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Sample records for pacific hake merluccius

  1. Pacific Hake, Merluccius productus, Autecology: A Timely Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ressler, Patrck H.; Holmes, John A.; Fleischer, Guy W.; Thomas, Rebecca E.; Cooke , Kenneth C.

    2007-01-01

    Pacific hake, Merluccius productus, the most abundant groundfish in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME), is a species of both commercial significance, supporting a large international fishery, and ecological importance, connecting other species as both predator and prey. Coastal Pacific hake migrations are characterized by movements between northern summer feeding areas and southern winter spawning areas, with variations in annual abundance, distribution, and the extent o...

  2. Pacific Hake - Growth and natal origin of Pacific hake from the Georgia Basin DPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pacific hake (Merluccius productus) is an abundant species residing along the Pacific coast from the Gulf of California to the Strait of Georgia. It is the most...

  3. Radioactive zinc ( sup 65 Zn), zinc, cadmium, and mercury in the Pacific Hake, Merluccius productus (Ayres), off the West Coast of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naidu, J.R.

    1974-06-01

    The Pacific Hake, Merluccius productus (Ayers) was used to monitor the waters off Puget Sound and the West Coast of the US for zinc(Zn), cadmium(Cd), mercury(Hg) and {sup 65}Zn. The Columbia River is not the source of Zn, Cd or Hg contamination, but is the source of {sup 65}Zn, with the concentration in the Hake reflecting the position of the Columbia River plume. Zn and Cd accumulation in the Hake were fit to the equation Y=B{sub 1}+B{sub 2}e{sup B}{sub 3}X where Y is the concentration of the element and X is the length or weight of the fish. Biological attributes were assigned to the other parameters as follows: B{sub 1} is the asymptotic value for Zn or Cd at chemical maturity; B{sub 2} is the location of the curve with respect to the length or weight of the fish; and B{sub 3} is a constant pertaining to the rate of change of Zn or Cd. Although Zn, Cd and Hg are all Group 2B elements, only the concentrations of Zn and Cd were correlated for all locations; Hg concentrations varied as a function of location. Zn and Cd concentrations increase with fish size and approach an asymptotic value at maturity, while Hg concentrations were linear and the slope is a function of sampling location. Zn and Cd levels are regulated in the adult, while Hg continues to increase with age. It may be significant that the age distribution of fish caught commercially coincides with the maximum concentration of Zn and Cd. 195 refs., 30 figs., 10 tabs. (MHB)

  4. Trophic relationships of hake ( Merluccius capensis and M ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The trophic relationships of two hake species (Merluccius capensis and M. paradoxus) and three shark species (Centrophorus squamosus, Deania calcea and D. profundorum) were investigated using nitrogen and carbon stable isotope signatures (δ15N and δ13C) of their muscle tissues. The sharks were more enriched in ...

  5. Two hake species, deep-water Cape hake Merluccius paradoxus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    paradoxus and shallow-water Cape hake M. capensis, are found along the ... For both species, average length increased with depth. M. paradoxus expanded its ..... Evolution of the Benguela, physical features and processes. In Oceano-.

  6. Outlier SNP markers reveal fine-scale genetic structuring across European hake populations (Merluccius merluccius)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milano, I.; Babbucci, M.; Cariani, A.

    2014-01-01

    fishery. Analysis of 850 individuals from 19 locations across the entire distribution range showed evidence for several outlier loci, with significantly higher resolving power. While 299 putatively neutral SNPs confirmed the genetic break between basins (FCT = 0.016) and weak differentiation within basins...... even when neutral markers provide genetic homogeneity across populations. Here, 381 SNPs located in transcribed regions were used to assess largeand fine-scale population structure in the European hake (Merluccius merluccius), a widely distributed demersal species of high priority for the European...

  7. 2007 Joint U.S.-Canada Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Survey of Pacific Hake (Merluccius productus) (MF0710, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists from the Fishery Resource Analysis and Monitoring (FRAM) division at the NOAA Fisheries Northwest Fisheries Science Center (NWFSC) and the Pacific region...

  8. 2005 Joint U.S.-Canada Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Survey of Pacific Hake (Merluccius productus) (MF0509, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists from the Fishery Resource Analysis and Monitoring (FRAM) division at the NOAA Fisheries Northwest Fisheries Science Center (NWFSC) and the Pacific region...

  9. 2009 Joint U.S.-Canada Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Survey of Pacific Hake (Merluccius productus) (MF0903, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists from the Fishery Resource Analysis and Monitoring (FRAM) division at the NOAA Fisheries Northwest Fisheries Science Center (NWFSC) and the Pacific region...

  10. 2011 Joint U.S.-Canada Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Survey of Pacific Hake (Merluccius productus) (SH1103, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists from the Fishery Resource Analysis and Monitoring (FRAM) division at the NOAA Fisheries Northwest Fisheries Science Center (NWFSC) and the Pacific region...

  11. A dynamic and mechanistic model of PCB bioaccumulation in the European hake ( Merluccius merluccius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodiguel, Xavier; Maury, Olivier; Mellon-Duval, Capucine; Roupsard, François; Le Guellec, Anne-Marie; Loizeau, Véronique

    2009-08-01

    Bioaccumulation is difficult to document because responses differ among chemical compounds, with environmental conditions, and physiological processes characteristic of each species. We use a mechanistic model, based on the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory, to take into account this complexity and study factors impacting accumulation of organic pollutants in fish through ontogeny. The bioaccumulation model proposed is a comprehensive approach that relates evolution of hake PCB contamination to physiological information about the fish, such as diet, metabolism, reserve and reproduction status. The species studied is the European hake ( Merluccius merluccius, L. 1758). The model is applied to study the total concentration and the lipid normalised concentration of 4 PCB congeners in male and female hakes from the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean sea) and the Bay of Biscay (NE Atlantic ocean). Outputs of the model compare consistently to measurements over the life span of fish. Simulation results clearly demonstrate the relative effects of food contamination, growth and reproduction on the PCB bioaccumulation in hake. The same species living in different habitats and exposed to different PCB prey concentrations exhibit marked difference in the body accumulation of PCBs. At the adult stage, female hakes have a lower PCB concentration compared to males for a given length. We successfully simulated these sex-specific PCB concentrations by considering two mechanisms: a higher energy allocation to growth for females and a transfer of PCBs from the female to its eggs when allocating lipids from reserve to eggs. Finally, by its mechanistic description of physiological processes, the model is relevant for other species and sets the stage for a mechanistic understanding of toxicity and ecological effects of organic contaminants in marine organisms.

  12. Sensory evaluation of irradiated hake (Merluccius merluccius hubbsi) by an expert trade panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lescano, G.

    1989-01-01

    Commercial high quality hake (Merluccius merluccius hubbsi) scaled, headless and eviscerated, caught in the South Atlantic Ocean, was analyzed by an expert testing panel. The samples were the following: one lot vacuum packed, another lot previously dipped in 10% sodium poliphosphate, both irradiated with 3.3 kGy and then stored at 0deg C±1deg C, and a third lot, air-packed, frozen, kept at -20deg C±2 deg C, and used as control. The analysis was made on day 36 after catch. The evaluations were performed by a panel of 5 experts in buying fish to export. The following attributes were analyzed: on raw fish: external appearance, muscle elasticity, shine, bone adhesion, muscle cohesion, odor, natural odor, unpleasant odor and purchase acceptability. On oven cooked samples: odor, natural odor, unpleasant odor, flavor, natural flavor, unpleasant flavor, oral texture and general acceptability. Data were analyzed by student test (p ≤ 0.05). The results showed that the raw irradiated fish (with and without dip in polyphosphate) were generally significantly better than the raw frozen hake; and cooked frozen hake was better than the irradiated one but not significantly different. An undesirable off odor on cooked irradiated samples was detected, that would be an irradiation effect. It could be minimized with a lower dose. The polyphosphate dip did not modify the amount of drip loss. (Author) [es

  13. Selectivity of Standard, Narrow and Square Mesh Panel Trawl Codends for Hake (Merluccius merluccius) and Poor Cod (Trisopterus minutus capelanus)

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZBİLGİN, Hüseyin; TOSUNOĞLU, Zafer; AYDIN, Celalettin; KAYKAÇ, Hakan; TOKAÇ, Adnan

    2005-01-01

    The selectivity of 3 trawl codends, (1) a commercially used standard codend, (2) a narrow codend (100 meshes on its circumference instead of 200) and (3) a square mesh top panel codend, was tested for hake (Merluccius merluccius) and poor cod (Trisopterus minutus capelanus) between 8 and 24 October 2003, in the Aegean Sea. Data were collected using the covered codend technique, and analysed by means of a logistic equation with the maximum likelihood method. The results show that the commer...

  14. Effect of Intestinal Tapeworm Clestobothrium crassiceps on Concentrations of Toxic Elements and Selenium in European Hake Merluccius merluccius from the Gulf of Lion (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jordi; Eira, Catarina; Miquel, Jordi; Ferrer-Maza, Dolors; Delgado, Eulàlia; Casadevall, Margarida

    2015-10-28

    The capacity for heavy metal bioaccumulation by some fish parasites has been demonstrated, and their contribution to decreasing metal concentrations in tissues of parasitized fish has been hypothesized. The present study evaluated the effect of the cestode Clestobothrium crassiceps on the accumulation of trace elements in 30 European hake, Merluccius merluccius, in Spain (half of them infested by C. crassiceps). Tissue samples from all M. merluccius and specimens of C. crassiceps from the infected hakes were collected and stored until element analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Arsenic, mercury, and selenium were generally present in lower levels in the cestode than in all hake tissues. The mean value of the muscular Se:Hg molar ratio in the infested subsample was higher than that in hakes without cestodes. Values indicate that the edible part of infested hakes presents a lower amount of Cd and Pb in relation to noninfested hakes.

  15. Radioactivity levels in peruvian hake Merluccius gayi peruanus (Guitchenot)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osores, Jose

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine background levels of natural and artificial radionuclides in Peruvian hakes, collected in the Pacific coast of Peru, as a mechanism to establish a biomonitoring model for human radiation exposure resulting from the ingestion of this species. The concentration range overall dry weight of beta activity was between 39 and 79 Bq/kg; for K-40, the range was between 66 and 116 Bq/kg and for Cs-137, the range was between 0.0 and 0.4 Bq/kg. No detectable levels of Co-60, Cs-134 and Ra-226 were found. The dose derived from K-40 was negligible. Data show that Peruvian hakes do not represent a public health risk because of their intake as food. (author).

  16. First Record of Anisakis simplex Third-Stage Larvae (Nematoda, Anisakidae in European Hake Merluccius merluccius lessepsianus in Egyptian Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Abou-Rahma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of infection and the identification of anisakid larvae in European hake Merluccius merluccius lessepsianus from Hurghada City, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, were investigated. Fish samples were collected during the period of February and November 2014. Twenty-two (36.66% out of sixty examined fish specimens were found to be naturally infected with Anisakis type I larvae mostly found as encapsulated larvae in visceral organs. There was a positive relationship between host length/weight and prevalence of infection. Based on morphological, morphometric, and molecular analyses, these nematodes were identified as third-stage larvae of Anisakis simplex. The present study was considered as the first report of anisakid larvae from European hake in the Egyptian water.

  17. First Record of Anisakis simplex Third-Stage Larvae (Nematoda, Anisakidae) in European Hake Merluccius merluccius lessepsianus in Egyptian Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Rahma, Yasmin; Abdel-Gaber, Rewaida; Kamal Ahmed, Amira

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of infection and the identification of anisakid larvae in European hake Merluccius merluccius lessepsianus from Hurghada City, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, were investigated. Fish samples were collected during the period of February and November 2014. Twenty-two (36.66%) out of sixty examined fish specimens were found to be naturally infected with Anisakis type I larvae mostly found as encapsulated larvae in visceral organs. There was a positive relationship between host length/weight and prevalence of infection. Based on morphological, morphometric, and molecular analyses, these nematodes were identified as third-stage larvae of Anisakis simplex. The present study was considered as the first report of anisakid larvae from European hake in the Egyptian water. PMID:26925257

  18. Cape hake Merluccius capensis and M. paradoxus in southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    knowledge of the behaviour of Cape hake in general. ... Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources, National Marine Information and Research Centre, P.O. Box 912, Swakopmund, Namibia. E-mail: ... (BEI) post-processing system, which allows for better ..... deep water, where hake density is generally low and.

  19. The 2011 Joint U.S.-Canada Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Survey of Pacific Hake (Merluccius productus) (SH1103, ME70)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists from the Fishery Resource Analysis and Monitoring (FRAM) division at the NOAA Fisheries Northwest Fisheries Science Center (NWFSC) and the Pacific region...

  20. The 2005 Joint U.S.-Canada Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Survey of Pacific Hake (Merluccius productus) (MF0509, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists from the Fishery Resource Analysis and Monitoring (FRAM) division at the NOAA Fisheries Northwest Fisheries Science Center (NWFSC) and the Pacific region...

  1. The 2007 Joint U.S.-Canada Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Survey of Pacific Hake (Merluccius productus) (MF0710, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists from the Fishery Resource Analysis and Monitoring (FRAM) division at the NOAA Fisheries Northwest Fisheries Science Center (NWFSC) and the Pacific region...

  2. The 2003 Joint U.S.-Canada Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Survey of Pacific Hake (Merluccius productus) (MF0316, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists from the Fishery Resource Analysis and Monitoring (FRAM) division at the NOAA Fisheries Northwest Fisheries Science Center (NWFSC) and the Pacific region...

  3. The two species of Cape hake, Merluccius capensis and M ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    are to be chosen by decision-makers, and adjust the TAC up or down from one year to the next according to whether trends in ... ment of the Nambian hake resource at that time was ...... Distribution medians, together with 90% probability.

  4. A multitracer approach to assess the spatial contamination pattern of hake (Merluccius merluccius) in the French Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresson, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.cresson@ifremer.fr [Ifremer, RHMN, Centre Manche — Mer du Nord, BP 669, F-62 321 Boulogne sur Mer (France); Ifremer, LER/PAC, Centre de Méditerranée, CS 20330, F-83 507 La Seyne sur Mer (France); Bouchoucha, Marc [Ifremer, LER/PAC, Centre de Méditerranée, CS 20330, F-83 507 La Seyne sur Mer (France); Morat, Fabien [IRSTEA, 3275 Route Cézanne, CS 40061, F-13 182 Aix en Provence Cedex 5 (France); Miralles, Francoise; Chavanon, Fabienne [Ifremer, LER/PAC, Centre de Méditerranée, CS 20330, F-83 507 La Seyne sur Mer (France); Loizeau, Veronique [Ifremer, LBCO, Centre Atlantique, BP 70, F-29 280 Plouzané (France); Cossa, Daniel [ISTerre, Université Joseph Fourier, BP 53, F-38 041 Grenoble (France)

    2015-11-01

    Chemical contamination levels and stable isotope ratios provide integrated information about contaminant exposure, trophic position and also biological and environmental influences on marine organisms. By combining these approaches with otolith shape analyses, the aim of the present study was to document the spatial variability of Hg and PCB contamination of the European hake (Merluccius merluccius) in the French Mediterranean, hypothesizing that local contaminant sources, environmental conditions and biological specificities lead to site-specific contamination patterns. High Hg concentrations discriminated Corsica (average: 1.36 ± 0.80 μg g{sup −1} dm) from the Gulf of Lions (average values < 0.5 μg g{sup −1} dm), where Rhône River input caused high PCB burdens. CB 153 average concentrations ranged between 4.00 ± 0.64 and 18.39 ± 12.38 ng g{sup −1} dm in the Gulf of Lions, whatever the sex of the individuals, whereas the highest values in Corsica were 6.75 ± 4.22 ng g{sup −1} dm. Otolith shape discriminated juveniles and adults, due to their different habitats. The use of combined ecotracers was revealed as a powerful tool to discriminate between fish populations at large and small spatial scale, and to enable understanding of the environmental and biological influences on contamination patterns. - Highlights: • Hg and PCB concentrations were assessed in French Mediterranean hake. • Stable isotope and otolith shape analyses were used in combination. • Local isotopic and contamination patterns were observed. • Hg values were high in Corsica, PCB in the Gulf of Lions. • Combined ecotracers are powerful to discriminate between local populations.

  5. A multitracer approach to assess the spatial contamination pattern of hake (Merluccius merluccius) in the French Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cresson, Pierre; Bouchoucha, Marc; Morat, Fabien; Miralles, Francoise; Chavanon, Fabienne; Loizeau, Veronique; Cossa, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Chemical contamination levels and stable isotope ratios provide integrated information about contaminant exposure, trophic position and also biological and environmental influences on marine organisms. By combining these approaches with otolith shape analyses, the aim of the present study was to document the spatial variability of Hg and PCB contamination of the European hake (Merluccius merluccius) in the French Mediterranean, hypothesizing that local contaminant sources, environmental conditions and biological specificities lead to site-specific contamination patterns. High Hg concentrations discriminated Corsica (average: 1.36 ± 0.80 μg g −1 dm) from the Gulf of Lions (average values < 0.5 μg g −1 dm), where Rhône River input caused high PCB burdens. CB 153 average concentrations ranged between 4.00 ± 0.64 and 18.39 ± 12.38 ng g −1 dm in the Gulf of Lions, whatever the sex of the individuals, whereas the highest values in Corsica were 6.75 ± 4.22 ng g −1 dm. Otolith shape discriminated juveniles and adults, due to their different habitats. The use of combined ecotracers was revealed as a powerful tool to discriminate between fish populations at large and small spatial scale, and to enable understanding of the environmental and biological influences on contamination patterns. - Highlights: • Hg and PCB concentrations were assessed in French Mediterranean hake. • Stable isotope and otolith shape analyses were used in combination. • Local isotopic and contamination patterns were observed. • Hg values were high in Corsica, PCB in the Gulf of Lions. • Combined ecotracers are powerful to discriminate between local populations

  6. A multitracer approach to assess the spatial contamination pattern of hake (Merluccius merluccius) in the French Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresson, Pierre; Bouchoucha, Marc; Morat, Fabien; Miralles, Francoise; Chavanon, Fabienne; Loizeau, Veronique; Cossa, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Chemical contamination levels and stable isotope ratios provide integrated information about contaminant exposure, trophic position and also biological and environmental influences on marine organisms. By combining these approaches with otolith shape analyses, the aim of the present study was to document the spatial variability of Hg and PCB contamination of the European hake (Merluccius merluccius) in the French Mediterranean, hypothesizing that local contaminant sources, environmental conditions and biological specificities lead to site-specific contamination patterns. High Hg concentrations discriminated Corsica (average: 1.36 ± 0.80 μg g(-1) dm) from the Gulf of Lions (average valuesLions, whatever the sex of the individuals, whereas the highest values in Corsica were 6.75 ± 4.22 ng g(-1) dm. Otolith shape discriminated juveniles and adults, due to their different habitats. The use of combined ecotracers was revealed as a powerful tool to discriminate between fish populations at large and small spatial scale, and to enable understanding of the environmental and biological influences on contamination patterns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Age estimation of juvenile European hake Merluccius merluccius based on otolith microstructure analysis: a slow or fast growth pattern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattoura, P; Lefkaditou, E; Megalofonou, P

    2015-03-01

    The main goal of this study was to examine otolith microstructure and to estimate the age and growth of European hake Merluccius merluccius from the eastern Mediterranean Sea. One hundred and twenty-nine specimens ranging from 102 to 438 mm in total length (LT ) were used. Age estimations were based on the study of the otolith microstructure, which was revealed after grinding both frontal sides of otoliths. The enumerations of the daily growth increments (DGI) as well as their width (WDGI ) measurements were made on calibrated digital images. The number of DGI in otoliths ranged between 163 and 717. Four phases in the WDGI evolution were distinguished: (1) larval-juvenile pelagic phase, with an increasing trend in WDGI up to the 60th DGI, (2) settlement phase, with a short-term deceleration in WDGI between the 61st and 150th DGI, (3) juvenile demersal phase, characterized by a stabilization of WDGI from 151st to 400th DGI and (4) adult phase, with a decreasing trend in WDGI after the 400th DGI. Age, sex and month of formation were found to affect the WDGI in all phases, with the exception of age at the juvenile demersal phase. The power curve with intercept model described best the relationship of M. merluccius LT with age (TDGI ), according to Akaike criteria, revealing differences in growth between females [LT = 65 · 36(TDGI )(0 · 40) - 388 · 55] and males [LT = 69 · 32(TDGI )(0 · 37) - 352 · 88] for the sizes examined. The mean daily growth rates were 0·61 mm day(-1) for females and 0·52 mm day(-1) for males, resulting in an LT of 283 and 265 mm at the end of their first year of life. In comparison with previous studies on the Mediterranean Sea, the results of this study showed a greater growth rate, similar to results from tagging experiments and otolith microstructure analyses for M. merluccius in other geographic areas. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  8. Acoustical Scattering, Propagation, and Attenuation Caused by Two Abundant Pacific Schooling Species: Humboldt Squid and Hake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    an area important for acoustical testing and tactical exercises, the most abundant species by biomass is Pacific hake, Merluccius productus, a fish...scattering characteristics of the animal especially if the animal has eaten hard- shelled mollusc prey. Figure 7. A dorsal scan (similar to an x-ray) of a...kHz echogram. 11 In order to generate abundance and biomass estimates for organisms using active acoustics, one assumption that can be made is

  9. Determination of effective effort on hake Merluccius merluccius in a Mediterranean trawl fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Alemany

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The direct control of fishing effort as a management tool is of special interest in the Mediterranean, where the lack of effective international management systems and the high diversity of the catches significantly increases the complexity of implementing TAC´s as an indirect control of fishing effort. However, its enforcement should be based on the precise knowledge of the relationship between the fishing effort and its corresponding fishing mortality. In this sense, the general aim of this study was to develop an approach for analysing this relationship. In order to estimate the annual effective fishing effort on hake, a relational data base including daily landings by vessel and species of trawl fleet based on the port of Palma, Mallorca island (western Mediterranean during the period 1983-1991 was built. Fishing mortalities were available from VPA. Fishing effort and fishing mortality were split by subfleets or métiers which were identified by cluster analysis. Significant linear relationships between the two parameters were obtained when fishing effort was considered as the number of days in which hake catch was higher than 10 kg multiplied by GRT of correspondent vessels. These CPUE values are mainly obtained when trawlers operate in the muddy bottoms of the shelf and on the upper slope, where hake populations are mostly distributed. On the other hand, no clear trends in catchability by métier were found during the period analysed.

  10. Integrating microsatellite DNA markers and otolith geochemistry to assess population structure of European hake (Merluccius merluccius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Susanne E.; Pérez, Montse; Presa, Pablo; Thorrold, Simon R.; Cabral, Henrique N.

    2014-04-01

    Population structure and natal origins of European hake were investigated using microsatellite DNA markers and otolith geochemistry data. Five microsatellites were sequenced and otolith core geochemical composition was determined from age-1 hake collected in the northeast Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. Microsatellites provided evidence of a major genetic split in the vicinity of the Strait of Gibraltar, separating the Atlantic and the Mediterranean populations, with the exception of the Gulf of Cádiz. Based on classification models using otolith core geochemical values, individual natal origins were identified, although with an increased error rate. Coupling genotype and otolith data increased the classification accuracy of individuals to their potential natal origins while providing evidence of movement between the northern and southern stock units in the Atlantic Ocean. Information obtained by the two natural markers on population structure of European hake was complementary as the two markers act at different spatio-temporal scales. Otolith geochemistry provides information over an ecological time frame and on a fine spatial scale, while microsatellite DNA markers report on gene flow over evolutionary time scales and therefore act on a broader spatio-temporal resolution. Thus, this study confirmed the value of otolith geochemistry to complement the assessment of early life stage dispersal in populations with high gene flow and low genetic divergence.

  11. Links between the recruitment success of northern European hake (Merluccius merluccius L.) and a regime shift on the NE Atlantic continental shelf

    KAUST Repository

    Goikoetxea, Nerea

    2013-07-01

    The distribution of northern European hake (Merluccius merluccius L.) extends from the Bay of Biscay up to Norwegian waters. However, despite its wide geographical distribution, there have been few studies on fluctuations in the European hake populations. Marine ecosystem shifts have been investigated worldwide and their influence on trophic levels has been studied, from top predator fish populations down to planktonic prey species, but there is little information on the effect of atmosphere-ocean shifts on European hake. This work analyses hake recruitment success (recruits per adult biomass) in relation to environmental changes over the period 1978-2006 in order to determine whether the regime shift identified in several abiotic and biotic variables in the North Sea also affected the Northeast Atlantic shelf oceanography. Hake recruitment success as well as parameters such as the sea surface temperature, wind patterns and copepod abundance changed significantly at the end of the 1980s, demonstrating an ecological regime shift in the Northeast Atlantic. Despite the low reproductive biomass recorded during the last decades, hake recruitment success has been higher since the change in 1989/90. The higher productivity may have sustained the population despite the intense fishing pressure; copepod abundance, warmer water temperatures and moderate eastward transport were found to be beneficial. In conclusion, in 1988/89 the Northeast Atlantic environment shifted to a favourable regime for northern hake production. This study supports the hypothesis that the hydro-climatic regime shift that affected the North Sea in the late 1980s may have influenced a wider region, such as the Northeast Atlantic. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A morphohistological and histochemical study of hatchery-reared European hake, Merluccius merluccius (Linnaeus, 1758, during the lecitho-exotrophic larval phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan B. Ortiz-Delgado

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The larval development of reared European hake, Merluccius merluccius (Linnaeus, 1758, during the lecithotrophic phase, from hatching until 5 days post-hatching (dph, and throughout the endo-exotrophic feeding phase (6-10 dph was studied by histology and histochemistry. Many crucial morphological, cellular and tissular changes were observed during both feeding phases, mostly those related to digestive and visual ontogenetic events, such as differentiation of buccopharyngeal cavity and eye development (at hatching; pigmentation and differentiation of cone-photoreceptors (4 dph; opening of the mouth and anus, appearance of intestinal valves (5-6 dph; presence of buccopharyngo-esophageal (5-6 dph and intestinal (9 dph mucous cells; folding of intestinal mucosa (6 dph; development of regional specific digestive musculature (6 dph; typical structure and functionality of the liver (sinusoids, biliary and pancreatic ducts, glycogen, protein and lipid reserves (4-6 dph; and characteristic acinar distribution pattern of eosinophilic zymogen granules of the exocrine pancreas (6 dph. Between 9 and 10 dph, the hake larvae showed evident signs of lipid absorption within enterocytes of the anterior intestinal region and a remarkable process of pynocitosis and intracellular digestion was detected in the posterior intestine (supranuclear inclusions or acidophilic protein vesicles. In hake larvae at 10 dph, a proliferation of renal tubules, spleen differentiation and gill development, as well as the presence of the first thyroid follicle, were clearly distinguished. At this time, stomach gastric gland differentiation was not detected and endocrine pancreas and gill lamellae were not evidenced. However, and interestingly, swim bladder and eyes (developing rods were well differentiated in larval development from 9 dph onwards. In summary, in European hake larval development during the endo-exogenous feeding phase and especially at 9 to 10 dph, most systems, organs

  13. Pacific Hake Characteristics Affecting the Conduct of an Acoustic Clutter Experiment off the West Coast of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-04

    Blois , L. C. Hufnagle, A. R. Kronlund, J. A. Holmes, and C. D. Wilson, "The 2003 Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Survey of Pacific Hake, Merluccius...Center, Seattle, WA, 2005. 17. Fleischer, G. W., K. D. Cooke, P. H. Ressler, R. E. Thomas, S. K. de Blois , and L. C. Hufnagle, "The 2005 Integrated...Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, WA, 2008. 18. de Blois , S. K., D. Chu, and K. D. Cooke, "Results of the 2007

  14. Age, growth and mortality of Hake larvae (Merluccius hubbsi in the north Patagonian shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Roberto Brown

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Age and growth and mortality rates were estimated in Argentinean hake (Merlucius hubbsi larvae by counting and measuring otolith daily increments. Larvae were captured with a Bongo net in January and February 2001. Length-at-age data were represented by a linear model whose fitted expression was: L(t = 0.156 t + 1.7. Slope represented mean the daily growth rate (0.156 mm/day. This value was quite similar to the values recorded by other authors for larvae of other Merluccius species. Individual growth rates were not significantly different between January and February. This homogeneity in the larval growth was coincident with the great thermal homogeneity recorded between months. Statistical analysis of the larval growth rates from different areas did not show significant differences. Daily mortality coefficients derived from the exponential decline models were 0.27 and 0.12 for January and February respectively. The difference between the two mortality coefficients could be attributable to the patchinnes, or larval recruitment pulses of distinct intensity between the two months.

  15. Migration, distribution and population (stock) structure of shallow-water hake (Merluccius capensis) in the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem inferred using a geostatistical population model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Teunis; Kristensen, Kasper; Kainge, Paulus Inekela

    2016-01-01

    Shallow-water hake (Merluccius capensis) is of considerable ecological and economic importance in the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem in South Africa and Namibia. Optimal management of the resource is currently constrained by the limited understanding of migration patterns and population...

  16. Multi-sensor Oceanographic Correlations for Pacific Hake Acoustic Survey Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozen, M.; Hillyer, N.; Holt, B.; Armstrong, E. M.

    2010-12-01

    North Pacific hake (Merluccius productus), the most abundant groundfish along the Pacific coast of northwestern America, are an essential source of income for the coastal region from southern California to British Columbia, Canada. However, hake abundance and distribution are highly variable among years, exhibiting variance in both the north-south and east-west distribution as seen in the results from biannual acoustic surveys. This project is part of a larger undertaking, ultimately focused on the prediction of hake distribution to improve the distribution of survey effort and precision of stock assessments in the future. Four remotely sensed oceanographic variables are examined as a first step in improving our understanding the relationship between the intensity of coastal upwelling and other ocean dynamics, and the north-south summer hake distribution. Sea surface height, wind vectors, chlorophyll - a concentrations, and sea surface temperature were acquired from several satellites, including AVHRR, SeaWifs, TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, Jason-2, SSM/I, ASMR-E, and QuikScat. Data were aligned to the same spatial and temporal resolution, and these re-gridded data were then analyzed using empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs). EOFs were used as a spatio-temporally compact representation of the data and to reduce the co-variability of the multiple time series in the dataset. The EOF results were plotted and acoustic survey results were overlaid to understand differences between regions. Although this pilot project used data from only a single year (2007), it demonstrated a methodology for reducing dimensionality of linearly related satellite variables that can used in future applications, and provided insight into multi-dimensional ocean characteristics important for hake distribution.

  17. Integrated response of antioxidant biomarkers in the liver and white muscle of European hake (Merluccius merluccius L. females from the Adriatic sea with respect to environmental influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Slađan Z.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the integrated response of antioxidant defense enzymes (total superoxide dismutase (TotSOD, manganese-containing superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, copper-zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, glutathione reductase (GR and phase II biotransformation enzyme, glutathione- S-transferase (GST in the liver and white muscle of females of European hake (Merluccius merluccius L. from the Adriatic Sea (Montenegro in winter and spring. The activity of GSH-Px in the liver was significantly increased, while GST activity was decreased in spring compared to the winter. In white muscle, the activities of TotSOD and CuZnSOD were increased, while the activities of MnSOD, CAT, GSH-Px, GR and GST were decreased in spring when compared to the matching values in winter. The activities of TotSOD and CuZnSOD in winter were markedly lower in the muscle than in the liver, while the activity of MnSOD in the muscle was higher when compared to the liver. Principal component analysis (PCA revealed clear separation of the investigated antioxidant biomarkers between tissues and seasons, while the integrated biomarker response (IBR showed that the most intensive antioxidant biomarker response was in the liver in spring. Star plots of IBR showed a dominant contribution of glutathione-dependent biomarkers (GSH-Px, GR and GST and CAT in both tissues and seasons with respect to SOD isoenzymes. All enzyme activities (except MnSOD were greater in the liver in comparison to the white muscle. Our results show that the liver possesses a greater capacity to establish and maintain homeostasis under changing environmental conditions in winter and spring. At the same time, seasonal effects are more pronounced in muscle tissue. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 173041

  18. Spawning of the chilean hake (Merluccius gayi in the upwelling system off Talcahuano in relation to oceanographic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian A. Vargas

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the upwelling area off Talcahuano, in central-south Chile, is an important spawning zone for the hake Merluccius gayi. We document the results of a study designed to assess the importance of oceanographic features on the horizontal and vertical distribution of hake eggs and larvae. Ichthyoplankton samples and oceanographic data (CTDO casts, and wind speed and direction were collected during a cruise carried out off Talcahuano (36º22´S-37º10´S in early spring (October 1996, which included a grid of 61 stations up to 60 nm offshore. The oceanographic information obtained revealed the presence of an upwelling plume at Lavapie Point (southern zone extending northward over the shelf, and the presence of a warmer water parcel close to shore in the northern area. Peak egg densities occurred in this northern area over the shelf, in a nucleus located at the shoreward moving deeper layer (40-100 m deep and associated with the upwelling front about 20-30 nm from shore. The highest larval abundance also occurred in the northern area over the shelf and in the deeper layer but closer to shore than the egg nucleus. Because the timing (early spring and location of spawning (at depth, over the shelf and in association with frontal structures are also shared by other hake species in upwelling areas, we propose that they may be part of a more commonly developed strategy to enhance offspring survival in coastal upwelling areas of eastern boundary currents.

  19. Variation in the proximate composition and fatty acid profile recovered from Argentine hake (Merluccius hubbsi) waste from Patagonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cretton, M.; Rost, E.; Mazzuca-Sobczuk, T.; Mazzuca, M.

    2016-07-01

    The fish processing operations in Patagonia produce large amounts of waste. The main fishery resource in Argentina is the Argentine hake (Merluccius hubbsi). The ports of the province of Chubut (the most important of which are Puerto Madryn, Rawson and Comodoro Rivadavia), together with Caleta Paula Port (province of Santa Cruz), in the Argentine Patagonia, capture more than 82,000 tons of hake annualy, 80% of which are of M. hubbsi, which is mostly converted into fillets. From this capture, about 2,296 tons of liver would be available for the extraction of oil. To promote the recovery and industrial use of fish oil, in the present study, we determined the variation in the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of Argentine hake waste from the ports mentioned above at different catch times. Proximate composition was determined according of the Official Methods of Analysis (AOAC). Fatty acid profile was analyzed by gas chromatography of the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). A standard mixture of FAMEs was run under identical conditions to identify the compounds on the basis of their retention times. Fatty acids were quantified using heptadecanoic acid (C17:0) as internal standard. The highest lipid recovery (27.0 to 41.8% of total lipids) was obtained from the liver fraction. Palmitic acid (C16:0), oleic acid (18:1 n9), docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n3), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n3) and palmitoleic acid (16:1) were the main constituents. Protein levels in viscera without livers (V-L) were higher than those in the liver. The extraction of marine fish oil and the production of fish offal meal from waste from fish factories would contribute to the sustainability of the regional industry, because it would also decrease the volume of waste, with benefits to the environment. (Author)

  20. Myxozoans as biological tags for stock identification of the Argentine hake, Merluccius hubbsi (Gadiformes: Merlucciidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cantatore, D.M.P.; Irigoitia, M.M.; Holzer, Astrid S.; Timi, J.T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 143, č. 6 (2016), s. 732-740 ISSN 0031-1820 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biological markers * Kudoa rosenbuschi * Myxoproteus meridionalis * Fabespora sp. * common hake * stock discrimination * South West Atlantic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.713, year: 2016

  1. The two species of Cape hake, Merluccius capensis (shallow-water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    tinguish them in commercial catch statistics. Conse- ... and hence are taken incidentally in hake-directed fishing, instead of only species whose capture requires a different .... catch of these species is determined only at the landing site, and is ...

  2. The impact of overfishing and El Niño on the condition factor and reproductive success of Peruvian hake, Merluccius gayi peruanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballón, Michael; Wosnitza-Mendo, Claudia; Guevara-Carrasco, Renato; Bertrand, Arnaud

    2008-10-01

    In this study we examine physiological responses of Peruvian hake ( Merluccius gayi peruanus) to changes in their population structure and physical environment during the period 1971-2004. In particular, we assess the relative investment of energy in growth and/or reproduction of small (20-35 cm) and large (35-50 cm) hake. We calculated the (i) condition (Fulton’s K), (ii) gonad and (iii) gut fullness indices for 42,761 female hakes sampled from commercial landings; these indices indicate fish somatic, reproductive and feeding condition, respectively. Using Generalized Additive Models we then examined potential relationships between these indices and sea surface temperature anomalies and date. Drastic energy exhaustion and a decrease in female hake fecundity were observed during El Niño events. The long-term trend showed a general increase in condition factor and a decrease in gonad index for large hake between 1971 and 2004. Small hake exhibited a different trend with an increase in reproductive activity, which was accompanied by an earlier maturation. We hypothesise that the observed low investment of energy in reproduction by large female hake might be related to the lack of large males, due to a sex-selective fishery and the impact of El Niño. We suggest that fishing diminished hake reproductive capacity, modified the sex ratio in favour of females and increased population vulnerability to environmental stress, in particular to the El Niño. The impact of multidecadal variability and predators like the squid, Dosidicus gigas, remain unresolved until longer time series become available.

  3. Influence of sex, maturity and reproduction on PCB and p,p'DDE concentrations and repartitions in the European hake (Merluccius merluccius, L.) from the Gulf of Lions (N.W. Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodiguel, Xavier; Loizeau, Véronique; Le Guellec, Anne-Marie; Roupsard, François; Philippon, Xavier; Mellon-Duval, Capucine

    2009-12-20

    The main objective of this work was to establish the influence of sex, maturity and reproduction on the contamination of the demersal fish Merluccius merluccius by organochlorine compounds. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,p'DDE were quantified in muscle, liver and gonads of female and male hakes collected in the Gulf of Lions in 2004 and 2005. Observed levels appeared higher than the population of the Bay of Biscay and lower than the population of the Thyrrenian Sea. Contaminant fingerprints were roughly constant whatever the studied organ and the hake biological condition. Concentrations varied significantly according to the sex and maturity of hakes. Mature specimens were more contaminated than immature, and males presented higher levels than females. This sex effect can be linked to a lower growth rate of males, and a contaminant elimination during female spawning. Gonadal contamination depends on the importance of lipid content and increases with the maturation degree. Although the main organ of energy and PCB storage is the liver, muscle appears as the main contributor to the gonad contamination.

  4. Oceanographic data - Integrated acoustic and trawl survey of Pacific hake off the Pacific Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Integrated acoustic and trawl surveys are used to assess the distribution, biomass, and biology of Pacific hake along the Pacific coasts of the United States and...

  5. Biological data - Integrated acoustic and trawl survey of Pacific hake off the Pacific Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Integrated acoustic and trawl surveys are used to assess the distribution, biomass, and biology of Pacific hake along the Pacific coasts of the United States and...

  6. Cooperation between scientists, NGOs and industry in support of sustainable fisheries: the South African hake Merluccius spp. trawl fishery experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, J G; Attwood, C G; Jarre, A; Sink, K; Atkinson, L J; Petersen, S

    2013-10-01

    This paper examines the increasingly close interaction between natural and social scientists, non-governmental organizations (NGO) and industry, in pursuit of responsible ecosystem-based management of fisheries. South Africa has committed to implementing an ecosystem approach to fisheries management. Management advice stems from multi-stakeholder representation on government-led scientific and management working groups. In the hake Merluccius capensis and Merluccius paradoxus fishery, the primary management measure is an annual total allowable catch (TAC), the level of which is calculated using a management procedure (MP) that is revised approximately every 4 years. Revision of the MP is a consultative process involving most stakeholders, and is based on simulation modelling of projected probable scenarios of resource and fishery dynamics under various management options. NGOs, such as the Worldwide Fund for Nature in South Africa (WWF-SA), have played an important role in influencing consumers, the fishing industry and government to develop responsible fishing practices that minimize damage to marine ecosystems. Cooperation between industry, government and scientists has helped to improve sustainability and facilitated the meeting of market-based incentives for more responsible fisheries. Research includes ecosystem modelling, spatial analysis and ecosystem risk assessment with increasing research focus on social and economic aspects of the fishery. A four-year cooperative experiment to quantify the effect of trawling on benthic community structure is being planned. The food requirements of top predators still need to be included in the TAC-setting formulae and more social and economic research is needed. This paper also demonstrates how NGO initiatives such as Marine Stewardship Council certification and the Southern African Sustainable Seafood Initiative, a traffic light system of classifying seafood for consumers, have contributed to responsible fishing

  7. Variation in the biochemical composition of common hake females (Merluccius hubbsi) during the reproductive cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Leonarduzzi, E.; Massa, A.E.; Manca, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    Se evaluó la composición bioquímica y el contenido energético del músculo, hígado y gónadas de hembras de Merluccius hubbsi durante el ciclo reproductivo. Las hembras adultas (44-50 cm de longitud total) se capturaron en la región norpatagónica (43~' S-45~' S). Se estimó el factor de condición de Fulton (K) y el índice hepatosomático (IHS). Se determinaron las proteínas y los lípidos de cada tejido. Se analizó, además, el contenido de humedad y cenizas en músculo. En todos los tejidos los com...

  8. Stock-environment recruitment analysis for Namibian Cape hake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stock-environment recruitment analysis for Namibian Cape hake Merluccius capensis. ... The factors modulating recruitment success of Cape hake Merluccius capensis in Namibian waters are still unresolved. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  9. Argyrosomus hololepidotus, Pomatomus saltatrix and Merluccius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    saltatrix (elf) and Merluccius capensis (Shallow-water hake) between Algoa Bay ... deep-water species such as Merluccius capensis is well known. (Botha 1971; Botha ...... B. Davie in collecting and processing the material is acknowledged.

  10. Variation in the proximate composition and fatty acid profile recovered from Argentine hake (Merluccius hubbsi waste from Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cretton, M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The fish processing operations in Patagonia produce large amounts of waste. The main fishery resource in Argentina is the Argentine hake (Merluccius hubbsi. The ports of the province of Chubut (the most important of which are Puerto Madryn, Rawson and Comodoro Rivadavia, together with Caleta Paula Port (province of Santa Cruz, in the Argentine Patagonia, capture more than 82,000 tons of hake annualy, 80% of which are of M. hubbsi, which is mostly converted into fillets. From this capture, about 2,296 tons of liver would be available for the extraction of oil. To promote the recovery and industrial use of fish oil, in the present study, we determined the variation in the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of Argentine hake waste from the ports mentioned above at different catch times. Proximate composition was determined according of the Official Methods of Analysis (AOAC. Fatty acid profile was analyzed by gas chromatography of the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs. A standard mixture of FAMEs was run under identical conditions to identify the compounds on the basis of their retention times. Fatty acids were quantified using heptadecanoic acid (C17:0 as internal standard. The highest lipid recovery (27.0 to 41.8% of total lipids was obtained from the liver fraction. Palmitic acid (C16:0, oleic acid (18:1 n9, docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n3, eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n3 and palmitoleic acid (16:1 were the main constituents. Protein levels in viscera without livers (V-L were higher than those in the liver. The extraction of marine fish oil and the production of fish offal meal from waste from fish factories would contribute to the sustainability of the regional industry, because it would also decrease the volume of waste, with benefits to the environment.El procesamiento de pescados en Patagonia produce gran cantidad de residuos. El recurso de pesca más importante en la Argentina es la merluza argentina (Merluccius hubbsi. En Patagonia

  11. Spatial patterns of copepod biodiversity in relation to a tidal front system in the main spawning and nursery area of the Argentine hake Merluccius hubbsi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temperoni, B.; Viñas, M. D.; Martos, P.; Marrari, M.

    2014-11-01

    Copepods play an important role in marine ecosystems as a direct link of energy transfer between primary producers and higher trophic level consumers, such as fish. In the Argentine Sea, the Patagonian stock of Argentine hake Merluccius hubbsi spawns from late austral spring (December) to early autumn (April) in the northern Patagonian shelf region (43°-45°30‧S), in association with a highly productive tidal front system. Since hake larvae prey mainly upon copepods, the objective of this study was to assess the spatial variability in the abundance and diversity of these potential food items in different sectors of the front, as one of the possible factors affecting hake recruitment success. Two complementary mesh sizes (67 and 300 μm) were used to accurately target the entire copepod size spectrum. The copepod community was dominated by developmental stages sustain M. hubbsi larval growth resulting from high availability of adequate prey, the suitable thermal ranges, and the existence of retention mechanisms.

  12. Links between the recruitment success of northern European hake (Merluccius merluccius L.) and a regime shift on the NE Atlantic continental shelf

    KAUST Repository

    Goikoetxea, Nerea; Irigoien, Xabier

    2013-01-01

    variables in the North Sea also affected the Northeast Atlantic shelf oceanography. Hake recruitment success as well as parameters such as the sea surface temperature, wind patterns and copepod abundance changed significantly at the end of the 1980s

  13. Effects of environmental variables on survey catch rates and distribution by size of shallow- and deep-water Cape hakes, Merluccius capensis and Merluccius paradoxus off Namibia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kainge, Paulus Inekela; van der Plas, A. K.; Bartholomae, C. H.

    2017-01-01

    In order to study the effects of temperature, oxygen, salinity and time of day on survey trawl catches, we modeled observed catches of juvenile, small, medium and large hakes per station as functions of zenith angle of the sun, geographical position, year, temperature, salinity, oxygen and depth....

  14. Seasonal and annual variation in Chilean hake Merluccius gayi spawning locations and egg size off central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landaeta, Mauricio F.; Castro, Leonardo R.

    2012-01-01

    Variability in Chilean hake reproductive tactics off central Chile was assessed by analyzing ichthyoplankton samples from nine oceanographic cruises (1996-2005) and through experimental trials with early life stages (eggs, yolk-sac larvae) during the main (austral spring) and secondary (late summer-early autumn) spawning seasons. Abundant eggs in the plankton (1300-2000 eggs per 10 m 2) and historical adult reproductive data showed the highest reproductive activity in austral spring, with large egg aggregations near shelf break (50-100 m depth). Large, recently spawned eggs (1.15-1.20 mm diameter) were advected nearshore by coastward subsurface flows in the spring upwelling season. Experimental trials indicated that recently hatched larvae (3.4-3.5 mm) consumed their yolk-sac (0.17-0.41 mm 3) in 3-4 days at 10-12 °C; plankton sampling indicated that larval hake remained at mid-depth (50-100 m) without showing daily vertical migrations until completing their caudal fin formation (∼15 mm). During the secondary reproductive peak, hake spawned nearshore, when smaller eggs (0.95-1.13 mm) and recently hatched larvae (2.2-2.6 mm notochord length) occurred in surface waters (0-10 m depth). Their relatively large yolk-sac volumes (0.57 ± 0.11 mm 3) provided endogenous nourishment for at least 5 days at 10 °C, according to experiments. In the field, preflexion larvae occurred mainly in the mixed layer (0-25 m) and started ontogenetic daily vertical migrations at 7 mm. A strong decline occurred after 2002 in the adult Chilean hake biomass (estimated by hydroacoustic surveys) and body size, coinciding with variations in spawning locations (more coastward in early spring 2004 and 2005) and decline in egg size. Thus, recent variations in Chilean hake reproductive tactics may reflect an indirect effect of declines in the parental population size.

  15. [IMPACT OF SIX COOKING TECHNIQUES ON FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF MARLIN (MAKAIRA NIGRICANS) AND HAKE (MERLUCCIUS PRODUCTUS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-González, María Isabel; Carrillo-Domínguez, Silvia

    2015-09-01

    the regular consumption of fish brings benefits to health due to its content of n-3 fatty acids, but cooking enhances or damages the concentration of fatty acids (FA) since they are susceptible to oxidation by temperatures and cooking times. to analyze the effect of six cooking techniques on total lipids (TL) and (FA) content in marlin and hake and select which one helps the best conservation of health beneficial FA. fillets were subjected to different cooking techniques: steam (ST), foiled-aluminum-paper (FAP), foiled- banana-leaf (FBL), gas-oven (GO), microwave-oven (MO) and fried-lightly (FL). FA were identified by gas chromatography/FID. Marlin: FL increased the concentration of TL and MO decreased it. Statistically, PUFA, SFA and EPA + DHA increased with FAP, MUFA decreased with FBL and increased in FL. Hake: FL increased concentration in all groups of FA while ST decreased it. SFA values and index of atherogenicity (IA), thrombogenicity (IT), peroxidisability and hipocolesterolemic/ hipercolesterolemic fatty acid ratio (HH) found, suggested that hake is a fish with greater health benefits, regardless of the technique you employ. By its EPA + DHA content, marlin seems to be an excellent choice if cooked FAP. FL technique in both species decreased the IA, IT and significantly increased the HH; however n3/n6 ratio decreased. ST seems to be the least desirable cooking technique for both species. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. Adaptive response of Peruvian Hake to overfishing

    OpenAIRE

    Mendo, C.W.; Carrasco, R.G.

    2000-01-01

    Compensatory mechanisms of the Peruvian hake population (Merluccius gayi peruanus) in response to heavy exploitation and changes in species interaction are discussed. Changes in the rate of cannibalism, diet composition, maximization of fecundity and behavioral adaptation are noted.

  17. Hake Survey ADCP (2003)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler data collected during the Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Surveys of Pacific Hake. Processing by: Stephen Pierce, Oregon...

  18. Hake Survey ADCP (2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler data collected during the Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Surveys of Pacific Hake. Processing by: Stephen Pierce, Oregon...

  19. Hake Survey ADCP (1998)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler data collected during the Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Surveys of Pacific Hake. Processing by: Stephen Pierce, Oregon...

  20. Hake Survey ADCP (1995)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler data collected during the Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Surveys of Pacific Hake. Processing by: Stephen Pierce, Oregon...

  1. Hake Survey ADCP (2001)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler data collected during the Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Surveys of Pacific Hake. Processing by: Stephen Pierce, Oregon...

  2. The effects of subsampling and between-haul variation on the size-selectivity estimation of Chilean hake (Merluccius gayi gayi Los efectos de submuestreo y variación entre lances en la estimación de la selectividad a la talla de la merluza común (Merluccius gayi gayi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dante Queirolo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Using the data collected in a size selectivity experiment on Chilean hake (Merluccius gayi gayi carried out in 2000, the selectivity parameters for four codend mesh sizes (100, 110, 130, and 140 mm of mesh size opening were estimated and modelled by the SELECT model. These analyses included considerations of the sampling proportions of the catch in the codend and cover. Furthermore, the analyses took into account between-haul variation. The l50 values were 30.8, 29.9, 30.0, and 41.2 cm of total length, respectively, values lower than the estimates obtained from previous studies. The contribution of explanatory variables to the selectivity model was also tested in order to determine the role of mesh size, catch size (in number, and towing speed. Increases in catch size and in towing speed were accompanied by decreases in the l50 estimates. These results demonstrate how incorporation of subsampling effect and explanatory variables to model between-haul variation can improve selectivity estimates and management of a valuable resource.Usando los datos recolectados en un experimento de selectividad a la talla de merluza común (Merluccius gayi gayi realizado en el año 2000, se estimaron y modelaron los parámetros de selectividad para copos de cuatro tamaños de malla (100, 110, 130 y 140 mm de tamaño de malla interno mediante el modelo SELECT. Los análisis incluyeron consideraciones de las proporciones de muestreo de la captura en el copo y en el cubrecopo. Además, los análisis tuvieron en cuenta la variación entre lances. Los valores de l50 fueron 30,8; 29,9; 30,0 y 41,2 cm longitud total respectivamente, valores menores que los obtenidos en estudios previos. Se probó también la contribución de variables explicatorias al modelo de selectividad, para determinar el aporte del tamaño de malla, el volumen de captura (en número y la velocidad de arrastre. Los incrementos en el volumen de captura y en la velocidad de arrastre produjeron una

  3. Shelf-life extension of the merluccius merluccius hubbsi's commercialization by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narvaiz, Patricia; Kairiyama, Eulogia; Lescano, Hilda; Kaupert, Norma

    1989-01-01

    The hake (merluccius merluccius hubbsi), caught in the South Atlantic Ocean, was filleted and then irradiated in the semi-industrial irradiation plant of the Ezeiza Atomic Center, with a dose of 3.3 kGy, at the temperature of melting ice. Control and irradiated samples were stored at 0 deg C ± 1 deg C. Irradiated hake kept a good microbiological condition until day 28 after catch, which triplicates the commercialization period of the product. The determination of volatile basic nitrogen showed acceptable values, according to the Argentine Alimentary Codex specifications, for a longer period (47 days after catch) probably due to the selection exerted by ionizing radiations of the flora. Also, exudation was below 5% (v/w) during 52 days. The sonsory quality of the irradiated fillets was generally good along the 39 days of analysis. (Author) [es

  4. Emergence of a new predator in the North Sea: evaluation of potential trophic impacts focused on hake, saithe, and Norway pout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cormon, Xochitl; Kempf, Alexander; Vermard, Youen

    2016-01-01

    During the last 15 years, northern European hake (Merluccius merluccius) has increased in abundance, and its spatial distribution has expanded in the North Sea region in correlation with temperature. In a context of global warming, this spatial shift could impact local trophic interactions: direc...

  5. Novel Tools for Conservation Genomics: Comparing Two High-Throughput Approaches for SNP Discovery in the Transcriptome of the European Hake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milano, Ilaria; Babbucci, Massimiliano; Panitz, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The growing accessibility to genomic resources using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies has revolutionized the application of molecular genetic tools to ecology and evolutionary studies in non-model organisms. Here we present the case study of the European hake (Merluccius merluccius),...

  6. The 2012 Joint U.S.-Canada Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Survey of Pacific Hake (Merluccius productus) and Pacific Sardine (Sardinops sagax) (SH1204, ME70)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists from the Fishery Resource Analysis and Monitoring (FRAM) division at the NOAA Fisheries Northwest Fisheries Science Center (NWFSC), the Fishery Resources...

  7. 2012 Joint U.S.-Canada Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Survey of Pacific Hake (Merluccius productus) and Pacific Sardine (Sardinops sagax) (SH1204, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists from the Fishery Resource Analysis and Monitoring (FRAM) division at the NOAA Fisheries Northwest Fisheries Science Center (NWFSC), the Fishery Resources...

  8. Distribución estival del stock sureño de la merluza argentina (Merluccius hubbsi Marini, 1933 en el área de cría (44°-47°S en relación con parámetros oceanógraficos (1996-2001 Summer distribution of the southern stock of the Argentine hake (Merluccius hubbsi Marini, 1933 in the nursery area (44°-47°S in relation to oceanographic parameters (1996-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Louge

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron las variables temperatura y salinidad en verano, durante el período 1996-2001 en el área de cría del efectivo patagónico de la merluza argentina Merluccius hubbsi. Estas variables oceanógraficas se relacionaron con las variaciones en la abundancia de la población, a través de un modelo lineal general. Se determinaron los valores medios y las anomalías de temperatura y salinidad de fondo. Las anomalías térmicas positivas más extremas se produjeron en 1999 y 2000, mientras que el año más frío fue 1996. La anomalía de salinidad más baja se registró en 1996 y la más alta en el 2000. La merluza se concentró principalmente en las zonas de gradientes térmicos y salinos Los juveniles se hallaron preferentemente en el Golfo San Jorge en aguas con temperaturas entre 8º y 10°C y salinidades entre 33,2 y 33,6 y los adultos dentro y fuera del mismo, con temperaturas de fondo entre 8º y 12°C y salinidades 33,2 y 33,5. Las mayores densidades de juveniles se hallaron en aguas de menor profundidad, con valores elevados de salinidad y menores valores de temperatura respecto de los adultos. Estos se concentraron tanto en el sector norte del golfo y en la Bahía Camarones, en aguas con relativamente alta temperatura y escasa profundidad, como sobre la plataforma frente al golfo, donde las aguas tienen menor salinidad debido a la deriva de la Corriente Patagónica de aguas diluidas. No se observaron cambios en la distribución de la población en los años con anomalías ambientales marcadas.Summer temperature and salinity data in the nursery ground of the Patagonian stock of Argentine hake Merluccius hubbsi recorded from 1996 to 2001 were analyzed. These oceanographic variables were related to variations in the hake population abundance by means of a general linear model. Mean values and anomalies of bottom temperatures and salinity fields were determined. The most extreme positive thermal anomalies occurred in 1999 and 2000

  9. Avoidance within a changing assessment paradigm for Mediterranean Hake stocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. RAGONESE

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean hake Merluccius merluccius L., 1758, is the emblem of the so-called Mediterranean demersal fisheries paradox, showing a persistent, although stable, status of growth overexploitation and an impressive gap between current and any biological reference point. Almost full avoidance capability of large size females to bottom trawls, higher overall growth rates than previously believed and higher natural mortality in juveniles than adult, were considered among the most plausible explanation factors of such persistence. In the present note, arguments are illustrated to raise some concern about avoidance and highlight the important role of the other factors in improving assessments and launching a short term recovery plan for Mediterranean Hake stocks which is more acceptable to fishermen.

  10. Escapement of Cape hakes under the fishing line of the Namibian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to establish whether Cape hakes Merluccius capensis and M. paradoxus escape under the fishing line and to identify any species or length dependence of escape rates. Experiments were carried out in Namibian waters during two cruises in October 2002 and October 2003. A collection bag ...

  11. Morphological and molecular characterisation of Aporocotyle margolisi Smith, 1967 (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from the North Pacific hake Merluccius productus (Ayres) (Gadiformes: Merlucciidae) off Oregon, USA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hernandez-Orts, J. S.; Hernández-Mena, D. I.; Alama-Bermejo, Gema; Kuchta, Roman; Jacobson, K. C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 7 (2017), s. 819-829 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112; GA ČR(CZ) GP14-28784P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : blood flukes * phylogeny * platyhelminthes * sequences * sanguinicolidae * perciformes * models * gene Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Veterinary science Impact factor: 1.181, year: 2016

  12. Efecto del uso de paneles de escape de malla cuadrada sobre la reducción de peces juveniles en la pesquería de arrastre de merluza común (Merluccius gayi gayi Effect of the use of square mesh escape panels on the reduction of young fish in the common hake (Merluccius gayi gayi trawl fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dante Queirolo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La evaluación de paneles de escape de malla cuadrada en redes de arrastre de fondo usadas en la pesquería de merluza común se realizó empleando dos metodologías complementarias: lances con sobrecopo y lances alternados. Los lances con sobrecopo permitieron cuantificar la fracción de la captura que escapa a través de los paneles de escape, y determinar la estructura de tallas y pesos medios, estimando longitudes de retención y rangos de selección. Se determinó la fracción bajo 30 y 36 cm de longitud total presentes en el copo y en el sobrecopo, ambos como indicadores del efecto selectivo que éstas producen. Los lances alternados permitieron verificar la disminución de los rendimientos de captura, tanto en número como en peso, aumentando los pesos medios de los ejemplares retenidos y disminuyendo la proporción de ejemplares bajo tallas de referencia, lo que indica la existencia de un efecto de escape en la fracción juvenil del stock.The evaluation of square mesh escape panels in bottom trawl nets used in the common hake fishery was carried out employing two complementary methodologies: top cover and alternated hauls. The top cover hauls were used to quantify the fraction of the catch that escapes through the panels and to determine the size structure and mean weight of the catch, estimating the retention sizes and selection ranges. The fractions under 30 and 36 cm of total length present in the codend and in the top cover were determined as proxies for the selective effect produced by the escape panels. The alternated hauls were used to verify the decrease in the catch rate, both in number and in weight, increasing the mean weight of the retained catch and decreasing the proportion under the reference length, for which we concluded that an escape effect does occur on the young fraction of the stock.

  13. Evaluation of some physico-chemical properties of restructured trout and hake mince during cold gelation and chilled storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreno, H.M.; Javier Borderias, A.; Baron, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Cold gelation was carried out on trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) or on hake (Merluccius mertuccius) mince with or without addition of fish oil and using microbial transglutaminase (MTGase). Products were stored at 4 QC for 6 days and lipid oxidation, protein oxidation, texture, water binding capacity......, and colour were followed. Results indicated that MTGase was able to generate gels with good properties for both trout and hake. Gels prepared with trout were oxidised whilst gels prepared with hake were stable toward oxidation even in the presence of 5% fish oil. However, in the presence of oil...

  14. Differential biomagnification of PCB, PBDE, Hg and Radiocesium in the food web of the European hake from the NW Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille; Bodiguel, Xavier; Charmasson, Sabine; Loizeau, Véronique; Mellon-Duval, Capucine; Tronczyński, Jacek; Cossa, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of marine organisms represents one of the main exposure sources of contaminants for human populations. To obtain a global view of the contamination in commercial fish in the NW Mediterranean Sea, we analysed four types of priority contaminants (PCBs, PBDEs, Hg and 137 Cs) in the European hake, Merluccius merluccius, from the Gulf of Lions in relation with organism’s trophic level (δ 15 N). All contaminants presented a significant increase in concentration in hake muscle with trophic level. However, obvious differences between contaminants were evidenced. Biomagnification factors (BMF and FWMF) along the hake food web were higher for Hg and CB-153 than for BDE-47 and 137 Cs, and increase in contaminant concentration with trophic level occurred at different rates depending on contaminants. Such differences of biomagnification patterns can be related to physico-chemical properties of the different contaminants.

  15. Cape hake Merluccius capensis are abundant over the Namibian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    In summer 1994, oxygen depletion was very pro- nounced in bottom waters over the Namibian shelf, from 18 to 25°S. In January, bottom water of the inner and midshelf regions of northern and central Namibia was depleted of oxygen to levels as low as <0.5 ml.l–1, with levels of between 1 and 2 ml.l–1 at the shelf edge.

  16. Use of sand wave habitats by silver hake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auster, P.J.; Lindholm, J.; Schaub, S.; Funnell, G.; Kaufman, L.S.; Valentine, P.C.

    2003-01-01

    Silver hake Merluccius bilinearis are common members of fish communities in sand wave habitats on Georges Bank and on Stellwagen Bank in the Gulf of Maine. Observations of fish size v. sand wave period showed that silver hake are not randomly distributed within sand wave landscapes. Regression analyses showed a significant positive relationship between sand wave period and fish length. Correlation coefficients, however, were low, suggesting other interactions with sand wave morphology, the range of current velocities, and available prey may also influence their distribution. Direct contact with sand wave habitats varied over diel periods, with more fish resting on the seafloor during daytime than at night. Social foraging, in the form of polarized groups of fish swimming in linear formations during crepuscular and daytime periods, was also observed. Sand wave habitats may provide shelter from current flows and mediate fish-prey interactions. ?? 2003 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  17. MICROBIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF ON-BOARD FISHING VESSEL HANDLING IN MERLUCCIUS MERLUCCIUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Serratore

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the impact of different manipulation techniques applied on board fishing vessel, on the microbiological quality of the flesh of European hake (Merluccius merluccius during storage at +3°C ± 1°C for a time (T of 10 days after landing (T1-T10. Samples of fish were taken from a fishing vessel of the Adriatic Sea and from one of the Tyrrhenian Sea, treated on-board under different icing conditions: 1 a low ice/product weight ratio and 2 an optimal ice/product weight ratio, up to 1:3 (3. Spoilage bacteria as Total Bacterial Count (TBC and specific spoilage bacteria as Sulphide Producing Bacteria (SPB were enumerated in fish flesh as Colony Forming Units (CFU/g on Plate Count Agar and Lyngby Agar at 20°C for 3-5 days. TBC of the Adriatic fishes (gutted on-board resulted 103 UFC/g at T1-T6, and 104-105 at T10, whereas TBC of the Tyrrhenian fishes (not gutted on-board resulted 10-102 UFC/g at T2- T3, 103 at T6, and 104-105 at T10. SPB resulted 10- 102 UFC/g at T1-T6, and 103- 104 at T10, with absolute values higher in the Adriatic fishes, in respect with the Tyrrhenian fishes, and in the low icing conditions in respect with the optimal icing condition. At the experimented condition, the lowering of the microbiological quality of fish flesh during storage, seems to be more dependent on the gutting versus not gutting on-board practice rather than on the low versus optimal icing treatment.

  18. Radiopasteurization of Merluccius, merluccius hubbsi fillet. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaupert, Norma.

    1977-11-01

    The actomyosin system of the ''Merluccius merluccius hubbsi'' fillet exposed to a dose of 0,50 Mrad gamma radiation was studied. The experiment was performed in order to evaluate the physical properties of these proteins from fillet that has been irradiated to extend its storage time at 4 deg C. The proteins extraction was made immediately after irradiation; at the same time, control samples were processed. A Spinco L2-65 Ultracentrifuge with a Schlieren Optics Accessory was used for velocity sedimentation measurements on the protein solutions. The results show that there are no changes in the sedimentation diagram of actomyosin system from irradiated fillet. (author) [es

  19. Anisakid parasites in commercial hake ceviche in southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Frenzel, Pablo; Torres, Patricio

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the occurrence of anisakid nematode larvae in hake ceviche sold in restaurants in Valdivia (39°48'S, 73°14'W) and Niebla (39°49'S, 73°22'W), Chile. Between August and November 2012, 78 portions of ceviche were collected (6 from each of the 13 restaurants that sell this product). Each portion was weighed and divided into approximately 30-g samples, which were placed in petri dishes with 0.15 M NaCl. All samples were manually shredded and then examined with a stereomicroscope. Muscles of 41 southern hake (Merluccius australis), a fish sold fresh in Valdivia, also were examined by candling to determine the presence of anisakid larvae. The presence of Pseudoterranova larvae in ceviche sold in Chile was identified for the first time. The pH of ceviche ranges from 4.1 to 4.8, which favors the presence of viable anisakid larvae that tolerate the acid pH similar to that found in the stomach of their mammalian host. No significant differences (P > 0.05) in the prevalence, mean abundance, and mean density of anisakid larvae in ceviche were found between localities. Larvae were detected in ceviche from 3 of 6 restaurants in Valdivia and 4 of 7 restaurants in Niebla. Of the 78 examined portions of ceviche, 21.8% had larvae. The prevalence of viable larvae was 16.7 and 7.1% in the examined portions from Valdivia and Niebla, respectively. In the 41 hake muscle samples from Valdivia, the prevalence (4.9%), mean abundance (0.1), and mean density (0.03) was the same for Pseudoterranova and Anisakis larvae. No inspection processes or pretreatments are currently in place for raw fish to achieve safe conditions for ceviche in restaurants from Valdivia and Niebla.

  20. Fine-scale environmental effects on Cape hake survey catch rates in the Northern Benguela, using data from a trawl-mounted instrument package

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kainge, Paulus Inekela; Wieland, Kai

    2017-01-01

    We investigated fine-scale effects of environmental variables associated with habitat distribution for 4 size groups of Cape hakes, Merluccius capensis and M. paradoxus, using generalized additive models (GAMs) with a negative binominal error distribution. This study took place during the Namibian...... hake trawl survey of 2016, and was made possible for the first time in Namibia by collecting oceanographic information with a trawl-mounted instrument package concurrently with the catch data. Depth, geographical position, bottom oxygen and bottom temperature had the most pronounced effect on the catch...... rates of both hake species, whereas solar zenith angle representing diel effects and surface layer chlorophyll appeared to be less important. The explained deviance for the best models ranged from 71.4% for M. capensis to 92.7% for M. paradoxus between 43 and 57 cm in length. Differences in catch rates...

  1. Effects of High-Pressure Treatment on the Muscle Proteome of Hake by Bottom-Up Proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Mónica; Fidalgo, Liliana G; Saraiva, Jorge A; Aubourg, Santiago P

    2018-05-02

    A bottom-up proteomics approach was applied for the study of the effects of high-pressure (HP) treatment on the muscle proteome of fish. The performance of the approach was established for a previous HP treatment (150-450 MPa for 2 min) on frozen (up to 5 months at -10 °C) European hake ( Merluccius merluccius). Concerning possible protein biomarkers of quality changes, a significant degradation after applying a pressure ≥430 MPa could be observed for phosphoglycerate mutase-1, enolase, creatine kinase, fructose bisphosphate aldolase, triosephosphate isomerase, and nucleoside diphosphate kinase; contrary, electrophoretic bands assigned to tropomyosin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and beta parvalbumin increased their intensity after applying a pressure ≥430 MPa. This repository of potential protein biomarkers may be very useful for further HP investigations related to fish quality.

  2. Metabarcoding analysis of European hake diet in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Riccioni

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available European hake (EH, Merluccius merluccius, is a demersal fish distributed from the North Sea and Atlantic to the Levantine Sea in the Mediterranean. EH is an important predator of deep Mediterranean upper shelf slope communities and it is currently characterised by growth overexploitation. EH adults feed mainly on fish and squids whereas the young (<16 cm feed on crustaceans. All current EH diet studies relied on the morphological identification of prey remains in stomach content, however this method is labour intensive and it precludes the identification of strongly digested food. The development of High-Throughput Sequencing (HTS approaches provide more accurate methods for dietary studies revealing many consumed species simultaneously (DNA metabarcoding. The aim of this study is to use a HTS approach based on COI amplification, contextually to classic microscopic morphological identification, to analyse EH stomach content and to evaluate the efficiency of the molecular method. HTS sequencing has been carried out on the amplicons obtained by PCR amplification (Leray et al. 2013 of stomach remains and all the Miseq Illumina paired-end reads have been analysed by using bioinformatic tools (Boyer et al. 2015 for taxonomic assignment. The selected sequences clustered in OCTUs (Operational Clustered Taxonomic Units and taxonomically assigned, will be used in diversity analyses to compute distance matrices among samples, to compare taxa summaries from different samples, to create networks and perform PCA and PcoA analysis. Classic microscopic morphological analyses on stomach content remains have been carried out contextually to compare the results of the two methods. The molecular approach has proven a promising method to study marine fish dietary habits. All the data will be summarized to reconstruct EH trophic dynamics in the Mediterranean Sea.

  3. Criteria for sustainable fisheries on juveniles illustrated for Mediterranean hake: control the juvenile harvest, and safeguard spawning refugia to rebuild population fecundity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Caddy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a broad overview of issues relevant to management of fisheries for juvenile fish in contrast to the many stock assessments following Beverton and Holt’s (1957 approach for rational exploitation of mature fishes. A perspective on assessing these fisheries is illustrated for juvenile European hake, Merluccius merluccius, in the northwestern Mediterranean. Here, a constant natural mortality (M assumption is incorrect, as is the assumption that high fecundities are necessarily adequate for stock replacement. The high Ms-at-age for juveniles generated by the reciprocal model are shown to be a logical counterpart to the high fecundity of hake. Charnov’s criterion of intergenerational reproductive replacement is used to test for a sustainable population, analogous to a limit reference point warning of the dangers of overfishing beyond population replacement. Once peak mortality rates of age 2 hake exceed F(2=1.1-1.2, which is currently the case, reproductive replacement may be at risk. Adult exploitation by inshore trawls is low, and maturing hake surviving the fine-mesh trawl fishery migrate offshore with a reduced vulnerability to fine-mesh gears. Early research suggested that rough bottom near the shelf edge once formed a refugium protecting offshore spawners from trawling, and led to abundant recruitment of juveniles nearer shore. It may not do so if offshore fishing effort by reinforced bottom trawls, gill nets and longlines is uncontrolled. Restoring offshore refugia to protect spawners and controlling peak fishing mortality of juveniles would be a precautionary strategy aimed at restoring previous levels of recruitment to the small-mesh trawl fishery.

  4. Phenological and distributional shifts in ichthyoplankton associated with recent warming in the northeast Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auth, Toby D; Daly, Elizabeth A; Brodeur, Richard D; Fisher, Jennifer L

    2018-01-01

    Understanding changes in the migratory and reproductive phenology of fish stocks in relation to climate change is critical for accurate ecosystem-based fisheries management. Relocation and changes in timing of reproduction can have dramatic effects upon the success of fish populations and throughout the food web. During anomalously warm conditions (1-4°C above normal) in the northeast Pacific Ocean during 2015-2016, we documented shifts in timing and spawning location of several pelagic fish stocks based on larval fish samples. Total larval concentrations in the northern California Current (NCC) during winter (January-March) 2015 and 2016 were the highest observed since annual collections first occurred in 1998, primarily due to increased abundances of Engraulis mordax (northern anchovy) and Sardinops sagax (Pacific sardine) larvae, which are normally summer spawning species in this region. Sardinops sagax and Merluccius productus (Pacific hake) exhibited an unprecedented early and northward spawning expansion during 2015-16. In addition, spawning duration was greatly increased for E. mordax, as the presence of larvae was observed throughout the majority of 2015-16, indicating prolonged and nearly continuous spawning of adults throughout the warm period. Larvae from all three of these species have never before been collected in the NCC as early in the year. In addition, other southern species were collected in the NCC during this period. This suggests that the spawning phenology and distribution of several ecologically and commercially important fish species dramatically and rapidly changed in response to the warming conditions occurring in 2014-2016, and could be an indication of future conditions under projected climate change. Changes in spawning timing and poleward migration of fish populations due to warmer ocean conditions or global climate change will negatively impact areas that were historically dependent on these fish, and change the food web structure

  5. There are two commercially exploited species of hake off Namibia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    on average 93% of the total landings of hake between. 1991 and ..... virtual population analysis (VPA) to formulate man- agement ... the same species below optimum levels, allowing the stock to .... 2001 — Depth-stratified density estimates.

  6. Cell and tissue biomarkers in mussel, and histopathology in hake and anchovy from Bay of Biscay after the Prestige oil spill (Monitoring Campaign 2003)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marigomez, Ionan [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain)]. E-mail ionan.marigomez@ehu.es; Soto, Manu [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain); Cancio, Ibon [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain); Orbea, Amaia [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain); Garmendia, Larraitz [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain); Cajaraville, Miren P. [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    In order to assess the biological effects of the Prestige oil spill (POS), mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), European hake (Merluccius merluccius) and European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) were sampled between April and September 2003 in various geographical areas of Bay of Biscay: Galicia, Central Cantabrian and East Cantabrian. In mussels, several cell and tissue biomarkers were measured: peroxisome proliferation as induction of acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) activity, lysosomal responses as changes in the structure (lysosomal volume density, V{sub V{sub L}}, surface-to-volume ratio, S/V{sub L}, and numerical density, N{sub V{sub L}}) and in membrane stability (labilization period, LP), cell type replacement as relative proportion of basophilic cells (volume density of basophilic cells, V{sub V{sub BAS}}) in digestive gland epithelium, and changes in the morphology of digestive alveoli as mean luminal radius to mean epithelial thickness (MLR/MET). Additionally, flesh condition index (FCI) and gonad index (GI) were measured as supporting parameters. In hake and anchovy, liver histopathology was examined to determine the prevalence of parasites, melanomacrophage centers, non-specific lesions (inflammatory changes, atrophy, necrosis, apoptosis), early non-neoplastic toxicopathic lesions (i.e., hepatocellular nuclear polymorphism), foci of cellular alteration, benign and malignant neoplasms. In mussels, AOX induction was noticeable in April except in Galicia. LP values were low in all the geographical areas studied, indicating disturbed health, especially in Galicia. Alike, lysosomal enlargement was observed in most stations as shown by the extremely low S/V{sub L} values. V{sub V{sub BAS}} and MLR/MET values were markedly high. Overall, employed biomarkers detected exposure to toxic chemicals and disturbed health in mussels from Bay of Biscay, with impact decreasing from April to September. Although hepatocellular nuclear polymorphism and nematode parasitization in

  7. Geostatistical modelling of the spatial life history of post-larval deepwater hake Merluccius paradoxus in the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, T; Kristensen, K; Fairweather, T. P.

    2017-01-01

    paradoxus are not reflected in the current assessment and management practices for the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem. In this study, we compiled data from multiple demersal trawl surveys from the entire distribution area and applied state-of the-art geostatistical population modelling (Geo...

  8. Trawl survey data are applied in fish stock assessment mainly to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    Merluccius capensis (shallow-water Cape hake) and. M. paradoxus (deep-water Cape hake) off Namibia provide an ... published data), meaning that the horizontal trawl opening will .... Acoustic data were post-processed twice daily. Hake.

  9. The behavior of hake prices in Chile: is the world market leading?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Quezada

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyzed price determination throughout the Chilean hake market chain. To analyze the relationship between different prices participating in this chain, a VECM model was successfully estimated. One cointegration vector was identified. Tests for weak exogenous variables, causality, and significance of different variables were performed, and a parsimonious version of the model was selected. The results obtained in this paper outline a price determination process that, in the end, is governed by world market conditions. Moreover, the diverse links in the hake market chain seem to be well integrated, which implies that there is little room for domestic price determination.

  10. The diurnal vertical dynamics of cape hake and their potential prey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cephalopods. Together with their cohabitant potential prey, hake are known to undertake diurnal vertical migrations, aggregating near the bottom during daylight, but migrating off the bottom at night. An attempt to determine the ... predation dominating. This may indicate a feeding strategy where vision is not important.

  11. Negative binomial distribution to describe the presence of Trifur tortuosus (Crustacea: Copepoda in Merluccius gayi (Osteichthyes: Gadiformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Garcia-Sepulveda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the frequency and number of Trifur tortuosus in the skin of Merluccius gayi, an important economic resource in Chile. Analysis of a spatial distribution model indicated that the parasites tended to cluster. Variations in the number of parasites per host can be described by a negative binomial distribution. The maximum number of parasites observed per host was one, similar patterns was described for other parasites in Chilean marine fishes.

  12. Juvenile hake predation on Myctophidae and Sternoptychidae: Quantifying an energy transfer between mesopelagic and neritic communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modica, Larissa; Cartes, Joan E.; Velasco, Francisco; Bozzano, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal study of the diet and food consumption of juvenile hake has been carried out in the Central Mediterranean Sea (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea). Fish were the most important food resource in terms of weight (ca. 70%). Among the fish, Myctophidae and Sternoptychidae, which are usually distributed deeper than juvenile hake, are most important. During summer, Ceratoscopelus maderensis constituted up to 21% of weight of all prey, and Maurolicus muelleri represented almost 10%. During autumn M. muelleri became the most important food resource. The way in which these more deeply distributed prey enter shallower food webs relates to the daily vertical migrations of lanternfish. In upper water column strata at night or near dawn they become prey of the juvenile hake. Considering that trophic energy flows primarily downward, in the direction of the productivity gradient, the observed flow of energy from deep strata into epipelagic layers could be considered an inverse energy transfer. Daily food consumption of juvenile hake ranged between 4.11 and 4.72% of the body wet-weight (BWW). The application of a square-root model allowed calculation of the fraction of this consumption derived by ingestion of the more deeply distributed mesopelagic fish. Between 11.6% and 17.8% of food consumption was sustained by this energy flow. Such information is useful for understanding the interaction between communities distributed in different depth ranges and to reinforce the idea that marine communities are open systems in which migratory movements can dramatically change the assumptions and results of mass-balance models.

  13. Environmental eff ects on the availability of shallow and deep-water hake to the demersaltrawl survey in Namibian waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kainge, Paulus Inekela

    at different size groups (juvenile, small, medium and large) of the two hake species. Most of the years, the environmental data were collected independent of the fishing operations usually on few selected transects with limited spatial overlap between the CTD and the trawl stations. The results, however...

  14. Four large coastal upwelling areas are created by eastern boundary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    large deep-water hake Merluccius paradoxus, 2.7% small M. paradoxus, 1.3% ... hake in the Benguela region, the shallow-water species. Merluccius capensis .... sharks are not included in the estimate, and neither is the proportion of sharks ...

  15. Determination of the Geographical Origin of All Commercial Hake Species by Stable Isotope Ratio (SIR) Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Mónica; Gallardo, José M

    2017-02-08

    The determination of the geographical origin of food products is relevant to comply with the legal regulations of traceability, to avoid food fraud, and to guarantee food quality and safety to the consumers. For these reasons, stable isotope ratio (SIR) analysis using an isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) instrument is one of the most useful techniques for evaluating food traceability and authenticity. The present study was aimed to determine, for the first time, the geographical origin for all commercial fish species belonging to the Merlucciidae family using SIR analysis of carbon (δ 13 C) and nitrogen (δ 15 N). The specific results enabled their clear classification according to the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) fishing areas, latitude, and geographical origin in the following six different clusters: European, North African, South African, North American, South American, and Australian hake species.

  16. Protein gels and emulsions from mixtures of Cape hake and pea proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomé, Ana Sofia; Pires, Carla; Batista, Irineu; Sousa, Isabel; Raymundo, Anabela

    2015-01-01

    Portioning of frozen fish generates by-products such as fish 'sawdust' and cut-offs which can be further processed into protein concentrates and isolates. The objective of the present work was to produce gels and emulsions using recovered Cape hake protein powder (HPP). In previous works, the structures of the gels produced by HPP were found to be strong, with a high rubbery character. In this work, the addition of commercial pea proteins (PPC) to HPP gels and emulsions was studied. Physical properties of gels and emulsions prepared with different proportions of mixtures of PPC and HPP were evaluated. In general, gels and emulsions showed high values for whiteness and, as expected, the higher content of HPP in the protein mixtures led to higher firmness values of the gels. The gel network was rapidly formed upon heating due to the fish protein macromolecules and further reinforced by the pea protein macromolecules when cooled to 5 °C. Both visco-elastic parameters, storage and loss moduli, of the produced gels increased with the HPP proportion in the protein mixtures, corresponding to more structured systems. For the emulsions, two different pH environments were studied: 3.8 and 7.0. At neutral pH a synergy was found between the vegetable and fish protein, which is not so strong when pH is lowered to 3.8, near the isoelectric point of pea proteins (pI = 4.5). This evidence was supported by the results from the texture measurements, viscosity and visco-elastic parameters. Gels made from Cape hake proteins showed a softer texture and were less rubbery with the addition of pea proteins. Emulsions stabilised by these mixtures showed slightly different behaviour when produced at pH 7.0 or pH 3.8. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. The reproductive biology and the histological and ultrastructural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-04-26

    Apr 26, 2010 ... characterized by “appearance of isolated follicular epithelial cells around the oocyte and the formation ... Sea. Murua and Motos (2004) studied reproductive biology and histological examination of European hake. (Merluccius merluccius) in the Bay of ... female M. merluccius in the Mediterranean Sea.

  18. Changes in the protein fraction of Merluccius bilinearis muscle under lactic acid bacterial fermentation using a Lactobacillus Acidophilus starter culture (ESP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Elizondo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on the protein fraction of Merluccius bilinearis muscle was evaluated. The non-protein fraction increased progressively with corresponding decreases in the percentage protein (dry weight indicating proteolytic activity during fermentation. Significant increases in the percentages of the amino acids cystine, isoleucine, phenylalanine and tyrosine were observed after two months of fermentation. Percentages of arginine decreased significantly after one week and again after two months of fermentation.

  19. Changes in the protein fraction of Merluccius bilinearis muscle under lactic acid bacterial fermentation using a Lactobacillus Acidophilus starter culture (ESP)

    OpenAIRE

    Elizondo, Luis J.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on the protein fraction of Merluccius bilinearis muscle was evaluated. The non-protein fraction increased progressively with corresponding decreases in the percentage protein (dry weight) indicating proteolytic activity during fermentation. Significant increases in the percentages of the amino acids cystine, isoleucine, phenylalanine and tyrosine were observed after two months of fermentation. Percentages of arginine decreased significantly aft...

  20. Hake fish bone as a calcium source for efficient bone mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammini, Lisa; Martuzzi, Francesca; Vivo, Valentina; Ghirri, Alessia; Salomi, Enrico; Bignetti, Enrico; Barocelli, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    Calcium is recognized as an essential nutritional factor for bone health. An adequate intake is important to achieve or maintain optimal bone mass in particular during growth and old age. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of hake fish bone (HBF) as a calcium source for bone mineralization: in vitro on osteosarcoma SaOS-2 cells, cultured in Ca-free osteogenic medium (OM) and in vivo on young growing rats fed a low-calcium diet. Lithotame (L), a Ca supplement derived from Lithothamnium calcareum, was used as control. In vitro experiments showed that HBF supplementation provided bone mineralization similar to standard OM, whereas L supplementation showed lower activity. In vivo low-Ca HBF-added and L-added diet similarly affected bone deposition. Physico-chemical parameters concerning bone mineralization, such as femur breaking force, tibia density and calcium/phosphorus mineral content, had beneficial effects from both Ca supplementations, in the absence of any evident adverse effect. We conclude HBF derived from by-product from the fish industry is a good calcium supplier with comparable efficacy to L.

  1. Determination of essential and toxic elements in sea bass (Centropomus sp.) and hake (Cynoscion leiarchus) consumed in the city of Sao Paulo by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabiano, Karen C.; Moreira, Edson G.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.

    2013-01-01

    The goal was to use the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to evaluate the levels of essential and toxic elements in samples of hake (Cynoscion leiarchus) and sea bass (Centropomus sp.) that are most consumed fish in the town of some Sao Paulo. Ten specimens of hake and sea bass were acquired in Companhia de Entrepostos e Armazens Gerais de Sao Paulo (CEAGESP), main supply center for the population of the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo. After gutted and cleaned, the edible tissue was freeze-dried, ground and sieved. The elements were determined through the use of hyperpure germanium spectrometer after irradiation in the nuclear research reactor IEAR-1

  2. What can gene flow and recruitment dynamics tell us about connectivity between European hake stocks in the Eastern North Atlantic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita, Alfonso; Pérez, Montse; Cerviño, Santiago; Presa, Pablo

    2011-04-01

    Systematic genetic analyses of fish populations allow the testing of temporal stability in their genetic structures and better understanding their pattern of connectivity. In this study the pattern of gene flow between the two Atlantic stocks of the European hake has been examined for the period 2000-2002. Present analyses indicate that a large genetic homogeneity existed among all Atlantic populations in that period, and that a systematic grouping occurred between Porcupine Bank samples and Cantabric ones. This scenario is congruent with an inter-annual gene flow from central grounds of the northern stock (Porcupine and Great Sole) to Iberian grounds inhabited by the southern stock. Additionally, estimated migration figures were in agreement with the good recruitments observed in the southern stock after 2003 despite the spawning biomass was at its historical minimum. Altogether these results highlight the central role of Porcupine bank and Great Sole in making sustainable both stocks and advocate the integrative management of this hake fishery by means of a multidisciplinary assessment.

  3. 2013 Joint U.S.-Canada Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Survey of Pacific Hake and Pacific Sardine (SaKe 2013) (SH1305, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists from the Fishery Resource Analysis and Monitoring (FRAM) division at the NOAA Fisheries Northwest Fisheries Science Center (NWFSC), the Fishery Resources...

  4. 2013 Joint U.S.-Canada Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Survey of Pacific Hake and Pacific Sardine (SaKe 2015) (SH1507, ME70)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2015 SaKe survey will span the west coasts of the U.S. and Canada from approximately lat 32.8?N (San Diego) to approximately lat 54.65?N (Dixon Entrance,...

  5. 2013 Joint U.S.-Canada Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Survey of Pacific Hake and Pacific Sardine (SaKe 2015) (SH1507, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2015 SaKe survey will span the west coasts of the U.S. and Canada from approximately lat 32.8?N (San Diego) to approximately lat 54.65?N (Dixon Entrance,...

  6. Alimentación de Squalus acanthias y predación sobre Merluccius hubbsi en el Mar Argentino entre 34°47'-47°S.

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia de la Rosa, S.B.; Sánchez, M.F.

    1997-01-01

    The spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias is an euribatic, euritermic and cosmopolitan specie. In the Argentine Sea it consumes diversity of preys, characteristic of a generalist and oportunist feeder, butits principal food items are ctenophores, fishes and cephalopods.Diet overlap between sexes was found between 34°-37°S and 101-150 m,where males principally feed on fishes, squid and polichaetes,sharing only ctenophores and hake consumption with the females. Near 62 cm TL there is a shift in the ...

  7. The Food and Agriculture Organization, in its Reykjavik Declaration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-06-06

    Jun 6, 2005 ... information on the geographical distribution of marine species to improve .... snoek, albacore, bigeye tuna, yellowfin tuna, shallow- water Cape hake Merluccius capensis and deep- ..... raw data processing by MCM. Because ...

  8. The Benguela upwelling system is one of the most productive in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Waldron and Probyn 1992), providing a large biomass of plankton and planktivo- rous fish (Ware 1992) that in turn are preyed on by the. Cape hakes Merluccius capensis and M. paradoxus, which are dominant and highly successful demersal.

  9. lutionary research has been on the relationships and structure of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    off Namibia have been limited by either a spatial or a temporal scale ... Antarctic Intermediate, deep and bottom waters. (Shannon .... either to include or to ignore rare species (Alatalo ...... Shallow-water Cape hake Merluccius capensis, horse.

  10. SNP Discovery In Marine Fish Species By 454 Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panitz, Frank; Nielsen, Rasmus Ory; van Houdt, Jeroen K J

    2011-01-01

    Based on the 454 Next-Generation-Sequencing technology (Roche) a high throughput screening method was devised in order to generate novel genetic markers (SNPs). SNP discovery was performed for three target species of marine fish: hake (Merluccius merluccius), herring (Clupea harengus) and sole...

  11. Evaluation of a class of possible simple interim management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During 1997, considerable scientific differences arose about the status of the Namibian hake (Merluccius capensis and M. paradoxus) resource, and as to whether the hake Total Allowable Catch (TAC) should be substantially decreased or increased. These differences revolved primarily around whether or not abundance ...

  12. Efecto de la incorporación de transglutaminasa microbiana en las propiedades sensoriales de hamburguesas de desmenuzado de merluza (Merluccius hubbsi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Panuncio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se elaboraron hamburguesas de pescado a partir de desmenuzado de merluza (Merluccius hubbsi con la incorporación de transglutaminasa microbiana, con la finalidad de mejorar sus propiedades sensoriales y elaborar un producto pesquero que fomente el consumo de pescado en Uruguay. Se evaluó desde el punto de vista sensorial y de textura instrumental el efecto del agregado de la enzima en la formulación de las hamburguesas. Se elaboraron tres tipos de hamburguesas: sin enzima y con incorporación de 0,5% y 1,0% de enzima transglutaminasa, respectivamente. Para la evaluación sensorial se analizaron las muestras con un panel de seis jueces entrenados y para la determinación de los parámetros de textura instrumental se utilizó un analizador de textura TA.XT2i. Los resultados de ambos estudios indicaron que el agregado de enzima mejoró sustancialmente la apariencia, la textura y el sabor del producto. Se obtuvo un producto pesquero innovador, con características que pueden resultar muy atractivas para el consumidor uruguayo.

  13. Tradition haking s up

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    more years before her hopes become a real- ... spend time with my children whenever possible. Although I ... 12 years of her marriage traveling between. India and ... The real breakthrough for Asia, according to Vijayalakshmi, will come only ...

  14. Vacuum influence in the radurization of the Merluccius Merluccius Hubsi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritacco, Miguel.

    1976-02-01

    A study was performed in order to determine the vacuum influence in the radurization of the merluce fillet in vaccum packed products irradiated at a dose of 0,5 Mrad. The product quality evaluation was performed using the periodical analysis of their organoleptic characteristics and determining the Trimetilamine values, Volatile Acid Number, Total Volatile Bases and Volatile Reducing Substances. The preservation state of the product was determined calculating the ''Edibility Index'' (Esub(I)). The results show that the vacuum packing conditions would allow to preserve at 4 deg C the merluce irradiated fillets during 48 days. (author) [es

  15. Pacific Equatorial Transect

    OpenAIRE

    Pälike, Heiko; Nishi, Hiroshi; Lyle, Mitch; Raffi, Isabella; Klaus, Adam; Gamage, Kusali

    2009-01-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 320/321, "Pacific Equatorial Age Transect" (Sites U1331–U1338), was designed to recover a continuous Cenozoic record of the paleoequatorial Pacific by coring above the paleoposition of the Equator at successive crustal ages on the Pacific plate. These sediments record the evolution of the paleoequatorial climate system throughout the Cenozoic. As we gained more information about the past movement of plates and when in Earth's history "critical" cli...

  16. Asia Pacific energy derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusaro, P.C.

    1997-09-01

    Asia Pacific Energy Derivatives, from FT Energy, is the first report of its kind to examine the growth of energy derivatives within Asia Pacific and their increasing importance within this region. It provides a comprehensive overview of the subject, including analysis of: deregulation as a market driver; the impact of privatisation; the future for energy risk management tools; the unique characteristics of the Asia Pacific energy market; the role of futures exchanges in Asia; existing indexes and their performance; the differences between the Asia Pacific markets and their more mature counterparts in London and New York; non-oil derivatives, project finance and cross commodity arbitrage; the thriving Pacific Rim Over the Counter (OTC) markets. (author)

  17. Bayesian analysis of allozyme markers indicates a single genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kingklip Genypterus capensis inhabit deep continental shelf and slope waters off southern Africa and are now largely harvested as a bycatch in trawl and longline fisheries for Cape hakes Merluccius spp. Regional differences in growth, vertebral count and otolith morphology indicate that kingklip may consist of three stocks.

  18. A model of trophic flows in the northern Benguela upwelling system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ultimately, this type of model may form a basis for multispecies management approaches in the region. By the 1980s, sardine Sardinops sagax and hake Merluccius spp. stocks in the northern Benguela had both undergone a decline, yet were still heavily fished. Horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus capensis had increased ...

  19. A history of recent bases for management and the development of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bases for historical catch limits placed on the hake fishery are reviewed in brief for ... Management Procedure (OMP) approach was introduced for this fishery. ... species-disaggregated assessments of the resource as Operating Models. ... (substantial Merluccius paradoxus and catch per unit effort [CPUE] recovery, and ...

  20. Aspects of the reproductive biology of monkfish Lophius vomerinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspects of the reproductive biology of monkfish Lophius vomerinus are described from material collected during hake Merluccius spp. biomass surveys and from commercial monkfish and sole Austroglossus microlepis vessels between January 1996 and June 2000 off Namibia at depths between 97m and 686m.

  1. The Cape commercial linefishery consists of about 2 500 vessels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    assessing the ecosystem effects of fishing and evaluating the benefits of ... Such information would assist in the ... Traditional Cape linefish may be broadly divided into ... gressively farther offshore (and into deeper. Griffiths: ... (Griffiths 1997c); this process controls avail- ... of shallow-water Cape hake Merluccius capensis,.

  2. Increasingly, holistic ecosystem approaches are being developed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    were investigated by means of a posteori tests. Cumulative prey ... mum 12 h) or frozen for later processing ashore. Gonads were ..... (e.g. sardine, round herring), or prefer deeper offshore waters (e.g. .... Cape hake (shallow-water). Merluccius ...

  3. Spawning strategies and transport of early stages of the two Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal and short-term variability of environmental parameters influence the spawning strategies of fish species. In this study, the spawning strategies and the transport of early stages of the two Cape hake species off South Africa were investigated. Distribution of eggs and larvae of Merluccius paradoxus and M. capensis ...

  4. Push from the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaccard, Samuel L.; Galbraith, Eric D.

    2018-05-01

    Enhanced upwelling and CO2 degassing from the subpolar North Pacific during a warm event 14,000 years ago may have helped keep atmospheric CO2 levels high enough to propel the Earth out of the last ice age.

  5. Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Congress established the Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund (PCSRF) to monitor the restoration and conservation of Pacific salmon and steelhead populations and...

  6. Researching Pacific island livelihoods:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund Christensen, Andreas; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    on contemporary theories of nissology and conceptual analytical frameworks for island research. Through a review of selected case-study-based island literature on changing livelihoods coming out of the South Pacific, we wish to illustrate and discuss advantages of finding common grounds for small island studies....... The focus is on two dimensions of island livelihood, migration and natural resource management, both of which are significant contributors in making island livelihoods and shaping Pacific seascapes. We argue that there is still a substantial lack of studies targeting small island dynamics that are empirical...

  7. Fiji in the South Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Rosalind; Semaan, Leslie

    This text introduces Fiji and other island nations located in the Pacific, the world's largest ocean. Cut off from the world by vast expanses of water, these people developed a unique culture. Contents include: Teacher Overview, Geography of the South Pacific Islands, History of the South Pacific, Fiji, Traditional Village Life, Yaquna Ceremony,…

  8. Indo-Pacific echinoids in the tropical eastern Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessios, H. A.; Kessing, B. D.; Wellington, G. M.; Graybeal, A.

    1996-06-01

    The existing literature reports that only one species of Indo-Pacific echinoid ( Echinometra oblonga), occurs in the eastern Pacific. In this study we confirm the presence of this species at Islas Revillagigedo and also report the presence of two species of Echinothrix (a genus hitherto unknown outside the Indo-Pacific) at Isla del Coco and at Clipperton Island. We also present evidence from isozymes and from mitochondrial DNA sequences indicating that at least one individual of Diadema at Clipperton may belong to a maternal lineage characteristic of the west Pacific species D. savignyi. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the observed populations of Indo-Pacific echinoid species are recent arrivals to the eastern Pacific, as opposed to the view that they are relicts of Tethyan pan-tropical distributions. Echinothrix diadema, in particular, may have arrived at Isla del Coco during the 1982-1983 El Nifio. In addition to Indo-Pacific species, Clipperton, Isla del Coco and the Revillagigedos contain a complement of eastern Pacific echinoids. The echinoid faunas of these islands should, therefore, be regarded as mixtures of two biogeographic provinces. Though none of the Indo-Pacific species are known to have reached the coast of the American mainland, their presence at the offshore islands of the eastern Pacific suggests that, for some echinoids, the East Pacific Barrier is not as formidable an obstacle to migration as was previously thought.

  9. Pacific Island Pharmacovigilance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEwen, John; Vestergaard, Lasse S.; Sanburg, Amanda L C

    2016-01-01

    Many Pacific Island countries (PICs) are recipients of funding support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund). However, most of these countries cannot be expected to meet Global Fund and World Health Organization (WHO) minimum requirements for a functioning...

  10. The Pacific RANET Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postawko, S.; Ah Poe, A.; Morrissey, M.

    2004-12-01

    There are few places in the world more vulnerable to the effects of climate variability and change than the island nations of the tropical Pacific Ocean. The region also faces great challenges in communicating the issues related to climate to the general population. Lack of communications infrastructure, multiple languages, and knowledgeable personnel to deliver information, are all challenges for these countries. However, a recently developed international consortium is taking the first steps to addressing these challenges. The RANET (RAdio and interNET communications) project was originally developed for the countries of Africa, with initial funding from NOAA, to make weather, climate, and other environmental information more accessible to remote and resource-poor communities. The program is now expanding into Asia and the Pacific. RANET works to build telecommunication bridges between scientific-based products and remote communities that could benefit from such information.?The RANET project in the Pacific is a consortium of partners from the Pacific Island nations, the U.S., New Zealand, Australia, and others. Coordination of the project is loosely overseen by a Steering Committee, made up of representatives from the various interested partners. For regions where the appropriate technology exists (which includes the capital cities of nearly all of the island states of the Pacific), information is downloaded via a digital satellite receiver. This can then be broadcast within a country by many means, including Community FM Radio stations. The information distributed includes technical information needed by meteorological and related services to improve their own products and services, as well as a second level of information designed to serve communities, including weather forecasts, bulletins, warnings, etc. The primary challenge at this time is developing content that is both relevant and understandable to these remote communities. While some information will

  11. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  12. Power in the pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Highlights of the fourth Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference are presented, with the emphasis on opportunities for Canadian nuclear exports to the region. Japan and Korea are pressing ahead with nuclear generating programs to reduce their dependence on imported oil. Korea aims to increase the Korean content of its nuclear industry, and to participate in international ventures. China plans several nuclear power stations. In Canada and the U.S.A., no recent domestic orders have been received. Mexico is financially constrained to delay its nuclear program for about ten years. Indonesia is starting with a research reactor

  13. Arbutus menziesii Pursh. Pacific madrone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald

    1990-01-01

    Pacific madrone (Arbutus menziesii) is one of the most widely distributed tree species native to the Pacific coast. Named for its discoverer, Archibald Menzies, a 19th century Scottish physician and naturalist, the species is called arbutus in Canada, and madrone, madroña, or madroño in the United States. The latter name is...

  14. Occurrence of mislabelling in prepared fishery products in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Tantillo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fish authentication is a major concern not only for the prevention of commercial fraud, but also for the assessment of safety risks deriving from the undeclared introduction of potentially dangerous toxic or allergenic substances or environmentally damaging fish where endangered species are involved. Moreover, food authentication might affect the diet of certain groups of consumers, such as followers of religious practices. Considering the authentication of fish products is one of the key issues in food safety, quality and sustainability, the aim of this work was to investigate the prevalence of mislabelling in sole (Solea solea, plaice (Pleuronectes platessa, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, and hake (Merluccius merluccius fillets from markets and supermarkets located in Apulia (Southern Italy using DNA barcoding. The results of the molecular investigations reveal that 42/98 (42.8% fillet samples were not correctly labelled. In particular, 12/27 (44.4% fillets of sole (Solea solea were identified as belonging to Solea senegalensis. In addition, 13/28 (46.4% plaice (Pleuronectes platessa samples were identified as Pangasius hypophtalmus. All Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar samples were correctly labelled. Post-sequencing data analysis revealed that 17/30 (56.6% hake fillets (Merluccius merluccius were not correctly labelled, of which 8/30 samples identified as Merluccius hubbsi, 5/30 samples as Merluccius products and 4/30 as Merluccius capensis. The study reveals a high occurrence of species mislabelling in the prepared fish fillet products, further evidence of the need for increased traceability and assessment of the authenticity of food products.

  15. 76 FR 33641 - Safety Zone; The Pacific Grove Feast of Lanterns, Fireworks Display, Pacific Grove, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; The Pacific Grove Feast of Lanterns, Fireworks Display, Pacific Grove, CA AGENCY... support of the Pacific Grove Feast of Lanterns Fireworks Display. This safety zone is established to... Purpose Pacific Grove Feast of Lanterns will sponsor the Pacific Grove Feast of Lanterns Fireworks Display...

  16. Pacific Northwest regional AGU meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyndman, Roy

    The 27th Annual Pacific Northwest Regional American Geophysical Union Meeting, held September 25 and 26, 1980, was hosted by the Pacific Geoscience Centre at the Institute of Ocean Sciences, near Victoria, British Columbia. A total of 79 papers was presented to the 150 registrants in six general sessions: seismology; electromagnetic induction; general geophysics; volcanology; hydrology; and oceanography, and in three special symposia: ‘The Queen Charlotte-Fairweather fault system and other active faults of the Pacific Northwest’ ‘Coastal circulation in the northeast Pacific’ and ‘Studies of the eruption of Mount St. Helens.’

  17. Western Pacific Typhoon Aircraft Fixes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Western Pacific typhoon aircraft reconnaissance data from the years 1946 - 1965 and 1978, excluding 1952, were transcribed from original documents, or copy of...

  18. Wave energy: a Pacific perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paasch, Robert; Ruehl, Kelley; Hovland, Justin; Meicke, Stephen

    2012-01-28

    This paper illustrates the status of wave energy development in Pacific rim countries by characterizing the available resource and introducing the region's current and potential future leaders in wave energy converter development. It also describes the existing licensing and permitting process as well as potential environmental concerns. Capabilities of Pacific Ocean testing facilities are described in addition to the region's vision of the future of wave energy.

  19. Reducing Maori and Pacific Inequalities

    OpenAIRE

    The Treasury

    2001-01-01

    Over the last fifty years the Maori and non-Maori populations have slowly and unevenly become more similar on a range of key demographic, social and economic outcomes. This has principally been driven by increased geographic and social proximity between the two groups. There is evidence that similar processes may be operating for migrant peoples from the Pacific. Many Maori and Pacific people do better than the population median. Conversely, on most outcomes, a much greater number of people o...

  20. 76 FR 6402 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Groundfish Essential Fish Habitat Review Committee... review of Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) descriptions for Pacific Coast groundfish species. Major topics of...

  1. Pacific Studies: Quo Vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Holden Rønning

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Looking back to the past this paper discusses why Pacific studies and in particular Australasian studies became an area of interest in tertiary education in Europe. What subject areas initiated these studies, and how do past legacies shape the present? With cutbacks in higher education over the past two decades the future of interdisciplinary studies and the humanities looks bleak. At the same time due to global business and increased political communication across borders there is a vibrant interest in and need for such studies among businesses and students. For most Europeans the literature of settler countries, with their European legacy, makes access to ways of thought and culture easier than studies of countries with other mythological backgrounds. In today’s multicultural environment such studies can provide knowledge for an understanding of other cultures and increase tolerance of the ‘other’. Area studies have relevance to our situation in Europe with increased migrancy, not least as a result of Schengen and EU regulations.

  2. Incidence and significance of cystic structures in the ovaries of gadoid fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Domínguez-Petit

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Fish regulate egg production by atresia. Sometimes, oocytes are encapsulated in cystic structures that might remain in the ovary for months, altering female reproductive potential in future spawning seasons. Ovaries of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua, L. from the Flemish Cap and European hake (Merluccius merluccius, L. from the Galician Shelf (NW Spain were analysed from 1999 to 2006. The prevalence and abundance of ovarian cysts were estimated. Cyst prevalence increased with female size and/or age for both species, and decreased with high condition factor in hake. Cyst intensity does not correlate with any analysed factor. The size/age structure of spawning stock biomass and female condition could affect the prevalence of cysts in the ovaries, though it does not seem to affect cyst intensity in the ovary. Further research is needed to determine cyst resorption time and the impact that it has on egg production and consequently on stock reproductive potential.

  3. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Asthma Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders National data for ... very limited. While all of the causes of asthma remain unclear, children exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke ...

  4. Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Immunizations Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders Asian/Pacific Islander ... 35 months reached the Healthy People goal for immunizations for hepatitis B, MMR (measles-mumps-rubella), polio ...

  5. Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database Across the Pacific Northwest, both public and private agents are working to improve riverine habitat for a...

  6. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    The full text of the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty with its Annexes endorsed on 6 August 1985 by the South Pacific Forum (a body comprising the independent and self-governing countries of the South Pacific, namely Australia, the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand, Nive, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Western Samoa) is presented

  7. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    On 6 August 1985 the South Pacific Forum, a body comprising the independent and self-governing countries of the South Pacific (Australia, the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Western Samoa), endorsed the text of the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty and opened it for signature [es

  8. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    On 6 August 1985 the South Pacific Forum, a body comprising the independent and self-governing countries of the South Pacific (Australia, the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Western Samoa), endorsed the text of the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty and opened it for signature [ru

  9. Pacific Rim log trade: determinants and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald F. Flora; Andrea L. Anderson; Wendy J. McGinnls

    1991-01-01

    Pacific Rim trade in softwood logs amounts to about $3 billion annually, of which the U.S. share is about $2 billion. Log exporting is a significant part of the forest economy in the Pacific Northwest. The 10 major Pacific Rim log-trading client and competitor countries differ widely in their roles in trade and in their policies affecting the industry.

  10. A review of Kudoa-induced myoliquefaction of marine fish species in South Africa and other countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun S. Henning

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Myoliquefaction of fish musculature results in customer quality complaints and in huge economic losses, especially with regard to Pacific hake (Merluccius productus, farm-reared Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, South African pilchards (Sardinops ocellatus and Cape snoek (Thyrsites atun. Myoliquefaction, or jelly flesh, is caused by proteolytic enzymes released by the marine myxosporean parasite,Kudoa thyrsites, after the death of the fish. Currently there are no fast methods of detection for this microscopic parasite, and because myoliquefaction is evident only after 38-56 h post-mortem, infected fish inevitably reach the processor and/or consumer. Several methods of detection have been investigated, but most of these methods are time-consuming and/or result in destruction of the fish, and are thus impractical for fishing vessels and fish processors. Limited research is available on possible means of destroying or inhibiting the post-mortem activity of the parasitic proteolytic enzyme. Means such as manipulating post-mortem pH and temperature control have been suggested; leaving opportunities for research into food technology applications such as cold-chain management and ionising radiation.

  11. Trade in the Pacific Rim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollar, David

    1988-01-01

    States that international trade is a prime factor linking the Pacific Rim nations. Discusses the differences in each nation's productive factors (land, labor, capital) and examines the emerging technological competition. Concludes that if U.S. firms cannot meet the challenge of foreign competition, then protectionism might limit further economic…

  12. Code breaking in the pacific

    CERN Document Server

    Donovan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Covers the historical context and the evolution of the technically complex Allied Signals Intelligence (Sigint) activity against Japan from 1920 to 1945 Describes, explains and analyzes the code breaking techniques developed during the war in the Pacific Exposes the blunders (in code construction and use) made by the Japanese Navy that led to significant US Naval victories

  13. Indian Ocean warming modulates Pacific climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jing-Jia; Sasaki, Wataru; Masumoto, Yukio

    2012-11-13

    It has been widely believed that the tropical Pacific trade winds weakened in the last century and would further decrease under a warmer climate in the 21st century. Recent high-quality observations, however, suggest that the tropical Pacific winds have actually strengthened in the past two decades. Precise causes of the recent Pacific climate shift are uncertain. Here we explore how the enhanced tropical Indian Ocean warming in recent decades favors stronger trade winds in the western Pacific via the atmosphere and hence is likely to have contributed to the La Niña-like state (with enhanced east-west Walker circulation) through the Pacific ocean-atmosphere interactions. Further analysis, based on 163 climate model simulations with centennial historical and projected external radiative forcing, suggests that the Indian Ocean warming relative to the Pacific's could play an important role in modulating the Pacific climate changes in the 20th and 21st centuries.

  14. United States Pacific Command, Asia-Pacific Economic Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    export process more efficient and effective by reducing export barriers and expanding markets abroad. The strategy coordinates the U.S. Government’s...investment from Western companies, such as Boeing and Mercedes - Benz , since China opened to the outside world the late 1970s.12 North Korea’s arms... markets for American trade and investment. Expanding wealth and opportunity in many Asia-Pacific countries have facilitated a transition to greater

  15. Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The Earth's climate has varied significantly in the past, yet climate records reveal that in the tropics, sea surface temperatures seem to have been remarkably stable, varying by less than a few degrees Celsius over geologic time. Today, the large warm pool of the western Pacific shows similar characteristics. Its surface temperature always exceeds 27[degree]C, but never 31[degree]C. Heightened interest in this observation has been stimulated by questions of global climate change and the exploration of stabilizing climate feedback processes. Efforts to understand the observed weak sensitivity of tropical sea surface temperatures to climate forcing has led to a number of competing ideas about the nature of this apparent thermostat. Although there remains disagreement on the processes that regulate tropical sea surface temperature, most agree that further progress in resolving these differences requires comprehensive field observations of three-dimensional water vapor concentrations, solar and infrared radiative fluxes, surface fluxes of heat and water vapor, and cloud microphysical properties. This document describes the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX) plan to collect such observations over the central equatorial Pacific Ocean during March of 1993.

  16. Pacific Northwest regional assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest (comprised of the states of Alaska, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington and Wyoming) can by several measures be regarded as a national warehouse of fossil energy resources. This condition coupled with an evolving national policy stressing utilization of fossil fuels in the near term prior to development of more advanced technologies for energy supply, could result in the imposition of major changes in the region's environmental, socioeconomic and possibly health status. The objective of the Pacific Northwest Regional Assessment Program is to establish and exercise an integrated analytical assessment program for evaluation of these potential changes that may result from various energy development or conservation scenarios. After consideration of a variety of approaches to integrated assessment at a regional level, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) has concluded that dynamic simulation techniques provide the best available approach to evaluating the issues pertinent to the Northwest. As a result, the PNW Regional Assessment Program has been structured in a framework involving ten sectors. Each of these sectors involve their own submodels that receive information either from outside the model as exogenous inputs or from other sector submodels

  17. Indian Ocean warming modulates Pacific climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jing-Jia; Sasaki, Wataru; Masumoto, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    It has been widely believed that the tropical Pacific trade winds weakened in the last century and would further decrease under a warmer climate in the 21st century. Recent high-quality observations, however, suggest that the tropical Pacific winds have actually strengthened in the past two decades. Precise causes of the recent Pacific climate shift are uncertain. Here we explore how the enhanced tropical Indian Ocean warming in recent decades favors stronger trade winds in the western Pacific via the atmosphere and hence is likely to have contributed to the La Niña-like state (with enhanced east–west Walker circulation) through the Pacific ocean–atmosphere interactions. Further analysis, based on 163 climate model simulations with centennial historical and projected external radiative forcing, suggests that the Indian Ocean warming relative to the Pacific’s could play an important role in modulating the Pacific climate changes in the 20th and 21st centuries. PMID:23112174

  18. Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry at 40m resolution surrounding Baker Island, within the Pacific Remote Island Areas - Central Pacific Ocean. Bottom coverage was achieved in depths...

  19. Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry at 40m resolution surrounding Howland Island, within the Pacific Remote Island Areas - Central Pacific Ocean. Bottom coverage was achieved in...

  20. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) East Pacific/ North Pacific Teleconnection Pattern Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly tabulated index of the East Pacific/ North Pacific teleconnection pattern. The data spans the period 1950 to present. The index is derived from a rotated...

  1. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    On 8 August 1986 the Protocols to the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty were adopted by the South Pacific Forum at its 17 th session, in Suva. The attached texts of the Protocols were formally communicated to the Director General by the Director of the South Pacific Bureau for Economic Co-operation (SPEC) and are herewith being circulated to all Member States for their information pursuant to a request made by the Director of SPEC. Following the deposit of the eighth instrument of ratification, the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty entered into force on 11 December 1986 [es

  2. Sediment Evaluation Framework for the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sediment Evaluation Framework provides a regional framework for assessment, characterization and management of sediments in the Pacific Northwest to determine suitability for unconfined in-water disposal.

  3. Pacific oyster culture in British Columbia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quayle, D. B; Quayle, Daniel Branch

    1988-01-01

    .... Harvesting, processing, and storage methods are described. The problems of Pacific oyster culture include industrial and sewage pollution, paralytic shellfish poisoning along with predators and disease...

  4. 76 FR 55363 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Groundfish Management Team (GMT) [[Page 55364... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National...; telephone: (206) 526-6150. Council address: Pacific Fishery Management Council, 7700 NE Ambassador Place...

  5. 78 FR 25955 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Highly Migratory Species Management Team (HMSMT... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... be implemented pursuant to the precautionary management framework for North Pacific albacore...

  6. 77 FR 75614 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Highly Migratory Species Management Team (HMSMT... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National.... Council address: Pacific Fishery Management Council, 7700 NE. Ambassador Place, Suite 101, Portland, OR...

  7. 78 FR 27367 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Highly Migratory Species Management Team (HMSMT... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... be implemented pursuant to the precautionary management framework for North Pacific albacore...

  8. 75 FR 49890 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Coastal Pelagic Species Management Team (CPSMT) and... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... will be available at the following location: Pacific Fishery Management Council, Small Conference Room...

  9. Blood types in Pacific salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, G.L.; Klontz, G.W.

    1961-01-01

    Intraspecific differences in erythrocyte antigens (blood types) were shown to occur in four species of Pacific salmon, the sockeye or red salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), the chinook or king salmon (0. tshawytscha), the chum salmon (O. keta), and the pink salmon (O. gorbuscha). Antisalmon-erythrocyte sera prepared in rabbits and chickens were used after absorption of species-specific antibodies. Some of these blood types were shown to differ in their frequency of occurrence between different geographic races. In addition, isoimmunizations were conducted on one race of sockeye salmon. Antisera of seven different specificities were prepared and at least eight different patterns of antigenic composition were displayed by the cells tested.

  10. Commonwealth Local Government Forum Pacific Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Parker

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Commonwealth Local Government Forum (CLGF Pacific Project works with local government and other stakeholders in nine Pacific Island countries – Cook Islands, Fiji Islands, Kiribati, Samoa, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu and Vanuatu. It seeks to strengthen local democracy and good governance, and to help local governments deal with the increasing challenges of service delivery and urban management in the unique Pacific environment. Human settlement patterns in the region are changing rapidly. The Pacific has traditionally been a rural agricultural/subsistence society, but this is no longer the case. The accelerated pace of urbanisation has impacted significantly on Pacific nations and in the very near future the majority of Pacific Islanders will be found in urban areas. Already over 50% of Fiji’s population are urban dwellers. Rapid urbanisation brings with it unique challenges and opportunities. Local governments are at the forefront of this phenomenon, with the responsibility to manage urban development and the transition from rural areas to cities and towns. Their success or failure to manage urbanisation and provide the required levels of physical and social infrastructure will affect many lives in a new urban Pacific. The project now has three components – the main Pacific Regional Project and two country-specific programmes: the Honiara City Council Institutional Capacity Building Project and the Commonwealth Local Government Good Practice Scheme in Papua New Guinea.

  11. The South Pacific Forestry Development Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang Hon Tat

    1992-01-01

    Only a few countries in the South Pacific are large enough for industrial forestry to be a key component of the national economy, but forests provide benefits to many people. The United Nations FA0 South Pacific Forestry Development Programme was established in April 1988, at Port Vila, Vanuatu, with a $385,000 budget, and 14 nations participating. The Programme's...

  12. Forestry research in Asia and Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim Chamberlain; Erin Moore

    1992-01-01

    Much research has been done in Asia and the Pacific that might help Pacific Island countries produce more biomass and better manage their natural resources. National forestry research institutes throughout the region have examined many important aspects of forestry. Not all research findings are directly transferable between countries, but research methods and results...

  13. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    The document contains the 3 Protocols to the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty (INFCIRC-331) adopted by the South Pacific Forum at its 17th session in Suva on 8 August 1986. The treaty entered into force on 11 December 1986

  14. Sponges from Clipperton Island, East Pacific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soest, R.W.M.; Kaiser, K.L.; van Syoc, R.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty sponge species (totalling 190 individuals) were collected during the 1938, 1994 and 2004/5 expeditions to the remote island of Clipperton in the East Pacific Ocean. Seven species are widespread Indo-Pacific sponges; nine species comprise sponges new to science; four species were represented

  15. Mangroves of the Pacific Islands: research opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel E. Lugo

    1990-01-01

    The perception of mangroves by people in the Pacific islands and throughout all the world has changed in the past decades. Today, the economic, social, ecologic, and esthetic values of mangroves are well recognized. Past research on these ecosystems is responsible for the change in perception. However, a review of eleven subjects relevant to the management of Pacific...

  16. Manganese in the North Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruland, K.W.; Landing, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    A quantitative and precise method for determination of dissolved M (nmol)/kg level in seawater has been developed and used to study the distribution of Mn in the northeast Pacific. Mn concentrations in the surface mixed layer decrease from 1.0 to 0.6 nmol/kg between the central gyre and the western boundary of the California Current, then increase to values from 2 to 6 nmol/kg near the coastal boundary (in contrast to the distribution of 210 Pb). Particulate Mn in the surface waters accounts for only about 1% of the total. Vertical distributions of Mn are characterized by surface maxima, minima near 300 m, maxima at mid-depth coinciding with the oxygen minimum and the labile nutrient maxima, and concentrations in Pacific bottom waters of approximately 0.2 nmol/kg. The oceanic distribution of Mn appears to be dominated by external inputs superimposed upon ovberall scavenging which can lead to Mn maxima in (1) the surface waters due to riverine and atmospheric sources; (2) the deep ocean as a result of hydrothermal injection and/or sediment resuspension; and (3) the oxygen minimum region resulting from in-situ breakdown of organic matter, in-situ MnO 2 reduction, and/or advective-diffusive transport of dissolved Mn from anoxic slope sediments. (orig.)

  17. Diabetic Retinopathy in the Asia-Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Jacqueline; Lim, Claire Xin Ying; Wong, Tien Yin; Sabanayagam, Charumathi

    2018-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR), the most common complication of diabetes mellitus, is the leading cause of new cases of blindness in middle-aged and elderly in the Asia-Pacific. It has been estimated that 51% of all those with blindness due to DR globally (n = 424,400) and 56% of those with visual impairment due to DR (2.1 million) come from the Asia-Pacific. Prevalence of DR among those with diabetes ranged from 10% in India to 43% in Indonesia within the Asia-Pacific. Awareness of DR among persons with diabetes ranged from 28% to 84%. Most common modifiable risk factors for DR in the Asia-Pacific were hyperglycemia, blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and obesity. Implementation of systematic screening programs for DR and advancement in telemedicine screening methods have increased patient coverage and cost-effectiveness, though there are still numerous factors impeding screening uptake in the low-middle income regions of the Asia-Pacific. Management and treatment of DR in the Asia-Pacific is mainly limited to traditional laser retinopexy, but it is suboptimal despite new clinical approaches such as use of intravitreal anti.vascular endothelial growth factor and steroids due to limited resources. Further research and data are required to structure a more cost-effective public healthcare program and more awareness-building initiatives to increase the effectiveness of DR screening programs. Copyright 2017 Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology.

  18. Salinity fronts in the tropical Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Hsun-Ying; Lagerloef, Gary S E

    2015-02-01

    This study delineates the salinity fronts (SF) across the tropical Pacific, and describes their variability and regional dynamical significance using Aquarius satellite observations. From the monthly maps of the SF, we find that the SF in the tropical Pacific are (1) usually observed around the boundaries of the fresh pool under the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), (2) stronger in boreal autumn than in other seasons, and (3) usually stronger in the eastern Pacific than in the western Pacific. The relationship between the SF and the precipitation and the surface velocity are also discussed. We further present detailed analysis of the SF in three key tropical Pacific regions. Extending zonally around the ITCZ, where the temperature is nearly homogeneous, we find the strong SF of 1.2 psu from 7° to 11°N to be the main contributor of the horizontal density difference of 0.8 kg/m 3 . In the eastern Pacific, we observe a southward extension of the SF in the boreal spring that could be driven by both precipitation and horizontal advection. In the western Pacific, the importance of these newly resolved SF associated with the western Pacific warm/fresh pool and El Niño southern oscillations are also discussed in the context of prior literature. The main conclusions of this study are that (a) Aquarius satellite salinity measurements reveal the heretofore unknown proliferation, structure, and variability of surface salinity fronts, and that (b) the fine-scale structures of the SF in the tropical Pacific yield important new information on the regional air-sea interaction and the upper ocean dynamics.

  19. Chronic Liver Disease and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Asian/Pacific Islander Women Non-Hispanic White Women Asian/Pacific Islander/ Non-Hispanic White Ratio All Sites ... Cancer Asian/Pacific Islander Women Non-Hispanic White Women Asian/Pacific Islander/ Non-Hispanic White Ratio Liver & IBD* ...

  20. 77 FR 45591 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Ad Hoc South of Humbug Pacific Halibut Workgroup..., monitoring, and allocation history of Pacific halibut in the area south of Humbug Mt. DATES: The conference...

  1. 76 FR 20959 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific Council) will convene a Pacific mackerel Stock Assessment... of the meeting is to review the Pacific mackerel stock assessment for 2011, in order to inform... action under Section 305(c) of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, provided the...

  2. 21 CFR 161.170 - Canned Pacific salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned Pacific salmon. 161.170 Section 161.170... § 161.170 Canned Pacific salmon. (a) Identity. (1) Canned Pacific salmon is the food prepared from one... forms of canned Pacific salmon are processed from fish prepared by removing the head, gills, and tail...

  3. The IAEA '97 Pacific Ocean expedition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povinec, P.P.; Huynh-Ngoc, L.; Liong Wee Kwong, L.

    1999-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's Marine Environment Laboratory (IAEA-MEL) started in 1995 a five-year project 'Research on World-wide Marine Radioactivity', generously supported by the Government of Japan. In the framework of the project, IAEA-MEL conducted the 'IAEA '97 Pacific Ocean Expedition' to the NW Pacific Ocean from 21 October to 20 November, 1997. The objectives of the expedition were to provide new data on the current marine radioactivity in order to compare them with data sets obtained during national and international surveys at sites used for radioactive waste dumping or nuclear bomb testing in the NW Pacific Ocean and its marginal seas

  4. Local Government in the South Pacific Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Hassall

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we seek to answer some basic questions about the condition of local government in the Pacific. Firstly, we examine what is meant by ‘local government’ in the various islands and for that matter how Pacific Island states have perceived and accepted local government institutions in practice; second, we ask basic questions about existing legal and constitutional recognition and powers; and third, we provide initial findings on current per capita expenditure and local government financial viability in a number of Pacific cities and towns. We also make some observations on current moves towards local government reform.

  5. 9th Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference. Nuclear energy, science and technology - Pacific partnership. Proceedings Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The theme of the 9th Pacific Basin Nuclear conference held in Sydney from 1-6 May 1994, embraced the use of the atom in energy production and in science and technology. The focus was on selected topics of current and ongoing interest to countries around the Pacific Basin. The two-volume proceedings include both invited and contributed papers. They have been indexed separately. This document, Volume 1 covers the following topics: Pacific partnership; perspectives on nuclear energy, science and technology in Pacific Basin countries; nuclear energy and sustainable development; economics of the power reactors; new power reactor projects; power reactor technology; advanced reactors; radioisotope and radiation technology; biomedical applications

  6. Australia's role in Pacific energy trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McColl, G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses Australia's resources and the expansion of its steaming coal exports. The author reviews Australia's development of its natural gas resources and future prospects for exporting to the Pacific region

  7. Food irradiation seminar: Asia and the Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, G.E.

    1986-01-01

    The report covers the Seminar for Asia and the Pacific on the practical application of food irradiation. The seminar assessed the practical application of food irradiation processes, commercial utilisation and international trade of irradiated food

  8. U.S. Pacific Command > Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    USPACOM U.S. Pacific Command Search USPACOM: Search Search Search USPACOM: Search Home Leadership Directory Media Inquiries Home : Leadership Admiral Harry B. Harris, Jr., U.S. Navy Read the full biography

  9. Northeast Pacific Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0163799)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northeast Pacific (NEP) new regional climatology is derived from the NCEI World Ocean Database archive of temperature and salinity and covers a time period from...

  10. PODs cruise - Pacific Orcinus Distrbution Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Orcinus spp. occur in the Pacific Ocean throughout the West Coast of North America. Data concerning their precise locations and abundance are critical to...

  11. Out of the Pacific and back again

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foote, Andrew David; Morin, Phillip A.; Durban, John W.

    2011-01-01

    or have been consolidated upon secondary contact due to resource competition. The estimated timing of bidirectional migration between the North Pacific and North Atlantic coincided with the previous inter-glacial when the leakage of fauna from the Indo-Pacific into the Atlantic via the Agulhas current......Killer whales (Orcinus orca) are the most widely distributed marine mammals and have radiated to occupy a range of ecological niches. Disparate sympatric types are found in the North Atlantic, Antarctic and North Pacific oceans, however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms driving...... divergence. Previous phylogeographic analysis using complete mitogenomes yielded a bifurcating tree of clades corresponding to described ecotypes. However, there was low support at two nodes at which two Pacific and two Atlantic clades diverged. Here we apply further phylogenetic and coalescent analyses...

  12. Pacific Islands Climate Change Virtual Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Virtual Library provides access to web based climate variability and climate change information and tools relevant to the Pacific Islands including case studies,...

  13. Pacific Islands Mass Communications; Selected Information Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richstad, Jim; McMillan, Michael

    1977-01-01

    Presents a bibliography of materials on such area of mass communications in the Pacific Islands as broadcasting, radio and television, cinema, communication research, mass media in education, Honululu Media Council, newspapers and newspapermen, and printing and satellite communication. (JEG)

  14. Asian & Pacific Islanders and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fact Sheet 2016 Update Asian & Pacific Islanders and Cardiovascular Diseases Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) (ICD 10 codes I00-I99, Q20- ... of na- tive Hawaiians or oth- A indicates cardiovascular disease plus congenital cardiovascular disease (ICD-10 I00- ...

  15. Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders Overall, Asian American ... are less likely than white adults to have heart disease and they are less likely to die from ...

  16. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands -- firm loads -- are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and {open_quotes}contracted for{close_quotes} resources to determine whether Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system, which includes loads and resource in addition to the Federal system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1994--95 through 2003--04.

  17. The US Pivot Towards Asia-Pacific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Philip Christian

    An analysis of the US new Asia-Pacific strategy. The brief seeks to set the new strategy in the context of American foreign policy since the end of the Cold War.......An analysis of the US new Asia-Pacific strategy. The brief seeks to set the new strategy in the context of American foreign policy since the end of the Cold War....

  18. Pacific salmonines in the Great Lakes Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claramunt, Randall M.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Clapp, David; Taylor, William W.; Lynch, Abigail J.; Léonard, Nancy J.

    2012-01-01

    Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) are a valuable resource, both within their native range in the North Pacific rim and in the Great Lakes basin. Understanding their value from a biological and economic perspective in the Great Lakes, however, requires an understanding of changes in the ecosystem and of management actions that have been taken to promote system stability, integrity, and sustainable fisheries. Pacific salmonine introductions to the Great Lakes are comprised mainly of Chinook salmon, coho salmon, and steelhead and have accounted for 421, 177, and 247 million fish, respectively, stocked during 1966-2007. Stocking of Pacific salmonines has been effective in substantially reducing exotic prey fish abundances in several of the Great Lakes (e.g., lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario). The goal of our evaluation was to highlight differences in management strategies and perspectives across the basin, and to evaluate policies for Pacific salmonine management in the Great Lakes. Currently, a potential conflict exists between Pacific salmonine management and native fish rehabilitation goals because of the desire to sustain recreational fisheries and to develop self-sustaining populations of stocked Pacific salmonines in the Great Lakes. We provide evidence that suggests Pacific salmonines have not only become naturalized to the food webs of the Great Lakes, but that their populations (specifically Chinook salmon) may be fluctuating in concert with specific prey (i.e., alewives) whose populations are changing relative to environmental conditions and ecosystem disturbances. Remaining questions, however, are whether or not “natural” fluctuations in predator and prey provide enough “stability” in the Great Lakes food webs, and even more importantly, would a choice by managers to attempt to reduce the severity of predator-prey oscillations be antagonistic to native fish restoration efforts. We argue that, on each of the Great Lakes, managers are pursuing

  19. Asia-Pacific: A Selected Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2011. 540pp. (DS35.2 .M65 2011) Myers, Stephen C. Military Cooperation Frameworks: Effective Models to Address... Undesirable Multilateral Security Order?" Pacific Review 24, no. 2 (May 2011): 137-158. Taylor & Francis "The Quality of Democracy in Asia Pacific...2009): 205-219. Sage Turner, Mark, Sonam Chuki, and Jit Tshering. "Democratization by Decree: The Case of Bhutan." Democratization 18, no. 1 (February

  20. Sponges from Clipperton Island, East Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    van Soest, R.W.M.; Kaiser, K.L.; van Syoc, R.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty sponge species (totalling 190 individuals) were collected during the 1938, 1994 and 2004/5 expeditions to the remote island of Clipperton in the East Pacific Ocean. Seven species are widespread Indo-Pacific sponges; nine species comprise sponges new to science; four species were represented only by small thin patches insufficient for proper characterization and could be only determined to genus. The new species may not be necessarily endemic to the island, as several show similarities ...

  1. Boundary scavenging in the Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.F.; Lao, Y.; Broecker, W.S.; Trumbore, S.E.; Hofmann, H.J.; Wolfli, W.

    1990-01-01

    Concentrations of U, Th, 231 Pa and 10 Be were measured in Holocene sediments from two cores collected off the west coast of South America, two cores from the East Pacific Rise, two from the equatorial Pacific and one from the south Pacific central gyre. Our results, together with data from 5 cores reported in the literature, show that boundary scavenging plays a major role in the removal of 10 Be from the Pacific Ocean. Deposition rates of 10 Be at three margin sites are more than an order of magnitude greater than at sites of red clay accumulation in the deep central Pacific. Deposition of 231 Pa is 4 to 5-fold greater at the margin sites. The residence time of 10 Be with respect to chemical scavenging, defined as its inventory in the water column divided by its rate of removal to the sediments, varies regionally from >1000 years at the red-clay sites in the deep central Pacific to ∝100 years at the margin sites. Different factors control boundary scavenging of Pa and Be. For example, scavenging of 231 Pa is enhanced by metal-oxide coatings of particles, whereas this seems to have little influence on the scavenging of 10 Be. (orig.)

  2. 76 FR 32929 - Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries; American Samoa Longline Gear Modifications To Reduce Turtle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... are revised from ``Indo-Pacific blue marlin, Makaira mazara'' to ``Pacific blue marlin, Makaira... Istiompax indica striped marlin Kajikia audax * * * * * Pacific blue marlin Makaira nigricans [[Page 32932...

  3. The Trans-Pacific Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voon Tania

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the recently concluded Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP, a treaty the parties have described as comprehensive and ambitious, yet also representing a balance of competing interests. The article focuses on the TPP’s chapters relating to investment, services, intellectual property and regulatory coherence, each of which provides insight into the motivations that drove the conclusion of the TPP and the negotiating dynamics that determined its final content. In areas such as investment, the TPP takes a more balanced approach than many earlier agreements, providing greater safeguards for the regulatory autonomy of states while still embodying core protections for foreign investors. In relation to intellectual property and services, the TPP goes beyond earlier agreements in several key respects, such as preventing the imposition of local presence requirements for service providers or requiring longer copyright terms than those demanded by other international treaties. The TPP chapter on regulatory coherence is one of the most novel features of the treaty, as regulatory coherence is not frequently included in earlier trade agreements, demonstrating the increased focus of states on addressing regulatory barriers to trade and investment. While all of these elements of the TPP are interesting in their own right, given the number and size of the parties involved in the agreement, they also provide valuable guidance about the direction of other ongoing and future preferential trade agreement negotiations, such as the proposed Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP and Trade in Services Agreement (TiSA.

  4. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest development of renewable energy in two regions where renewable energy can make a significant contribution to combat climate change and bring modern energy services to everyone: Africa and the Pacific. These two regions are presented separately in this volume and its sister publication. The country profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2008 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  5. The Pacific sea surface temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglass, David H.

    2011-01-01

    The Pacific sea surface temperature data contains two components: N L , a signal that exhibits the familiar El Niño/La Niña phenomenon and N H , a signal of one-year period. Analysis reveals: (1) The existence of an annual solar forcing F S ; (2) N H is phase locked directly to F S while N L is frequently phase locked to the 2nd or 3rd subharmonic of F S . At least ten distinct subharmonic time segments of N L since 1870 are found. The beginning or end dates of these segments have a near one-to-one correspondence with the abrupt climate changes previously reported. Limited predictability is possible. -- Highlights: ► El Niño/La Niña consists of 2 components phase-locked to annual solar cycle. ► The first component N L is the familiar El Niño/La Niña effect. ► The second N H component has a period of 1 cycle/year. ► N L can be phase-locked to 2nd or 3rd subharmonic of annual cycle. ► Ends of phase-locked segments correspond to abrupt previously reported climate changes.

  6. The Pacific sea surface temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglass, David H., E-mail: douglass@pas.rochester.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627-0171 (United States)

    2011-12-05

    The Pacific sea surface temperature data contains two components: N{sub L}, a signal that exhibits the familiar El Niño/La Niña phenomenon and N{sub H}, a signal of one-year period. Analysis reveals: (1) The existence of an annual solar forcing F{sub S}; (2) N{sub H} is phase locked directly to F{sub S} while N{sub L} is frequently phase locked to the 2nd or 3rd subharmonic of F{sub S}. At least ten distinct subharmonic time segments of N{sub L} since 1870 are found. The beginning or end dates of these segments have a near one-to-one correspondence with the abrupt climate changes previously reported. Limited predictability is possible. -- Highlights: ► El Niño/La Niña consists of 2 components phase-locked to annual solar cycle. ► The first component N{sub L} is the familiar El Niño/La Niña effect. ► The second N{sub H} component has a period of 1 cycle/year. ► N{sub L} can be phase-locked to 2nd or 3rd subharmonic of annual cycle. ► Ends of phase-locked segments correspond to abrupt previously reported climate changes.

  7. Exploring the 'cultural' in cultural competencies in Pacific mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samu, Kathleen Seataoai; Suaalii-Sauni, Tamasailau

    2009-02-01

    Cultural competency is about the ability of individuals and systems to respond respectfully and effectively to the cultural needs of peoples of all cultures. Its general attributes include knowledge, attitudes, skills and professional judgment. In Pacific mental health, 'the cultural' is generally understood to be ethnic culture. Accordingly, Pacific cultural competencies assume ethnic specific markers. In mental health Pacific cultural competencies has seen a blending of cultural and clinical beliefs and practices. This paper provides an overview of five key theme areas arising from Auckland-based ethnic-specific Pacific workshop data: language, family, tapu relationships, skills and organisation policy. Workshop participants comprised of Pacific mental health providers, Pacific consumers, family members of Pacific consumers and members of the Pacific community members. This paper purports that identifying the perceptions of different Pacific groups on ethnic-specific elements of cultural competencies are necessary to build and strengthen the capacity and capability of mental health services to provide culturally relevant services.

  8. Climate Change in the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamnett, Michael P.

    Climate change have been a major concern among Pacific Islanders since the late 1990s. During that period, Time Magazine featured a cover story that read: Say Goodbye to the Marshall Islands, Kiribati, and Tuvalu from sea level rise. Since that time, the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, UN and government agencies and academic researchers have been assessing the impacts of long-term climate change and seasonal to inter-annual climate variability on the Pacific Islands. The consensus is that long-term climate change will result in more extreme weather and tidal events including droughts, floods, tropical cyclones, coastal erosion, and salt water inundation. Extreme weather events already occur in the Pacific Islands and they are patterned. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events impact rainfall, tropical cyclone and tidal patterns. In 2000, the first National Assessment of the Consequences of Climate Variability and Change concluded that long-term climate change will result in more El Niño events or a more El Niño like climate every year. The bad news is that will mean more natural disasters. The good news is that El Niño events can be predicted and people can prepare for them. The reallly bad news is that some Pacific Islands are already becoming uninhabitable because of erosion of land or the loss of fresh water from droughts and salt water intrusion. Many of the most vulnerable countries already overseas populations in New Zealand, the US, or larger Pacific Island countries. For some Pacific Islander abandoning their home countries will be their only option.

  9. The pacific island health care project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Donald Ames

    2014-01-01

    US Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) include three freely associated states: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and three Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. The Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP) provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. More than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. Three thousand Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990-1997) and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present), the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific Islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital. (The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.).

  10. Asia-Pacific lube oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.

    2001-01-01

    An overview of the Asia-Pacific (AP) lubricating oils market, its special characteristics, and its role in the global economy are presented. In the 'boom and bust' years of 1997-1999, the Asia-Pacific market was even bigger then the US market. For the short-term, the scenario is surplus capacity and poor margins, but in the long term there is enormous potential for growth. How fuel demand and quality is related to engine type is discussed. The three basic grades of baseoils are described, and the Asia-Pacific lube demand and the Asia-Pacific lube oil supply are discussed. There are 15 diagrams giving data on: (i) finished lubes in world markets as a percentage of total; (ii) how lube demand follows GDP per capita in Asia; (iii) AP baseoil capacity relationships; (iv) AP baseoil disposition by end use; (v) AP changing shares of baseoil demand; (vi) AP finished lube demand by subregion; (vii) AP finished lube demand growth, indexed; (viii) AP baseoil capacity by region; Singapore baseoil vs. Dubai crude prices, 1992-99; (ix) Singapore baseoil vs. crude prices, 1992-99; (x) AP baseoil deficit moved to surplus; (xi) AP baseoil production; (xii) East Asia net percentage change in lube sales, 1997-1999. (xiii) Southeast Asia net percentage change in lube sales, 1997-1999; (xiv) South East Asia and Australia net percentage change in lube sales, 1997-1999 and (xv) Asia-Pacific major lube marketers

  11. The Pacific Island Health Care Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Ames Person

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/BackgroundUS Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI include 3 Freely Associated States: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau and 3 Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. ObjectiveThe Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. Methods In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center (TAMC. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. ResultsMore than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. 3000 Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990-1997 and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present, the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. Conclusion The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital.(The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.

  12. The parasite Ichthyophonus sp. in Pacific herring from the coastal NE Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Paul K.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Hart, Lucas M.; Moffitt, Steve; Brenner, Richard L.; Stick, K.; Coonradt, Eric; Otis, E. O.; Vollenweider, Johanna J.; Garver, Kyle A.; Lovy, Jan; Meyers, T.R.

    2016-01-01

    The protistan parasite Ichthyophonus occurred in populations of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii Valenciennes throughout coastal areas of the NE Pacific, ranging from Puget Sound, WA north to the Gulf of Alaska, AK. Infection prevalence in local Pacific herring stocks varied seasonally and annually, and a general pattern of increasing prevalence with host size and/or age persisted throughout the NE Pacific. An exception to this zoographic pattern occurred among a group of juvenile, age 1+ year Pacific herring from Cordova Harbor, AK in June 2010, which demonstrated an unusually high infection prevalence of 35%. Reasons for this anomaly were hypothesized to involve anthropogenic influences that resulted in locally elevated infection pressures. Interannual declines in infection prevalence from some populations (e.g. Lower Cook Inlet, AK; from 20–32% in 2007 to 0–3% during 2009–13) or from the largest size cohorts of other populations (e.g. Sitka Sound, AK; from 62.5% in 2007 to 19.6% in 2013) were likely a reflection of selective mortality among the infected cohorts. All available information for Ichthyophonus in the NE Pacific, including broad geographic range, low host specificity and presence in archived Pacific herring tissue samples dating to the 1980s, indicate a long-standing host–pathogen relationship.

  13. The parasite Ichthyophonus sp. in Pacific herring from the coastal NE Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, P K; Gregg, J L; Hart, L M; Moffitt, S; Brenner, R; Stick, K; Coonradt, E; Otis, E O; Vollenweider, J J; Garver, K A; Lovy, J; Meyers, T R

    2016-04-01

    The protistan parasite Ichthyophonus occurred in populations of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii Valenciennes throughout coastal areas of the NE Pacific, ranging from Puget Sound, WA north to the Gulf of Alaska, AK. Infection prevalence in local Pacific herring stocks varied seasonally and annually, and a general pattern of increasing prevalence with host size and/or age persisted throughout the NE Pacific. An exception to this zoographic pattern occurred among a group of juvenile, age 1+ year Pacific herring from Cordova Harbor, AK in June 2010, which demonstrated an unusually high infection prevalence of 35%. Reasons for this anomaly were hypothesized to involve anthropogenic influences that resulted in locally elevated infection pressures. Interannual declines in infection prevalence from some populations (e.g. Lower Cook Inlet, AK; from 20-32% in 2007 to 0-3% during 2009-13) or from the largest size cohorts of other populations (e.g. Sitka Sound, AK; from 62.5% in 2007 to 19.6% in 2013) were likely a reflection of selective mortality among the infected cohorts. All available information for Ichthyophonus in the NE Pacific, including broad geographic range, low host specificity and presence in archived Pacific herring tissue samples dating to the 1980s, indicate a long-standing host-pathogen relationship. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The Rise and Decline of Japanese Pacifism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Cai

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese pacifist constitution has been a symbol of Japan’s commitment to peace and more importantly its renunciation of wartime militarism. There has been strong support for its continuing existence amongst the Japanese populace despite persistent attempts by the Japanese government to amend it. However, the prevalent pacifist sentiment is showing signs of fading vitality in recent times. This article purports to examine the underlying forces that contributed to the development and the decline of Japanese pacifism. A host of domestic and international factors were responsible for the growth of pacifism and its subsequent decline, but only three important domestic factors will be examined in detail: the concept of victimhood in the development of pacifism and its implication for its continuing strength, the importance of peace education and the role played by the influential Japan’s Teachers’ Union on the formation of pacifist conscience and finally, the influence of leftist organisations on the organised peace movement.

  15. Regional climate change for the Pacific Northwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBean, G.A.; Thomas, G.

    1991-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest climate is dominated by topography and the Pacific Ocean; the forests have become adapted to the present climate. Within short distances there are large changes in precipitation and temperature, with resultant changes in ecosystems. As the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases increase, global climate is expected to warm and precipitation to increase. Global climate model simulations show enhanced warming at high northern latitudes. For the Pacific Northwest, models show 2-6 degree C warming and increased precipitation in the winter for doubled atmospheric CO 2 concentration. However, the regional details of these models are presently not very reliable. The results and limitations of present global climate models are reviewed. The roles of the oceans, clouds, and other feedback mechanisms are described along with some of the possible impacts of climate change on forest resources. 24 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  16. The Pacific northwest stream quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Morace, Jennifer L.; Sheibley, Rich W.

    2015-01-01

    In 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program is assessing stream quality in the Pacific Northwest. The goals of the Pacific Northwest Stream Quality Assessment (Pacific Northwest study) are to assess the quality of streams in the region by characterizing multiple water-quality factors that are stressors to aquatic life and to evaluate the relation between these stressors and biological communities. The effects of urbanization and agriculture on stream quality for the Puget Lowlands and Willamette Valley are the focus of this regional study. Findings will provide the public and policymakers with information regarding which human and environmental factors are the most critical in affecting stream quality and, thus, provide insights about possible approaches to protect or improve the health of streams in the region.

  17. Asia Pacific Mangrove Information Network (APMIN): A conceptual model

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chavan, V.S.; Jagtap, T.G.; Untawale, A.G.

    Asia Pacific Mangrove Information Network (APMIN), its structure and scope, is discussed in this paper. Establishment of National Mangrove Information Centers (NMIC) in 20 Asia-Pacific countries, would contribute towards development of databases...

  18. Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders While the overall ... data for this ethnic group is limited. Infant Mortality Rate Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...

  19. 75 FR 55745 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Coastal Pelagic Species Management Team (CPSMT) and... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... sardine stock assessment for 2010. Other issues relevant to Coastal Pelagic Species fisheries management...

  20. 75 FR 33245 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Council) Groundfish Management Team (GMT) will hold a working... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... be held at the Pacific Fishery Management Council office, Large Conference Room, 7700 NE Ambassador...

  1. 78 FR 77658 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Highly Migratory Species Management Team (HMSMT... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National.... Potential changes to management measures for the west coast drift gillnet fishery. 2. Developments to...

  2. 78 FR 56659 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Groundfish Management Team (GMT) will hold a... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National...-16 groundfish harvest specifications and management measures, long-term impact analysis, and...

  3. 75 FR 80470 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Council) Groundfish Management Team (GMT) will hold a working... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National.... Council address: Pacific Fishery Management Council, 7700 NE. Ambassador Place, Suite 101, Portland, OR...

  4. AFSC/REFM: Pacific cod Localized Depletion Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Localized Depletion study for Pacific cod 2001-2005. Study was conducted using cod pot gear to measure localized abundance of Pacific cod inside and...

  5. Pacific Albacore Troll and Pole-and-line Fisheries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The North Pacific and South Pacific Albacore Troll and Pole-and-line Fisheries project contains landings, logbooks, and size composition data from U.S.A. troll and...

  6. Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) - Center for Global Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the leading economic forum in the Asia-Pacific region, APEC facilitates economic growth and prosperity in the Asia-Pacific region through trade and investment liberalization, business facilitation, and economic and technical cooperation.

  7. 76 FR 80890 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... Airport Hotel, 7900 NE 82nd Avenue, Portland, OR 97220. Council address: Pacific Fishery Management.... Kerry Griffin, Staff Officer, Pacific Council; (503) 820-2280. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The purpose of...

  8. 76 FR 43987 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) ad hoc groundfish Essential Fish Habitat Review... of groundfish Essential Fish Habitat (EFH). DATES: The work session will be held Thursday, October 6...

  9. 78 FR 49477 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific Council) will convene a meeting of its Groundfish Essential Fish Habitat Review Committee (EFHRC). DATES: The meeting will be held Wednesday September 4 through...

  10. 75 FR 17901 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... June 2010 meeting of the Pacific Council. The CPSMT will also discuss the pending Essential Fish Habitat five-year review; the 2010 Stock Assessment and Fishery Evaluation document; Pacific mackerel...

  11. Tropical Pacific Observing for the Next Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legler, David M.; Hill, Katherine

    2014-06-01

    More than 60 scientists and program officials from 13 countries met at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography for the Tropical Pacific Observing System (TPOS) 2020 Workshop. The workshop, although motivated in part by the dramatic decline of NOAA's Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) buoy reporting from mid-2012 to early 2014 (see http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-03-07/aging-el-nino-buoys-getting-fixed-as-weather-forecasts-at-risk.html), evaluated the needs for tropical Pacific observing and initiated efforts to develop a more resilient and integrative observing system for the future.

  12. Establishing bioinformatics research in the Asia Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Ranganathan, Shoba; Tammi, Martti; Gribskov, Michael; Tan, Tin Wee

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In 1998, the Asia Pacific Bioinformatics Network (APBioNet), Asia's oldest bioinformatics organisation was set up to champion the advancement of bioinformatics in the Asia Pacific. By 2002, APBioNet was able to gain sufficient critical mass to initiate the first International Conference on Bioinformatics (InCoB) bringing together scientists working in the field of bioinformatics in the region. This year, the InCoB2006 Conference was organized as the 5th annual conference of the Asia-...

  13. CRED 40 m Gridded bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (40 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  14. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  15. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Isand Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom coverage...

  16. CRED 40 m Gridded bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (40 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  17. THE FUTURE OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: ANATOMY OF A CRISIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon are categorized biologically into two groups: Pacific salmon or Atlantic salmon. All seven species of Pacific salmon on both sides of the North Pacific Ocean have declined substantially from historic levels, but large runs still occur in northern British Columbia, Yukon,...

  18. 76 FR 58472 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... North Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Council) Pacific Northwest Crab Industry Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: The Pacific Northwest Crab Industry Advisory Committee will meet October 13, 2011 at the Leif...: (907) 271-2809. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Agenda--Alaska Department of Fish & Game/ NMFS scientists...

  19. 77 FR 53179 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    .... SUMMARY: The North Pacific Fishery Management Council's (NPFMC) Crab Plan Team (CPT) will meet in Seattle... Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS..., WA. Council address: North Pacific Fishery Management Council, 605 W. 4th Avenue, Suite 306...

  20. 75 FR 20985 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    .... SUMMARY: The North Pacific Fishery Management Council's Crab Plan Team (CPT) will meet in Alaska on May 10... Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Room - May 14. Council address: North Pacific Fishery Management Council, 605 W. 4th Avenue, Suite 306...

  1. 78 FR 26616 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Groundfish Management Team (GMT) will hold a... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... number) and use the access code 802-457-985 when prompted. Council address: Pacific Fishery Management...

  2. 77 FR 74469 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Groundfish Management Team (GMT) will hold a week... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National...) 634-2000. Council address: Pacific Fishery Management Council, 7700 NE Ambassador Place, Suite 101...

  3. 76 FR 54217 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific Council) will convene a meeting of the Stock Assessment Review... 2011 stock assessment for Pacific sardine, which will be used to develop management measures for the... 305(c) of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, provided the public has been...

  4. Patterns of change in climate and Pacific salmon production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan J. Mantua

    2009-01-01

    For much of the 20th century a clear north-south inverse production pattern for Pacific salmon had a time dynamic that closely followed that of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), which is the dominant pattern of North Pacific sea surface temperature variability. Total Alaska salmon production was high during warm regimes of the PDO, and total Alaska salmon...

  5. New Fisheries-related data from the Mediterranean Sea (November, 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ANASTASOPOULOU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this fourth Collective Article, with fisheries-related data from the Mediterranean, we present weight-length relationships for eight deep-sea fish species (Brama brama, Conger conger, Etmopterus spinax, Molva macrophthalma, Mora moro, Pagellus bogaraveo, Phycis blennoides from the Eastern Ionian Sea; Scyliorhinus canicula from various locations in the Mediterranean Sea and weight-length relationships and condition factor of five Mugilidae species (Liza aurata, Liza saliens, Liza ramada, Mugil cephalus, Chelon labrosus from a Mediterranean lagoon in the Ionian Sea. Moreover, we present otolith weight, fish length and otolith length relationships of the red mullet (Mullus barbatus in the Aegean and Ionian Sea and otolith weight relationships in European hake (Merluccius merluccius from the Greek Seas.

  6. 78 FR 33240 - International Fisheries; Pacific Tuna Fisheries; Fishing Restrictions in the Eastern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... States, Vanuatu, and Venezuela. Bolivia and the Cook Islands are cooperating non-members. International... Pacific bluefin mortality. In addition, the Department of the Interior, Office of Environmental Policy and...

  7. 78 FR 7385 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ...-BA98 Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll... Presidential proclamations that created the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine..., 2009). Proclamation 8337 of January 6, 2009, ``Establishment of the Rose Atoll Marine National Monument...

  8. Migration for Environmentally Displaced Pacific Peoples: Legal Options in the Pacific Rim

    OpenAIRE

    Tabucanon, Gil Marvel

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the complex relationship between the environment and migration, namely the various protection options available for environmentally-displaced Pacific peoples under the laws of the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. It seeks to ascertain whether flexibility exists in these countries' domestic laws for environmental migrants from neighboring Pacific countries. It asks if humanitarian and ministerial discretion admissions and preferential admission schemes suf...

  9. Establishing bioinformatics research in the Asia Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammi Martti

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 1998, the Asia Pacific Bioinformatics Network (APBioNet, Asia's oldest bioinformatics organisation was set up to champion the advancement of bioinformatics in the Asia Pacific. By 2002, APBioNet was able to gain sufficient critical mass to initiate the first International Conference on Bioinformatics (InCoB bringing together scientists working in the field of bioinformatics in the region. This year, the InCoB2006 Conference was organized as the 5th annual conference of the Asia-Pacific Bioinformatics Network, on Dec. 18–20, 2006 in New Delhi, India, following a series of successful events in Bangkok (Thailand, Penang (Malaysia, Auckland (New Zealand and Busan (South Korea. This Introduction provides a brief overview of the peer-reviewed manuscripts accepted for publication in this Supplement. It exemplifies a typical snapshot of the growing research excellence in bioinformatics of the region as we embark on a trajectory of establishing a solid bioinformatics research culture in the Asia Pacific that is able to contribute fully to the global bioinformatics community.

  10. Processed foods available in the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background There is an increasing reliance on processed foods globally, yet food composition tables include minimal information on their nutrient content. The Pacific Islands share common trade links and are heavily reliant on imported foods. The objective was to develop a dataset for the Pacific Islands on nutrient composition of processed foods sold and their sources. Methods Information on the food labels, including country of origin, nutrient content and promotional claims were recorded into a standardised dataset. Data were cleaned, converted to per 100 g data as needed and then checked for anomalies and recording errors. Setting: Five representative countries were selected for data collection, based on their trading patterns: Fiji, Guam, Nauru, New Caledonia, and Samoa. Data were collected in the capitals, in larger stores which import their own foods. Subjects: Processed foods in stores. Results The data from 6041 foods and drinks were recorded. Fifty four countries of origin were identified, with the main provider of food for each Pacific Island country being that with which it was most strongly linked politically. Nutrient data were not provided for 6% of the foods, imported from various countries. Inaccurate labels were found on 132 products. Over one-quarter of the foods included some nutrient or health-related claims. Conclusions The globalisation of the food supply is having considerable impacts on diets in the Pacific Islands. While nutrient labels can be informative for consumers looking for healthier options, difficulties still exist with poor labelling and interpretation can be challenging. PMID:24160249

  11. The Asian-Pacific world in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, D.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzing the modern situation in the Asian-Pacific Region, with account for strategic concerns on the part of China, Japan, USSR and USA the author considers prospects for meaningful disarmament or arms-control (including nuclear weapons) negotiations in the region

  12. Delimiting communities in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen M. Donoghue

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents an approach for delimiting communities in the Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) region of the Pacific Northwest that responds to the need to assess impacts and issues associated with broad-scale ecosystem management. Census block groups are aggregated to provide an alternative to more commonly used geographic delimitations of communities, specifically...

  13. SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

  14. Pacific Island rugby: Histories, mobilities, comparisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besnier, N.

    2014-01-01

    The migration of rugby players from Fiji and neighbouring Pacific Island nations poses fundamental questions about the way in which sport is embedded in historical, political, social and global dynamics, all of which give specific meanings to sports and those who play it. An approach that bestows a

  15. Modeling the population dynamics of Pacific yew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard T. Busing; Thomas A. Spies

    1995-01-01

    A study of Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia Nutt.) population dynamics in the mountains of western Oregon and Washington was based on a combination of long-term population data and computer modeling. Rates of growth and mortality were low in mature and old-growth forest stands. Diameter growth at breast height ranged from 0 to 3 centimeters per decade...

  16. Biogeographic congruence in the south Pacific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seberg, Ole

    1991-01-01

    Ever since J. D. Hooker's famous 'Introductory Essay' to Flora NOVE-Zelandise, a classical problem in biogeography has been to give a casual explanation of southern hemisphere distribution patterns. An attempt is made to see whether the cladograms for the circum-Pacific areas (South America, New ...

  17. The Third Pacific Basin Biofuels Workshop: Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among the many compelling reasons for the development of biofuels on remote Pacific islands, several of the most important include: (1) a lack of indigenous fossil fuels necessitates their import at great economic loss to local island economics, (2) ideal conditions for plant growth exist on many Pacific islands to produce yields of biomass feedstocks, (3) gaseous and liquid fuels such as methane, methanol and ethanol manufactured locally from biomass feedstocks are the most viable alternatives to gasoline and diesel fuels for transportation, and (4) the combustion of biofuels is cleaner than burning petroleum products and contributes no net atmospheric CO2 to aggravate the greenhouse effect and the subsequent threat of sea level rise to low islands. Dr. Vic Phillips, HNEI Program Manager of the Hawaii Integrated Biofuels Research Program welcomed 60 participants to the Third Pacific Basin Biofuels Workshop at the Sheraton Makaha Hotel, Waianae, Oahu, on March 27 and 28, 1989. The objectives of the workshop were to update progress since the Second Pacific Basin Biofuels Workshop in April 1987 and to develop a plan for action for biofuels R and D, technology transfer, and commercialization now (immediate attention), in the near-term (less than two years), in the mid-term (three to five years), and in the long-term (more than six years). An emerging theme of the workshop was how the production, conversion, and utilization of biofuels can help increase environmental and economic security locally and globally. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base.

  18. Solar Energy for Pacific Northwest Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, John S.

    Data presented in this report indicate that solar space and water heating are possible in the Pacific Northwest. The first section of the report contains solar records from several stations in the region illustrating space heating needs that could be met, on an average daily basis, by solar energy. The data are summarized, and some preliminary…

  19. Asian & Pacific Islander American Health Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Report.pdf [1.2MB] Obesity and Overweight Among Asian American Children and Adolescents 2016.04.28-OBESITY AND ... Month Stay Connected! Receive the latest APIAHF updates Asian & Pacific Islander American Health Forum. All rights reserved. One Kaiser Plaza, ...

  20. SeaWiFS: North Pacific Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    An extratropical storm can be seen swirling over the North Pacific just south of Alaska. This SeaWiFS image was collected yesterday at 23:20 GMT. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  1. Albert Einstein the roads to pacifism

    CERN Document Server

    Anta, Claudio Giulio

    2017-01-01

    Albert Einstein (1879-1955) is universally known as the father of the theory of relativity; however, he was also one of the most eminent pacifists of the first half of the twentieth century. Through his active, pragmatic and nuanced breed of pacifism, he sought to confront the dilemmas and problems of his time.

  2. INTELSAT et al. in the South Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, Joseph N.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses services provided to the island countries of the South Pacific Basin by the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (INTELSAT), a 110 member-country cooperative that operates a global satellite system. The services include provision of basic satellite communications facilities, technical assistance and training, and free…

  3. Pacific Basin Heavy Oil Refining Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hackett

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The United States today is Canada’s largest customer for oil and refined oil products. However, this relationship may be strained due to physical, economic and political influences. Pipeline capacity is approaching its limits; Canadian oil is selling at substantive discounts to world market prices; and U.S. demand for crude oil and finished products (such as gasoline, has begun to flatten significantly relative to historical rates. Lower demand, combined with increased shale oil production, means U.S. demand for Canadian oil is expected to continue to decline. Under these circumstances, gaining access to new markets such as those in the Asia-Pacific region is becoming more and more important for the Canadian economy. However, expanding pipeline capacity to the Pacific via the proposed Northern Gateway pipeline and the planned Trans Mountain pipeline expansion is only feasible when there is sufficient demand and processing capacity to support Canadian crude blends. Canadian heavy oil requires more refining and produces less valuable end products than other lighter and sweeter blends. Canadian producers must compete with lighter, sweeter oils from the Middle East, and elsewhere, for a place in the Pacific Basin refineries built to handle heavy crude blends. Canadian oil sands producers are currently expanding production capacity. Once complete, the Northern Gateway pipeline and the Trans Mountain expansion are expected to deliver an additional 500,000 to 1.1 million barrels a day to tankers on the Pacific coast. Through this survey of the capacity of Pacific Basin refineries, including existing and proposed facilities, we have concluded that there is sufficient technical capacity in the Pacific Basin to refine the additional Canadian volume; however, there may be some modifications required to certain refineries to allow them to process Western Canadian crude. Any additional capacity for Canadian oil would require refinery modifications or

  4. A decadal tropical Pacific condition unfavorable to central Pacific El Niño

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Wenxiu; Zheng, Xiao-Tong; Cai, Wenju

    2017-08-01

    The frequency of central Pacific (CP) El Niño events displays strong decadal variability but the associated dynamics are unclear. The Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) and the tropical Pacific decadal variability (TPDV) are two dominant modes of tropical Pacific decadal variability that can interact with high-frequency activities. Using a 500 year control integration from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Earth System Model, we find that the difference in mean state between the low-frequency and high-frequency CP El Niño periods is similar to the decadal background condition concurrently contributed by a negative IPO and a positive TPDV. This decadal state features strengthened trade winds west of the International Date Line and anomalous cool sea surface temperatures across the central tropical Pacific. As such, positive zonal advection feedback is difficult to be generated over the central to western tropical Pacific during the CP El Niño developing season, resulting in the low CP El Niño frequency.

  5. Pacific ethnic groups and frequent hospital presentation: A fair target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Zoe

    2016-06-01

    In New Zealand, Pacific health figures are traditionally presented for all Pacific ethnic groups combined. Use of EDs and urgent care clinics is high compared with Maori and non-Maori, non-Pacific (nMnP) use. By controlling for proximity to the hospital and socioeconomic status, we demonstrate greater variation between Pacific ethnic groups than between Pacific and nMnP, or between Maori and nMnP groups. We discuss the significance of subpopulation variation in use of urgent care services. © 2016 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  6. Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration : Annual Report 1997.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Aaron D.; Hatch, Douglas R.; Close, David A.

    1998-08-05

    The once abundant stocks of Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) above Bonneville Dam are currently depressed (Close et al. 1995). It is likely that many of the same factors that led to the decline of wild stocks of Columbia River Pacific salmon and steelhead have impacted Pacific lamprey populations as well. The Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration Project, funded by Bonneville Power Administration, is a cooperative effort between the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, the Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, and Oregon State University with the goal to increase Pacific lamprey stocks above Bonneville Dam.

  7. Extending Vulnerability Assessment to Include Life Stages Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Emma E; Essington, Timothy E; Kaplan, Isaac C

    2016-01-01

    Species are experiencing a suite of novel stressors from anthropogenic activities that have impacts at multiple scales. Vulnerability assessment is one tool to evaluate the likely impacts that these stressors pose to species so that high-vulnerability cases can be identified and prioritized for monitoring, protection, or mitigation. Commonly used semi-quantitative methods lack a framework to explicitly account for differences in exposure to stressors and organism responses across life stages. Here we propose a modification to commonly used spatial vulnerability assessment methods that includes such an approach, using ocean acidification in the California Current as an illustrative case study. Life stage considerations were included by assessing vulnerability of each life stage to ocean acidification and were used to estimate population vulnerability in two ways. We set population vulnerability equal to: (1) the maximum stage vulnerability and (2) a weighted mean across all stages, with weights calculated using Lefkovitch matrix models. Vulnerability was found to vary across life stages for the six species explored in this case study: two krill-Euphausia pacifica and Thysanoessa spinifera, pteropod-Limacina helicina, pink shrimp-Pandalus jordani, Dungeness crab-Metacarcinus magister and Pacific hake-Merluccius productus. The maximum vulnerability estimates ranged from larval to subadult and adult stages with no consistent stage having maximum vulnerability across species. Similarly, integrated vulnerability metrics varied greatly across species. A comparison showed that some species had vulnerabilities that were similar between the two metrics, while other species' vulnerabilities varied substantially between the two metrics. These differences primarily resulted from cases where the most vulnerable stage had a low relative weight. We compare these methods and explore circumstances where each method may be appropriate.

  8. Long-term variation in a central California pelagic forage assemblage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Stephen; Field, John C.; Sakuma, Keith M.

    2015-06-01

    A continuous 23 year midwater trawl survey (1990-2012) of the epipelagic forage assemblage off the coast of central California (lat. 36°30‧-38°20‧ N) is described and analyzed. Twenty taxa occurred in ≥ 10% of the 2037 trawls that were completed at 40 distinct station locations. The dominant taxa sampled by the 9.5 mm mesh net included a suite of young-of-the-year (YOY) groundfish, including rockfish (Sebastes spp.) and Pacific hake (Merluccius productus), two clupeoids (Engraulis mordax and Sardinops sagax), krill (Euphausiacea), cephalopods (Doryteuthis opalescens and Octopus sp.), and a variety of mesopelagic species, i.e., Diaphus theta, Tarltonbeania crenularis, "other" lanternfish (Myctophidae), deep-sea smelts (Bathylagidae), and sergestid shrimp. Annual abundance estimates of the 20 taxa were obtained from analysis of variance models, which included year and station as main effects. Principal components analysis of the abundance estimates revealed that 61% of assemblage variance was explained by the first three components. The first component revealed a strong contrast in the abundance of: (a) YOY groundfish, market squid (D. opalescens), and krill with (b) mesopelagics and clupeoids; the second component was associated with long-term trends in abundance. An evaluation of 10 different published oceanographic data sets and CTD data collected during the survey indicated that seawater properties encountered each year were significantly correlated with abundance patterns, as were annual sea-level anomalies obtained from an analysis of AVISO satellite information. A comparison of our findings with several other recent studies of biological communities occurring in the California Current revealed a consistent structuring of forage assemblages, which we conjecture is primarily attributable to large-scale advection patterns in the California Current ecosystem.

  9. The History of the Pacific Superplume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, N.; Utsunomiya, A.; Maruyama, S.

    2001-12-01

    To understand the birth place and episodic activity of the Pacific superplume, we reconstructed the paleogeograhy of continents and oceanic plates from 1.0 Ga supercontinent Rodinia until now by adopting the most confident available data set to determine paleopositions of oceanic plateaus, seamounts, and oceanic arc, in addition to major continents, by using plate trajectory for the last 150Ma and for the farther back to 1.0Ga, by the paleomagnetic constraints tied with geologic connections. Our main focus is the frequency change of ancient activity of plume rocks that are now preserved in the accretionary complex around the circum-Pacific orogenic belts. Several conclusions are led through our reconstruction. (1) Cretaceous oceanic plateaus which present widespread in western Pacific (e.g., Manihiki Plateau, Shatsky Rise, Hess Rise, Mid-Pacific Mountain, Nauru Basin) are traced back and concentrated to the present active region of the Pacific superplume. This suggests that those were once formed a huge composite volcanoes as large as 4000 km x 2400 km across during the Cretaceous by superplume activity. These are equivalent to Australia or Tharsis bulge volcanic complex on Mars. The estimated thickness of oceanic crust ca. 30-40 km suggests that major parts may have been above sea-level during the Cretaceous time. The Cretaceous global warming may be related to this hyper-active superplume event which have carried mantle CO2 to the surface of 3.2 x 1021 g, assuming 0.3 wt% x 350 million km3 (magma volume) x 3.07 g/cm3 during 150-75 Ma. This CO2 output amount occupies as much as 37 wt% among the total output from mantle estimated by using erupted basaltic volume estimated by Larson (1991, Geology, 549-550) and present output rate of CO2. The similar episodic activity of Pacific superplume seems to have occurred at 750-700 Ma, 550-500Ma, 300-250Ma by considering the frequency of occurrences of greenstones in the accretionary complexes of the world. (2) Rodinia

  10. Neodymium isotopic variations in Northwest Pacific waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amakawa, Hiroshi; Nozaki, Yoshiyuki; Alibo, Dia Sotto; Zhang, Jing; Fukugawa, Kiyotaka; Nagai, Hisao

    2004-02-01

    Four vertical profiles of the concentration and isotopic composition of Nd in seawater were obtained in the western North Pacific. Two profiles from the Kuroshio Current regime showed congruently that although the Nd concentration increases gradually with depth, its isotopic composition varies significantly with depth depending upon the water mass occupying the water column. The high-salinity Kuroshio waters originating from the North Pacific Tropical Water (NPTW) carry the least radiogenic Nd (ɛ Nd = -7.4 to -8.7) to this region at ˜250 m from the western margin continental shelves, most likely from the East China Sea. The Nd isotopic compositions in the North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW) that occurs at 600 to 1000 m in the subtropical region are fairly uniform at ɛ Nd = -3.7. The profile data from the ˜38° to 40°N Kuroshio/Oyashio mixed water region off Sanriku of Honshu, Japan, also suggest that the newest NPIW with ɛ Nd = -3.2 is formed there by the mixing of various source waters, and the radiogenic component of Nd is derived mainly from the Oyashio waters. In the Pacific Deep Water (PDW) below ˜1000 m, the Nd isotopic composition is neither vertically nor horizontally homogeneous, suggesting that it serves as a useful tracer for sluggish deep water circulation as well. Two profiles from the Izu-Ogasawara Trench showed a minimum ɛ Nd value at ˜2000 m, suggesting that there exists a horizontal advective flow in the vicinity of Honshu, Japan. There is some evidence from other chemical properties to support this observation. The waters below 4000 m including those within the trench in the subtropical region have ɛ Nd values of around -5, suggesting that the deep waters are fed from the south along the western boundary, ultimately from the Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) in the South Pacific. This extends up to ˜40°N along the Japanese Islands. In the subarctic region (>˜42°N), the waters have more radiogenic Nd with ɛ Nd > -4.0 throughout the

  11. Gamma radiation effects with Co-60 for radurization and radicidation in fillets and fish eggs of the Merluccius Merluccius hubbsi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdes Rodriguez, E

    1982-01-01

    Part I: theoretical considerations: introduction, methodology in the processing of foods, physical-chemical action of the radiations, microbiologycal aspects, action of the radiation and of the drops temperatures, physiologic aspects, changes taken place in the stored fish, changes taken place by the ionizing radiation in the biological structures. II: Experimental work, generalities of experimental work, objectives, materials and methods of the experimental work, presentation of results, conclusions

  12. Dynamic nuclear development in Pacific Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillessen, U.

    1996-01-01

    The gigantic wave of industrialization in Pacific Asia is based on a reliable supply of electricity whose expansion is being planned long in advance. In this context, nuclear power serves to reduce the dependence on, mostly imported, fossil fuels. Seventy nuclear power plants are in operation, twelve are under construction, and at least another 65 are planned by the year 2020. Also current nuclear research programs have been designed with long term objectives in mind. In times of moratoria and intentions to opt out in Western Europe it is perhaps worthwhile to look beyond the borders of cantons and federal states. The situation of nuclear power worldwide, especially in Pacific Asia, clearly reveals one thing: There is no opting out. (orig.) [de

  13. Bottle appeal drifts across the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbesmeyer, Curtis; Ingraham, W. James, Jr.; McKinnon, Richard; Okubo, Akira; Wang, Dong-Ping; Strickland, Richard; Willing, Peter

    Pacific drift currents were used by a group of oceanographers to estimate the path of a drift bottle that was found on a beach of Barkley Sound in Vancouver Island by Richard Strickland on June 10, 1990. The Chinese rice wine bottle, which remained unopened until December 18, 1991, contained six leaflets, one appealing for the release of China's well-known dissident, Wei Jingsheng. The bottle was one of thousands set adrift as part of a propaganda effort from the islands of Quemoy and Matsu off mainland China shortly after Wei was sentenced in 1979 to 15 years in prison (see Figure 1 for locations). Wei was in poor health and still in prison when the bottle made its way across the Pacific Ocean.

  14. Nuclear activities and the Pacific islanders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyke, J. Van; Smith, K.R.; Siwatibau, S.

    1984-01-01

    Although to outsiders the Pacific islands may seem far removed from the center of activities and controversies related to nuclear energy, this area has had more direct and negative experiences with nuclear issues than any other area in the world. These experiences have led to a deep-rooted skepticism of all nuclear activities in which distinctions between civilian and military activities, weapons and power, and low-and high-level waste bear little relation to the important Pacific concerns. Antinuclear sentiments are intimately linked to anticolonialism, growing regionalism and emerging cultural pride. Opposition and concern have been expressed in a number of international, regional, national and nongovernmental forums. In this climate, arguments about the relative safety of various waste disposal operations and other nuclear activities are not likely to be meaningful. (author)

  15. Statistical indicators for Asia and the Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This quarterly publication provides up-to-date monthly data for assessing the demographic and economic trends in countries or areas in Asia and the Pacific region. Part 1 gives regional tables for populations, life expectancy, death rate, birth rate, literacy, industrial production index, index numbers of agricultural production, cereal production, international trade, and GDP. Country tables gives a finer breakdown of figures for each of 28 countries which includes production and exports of coal, petroleum, natural gas, and electricity. The document is produced by the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. It has an ISBN of 92-1-119694-9 and a UN report number ST/ESCAP/1513.

  16. The Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swinburn, B A; Millar, L; Utter, J

    2011-01-01

    , Tonga, New Zealand and Australia) designed to prevent adolescent obesity. This paper overviews the project and the methods common to the four countries. Each country implemented a community-based intervention programme promoting healthy eating, physical activity and healthy weight in adolescents......Obesity is increasing worldwide with the Pacific region having the highest prevalence among adults. The most common precursor of adult obesity is adolescent obesity making this a critical period for prevention. The Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project was a four-country project (Fiji....... The evaluation tools common to each are described. Additional analytical studies included economic, socio-cultural and policy studies. The project pioneered many areas of obesity prevention research: using multi-country collaboration to build research capacity; testing a capacity-building approach in ethnic...

  17. The Pacific Ventilated Thermocline and its Influence on the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, L.; Schrag, D. P.

    2017-12-01

    Over the past century, global surface temperatures have warmed episodically despite relatively steady increases in radiative forcing. Coincident with these transitions, we identify changes in the structure of the ventilated thermocline in the Pacific as well as changes in the intensity of the equatorial undercurrent. We propose a new mechanism for the Pacific Decadal Oscillation that involves oscillations in the strength of the equatorial undercurrent and may explain multi-decadal variability of global temperatures. We suggest that the oscillation results in a greater or lesser volume of cold water reaching the eastern Pacific, which ultimately leads to a change in the heat flux out of this critical region. By varying the heat flux in the tropical Pacific in model simulations, we reproduce a stepwise pattern of warming that resembles the historical climate record without additional variability in forcing. In addition, the trajectory of the changes in thermocline structure that we now observe in the Pacific looks like it will arrive at the equator in the middle of the next decade, suggesting that the current period of reduced warming (aka "hiatus") will persist through the mid-2020s.

  18. Assistance Focus: Asia/Pacific Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-29

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost 'Ask an Expert' service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world. High-impact examples from the Asia/Pacific region are featured here.

  19. Army Aviation Operations in the Pacific Theater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-04

    security globally, we will of necessity rebalance toward the Asia-Pacific region. Our relationships with Asian allies and key partners are critical...Freedom was embarking upon an eight-month deployment to that Southeast Asian nation and making good on then-Secretary Gates’ commitment from 2011...number of armed vehicles, displaying the flexibility of helicopter operations in this particular theatre .36 A total of 22 Apache missions (49 combat

  20. Bathymetric Atlas of the North Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey provided nearshore from Novel Oceenoglphic Office neutical chert of various detils around islands and reefs. Nautical...Easter Islands , 1961. Middle America Trench: Topography and struc- Bernice P. Bishop Mus. Bull. 110, p. 1-44. ture, Geol. Sec. Amer. Bull., v. 72, p...of volcanic ash layers and turbidito% ini 1956. Clipperton fracture zone in the northeastern equa- the north Pacific, Gal. Soc. Amer. Bull., v. 80, p

  1. Circum-North Pacific tectonostratigraphic terrane map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokleberg, Warren J.; Parfenov, Leonid M.; Monger, James W.H.; Baranov, Boris B.; Byalobzhesky, Stanislav G.; Bundtzen, Thomas K.; Feeney, Tracey D.; Fujita, Kazuya; Gordey, Steven P.; Grantz, Arthur; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Natal'in, Boris A.; Natapov, Lev M.; Norton, Ian O.; Patton, William W.; Plafker, George; Scholl, David W.; Sokolov, Sergei D.; Sosunov, Gleb M.; Stone, David B.; Tabor, Rowland W.; Tsukanov, Nickolai V.; Vallier, Tracy L.; Wakita, Koji

    1994-01-01

    The companion tectonostratigraphic terrane and overlap assemblage of map the Circum-North Pacific presents a modern description of the major geologic and tectonic units of the region. The map illustrates both the onshore terranes and overlap volcanic assemblages of the region, and the major offshore geologic features. The map is the first collaborative compilation of the geology of the region at a scale of 1:5,000,000 by geologists of the Russian Far East, Japanese, Alaskan, Canadian, and U.S.A. Pacific Northwest. The map is designed to be a source of geologic information for all scientists interested in the region, and is designed to be used for several purposes, including regional tectonic analyses, mineral resource and metallogenic analyses (Nokleberg and others, 1993, 1994a), petroleum analyses, neotectonic analyses, and analyses of seismic hazards and volcanic hazards. This text contains an introduction, tectonic definitions, acknowledgments, descriptions of postaccretion stratified rock units, descriptions and stratigraphic columns for tectonostratigraphic terranes in onshore areas, and references for the companion map (Sheets 1 to 5). This map is the result of extensive geologic mapping and associated tectonic studies in the Russian Far East, Hokkaido Island of Japan, Alaska, the Canadian Cordillera, and the U.S.A. Pacific Northwest in the last few decades. Geologic mapping suggests that most of this region can be interpreted as a collage of fault-bounded tectonostratigraphic terranes that were accreted onto continental margins around the Circum-

  2. Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX). Design document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    The Earth`s climate has varied significantly in the past, yet climate records reveal that in the tropics, sea surface temperatures seem to have been remarkably stable, varying by less than a few degrees Celsius over geologic time. Today, the large warm pool of the western Pacific shows similar characteristics. Its surface temperature always exceeds 27{degree}C, but never 31{degree}C. Heightened interest in this observation has been stimulated by questions of global climate change and the exploration of stabilizing climate feedback processes. Efforts to understand the observed weak sensitivity of tropical sea surface temperatures to climate forcing has led to a number of competing ideas about the nature of this apparent thermostat. Although there remains disagreement on the processes that regulate tropical sea surface temperature, most agree that further progress in resolving these differences requires comprehensive field observations of three-dimensional water vapor concentrations, solar and infrared radiative fluxes, surface fluxes of heat and water vapor, and cloud microphysical properties. This document describes the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX) plan to collect such observations over the central equatorial Pacific Ocean during March of 1993.

  3. The Pacific Rim and global natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreyfus, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    There is a growing interest in natural gas as a part of national or international strategies to moderate the environmental consequences of fuel use. Although the underutilized global gas resource justifies the interest, the future consumption of gas is likely to be constrained by the high capital costs of new transportation facilities to bring remote gas supplies into areas of growing energy demand. The Asian Pacific Rim countries include rapidly growing demand areas as well as significant reserves of gas. The region will continue to play a leading role in the evolution of a world trade in gas. Gas resources within the Asian Pacific region are adequate to serve the foreseeable demands, but historically the region has utilized liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports. Financial constraints upon the gas producing countries of the region and political instability in some of them will probably continue to require the importing of sustantial quantities of gas from the Middle East and possibly from Alaska and the former USSR as the resources indigenous to the region itself are developed more slowly than demand. The financial arrangements and contractual approaches that evolve to meet the needs of the Asia Pacific Rim will shape the future of world LNG markets. (Author)

  4. Pacific Northern Gas Ltd. annual report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Pacific Northern Gas Ltd. operates in west-central and northeast British Columbia. The company delivers natural gas to customers through a transmission pipeline connected to Duke Energy system near Summit Lake, British Columbia. This report states that in 2002 financial results were disappointing. The company's net income in 2002 was lower than it was in 2001 ($4.6 million versus $5.7 million). In December 2002, Pacific Northern Gas Ltd. completed $15 million in financing. Additions to property, plant and equipment reached a total of $6 million in 2002. A new, seven-year contract with Methanex Corporation was successfully negotiated. Pacific Northern Gas Ltd. filed revenue requirements applications with the British Columbia Utilities Commission, seeking the Commission's approval of rates for 2003 and requesting approval of a new deferral account in all divisions. A settlement of the western system 2003 revenue requirements application was negotiated with its customers. The annual report presented a highlight of all activities, including corporate governance and management discussions and analysis. Consolidated financial statements were also provided. tabs

  5. Pacific Decadal Variability and Central Pacific Warming El Niño in a Changing Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Lorenzo, Emanuele [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2015-02-27

    This research aimed at understanding the dynamics controlling decadal variability in the Pacific Ocean and its interactions with global-scale climate change. The first goal was to assess how the dynamics and statistics of the El Niño Southern Oscillation and the modes of Pacific decadal variability are represented in global climate models used in the IPCC. The second goal was to quantify how decadal dynamics are projected to change under continued greenhouse forcing, and determine their significance in the context of paleo-proxy reconstruction of long-term climate.

  6. 9th Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference. Nuclear energy, science and technology - Pacific partnership. Proceedings Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The theme of the 9th Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference held in Sydney from 1-6 May 1994, embraced the use of atom in energy production and in science and technology. The focus was on selected topics of current and on-going interest to countries around the Pacific Basin. The two-volume proceedings include both invited and contributed papers which have been indexed separately. This document, Volume 2 covers the following topics: education and training in Nuclear Science, public acceptance, nuclear safety and radiation protection, nuclear fuel resources and their utilisation, research reactors, cyclotrons and accelerators. refs., tabs., figs., ills

  7. An aftereffect of global warming on tropical Pacific decadal variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jian; Liu, Qinyu; Wang, Chuanyang

    2018-03-01

    Studies have shown that global warming over the past six decades can weaken the tropical Pacific Walker circulation and maintain the positive phase of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO). Based on observations and model simulations, another aftereffect of global warming on IPO is found. After removing linear trends (global warming signals) from observations, however, the tropical Pacific climate still exhibited some obvious differences between two IPO negative phases. The boreal winter (DJF) equatorial central-eastern Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) was colder during the 1999-2014 period (P2) than that during 1961-1976 (P1). This difference may have been a result of global warming nonlinear modulation of precipitation; i.e., in the climatological rainy region, the core area of the tropical Indo-western Pacific warm pool receives more precipitation through the "wet-get-wetter" mechanism. Positive precipitation anomalies in the warm pool during P2 are much stronger than those during P1, even after subtracting the linear trend. Corresponding to the differences of precipitation, the Pacific Walker circulation is stronger in P2 than in P1. Consequent easterly winds over the equatorial Pacific led to a colder equatorial eastern-central Pacific during P2. Therefore, tropical Pacific climate differences between the two negative IPO phases are aftereffects of global warming. These aftereffects are supported by the results of coupled climate model experiments, with and without global warming.

  8. 77 FR 73969 - International Fisheries; Pacific Tuna Fisheries; Fishing Restrictions in the Eastern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... overfishing of the stock. DATES: Comments must be submitted in writing by January 11, 2013. A public hearing... effort quotas are an important step for reducing the overfishing of bluefin tuna. In 2011, NMFS determined overfishing is occurring on Pacific bluefin tuna based on stock assessment results of the...

  9. Unprecedented 2015/2016 Indo-Pacific Heat Transfer Speeds Up Tropical Pacific Heat Recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Michael; Alonso Balmaseda, Magdalena; Haimberger, Leopold

    2018-04-01

    El Niño events are characterized by anomalously warm tropical Pacific surface waters and concurrent ocean heat discharge, a precursor of subsequent cold La Niña conditions. Here we show that El Niño 2015/2016 departed from this norm: despite extreme peak surface temperatures, tropical Pacific (30°N-30°S) upper ocean heat content increased by 9.6 ± 1.7 ZJ (1 ZJ = 1021 J), in stark contrast to the previous strong El Niño in 1997/1998 (-11.5 ± 2.9 ZJ). Unprecedented reduction of Indonesian Throughflow volume and heat transport played a key role in the anomalous 2015/2016 event. We argue that this anomaly is linked with the previously documented intensified warming and associated rising sea levels in the Indian Ocean during the last decade. Additionally, increased absorption of solar radiation acted to dampen Pacific ocean heat content discharge. These results explain the weak and short-lived La Niña conditions in 2016/2017 and indicate the need for realistic representation of Indo-Pacific energy transfers for skillful seasonal-to-decadal predictions.

  10. Place in Pacific Islands Climate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, C.; Koh, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding place, including both the environment and its people, is essential to understanding our climate, climate change, and its impacts. For us to develop a sense of our place, we need to engage in multiple ways of learning: observation, experimentation, and opportunities to apply new knowledge (Orr, 1992). This approach allows us to access different sources of knowledge and then create local solutions for local issues. It is especially powerful when we rely on experts and elders in our own community along with information from the global community.The Pacific islands Climate Education Partnership (PCEP) is a collaboration of partners—school systems, nongovernmental organizations, and government agencies—working to support learning and teaching about climate in the Pacific. Since 2009, PCEP partners have been working together to develop and implement classroom resources, curriculum standards, and teacher professional learning opportunities in which learners approach climate change and its impacts first through the lens of their own place. Such an approach to putting place central to teaching and learning about climate requires partnership and opportunities for learners to explore solutions for and with their communities. In this presentation, we will share the work unfolding in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) as one example of PCEP's approach to place-based climate education. Three weeklong K-12 teacher professional learning workshops took place during June-July 2015 in Majuro, RMI on learning gardens, climate science, and project-based learning. Each workshop was co-taught with local partners and supports educators in teaching climate-related curriculum standards through tasks that can foster sense of place through observation, experimentation, and application of new knowledge. Additionally, we will also share PCEP's next steps in place-based climate education, specifically around emerging conversations about the importance of highlighting

  11. Anthropogenic Pu distribution in Tropical East Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Norikazu; Sumi, Takahiro; Takimoto, Kiyotaka; Nagaoka, Mika; Yokoyama, Akihiko; Nakanishi, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    The geographical distribution of the anthropogenic radionuclides 238 Pu and 239+240 Pu in the Tropical East Pacific in 2003 was studied from the viewpoint of material migration. We measured the contents of Pu isotopes in seawater and in sediment from the sea bottom. The distributions of Pu isotopes, together with those of coexisting nitrate and phosphate species and dissolved oxygen, are discussed in relation to the potential temperature and potential density (sigma-θ). The Pu contents in sediment samples were compared with those in the seawater. Horizontal migration across the Equator from north to south was investigated at depths down to ∼ 800 m in the eastern Pacific. The Pu distribution at 0-400 m correlated well with the distribution of potential temperature. Maximum Pu levels were observed in the subsurface layer at 600-800 m, corresponding to the depth where sigma-θ ∼ 27.0. It is suggested that the Pu distribution depends on the structure of the water mass and the particular temperature and salinity. The water column/sediment column inventory ratio and the vertical distribution of Pu may reflect the efficiency of scavenging in the relevant water areas. Research Highlights: → Geographical distributions of Pu isotopes were investigated from viewpoint of material migration. → Horizontal migration from north to south was found at depths down to ∼800 m in the eastern Pacific. → Pu distribution at 0-400 m was correlated with water temperature. → The distribution at 600-800 m correlated with water mass structure. → Pu in seawater and sediment gave information about efficiency of scavenging.

  12. Acculturation of Pacific mothers in New Zealand over time: findings from the Pacific Islands Families study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schluter Philip J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemiological investigation of acculturation has often been hampered by inconsistent definitions and measurement, and methodological short-comings. Adopting a bi-directional model, with good theoretical and psychometric properties, this study aimed to describe the temporal, ethnic and socio-demographic influences of acculturation for a group of Pacific mothers residing in New Zealand. Methods Pacific mothers of a cohort of Pacific infants born at a large tertiary hospital in South Auckland in 2000 were interviewed at 6-weeks, 4-years and 6-years postpartum. At each measurement wave a home interview lasting approximately 90 minutes was conducted with each mother. Adapting the General Ethnicity Questionnaire, two scales of acculturation were elicited: one measuring New Zealand cultural orientation (NZAccult and one measuring Pacific Islands cultural orientation (PIAccult. Acculturation scores were standardised and analysed using random intercept polynomial and piecewise mixed-effects regression models, accounting for the longitudinal nature of the repeated measured data. Mothers who immigrated to New Zealand and those who lived their lives in New Zealand were investigated separately. Results Overall, 1276 Pacific mothers provided 3104 NZAccult and 3107 PIAccult responses over the three measurement waves. Important and significant differences were observed in both bi-directional acculturation measures between the two maternal groups studied. New Zealand cultural orientation increased, on average, linearly with years lived in New Zealand both for immigrant mothers (0.013 per year, 95% CI: 0.012, 0.014, after adjusting for maternal age, and for mothers who lived their lives in New Zealand (0.008 per year, 95% CI: 0.06, 0.010. Immigrant mothers maintained their Pacific cultural orientation for, on average, 12 years before it began to linearly decrease with each year lived in New Zealand thereafter (-0.009 per year, 95% CI: -0

  13. Acculturation of Pacific mothers in New Zealand over time: findings from the Pacific Islands Families study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The epidemiological investigation of acculturation has often been hampered by inconsistent definitions and measurement, and methodological short-comings. Adopting a bi-directional model, with good theoretical and psychometric properties, this study aimed to describe the temporal, ethnic and socio-demographic influences of acculturation for a group of Pacific mothers residing in New Zealand. Methods Pacific mothers of a cohort of Pacific infants born at a large tertiary hospital in South Auckland in 2000 were interviewed at 6-weeks, 4-years and 6-years postpartum. At each measurement wave a home interview lasting approximately 90 minutes was conducted with each mother. Adapting the General Ethnicity Questionnaire, two scales of acculturation were elicited: one measuring New Zealand cultural orientation (NZAccult) and one measuring Pacific Islands cultural orientation (PIAccult). Acculturation scores were standardised and analysed using random intercept polynomial and piecewise mixed-effects regression models, accounting for the longitudinal nature of the repeated measured data. Mothers who immigrated to New Zealand and those who lived their lives in New Zealand were investigated separately. Results Overall, 1276 Pacific mothers provided 3104 NZAccult and 3107 PIAccult responses over the three measurement waves. Important and significant differences were observed in both bi-directional acculturation measures between the two maternal groups studied. New Zealand cultural orientation increased, on average, linearly with years lived in New Zealand both for immigrant mothers (0.013 per year, 95% CI: 0.012, 0.014), after adjusting for maternal age, and for mothers who lived their lives in New Zealand (0.008 per year, 95% CI: 0.06, 0.010). Immigrant mothers maintained their Pacific cultural orientation for, on average, 12 years before it began to linearly decrease with each year lived in New Zealand thereafter (-0.009 per year, 95% CI: -0.010, -0.008), after

  14. British megaton bomb trials in the Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobbs, Michael.

    1993-01-01

    Two remote islands in the Pacific Ocean were used by Britain to test thermonuclear weapons in 1957 and 1958. Nine tests, under the name 'Operation GRAPPLE', were carried out, after which Britain stopped atmospheric testing. Subsequent tests were carried out jointly with the USA, underground. This book tells, through postal history, the story of Britain's involvement in nuclear weapons testing on Christmas Island. Covers of official and private mail have been collected and are used to illustrate the planning and implementation of 'Operation GRAPPLE' which involved Royal Engineers, the Royal Air Force, the Royal Navy and the Atomic Weapons Research Establishment. (UK)

  15. The Southern Ocean and South Pacific Region

    OpenAIRE

    Kelleher, K.; Warnau, Michel; Failler, Pierre; Pecl, Gretta; Turley, Carol; Boeuf, Gilles; Laffoley, Dan; Parker, Laura; Gurney, Leigh

    2012-01-01

    The Region comprises three sub-regions (FAO Statistical Areas) with very different characteristics. The South Pacific includes the vast and virtually unpopulated Southern Ocean surrounding the Antarctic. It has the world’s largest fisheries off Peru and Chile and some of the world’s best managed fisheries in Australia and New Zealand. The Region has over 27% of the world’s ocean area and over 98% of the Region’s total area of 91 million km2 is ‘open ocean’. The Region contains less than 5% of...

  16. Towards a Fiscally Constrained Pacific Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    joint press conference with Australian Prime Minister Julia Gillard , President Obama emphasized U.S. intent in the Asia Pacific region when he... gillard -australia-joint-press (accessed February 5, 2012). 5 Laura MacInnis and Caren Bohan, “Obama seeks to hitch U.S. economy to Asian growth,” Reuters...November 16, 2011. http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2011/11/16/remarks-president-obama-and-prime- minister- gillard -australia-joint-press

  17. On the trail of the Pacific Teal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwan, A.C.

    1997-01-01

    The passage of the Pacific Teal, a ship specially designed to transport high level radioactive wastes, from France to Japan aroused some opposition within New Zealand. While Greenpeace persisted in referring to it as a p lutonium ship , it was in fact carrying vitrified waste. The media discussion about this type of shipment is based largely upon misinformation. The risks of human exposure and environmental damage posed by shipments of HLW cargoes are miniscule in relation to those posed by the more frequent and familiar transportation of oil cargoes. (author)

  18. Assistance Focus: Asia/Pacific Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-22

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost 'Ask an Expert' service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world, including nearly 30 countries in the Asia/Pacific region. This document highlights a few examples of the Solutions Center's work in the region.

  19. Pacific Northwest geothermal 1977 review - 1978 outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngquist, W

    1978-06-01

    A survey covers some of the more important geothermal exploration and development activity in Oregon, Washington, and Idaho in 1977, including a projection of what may be expected in these areas in 1978 and the Pacific Northwest extensive young volcanic terrain as a prime exploration target; continuing investment by the geothermal industry; and recommendations that access should be provided to public lands which hold much of this resource, that it should be recognized that the hydrologic systems which bring this energy to the well bore in economic quantities can be depleted, and that taxation should account for this depletion.

  20. 4th Pacific Rim Underwater Acoustics Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Wen; Cheng, Qianliu; Zhao, Hangfang

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings are a collection of 16 selected scientific papers and reviews by distinguished international experts that were presented at the 4th Pacific Rim Underwater Acoustics Conference (PRUAC), held in Hangzhou, China in October 2013. The topics discussed at the conference include internal wave observation and prediction; environmental uncertainty and coupling to sound propagation; environmental noise and ocean dynamics; dynamic modeling in acoustic fields; acoustic tomography and ocean parameter estimation; time reversal and matched field processing; underwater acoustic localization and communication as well as measurement instrumentations and platforms. These proceedings provide insights into the latest developments in underwater acoustics, promoting the exchange of ideas for the benefit of future research.

  1. 78 FR 34347 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plan for the North Pacific Right Whale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... and Threatened Species; Recovery Plan for the North Pacific Right Whale AGENCY: National Marine... Recovery Plan (Plan) for the North Pacific right whale (Eubalaena japonica). ADDRESSES: Electronic copies...

  2. Tectonic map of the Circum-Pacific region, Pacific basin sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibner, E.; Moore, G.W.; Drummond, K.J.; Dalziel, Corvalan Q.J.; Moritani, T.; Teraoka, Y.; Sato, T.; Craddock, C.

    2013-01-01

    Circum-Pacific Map Project: The Circum-Pacific Map Project was a cooperative international effort designed to show the relationship of known energy and mineral resources to the major geologic features of the Pacific basin and surrounding continental areas. Available geologic, mineral, and energy-resource data are being complemented by new, project-developed data sets such as magnetic lineations, seafloor mineral deposits, and seafloor sediment. Earth scientists representing some 180 organizations from more than 40 Pacific-region countries are involved in this work. Six overlapping equal-area regional maps at a scale of 1:10,000,000 form the cartographic base for the project: the four Circum-Pacific Quadrants (Northwest, Southwest, Southeast, and Northeast), and the Antarctic and Arctic Sheets. There is also a Pacific Basin Sheet at a scale of 1:17,000,000. The Base Map Series and the Geographic Series (published from 1977 to 1990), the Plate-Tectonic Series (published in 1981 and 1982), the Geodynamic Series (published in 1984 and 1985), and the Geologic Series (published from 1984 to 1989) all include six map sheets. Other thematic map series in preparation include Mineral-Resources, Energy-Resources and Tectonic Maps. Altogether, more than 50 map sheets are planned. The maps were prepared cooperatively by the Circum-Pacific Council for Energy and Mineral Resources and the U.S. Geological Survey and are available from the Branch of Distribution, U. S. Geological Survey, Box 25286, Federal Center, Denver, Colorado 80225, U.S.A. The Circum-Pacific Map Project is organized under six panels of geoscientists representing national earth-science organizations, universities, and natural-resource companies. The six panels correspond to the basic map areas. Current panel chairmen are Tomoyuki Moritani (Northwest Quadrant), R. Wally Johnson (Southwest Quadrant), Ian W.D. Dalziel (Antarctic Region), vacant. (Southeast Quadrant), Kenneth J. Drummond (Northeast Quadrant), and

  3. 7 CFR 1124.2 - Pacific Northwest marketing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pacific Northwest marketing area. 1124.2 Section 1124.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order...

  4. Health Care for the International Student: Asia and the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, June C., Ed.; And Others

    This handbook consists of 24 papers addressing various aspects on health care and health care systems and services for foreign students from the Asia Pacific Region. The papers are: "Providing Health Care for International Students" (Donald F. B. Char); "Major Health Care Systems in Asia and the Pacific: Mainland China, Taiwan, Hong…

  5. Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration Project : Annual Report 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Close, David A.

    2002-11-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted in 1999-2000. The findings in these chapters represent the efforts of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and collaborative efforts among other researchers working on Pacific lampreys (Lampetra tridentata) under this project. The findings in these chapters will help management and recovery of Pacific lampreys in the Columbia River Basin.

  6. Festival of Pacific Arts: Education in Multi-Cultural Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Hauteserre, Anne-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Can acts of support and/or revival of Pacific cultures serve to educate international tourists about Indigenous cultures? This paper examines, from a postcolonial perspective and using a qualitative methodology, whether the Festivals of Pacific Arts, to which all nations send delegations, can educate visitors about Indigenous cultures of the…

  7. 78 FR 70283 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Online Webinar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council's) Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC... cabezon, and other business in preparation for the SSC's March 2014 meeting. The online SSC Groundfish....m. PST, Wednesday, December 11, 2013 and continue until 4 p.m. or as necessary to complete business...

  8. 75 FR 76294 - Radio Broadcasting Services: Pacific Junction, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 10-2236; MB Docket No. 10-108] Radio Broadcasting Services: Pacific Junction, IA AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The staff deletes FM Channel 299C2 at Pacific Junction, Iowa, because the record in this...

  9. Introduction : Performing cross-cultural understanding in Pacific tourism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonnaer, A.A.C.; Tamisari, F.; Venbrux, H.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    This article is an introduction to the special issue entitled Indigenous Tourism, Performance, and Cross-Cultural Understanding in the Pacific. Based on various examples from the Pacific, we argue for the analysis of the tourist encounter as a single performative act of production and reception that

  10. Governance, corruption, and trade in the Asia Pacific region

    OpenAIRE

    Abe, Kazutomo; Wilson, John S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of reducing corruption and improving transparency to lower trade costs in the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation region. The authors find, based on a computable general equilibrium model, significant potential trade and welfare gains for Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation members, with increased transparency and lower levels of corruption. Results suggest that ...

  11. 77 FR 6786 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... meeting dates and times. SUMMARY: The Western Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) announces... Merizo Community Meeting 6 p.m.-9 p.m., Wednesday, February 29, 2012 1. Introduction 2. Community Based...

  12. Shaping Education Policy Research in an Asia-Pacific Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Dong Wook; Lee, Ho Jun; Lee, Seung Ho; Wi, Eunjoo

    2014-01-01

    Globalization increasingly calls for comparing educational policies across countries. In this study, we assemble and analyze academic journal publications of the past decade in order to shape education policy research within an Asia-Pacific context. After examining Asia-Pacific research publication data from the Web of Science, we find a few…

  13. Indo-Pacific sea level variability during recent decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, G.; Tsujino, H.; Nakano, H.; Urakawa, S. L.; Sakamoto, K.

    2016-12-01

    Decadal variability of sea level in the Indo-Pacific region is investigated using a historical OGCM simulation. The OGCM driven by the atmospheric forcing removing long-term trends clearly exhibits decadal sea level variability in the Pacific Ocean, which is associated with eastern tropical Pacific thermal anomalies. During the period of 1977-1987, the sea level anomalies are positive in the eastern equatorial Pacific and show deviations from a north-south symmetric distribution, with strongly negative anomalies in the western tropical South Pacific. During the period of 1996-2006, in contrast, the sea level anomalies are negative in the eastern equatorial Pacific and show a nearly north-south symmetric pattern, with positive anomalies in both hemispheres. Concurrently, sea level anomalies in the south-eastern Indian Ocean vary with those in the western tropical Pacific. These sea level variations are closely related to large-scale wind fields. Indo-Pacific sea level distributions are basically determined by wind anomalies over the equatorial region as well as wind stress curl anomalies over the off-equatorial region.

  14. IFRS adoption in Pacific Island Economies: A political perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pran Boolaky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new paradigm on the adoption of IFRS in island economies specifically in the pacific region. The adapted Scott (2001 institutional pressure framework on IFRS adoption addresses the political independence and political dependence of pacific island economies at three levels namely high, second and low.

  15. 75 FR 81971 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Council) Highly Migratory Species Management Team (HMSMT) will hold... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National...., Carlsbad, CA 92011; telephone: (760) 431-9440. Council address: Pacific Fishery Management Council, 7700 NE...

  16. 77 FR 21972 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Council) Highly Migratory Species Management Team (HMSMT) will hold... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... work sessions will be held at Large Conference Room, Pacific Fishery Management Council Office, 7700 NE...

  17. 77 FR 57558 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Groundfish Management Team (GMT) will hold a... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Management Council, 7700 NE Ambassador Place, Suite 101, Portland, OR 97220-1384. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  18. Getting to Know Education in the Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Educational Laboratory Pacific, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Pacific region is comprised of American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI); the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM)-Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, and Yap; Guam; Hawai'i; the Republic of the Marshall Islands; and the Republic of Palau. This document begins by providing a map of the REL Pacific region overlaid on a map of…

  19. 76 FR 13604 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    .... SUMMARY: The Western Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) will hold a Western Pacific Stock... councils and NOAA Fisheries to conduct a review and revision of the EFH components of fisheries management... and enhancement of EFH for each Fishery Management Plan. The Act requires that both steps of the...

  20. Education for, by, and of Asian/Pacific Americans, I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizokawa, Donald T.; Morishima, James K.

    1980-01-01

    This report discusses several perspectives on Asian/Pacific Americans and the educational issues that relate to them. It begins by providing a definition of "Asian/Pacific American," an historical account of their immigration, and a discussion of minority status and cultural relativism. A number of studies and personal experiences that…

  1. Olfactory sensitivity of Pacific Lampreys to lamprey bile acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, T. Craig; Sorensen, Peter W.; Bayer, Jennifer M.; Seelye, James G.

    2009-01-01

    Pacific lampreys Lampetra tridentata are in decline throughout much of their historical range in the Columbia River basin. In support of restoration efforts, we tested whether larval and adult lamprey bile acids serve as migratory and spawning pheromones in adult Pacific lampreys, as they do in sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus. The olfactory sensitivity of adult Pacific lampreys to lamprey bile acids was measured by electro-olfactogram recording from the time of their capture in the spring until their spawning in June of the following year. As controls, we tested L-arginine and a non-lamprey bile acid, taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate (TLS). Migrating adult Pacific lampreys were highly sensitive to petromyzonol sulfate (a component of the sea lamprey migratory pheromone) and 3-keto petromyzonol sulfate (a component of the sea lamprey sex pheromone) when first captured. This sensitivity persisted throughout their long migratory and overwinter holding period before declining to nearly unmeasurable levels by the time of spawning. The absolute magnitudes of adult Pacific lamprey responses to lamprey bile acids were smaller than those of the sea lamprey, and unlike the sea lamprey, the Pacific lamprey did not appear to detect TLS. No sexual dimorphism was noted in olfactory sensitivity. Thus, Pacific lampreys are broadly similar to sea lampreys in showing sensitivity to the major lamprey bile acids but apparently differ in having a longer period of sensitivity to those acids. The potential utility of bile acid-like pheromones in the restoration of Pacific lampreys warrants their further investigation in this species.

  2. 76 FR 70042 - Airworthiness Directives; Pacific Aerospace Limited Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Pacific Aerospace Limited Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... directive (AD) for Pacific Aerospace Limited Model FU24 Airplanes. This AD results from mandatory continuing... Schletzbaum, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901 Locust, Room 301, Kansas City, Missouri...

  3. 78 FR 9781 - Airworthiness Directives; Pacific Aerospace Limited Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Pacific Aerospace Limited Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... directive (AD) for all Pacific Aerospace Limited Models FU24-954 and FU24A-954 airplanes. This AD results... Aerospace Limited, Hamilton Airport, Private Bag, 3027 Hamilton, New Zealand; telephone: +64 7 843 6144; fax...

  4. Assimilation of Long-Range Lightning Data over the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    convective rainfall analyses over the Pacific, and (iii) to improve marine prediction of cyclogenesis of both tropical and extratropical cyclones through...data over the North Pacific Ocean, refine the relationships between lightning and storm hydrometeor characteristics, and assimilate lightning...unresolved storm -scale areas of deep convection over the data-sparse open oceans. Diabatic heating sources, especially latent heat release in deep

  5. Transition to School from Pacific Islands Early Childhood Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvao, Le'autuli'ilagi M.; Mapa, Lia; Podmore, Valerie N.

    Noting the need for additional information on the transition of children from Pacific Islands early childhood services to primary school, this exploratory study was designed to provide an account of the experiences of children, parents, and teachers, focusing on language and other aspects of children's move from Pacific Islands early childhood…

  6. Water and Environmental Research Institute of the Western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water and Environmental Research Institute of the Western Pacific - University of Guam Skip to main entered the website of the Water and Environmental Research Institute of the Western Pacific (WERI) at the CNMI and the FSM. Research Programs Weather and Climate Surface Water & Watersheds Groundwater &

  7. 75 FR 51240 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ... 5. Salmon Essential Fish Habitat Review D. Pacific Halibut Management 1. 2010 Pacific Halibut... Management 1. Ecosystem Fishery Management Plan I. Groundfish Management 1. Groundfish Essential Fish Habitat... the Groundfish Fisheries E. Habitat 1. Current Habitat Issues 2. National Marine Fisheries Service...

  8. 76 FR 36902 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... continue the periodic review of essential fish habitat (EFH) identification and descriptions for species... Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific Council) will hold a meeting of its Groundfish Essential Fish Habitat Review Committee (EFHRC). The meeting is open to the public. DATES: The CPSMT meeting will be held...

  9. 76 FR 52640 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) ad hoc groundfish Essential Fish Habitat Review Committee (EFHRC) will hold a conference call to continue the periodic review of groundfish Essential Fish Habitat (EFH). DATES: The conference call will be held Friday, September 9, 2011 from 9 a.m. to 11 a.m...

  10. 78 FR 20616 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS.... SUMMARY: The Western Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) will hold meeting of its Pelagics Plan... the Council Pelagics Conference Room to discuss the following agenda items: Tuesday, April 23, 2013, 8...

  11. 77 FR 22286 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS.... SUMMARY: The Western Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) will hold a meeting of its Pelagics Plan... pelagics annual report module changes 4. American Samoa annual report module changes 5. Summary of current...

  12. 76 FR 60004 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS.... Species with MSY, Existing Quota, or Reference Points (Tier 3 and 4). a. Coastal Pelagics in Hawaii. b...'s Report. 5. Agency Reports. A. National Marine Fisheries Service. 1. Pacific Islands Regional...

  13. Mineral facilities of Asia and the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric; Soto-Viruet, Yadira

    2010-01-01

    This map displays over 1,500 records of mineral facilities throughout the continent of Asia and the countries of the Pacific Ocean. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the 2008 U.S. Geological Survey Minerals Yearbook (Asia and the Pacific volume), (2) minerals statistics and information from the U.S. Geological Survey Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/), and (3) data collected by U.S. Geological Survey minerals information country specialists. Other sources include statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Due to the sensitivity of some energy commodity data, the quality of these data should be evaluated on a country-by-country basis. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

  14. Pacific region influenza surveillance for oseltamivir resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Heather B; Gose, Remedios B; Nagata, Mark T; Sciulli, Rebecca H; Whelen, A Christian

    2012-05-01

    Hawaii and the United States-affiliated Pacific islands (USAPI) host over 8 million travelers annually, most of whom originate in Asia, Australia, and the Americas where prevalence of oseltamivir resistance in 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) has been reported to be 2.5-3.5%. To survey a collection of samples from Hawaii and the USAPI that had tested positive for the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus by RTI-PCR to assess whether antiviral resistance emerged in these island communities during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. We examined RNA extracted from Hawaiian and USAPI cases for the neuraminidase H275Y mutation associated with oseltamivir resistance by pyrosequencing. Two hundred and sixty-three (263) 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) positive specimens were tested and 263/263 (100%) were shown to lack the mutation most commonly associated with oseltamivir resistance. There was no evidence of oseltamivir resistant A(H1N1)pdm09 virus during the 2009 pandemic in the Pacific islands despite considerable travel exposure. Geographic isolation, the lack of a "second wave" of pandemic influenza, judicious antiviral use, aggressive vaccination, and below average tourism due to the global economic crisis may have been contributing factors. Continued surveillance and vigilance is necessary to monitor unpredictable influenza activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Health status of Asians and Pacific Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, O M

    1995-02-01

    The elder Asian or Pacific-Island American presents a dynamic, interactive paradigm of forces beyond medical practice that includes religious, societal, and historical factors of delivering health care. The cultural characteristics of family and function, perception of time and healing, and the anthropologic factors of health beliefs on health behaviors can add to understanding our medical patients. Some important trends of environmental factors on expression of genetic predisposition to certain illnesses, such as diabetes and gout, can be used in health prevention. The significance of diet on certain cancers can be better understood using nativity factors. Many of the mental illnesses borne by immigrants can be recognized and treated. Significant clinical research directions imply an ability of American medicine to target at-risk Asians and Pacific Islanders for specific prevention and early diagnoses. The base knowledge of differential physiologic changes for aging and disease due to genetic predisposition and the correlates of social, cultural, and behavioral factors of diseases can then be improved.

  16. THE "COMFORT WOMEN" OF THE PACIFIC WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIA YURI OKAMOTO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the pacific war, about 80 to 200 thousand women were mobilized by the Japanese imperial army to sexually serve its soldiers, in one of world’s largest cases of human trafficking. Most of the victims, euphemistically known as "comfort women", came from Korea, Japan's colony at the time, and was attracted by false promises of employment or simply kidnapped by Japanese troops. Taken to military brothels throughout the pacific, they were subjected to repeated rape and beatings. Some of them, as young as age 12, were daily forced to have sex with Japanese soldiers, 10, 30, 50 times a day. The few women who survived and were able to return home at the end of the war continued to suffer for their past, through psychological trauma and social ostracism. They remained silent about their experience because of fear and shame. These women would have like to live in peace, being wives, mothers, sisters, grandmothers ... but this choice was denied to all. None received any compensation from the Japanese government official, who continues to evade its legal and moral responsibilities regarding war crime. Sixty-eight years later, they are still waiting for justice.

  17. Asia-Pacific POPIN workshop on Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This brief article announces the accomplishments of the ESCAP Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis (DESIPA) in conjunction with the Asia-Pacific POPIN Internet (Information Superhighway) Training Workshop in popularizing useful new computer information technologies. A successful workshop was held in Bangkok in November 1996 for 18 people from 8 countries in the Asian and Pacific region, many of whom were from population information centers. Participants were taught some techniques for disseminating population data and information through use of the Internet computer facility. Participants learned 1) how to use Windows software in the ESCAP local area network (LAN), 2) about concepts such as HTML (hypertext mark-up language), and 3) detailed information about computer language. Computer practices involved "surfing the Net (Internet)" and linking with the global POPIN site on the Internet. Participants learned about computer programs for information handling and learned how to prepare documents using HTML, how to mount information on the World Wide Web (WWW) of the Internet, how to convert existing documents into "HTML-style" files, and how to scan graphics, such as logos, photographs, and maps, for visual display on the Internet. The Workshop and the three training modules was funded by the UN Population Fund (UNFPA). The POPIN Coordinator was pleased that competency was accomplished in such a short period of time.

  18. Penetration of tritium into the Tropical Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fine, R.A.; Peterson, W.H.; Ostlund, H.G.

    1987-01-01

    The persistence of subsurface tritium maxima coincident with the Equatorial Currents is used to show that advection along isopycnals by the mean wind-driven circulation is the dominant process in the at most 14-year time scale for the penetration of high northern latitude water to the equator (above 26.2 sigma-theta). Ventilation of the equatorial Pacific thermocline from the north contrasts sharply with the equatorial Atlantic thermocline which is ventilated from the south. The most striking manifestation of the North Pacific circulation is evidenced by a tritium maximum and salinity minimum at the equator between 145 0 and 125 0 W located above 25.6 sigma-theta. It shows that regardless of time of sampling the easter/central equator has received the highest latitude water, probably as a consequence of recirculation by the Equatorial Currents. Between the same meridians there is a tritium maximum on and north of the equator at the surface, which is interpreted as an expression of upwelling. Its coincidence with the cool tongue (Wyrtki) provides direct evidence that the upwelling process plays a dominant role in its maintenance on a decadal time scale

  19. Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration Project : Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Close, David A.

    2002-11-01

    Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) has significantly declined along the Oregon coast and in the Columbia River Basin (Downey et al. 1993; Close and Jackson 2001). Declines in adults can be partially attributed to hydroelectric dams, which have impeded passage of adult Pacific lamprey in the Columbia and Snake rivers, thus effecting larval recruitment in the basin. Adult pacific lamprey also declined in numbers in the Umatilla River, a tributary of the Columbia River. In addition to hydro power dams in the Columbia River, habitat alterations and chemical treatments have been involved in the collapse of Pacific lamprey populations in the Umatilla River. To initiate the restoration effort, CTUIR began developing a restoration plan in 1998. The goal of the lamprey research and restoration project is to restore natural production of Pacific lampreys in the Umatilla River to self-sustaining and harvestable level. This report is summarizing the studies and restoration efforts concluded in 2001.

  20. Influence of tow duration on catch performance of trawl survey in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Sala

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of tow duration on catch per unit of swept area (CPUE, trawl catch performance, and the proportion of the species caught in a trawl survey. Longer tows are expected to have a greater probability of catching species. An average of 26 species were caught in the first 30 minutes, whereas only about one additional species was caught in the next 30 minutes in longer tows. The shorter tows involved a decrement in catch weight for 11 of the 12 target species sampled, demonstrating that tow duration did affect catch per unit of swept area CPUE. The shorter tows were associated with a significant reduction of the overall CPUE in terms of weight of the main target species and of the total catch (circa 60%. The same strong reduction of around 70% was found in particular for European hake (Merluccius merluccius and surmullet (Mullus spp and 50% for Nephrops (Nephrops norvegicus. The shorter tows were less efficient in catching large-sized hake, surmullet, Nephrops, Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus, and poor cod (Trisopterus minutus, even though the difference was significant only for Nephrops. Regardless of the p-value statistic, these findings suggest that the continuity of survey time series would be severely impaired by changing tow duration. Further work is required to explore a way to reduce tow duration without reducing CPUE.

  1. Diet of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus from the Gulf of Cadiz: Insights from stomach content and stable isotope analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Giménez

    Full Text Available The ecological role of species can vary among populations depending on local and regional differences in diet. This is particularly true for top predators such as the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus, which exhibits a highly varied diet throughout its distribution range. Local dietary assessments are therefore critical to fully understand the role of this species within marine ecosystems, as well as its interaction with important ecosystem services such as fisheries. Here, we combined stomach content analyses (SCA and stable isotope analyses (SIA to describe bottlenose dolphins diet in the Gulf of Cadiz (North Atlantic Ocean. Prey items identified using SCA included European conger (Conger conger and European hake (Merluccius merluccius as the most important ingested prey. However, mass-balance isotopic mixing model (MixSIAR, using δ13C and δ15N, indicated that the assimilated diet consisted mainly on Sparidae species (e.g. seabream, Diplodus annularis and D. bellottii, rubberlip grunt, Plectorhinchus mediterraneus, and common pandora, Pagellus erythrinus and a mixture of other species including European hake, mackerels (Scomber colias, S. japonicus and S. scombrus, European conger, red bandfish (Cepola macrophthalma and European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus. These contrasting results highlight differences in the temporal and taxonomic resolution of each approach, but also point to potential differences between ingested (SCA and assimilated (SIA diets. Both approaches provide different insights, e.g. determination of consumed fish biomass for the management of fish stocks (SCA or identification of important assimilated prey species to the consumer (SIA.

  2. Contrasting Effects of Central Pacific and Eastern Pacific El Nino on Stratospheric Water Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkel, Chaim I.; Hurwitz, Margaret M.; Oman, Luke D.; Waugh, Darryn W.

    2013-01-01

    Targeted experiments with a comprehensive chemistry-climate model are used to demonstrate that seasonality and the location of the peak warming of sea surface temperatures dictate the response of stratospheric water vapor to El Nino. In spring, El Nino events in which sea surface temperature anomalies peak in the eastern Pacific lead to a warming at the tropopause above the warm pool region, and subsequently to more stratospheric water vapor (consistent with previous work). However, in fall and in early winter, and also during El Nino events in which the sea surface temperature anomaly is found mainly in the central Pacific, the response is qualitatively different: temperature changes in the warm pool region are nonuniform and less water vapor enters the stratosphere. The difference in water vapor in the lower stratosphere between the two variants of El Nino approaches 0.3 ppmv, while the difference between the winter and spring responses exceeds 0.5 ppmv.

  3. Climate Variability and Phytoplankton in the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseaux, Cecile

    2012-01-01

    The effect of climate variability on phytoplankton communities was assessed for the tropical and sub-tropical Pacific Ocean between 1998 and 2005 using an established biogeochemical assimilation model. The phytoplankton communities exhibited wide range of responses to climate variability, from radical shifts in the Equatorial Pacific, to changes of only a couple of phytoplankton groups in the North Central Pacific, to no significant changes in the South Pacific. In the Equatorial Pacific, climate variability dominated the variability of phytoplankton. Here, nitrate, chlorophyll and all but one of the 4 phytoplankton types (diatoms, cyanobacteria and coccolithophores) were strongly correlated (pphytoplankton groups (chlorophytes and coccolithophores). Ocean biology in the South Pacific was not significantly correlated with MEI. During La Nina events, diatoms increased and expanded westward along the cold tongue (correlation with MEI, r=-0.81), while cyanobacteria concentrations decreased significantly (r=0.78). El Nino produced the reverse pattern, with cyanobacteria populations increasing while diatoms plummeted. The diverse response of phytoplankton in the different major basins of the Pacific suggests the different roles climate variability can play in ocean biology.

  4. Air-sea interaction in the tropical Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, L. J.; Steranka, J.; Holub, R. J.; Hansen, J.; Godshall, F. A.; Prabhakara, C.

    1972-01-01

    Charts of 3-month sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean were produced for the period 1949 to 1970. The anomalies along the United States and South American west coasts and in the eastern tropical Pacific appeared to be oscillating in phase during this period. Similarly, the satellite-derived cloudiness for each of four quadrants of the Pacific Ocean (130 deg E to 100 deg W, 30 deg N to 25 deg S) appeared to be oscillating in phase. In addition, a global tropical cloudiness oscillation from 30 deg N to 30 deg S was noted from 1965 to 1970, by using monthly satellite television nephanalyses. The SST anomalies were found to have a good degree of correlation both positive and negative with the following monthly geophysical parameters: (1) satellite-derived cloudiness, (2) strength of the North and South Pacific semipermanent anticyclones, (3) tropical Pacific island rainfall, and (4) Darwin surface pressure. Several strong direct local and crossequatorial relationships were noted. In particular, the high degree of correlation between the tropical island rainfall and the SST anomalies (r = +0.93) permitted the derivation of SST's for the tropical Pacific back to 1905. The close occurrence of cold tropical SST and North Pacific 700-mb positive height anomalies with central United States drought conditions was noted.

  5. Conservation of native Pacific trout diversity in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaluna, Brooke E.; Abadía-Cardoso, Alicia; Dunham, Jason B.; García de León, Francisco J; Gresswell, Robert E.; Luna, Arturo Ruiz; Taylor, Eric B.; Shepard, Bradley B.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Bestgen, Kevin R.; Rogers, Kevin H.; Escalante, Marco A; Keeley, Ernest R; Temple, Gabriel; Williams, Jack E.; Matthews, Kathleen; Pierce, Ron; Mayden, Richard L.; Kovach, Ryan; Garza, John Carlos; Fausch, Kurt D.

    2016-01-01

    Pacific trout Oncorhynchus spp. in western North America are strongly valued in ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural views, and have been the subject of substantial research and conservation efforts. Despite this, the understanding of their evolutionary histories, overall diversity, and challenges to their conservation is incomplete. We review the state of knowledge on these important issues, focusing on Pacific trout in the genus Oncorhynchus. Although most research on salmonid fishes emphasizes Pacific salmon, we focus on Pacific trout because they share a common evolutionary history, and many taxa in western North America have not been formally described, particularly in the southern extent of their ranges. Research in recent decades has led to the revision of many hypotheses concerning the origin and diversification of Pacific trout throughout their range. Although there has been significant success at addressing past threats to Pacific trout, contemporary and future threats represented by nonnative species, land and water use activities, and climate change pose challenges and uncertainties. Ultimately, conservation of Pacific trout depends on how well these issues are understood and addressed, and on solutions that allow these species to coexist with a growing scope of human influences.

  6. The Asia/Pacific chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tattum, L.

    1993-01-01

    The year of the Rooster may herald interesting change for the Asia/Pacific region. Local dynamics are shifting away from Japan, the traditional motor of the region, now in recession toward China, which is increasingly catching the imagination of investors. Japan's lead in major petrochemicals has eroded since restructuring of domestic industry. Ten years ago Japan was the location for 76% of Asian ethylene capacity, according to Chem Systems. It also held 89% of styrene capacity, 69% of polyolefins, and 62% of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Today it accounts for only 46% of Asian ethylene, 53% of styrene, 40% of polyolefin, and 37% of PVC capacity. Another country to watch is Vietnam many companies are waiting for sanctions to lift on US investment. When they do, this country of rich oil reserves but per capita income of only $200, will look to petrochemicals as a source of foreign investment

  7. Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Solid Waste Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holter, G.M.

    1993-09-01

    In fiscal year 1992 (FY-92), a Solid Waste Initiative was undertaken within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This action was partly in response to a perceived increase in the frequency and severity of impacts associated with solid waste issues at all levels. It also recognized the limited attention of previous efforts in addressing the broader impacts resulting from solid waste and, thus, dealing with solid waste issues in a holistic fashion. This paper provides a description of the Solid Waste Initiative at PNL, including a historical perspective on PNL's involvement in solid waste issues, the goals and objectives of the Solid Waste Initiative, and a discussion of selected activities being conducted under the Initiative

  8. The Asia-Pacific Strategic Triangle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to give insight into the debate over the strategic triangle and how it impacts conflict and security in South Asia. First the new geopolitical motives of the United States in the Asia-Pacific are outlined. Then the concept of strategic triangle is elaborated and its...... applicability discussed; third, details about China and India’s relations and responses to the new US policy are being analyzed; the perspective turns to the implications for conflict and security in South Asia with a focus on Afghanistan and Iran where oil and energy security are the main denominators...... of foreign policy calculations and moves in the strategic triangle; and finally, some concluding remarks are offered to explain the recent shifts in interactions between these core players in the emerging world order and whether a new geopolitical architecture is emerging...

  9. Sea otters in the northern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, James L.; Jameson, Ronald J.; Estes, James A.; LaRoe, Edward T.; Farris, Gaye S.; Puckett, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.; Mac, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    About 250 years ago sea otters (Enhydra lutris) were distributed continuously from central Baja California, north and west along the Pacific Rim to Machatka Peninsula in Russia, and south along the Kuril Island to northern Japan (Kenyon 1969; Fig. 1a). Several hundred thousand sea otters may have occurred in the north Pacific region when commercial hunting began in the 18th century (Riedman and Estes 1990).At least two attributes of the sea otter have influenced humans, likely for as long as they have resided together along the coast of the north Pacific Ocean. First, sea otters rely on a dense fur, among the finest in the world, for insulation in the cold waters of the Pacific Ocean. The demand for sea otter fur led to their near extinction in the 19th century. The fur harvest, begun about 1740 and halted by international treaty in 1911, left surviving colonies, each likely numbering less than a few hundred animals, in California, south-central Alaska, and the Aleutian, Medney, and Kuril Islands (Fig. 1a). These individuals provided the nucleus for the recovery of the species. Today more than 100,000 sea otters occur throughout about 75% of their original range (fig. 1b). Immigration has resulted in near-complete occupation of the Aleutian and Kuril archipelagos and the Alaska peninsula. Successful translocations have resulted in viable populations in southeast Alaska, Washington, and British Columbia. Large amounts of unoccupied habitat remain along the coasts of Russia, Canada, the United States, and Mexico.The second potential source of conflict between sea otters and humans is that sea otters prey on and often limit some benthic invertebrate populations. Because some of these invertebrates are aso used by humans (Estes and VanBlaricom 1985), human perceptions about the effects of sea otter foraging on invertebrates sometimes differ. By limiting populations of herbivorous invertebrates (e.g., sea urchins [Echinoidea]) otters help maintain the integrity of kelp

  10. Safeguards training at Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickman, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years considerable attention has been given to upgrading security education programs at facilities across the country. At Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), a Laboratory-wide Safeguard Awareness Training Program has been established in order to raise the cognizance of the entire staff with regard to safeguards issues and concerns. This aggressive safeguards program involves a strong interface of physical security measure and material control and accountability systems. Within PNL, four distinct audiences were defined and a needs assessment analysis performed for each to determine specific training requirements. The target audiences identified were: material balance area (MBA) custodians, managers of material balance areas, material handlers, and new employees. Five safeguards training courses were created to meet the needs of those audiences. This paper discusses the development of the Safeguards Awareness Program at PNL and its benefits to the Laboratory

  11. Gout: an Asia-Pacific update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Binoy J; James, Reeta

    2017-04-01

    Even though, Hippocrates recognized gout as an affection of older men and a product of high living long back in 5th century BC, this painful condition promises to accompany humanity to the 21st century. The incidence is progressively rising and females are also affected in the modern era. There are also regional and ethnic variations in the incidence, the genetics of which is being studied. The recommended best therapy for the acute attacks and long term prophylaxis has improved remarkably in the recent years. However, patients are often treated inadequately and risk factors for their disease are not well explored in daily practice. Although well designed long term studies of current and newer treatment are welcomed, educating doctors especially the primary care physicians who manage majority of gout cases, in optimizing the currently available management options would improve the present care. © 2017 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Hazardous waste management in the Pacific basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirillo, R.R.; Chiu, S.; Chun, K.C.; Conzelmann, G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Carpenter, R.A.; Indriyanto, S.H. [East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Hazardous waste control activities in Asia and the Pacific have been reviewed. The review includes China (mainland, Hong Kong, and Taiwan), Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It covers the sources of hazardous waste, the government structure for dealing with hazardous waste, and current hazardous waste control activities in each country. In addition, the hazardous waste program activities of US government agencies, US private-sector organizations, and international organizations are reviewed. The objective of these reviews is to provide a comprehensive picture of the current hazardous waste problems and the waste management approaches being used to address them so that new program activities can be designed more efficiently.

  13. Extreme winds in the Western North Pacific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Søren

    2006-01-01

    satellite images is discussed with emphasis on the empirical basis, which, unfortunately, is not very strong. This is stressed by the fact that Japanese and US agencies arrive at markedly different estimates. Onthe other hand, best track data records cover a long period of time and if not perfect......A statistical model for extreme winds in the western North Pacific is developed, the region on the Planet where tropical cyclones are most common. The model is based on best track data derived mostly from satellite images of tropical cyclones. The methodsused to estimate surface wind speeds from...... they are at least coherent over time in their imperfections. Applying the the Holland model to the best track data, wind profiles can be assigned along the tracks. Fromthis annual wind speed maxima at any particular point in the region can be derived. The annual maxima, in turn, are fitted to a Gumbel distribution...

  14. Lagrangian mixed layer modeling of the western equatorial Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Toshiaki; Lukas, Roger

    1995-01-01

    Processes that control the upper ocean thermohaline structure in the western equatorial Pacific are examined using a Lagrangian mixed layer model. The one-dimensional bulk mixed layer model of Garwood (1977) is integrated along the trajectories derived from a nonlinear 1 1/2 layer reduced gravity model forced with actual wind fields. The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) data are used to estimate surface freshwater fluxes for the mixed layer model. The wind stress data which forced the 1 1/2 layer model are used for the mixed layer model. The model was run for the period 1987-1988. This simple model is able to simulate the isothermal layer below the mixed layer in the western Pacific warm pool and its variation. The subduction mechanism hypothesized by Lukas and Lindstrom (1991) is evident in the model results. During periods of strong South Equatorial Current, the warm and salty mixed layer waters in the central Pacific are subducted below the fresh shallow mixed layer in the western Pacific. However, this subduction mechanism is not evident when upwelling Rossby waves reach the western equatorial Pacific or when a prominent deepening of the mixed layer occurs in the western equatorial Pacific or when a prominent deepening of the mixed layer occurs in the western equatorial Pacific due to episodes of strong wind and light precipitation associated with the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. Comparison of the results between the Lagrangian mixed layer model and a locally forced Eulerian mixed layer model indicated that horizontal advection of salty waters from the central Pacific strongly affects the upper ocean salinity variation in the western Pacific, and that this advection is necessary to maintain the upper ocean thermohaline structure in this region.

  15. Out of the Blue: The Pacific Rim as a Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Santa-Cruz

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available In 1993, in advance of what was to be the first Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC leader’s summit, US president Bill Clinton gave a lecture at Waseda University in Japan. In his speech, Clinton called for the creation of a “community of the Pacific.” The idea of a Pacific community is neither Clinton’s nor the Democratic Party’s invention, however. In the previous decade Ronald Reagan had already used it, going even beyond later conceptualizations, by referring to the 21st century as the Pacific’s century. But Reagan's prophecy concerning the Great Ocean was not new back in the 1980s either. In 1900 then US Secretary of State John Hay wrote: “the Mediterranean is the ocean of the past, the Atlantic the ocean of the present and the Pacific is the ocean of the future.” In a more general manner, as Christopher Coker has observed, the notion of the “Century of the Pacific” is plausible because it is consistent with the idea, popularized by Hegel, that the spirit of civilization is moving toward that part of the globe. Thus, the century of the Pacific has become a kind of zeitgeist. In this paper I undertake a conceptual, historical, and theoretical journey through the “Pacific Rim” or “Asia-Pacific,” as it has been called more recently. Although I will question the utility of the term, I want to make clear that my purpose is only to undertake a critical survey of “the Pacific.” As in any trip, however, one needs a starting point. But, What is the starting point of the Pacific Rim, that geographic zone that has been compared to Pascal’s sphere: “with periphery indeterminable and a center that may be anywhere”?

  16. North America and Asia Pacific LNG markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirie, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    The liquefied natural gas (LNG) export opportunities in the Asia Pacific market were reviewed. Some of the differences that affect a North American LNG projects compared to more typical LNG projects were also outlined. The two main aspects of the LNG market in North America include the establishment of LNG import terminals on the east and southern coasts of the United States and the development of export oriented LNG projects. The Pac-Rim LNG project calls for initial delivery to South Korea of 4.0 MTPA by the end of 2000. A large LNG project has also been proposed for the year 2005 which would use Prudhoe Bay gas. Generally, in North America, there is little use for large scale LNG import projects because of the vast pipeline network that delivers gas reliably and at low cost anywhere in North America. However, LNG remains a good alternative for the Asia Pacific region because of the lack of a pipeline network. Also, Japan, Korea and Taiwan, the three main centers for LNG demand, have no domestic energy supplies and rely on imported energy sources. China is another major market opportunity for LNG. The Pac-Rim LNG project differs from others of its kind in that usually, an LNG project is based on the availability of large reservoirs of natural gas owned by state governments and involves production agreements with multi-national oil and gas companies. This scenario is simply not possible in Canada's deregulated environment. In contrast, the existence of upstream facilities, technical expertise, and low capital costs, hence reduced risks and time to develop an LNG project, gives Canada significant advantages. 3 tabs., 3 figs

  17. Thorium content in bottom sediments of Pacific and Indian oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurvich, E.G.; Lisitsyn, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are the results of 232 Th distribution study in different substance-genetic types of bottom sediments of Pacific and Indian oceans. Th content determination has been carried out by the method of instrumental neutron activation analysis. Th distribution maps in the surface layer of bottom sediments of Pacific and Indian oceans are drawn. It is noted that Indian ocean sediments are much richer with Th moreover Th distribution in different types of sediments is very non-uniform. Non-uniformity of Th distribution in different types of Pacific ocean sediments is considerably less than that of Indian ocean and exceeds it only in red oozes

  18. Regional cooperation on public acceptance in the pacific basin area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumasa Tanaka

    1987-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to examine the nature of nuclear issues and the need for effective public acceptance programs in the Pacific Basin area, drawing attention to Japan, Canada and Taiwan of China. The paper first presents a general institutional framework in which regional cooperetion is being sought in the Pacific Basin area. Secondly, country-specific nuclear issues and public acceptance programs of Canada, Japan and Taiwan of China will be presented. And thirdly, the importance of international public acceptance programs will be discussed for nuclear-electric power to grow in the Pacific Basin area toward the Year 2000. (author)

  19. Tissue banking in Asia Pacific region: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nather, Aziz; Mandy, Foong Shi Yun; Ning, Tan; Kaiying, Wang

    2018-04-25

    Tissue banking in the Asia Pacific regions is driven by two main forces-firstly the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) via Regional Co-operative Agreement projects and secondly by the Asia Pacific Association of Surgical Tissue Banking (APASTB). This overview is written in three sections: (1) History of tissue banking in individual country in the region. (2) History of APASTB. (3) History of IAEA programme in Asia Pacific region. The current status and future of the tissue banking programme in the region will be discussed.

  20. Interannual variability of western North Pacific SST anomalies and its impact on North Pacific and North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Heung; An, Soon-Il; Kug, Jong-Seong

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the interannual variability of sea surface temperature (SST) and its atmospheric teleconnection over the western North Pacific (WNP) toward the North Pacific/North America during boreal winter are investigated. First, we defined the WNP mode as the first empirical orthogonal function (EOF) mode of SST anomalies over the WNP region (100-165°E, 0-35°N), of which the principle component time-series are significantly correlated with several well-known climate modes such as the warm pool mode which is the second EOF mode of the tropical to North Pacific SST anomalies, North Pacific oscillation (NPO), North Pacific gyre oscillation (NPGO), and central Pacific (CP)-El Niño at 95% confidence level, but not correlated with the eastern Pacific (EP)-El Niño. The warm phase of the WNP mode (sea surface warming) is initiated by anomalous southerly winds through reduction of wind speed with the background of northerly mean winds over the WNP during boreal winter, i.e., reduced evaporative cooling. Meanwhile, the atmospheric response to the SST warming pattern and its diabatic heating further enhance the southerly wind anomaly, referred to the wind-evaporation-SST (WES) feedback. Thus, the WNP mode is developed and maintained through winter until spring, when the northerly mean wind disappears. Furthermore, it is also known that anomalous upper-level divergence associated with WNP mode leads to the NPO-like structure over the North Pacific and the east-west pressure contrast pattern over the North America through Rossby wave propagation, impacting the climate over the North Pacific and North America.

  1. Brook Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for BROOK TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  2. 76 FR 76387 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... Sacramento, CA. The first assignment is the development of recommendations for a management framework for... Court, La Jolla, CA 92037; telephone: (858) 546-7000. Council address: Pacific Fishery Management...

  3. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Pacific Transition Teleconnection Pattern Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly tabulated index of the Pacific Transition teleconnection pattern. The data spans the period 1950 to present. The index is derived from a rotated principal...

  4. 77 FR 56611 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... list corals under Endangered Species Act (ESA), update on the Habitat Blueprint); Alaska Department of... States Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS) Report; Protected Species Report (PSR). 2. Halibut Fisheries...

  5. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Daily Pacific North American Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Pacific-North American pattern (PNA) is one of the leading teleconnection patterns in the Northern Hemisphere circulation. It is calculated as a Rotated...

  6. Ecosystem services provided by pacific NW Estuaries: State of knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal regions in the United States are rapidly developing areas, with increasing urbanization and growing populations. Estuarine and nearshore coastal marine waters provide valuable ecosystem services to resident and transient human communities. In the Pacific Northwest (PNW)...

  7. 78 FR 78824 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ...-17 at the Hilton Hotel, 500 West Third Avenue, Katmai/King Salmon, Anchorage, AK. DATES: The workshop... Anchorage Hilton Hotel, 500 West Third Avenue, Anchorage, AK. Council address: North Pacific Fishery...

  8. Confidence-building measures in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Huasun

    1991-01-01

    The regional confidence-building, security and disarmament issues in the Asia-Pacific region, and in particular, support to non-proliferation regime and establishing nuclear-weapon-free zones are reviewed

  9. Northern North Pacific Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0156768)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northern North Pacific (NNP) plays a significant role in long-term earth and ocean climate change. It is also a region of high importance for regional marine...

  10. National Guard Engagement in the Pacific: No Threat to Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bour, Mark

    2002-01-01

    This thesis evaluates recent decisions to expand the National Guard (NGE) State Partnership Program into the Asia-Pacific region and examines potential effects this expansion will have on the new partners created...

  11. The Educational Activities of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    1981-01-01

    Describes educational activities of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific including learning packets on various astronomy concepts, Morrison lectures, newspaper columns, teacher workshops, cosponsoring astronomy oriented lectures, and providing speakers for various groups. (DS)

  12. Brown Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for BROWN TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  13. Numbers of Calling Whales in the North Pacific

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Watkins, William

    2001-01-01

    Since November 1995, the U.S. Navy's Sound Surveillance System (SOSUS) and other hydrophone arrays were used to regularly sample the occurrence of whale sounds in four regions bordering the continental margins across the North Pacific...

  14. FastStats: Health of Asian or Pacific Islander Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Whooping Cough or Pertussis Family Life Marriage and Divorce Health Care and Insurance Access to Health Care ... 2015, table 1 [PDF – 2.7 MB] Leading causes of death for Asian or Pacific Islander population ...

  15. 75 FR 971 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Council) Scientific and Statistical Committee, Coastal Pelagic Species Management Team, and Groundfish Management Team will hold a working meeting, which is open to the... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National...

  16. Guest editors' introduction : Highlights from IEEE Pacific Visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van J.J.; North, S.; Shen, H.-W.

    2010-01-01

    This article looks briefly at four articles based on papers from the 2010 IEEE Pacific Visualization Symposium. These articles, which strongly focus on visual design and applications, cover a range of applications in scientific visualization, information visualization, and graph visualization,

  17. Chum Salmon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for CHUM SALMON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  18. Digital Review of Asia Pacific 2009–2010 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-06-02

    Jun 2, 2009 ... Hyeun-Suk Rhee (Director, Asian and Pacific Training Centre for ... for the policymakers, government leaders, and public sector managers. ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  19. Coho Salmon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for COHO SALMON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  20. Application of Portfolio Theory in Recovery Planning for Pacific Salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological applications of portfolio theory demonstrate the utility of this analytical framework for understanding the stability of commercial and indigenous Pacific Salmon fisheries. Portfolio theory also has the potential to aid in recovery planning for threatened and endangere...

  1. Pink Salmon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for PINK SALMON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  2. 75 FR 8674 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... Central Pacific Fisheries Commission D. Protected Species 1. Japan Sea Turtle Community Network 2. False.... ADDRESSES: The CNMI Community Meetings will be held at the Rota Social Hall, Tinian Elementary School...

  3. 77 FR 59902 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    .... 2. Guam. C. Enforcement Issues. 1. CNMI. 2. Guam. D. Status of Guam Indigenous Fishing Rights PL 29.... Hawaii Archipelago and Pacific Remote Island Areas. A. Moku Pepa. B. Department of Land and Natural...

  4. Asian and Pacific American Exceptional Children. A Conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decano, Pio

    1979-01-01

    Presented in the format of an imaginary dialogue between seven educators of Asian and Pacific American (APA) backgrounds, the article addresses some issues and concerns in the training of special education personnel to work with APA handicapped children. (DLS)

  5. Pacific Island Network Marine Fish Monitoring Dataset - Transects

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The benthic marine community in the Pacific Island Network (PACN) is a complex ecologic system and a diverse taxonomic environment, including algae and corals and...

  6. White Sturgeon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for WHITE STURGEON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  7. Fall Chinook Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for FALL CHINOOK contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  8. Westslope Cutthroat Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for WESTSLOPE CUTTHROAT TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on...

  9. Rainbow Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for RAINBOW TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  10. Redband Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for REDBAND TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  11. Basic law of atomic energy for pacific uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    This law comprehend information about the pacific uses of atomic energy. Likewise it creates the Commission of Atomic Energy and stipulates: it s organization and functions, regulations and licensures, responsibilities, income and patrimony. (SGB)

  12. Winter Steelhead Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for WINTER STEELHEAD contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  13. 77 FR 46408 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Council) Groundfish Essential Fish Habitat Review Committee (EFHRC... essential fish habitat (EFH). DATES: The conference call will be held August 17, 2012 between 9 a.m. and...

  14. 75 FR 67688 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Council's) Ad Hoc Groundfish Essential Fish Habitat Review Committee... groundfish Essential Fish Habitat (EFH). DATES: The work session will be held Monday, December 20, 2010 from...

  15. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) West Pacific Teleconnection Pattern Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly tabulated index of the West Pacific (WP) teleconnection pattern. The data spans the period 1950 to present. The index is derived from a rotated principal...

  16. CRED Simrad em300 multibeam backscatter data of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Howland Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific. These...

  17. CRED Simrad em300 multibeam backscatter data of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Johnston Island, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific. These...

  18. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific with 1 meter resolution in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf, and slope environments of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific....

  19. Decadal atmosphere-ocean variations in the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenberth, Kevin E.; Hurrell, James W.

    1994-03-01

    Considerable evidence has emerged of a substantial decade-long change in the north Pacific atmosphere and ocean lasting from about 1976 to 1988. Observed significant changes in the atmospheric circulation throughout the troposphere revealed a deeper and eastward shifted Aleutian low pressure system in the winter half year which advected warmer and moister air along the west coast of North America and into Alaska and colder air over the north Pacific. Consequently, there were increases in temperatures and sea surface temperatures (SSTs) along the west coast of North America and Alaska but decreases in SSTs over the central north Pacific, as well as changes in coastal rainfall and streamflow, and decreases in sea ice in the Bering Sea. Associated changes occurred in the surface wind stress, and, by inference, in the Sverdrup transport in the north Pacific Ocean. Changes in the monthly mean flow were accompanied by a southward shift in the storm tracks and associated synoptic eddy activity and in the surface ocean sensible and latent heat fluxes. In addition to the changes in the physical environment, the deeper Aleutian low increased the nutrient supply as seen through increases in total chlorophyll in the water column, phytoplankton and zooplankton. These changes, along with the altered ocean currents and temperatures, changed the migration patterns and increased the stock of many fish species. A north Pacific (NP) index is defined to measure the decadal variations, and the temporal variability of the index is explored on daily, annual, interannual and decadal time scales. The dominant atmosphere-ocean relation in the north Pacific is one where atmospheric changes lead SSTs by one to two months. However, strong ties are revealed with events in the tropical Pacific, with changes in tropical Pacific SSTs leading SSTs in the north Pacific by three months. Changes in the storm tracks in the north Pacific help to reinforce and maintain the anomalous circulation in the

  20. Regional impacts of ocean color on tropical Pacific variability

    OpenAIRE

    W. Anderson; A. Gnanadesikan; A. Wittenberg

    2009-01-01

    The role of the penetration length scale of shortwave radiation into the surface ocean and its impact on tropical Pacific variability is investigated with a fully coupled ocean, atmosphere, land and ice model. Previous work has shown that removal of all ocean color results in a system that tends strongly towards an El Niño state. Results from a suite of surface chlorophyll perturbation experiments show that the mean state and variability of the tropical Pacific is highly se...

  1. Poisoned reign: French nuclear colonialism in the Pacific. Revised ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielsson, Bengt; Danielsson, Marie-Therese.

    1986-01-01

    Since 1966, France has used Moruroa, a small atoll in the Pacific, as the testing site for its nuclear bombs - despite opposition from both the Polynesian people and nations throughout the world. Levels of radioactive fallout and sea contamination, and the extent of damage to Moruroa itself have remained a closely-guarded military secret. This book traces the history of French nuclear involvement in the Pacific and shows how the tests have been used to strengthen colonial rule in French Polynesia

  2. Active Pacific meridional overturning circulation (PMOC) during the warm Pliocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burls, Natalie J; Fedorov, Alexey V; Sigman, Daniel M; Jaccard, Samuel L; Tiedemann, Ralf; Haug, Gerald H

    2017-09-01

    An essential element of modern ocean circulation and climate is the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), which includes deep-water formation in the subarctic North Atlantic. However, a comparable overturning circulation is absent in the Pacific, the world's largest ocean, where relatively fresh surface waters inhibit North Pacific deep convection. We present complementary measurement and modeling evidence that the warm, ~400-ppmv (parts per million by volume) CO 2 world of the Pliocene supported subarctic North Pacific deep-water formation and a Pacific meridional overturning circulation (PMOC) cell. In Pliocene subarctic North Pacific sediments, we report orbitally paced maxima in calcium carbonate accumulation rate, with accompanying pigment and total organic carbon measurements supporting deep-ocean ventilation-driven preservation as their cause. Together with high accumulation rates of biogenic opal, these findings require vigorous bidirectional communication between surface waters and interior waters down to ~3 km in the western subarctic North Pacific, implying deep convection. Redox-sensitive trace metal data provide further evidence of higher Pliocene deep-ocean ventilation before the 2.73-Ma (million years) transition. This observational analysis is supported by climate modeling results, demonstrating that atmospheric moisture transport changes, in response to the reduced meridional sea surface temperature gradients of the Pliocene, were capable of eroding the halocline, leading to deep-water formation in the western subarctic Pacific and a strong PMOC. This second Northern Hemisphere overturning cell has important implications for heat transport, the ocean/atmosphere cycle of carbon, and potentially the equilibrium response of the Pacific to global warming.

  3. Wind Forcing of the Pacific Ocean Using Scatterometer Wind Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kathryn A.

    1999-01-01

    The long-term objective of this research was an understanding of the wind-forced ocean circulation, particularly for the Pacific Ocean. To determine the ocean's response to the winds, we first needed to generate accurate maps of wind stress. For the ocean's response to wind stress we examined the sea surface height (SSH) both from altimeters and from numerical models for the Pacific Ocean.

  4. Dynamics of the Asia-Pacific oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Asia-Pacific could become the world's largest oil market with an estimated 10 million b/d new demand by 2010. At the same time less Asian crude will be available for the world market. Refinery expansion is likely to be insufficient and imports of refined products will rise. The Asia-Pacific market could be the world's largest middle distillate importer and a major centre of trade for essentially every other petroleum product and form of commercial energy. (Author)

  5. Diversity of two widespread Indo-Pacific demosponge species revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Erpenbeck, D.; Aryasari, R.; Benning, S.; Debitus, Cécile; Kaltenbacher, E.; Al-Aidaroos, A. M.; Schupp, P.; Hall, K.; Hooper, J. N. A.; Voigt, O.; de Voogd, N. J.; Worheide, G.

    2017-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific is the world's largest marine biogeographic region, covering the tropical and subtropical waters from the Red Sea in the Western Indian Ocean to the Easter Islands in the Pacific. It is characterized by a vast degree of biogeographic connectivity in particular in its marine realm. So far, usage of molecular tools rejected the presence of cosmopolitan or very widespread sponge species in several cases, supporting hypotheses on a higher level of endemism among marine invertebra...

  6. Coherent tropical Indo-Pacific interannual climate variability

    OpenAIRE

    Wieners, C.E.; de Ruijter, W.P.M.; Ridderinkhof, W.; von der Heydt, A.S.; Dijkstra, H.A.

    2016-01-01

    A multichannel singular spectrum analysis (MSSA) applied simultaneously to tropical sea surface temperature (SST), zonal wind, and burstiness (zonal wind variability) reveals three significant oscillatory modes. They all show a strong ENSO signal in the eastern Pacific Ocean (PO) but also a substantial SST signal in the western Indian Ocean (IO). A correlation-based analysis shows that the western IO signal contains linearly independent information on ENSO. Of the three Indo-Pacific ENSO mode...

  7. Prehistoric Marine Resource Use in the Indo-Pacific Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Ono, Rintaro; Morrison , Alex; Addison, David

    2013-01-01

    Although historic sources provide information on recent centuries, archaeology can contribute longer term understandings of pre-industrial marine exploitation in the Indo-Pacific region, providing valuable baseline data for evaluating contemporary ecological trends. This volume contains eleven papers which constitute a diverse but coherent collection on past and present marine resource use in the Indo-Pacific region, within a human-ecological perspective. The geographical focus extends from E...

  8. Source function for tritium transport models in the Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fine, R.A.; Ostlund, H.G.

    1977-01-01

    An empirically fitted function describes surface Pacific Ocean tritium concentrations as varying exponentially with latitude, the r.m.s. fit to observations is 18%. The oceanic tritium concentration maximum in the North Pacific, which resulted from nuclear weapons testing, lagged the rain data by two to three years occurring in 1965--66. Tritium-salinity correlations are consistent with climatology. Tritium-longitude correlations are consistent with surface water circulation

  9. ITER representation at the Eleventh Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saji, G.

    1998-01-01

    The theme of this conference was 'international co-operation in the Pacific rim for the 21st century', reflecting both the historical objectives of the PBNC meetings and to focus on ways in which international cooperation can assist in overcoming the challenges to further realization of the many benefits of nuclear technology, particularly in the countries of the Pacific Rim. The ITER presence at the conference was significantly enhanced by an ITER Booth at the Technical Exhibit held during the Conference

  10. Why the South Pacific Convergence Zone is diagonal

    OpenAIRE

    Van Der Wiel, Karin; Matthews, Adrian; Joshi, Manoj; Stevens, David

    2016-01-01

    During austral summer, the majority of precipitation over the Pacific Ocean is concentrated in the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ). The surface boundary conditions required to support the diagonally (northwest-southeast) oriented SPCZ are determined through a series of experiments with an atmospheric general circulation model. Continental configuration and orography do not have a significant influence on SPCZ orientation and strength. The key necessary boundary condition is the zonally ...

  11. Transportation Infrastructure and the Asia-Pacific Food System

    OpenAIRE

    Armbruster, Walter J.; Coyle, William T.

    2005-01-01

    Adequate, well maintained transportation infrastructure is a critical element of the Pacific food system in addressing challenges of rapid urbanization. Policymakers must invest either in streamlining domestic supply chains and/or in facilitating food imports through market opening measures. Economic incentives, competitive transportation and logistic services, and policy reforms, both within the borders of individual economies as well as across the Asia-Pacific region, are also necessary. Im...

  12. Tropical cyclone statistics in the Northeastern Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero-Vadillo, E. [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California Sur (UABCS), La Paz, Baja California Sur (Mexico); Zaytsev, O. [Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias Marinas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, La Paz, Baja California Sur (Mexico)]. E-mail: ozaytsev@ipn.mx; Morales-Perez, R. [Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua (IMTA), Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-04-15

    The principal area of tropical cyclogenesis in the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean is offshore in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, between 8 and 15 degrees Celsius N, and most of these cyclones move towards the west and northwest during their initial phase. Historical analysis of tropical cyclone data in the Northeastern (NE) Pacific over the last 38 years (from 1966 to 2004) shows a mean of 16.3 tropical cyclones per year, consisting of 8.8 hurricanes 198 and 7.4 tropical storms. The analysis shows great geographical variability of cyclone tracks, and that there were a considerable number of hurricane strikes along the Mexican coast. About 50% of the tropical cyclones formed turned north to northeast. It was rare that any passed further north than 30 degrees Celsius N in latitude because of the cold California Current. Hurricane tracks that affected the NE Pacific may be separated into 5 groups. We compared the historical record of the sea surface temperature (SST), related with the El Nino events with a data set of tropical cyclones, including frequency, intensity, trajectory, and duration. Although the statistical dependence between the frequencies of tropical cyclones of the most abundant categories, 1 and 2, over this region and SST data was not convincing, the percentage of high intensity hurricanes and hurricanes with a long life-time (greater than 12 days) was more during El Nino years than in non-El Nino years. [Spanish] La principal region de la formacion de ciclones en el oceano Pacifico Este es el Golfo de Tehuantepec, entre los 8 y los 15 grados Celsius N. En su fase inicial los ciclones se mueven hacia el oeste y el noroeste. El analisis historico de los ciclones que se han generado durante los ultimos 38 anos (de 1966 a 2004) muestra un promedio de 16.2 ciclones por ano, consistentes en 8.8 huracanes y 7.4 tormentas tropicales. El analisis muestra una gran variabilidad geografica en la trayectoria de los ciclones, de los cuales un gran numero impacta las

  13. Global Warming Attenuates the Tropical Atlantic-Pacific Teleconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Fan; Wu, Lixin; Gan, Bolan; Cai, Wenju

    2016-01-01

    Changes in global sea surface temperature (SST) since the end of last century display a pattern of widespread warming intercepted by cooling in the eastern equatorial Pacific and western coasts of the American continent. Studies have suggested that the cooling in the eastern equatorial Pacific may be partly induced by warming in the North Atlantic. However, it remains unknown how stable this inter-tropical teleconnection will be under global warming. Here we show that the inter-tropical teleconnection from the tropical Atlantic to Pacific weakens substantially as the CO2 concentration increases. This reduced impact is related to the El Niño-like warming of the tropical Pacific mean state, which leads to limited seasonal migration of the Pacific inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and weakened ocean heat transport. A fast decay of the tropical Atlantic SST anomalies in a warmer climate also contributes to the weakened teleconnection. Our study suggests that as greenhouse warming continues, the trend in the tropical Pacific as well as the development of ENSO will be less frequently interrupted by the Atlantic because of this attenuation. The weakened teleconnection is also supported by CMIP5 models, although only a few of these models can capture this inter-tropical teleconnection. PMID:26838053

  14. Anthropogenic CO2 distribution in the North Pacific ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C [National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1993-06-01

    This paper discusses the penetration depth of anthropogenic CO2 in the North Pacific Ocean based on carbonate data in the literature. The carbonate data in the literature were used to supplement the tracer data showing oceanic mixing features for waters formed in the last 140 years. The deepest penetration over 2,000m was found in the northwest North Pacific. On the other hand, the shallowest penetration to less than 400m was found in the eastern equatorial Pacific. Consequently, it was suggested that penetration depth of anthropogenic CO2 has been controlled by such factors as deep water formation in the Northwest Pacific, upwelling in the equatorial Pacific, and vertical mixing in the western boundary areas. It was revealed that these results are in harmony well with results implied from tritium, C-14, and freons distributions. The total inventory of excess carbon in the North Pacific was 14.7[plus minus]4[times]10[sup 15]g around 1980. 48 refs., 10 figs.

  15. South Asian high and Asian-Pacific-American climate teleconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peiqun; Song, Yang; Kousky, Vernon E.

    2005-11-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the Asian monsoon plays an important role in affecting the weather and climate outside of Asia. However, this active role of the monsoon has not been demonstrated as thoroughly as has the variability of the monsoon caused by various impacting factors such as sea surface temperature and land surface. This study investigates the relationship between the Asian monsoon and the climate anomalies in the Asian-Pacific-American (APA) sector. A hypothesis is tested that the variability of the upper-tropospheric South Asian high (SAH), which is closely associated with the overall heating of the large-scale Asian monsoon, is linked to changes in the subtropical western Pacific high (SWPH), the mid-Pacific trough, and the Mexican high. The changes in these circulation systems cause variability in surface temperature and precipitation in the APA region. A stronger SAH is accompanied by a stronger and more extensive SWPH. The enlargement of the SWPH weakens the mid-Pacific trough. As a result, the southern portion of the Mexican high becomes stronger. These changes are associated with changes in atmospheric teleconnections, precipitation, and surface temperature throughout the APA region. When the SAH is stronger, precipitation increases in southern Asia, decreases over the Pacific Ocean, and increases over the Central America. Precipitation also increases over Australia and central Africa and decreases in the Mediterranean region. While the signals in surface temperature are weak over the tropical land portion, they are apparent in the mid latitudes and over the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  16. Marine proxy evidence linking decadal North Pacific and Atlantic climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetzinger, S. [University of Toronto Mississauga, CPS-Department, Mississauga, ON (Canada); Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences, IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel (Germany); Halfar, J. [University of Toronto Mississauga, CPS-Department, Mississauga, ON (Canada); Mecking, J.V.; Keenlyside, N.S. [Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences, IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel (Germany); University of Bergen, Geophysical Institute and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway); Kronz, A. [University of Goettingen, Geowissenschaftliches Zentrum, Goettingen (Germany); Steneck, R.S. [University of Maine, Darling Marine Center, Walpole, ME (United States); Adey, W.H. [Smithsonian Institution, Department of Botany, Washington, DC (United States); Lebednik, P.A. [ARCADIS U.S. Inc., Walnut Creek, CA (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Decadal- to multidecadal variability in the extra-tropical North Pacific is evident in 20th century instrumental records and has significant impacts on Northern Hemisphere climate and marine ecosystems. Several studies have discussed a potential linkage between North Pacific and Atlantic climate on various time scales. On decadal time scales no relationship could be confirmed, potentially due to sparse instrumental observations before 1950. Proxy data are limited and no multi-centennial high-resolution marine geochemical proxy records are available from the subarctic North Pacific. Here we present an annually-resolved record (1818-1967) of Mg/Ca variations from a North Pacific/Bering Sea coralline alga that extends our knowledge in this region beyond available data. It shows for the first time a statistically significant link between decadal fluctuations in sea-level pressure in the North Pacific and North Atlantic. The record is a lagged proxy for decadal-scale variations of the Aleutian Low. It is significantly related to regional sea surface temperature and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index in late boreal winter on these time scales. Our data show that on decadal time scales a weaker Aleutian Low precedes a negative NAO by several years. This atmospheric link can explain the coherence of decadal North Pacific and Atlantic Multidecadal Variability, as suggested by earlier studies using climate models and limited instrumental data. (orig.)

  17. Global Warming Attenuates the Tropical Atlantic-Pacific Teleconnection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Fan; Wu, Lixin; Gan, Bolan; Cai, Wenju

    2016-02-03

    Changes in global sea surface temperature (SST) since the end of last century display a pattern of widespread warming intercepted by cooling in the eastern equatorial Pacific and western coasts of the American continent. Studies have suggested that the cooling in the eastern equatorial Pacific may be partly induced by warming in the North Atlantic. However, it remains unknown how stable this inter-tropical teleconnection will be under global warming. Here we show that the inter-tropical teleconnection from the tropical Atlantic to Pacific weakens substantially as the CO2 concentration increases. This reduced impact is related to the El Niño-like warming of the tropical Pacific mean state, which leads to limited seasonal migration of the Pacific inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and weakened ocean heat transport. A fast decay of the tropical Atlantic SST anomalies in a warmer climate also contributes to the weakened teleconnection. Our study suggests that as greenhouse warming continues, the trend in the tropical Pacific as well as the development of ENSO will be less frequently interrupted by the Atlantic because of this attenuation. The weakened teleconnection is also supported by CMIP5 models, although only a few of these models can capture this inter-tropical teleconnection.

  18. Proceedings of the session on tropical forestry for people of the Pacific, XVII Pacific Science Congress; May 27-28, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugene C. Conrad; Leonard A. Newell

    1992-01-01

    The 17 papers in the Proceedings of the Session on Tropical Forestry for People of the Pacific cover the topics of the USDA Forest Service's tropical forestry research, forestry research in Asia and the Pacific, management of tropical forests for products and energy; forest and wildlife management, the South Pacific Forestry Development Programme, tropical...

  19. 1991 Pacific Northwest loads and resources study, Pacific Northwest economic and electricity use forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This publication provides detailed documentation of the load forecast scenarios and assumptions used in preparing BPA's 1991 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (the Study). This is one of two technical appendices to the Study; the other appendix details the utility-specific loads and resources used in the Study. The load forecasts and assumption were developed jointly by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) staff. This forecast is also used in the Council's 1991 Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan (1991 Plan)

  20. Insight into the Pacific Sea Surface Temperature- North American Hydroclimate Connection from an Eastern Tropical North Pacific Coral Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, S. C.; Charles, C. D.; Carriquiry, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    The last few years of record-breaking climate anomalies across North America--a resilient atmospheric ridge and extreme drought over the West Coast, and severe winters across the Midwest and East Coast regions--have been linked to anomalous Pacific sea surface temperatures (Seager et al. 2014, Wang et al. 2014, Hartmann 2015). The synoptic associations prompt important questions on the relation between these unusual phenomena and extreme expressions of known Pacific decadal modes, such as the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO). These questions motivate our pursuit to document multiple realizations of decadal variability in the Pacific-North American region through periods of varied radiative forcing. Here we introduce a 178 year, seasonally resolved Porites coral record from Clarion Island (18N, 115W), the westernmost island of the Revillagigedo Archipelago, a region both highly influenced by NPGO SST and SSS variability and critical for NPGO tropical-extratropical communication via the Seasonal Footprinting Mechanism (Vimont et al. 2003). When coupled with tree ring records from the western United States (Griffin and Anchukaitis 2014, MacDonald and Case 2005) and coral records from the central tropical Pacific (Cobb et al. 2001), the δ18O signal from the Clarion coral offers an extended framework of coherent continental hydroclimate and oceanic variability across the Pacific basin beyond the instrumental record. Over the last 200 years, we find clear commonality in the timing, magnitude and spatial expression of variability (illustrated through the NADA Atlas, Cook et al. 2004) amongst the proxy records. The strong relationship between Northeastern Pacific Clarion and the Central Pacific Palmyra record with the North American hydroclimate records can be viewed within the mechanistic framework of the NPGO; this framework is then explored over the last millennium across intervals of varied radiative forcing.

  1. Security in the Asia Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Working Group began by discussing the meaning of security in terms of its comprehensive, cooperative and human dimensions. In doing so, the members of the Group focused on major issues which could endanger regional stability and non-proliferation. In order to identify the major problems and sources of tension, it was agreed that the Group would concentrate on two sub-regions, namely, East Asia and South East Asia and then to compare these briefly with South Asia and Latin America, the aim being to identify common security concerns. The discussion was framed in terms of: (i) evaluating the adequacy of the existing institutional framework for security cooperation; (ii) evaluating linkages between economic development and security; and (iii) seeking ways to reduce tension and to increase security in the region. Discussion was focused on the broad subject of security risks and challenges as well as opportunities for effective cooperative security in the Asia Pacific region. Attention was devoted to ways of changing Cold War mentalities, which still hinder the normalization process and the achievement of comprehensive security cooperation among the countries in the region

  2. Thermal conductivity measurements of pacific illite sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickox, C. E.; McVey, D. F.; Miller, J. B.; Olson, L. O.; Silva, A. J.

    1986-07-01

    Results are reported for effective thermal conductivity measurements performed in situ and in core samples of illite marine sediment. The measurements were obtained during a recent oceanographic expedition to a study site in the north central region of the Pacific Ocean. This study was undertaken in support of the U.S. Subseabed Disposal Project, the purpose of which is to investigate the scientific feasibility of using the fine-grained sediments of the sea floor as a repository for high-level nuclear waste. In situ measurements were made and 1.5-m-long hydrostatic piston cores were taken, under remote control, from a platform that was lowered to the sea floor, 5844 m below sea level. The in situ measurement of thermal conductivity was made at a nominal depth of 80 cm below the sediment surface using a specially developed, line-source, needle probe. Thermal conductivity measurements in three piston cores and one box core (obtained several kilometers from the study site) were made on shipboard using a miniature needle probe. The in situ thermal conductivity was approximately 0.91 W · m-1 · K-1. Values determined from the cores were within the range 0.81 to 0.89 W · m-1 · K-1.

  3. Thermal conductivity measurements of Pacific illite sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickox, C.E.; McVey, D.F.; Miller, J.B.; Olson, L.O.; Silva, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    Results are reported for effective thermal conductivity measurements performed in situ and in core samples of illite marine sediment. The measurements were obtained during a recent oceanographic expedition to a study site in the north central region of the Pacific Ocean. This study was undertaken in support of the US Subseabed Disposal Project, the purpose of which is to investigate the scientific feasibility of using the fine grained sediments of the sea floor as a repository for high level nuclear waste. In situ measurements were made and 1.5-meter long hydrostatic piston cores were taken, under remote control, from a platform that was lowered to the sea floor, 5844 m below sea level. The in situ measurement of thermal conductivity was made at a nominal depth of 80 cm below the sediment surface using a specially developed, line source, needle probe. Thermal conductivity measurements in three piston cores and one box core (obtained several kilometers from the study site) were made on shipboard using a miniature needle probe. The in situ thermal conductivity was approximately 0.91 W/m.K. Values determined from the cores were within the range 0.81 to 0.89 W/m.K

  4. Emerging strengths in Asia Pacific bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Shoba; Hsu, Wen-Lian; Yang, Ueng-Cheng; Tan, Tin Wee

    2008-12-12

    The 2008 annual conference of the Asia Pacific Bioinformatics Network (APBioNet), Asia's oldest bioinformatics organisation set up in 1998, was organized as the 7th International Conference on Bioinformatics (InCoB), jointly with the Bioinformatics and Systems Biology in Taiwan (BIT 2008) Conference, Oct. 20-23, 2008 at Taipei, Taiwan. Besides bringing together scientists from the field of bioinformatics in this region, InCoB is actively involving researchers from the area of systems biology, to facilitate greater synergy between these two groups. Marking the 10th Anniversary of APBioNet, this InCoB 2008 meeting followed on from a series of successful annual events in Bangkok (Thailand), Penang (Malaysia), Auckland (New Zealand), Busan (South Korea), New Delhi (India) and Hong Kong. Additionally, tutorials and the Workshop on Education in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology (WEBCB) immediately prior to the 20th Federation of Asian and Oceanian Biochemists and Molecular Biologists (FAOBMB) Taipei Conference provided ample opportunity for inducting mainstream biochemists and molecular biologists from the region into a greater level of awareness of the importance of bioinformatics in their craft. In this editorial, we provide a brief overview of the peer-reviewed manuscripts accepted for publication herein, grouped into thematic areas. As the regional research expertise in bioinformatics matures, the papers fall into thematic areas, illustrating the specific contributions made by APBioNet to global bioinformatics efforts.

  5. The public view of Pacific Northwest forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    There are diverse communities that make up the public in the Pacific Northwest, all with differing views on the forest. To the media, the public are those indirect stakeholders, or average citizens, who have become keenly aware of the importance of environmental issues, including the implications for global change. Linkages between the forests, deforestation, global climate change, and overall environmental sustainability have been widely publicized, though less frequently analyzed in depth. Consequently, the state of Northwest forests has become a vital public interest. The need for an overall margin of global environmental security, and a concern over unsuspected consequences of all economic activity (including forestry) have created a community of interest among the urban population. In part, this is a spillover effect from promoting individual environmental responsibility and the conserver ethic into issues beyond the city boundary. In the Northwest, this often translates as a deep concern over forest management issues and strong conviction that changes are needed. At the same time, and largely as a direct response, the socioeconomic interests of rural forest communities have become a high-profile issue, raising debate over local empowerment and local forest stewardship models. The consequences of this complex and rapidly evolving public view of the forests are critical to forest managers and policymakers. 12 refs

  6. Western Europe, state formation, and genetic pacification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Peter; Harpending, Henry C

    2015-03-06

    Through its monopoly on violence, the State tends to pacify social relations. Such pacification proceeded slowly in Western Europe between the 5th and 11th centuries, being hindered by the rudimentary nature of law enforcement, the belief in a man's right to settle personal disputes as he saw fit, and the Church's opposition to the death penalty. These hindrances began to dissolve in the 11th century with a consensus by Church and State that the wicked should be punished so that the good may live in peace. Courts imposed the death penalty more and more often and, by the late Middle Ages, were condemning to death between 0.5 and 1.0% of all men of each generation, with perhaps just as many offenders dying at the scene of the crime or in prison while awaiting trial. Meanwhile, the homicide rate plummeted from the 14th century to the 20th. The pool of violent men dried up until most murders occurred under conditions of jealousy, intoxication, or extreme stress. The decline in personal violence is usually attributed to harsher punishment and the longer-term effects of cultural conditioning. It may also be, however, that this new cultural environment selected against propensities for violence.

  7. Communicating Volcanic Hazards in the North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehn, J.; Webley, P.; Cunningham, K. W.

    2014-12-01

    For over 25 years, effective hazard communication has been key to effective mitigation of volcanic hazards in the North Pacific. These hazards are omnipresent, with a large event happening in Alaska every few years to a decade, though in many cases can happen with little or no warning (e.g. Kasatochi and Okmok in 2008). Here a useful hazard mitigation strategy has been built on (1) a large database of historic activity from many datasets, (2) an operational alert system with graduated levels of concern, (3) scenario planning, and (4) routine checks and communication with emergency managers and the public. These baseline efforts are then enhanced in the time of crisis with coordinated talking points, targeted studies and public outreach. Scientists naturally tend to target other scientists as their audience, whereas in effective monitoring of hazards that may only occur on year to decadal timescales, details can distract from the essentially important information. Creating talking points and practice in public communications can help make hazard response a part of the culture. Promoting situational awareness and familiarity can relieve indecision and concerns at the time of a crisis.

  8. Western Europe, State Formation, and Genetic Pacification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Frost

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Through its monopoly on violence, the State tends to pacify social relations. Such pacification proceeded slowly in Western Europe between the 5th and 11th centuries, being hindered by the rudimentary nature of law enforcement, the belief in a man's right to settle personal disputes as he saw fit, and the Church's opposition to the death penalty. These hindrances began to dissolve in the 11th century with a consensus by Church and State that the wicked should be punished so that the good may live in peace. Courts imposed the death penalty more and more often and, by the late Middle Ages, were condemning to death between 0.5 and 1.0% of all men of each generation, with perhaps just as many offenders dying at the scene of the crime or in prison while awaiting trial. Meanwhile, the homicide rate plummeted from the 14th century to the 20th. The pool of violent men dried up until most murders occurred under conditions of jealousy, intoxication, or extreme stress. The decline in personal violence is usually attributed to harsher punishment and the longer-term effects of cultural conditioning. It may also be, however, that this new cultural environment selected against propensities for violence.

  9. Safeguards training at Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickman, D.A.

    1986-10-01

    Safeguarding our country's nuclear materials against theft or diversion is extremely important due to their significantly strategic value. In addition, nuclear materials also have an extremely high monetary value. The term ''safeguards'' is defined as an integrated system of physical protection, accountability, and material control measures designed to deter, prevent, detect, and respond to unauthorized possession and use of special nuclear materials. An aggressive Safeguards program, therefore, employs both good security measures and a strong material control and accountability system. For effective internal control of nuclear materials, having people qualified in the many aspects of safeguards and accountability is essential. At Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), this goal is accomplished through a Laboratory-wide Safeguards Awareness Program. All PNL staff members receive a level of Safeguards training appropriate to their particular function within the Laboratory. This paper presents an overview of the unique training opportunities this topic provides and how the training goals are accomplished through the various training courses given to the staff members

  10. Pacific Northwest Laboratory Maintenance Implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bright, J.D.

    1992-06-01

    This Maintenance Implementation plan has been developed for Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) Nuclear Facilities: 306W, 324, 325, 327 and 329NMF. It is based on a graded approach, self-assessment of the existing maintenance program(s) per the requirements specified by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4330.4A, Chapter II, Change number-sign 3. The results of this assessment were evaluated to determine needed improvements in PNL Craft Services' current maintenance program. The objective of this implementation plan is to provide baseline information for compliance to the DOE 4330.4A, and for needed improvements. The prime consideration in applying a graded approach to the Order has been to maintain safe and reliable operations, environmental compliance, safeguards and security, programmatic mission, facility preservation, and/or other facility-specific requirements. Using the results of the self-assessment, PNL has selected nine of the 18 elements of the Maintenance Program defined by DOE Order 4330.4A for improvement. The elements selected for improvement are Training and Qualification of Maintenance Personnel; Maintenance Procedures; Planning, Scheduling, and Coordination of Maintenance; Control of Maintenance Activities; Post-Maintenance Testing; Facility Condition Inspection; Management Involvement; Maintenance History; and Additional Maintenance Requirements. Based upon graded approach and current funding, those elements considered most important have been selected as goals for earliest compliance. Commitment dates for these elements have been established for compliance. The remaining elements of noncompliance will be targeted for implementation during later budget periods

  11. Dietary Guidelines for the Asia Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, Colin W; Lee, Mi Kyung; Kagawa, Masaharu; Low, Wah Yun; Liqian, Qiu; Guldan, Georgia S; Hokama, Tomiko; Nanishi, Keiko; Oy, Sreymom; Tang, Li; Zerfas, Alfred

    2017-03-01

    Nutrition is a major determinant of health throughout all stages of life and together with smoking is the most important risk factor for morbidity and mortality in the Asia Pacific Region. The workshop participants examined Dietary Guidelines and Food Guides that are in use in our region, together with additional materials from the World Health Organization, UNICEF and the World Cancer Research Foundation. The resulting set of guidelines is meant as a reminder of the main issues to be covered in a general public health education program. It may also be of value in reminding public health practitioners, educators, administrators, and policy makers of current nutrition issues. It may additionally be useful as a checklist of the issues to be considered in public health programs and regulations. The main areas of nutrition that are included in the Guidelines are eating a variety of foods, including vegetables, fruits, whole grain cereals, and nuts. Choose fish, poultry, and meats grown in a sustainable way. Appropriate growth, including avoiding obesity, and physical activity are important. Breastfeeding is the basis of infant nutrition and nutrition of mothers is an important public health measure. Negative factors in the Asian diet include salt, refined sugar, alcohol and fats. The APACPH Dietary Guidelines will need to be kept under review and modified to meet regional differences in food supply. The Guidelines will be useful as a checklist of the issues to be considered in public health programs, addressing both acute and chronic diseases.

  12. Impacts of Pacific SSTs on California Winter Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myoung, B.; Kafatos, M.

    2017-12-01

    Consecutive below-normal precipitation years and resulted multi-year droughts are critical issues as the recent 2012-2015 drought of California caused tremendous socio-economic damages. However, studies on the causes of the multi-year droughts lack. In this study, focusing on the three multi-year droughts (1999-2002, 2007-2009, and 2012-2015) in California during the last two decades, we investigated the atmospheric and oceanic characteristics of the three drought events for winter (December-February, DJF) in order to understand large-scale circulations that are responsible for initiation, maintenance, and termination of the droughts. It was found that abnormally developed upper-tropospheric ridges over the North Pacific are primarily responsible for precipitation deficits and then droughts. These ridges developed when negative sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTs) including La Niña events are pervasive in the tropical Pacific. After 3 or 4 years, the droughts ended under the opposite conditions; upper-tropospheric troughs in the North Pacific with El Niño events in the tropics. Results of Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis for the 41-year (1974/75-2014/15) 500 hPa geopotential height in DJF revealed that, during the drought periods, the positive phases of the first and second EOF mode (EOF1+ and EOF2+, respectively) were active one by one, positioning upper-tropospheric ridges over the North Pacific. While EOF1+ is associated with cold tropical central Pacific and negative Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), EOF2+ is associated with the tropical east-west SST dipole pattern (i.e., warm western tropical Pacific and cool eastern tropical Pacific near the southern Peru). Based on these results, we developed a regression model for winter precipitation. While dominant SST factors differ by decades, for the recent two decades (1994/1995-2014/2015), 56% variability of DJF precipitation is explained by the tropical east-west SST dipole pattern and PDO (NINO3

  13. The bomb 14C transient in the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Keith B.; Schrag, Daniel P.; Cane, Mark A.; Naik, Naomi H.

    2000-04-01

    A modeling study of the bomb 14C transient is presented for the Pacific Ocean. A primitive equation ocean circulation model has been configured for a high-resolution domain that accounts for the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF). Four separate runs were performed: (1) seasonal forcing with 20 Sv of ITF transport, (2) seasonal forcing with 10 Sv of ITF transport, (3) seasonal forcing with no ITF transport, and (4) interannual forcing with 15 Sv of ITF transport. This study has two main objectives. First, it is intended to describe the time evolution of the bomb 14C transient. This serves as a tool with which one can identify the physical processes controlling the evolving bomb 14C distribution in the Pacific thermocline and thus provides an interpretive framework for the database of Δ14C measurements in the Pacific. Second, transient tracers are applied to the physical oceanographic problem of intergyre exchange. This is of importance in furthering our understanding of the potential role of the upper Pacific Ocean in climate variability. We use bomb 14C as a dye tracer of intergyre exchange between the subtropical gyres and the equatorial upwelling regions of the equatorial Pacific. Observations show that while the atmospheric Δ14C signal peaked in the early to mid-1960s, the Δ14C levels in the surface water waters of the subtropical gyres peaked near 1970, and the Δ14C of surface waters in the equatorial Pacific continued to rise through the 1980s. It is shown that the model exhibits skill in representing the large-scale observed features observed for the bomb 14C transient in the Pacific Ocean. The model successfully captures the basin-scale inventories of bomb 14C in the tropics as well as in the extratropics of the North Pacific. For the equatorial Pacific this is attributed to the model's high meridional resolution. The discrepancies in the three-dimensional distribution of bomb 14C between the model and data are discussed within the context of the dynamical

  14. Authigenic Uranium in Eastern Equatorial Pacific Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcantonio, F.; Lyle, M. W.; Loveley, M. R.; Ibrahim, R.

    2014-12-01

    Authigenic U concentrations have been used as an indicator of redox state in marine sediments. Soluble U(VI) in porewaters is reduced to insoluble U(IV) under suboxic conditions setting up a diffusion gradient through which U in bottom waters is supplied to reducing sediments. Researchers have used sedimentary redox enrichment of U as a tool to identify past redox changes, which may be caused by changes in organic carbon rain rates and/or bottom water oxygen levels. Differentiating between these two explanations is important, as the former is tied to the use of authigenic U as a paleoproductivity proxy. We examined sediments from 4 sediment cores retrieved from two different localities in the Panama Basin in the eastern equatorial Pacific. Two cores were retrieved from the northern Panama basin at the Cocos Ridge, (4JC at 5° 44.7'N 85° 45.5' W, 1730 m depth; 8JC at 6° 14.0'N 86° 2.6' W, 1993 m depth), and two were retrieved from the south at the Carnegie Ridge, (11JC at 0° 41.6'S 85° 20.0' W, 2452 m depth; 17JC at 0° 10.8'S 85° 52.0' W, 2846 m depth). Using 230Th systematics and seismic profiling at each of the sites, we've identified significant sediment winnowing (4JC and 11JC) and focusing (8JC and 17JC). At all sites, we believe that changes in age-model-derived sand (i.e., >63µm) mass accumulation rates (MAR) best represent changes in rain rates. Glacial rain rates are higher than those in the Holocene by a factor of 2-3 at both sites. Peak Mn levels (>1%), the brown-to-green color transition (which likely represents the oxic/post-oxic boundary), and peak U concentrations all appear in the same order with increasing depth down core. At the Carnegie sites, where MARs are greater than those at the Cocos sites, increases in authigenic U (up to 4 ppm) occur during the mid- to late Holocene at depths of 10-15 cm. At the Cocos sites, increases in authigenic U (up to 12 ppm) occur lower in the sediment column (25-30 cm) during the late glacial. The decrease

  15. Invasive crayfish in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Christopher A.; McCreary, Brome; Adams, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Invasive species directly threaten freshwater biodiversity, particularly in regions of high aquatic richness like the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Crayfish are among the most impactful of aquatic invasive species. Invasive crayfish are considered ecosystem engineers due to their ability to alter basic wetland properties, such as reducing vegetation and bank integrity and increasing turbidity. In areas where invasion is advanced, crayfish pose major economic and ecological problems. Crayfish have been widely introduced for aquaculture and can become established in a wide range of habitat conditions. They also may be spread by anglers who use them as bait. Several non-native crayfish are established in the PNW, but the extent of their invasion is not well known. At least two groups are known from scattered sites in the PNW, and both have proven problematic for native species in other parts of the world: Red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) and several members of the genus Orconectes. Both groups are native to areas of the eastern United States. Both are identified globally as invasives of high concern and appear on the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's "10 Most Unwanted" and the U.S. Forest Service's "Primary Species of Concern" lists for stream systems in the PNW. Despite the presence of introduced crayfish in the PNW and their high potential for negative effects, the scope of their invasion and effects on aquatic systems are not well known. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), along with local groups and state agencies, is working to clarify crayfish distribution and to outline which basins may not yet be invaded. Other goals are to improve understanding of habitat associations of invasive crayfish and their potential effects on native crayfish.

  16. Learning from California and the Pacific Rim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tussing, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    Heavy oils are found in 10 of the 14 largest oilfields in Alaska and California. In the US west coast region, petroleum demand is dominated by light transport fuels, and there is a lack of a discrete and conspicuous heavy oil market. The structure and behavior of west coast petroleum markets, and their interactions with crude-oil and petroleum product markets elsewhere on the Pacific Rim are discussed with regard to how the market for growing volumes of western Canadian heavy oils might evolve. An analysis of crude oil prices versus API gravity demonstrates the price penalties on oil of low gravity, high sulfur, and high transport cost. Prices at the high gravity end tend to correlate closely with Asian light crude and unfinished gasoline prices. The heaviest crudes are priced in competition with other chemically similar residual oils for direct fuel use, blending, or refinery feedstock. The biggest component of the west coast heavy oil market is bunker fuel. The market value of heavy crudes in the west coast is thus determined by regional supply and demand for heavy hydrocarbon molecules, whatever the source. The west coast is not a promising market for Canadian heavy crudes, and exports to Asia would have to compete both with residual oils from Asia and the US west coast and with California heavy crudes. US west coast production peaked in 1989 and regional production can be expected to decline further in average gravity. New production from known but undeveloped heavy oil pools near Prudhoe Bay or in the California offshore could be expected to postpone the need for imports to the west coast and to depress prices. A removal of the Alaska crude oil export ban could improve the west coast heavy oil market. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  17. Pacific seamount volcanism in space and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, J. K.

    2007-02-01

    Seamounts constitute some of the most direct evidence about intraplate volcanism. As such, when seamounts formed and into which tectonic setting they erupted (i.e. on-ridge or off-ridge) are a useful reflection of how the properties of the lithosphere interact with magma generation in the fluid mantle beneath. Proportionately few seamounts are radiometrically dated however, and these tend to be recently active. In order to more representatively sample and better understand Pacific seamount volcanism this paper estimates the eruption ages (tvolc) of 2706 volcanoes via automated estimates of lithospheric strength. Lithospheric strength (GTRrel) is deduced from the ratio of gravity to topography above the summits of volcanoes, and is shown to correlate with seafloor age at the time of volcanic loading (Δt) at 61 sites where radiometric constraints upon Δt exist. A trend of fits data for these 61, and with seafloor age (tsf) known, can date the 2706 volcanoes; tvolc = tsf - Δt. Widespread recurrences of volcanism proximal to older features (e.g. the Cook-Austral alignment in French Polynesia) suggest that the lithosphere exerts a significant element of control upon the location of volcanism, and that magmatic throughput leaves the lithosphere more susceptible to the passage of future melts. Observations also prompt speculation that: the Tavara seamounts share morphological characteristics and isostatic compensation state with the Musicians, and probably formed similarly; the Easter Island chain may be a modern analogy to the Cross-Lines; a Musicians - South Hawaiian seamounts alignment may be deflecting the Hawaiian hotspot trace.

  18. Scatterometer Observes Extratropical Transition of Pacific Typhoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. Timothy; Tang, Wenqing; Dunbar, R. Scott

    1997-01-01

    From September 15 to 25, 1996, NASA's scatterometer (NSCAT) monitored the evolution of twin typhoons, Violet and Tom, as they moved north from the western tropical Pacific, acquiring features of mid-latitude storms. The typhoons developed frontal structures, increased asymmetry, and dry air was introduced into their cores. Violet hit Japan, causing death and destruction (Figure 1), and Tom merged with a mid-latitude trough and evolved into a large extratropical storm with gale-force winds (Figure 2). We understand relatively little about the extratropical transition of tropical cyclones because of the complex thermodynamics involved [e.g., Sinclair, 1993], but we do know that the mid-latitude storms resulting from tropical cyclones usually generate strong winds and heavy precipitation. Since the transition usually occurs over the ocean, few measurements have been made. The transition is a fascinating science problem, but it also has important economic consequences. The transition occurs over the busiest trans-ocean shipping lanes, and when the resulting storms hit land, they usually devastate populated areas. NSCAT was successfully launched into a near-polar, sun-synchronous orbit on the Japanese Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS) in August 1996 from Tanegashima Space Center in Japan. NSCAT's six antennas send microwave pulses at a frequency of 14 GHz to the Earth's surface and measure the backscatter. The antennas scan two 600-km bands of the ocean, which are separated by a 330-km data gap. From NSCAT observations, surface wind vectors can be derived at 25-km spatial resolution, covering 77% of the ice-free ocean in one day and 97% of the ocean in two days, under both clear and cloudy conditions.

  19. Cardiac surgery in the Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip John; Wainer, Zoe; O'Keefe, Michael; Nand, Parma

    2011-12-01

    Rheumatic heart disease constitutes a significant disease burden in under-resourced communities. Recognition of the devastating impact of rheumatic heart disease has resulted in volunteer cardiac teams from Australasia providing surgical services to regions of need. The primary objective of this study was to compare New Zealand hospitals' volunteer cardiac surgical operative results in Samoa and Fiji with the accepted surgical mortality and morbidity rates for Australasia. A retrospective review from seven volunteer cardiac surgical trips to Samoa and Fiji from 2003 to 2009 was conducted. Patient data were retrospectively and prospectively collected. Preoperative morbidity and mortality risk were calculated using the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (euroSCORE). Audit data were collated in line with the Australasian Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons guidelines. One hundred and three operations were performed over 6 years. EuroSCORE predicted an operative mortality of 3.32%. In-hospital mortality was 0.97% and post-discharge mortality was 2.91%, resulting in a 30-day mortality of 3.88%. This study demonstrated that performing cardiac surgery in Fiji and Samoa is viable and safe. However, the mortality was slightly higher than predicted by euroSCORE. Difficulties exist in predicting mortality rates in patients with rheumatic heart disease from Pacific Island nations as known risk scoring models fail to be disease, ethnically or culturally inclusive. Audit processes and risk model development and assessment are an essential part of this complex surgical charity work and will result in improved patient selection and outcomes. © 2011 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2011 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  20. Unpacking the Pacific Urban Agenda: Resilience Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Luke Kiddle

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Pacific Island Countries (PICs are often cited as being the most vulnerable to the future impacts of a changing climate. Furthermore, being located in the ‘Pacific Rim of Fire’, PICs have long been exposed to the impacts of a range of natural and climate-related extreme events—such as earthquakes and cyclones—and are considered to be amongst the most vulnerable countries to natural disasters. The physical vulnerability of Pacific towns and cities is further exaggerated by development deficits, geographical isolation, weak governance, and complex issues of land tenure. This paper, based on substantive project experience in the Pacific region by each of the authors, reviews the resilience challenges facing Melanesian cities in the context of rapid urbanization and global environmental change. It then sets this in the context of the global ‘New Urban Agenda’ which was launched at Habitat III in Quito at the end of 2016, setting out the critical implementation challenges and opportunities for enhancing urban resilience in the Pacific.

  1. The Index of Asia-Pacific Regional Integration Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Yifan Ye

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Asia-Pacific region is not typically seen as one geographic or socio-economic space. Yet, 58 regional economies occupying the space of 28 million square kilometers from Turkey in the West, Russian Federation in the North, French Polynesia in the East and New Zealand in the South belong to the Economic and Social Commission of Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP. This commission provides a forum for member states that "promotes regional cooperation and collective action, assisting countries in building and sustaining shared economic growth and social equity". In 2013, ESCAP's members adopted the Bangkok Declaration to enhance efforts towards deeper regional economic integration. Yet this document neither proposes a concrete modality or modalities of achieving deeper integration, nor provides a sense of distance of individual countries to a "perceived" integrated Asia-Pacific.This paper aims to comprehensively quantify recent integration efforts of economies in the Asia-Pacific region. We provide an "index of integration effort" based on twelve metrics that measure the relative distance of a given economy to the region as an economic entity. Generally, we find that while the region has trended towards becoming integrated in general, both the level of integration and integration effort are inconsistent among Asia-Pacific economies. We discuss potential applications and extensions of the index in developing our perspective of the region's economic and social dynamics.

  2. Food irradiation: regulatory aspects in the Asia and Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckman, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Irradiation treatment of food is becoming an increasingly accepted processing option for countries in the Asia Pacific region wishing to meet growing sanitary and phytosanitary requirements in international trade. There remain however, large differences between the regulatory requirements in the countries in this region. This paper gives an outline on existing food irradiation regulations in the separate countries of the Asia Pacific region. New developments such as the recent decision by the Australia New Zealand Food Authority to start assessing applications for food irradiation treatment are discussed. Australia's intention to regulate the export of food treated by irradiation will also be outlined. Details of the decision to harmonise food irradiation regulations by 13 countries in the Asia Pacific region based on conformance with Codex requirements is outlined. The likelihood of other Asia Pacific countries enacting similar harmonisation of their regulations will be examined. Future development such as certification of irradiation as a sanitary treatment for food are discussed. The expected result of these initiatives is a likely increase in irradiated foods traded within the Asia Pacific region

  3. Behavioral responses of Pacific lamprey to alarm cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Laurie L.; Hayes, Michael C.; Jackson, Aaron D.; Burke, Brian J.; Moser, Mary L.; Wagner, R. Steven

    2017-01-01

    Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus), an anadromous ectoparasite, faces several challenges during adult migration to spawning grounds. Developing methods to address these challenges is critical to the success of ongoing conservation efforts. The challenges are diverse, and include anthropogenic alterations to the ecosystem resulting in loss of habitat, impassable barriers such as dams, climate change impacts, and altered predator fields. We conducted a behavioral study to understand how adult migrating Pacific lamprey respond to potential alarm cues: White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus), human saliva, decayed Pacific lamprey, and river otter (Lontra canadensis). Research has shown that some species of lamprey can be guided to a location using odors and similar cues may be useful as a management tool for Pacific lamprey. Experiments were conducted over 2 nights and measured the number of entries (count) and duration of time spent (occupancy) by adult lamprey in each arm of a two-choice maze. During the first night, no odor was added to test for selection bias between arms. During the second night odor was added to one arm of the maze. Contrary to expectations, lamprey were significantly attracted to the river otter odor in both count and occupancy. No significant differences were found in the response of lamprey to the other three odors. Results from this study indicate that Pacific lamprey do respond to some odors; however, additional tests are necessary to better identify the types of odors and concentrations that elicit a repeatable response.

  4. Legacy of the Pacific Islander cancer control network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbell, F Allan; Luce, Pat H; Afeaki, William P; Cruz, Lee Ann C; McMullin, Juliet M; Mummert, Angelina; Pouesi, June; Reyes, Maria Lourdes; Taumoepeau, Leafa Tuita; Tu'ufuli, Galeai Moali'itele; Wenzel, Lari

    2006-10-15

    The groundwork for the Pacific Islander cancer control network (PICCN) began in the early 1990s with a study of the cancer control needs of American Samoans. The necessity for similar studies among other Pacific Islander populations led to the development of PICCN. The project's principal objectives were to increase cancer awareness and to enhance cancer control research among American Samoans, Tongans, and Chamorros. PICCN was organized around a steering committee and 6 community advisory boards, 2 from each of the targeted populations. Membership included community leaders, cancer control experts, and various academic and technical organizations involved with cancer control. Through this infrastructure, the investigators developed new culturally sensitive cancer education materials and distributed them in a culturally appropriate manner. They also initiated a cancer control research training program, educated Pacific Islander students in this field, and conducted pilot research projects. PICCN conducted nearly 200 cancer awareness activities in its 6 study sites and developed cancer educational materials on prostate, colorectal, lung, breast, and cervical cancer and tobacco control in the Samoan, Tongan, and Chamorro languages. PICCN trained 9 students who conducted 7 pilot research projects designed to answer important questions regarding the cancer control needs of Pacific Islanders and to inform interventions targeting those needs. The legacy of PICCN lies in its advancement of improving cancer control among Pacific Islanders and setting the stage for interventions that will help to eliminate cancer-related health disparities. Cancer 2006. (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.

  5. Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration Project, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Close, David; Aronsuu, Kimmo; Jackson, Aaron

    2003-07-01

    Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) has significantly declined along the Oregon coast and in the Columbia River Basin (Downey et al. 1993, Close and Jackson 2001). Declines in adults can be partially attributed to hydroelectric dams, which have impeded passage of adult Pacific lamprey in the Columbia and Snake rivers (Moser et al. 2002), thus effecting larval recruitment in the basin (Moser and Close in press). Adult Pacific lamprey also declined in numbers in the Umatilla River, a tributary of the Columbia River (Close and Jackson 2001). In addition to hydro power dams in the Columbia River, habitat alterations and chemical treatments have been involved in the collapse of Pacific lamprey populations in the Umatilla River (Close 1999). To initiate the restoration effort, CTUIR began developing a restoration plan in 1998. The goal of the lamprey research and restoration project is to restore natural production of Pacific lampreys in the Umatilla River to self-sustaining and harvestable level. This report is summarizing the studies and restoration efforts concluded in 2002.

  6. Asia-Pacific malaria is singular, pervasive, diverse and invisible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, J Kevin

    2017-06-01

    Malaria in the Asia-Pacific region has been targeted for elimination by the year 2030. This article asks the question, "by what means?" in the context of proven technical strategies and tools against key challenges imposed by the distinct character of the Asia-Pacific malaria problem. The misperception of malaria in the Asia-Pacific region as a less serious but otherwise essentially similar problem to African malaria lulls us into rote application of the same tools and strategies. Those now mitigating the harm done by malaria in Africa will not suffice to eliminate malaria in the Asia-Pacific region - these tasks and the problems are fundamentally distinct. This article describes the singular characteristics of Asia-Pacific malaria and the bearing of those upon the technical strategy of malaria elimination. Most of the tools needed for that endeavour do not yet exist and spirited calls for elimination within the next 14years may discourage the patience and investments needed to conceive, optimise and validate them. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. The isotopic signature of fallout plutonium in the North Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buesseler, K.O.

    1997-01-01

    Plutonium analyses of a dated coral record from the French Frigate Shoals in the central North Pacific indicate that there are two major sources of Pu in this basin: close-in (tropospheric) fallout from nuclear weapons testing at the Pacific Proving Grounds in the Marshall Islands in the 1950s and global (stratospheric) fallout which peaked in 1962. Furthermore, the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratio of fallout from the Pacific Proving Grounds is characteristically higher (0.24) than that of global fallout Pu (0.18-0.19). Seawater and sediment samples from the North Pacific exhibit a wide range of 240 Pu/ 239 Pu values (0.19-0.34), with a trend towards higher ratios in the subsurface waters and sediment. Deep water 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratios are higher in the vicinity of the Marshall Islands relative to stations further from this close-in fallout source. These preliminary data suggest that fallout Pu from the Pacific Proving Grounds is more rapidly removed from the surface waters than is global fallout Pu. Plutonium geochemistry appears to be related to the physical/chemical form of Pu-bearing particles generated by different fallout sources. (author)

  8. The isotopic signature of fallout plutonium in the North Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buesseler, K.O. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Plutonium analyses of a dated coral record from the French Frigate Shoals in the central North Pacific indicate that there are two major sources of Pu in this basin: close-in (tropospheric) fallout from nuclear weapons testing at the Pacific Proving Grounds in the Marshall Islands in the 1950s and global (stratospheric) fallout which peaked in 1962. Furthermore, the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio of fallout from the Pacific Proving Grounds is characteristically higher (0.24) than that of global fallout Pu (0.18-0.19). Seawater and sediment samples from the North Pacific exhibit a wide range of {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu values (0.19-0.34), with a trend towards higher ratios in the subsurface waters and sediment. Deep water {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratios are higher in the vicinity of the Marshall Islands relative to stations further from this close-in fallout source. These preliminary data suggest that fallout Pu from the Pacific Proving Grounds is more rapidly removed from the surface waters than is global fallout Pu. Plutonium geochemistry appears to be related to the physical/chemical form of Pu-bearing particles generated by different fallout sources. (author).

  9. Caracterización de las principales pesquerías del golfo San Jorge Patagonia, Argentina Characterization of the main fisheries in San Jorge Gulf, Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eva Góngora

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available En el golfo San Jorge se desarrollan varias actividades económicas de relevancia, entre ellas dos pesquerías industriales: la pesquería de merluza común (Merluccius hubbsi Marini, 1933 y la pesquería de langostino patagónico (Pleoticus muelleri Bate, 1888, ambas se solapan espacial y temporalmente. En la pesquería de merluza del golfo San Jorge opera una flota fresquera de altura, compuesta por unas 20 embarcaciones, y una flota costera, compuesta por unas 30 embarcaciones. En esta pesquería se pesca alrededor del 10% de lo capturado en el stock sur de merluza. En la pesquería de langostino del golfo San Jorge opera una flota congeladora tangonera compuesta por 80 embarcaciones, responsable de más del 75% de los desembarques de langostino realizados en la República Argentina. Ambas pesquerías tienen como principal problema la captura incidental de merluza, en una de sus principales áreas de cría. En el presente trabajo se describe el manejo actual en las pesquerías del golfo San Jorge, el cual consiste principalmente en cierres espaciales y temporales para la pesca de langostino, y zonificaciones por estrato de flota para la merluza. En ninguna de las dos pesquerías descriptas se han tomado medidas que reduzcan eficazmente la captura incidental.In San Jorge Gulf, several important economic activities are developed, including two industrial fisheries: hake (Merluccius hubbsi Marini, 1933 and Argentine red shrimp (Pleoticus muelleri Bate, 1888. Both overlap spatially and temporally. The San Jorge Gulf hake fishery consists of a high-seas ice trawler fleet (n = 20 fishing vessels and a coastal fleet (n = 30 fishing vessels. These fisheries capture about 10% of the catch of the southern hake stock. The Argentine red shrimp fishery consists of a double-beam trawler fleet with 80 freezer vessels, responsible for more than 75% of shrimp landings in Argentina. The main problem of both fisheries is the bycatch of hake in one of its

  10. No gene flow across the Eastern Pacific Barrier in the reef-building coral Porites lobata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baums, Iliana B; Boulay, Jennifer N; Polato, Nicholas R; Hellberg, Michael E

    2012-11-01

    The expanse of deep water between the central Pacific islands and the continental shelf of the Eastern Tropical Pacific is regarded as the world's most potent marine biogeographic barrier. During recurrent climatic fluctuations (ENSO, El Niño Southern Oscillation), however, changes in water temperature and the speed and direction of currents become favourable for trans-oceanic dispersal of larvae from central Pacific to marginal eastern Pacific reefs. Here, we investigate the population connectivity of the reef-building coral Porites lobata across the Eastern Pacific Barrier (EPB). Patterns of recent gene flow in samples (n = 1173) from the central Pacific and the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP) were analysed with 12 microsatellite loci. Results indicated that P. lobata from the ETP are strongly isolated from those in the central Pacific and Hawaii (F(ct) ' = 0.509; P Clipperton Atoll, an oceanic island on the eastern side of the EPB, grouped with the central Pacific. Within the central Pacific, Hawaiian populations were strongly isolated from three co-occurring clusters found throughout the remainder of the central Pacific. No further substructure was evident in the ETP. Changes in oceanographic conditions during ENSO over the past several thousand years thus appear insufficient to support larval deliveries from the central Pacific to the ETP or strong postsettlement selection acts on ETP settlers from the central Pacific. Recovery of P. lobata populations in the frequently disturbed ETP thus must depend on local larval sources. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. An overview on the activities of Pacific Nuclear Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Mamoru

    2003-01-01

    Pacific Nuclear Council (PNC) is a non-governmental organization (NGO) for cooperation and exchange of information on the nuclear science and technologies and its use in the Pacific basin countries to be established in November, 1989. The charter members are Canadian Nuclear Society, Canada Nuclear Association, Atomic Energy Society of Japan, Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc., Korea Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc., and Mexico Nuclear Society. The activities of PNC are stated as followings; a charter, rules, objects, construction, management, activities for a member organization, Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference, foreign activities, social trend as back ground and future activities. As the activities for a member organization, eight working groups such as training of people, nuclear safety, public acceptances, reorganization of system, control of radioactive waste, public information and out reach, next generation reactor and rules and standards had been worked and the last four groups are working now. (S.Y.)

  12. The Asia-Pacific oil market : prospects for Canadian oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesharaki, F.

    2004-01-01

    The Asia-Pacific region is among the fastest growing oil markets for which analysts predict healthy growth rates due to high energy demands from developing countries such as China. Increased oil demand will mean new refining capacity needs and increased supplies of crude oil. The indigenous crude supply in the Asia-Pacific region is limited and unable to meet the region's needs. Imports are therefore expected to rise continuously. Although the Middle East will continue to be the dominant player in meeting these growing oil needs, Canada has an opportunity to diversify the supply source and play a significant role in meeting the energy needs of the Asia-Pacific region. tabs., figs

  13. Nuclear power developments in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, T.

    2001-01-01

    There are 438 nuclear power reactors operating in the world. Of these, 95 are in the Asia-Pacific region. Of the 36 reactors currently under construction in the world, 19 are in the Asia-Pacific region. Of the 44 planned reactors in the world, 36 are in this region. At the start of the 'New Nuclear Century' the Asia-Pacific region has become the main area for growth and innovation in nuclear power. This paper describes the nuclear power developments in each country and examines the status of the construction programme and the planned projects. Countries included are China, India, Japan, Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), Republic of Korea, Pakistan and Taiwan. New projects include the HTR in China, Advance Breeder Water Reactors in Japan, KEDO in the DPRK and the Advance Pressurised Water Reactor in the Republic of Korea

  14. Decadal Variability of Total Alkalinity in the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, J. N.; Carter, B. R.; Siedlecki, S. A.; Alin, S. R.; Dickson, A. G.; Feely, R. A.; Mathis, J. T.; Wanninkhof, R. H.; Macdonald, A. M.; Mecking, S.; Talley, L. D.

    2016-02-01

    Recent observations of acidification-driven shoaling of the calcium carbonate saturation horizon in the North Pacific have prompted new interest in carbonate cycling in this region, particularly related to impacts on biogenic calcification at the surface layer. Some estimates project that the impacts of OA on alkalinity cycling are beginning to emerge. Here, we present total alkalinity concentrations along a meridional transect of the North Pacific (WOCE, CLIVAR, and US GO-SHIP line P16N; 152 °W) over a period of three decades. The largest source of variability in alkalinity concentrations is related to North Pacific circulation, particularly in the surface mixed layer. Precise normalization of these data reveal some small spatial and temporal variability in the background. We explore these decadal trends in the context of decadal oscillations, ocean biogeochemical cycles, and global change processes such as ocean acidification.

  15. Security trends in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Jiadong

    1992-01-01

    The drastic world changes are less conspicuous in Asia-Pacific region than in it was the case in Europe, although they must be considered as stabilizing factors as well as sustained economic dynamism. Due to these changes some progress was achieved in world disarmament and arms control. But this is considered only a first step, there remains a long way to go. In the case of Asia-Pacific, possessors of largest nuclear arsenals and most sophisticated conventional arms need to further reduce their forces, support the proposals of setting up nuclear-weapon-free zones and commit themselves to no-first-use of nuclear weapons and non-use of nuclear weapons against non-nuclear states. Their fulfilment of these demands would undoubtedly contribute towards the prevention of a new round of the arms race and to the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction in Asia-Pacific region

  16. The funding landscape for HIV in Asia and the Pacific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuart, Robyn Margaret; Lief, Eric; Donald, Braedon

    2015-01-01

    -Pacific region between 2004 and 2013, we obtained funding data from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Creditor Reporting System database. Where possible, we checked these amounts against the funding data available from government aid agencies. Estimates of multilateral ODA financing...... for HIV/AIDS were based on the country allocations announcement by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (the Global Fund) for the period 2014 to 2016. RESULTS: Countries in the Asia-Pacific region receive the largest share of aid for HIV from the Global Fund. Bilateral funding for HIV......, but the United States is the bilateral donor providing the greatest amount of assistance in the region. Funding from the Global Fund has increased consistently since 2005, reaching a total of US$1.2 billion for the Asia-Pacific region from 2014 to 2016. CONCLUSIONS: Even with Global Fund allocations, countries...

  17. Trade and the Development of the Pacific Alliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Armando Hernández Bernal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Pacific Alliance is a process of deep integration among Colombia, Chile, Peru and Mexico, which aims to build a free trade area and to project into the Asia-Pacific region, in order to enhance existing trade agreements among the members. There is no deep trade relationships among these four countries, despite having regional agreements since the 1990s, as demonstrated by the low volume of reciprocal exports and imports, in addition to the low indicator of intra-industrial trade. In this paper, intra-regional trade index is calculated among the countries of the Pacific Alliance, evidencing low indicators, but with a growth, encouraged by reciprocal or unilateral policies of commercial opening, and by an environment favoring economic growth throughout the region.

  18. 75 FR 5945 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Coast Groundfish, Rationalization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Coast Groundfish, Rationalization Sociocultural Study AGENCY: National... requiring equivalent information. Fisheries rationalization programs have an impact on those individuals... rationalization program for the Pacific Coast Groundfish limited entry trawl fishery in January 2011. This...

  19. 78 FR 9886 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Coast Groundfish Rationalization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Coast Groundfish Rationalization Sociocultural Study AGENCY: National.... Literature indicates fisheries rationalization programs have an impact on those individuals participating in the affected fishery. The Pacific Fisheries Management Council implemented a new rationalization...

  20. 75 FR 13081 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program AGENCY: National... proposed Trawl Rationalization Program. We are interested in feedback concerning proposed regulations to... Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) has been developing a trawl rationalization program that...

  1. Do regions outside the tropical Pacific influence ENSO through atmospheric teleconnections?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dayan, H.; Izumo, T.; Vialard, J.; Lengaigne, M.; Masson, S

    This paper aims at identifying oceanic regions outside the tropical Pacific, which may influence the El Ni�o Southern Oscillation (ENSO) through interannual modulation of equatorial Pacific winds An Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM) 7...

  2. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Conrath: Delayed discard mortality of the North Pacific giant octopus

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The majority of octopus bycatch occurs in Pacific cod pot fisheries and recent data collected by North Pacific Groundfish Observers indicate that immediate mortality...

  3. A TWO CENTURY HISTORY OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: LESSONS LEARNED FOR ACHIEVING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achieving ecological sustainability is a daunting challenge. In the Pacific Northwest one of the most highly visible public policy debates concerns the future of salmon populations. Throughout the Pacific Northwest, many wild salmon stocks have declined and some have disappeare...

  4. 64 Percent of Asian and Pacific Islander Treatment Admissions Name Alcohol as Their Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data Spotlight May 28, 2013 64 Percent of Asian and Pacific Islander Treatment Admissions Name Alcohol as ... common problem in the United States. 1 When Asians and Pacific Islanders (APIs) go to treatment, alcohol ...

  5. Extreme winds in the Western North Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, S.

    2006-11-15

    A statistical model for extreme winds in the western North Pacific is developed, the region on the Planet where tropical cyclones are most common. The model is based on best track data derived mostly from satellite images of tropical cyclones. The methods used to estimate surface wind speeds from satellite images is discussed with emphasis on the empirical basis, which, unfortunately, is not very strong. This is stressed by the fact that Japanese and US agencies arrive at markedly different estimates. On the other hand, best track data records cover a long period of time and if not perfect they are at least coherent over time in their imperfections. Applying the the Holland model to the best track data, wind profiles can be assigned along the tracks. From this annual wind speed maxima at any particular point in the region can be derived. The annual maxima, in turn, are fitted to a Gumbel distribution using a generalization Abild's method that allows for data wind collected from multiple positions. The choice of this method is justified by a Monte Carlo simulation comparing it to two other methods. The principle output is a map showing fifty year winds in the region. The method is tested against observed winds from Philippine synoptic stations and fair agreement is found for observed and predicted 48 year maxima. However, the almost biasfree performance of the model could be fortuitous, since precise definitions of 'windspeed' in terms averaging time, height above ground and assumed surface roughness are not available, neither for best tracks nor for the synoptic data. The work has been carried out under Danish Research Agency grant 2104-04-0005 'Offshore wind power' and it also covers the findings and analysis carried out in connection with task 1.6 of the project 'Feasibility Assessment and Capacity Building for Wind Energy Development in Cambodia, The Philippines and Vietnam' during 2005-06 under contract 125-2004 with EU

  6. Implications of climate change for Pacific Northwest forest management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, G.

    1991-01-01

    A Canada/USA symposium was held to identify potential consequences of global climate change to Pacific Northwest forests; to identify the future role and relative contribution of those forests in the balance of carbon, moisture, and energy exchange of the atmosphere; and to develop recommendations for Pacific Northwest forest management strategies and policy options for responding to global climate change. Papers were presented on such topics as regional climatic change, forest responses and processes, public policy on forests and climatic change, sequestration of atmospheric carbon, forest management, and forest adaptation to climatic change. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 14 papers from this symposium

  7. ENSO surface longwave radiation forcing over the tropical Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Pavlakis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the spatial and temporal variation of the surface longwave radiation (downwelling and net over a 21-year period in the tropical and subtropical Pacific Ocean (40 S–40 N, 90 E–75 W. The fluxes were computed using a deterministic model for atmospheric radiation transfer, along with satellite data from the ISCCP-D2 database and reanalysis data from NCEP/NCAR (acronyms explained in main text, for the key atmospheric and surface input parameters. An excellent correlation was found between the downwelling longwave radiation (DLR anomaly and the Niño-3.4 index time-series, over the Niño-3.4 region located in the central Pacific. A high anti-correlation was also found over the western Pacific (15–0 S, 105–130 E. There is convincing evidence that the time series of the mean downwelling longwave radiation anomaly in the western Pacific precedes that in the Niño-3.4 region by 3–4 months. Thus, the downwelling longwave radiation anomaly is a complementary index to the SST anomaly for the study of ENSO events and can be used to asses whether or not El Niño or La Niña conditions prevail. Over the Niño-3.4 region, the mean DLR anomaly values range from +20 Wm−2 during El Niño episodes to −20 Wm−2 during La Niña events, while over the western Pacific (15–0 S, 105–130 E these values range from −15 Wm−2 to +10 Wm−2, respectively. The long- term average (1984–2004 distribution of the net downwelling longwave radiation at the surface over the tropical and subtropical Pacific for the three month period November-December-January shows a net thermal cooling of the ocean surface. When El Niño conditions prevail, the thermal radiative cooling in the central and south-eastern tropical Pacific becomes weaker by 10 Wm−2 south of the equator in the central Pacific (7–0 S, 160–120 W for the three-month period of NDJ, because the DLR increase is larger than the increase in surface thermal emission. In contrast, the

  8. The comparison of petroleum contractual systems in Asia Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partowidagdo, W.

    1993-01-01

    The earnings from oil and gas sales are a very important source of income for some countries in Asia Pacific Region. The hydrocarbons are also important source of energy for almost all of the countries in the region. Most governments in this region invite foreign companies to their countries to supply the risk capital for petroleum exploration and development in exchange for a direct share in the potential profit. In this study, a comparison of different hydrocarbon fiscal systems and profitability in Asia Pacific Region is presented

  9. Radioactive Legacy of the Russian Pacific Fleet Operations. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compton, K. L.; Novikov, V.M.; Parker, F.L.; Sivintsev, Y.U.

    2003-03-25

    There have been extensive studies of the current and potential environmental impact of Russian Northern fleet activities. However, despite the fact that the total number of ships in both fleets are comparable, there have been very few studies published in the open literature of the impact of the Pacific fleet. This study of the Pacific fleet's impact on neighboring countries was undertaken to partially remedy this lack of analysis. This study is focused on an evaluation of the inventory of major sources of radioactive material associated with the decommissioning of nuclear submarines, and an evaluation of releases to the atmosphere and their long-range (>100km) transboundary transport.

  10. How ocean color can steer Pacific tropical cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanadesikan, Anand; Emanuel, Kerry; Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Anderson, Whit G.; Hallberg, Robert

    2010-09-01

    Because ocean color alters the absorption of sunlight, it can produce changes in sea surface temperatures with further impacts on atmospheric circulation. These changes can project onto fields previously recognized to alter the distribution of tropical cyclones. If the North Pacific subtropical gyre contained no absorbing and scattering materials, the result would be to reduce subtropical cyclone activity in the subtropical Northwest Pacific by 2/3, while concentrating cyclone tracks along the equator. Predicting tropical cyclone activity using coupled models may thus require consideration of the details of how heat moves into the upper thermocline as well as biogeochemical cycling.

  11. Future fuels for the asia-pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegart, G.

    2006-01-01

    The debate about climate change, the role of greenhouse gas emissions and the need for reduction of fossil fuel consumption has largely been between developed economies. The rapidly growing economic activities of China and India and other Asian and South American economies have not been factored into the debate. Many of these economies are members of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation, a grouping of 21 economies around the Pacific Rim, which has been concerned, among other issues such as trade liberalisation and economic cooperation, about the future energy needs of economies in the region

  12. Population characteristics and health care needs of Asian Pacific Americans.

    OpenAIRE

    Lin-Fu, J S

    1988-01-01

    Asian Pacific Americans are one of the smallest but fastest growing minority groups in the United States. Between 1970 and 1980, this population increased 142 percent, from 1.5 million to 3.7 million. This dramatic growth is due largely to a change in U.S. immigration policies in the mid-1960s and the continuous influx of refugees from Southeast Asia since 1975. Despite such sharp increase, Asian Pacific Americans remain one of the most poorly understood minorities, and their health care need...

  13. Disarmament and security issues in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The main issues of the conference were focused on current political trends related to outstanding disputes between the state in Asia-Pacific region. Second cluster od issues which merits careful examination was concerned with the relevance of various arms control and disarmament measures. The tools of arms control and disarmament are proving to be more versatile, flexible instruments for security-building than was the case during the cold-war period. The third item of interest for many states in the Asia-Pacific region is the question of promoting new forums for regional dialogues on security matters

  14. A new species of Indo-Pacific Modulidae (Mollusca: Caenogastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozouet, Pierre; Krygelmans, Anouchka

    2016-04-12

    Modulidae is a littoral cerithioid family exclusively encountered in tropical and subtropical regions. It contains 12 to 15 living species (some species are not clearly delimited). Only one species is known to occur in the vast Indo-Pacific region (Bouchet 2015) and two species in the eastern Atlantic. By comparison, the tropical American regions are relatively rich with at least eleven living species (two or three species in the eastern Pacific and nine or more in the western Atlantic), and an equivalent number or more of fossil species (Landau et al. 2014).

  15. The Authorized Economic Operator in the Pacific Alliance

    OpenAIRE

    Vega Cancino, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    This paper portrays an up-to-date status of the Authorized Economic Operator (AEO) Programs in the Pacific Alliance (PA), shining a light on the different obstacles these programs have encountered and what their probable outcomes will be in the coming years. The main goal with this investigation is to answer two questions: (1) What is the current situation of the AEO programs within the Pacific Alliance? (2) What impact will the PA’s AEO programs have in the medium term? Can these programs be...

  16. Trends and Variability of North Pacific Polar Lows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The 6-hourly 1948–2010 NCEP 1 reanalyses have been dynamically downscaled for the region of the North Pacific. With a detecting-and-tracking algorithm, the climatology of North Pacific Polar Lows has been constructed. This derived climatology is consistent with the limited observational evidence in terms of frequency and spatial distribution. The climatology exhibits strong year-to-year variability but weak decadal variability and a small positive trend. A canonical correlation analysis describes the conditioning of the formation of Polar Lows by characteristic seasonal mean flow regimes, which favor, or limit, cold air outbreaks and upper air troughs.

  17. Revisiting the La Nina 1998 phytoplankton blooms in the equatorial Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Gorgues, T.; Menkès, Christophe; Slemons, L.; Aumont, Olivier; Dandonneau, Yves; Radenac, Marie-Hélène; Alvain, S.; Moulin, C.

    2010-01-01

    A biogeochemical model of the tropical Pacific has been used to assess the impact of interannual variability in a western Pacific iron source on the iron-limited ecosystem of the central and eastern Pacific during the 1997-1998 El Nino A reference simulation and two simulations with an iron source in the western Pacific have been performed The two "source" simulations differed only in the temporal variability of the iron source. In the variable source simulation, the iron concentration in the...

  18. Cohort profile: Pacific Islands Families (PIF) growth study, Auckland, New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Rush, E; Oliver, M; Plank, L D; Taylor, S; Iusitini, L; Jalili-Moghaddam, S; Savila, F; Paterson, J; Tautolo, E

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This article profiles a birth cohort of Pacific children participating in an observational prospective study and describes the study protocol used at ages 14?15?years to investigate how food and activity patterns, metabolic risk and family and built environment are related to rates of physical growth of Pacific children. Participants From 2000 to 2015, the Pacific Islands Families Study has followed, from birth, the growth and development of over 1000 Pacific children born in Auckland...

  19. The Proposal for an Indo-Pacific Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation: a Critical Reassessment

    OpenAIRE

    Ram, Vignesh

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of the Indo- Pacific construct brings about interesting avenues for cooperation among states in the region. Characterised by the intertwining geographies of the Indian and the Pacific Oceans, the Indo- Pacific region is home to some of the most diverse peoples and economies in the world. In a speech delivered at the CSIS, Washington in 2013, the former Indonesian Foreign Minister Marty Natalegwa outlined the need for an “Indo- Pacific Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation”. In ef...

  20. Spatial and temporal variability in the trans-Pacific migration of Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) revealed by archival tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Ko; Fukuda, Hiromu; Tei, Yaoki; Okamoto, Suguru; Kiyofuji, Hidetada; Furukawa, Seishiro; Takagi, Junichi; Estess, Ethan; Farwell, Charles J.; Fuller, Daniel W.; Suzuki, Nobuaki; Ohshimo, Seiji; Kitagawa, Takashi

    2018-03-01

    Archival electronic tags were internally implanted in 713 age-0 Pacific bluefin tuna (PBF) caught in their nursery waters off the southern coast of Japan and in the East China Sea over an extended study period (1995-2015) to clarify the spatial and temporal variability of their trans-Pacific migration. Two hundred twenty-five of these tagged tuna were recaptured by fisheries (31.6%), and we successfully retrieved tag data from 14 of 21 individuals recovered in the Eastern pacific. Furthermore, one archival tag recovered in the Western Pacific revealed that the individual had performed a trans-Pacific migration, so in total 21 tagged PBF were shown to have migrated to the Eastern Pacific (2.9% of the total tags released). We successfully downloaded data from 15 of these 21 archival tags, which revealed that some age-1 PBF migrate rapidly (123.9 ± 82.8 km day-1) and directly from waters offshore of Japan to the eastern Pacific (160.0°E to 130.0°W), a journey that takes an average of 2.5 months (ranging from 1.2 to 5.5 months) through relatively cool waters (14.7 ± 2.0 °C). All juvenile PBF began their trans-Pacific migration shortly after exposure to cooler water temperatures (physiological challenge for this age class. Three patterns were identified in the timing of the departure of juvenile PBF from the western Pacific: departing 12-14 months post-hatch (N = 7) in early summer (May-July), departing 17-19 months post-hatch (N = 7) in late autumn (October-December), and departing 21 months post-hatch (N = 1) in late winter (February). The PBF tagged along the southern coast of Japan (SCJ) arrived in the eastern Pacific earlier than those tagged in the East China Sea (ECS), most likely due to the shorter travel distance. Additionally, the PBF that began their trans-Pacific migration in the earlier period remained in an offshore foraging zone (the Kuroshio-Oyashio transition region) for shorter periods (2.8 months on average) and at lower latitudes (35.0

  1. Re-Framing Pacific Regional Service Delivery: Opportunity Spaces for "Together" and "Apart"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanga, Kabini

    2011-01-01

    Regionalism is a common development strategy in the Pacific region. Through it, numerous services are delivered to countries, communities and organisations. While some see regionalism as an effective and efficient strategy for the Pacific region, others point to its dismal performance. Using the experience of the Rethinking Pacific Education…

  2. Asia and the Pacific: Issues of Educational Policy, Curriculum, and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Donald C., Ed.; And Others

    The Pacific region is growing in worldwide importance in terms of politics, economics, and culture. The emergence of this area of the world provides an opportunity for new directions in social studies education. This book addresses the Pacific Rim issues from the viewpoints of educators from 9 Pacific nations: Australia, Canada, Fiji, Japan,…

  3. The potential of aerial photography for estimating surface areas of intertidal Pacific oyster beds (Crassostrea gigas)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kater, B.J.; Baars, J.M.D.D.

    2004-01-01

    Pacific oysters were introduced into the Eastern Scheldt in 1964 for breeding purposes. The first spatfall of wild Pacific oysters was recorded in 1976, and a second larval outburst in 1982 definitely settled wild Pacific oysters in the Eastern Scheldt waters. Oyster beds on intertidal and subtidal

  4. Variability in the origins and pathways of Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Xuerong; Sen Gupta, Alex; Van Sebille, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) transports water originating from a number of distinct source regions, eastward across the Pacific Ocean. It is responsible for supplying nutrients to the productive eastern Equatorial Pacific Ocean. Of particular importance is the transport of iron by the

  5. Internationally Safeguarded Atomic Fuel Exchange Center for the Asian Pacific Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvaduray, G.; Anderson, R.N.; Goldstein, M.K.

    1979-01-01

    The concept of an Internationally Safeguarded Atomic Fuel Exchange Center (ISAFE) for the Asia-Pacific Basin is examined. The geography and nuclear capabilitiy of the countries that comprise the Asia-Pacific Basin is described in full length. The incentives and the limitations for the establishment of the ISAFE center in the Asia-Pacific Basin are discussed in detail. 34 refs

  6. Pacific Telecommunications Council Annual Conference Proceedings (22nd, Honolulu, Hawaii, January 31-February 2, 2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacific Telecommunications Council, Honolulu, HI.

    This proceedings of the 2000 conference of the Pacific Telecommunications Council contains papers and summaries of sessions in the following areas: (1) socio/economic, including regional studies of China, the South Pacific, Southeast Asian, Latin America, Oceania, Korea, India, and the Asia-Pacific telecommunications market; (2) applications,…

  7. 75 FR 56903 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Limited Access for Guided Sport Charter Vessels in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    .... 100503209-0430-02] RIN 0648-AY85 Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Limited Access for Guided Sport Charter Vessels... program for charter vessels in the guided sport fishery for Pacific halibut in the waters of International... necessary to achieve the halibut fishery management goals of the North Pacific Fishery Management Council...

  8. 78 FR 26708 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Catch Sharing Plan; Correcting Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... published on March 15, 2013, that implemented annual management measures governing the Pacific halibut... (78 FR 16423), included annual management measures for managing the harvest of Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis) in the sport fishery in International Pacific Halibut Commission (IPHC) Regulatory...

  9. 75 FR 68756 - Eastern North Pacific Gray Whale; Notice of Petition Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... North Pacific Gray Whale; Notice of Petition Availability AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... petition to designate the Eastern North Pacific population of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) as a... Eastern North Pacific gray whales is available on the Internet at the following address: http://www.nmfs...

  10. 50 CFR 660.412 - EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Pacific salmon. 660.412 Section 660.412 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... COAST STATES West Coast Salmon Fisheries § 660.412 EFH identifications and descriptions for Pacific salmon. Pacific salmon essential fish habitat (EFH) includes all those water bodies occupied or...

  11. The international law and the pacific uses of the atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, A.; Gutierrez, I.; Vargas, N.M.

    1992-01-01

    Contains information about: fundamental aspects of atomic energy; International Atomic Energy Agency; pacific uses of nuclear energy at national and international level; regulation for some risky activities in the pacific uses of radioactive materials; United Nations system for the secure use of atomic energy with pacific purposes; nuclear accidents; responsibility as fundamental element of nuclear law. 207 refs

  12. Pacific-North American teleconnection and North Pacific Oscillation: historical simulation and future projection in CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zheng; Gan, Bolan; Wu, Lixin; Jia, Fan

    2017-09-01

    Based on reanalysis datasets and as many as 35 CMIP5 models, this study evaluates the capability of climate models to simulate the spatiotemporal features of Pacific-North American teleconnection (PNA) and North Pacific Oscillation (NPO) in the twentieth century wintertime, and further investigates their responses to greenhouse warming in the twenty-first century. Analysis reveals that while the majority (80%) of models reasonably simulate either the geographical distribution or the amplitude of PNA/NPO pattern, only half of models can well capture both features in space. As for the temporal features, variabilities of PNA and NPO in most models are biased toward higher amplitude. Additionally, most models simulate the interannual variabilities of PNA and NPO, qualitatively consistent with the observation, whereas models generally lack the capability to reproduce the decadal (20-25 years) variability of PNA. As the climate warms under the strongest future warming scenario, the PNA intensity is found to be strengthened, whereas there is no consensus on the direction of change in the NPO intensity among models. The intensification of positive PNA is primarily manifested in the large deepening of the North Pacific trough, which is robust as it is 2.3 times the unforced internal variability. By focusing on the tropical Pacific Ocean, we find that the multidecadal evolution of the North Pacific trough intensity (dominating the PNA intensity evolution) is closely related to that of the analogous trough in the PNA-like teleconnection forced by sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTa) in the tropical central Pacific (CP) rather than the tropical eastern Pacific (EP). Such association is also found to act under greenhouse warming: that is, the strengthening of the PNA-like teleconnection induced by the CP SSTa rather than the EP SSTa is a driving force for the intensification of PNA. This is in part owing to the robust enhancement of the tropical precipitation response to

  13. Pacific-North American teleconnection and North Pacific Oscillation: historical simulation and future projection in CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zheng; Gan, Bolan; Wu, Lixin; Jia, Fan

    2018-06-01

    Based on reanalysis datasets and as many as 35 CMIP5 models, this study evaluates the capability of climate models to simulate the spatiotemporal features of Pacific-North American teleconnection (PNA) and North Pacific Oscillation (NPO) in the twentieth century wintertime, and further investigates their responses to greenhouse warming in the twenty-first century. Analysis reveals that while the majority (80%) of models reasonably simulate either the geographical distribution or the amplitude of PNA/NPO pattern, only half of models can well capture both features in space. As for the temporal features, variabilities of PNA and NPO in most models are biased toward higher amplitude. Additionally, most models simulate the interannual variabilities of PNA and NPO, qualitatively consistent with the observation, whereas models generally lack the capability to reproduce the decadal (20-25 years) variability of PNA. As the climate warms under the strongest future warming scenario, the PNA intensity is found to be strengthened, whereas there is no consensus on the direction of change in the NPO intensity among models. The intensification of positive PNA is primarily manifested in the large deepening of the North Pacific trough, which is robust as it is 2.3 times the unforced internal variability. By focusing on the tropical Pacific Ocean, we find that the multidecadal evolution of the North Pacific trough intensity (dominating the PNA intensity evolution) is closely related to that of the analogous trough in the PNA-like teleconnection forced by sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTa) in the tropical central Pacific (CP) rather than the tropical eastern Pacific (EP). Such association is also found to act under greenhouse warming: that is, the strengthening of the PNA-like teleconnection induced by the CP SSTa rather than the EP SSTa is a driving force for the intensification of PNA. This is in part owing to the robust enhancement of the tropical precipitation response to

  14. Examination of the 13 February 2001 Eastern Pacific Maritime Cyclogenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Touchton, Marc

    2002-01-01

    .... The models did not properly forecast this system due to weak cold air advection over the Eastern Pacific Ocean and due to blending the subpolar and subtropical jets into a single feature. Data assimilation is suspected to have played a role in the mishandling of these key features.

  15. Watershed analysis on federal lands of the Pacific northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie M. Reid; Robert R. Ziemer; Michael J. Furniss

    1994-01-01

    Abstract - Watershed analysis-the evaluation of processes that affect ecosystems and resources in a watershed-is now being carried out by Federal land-management and regulatory agencies on Federal lands of the Pacific Northwest. Methods used differ from those of other implementations of watershed analysis because objectives and opportunities differ. In particular,...

  16. Pacific Proving Grounds radioisotope imprint in the Philippine Sea sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittauer, Daniela; Roos, Per; Qiao, Jixin

    2018-01-01

    Radionuclide concentrations were studied in sediment cores taken at the continental slope of the Philippine Sea off Mindanao Island in the equatorial Western Pacific. High resolution deposition records of anthropogenic radionuclides were collected at this site. Excess 210Pb together with excess 2...

  17. Special forest products: species information guide for the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan C. Vance; Melissa Borsting; David Pilz; Jim. Freed

    2001-01-01

    This guide is a collection of information about economically important vascular and nonvascular plants and fungi found in the Pacific Northwest that furnish special forest products. Many of these plants and fungi are also found in Alaska, northern Idaho, and western Montana. They contribute to many botanical, floral, woodcraft, and decorative industries and to the...

  18. Nuclear waste in the Pacific: perceptions of the risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, I.R.W.

    1984-01-01

    This dissertation examines the problem of the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in the Pacific region. There is a consensus of scientific opinion that the technical difficulties in waste disposal can be overcome. The most acceptable solution seems to be the multi-barrier approach for deep land-based geologic disposal. A questionnaire survey on the perception of nuclear and other hazards, conducted with student populations in Japan and Australia, and a survey of reporting of nuclear events in Pacific newspapers over the period 1946 to the 1980s, reveal that the image of nuclear weapons dominates public views on the risks associated with waste disposal in Australia, Japan, and the Pacific Islands. The problem of finding a suitable site for a nuclear waste disposal facility is to a large extent political. The capacity of anti-nuclear groups to influence waste disposal policies in Australia, Japan, and the Pacific Islands is examined. Current public attitudes toward nuclear waste disposal will delay the further development of activities connected with the nuclear fuel cycle, but this may change over time if the connection between commercial nuclear power and nuclear weapons can be severed more effectively. The most urgent problem in the region is the waste from the ambitious nuclear power programs of Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan

  19. 50 CFR 660.518 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. 660.518 Section 660.518 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND...(s) and, insofar as possible, with tribal consensus. [66 FR 44987, Aug. 27, 2001] ...

  20. Pacific discourses about cultural heritage and its protection: An introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijl, A.H.M. van

    2009-01-01

    The articles collected in this special issue aim at addressing the debate about the protection and use of cultural heritage in the Pacific within the context of globalization. Contributions aim specifically at analyzing the tension that exists between, on the one hand, political, legal and economic