat mosaics. The Riverscape Analysis Project (RAP) is a spatially explicit remote sensing database which quantifies and ranks different combinations of physical landscape metrics around the Pacific Rim, displaying results through a publically accessible web based decision support framework designed to empower regional management and conservation efforts for wild salmon. The objective of our research is to explicitly describe and relate different habitat types and their potential fish production at a variety of scales and throughout the range of Pacific salmon, leveraging our field research through available satellite remote sensing and geospatial analysis. We find that rivers exhibit a range of physical, chemical, and biotic conditions consistent with the shifting habitat mosaic (SHM) concept. Landscape physical variables derived from global Landsat imagery and SRTM-DEM information explain 93.2% of observed variability in over 1500 watersheds across the Pacific Rim. We expect that it is these coarse scale differences in river typologies which are responsible for the fine scale differences in habitat conditions and juvenile salmon production. Therefore, we ranked rivers using landscape scale physical variables to prioritize them for management actions based on potential productivity. For example, the Kvichak River of Bristol Bay is highly ranked, 8th, based on its physical landscape structure as well as current human impacts. Currently, the Bristol Bay fishery is extremely productive. Habitat structure can be used not only to define reference conditions and management targets for how many fish we would expect a river to produce based on its potential habitat capacity, but it also provides new analytical tools to

  12. Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration Project : Annual Report 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Close, David A.

    2002-11-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted in 1999-2000. The findings in these chapters represent the efforts of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and collaborative efforts among other researchers working on Pacific lampreys (Lampetra tridentata) under this project. The findings in these chapters will help management and recovery of Pacific lampreys in the Columbia River Basin.

  13. Nutrient additions to mitigate for loss of Pacific salmon: consequences for stream biofilm and nutrient dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcarelli, Amy M.; Baxter, Colden V.; Wipfli, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Mitigation activities designed to supplement nutrient and organic matter inputs to streams experiencing decline or loss of Pacific salmon typically presuppose that an important pathway by which salmon nutrients are moved to fish (anadromous and/or resident) is via nutrient incorporation by biofilms and subsequent bottom-up stimulation of biofilm production, which is nutrient-limited in many ecosystems where salmon returns have declined. Our objective was to quantify the magnitude of nutrient incorporation and biofilm dynamics that underpin this indirect pathway in response to experimental additions of salmon carcasses and pelletized fish meal (a.k.a., salmon carcass analogs) to 500-m reaches of central Idaho streams over three years. Biofilm standing crops increased 2–8-fold and incorporated marine-derived nutrients (measured using 15N and 13C) in the month following treatment, but these responses did not persist year-to-year. Biofilms were nitrogen (N) limited before treatments, and remained N limited in analog, but not carcass-treated reaches. Despite these biofilm responses, in the month following treatment total N load was equal to 33–47% of the N added to the treated reaches, and N spiraling measurements suggested that as much as 20%, but more likely 2–3% of added N was taken up by microbes. Design of biologically and cost-effective strategies for nutrient addition will require understanding the rates at which stream microbes take up nutrients and the downstream distance traveled by exported nutrients.

  14. Salmon vulnerability maps - Effect of Climate Change on Salmon Population Vulnerability

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and other Pacific salmon are threatened by unsustainable levels of harvest, genetic introgression from hatchery stocks and...

  15. Response of ecosystem metabolism to low densities of spawning Chinook Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph R. Benjamin; J. Ryan Bellmore; Grace A. Watson

    2016-01-01

    Marine derived nutrients delivered by large runs of returning salmon are thought to subsidize the in situ food resources that support juvenile salmon. In the Pacific Northwest, USA, salmon have declined to salmon runs. We explored whether low densities...

  16. Did Focusing on Asia Pacific Emerging Markets Provide Much Benefit to Portfolio Diversification during the Late 2000s Recession?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Hermanto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research studies the international co-movement among Asia Pacific emerging markets stock price indices during the late 2000s recession by using the monthly observations start from 1st October 2001 until 1st April 2011. The co-integration analysis and parsimonious Vector Error Correction Model employed in this research reveal a long-term relationship and inter-dependencies among seven Asia Pacific emerging market stock price indices. This research finds that the unique co-integration exists on the equations. Specifically, two indices from China and Taiwan having meteor shower potential while the rest indices from Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia are known to have heat waves effects or country specific factors on the equation. Finally, all the results are linked to the international diversification strategies. Keywords: Co-movement, co-integration, emerging market, heat waves, meteor shower, Asia Pacific, inter-dependencies, Vector Error Correction Model, international diversification

  17. Influences of Stocking Salmon Carcass Analogs on Salmonids in Yakima River Tributaries, 2001-2002 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearsons, Todd N.; Johnson, Christopher L. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2003-04-01

    The benefits that marine derived nutrients from adult salmon carcasses provide to juvenile salmonids are increasingly being recognized. Current estimates suggest that only 6-7% of marine-derived nitrogen and phosphorus that were historically available to salmonids in the Pacific Northwest are currently available. Food limitation may be a major constraint limiting the restoration of salmonids. A variety of methods have been proposed to offset this nutrient deficit including: allowing greater salmon spawning escapement, stocking hatchery salmon carcasses, and stocking inorganic nutrients. Unfortunately, each of these methods has some ecological or socio-economic shortcoming. We intend to overcome many of these shortcomings by making and evaluating a pathogen free product that simulates a salmon carcass (analog). Abundant sources of marine derived nutrients are available such as fish offal from commercial fishing and salmon carcasses from hatcheries. However, a method for recycling these nutrients into a pathogen free analog that degrades at a similar rate as a natural salmon carcass has never been developed. We endeavored to (1) develop a salmon carcass analog that will increase the food available to salmonids, (2) determine the pathways that salmonids use to acquire food from analogs, and (3) determine the benefits to salmonids and the potential for application to salmonid restoration. We used a before-after-control-impact-paired design in six tributaries of the upper Yakima basin to determine the utility of stocking carcass analogs. Our preliminary results suggest that the introduction of carcass analogs into food-limited streams can be used to restore food pathways previously provided by anadromous salmon. The analogs probably reproduced both of the major food pathways that salmon carcasses produce: direct consumption and food chain enhancement. Trout and salmon fed directly on the carcass analogs during the late summer and presumably benefited from the increased

  18. Progress report 2000-2001; Rapport d'activite 2000-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrand, S; Carbonell, J; Chauvin, J; Compara, V; Crepe-Renaudin, S; Conto, J.M. de; Favro, C; Lleres, A; Merle, E; Quemener, G; Renault, C; Tur, C

    2001-07-01

    This document reports the activities of the ISN (nuclear sciences institute of Grenoble) for the 2 last years 2000, 2001. ISN's teams are involved in 3 research axis: elementary particles and hadrons, astro-particles and new systems for producing nuclear energy. In this document the activities have been classified into 18 topics: 1) the ATLAS experiment (detector for LHC), 2) the D0 experiment (electron identification and b-tagging), 3) the DELPHI experiment (R-parity violation), 4) the AMS experiment (embarked cosmic ray detector), 5) the cosmic microwave background (CMB), 6) the MUNU experiment (magnetic moment of antineutrinos), 7) the EUSO experiment (detection of the extreme energy cosmic rays), 8) 2 parity violation experiments (GO and SAMPLE), 9) the photo-production of mesons on proton (GRAAL), 10) a new isomeric state for Sb{sup 136}, 11) a new shape isomer for Kr{sup 72}, 12) new {mu}s isomers near Sn{sup 132}, 13) laser spectroscopy measurements for very neutron-rich tin isotopes, 14) hybrid demonstrator, 15) hadron-therapy (Etoile project), 16) positron emission tomography, 17) theories and models, and 18) technological work on accelerators and ion sources. (A.C.)

  19. IAEA Board for 2000-2001 elects chairman: Mr. I.H. Umar, Governor of Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document informs about the election of the Governor from Nigeria as Chairman of the IAEA Board of Governors for 2000-2001, and of the Governors from Austria and Poland as Vice-Chairmen. The Member States represented on the IAEA Board for 2000-2001 are also listed

  20. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program: Facility Operation and Maintenance and Monitoring and Evaluation, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boe, Stephen J.; Lofy, Peter T. (Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Pendleton, OR)

    2003-03-01

    This is the third annual report of a multi-year project to operate adult collection and juvenile acclimation facilities on Catherine Creek and the upper Grande Ronde River for Snake River spring chinook salmon. These two streams have historically supported populations that provided significant tribal and non-tribal fisheries. Supplementation using conventional and captive broodstock techniques is being used to restore fisheries in these streams. Statement of Work Objectives for 2000: (1) Participate in implementation of the comprehensive multiyear operations plan for the Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Supplementation Program (GRESCP). (2) Plan for recovery of endemic summer steelhead populations in Catherine Creek and the upper Grande Ronde River. (3) Ensure proper construction and trial operation of semi-permanent adult and juvenile facilities for use in 2000. (4) Collect summer steelhead. (5) Collect adult endemic spring chinook salmon broodstock. (6) Acclimate juvenile spring chinook salmon prior to release into the upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek. (7) Document accomplishments and needs to permitters, comanagers, and funding agency. (8) Communicate project results to the scientific community. (9) Plan detailed GRESCP Monitoring and Evaluation for future years. (10) Monitor adult population abundance and characteristics of Grande Ronde River spring chinook salmon populations and incidentally-caught summer steelhead and bull trout. (11) Monitor condition, movement, and mortality of spring chinook salmon acclimated at remote facilities. (12) Monitor water quality at facilities. (13) Participate in Monitoring & Evaluation of the captive brood component of the Program to document contribution to the Program.

  1. Salmon returns and consumer fitness: growth and energy storage in stream-dwelling salmonids increases with spawning salmon abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined how biomass of marine-derived nutrients (MDN), in the form of spawning Pacific salmon, influenced the nutritional status and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (d15N) of stream-dwelling fishes. We sampled coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) parr and juvenile Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) d...

  2. Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Stranding on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, John; Nugent, Michael; Brock, Wendy (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2002-05-29

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) has been contracted through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Grant County Public Utility District (GCPUD) to perform an evaluation of juvenile fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) stranding on the Hanford Reach. The evaluation, in the fourth year of a multi-year study, has been developed to assess the impacts of water fluctuations from Priest Rapids Dam on rearing juvenile fall chinook salmon, other fishes, and benthic macroinvertebrates of the Hanford Reach. This document provides the results of the 2000 field season.

  3. The response of stream periphyton to Pacific salmon: using a model to understand the role of environmental context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellmore, J. Ryan; Fremier, Alexander K.; Mejia, Francine; Newsom, Michael

    2014-01-01

    1. In stream ecosystems, Pacific salmon deliver subsidies of marine-derived nutrients and disturb the stream bed during spawning. The net effect of this nutrient subsidy and physical disturbance on biological communities can be hard to predict and is likely to be mediated by environmental conditions. For periphyton, empirical studies have revealed that the magnitude and direction of the response to salmon varies from one location to the next. Salmon appear to increase periphyton biomass and/or production in some contexts (a positive response), but decrease them in others (a negative response). 2. To reconcile these seemingly conflicting results, we constructed a system dynamics model that links periphyton biomass and production to salmon spawning. We used this model to explore how environmental conditions influence the periphyton response to salmon. 3. Our simulations suggest that the periphyton response to salmon is strongly mediated by both background nutrient concentrations and the proportion of the stream bed suitable for spawning. Positive periphyton responses occurred when both background nutrient concentrations were low (nutrient limiting conditions) and when little of the stream bed was suitable for spawning (because the substratum is too coarse). In contrast, negative responses occurred when nutrient concentrations were higher or a larger proportion of the bed was suitable for spawning. 4. Although periphyton biomass generally remained above or below background conditions for several months following spawning, periphyton production returned quickly to background values shortly afterwards. As a result, based upon our simulations, salmon did not greatly increase or decrease overall annual periphyton production. This suggests that any increase in production by fish or invertebrates in response to returning salmon is more likely to occur via direct consumption of salmon carcasses and/or eggs, rather than the indirect effects of greater periphyton production. 5

  4. Modeling Parasite Dynamics on Farmed Salmon for Precautionary Conservation Management of Wild Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Luke A.; Peacock, Stephanie J.; McKenzie, Peter; DeDominicis, Sharon; Jones, Simon R. M.; Chandler, Peter; Foreman, Michael G. G.; Revie, Crawford W.; Krkošek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Conservation management of wild fish may include fish health management in sympatric populations of domesticated fish in aquaculture. We developed a mathematical model for the population dynamics of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on domesticated populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the Broughton Archipelago region of British Columbia. The model was fit to a seven-year dataset of monthly sea louse counts on farms in the area to estimate population growth rates in relation to abiotic factors (temperature and salinity), local host density (measured as cohort surface area), and the use of a parasiticide, emamectin benzoate, on farms. We then used the model to evaluate management scenarios in relation to policy guidelines that seek to keep motile louse abundance below an average three per farmed salmon during the March–June juvenile wild Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) migration. Abiotic factors mediated the duration of effectiveness of parasiticide treatments, and results suggest treatment of farmed salmon conducted in January or early February minimized average louse abundance per farmed salmon during the juvenile wild salmon migration. Adapting the management of parasites on farmed salmon according to migrations of wild salmon may therefore provide a precautionary approach to conserving wild salmon populations in salmon farming regions. PMID:23577082

  5. Modeling parasite dynamics on farmed salmon for precautionary conservation management of wild salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke A Rogers

    Full Text Available Conservation management of wild fish may include fish health management in sympatric populations of domesticated fish in aquaculture. We developed a mathematical model for the population dynamics of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis on domesticated populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar in the Broughton Archipelago region of British Columbia. The model was fit to a seven-year dataset of monthly sea louse counts on farms in the area to estimate population growth rates in relation to abiotic factors (temperature and salinity, local host density (measured as cohort surface area, and the use of a parasiticide, emamectin benzoate, on farms. We then used the model to evaluate management scenarios in relation to policy guidelines that seek to keep motile louse abundance below an average three per farmed salmon during the March-June juvenile wild Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. migration. Abiotic factors mediated the duration of effectiveness of parasiticide treatments, and results suggest treatment of farmed salmon conducted in January or early February minimized average louse abundance per farmed salmon during the juvenile wild salmon migration. Adapting the management of parasites on farmed salmon according to migrations of wild salmon may therefore provide a precautionary approach to conserving wild salmon populations in salmon farming regions.

  6. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A.; Dittman, Andrew H. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester, WA); Hardy, Ronald W. (University of Idaho, Hagerman Fish Culture Experiment Station, Hagerman, ID)

    2001-06-01

    It is not yet possible to define a feeding regimen for captively-reared stocks similar to their natural regimen that enhances the post-release fitness of juveniles and improves the reproductive performance of adults. In the natural environment, seasonal differences in food quality and quantity have profound effects on growth and 'wild' attributes, such as external coloration and fin quality. Formulating the right feeds for conservation fish held for long periods in captivity before release is more complicated than formulating diets for farm fish. Recent research in salmonid nutrition shows it is necessary to consider daily dietary protein intake and protein intake relative to total dietary energy level, rather than simply the levels of total dietary lipid.

  7. Progress report 2000-2001; Rapport d'activite 2000-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrand, S.; Carbonell, J.; Chauvin, J.; Compara, V.; Crepe-Renaudin, S.; Conto, J.M. de; Favro, C.; Lleres, A.; Merle, E.; Quemener, G.; Renault, C.; Tur, C

    2001-07-01

    This document reports the activities of the ISN (nuclear sciences institute of Grenoble) for the 2 last years 2000, 2001. ISN's teams are involved in 3 research axis: elementary particles and hadrons, astro-particles and new systems for producing nuclear energy. In this document the activities have been classified into 18 topics: 1) the ATLAS experiment (detector for LHC), 2) the D0 experiment (electron identification and b-tagging), 3) the DELPHI experiment (R-parity violation), 4) the AMS experiment (embarked cosmic ray detector), 5) the cosmic microwave background (CMB), 6) the MUNU experiment (magnetic moment of antineutrinos), 7) the EUSO experiment (detection of the extreme energy cosmic rays), 8) 2 parity violation experiments (GO and SAMPLE), 9) the photo-production of mesons on proton (GRAAL), 10) a new isomeric state for Sb{sup 136}, 11) a new shape isomer for Kr{sup 72}, 12) new {mu}s isomers near Sn{sup 132}, 13) laser spectroscopy measurements for very neutron-rich tin isotopes, 14) hybrid demonstrator, 15) hadron-therapy (Etoile project), 16) positron emission tomography, 17) theories and models, and 18) technological work on accelerators and ion sources. (A.C.)

  8. Cessation of a salmon decline with control of parasites

    KAUST Repository

    Peacock, Stephanie J.; Krkošek, Martin; Proboszcz, Stan; Orr, Craig; Lewis, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) from Pacific Canada indicates that adaptive changes in parasite management on salmon farms have yielded positive conservation outcomes. After four years of sea lice epizootics and wild salmon population decline, parasiticide application

  9. Piscine reovirus, but not Jaundice Syndrome, was transmissible to Chinook Salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), Sockeye Salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), and Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garver, Kyle A.; Marty, Gary D.; Cockburn, Sarah N.; Richard, Jon; Hawley, Laura M.; Müller, Anita; Thompson, Rachel L.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    A Jaundice Syndrome occurs sporadically among sea-pen-farmed Chinook Salmon in British Columbia, the westernmost province of Canada. Affected salmon are easily identified by a distinctive yellow discolouration of the abdominal and periorbital regions. Through traditional diagnostics, no bacterial or viral agents were cultured from tissues of jaundiced Chinook Salmon; however, piscine reovirus (PRV) was identified via RT-rPCR in all 10 affected fish sampled. By histopathology, Jaundice Syndrome is an acute to peracute systemic disease, and the time from first clinical signs to death is likely jaundiced Chinook Salmon, developed no gross or microscopic evidence of jaundice despite persistence of PRV for the 5-month holding period. The results from this study demonstrate that the Jaundice Syndrome was not transmissible by injection of material from infected fish and that PRV was not the sole aetiological factor for the condition. Additionally, these findings showed the Pacific coast strain of PRV, while transmissible, was of low pathogenicity for Atlantic Salmon, Chinook Salmon and Sockeye Salmon.

  10. Fall and winter microhabitat use and suitability for spring chinook salmon parr in a U.S. Pacific Northwest River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favrot, Scott D.; Jonasson, Brian C.; Peterson, James T.

    2018-01-01

    Habitat degradation has been implicated as a primary threat to Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. Habitat restoration and conservation are key toward stemming population declines; however, winter microhabitat use and suitability knowledge are lacking for small juvenile salmonids. Our objective was to characterize microhabitat use and suitability for spring Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha parr during fall and winter. Using radiotelemetry techniques during October–February (2009–2011), we identified fall and winter microhabitat use by spring Chinook Salmon parr in Catherine Creek, northeastern Oregon. Tagged fish occupied two distinct gradient reaches (moderate and low). Using a mixed‐effects logistic regression resource selection function (RSF) model, we found evidence that microhabitat use was similar between free‐flowing and surface ice conditions. However, habitat use shifted between seasons; most notably, there was greater use of silt substrate and areas farther from the bank during winter. Between gradients, microhabitat use differed with greater use of large wood (LW) and submerged aquatic vegetation in the low‐gradient reach. Using a Bayesian RSF approach, we developed gradient‐specific habitat suitability criteria. Throughout the study area, deep depths and slow currents were most suitable, with the exception of the low‐gradient reach where moderate depths were optimal. Near‐cover coarse and fine substrates were most suitable in the moderate‐ and low‐gradient reaches, respectively. Near‐bank LW was most suitable throughout the study area. Multivariate principal component analyses (PCA) indicated co‐occurring deep depths supporting slow currents near cover were intensively occupied in the moderate‐gradient reach. In the low‐gradient reach, PCA indicated co‐occurring moderate depths, slow currents, and near‐bank cover were most frequently occupied. Our study identified suitable and interrelated microhabitat

  11. Annual report of Kansai Research Establishment 2000. April 1, 2000 - March 31, 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harami, Taikan; Hamaya, Nozomu; Mizuki, Jun-ichiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kizu, Kyoto (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment; and others

    2002-02-01

    This report is the second issue of the annual report of Kansai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. It covers status reports of R and D and results of experiments conducted at the Advanced Photon Research Center and the Synchrotron Radiation Research Center during the period from April 1, 2000 to March 31, 2001. (author)

  12. Progress report 2000 / 2001; Rapport d'activite 2000 / 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The 2000-2001 period has seen many facts of importance for the EURATOM-Cea association. The first outstanding fact is the positive evolution of the ITER project because of both the willingness of the partners and the French proposition to the European Union to consider the Cadarache site as the European site. The second outstanding fact is both the installation on Tore-Supra of a new generation of plasma-facing component: the Ciel project and the launch of the Cimes project whose aim is to allow Tore-Supra to reach discharge up to 1000 s. The third outstanding fact is the continuation of experiments in Jet after 1999, end date of the Jet Joint Undertaking. These new provisions aim at maintaining in activity the spearhead of the European program, waiting for a clarification of the ITER situation. Among the results obtained in Jet operations, we can quote those having a direct influence on the ITER performances: - the beneficial effect of a high triangularity on the ELM (edge localized modes) and on the confinement factor at high density, - the real time control of advanced tokamak discharges at quasi steady state, and the theoretical explanation of the current hole (in lower hybrid advanced scenarios, a region with vanishing current density that appears in the plasma centre). (A.C.)

  13. Salmon Population Summary - Impacts of climate change on Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This work involves 1) synthesizing information from the literature and 2) modeling impacts of climate change on specific aspects of salmon life history and...

  14. Archaeological Evidence for Resilience of Pacific Northwest Salmon Populations and the Socioecological System over the last ~7,500 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Campbell

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological data on the long history of interaction between indigenous people and salmon have rarely been applied to conservation management. When joined with ethnohistoric records, archaeology provides an alternative conceptual view of the potential for sustainable harvests and can suggest possible social mechanisms for managing human behavior. Review of the ~7,500-year-long fish bone record from two subregions of the Pacific Northwest shows remarkable stability in salmon use. As major changes in the ecological and social system occurred over this lengthy period, persistence in the fishery is not due simply to a lack of perturbation, but rather indicates resilience in the ecological-human system. Of several factors possibly contributing to resilience, low human population size and harvesting pressure, habitat enhancement, and suppression of competing predators do not appear to be of major importance. Flexible resource use, including human use of a range of local resources, many of which are linked in a food web with salmon, likely contributed to resilience. Most important were the beliefs and social institutions (including ownership, regulation, rituals, and monitoring that placed restraints on salmon use as a common pool resource. In contrast, only a small fraction of our modern society relies economically on or has direct interaction with the fish, which limits our concern and willingness to fundamentally change behaviors that contribute to habitat degradation and loss, the main challenges facing salmon populations today. Salmon recovery efforts may benefit substantially from investing more resources into establishing links between community groups and actual fish populations, which would create a sense of proprietorship, one of the keys to resilience in the indigenous salmon fishery.

  15. Modeling (137)Cs bioaccumulation in the salmon-resident killer whale food web of the Northeastern Pacific following the Fukushima Nuclear Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alava, Juan José; Gobas, Frank A P C

    2016-02-15

    To track the long term bioaccumulation of (137)Cs in marine organisms off the Pacific Northwest coast of Canada, we developed a time dependent bioaccumulation model for (137)Cs in a marine mammalian food web that included fish-eating resident killer whales. The model outcomes show that (137)Cs can be expected to gradually bioaccumulate in the food web over time as demonstrated by the increase of the apparent trophic magnification factor of (137)Cs, ranging from 0.76 after 1 month of exposure to 2.0 following 30 years of exposure. (137)Cs bioaccumulation is driven by relatively rapid dietary uptake rates, moderate depuration rates in lower trophic level organisms and slow elimination rates in high trophic level organisms. Model estimates of the (137)Cs activity in species of the food web, based on current measurements and forecasts of (137)Cs activities in oceanic waters and sediments off the Canadian Pacific Northwest, indicate that the long term (137)Cs activities in fish species including Pacific herring, wild Pacific salmon, sablefish and halibut will remain well below the current (137)Cs-Canada Action Level for consumption (1000 Bq/kg) following a nuclear emergency. Killer whales and Pacific salmon are expected to exhibit the largest long term (137)Cs activities and may be good sentinels for monitoring (137)Cs in the region. Assessment of the long term consequences of (137)Cs releases from the Fukushima aftermath should consider the extent of ecological magnification in addition to ocean dilution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Politica Nacional sobre Discapacidad: Un Informe del Progreso, Diciembre 2000-Diciembre 2001 (National Disability Policy: A Progress Report, December 2000-December 2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council on Disability, Washington, DC.

    This report (written in Spanish) of the National Council on Disability (NCD) describes the nation's progress in advancing public policies to increase the inclusion, empowerment, and independence of people with disabilities in light of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. The report covers December 2000 through December 2001. It reviews…

  17. SALMON AND THE ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT: TROUBLESOME QUESTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest and California, all wild salmon runs have declined since 1850 and some have disappeared. A sustainable future for wild salmon remains elusive. In response to requirements of the U.S. Endangered Species Act, the Canadian Species at Risk Act, and ...

  18. Status report of seabird surveys at Horns Rev, 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjaer Christensen, T.; Clausager, I.; Krag Petersen, I.

    2002-01-01

    The present report presents the results of three bird surveys conducted in the Horns Rev area during the second half of 2001. Due to poor weather conditions in December 2001, the last survey was, however, performed on 7 January 2002. The surveys are part of the base-line investigations of birds performed in relation to the proposed construction of an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev in the Danish part of the North Sea ca 14 km southwest of Blaevandshuk. The results of the surveys during August 2001 - January 2002 are presented together with the results obtained during the period August 2000 - April 2001, and are also compared to results obtained during the period August 1999 - April 2000. Based on the distribution of the most abundant bird species recorded during 16 aerial surveys performed during August 1999 - January 2002, there were no indications that the wind farm area was of any particular importance to the birds' exploitation of the Horns Rev area. Fish-eating species like divers, gannet, terns, auks and gulls generally showed scattered and variable distributions, mainly occurring in the areas north and south of Horns Rev, and with low numbers on the reef proper and within the planned wind farm area. The distribution of benthic foraging species, eider and common Scoter, showed that they mainly exploited the coastal parts of the area off Blaevandshuk and Skallingen, although common scoter was found in relatively high numbers on the southeast slopes of the Horns Rev and within the wind farm area in the April 2001 survey. Common scoters occurred in very high numbers in January 2002. This was probably related to increased immigration of birds from the inner Danish waters during a cold period in late December 2001. Preference analyses of bird exploitation of the Horns Rev area showed that if the birds completely avoid the wind farm area after erection of the wind turbines, this will affect less than 1% of the various species, except divers where 1.58% will be

  19. Financial Audit: IRS's Fiscal Years 2001 and 2000 Financial Statements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ...) as of and for the fiscal years ending September 30, 2001, and 2000. Our audits were required by the Chief Financial Officers Act of 1990, as expanded by the Government Management Reform Act of 1994...

  20. Supplementing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned wild Pacific pink salmon with Alaska salmon oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapis, Trina J; Oliveira, Alexandra C M; Crapo, Charles A; Himelbloom, Brian; Bechtel, Peter J; Long, Kristy A

    2013-01-01

    Establishing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid contents in canned wild Alaska pink salmon products is challenging due to ample natural variation found in lipid content of pink salmon muscle. This study investigated the effect of adding salmon oil (SO) to canned pink salmon produced from fish exhibiting two opposite degrees of skin watermarking, bright (B) and dark (D). Specific goals of the study were to evaluate the benefits of adding SO to canned pink salmon with regard to nutritional value of the product, sensory characteristics, and the oxidative and hydrolytic stability of the lipids over thermal processing. Six groups of canned pink salmon were produced with variable levels of SO, either using bright (with 0, 1, or 2% SO) or dark (with 0, 2, or 4% SO) pink salmon. Compositional analysis revealed highest (P  0.05) ranging from 5.7% to 6.8%. Consequently, addition of SO to canned pink salmon allowed for consistent lipid content between bright and dark fish. Addition of 1% or 2% SO to canned bright pink salmon was not detrimental to the sensory properties of the product. It is recommended that canned bright pink salmon be supplemented with at least 1% SO, while supplementation with 2% SO would guarantee a minimum quantity of 1.9 g of n-3 fatty acids per 100 g of product. Addition of 4% SO to canned dark pink salmon was detrimental to product texture and taste, while supplementation with 2% SO did not negatively affect sensorial properties of the product. Accordingly, canned dark pink salmon should be supplemented with 2% SO so that a minimum n-3 fatty acids content of 1.5 g per 100 g of product. PMID:24804010

  1. Progress report 2000 / 2001; Rapport d'activite 2000 / 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The 2000-2001 period has seen many facts of importance for the EURATOM-Cea association. The first outstanding fact is the positive evolution of the ITER project because of both the willingness of the partners and the French proposition to the European Union to consider the Cadarache site as the European site. The second outstanding fact is both the installation on Tore-Supra of a new generation of plasma-facing component: the Ciel project and the launch of the Cimes project whose aim is to allow Tore-Supra to reach discharge up to 1000 s. The third outstanding fact is the continuation of experiments in Jet after 1999, end date of the Jet Joint Undertaking. These new provisions aim at maintaining in activity the spearhead of the European program, waiting for a clarification of the ITER situation. Among the results obtained in Jet operations, we can quote those having a direct influence on the ITER performances: - the beneficial effect of a high triangularity on the ELM (edge localized modes) and on the confinement factor at high density, - the real time control of advanced tokamak discharges at quasi steady state, and the theoretical explanation of the current hole (in lower hybrid advanced scenarios, a region with vanishing current density that appears in the plasma centre). (A.C.)

  2. The epidemiology of tuberculosis in the Pacific, 2000 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viney, Kerri; Hoy, Damian; Roth, Adam; Kelly, Paul; Harley, David; Sleigh, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) poses a significant public health challenge in the 22 Pacific island countries and territories. Using TB surveillance data and World Health Organization (WHO) estimates from 2000 to 2013, we summarize the epidemiology of TB in the Pacific. This was a descriptive study of incident TB cases reported annually by Pacific island national TB programmes to WHO. We counted cases and calculated proportions and case notification rates per 100,000 population. We calculated the proportion of TB patients who completed TB treatment and summed estimates of national incidence, prevalence and mortality, provided by WHO, to produce regional incidence, prevalence and mortality rates per 100,000 population. Estimated TB incidence in the Pacific has remained high but stable from 2000 to 2013; estimated prevalence and mortality have fallen by 20% and 47%, respectively. The TB case notification rate increased by 58%, from 146 to 231 per 100,000 population in the same time period. In 2013, 24,145 TB cases were notified, most (94% or 22,657) were from Papua New Guinea. Kiribati had the highest TB case notification rate at 398 cases per 100,000 population. TB case notification rates were also high in Papua New Guinea, the Marshall Islands and Tuvalu (309, 283 and 182, respectively). TB in the Pacific is improving in some areas; however, high rates affect many countries and the estimated regional incidence rate is stable. To further reduce the burden of TB, a combination of dedicated public health and system-wide approaches are required along with poverty reduction and social protection initiatives.

  3. Salmon on the Edge: Growth and Condition of Juvenile Chum and Pink Salmon in the Northeastern Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, M. V.

    2016-02-01

    As the Arctic and Subarctic regions warm, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) are expected to expand their range northward during ice-free periods in the Bering and Chukchi seas. The oscillating control hypothesis, which describes energetic differences of primary consumers between ice-associated and pelagic production phases, provides a framework for understanding how juvenile salmon might respond to changing conditions at the northern edge of their marine range. Additionally, relationships between growth/condition and temperature, salinity and bottom depth will help identify marine habitats supporting growth at the Arctic-Subarctic interface. In this study, we used survey data from NOAA and Arctic Ecosystem Integrated Survey project to 1) compare growth and condition of juvenile pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) salmon in the NE Bering Sea between warm and cool spring phases, and 2) describe relationships between summer environmental conditions and juvenile salmon growth and condition from 2006 - 2010. Chum and pink salmon were shorter, and chum salmon exhibited greater energy density, in years with cool springs; however, no other aspects of size and condition differed significantly between phases. Over all years, longer and more energy dense individuals of both species were caught at stations with greater bottom depths and in cooler sea-surface temperatures. We found little evidence that chlorophyll-a explained much of the variation in size or condition. We used insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentration as an indicator of relative growth rate for fishes sampled in 2009-2012 and that found juvenile salmon exhibited higher IGF-1 concentrations in 2010-2012 than in 2009. IGF-1 concentrations tended to increase with SST in chum salmon and with bottom depth (a proxy for distance from shore) in pink salmon, but more years of data are needed to adequately describe the relationship of IGF with environmental conditions. This study, although descriptive in

  4. A systematic surveillance programme for infectious salmon anaemia virus supports its absence in the Pacific Northwest of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Lori L.; Creekmore, Lynn H.; Snekvik, Kevin R.; Ferguson, Jayde A.; Warg, Janet V.; Blair, Marilyn; Meyers, Theodore R.; Stewart, Bruce; Warheit, Kenneth I.; Kerwin, John; Goodwin, Andrew E.; Rhodes, Linda D.; Whaley, Janet E.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Bentz, Collette; Shasa, Desiree; Bader, Joel; Winton, James R.

    2018-01-01

    In response to reported findings of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) in British Columbia (BC), Canada, in 2011, U.S. national, state and tribal fisheries managers and fish health specialists developed and implemented a collaborative ISAV surveillance plan for the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Accordingly, over a 3-1/2-year period, 4,962 salmonids were sampled and successfully tested by real-time reverse-transcription PCR. The sample set included multiple tissues from free-ranging Pacific salmonids from coastal regions of Alaska and Washington and farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) from Washington, all representing fish exposed to marine environments. The survey design targeted physiologically compromised or moribund animals more vulnerable to infection as well as species considered susceptible to ISAV. Samples were handled with a documented chain of custody and testing protocols, and criteria for interpretation of test results were defined in advance. All 4,962 completed tests were negative for ISAV RNA. Results of this surveillance effort provide sound evidence to support the absence of ISAV in represented populations of free-ranging and marine-farmed salmonids on the northwest coast of the United States.

  5. Potential responses to climate change in organisms with complex life histories: evolution and plasticity in Pacific salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, L G; Hendry, A P; Lawson, P W; Quinn, T P; Mantua, N J; Battin, J; Shaw, R G; Huey, R B

    2008-05-01

    Salmon life histories are finely tuned to local environmental conditions, which are intimately linked to climate. We summarize the likely impacts of climate change on the physical environment of salmon in the Pacific Northwest and discuss the potential evolutionary consequences of these changes, with particular reference to Columbia River Basin spring/summer Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) salmon. We discuss the possible evolutionary responses in migration and spawning date egg and juvenile growth and development rates, thermal tolerance, and disease resistance. We know little about ocean migration pathways, so cannot confidently suggest the potential changes in this life stage. Climate change might produce conflicting selection pressures in different life stages, which will interact with plastic (i.e. nongenetic) changes in various ways. To clarify these interactions, we present a conceptual model of how changing environmental conditions shift phenotypic optima and, through plastic responses, phenotype distributions, affecting the force of selection. Our predictions are tentative because we lack data on the strength of selection, heritability, and ecological and genetic linkages among many of the traits discussed here. Despite the challenges involved in experimental manipulation of species with complex life histories, such research is essential for full appreciation of the biological effects of climate change.

  6. A review of fast reactor program in Japan. April 2000 - March 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Takashi; Yamashita, Hidetoshi

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the development and activities on fast reactors in Japan thru April 2000 to March 2001. During this period, the most important result of the Japanese Fast Reactor Project was that the first phase 'Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems' was completed at the end of March 2001, and the second phase study has just started in order to narrow down the candidate concepts selected in the first phase for next stage. In the Experimental Fast Reactor 'Joyo', the 35 th rated power operation was completed by the end of May 2000. The 13 th periodical inspection and reconstruction works for the Joyo upgrading program (MK-III) were started on the beginning of June 2000. The modification of the cooling system is underway. In the Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor 'Monju', countermeasures against sodium leakage have already been drawn up based on 'Monju' comprehensive safety review. The Japan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC) has issued a new 'Long-term Program for Research, Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy' in November 2000. (author)

  7. Response of ecosystem metabolism to low densities of spawning Chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Joseph R.; Bellmore, J. Ryan; Watson, Grace A.

    2016-01-01

    Marine derived nutrients delivered by large runs of returning salmon are thought to subsidize the in situ food resources that support juvenile salmon. In the Pacific Northwest, USA, salmon have declined to runs. We explored whether low densities (how recipient ecosystems respond to low levels of marine derived nutrients may inform nutrient augmentation studies aimed at enhancing fish populations.

  8. A 200K SNP chip reveals a novel Pacific salmon louse genotype linked to differential efficacy of emamectin benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messmer, Amber M; Leong, Jong S; Rondeau, Eric B; Mueller, Anita; Despins, Cody A; Minkley, David R; Kent, Matthew P; Lien, Sigbjørn; Boyce, Brad; Morrison, Diane; Fast, Mark D; Norman, Joseph D; Danzmann, Roy G; Koop, Ben F

    2018-04-16

    Antiparasitic drugs such as emamectin benzoate (EMB) are relied upon to reduce the parasite load, particularly of the sea louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis, on farmed salmon. The decline in EMB treatment efficacy for this purpose is an important issue for salmon producers around the world, and particularly for those in the Atlantic Ocean where widespread EMB tolerance in sea lice is recognized as a significant problem. Salmon farms in the Northeast Pacific Ocean have not historically experienced the same issues with treatment efficacy, possibly due to the relatively large population of endemic salmonid hosts that serve to both redistribute surviving lice and dilute populations potentially under selection by introducing naïve lice to farms. Frequent migration of lice among farmed and wild hosts should limit the effect of farm-specific selection pressures on changes to the overall allele frequencies of sea lice in the Pacific Ocean. A previous study using microsatellites examined L. salmonis oncorhynchi from 10 Pacific locations from wild and farmed hosts and found no population structure. Recently however, a farm population of sea lice was detected where EMB bioassay exposure tolerance was abnormally elevated. In response, we have developed a Pacific louse draft genome that complements the previously-released Atlantic louse sequence. These genomes were combined with whole-genome re-sequencing data to design a highly sensitive 201,279 marker SNP array applicable for both subspecies (90,827 validated Pacific loci; 153,569 validated Atlantic loci). Notably, kmer spectrum analysis of the re-sequenced samples indicated that Pacific lice exhibit a large within-individual heterozygosity rate (average of 1 in every 72 bases) that is markedly higher than that of Atlantic individuals (1 in every 173 bases). The SNP chip was used to produce a high-density map for Atlantic sea louse linkage group 5 that was previously shown to be associated with EMB tolerance in Atlantic lice

  9. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A.; Athos, Jaime I.; Dittman, Andrew H. (National Marine Fisheries Service)

    2004-07-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. We were able to develop an analytical method for optimizing the detection of spawning events in Chinook salmon using EMG signals. The method developed essentially captured the consistently greater frequency of higher EMG values associated with females cover digging immediately following spawning. However, females implanted with EMG tags retained the majority of their eggs, which significantly reduced their reproductive success compared to non-tagged females. Future work will include increased sample sizes, and modified tagging methods to reduce negative effects on reproductive success. Upper Columbia River sockeye salmon exposed to the odorants PEA, L-threonine, Larginine and L-glutamate were able to learn and remember these odorants as maturing adults up to 2.5 years after exposure. These results suggest that the alevin and smolt stages are both important developmental periods for successful olfactory imprinting. Furthermore, the period of time that fish are exposed to imprinting odors may be important for successful imprinting. Experimental fish exposed to imprinting odors as smolts for six or one weeks successfully imprinted to these odors but imprinting could not be demonstrated in smolts exposed to odors for only one day. A 2-3 C reduction in seawater rearing temperature during the fall and winter prior to final maturation had little effect on reproductive development of spring Chinook salmon. Body size at spawning and total ovary mass were similar between temperature treatments. The percentage of fertilized eggs was significantly higher for females exposed to the ambient temperature compared

  10. An annotated bibliography for lamprey habitat in the White Salmon River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M. Brady

    2012-01-01

    The October 2011 decommissioning of Condit Dam on the White Salmon River at river kilometer (rkm) 5.3 removed a significant fish passage barrier from the White Salmon River basin for the first time in nearly a century. This affords an opportunity to regain a potentially important drainage basin for Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) production. In anticipation of Pacific lamprey recolonization or reintroduction, aquatic resource managers, such as the Yakama Nation (YN), are planning to perform surveys in the White Salmon River and its tributaries. The likely survey objectives will be to investigate the presence of lamprey, habitat conditions, and habitat availability. In preparation for this work, a compilation and review of the relevant aquatic habitat and biological information on the White Salmon River was conducted. References specific to the White Salmon River were collected and an annotated bibliography was produced including reports containing:

  11. The epidemiology of tuberculosis in the Pacific, 2000 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerri Viney

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Tuberculosis (TB poses a significant public health challenge in the 22 Pacific island countries and territories. Using TB surveillance data and World Health Organization (WHO estimates from 2000 to 2013, we summarize the epidemiology of TB in the Pacific. Methods: This was a descriptive study of incident TB cases reported annually by Pacific island national TB programmes to WHO. We counted cases and calculated proportions and case notification rates per 100 000 population. We calculated the proportion of TB patients who completed TB treatment and summed estimates of national incidence, prevalence and mortality, provided by WHO, to produce regional incidence, prevalence and mortality rates per 100 000 population. Results: Estimated TB incidence in the Pacific has remained high but stable from 2000 to 2013; estimated prevalence and mortality have fallen by 20% and 47%, respectively. The TB case notification rate increased by 58%, from 146 to 231 per 100 000 population in the same time period. In 2013, 24 145 TB cases were notified, most (94% or 22 657 were from Papua New Guinea. Kiribati had the highest TB case notification rate at 398 cases per 100 000 population. TB case notification rates were also high in Papua New Guinea, the Marshall Islands and Tuvalu (309, 283 and 182, respectively. Discussion: TB in the Pacific is improving in some areas; however, high rates affect many countries and the estimated regional incidence rate is stable. To further reduce the burden of TB, a combination of dedicated public health and system-wide approaches are required along with poverty reduction and social protection initiatives.

  12. Research on captive broodstock programs for pacific salmon: annual report, 2000-2001; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berejikian, B.; Nash, C.

    2001-01-01

    It is not yet possible to define a feeding regimen for captively-reared stocks similar to their natural regimen that enhances the post-release fitness of juveniles and improves the reproductive performance of adults. In the natural environment, seasonal differences in food quality and quantity have profound effects on growth and 'wild' attributes, such as external coloration and fin quality. Formulating the right feeds for conservation fish held for long periods in captivity before release is more complicated than formulating diets for farm fish. Recent research in salmonid nutrition shows it is necessary to consider daily dietary protein intake and protein intake relative to total dietary energy level, rather than simply the levels of total dietary lipid

  13. Honolulu Community College Program Health Indicators: 2000-2001 Program Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Honolulu Community Coll.

    This report presents an overall health summation of 21 programs offered at Honolulu Community College (Hawaii) during 2000-2001. The programs profiled are: (1) Auto Body Repair and Painting; (2) Aeronautics Maintenance Technology; (3) Administration of Justice; (4) Automotive Mechanics Technology; (5) Boat Maintenance Repair; (6) Carpentry; (7)…

  14. Evaluations of alternative methods for monitoring and estimating responses of salmon productivity in the North Pacific to future climatic change and other processes: A simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estimation of the relative influence of climate change, compared to other human activities, on dynamics of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) populations can help management agencies take appropriate management actions. We used empirically based simulation modelling of 48 sockeye...

  15. Pacific Telecommunications Council Annual Conference Proceedings (22nd, Honolulu, Hawaii, January 31-February 2, 2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacific Telecommunications Council, Honolulu, HI.

    This proceedings of the 2000 conference of the Pacific Telecommunications Council contains papers and summaries of sessions in the following areas: (1) socio/economic, including regional studies of China, the South Pacific, Southeast Asian, Latin America, Oceania, Korea, India, and the Asia-Pacific telecommunications market; (2) applications,…

  16. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A. (National Marine Fisheries Service)

    2004-01-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Current velocity in rearing vessels had little if any effect on reproductive behavior of captively reared steelhead. However, males and females reared in high velocity vessels participated a greater number of spawning events than siblings reared in low velocity tanks. Observations of nesting females and associated males in a natural stream (Hamma Hamma River) were consistent with those observed in a controlled spawning channel. DNA pedigree analyses did not reveal significant differences in the numbers of fry produced by steelhead reared in high and low velocity vessels. To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon are being exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Subsequently they will be tested for development of long-term memories of these odorants. In 2002-2003, the efficacy of EOG analysis for assessing imprinting was demonstrated and will be applied in these and other behavioral and molecular tools in the current work plan. Results of these experiments will be important to determine the critical periods for imprinting for the offspring of captively-reared fish destined for release into natal rivers or lakes. By early August, the oocytes of all of Rapid River Hatchery chinook salmon females returning from the ocean had advanced to the tertiary yolk globule stage; whereas, only some of the captively reared Lemhi River females sampled had advanced to this stage, and the degree of advancement was not dependent on rearing temperature. The mean spawning time of captive Lemhi River females was 3-4 weeks after that of the Rapid River fish

  17. Annual report of JMTR, No.15. FY2000. April 1, 2000-March 31, 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    During the FY2000 (April 2000 to March 2001), the JMTR (Japan Materials Testing Reactor) was operated in 6 operation cycles (130 days) for irradiation studies on the IASCC of the LWR materials, development of actinide contained uranium-hydride fuels, development of fusion blanket materials, and so on. The total number of capsules and hydraulic rabbis irradiated were 132 and 79, respectively. Technology development programs were conducted in the following fields. As concerning to the utilization of JMTR, a irradiation facility for the IASCC studies, irradiation capsules for RPV surveillance specimen and automatic temperature control system for irradiation capsules were developed. New efficient production process was developed for pebble type tritium breeder material for fusion reactor blanket, and tritium generation/recovery behavior under irradiation was investigated using pebble packed test piece. This report summarizes these activities performed in the department of JMTR during the FY2000. (author)

  18. Ontario Energy Board : 2000-2001 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-10-01

    Fiscal 2000-2001 was a busy period for the Ontario Energy Board (OEB) as it was preparing for Ontario's new, competitive electricity market. The OEB's roles and responsibilities have been changing in recent years in preparation for more administrative responsibilities in the deregulated electricity market. In 2000, the OEB distributed a proposed gas distribution access rule for comment by industry and other stakeholders. Another major highlight of the year's work was the development of the 2000 Model Gas Franchise Agreement. The OEB also assumed a leadership role in the electricity sector to ensure the readiness of retail participants in Ontario's competitive electricity market. The Market Readiness Task Force was instrumental in this activity. This Task Force was led by the Independent Electricity Market Operator. Various rules, codes, handbooks and guidelines were also developed, based on the advise of various stakeholders. The Board also continued its work to improve the efficiency of its regulatory procedures and processes by encouraging electronic business transactions and paperless hearings. These efficient ways of doing business should contribute to the cost-effectiveness of the Board. In 2000 the Board began its review of the first unbundled rate applications from electricity distributors and approved 69 out of 114 applications for mergers and acquisition in the electricity sector. The customary consolidated financial statement including balance sheets, assets, liabilities and capital were also included in this report. tabs., figs.

  19. Spawning Habitat Studies of Hanford Reach Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, David R.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Chien, Yi-Ju (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

    2009-03-02

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted this study for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) with funding provided through the Northwest Power and Conservation Council(a) and the BPA Fish and Wildlife Program. The study was conducted in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. The goal of study was to determine the physical habitat factors necessary to define the redd capacity of fall Chinook salmon that spawn in large mainstem rivers like the Hanford Reach and Snake River. The study was originally commissioned in FY 1994 and then recommissioned in FY 2000 through the Fish and Wildlife Program rolling review of the Columbia River Basin projects. The work described in this report covers the period from 1994 through 2004; however, the majority of the information comes from the last four years of the study (2000 through 2004). Results from the work conducted from 1994 to 2000 were covered in an earlier report. More than any other stock of Pacific salmon, fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) have suffered severe impacts from the hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. Fall Chinook salmon rely heavily on mainstem habitats for all phases of their life cycle, and mainstem hydroelectric dams have inundated or blocked areas that were historically used for spawning and rearing. The natural flow pattern that existed in the historic period has been altered by the dams, which in turn have affected the physical and biological template upon which fall Chinook salmon depend upon for successful reproduction. Operation of the dams to produce power to meet short-term needs in electricity (termed power peaking) produces unnatural fluctuations in flow over a 24-hour cycle. These flow fluctuations alter the physical habitat and disrupt the cues that salmon use to select spawning sites, as well as strand fish in near-shore habitat that becomes dewatered. The quality of spawning gravels has been affected by dam construction, flood protection, and

  20. Report on Symposium on Pacific Energy Cooperation 2001. Energy Security in Asian Region; Taiheiyo energy kyoryoku kaigi 2001 hokokusho. Asia chiiki no energy anzen hosho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-20

    The Symposium on Pacific Energy Cooperation (SPEC), which started in 1986 to discuss energy problems and international cooperation on energy in the Pacific region, met for 2001 in Tokyo on February 20 and 21, 2001, to discuss Energy Security in Asian Region. The conference comprised two keynote addresses, four sessions, and a panel discussion. Twenty-four countries and an international organization were represented by a total of 785 participants who actively exchanged views and opinions. With Director Tsutomu Toichi, The Institute of Energy Economics, Japan, acting as chairman, two keynote addresses were delivered. Minister of Oil Bijan Namdar Zanganeh of Iran reported on The Role of I. R. Iran in Meeting the Growing Oil and Gas Demand in the Asia-Pacific Region and Potential Cooperation with the Region's Consumers. Managing Director Phil Watts of the Royal Dutch/Shell Group reported on Security in Trust - Meeting Asian Energy Needs in the 21st Century. (NEDO)

  1. Progress report 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrand, S.; Carbonell, J.; Chauvin, J.; Compara, V.; Crepe-Renaudin, S.; Conto, J.M. de; Favro, C.; Lleres, A.; Merle, E.; Quemener, G.; Renault, C.; Tur, C.

    2001-01-01

    This document reports the activities of the ISN (nuclear sciences institute of Grenoble) for the 2 last years 2000, 2001. ISN's teams are involved in 3 research axis: elementary particles and hadrons, astro-particles and new systems for producing nuclear energy. In this document the activities have been classified into 18 topics: 1) the ATLAS experiment (detector for LHC), 2) the D0 experiment (electron identification and b-tagging), 3) the DELPHI experiment (R-parity violation), 4) the AMS experiment (embarked cosmic ray detector), 5) the cosmic microwave background (CMB), 6) the MUNU experiment (magnetic moment of antineutrinos), 7) the EUSO experiment (detection of the extreme energy cosmic rays), 8) 2 parity violation experiments (GO and SAMPLE), 9) the photo-production of mesons on proton (GRAAL), 10) a new isomeric state for Sb 136 , 11) a new shape isomer for Kr 72 , 12) new μs isomers near Sn 132 , 13) laser spectroscopy measurements for very neutron-rich tin isotopes, 14) hybrid demonstrator, 15) hadron-therapy (Etoile project), 16) positron emission tomography, 17) theories and models, and 18) technological work on accelerators and ion sources. (A.C.)

  2. Progress report of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This paper is the progress report of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section for the years 2000-2001. The paper comprises the following topics: Budget and staff summary, nuclear data compilations, nuclear data services, development of new generation databases, the network co-ordination of the nuclear reaction data centres and of the nuclear structure and decay data evaluators. (a.n.)

  3. Climate Assessment For 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waple, A. M.; Lawrimore, J. H.; Lyon, B.; Halpert, M. S.; Gleason, K. L.; Menne, M. J.; Schnell, R. C.; Thiaw, W.; Wright, W. J.; Alexander, L.; Salinger, M. J.; Bell, G. D.; Higgins, R. W.; Stone, R. S.

    2002-05-01

    It is the twelfth year that the Climate Assessment has been written to summarize the state of the Earth's climate, and the second year that the National Climatic Data Center has taken the lead in its production. It is a cooperative effort that includes contributions from scientists around the country and the world. The long-running La Nina episode finally came to an end in 2001. The weak La Nina, which began in mid-1998 persisted through the first half of the year but gave way to neutral ENSO conditions for the latter half. Global temperatures in 2001 were 0.51C (0.92F) above the long-term (1880-2000) average, which places 2001 as the second warmest year on record. Land temperatures were 0.75C (1.35F) above average and ocean temperatures were 0.40C (0.72F) above the 1880-2000 mean. This ranks them as 2nd and 3rd warmest on record respectively. The Northern Hemisphere temperature continues to average near record levels in 2001 at 0.60C (1.08F) above the long-term average. The Southern Hemisphere also reflects the globally warmer conditions, with a positive anomaly of 0.43C (0.77F). Annual anomalies in excess of 1.0C (1.8F) were widespread across North America and much of Europe and the Middle East, while significantly cooler than average conditions were confined to Western Australia the Northeast and Northwest Pacific Ocean, and the far southeastern region of the Pacific, near coastal Chile. Although no hurricanes made landfall in the United States for the second consecutive year, it was nonetheless an extremely active Atlantic hurricane season, the fourth most active on record. Tropical Storm Allison became the costliest tropical storm on record when it caused around five billion US dollars worth of damage in southern and southeastern USA. The season was slow to start but quickly escalated in the last three months of the season and it was the first time in recorded history that three hurricanes have formed in the Atlantic in the month of November. Other notable

  4. Progress report on neutron scattering research. April 1, 2000 - March 31, 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Kazuya; Katano, Susumu; Koizumi, Satoshi

    2002-03-01

    This issue summarizes research progress in neutron scattering at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) by utilizing the research reactor (JRR-3M) during the period between April 1, 2000 and March 31, 2001. (author)

  5. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 2001-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Darrell R.; Pearson, Erik W.

    2000-12-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan for FY 2001-2005 sets forth the laboratory's mission, roles, technical capabilities, and laboratory strategic plan. In the plan, major initiatives also are proposed and the transitioning initiatives are discussed. The Programmatic Strategy section details our strategic intent, roles, and research thrusts in each of the U.S. Department of Energy's mission areas. The Operations/Infrastructure Strategic Plan section includes information on the laboratory's human resources; environment, safety, and health management; safeguards and security; site and facilities management; information resources management; managaement procatices and standards; and communications and trust.

  6. LESSONS FROM THE CRISIS – TURKISH BANKING CRISIS OF 2000-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela PICIU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the past two decades or so the Turkish banking system has experienced many changes especially with the liberalization of the financial markets, financial inovations, inovations in the information technology and the increase in the number of financial transactions. With consolidations, competition has grown among banks and they are now competing for smaller profit margins. With all these changes, there has also been a change in the type of risks to which banks are now exposed. If the banking system in Turkey is following the right path as the authorities in Turkey claim then how did the country get into the grip of the banking crisis of 2000-2001? What went wrong and why bank loans turned into bad debts must be examined. The Turkish Experience resulting from the financial crisis of 2000-2001 shows that the country has learned the lesson. The financial crisis of 2008 hadn't an impact so great in Turkey compared with other countries.

  7. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This is the annual report of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the year ending March 31, 2001 and summarizes the activities of AECL during the period 2000-2001. The activities covered in this report include the CANDU reactor business, with progress being reported in the construction of two CANDU 6 reactors for the Qinshan CANDU project in China, the anticipated completion of Cernavoda unit 2, the completion of spent fuel storage at Cernavoda unit 1 in Romania, as well as the service business with New Brunswick Power, Ontario Power Generation, Bruce Power and Hydro Quebec in the refurbishment of operating, CANDU reactors. In the R and D programs discussions continue on funding for the Canadian Neutron Facility for Materials Research (CNF) and progress on the Maple medical isotope reactor

  8. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 2000-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This is the annual report of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the year ending March 31, 2001 and summarizes the activities of AECL during the period 2000-2001. The activities covered in this report include the CANDU reactor business, with progress being reported in the construction of two CANDU 6 reactors for the Qinshan CANDU project in China, the anticipated completion of Cernavoda unit 2, the completion of spent fuel storage at Cernavoda unit 1 in Romania, as well as the service business with New Brunswick Power, Ontario Power Generation, Bruce Power and Hydro Quebec in the refurbishment of operating, CANDU reactors. In the R and D programs discussions continue on funding for the Canadian Neutron Facility for Materials Research (CNF) and progress on the Maple medical isotope reactor.

  9. Factors Affecting the Recreational Fishery in Moses Lake, Washington, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, Dave

    2003-02-04

    The Moses Lake Project (project No. 199502800) was first funded by Bonneville Power Administration during the FY 99. Work commenced and proceeded through September 2001 when questions arouse on the Scope of Work. Due to funding issues at the beginning of FY 2001 we were unable to secure monies to continue with our proposed scope of work. Consequently, the Moses Lake Project was reduced to one full-time employee. An extension of fifty thousand dollars was granted in which the project with one remaining member by October 2001 continued to operate. By December 2001 the NWPPC granted an additional 20K in spending to secure an advisor that could assist in providing a proposal that the ISRP would find amenable. By Jan 2002, the Moses Lake staff put Dr. David Bennett, from the University of Idaho on payroll. With the guidance of Dr. Bennett the Moses Lake project staff was successful in turning in a new version of the proposal and ultimately received funding by July of 2002. Consequently, the lack of manpower and time spent revising and resubmitting said proposal hampered progress. Consequently, this report covers work conducted on the original Scope of Work (SOW) to July 2002 and then follows the new and accepted SOW from July 2002 through September 2002. Work on the tasks within the newest proposal began prior to official acceptance so as not to loose the window of opportunity to collect data during the summer field season. As of July 2000 we moved forward and began the appropriate tasks outlined in our scope of work. Therefore, portions of the FY 2001 annual report address tasks outlined in the original (appendix 1, original FY2000 SOW) and newest scope(s) of work (Appendix 2, new FY 2000 SOW).

  10. Salmon Habitat Modeling Using VELMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    An EPA Western Ecology Division (WED) watershed modeling team has developed a watershed simulation model, VELMA, that state and federal agencies are interested in using for salmon recovery planning in the Pacific Northwest. Team member Bob McKane has been invited to serve on an e...

  11. FINANCIAL AUDIT: Capitol Preservation Fund's Fiscal Years 2001 and 2000 Financial Statements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Franzel, Jeanette

    2002-01-01

    The statements of the financial position of the Capitol Preservation Fund (the Fund) as of September 30, 2001, and 2000 were audited, and the related statements of activities and statements of cash flows for the fiscal years then ended...

  12. An Analysis of Asia-Pacific Educational Technology Research Published Internationally in 2000-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Insung; Yoo, Mina

    2014-01-01

    The past fourteen years have seen a significant rise in the percentage of Asia-Pacific papers on educational technology (ET) published internationally: from 13.7% in 2000 to 38.4% in 2013. This study seeks to identify the overall trends and gaps in this research. Of the 4,332 articles published in five selected international journals between 2000

  13. Hysterectomy trends in Australia, 2000-2001 to 2013-2014: joinpoint regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Louise F; Pandeya, Nirmala; Mishra, Gita D

    2017-10-01

    Hysterectomy is a common gynecological procedure, particularly in middle and high income countries. The aim of this paper was to describe and examine hysterectomy trends in Australia from 2000-2001 to 2013-2014. For women aged 25 years and over, data on the number of hysterectomies performed in Australia annually were sourced from the National Hospital and Morbidity Database. Age-specific and age-standardized hysterectomy rates per 10 000 women were estimated with adjustment for hysterectomy prevalence in the population. Using joinpoint regression analysis, we estimated the average annual percentage change over the whole study period (2000-2014) and the annual percentage change for each identified trend line segment. A total of 431 162 hysterectomy procedures were performed between 2000-2001 and 2013-2014; an annual average of 30 797 procedures (for women aged 25+ years). The age-standardized hysterectomy rate, adjusted for underlying hysterectomy prevalence, decreased significantly over the whole study period [average annual percentage change -2.8%; 95% confidence interval (CI) -3.5%, -2.2%]. The trend was not linear with one joinpoint detected in 2008-2009. Between 2000-2001 and 2008-2009 there was a significant decrease in incidence (annual percentage change -4.4%; 95% CI -5.2%, -3.7%); from 2008-2009 to 2013-2014 the decrease was minimal and not significantly different from zero (annual percentage change -0.1%; 95% CI -1.7%, 1.5%). A similar change in trend was seen in all age groups. Hysterectomy rates in Australian women aged 25 years and over have declined in the first decade of the 21st century. However, in the last 5 years, rates appear to have stabilized. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Pacific salmonines in the Great Lakes Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claramunt, Randall M.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Clapp, David; Taylor, William W.; Lynch, Abigail J.; Léonard, Nancy J.

    2012-01-01

    Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) are a valuable resource, both within their native range in the North Pacific rim and in the Great Lakes basin. Understanding their value from a biological and economic perspective in the Great Lakes, however, requires an understanding of changes in the ecosystem and of management actions that have been taken to promote system stability, integrity, and sustainable fisheries. Pacific salmonine introductions to the Great Lakes are comprised mainly of Chinook salmon, coho salmon, and steelhead and have accounted for 421, 177, and 247 million fish, respectively, stocked during 1966-2007. Stocking of Pacific salmonines has been effective in substantially reducing exotic prey fish abundances in several of the Great Lakes (e.g., lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario). The goal of our evaluation was to highlight differences in management strategies and perspectives across the basin, and to evaluate policies for Pacific salmonine management in the Great Lakes. Currently, a potential conflict exists between Pacific salmonine management and native fish rehabilitation goals because of the desire to sustain recreational fisheries and to develop self-sustaining populations of stocked Pacific salmonines in the Great Lakes. We provide evidence that suggests Pacific salmonines have not only become naturalized to the food webs of the Great Lakes, but that their populations (specifically Chinook salmon) may be fluctuating in concert with specific prey (i.e., alewives) whose populations are changing relative to environmental conditions and ecosystem disturbances. Remaining questions, however, are whether or not “natural” fluctuations in predator and prey provide enough “stability” in the Great Lakes food webs, and even more importantly, would a choice by managers to attempt to reduce the severity of predator-prey oscillations be antagonistic to native fish restoration efforts. We argue that, on each of the Great Lakes, managers are pursuing

  15. Center for Geometrical Metrology Annual Report 2000-2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Bariani, Paolo

    The objective of this Annual Report is to give a general introduction to CGM as well as to give an account of the tasks carried out using the facilities of CGM’s Instrument Centre during 2000 and 2001. A considerable number of people have contributed to the establishment of the Centre and who...... are involved in it's daily operation. In particular, I would like to thank my colleagues here at the Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Management (IPL) at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and at the Institute for Product Development (IPU), as well as those external consultants who during...

  16. Adaptive strategies and life history characteristics in a warming climate: salmon in the Arctic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2013-01-01

    In the warming Arctic, aquatic habitats are in flux and salmon are exploring their options. Adult Pacific salmon, including sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka), coho (O. kisutch), Chinook (O. tshawytscha), pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) have been captured throughout the Arctic. Pink and chum salmon are the most common species found in the Arctic today. These species are less dependent on freshwater habitats as juveniles and grow quickly in marine habitats. Putative spawning populations are rare in the North American Arctic and limited to pink salmon in drainages north of Point Hope, Alaska, chum salmon spawning rivers draining to the northwestern Beaufort Sea, and small populations of chum and pink salmon in Canada’s Mackenzie River. Pacific salmon have colonized several large river basins draining to the Kara, Laptev and East Siberian seas in the Russian Arctic. These populations probably developed from hatchery supplementation efforts in the 1960’s. Hundreds of populations of Arctic Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are found in Russia, Norway and Finland. Atlantic salmon have extended their range eastward as far as the Kara Sea in central Russian. A small native population of Atlantic salmon is found in Canada’s Ungava Bay. The northern tip of Quebec seems to be an Atlantic salmon migration barrier for other North American stocks. Compatibility between life history requirements and ecological conditions are prerequisite for salmon colonizing Arctic habitats. Broad-scale predictive models of climate change in the Arctic give little information about feedback processes contributing to local conditions, especially in freshwater systems. This paper reviews the recent history of salmon in the Arctic and explores various patterns of climate change that may influence range expansions and future sustainability of salmon in Arctic habitats. A summary of the research needs that will allow informed expectation of further Arctic colonization by salmon is given.

  17. Evolutionary responses by native species to major anthropogenic changes to their ecosystems: Pacific salmon in the Columbia River hydropower system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waples, Robin S; Zabel, Richard W; Scheuerell, Mark D; Sanderson, Beth L

    2008-01-01

    The human footprint is now large in all the Earth's ecosystems, and construction of large dams in major river basins is among the anthropogenic changes that have had the most profound ecological consequences, particularly for migratory fishes. In the Columbia River basin of the western USA, considerable effort has been directed toward evaluating demographic effects of dams, yet little attention has been paid to evolutionary responses of migratory salmon to altered selective regimes. Here we make a first attempt to address this information gap. Transformation of the free-flowing Columbia River into a series of slack-water reservoirs has relaxed selection for adults capable of migrating long distances upstream against strong flows; conditions now favour fish capable of migrating through lakes and finding and navigating fish ladders. Juveniles must now be capable of surviving passage through multiple dams or collection and transportation around the dams. River flow patterns deliver some groups of juvenile salmon to the estuary later than is optimal for ocean survival, but countervailing selective pressures might constrain an evolutionary response toward earlier migration timing. Dams have increased the cost of migration, which reduces energy available for sexual selection and favours a nonmigratory life history. Reservoirs are a benign environment for many non-native species that are competitors with or predators on salmon, and evolutionary responses are likely (but undocumented). More research is needed to tease apart the relative importance of evolutionary vs. plastic responses of salmon to these environmental changes; this research is logistically challenging for species with life histories like Pacific salmon, but results should substantially improve our understanding of key processes. If the Columbia River is ever returned to a quasinatural, free-flowing state, remaining populations might face a Darwinian debt (and temporarily reduced fitness) as they struggle to

  18. Population Structure of Columbia River Basin Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout, Technical Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brannon, E.L.; National Science Foundation (U.S.)

    2002-08-01

    The population structure of chinook salmon and steelhead trout is presented as an assimilation of the life history forms that have evolved in synchrony with diverse and complex environments over their Pacific range. As poikilotherms, temperature is described as the overwhelming environmental influence that determines what life history options occur and where they are distributed. The different populations represent ecological types referred to as spring-, summer-, fall, and winter-run segments, as well as stream- and ocean-type, or stream- and ocean-maturing life history forms. However, they are more correctly described as a continuum of forms that fall along a temporal cline related to incubation and rearing temperatures that determine spawn timing and juvenile residence patterns. Once new habitats are colonized, members of the founding populations spread through adaptive evolution to assume complementary life history strategies. The related population units are collectively referred to as a metapopulation, and members most closely associated within common temporal and geographic boundaries are designated as first-order metapopulations. Population structure of chinook salmon and steelhead in the Columbia Basin, therefore, is the reflection of the genetic composition of the founding source or sources within the respective region, shaped by the environment, principally temperature, that defines life history evolutionary strategy to maximize fitness under the conditions delineated. The complexity of structure rests with the diversity of opportunities over the elevations that exist within the Basin. Consistent with natural selection, rather than simply attempting to preserve populations, the challenge is to provide opportunities to expand their range to new or restored habitat that can accommodate genetic adaptation as directional environmental changes are elaborated. Artificial propagation can have a critical role in this process, and the emphasis must be placed on

  19. AFSC/ABL: Karluk sockeye salmon scale time series

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To better understand how density-dependent growth of ocean-dwelling Pacific salmon varied with climate and population dynamics, we examined the marine growth of...

  20. The Influence of Salmon Recolonization on Riparian Communities in the Cedar River, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravek, J.; Clipp, H.; Kiffney, P.

    2016-02-01

    Salmon are a valuable resource throughout the Pacific Northwest, but increasing human activity is degrading coastal ecosystems and threatening local salmon populations. Salmon conservation efforts often focus on habitat restoration, including the re-colonization of salmon into historically obstructed areas such as the Cedar River in Washington, USA. However, to assess the long term implications of salmon re-colonization on a landscape scale, it is critical to consider not only the river ecosystem but also the surrounding riparian habitat. Although prior studies suggest that salmon alter riparian food web dynamics, the riparian community on the Cedar River has not yet been characterized. To investigate possible connections between salmon and the riparian habitat after 12 years of re-colonization, we surveyed riparian spider communities along a gradient of salmon inputs (g/m2). In 10-m transects along the banks of the river, we identified spiders and spider webs, collected prey from webs, and characterized nearby aquatic macroinvertebrate communities. We found that the density of aquatic macroinvertebrates, as well as the density of spider prey, both had significant positive relationships with salmon inputs, supporting the hypothesis that salmon provide energy and nutrients for both aquatic and riparian food webs. We also found that spider diversity significantly decreased with salmon inputs, potentially due to confounding factors such as stream gradient or vegetation structure. Although additional information is needed to fully understand this relationship, the significant connection between salmon inputs and spider diversity is compelling motivation for further studies regarding the link between aquatic and riparian systems on the Cedar River. Understanding the connections between salmon and the riparian community is critical to characterizing the long term, landscape-scale implications of sustainable salmon management in the Pacific Northwest.

  1. Progress report 2000 / 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The 2000-2001 period has seen many facts of importance for the EURATOM-Cea association. The first outstanding fact is the positive evolution of the ITER project because of both the willingness of the partners and the French proposition to the European Union to consider the Cadarache site as the European site. The second outstanding fact is both the installation on Tore-Supra of a new generation of plasma-facing component: the Ciel project and the launch of the Cimes project whose aim is to allow Tore-Supra to reach discharge up to 1000 s. The third outstanding fact is the continuation of experiments in Jet after 1999, end date of the Jet Joint Undertaking. These new provisions aim at maintaining in activity the spearhead of the European program, waiting for a clarification of the ITER situation. Among the results obtained in Jet operations, we can quote those having a direct influence on the ITER performances: - the beneficial effect of a high triangularity on the ELM (edge localized modes) and on the confinement factor at high density, - the real time control of advanced tokamak discharges at quasi steady state, and the theoretical explanation of the current hole (in lower hybrid advanced scenarios, a region with vanishing current density that appears in the plasma centre). (A.C.)

  2. Collaborative Approaches to Flow Restoration in Intermittent Salmon-Bearing Streams: Salmon Creek, CA, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleo Woelfle-Erskine

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In Mediterranean-climate regions of California and southern Oregon, juvenile salmon depend on groundwater aquifers to sustain their tributary habitats through the dry summers. Along California’s North Coast streams, private property regimes on land have created commons tragedies in groundwater and salmon fisheries, both classic examples of commons that are often governed collectively and sustainably by their users. Understanding the linkages between salmon and groundwater is one major focus of salmon recovery and climate change adaptation planning in central California and increasingly throughout the Pacific Northwest. In this paper, I use extended field interviews and participant-observation in field ecology campaigns and regulatory forums to explore how, in one water-scarce, salmon-bearing watershed on California’s central coast, collaborators are synthesizing agency and landowner data on groundwater and salmon management. I focus on three projects undertaken by citizen scientists in collaboration with me and Gold Ridge Resource Conservation District staff: salmonid censuses, mapping of wet and dry stream reaches and well monitoring. I find that collaborative research initiated by local residents and agency personnel has, in some cases, created a new sense of ecological possibility in the region. I also consider some limitations of this collaborations, namely the lack of engagement with indigenous Pomo and Miwok tribal members, with the Confederated Tribes of Graton Rancheria and with farmworkers and other marginalized residents, and suggest strategies for deepening environmental justice commitments in future collaborative work.

  3. The Kuril Islands as a potential region for aquaculture: Trace elements in chum salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khristoforova, Nadezhda K.; Tsygankov, Vasiliy Yu.; Lukyanova, Olga N.; Boyarova, Margarita D.

    2016-01-01

    The Kuril Islands region is considered promising for development of salmon aquaculture. There are 41 salmon fish hatcheries in the Sakhalin Island and the Kuril Islands, 34 of them are hatcheries of the chum. Therefore, concentrations of six elements (Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb, As, and Hg) were determined in chum salmon were caught in this region. The contents of toxic elements (Cd, Pb, As, and Hg) don't exceed their maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) according to the Russian sanitary standards, but concentration of Pb are closely to MPC. Increased concentrations of Pb in wild chum have the natural origin. The unusual conditions of the Western Pacific are formed under the influence such factors as volcanism and upwelling. - Highlights: • High content of Pb, found in chum from the Kuril Islands, is caused by natural sources. • The content of elements do not exceed maximum permissible concentrations in Russia. • Kuril region is considered as promising zone for development of salmon aquaculture. - Kuril region is suitable for aquaculture development of Pacific salmon.

  4. Understanding the Complexities of Communicating Management Decisions on the Subsistence Use of Yukon River Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, J. F.; Trainor, S.

    2017-12-01

    Over 20,000 residents in Alaska and Yukon Territory rely upon the Yukon River to provide them harvests of Pacific salmon each year. Salmon are a highly valued food resource and the practice of salmon fishing along the Yukon is deep rooted in local cultures and traditions. Potential future impacts of climate change on the health of Yukon River salmon stocks could be significant. Collaborative managerial processes which incorporate the viewpoints of subsistence stakeholders will be crucial in enabling communities and managerial institutions to adapt and manage these impacts. However, the massive extent of the Yukon River makes it difficult for communities rich with highly localized knowledge to situate themselves within a drainage-wide context of resource availability, and to fully understand the implications that management decisions may have for their harvest. Differences in salmon availability and abundance between the upper and lower Yukon, commercial vs. subsistence fishery interests, and enforcement of the international Pacific Salmon Treaty further complicate understanding and makes the topic of salmon as a subsistence resource a highly contentious issue. A map which synthesizes the presence and absence of Pacific salmon throughout the entire Yukon River drainage was requested by both subsistence fishers and natural resource managers in Alaska in order to help facilitate productive conversations about salmon management decisions. Interviews with Alaskan stakeholders with managerial, biological, and subsistence harvest backgrounds were carried out and a literature review was conducted in order to understand what such a map should and could accomplish. During the research process, numerous data gaps concerning the distribution of salmon along the Yukon River were discovered, and insights about the complexities involved in translating science when it is situated within a charged political, economic, and cultural context were revealed. Preliminary maps depicting

  5. Juventudes e imagens na revista Vogue Brasil (2000-2001)

    OpenAIRE

    Novelli, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    Esta pesquisa buscou verificar como anúncios publicitários de cinco marcas nacionais, veiculados na revista Vogue Brasil , no período de 2000 a 2001, exploraram conceitos socioculturais associados às juventudes na contemporaneidade, através da noção de juvenilização , considerada como uma categoria social produtora de sentidos no século XX. Os apontamentos teóricos e metodológicos demonstraram que essa noção é construída historicamente e operada pela publicidade, sendo o corpo sede de signi...

  6. Cessation of a salmon decline with control of parasites

    KAUST Repository

    Peacock, Stephanie J.

    2013-04-01

    The resilience of coastal social-ecological systems may depend on adaptive responses to aquaculture disease outbreaks that can threaten wild and farm fish. A nine-year study of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) and pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) from Pacific Canada indicates that adaptive changes in parasite management on salmon farms have yielded positive conservation outcomes. After four years of sea lice epizootics and wild salmon population decline, parasiticide application on salmon farms was adapted to the timing of wild salmon migrations. Winter treatment of farm fish with parasiticides, prior to the out-migration of wild juvenile salmon, has reduced epizootics of wild salmon without significantly increasing the annual number of treatments. Levels of parasites on wild juvenile salmon significantly influence the growth rate of affected salmon populations, suggesting that these changes in management have had positive outcomes for wild salmon populations. These adaptive changes have not occurred through formal adaptive management, but rather, through multi-stakeholder processes arising from a contentious scientific and public debate. Despite the apparent success of parasite control on salmon farms in the study region, there remain concerns about the long-term sustainability of this approach because of the unknown ecological effects of parasticides and the potential for parasite resistance to chemical treatments. © 2013 by the Ecological Society of America.

  7. Temperature and salinity profiles from CTD casts from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the SE Pacific (limit -140 W) as part of the East Pacific Investigations of Climate Processes in the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere from 2001-02-01 to 2001-03-08 (NODC Accession 0000660)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD and other data were collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the SE Pacific (limit-140 W) from from 01 February 2001 to 08 March 2001. CTD data consist of...

  8. Temperature and salinity profiles from CTD casts from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the NE and SE Pacific as part of the East Pacific Investigations of Climate Processes in support of the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere from 2001-09-05 to 2001-10-25 (NODC Accession 0000657)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD and other data were collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the NE and SE Pacific from 05 September 2001 to 25 October 2001. CTD data consist of temperature...

  9. Consolidated results 2000. Forecasts 2001; Resultats consolides 2000. Perspectives 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This document presents an economic analysis of the Group Gaz De France consolidated results for the year 2000. The main topics are the evolution of the energy market, the great economic growth for the five businesses of the Group (exploration-production, trade, transport, distribution and services), financial results affected by the supply costs increase, the position reinforcement among the gas leaders in Europe and the highlights of 2000. (A.L.B.)

  10. Salmon recovery planning using the VELMA model

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed a set of tools to provide decision support for community-based salmon recovery planning in Pacific Northwest watersheds. This seminar describes how these tools are being integrated and applied in collaboration with Puget Sound tribes and community stakeholders to add...

  11. Chinook Salmon Adult Abundance Monitoring in Lake Creek, Idaho, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul

    2003-11-01

    Underwater time- lapse video technology has been used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) escapement into the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, since 1998. Underwater time-lapse videography is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. The Secesh River is also a control stream under the Idaho Salmon Supplementation study. This project has successfully demonstrated the application of underwater video monitoring to accurately quantify chinook salmon abundance in Lake Creek in 1998, 1999, 2001 and 2002. The adult salmon spawner escapement into Lake Creek in 2002 was 410 fish. Jack salmon comprised 7.1 percent of the run. Estimated hatchery composition was 6.1 percent of the spawning run. The first fish passage on Lake Creek was recorded on June 26, 15 days after installation of the fish counting station. Peak net upstream movement of 41 adults occurred on July 8. Peak of total movement activity was August 18. The last fish passed through the Lake Creek fish counting station on September 2. Snow pack in the drainage was 91% of the average during the winter of 2001/2002. Video determined salmon spawner abundance was compared to redd count expansion method point estimates in Lake Creek in 2002. Expanded index area redd count and extensive area redd count point estimates in 2002, estimated from one percent fewer to 56 percent greater number of spawners than underwater video determined spawner abundance. Redd count expansion methods varied from two percent fewer to 55 percent greater in 2001, 11 to 46 percent fewer in 1999 and 104 to 214 percent greater in 1998. Redd count expansion values had unknown variation associated with the point estimates. Fish per redd numbers determined by video abundance and multiple pass redd counts of the larger extensive survey

  12. The influence of fall-spawning coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) on growth and production of juvenile coho salmon rearing in beaver ponds on the Copper River Delta, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirk W. Lang; Gordon H. Reeves; James D. Hall; Mark S. Wipfli

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the influence of fall-spawning coho salmon (Oncorhynchrcs kisutch) on the density, growth rate, body condition, and survival to outmigration of juvenile coho salmon on the Copper River Delta, Alaska, USA. During the fall of 1999 and 2000, fish rearing in beaver ponds that received spawning salmon were compared with fish from...

  13. Seasonal marine growth of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in relation to competition with Asian pink salmon (O. gorbuscho) and the 1977 ocean regime shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Farley, Ed; Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Hagen, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Recent research demonstrated significantly lower growth and survival of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) during odd-numbered years of their second or third years at sea (1975, 1977, etc.), a trend that was opposite that of Asian pink salmon (O. gorbuscha) abundance. Here we evaluated seasonal growth trends of Kvichak and Egegik river sockeye salmon (Bristol Bay stocks) during even- and odd-numbered years at sea by measuring scale circuli increments within each growth zone of each major salmon age group between 1955 and 2000. First year scale growth was not significantly different between odd- and even-numbered years, but peak growth of age-2. smolts was significantly higher than age-1 smolts. Total second and third year scale growth of salmon was significantly lower during odd- than during even-numbered years. However, reduced scale growth in odd-numbered years began after peak growth in spring and continued through summer and fall even though most pink salmon had left the high seas by late July (10-18% growth reduction in odd vs. even years). The alternating odd and even year growth pattern was consistent before and after the 1977 ocean regime shift. During 1977-2000, when salmon abundance was relatively great, sockeye salmon growth was high during specific seasons compared with that during 1955-1976, that is to say, immediately after entry to Bristol Bay, after peak growth in the first year, during the middle of the second growing season, and during spring of the third season. Growth after the spring peak in the third year at sea was relatively low during 1977-2000. We hypothesize that high consumption rates of prey by pink salmon during spring through mid-July of odd-numbered years, coupled with declining zooplankton biomass during summer and potentially cyclic abundances of squid and other prey, contributed to reduced prey availability and therefore reduced growth of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon during late spring through fall of odd-numbered years.

  14. Migration trends of Sockeye Salmon at the northern edge of their distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Michael P.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Keith, Kevin D.; Schelske, Merlyn; Lean, Charles; Douglas, David C.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is affecting arctic and subarctic ecosystems, and anadromous fish such as Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. are particularly susceptible due to the physiological challenge of spawning migrations. Predicting how migratory timing will change under Arctic warming scenarios requires an understanding of how environmental factors drive salmon migrations. Multiple mechanisms exist by which environmental conditions may influence migrating salmon, including altered migration cues from the ocean and natal river. We explored relationships between interannual variability and annual migration timing (2003–2014) of Sockeye Salmon O. nerka in a subarctic watershed with environmental conditions at broad, intermediate, and local spatial scales. Low numbers of Sockeye Salmon have returned to this high-latitude watershed in recent years, and run size has been a dominant influence on the migration duration and the midpoint date of the run. The duration of the migration upriver varied by as much as 25 d across years, and shorter run durations were associated with smaller run sizes. The duration of the migration was also extended with warmer sea surface temperatures in the staging area and lower values of the North Pacific Index. The midpoint date of the total run was earlier when the run size was larger, whereas the midpoint date was delayed during years in which river temperatures warmed earlier in the season. Documenting factors related to the migration of Sockeye Salmon near the northern limit of their range provides insights into the determinants of salmon migrations and suggests processes that could be important for determining future changes in arctic and subarctic ecosystems.

  15. Reconnecting Social and Ecological Resilience in Salmon Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Bottom

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Fishery management programs designed to control Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. for optimum production have failed to prevent widespread fish population decline and have caused greater uncertainty for salmon, their ecosystems, and the people who depend upon them. In this special feature introduction, we explore several key attributes of ecosystem resilience that have been overlooked by traditional salmon management approaches. The dynamics of salmon ecosystems involve social-ecological interactions across multiple scales that create difficult mismatches with the many jurisdictions that manage fisheries and other natural resources. Of particular importance to ecosystem resilience are large-scale shifts in oceanic and climatic regimes or in global economic conditions that unpredictably alter social and ecological systems. Past management actions that did not account for such changes have undermined salmon population resilience and increased the risk of irreversible regime shifts in salmon ecosystems. Because salmon convey important provisioning, cultural, and supporting services to their local watersheds, widespread population decline has undermined both human well-being and ecosystem resilience. Strengthening resilience will require expanding habitat opportunities for salmon populations to express their maximum life-history variation. Such actions also may benefit the "response diversity" of local communities by expanding the opportunities for people to express diverse social and economic values. Reestablishing social-ecological connections in salmon ecosystems will provide important ecosystem services, including those that depend on clean water, ample stream flows, functional wetlands and floodplains, intact riparian systems, and abundant fish populations.

  16. Variability in stream discharge and temperature: a preliminary assessment of the implications for juvenile and spawning Atlantic salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tetzlaff

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on understanding the temporal variability in hydrological and thermal conditions in a small mountain stream and its potential implication for two life stages of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar – stream resident juveniles and returning adult spawners. Stream discharge and temperature in the Girnock Burn, NE Scotland, were characterised over ten hydrological years (1994/1995–2003/2004. Attention was focussed on assessing variations during particular ecologically 'sensitive' time periods when selected life-stages of salmon behaviour may be especially influenced by hydrological and thermal conditions. Empirical discharge data were used to derive hydraulic parameters to predict the Critical Displacement Velocity (CDV of juvenile salmon. This is the velocity above which fish may no longer be able to hold station in the water column and thus can be used as an index of time periods where feeding behaviour might be constrained. In the Girnock Burn, strong inter- and intra-annual variability in hydrological and thermal conditions may have important implications for feeding opportunities for juvenile fish; both during important growth periods in late winter and early spring, and the emergence of fry in the late spring. Time periods when foraging behaviour of juvenile salmon may be constrained by hydraulic conditions were assessed as the percentage time when CDV for 0+ and 1+ fish were exceeded by mean daily stream velocities. Clear seasonal patterns of CDV were apparent, with higher summer values driven by higher stream temperatures and fish length. Inter-annual variability in the time when mean stream velocity exceeded CDV for 0+ fish ranged between 29.3% (1997/1998 and 44.7% (2000/2001. For 1+ fish mean stream velocity exceeded CDV between 14.5% (1997/1998 and 30.7% (2000/2001 of the time. The movement of adult spawners into the Girnock Burn in preparation for autumn spawning (late October to mid-November exhibited a complex

  17. Evaluating the consequences of salmon nutrients for riparian organisms: Linking condition metrics to stable isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizza, Carmella; Sanderson, Beth L; Coe, Holly J; Chaloner, Dominic T

    2017-03-01

    Stable isotope ratios (δ 13 C and δ 15 N) have been used extensively to trace nutrients from Pacific salmon, but salmon transfer more than carbon and nitrogen to stream ecosystems, such as phosphorus, minerals, proteins, and lipids. To examine the importance of these nutrients, metrics other than isotopes need to be considered, particularly when so few studies have made direct links between these nutrients and how they affect riparian organisms. Our study specifically examined δ 13 C and δ 15 N of riparian organisms from salmon and non-salmon streams in Idaho, USA, at different distances from the streams, and examined whether the quality of riparian plants and the body condition of invertebrates varied with access to these nutrients. Overall, quality and condition metrics did not mirror stable isotope patterns. Most notably, all riparian organisms exhibited elevated δ 15 N in salmon streams, but also with proximity to both stream types suggesting that both salmon and landscape factors may affect δ 15 N. The amount of nitrogen incorporated from Pacific salmon was low for all organisms (1950s. In addition, our results support those of other studies that have cautioned that inferences from natural abundance isotope data, particularly in conjunction with mixing models for salmon-derived nutrient percentage estimates, may be confounded by biogeochemical transformations of nitrogen, physiological processes, and even historical legacies of nitrogen sources. Critically, studies should move beyond simply describing isotopic patterns to focusing on the consequences of salmon-derived nutrients by quantifying the condition and fitness of organisms putatively using those resources.

  18. Costs of climate change: Economic value of Yakima River salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.M.; Shankle, S.A.; Scott, M.J.; Neitzel, D.A.; Chatters, J.C.

    1992-07-01

    This work resulted from a continuing multidisciplinary analysis of species preservation and global change. The paper explores the economic cost of a potential regional warming as it affects one Pacific Northwest natural resource, the spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshcawytscha). Climate change and planned habitat improvements impact the production and economic value of soling chinook salmon of the Yakima River tributary of the Columbia River in eastern Washington. The paper presents a derivation of the total economic value of a chinook salmon, which includes the summation of the existence, commercial, recreational, and capital values of the fish. When currently available commercial, recreational, existence, and capital values for chinook salmon were applied to estimated population changes, the estimated change in the economic value per fish associated with reduction of one fish run proved significant

  19. Radioactivity monitoring of the Irish marine environment 2000 and 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, T.P.; McMahon, C.A.; Dowdall, A.

    2003-04-01

    This report presents the results of the marine radioactivity monitoring programme carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) during 2000 and 2001. The primary objective of the programme is to assess the exposure of the Irish population resulting from radioactive contamination of the Irish marine environment and to estimate the risks to health from this exposure. Discharged radioactive waste from the British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria in the North West of England continues to be the dominant source of this contamination. In particular, the remobilisation from sediments of historic discharges makes an important contribution to the levels of radioactivity in the seawater of the western Irish Sea. Approximately 300 samples of fish, shellfish, seaweed, seawater and sediment were collected in 2000 and again in 2001. Both the Marine Institute and the Department of Communications, Marine and Natural Resources assisted the Institute with this sampling. The samples were analysed for a range of radionuclides at the Institute's radio-analytical laboratory. The results show that the artificial radionuclide of greatest dosimetric significance continues to be caesium-137. The activity concentration of this radionuclide in the Irish marine environment has remained relatively stable since the mid 1990s but at a lower level than that observed during the previous two decades. Along the Irish coastline the highest activity concentrations observed are in the north-east. Since 1994 the commissioning and operation of new facilities at Sellafield have resulted in an increase in the discharges of technetium-99 to the Irish Sea. This has been reflected in an increase in the activity concentrations of this radionuclide at all east coast sampling sites. However, the low radiotoxicity of technetium-99 means that it is generally of lesser radiological significance than caesium-137. The main pathway contributing to the

  20. Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation and Enhancement Project Operations and Maintenance Program; Brood Year 1998: Johnson Creek Chinook Salmon Supplementation, Biennial Report 1998-2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Mitch; Gebhards, John

    2003-05-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration, has implemented a small scale chinook salmon supplementation program on Johnson Creek, a tributary in the South Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. The Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation Enhancement project was established to enhance the number of threatened Snake River summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to Johnson Creek through artificial propagation. Adult chinook salmon collection and spawning began in 1998. A total of 114 fish were collected from Johnson Creek and 54 fish (20 males and 34 females) were retained for Broodstock. All broodstock were transported to Lower Snake River Compensation Plan's South Fork Salmon River adult holding and spawning facility, operated by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game. The remaining 60 fish were released to spawn naturally. An estimated 155,870 eggs from Johnson Creek chinook spawned at the South Fork Salmon River facility were transported to the McCall Fish Hatchery for rearing. Average fecundity for Johnson Creek females was 4,871. Approximately 20,500 eggs from females with high levels of Bacterial Kidney Disease were culled. This, combined with green-egg to eyed-egg survival of 62%, resulted in about 84,000 eyed eggs produced in 1998. Resulting juveniles were reared indoors at the McCall Fish Hatchery in 1999. All of these fish were marked with Coded Wire Tags and Visual Implant Elastomer tags and 8,043 were also PIT tagged. A total of 78,950 smolts were transported from the McCall Fish Hatchery and released directly into Johnson Creek on March 27, 28, 29, and 30, 2000.

  1. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 2000-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, Erik W.

    2000-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Institutional Plan for FY 2000-2004 sets forth the laboratory's mission, roles, technical capabilities, and laboratory strategic plan. In the plan, major initiatives also are proposed and the transitioning initiatives are discussed. The Programmatic Strategy section details our strategic intent, roles, and research thrusts in each of the U.S. Department of Energy's mission areas. The Operations/Infrastructure Strategic Plan section includes information on the laboratory's human resources; environment, safety, and health management; safeguards and security; site and facilities management; information resources management; management practices and standards; and communications and trust.

  2. Mortality of seabirds in high-seas salmon gillnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainley, D.G.; DeGange, A.R.; Jones, L.L.; Beach, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    Since 1952, the Japanese have operated a large salmon driftnet.fishery in the northern North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea. This fishery is divided into two components: the high-seas mothership fleet, which consists of several processing ships and their numerous, smaller catcher boats that remain at sea during the entire fishing season, and the land-based fleet, which consists of independent fishing boats that catch and store their own fish and return to Japan at more frequent intervals (Sanger 1976; Fredin et al. 2 ). A similar fishery in the North Atlantic between 1965 and 1976 was responsible for the deaths of large numbers of the thick-billed murre, Uria lomvia, and significant reductions in its breeding populations (Tull et al. 1972). Recent work in the North Pacific and Bering Sea by Sana (1978) and King et al. (1979) indicated that large numbers of seabirds are killed annually in the Japanese salmon fishery also.

  3. 75 FR 51240 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ... 5. Salmon Essential Fish Habitat Review D. Pacific Halibut Management 1. 2010 Pacific Halibut... Management 1. Ecosystem Fishery Management Plan I. Groundfish Management 1. Groundfish Essential Fish Habitat... the Groundfish Fisheries E. Habitat 1. Current Habitat Issues 2. National Marine Fisheries Service...

  4. Land use, fishing, climate change, and decline of Thompson River, British Columbia, coho salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradford, M. J.; Irvine, J. R. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, BC (Canada)

    2000-01-01

    Reasons for the decline in abundance of Pacific salmon population in the Thompson River watershed in British Columbia was investigated. Results suggests that the decline could be the result of a declining trend in productivity related to changes in ocean conditions, overfishing, and changes in the freshwater habitat. The abundance of salmon correlated with agricultural land use, road density, and qualitative changes in stream habitat status; logging appeared to have had no such effect. It was concluded that salmon populations will continue to decline unless limits on fishing are strictly enforced, and unless salmon producing watersheds are restored and ocean conditions are significantly improved . 12 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Bull Trout Population Assessment in the White Salmon and Klickitat Rivers, Columbia River Gorge, Washington, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiesfeld, Steven L.; McPeak, Ronald H.; McNamara, Brian S. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife); Honanie, Isadore (Confederated Tribes and Bands, Yakama Nation)

    2002-01-01

    We utilized night snorkeling and single pass electroshocking to determine the presence or absence of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in 26 stream reaches (3,415 m) in the White Salmon basin and in 71 stream reaches (9,005 m) in the Klickitat River basin during summer and fall 2001. We did not find any bull trout in the White Salmon River basin. In the Klickitat River basin, bull trout were found only in the West Fork Klickitat River drainage. We found bull trout in two streams not previously reported: Two Lakes Stream and an unnamed tributary to Fish Lake Stream (WRIA code number 30-0550). We attempted to capture downstream migrant bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat River by fishing a 1.5-m rotary screw trap at RM 4.3 from July 23 through October 17. Although we caught other salmonids, no bull trout were captured. The greatest limiting factor for bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat River is likely the small amount of available habitat resulting in a low total abundance, and the isolation of the population. Many of the streams are fragmented by natural falls, which are partial or complete barriers to upstream fish movement. To date, we have not been able to confirm that the occasional bull trout observed in the mainstem Klickitat River are migrating upstream into the West Fork Klickitat River.

  6. Richland Operations (DOE-RL) Environmental Safety Health (ES and H) FY 2000 and FY 2001 Execution Commitment Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    REEP, I.E.

    2000-12-01

    All sites in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Complex prepare this report annually for the DOE Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH). The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the previous and current year's Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) execution commitments and the Safety and Health (S&H) resources that support these activities. The fiscal year (FY) 2000 and 2001 information and data contained in the Richland Operations Environment, Safefy and Health Fiscal Year 2002 Budget-Risk Management Summary (RL 2000a) were the basis for preparing this report. Fiscal year 2001 activities are based on the President's Amended Congressional Budget Request of $689.6 million for funding Ofice of Environmental Management (EM) $44.0 million for Fast Flux Test Facility standby less $7.0 million in anticipated DOE, Headquarters holdbacks for Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology (NE); and $55.3 million for Safeguards and Security (SAS). Any funding changes as a result of the Congressional appropriation process will be reflected in the Fiscal Year 2003 ES&H Budget-Risk Management Summary to be issued in May 2001. This report provides the end-of-year status of FY 2000 ES&H execution commitments, including actual S&H expenditures, and describes planned FY 2001 ES&H execution commitments and the S&H resources needed to support those activities. This requirement is included in the ES&H guidance contained in the FY 2002 Field Budget Call (DOE 2000).

  7. 1992 Columbia River salmon flow measures Options Analysis/EIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (OA/EIS) identifies, presents effects of, and evaluates the potential options for changing instream flow levels in efforts to increase salmon populations in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The potential actions would be implemented during 1992 to benefit juvenile and adult salmon during migration through eight run-of-river reservoirs. The Corps of Engineers (Corps) prepared this document in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FSWS) is a participating agency. The text and appendices of the document describe the characteristics of 10 Federal projects and one private water development project in the Columbia River drainage basin. Present and potential operation of these projects and their effects on the salmon that spawn and rear in the Columbia and Snake River System are presented. The life history, status, and response of Pacific salmon to current environmental conditions are described

  8. 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis/EIS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (OA/EIS) identifies, presents effects of, and evaluates the potential options for changing instream flow levels in efforts to increase salmon populations in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The potential actions would be implemented during 1992 to benefit juvenile and adult salmon during migration through eight run-of-river reservoirs. The Corps of Engineers (Corps) prepared this document in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FSWS) is a participating agency. The text and appendices of the document describe the characteristics of 10 Federal projects and one private water development project in the Columbia River drainage basin. Present and potential operation of these projects and their effects on the salmon that spawn and rear in the Columbia and Snake River System are presented. The life history, status, and response of Pacific salmon to current environmental conditions are described.

  9. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Evaluation Studies, Annual Report 2000-2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Erik

    2009-09-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded the development of two master plans which outline the rationale, and general approach, for implementing a defined group of projects that are an integral part of a comprehensive watershed goal to 'Protect, enhance and restore wild and natural populations of anadromous and resident fish within the Hood River Subbasin'. The Hood River Production Master Plan and the Pelton Ladder Master Plan were completed in 1991 and subsequently approved by the Northwest Power Planning Council in 1992. Action items identified in the two master plans, as well as in a later document entitled 'Hood River/Pelton Ladder Master Agreement' (ODFW and CTWSRO Undated), are designed to achieve two biological fish objectives: (1) to increase production of wild summer and winter steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to levels commensurate with the subbasins current carrying capacity and (2) re-establishing a self-sustaining population of spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Numerical fish objectives for subbasin escapement, spawner escapement, and subbasin harvest are defined for each of these species in Coccoli (2000). Several projects are presently funded by the BPA to achieve the Hood River subbasin's numerical fish objectives for summer and winter steelhead and spring chinook salmon. They include BPA project numbers 1998-021-00 (Hood River Fish Habitat), 1998-053-03 (Hood River Production Program - CTWSRO: M&E), 1998-053-07 (Parkdale Fish Facility), 1998-053-08 (Powerdale/Oak Springs O&M), and 1998-053-12 (Hood River Steelhead Genetics Study). Collectively, they are implemented under the umbrella of what has come to be defined as the Hood River Production Program (HRPP). The HRPP is jointly implemented by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and The Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (CTWSRO). Strategies for achieving the HRPP's biological fish objectives for the Hood

  10. AFSC/ABL: Eastern Bering Sea (BASIS) Coastal Research on Juvenile Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) runs in rivers that flow into the eastern Bering Sea have been inconsistent and at times very weak. Low returns of chinook (O....

  11. Financial Audit: Bureau of the Public Debt's Fiscal Years 2001 and 2000 Schedules of Federal Debt

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    The accompanying auditor's report presents the results of our audits of the Schedules of Federal Debt Managed by the Bureau of the Public Debt for the fiscal years ended September 30, 2001 and 2000...

  12. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program Hatchery Element : Project Progress Report 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Green, Daniel G.; Kline, Paul A.

    2008-12-17

    Johnson 1997; Pravecek and Kline 1998; Kline and Heindel 1999; Hebdon et al. 2000; Flagg et al. 2001; Kline and Willard 2001; Frost et al. 2002; Hebdon et al. 2002; Hebdon et al. 2003; Kline et al. 2003a; Kline et al. 2003b; Willard et al. 2003a; Willard et al. 2003b; Baker et al. 2004; Baker et al. 2005; Willard et al. 2005; Baker et al. 2006; Plaster et al. 2006; Baker et al. 2007). The immediate goal of the program is to utilize captive broodstock technology to conserve the population's unique genetics. Long-term goals include increasing the number of individuals in the population to address delisting criteria and to provide sport and treaty harvest opportunity. (1) Develop captive broodstocks from Redfish Lake sockeye salmon, culture broodstocks and produce progeny for reintroduction. (2) Determine the contribution hatchery-produced sockeye salmon make toward avoiding population extinction and increasing population abundance. (3) Describe O. nerka population characteristics for Sawtooth Valley lakes in relation to carrying capacity and broodstock program reintroduction efforts. (4) Utilize genetic analysis to discern the origin of wild and broodstock sockeye salmon to provide maximum effectiveness in their utilization within the broodstock program. (5) Transfer technology through participation in the technical oversight committee process, provide written activity reports, and participate in essential program management and planning activities. Idaho Department of Fish and Game's participation in the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program includes two areas of effort: (1) sockeye salmon captive broodstock culture, and (2) sockeye salmon research and evaluations. Although objectives and tasks from both components overlap and contribute to achieving the same goals, work directly related to sockeye salmon captive broodstock research and enhancement will appear under a separate cover. Research and enhancement activities associated with Snake River

  13. Stream flow and temperature maps - Effect of Climate Change on Salmon Population Vulnerability

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and other Pacific salmon are threatened by unsustainable levels of harvest, genetic introgression from hatchery stocks and...

  14. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon; Assessment of Captive Broodstock Technologies, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry

    2004-01-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Current velocity in rearing vessels had little if any effect on reproductive behavior of captively reared steelhead. However, males and females reared in high velocity vessels participated a greater number of spawning events than siblings reared in low velocity tanks. Observations of nesting females and associated males in a natural stream (Hamma Hamma River) were consistent with those observed in a controlled spawning channel. DNA pedigree analyses did not reveal significant differences in the numbers of fry produced by steelhead reared in high and low velocity vessels. To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon are being exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Subsequently they will be tested for development of long-term memories of these odorants. In 2002-2003, the efficacy of EOG analysis for assessing imprinting was demonstrated and will be applied in these and other behavioral and molecular tools in the current work plan. Results of these experiments will be important to determine the critical periods for imprinting for the offspring of captively-reared fish destined for release into natal rivers or lakes. By early August, the oocytes of all of Rapid River Hatchery chinook salmon females returning from the ocean had advanced to the tertiary yolk globule stage; whereas, only some of the captively reared Lemhi River females sampled had advanced to this stage, and the degree of advancement was not dependent on rearing temperature. The mean spawning time of captive Lemhi River females was 3-4 weeks after that of the Rapid River fish

  15. The Indigenous World, 2000/2001 = El mundo indigena, 2000/2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molbech, Anette, Ed.

    This annual publication (published separately in English and Spanish) examines political, social, environmental, and educational issues concerning indigenous peoples around the world in 2000-01. Part 1 describes current situations and events in 11 world regions: the Arctic; North America; Mexico and Central America; South America; Australia and…

  16. Salmonid Gamete Preservation in the Snake River Basin, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Robyn; Kucera, Paul

    2002-06-01

    Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations in the Northwest are decreasing. Genetic diversity is being lost at an alarming rate. Along with reduced population and genetic variability, the loss of biodiversity means a diminished environmental adaptability. The Nez Perce Tribe (Tribe) strives to ensure availability of genetic samples of the existing male salmonid population by establishing and maintaining a germplasm repository. The sampling strategy, initiated in 1992, has been to collect and preserve male salmon and steelhead genetic diversity across the geographic landscape by sampling within the major river subbasins in the Snake River basin, assuming a metapopulation structure existed historically. Gamete cryopreservation conserves genetic diversity in a germplasm repository, but is not a recovery action for listed fish species. The Tribe was funded in 2001 by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) to coordinate gene banking of male gametes from Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin. In 2001, a total of 398 viable chinook salmon semen samples from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River, Lookingglass Hatchery (Imnaha River stock), Lake Creek, the South Fork Salmon River weir, Johnson Creek, Big Creek, Capehorn Creek, Marsh Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery, and Sawtooth Hatchery (upper Salmon River stock) were cryopreserved. Also, 295 samples of male steelhead gametes from Dworshak Hatchery, Fish Creek, Grande Ronde River, Little Sheep Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery and Oxbow Hatchery were also cryopreserved. The Grande Ronde chinook salmon captive broodstock program stores 680 cryopreserved samples at the University of Idaho as a long-term archive, half of the total samples. A total of 3,206 cryopreserved samples from Snake River basin steelhead and

  17. Tracing salmon-derived nutrients and contaminants in freshwater food webs across a pronounced spawner density gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory-Eaves, Irene; Demers, J Marc J; Kimpe, Lynda; Krümmel, Eva M; Macdonald, Robie W; Finney, Bruce P; Blais, Jules M

    2007-06-01

    Many have demonstrated that anadromous Pacific salmon are significant vectors of nutrients from the ocean to freshwaters. Recently. however, it has been recognized that salmon spawners also input significant quantities of contaminants. The objectives of this paper are to delineate the extent to which salmon-derived nutrients are integrated into the freshwater food web using delta(15)N and delta(13)C and to assess the influence of the salmon pathway in the accumulation of contaminants in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We found that the delta(15)N and delta(13)C of food web components were related positively and significantly to sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) spawner density. Contaminant concentrations in rainbow trout also positively and significantly were related to sockeye salmon spawner density. These data suggest that the anadromous salmon nutrient and contaminant pathways are related and significantly impact the contaminant burden of resident fish.

  18. Isotopes - Recolonization of the Cedar River, WA by Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this study is to quantify population, community, and ecosystem level changes as a result of salmon recolonization of the Cedar River, WA above...

  19. Diet - Recolonization of the Cedar River, WA by Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this study is to quantify population, community, and ecosystem level changes as a result of salmon recolonization of the Cedar River, WA above...

  20. Experimental infection studies demonstrating Atlantic salmon as a host and reservoir of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus type IVa with insights into pathology and host immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovy, Jan; Piesik, P.; Hershberger, P.K.; Garver, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    In British Columbia, Canada (BC), aquaculture of finfish in ocean netpens has the potential for pathogen transmission between wild and farmed species due to the sharing of an aquatic environment. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is enzootic in BC and causes serious disease in wild Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii, which often enter and remain in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, netpens. Isolation of VHSV from farmed Atlantic salmon has been previously documented, but the effects on the health of farmed salmon and the wild fish sharing the environment are unknown. To determine their susceptibility, Atlantic salmon were exposed to a pool of 9 isolates of VHSV obtained from farmed Atlantic salmon in BC by IP-injection or by waterborne exposure and cohabitation with diseased Pacific herring. Disease intensity was quantified by recording mortality, clinical signs, histopathological changes, cellular sites of viral replication, expression of interferon-related genes, and viral tissue titers. Disease ensued in Atlantic salmon after both VHSV exposure methods. Fish demonstrated gross disease signs including darkening of the dorsal skin, bilateral exophthalmia, light cutaneous hemorrhage, and lethargy. The virus replicated within endothelial cells causing endothelial cell necrosis and extensive hemorrhage in anterior kidney. Infected fish demonstrated a type I interferon response as seen by up-regulation of genes for IFNα, Mx, and ISG15. In a separate trial infected salmon transmitted the virus to sympatric Pacific herring. The results demonstrate that farmed Atlantic salmon can develop clinical VHS and virus can persist in the tissues for at least 10 weeks. Avoiding VHS epizootics in Atlantic salmon farms would limit the potential of VHS in farmed Atlantic salmon, the possibility for further host adaptation in this species, and virus spillback to sympatric wild fishes.

  1. Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration : Annual Report 1997.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Aaron D.; Hatch, Douglas R.; Close, David A.

    1998-08-05

    The once abundant stocks of Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) above Bonneville Dam are currently depressed (Close et al. 1995). It is likely that many of the same factors that led to the decline of wild stocks of Columbia River Pacific salmon and steelhead have impacted Pacific lamprey populations as well. The Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration Project, funded by Bonneville Power Administration, is a cooperative effort between the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, the Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, and Oregon State University with the goal to increase Pacific lamprey stocks above Bonneville Dam.

  2. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Redding, Jeremy (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2006-05-01

    Eagle Fish Hatchery on September 14, 2004 and later incorporated into hatchery spawn matrices. Nine anadromous females, 102 captive females from brood year 2001, and one captive female from brood year 2000 broodstock groups were spawned at the Eagle Hatchery in 2004. Spawn pairings produced approximately 140,823 eyed-eggs with egg survival to eyed stage of development averaging 72.8%. Eyed-eggs (49,134), presmolts (130,716), smolts (96), and adults (241) were planted or released into Sawtooth Valley waters in 2004. Reintroduction strategies involved releases to Redfish Lake, Alturas Lake, and Pettit Lake. During this reporting period, five broodstocks and five unique production groups were in culture at Idaho Department of Fish and Game (Eagle Fish Hatchery and Sawtooth Fish Hatchery) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (Oxbow Fish Hatchery) facilities. Two of the five broodstocks were incorporated into the 2004 spawning design.

  3. Merits and Limits of Ecosystem Protection for Conserving Wild Salmon in a Northern Coastal British Columbia River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron C. Hill

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Loss and degradation of freshwater habitat reduces the ability of wild salmon populations to endure other anthropogenic stressors such as climate change, harvest, and interactions with artificially propagated fishes. Preservation of pristine salmon rivers has thus been advocated as a cost-effective way of sustaining wild Pacific salmon populations. We examine the value of freshwater habitat protection in conserving salmon and fostering resilience in the Kitlope watershed in northern coastal British Columbia - a large (3186 km2 and undeveloped temperate rainforest ecosystem with legislated protected status. In comparison with other pristine Pacific Rim salmon rivers we studied, the Kitlope is characterized by abundant and complex habitats for salmon that should contribute to high resilience. However, biological productivity in this system is constrained by naturally cold, light limited, ultra-oligotrophic growing conditions; and the mean (± SD density of river-rearing salmonids is currently low (0.32 ± 0.27 fish per square meter; n = 36 compared to our other four study rivers (grand mean = 2.55 ± 2.98 fish per square meter; n = 224. Existing data and traditional ecological knowledge suggest that current returns of adult salmon to the Kitlope, particularly sockeye, are declining or depressed relative to historic levels. This poor stock status - presumably owing to unfavorable conditions in the marine environment and ongoing harvest in coastal mixed-stock fisheries - reduces the salmon-mediated transfer of marine-derived nutrients and energy to the system's nutrient-poor aquatic and terrestrial food webs. In fact, Kitlope Lake sediments and riparian tree leaves had marine nitrogen signatures (δ15N among the lowest recorded in a salmon ecosystem. The protection of the Kitlope watershed is undoubtedly a conservation success story. However, "salmon strongholds" of pristine watersheds may not adequately sustain salmon populations and foster

  4. Outlook 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    ABARE's Executive Director, Brian Fisher in his address at the annual assembly of economists and commodity producers (Outlook 2001) indicated that the world economic growth, which is of critical importance to the direction of world commodity prices, is assumed to ease in 2001 but to strengthen in 2002. Yet despite the slower world economic growth he forecast that Australia's commodity exports would rise to be worth $86 billion in 2000-2001 and $89 billion in 2001 - 2002 reflecting a relatively low Australian dollar. The value of commodity exports is then forecast to trend downwards in real terms for the remainder of the outlook period to 2005-2006. In preparing commodity projections ABARE assumed world economic growth to moderate to around 3.4% in 2001, and then strengthen to 3.9%, in 2002 supported by lower interest rates in key economies. Activity in the Australian economy is assumed to remain reasonably firm in the short term. While growth in domestic demand is likely to moderate, export performance is expected to remain strong. There has been a remarkable improvement in Australia's trade performance during the last year. This improvement is expected to continue in the short term. For energy commodities, export earnings are forecast to increase from $18.4 billion in 1999-2000 to $25.1 billion in 2000-2001 before declining to $24.4 billion in 2001-2002

  5. Evaluation of an Experimental Re-introduction of Sockeye Salmon into Skaha Lake; Year 2 of 3, 2001 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Christopher (Colville Confederated Tribes, Omak Community Center, Omak, WA); Machin, Deanna; Wright, Howie (Okanagan National Fisheries Commission, Westbank, BC, Canada)

    2002-04-01

    This report summarizes the findings from YEAR 2 of a three-year disease risk assessment. The Okanagan Nation Fisheries Commission (ONFC) and the Colville Confederated Tribes (CCT) are investigating the risks involved in re-introducing sockeye salmon into Skaha Lake, part of their historical range (Ernst and Vedan 2000). The disease risk assessment compares the disease and infection status of fish above and below McIntyre Dam (the present limit of sockeye migration). The disease agents identified that are of a particular concern are: infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus type 2 (IHNV type2), erythrocytic inclusion body syndrome virus (EIBSV), the whirling disease agent (Myxobolus cerebralis), and the ceratomyxosis agent (Ceratomyxa shasta).

  6. A warming tropical central Pacific dries the lower stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qinghua; Fu, Qiang

    2018-04-01

    The amount of water vapor in the tropical lower stratosphere (TLS), which has an important influence on the radiative energy budget of the climate system, is modulated by the temperature variability of the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). The TTL temperature variability is caused by a complex combination of the stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), tropospheric convective processes in the tropics, and the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC) driven by mid-latitude and subtropical atmospheric waves. In 2000, the TLS water vapor amount exhibited a stepwise transition to a dry phase, apparently caused by a change in the BDC. In this study, we present observational and modeling evidence that the epochal change of water vapor between the periods of 1992-2000 and 2001-2005 was also partly caused by a concurrent sea surface temperature (SST) warming in the tropical central Pacific. This SST warming cools the TTL above by enhancing the equatorial wave-induced upward motion near the tropopause, which consequently reduces the amount of water vapor entering the stratosphere. The QBO affects the TLS water vapor primarily on inter-annual timescales, whereas a classical El Niño southern oscillation (ENSO) event has small effect on tropical mean TLS water vapor because its responses are longitudinally out of phase. This study suggests that the tropical central Pacific SST is another driver of TLS water vapor variability on inter-decadal timescales and the tropical SST changes could contribute to about 30% of the step-wise drop of the lower stratospheric water vapor from 1992-2000 to 2001-2005.

  7. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean from 2001-07-23 to 2001-08-28 (NODC Accession 0108152)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108152 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean from 2001-07-23 to 2001-08-28....

  8. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the FRANKLIN in the South Pacific Ocean from 2001-05-24 to 2001-07-07 (NODC Accession 0108083)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108083 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from FRANKLIN in the South Pacific Ocean from 2001-05-24 to 2001-07-07...

  9. Economics of endangered salmon in the Pacific northwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    Under mandate of the Endangered Species Act (ESA), Idaho, Oregon and Washington are developing recovery plans to preserve several threatened and endangered stocks of salmon. These fish, some migrating as much as 900 miles inland to spawn, have been decimated by man's modification of their habitat. Downstream migrating juveniles must navigate through or around eight slackwater pools and hydropower dams. Adult upstream migrants must negotiate fish ladders, and endure modified temperature regimes and severely reduced spawning area and habitat quality. While the ESA says little about economics, economic factors do play important roles in designating endangered species and the design of recovery plans. For species in severe trouble ESA pushes us to drastic strategies such as captive breeding, or cryogenic sperm and egg preservation without paying much attention to whether the cost is worth it. For species in less dire straights, one often faces a menu of possible recovery actions from which the least cost can be set. Economics is important irrespective of the role it plays in decisions to classify salmon as endangered, or decisions about recovery plans. Economic analysis can provide those affected with information about their future. For individuals, communities, and businesses faced with adjusting to ESA actions, more good information is better than less, and economic impact estimates can be a valuable part of this information

  10. AFSC/ABL: Genetic stock identification of sockeye salmon captured near Unalaska Island - 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study is part of the Auke Bay Laboratoryb??s Ocean Carrying Capacity (OCC) which has extensively sampled salmon in the North Pacific since 1996 to obtain...

  11. AFSC/ABL: Eastern Bering Sea (BASIS) Coastal Research on Juvenile Salmon (Oceanography data)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) runs in rivers that flow into the eastern Bering Sea have been inconsistent and at times very weak. Low returns of chinook (O....

  12. International Atomic Energy Agency publications. Publications catalogue 1986-1999. Supplement 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-09-01

    This supplement to the IAEA Publications Catalogue lists all the sales publications issued from January 2000 to September 2001. Some earlier titles which form part of an established series or are still considered of importance are included. The supplement is divided into two parts. The first lists all publications by subject category in alphabetical order. The second part consists of indexes. All indexes list the page(s) on which the publication appears in the firs part. The keyword index lists all publications in alphabetical order as well as under keyword

  13. International Atomic Energy Agency publications. Publications catalogue 1986-1999. Supplement 2000-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    This supplement to the IAEA Publications Catalogue lists all the sales publications issued from January 2000 to September 2001. Some earlier titles which form part of an established series or are still considered of importance are included. The supplement is divided into two parts. The first lists all publications by subject category in alphabetical order. The second part consists of indexes. All indexes list the page(s) on which the publication appears in the firs part. The keyword index lists all publications in alphabetical order as well as under keyword.

  14. Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Program, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, Brian C. (Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Department of Natural Resources, Pendleton, OR); Duke, Bill B. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Pendleton, OR)

    2004-02-01

    In the late 1990's, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, along with many other agencies, began implementing fisheries restoration activities in the Walla Walla Basin. An integral part of these efforts is to alleviate the inadequate migration conditions in the basin. The migration concerns are being addressed by removing diversion structures, constructing fish passage facilities, implementing minimum instream flow measures, and initiating trap and haul efforts. The objective of the Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Project is to increase the survival of migrating adult and juvenile salmonids in the basin. The project is responsible for coordinating operation and maintenance of ladders, screen sites, bypasses, trap facilities, and transportation equipment. In addition, the project provides technical input on passage criteria and passage and trapping facility design and operation. Operation of the various passage facilities and passage criteria guidelines are outlined in an annual operations plan that the project develops. During the 2000-2001 project year, there were 624 summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 24 bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), and 47 spring chinook (O. tshawytscha) counted at the Nursery Bridge Dam adult trap between December 27, 2000 and June 7, 2001. The Little Walla Walla River juvenile trap was not operated this year. The project transported 1600 adult spring chinook from Ringold Springs Hatchery to the South Fork Walla Walla Brood Holding Facility and outplanted 1156 for natural spawning in the basin. The project also provided equipment for transportation of juveniles captured during the construction fish salvage at Nursery Bridge Dam.

  15. Using grizzly bears to assess harvest-ecosystem tradeoffs in salmon fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Taal; Darimont, Chris T; Macduffee, Misty; Mangel, Marc; Paquet, Paul; Wilmers, Christopher C

    2012-01-01

    Implementation of ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) requires a clear conceptual and quantitative framework for assessing how different harvest options can modify benefits to ecosystem and human beneficiaries. We address this social-ecological need for Pacific salmon fisheries, which are economically valuable but intercept much of the annual pulse of nutrient subsidies that salmon provide to terrestrial and aquatic food webs. We used grizzly bears, vectors of salmon nutrients and animals with densities strongly coupled to salmon abundance, as surrogates for "salmon ecosystem" function. Combining salmon biomass and stock-recruitment data with stable isotope analysis, we assess potential tradeoffs between fishery yields and bear population densities for six sockeye salmon stocks in Bristol Bay, Alaska, and British Columbia (BC), Canada. For the coastal stocks, we find that both bear densities and fishery yields would increase substantially if ecosystem allocations of salmon increase from currently applied lower to upper goals and beyond. This aligning of benefits comes at a potential cost, however, with the possibility of forgoing harvests in low productivity years. In contrast, we detect acute tradeoffs between bear densities and fishery yields in interior stocks within the Fraser River, BC, where biomass from other salmon species is low. There, increasing salmon allocations to ecosystems would benefit threatened bear populations at the cost of reduced long-term yields. To resolve this conflict, we propose an EBFM goal that values fisheries and bears (and by extension, the ecosystem) equally. At such targets, ecosystem benefits are unexpectedly large compared with losses in fishery yields. To explore other management options, we generate tradeoff curves that provide stock-specific accounting of the expected loss to fishers and gain to bears as more salmon escape the fishery. Our approach, modified to suit multiple scenarios, provides a generalizable method

  16. Using grizzly bears to assess harvest-ecosystem tradeoffs in salmon fisheries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taal Levi

    Full Text Available Implementation of ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM requires a clear conceptual and quantitative framework for assessing how different harvest options can modify benefits to ecosystem and human beneficiaries. We address this social-ecological need for Pacific salmon fisheries, which are economically valuable but intercept much of the annual pulse of nutrient subsidies that salmon provide to terrestrial and aquatic food webs. We used grizzly bears, vectors of salmon nutrients and animals with densities strongly coupled to salmon abundance, as surrogates for "salmon ecosystem" function. Combining salmon biomass and stock-recruitment data with stable isotope analysis, we assess potential tradeoffs between fishery yields and bear population densities for six sockeye salmon stocks in Bristol Bay, Alaska, and British Columbia (BC, Canada. For the coastal stocks, we find that both bear densities and fishery yields would increase substantially if ecosystem allocations of salmon increase from currently applied lower to upper goals and beyond. This aligning of benefits comes at a potential cost, however, with the possibility of forgoing harvests in low productivity years. In contrast, we detect acute tradeoffs between bear densities and fishery yields in interior stocks within the Fraser River, BC, where biomass from other salmon species is low. There, increasing salmon allocations to ecosystems would benefit threatened bear populations at the cost of reduced long-term yields. To resolve this conflict, we propose an EBFM goal that values fisheries and bears (and by extension, the ecosystem equally. At such targets, ecosystem benefits are unexpectedly large compared with losses in fishery yields. To explore other management options, we generate tradeoff curves that provide stock-specific accounting of the expected loss to fishers and gain to bears as more salmon escape the fishery. Our approach, modified to suit multiple scenarios, provides a

  17. New solvent extraction processes for minor actinides: CIEMAT contribution to the partnew project: EU contract n. FIKW-CT2000-0087: first semestral period 2001 september 2000-february 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This report includes the work developed at CIEMAT into the partnew project: '' New solvent extraction processes for minor actinides, during the first semestral period (september 2000 to february 2001), CIEMAT is involved in the following task: the study of the actinides (AN) and lanthanides (LN) extracting properties of new compounds with chemical structure based on two malonamide groups linked to an aromatic platform. The study of new-bearing extractants with chemical structure similar to malonamides aforementioned, changing the 0 atoms by s atoms, and the determination of the selectivity of these new thiomalonamides for AN(III) extraction. (Author)

  18. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville Dam; 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Naald, Wayne; Duff, Cameron; Friesen, Thomas A. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Clackamas, OR)

    2006-02-01

    Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. populations have declined over the last century due to a variety of human impacts. Chum salmon O. keta populations in the Columbia River have remained severely depressed for the past several decades, while upriver bright (URB) fall Chinook salmon O. tschawytscha populations have maintained relatively healthy levels. For the past seven years we have collected data on adult spawning and juvenile emergence and outmigration of URB fall Chinook and chum salmon populations in the Ives and Pierce islands complex below Bonneville Dam. In 2004, we estimated 1,733 fall Chinook salmon and 336 chum salmon spawned in our study area. Fall Chinook salmon spawning peaked 19 November with 337 redds and chum salmon spawning peaked 3 December with 148 redds. Biological characteristics continue to suggest chum salmon in our study area are similar to nearby stocks in Hardy and Hamilton creeks, and Chinook salmon we observe are similar to upriver bright stocks. Temperature data indicated that 2004 brood URB fall Chinook salmon emergence began on 6 January and ended 27 May 2005, with peak emergence occurring 12 March. Chum salmon emergence began 4 February and continued through 2 May 2005, with peak emergence occurring on 21 March. Between 13 January and 28 June, we sampled 28,984 juvenile Chinook salmon and 1,909 juvenile chum salmon. We also released 32,642 fin-marked and coded-wire tagged juvenile fall Chinook salmon to assess survival. The peak catch of juvenile fall Chinook salmon occurred on 18 April. Our results suggested that the majority of fall Chinook salmon outmigrate during late May and early June, at 70-80 mm fork length (FL). The peak catch of juvenile chum salmon occurred 25 March. Juvenile chum salmon appeared to outmigrate at 40-55 mm FL. Outmigration of chum salmon peaked in March but extended into April and May.

  19. Survival of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) fry to adulthood following a 10-day exposure to aromatic hydrocarbon water-soluble fraction of crude oil and release to the Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birtwell, I. K.; Fink, R.; Brand, D.; Alexander, R.; McAllister, C. D.

    1999-01-01

    Potential effects of hydrocarbons on salmonids were investigated. In the course of the experiment pink salmon fry were exposed for 10 days to seawater containing varying controlled doses of the water-soluble fractions of North Slope crude oil, comprised primarily of monoaromatics. After exposure the fry were released into the Pacific Ocean to complete their life cycle. The experiments were replicated for three years following the original experiment. No consistent dose-dependent effect of the 10-day exposure on the growth and survival to maturity of the pink salmon was observed, although there was high mortality following each initial release. These results may be considered as one measure of resistance to exposure to contaminants, however, the method is not recommended for general use because it is based on a highly selected sample (i.e. those that survived the initial exposure), and the same results may not apply to populations that have not been subjected to intensive nonselective fishing pressures. In summary, the survival of some fraction of the population of pink salmon is evidence of the robustness of some of these fish, but it is at best a crude indicator of environmental health. 44 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  20. AFSC/ABL: Eastern Bering Sea (BASIS) Coastal Research on Juvenile Salmon (TSG-thermosalinigraph data)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) runs in rivers that flow into the eastern Bering Sea have been inconsistent and at times very weak. Low returns of chinook (O....

  1. Development and characterization of two cell lines from gills of Atlantic salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjessing, Mona C.; Aamelfot, Maria; Batts, William N.; Benestad, Sylvie L.; Dale, Ole B.; Thoen, Even; Weli, Simon C.; Winton, James R.

    2018-01-01

    Gill disease in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., causes big losses in the salmon farming industry. Until now, tools to cultivate microorganisms causing gill disease and models to study the gill responses have been lacking. Here we describe the establishment and characterization of two cell lines from the gills of Atlantic salmon. Atlantic salmon gill cell ASG-10 consisted of cells staining for cytokeratin and e-cadherin and with desmosomes as seen by transmission electron microscopy suggesting the cells to be of epithelial origin. These structures were not seen in ASG-13. The cell lines have been maintained for almost 30 passages and both cell lines are fully susceptible to infection by infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), Atlantic salmon reovirus TS (TSRV) and Pacific salmon paramyxovirus (PSPV). While infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) did not cause visible CPE, immunofluorescent staining revealed a sub-fraction of cells in both the ASG-10 and ASG-13 lines may be permissive to infection. ASG-10 is able to proliferate and migrate to close scratches in the monolayer within seven days in vitro contrary to ASG-13, which does not appear to do have the same proliferative and migratory ability. These cell lines will be useful in studies of gill diseases in Atlantic salmon and may represent an important contribution for alternatives to experimental animals and studies of epithelial–mesenchymal cell biology.

  2. Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock rearing and research, 1994. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flagg, T.A.; McAuley, W.C.; Wastel, M.R.; Frost, D.A.; Mahnken, C.V.W.

    1996-03-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock programs are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations. Captive broodstock programs are a form of artificial propagation. However, they differ from standard hatchery techniques in one important respect: fish are cultured in captivity for the entire life cycle. The high fecundity of Pacific salmon, coupled with their potentially high survival in protective culture, affords an opportunity for captive broodstocks to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of this stock: sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from January to December 1994 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock program and summarizes results since the beginning of the study in 1991. Spawn from NMFS Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstocks is being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species

  3. Doubling sockeye salmon production in the Fraser River—Is this sustainable development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Michael A.; Healey, Michael C.

    1993-11-01

    We evaluate a proposal to double sockeye salmon production from the Fraser River and conclude that significant changes will be required to current management processes, particularly the way available catch is allocated, if the plan is to be consistent with five major principles embodied in the concept of sustainable development. Doubling sockeye salmon production will not, in itself, increase economic equity either regionally or globally. Developing nations may actually be hindered in their attempts to institute other, nonsalmon fisheries in the North Pacific Ocean as a result of the possible interception of salmon. Further, other users of the Fraser River basin will have to forgo opportunities so that salmon habitat can be conserved. If doubling sockeye salmon production is to meet the goal of doing more with less, it will be necessary to develop more efficient technologies to harvest the fish. If increasing salmon production is to reflect the integration of environmental and economic decision making at the highest level, then a serious attempt must be made to incorporate environmental assets into national economic accounting. Finally, to promote biodiversity and cultural self-sufficiency within the Fraser River basin, it will be important to safeguard the small, less-productive salmon stocks as well as the large ones and to allocate a substantial portion of the increased production to the Native Indian community.

  4. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1994 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    1996-03-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock programs are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations. Captive broodstock programs are a form of artificial propagation. However, they differ from standard hatchery techniques in one important respect: fish are cultured in captivity for the entire life cycle. The high fecundity of Pacific salmon, coupled with their potentially high survival in protective culture, affords an opportunity for captive broodstocks to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of this stock: sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from January to December 1994 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock program and summarizes results since the beginning of the study in 1991. Spawn from NMFS Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstocks is being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  5. Experimental streams - Recolonization of the Cedar River, WA by Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this study is to quantify population, community, and ecosystem level changes as a result of salmon recolonization of the Cedar River, WA above...

  6. Bull trout population assessment in the White Salmon and Klickitat Rivers, Columbia River Gorge, Washington; ANNUAL fiscal year 2001 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiesfield, Steven L.

    2002-01-01

    We utilized night snorkeling and single pass electroshocking to determine the presence or absence of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in 26 stream reaches (3,415 m) in the White Salmon basin and in 71 stream reaches (9,005 m) in the Klickitat River basin during summer and fall 2001. We did not find any bull trout in the White Salmon River basin. In the Klickitat River basin, bull trout were found only in the West Fork Klickitat River drainage. We found bull trout in two streams not previously reported: Two Lakes Stream and an unnamed tributary to Fish Lake Stream (WRIA code number 30-0550). We attempted to capture downstream migrant bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat River by fishing a 1.5-m rotary screw trap at RM 4.3 from July 23 through October 17. Although we caught other salmonids, no bull trout were captured. The greatest limiting factor for bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat River is likely the small amount of available habitat resulting in a low total abundance, and the isolation of the population. Many of the streams are fragmented by natural falls, which are partial or complete barriers to upstream fish movement. To date, we have not been able to confirm that the occasional bull trout observed in the mainstem Klickitat River are migrating upstream into the West Fork Klickitat River

  7. Hanford Site Climatological Data Summary 2001 with Historical Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoitink, Dana J.; Ramsdell, James V.; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2001-01-01

    This document presents the climatological data measured at the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site for calendar year 2001. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory operates the Hanford Meteorology Station and the Hanford Meteorological Monitoring Network from which these data were collected. This report contains updated historical information for temperature, precipitation, normal and extreme values of temperature and precipitation, and other miscellaneous meteorological parameters. Further, the data are adjunct to and update Hoitink (and others) (1999, 2000, 2001) and Hoitink and Burk (1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998); however, data from Appendix B--Wind Climatology (Hoitink (and others) 1994) are excluded. Calendar year 2001 was slightly warmer than normal at the Hanford Meteorology Station with an average temperature of 54.3 F, 0.7 F above normal (53.6 F). The hottest temperature was 106 F on July 4, while the coldest was 16 F on December 25. For the 12-month period, 8 months were warmer than normal, and 4 months were cooler than normal. Precipitation for 2001 totaled 6.66 inches, 95% of normal (6.98 inches); calendar year snowfall totaled 15.1 inches (compared to the normal of 15.4 inches). Calendar year 2001 had an average wind speed of 7.6 mph, which was normal (7.6 mph). There were 31 days with peak gusts (ge)40 mph, compared to a yearly average of 27 days. The peak gust during the year was 69 mph on December 16. November 2001 established new records for both days and hours with dense fog (visibility (le)1/4 mile). There were 14 days and 99.4 hours of dense fog reported, compared to an average of 5.5 days with 22.0 hours. The previous record was 13 days in 1965 and 71.4 hours in 1952. The heating-degree days for 2000-2001 were 5,516 (7% above the 5,160 normal). Cooling-degree days for 2001 were 1,092 (8% above the 1,014 normal)

  8. Modelling the Future Hydroclimatology of the Lower Fraser River and its Impacts on the Spawning Migration Survival of Sockeye Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hague, M. J.; Ferrari, M. R.; Miller, J. R.; Patterson, D. A.; Russell, G. L.; Farrell, A.P.; Hinch, S. G.

    2010-01-01

    Short episodic high temperature events can be lethal for migrating adult Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). We downscaled temperatures for the Fraser River, British Columbia to evaluate the impact of climate warming on the frequency of exceeding thermal thresholds associated with salmon migratory success. Alarmingly, a modest 1.0 C increase in average summer water temperature over 100 years (1981-2000 to 2081-2100) tripled the number of days per year exceeding critical salmonid thermal thresholds (i.e. 19.0 C). Refined thresholds for two populations (Gates Creek and Weaver Creek) of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) were defined using physiological constraint models based on aerobic scope. While extreme temperatures leading to complete aerobic collapse remained unlikely under our warming scenario, both populations were increasingly forced to migrate upriver at reduced levels of aerobic performance (e.g. in 80% of future simulations, => 90% of salmon encountered temperatures exceeding population specific thermal optima for maximum aerobic scope; T(sub opt)) = 16.3 C for Gates Creek and T(sub sopt)=14.5 C for Weaver Creek). Assuming recent changes to river entry timing persist, we also predicted dramatic increases in the probability of freshwater mortality for Weaver Creek salmon due to reductions in aerobic, and general physiological, performance (e.g. in 42% of future simulations =>50% of Weaver Creek fish exceeded temperature thresholds associated with 0 - 60% of maximum aerobic scope). Potential for adaptation via directional selection on run-timing was more evident for the Weaver Creek population. Early entry Weaver Creek fish experienced 25% (range: 15 - 31%) more suboptimal temperatures than late entrants, compared with an 8% difference (range: 0 - 17%) between early and late Gates Creek fish. Our results emphasize the need to consider daily temperature variability in association with population-specific differences in behaviour and physiological

  9. Internet cigarette purchasing among 9th grade students in western New York: 2000-2001 vs. 2004-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fix, Brian V; Zambon, Margaret; Higbee, Cheryl; Cummings, K Michael; Alford, Terry; Hyland, Andrew

    2006-09-01

    To assess trends and correlates of youth cigarette purchasing behavior on the Internet. In 2000-2001, Roswell Park Cancer Institute conducted a survey asking 7,019 ninth grade students in Erie and Niagara Counties in New York State about their tobacco use and purchasing habits, including use of the Internet to buy cigarettes. The 2004-2005 survey is a replication of the 2000-2001 survey. Both surveys used an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire survey. These data were combined in order to examine trends in youth smoking behavior. Students surveyed in 2004-2005 were 2.6 times more likely (95% CI: 1.5, 4.6) to have purchased cigarettes over the Internet in the 30 days prior to the survey than those surveyed in 2001 (5.2% to 1.6%); however, the intention to use the Internet as a cigarette source in the future did not change between survey periods. Youth online cigarette purchasing has increased but intention to use the Internet to purchase cigarettes in the future has remained the same, suggesting that this trend may be reaching a plateau. Recent public efforts to reduce online cigarette sales will need to be evaluated in order to determine which policy or combination of policies are most effective.

  10. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Field Activities Conducted on Clear and Pete King Creeks, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gass, Carrie; Olson, Jim M. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID)

    2004-11-01

    In 2001 the Idaho Fisheries Resource Office continued as a cooperator on the Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (ISS) project on Pete King and Clear creeks. Data relating to supplementation treatment releases, juvenile sampling, juvenile PIT tagging, brood stock spawning and rearing, spawning ground surveys, and snorkel surveys were used to evaluate project data points and augment past data. Due to low adult spring Chinook returns to Kooskia National Fish Hatchery (KNFH) in brood year 1999 there was no smolt supplementation treatment release into Clear Creek in 2001. A 17,014 spring Chinook parr supplementation treatment (containing 1000 PIT tags) was released into Pete King Creek on July 24, 2001. On Clear Creek, there were 412 naturally produced spring Chinook parr PIT tagged and released. Using juvenile collection methods, Idaho Fisheries Resource Office staff PIT tagged and released 320 naturally produced spring Chinook pre-smolts on Clear Creek, and 16 natural pre-smolts on Pete King Creek, for minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam. There were no PIT tag detections of brood year 1999 smolts from Clear or Pete King creeks. A total of 2261 adult spring Chinook were collected at KNFH. Forty-three females were used for supplementation brood stock, and 45 supplementation (ventral fin-clip), and 45 natural (unmarked) adults were released upstream of KNFH to spawn naturally. Spatial and temporal distribution of 37 adults released above the KNFH weir was determined through the use of radio telemetry. On Clear Creek, a total of 166 redds (8.2 redds/km) were observed and data was collected from 195 carcasses. Seventeen completed redds (2.1 redds/km) were found, and data was collected data from six carcasses on Pete King Creek.

  11. 78 FR 78824 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ...-17 at the Hilton Hotel, 500 West Third Avenue, Katmai/King Salmon, Anchorage, AK. DATES: The workshop... Anchorage Hilton Hotel, 500 West Third Avenue, Anchorage, AK. Council address: North Pacific Fishery...

  12. Kittiwake diets and chick production signal a 2008 regime shift in the Northeast Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    I examined ~2700 food samples collected from adult and nestling black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla from 1978 through 2011 on Middleton Island in the Gulf of Alaska. The kittiwake diet was composed chiefly of fish, but invertebrates were taken in appreciable quantities in April and May. Upon spring arrival at the colony, adult kittiwakes foraged regularly at night on vertically migrating mesopelagic prey—lanternfishes (Myctophidae), squids, crustaceans, and polychaetes—a behavior they largely discontinued by egg-laying. During incubation and chick-rearing, food samples contained mostly (~85% by weight) Pacific sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus, capelin Mallotus villosus, Pacific herring Clupea pallasii, sablefish Anopoploma fimbria, krill (Euphausiidae), and juvenile salmon Onchorynchus gorboscha and O. keta. A salient finding over the longitudinal study was the emergence, twice, of capelin as a dominant forage species—once in 2000 to 2003, and again in 2008 through 2011. Kittiwakes responded to capelin availability by producing markedly higher numbers of fledged young. The 2000 to 2003 event corresponded to a previously documented shift to cooler conditions in the NE Pacific, which apparently was relatively limited in magnitude or duration. The more recent transition appears stronger and may be more lasting. I submit that 2008 was an important turning point, marking a substantive reversal of warm conditions that began with the well-documented regime shift of 1977. That interpretation is consistent with the existence of a ~60 yr cycle in ocean and atmospheric conditions in the North Pacific. All else being equal, it predicts the next 20 to 30 yr will be favorable for species such as kittiwakes and Steller sea lions, which seemed to respond negatively to the 1977 to 2007 warm phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation.

  13. A critical assessment of the ecological assumptions underpinning compensatory mitigation of salmon-derived nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Scott F.; Marcarelli, Amy M.; Baxter, Colden V.; Wipfli, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    We critically evaluate some of the key ecological assumptions underpinning the use of nutrient replacement as a means of recovering salmon populations and a range of other organisms thought to be linked to productive salmon runs. These assumptions include: (1) nutrient mitigation mimics the ecological roles of salmon, (2) mitigation is needed to replace salmon-derived nutrients and stimulate primary and invertebrate production in streams, and (3) food resources in rearing habitats limit populations of salmon and resident fishes. First, we call into question assumption one because an array of evidence points to the multi-faceted role played by spawning salmon, including disturbance via redd-building, nutrient recycling by live fish, and consumption by terrestrial consumers. Second, we show that assumption two may require qualification based upon a more complete understanding of nutrient cycling and productivity in streams. Third, we evaluate the empirical evidence supporting food limitation of fish populations and conclude it has been only weakly tested. On the basis of this assessment, we urge caution in the application of nutrient mitigation as a management tool. Although applications of nutrients and other materials intended to mitigate for lost or diminished runs of Pacific salmon may trigger ecological responses within treated ecosystems, contributions of these activities toward actual mitigation may be limited.

  14. 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis/EIS : Appendices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (OA/EIS) identifies, presents effects of, and evaluates the potential options for changing instream flow levels in efforts to increase salmon populations in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The potential actions would be implemented during 1992 to benefit juvenile and adult salmon during migration through eight run-of-river reservoirs. The Corps of Engineers (Corps) prepared this document in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is a participating agency. The text and appendices of the document describe the characteristics of 10 Federal projects and one private water development project in the Columbia River drainage basin. Present and potential operation of these projects and their effects on the salmon that spawn and rear in the Columbia and Snake River System are presented. The life history, status, and response of Pacific salmon to current environmental conditions are described. The document concludes with an evaluation of the potential effects that could result from implementing proposed actions. The conclusions are based on evaluation of existing data, utilization of numerical models, and application of logical inference. This volume contains the appendices.

  15. 1992 Columbia River salmon flow measures Options Analysis/EIS: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (OA/EIS) identifies, presents effects of, and evaluates the potential options for changing instream flow levels in efforts to increase salmon populations in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The potential actions would be implemented during 1992 to benefit juvenile and adult salmon during migration through eight run-of-river reservoirs. The Corps of Engineers (Corps) prepared this document in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is a participating agency. The text and appendices of the document describe the characteristics of 10 Federal projects and one private water development project in the Columbia River drainage basin. Present and potential operation of these projects and their effects on the salmon that spawn and rear in the Columbia and Snake River System are presented. The life history, status, and response of Pacific salmon to current environmental conditions are described. The document concludes with an evaluation of the potential effects that could result from implementing proposed actions. The conclusions are based on evaluation of existing data, utilization of numerical models, and application of logical inference. This volume contains the appendices

  16. A Literature Review, Bibliographic Listing, and Organization of Selected References Relative to Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) and Abiotic and Biotic Attributes of the Columbia River Estuary and Adjacent Marine and Riverine Environs for Various Historical Periods : Measure 7.1A of the Northwest Power Planning Council`s 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program : Report 4 of 4, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, Ronald J.

    1996-05-01

    This report contains the results of a literature review on the carrying capacity of Pacific salmon in the Columbia River Basin. The objective of the review was to find the information gaps relative to the determinants of salmon carrying capacity in the Columbia River Basin. The review was one activity designed to answer questions asked in Measure 7.1A of the Councils Fish and Wildlife Program. Based, in part, on the information learned during the literature review and the other work accomplished during this study the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) state concluded that the approach inherent in 7.1A will not increase understanding of ecology, carrying capacity, or limiting factors that influence salmon under current conditions. To increase understanding of ecology, carring capacity, and limiting factors, it is necessary to deal with the complexity of the sustained performance of salmon in the Columbia River Basin. The PNNL team suggests that the regions evaluated carrying capacity from more than one view point. The PNNL team recommends that the region use the contextualistic view for evaluating capacity.

  17. [The red tide caused by the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense in the Colombian Pacific coast (2001)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hansen, Ingrid; Cortés-Altamirano, Roberto; Sierra-Beltrán, Arturo P

    2004-09-01

    From April 26th to May 15th 2001, a large algae bloom was observed off Tumaco Bay on the Pacific coast of Colombia. This was the first harmful algae bloom (HAB) reported in the region, and reached Gorgona Island, about 120 km north. A year later, starting March 2002, an offshore HAB developed from Cabo Corrientes North to Solano Bay. The typical abundance during the blooms reached 7.5 x 10(6) cells l(-1) for the 2001 event and 1.6 x 10(6) cells l(-1) for the 2002 event. During both events, low temperature and high salinity were recorded. Typical measurements in the area are 27-27.5 degrees C and 30-31.5 psu. Values observed during the two events were 24-24.6 degrees C and 33-34 psu; 3 degrees C below normal and more than 2.5 psu above average values. These conditions are indicative of local upwelling processes at the time of the events. On both occasions, cells corresponding to the Alexandrium catenella/fundeyense/tamarense complex represented 99-100% of the biomass. It was difficult to differentiate the cells from A. catenella, but the presence of short chains of only 4 cells (single cells represented most of the biomass) was suggestive of A. tamarense. Shape, dimensions, and detailed structure of the apical pore complex, first apical plate, posterior sulcal plate, and position of the ventral pore on plate 1' of cells were consistent with the description of A. tamarense, which has not been reported in the tropical East Pacific. The Control Center of Pacific Contamination of the Maritime General Direction of the Colombian Navy has been monitoring the area since 1994 without finding this species or HABs. This leads us to consider the two events as caused by recently introduced species, where local upwelling processes favor permanent and cyclic HABs. However, during these two events, there were no reports of effects on marine biota or of human poisoning, probably because the blooms occurred some distance offshore and far from exploited shellfish beds.

  18. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean from 2001-06-04 to 2001-07-18 (NODC Accession 0112256)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112256 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean from 2001-06-04 to 2001-07-18...

  19. SOIL N AND C GEOGRAPHY OF THE SALMON RIVER WATERSHED AND THE OREGON COAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help establish restorative criteria of salmon runs in the Pacific Northwest, resource inventories on affected watersheds are a critical component of this process. Diverse soil and geology influence the rich terrestrial and aquatic biota of the Oregon Coast. We characterized ...

  20. CTD and Water Chemistry data of the Eastern Pacific Redox Experiment of May - June 2000 (NODC Accession 0000833)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Eastern Pacific Redox Experiment (EPREX) took place 24 May to 28 June 2000 on the R/V Roger Revelle. The first station was at the Hawaii Ocean Time Series...

  1. Consolidated results 2000. Forecasts 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This document presents an economic analysis of the Group Gaz De France consolidated results for the year 2000. The main topics are the evolution of the energy market, the great economic growth for the five businesses of the Group (exploration-production, trade, transport, distribution and services), financial results affected by the supply costs increase, the position reinforcement among the gas leaders in Europe and the highlights of 2000. (A.L.B.)

  2. From salmon to shad: Shifting sources of marine-derived nutrients in the Columbia River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Craig A.

    2018-01-01

    Like Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), nonnative American shad (Alosa sapidissima) have the potential to convey large quantities of nutrients between the Pacific Ocean and freshwater spawning areas in the Columbia River Basin (CRB). American shad are now the most numerous anadromous fish in the CRB, yet the magnitude of the resulting nutrient flux owing to the shift from salmon to shad is unknown. Nutrient flux models revealed that American shad conveyed over 15,000 kg of nitrogen (N) and 3,000 kg of phosphorus (P) annually to John Day Reservoir, the largest mainstem reservoir in the lower Columbia River. Shad were net importers of N, with juveniles and postspawners exporting just 31% of the N imported by adults. Shad were usually net importers of P, with juveniles and postspawners exporting 46% of the P imported by adults on average. American shad contributed salmon owing to their smaller size. Given the relatively high background P levels and low retention times in lower Columbia River reservoirs, it is unlikely that shad marine-derived nutrients affect nutrient balances or food web productivity through autotrophic pathways. However, a better understanding of shad spawning aggregations in the CRB is needed.

  3. Marine-derived nutrients, bioturbation, and ecosystem metabolism: reconsidering the role of salmon in streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtgrieve, Gordon W; Schindler, Daniel E

    2011-02-01

    In coastal areas of the North Pacific Ocean, annual returns of spawning salmon provide a substantial influx of nutrients and organic matter to streams and are generally believed to enhance the productivity of recipient ecosystems. Loss of this subsidy from areas with diminished salmon runs has been hypothesized to limit ecosystem productivity in juvenile salmon rearing habitats (lakes and streams), thereby reinforcing population declines. Using five to seven years of data from an Alaskan stream supporting moderate salmon densities, we show that salmon predictably increased stream water nutrient concentrations, which were on average 190% (nitrogen) and 390% (phosphorus) pre-salmon values, and that primary producers incorporated some of these nutrients into tissues. However, benthic algal biomass declined by an order of magnitude despite increased nutrients. We also measured changes in stream ecosystem metabolic properties, including gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER), from three salmon streams by analyzing diel measurements of oxygen concentrations and stable isotopic ratios (delta O-O2) within a Bayesian statistical model of oxygen dynamics. Our results do not support a shift toward higher primary productivity with the return of salmon, as is expected from a nutrient fertilization mechanism. Rather, net ecosystem metabolism switched from approximately net autotrophic (GPP > or = ER) to a strongly net heterotrophic state (GPP disturbance enhanced in situ heterotrophic respiration. Salmon also changed the physical properties of the stream, increasing air-water gas exchange by nearly 10-fold during peak spawning. We suggest that management efforts to restore salmon ecosystems should consider effects on ecosystem metabolic properties and how salmon disturbance affects the incorporation of marine-derived nutrients into food webs.

  4. Fuels. Deliveries and consumption of fuels during 4th quarter 2001 and during 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The total volume of oil product deliveries (excluded lubricants, bitumen etc.) from the oil companies was 3 per cent higher during 2001 compared with 2000. The deliveries of motor gasoline and diesel oil increased by 1 per cent. Domestic heating oil decreased by 2 per cent and heavy fuel oils increased by 17 per cent, all compared with 2000. Under the forth quarter 2001 the deliveries of oil products (excluded lubricants bitumen etc.) was 5 per cent higher compared with the same quarter 2000. The deliveries of domestic heating oil and heavy fuel oils increased by 4 per cent and 28 per cent respectively. Motor gasoline increased by 3 per cent while the deliveries of diesel oil decreased by 1 per cent. The consumption of fuels in mining and manufacturing decreased by 5 per cent during 2001 compared with 2000. Most of the reduction came from the lower use of domestic fuel in manufacture of pulp, paper and paper products, printing and publishing. The total consumption in mining and manufacturing was unchanged during the 4 th quarter 2001 compared with the same period 2000. The consumption of domestic fuels decreased by 6 per cent and the oil consumption increased by 11 per cent. Higher consumption of fuels in electricity, gas and district heating services. The consumption of fuels in electricity, gas and district heating services increased by 14 per cent 2001 compared with 2000. The consumption of domestic fuels raised with 12 per cent and the use of fossil fuels raised with 17 per cent. The highest increasing, 27 per cent, was found within the use of oil. Electricity, gas and district heating services increased there fuel consumption with 29 per cent during the 0 quarter 2001 compared with the same period 2000. The raise can be explained with the fact that the 4th quarter 2000 was unusually warm. The increasing is found both in the use of domestic and fossil fuels

  5. United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries. Annual report February 1, 2000--January 31, 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrhart, Susan M. (ed.); Filipy, Ronald E. (ed.)

    2001-07-01

    The United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR) comprise a human tissue research program studying the deposition, biokinetics and dosimetry of the actinide elements in humans with the primary goals of providing data fundamental to the verification, refinement, or future development of radiation protection standards for these and other radionuclides, and of determining possible bioeffects on both a macro and subcellular level attributable to exposure to the actinides. This report covers USTUR activities during the year from February 2000 through January 2001.

  6. United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries. Annual report February 1, 2000-January 31, 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhart, Susan M.; Filipy, Ronald E.

    2001-01-01

    The United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR) comprise a human tissue research program studying the deposition, biokinetics and dosimetry of the actinide elements in humans with the primary goals of providing data fundamental to the verification, refinement, or future development of radiation protection standards for these and other radionuclides, and of determining possible bioeffects on both a macro and subcellular level attributable to exposure to the actinides. This report covers USTUR activities during the year from February 2000 through January 2001

  7. Nuclear energy system department annual report. April 1, 2000 - March 31, 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osugi, Toshitaka; Takase, Kazuyuki; Kunii, Katsuhiko

    2002-03-01

    This report summarizes the research and development activities in the Department of Nuclear Energy System during the fiscal year of 2000 (April 1, 2000 - March 31, 2001). The Department has been organized from April 1998. The main research activity is aimed to build the basis of the development of future nuclear energy systems. The research activities of the Department cover basic nuclear and atomic and molecular data evaluation, conceptual design of a reduced-moderation water reactor, reactor physics experiments and development of the reactor analysis codes, experiment and analysis of thermal-hydrodynamics, energy system analysis and assessment, development of advanced materials for a reactor, lifetime reliability assessment on structural material, development of advanced nuclear fuel, study of nuclear transmutation systems, design of a marine reactor and the research for a nuclear ship system. The maintenance and operation of reactor engineering facilities belonging to the Department are undertaken. The activities of the research committees to which the Department takes a role of secretariat are also summarized in this report. (author)

  8. From Rivers to Oceans and Back: Linking Models to Encompass the Full Salmon Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, E.; Hendrix, N.; Martin, B.; Lindley, S. T.

    2016-02-01

    Pacific salmon are a promising study subject for investigating the linkages between freshwater and coastal ocean ecosystems. Salmon use a wide range of habitats throughout their life cycle as they move with water from mountain streams, mainstem rivers, estuaries, bays, and coastal oceans, with adult fish swimming back through the same migration route they took as juveniles. Conditions in one habitat can have growth and survival consequences that manifest in the following habitat, so is key that full life cycle models are used to further our understanding salmon population dynamics. Given the wide range of habitats and potential stressors, this approach requires the coordination of a multidisciplinary suite of physical and biological models, including climate, hydrologic, hydraulic, food web, circulation, bioenergetic, and ecosystem models. Here we present current approaches to linking physical and biological models that capture the foundational drivers for salmon in complex and dynamic systems.

  9. Fish Passage Center 2001 annual report.; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish Passage Center

    2002-01-01

    Extremely poor water conditions within the Columbia River Basin along with extraordinary power market conditions created an exceptionally poor migration year for juvenile salmon and steelhead. Monthly 2001 precipitation at the Columbia above Grand Coulee, the Snake River above Ice Harbor, and the Columbia River above The Dalles was approximately 70% of average. As a result the 2001 January-July runoff volume at The Dalles was the second lowest in Columbia River recorded history. As a compounding factor to the near record low flows in 2001, California energy deregulation and the resulting volatile power market created a financial crisis for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Power emergencies were first declared in the summer and winter of 2000 for brief periods of time. In February of 2001, and on April 3, the BPA declared a ''power emergency'' and suspended many of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Biological Opinion (Opinion) measures that addressed mainstem Columbia and Snake Rivers juvenile fish passage. The river and reservoir system was operated primarily for power generation. Power generation requirements in January through March coincidentally provided emergence and rearing flows for the Ives-Pierce Islands spawning area below Bonneville Dam. In particular, flow and spill measures to protect juvenile downstream migrant salmon and steelhead were nearly totally suspended. Spring and summer flows were below the Opinion migration target at all sites. Maximum smolt transportation was implemented instead of the Opinion in-river juvenile passage measures. On May 16, the BPA Administrator decided to implement a limited spill for fish passage at Bonneville and The Dalles dams. On May 25, a limited spill program was added at McNary and John Day dams. Spill extended to July 15. Juvenile migrants, which passed McNary Dam after May 21, experienced a noticeable, improved survival, as a benefit of spill at John Day Dam. The suspension of Biological Opinion

  10. Low level chronic irradiation of salmon. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershberger, W.K.; Donaldson, L.R.; Bonham, K.; Brannon, E.L.

    1975-01-01

    A question of primary importance in the use of nuclear energy is what effect the effluent from a reactor will have on the aquatic life in the water used for cooling. Of particular concern in the Pacific Northwest are the effects of chronic irradiation on salmon that use the rivers for spawning and nursery area. The present program was designed in the early days of the atomic era to address this concern, and to provide some insight into the long-term consequences of exposure of fish to chronic, low levels of irradiation. The experimental techniques are described and data are summarized on irradiation effects on the entire life cycle of the chinook salmon. Also, long-term effects transmitted to future generations were assessed in F 1 offspring of irradiated parents

  11. Identifying salmon lice transmission characteristics between Faroese salmon farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragesteen, Trondur J.; Simonsen, Knud; Visser, AW

    2018-01-01

    Sea lice infestations are an increasing challenge in the ever-growing salmon aquaculture sector and cause large economic losses. The high salmon production in a small area creates a perfect habitat for parasites. Knowledge of how salmon lice planktonic larvae disperse and spread the infection...... between farms is of vital importance in developing treatment management plans to combat salmon lice infestations. Using a particle tracking model forced by tidal currents, we show that Faroese aquaculture farms form a complex network. In some cases as high as 10% of infectious salmon lice released at one...... for the entire Faroese salmon industry...

  12. Bedform morphology of salmon spawning areas in a large gravel-bed river

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.

    2007-05-01

    While the importance of river channel morphology to salmon spawning habitat is increasingly recognized, quantitative measures of the relationships between channel morphology and habitat use are lacking. Such quantitative measures are necessary as management and regulatory agencies within the Pacific Northwestern region of the USA, and elsewhere, seek to quantify potential spawning habitat and develop recovery goals for declining salmon populations. The objective of this study was to determine if fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning areas in the Snake River, Idaho, USA, were correlated with specific bed form types at the pool-riffle scale. A bed form differencing technique was used to objectively quantify the longitudinal riverbed profile into four distinct pool-riffle units that were independent of discharge. The vertical location of thalweg points within these units was quantified with a riffle proximity index. Chinook salmon spawning areas were mapped and correlated with the pool-riffle units through the use of cross-tabulation tables. The results indicate that 84% of fall Chinook salmon spawning areas were correlated with riffles (Chi-square=152.1, df=3, p<0.001), with 53% of those areas located on the upstream side of riffle crests. The majority of Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning occurred at a vertical location within 80% of the nearest riffle crest elevation. The analyses of bed form morphology will assist regional fish mangers in quantifying existing and potential fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat, and will provide a quantitative framework for evaluating general ecological implications of channel morphology in large gravel-bed rivers.

  13. Salmon lice – impact on wild salmonids and salmon aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrissen, O; Jones, S; Asche, F; Guttormsen, A; Skilbrei, O T; Nilsen, F; Horsberg, T E; Jackson, D

    2013-01-01

    Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, are naturally occurring parasites of salmon in sea water. Intensive salmon farming provides better conditions for parasite growth and transmission compared with natural conditions, creating problems for both the salmon farming industry and, under certain conditions, wild salmonids. Salmon lice originating from farms negatively impact wild stocks of salmonids, although the extent of the impact is a matter of debate. Estimates from Ireland and Norway indicate an odds ratio of 1.1:1-1.2:1 for sea lice treated Atlantic salmon smolt to survive sea migration compared to untreated smolts. This is considered to have a moderate population regulatory effect. The development of resistance against drugs most commonly used to treat salmon lice is a serious concern for both wild and farmed fish. Several large initiatives have been taken to encourage the development of new strategies, such as vaccines and novel drugs, for the treatment or removal of salmon lice from farmed fish. The newly sequenced salmon louse genome will be an important tool in this work. The use of cleaner fish has emerged as a robust method for controlling salmon lice, and aquaculture production of wrasse is important towards this aim. Salmon lice have large economic consequences for the salmon industry, both as direct costs for the prevention and treatment, but also indirectly through negative public opinion. PMID:23311858

  14. Phytoplankton diversity in the Upper Paraná River floodplain during two years of drought (2000 and 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAF. Borges

    Full Text Available Floodplain lakes and lotic environments of the High Paraná River floodplain present notable biodiversity, especially in relation to phytoplanktonic community. The goal of this work was to evaluate phytoplankton diversity (alpha, beta and gamma in three subsystems during two years of drought (2000 and 2001. We sampled 33 habitats at the pelagic zone subsurface during February and August. Due to low hydrometric levels of the Paraná and Ivinhema Rivers, there was no clear distinction between the potamophase and limnophase periods for the two hydrosedimentological cycles analysed. We recorded 366 taxa. The values obtained for gamma diversity estimators ranged from 55.5-87.8%. DCA and variance analyses revealed only spatial differences in the phytoplankton composition. The mean values of species richness, evenness and Shannon diversity were low, especially when compared to those obtained in previous periods for Baía subsystem. The highest mean values of species richness were verified in the connected floodplain lakes. The highest beta diversity was obtained from the Paraná subsystem and lotic environments in 2001. In general, we observed that the Upper Paraná River floodplain has the highest values of species richness, evenness and H' during the potamophase period, when the flood facilitates dispersion. However, this pattern was not observed in 2000 and 2001, years influenced by La Niña. Besides the low precipitation observed during that period, we must consider the influence of the Porto Primavera impoundment, which also altered the discharge regime of the Paraná River by decreasing the degree of connectivity between fluvial channels and the lentic environments of the floodplain. Thus, the prevalence of conditions characterising the limnophase during 2000 and 2001 explains the lack of significant variability registered for most components of phytoplankton diversity over the study period. We conclude that variations in phytoplankton diversity

  15. BPA riparian fencing and alternative water development projects completed within Asotin Creek Watershed ; 2000 and 2001 Asotin Creek fencing final report of accomplishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, B.J.Bradley J.

    2002-01-01

    The Asotin County Conservation District (ACCD) is the primary entity coordinating habitat projects on both private and public lands within the Asotin Creek watershed. The watershed covers approximately 325 square miles in the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington in Water Resource Inventory Area (WRIA) 35. According to Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife's (WDFW) Priority WRIA's by ''At-Risk Stock Significance Map'', it is the highest priority WRIA in southeastern Washington. Summer steelhead, bull trout, and Snake River spring chinook salmon which are listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), are present in the watershed. WDFW manages it as a Wild Steelhead Reserve; no hatchery fish have been released here since 1997. The ACCD has been working with landowners, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Washington State Conservation Commission (WCC), Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), U.S. Forest Service, Pomeroy Ranger District (USFS), Nez Perce Tribe, Washington Department of Ecology (DOE), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to address habitat projects in Asotin County. Local students, volunteers and Salmon Corps members from the Nez Perce Tribe have been instrumental in the success of the Model Watershed Program on Asotin Creek. ACCD began coordinating habitat projects in 1995 with the help of BPA funding. Approximately two hundred and seventy-six projects have been implemented as of 1999. The Washington State Legislature was successful in securing funding for endangered salmon and steelhead recovery throughout the State in 1998. While these issues were new to most of the State, the ACCD has been securing and administering funding for endangered salmonids since 1994. The ''Asotin Creek Riparian Planting 2000-053-00 and Asotin Creek Riparian Fencing 2000-054-00'' teamed BPA and the Governor's Salmon Recovery Funding to plant approximately 84

  16. Salmonid Gamete Preservation in the Snake River Basin : 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Robyn; Kucera, Paul A. [Nez Perce Tribe. Dept. of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID (US)

    2001-06-01

    Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations in the Northwest are decreasing. Genetic diversity is being lost at an alarming rate. The Nez Perce Tribe (Tribe) strives to ensure availability of genetic samples of the existing male salmonid population by establishing and maintaining a germplasm repository. The sampling strategy, initiated in 1992, has been to collect and preserve male salmon and steelhead genetic diversity across the geographic landscape by sampling within the major river subbasins in the Snake River basin, assuming a metapopulation structure existed historically. Gamete cryopreservation conserves genetic diversity in a germplasm repository, but is not a recovery action for listed fish species. The Tribe was funded in 2000 by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) to coordinate gene banking of male gametes from Endangered Species Act listed steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin. In 2000, a total of 349 viable chinook salmon semen samples from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River, Lookingglass Hatchery (Imnaha River stock), Rapid River Hatchery, Lake Creek, the South Fork Salmon River weir, Johnson Creek, Big Creek, Capehorn Creek, Marsh Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery, and Sawtooth Hatchery (upper Salmon River stock) were cryopreserved. Also, 283 samples of male steelhead gametes from Dworshak Hatchery, Fish Creek, Grande Ronde River, Imnaha River, Little Sheep Creek, Pahsimeroi Hatchery and Oxbow Hatchery were also cryopreserved. The Tribe acquired 5 frozen steelhead samples from the Selway River collected in 1994 and 15 from Fish Creek sampled in 1993 from the U.S. Geological Survey, for addition into the germplasm repository. Also, 590 cryopreserved samples from the Grande Ronde chinook salmon captive broodstock program are being stored at the University of Idaho as

  17. Comparison of Space Debris Environment Models: ORDEM2000, MASTER-2001, MASTER-2005 and MASTER-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Kanemitsu, Yuki; 赤星, 保浩; Akahoshi, Yasuhiro; 鳴海, 智博; Narumi, Tomohiro; Faure, Pauline; 松本, 晴久; Matsumoto, Haruhisa; 北澤, 幸人; Kitazawa, Yukihito

    2012-01-01

    Hypervelocity impact by space debris on spacecraft is one of the most important issues for space development and operation, especially considering the growing amount of space debris in recent years. It is therefore important for spacecraft design to evaluate the impact risk by using environment models. In this paper, the authors compared the results of the debris impact flux in low Earth orbit, as calculated by four debris environment engineering models -NASA's ORDEM2000 and ESA's MASTER-2001...

  18. Reply [to “Comments on “Which one is correct, 2000 or 2001? How about 1995?’”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronis, George

    Reply to Randalls comment: The millennium argument occurs mostly because people ask different questions, one based on numerology (start from 1, add 2000 and get 2001), and the other based on measuring years from the time that Christ was born. The people who base their arguments on numerology invariably refer to the absence of a year zero. That suffices to get 2001. If that is the issue, then there is no arguing against 2001. But in my mind, that is not the issue. So John Randall and I are answering different questions. The arguments used by the numerologists are based on the assumption that the rest of us don't know how to count. They really ought to consider the fact that a different question may be more to the point.

  19. Energy supply the 4th quarter and the whole years 2000 and 2001, corrected version. Preliminary data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the presented statistics is to give a total picture of the Swedish energy supply and its development. The efficiency of the final consumption is not considered in the balance sheets. The quantities (recalculated to tera joules = 10 12 joules) as reported under final consumption refer only to the total energy delivered to the consumers. The final consumption of energy in Sweden the 4th quarter 2001 increased by 5 per cent compared to the corresponding period 2000. The rise can be explained with the fact that the 4th quarter 2001 was colder compared with the same quarter 2000. The consumption within industrial sector was unchanged although the consumption within transports diminished. During the year 2001 energy consumption was unchanged compared with the year 2000. The consumption in household and service sector rose by 8 per cent. The highest rise can be find in the use of district heating and domestic fuels. The industry sector used 5 per cent less energy and mainly in the use of electric energy and domestic fuels. The gross supply of energy in Sweden the 4th quarter increased by 3,5 per cent compared to the 4th quarter 2000. The production of electricity from nuclear plants was 23 per cent higher compared with the same quarter 2000. Hydro-electric power production decreased by 4 per cent during the same period. The supply of natural gas rose by 24 per cent and the supply of domestic fuels rose by 4 %, the supply of coal and coke increased by 3 per cent and the same increase occurred in the supply of oil products. The gross supply of energy was 3 per cent higher during 2001 compared with 2000. The increase can be seen in the supply of coal and coke, 7 per cent, natural gas, 15 per cent, and production of electric energy in nuclear plants, 26 per cent. The balance sheets give both the total flow of various sources of energy and specifications of conversion and consumption in the energy producing industries. The contents of the balance sheets are

  20. Õigusrikkumised [2001] = Violation of jurisdiction

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Tabelid. Registreeritud kuriteod, 2001, kuritegevuse tase 10 000 elaniku kohta, 1993-2001, kuriteod liikide lõikes, 2001, narkokuriteod, 2000-2001, tapmisi 10 000 elaniku kohta, 1996-2001, Tallinna avaliku korra rikkumised, 1992-2001, väljasõidud, 2001, hukkunud, vigastatud ja päästetud tulekahjudes, 2001, kuritegevus ja selle avastamine Tallinnas, 2001. - Rööptekst ing. keeles

  1. AFSC/ABL: Juvenile chum salmon allozyme stock identification, Gulf of Alaska 2000-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Summer surveys (Julyb??August) of juvenile salmon ecology along the continental shelf of the Gulf of Alaska are conducted annually by scientists from the Ocean...

  2. Return to the river: strategies for salmon restoration in the Columbia River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Williams; Jack A. Standford; James A. Lichatowich; William J. Liss; Charles C. Coutant; Willis E. McConnaha; Richard R. Whitney; Phillip R. Mundy; Peter A. Bisson; Madison S. Powell

    2006-01-01

    The Columbia River today is a great "organic machine" (White 1995) that dominates the economy of the Pacific Northwest. Even though natural attributes remain—for example, salmon production in Washington State's Hanford Reach, the only unimpounded reach of the mainstem Columbia River—the Columbia and Snake River mainstems are dominated...

  3. Survival of migrating salmon smolts in large rivers with and without dams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Welch

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The mortality of salmon smolts during their migration out of freshwater and into the ocean has been difficult to measure. In the Columbia River, which has an extensive network of hydroelectric dams, the decline in abundance of adult salmon returning from the ocean since the late 1970s has been ascribed in large measure to the presence of the dams, although the completion of the hydropower system occurred at the same time as large-scale shifts in ocean climate, as measured by climate indices such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. We measured the survival of salmon smolts during their migration to sea using elements of the large-scale acoustic telemetry system, the Pacific Ocean Shelf Tracking (POST array. Survival measurements using acoustic tags were comparable to those obtained independently using the Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT tag system, which is operational at Columbia and Snake River dams. Because the technology underlying the POST array works in both freshwater and the ocean, it is therefore possible to extend the measurement of survival to large rivers lacking dams, such as the Fraser, and to also extend the measurement of survival to the lower Columbia River and estuary, where there are no dams. Of particular note, survival during the downstream migration of at least some endangered Columbia and Snake River Chinook and steelhead stocks appears to be as high or higher than that of the same species migrating out of the Fraser River in Canada, which lacks dams. Equally surprising, smolt survival during migration through the hydrosystem, when scaled by either the time or distance migrated, is higher than in the lower Columbia River and estuary where dams are absent. Our results raise important questions regarding the factors that are preventing the recovery of salmon stocks in the Columbia and the future health of stocks in the Fraser River.

  4. 76 FR 2084 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... Department of Fish & Game Report. International Pacific Halibut Commission Report. United States Coast Guard Report. United States Fish & Wildlife Service Report. Protected Species Report (including update on Steller Sea Lion (SSL); Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed salmon). American Fisheries Act (AFA...

  5. Poached Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/poachedsalmon.html Poached Salmon To use the sharing features on this page, ... olive oil Ground black pepper, to taste For salmon: 4 salmon steaks, 5 oz each 3 cups ...

  6. Performance of salmon fishery portfolios across western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Jennifer R; Schindler, Daniel E; Armstrong, Jonathan B; Scheuerell, Mark D; Whited, Diane C; Clark, Robert A; Hilborn, Ray; Holt, Carrie A; Lindley, Steven T; Stanford, Jack A; Volk, Eric C

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying the variability in the delivery of ecosystem services across the landscape can be used to set appropriate management targets, evaluate resilience and target conservation efforts. Ecosystem functions and services may exhibit portfolio-type dynamics, whereby diversity within lower levels promotes stability at more aggregated levels. Portfolio theory provides a framework to characterize the relative performance among ecosystems and the processes that drive differences in performance. We assessed Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. portfolio performance across their native latitudinal range focusing on the reliability of salmon returns as a metric with which to assess the function of salmon ecosystems and their services to humans. We used the Sharpe ratio (e.g. the size of the total salmon return to the portfolio relative to its variability (risk)) to evaluate the performance of Chinook and sockeye salmon portfolios across the west coast of North America. We evaluated the effects on portfolio performance from the variance of and covariance among salmon returns within each portfolio, and the association between portfolio performance and watershed attributes. We found a positive latitudinal trend in the risk-adjusted performance of Chinook and sockeye salmon portfolios that also correlated negatively with anthropogenic impact on watersheds (e.g. dams and land-use change). High-latitude Chinook salmon portfolios were on average 2·5 times more reliable, and their portfolio risk was mainly due to low variance in the individual assets. Sockeye salmon portfolios were also more reliable at higher latitudes, but sources of risk varied among the highest performing portfolios. Synthesis and applications. Portfolio theory provides a straightforward method for characterizing the resilience of salmon ecosystems and their services. Natural variability in portfolio performance among undeveloped watersheds provides a benchmark for restoration efforts. Locally and regionally

  7. Performance of salmon fishery portfolios across western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Jennifer R; Schindler, Daniel E; Armstrong, Jonathan B; Scheuerell, Mark D; Whited, Diane C; Clark, Robert A; Hilborn, Ray; Holt, Carrie A; Lindley, Steven T; Stanford, Jack A; Volk, Eric C

    2014-12-01

    Quantifying the variability in the delivery of ecosystem services across the landscape can be used to set appropriate management targets, evaluate resilience and target conservation efforts. Ecosystem functions and services may exhibit portfolio-type dynamics, whereby diversity within lower levels promotes stability at more aggregated levels. Portfolio theory provides a framework to characterize the relative performance among ecosystems and the processes that drive differences in performance. We assessed Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. portfolio performance across their native latitudinal range focusing on the reliability of salmon returns as a metric with which to assess the function of salmon ecosystems and their services to humans. We used the Sharpe ratio (e.g. the size of the total salmon return to the portfolio relative to its variability (risk)) to evaluate the performance of Chinook and sockeye salmon portfolios across the west coast of North America. We evaluated the effects on portfolio performance from the variance of and covariance among salmon returns within each portfolio, and the association between portfolio performance and watershed attributes. We found a positive latitudinal trend in the risk-adjusted performance of Chinook and sockeye salmon portfolios that also correlated negatively with anthropogenic impact on watersheds (e.g. dams and land-use change). High-latitude Chinook salmon portfolios were on average 2·5 times more reliable, and their portfolio risk was mainly due to low variance in the individual assets. Sockeye salmon portfolios were also more reliable at higher latitudes, but sources of risk varied among the highest performing portfolios. Synthesis and applications . Portfolio theory provides a straightforward method for characterizing the resilience of salmon ecosystems and their services. Natural variability in portfolio performance among undeveloped watersheds provides a benchmark for restoration efforts. Locally and regionally

  8. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, J. Chris; Ward, David L.; Farr, Ruth A. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife)

    2002-02-01

    We report on our progress from April 2000 through March 2001 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report D), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report E), and Oregon State University (OSU; Report F). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of our work from April 2000 through March 2001 are listed.

  9. How coarse is too coarse for salmon spawning substrates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooster, J. K.; Riebe, C. S.; Ligon, F. K.; Overstreet, B. T.

    2009-12-01

    Populations of Pacific salmon species have declined sharply in many rivers of the western US. Reversing these declines is a top priority and expense of many river restoration projects. To help restore salmon populations, managers often inject gravel into rivers, to supplement spawning habitat that has been depleted by gravel mining and the effects of dams—which block sediment and thus impair habitat downstream by coarsening the bed where salmon historically spawned. However, there is little quantitative understanding nor a methodology for determining when a river bed has become too coarse for salmon spawning. Hence there is little scientific basis for selecting sites that would optimize the restoration benefits of gravel injection (e.g., sites where flow velocities are suitable but bed materials are too coarse for spawning). To develop a quantitative understanding of what makes river beds too coarse for salmon spawning, we studied redds and spawning use in a series of California and Washington rivers where salmon spawning ability appears to be affected by coarse bed material. Our working hypothesis is that for a given flow condition, there is a maximum “threshold” particle size that a salmon of a given size is able to excavate and/or move as she builds her redd. A second, related hypothesis is that spawning use should decrease and eventually become impossible with increasing percent coverage by immovable particles. To test these hypotheses, we quantified the sizes and spatial distributions of immovably coarse particles in a series of salmon redds in each river during the peak of spawning. We also quantified spawning use and how it relates to percent coverage by immovable particles. Results from our studies of fall-run chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytsha) in the Feather River suggest that immovable particle size varies as a function of flow velocity over the redd, implying that faster water helps fish move bigger particles. Our Feather River study also

  10. THE 2000-2001 FINANCIAL CRISIS IN TURKEY AND THE GLOBAL ECONOMIC CRISIS OF 2008-2009: REASONS AND COMPARISONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek TEMİZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis of 2000-2001 was proved to be demolishing for Turkey after the abundance of currency peg in the same year. The crisis in question stemmed from insufficient implementation of regulations, inadequate depth of the capital markets, lack of assessment of risk, excessive lending to incorporated institutions by national banks, restricted interest rates, monitored foreign exchange operations, limited foreign asset holding, lack of competition, barriers to foreign entry high liquidity, chronic inflation and a deficit in balance of payments. However, the crisis that Turkey was subject to in 2008-2009 was quite different than the previous ones as to be a result of world matters. The sparking effect begun in the USA at the mortgage market, the fail of the mortgage market negatively influenced the capital, stock and derivative markets and spread the world. Thus, this study aims to analyze and reveal the reflections of the 2000-2001 and 2008-2009 crises and their comparison with regards to Turkey on theoretical basis resting on numerous comprehensive and credible national and international publications.

  11. Temperature and salinity profile data collected by NOAA Ship Rainier and its launches, 2000-04 to 2001-11 (NODC Accession 0000709)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD data were collected from NOAA Ship Rainer in coastal Alaska/Washington/Oregon from 04 April 2000 to 14 November 2001. Data include temperature and salinity...

  12. Monitoring Fine Sediment; Grande Ronde and John Day Rivers, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, Jonathan J.; Greene, M. Jonas; Purser, Michael D. (Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, Portland, OR)

    2001-01-01

    Fine sediment in spawning substrate has a major effect on salmon survival from egg to smolt. Basin-wide restoration plans have established targets for fine sediment levels in spawning habitat. The project was initiated to monitor surface fine sediment levels and overwinter intrusion of fine sediment in spring chinook salmon spawning habitat in the North Fork John Day (NFJDR) and Grande Ronde Rivers, for five years. The project is also investigating the potential relationship between surface fine levels and overwinter sedimentation. It will provide data to assess trends in substrate conditions in monitored reaches and whether trends are consistent with efforts to improve salmon habitat conditions. The data on the magnitude of overwinter sedimentation will also be used to estimate salmon survival from egg to emergence. In Sept. 1998, 1999, and Aug. 2000, sites for monitoring overwinter sedimentation were established in salmon spawning habitat in the upper Grande Ronde River, Catherine Creek (a Grande Ronde tributary), the North Fork John Day River (NFJDR), and Granite Creek (a NFJDR tributary). Surface fine sediment levels were measured in these reaches via the grid method and visually estimated to test the relative accuracy of these two methods. In 1999 and 2000, surface fine sediment was also estimated via pebble counts at selected reaches to allow comparison of results among the methods. Overwintering substrate samples were collected in April 1999 and April-May 2000 to estimate the amount of overwinter sedimentation in clean gravels in spawning habitat. Monitoring methods and locations are described.

  13. Prevalence of health-risk behaviors among Asian American and Pacific Islander high school students in the U.S., 2001-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Richard; Eaton, Danice K; Brener, Nancy D; Kann, Laura

    2011-01-01

    We provided national prevalence estimates for selected health-risk behaviors for Asian American and Pacific Islander high school students separately, and compared those prevalence estimates with those of white, black, and Hispanic students. We analyzed data from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. To generate a sufficient sample of Asian American and Pacific Islander students, we combined data from four nationally representative surveys of U.S. high school students conducted in 2001, 2003, 2005, and 2007 (total n = 56,773). Asian American students were significantly less likely than Pacific Islander, white, black, or Hispanic students to have drunk alcohol or used marijuana. Asian American students also were the least likely to have carried a weapon, to have been in a physical fight, to have ever had sexual intercourse, or to be currently sexually active. Once sexually active, Asian American students were as likely as most other racial/ethnic groups to have used alcohol or drugs at last sexual intercourse or to have used a condom at last sexual intercourse. Pacific Islander students were significantly more likely than Asian American, white, black, or Hispanic students to have seriously considered or attempted suicide. The prevalence estimates of health-risk behaviors exhibited by Asian American students and Pacific Islander students are very different and should be reported separately whenever feasible. To address the different health-risk behaviors exhibited by Asian American and Pacific Islander students, prevention programs should use culturally sensitive strategies and materials.

  14. Temperature and salinity profiles from CTD casts from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN and NOAA Ship KA'IMIMOANA in the NE and SW Pacific as part of the Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System (GOALS) / Pan American Climate Studies (PACS) from 2001-01-14 to 2001-12-05 (NODC Accession 0000658)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD and other data were collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN and NOAA Ship KA'IMIMOANA in the NE and SW Pacific from 14 January 2001 to 05 December 2001. CTD...

  15. Airline Quality Rating 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2001-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 2001, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2000. AQR scores for the calendar year 2000 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2001 is a summary of month-by-month quality ra...

  16. Effects of salmon lice infection and salmon lice protection on fjord migrating Atlantic salmon and brown trout post-smolts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivertsgard, Rolf; Thorstad, Eva B.; Okland, Finn

    2007-01-01

    Effects of artificial salmon lice infection and pharmaceutical salmon lice prophylaxis on survival and rate of progression of Atlantic salmon (n = 72) and brown trout post-smolts (n = 72) during their fjord migration, were studied by telemetry. The infected groups were artificially exposed...... to infective salmon lice larvae in the laboratory immediately before release in the inner part of the fjord to simulate a naturally high infection pressure. Groups of infected Atlantic salmon (n = 20) and brown trout (n = 12) were also retained in the hatchery to control the infection intensity and lice...... development during the study period. Neither salmon lice infection nor pharmaceutical prophylaxis had any effects on survival and rate of progression of fjord migrating Atlantic salmon post-smolts compared to control fish. Atlantic salmon spent on average only 151.2 h (maximum 207.3 h) in passing the 80 km...

  17. International wind energy development. World market update 2000. Forecast 2001-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    most significant technological trend in the market is the continuing upscaling of macines. From year 2000 the average size of WTGs is 800 kW (in 1999: 729 kW). A second trend is the implementation of more advanced control and power regulation systems, particularly on the MW machines. Another trend is the increased focus on 'direct drive' machines, even though it is not yet reflected in commercial sales other than those from Enercon and Lagerwey. Several new concepts have been announced during the year 2000. It is likely that within few years we will see commercial direct drive machines from other companies. Offshore development - demonstrated in two projects: Utgrunden, 10 MW (Sweden) and Middelgrunden, 40 MW (Denmark) - indicates that the 1.5 - 2.0 MW turbines are used for offshore. Regarding foundations, it seems that the monopile concept will be the preferred option. The special topic in this World Market Update enlightens status and perspectives of the offshore development to take off 2-5 years ahead. The new forecast released in this WMU shows an average growth rate of 17.6% for the period 2001-2005. The main trends reflected in this year's forecast are: 1) A moderate growth in Europe until offshore really takes off. It will start in Denmark in 2002 and in Germany from 2005. Germany is the market where the largest projects are being planned. 2) There is still uncertainty about the US situation beyond 2001 - including the question as to how the US government will contribute to the 'climate change' issue. 3) A steady growth in Asia, but not fast enough to meet future needs. More efficient procedures in the governments administration of the renewable field may speed up the development in China and India. 4) Another topic affecting the growth is the industry's ability to meet the future demand. It is worth noting, that the present industry has gone through two years with growth rates of + 50%, and the whole supply chain has also to be turned in for this high level of

  18. Fish abundance, composition, distribution - Recolonization of the Cedar River, WA by Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this study is to quantify population, community, and ecosystem level changes as a result of salmon recolonization of the Cedar River, WA above...

  19. Growth, movement and survival - Recolonization of the Cedar River, WA by Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this study is to quantify population, community, and ecosystem level changes as a result of salmon recolonization of the Cedar River, WA above...

  20. Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) Annual Report 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    ANSTO's main activities and outputs during the year under review (1 July 2000- 30 June 2001) are presented in this report. Highlights include: the replacement research reactor project, to be completed in 2005, proceeded on schedule and within budget, a great deal of effort has been expended on the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report for the reactor, as well as the review of the detailed engineering design; the fifth shipment of spent fuel was made successfully, so that more than half of the spent fuel accumulated over the entire lifetime of HIFAR has now been shipped overseas; radiopharmaceutical sales reached $17.9 million, a $2 million increase over the previous year. Another milestone this year, not only for ANSTO but Australia as a whole, was the entry into force in January of an Integrated Safeguards Agreement with the IAEA. ANSTO, together with the Australian Safeguards and Non-Proliferation Office have led the world on the implementation of integrated safeguards, and other countries are now following. In the health sector, ANSTO's reputation and capabilities continued to grow with Therapeutic Goods Administration approval for FDGen TM , a metabolic tracer used in the diagnosis of the staging of cancer in cardiac imaging and the imaging of certain neurological conditions. In the field of strategic research, the use of neutron scattering techniques to understand the structure of a range of materials from charcoal to polymers has yielded significant results. In response to funding challenges, the organisation increased external earnings, improved efficiencies and reduced expenditure on research and development. With regard to revenue, ANSTO generated $35.8 million (1999-2000, $32.2 million) from external services, representing 29.5% of total income, excluding capital use charge. With the aim of establishing an appropriate base for the future, ANSTO undertook an output pricing review with the Department of Finance. This review concluded that the price for

  1. FY 2000 report on the R and D of the particulate utilization type creation technology of biological connective substances. Survey of the technical trend overseas; 2000 nendo biryushi riyogata seitai ketsugo busshitsu nado sosei gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kaigai gijutsu doko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The paper summarized the reports on the results of Japanese engineers' participating in the related scientific meetings held overseas as a survey report on the trend of the overseas technology. The scientific meetings they participated in were: 1) Impact of Genomics on Medicine and Pharmacogenomics Europe (Amsterdam; May 15-26, 2000), 2) Drug Discovery Technology 2000 (Boston; August 10-20, 2000), 3) Biotechnology 2000 (Berlin; September 3-12, 2000), 4) PacificChem 2000 (Hawaii; December 14-21, 2000), 5) 4th Winter Conference on Medicinal and Bioorganic Chemistry (Seattle; January 27 - February 4, 2001). Impact of Genomics on Medicine was composed of the following five fields: microarrays, proteomics, functional genomics and target validation, genetic variation technology, and applications of SNP analysis (joint session). Pharmacogenomics Europe was composed of the following four fields: applications of SNP analysis (joint session), SNP assays, targets and compounds, and clinical applications. (NEDO)

  2. FY 2000 report on the R and D of the particulate utilization type creation technology of biological connective substances. Survey of the technical trend overseas; 2000 nendo biryushi riyogata seitai ketsugo busshitsu nado sosei gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kaigai gijutsu doko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The paper summarized the reports on the results of Japanese engineers' participating in the related scientific meetings held overseas as a survey report on the trend of the overseas technology. The scientific meetings they participated in were: 1) Impact of Genomics on Medicine and Pharmacogenomics Europe (Amsterdam; May 15-26, 2000), 2) Drug Discovery Technology 2000 (Boston; August 10-20, 2000), 3) Biotechnology 2000 (Berlin; September 3-12, 2000), 4) PacificChem 2000 (Hawaii; December 14-21, 2000), 5) 4th Winter Conference on Medicinal and Bioorganic Chemistry (Seattle; January 27 - February 4, 2001). Impact of Genomics on Medicine was composed of the following five fields: microarrays, proteomics, functional genomics and target validation, genetic variation technology, and applications of SNP analysis (joint session). Pharmacogenomics Europe was composed of the following four fields: applications of SNP analysis (joint session), SNP assays, targets and compounds, and clinical applications. (NEDO)

  3. Global assessment of extinction risk to populations of Sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter S Rand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Concern about the decline of wild salmon has attracted the attention of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN. The IUCN applies quantitative criteria to assess risk of extinction and publishes its results on the Red List of Threatened Species. However, the focus is on the species level and thus may fail to show the risk to populations. The IUCN has adapted their criteria to apply to populations but there exist few examples of this type of assessment. We assessed the status of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as a model for application of the IUCN population-level assessments and to provide the first global assessment of the status of an anadromous Pacific salmon. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found from demographic data that the sockeye salmon species is not presently at risk of extinction. We identified 98 independent populations with varying levels of risk within the species' range. Of these, 5 (5% are already extinct. We analyzed the risk for 62 out of 93 extant populations (67% and found that 17 of these (27% are at risk of extinction. The greatest number and concentration of extinct and threatened populations is in the southern part of the North American range, primarily due to overfishing, freshwater habitat loss, dams, hatcheries, and changing ocean conditions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although sockeye salmon are not at risk at the species-level, about one-third of the populations that we analyzed are at risk or already extinct. Without an understanding of risk to biodiversity at the level of populations, the biodiversity loss in salmon would be greatly underrepresented on the Red List. We urge government, conservation organizations, scientists and the public to recognize this limitation of the Red List. We also urge recognition that about one-third of sockeye salmon global population diversity is at risk of extinction or already extinct.

  4. Proceedings of the 2001 ASCUE Summer Conference (34th, North Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, June 10-14, 2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter, Ed.

    This 2001 Association of Small Computer Users in Education (ASCUE) conference proceedings briefly describes ASCUE and its listserver, lists the 2000-2001 ASCUE Board Members, and provides abstracts of the pre-conference workshops. The conference papers and abstracts of papers that follow include: "Microsoft Project 2000--Keeping Projects on Time…

  5. Brood Year 2004: Johnson Creek Chinook Salmon Supplementation Report, June 2004 through March 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebhards, John S.; Hill, Robert; Daniel, Mitch [Nez Perce Tribe

    2009-02-19

    The Nez Perce Tribe, through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration, has implemented a small scale chinook salmon supplementation program on Johnson Creek, a tributary in the South Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. The Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation Enhancement project was established to enhance the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to Johnson Creek to spawn through artificial propagation. This was the sixth season of adult chinook broodstock collection in Johnson Creek following collections in 1998, 2000, 2001, 2002, and 2003. Weir installation was completed on June 21, 2004 with the first chinook captured on June 22, 2004 and the last fish captured on September 6, 2004. The weir was removed on September 18, 2004. A total of 338 adult chinook, including jacks, were captured during the season. Of these, 211 were of natural origin, 111 were hatchery origin Johnson Creek supplementation fish, and 16 were adipose fin clipped fish from other hatchery operations and therefore strays into Johnson Creek. Over the course of the run, 57 natural origin Johnson Creek adult chinook were retained for broodstock, transported to the South Fork Salmon River adult holding and spawning facility and held until spawned. The remaining natural origin Johnson Creek fish along with all the Johnson Creek supplementation fish were released upstream of the weir to spawn naturally. Twenty-seven Johnson Creek females were artificially spawned with 25 Johnson Creek males. Four females were diagnosed with high bacterial kidney disease levels resulting in their eggs being culled. The 27 females produced 116,598 green eggs, 16,531 green eggs were culled, with an average eye-up rate of 90.6% resulting in 90,647 eyed eggs. Juvenile fish were reared indoors at the McCall Fish Hatchery until November 2005 and then transferred to the outdoor rearing facilities during the Visual Implant Elastomer tagging operation

  6. Temperature profile data from XBT casts by participating vessels in NOAA's Volunteer Observing Ships Program, November 2000 - October 2001 (NODC Accession 0000596)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — emperature profiles were collected by from XBT from the OLEANDER and other platforms from a world-wide distribution from 13 November 2000 to 12 October 2001. Data...

  7. Maintenance of Genetic Diversity in Natural Spawning of Captively-Reared Endangered Sockeye Salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth E. Withler

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Captive propagation of Pacific salmon is routine, but few captive breeding programs have been conducted to successfully re-establish extirpated wild populations. A captive breeding program for endangered Sakinaw Lake sockeye salmon was established from 84 adults between 2002 and 2005, just prior to extirpation of the wild population. After several years of absence, sockeye salmon released from captivity returned to spawn in Sakinaw Lake in 2010 and in all years thereafter. Freshwater survival rates of released hatchery fry and naturally produced progeny of reintroduced sockeye salmon have not limited abundance of the reintroduced population. In contrast, marine survival rates for Sakinaw sockeye salmon have been <1%, a level that precludes population restoration in the absence of supplementation. Genetic diversity commensurate with the number of parental founders has been maintained in captivity. The 517 adult second-generation captive fish that spawned in Sakinaw Lake in 2011 produced a smolt emigration of almost 28,000 juvenile fish with an effective population size of 132. Allelic richness and gene diversity levels in the smolts were similar to those observed in captivity. This indicates genetic contributions from all or most founding parents have been retained both in captivity and in the nascent reintroduced natural population.

  8. The role of SST on the South American atmospheric circulation during January, February and March 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumond, Anita Rodrigues De Moraes; Ambrizzi, Tércio

    2005-06-01

    Precipitation deficits were observed over southeastern, northeastern and Central Brazil during the 2001 Austral Summer. They contributed to the worsening of the energy crisis that was occurring in the country. A low-level anomalous anticyclonic circulation observed over eastern Brazil enhanced the deviation of moisture transport that usually occurs from the Amazon Basin to southeastern Brazil and inhibited the occurrence of South Atlantic Convergence Zone events in that period. However, an anomalous low-level northerly moisture flux was observed over the La Plata Basin, and positive precipitation anomalies occurred over Bolivia, Paraguay, northeastern Argentina and southern Brazil. Using the ensemble technique, a numerical study was carried out to investigate the role of different sea surface temperature (SST) forcings observed over this anomalous South American atmospheric circulation. Reynolds SST monthly means were used as boundary conditions to study the influence of South Atlantic, South Indian, South Pacific and Equatorial Pacific oceans. The simulations were run from September 2000 to April 2001 using the Community Climate Model version 3.6 General Circulation Model. Ten integrations using different initial conditions were done to each experiment. Numerical experiments suggested that the combined influence of South Pacific and Equatorial Pacific oceans could be responsible for the drought observed over Central Brazil. These experiments simulated the low-level anticyclonic anomaly observed over eastern Brazil. However, both experiments have poorly reproduced the intensity of the anomalous low-level northerly moisture flux observed over the La Plata Basin. Therefore, the intensity of the simulated precipitation anomalies over the subtropical regions was much weaker than observed.

  9. Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arteburn, John; Christensen, David (Colville Confederated Tribes, Nespelem, WA)

    2003-03-01

    Federal hydropower projects as well as private power utility systems have had a devastating impact upon anadromous fish resources that once flourished in the Columbia River and it's tributaries. Several areas were completely blocked to anadromous fish by dams, causing the native people who's number one food resource was salmon to rely entirely upon resident fish to replace lost fisheries resources. The Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery is an artificial production program to partially mitigate for anadromous fish losses in the ''Blocked Area'' above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams pursuant to Resident Fish Substitution Policy of the Northwest Power Planning Councils Fish and Wildlife Program. The hatchery was accepted into the Council's Fish and Wildlife Program in 1984 as a resident fish substitution measure and the hatchery was completed in 1990. The minimum production quota for this facility is 22,679 kg (50,000 lbs.) of trout. To achieve this quota the Colville Tribal Hatchery was scheduled to produce 174,000 fingerling rainbow trout (5 grams/fish), 330,000 sub-yearling rainbow trout (15 grams/fish), 80,000 legal size rainbow trout (90 grams/fish), 196,000 fingerling brook trout (5 grams/fish), 330,000 subyearling brook trout (15 grams/fish) and 60,000 lahontan cutthroat trout (15 grams/fish) in 2001. All fish produced are released into reservation waters, including boundary waters in an effort to provide a successful subsistence /recreational fishery for Colville Tribal members as well as a successful non-member sport fishery. The majority of the fish distributed from the facility are intended to provide a ''carry-over'' fishery. Fish produced at the facility are intended to be capable of contributing to the natural production component of the reservation fish populations. Contribution to the natural production component will be achieved by producing and releasing fish of sufficient quality and quantity for

  10. Borehole Data Package for Calendar Year 2000-2001 RCRA Wells at Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Area T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, Duane G; Hodges, Floyd N

    2001-01-01

    This document compiles information of the drilling and construction, well development, pump installation, and sediment and groundwater sampling applicable to the installation of five new RCRA wells in calendar year 2000 - 2001. Appendix A contains the Well Summary Sheets (as-built diagrams); the Well Construction Summary Reports, and the geologist's logs; Appendix B contains physical properties data; and Appendix C contains the borehole geophysical logs

  11. Evaluate Status of Pacific Lamprey in the Clearwater River Drainage, Idaho, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochnauer, Tim; Claire, Christopher

    2003-10-01

    In 2002 Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued investigation into the status of Pacific lamprey populations in Idaho's Clearwater River drainage. Trapping, electrofishing, and spawning ground redd surveys were used to determine Pacific lamprey distribution, life history strategies, and habitat requirements in the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River, Selway River, and Middle Fork Clearwater River subbasins. Five-hundred forty-one ammocoetes were captured electroshocking 70 sites in the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River, Selway River, Middle Fork Clearwater River, Clearwater River, and their tributaries in 2002. Habitat utilization surveys in Red River support previous work indicating Pacific lamprey ammocoete densities are greater in lateral scour pool habitats compared to riffles and rapids. Presence-absence survey findings in 2002 augmented 2000 and 2001 indicating Pacific lamprey macrothalmia and ammocoetes are not numerous or widely distributed. Pacific lamprey distribution was confined to the lower reaches of Red River below rkm 8.0, the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River (Ginger Creek to mouth), Selway River (Race Creek to mouth), Middle Fork Clearwater River, and the Clearwater River (downstream to Potlatch River).

  12. Legal syringe purchases by injection drug users, Brooklyn and Queens, New York City, 2000-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Jarlais, Don C; McKnight, Courtney; Friedmann, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    To assess preliminary results of the Expanded Syringe Access Demonstration Program (ESAP) in New York City. Temporal trends of pharmacy use among injection drug users (IDUs) in Brooklyn and Queens were analyzed from December 2000 through December 2001. Brooklyn and Queens, New York City. PARTIPANTS: IDUs. Attempts to purchase syringes from pharmacies and success in doing so. Of the 1,072 IDUs interviewed from December 2000 through December 2001, the majority were daily heroin injectors, but there was also substantial speedball and cocaine injection. There was a clear increase over time in both the percentage of subjects who attempted to purchase syringes in pharmacies and in the percentage who successfully purchased syringes. Among IDUs interviewed 4 or more months after ESAP began, large majorities of those who attempted to purchase syringes were successful in doing so. No differences in use of ESAP by IDUs were identified in Brooklyn versus Queens: 27% of IDUs interviewed in Queens reported that they had attempted to purchase syringes in pharmacies versus 28% in Brooklyn. Persons who reported injecting on a daily or more frequent basis were more likely to have attempted pharmacy purchases than persons who reported injecting less frequently, 32% versus 21%. The ESAP program has led to an increase in the use of pharmacies as sources of sterile injection equipment among IDUs in New York City. The extent to which pharmacies become an important source of sterile injection equipment and the effect of legal pharmacy sales on risk behaviors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remain to be determined.

  13. Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon life history investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, John M.; Bickford, Brad; Hemingway, Rulon J.; Rhodes, Tobyn N.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.

    2017-01-01

    Predation by nonnative fishes is one factor that has been implicated in the decline of juvenile salmonids in the Pacific Northwest. Impoundment of much of the Snake and Columbia rivers has altered food webs and created habitat favorable for species such as Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu. Smallmouth Bass are common throughout the Columbia River basin and have become the most abundant predator in lower Snake River reservoirs (Zimmerman and Parker 1995). This is a concern for Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (hereafter, subyearlings) that may be particularly vulnerable due to their relatively small size and because their main-stem rearing habitats often overlap or are in close proximity to habitats used by Smallmouth Bass (Curet 1993; Tabor et al. 1993). Concern over juvenile salmon predation spawned a number of large-scale studies to quantify its effect in the late 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s (Poe et al. 1991; Rieman et al. 1991; Vigg et al. 1991; Fritts and Pearsons 2004; Naughton et al. 2004). Smallmouth Bass predation represented 9% of total salmon consumption by predatory fishes in John Day Reservoir, Columbia River, from 1983 through 1986 (Rieman et al. 1991). In transitional habitat between the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River and McNary Reservoir, juvenile salmon (presumably subyearlings) were found in 65% of Smallmouth Bass (>200 mm) stomachs and comprised 59% of the diet by weight (Tabor et al. 1993). Within Lower Granite Reservoir on the Snake River, Naughton et al. (2004) showed that monthly consumption (based on weight) ranged from 5% in the upper reaches of the reservoir to 11% in the forebay. However, studies in the Snake River were conducted soon after Endangered Species Act (ESA) listing of Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon (NMFS 1992). During this time, Fall Chinook Salmon abundance was at an historic low, which may explain why consumption rates were relatively low compared to those from studies conducted in the

  14. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the HOKKO MARU in the North Pacific Ocean from 2001-05-08 to 2001-05-14 (NODC Accession 0112217)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112217 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HOKKO MARU in the North Pacific Ocean from 2001-05-08 to...

  15. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the RYOFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean from 2001-04-24 to 2001-05-28 (NODC Accession 0115266)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115266 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from RYOFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean from 2001-04-24...

  16. AFSC/REFM: Pacific cod Localized Depletion Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Localized Depletion study for Pacific cod 2001-2005. Study was conducted using cod pot gear to measure localized abundance of Pacific cod inside and...

  17. Hood River and Pelton Ladder monitoring and evaluation project and Hood River fish habitat project : annual progress report 1999-2000.; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Michael B.; McCanna, Joseph P.; Jennings, Mick

    2001-01-01

    The Hood River subbasin is home to four species of anadromous salmonids: chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and sea run cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki). Indigenous spring chinook salmon were extirpated during the late 1960's. The naturally spawning spring chinook salmon currently present in the subbasin are progeny of Deschutes stock. Historically, the Hood River subbasin hatchery steelhead program utilized out-of-basin stocks for many years. Indigenous stocks of summer and winter steelhead were listed in March 1998 by National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) as a ''Threatened'' Species along with similar genetically similar steelhead in the Lower Columbia Basin. This annual report summarizes work for two consecutive contract periods: the fiscal year (FY) 1999 contract period was 1 October, 1998 through 30 September, 1999 and 1 October, 1999 through 30 September, 2000 for FY 2000. Work implemented during FY 1999 and FY 2000 included (1) acclimation of hatchery spring chinook salmon and hatchery summer and winter steelhead smolts, (2) spring chinook salmon spawning ground surveys on the West Fork Hood River (3) genetic analysis of steelhead and cutthroat[contractual service with the ODFW], (4) Hood River water temperature studies, (5) Oak Springs Hatchery (OSH) and Round Butte Hatchery (RBH) coded-wire tagging and clipping evaluation, (6) preparation of the Hood River Watershed Assessment (Coccoli et al., December 1999) and the Fish Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan (Coccoli et al., February 2000), (7) project implementation of early action habitat protection and restoration projects, (8) Pelton Ladder evaluation studies, (9) management oversight and guidance to BPA and ODFW engineering on HRPP facilities, and (10) preparation of an annual report summarizing project objectives for FY 1999 and FY 2000

  18. Canada-USA Salmon Shelf Survival Study, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudel, Marc; Tucker, Strahan; Morris, John

    2009-03-09

    Historically, salmon stocks from the Columbia River and Snake River formed one of the most valuable fisheries on the west coast of North America. However, salmon and steelhead returns sharply declined during the 1980s and 1990s to reach nearly 1 million fish. Although several factors may be responsible for the decline of Columbia River salmon and steelhead, there is increasing evidence that these drastic declines were primarily attributable to persistently unfavorable ocean conditions. Hence, an understanding of the effects of ocean conditions on salmon production is required to forecast the return of salmon to the Columbia River basin and to assess the efficacy of mitigation measures such as flow regulation on salmon resources in this system. The Canadian Program on High Seas Salmon has been collecting juvenile salmon and oceanographic data off the west coast of British Columbia and Southeast Alaska since 1998 to assess the effects of ocean conditions on the distribution, migration, growth, and survival of Pacific salmon. Here, we present a summary of the work conducted as part of the Canada-USA Salmon Shelf Survival Study during the 2008 fiscal year and compare these results with those obtained from previous years. The working hypothesis of this research is that fast growth enhances the marine survival of salmon, either because fast growing fish quickly reach a size that is sufficient to successfully avoid predators, or because they accumulate enough energy reserves to better survive their first winter at sea, a period generally considered critical in the life cycle of salmon. Sea surface temperature decreased from FY05 to FY08, whereas, the summer biomass of phytoplankton increased steadily off the west coast of Vancouver Island from FY05 to FY08. As in FY07, zooplankton biomass was generally above average off the west coast of Vancouver Island in FY08. Interestingly, phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass were higher in FY08 than was expected from the observed

  19. Annual Report RCRA Post-Closure Monitoring and Inspections for CAU 112: Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, for the period October 2000-July 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobiason, D. S.

    2002-01-01

    This annual Neutron Soil Moisture Monitoring report provides an analysis and summary for site inspections, meteorological information, and neutron soil moisture monitoring data obtained at the Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) unit, located in Area 23 of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, during the October 2000--July 2001 monitoring period. Inspections of the Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches RCRA unit are conducted to determine and document the physical condition of the covers, facilities, and any unusual conditions that could impact the proper operation of the waste unit closure. Physical inspections of the closure were completed quarterly and indicated that the site is in good condition with no significant findings noted. An annual subsidence survey of the elevation markers was conducted in July 2001. There has been no subsidence at any of the markers since monitoring began eight years ago. Precipitation for the period October 2000 through July 2001 was 9.42 centimeters (cm) (3.71 inches [in]) (U.S. National Weather Service, 2001). The prior year annual rainfall (January 2000 through December 2000) was 10.44 cm (4.1 1 in.). The recorded average annual rainfall for this site from 1972 to January 2000 is 14.91 cm (5.87 in.). The objective of the neutron logging program is to monitor the soil moisture conditions along 30 neutron access tubes and detect changes that may be indicative of moisture movement at a point located directly beneath each trench. All monitored access tubes are within the compliance criteria of less than 5 percent residual volumetric moisture content at the compliance point directly beneath each respective trench. Soil conditions remain dry and stable underneath the trenches

  20. Effects of hyporheic exchange flows on egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanrahan, T. P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Geist, D. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Arntzen, E. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Abernethy, C. S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2004-09-01

    The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall Chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period (mid- to late-summer) when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River Chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations (e.g., summer flow augmentation) to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile Chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall Chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas. This was a pilot-scale study to evaluate these relationships under existing operations of Hells Canyon Dam (i.e., without any prescribed manipulations of river discharge) during the 2002–2003 water year.

  1. Organic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankamah Yeboah, Isaac; Nielsen, Max; Nielsen, Rasmus

    . This study identifies the price premium on organic salmon in the Danish retail sale sector using consumer panel scanner data for households by applying the hedonic price model while permitting unobserved heterogeneity between households. A premium of 20% for organic salmon is found. Since this premium...... is closer to organic labeled agriculture products than to ecolabelled capture fisheries products, it indicates that consumers value organic salmon as an agriculture product more than fisheries product....

  2. Effects of age and growth on macromolecular biosynthesis in salmon brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tano, S [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture; Shirahata, S

    1975-02-01

    Syntheses of DNA, RNA and protein in the brain of the Pacific salmon, Oncorhyncus nerka, were compared in different age groups of fish. Marked differences in the ratios of DNA and RNA to protein were observed. Synthetic activity of RNA measured by the incorporation of /sup 3/H-uridine in the brain, decreased according to the increase of age. Ratios of DNA/protein, RNA/protein and the synthetic activity of RNA seemed partly dependent on their body weight.

  3. Temperature profile and other data from CTD casts in the Pacific Ocean as part of the Vents Program from 01 June 1985 to 31 August 2001 (NODC Accession 0000656)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, conductivity, pressure, and other data were collected using CTD casts in the Pacific Ocean from 01 June 1985 to 31 August 2001. Data were...

  4. Identification of marine-derived lipids in juvenile coho salmon and aquatic insects through fatty acid analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintz, Ron A.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Hudson, John P.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic benefits enjoyed by consumers in streams with salmon runs depend on how those benefits are accrued. Adult Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. deliver significant amounts of nutrients (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus) and carbon to streams when they spawn and die; these nutrient additions can have demonstrable effects on primary production in streams. Consumption of carcass tissues or eggs provides for direct energy subsidies to consumers and may have significant effects on their condition. In this study, comparisons of juvenile coho salmon O. kisutch and aquatic insects exposed to terrestrial and marine energy sources demonstrated that direct consumption of marine-derived lipids had a significant effect on the lipid reserves of consumers. Direct consumption of marine-derived tissues was verified through fatty acid analysis. Selected aquatic insects and juvenile coho salmon were reared for 6 weeks in experimental streams supplied with terrestrial or marine energy sources. Chironomid midges, nemourid stoneflies, and juvenile coho salmon exposed to the marine energy source altered their fatty acid compositions by incorporating the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids that are characteristic of marine fish. The fatty acid composition of baetid mayflies was unaffected. The direct movement of specific fatty markers indicated that direct consumption of marine-derived tissues led to increased energy reserves (triacylglycerols) in consumers. Similar results were obtained for juvenile coho salmon sampled from natural streams before and after the arrival of adult salmon runs. These data indicate that marine-derived lipids from anadromous fish runs are an important source of reserve lipids for consumers that overwinter in streams.

  5. Significant survival improvement of patients with recurrent breast cancer in the periods 2001-2008 vs. 1992-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishimura Sumiko

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is unclear whether individualized treatments based on biological factors have improved the prognosis of recurrent breast cancer. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the survival improvement of patients with recurrent breast cancer after the introduction of third generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs and trastuzumab. Methods A total of 407 patients who received first diagnosis of recurrent breast cancer and treatment at National Kyushu Cancer Center between 1992 and 2008 were retrospectively evaluated. As AIs and trastuzumab were approved for clinical use in Japan in 2001, the patients were divided into two time cohorts depending on whether the cancer recurred before or after 2001. Cohort A: 170 patients who were diagnosed between 1992 and 2000. Cohort B: 237 patients who were diagnosed between 2001 and 2008. Tumor characteristics, treatments, and outcome were compared. Results Fourteen percent of cohort A and 76% of cohort B received AIs and/or trastuzumab (P Conclusions The prognosis of patients with recurrent breast cancer was improved over time following the introduction of AIs and trastuzumab and the survival improvement was apparent in HR- and/or HER-2-positive tumors.

  6. Streamflow effects on spawning, rearing, and outmigration of fall-run chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) predicted by a spatial and individual-based model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jager, H.I.; Sale, M.J.; Cardwell, H.E.; Deangelis, D.L.; Bevelhimer, M.J.; Coutant, C.C.

    1994-01-01

    The thread posed to Pacific salmon by competing water demands is a great concern to regulators of the hydropower industry. Finding the balance between fish resource and economic objectives depends on our ability to quantify flow effects on salmon production. Because field experiments are impractical, simulation models are needed to predict the effects of minimum flows on chinook salmon during their freshwater residence. We have developed a model to simulate the survival and development of eggs and alevins in redds and the growth, survival, and movement of juvenile chinook in response to local stream conditions (flow, temperature, chinook and predator density). Model results suggest that smolt production during dry years can be increased by raising spring minimum flows

  7. Re-Introduction of Lower Columbia River Chum Salmon into Duncan Creek, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillson, Todd D. (Washington Department of Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2002-10-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Lower Columbia River chum as threatened under the auspices of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in March of 1999 (64 FR 14508, March 25, 1999). The listing was in response to reduction in abundance from historical levels of more than half a million returning adults to fewer than 10,000 spawners present day (Johnson et al. 1997). Harvest, loss of habitat, changes in flow regimes, riverbed movement and heavy siltation have been largely responsible for the decline in this species in the Columbia River. The timing of seasonal changes in river flow and water temperatures is perhaps the most critical factor in structuring the freshwater life history of chum salmon (Johnson et al. 1997). This is especially true of the population located directly below Bonneville Dam where hydropower operations can block access to spawning sites, dewater redds, strand fry, cause scour or fill of redds and increase sedimentation of spawning gravels. The recovery strategy for Lower Columbia River chum as outlined in the Hatchery Genetic Management Plan (HGMP) for the Grays River project has four main tasks. First, determine if remnant populations of Lower Columbia River chum salmon exist in Lower Columbia River tributaries. Second, if such populations exist, develop stock-specific recovery plans that would involve habitat restoration including the creation of spawning refugias, supplementation if necessary and a habitat and fish monitoring and evaluation plan. If chum have been extirpated from previously utilized streams, develop re-introduction plans that utilize appropriate genetic donor stock(s) of Lower Columbia River chum salmon and integrate habitat improvement and fry-to-adult survival evaluations. Third, reduce the extinction risk to Grays River chum salmon population by randomly capturing adults in the basin for use in a supplementation program and reintroduction of Lower Columbia River chum salmon into the Chinook River basin. The

  8. Estuarine environments as rearing habitats for juvenile Coho Salmon in contrasting south-central Alaska watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoem Neher, Tammy D.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Walker, Coowe M.; Baird, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    For Pacific salmon, estuaries are typically considered transitional staging areas between freshwater and marine environments, but their potential as rearing habitat has only recently been recognized. The objectives of this study were two-fold: (1) to determine if Coho Salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch were rearing in estuarine habitats, and (2) to characterize and compare the body length, age, condition, and duration and timing of estuarine occupancy of juvenile Coho Salmon between the two contrasting estuaries. We examined use of estuary habitats with analysis of microchemistry and microstructure of sagittal otoliths in two watersheds of south-central Alaska. Juvenile Coho Salmon were classified as estuary residents or nonresidents (recent estuary immigrants) based on otolith Sr : Ca ratios and counts of daily growth increments on otoliths. The estuaries differed in water source (glacial versus snowmelt hydrographs) and in relative estuarine and watershed area. Juvenile Coho Salmon with evidence of estuary rearing were greater in body length and condition than individuals lacking evidence of estuarine rearing. Coho Salmon captured in the glacial estuary had greater variability in body length and condition, and younger age-classes predominated the catch compared with the nearby snowmelt-fed, smaller estuary. Estuary-rearing fish in the glacial estuary arrived later and remained longer (39 versus 24 d of summer growth) during the summer than did fish using the snowmelt estuary. Finally, we observed definitive patterns of overwintering in estuarine and near shore environments in both estuaries. Evidence of estuary rearing and overwintering with differences in fish traits among contrasting estuary types refute the notion that estuaries function as only staging or transitional habitats in the early life history of Coho Salmon.

  9. Wild Steelhead and introduced spring Chinook Salmon in the Wind River, Washington: Overlapping populations and interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezorek, I.G.; Connolly, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated interactions of introduced juvenile spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha with wild juvenile steelhead O. mykiss in the upper Wind River watershed (rkm 24.6 to rkm 43.8), Washington. Our objective was to determine if the presence of introduced spring Chinook salmon influenced populations of wild juvenile steelhead and if other biotic or abiotic factors influenced distribution and populations of these species. We snorkeled to assess distribution and abundance in one to six stream reaches per year during 2001 through 2007. Juvenile steelhead were found in each sampled reach each year, but juvenile Chinook salmon were not. The upstream extent of distribution of juvenile Chinook salmon varied from rkm 29.7 to 42.5. Our analyses suggest that juvenile Chinook salmon distribution was much influenced by flow during the spawning season. Low flow appeared to limit access of escaped adult Chinook salmon to upper stream reaches. Abundance of juvenile Chinook salmon was also influenced by base flow during the previous year, with base flow occurring post spawn in late August or early September. There were no relationships between juvenile Chinook salmon abundance and number of Chinook salmon spawners, magnitude of winter flow that might scour redds, or abundance of juvenile steelhead. Abundance of age-0 steelhead was influenced primarily by the number of steelhead spawners the previous year, and abundance of age-1 steelhead was influenced primarily by abundance of age-0 steelhead the previous year. Juvenile steelhead abundance did not show a relationship with base or peak flows, nor with number of escaped Chinook salmon adults during the previous year. We did not detect a negative influence of the relatively low abundance of progeny of escaped Chinook salmon on juvenile steelhead abundance. This low abundance of juvenile Chinook salmon was persistent throughout our study and is likely a result of hatchery management and habitat conditions. Should one or

  10. Performance Assessment of Suture Type in Juvenile Chinook Salmon Surgically Implanted with Acoustic Transmitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deters, Katherine A.; Brown, Richard S.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Boyd, James W.

    2009-02-27

    The objective of this study was to determine the best overall suture material to close incisions from the surgical implantation of Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) acoustic microtransmitters in subyearling Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. The effects of seven suture materials, four surgeons, and two water temperatures on suture retention, incision openness, tag retention, tissue inflammation, and tissue ulceration were quantified. The laboratory study, conducted by researchers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, supports a larger effort under way for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, aimed at determining the suitability of acoustic telemetry for estimating short- and longer-term (30-60 days) juvenile-salmonid survival at Columbia and Snake River dams and through the lower Columbia River.

  11. Development of an Index to Bird Predation of Juvenile Salmonids within the Yakima River, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, III, Walter; Grue, Christian E.; Ryding, Kristen E. (University of Washington, School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, Seattle, WA)

    2002-08-01

    Avian predation of fish is suspected to contribute to the loss of out-migrating juvenile salmonids in the Yakima Basin, potentially constraining natural and artificial production. In 1997 and 1998, the Yakima/ Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP)--whose goal is increasing natural production within the Yakima River--initiated investigations to assess the feasibility of developing an index to avian predation of juvenile salmon within the river. This research confirmed that Ring-billed Gulls and Common Mergansers were the primary avian predators of juvenile salmon (Phinney et al. 1998), and that under certain conditions could significantly impact migrating smolt populations. Beginning in 1999, the Washington Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (WACFWRU) was asked by the YKFP to continue development of avian consumption indices. Monitoring methods developed by Phinney et al. (1998) were adopted (with modifications) and monitoring of impacts to juvenile salmon along river reaches and at areas of high predator/prey concentrations (colloquially referred to as ''hotspots'') has continued each year through 2001. In 2001, piscivorous birds were counted from river banks at hotspots and from a raft or drift boat along river reaches. Consumption by gulls at hotspots was based on direct observations of foraging success and modeled abundance; consumption by all other piscivorous birds was estimated using published dietary requirements and modeled abundance. Seasonal patterns of avian piscivore abundance were identified, diurnal patterns of gull abundance at hotspots were identified, and predation indices were calculated for hotspots and river reaches (for both spring and summer). Changes in survey methods in 2001 included the addition of surveys in the ''Canyon'' reach during spring and altering the method of directly measuring gull feeding rates at hotspots. Primary avian predators in 2001 were &apos

  12. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Alaska, Prince William Sound-2000, Aleutians-2001, Bristol Bay-2004, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0014162)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Alaska; Prince William Sound (2000), Aleutians (2001), and Bristol Bay (2004). ESI data...

  13. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the Hokusei Maru in the North Pacific Ocean from 2001-07-10 to 2001-07-21 (NODC Accession 0112247)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112247 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from Hokusei Maru in the North Pacific Ocean from 2001-07-10 to...

  14. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the Hokusei Maru in the North Pacific Ocean from 2001-06-04 to 2001-06-10 (NODC Accession 0112246)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112246 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from Hokusei Maru in the North Pacific Ocean from 2001-06-04 to...

  15. Proliferaciones algales 2000-2001 en Bahía de Banderas, México según el sensor SeaWiFS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C Gómez-Villarreal

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron las proliferaciones algales ocurridas en Bahía de Banderas, México, durante los años 2000 y 2001 a partir de información derivada del sensor de color del océano SeaWiFS. Estos eventos estuvieron relacionados con los máximos niveles de Anomalías Semanales de Clorofila’ (As i; variable construida para analizar la variación temporal de la clorofila dentro de la bahía. Las proliferaciones ocurridas en los periodos invierno-primavera fueron multiespecíficos, mientras que en verano-otoño fueron dominadas por una sola especie. Se plantean dos propuestas: 1 las proliferaciones algales de invierno-primavera están fuertemente relacionadas a procesos de mesoescala dada su aparente sincronía temporal con altos niveles de clorofila en las costas de Sinaloa a Jalisco; 2 mientras que las proliferaciones de Cochlodinium polykrikoides durante los periodos verano-otoño son favorecidas por el efecto de otras proliferaciones algales previas sobre el ecosistema y por condiciones predominantemente locales en la bahía.Algal blooms at Banderas Bay, México (2000-2001, from SeaWiFS-sensor-data. Algal blooms for the period of 2000 and 2001 at Banderas Bay, México, were analyzed from SeaWiFS-ocean-color-sensor derived information. These events were related with the maximum chlorophyll week anomalies (ASi; a proxy variable constructed for the analysis of chlorophyll temporal variation in the bay. The winter-spring blooms were multispecific, while the summer-fall blooms were monospecific. Two proposals are made: 1 Winter-spring blooms are strongly related with mesoescale processes, due to their apparent temporal synchrony with the high chlorophyll levels in the coastal region from Sinaloa to Jalisco states; 2 Cochlodinium polykrikoides (Margalef 1961 blooms during the summer-fall periods could be induced by local conditions and the influence of previous events on the ecosystem. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4: 1653-1664. Epub 2008 December 12.

  16. Long-term (2001-2012) trends of carbonaceous aerosols from a remote island in the western North Pacific: an outflow region of Asian pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreddy, Suresh K. R.; Mozammel Haque, M.; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    2018-01-01

    The present study reports on long-term trends of carbonaceous aerosols in total suspended particulate (TSP) samples collected at Chichijima in the western North Pacific during 2001-2012. Seasonal variations of elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) concentrations showed maxima in winter to spring and minima in summer. These seasonal differences in the concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols were associated with the outflows of polluted air masses from East Asia, which are clearly distinguishable from pristine air masses from the central Pacific. The higher concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols during winter to spring are associated with long-range atmospheric transport of East Asian continental polluted air masses, whereas lower concentrations may be due to pristine air masses from the central Pacific in summer. The annual trends of OC / EC (+0.46 % yr-1), WSOC (+0.18 % yr-1) and WSOC / OC (+0.08 % yr-1) showed significant (p Asia.

  17. Larval and juvenile Pacific herring Clupea pallasii are not susceptible to infectious hematopoietic necrosis under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, L.M.; Traxler, G.S.; Garver, K.A.; Richard, J.; Gregg, J.L.; Grady, C.A.; Kurath, G.; Hershberger, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) leads to periodic epidemics among certain wild and farmed fish species of the Northeast (NE) Pacific. The source of the IHN virus (IHNV) that initiates these outbreaks remains unknown; however, a leading hypothesis involves viral persistence in marine host species such as Pacific herring Clupea pallasii. Under laboratory conditions we exposed specific pathogen-free (SPF) larval and juvenile Pacific herring to 103 to 104 plaque-forming units (pfu) of IHNV ml–1 by waterborne immersion. Cumulative mortalities among exposed groups were not significantly different from those of negative control groups. After waterborne exposure, IHNV was transiently recovered from the tissues of larvae but absent in tissues of juveniles. Additionally, no evidence of viral shedding was detected in the tank water containing exposed juveniles. After intraperitoneal (IP) injection of IHNV in juvenile herring with 103 pfu, IHNV was recovered from the tissues of sub-sampled individuals for only the first 5 d post-exposure. The lack of susceptibility to overt disease and transient levels of IHNV in the tissues of exposed fish indicate that Pacific herring do not likely serve a major epizootiological role in perpetuation of IHNV among free-ranging sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka and farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in the NE Pacific.

  18. Geomagnetic imprinting predicts spatio-temporal variation in homing migration of pink and sockeye salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Nathan F.; Jenkins, Erica S.; Michielsens, Catherine G. J.; Noakes, David L. G.

    2014-01-01

    Animals navigate using a variety of sensory cues, but how each is weighted during different phases of movement (e.g. dispersal, foraging, homing) is controversial. Here, we examine the geomagnetic and olfactory imprinting hypotheses of natal homing with datasets that recorded variation in the migratory routes of sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean to the Fraser River, British Columbia. Drift of the magnetic field (i.e. geomagnetic imprinting) uniquely accounted for 23.2% and 44.0% of the variation in migration routes for sockeye and pink salmon, respectively. Ocean circulation (i.e. olfactory imprinting) predicted 6.1% and 0.1% of the variation in sockeye and pink migration routes, respectively. Sea surface temperature (a variable influencing salmon distribution but not navigation, directly) accounted for 13.0% of the variation in sockeye migration but was unrelated to pink migration. These findings suggest that geomagnetic navigation plays an important role in long-distance homing in salmon and that consideration of navigation mechanisms can aid in the management of migratory fishes by better predicting movement patterns. Finally, given the diversity of animals that use the Earth's magnetic field for navigation, geomagnetic drift may provide a unifying explanation for spatio-temporal variation in the movement patterns of many species. PMID:25056214

  19. Discovering Alaska's Salmon: A Children's Activity Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaney, Laurel

    This children's activity book helps students discover Alaska's salmon. Information is provided about salmon and where they live. The salmon life cycle and food chains are also discussed. Different kinds of salmon such as Chum Salmon, Chinook Salmon, Coho Salmon, Sockeye Salmon, and Pink Salmon are introduced, and various activities on salmon are…

  20. The NKS Programme 1998-2001. Annual report 2000; NKS programmet 1998 - 2001. Aarsrapport 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennerstedt, T. (ed.)

    2001-03-01

    This annual report summarizes - without going into technical, administrative or financial detail - the NKS work carried out in the year 2000. A comprehensive list of ongoing projects and subprojects is included. The report gives an overview of the status of the six projects as compared to adopted plans, project criteria and budget constraints. For each project, participating organizations, published articles and reports, important seminars, meetings etc. and contracts are listed. The work of the NKS Secretariat is briefly summarized. (au)

  1. Optical and physical data collected by drifters during June 2000 - March 2001 in support of the Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics program (NODC Accession 0000581)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upwelling and downwelling irradiance data were collected from surface drifter buoys off the California and Oregon coast from 04 June 2000 to 24 March 2001 (non...

  2. The sound of migration: exploring data sonification as a means of interpreting multivariate salmon movement datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens C. Hegg

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The migration of Pacific salmon is an important part of functioning freshwater ecosystems, but as populations have decreased and ecological conditions have changed, so have migration patterns. Understanding how the environment, and human impacts, change salmon migration behavior requires observing migration at small temporal and spatial scales across large geographic areas. Studying these detailed fish movements is particularly important for one threatened population of Chinook salmon in the Snake River of Idaho whose juvenile behavior may be rapidly evolving in response to dams and anthropogenic impacts. However, exploring movement data sets of large numbers of salmon can present challenges due to the difficulty of visualizing the multivariate, time-series datasets. Previous research indicates that sonification, representing data using sound, has the potential to enhance exploration of multivariate, time-series datasets. We developed sonifications of individual fish movements using a large dataset of salmon otolith microchemistry from Snake River Fall Chinook salmon. Otoliths, a balance and hearing organ in fish, provide a detailed chemical record of fish movements recorded in the tree-like rings they deposit each day the fish is alive. This data represents a scalable, multivariate dataset of salmon movement ideal for sonification. We tested independent listener responses to validate the effectiveness of the sonification tool and mapping methods. The sonifications were presented in a survey to untrained listeners to identify salmon movements with increasingly more fish, with and without visualizations. Our results showed that untrained listeners were most sensitive to transitions mapped to pitch and timbre. Accuracy results were non-intuitive; in aggregate, respondents clearly identified important transitions, but individual accuracy was low. This aggregate effect has potential implications for the use of sonification in the context of crowd

  3. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean from 2000-05-09 to 2000-06-10 (NODC Accession 0112255)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112255 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean from 2000-05-09 to 2000-06-10...

  4. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean from 2000-01-05 to 2000-02-06 (NODC Accession 0112254)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112254 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean from 2000-01-05 to 2000-02-06...

  5. International nuclear power status 2001; International kernekraftstatus 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; Majborn, B.; Nonboel, E.; Oelgaard, P.L. (eds.)

    2002-04-01

    This report is the eighth in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power with special emphasis on reactor safety. For 2001, the report contains: 1) General trends in the development of nuclear power; 2) Nuclear terrorism; 3) Statistical information on nuclear power production (in 2000); 4) An overview of safety-relevant incidents in 2001; 5) The development in West Europe; 6) The development in East Europe; 7) The development in the rest of the world; 8) Development of reactor types; 9) The nuclear fuel cycle; 10) International nuclear organisations. (au)

  6. Ülevaade peamistest majandusindikaatoritest 1993-2000. a. ning prognoos 2001. a.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Sisemajanduse koguprodukt, tarbijahinna indeks, väliskaubandus, tööhõive, tööstustoodang, elanike sissetulekud, jae-ettevõtete kaubakäive. Diagrammid ja tabel: tähtsamad majandusindikaatorid ja nende prognoos 2001.a. Järgneb: Konjunktuur, juuni, nr. 2, 2001, lk. 36-38. Ilmunud ka: Konjunktuur : Quarterly Review of the Estonian Economy, mai, nr. 1, 2001, lk. 43-45; juuli, nr. 2, 2001, lk. 34-36

  7. Utilization of smoked salmon trim in extruded smoked salmon jerky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, J; Dougherty, M P; Perkins, L B; Camire, M E

    2012-06-01

    During smoked salmon processing, the dark meat along the lateral line is removed before packaging; this by-product currently has little economic value. In this study, the dark meat trim was incorporated into an extruded jerky. Three formulations were processed: 100% smoked trim, 75% : 25% smoked trim : fresh salmon fillet, and 50% : 50% smoked trim : fresh salmon blends (w/w basis). The base formulation contained salmon (approximately 83.5%), tapioca starch (8%), pregelatinized potato starch (3%), sucrose (4%), salt (1.5%), sodium nitrate (0.02%), and ascorbyl palmitate (0.02% of the lipid content). Blends were extruded in a laboratory-scale twin-screw extruder and then hot-smoked for 5 h. There were no significant differences among formulations in moisture, water activity, and pH. Protein was highest in the 50 : 50 blend jerky. Ash content was highest in the jerky made with 100% trim. Total lipids and salt were higher in the 100% trim jerky than in the 50 : 50 blend. Hot smoking did not adversely affect docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) content in lipids from 100% smoked trim jerky. Servings of salmon jerky made with 75% and 100% smoked trim provided at least 500 mg of EPA and DHA. The 50 : 50 formulation had the highest Intl. Commission on Illumination (CIE) L*, a*, and b* color values. Seventy consumers rated all sensory attributes as between "like slightly" and "like moderately." With some formulation and processing refinements, lateral line trim from smoked salmon processors has potential to be incorporated into acceptable, healthful snack products. Dark meat along the lateral line is typically discarded by smoked salmon processors. This omega-3 fatty acid rich by-product can be used to make a smoked salmon jerky that provides a convenient source of these healthful lipids for consumers. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Nuclear data for accelerator-driven transmutation. Annual report 2000 / 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, J.; Johansson, C.; Klug, J.; Olsson, N.; Pomp, S.; Renberg, P.U.

    2001-09-01

    The present project, supported as a research task agreement by SKI, SKB, Barsebaeck Kraft AB and Vattenfall AB, started 1998-07-01. From 1999-01-01 the project also receives support from the Defence Research Establishment. The primary objective from the supporting organizations is to promote research and research education of relevance for development of the national competence within nuclear energy. The aim of the project is in short to: promote development of the competence within nuclear physics and nuclear technology by supporting licentiate and PhD students, push forward the international research front regarding fundamental nuclear data within the presently highlighted research area 'accelerator-driven transmutation', strengthen the Swedish influence within the mentioned research area by expanding the international contact network, constitute a basis for Swedish participation in the nuclear data activities at IAEA and OECD/NEA. The project is run by the Department of Neutron Research at Uppsala University, and is utilizing the unique neutron beam facility at the national The Svedberg Laboratory. In this document, we give a status report after the third year (2000-07-01--2001-06-30) of the project. The annual report also includes a report with the title: Charge-exchange giant resonances as probes of nuclear structure. This report is indexed separately

  9. U.S. response to a report of infectious salmon anemia virus in Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Kevin H; Gustafson, Lori; Warg, Janet; Whaley, Janet; Purcell, Maureen K.; Rolland, Jill B.; Winton, James R.; Snekvik, Kevin; Meyers, Theodore; Stewart, Bruce; Kerwin, John; Blair, Marilyn; Bader, Joel; Evered, Joy

    2014-01-01

    Federal, state, and tribal fishery managers, as well as the general public and their elected representatives in the United States, were concerned when infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) was suspected for the first time in free-ranging Pacific Salmon collected from the coastal areas of British Columbia, Canada. This article documents how national and regional fishery managers and fish health specialists of the U.S. worked together and planned and implemented actions in response to the reported finding of ISAV in British Columbia. To date, the reports by Simon Fraser University remain unconfirmed and preliminary results from collaborative U.S. surveillance indicate that there is no evidence of ISAV in U.S. populations of free-ranging or marine-farmed salmonids on the west coast of North America.

  10. Responsible fisheries summary: 2000-2001 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    The energy required to harvest fish from the sea is greater than that required for the production of any other primary food product. Increasing energy efficiency in the fishing industry makes sense, especially in light of the recent increases in fossil fuel prices and the increased concern expressed about greenhouse gas emissions. As a result, Fisheries and Oceans Canada collaborated with partners from the fishing industry, and with support provided by Natural Resources Canada, Program of Energy Research and Development (PERD) to initiate several projects aimed at improving the energy efficiency of fishing gear and related components. During the period April 2000 to March 2001, five projects were completed and two more were initiated. The goals were the determination of the effectiveness of new gear prototypes and fishing techniques towards a reduction in energy consumption. Detailed experimental protocols, gear prototypes, flume tank testing, at-sea trials, analysis of results, and reporting to industry and stakeholders are some of the facets common to most of the projects. Potential fuel savings, in the range of 2,330,000 liters annually for the shrimp trawler fleet were identified by testing new composite trawl netting. Potential fuel savings of 850,000 liters in Silver Hake could be realized by using new small diameter high tenacity braided polyethylene twines in trawl netting, when compared to standard polyethylene. A reduction of approximately 13 per cent in fuel consumption per kilogram of fish harvested is possible, as demonstrated by the testing of new Triplex Trawl design, with three codends rather than one. Operational costs and fuel consumption are both reduced through the use of the new Millennium trawl design using small mesh size in forepart and body of trawl, as shown by the Greenland Halibut (Turbot) selectivity experiments. Meshing is reduced, as is the by-catch of small Turbot. Potential benefits of lighter weight materials of construction were

  11. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1999 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassemer, Peter F.

    2001-04-01

    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of

  12. Novel species interactions: American black bears respond to Pacific herring spawn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Caroline Hazel; Paquet, Paul Charles; Reimchen, Thomas Edward

    2015-05-26

    In addition to the decline and extinction of the world's species, the decline and eventual loss of species interactions is one of the major consequences of the biodiversity crisis. On the Pacific coast of North America, diminished runs of salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) drive numerous marine-terrestrial interactions, many of which have been intensively studied, but marine-terrestrial interactions driven by other species remain relatively unknown. Bears (Ursus spp.) are major vectors of salmon into terrestrial ecosystems, but their participation in other cross-ecosystem interactions is similarly poorly described. Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii), a migratory forage fish in coastal marine ecosystems of the North Pacific Ocean and the dominant forage fish in British Columbia (BC), spawn in nearshore subtidal and intertidal zones. Spawn resources (eggs, milt, and spawning adults) at these events are available to coastal predators and scavengers, including terrestrial species. In this study, we investigated the interaction between American black bears (Ursus americanus) and Pacific herring at spawn events in Quatsino Sound, BC, Canada. Using remote cameras to monitor bear activity (1,467 camera days, 29 sites, years 2010-2012) in supratidal and intertidal zones and a machine learning approach, we determined that the quantity of Pacific herring eggs in supratidal and intertidal zones was a leading predictor of black bear activity, with bears positively responding to increasing herring egg masses. Other important predictors included day of the year and Talitrid amphipod (Traskorchestia spp.) mass. A complementary analysis of black bear scats indicated that Pacific herring egg mass was the highest ranked predictor of egg consumption by bears. Pacific herring eggs constituted a substantial yet variable component of the early springtime diet of black bears in Quatsino Sound (frequency of occurrence 0-34%; estimated dietary content 0-63%). Other major dietary items included

  13. Monthly CO surface sources inventory based on the 2000-2001 MOPITT satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pétron, Gabrielle; Granier, Claire; Khattatov, Boris; Yudin, Valery; Lamarque, Jean-François; Emmons, Louisa; Gille, John; Edwards, David P.

    2004-11-01

    This paper presents results of the inverse modeling of carbon monoxide surface sources on a monthly and regional basis using the MOPITT (Measurement Of the Pollution In The Troposphere) CO retrievals. The targeted time period is from April 2000 to March 2001. A sequential and time-dependent inversion scheme is implemented to correct an a priori set of monthly mean CO sources. The a posteriori estimates for the total anthropogenic (fossil fuel + biofuel + biomass burning) surface sources of CO in TgCO/yr are 509 in Asia, 267 in Africa, 140 in North America, 90 in Europe and 84 in Central and South America. Inverting on a monthly scale allows one to assess a corrected seasonality specific to each source type and each region. Forward CTM simulations with the a posteriori emissions show a substantial improvement of the agreement between modeled CO and independent in situ observations.

  14. Institute of Nuclear physics of Lyon - IPNL, Activity Report 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartoire, M.; Flores, S.; Hernaus, Z.; Jarroux-Declais, D.; Kibler, M.; Martin, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear physics of Lyon (IPNL) is under the joint supervision of the Claude Bernard University of Lyon (UCBL) and the National Institute of Nuclear and particle physics (IN2P3) of the CNRS (National Centre for Scientific Research). The laboratory studies the properties and interactions of sub-atomic particles. Its activities are largely experimental, with groups involved in a wide range of national and international collaborations concerning particle and astro-particle physics, nuclear matter and the interactions of ions and cluster with matter. In addition, the Institute has important interdisciplinary and applied research activities related to: detectors R and D, confinement of radioactive waste, bio-medical imaging, measurement of environmental levels of radioactive elements. This document presents the activity of the Centre during the 2000-2001 years: 1 - Forewords; 2 - Quarks and Leptons; 3 - Astro-particles; 4 - High-density hadronic matter; 5 - Nuclear matter; 6 - Theoretical physics; 7 - pluri-disciplinary activities; 8 - Technical services (electronics, Computers, Mechanics, Instrumentation, Accelerators, experiments support, radiation protection, health and safety, administration); 9 - Training, communication, documentation; 10 - Scientific production (publications, seminars, conferences, exhibitions, PhDs..); 11 - Staff and visitors; 12 - Organigram

  15. Nuclear and high-energy physics laboratory - LPNHE. Activity report 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astier, Pierre; Bassler, Ursula; Levy, Jean-Michel; Cossin, Isabelle; Mathy, Jean-Yves

    2002-01-01

    The LPNHE is a joint research unit (UMR 7585) of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics and Particle Physics (IN2P3), Institute of the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), UPMC and Paris Diderot Paris 7. It hosts several research teams and technical services (computers, electronics, mechanical), and two support services (administration, logistics). The laboratory is engaged in several major experimental programs pursued in the framework of international collaborations with very large research facilities around the world, centers of particle accelerators and observatories. The research programs cover current issues in particle physics, astro-particle and cosmology. This report presents the activities of the laboratory during the years 2000-2001: 1 - Forewords; 2 - Scientific and technical activities of the laboratory: Physics with accelerators (CP Violation, hadronic physics, proton-antiproton physics, Neutrino beams, LEP, LHC, future linear electron collider); Physics without accelerators (extreme energy cosmic radiation, Cosmology and supernovae, high-energy gamma astronomy); theoretical physics (QCD, phenomenological approaches); 3 - Technical and administrative activities (electronics, computers, mechanics departments, Administration and general services); 4 - Laboratory life (Teaching, training, Internal activities); 5 - Dissemination of scientific information; 6 - List of publications; 7 - staff

  16. Evaluating the Effectiveness of NASA's Destination Tomorrow(Trademark) 2000-2001 Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Perry, Jeannine

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Destination Tomorrow(trademark) series consists of 30-minute educational television programs that focus on NASA research, past, present, and future and are designed for educators, parents, and adult (lifelong) learners. Programs in this award-winning series follow a magazine style format with segments ranging from 3-5 minutes to 6-8 minutes. An associated web site provides summaries of stories and links to related program material. The development of the programs is based on educational theory, principles, and research as they pertain to how adults learn and apply knowledge. The five programs in the 2000-2001 season were produced in English and dubbed in Spanish. Telephone interviews with managers of cable access television stations were conducted in January 2002. NASA's Destination Tomorrow(trademark) interviewees reported that (1) from a programming standpoint, the most appealing aspects of the series are its production quality and educational value, (2) programs in the series are 'better than average' when compared to other education programming, (3) the programs are very credible, (4) the programs are successful in educating people about what NASA does, and (5) the programs have been 'very well received' by their audiences.

  17. Hood River Production Program Review, Final Report 1991-2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underwood, Keith; Chapman, Colin; Ackerman, Nicklaus

    2003-12-01

    This document provides a comprehensive review of Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded activities within the Hood River Basin from 1991 to 2001. These activities, known as the Hood River Production Program (HRPP), are intended to mitigate for fish losses related to operation of federal dams in the Columbia River Basin, and to contribute to recovery of endangered and/or threatened salmon and steelhead, as directed by Nation Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration - Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries). The Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the HRPP, which authorized BPA to fund salmon and steelhead enhancement activities in the Hood River Basin, was completed in 1996 (BPA 1996). The EIS specified seven years of monitoring and evaluation (1996-2002) after program implementation to determine if program actions needed modification to meet program objectives. The EIS also called for a program review after 2002, that review is reported here.

  18. Survival of Juvenile Chinook Salmon Passing the Bonneville Dam Spillway in 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Durham, Robin E.; Fischer, Eric S.; Kim, Jina; Townsend, R. L.; Skalski, J. R.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.; McComas, Roy L.

    2008-12-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District (CENWP) funds numerous evaluations of fish passage and survival on the Columbia River. In 2007, the CENWP asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to conduct an acoustic telemetry study to estimate the survival of juvenile Chinook salmon passing the spillway at Bonneville Dam. This report documents the study results which are intended to be used to improve the conditions juvenile anadromous fish experience when passing through the dams that the Corps operates on the river.

  19. Geomagnetic imprinting predicts spatio-temporal variation in homing migration of pink and sockeye salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Nathan F; Jenkins, Erica S; Michielsens, Catherine G J; Noakes, David L G

    2014-10-06

    Animals navigate using a variety of sensory cues, but how each is weighted during different phases of movement (e.g. dispersal, foraging, homing) is controversial. Here, we examine the geomagnetic and olfactory imprinting hypotheses of natal homing with datasets that recorded variation in the migratory routes of sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean to the Fraser River, British Columbia. Drift of the magnetic field (i.e. geomagnetic imprinting) uniquely accounted for 23.2% and 44.0% of the variation in migration routes for sockeye and pink salmon, respectively. Ocean circulation (i.e. olfactory imprinting) predicted 6.1% and 0.1% of the variation in sockeye and pink migration routes, respectively. Sea surface temperature (a variable influencing salmon distribution but not navigation, directly) accounted for 13.0% of the variation in sockeye migration but was unrelated to pink migration. These findings suggest that geomagnetic navigation plays an important role in long-distance homing in salmon and that consideration of navigation mechanisms can aid in the management of migratory fishes by better predicting movement patterns. Finally, given the diversity of animals that use the Earth's magnetic field for navigation, geomagnetic drift may provide a unifying explanation for spatio-temporal variation in the movement patterns of many species. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2000-June 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions

    2002-01-01

    This Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR) presents and interprets the geotechnical data from the underground excavations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The data, which are obtained as part of a regular monitoring program, are used to characterize conditions, to compare actual performance to the design assumptions, and to evaluate and forecast the performance of the underground excavations during operations. GARs have been available to the public since 1983. During the Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV) Program, the architect/engineer for the project produced these reports on a quarterly basis to document the geomechanical performance during and immediately after excavation of the underground facility. Since the completion of the construction phase of the project in 1987, the management and operating contractor for the facility has prepared these reports annually. This report describes the performance and condition of selected areas from July 1, 2000, to June 30, 2001. It is divided into ten chapters. The remainder of Chapter 1 provides background information on WIPP, its mission, and the purpose and scope of the geomechanical monitoring program. Chapter 2 describes the local and regional geology of the WIPP site. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the geomechanical instrumentation located in the shafts and shaft stations, present the data collected by that instrumentation, and provide interpretation of these data. Chapters 5, 6, and 7 present the results of geomechanical monitoring in the three main portions of the WIPP underground facility (the access drifts, the Northern Experimental Area, and the Waste Disposal Area). Chapter 8 discusses the results of the Geoscience Program, which include fracture and stratigraphic mapping, borehole and core logging, and borehole observations. Chapter 9 provides an assessment of the hydrologic conditions near the Exhaust Shaft. Chapter 10 summarizes the results of the geomechanical monitoring and compares the

  1. Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2000-June 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions

    2002-09-26

    This Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR) presents and interprets the geotechnical data from the underground excavations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The data, which are obtained as part of a regular monitoring program, are used to characterize conditions, to compare actual performance to the design assumptions, and to evaluate and forecast the performance of the underground excavations during operations. GARs have been available to the public since 1983. During the Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV) Program, the architect/engineer for the project produced these reports on a quarterly basis to document the geomechanical performance during and immediately after excavation of the underground facility. Since the completion of the construction phase of the project in 1987, the management and operating contractor for the facility has prepared these reports annually. This report describes the performance and condition of selected areas from July 1, 2000, to June 30, 2001. It is divided into ten chapters. The remainder of Chapter 1 provides background information on WIPP, its mission, and the purpose and scope of the geomechanical monitoring program. Chapter 2 describes the local and regional geology of the WIPP site. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the geomechanical instrumentation located in the shafts and shaft stations, present the data collected by that instrumentation, and provide interpretation of these data. Chapters 5, 6, and 7 present the results of geomechanical monitoring in the three main portions of the WIPP underground facility (the access drifts, the Northern Experimental Area, and the Waste Disposal Area). Chapter 8 discusses the results of the Geoscience Program, which include fracture and stratigraphic mapping, borehole and core logging, and borehole observations. Chapter 9 provides an assessment of the hydrologic conditions near the Exhaust Shaft. Chapter 10 summarizes the results of the geomechanical monitoring and compares the

  2. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Pacific Ocean from 2000-02-15 to 2000-03-24 (NODC Accession 0116066)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0116066 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Pacific Ocean from 2000-02-15 to...

  3. It's in Their Bones: 2000 Years of Pacific Walrus Adaptability and Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misarti, N.; Horstmann, L.; Clark, C. T.; Charapata, P.; Olson, L.; Fulton, T. L.; Jensen, A. M.

    2016-02-01

    One of the many species affected by climate change in the Arctic, and receiving attention from the general public, is the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens). Walruses are of critical importance to subsistence consumers in Alaska (and other Arctic regions) both for practical, financial reasons as well as cultural ones. Despite the quality data from in-depth studies of Pacific walruses over the last 40-50 years, it is difficult to implement proposed co-management and conservation plans based on data from such a relatively short time span; much less to project the impact of further changes to the Arctic ecosystem on both walruses and humans subsisting on them. We are presenting the first data from our project, integrating several disciplines including archaeology, ethnology, biology, and ecology utilizing proxy data, such as DNA, stable isotope (SI), steroid hormones, and trace element analysis as well as ascertain long-term trends of walrus feeding ecology, foraging location, and stock genetics over the last 2000 years. Each set of proxy data acts as a building block to better understand walruses, and how they adapt to change in the Arctic ecosystem. Our preliminary data show that steroid hormone levels change during some decades, including most recently, compared with prehistoric levels and might be associated with walrus population size. SI has revealed several shifts in feeding habits; the last 5 years are significantly different from the historic time periods as well as the prehistoric time frame. Both SI and hormone data are corroborated by traditional ecological knowledge.

  4. Temperature profile data from XBT casts from cooperating vessels in support of the NOAA volunteer observing program, 2000-08 to 2001-07 (NODC Accession 0000528)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from NOAA Ship MILLER FREEMAN and other vessels from a world-wide distribution from 6 August 2000 to 21 July 2001....

  5. Conservation of native Pacific trout diversity in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaluna, Brooke E.; Abadía-Cardoso, Alicia; Dunham, Jason B.; García de León, Francisco J; Gresswell, Robert E.; Luna, Arturo Ruiz; Taylor, Eric B.; Shepard, Bradley B.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Bestgen, Kevin R.; Rogers, Kevin H.; Escalante, Marco A; Keeley, Ernest R; Temple, Gabriel; Williams, Jack E.; Matthews, Kathleen; Pierce, Ron; Mayden, Richard L.; Kovach, Ryan; Garza, John Carlos; Fausch, Kurt D.

    2016-01-01

    Pacific trout Oncorhynchus spp. in western North America are strongly valued in ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural views, and have been the subject of substantial research and conservation efforts. Despite this, the understanding of their evolutionary histories, overall diversity, and challenges to their conservation is incomplete. We review the state of knowledge on these important issues, focusing on Pacific trout in the genus Oncorhynchus. Although most research on salmonid fishes emphasizes Pacific salmon, we focus on Pacific trout because they share a common evolutionary history, and many taxa in western North America have not been formally described, particularly in the southern extent of their ranges. Research in recent decades has led to the revision of many hypotheses concerning the origin and diversification of Pacific trout throughout their range. Although there has been significant success at addressing past threats to Pacific trout, contemporary and future threats represented by nonnative species, land and water use activities, and climate change pose challenges and uncertainties. Ultimately, conservation of Pacific trout depends on how well these issues are understood and addressed, and on solutions that allow these species to coexist with a growing scope of human influences.

  6. Effect of exposure on salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis population dynamics in Faroese salmon farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patursson, Esbern J.; Simonsen, Knud; Visser, Andre

    2017-01-01

    We assessed variations in salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis population dynamics in Faroese salmon farms in relationship to their physical exposure to local circulation patterns and flushing with adjacent waters. Factors used in this study to quantify physical exposure are estimates...... of the freshwater exchange rate, the tidal exchange rate and dispersion by tidal currents. Salmon farms were ranked according to the rate of increase in the average numbers of salmon lice per fish. In a multiple linear regression, physical exposure together with temperature were shown to have a significant effect...... threshold of salmon stocking numbers for outbreaks of infection. The study presents a simple method of characterizing salmon farming fjords in terms of their different exposure levels and how they relate to potential self-infection at these sites...

  7. Seasonal variation exceeds effects of salmon carcass additions on benthic food webs in the Elwha River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, S.A.; Coe, H.J.; Duda, J.J.; Dunphy, L.S.; McHenry, M.L.; Beckman, B.R.; Elofson, M.; Sampson, E. M.; Ward, L.

    2016-01-01

    Dam removal and other fish barrier removal projects in western North America are assumed to boost freshwater productivity via the transport of marine-derived nutrients from recolonizing Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). In anticipation of the removal of two hydroelectric dams on the Elwha River in Washington State, we tested this hypothesis with a salmon carcass addition experiment. Our study was designed to examine how background nutrient dynamics and benthic food webs vary seasonally, and how these features respond to salmon subsidies. We conducted our experiment in six side channels of the Elwha River, each with a spatially paired reference and treatment reach. Each reach was sampled on multiple occasions from October 2007 to August 2008, before and after carcass placement. We evaluated nutrient limitation status; measured water chemistry, periphyton, benthic invertebrates, and juvenile rainbow trout (O. mykiss) response; and traced salmon-derived nutrient uptake using stable isotopes. Outside of winter, algal accrual was limited by both nitrogen and phosphorous and remained so even in the presence of salmon carcasses. One month after salmon addition, dissolved inorganic nitrogen levels doubled in treatment reaches. Two months after addition, benthic algal accrual was significantly elevated. We detected no changes in invertebrate or fish metrics, with the exception of 15N enrichment. Natural seasonal variability was greater than salmon effects for the majority of our response metrics. Yet seasonality and synchronicity of nutrient supply and demand are often overlooked in nutrient enhancement studies. Timing and magnitude of salmon-derived nitrogen utilization suggest that uptake of dissolved nutrients was favored over direct consumption of carcasses. The highest proportion of salmon-derived nitrogen was incorporated by herbivores (18–30%) and peaked 1–2 months after carcass addition. Peak nitrogen enrichment in predators (11–16%) occurred 2–3

  8. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1998-1999 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassemer, Peter F.

    2001-04-01

    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of

  9. Using remotely sensed imagery and GIS to monitor and research salmon spawning: A case study of the Hanford Reach fall chinook (Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RH Visser

    2000-01-01

    The alteration of ecological systems has greatly reduced salmon populations in the Pacific Northwest. The Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, for example, is a component of the last ecosystem in eastern Washington State that supports a relatively healthy population of fall chinook salmon ([Oncorhynchus tshawytscha], Huntington et al. 1996). This population of fall chinook may function as a metapopulation for the Mid-Columbia region (ISG 1996). Metapopulations can seed or re-colonize unused habitat through the mechanism of straying (spawning in non-natal areas) and may be critical to the salmon recovery process if lost or degraded habitat is restored (i.e., the Snake, Upper Columbia, and Yakima rivers). For these reasons, the Hanford Reach fall chinook salmon population is extremely important for preservation of the species in the Columbia River Basin. Because this population is important to the region, non-intrusive techniques of analysis are essential for researching and monitoring population trends and spawning activities

  10. Establishing spatial trends in water chemistry and stable isotopes (δ15N and δ13C) in the Elwha River prior to dam removal and salmon recolonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, J.J.; Coe, H.J.; Morley, S.A.; Kloehn, K.K.

    2011-01-01

    Two high-head dams on the Elwha River in Washington State (USA) have changed the migratory patterns of resident and anadromous fish, limiting Pacific salmon to the lower 7.9 km of a river that historically supported large Pacific salmon runs. To document the effects of the dams prior to their removal, we measured carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of primary producers, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish, and water chemistry above, between and below the dams. We found that δ15N was significantly higher in fish, stoneflies, black flies, periphyton and macroalgae where salmon still have access. Fish and chloroperlid stoneflies were enriched in δ13C, but the values were more variable than in δ15N. For some taxa, there were also differences between the two river sections that lack salmon, suggesting that factors other than marine-derived nutrients are structuring longitudinal isotopic profiles. Consistent with trophic theory, macroalgae had the lowest δ15N, followed by periphyton, macroinvertebrates and fish, with a range of 6.9, 6.2 and 7.7‰ below, between, and above the dams, respectively. Water chemistry analyses confirmed earlier reports that the river is oligotrophic. Phosphorous levels in the Elwha were lower than those found in other regional rivers, with significant differences among regulated, unregulated and reference sections. The removal of these dams, among the largest of such projects ever attempted, is expected to facilitate the return of salmon and their marine-derived nutrients (MDN) throughout the watershed, possibly altering the food web structure, nutrient levels and stable isotope values that we documented.

  11. Post-mortem sporulation of Ceratomyxa shasta (Myxozoa) after death in adult Chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Michael L.; Soderlund, K.; Thomann, E.; Schreck, Carl B.; Sharpton, T.J.

    2014-01-01

    Ceratomyxa shasta (Myxozoa) is a common gastrointestinal pathogen of salmonid fishes in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. We have been investigating this parasite in adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Willamette River, Oregon. In prior work, we observed differences in the pattern of development of C. shasta in adult salmon compared to juvenile salmon. Adult salmon consistently had large numbers of prespore stages in many of the fish that survived to spawn in the fall. However, myxospores were rarely observed, even though they were exposed and presumably infected for months before spawning. We evaluated the ability of C. shasta to sporulate following fish death because it is reported that myxosores are common in carcasses of Chinook salmon. We collected the intestine from 30 adult salmon immediately after artificial spawning and death (T0). A total of 23 fish were infected with C. shasta based on histology, but only a few myxospores were observed in 1 fish by histology. Intestines of these fish were examined at T0 and T7 (latter held at 17 C for 7 days) using quantified wet mount preparations. An increase in myxospore concentrations was seen in 39% of these fish, ranging between a 1.5- to a 14.5-fold increase. The most heavily infected fish exhibited a 4.6-fold increase from 27,841 to 129,352 myxospores/cm. This indicates, supported by various statistical analyses, that under certain conditions presporogonic forms are viable and continue to sporulate after death in adult salmon. Considering the life cycle of C. shasta and anadromous salmon, the parasite may have evolved 2, non-mutually exclusive developmental strategies. In young fish (parr and smolts), the parasite sporulates shortly after infection and is released into freshwater from either live or dead fish before their migration to seawater, where the alternate host is absent. The second strategy occurs in adult salmon, particularly spring Chinook salmon, which become infected upon

  12. Survival and Passage of Juvenile Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Passing through Bonneville Dam, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Batten, G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cushing, Aaron W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kim, Jin A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Gary E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Skalski, J. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Townsend, Richard L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Seaburg, Adam [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weiland, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Woodley, Christa M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hughes, James S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carlson, Thomas J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carpenter, Scott M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Deng, Zhiqun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Etherington, D. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fischer, Eric S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fu, Tao [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Greiner, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hennen, Matthew J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Martinez, Jayson J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mitchell, T. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rayamajhi, Bishes [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zimmerman, Shon A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and subcontractors conducted an acoustic-telemetry study of juvenile salmonid fish passage and survival at Bonneville Dam in 2011. The study was conducted to assess the readiness of the monitoring system for official compliance studies under the 2008 Biological Opinion and Fish Accords and to assess performance measures including route-specific fish passage proportions, travel times, and survival based upon a virtual/paired-release model. The study relied on releases of live Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System tagged smolts in the Columbia River and used acoustic telemetry to evaluate the approach, passage, and survival of passing juvenile salmon using a virtual release, paired reference release survival model. This study supports the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

  13. 50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section... Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. The following areas consisting of the water, waterway bottom, and adjacent riparian zone of...

  14. Costs of living for juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in an increasingly warming and invaded world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehne, Lauren M.; Olden, Julian D.; Duda, Jeffrey J.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid environmental change in freshwater ecosystems has created a need to understand the interactive effects of multiple stressors, with temperature and invasive predators identified as key threats to imperiled fish species. We tested the separate and interactive effects of water temperature and predation by non-native smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) on the lethal (mortality) and sublethal (behavior, physiology, and growth) effects for juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in seminatural stream channel experiments. Over 48 h trials, there was no difference in direct predation with warmer temperatures, but significant interactive effects on sublethal responses of juvenile salmon. Warmer temperatures resulted in significantly stronger and more variable antipredator responses (surface shoaling and swimming activity), while physiological indicators (plasma glucose, plasma cortisol) suggested suppression of physiological mechanisms in response to the combined stressors. These patterns corresponded with additive negative growth in predation, temperature, and combined treatments. Our results suggest that chronic increases in temperature may not increase direct predation over short periods, but can result in significant sublethal costs with negative implications for long-term development, disease resistance, and subsequent size-selective mortality of Pacific salmon.

  15. Calcitonin Salmon Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcitonin salmon injection is used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to weaken and break more easily. Calcitonin salmon injection is also used to treat Paget's disease ...

  16. Monitoring of Juvenile Subyearling Chinook Salmon Survival and Passage at John Day Dam, Summer 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiland, Mark A.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.

    2012-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate dam passage survival of subyearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha; CH0) at John Day Dam (JDA) during summer 2010. This study was conducted by researchers from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in collaboration with the Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission (PSMFC) and the University of Washington (UW). The study was designed to estimate the effects of 30% and 40% spill treatment levels on single release survival rates of CH0 passing through two reaches: (1) the dam, and 40 km of tailwater, (2) the forebay, dam, and 40 km of tailwater. The study also estimated additional passage performance measures which are stipulated in the Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  17. Tanjung Enim IV coal exploration project. Volume I. Exploration work of South Arahan area in 2000/2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    In the 1996-2001 period, the project has been carried out in Banjarsari/Tanjung Enim areas and South Arahan area of South Sumatra. This report described the results of the project conducted in South Arahan area in 2000/2001. The area for survey is 40km{sup 2} in north block and 10km{sup 2} in south block, and the following were carried out: surface reconnaissance, geological mapping, drilling, geophysical logging, seismic survey (seismic reflection survey and VSP survey), and sampling for coal quality analysis. The number of boreholes drilled was 11 including 8 in north area and 3 in south area, and the total length was 1,847m. Physical logging was executed in all 11 boreholes, and VSP survey was done in one borehole per each block. As to the hydraulic test, water poring test was conducted at 3 boreholes in north block. In the report, the results of the survey were classified into the following 4 items: 1) outline of the survey; 2) field activities; 3) analysis of the results; 4) summarization. (NEDO)

  18. Grande Ronde Basin endemic spring chinook salmon supplementation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    As part of its responsibilities under the Northwest Power Act (Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980), Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) must mitigate the loss of fish, wildlife, and related spawning grounds and habitat attributable to power production at federal hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River and its tributaries. The federal dams have been identified as a major source of mortality for the listed Snake River salmon stocks. BPA also has responsibilities under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973 to operate in a way that does not jeopardize the continued existence of listed species and to use its agency resources to conserve listed species

  19. Millisteks kujunevad majandusaastad 2001 ja 2002? : maailmamajandus on edukas, kuid natuke jahtunum / Lembo Tanning

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tanning, Lembo

    2001-01-01

    Maailmamajanduse prognoosid OECD-lt, IMF-lt ja Eurostatilt aastateks 2001 ja 2002. Tabelid ja diagrammid: töötuse määr aastatel 2000-2002; maailma kogutoodangu kasv, 1982-2001; maailma valitud riikide ja regioonide kogutoodangu kasv, 2001; inflatsioon, 2000-2002

  20. Competing conservation objectives for predators and prey: estimating killer whale prey requirements for Chinook salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Williams

    Full Text Available Ecosystem-based management (EBM of marine resources attempts to conserve interacting species. In contrast to single-species fisheries management, EBM aims to identify and resolve conflicting objectives for different species. Such a conflict may be emerging in the northeastern Pacific for southern resident killer whales (Orcinus orca and their primary prey, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Both species have at-risk conservation status and transboundary (Canada-US ranges. We modeled individual killer whale prey requirements from feeding and growth records of captive killer whales and morphometric data from historic live-capture fishery and whaling records worldwide. The models, combined with caloric value of salmon, and demographic and diet data for wild killer whales, allow us to predict salmon quantities needed to maintain and recover this killer whale population, which numbered 87 individuals in 2009. Our analyses provide new information on cost of lactation and new parameter estimates for other killer whale populations globally. Prey requirements of southern resident killer whales are difficult to reconcile with fisheries and conservation objectives for Chinook salmon, because the number of fish required is large relative to annual returns and fishery catches. For instance, a U.S. recovery goal (2.3% annual population growth of killer whales over 28 years implies a 75% increase in energetic requirements. Reducing salmon fisheries may serve as a temporary mitigation measure to allow time for management actions to improve salmon productivity to take effect. As ecosystem-based fishery management becomes more prevalent, trade-offs between conservation objectives for predators and prey will become increasingly necessary. Our approach offers scenarios to compare relative influence of various sources of uncertainty on the resulting consumption estimates to prioritise future research efforts, and a general approach for assessing the extent of

  1. North and South Pacific Ocean Temperature Profile Data collected by the SCRIPPS Institute of Oceanography from 17 February 2000 to 11 August 2002 (NODC Accession 0000925)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical data were collected from XBT casts from the North and South Pacific Oceans. Data were collected from 17 February 2000 to 11 August 2002. Data were collected...

  2. Quantitative risk assessment of salmon louse-induced mortality of seaward-migrating post-smolt Atlantic salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Bråthen Kristoffersen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The Norwegian government recently implemented a new management system to regulate salmon farming in Norway, aiming to promote environmentally sustainable growth in the aquaculture industry. The Norwegian coast has been divided into 13 production zones and the volume of salmonid production in the zones will be regulated based on salmon lice effects on wild salmonids. Here we present a model for assessing salmon louse-induced mortality of seaward-migrating post-smolts of Atlantic salmon. The model quantifies expected salmon lice infestations and louse-induced mortality of migrating post-smolt salmon from 401 salmon rivers draining into Norwegian coastal waters. It is assumed that migrating post-smolts follow the shortest path from river outlets to the high seas, at constant progression rates. During this migration, fish are infested by salmon lice of farm origin according to an empirical infestation model. Furthermore, louse-induced mortality is estimated from the estimated louse infestations. Rivers draining into production zones on the West Coast of Norway were at the highest risk of adverse lice effects. In comparison, rivers draining into northerly production zones, along with the southernmost production zone, were at lower risk. After adjusting for standing stock biomass, estimates of louse-egg output varied by factors of up to 8 between production zones. Correlation between biomass adjusted output of louse infestation and densities of farmed salmon in the production zones suggests that a large-scale density-dependent host-parasite effect is a major driver of louse infestation rates and parasite-induced mortality. The estimates are sensitive to many of the processes in the chain of events in the model. Nevertheless, we argue that the model is suited to assess spatial and temporal risks associated with farm-origin salmon lice. Keywords: Density dependent, Sea lice, Transmission, Farmed salmon, Migration pathway, Migration time

  3. Sockeye salmon evolution, ecology, and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Carol Ann

    2007-01-01

    This collection of articles and photographs gives managers a good idea of recent research into what the sockeye salmon is and does, covering such topics as the vulnerability and value of sockeye salmon ecotypes, their homing ability, using new technologies to monitor reproduction, DNA and a founder event in the Lake Clark sockeye salmon, marine-derived nutrients, the exploitation of large prey, dynamic lake spawning migrations by females, variability of sockeye salmon residence, expression profiling using cDNA microarray technology, learning from stable isotropic records of native otolith hatcheries, the amount of data needed to manage sockeye salmon and estimating salmon "escapement." 

  4. Institute of Nuclear Physics of Orsay - IPNO. Activity report 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Physics of Orsay (IPN Orsay) is undertaking nuclear physics research that is centered on the nature of matter and its ultimate constituents. By the nature of its scientific activities, the IPN is at the heart of a wide range of international collaborations. IPN Orsay is a unit of both the CNRS (National Centre of Scientific Research) and of the Paris-Sud University. It plays a vital role in experiments being carried out by wide-ranging collaborations at major experimental facilities most notably in Europe, the United States and Japan. Its own facilities allows the IPN to carry out fundamental theoretical and experimental research studies in nuclear physics, astro-particle physics, radiochemistry but also in pluri-disciplinary activities. This document presents the activity of the Institute during the 2000-2001 years: 1 - Scientific activities: exotic and hot nuclei; nucleon sub-structure; Mesons, Quarks and Gluons; Astro-particles; Theoretical physics (nuclear structure and reactions - N-body systems, fields theory applied to particle physics and to condensed matter physics); Radiochemistry; Physics of Downstream Cycle and Spallation Reactions; Particle Matter Interactions; Physics-Biology-Medicine Interfaces in Neurobiology, Oncology and Genomic; Science, Education, History and Society; 2 - Technical activities: General and technical departments; Detectors and associated instrumentation; Accelerators; Scientific and technical activities

  5. Possible lin between elevated accumulation of trace elements and canine distemper virus infection in the Caspian seals (Phoca caspica) stranded in 2000 and 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinsuke, T.; Takashi, K.; Yasumi, A.; Tokutaka, I.; Reiji, K.

    2003-05-01

    In the Caspian Sea, a die-off of thousands of Caspian seals (Phoca caspica) occurred in 1997 and 2000. While a direct cause for these deaths seems to be canine distemper virus (CDV) infection, immunosuppression due to environmental pollutants is considered as one of the possible explanations for the development of the disease. The purpose of this work is to examine whether exposure to trace metals could be one of the factors involved in the mass mortality of Caspian seals. Concentrations of 13 trace elements weredetermined in liver, kidney and muscle of Caspian seals found stranded along the coasts of the Caspian Sea in 2000 and 2001. Concentrations of toxic elemen ts (Ag, Cd, Hg, Tl and Pb) in the Caspian seals collected in 2000 and 2001 were comparable to or lower than those in healthy Caspian seals collected in 1993 and 1998 and in seals from other regions, suggesting that these elements would not be the causative agent for the death of Caspian seals. In contrast, Zn and Fe concentrations in the stranded Caspian seals were apparently higher than those in seals from other locations. These results suggest the disturbance in homeostatic control and nutritional statu s of essential elements in the stranded Caspian seals.

  6. Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration Project, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Close, David; Aronsuu, Kimmo; Jackson, Aaron

    2003-07-01

    Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) has significantly declined along the Oregon coast and in the Columbia River Basin (Downey et al. 1993, Close and Jackson 2001). Declines in adults can be partially attributed to hydroelectric dams, which have impeded passage of adult Pacific lamprey in the Columbia and Snake rivers (Moser et al. 2002), thus effecting larval recruitment in the basin (Moser and Close in press). Adult Pacific lamprey also declined in numbers in the Umatilla River, a tributary of the Columbia River (Close and Jackson 2001). In addition to hydro power dams in the Columbia River, habitat alterations and chemical treatments have been involved in the collapse of Pacific lamprey populations in the Umatilla River (Close 1999). To initiate the restoration effort, CTUIR began developing a restoration plan in 1998. The goal of the lamprey research and restoration project is to restore natural production of Pacific lampreys in the Umatilla River to self-sustaining and harvestable level. This report is summarizing the studies and restoration efforts concluded in 2002.

  7. Influence of a weak field of pulsed DC electricity on the behavior and incidence of injury in adult Steelhead and Pacific Lamprey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Copeland, Elizabeth S.

    2009-01-01

    Predation by pinnipeds, such as California sea lions Zalophus californianus, Pacific harbor seals Phoca vitulina, and Stellar sea lions Eumetopias jubatus on adult Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp in the lower Columbia River has become a serious concern for fishery managers trying to conserve and restore runs of threatened and endangered fish. As a result, Smith-Root, Incorporated (SRI; Vancouver, Washington), manufacturers of electrofishing and closely-related equipment, proposed a project to evaluate the potential of an electrical barrier to deter marine mammals and reduce the amount of predation on adult salmonids (SRI 2007). The objectives of their work were to develop, deploy, and evaluate a passive, integrated sonar and electric barrier that would selectively inhibit the upstream movements of marine mammals and reduce predation, but would not injure pinnipeds or impact anadromous fish migrations. However, before such a device could be deployed in the field, concerns by regional fishery managers about the potential effects of such a device on the migratory behavior of Pacific salmon, steelhead O. mykiss, Pacific lampreys Entoshpenus tridentata, and white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus, needed to be addressed. In this report, we describe the results of laboratory research designed to evaluate the effects of prototype electric barriers on adult steelhead and Pacific lampreys.

  8. 77 FR 74469 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Groundfish Management Team (GMT) will hold a week... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National...) 634-2000. Council address: Pacific Fishery Management Council, 7700 NE Ambassador Place, Suite 101...

  9. Salmon tracing: Genotyping to trace back escapees from salmon aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blonk, R.J.W.

    2014-01-01

    The overall objective of the project is to assign an escaped salmon back to the farm responsible for the escape with near 100% accuracy. In this report, the potential of a set of genetic markers to assign an escaped salmon was determined for a set of 12 polymorphic microsatellite markers, provided

  10. Survival and Passage of Juvenile Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Passing through Bonneville Dam, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Kim, Jin A.; Royer, Ida M.; Batten, George W.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Carpenter, Scott M.; Etherington, D. J.; Faber, Derrek M.; Fischer, Eric S.; Fu, Tao; Hennen, Matthew J.; Mitchell, Tyler; Monter, Tyrell J.; Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2011-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and subcontractors conducted an acoustic-telemetry study of juvenile salmonid fish passage and survival at Bonneville Dam in 2010. The study was conducted to assess the readiness of the monitoring system for official compliance studies under the 2008 Biological Opinion and Fish Accords and to assess performance measures including route-specific fish passage proportions, travel times, and survival based upon a single-release model. This also was the last year of evaluation of effects of a behavioral guidance device installed in the Powerhouse 2 forebay. The study relied on releases of live Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System tagged smolts in the Columbia River and used acoustic telemetry to evaluate the approach, passage, and survival of passing juvenile salmon. This study supports the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

  11. Survival and Passage of Juvenile Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Passing Through Bonneville Dam, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Kim, Jin A.; Royer, Ida M.; Batten, George W.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Carpenter, Scott M.; Etherington, D. J.; Faber, Derrek M.; Fischer, Eric S.; Fu, Tao; Hennen, Matthew J.; Mitchell, T. D.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2012-09-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and subcontractors conducted an acoustic-telemetry study of juvenile salmonid fish passage and survival at Bonneville Dam in 2010. The study was conducted to assess the readiness of the monitoring system for official compliance studies under the 2008 Biological Opinion and Fish Accords and to assess performance measures including route-specific fish passage proportions, travel times, and survival based upon a single-release model. This also was the last year of evaluation of effects of a behavioral guidance device installed in the Powerhouse 2 forebay. The study relied on releases of live Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System tagged smolts in the Columbia River and used acoustic telemetry to evaluate the approach, passage, and survival of passing juvenile salmon. This study supports the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers continual effort to improve conditions for juvenile anadromous fish passing through Columbia River dams.

  12. Evaluation of an Experimental Re-introduction of Sockeye Salmon into Skaha Lake; Year 1 of 3, 2000 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammell, Larry (University of Prince Edward Island, Atlantic Veterinary College, Charlottetown, PE, Canada); Machin, Deanna; Long, Karilyn (Okanagan National Fisheries Commission, Westbank, BC, Canada)

    2001-06-01

    Historical records indicate that sockeye salmon were once found in most of the lakes in the Okanagan River Basin. Currently, the only sockeye population within the Okanagan River Basin is found in Osoyoos Lake. Abundance of this stock has declined significantly in the last fifty years. The Okanagan Nation and tribes in the U.S. have proposed re-introducing the species into Okanagan Lake, which has a large rearing capacity. However, assessing the potential benefits and risks associated with a reintroduction of sockeye salmon into Okanagan Lake is difficult because of uncertainties about factors that determine production of Okanagan sockeye, and potential interactions with other species in Okanagan Lake. Associated with this proposal are the potential risks of re-introduction of sockeye salmon into Okanagan Lake. One of these is the effects of sockeye on the resident Okanagan Lake kokanee population, which has declined significantly in the past several years because of habitat loss due to human encroachment, competition with introduced mysid shrimp, and the reduction of biological productivity in the lake as municipalities have moved to more complete effluent treatment. Another concern is the possibility of the transmission of diseases that are currently not found in Okanagan and Skaha lakes from re-introduced sockeye to resident fish. An additional concern is the risk that exotic species (e.g. tench, largemouth bass), that have become established in southern Okanagan Lakes (principally as a result of purposeful introductions in the US Columbia/Okanagan river system), may be able to extend their range to Skaha and Okanagan Lakes, through fish ladders provided at the outlets of Vaseaux (McIntyre Dam) and Skaha Lakes (Okanagan Falls Dam), for natural upstream migration of sockeye. A transboundary multi-agency workshop was hosted in November of 1997 to discuss the potential risks and benefits of reintroducing sockeye salmon into Okanagan Lake. These discussions were

  13. 78 FR 62616 - Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 3730-005] Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption 1. By letter filed September 23, 2013, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company informed the Commission that they have...

  14. Supervising Scientist, Annual Report 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The year under review has seen the resolution of the major issue that has dominated the work of the Supervising Scientist Division over the past three years the review of scientific uncertainties associated with the environmental assessment of the proposal to mine uranium at Jabiluka. The Supervising Scientist prepared a comprehensive report on the risks associated with mining at Jabiluka, which has been under various stages of peer review by an Independent Science Panel (ISP) appointed by the WHC since May 1999. This process culminated in a visit to Australia by the ISP in July 2000 for detailed discussion and assessment and the submission of the final report of the ISP to the World Heritage Committee in September 2000. The report of the ISP was considered at the meeting of the World Heritage Committee in Cairns in December 2000. The Committee reached the conclusion that 'the currently approved proposal for the mine and mill at Jabiluka does not threaten the health of people or the biological and ecological systems of Kakadu National Park that the Mission believed to be at risk'. As a result, the WHC decided not to register Kakadu National Park on the World Heritage List in Danger. But the people of Kakadu themselves remain to be convinced. A major challenge is to gain the confidence of Aboriginal people in the integrity and independence of our scientific assessments and to reduce the concerns that they have for the future of their people and their country. Monitoring of the Jabiluka project was extensive throughout the reporting period. Chemical and biological monitoring programmes of Energy Resources of Australia (ERA) and the Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist (ERISS) demonstrated that no adverse impact occurred in downstream aquatic ecosystems. Similarly, radiological measurements close to the nearest population centre demonstrated that radiation exposure of the public due to current operations at Jabiluka is not detectable

  15. Results of the ARN participation in the quality assessment program of the EML-DOE during period 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equillor, Hugo E.; Serdeiro, Nelida H.; Fernandez, Jorge A.; Gavini, Ricardo M.; Grinman, Ana D.R.; Lewis, Esther C.; Medici, Marcela A.; Palacios, Miguel A.; Diodati, Jorge M.

    2003-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) participates every six months in the Quality Assessment Program (QAP), carried out by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory - United States Department Of Energy (EML-USDOE). The aim of this participation is to assess the quality of the radiochemical determinations and alpha, beta, gamma measurements, that ARN realises routinely. The analysed matrix are: water, filter, soil and vegetable. In the present work, the results of the ARN participation in the last four intercomparisons, period 2000-2001, are detailed and analysed statistically. The results are compared with obtained ones by all the laboratories. (author)

  16. Assessing the relative importance of local and regional processes on the survival of a threatened salmon population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jessica A; Teel, David J; Peterson, William T; Baptista, Antonio M

    2014-01-01

    Research on regulatory mechanisms in biological populations often focuses on environmental covariates. An integrated approach that combines environmental indices with organismal-level information can provide additional insight on regulatory mechanisms. Survival of spring/summer Snake River Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) is consistently low whereas some adjacent populations with similar life histories experience greater survival. It is not known if populations with differential survival respond similarly during early marine residence, a critical period in the life history. Ocean collections, genetic stock identification, and otolith analyses were combined to evaluate the growth-mortality and match-mismatch hypotheses during early marine residence of spring/summer Snake River Chinook salmon. Interannual variation in juvenile attributes, including size at marine entry and marine growth rate, was compared with estimates of survival and physical and biological metrics. Multiple linear regression and multi-model inference were used to evaluate the relative importance of biological and physical metrics in explaining interannual variation in survival. There was relatively weak support for the match-mismatch hypothesis and stronger evidence for the growth-mortality hypothesis. Marine growth and size at capture were strongly, positively related to survival, a finding similar to spring Chinook salmon from the Mid-Upper Columbia River. In hindcast models, basin-scale indices (Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO)) and biological indices (juvenile salmon catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) and a copepod community index (CCI)) accounted for substantial and similar portions of variation in survival for juvenile emigration years 1998-2008 (R2>0.70). However, in forecast models for emigration years 2009-2011, there was an increasing discrepancy between predictions based on the PDO (50-448% of observed value) compared with those based on

  17. Assessing the relative importance of local and regional processes on the survival of a threatened salmon population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A Miller

    Full Text Available Research on regulatory mechanisms in biological populations often focuses on environmental covariates. An integrated approach that combines environmental indices with organismal-level information can provide additional insight on regulatory mechanisms. Survival of spring/summer Snake River Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha is consistently low whereas some adjacent populations with similar life histories experience greater survival. It is not known if populations with differential survival respond similarly during early marine residence, a critical period in the life history. Ocean collections, genetic stock identification, and otolith analyses were combined to evaluate the growth-mortality and match-mismatch hypotheses during early marine residence of spring/summer Snake River Chinook salmon. Interannual variation in juvenile attributes, including size at marine entry and marine growth rate, was compared with estimates of survival and physical and biological metrics. Multiple linear regression and multi-model inference were used to evaluate the relative importance of biological and physical metrics in explaining interannual variation in survival. There was relatively weak support for the match-mismatch hypothesis and stronger evidence for the growth-mortality hypothesis. Marine growth and size at capture were strongly, positively related to survival, a finding similar to spring Chinook salmon from the Mid-Upper Columbia River. In hindcast models, basin-scale indices (Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO and the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO and biological indices (juvenile salmon catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE and a copepod community index (CCI accounted for substantial and similar portions of variation in survival for juvenile emigration years 1998-2008 (R2>0.70. However, in forecast models for emigration years 2009-2011, there was an increasing discrepancy between predictions based on the PDO (50-448% of observed value compared with

  18. Spring Chinook Salmon Interactions Indices and Residual/Precocial Monitoring in the Upper Yakima Basin; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearsons, Todd N.; James, Brenda B.; Johnson, Christopher L. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2003-05-01

    This report examines some of the factors that can influence the success of supplementation, which is currently being tested in the Yakima Basin using upper Yakima stock of spring chinook salmon. Supplementation success in the Yakima Basin is defined relative to four topic areas: natural production, genetics, ecological interactions, and harvest (Busack et al. 1997). The success of spring chinook salmon supplementation in the Yakima Basin is dependent, in part, upon fish culture practices and favorable physical and biological conditions in the natural environment (Busack et al. 1997). Shortfalls in either of these two topics (i.e., failure in culturing many fish that have high long-term fitness or environmental conditions that constrain spring chinook salmon production) will cause supplementation success to be limited. For example, inadvertent selection or propagation of spring chinook that residualize or precocially mature may hinder supplementation success. Spring chinook salmon that residualize (do not migrate during the normal migration period) may have lower survival rates than migrants and, additionally, may interact with wild fish and cause unacceptable impacts to non-target taxa. Large numbers of precocials (nonanadromous spawners) may increase competition for females and significantly skew ratios of offspring sired by nonanadromous males, which could result in more nonanadromous spring chinook in future generations. Conditions in the natural environment may also limit the success of spring chinook supplementation. For example, intra or interspecific competition may constrain spring chinook salmon production. Spring chinook salmon juveniles may compete with each other for food or space or compete with other species that have similar ecological requirements. Monitoring of spring chinook salmon residuals, precocials, prey abundance, carrying capacity, and competition will help researchers interpret why supplementation is working or not working (Busack et al

  19. Area Monitoring Dosimeter Program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bivins, Steven R; Stoetzel, Gregory A

    2001-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM) in January 1993. This program is to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a) (1)-(4) and Article 511.1 of the DOE Standard Radiological Control, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to (1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually, and (2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993-2000 confirm that personnel dosimetry is not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program

  20. Differential Gene Expression in Liver, Gill, and Olfactory Rosettes of Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) After Acclimation to Salinity

    OpenAIRE

    Maryoung, Lindley A.; Lavado, Ramon; Bammler, Theo K.; Gallagher, Evan P.; Stapleton, Patricia L.; Beyer, Richard P.; Farin, Federico M.; Hardiman, Gary; Schlenk, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Most Pacific salmonids undergo smoltification and transition from freshwater to saltwater, making various adjustments in metabolism, catabolism, osmotic, and ion regulation. The molecular mechanisms underlying this transition are largely unknown. In the present study, we acclimated coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to four different salinities and assessed gene expression through microarray analysis of gills, liver, and olfactory rosettes. Gills are involved in osmotic regulation, liver play...

  1. Hydrologic Alterations from Climate Change Inform Assessment of Ecological Risk to Pacific Salmon in Bristol Bay, Alaska.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Wobus

    Full Text Available We developed an integrated hydrologic model of the upper Nushagak and Kvichak watersheds in the Bristol Bay region of southwestern Alaska, a region under substantial development pressure from large-scale copper mining. We incorporated climate change scenarios into this model to evaluate how hydrologic regimes and stream temperatures might change in a future climate, and to summarize indicators of hydrologic alteration that are relevant to salmon habitat ecology and life history. Model simulations project substantial changes in mean winter flow, peak flow dates, and water temperature by 2100. In particular, we find that annual hydrographs will no longer be dominated by a single spring thaw event, but will instead be characterized by numerous high flow events throughout the winter. Stream temperatures increase in all future scenarios, although these temperature increases are moderated relative to air temperatures by cool baseflow inputs during the summer months. Projected changes to flow and stream temperature could influence salmon through alterations in the suitability of spawning gravels, changes in the duration of incubation, increased growth during juvenile stages, and increased exposure to chronic and acute temperature stress. These climate-modulated changes represent a shifting baseline in salmon habitat quality and quantity in the future, and an important consideration to adequately assess the types and magnitude of risks associated with proposed large-scale mining in the region.

  2. Breeding site selection by coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in relation to large wood additions and factors that influence reproductive success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Steven M.; Dunham, Jason B.; McEnroe, Jeffery R.; Lightcap, Scott W.

    2014-01-01

    The fitness of female Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) with respect to breeding behavior can be partitioned into at least four fitness components: survival to reproduction, competition for breeding sites, success of egg incubation, and suitability of the local environment near breeding sites for early rearing of juveniles. We evaluated the relative influences of habitat features linked to these fitness components with respect to selection of breeding sites by coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). We also evaluated associations between breeding site selection and additions of large wood, as the latter were introduced into the study system as a means of restoring habitat conditions to benefit coho salmon. We used a model selection approach to organize specific habitat features into groupings reflecting fitness components and influences of large wood. Results of this work suggest that female coho salmon likely select breeding sites based on a wide range of habitat features linked to all four hypothesized fitness components. More specifically, model parameter estimates indicated that breeding site selection was most strongly influenced by proximity to pool-tail crests and deeper water (mean and maximum depths). Linkages between large wood and breeding site selection were less clear. Overall, our findings suggest that breeding site selection by coho salmon is influenced by a suite of fitness components in addition to the egg incubation environment, which has been the emphasis of much work in the past.

  3. 2001 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 2001 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) utilizes a refined methodology based on the 2000 Pilot ESI effort, to construct an index covering 122 countries...

  4. Increased susceptibility to infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAv) in Lepeophtheirus salmonis – infected Atlantic salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The salmon louse and infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAv) are the two most significant pathogens of concern to the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture industry. However, the interactions between sea lice and ISAv, as well as the impact of a prior sea lice infection on the susceptibility of th...

  5. Evaluation of emamectin benzoate and substance EX against salmon lice in sea-ranched Atlantic salmon smolts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skilbrei, Ove Tommy; Espedal, Per Gunnar; Nilsen, Frank; Garcia, Enrique Perez; Glover, Kevin A

    2015-04-08

    Experimental releases of Atlantic salmon smolts treated with emamectin benzoate (EB) against salmon lice have previously been used to estimate the significance of salmon lice on the survival of migrating smolts. In recent years, the salmon louse has developed reduced sensitivity to EB, which may influence the results of such release experiments. We therefore tested the use of 2 anti-lice drugs: EB was administered to salmon smolts in high doses by intra-peritoneal injection and the prophylactic substance EX (SubEX) was administered by bathing. A third, untreated control group was also established. Salmon were challenged with copepodids of 2 strains of salmon lice (1 EB-sensitive strain and 1 with reduced EB-sensitivity) in mixed-group experimental tanks. At 31 d post-challenge, the numbers of pre-adult lice on treated fish were around 20% compared with the control fish, with minor or no differences between the 2 treatments and lice strains. Both treatments therefore appeared to give the smolts a high degree of protection against infestation of copepodids of salmon lice. However, significantly lower growth of the EB-treatment group indicates that bathing the fish in SubEX is less stressful for smolts than intra-peritoneal injection of EB.

  6. Identification of Saprolegnia Spp. Pathogenic in Chinook Salmon : Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whisler, Howard C.

    1997-06-01

    This project has developed procedures to assess the role of the fungal parasite, Saprolegnia in the biology of salmon, particularly adult Chinook, in the Columbia River Basin. Both morphological and DNA ``fingerprinting`` surveys reveal that Saprolegnia parasitica (=S. diclina, Type I) is the most common pathogen of these fish. In the first phase of this study 92% of 620 isolates, from salmon lesions, conformed to this taxa of Saprolegnia. In the current phase, the authors have developed variants of DNA fingerprinting (RAPD and SWAPP analysis) that permit examination of the sub-structure of the parasite population. These results confirm the predominance of S. parasitica, and suggest that at least three different sub-groups of this fungus occur in the Pacific N.W., USA. The use of single and paired primers with PCR amplification permits identification of pathogenic types, and distinction from other species of the genus considered to be more saprophytic in character. A year`s survey of saprolegniaceous fungi from Lake Washington indicated that the fish-pathogen was not common in the water column. Where and how fish encounter this parasite can be approached with the molecular tags identified in this project.

  7. Influences of Stocking Salmon Carcass Analogs on Salmonids in Klickitat River Tributaries, 2001-2005 Completion Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zendt, Joe; Sharp, Bill (Yakama Nation Fisheries, Toppenish, WA)

    2006-09-01

    This report describes the work completed by the Yakama Nation Fisheries Program (YNFP) in the Klickitat subbasin in south-central Washington under BPA innovative project No.200105500--Influences of stocking salmon carcass analogs on salmonids in Columbia River Tributaries. Salmon carcasses historically provided a significant source of marine-derived nutrients to many stream systems in the Columbia basin, and decreased run sizes have led to a loss of this nutrient source in many streams. Partners in this project developed a pathogen-free carcass analog and stocked the analogs in streams with the following objectives: restoring food availability to streams with reduced anadromous salmon returns; mimicking the natural pathways and timing of food acquisition by salmonids; minimizing unintended negative ecological effects; and increasing the growth and survival of salmonids. In the Klickitat subbasin, carcass analogs were stocked in two streams in 2002 and 2003; a third stream was used as a control. Salmonid fish abundance, growth, and stomach contents were monitored in all three streams before and after carcass analog placement. Fish, invertebrate, and periphyton samples were also collected for stable isotope analysis (to determine if nutrients from carcass analogs were incorporated into the stream food web). Water quality samples were also collected to determine if nutrient overloading occurred in streams. Significant differences in growth were found between fish in treated and untreated stream reaches. Fish in treatment reaches exhibited higher instantaneous growth rates approximately one month after the first carcass analog stocking. Stomach contents sampling indicated that salmonid fish routinely consumed the carcass analog material directly, and that stomach fullness of fish in treatment reaches was higher than in untreated reaches in the first few weeks following carcass analog stockings. No significant differences were detected in fish abundance between

  8. Total Dissolved Gas Monitoring in Chum Salmon Spawning Gravels Below Bonneville Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Geist, David R.; Panther, Jennifer L.; Dawley, Earl

    2007-01-30

    At the request of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Portland District), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted research to determine whether total dissolved gas concentrations are elevated in chum salmon redds during spring spill operations at Bonneville Dam. The study involved monitoring the total dissolved gas levels at egg pocket depth and in the river at two chum salmon spawning locations downstream from Bonneville Dam. Dissolved atmospheric gas supersaturation generated by spill from Bonneville Dam may diminish survival of chum (Oncorhynchus keta) salmon when sac fry are still present in the gravel downstream from Bonneville Dam. However, no previous work has been conducted to determine whether total dissolved gas (TDG) levels are elevated during spring spill operations within incubation habitats. The guidance used by hydropower system managers to provide protection for pre-emergent chum salmon fry has been to limit TDG to 105% after allowing for depth compensation. A previous literature review completed in early 2006 shows that TDG levels as low as 103% have been documented to cause mortality in sac fry. Our study measured TDG in the incubation environment to evaluate whether these levels were exceeded during spring spill operations. Total dissolved gas levels were measured within chum salmon spawning areas near Ives Island and Multnomah Falls on the Columbia River. Water quality sensors screened at egg pocket depth and to the river were installed at both sites. At each location, we also measured dissolved oxygen, temperature, specific conductance, and water depth to assist with the interpretation of TDG results. Total dissolved gas was depth-compensated to determine when levels were high enough to potentially affect sac fry. This report provides detailed descriptions of the two study sites downstream of Bonneville Dam, as well as the equipment and procedures employed to monitor the TDG levels at the study sites. Results of the monitoring at

  9. IFRS adoption in Pacific Island Economies: A political perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pran Boolaky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new paradigm on the adoption of IFRS in island economies specifically in the pacific region. The adapted Scott (2001 institutional pressure framework on IFRS adoption addresses the political independence and political dependence of pacific island economies at three levels namely high, second and low.

  10. Status of fast reactor development in India. April 2000 - March 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.M.

    2001-01-01

    Electricity capacity growth rate in the country during 2000-01 was lower than in the previous year and the installed capacity reached 101.2 GWe as on 31.3.2001. The nuclear electric capacity growth rate was substantially higher than last year and the capacity reached 2.77 GWe. FBTR was operated at various power levels up to 12.5 MWt with an availability factor of 34%. A peak burnup of 71,170 MWd/t was achieved in the fuel. The detailed design, R and D, manufacturing technology development and safety review for 500 Mwe PFBR were continued. The design plant life was increased to 40 years. Prototype steam generator, absorber rod drive mechanisms and inner vessel sector were manufactured at Indian industries. Review of the PSAR by two level safety committees continued. The environmental clearance of the plant by State Pollution Control Board and by the Ministry of Environment and Forests was applied for and involves a public hearing. R and D in reactor physics, engineering development, safely engineering, structural mechanics, thermal-hydraulics, metallurgy, non-destructive evaluation, chemistry and reprocessing were continued. Important works included flux measurements for PFBR radial shield models using leakage neutrons from a thermal reactor, sodium pumps scale model testing, testing of prototype drive mechanisms, FBTR irradiated fuel examination, PFBR structural materials characterization and carbide fuel reprocessing. (author)

  11. The interactive effects of climate change, riparian management, and a nonnative predator on stream-rearing salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David J; Stewart-Koster, Ben; Olden, Julian D; Ruesch, Aaron S; Torgersen, Christian E; Lawler, Joshua J; Butcher, Don P; Crown, Julia K

    2014-06-01

    Predicting how climate change is likely to interact with myriad other stressors that threaten species of conservation concern is an essential challenge in aquatic ecosystems. This study provides a framework to accomplish this task in salmon-bearing streams of the northwestern United States, where land-use-related reductions in riparian shading have caused changes in stream thermal regimes, and additional warming from projected climate change may result in significant losses of coldwater fish habitat over the next century. Predatory, nonnative smallmouth bass have also been introduced into many northwestern streams, and their range is likely to expand as streams warm, presenting an additional challenge to the persistence of threatened Pacific salmon. The goal of this work was to forecast the interactive effects of climate change, riparian management, and nonnative species on stream-rearing salmon and to evaluate the capacity of restoration to mitigate these effects. We intersected downscaled global climate forecasts with a local-scale water temperature model to predict mid- and end-of-century temperatures in streams in the Columbia River basin. We compared one stream that is thermally impaired due to the loss of riparian vegetation and another that is cooler and has a largely intact riparian corridor. Using the forecasted stream temperatures in conjunction with fish-habitat models, we predicted how stream-rearing chinook salmon and bass distributions would change as each stream warmed. In the highly modified stream, end-of-century warming may cause near total loss of chinook salmon-rearing habitat and a complete invasion of the upper watershed by bass. In the less modified stream, bass were thermally restricted from the upstream-most areas. In both systems, temperature increases resulted in higher predicted spatial overlap between stream-rearing chinook salmon and potentially predatory bass in the early summer (two- to fourfold increase) and greater abundance of

  12. Quantifying the Behavioral Response of Spawning Chum Salmon to Elevated Discharges from Bonneville Dam, Columbia River : Annual Report 2005-2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Haskell, Craig A.; Kock, Tobias J.

    2008-12-01

    In unimpounded rivers, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) typically spawn under relatively stable stream flows, with exceptions occurring during periodic precipitation events. In contrast, hydroelectric development has often resulted in an artificial hydrograph characterized by rapid changes in discharge and tailwater elevation that occur on a daily, or even an hourly basis, due to power generation (Cushman 1985; Moog 1993). Consequently, populations of Pacific salmon that are known to spawn in main-stem habitats below hydroelectric dams face the risks of changing habitat suitability, potential redd dewatering, and uncertain spawning success (Hamilton and Buell 1976; Chapman et al. 1986; Dauble et al. 1999; Garland et al. 2003; Connor and Pflug 2004; McMichael et al. 2005). Although the direct effects of a variable hydrograph, such as redd dewatering are apparent, specific effects on spawning behavior remain largely unexplored. Chum salmon (O. keta) that spawn below Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River are particularly vulnerable to the effects of water level fluctuations. Although chum salmon generally spawn in smaller tributaries (Johnson et al. 1997), many fish spawn in main-stem habitats below Bonneville Dam near Ives Island (Tomaro et al. 2007; Figure 1). The primary spawning area near Ives Island is shallow and sensitive to changes in water level caused by hydroelectric power generation at Bonneville Dam. In the past, fluctuating water levels have dewatered redds and changed the amount of available spawning habitat (Garland et al. 2003). To minimize these effects, fishery managers attempt to maintain a stable tailwater elevation at Bonneville Dam of 3.5 m (above mean sea level) during spawning, which ensures adequate water is provided to the primary chum salmon spawning area below the mouth of Hamilton Creek (Figure 1). Given the uncertainty of winter precipitation and water supply, this strategy has been effective at restricting spawning to a specific

  13. Scientific papers presented at the 2000-2001 European Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology (ESGAR) meetings: publication rates during the period 2000-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Secil, Mustafa; Ucar, Gokhan; Dicle, Oguz

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the rate at which abstracts orally presented at the ESGAR 2000 and 2001 meetings were published between 2000-2004, and to identify predictive factors of publication. The abstracts of ESGAR meeting presentations were reviewed and classified according to organ, modality, type of design, country of origin of the studies and basic categories of diagnostic or interventional. The presentations were searched for publication in Medline-indexed journals using the PubMed server. The publication rates of the presentations, the time period between the presentation and publication, and the journal in which the article had appeared were investigated. An overall number of 109 publications were found originating from 276 presentations (39.5%). The median and inter-quartile range [IQR] between the abstract presentation and subsequently full publication was 18 months [1.0 -53.0]. The journal with the highest number of derived articles from abstract presentation was European Radiology (n=21, 19.2%). Retrospective studies were found to be more frequently published than prospective studies (p=0.001). The publication rate did not show any statistically significant difference between groups of other classifications. The publication rate of studies orally presented at ESGAR meetings was 39.5%. No specific variable other than the type of design of the studies appeared to influence the publication rate. (orig.)

  14. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the RYOFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean from 2000-04-20 to 2000-05-24 (NODC Accession 0115282)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115282 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from RYOFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean from 2000-04-20...

  15. Genetic versus rearing-environment effects on phenotype: hatchery and natural rearing effects on hatchery- and wild-born coho salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedar M Chittenden

    Full Text Available With the current trends in climate and fisheries, well-designed mitigative strategies for conserving fish stocks may become increasingly necessary. The poor post-release survival of hatchery-reared Pacific salmon indicates that salmon enhancement programs require assessment. The objective of this study was to determine the relative roles that genotype and rearing environment play in the phenotypic expression of young salmon, including their survival, growth, physiology, swimming endurance, predator avoidance and migratory behaviour. Wild- and hatchery-born coho salmon adults (Oncorhynchus kisutch returning to the Chehalis River in British Columbia, Canada, were crossed to create pure hatchery, pure wild, and hybrid offspring. A proportion of the progeny from each cross was reared in a traditional hatchery environment, whereas the remaining fry were reared naturally in a contained side channel. The resulting phenotypic differences between replicates, between rearing environments, and between cross types were compared. While there were few phenotypic differences noted between genetic groups reared in the same habitat, rearing environment played a significant role in smolt size, survival, swimming endurance, predator avoidance and migratory behaviour. The lack of any observed genetic differences between wild- and hatchery-born salmon may be due to the long-term mixing of these genotypes from hatchery introgression into wild populations, or conversely, due to strong selection in nature--capable of maintaining highly fit genotypes whether or not fish have experienced part of their life history under cultured conditions.

  16. Calcitonin Salmon Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcitonin salmon is used to treat osteoporosis in women who are at least 5 years past menopause and cannot ... a human hormone that is also found in salmon. It works by preventing bone breakdown and increasing ...

  17. CSIR Technology Impact 2001

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This issue of Technology Impact offers a brief snapshot of CSIR activities during the year under review (1 March 2000 - 28 February 2001) by highlighting a number of innovative projects and initiatives in these areas. It present a rich canvas...

  18. 2000-2001 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    2nd Term : 15 January to 30 March 2001 LECTURE SERIES       Experimentation in Space by M. Spiro, CEA, France 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 February 11:00-12:00 - Auditorium, bldg 500 Tracking at the LHC by K. Safarik, CERN-EP 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 March 11:00-12:00 - Auditorium, bldg 500 Issues in Arms Control by F. Calogero, Univ. Roma, It. 12. 13, 14, 15, 16 February 11:00-12:00 - Auditorium, bldg 500 Telecommunication for the future by R. Parker, CERN-IT 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 March 11:00-12:00 - Auditorium, bldg 500 Introduction to Cryogenic Engineering by J. G. Weisend, Stanford, USA 19, 20, 21, 22, 23 February 11:00-12:00 - Auditorium, bldg 500 ­ 19, 20, 21 February, Council Chamber 22, 23 February Heavy Ion Physics at the CERN SPS by M. Gonin, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, F. 19, 20, 21, 22, 23 March 11:00-12:00 - Auditorium, bldg 500 Recent Results on CP Violation and B Physics by P.F. Harrison, QMW, London, GB 26, 27, 28 February 1, 2 March 11:00-12:00 - Auditorium, bldg 500 ...

  19. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from a world-wide distribution from the EMERALD INDAH and other platforms from 28 November 2000 to 29 May 2001 (NODC Accession 0000465)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT and other data were collected from a world-wide distribution from the EMERALD INDAH and other platforms from 28 November 2000 to 29 May 2001. Data were submitted...

  20. Interdecadal variations of ENSO around 1999/2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zeng-Zhen; Kumar, Arun; Huang, Bohua; Zhu, Jieshun; Ren, Hong-Li

    2017-02-01

    This paper discusses the interdecadal changes of the climate in the tropical Pacific with a focus on the corresponding changes in the characteristics of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Compared with 1979-1999, the whole tropical Pacific climate system, including both the ocean and atmosphere, shifted to a lower variability regime after 1999/2000. Meanwhile, the frequency of ENSO became less regular and was closer to a white noise process. The lead time of the equatorial Pacific's subsurface ocean heat content in preceding ENSO decreased remarkably, in addition to a reduction in the maximum correlation between them. The weakening of the correlation and the shortening of the lead time pose more challenges for ENSO prediction, and is the likely reason behind the decrease in skill with respect to ENSO prediction after 2000. Coincident with the changes in tropical Pacific climate variability, the mean states of the atmospheric and oceanic components also experienced physically coherent changes. The warm anomaly of SST in the western Pacific and cold anomaly in the eastern Pacific resulted in an increased zonal SST gradient, linked to an enhancement in surface wind stress and strengthening of the Walker circulation, as well as an increase in the slope of the thermocline. These changes were consistent with an increase (a decrease) in precipitation and an enhancement (a suppression) of the deep convection in the western (eastern) equatorial Pacific. Possible connections between the mean state and ENSO variability and frequency changes in the tropical Pacific are also discussed.

  1. Lower Klickitat Riparian and In-channel Habitat Restoration Project, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conley, Will

    2003-10-01

    This project focuses on the lower Klickitat River and its tributaries that provide or affect salmonid habitat. The overall goal is to restore watershed health to aid recovery of salmonid stocks in the Klickitat subbasin. An emphasis is placed on restoration and protection of watersheds supporting anadromous fish production, particularly steelhead (Oncorhyncus mykiss) which are listed as 'Threatened' within the Mid-Columbia ESU. Restoration activities are aimed at restoring stream processes by removing or mitigating watershed perturbances and improving habitat conditions and water quality. In addition to steelhead, habitat improvements benefit Chinook (O. tshawytscha) and coho (O. kisutch) salmon, resident rainbow trout, and enhance habitat for many terrestrial and amphibian wildlife species. Protection activities compliment restoration efforts within the subbasin by securing refugia and preventing degradation. Since 90% of the project area is in private ownership, maximum effectiveness will be accomplished via cooperation with state, federal, tribal, and private entities. The project addresses goals and objectives presented in the Klickitat Subbasin Summary and the 1994 NWPPC Fish and Wildlife Program. Feedback from the 2000 Provincial Review process indicated a need for better information management to aid development of geographic priorities. Thus, an emphasis has been placed on database development and a review of existing information prior to pursuing more extensive implementation. Planning and design was initiated on several restoration projects. These priorities will be refined in future reports as the additional data is collected and analyzed. Tasks listed are for the April 1, 2001 to August 31, 2002 contract cycle, for which work was delayed during the summer of 2001 because the contract was not finalized until mid-August 2001. Accomplishments are provided for the September 1, 2001 to August 31, 2002 reporting period. During this reporting period

  2. Effects of Total Dissolved Gas on Chum Salmon Fry Incubating in the Lower Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Hand, Kristine D.; Geist, David R.; Murray, Katherine J.; Panther, Jenny; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Dawley, Earl M.; Elston, Ralph A.

    2008-01-30

    This report describes research conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in FY 2007 for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, to characterize the effects of total dissolved gas (TDG) on the incubating fry of chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) in the lower Columbia River. The tasks conducted and results obtained in pursuit of three objectives are summarized: * to conduct a field monitoring program at the Ives Island and Multnomah Falls study sites, collecting empirical data on TDG to obtain a more thorough understanding of TDG levels during different river stage scenarios (i.e., high-water year versus low-water year) * to conduct laboratory toxicity tests on hatchery chum salmon fry at gas levels likely to occur downstream from Bonneville Dam * to sample chum salmon sac fry during Bonneville Dam spill operations to determine if there is a physiological response to TDG levels. Chapter 1 discusses the field monitoring, Chapter 2 reports the findings of the laboratory toxicity tests, and Chapter 3 describes the field-sampling task. Each chapter contains an objective-specific introduction, description of the study site and methods, results of research, and discussion of findings. Literature cited throughout this report is listed in Chapter 4. Additional details on the study methdology and results are provided in Appendixes A through D.

  3. The interactive effects of climate change, riparian management, and a non-native predators on stream-rearing salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David J.; Stewart-Koster, Ben; Olden, Julian D.; Ruesch, Aaron S.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Lawler, Joshua J.; Butcher, Don P.; Crown, Julia K.

    2014-01-01

    Predicting how climate change is likely to interact with myriad other stressors that threaten species of conservation concern is an essential challenge in aquatic ecosystems. This study provides a framework to accomplish this task in salmon-bearing streams of the northwestern United States, where land-use related reductions in riparian shading have caused changes in stream thermal regimes, and additional warming from projected climate change may result in significant losses of coldwater fish habitat over the next century. Predatory non-native smallmouth bass have also been introduced into many northwestern streams and their range is likely to expand as streams warm, presenting an additional challenge to the persistence of threatened Pacific salmon. The goal of this work was to forecast the interactive effects of climate change, riparian management, and non-native species on stream-rearing salmon, and to evaluate the capacity of restoration to mitigate these effects. We intersected downscaled global climate forecasts with a local-scale water temperature model to predict mid- and end-of-century temperatures in streams in the Columbia River basin; we compared one stream that is thermally impaired due to the loss of riparian vegetation and another that is cooler and has a largely intact riparian corridor. Using the forecasted stream temperatures in conjunction with fish-habitat models, we predicted how stream-rearing Chinook salmon and bass distributions would change as each stream warmed. In the highly modified stream, end-of-century warming may cause near total loss of Chinook salmon rearing habitat and a complete invasion of the upper watershed by bass. In the less modified stream, bass were thermally restricted from the upstream-most areas. In both systems, temperature increases resulted in higher predicted spatial overlap between stream-rearing Chinook salmon and potentially predatory bass in the early summer (2-4-fold increase) and greater abundance of bass. We

  4. Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. are broadly susceptible to isolates representing the North American genogroups of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, Gael; Winton, James R.; Dale, Ole B.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Falk, Knut; Busch, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    Beginning in 1992, three epidemic waves of infectious hematopoietic necrosis, often with high mortality, occurred in farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. on the west coast of North America. We compared the virulence of eleven strains of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), representing the U, M and L genogroups, in experimental challenges of juvenile Atlantic salmon in freshwater. All strains caused mortality and there was wide variation within genogroups: cumulative mortality for five U-group strains ranged from 20 to 100%, four M-group strains ranged 30-63% and two L-group strains varied from 41 to 81%. Thus, unlike Pacific salmonids, there was no apparent correlation of virulence in a particular host species with virus genogroup. The mortality patterns indicated two different phenotypes in terms of kinetics of disease progression and final per cent mortality, with nine strains having moderate virulence and two strains (from the U and L genogroups) having high virulence. These phenotypes were investigated by histopathology and immunohistochemistry to describe the variation in the course of IHNV disease in Atlantic salmon. The results from this study demonstrate that IHNV may become a major threat to farmed Atlantic salmon in other regions of the world where the virus has been, or may be, introduced.

  5. Floristic account of the marine benthic algae from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef, Line Islands, Central Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vroom, P.S.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The marine benthic algae from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef were identified from collections obtained from the Whippoorwill Expedition in 1924, the Itasca Expedition in 1935, the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Taney in 1938, the Smithsonian Institution’s Pacific Ocean Biological Survey Program in 1964 and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (RAMP in 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004 and 2006. A total of 124 species, representing 8 Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae, 82 Rhodophyta (red algae, 6 Heterokontophyta (brown algae and 28 Chlorophyta (green algae, are reported from both islands. Seventy-nine and 95 species of marine benthic algae are recorded from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef, respectively. Of the 124 species, 77 species or 62% (4 blue-green algae, 57 red algae, 2 brown algae and 14 green algae have never before been reported from the 11 remote reefs, atolls and low islands comprising the Line Islands in the Central Pacific.

  6. Ground-water, surface-water, and water-chemistry data, Black Mesa Area, northeastern Arizona: 2000-2001, and performance and sensitivity of the 1988 USGS numerical model of the N aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Blakemore E.

    2002-01-01

    The N aquifer is the major source of water in the 5,400-square-mile area of Black Mesa in northeastern Arizona. Availability of water is an important issue in this area because of continued industrial and municipal use, a growing population, and precipitation of about 6 to 14 inches per year. The monitoring program in Black Mesa has been operating since 1971 and is designed to determine the long-term effects of ground-water withdrawals from the N aquifer for industrial and municipal uses. The monitoring program includes measurements of (1) ground-water pumping, (2) ground-water levels, (3) spring discharge, (4) surface-water discharge, and (5) ground-water chemistry. In 2000, total ground-water withdrawals were 7,740 acre-feet, industrial use was 4,490 acre-feet, and municipal use was 3,250 acre-feet. From 1999 to 2000, total withdrawals increased by 9 percent, industrial use increased by 7 percent, and municipal use increased by 12 percent. From 1999 to 2001, water levels declined in 10 of 15 wells in the unconfined part of the aquifer, and the median change was -0.4 foot. Water levels declined in 8 of 16 wells in the confined part of the aquifer, and the median change was -0.2 foot. From the prestress period (prior to 1965) to 2001, the median water-level change for 33 wells was -17.2 feet. Median water-level changes were -1.2 feet for 15 wells in the unconfined part of the aquifer and -31.0 feet for 18 wells in the confined part. Discharges were measured once in 1999 and once in 2001 at four springs. Discharges decreased by 5 percent and 33 percent at two springs and increased by 3 percent and 81 percent at two springs. For about the past 10 years, discharges did not significantly change in Burro Spring, the unnamed spring near Dennehotso, and Moenkopi School Spring. The record of discharge from a consistent measuring point for Pasture Canyon Spring is too short for statistical analysis of trends. Continuous records of surface-water discharge have been collected

  7. Survival and Passage of Yearling and Subyearling Chinook Salmon and Steelhead at The Dalles Dam, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Skalski, J. R.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Fischer, Eric S.; Hughes, James S.; Khan, Fenton; Kim, Jin A.; Townsend, Richard L.

    2011-12-01

    The acoustic telemetry study reported here was conducted by researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the University of Washington (UW) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE). The purpose of the study was to estimate dam passage survival and other performance measures for yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon and steelhead at The Dalles Dam as stipulated by the 2008 Biological Opinion on operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) and 2008 Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  8. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the Hokusei Maru in the North Pacific Ocean from 2000-06-21 to 2000-07-05 (NODC Accession 0112244)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112244 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from Hokusei Maru in the North Pacific Ocean from 2000-06-21 to...

  9. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the Hokusei Maru in the North Pacific Ocean from 2000-06-01 to 2000-06-15 (NODC Accession 0112243)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112243 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from Hokusei Maru in the North Pacific Ocean from 2000-06-01 to...

  10. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the Hokusei Maru in the North Pacific Ocean from 2000-07-29 to 2000-08-08 (NODC Accession 0112245)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112245 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from Hokusei Maru in the North Pacific Ocean from 2000-07-29 to...

  11. Ectoparasite Caligus rogercresseyi modifies the lactate response in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Chacoff, L; Muñoz, J L P; Hawes, C; Oyarzún, R; Pontigo, J P; Saravia, J; González, M P; Mardones, O; Labbé, B S; Morera, F J; Bertrán, C; Pino, J; Wadsworth, S; Yáñez, A

    2017-08-30

    Although Caligus rogercresseyi negatively impacts Chilean salmon farming, the metabolic effects of infection by this sea louse have never been completely characterized. Therefore, this study analyzed lactate responses in the plasma, as well as the liver/muscle lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and gene expression, in Salmo salar and Oncorhynchus kisutch infested by C. rogercresseyi. The lactate responses of Atlantic and Coho salmon were modified by the ectoparasite. Both salmon species showed increasing in plasma levels, whereas enzymatic activity increased in the muscle but decreased in the liver. Gene expression was overexpressed in both Coho salmon tissues but only in the liver for Atlantic salmon. These results suggest that salmonids need more energy to adapt to infection, resulting in increased gene expression, plasma levels, and enzyme activity in the muscles. The responses differed between both salmon species and over the course of infection, suggesting potential species-specific responses to sea-lice infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Using the H-index to assess disease priorities for salmon aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Alexander G; Wardeh, Maya; McIntyre, K Marie

    2016-04-01

    Atlantic salmon's (Salmo salar) annual aquaculture production exceeds 2M tonnes globally, and for the UK forms the largest single food export. However, aquaculture production is negatively affected by a range of different diseases and parasites. Effort to control pathogens should be focused on those which are most "important" to aquaculture. It is difficult to specify what makes a pathogen important; this is particularly true in the aquatic sector where data capture systems are less developed than for human or terrestrial animal diseases. Mortality levels might be one indicator, but these can cause a range of different problems such as persistent endemic losses, occasional large epidemics or control/treatment costs. Economic and multi-criteria decision methods can incorporate this range of impacts, however these have not been consistently applied to aquaculture and the quantity and quality of data required is large, so their potential for comparing aquatic pathogens is currently limited. A method that has been developed and applied to both human and terrestrial animal diseases is the analysis of published scientific literature using the H-index method. We applied this method to salmon pathogens using Web of Science searches for 23 pathogens. The top 3 H-indices were obtained for: sea lice, furunculosis, and infectious salmon anaemia; post 2000, Amoebic Gill Disease (AGD) replaced furunculosis. The number of publications per year describing bacterial disease declined significantly, while those for viruses and sea lice increased significantly. This reflects effective bacterial control by vaccination, while problems related to viruses and sea lice have increased. H-indices by country reflected different national concerns (e.g. AGD ranked top for Australia). Averaged national H-indices for salmon diseases tend to increase with log of salmon production; countries with H-Indices significantly below the trend line have suffered particularly large disease losses. The H

  13. Variability in Migration Routes Influences Early Marine Survival of Juvenile Salmon Smolts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan B Furey

    Full Text Available Variability in animal migratory behavior is expected to influence fitness, but few empirical examples demonstrating this relationship exist. The initial marine phase in the migration of juvenile salmon smolts has been identified as a potentially critical life history stage to overall population productivity, yet how fine-scale migration routes may influence survival are unknown. Large-scale acoustic telemetry studies have estimated survival rates of outmigrant Pacific salmon smolts through the Strait of Georgia (SOG along the British Columbian coastline to the Pacific Ocean, but these data have not been used to identify and characterize fine-scale movements. Data collected on over 850 sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss smolts detected at an array in the Strait of Georgia in 2004-2008 and 2010-2013 were analyzed to characterize migration routes and link movements to subsequent survival at an array 250 km further along the marine migration pathway. Both species exhibited disproportionate use of the most eastern route in the Strait of Georgia (Malaspina Strait. While many smolts moved across the northern Strait of Georgia acoustic array with no indication of long-term milling or large-scale east-to-west movements, large proportions (20-40% of sockeye and 30-50% of steelhead exhibited a different behavior, apparently moving in a westward or counterclockwise pattern. Variability in migratory behavior for both species was linked to subsequent survival through the Strait of Georgia. Survival for both species was influenced by initial east-to-west location, and sockeye were further influenced by migration timing and duration of time spent near the northern Strait of Georgia array. Westward movements result in a net transport of smolts from Malaspina Strait to the Strait of Georgia, particularly for steelhead. Counterclockwise movements may be due to the currents in this area during the time of outmigration, and the

  14. Lessons from sea louse and salmon epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groner, Maya L; Rogers, Luke A; Bateman, Andrew W; Connors, Brendan M; Frazer, L Neil; Godwin, Sean C; Krkošek, Martin; Lewis, Mark A; Peacock, Stephanie J; Rees, Erin E; Revie, Crawford W; Schlägel, Ulrike E

    2016-03-05

    Effective disease management can benefit from mathematical models that identify drivers of epidemiological change and guide decision-making. This is well illustrated in the host-parasite system of sea lice and salmon, which has been modelled extensively due to the economic costs associated with sea louse infections on salmon farms and the conservation concerns associated with sea louse infections on wild salmon. Consequently, a rich modelling literature devoted to sea louse and salmon epidemiology has been developed. We provide a synthesis of the mathematical and statistical models that have been used to study the epidemiology of sea lice and salmon. These studies span both conceptual and tactical models to quantify the effects of infections on host populations and communities, describe and predict patterns of transmission and dispersal, and guide evidence-based management of wild and farmed salmon. As aquaculture production continues to increase, advances made in modelling sea louse and salmon epidemiology should inform the sustainable management of marine resources. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Research, development and demonstration in the energy area in Switzerland - List of projects 2000/2001; Forschung, Entwicklung und Demonstration im Bereich der Energie in der Schweiz. Liste der Projekte 2000/2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This report prepared by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews research, development and demonstration projects in the energy area that were partly or wholly supported by the Swiss Federation in the years 2000/2001. A list of over 1,000 projects is presented, whereby many projects supported by the Swiss Cantons and local authorities are not included in the statistics. The report also contains figures on the efforts made by the private economy in these areas. The classification of the projects in the four main areas 'efficient use of energy', 'renewable energy sources', 'nuclear energy' and 'energy economics' is presented. This allows comparison with other publications such as the Federal Energy-Research Concept or the Overviews of the Energy-Research Programme Managers. The classification system is also compared with that used by the International Energy Agency (IEA). The Network for Information and Technology Transfer (ENET) is also presented, which has a comprehensive data base at its disposal and which maintains a systematic collection of energy-relevant publications. Details on these projects can be obtained from the appropriate heads of programmes and SFOE departmental heads, whose addresses are given in the report.

  16. Streambed scour of salmon spawning habitat in a regulated river influenced by management of peak discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendaszek, Andrew S.; Burton, Karl D.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Konrad, Christopher P.

    2017-01-01

    In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, salmon eggs incubating within streambed gravels are susceptible to scour during floods. The threat to egg-to-fry survival by streambed scour is mitigated, in part, by the adaptation of salmon to bury their eggs below the typical depth of scour. In regulated rivers globally, we suggest that water managers consider the effect of dam operations on scour and its impacts on species dependent on benthic habitats.We instrumented salmon-spawning habitat with accelerometer scour monitors (ASMs) at 73 locations in 11 reaches of the Cedar River in western Washington State of the United States from Autumn 2013 through the Spring of 2014. The timing of scour was related to the discharge measured at a nearby gage and compared to previously published ASM data at 26 locations in two reaches of the Cedar River collected between Autumn 2010 and Spring 2011.Thirteen percent of the recovered ASMs recorded scour during a peak-discharge event in March 2014 (2-to 3-year recurrence interval) compared to 71% of the recovered ASMs during a higher peak-discharge event in January 2011 (10-year recurrence interval). Of the 23 locations where ASMs recorded scour during the 2011 and 2014 deployments, 35% had scour when the discharge was ≤87.3 m3/s (3,082 ft3/s) (2-year recurrence interval discharge) with 13% recording scour at or below the 62.3 m3/s (2,200 ft3/s) operational threshold for peak-discharge management during the incubation of salmon eggs.Scour to the depth of salmon egg pockets was limited during peak discharges with frequent (1.25-year or less) recurrence intervals, which managers can regulate through dam operations on the Cedar River. Pairing novel measurements of the timing of streambed scour with discharge data allows the development of peak-discharge management strategies that protect salmon eggs incubating within streambed gravels during floods.

  17. Point-of-purchase alcohol marketing and promotion by store type--United States, 2000-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-11

    Alcohol consumption is the third leading preventable cause of death in the United States, accounting for approximately 100,000 deaths annually. Efforts to reduce the adverse health and social consequences from alcohol use include policies to restrict access to alcohol among underaged persons (i.e., persons aged Point-of-purchase (POP) (i.e., on-site) marketing, including alcohol advertising and placement, can increase alcohol sales and consumption substantially, thereby increasing the risk for various alcohol-related health outcomes, including alcohol-impaired driving and interpersonal violence. To assess the type and frequency of POP alcohol marketing, researchers with the ImpacTeen Project collected and analyzed store observation data during 2000-2001 from 3,961 alcohol retailers in 329 communities throughout the United States. This report summarizes the results of the study, which indicate that POP alcohol marketing is extensive in certain store types frequented by teenagers and young adults. Public health agencies and policy makers should work with liquor control boards to reduce POP marketing that could promote risky or underage drinking.

  18. Spatial consistency of chinook salmon redd distribution within and among years in the Cowlitz River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Katherine J.C.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Henning, Julie A.; Murray, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the spawning patterns of Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha on the lower Cowlitz River, Washington, using a unique set of fine- and coarse-scale temporal and spatial data collected during biweekly aerial surveys conducted in 1991–2009 (500 m to 28 km resolution) and 2008–2009 (100–500 m resolution). Redd locations were mapped from a helicopter during 2008 and 2009 with a hand-held GPS synchronized with in-flight audio recordings. We examined spatial patterns of Chinook Salmon redd reoccupation among and within years in relation to segment-scale geomorphic features. Chinook Salmon spawned in the same sections each year with little variation among years. On a coarse scale, 5 years (1993, 1998, 2000, 2002, and 2009) were compared for reoccupation. Redd locations were highly correlated among years. Comparisons on a fine scale (500 m) between 2008 and 2009 also revealed a high degree of consistency among redd locations. On a finer temporal scale, we observed that Chinook Salmon spawned in the same sections during the first and last week. Redds were clustered in both 2008 and 2009. Regression analysis with a generalized linear model at the 500-m scale indicated that river kilometer and channel bifurcation were positively associated with redd density, whereas sinuosity was negatively associated with redd density. Collecting data on specific redd locations with a GPS during aerial surveys was logistically feasible and cost effective and greatly enhanced the spatial precision of Chinook Salmon spawning surveys.

  19. Natura 2000 loob võrgustiku / Tiit Kändler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kändler, Tiit, 1948-

    2001-01-01

    Natura 2000 on EL looduskaitsepoliitika keskne vahend. Tegemist on võrgustikuga, mille moodustavad liikmesriikide kõige väärtuslikumad loodusalad. 2001. aastal on Lihula Euroopa looduskaitsevõrgustiku Natura 2000 pealinn Eestis

  20. Current and potential ant impacts in the Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loope, Lloyd L.; Krushelnycky, Paul D.

    2007-01-01

    . They generally have multiple queens per colony, are unicolonial (lacking internest aggression), quickly recruit to food items, thrive in a variety of habitats including disturbed areas, and can be highly aggressive to other ant species (McGlynn 1999). Hawaii’s arthropod fauna evolved in the absence of ants and has been observed by many biologists to be highly vulnerable to displacement by non-native ants. Pacific island biotas have also very likely suffered greatly from displacement by ants. However, in contrast to Hawaii, virtually nothing has been published on effects of non-native ants on native arthropod fauna elsewhere on Pacific islands, with the exception of the Galapagos archipelago, which may have at least four species of endemic ants (Lubin 1984, Nishida and Evenhuis 2000) and New Caledonia (Jourdan et al. 2001, Le Breton et al. 2005). In addition, many ant species in the Pacific have long been a nuisance for humans, and significant agricultural impacts have occurred from ants tending hemipteran insects of crop plants.

  1. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabel, Richard; Williams, John G.; Smith, Steven G. (Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Fish Ecology Division, Seattle, WA)

    2002-06-01

    In 2001, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the ninth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from passive integrated transponder (PIT)-tagged fish. We PIT tagged and released at Lower Granite Dam a total of 17,028 hatchery and 3,550 wild steelhead. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream of the hydropower system and sites within the hydropower system. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using the Single-Release Model. Primary research objectives in 2001 were to: (1) estimate reach and project survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the yearling chinook salmon and steelhead migrations; (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions; and (3) evaluate the survival-estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2001 for PIT-tagged yearling chinook salmon and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures with a minimum of text. More details on methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited in the text. Results for summer-migrating chinook salmon will be reported separately.

  2. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas (2): Cook Inlet - 2002, Kodiak - 1998, Southeast - 2002, Bristol Bay - 2004, Prince William Sound - 2000, Aleutians - 2001, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0050372)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Alaska; Kodiak (1998), Prince William Sound (2000), Aleutians (2001), Cook Inlet (2002),...

  3. Juvenile salmon usage of the Skeena River estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr-Harris, Charmaine; Gottesfeld, Allen S; Moore, Jonathan W

    2015-01-01

    Migratory salmon transit estuary habitats on their way out to the ocean but this phase of their life cycle is more poorly understood than other phases. The estuaries of large river systems in particular may support many populations and several species of salmon that originate from throughout the upstream river. The Skeena River of British Columbia, Canada, is a large river system with high salmon population- and species-level diversity. The estuary of the Skeena River is under pressure from industrial development, with two gas liquefaction terminals and a potash loading facility in various stages of environmental review processes, providing motivation for understanding the usage of the estuary by juvenile salmon. We conducted a juvenile salmonid sampling program throughout the Skeena River estuary in 2007 and 2013 to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of different species and populations of salmon. We captured six species of juvenile anadromous salmonids throughout the estuary in both years, and found that areas proposed for development support some of the highest abundances of some species of salmon. Specifically, the highest abundances of sockeye (both years), Chinook in 2007, and coho salmon in 2013 were captured in areas proposed for development. For example, juvenile sockeye salmon were 2-8 times more abundant in the proposed development areas. Genetic stock assignment demonstrated that the Chinook salmon and most of the sockeye salmon that were captured originated from throughout the Skeena watershed, while some sockeye salmon came from the Nass, Stikine, Southeast Alaska, and coastal systems on the northern and central coasts of British Columbia. These fish support extensive commercial, recreational, and First Nations fisheries throughout the Skeena River and beyond. Our results demonstrate that estuary habitats integrate species and population diversity of salmon, and that if proposed development negatively affects the salmon populations that

  4. Grande Ronde Basin Supplementation Program; Lostine River, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onjukka, Sam T. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR); Harbeck, Jim (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Enterprise, OR)

    2003-03-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) identified supplementation as a high priority to achieve its goal of increasing runs of anadromous fish in the Columbia Basin. Supplementation activities in the Lostine River and associated monitoring and evaluation conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe relate directly to the needs addressed in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.4L.1 of the Program mandates that appropriate research accompany any proposed supplementation. In addition, measure 7.3B.2 of the Program stresses the need for evaluating supplementation projects to assess their ability to increase production. Finally, Section 7.4D.3 encourages the study of hatchery rearing and release strategies to improve survival and adaptation of cultured fish. In 1997, Oregon Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (ODFW) requested a modification of Permit 1011 to allow the take of adult spring chinook salmon. In 1998, the Nez Perce Tribe also requested a permit specific to activities on Lostine River. The permit was issued in 2000. A special condition in the permits required the development of a long term management plan for the spring chinook salmon of the Grande Ronde Basin. The Nez Perce Tribe, ODFW, and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) completed a formal long range plan entitled ''Grande Ronde Basin Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program''. The program proposes to increase the survival of spring chinook salmon in the Grand Ronde Basin through hatchery intervention. Adult salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, and the Upper Grande Ronde River are used for a conventional supplementation program in the basin. The Nez Perce program currently operates under the ESA Section 10 Permit 1149.

  5. Statistical review of global LP gas 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This review provides essential production and consumption data from 1990 through 2000. A more detailed breakdown of supply and sector demand is given for the year 2000 and historic data on international trade, shipping and pricing is also shown. Statistics pertaining to auto-gas are also included in this edition of Statistical Review of Global LP Gas 2001. (author)

  6. Evaluate the Restoration Potential of Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Habitat, Status Report 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanrahan, T.P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2009-01-08

    Columbia River. Escapement estimates for fall of 2000 indicate more than 9000 adult fall Chinook salmon returned to this area, accounting for more than 2100 redds within a 5 km section of river.

  7. 2001: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Biggiogera

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the papers published in the European Journal of Histochemistry in 2001, several deal with plant cells. Personally, as a cell biologist mainly working with animal cells, I have always been fascinated by plant cells: the images of those beautiful nuclei are not only something to look at and marvel at. In the past few years, important indications of cell structure and function have come from plant cytology and cytochemistry (see e.g. Medina et al., 2000. Along this line, Lingua and coworkers (2001 described the changes that occur after arbuscular mychorizal fungi colonization, which can induce a strong increase in metabolism. Nuclear changes can also be induced by pathogens, as in Licopersicon esculentum (Lingua et al., 2001. In the same issue, we find other interesting papers: Balestrazzi et al. (2001 have studied the expression of DNA topoisomerase I in Daucus carota: the elucidation of the expression pattern of this gene is important in the evaluation of its physiological functions. In another paper, Bianciotto et al. (2001 studied the association of arbuscular mychorrizal fungi with rhizobacteria, which are commonly used as biopesticides and biofertilizers: the anchoring between fungi and bacteria occurs by means of extracellular polysaccharides. This could be of relevance for the production of inocula with a stable fugus-bacteria association.

  8. Protect Anadromous Salmonids in the Mainstem Corridor, Monitoring and Evaluation, Annual Report 200-2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigg, Steven; Johnson, John

    2002-02-01

    In this annual Monitoring & Evaluation (M&E) report to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), we summarize significant activities and performance measures resultant from enhanced protection by Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fisheries Enforcement (CRITFE) in the mainstem corridor (BPA Project 2000-056). This report covers the Fiscal Year (FY) 2000 performance period -- May 15, 2000 to May 14, 2001. Quarterly progress reports have previously been submitted to BPA and are posted on the M&E Web site (www.Eco-Law.net) -- for the time period April-December 2000 (Vigg 2000b,c,d) and for the period January-June 2001 (Vigg 2001a,b). We also present comprehensive data representing the first quarter of year 2000 in this report for a pre-project comparison. In addition, we have analyzed specific annual enforcement statistics to evaluate trends during the baseline period 1996-2000. Additional statistics and more years of comprehensive baseline data are now being summarized, and will be presented in future M&E annual reports--to provide a longer time series for evaluation of trends in input, output and outcome performance standards.

  9. Thermal adaptation and phenotypic plasticity in a warming world: Insights from common garden experiments on Alaskan sockeye salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Morgan M.; Westley, Peter A. H.; Falke, Jeffrey A.; Quinn, Thomas P.

    2017-01-01

    An important unresolved question is how populations of coldwater-dependent fishes will respond to rapidly warming water temperatures. For example, the culturally and economically important group, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), experience site-specific thermal regimes during early development that could be disrupted by warming. To test for thermal local adaptation and heritable phenotypic plasticity in Pacific salmon embryos, we measured the developmental rate, survival, and body size at hatching in two populations of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) that overlap in timing of spawning but incubate in contrasting natural thermal regimes. Using a split half-sibling design, we exposed embryos of 10 families from each of two populations to variable and constant thermal regimes. These represented both experienced temperatures by each population, and predicted temperatures under plausible future conditions based on a warming scenario from the downscaled global climate model (MIROC A1B scenario). We did not find evidence of thermal local adaptation during the embryonic stage for developmental rate or survival. Within treatments, populations hatched within 1 day of each other, on average, and amongtreatments, did not differ in survival in response to temperature. We did detect plasticity to temperature; embryos developed 2.5 times longer (189 days) in the coolest regime compared to the warmest regime (74 days). We also detected variation in developmental rates among families within and among temperature regimes, indicating heritable plasticity. Families exhibited a strong positive relationship between thermal variability and phenotypic variability in developmental rate but body length and mass at hatching were largely insensitive to temperature. Overall, our results indicated a lack of thermal local adaptation, but a presence of plasticity in populations experiencing contrasting conditions, as well as family-specific heritable plasticity that could

  10. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willard, Catherine; Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2003-12-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2002 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. n 2002, 22 anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley. Fifteen of these adults were captured at adult weirs located on the upper Salmon River and on Redfish Lake Creek. Seven of the anadromous sockeye salmon that returned were observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir and allowed to migrate upstream volitionally (following the dismantling of the weir on September 30, 2002). All adult returns were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. Based on their marks, returning adult sockeye salmon originated from a variety of release options. Sixty-six females from brood year 1999 and 28 females from brood year 2000 captive broodstock groups were spawned at the Eagle Hatchery in 2002. Spawn pairings produced approximately 65

  11. Research, development and demonstration in the energy area in Switzerland - List of projects 2000/2001; Liste des projets 2000/2001: recherche, developpement et demonstration dans le domaine de l'energie en Suisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This report prepared by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews research, development and demonstration projects in the energy area that were partly or wholly supported by the Swiss Federation in the years 2000/2001. A list of over 1,000 projects is presented, whereby many projects supported by the Swiss Cantons and local authorities are not included in the statistics. The report also contains figures on the efforts made by the private economy in these areas. The classification of the projects in the four main areas 'efficient use of energy', 'renewable energy sources', 'nuclear energy' and 'energy economics' is presented. This allows comparison with other publications such as the Federal Energy-Research Concept or the Overviews of the Energy-Research Programme Managers. The classification system is also compared with that used by the International Energy Agency (IEA). The Network for Information and Technology Transfer (ENET) is also presented, which has a comprehensive data base at its disposal and which maintains a systematic collection of energy-relevant publications. Details on these projects can be obtained from the appropriate heads of programmes and SFOE departmental heads, whose addresses are given in the report.

  12. Improving hydroturbine pressures to enhance salmon passage survival and recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumbo, Bradly A. [U.S. Army Corp. of Engineers, Walla Walla, WA (United States); Ahmann, Martin L. [U.S. Army Corp. of Engineers, Walla Walla, WA (United States); Renholods, Jon F. [U.S. Army Corp. of Engineers, Walla Walla, WA (United States); Brown, Richard S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Colotelo, Alison H. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Deng, Zhiqun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-12-12

    This paper provides an overview of turbine pressure data collection and barotrauma studies relative to fish passage through large Kaplan turbines and how this information may be applied to safer fish passage through turbines. The specific objectives are to 1) discuss turbine pressures defined by Sensor Fish releases; 2) discuss what has been learned about pressure effects on fish and the factors influencing barotrauma associated with simulated turbine passage; 3) elucidate data gaps associated with fish behavior and passage that influence barotrauma during turbine passage; 4) discuss how the results of these studies have led to turbine design criteria for safer fish passage; and 5) relate this information to salmon recovery efforts and safer fish passage for Atlantic and Pacific salmonids.

  13. Swordfish Stomach Content Data, 1989-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stomach contents were tabulated for 734 swordfish (Xiphias gladius) from the central North Pacific from 1989 to 2000 (most from 1994-1998). The swordfish were...

  14. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from RYOFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and Philippine Sea from 2000-06-20 to 2000-07-31 (NODC Accession 0112278)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0112278 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from RYOFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and Philippine Sea from 2000-06-20 to...

  15. North and South Pacific Ocean Temperature Profile Data for the High Resolution XBT Network for PX37, PX10, and PX44 were collected by the Scripps Institute of Oceanography from March 2001 to June 2009 (NODC Accession 0056790)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical data were collected from XBT casts from the North and South Pacific Oceans. Data were collected from March 2001 to June 2009. Data were collected and...

  16. International nuclear power status 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, B.; Majborn, B.; Nonboel, E.; Oelgaard, P.L.

    2002-04-01

    This report is the eighth in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power with special emphasis on reactor safety. For 2001, the report contains: 1) General trends in the development of nuclear power; 2) Nuclear terrorism; 3) Statistical information on nuclear power production (in 2000); 4) An overview of safety-relevant incidents in 2001; 5) The development in West Europe; 6) The development in East Europe; 7) The development in the rest of the world; 8) Development of reactor types; 9) The nuclear fuel cycle; 10) International nuclear organisations. (au)

  17. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the BOSEI MARU NO. 2 in the North Pacific Ocean from 2000-10-06 to 2000-10-21 (NODC Accession 0112200)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112200 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from BOSEI MARU NO. 2 in the North Pacific Ocean from 2000-10-06 to...

  18. Ten-year changes in positive and negative marker food, fruit, vegetables, and salad intake in 9-10 year olds: SportsLinx 2000-2001 to 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddy, L M; Abayomi, J; Johnson, B; Hackett, A F; Stratton, G

    2014-06-01

    To investigate changes in intakes of 'negative' and 'positive' foods, fruit, vegetables, and salad in serial cohorts of 9-10-year-old children from 2000-2001 to 2010-2011. For this serial, cross-sectional study, children in school year 5 (9-10 years of age) completed the SportsLinx Lifestyles Survey [n = 30,239 (15,336 boys and 14,903 girls)]. Changes in positive and negative food scores, and the proportion of boys and girls reportedly consuming fruit, vegetables and salad on the previous day to surveying, were investigated annually from 2000 to 2011. The consumption of negative foods declined and positive foods increased significantly compared to baseline. Positive changes in fruit, vegetables and salad consumption were observed over time, with the most recent cohort more likely to consume fruit, vegetables and salad compared to the 2000-2001 baseline. Girls displayed more favourable positive and negative food scores and were more likely to consume fruit, salad and vegetables across several study years compared to boys. The consumption of negative and positive foods, fruit, vegetables, and salad has improved over the last 10 years. In addition, girls appear to have better positive and negative food scores, and were more likely to consume fruit, vegetables and salad, across a number of study years or cohorts compared to boys. These encouraging findings suggest that children's food intake has improved since 2000. Furthermore, the data indicate that boys and girls may require separate or different healthy eating messages to further improve food intake. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  19. Temperature, salinity, and nutrients data from bottle, CTD, and XBT casts from the JOHN P. TULLY and other vessels in the North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans from 03 August 1959 to 01 July 2001 (NODC Accession 0000664)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bottle, CTD, and XBT data were collected in the North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans from the John P. Tully and other vessels from 03 August 1959 to 01 July 2001....

  20. An eddy-permitting, dynamically consistent adjoint-based assimilation system for the tropical Pacific: Hindcast experiments in 2000

    KAUST Repository

    Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2010-03-02

    An eddy-permitting adjoint-based assimilation system has been implemented to estimate the state of the tropical Pacific Ocean. The system uses the Massachusetts Institute of Technology\\'s general circulation model and its adjoint. The adjoint method is used to adjust the model to observations by controlling the initial temperature and salinity; temperature, salinity, and horizontal velocities at the open boundaries; and surface fluxes of momentum, heat, and freshwater. The model is constrained with most of the available data sets in the tropical Pacific, including Tropical Atmosphere and Ocean, ARGO, expendable bathythermograph, and satellite SST and sea surface height data, and climatologies. Results of hindcast experiments in 2000 suggest that the iterated adjoint-based descent is able to significantly improve the model consistency with the multivariate data sets, providing a dynamically consistent realization of the tropical Pacific circulation that generally matches the observations to within specified errors. The estimated model state is evaluated both by comparisons with observations and by checking the controls, the momentum balances, and the representation of small-scale features that were not well sampled by the observations used in the assimilation. As part of these checks, the estimated controls are smoothed and applied in independent model runs to check that small changes in the controls do not greatly change the model hindcast. This is a simple ensemble-based uncertainty analysis. In addition, the original and smoothed controls are applied to a version of the model with doubled horizontal resolution resulting in a broadly similar “downscaled” hindcast, showing that the adjustments are not tuned to a single configuration (meaning resolution, topography, and parameter settings). The time-evolving model state and the adjusted controls should be useful for analysis or to supply the forcing, initial, and boundary conditions for runs of other models.

  1. Research, development and demonstration in the energy area in Switzerland - List of projects 2000/2001; Forschung, Entwicklung und Demonstration im Bereich der Energie in der Schweiz. Liste der Projekte 2000/2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This report prepared by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews research, development and demonstration projects in the energy area that were partly or wholly supported by the Swiss Federation in the years 2000/2001. A list of over 1,000 projects is presented, whereby many projects supported by the Swiss Cantons and local authorities are not included in the statistics. The report also contains figures on the efforts made by the private economy in these areas. The classification of the projects in the four main areas 'efficient use of energy', 'renewable energy sources', 'nuclear energy' and 'energy economics' is presented. This allows comparison with other publications such as the Federal Energy-Research Concept or the Overviews of the Energy-Research Programme Managers. The classification system is also compared with that used by the International Energy Agency (IEA). The Network for Information and Technology Transfer (ENET) is also presented, which has a comprehensive data base at its disposal and which maintains a systematic collection of energy-relevant publications. Details on these projects can be obtained from the appropriate heads of programmes and SFOE departmental heads, whose addresses are given in the report.

  2. Juvenile salmonid monitoring in the White Salmon River, Washington, post-Condit Dam removal, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezorek, Ian G.; Hardiman, Jill M.

    2017-06-23

    2010, though age-1 and older O. mykiss abundance was similar. In Rattlesnake Creek, age-0 O. mykiss abundance during 2016 slightly exceeded the mean abundance from 2001 through 2005, although age-1 and older O. mykiss abundance was lower than from 2001 through 2005. These sampling efforts also provided the opportunity to collect genetic samples to investigate parental and stock origin, although funding to analyze the samples was not part of this grant. Juvenile salmonid sampling efforts during 2016 have shown that natural spawning produced steelhead and coho smolts and that coho were colonizing some tributaries. The 2016 efforts also provided the first post-dam juvenile abundance estimates. We hope to continue monitoring to better understand abundance trends, distribution, and life history patterns of recolonizing salmonids in the White Salmon River to assess efficacy of natural recolonization and to inform management decisions.

  3. Nuclear safety in France in 2001; La surete nucleaire en France en 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This press dossier summarizes the highlights of nuclear safety in France in 2001: the point-of-view of A.C. Lacoste, director of the French authority of nuclear safety (ASN), the new organisation of the control of nuclear safety and radiation protection, the ASN's policy of transparency, the evolutions of nuclear fuels and the consistency of the fuel cycle, the necessary evolutions of the nuclear crisis management, the harmonizing work of safety approaches carried out by the WENRA association. The following documents are attached in appendixes: the decrees relative to the reformation of the nuclear control in France, the missions of the ASN, the control of nuclear safety and radiation protection in France, the organization of ASN in March 2000, the incidents notified in 2001, the inspections performed in 2001, and the list of the main French nuclear sites. (J.S.)

  4. Base-line investigations of birds in relation to an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev: results and conclusions 2000/2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaer Christensen, T.; Clausager, I.; Krag Petersen, I. [NERI, Dept. of Coastal Zone Ecology, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2001-07-01

    This report presents the combined results of two years of base-line investigations of birds performed during August 1999 - April 2001 in relation to the proposed construction of an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev in the Danish part of the North Sea ca 14 km southwest of Blaevandshuk. Based on the distribution of the most abundant bird species recorded during 13 aerial surveys, there were no indications that the wind farm area was of any particular importance to the birds' exploitation of the Horns Rev area. Fish-eating species like divers, gannet, terns, auks and gulls generally showed scattered and variable distributions, occurring in the areas north and south of Horns Rev, and with low numbers occurring on the reef proper and within the planned wind farm area. The distribution of benthic foraging species, eider and common scoter, showed that they mainly exploited the coastal parts of the area off Blaevandshuk and Skallingen, although the common scoter was found in relatively high numbers on the southeast slopes of Horns Rev and within the wind farm area in the April 2001 survey. Preference analyses of bird exploitation of the Horns Rev area showed that if the birds completely avoid the wind farm area after erection of the wind turbines, this will affects less than 1% of the different species, except divers of which 1.65% will be affected. If the birds avoid the wind farm area and an adjacent 4 km zone (worst case scenario), it is estimated to affect 11% of the common scoter, 10% of the gannet, 7-9% of the divers, alcids and velvet scoter and 0-6% of the remaining species. The seasonal occurrence of the recorded species was fully comparable to the seasonal occurrence of these species recorded at Blaevandshuk since 1963. Year-to-year variation in abundance between the seasons August 1999 - April 2000 and August 2000 - April 2001 was mainly found in species that migrate through the Horns Rev area (terns, gannet, kittiwake), and with less pronounced variation in

  5. Base-line investigations of birds in relation to an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev: results and conclusions 2000/2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjaer Christensen, T.; Clausager, I.; Krag Petersen, I.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the combined results of two years of base-line investigations of birds performed during August 1999 - April 2001 in relation to the proposed construction of an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev in the Danish part of the North Sea ca 14 km southwest of Blaevandshuk. Based on the distribution of the most abundant bird species recorded during 13 aerial surveys, there were no indications that the wind farm area was of any particular importance to the birds' exploitation of the Horns Rev area. Fish-eating species like divers, gannet, terns, auks and gulls generally showed scattered and variable distributions, occurring in the areas north and south of Horns Rev, and with low numbers occurring on the reef proper and within the planned wind farm area. The distribution of benthic foraging species, eider and common scoter, showed that they mainly exploited the coastal parts of the area off Blaevandshuk and Skallingen, although the common scoter was found in relatively high numbers on the southeast slopes of Horns Rev and within the wind farm area in the April 2001 survey. Preference analyses of bird exploitation of the Horns Rev area showed that if the birds completely avoid the wind farm area after erection of the wind turbines, this will affects less than 1% of the different species, except divers of which 1.65% will be affected. If the birds avoid the wind farm area and an adjacent 4 km zone (worst case scenario), it is estimated to affect 11% of the common scoter, 10% of the gannet, 7-9% of the divers, alcids and velvet scoter and 0-6% of the remaining species. The seasonal occurrence of the recorded species was fully comparable to the seasonal occurrence of these species recorded at Blaevandshuk since 1963. Year-to-year variation in abundance between the seasons August 1999 - April 2000 and August 2000 - April 2001 was mainly found in species that migrate through the Horns Rev area (terns, gannet, kittiwake), and with less pronounced variation in

  6. Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, Sheryl

    2003-01-01

    Tribes (CCT), Spokane Tribe of Indians (STI) and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) to develop and propose a comprehensive fishery management plan for Lake Roosevelt. The Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project (LRHIP) was designed with goals directed towards increasing natural production while maintaining genetic integrity among current tributary stocks. The initial phase of the Lake Roosevelt Habitat Improvement Project (Phase I, baseline data collection: 1990-91) was focused on the assessment of limiting factors, including the quality and quantity of available spawning gravel, identification of passage barriers, and assessment of other constraints. After the initial assessment of stream parameters, five streams meeting specific criteria were selected for habitat/passage improvement projects (Phase II, implementation -1992-1995). Four of these projects were on the Colville Indian Reservation South Nanamkin, North Nanamkin, Louie and Iron Creeks and one Blue Creek was on the Spokane Indian Reservation. At the completion of project habitat improvements, the final phase (Phase III, monitoring-1996-2000) began. This phase assessed the changes and determined the success achieved through the improvements. Data analysis showed that passage improvements are successful for increasing habitat availability and use. The results of in-stream habitat improvements were inconclusive. Project streams, to the last monitoring date, have shown increases in fish density following implementation of the improvements. In 2000 Bridge Creek, on the Colville Reservation was selected for the next phase of improvements. Data collection, including baseline stream survey and population data collection, was carried out during 2001 in preparation for the design and implementation of stream habitat/passage improvements. Agencies cooperating on the project include the Colville Confederated Tribes (CCT), Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS, Ferry County District), Ferry

  7. Consumption choice by bears feeding on salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gende, S M; Quinn, T P; Willson, M F

    2001-05-01

    Consumption choice by brown (Ursus arctos) and black bears (U. americanus) feeding on salmon was recorded for over 20,000 bear-killed fish from 1994 to 1999 in Bristol Bay (sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka) and southeastern Alaska (pink, O. gorbuscha and chum salmon O. keta). These data revealed striking patterns of partial and selective consumption that varied with relative availability and attributes of the fish. As the availability of salmon decreased, bears consumed a larger proportion of each fish among both years and habitats. When availability was high (absolute number and density of salmon), bears consumed less biomass per captured fish, targeting energy-rich fish (those that had not spawned) or energy-rich body parts (eggs in females; brain in males). In contrast, individual fish were consumed to a much greater extent, regardless of sex or spawning status, in habitats or years of low salmon availability. The proportion of biomass consumed per fish was similar for males and females, when spawning status was statistically controlled, but bears targeted different body parts: the body flesh, brain and dorsal hump in males and the roe in females. Bears thus appeared to maximize energy intake by modifying the amount and body parts consumed, based on availability and attributes of spawning salmon.

  8. Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Project, Operations and Maintenance and Planning and Design, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Roy Edward; Walker, Grant W.; Penney, Aaron K. (Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, ID)

    2006-03-01

    This report fulfills the contract obligations based on the Statement of Work (SOW) for the project as contracted with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) Year-2001 annual report combines information from two contracts with a combined value of $2,336,491. They are identified by Bonneville Power Administration as follows: (1) Operations and Maintenance--Project No. 1983-350-00, Contract No. 4504, and (2) Planning and Design--Project No. 1983-350-00, Contract No. 4035. The Operations and Maintenance (O&M) budget of $2,166,110 was divided as follows: Facility Development and Fish Production Costs--$860,463; and Equipment Purchases as capital cost--$1,305,647 for equipment and subcontracts. The Planning and Design (P&D) budget of $170,381 was allocated to development of a Coho master planning document in conjunction with Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery. The O&M budget expenditures represent personnel and fish production expenses; e.g., administration, management, coordination, facility development, personnel training and fish production costs for spring Chinook and Coho salmon. Under Objective 1: Fish Culture Training and Education, tribal staff worked at Clearwater Anadromous Hatchery (CAFH) an Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) facility to produce spring Chinook smolt and parr for release that are intended to provide future broodstock for NPTH. As a training exercise, BPA allowed tribal staff to rear Coho salmon at Dworshak National Fish Hatchery, a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) facility. This statement of work allows this type of training to prepare tribal staff to later rear salmon at Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery under Task 1.6. As a subset of the O&M budget, the equipment purchase budget of $1,305,647 less $82,080 for subcontracts provides operational and portable equipment necessary for NPTH facilities after construction. The equipment budget for the year was $1,223,567; this year's purchases amounted $287,364.48 (see

  9. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Caspian seals of unusual mortality event during 2000 and 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajiwara, Natsuko; Watanabe, Mafumi; Wilson, Susan; Eybatov, Tariel; Mitrofanov, Igor V.; Aubrey, David G.; Khuraskin, Lev S.; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2008-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants including organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PCDDs/DFs were determined in the blubber of Caspian seals, which died during an outbreak of canine distemper virus in 2000 and 2001. DDTs were the predominant contaminants that ranged from 3.1 to 560 μg/g lipid. A negative correlation was observed between concentration of contaminants and blubber thickness. During spring, as the blubber layer becomes thin after breeding and moulting, seals may face higher risk due to the increased concentration of organochlorines in their bodies. TEQs in the blubber of Caspian seals (10-340 pg TEQ/g) were lower than those in seals from other locations, suggesting that toxic effects of these contaminants are a deal less in the present population and they are unlikely to be linked to mass mortality. The levels of PCBs and pesticides in Caspian seals, however, comparable to those in other aquatic mammals that have suffered from epizootics, might pose a risk of immunosuppression. - POPs in seals are high enough to induce immunosuppression

  10. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Caspian seals of unusual mortality event during 2000 and 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajiwara, Natsuko [Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)], E-mail: kajiwara.natsuko@nies.go.jp; Watanabe, Mafumi [Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Wilson, Susan [Tara Seal Research Centre, Co. Down, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Eybatov, Tariel [Geological Institute of the Azerbaijan Republic Academy of Science, Baku (Azerbaijan); Mitrofanov, Igor V. [Laboratory of Hydrobiology and Ecotoxicology, Institution of Zoology, Academgorodok, Almaty 480060 (Kazakhstan); Aubrey, David G. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Khuraskin, Lev S. [Caspian Fisheries Research Institute, Astrakhan 414056 (Russian Federation); Miyazaki, Nobuyuki [Center for International Cooperation, Ocean Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, 1-15-1 Minamidai, Nakano-ku, Tokyo 164-8639 (Japan); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)

    2008-03-15

    Persistent organic pollutants including organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PCDDs/DFs were determined in the blubber of Caspian seals, which died during an outbreak of canine distemper virus in 2000 and 2001. DDTs were the predominant contaminants that ranged from 3.1 to 560 {mu}g/g lipid. A negative correlation was observed between concentration of contaminants and blubber thickness. During spring, as the blubber layer becomes thin after breeding and moulting, seals may face higher risk due to the increased concentration of organochlorines in their bodies. TEQs in the blubber of Caspian seals (10-340 pg TEQ/g) were lower than those in seals from other locations, suggesting that toxic effects of these contaminants are a deal less in the present population and they are unlikely to be linked to mass mortality. The levels of PCBs and pesticides in Caspian seals, however, comparable to those in other aquatic mammals that have suffered from epizootics, might pose a risk of immunosuppression. - POPs in seals are high enough to induce immunosuppression.

  11. 29 CFR 1904.43 - Summary and posting of the 2001 data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... keep OSHA 200 Logs in 2001, you must post a 2000 annual summary from the OSHA 200 Log of occupational... summary? (i) You must include a copy of the totals from the 2001 OSHA 200 Log and the following...

  12. Examination of the 13 February 2001 Eastern Pacific Maritime Cyclogenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Touchton, Marc

    2002-01-01

    .... The models did not properly forecast this system due to weak cold air advection over the Eastern Pacific Ocean and due to blending the subpolar and subtropical jets into a single feature. Data assimilation is suspected to have played a role in the mishandling of these key features.

  13. Effects of sex steroids, sex, and sexual maturity on cortisol production: an in vitro comparison of chinook salmon and rainbow trout interrenals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillan, H James; Lokman, P Mark; Young, Graham

    2003-08-01

    Sex steroids appear to be responsible for hyperactivation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis that occurs in mature semelparous Pacific salmon as a prelude to post-spawning (programmed) death. This study was undertaken to examine the direct effects of sex steroids on interrenal activity of semelparous (chinook salmon) and iteroparous (rainbow trout) salmonids using an in vitro incubation system. In addition, phenotypic sex differences in cortisol production by interrenals of sexually mature (spawning) rainbow trout and chinook salmon were investigated. Interrenal tissue from juvenile and sexually mature chinook salmon and rainbow trout was incubated for 48 h in culture medium containing either no steroid (controls), 1 microM estradiol (E2) or 1 microM 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT). This tissue was then challenged for 3h with either pregnenolone, dibutyryladenosine 3('):5(')-cyclic monophosphate (dbcAMP) or forskolin, or synthetic human adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH(1-24)). Sex differences in in vitro interrenal cortisol production were assessed using separate tissue pools challenged with the same agents. Cortisol in media was measured by radioimmunoassay. E2 suppressed the ability of juvenile chinook salmon interrenals to utilize pregnenolone as substrate for cortisol synthesis. In mature female chinook salmon the suppressive effect of E2 was less pronounced, but was observed as a reduced response of interrenals to both pregnenolone and dbcAMP. E2 did not affect ACTH(1-24) stimulated cortisol production. Immature and mature rainbow trout interrenals were both relatively insensitive to E2. 11-KT did not affect cortisol production by juvenile chinook salmon and juvenile or mature rainbow trout, and had only minor effects in male and female spawning chinook salmon. In mature chinook salmon and rainbow trout, the interrenals of females were more responsive to ACTH stimulation and showed a greater utilization of pregnenolone as a substrate than

  14. A Review of the Large-and-Medium Bus Market in 2001 and A Forecast in 2002

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    <正> 1. A Review of the Large-and-Medium Bus Market in 2001 1.1 The Overall Auto Production and Sales Situation in 2001 The auto production and sales in 2001 maintained a momentum of double-digits growth in consecutive three years and the pace will further increase in the future. In 2001, 103 automakers (including complete vehicles and chassis enterprises, not including retrofit vehicle enterprises) produced 2,334,440 vehicles, an increase of 12.81% over 2000, sold 2,363,665 units, 13.29 % up over 2000.

  15. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory institutional plan: FY 1996--2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This report contains the operation and direction plan for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory of the US Department of Energy. The topics of the plan include the laboratory mission and core competencies, the laboratory strategic plan; the laboratory initiatives in molecular sciences, microbial biotechnology, global environmental change, complex modeling of physical systems, advanced processing technology, energy technology development, and medical technologies and systems; core business areas, critical success factors, and resource projections.

  16. Towards an annually-resolved reconstruction of Indo-Pacific hydrology over the past 2,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, M. L.; Kimbrough, A. K.; Gagan, M. K.; Drysdale, R.; Cole, J. E.; Johnson, K. R.; Zhao, J.; Hellstrom, J.; Ayliffe, L.; Hantoro, W.

    2011-12-01

    A suite of climate proxy records (e.g. speleothems, lake sediments, tree rings) have provided detailed information on the behaviour of the East Asian summer monsoon over the past 2,000 years. By contrast, little is known about how its Southern Hemisphere counterpart - the Australian-Indonesian summer monsoon (AISM) - has varied over this same interval. This is because, until now, the only high resolution and continuous records from the Indo-Pacific region come from a sparse network of marine records. Here, we aim to fill this void by building a two-thousand-year 'stacked composite' δ18O record (a proxy for AISM intensity) from two precisely-dated stalagmites from Flores, south-central Indonesia. Our stacked δ18O record, which is anchored by twenty U/Th dates, shows that over the past two millennia δ18O values were highest during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; between 950 and 1250 A.D.) and were outside the range of variability for the twentieth century. This suggests that this interval was characterized by the highest and most prolonged period of drought of the past 2,000 years. Following this, δ18O values were lower during the Little Ice Age (LIA) between 1400 and 1750 A.D., reflecting a prolonged intensification of the AISM that culminated with a rapid decrease that persisted until the beginning of the Current Warm Period (CWP) at ~1850 A.D. During the CWP δ18O values displayed an abrupt increase indicating a return to reduced AISM conditions; this is in-line with climate model projections for a diminished AISM under enhanced greenhouse warming. A weaker (stronger) AISM during the MCA (LIA), regionally synchronous across the central Indo-Pacific, suggests that the AISM is strongly coupled to Northern Hemisphere air temperatures. This pattern, which is in-phase with palaeomonsoon records from South America but anti-phased with those from East Asia, adds to growing evidence that warmer (cooler) high northern latitude air temperatures induced a northward

  17. Selective breeding can increase resistance of Atlantic salmon to furunculosis, infectious salmon anaemia and infectious pancreatic necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøglum, Sissel; Henryon, Mark; Aasmundstad, Torunn

    2008-01-01

    We reasoned that by challenging large numbers of Atlantic salmon families with the causative agents of furunculosis, infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) and infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN), we could show unequivocally that resistance to these diseases expresses moderate-to-high levels of additive...... genetic variation, and that the resistances are weakly correlated genetically. We tested this reasoning by challenging Atlantic salmon from 920 (approximately) full-sib families with the causative agents of furunculosis and ISA, and fish from 265 of these families with the causative agent of IPN. Additive...... indicate that it should be relatively easy to improve resistance to the diseases simultaneously. We believe that there is now strong evidence that selectively breeding Atlantic salmon for resistance can be highly successful...

  18. Pipelines and salmon in northern British Columbia : potential impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, D.A.

    2009-10-01

    Four pipeline projects have been proposed for northern British Columbia that could threaten the health of the Fraser, Skeena, and Kitimat watersheds. The pipelines will expose salmon to risks on several fronts. Enbridge's Northern Gateway pipeline project has generated the most concern for a several reasons, including the risks to salmon and freshwater habitat from pipeline failures, notably leaks or ruptures. This paper reviewed the salmon resources in affected watersheds; salmon and BC's economy; salmon diversity and abundance; impacts on fish from pipeline construction, operations and failures; behaviours of different petroleum products in fresh water; hydrocarbon toxicity; history of pipeline failures; sabotage and natural disasters; and Canadian case studies. Salmon are already experiencing stresses from forestry, hydro-electricity, transportation, agriculture, mining, mountain pine beetle, climate change and coalbed methane development. Their cumulative impact will dictate the long-term health and viability of salmon. It was concluded that if all of the proposed pipelines were built, they would extend over 4,000 km, crossing more than 1,000 rivers and streams in some of Canada's most productive salmon habitat. During construction, pipeline stream crossings are vulnerable to increased sedimentation, which can degrade salmon habitat. In the event of a spill, the condensate and oil sands products carried in the pipelines are highly toxic to salmon, with serious and lasting adverse impacts on salmon and their habitat. Any decision to approve such a pipeline should be made in recognition of these risks. 73 refs., 5 tabs., 15 figs., 2 appendices.

  19. Seasonal persistence of marine-derived nutrients in south-central Alaskan salmon streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinella, Daniel J.; Wipfi, Mark S.; Walker, Coowe M.; Stricker, Craig A.; Heintz, Ron A.

    2013-01-01

    Spawning salmon deliver annual pulses of marine-derived nutrients (MDN) to riverine ecosystems around the Pacific Rim, leading to increased growth and condition in aquatic and riparian biota. The influence of pulsed resources may last for extended periods of time when recipient food webs have effective storage mechanisms, yet few studies have tracked the seasonal persistence of MDN. With this as our goal, we sampled stream water chemistry and selected stream and riparian biota spring through fall at 18 stations (in six watersheds) that vary widely in spawner abundance and at nine stations (in three watersheds) where salmon runs were blocked by waterfalls. We then developed regression models that related dissolved nutrient concentrations and biochemical measures of MDN assimilation to localized spawner density across these 27 stations. Stream water ammonium-N and orthophosphate-P concentrations increased with spawner density during the summer salmon runs, but responses did not persist into the following fall. The effect of spawner density on δ15N in generalist macroinvertebrates and three independent MDN metrics (δ15N, δ34S, and ω3:ω6 fatty acids) in juvenile Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) was positive and similar during each season, indicating that MDN levels in biota increased with spawner abundance and were maintained for at least nine months after inputs. Delta 15N in a riparian plant, horsetail (Equisetum fluviatile), and scraper macroinvertebrates did not vary with spawner density in any season, suggesting a lack of MDN assimilation by these lower trophic levels. Our results demonstrate the ready assimilation of MDN by generalist consumers and the persistence of this pulsed subsidy in these organisms through the winter and into the next growing season.

  20. Habitat restoration/enhancement Fort Hall Reservation : 2001 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, David C.

    2003-01-01

    Habitat enhancement, protection and monitoring were the focus of the Resident Fisheries Program during 2001. Enhancement and protection included sloping, fencing and planting willows at sites on Diggie Creek, Clear Creek and Spring Creek. In addition, many previously constructed instream structures (rock barbs and wing dams) were repaired throughout the Fort Hall Indian Reservation (Reservation). In 2001, exclosure fences were erected on Diggie Creek (250 m barbed wire; (70 m jack), Wood Creek (500 m jack), Clear Creek (20 m jack), Ross Fork Creek (200 m jack), West Fork Creek (200 m jack)) and the Portneuf River (1 km barbed wire; 100 m jack). Jack and rail exclosure fences that had deteriorated over the past ten years were repaired at numerous areas throughout the Reservation. Physical sampling during 2001 included sediment and depth surveys (SADMS) in Big Jimmy Creek and Diggie Creek. SADMS, used to track changes in channel morphology and specifically track movements of silt through Bottoms stream systems were completed for eight and nine strata in the Big Jimmy and Diggie Creek, respectively. Baseline SADM data was collected in Diggie Creek to monitor the effects of bank sloping and revegetation on channel morphology and sediment levels through time. Water temperature was monitored (hourly) in Spring Creek, Clear Creek, Ross Fork Creek and Big Jimmy Creek. Biotic sampling included invertebrate sampling in the 200 and 300 series of Clear Creek. Fish population densities and biomass were sampled in Clear Creek 200 and 300 series. Sampling protocols were identical to methods used in past years. Numbers of fish in Clear Creek 300 series remained similar to 2000 while numbers of fish in Clear Creek 200 series dropped to near pre project levels. Salmonid fry densities were monitored near Broncho Bridge and were significantly higher than 2000. A mark-recapture study was initiated in spring 2001 to estimate numbers of spawning adults using the Head End of Spring Creek

  1. Spatial consistency of Chinook salmon redd distribution within and among years in the Cowlitz River, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klett, Katherine J.; Torgersen, Christian; Henning, Julie; Murray, Christopher J.

    2013-04-28

    We investigated the spawning patterns of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha on the lower Cowlitz River, Washington (USA) using a unique set of fine- and coarse-scale 35 temporal and spatial data collected during bi-weekly aerial surveys conducted in 1991-2009 (500 m to 28 km resolution) and 2008-2009 (100-500 m resolution). Redd locations were mapped from a helicopter during 2008 and 2009 with a hand-held global positioning system (GPS) synchronized with in-flight audio recordings. We examined spatial patterns of Chinook salmon redd reoccupation among and within years in relation to segment-scale geomorphic features. Chinook salmon spawned in the same sections each year with little variation among years. On a coarse scale, five years (1993, 1998, 2000, 2002, and 2009) were compared for reoccupation. Redd locations were highly correlated among years resulting in a minimum correlation coefficient of 0.90 (adjusted P = 0.002). Comparisons on a fine scale (500 m) between 2008 and 2009 also revealed a high degree of consistency among redd locations (P < 0.001). On a finer temporal scale, we observed that salmon spawned in the same sections during the first and last week (2008: P < 0.02; and 2009: P < 0.001). Redds were clustered in both 2008 and 2009 (P < 0.001). Regression analysis with a generalized linear model at the 500-m scale indicated that river kilometer and channel bifurcation were positively associated with redd density, whereas sinuosity was negatively associated with redd density. Collecting data on specific redd locations with a GPS during aerial surveys was logistically feasible and cost effective and greatly enhanced the spatial precision of Chinook salmon spawning surveys.

  2. AquAdvantage Salmon Genetically modified organism

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Saurí, Ester; Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Facultat de Veterinària

    2014-01-01

    Póster AquAdvantage Salmon is a genetically modified organism developed by AquBounty Technologies. The objective of this transgenic organism is to increase the growth rate to obtain the same of conventional salmon faster.

  3. Development of an Index to Bird Predation of Juvenile Salmonids within the Yakima River, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassley, James M.; Grue, Christian E.; Major, III, Walter (University of Washington, School of Aquatic and Fishery Science, Seattle, WA)

    2002-01-01

    Avian predation of fish is suspected to contribute to the loss of juvenile spring chinook salmon in the Yakima Basin, potentially constraining natural production. In 1997 and 1998, the Yakama/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP) and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW)--whose goal is to increase natural production historically present within the Yakima River--initiated investigations to assess the feasibility of developing an index to avian predation of juvenile salmon within the river. This research--conducted by Dr. Steve Mathews and David Phinney of the University of Washington--confirmed that Ring-billed Gulls and Common Mergansers were the primary avian predators of juvenile salmon, and that under certain conditions could impact migrating smolt populations. Beginning in 1999, the Washington Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (WACFWRU) was asked by the YKFP and the WDFW to continue development of avian consumption indices. Monitoring methods developed by Phinney et al. (1998) were adopted (with modifications) and monitoring of impacts to juvenile salmon along river reaches and at areas of high predator/prey concentrations (colloquially referred to as ''hotspots'') continued through 2000. In 2000, piscivorous birds were counted from river banks at hotspots and from a raft or drift boat along river reaches. Consumption by gulls at Hotspots was based on direct observations of foraging success and modeled abundance; consumption by all other piscivorous birds was estimated using published dietary requirements and modeled abundance. Further development of the avian consumption index model provided an estimation of smolt consumption for the 2000 survey season. Seasonal patterns of avian piscivore abundance were identified, diurnal patterns of gull abundance at hotspots were identified, predation indices were calculated for hotspots and spring and summer river reaches, and the efficacy of aerial surveys for estimating bird

  4. Total Dissolved Gas Effects on Incubating Chum Salmon Below Bonneville Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Hand, Kristine D.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Geist, David R.; Murray, Katherine J.; Dawley, Earl M.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Elston, Ralph A.; Vavrinec, John

    2009-01-29

    At the request of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE; Portland District), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) undertook a project in 2006 to look further into issues of total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation in the lower Columbia River downstream of Bonneville Dam. In FY 2008, the third year of the project, PNNL conducted field monitoring and laboratory toxicity testing to both verify results from 2007 and answer some additional questions about how salmonid sac fry respond to elevated TDG in the field and the laboratory. For FY 2008, three objectives were 1) to repeat the 2006-2007 field effort to collect empirical data on TDG from the Ives Island and Multnomah Falls study sites; 2) to repeat the static laboratory toxicity tests on hatchery chum salmon fry to verify 2007 results and to expose wild chum salmon fry to incremental increases in TDG, above those of the static test, until external symptoms of gas bubble disease were clearly present; and 3) to assess physiological responses to TDG levels in wild chum salmon sac fry incubating below Bonneville Dam during spill operations. This report summarizes the tasks conducted and results obtained in pursuit of the three objectives. Chapter 1 discusses the field monitoring, Chapter 2 reports the findings of the laboratory toxicity tests, and Chapter 3 describes the field-sampling task. Each chapter contains an objective-specific introduction, description of the study site and methods, results of research, and discussion of findings. Literature cited throughout this report is listed in Chapter 4. Additional details on the monitoring methodology and results are provided in Appendices A and B included on the compact disc bound inside the back cover of the printed version of this report.

  5. Annual report of Naka Fusion Research Establishment. From April 1,2000 to March 31, 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriyama, Masaaki; Kizu, Kaname; Kusakawa, Fumio; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Keishi; Sengoku, Seio

    2001-11-01

    This report provides an overview of research and development activities at Naka Fusion Research Establishment, JAERI, during the period from April 1, 2000 to March 31, 2001. The activities in the Naka Fusion Research Establishment are outstanding at high performance plasma researches in JT-60 and JFT-2M, and development in ITER EDA including technological R and Ds. The JT-60 project aims at contributing to the physics R and D for ITER and establishing the physics basis for a steady state tokamak fusion reactor like SSTR. For the achievement of those objectives, both physical and engineering researches have been done. The JT-60 have continued to be productive in many areas covering performance improvements of high β p ELMy H-mode regime and reversed shear plasma, non-inductive current drive, physics study relevant to improved modes, stabilization of MHD modes, feedback control, disruption study, understandings on energetic particles, and scrape off layer and divertor studies with increased pumping capability. On JFT-2M, advanced and basic research of tokamak plasma is being promoted, including application of the low activation ferritic steel, with the flexibility of a medium-sized device. The pre-testing on compatibility of ferritic steel plates (FPs), covering ∼20% of the inside wall of the vacuum vessel, with plasma was performed, demonstrating no adverse effects on plasmas. Boronization was introduced for the first time in JFT-2M after installation of inside FPs. High-β N discharges (β N up to ∼2.8) were obtained with inside FPs and boronization. Formation of negative electric field at the H-mode transition during ECH was clarified by the heavy ion beam probe (HIBP). The MSE polarimeter system, which is capable of simultaneous measurement of a radial electric field, has been newly developed. In RF experiments, fast wave electric field profile was directly measured for the first time using the beat wave and HIBP. The principal objective of theoretical and

  6. For information MANAGEMENT BOARD MEETING OF 7 DECEMBER 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Report on the 2000-2001 Shutdown Activities S. Myers, Leader of SL Division, reviewed the status of the LEP shutdown programme and the main modifications to be made to the SPS during the 2000-2001 winter shutdown beginning 20 November in preparation for future LHC activities. Presenting the 2001 SPS schedule approved by the Research Board on 23 November, which provided for a proton run starting on 12 July, he stressed that meeting the planned completion dates for the upgrades and alterations to the various buildings and equipment concerned was critical to avoid any delays in SPS physics in 2001. In that context, it was hoped that the present delay in the civil engineering for the water-cooling tower at Point 1 could be offset later on during the cooling and ventilation work phase. Following the Directorate's decision on 8 November not to extend LEP physics into 2001, work on the LEP shutdown was now well under way, with several zones currently in the process of being made safe and dismantling occurring in oth...

  7. Paul Scherrer Institut Scientific Report 2001. Volume VII: Swiss Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weyer, H. J.; Bugmann, M.

    2002-03-01

    The year 2001 saw the transfer of the SLS from construction to commissioning and operation. After having stored the first beam already in December 2000, from January 2001 on the commissioning of the full accelerator complex was restarted and continued up to July 2001, so that from August 1st on, 70% of the running time could be dedicated to user operation. On October 19th, the SLS was officially opened. An extraordinary ceremony took place, where several hundred guests were treated to a mixture of optical, acoustical and culinary delights. Major highlights in 2001 were the full commissioning of the accelerator systems, the achievement of all specified parameters of the storage ring and further optimisation of Linac und Booster in order to guarantee a reliable operation of the injection chain. Furthermore, operation of the four initial beamlines was started. Important progress was made in the optimization of the protein crystallography and material science beamlines, allowing the access of expert users during the second half of year 2001. A list of scientific publications in 2000 is also provided

  8. Paul Scherrer Institut Scientific Report 2001. Volume VII: Swiss Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyer, H J; Bugmann, M [eds.

    2002-03-01

    The year 2001 saw the transfer of the SLS from construction to commissioning and operation. After having stored the first beam already in December 2000, from January 2001 on the commissioning of the full accelerator complex was restarted and continued up to July 2001, so that from August 1st on, 70% of the running time could be dedicated to user operation. On October 19th, the SLS was officially opened. An extraordinary ceremony took place, where several hundred guests were treated to a mixture of optical, acoustical and culinary delights. Major highlights in 2001 were the full commissioning of the accelerator systems, the achievement of all specified parameters of the storage ring and further optimisation of Linac und Booster in order to guarantee a reliable operation of the injection chain. Furthermore, operation of the four initial beamlines was started. Important progress was made in the optimization of the protein crystallography and material science beamlines, allowing the access of expert users during the second half of year 2001. A list of scientific publications in 2000 is also provided.

  9. Determinants of public attitudes to genetically modified salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifah Amin

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confirmed that public attitudes towards GM salmon is a complex issue and should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The most important direct predictors for the encouragement of GM salmon are the specific application-linked perceptions about religious acceptability of GM salmon followed by perceived risks and benefits, familiarity, and general promise of modern biotechnology. Encouragement of GM salmon also involves the interplay among other factors such as general concerns of biotechnology, threatening the natural order of things, the need for labeling, the need for patenting, confidence in regulation, and societal values. The research findings can serve as a database that will be useful for understanding the social construct of public attitude towards GM foods in a developing country.

  10. Grande Ronde Basin Supplementation Program; Lostine River, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onjukka, Sam T. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR); Harbeck, Jim (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Enterprise, OR)

    2003-03-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) identified supplementation as a high priority to achieve its goal of increasing runs of anadromous fish in the Columbia Basin. Supplementation activities in the Lostine River and associated monitoring and evaluation conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe relate directly to the needs addressed in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.4L.1 of the Program mandates that appropriate research accompany any proposed supplementation. In addition, measure 7.3B.2 of the Program stresses the need for evaluating supplementation projects to assess their ability to increase production. Finally, Section 7.4D.3 encourages the study of hatchery rearing and release strategies to improve survival and adaptation of cultured fish. In 1997, Oregon Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (ODFW) requested a modification of Permit 1011 to allow the take of adult spring chinook salmon. In 1998, the Nez Perce Tribe also requested a permit specific to activities on Lostine River. The permit was issued in 2000. A special condition in the permits required the development of a long term management plan for the spring chinook salmon of the Grande Ronde Basin. The Nez Perce Tribe, ODFW, and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) completed a formal long range plan entitled ''Grande Ronde Basin Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program''. The program proposes to increase the survival of spring chinook salmon in the Grand Ronde Basin through hatchery intervention. Adult salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, and the Upper Grande Ronde River are used for a conventional supplementation program in the basin. The Nez Perce program currently operates under the ESA Section 10 Permit 1149.

  11. Report of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section to the International Nuclear Data Committee for the period January 2000 - December 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, A.L.

    2002-05-01

    This report contains descriptions of the major activities of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section in 2000 and 2001 for review by the International Nuclear Data Committee (INDC). Information is provided on the staff and budget, atomic, molecular and nuclear data activities of the Nuclear Data Center, coordination of the Nuclear Data Center Networks, nuclear data development projects, technology transfer, and computer support. This information is complemented by descriptions of other relevant activities in the reporting period, including meetings and publications. The atomic and molecular data programmes are presented to the INDC for information only, since those specific activities are reviewed in depth by the A+M Subcommittee of the International Fusion Research Council. (author)

  12. Differential use of salmon by vertebrate consumers: implications for conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taal Levi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Salmon and other anadromous fish are consumed by vertebrates with distinct life history strategies to capitalize on this ephemeral pulse of resource availability. Depending on the timing of salmon arrival, this resource may be in surplus to the needs of vertebrate consumers if, for instance, their populations are limited by food availability during other times of year. However, the life history of some consumers enables more efficient exploitation of these ephemeral resources. Bears can deposit fat and then hibernate to avoid winter food scarcity, and highly mobile consumers such as eagles, gulls, and other birds can migrate to access asynchronous pulses of salmon availability. We used camera traps on pink, chum, and sockeye salmon spawning grounds with various run times and stream morphologies, and on individual salmon carcasses, to discern potentially different use patterns among consumers. Wildlife use of salmon was highly heterogeneous. Ravens were the only avian consumer that fed heavily on pink salmon in small streams. Eagles and gulls did not feed on early pink salmon runs in streams, and only moderately at early sockeye runs, but were the dominant consumers at late chum salmon runs, particularly on expansive river flats. Brown bears used all salmon resources far more than other terrestrial vertebrates. Notably, black bears were not observed on salmon spawning grounds despite being the most frequently observed vertebrate on roads and trails. From a conservation and management perspective, all salmon species and stream morphologies are used extensively by bears, but salmon spawning late in the year are disproportionately important to eagles and other highly mobile species that are seasonally limited by winter food availability.

  13. Transport pathways for Asian pollution outflow over the Pacific: Interannual and seasonal variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyu; Jacob, Daniel J.; Bey, Isabelle; Yantosca, Robert M.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Sachse, Glen W.

    2003-10-01

    The meteorological pathways contributing to Asian pollution outflow over the Pacific are examined with a global three-dimensional model analysis of CO observations from the Transport and Chemical Evolution over the P