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Sample records for pa time constant

  1. Cryptography in constant parallel time

    CERN Document Server

    Applebaum, Benny

    2013-01-01

    Locally computable (NC0) functions are 'simple' functions for which every bit of the output can be computed by reading a small number of bits of their input. The study of locally computable cryptography attempts to construct cryptographic functions that achieve this strong notion of simplicity and simultaneously provide a high level of security. Such constructions are highly parallelizable and they can be realized by Boolean circuits of constant depth.This book establishes, for the first time, the possibility of local implementations for many basic cryptographic primitives such as one-way func

  2. The time constant of the somatogravic illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia Grácio, B J; de Winkel, K N; Groen, E L; Wentink, M; Bos, J E

    2013-02-01

    Without visual feedback, humans perceive tilt when experiencing a sustained linear acceleration. This tilt illusion is commonly referred to as the somatogravic illusion. Although the physiological basis of the illusion seems to be well understood, the dynamic behavior is still subject to discussion. In this study, the dynamic behavior of the illusion was measured experimentally for three motion profiles with different frequency content. Subjects were exposed to pure centripetal accelerations in the lateral direction and were asked to indicate their tilt percept by means of a joystick. Variable-radius centrifugation during constant angular rotation was used to generate these motion profiles. Two self-motion perception models were fitted to the experimental data and were used to obtain the time constant of the somatogravic illusion. Results showed that the time constant of the somatogravic illusion was on the order of two seconds, in contrast to the higher time constant found in fixed-radius centrifugation studies. Furthermore, the time constant was significantly affected by the frequency content of the motion profiles. Motion profiles with higher frequency content revealed shorter time constants which cannot be explained by self-motion perception models that assume a fixed time constant. Therefore, these models need to be improved with a mechanism that deals with this variable time constant. Apart from the fundamental importance, these results also have practical consequences for the simulation of sustained accelerations in motion simulators.

  3. Time constant of logarithmic creep and relaxation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN

    2001-07-15

    Full Text Available length and hardness which vary logarithmically with time. For dimensional reasons, a logarithmic variation must involve a time constant tau characteristic of the process, so that the deformation is proportional to ln(t/tau). Two distinct mechanisms...

  4. Ventricular fibrillation time constant for swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jiun-Yan; Sun, Hongyu; Nimunkar, Amit J; Webster, John G; O'Rourke, Ann; Huebner, Shane; Will, James A

    2008-01-01

    The strength–duration curve for cardiac excitation can be modeled by a parallel resistor–capacitor circuit that has a time constant. Experiments on six pigs were performed by delivering current from the X26 Taser dart at a distance from the heart to cause ventricular fibrillation (VF). The X26 Taser is an electromuscular incapacitation device (EMD), which generates about 50 kV and delivers a pulse train of about 15–19 pulses s −1 with a pulse duration of about 150 µs and peak current about 2 A. Similarly a continuous 60 Hz alternating current of the amplitude required to cause VF was delivered from the same distance. The average current and duration of the current pulse were estimated in both sets of experiments. The strength–duration equation was solved to yield an average time constant of 2.87 ms ± 1.90 (SD). Results obtained may help in the development of safety standards for future electromuscular incapacitation devices (EMDs) without requiring additional animal tests

  5. Union-Find with Constant Time Deletions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Thorup, Mikkel; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2014-01-01

    operations performed, and α_M/N_(n) is a functional inverse of Ackermann’s function. They left open the question whether delete operations can be implemented more efficiently than find operations, for example, in o(log n) worst-case time. We resolve this open problem by presenting a relatively simple...

  6. Using Constant Time Delay to Teach Braille Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Jonathan; Ivy, Sarah; Hatton, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Constant time delay has been identified as an evidence-based practice to teach print sight words and picture recognition (Browder, Ahlbrim-Delzell, Spooner, Mims, & Baker, 2009). For the study presented here, we tested the effectiveness of constant time delay to teach new braille words. Methods: A single-subject multiple baseline…

  7. Constant scalar curvature hypersurfaces in extended Schwarzschild space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareja, M. J.; Frauendiener, J.

    2006-01-01

    We present a class of spherically symmetric hypersurfaces in the Kruskal extension of the Schwarzschild space-time. The hypersurfaces have constant negative scalar curvature, so they are hyperboloidal in the regions of space-time which are asymptotically flat

  8. Fundamental Constants in Physics and their Time Dependence

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    In the Standard Model of Particle Physics we are dealing with 28 fundamental constants. In the experiments these constants can be measured, but theoretically they are not understood. I will discuss these constants, which are mostly mass parameters. Astrophysical measurements indicate that the finestructure constant is not a real constant, but depends on time. Grand unification then implies also a time variation of the QCD scale. Thus the masses of the atomic nuclei and the magnetic moments of the nuclei will depend on time. I proposed an experiment, which is currently done by Prof. Haensch in Munich and his group. The first results indicate a time dependence of the QCD scale. I will discuss the theoretical implications.

  9. Time variable cosmological constants from the age of universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Lixin; Lu Jianbo; Li Wenbo

    2010-01-01

    In this Letter, time variable cosmological constant, dubbed age cosmological constant, is investigated motivated by the fact: any cosmological length scale and time scale can introduce a cosmological constant or vacuum energy density into Einstein's theory. The age cosmological constant takes the form ρ Λ =3c 2 M P 2 /t Λ 2 , where t Λ is the age or conformal age of our universe. The effective equation of state (EoS) of age cosmological constant are w Λ eff =-1+2/3 (√(Ω Λ ))/c and w Λ eff =-1+2/3 (√(Ω Λ ))/c (1+z) when the age and conformal age of universe are taken as the role of cosmological time scales respectively. The EoS are the same as the so-called agegraphic dark energy models. However, the evolution histories are different from the agegraphic ones for their different evolution equations.

  10. Long Pulse Integrator of Variable Integral Time Constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yong; Ji Zhenshan; Du Xiaoying; Wu Yichun; Li Shi; Luo Jiarong

    2010-01-01

    A kind of new long pulse integrator was designed based on the method of variable integral time constant and deducting integral drift by drift slope. The integral time constant can be changed by choosing different integral resistors, in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio, and avoid output saturation; the slope of integral drift of a certain period of time can be calculated by digital signal processing, which can be used to deduct the drift of original integral signal in real time to reduce the integral drift. The tests show that this kind of long pulse integrator is good at reducing integral drift, which also can eliminate the effects of changing integral time constant. According to experiments, the integral time constant can be changed by remote control and manual adjustment of integral drift is avoided, which can improve the experiment efficiency greatly and can be used for electromagnetic measurement in Tokamak experiment. (authors)

  11. On time variation of fundamental constants in superstring theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, K.I.

    1988-01-01

    Assuming the action from the string theory and taking into account the dynamical freedom of a dilaton and its coupling to matter fluid, the authors show that fundamental 'constants' in string theories are independent of the 'radius' of the internal space. Since the scalar related to the 'constants' is coupled to the 4-dimensional gravity and matter fluid in the same way as in the Jordan-Brans Dicke theory with ω = -1, it must be massive and can get a mass easily through some symmetry breaking mechanism (e.g. the SUSY breaking due to a gluino condensation). Consequently, time variation of fundamental constants is too small to be observed

  12. Simple Model with Time-Varying Fine-Structure ``Constant''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, M. S.

    2009-10-01

    Extending the original version written in colaboration with L.A. Trevisan, we study the generalisation of Dirac's LNH, so that time-variation of the fine-structure constant, due to varying electrical and magnetic permittivities is included along with other variations (cosmological and gravitational ``constants''), etc. We consider the present Universe, and also an inflationary scenario. Rotation of the Universe is a given possibility in this model.

  13. Numerical counting ratemeter with variable time constant and integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, J.; Fuan, J.

    1967-01-01

    We present here the prototype of a numerical counting ratemeter which is a special version of variable time-constant frequency meter (1). The originality of this work lies in the fact that the change in the time constant is carried out automatically. Since the criterion for this change is the accuracy in the annunciated result, the integration time is varied as a function of the frequency. For the prototype described in this report, the time constant varies from 1 sec to 1 millisec. for frequencies in the range 10 Hz to 10 MHz. This prototype is built entirely of MECL-type integrated circuits from Motorola and is thus contained in two relatively small boxes. (authors) [fr

  14. Prospects for Searching for Time-Reversal Violation In Pa-229

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jaideep

    2017-09-01

    Certain pear-shaped nuclei are expected to have enhanced sensitivity to time-reversal and parity-violating interactions originating within the nuclear medium. In particular, Pa-229 is thought to be about 100,000 times more sensitive than Hg-199 which currently sets some of the most stringent limits for these types of interactions. Several challenges would first have to be addressed in order to take advantage of this discovery potential. First, there is not currently a significant source of Pa-229; however, there are plans to harvest Pa-229 from the FRIB beam dump. Second, the spin-5/2 nucleus of Pa-229 limits its coherence time while also making it sensitive to systematic effects related to local field gradients. On the other hand, this also gives Pa-229 an additional source of signal in the form of a magnetic quadrupole moment (MQM) which violates the same symmetries as an EDM but is not observable in spin-1/2 systems. Third, in order to compensate for the small atom numbers and short coherence times, the Pa-229 atoms would have to be probed with exceptionally large electric & magnetic fields that are only possible if Pa-229 is a part of a polar molecule or embedded inside of an optical crystal. I will present an our plans to test some of these concepts using stable Pr-141.

  15. Automated real time constant-specificity surveillance for disease outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brownstein John S

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For real time surveillance, detection of abnormal disease patterns is based on a difference between patterns observed, and those predicted by models of historical data. The usefulness of outbreak detection strategies depends on their specificity; the false alarm rate affects the interpretation of alarms. Results We evaluate the specificity of five traditional models: autoregressive, Serfling, trimmed seasonal, wavelet-based, and generalized linear. We apply each to 12 years of emergency department visits for respiratory infection syndromes at a pediatric hospital, finding that the specificity of the five models was almost always a non-constant function of the day of the week, month, and year of the study (p Conclusion Modeling the variance of visit patterns enables real-time detection with known, constant specificity at all times. With constant specificity, public health practitioners can better interpret the alarms and better evaluate the cost-effectiveness of surveillance systems.

  16. Fuzzy logic estimator of rotor time constant in induction motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alminoja, J. [Tampere University of Technology (Finland). Control Engineering Laboratory; Koivo, H. [Helsinki University of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Control Engineering Laboratory

    1997-12-31

    Vector control of AC machines is a well-known and widely used technique in induction machine control. It offers an exact method for speed control of induction motors, but it is also sensitive to the changes in machine parameters. E.g. rotor time constant has a strong dependence on temperature. In this paper a fuzzy logic estimator is developed, with which the rotor time constant can be estimated when the machine has a load. It is more simple than the estimators proposed in the literature. The fuzzy estimator is tested by simulation when step-wise abrupt changes and slow drifting occurs. (orig.) 7 refs.

  17. Generating k-independent variables in constant time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiani, Tobias Lybecker; Pagh, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    The generation of pseudorandom elements over finite fields is fundamental to the time, space and randomness complexity of randomized algorithms and data structures. We consider the problem of generating k-independent random values over a finite field F in a word RAM model equipped with constant...

  18. Automated real time constant-specificity surveillance for disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, Shannon C; Brownstein, John S; Berger, Bonnie; Mandl, Kenneth D

    2007-06-13

    For real time surveillance, detection of abnormal disease patterns is based on a difference between patterns observed, and those predicted by models of historical data. The usefulness of outbreak detection strategies depends on their specificity; the false alarm rate affects the interpretation of alarms. We evaluate the specificity of five traditional models: autoregressive, Serfling, trimmed seasonal, wavelet-based, and generalized linear. We apply each to 12 years of emergency department visits for respiratory infection syndromes at a pediatric hospital, finding that the specificity of the five models was almost always a non-constant function of the day of the week, month, and year of the study (p accounting for not only the expected number of visits, but also the variance of the number of visits. The expectation-variance model achieves constant specificity on all three time scales, as well as earlier detection and improved sensitivity compared to traditional methods in most circumstances. Modeling the variance of visit patterns enables real-time detection with known, constant specificity at all times. With constant specificity, public health practitioners can better interpret the alarms and better evaluate the cost-effectiveness of surveillance systems.

  19. A Parallel Priority Queue with Constant Time Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Träff, Jesper Larsson; Zaroliagis, Christos D.

    1998-01-01

    We present a parallel priority queue that supports the following operations in constant time:parallel insertionof a sequence of elements ordered according to key,parallel decrease keyfor a sequence of elements ordered according to key,deletion of the minimum key element, anddeletion of an arbitrary...... application is a parallel implementation of Dijkstra's algorithm for the single-source shortest path problem, which runs inO(n) time andO(mlogn) work on a CREW PRAM on graphs withnvertices andmedges. This is a logarithmic factor improvement in the running time compared with previous approaches....

  20. A time-to-amplitude converter with constant fraction timing discriminators for short time interval measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostamovaara, J.; Myllylae, R.

    1985-01-01

    The construction and the performance of a time-to-amplitude converter equipped with constant fraction discriminators is described. The TAC consists of digital and analog parts which are constructed on two printed circuit boards, both of which are located in a single width NIM module. The dead time of the TAC for a start pulse which is not followed by a stop pulse within the time range of the device (proportional100 ns) is only proportional100 ns, which enables one to avoid counting rate saturation even with a high random input signal rate. The differential and integral nonlinearities of the TAC are better than +-1.5% and 0.05%, respectively. The resolution for input timing pulses of constant shape is 20 ps (fwhm), and less than 10 ps (fwhm) with a modification in the digital part. The walk error of the constant fraction timing discriminators is presented and various parameters affecting it are discussed. The effect of the various disturbances in linearity caused by the fast ECL logic and their minimization are also discussed. The time-to-amplitude converter has been used in positron lifetime studies and for laser range finding. (orig.)

  1. Newtonian cosmology with a time-varying constant of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVittie, G.C.

    1978-01-01

    Newtonian cosmology is based on the Eulerian equations of fluid mechanics combined with Poisson's equation modified by the introduction of a time-varying G. Spherically symmetric model universes are worked out with instantaneously uniform densities. They are indeterminate unless instantaneous uniformity of the pressure is imposed. When G varies as an inverse power of the time, the models can in some cases be shown to depend on the solution of a second-order differential equation which also occurs in the Friedmann models of general relativity. In Section 3, a method for 'passing through' a singularity of this equation is proposed which entails making four arbitrary mathematical assumptions. When G varies as (time) -1 , models with initially cycloidal motion are possible, each cycle becoming longer as time progresses. Finally, gravitation becomes so weak that the model expands to infinity. Kinetic and potential energies for the whole model are derived from the basic equations; their sum is not constant. (author)

  2. Isothermal titration calorimetry in nanoliter droplets with subsecond time constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbers, Brad; Baudenbacher, Franz

    2011-10-15

    We reduced the reaction volume in microfabricated suspended-membrane titration calorimeters to nanoliter droplets and improved the sensitivities to below a nanowatt with time constants of around 100 ms. The device performance was characterized using exothermic acid-base neutralizations and a detailed numerical model. The finite element based numerical model allowed us to determine the sensitivities within 1% and the temporal dynamics of the temperature rise in neutralization reactions as a function of droplet size. The model was used to determine the optimum calorimeter design (membrane size and thickness, junction area, and thermopile thickness) and sensitivities for sample volumes of 1 nL for silicon nitride and polymer membranes. We obtained a maximum sensitivity of 153 pW/(Hz)(1/2) for a 1 μm SiN membrane and 79 pW/(Hz)(1/2) for a 1 μm polymer membrane. The time constant of the calorimeter system was determined experimentally using a pulsed laser to increase the temperature of nanoliter sample volumes. For a 2.5 nanoliter sample volume, we experimentally determined a noise equivalent power of 500 pW/(Hz)(1/2) and a 1/e time constant of 110 ms for a modified commercially available infrared sensor with a thin-film thermopile. Furthermore, we demonstrated detection of 1.4 nJ reaction energies from injection of 25 pL of 1 mM HCl into a 2.5 nL droplet of 1 mM NaOH. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  3. Certificateless Public Auditing Protocol with Constant Verification Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmin Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To provide the integrity of outsourced data in the cloud storage services, many public auditing schemes which allow a user to check the integrity of the outsourced data have been proposed. Since most of the schemes are constructed on Public Key Infrastructure (PKI, they suffer from several concerns like management of certificates. To resolve the problems, certificateless public auditing schemes also have been studied in recent years. In this paper, we propose a certificateless public auditing scheme which has the constant-time verification algorithm. Therefore, our scheme is more efficient than previous certificateless public auditing schemes. To prove the security of our certificateless public auditing scheme, we first define three formal security models and prove the security of our scheme under the three security models.

  4. A Digitally Programmable Differential Integrator with Enlarged Time Constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Debroy

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available A new Operational Amplifier (OA-RC integrator network is described. The novelties of the design are used of single grounded capacitor, ideal integration function realization with dual-input capability and design flexibility for extremely large time constant involving an enlargement factor (K using product of resistor ratios. The aspect of the digital control of K through a programmable resistor array (PRA controlled by a microprocessor has also been implemented. The effect of the OA-poles has been analyzed which indicates degradation of the integrator-Q at higher frequencies. An appropriate Q-compensation design scheme exhibiting 1 : |A|2 order of Q-improvement has been proposed with supporting experimental observations.

  5. The Hubble constant estimation using 18 gravitational lensing time delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaelani, Anton T.; Premadi, Premana W.

    2014-03-01

    Gravitational lens time delay method has been used to estimate the rate of cosmological expansion, called the Hubble constant, H0, independently of the standard candle method. This gravitational lensing method requires a good knowledge of the lens mass distribution, reconstructed using the lens image properties. The observed positions of the images, and the redshifts of the lens and the images serve as strong constraints to the lens equations, which are then solved as a set of simultaneous linear equations. Here we made use of a non-parametric technique to reconstruct the lens mass distribution, which is manifested in a linear equations solver named PixeLens. Input for the calculation is chosen based on prior known parameters obtained from analyzed result of the lens case observations, including time-delay, position angles of the images and the lens, and their redshifts. In this project, 18 fairly well studied lens cases are further grouped according to a number of common properties to examine how each property affects the character of the data, and therefore affects the calculation of H0. The considered lens case properties are lens morphology, number of image, completeness of time delays, and symmetry of lens mass distribution. Analysis of simulation shows that paucity of constraints on mass distribution of a lens yields wide range value of H0, which reflects the uniqueness of each lens system. Nonetheless, gravitational lens method still yields H0 within an acceptable range of value when compared to those determined by many other methods. Grouping the cases in the above manner allowed us to assess the robustness of PixeLens and thereby use it selectively. In addition, we use glafic, a parametric mass reconstruction solver, to refine the mass distribution of one lens case, as a comparison.

  6. An Analysis of Sawtooth Noise in the Timing SynPaQ III GPS Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy S. SHMALIY

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a probabilistic analysis of sawtooth noise in the one pulse per second (1PPS output of the timing SynPaQ III GPS Sensor. We show that sawtooth noise is uniformly distributed within the bounds caused by period of the Local Time Clock of the sensor and that the probability density function (pdf of this noise is formed with 1ns sampling interval used in the sensor to calculate the negative sawtooth. We also show that the pdf has at zero a spike of 1ns width caused by roll-off. It is demonstrated that an unbiased finite impulse response filter is an excellent suppresser of such a noise in the estimates of the time interval errors of local clocks.

  7. Tracking time-varying cerebral autoregulation in response to changes in respiratory PaCO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jia; Simpson, M David; Allen, Robert; Yan, Jingyu

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral autoregulation has been studied by linear filter systems, with arterial blood pressure (ABP) as the input and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV—from transcranial Doppler Ultrasound) as the output. The current work extends this by using adaptive filters to investigate the dynamics of time-varying cerebral autoregulation during step-wise changes in arterial PaCO 2 . Cerebral autoregulation was transiently impaired in 11 normal adult volunteers, by switching inspiratory air to a CO 2 /air mixture (5% CO 2 , 30% O 2 and 65% N 2 ) for approximately 2 min and then back to the ambient air, causing step-wise changes in end-tidal CO 2 (EtCO 2 ). Simultaneously, ABP and CBFV were recorded continuously. Simulated data corresponding to the same protocol were also generated using an established physiological model, in order to refine the signal analysis methods. Autoregulation was quantified by the time-varying phase lead, estimated from the adaptive filter model. The adaptive filter was able to follow rapid changes in autoregulation, as was confirmed in the simulated data. In the recorded signals, there was a slow decrease in autoregulatory function following the step-wise increase in PaCO 2 (but this did not reach a steady state within approximately 2 min of recording), with a more rapid change in autoregulation on return to normocapnia. Adaptive filter modelling was thus able to demonstrate time-varying autoregulation. It was further noted that impairment and recovery of autoregulation during transient increases in EtCO 2 occur in an asymmetric manner, which should be taken into account when designing experimental protocols for the study of autoregulation

  8. Time variation of the fine structure constant driven by quintessence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anchordoqui, Luis; Goldberg, Haim

    2003-01-01

    There are indications from the study of quasar absorption spectra that the fine structure constant α may have been measurably smaller for redshifts z>2. Analyses of other data ( 149 Sm fission rate for the Oklo natural reactor, variation of 187 Re β-decay rate in meteorite studies, atomic clock measurements) which probe variations of α in the more recent past imply much smaller deviations from its present value. In this work we tie the variation of α to the evolution of the quintessence field proposed by Albrecht and Skordis, and show that agreement with all these data, as well as consistency with Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe observations, can be achieved for a range of parameters. Some definite predictions follow for upcoming space missions searching for violations of the equivalence principle

  9. Time resolution studies using digital constant fraction discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallu-Labruyere, A.; Tan, H.; Hennig, W.; Warburton, W.K.

    2007-01-01

    Digital Pulse Processing (DPP) modules are being increasingly considered to replace modular analog electronics in medium-scale nuclear physics experiments (100-1000s of channels). One major area remains, however, where it has not been convincingly demonstrated that DPP modules are competitive with their analog predecessors-time-of-arrival measurement. While analog discriminators and time-to-amplitude converters can readily achieve coincidence time resolutions in the 300-500 ps range with suitably fast scintillators and Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs), this capability has not been widely demonstrated with DPPs. Some concern has been expressed, in fact, that such time resolutions are attainable with the 10 ns sampling times that are presently commonly available. In this work, we present time-coincidence measurements taken using a commercially available DPP (the Pixie-4 from XIA LLC) directly coupled to pairs of fast PMTs mated with either LSO or LaBr 3 scintillator crystals and excited by 22 Na γ-ray emissions. Our results, 886 ps for LSO and 576 ps for LaBr 3 , while not matching the best literature results using analog electronics, are already well below 1 ns and fully adequate for a wide variety of experiments. These results are shown not to be limited by the DPPs themselves, which achieved 57 ps time resolution using a pulser, but are degraded in part both by the somewhat limited number of photoelectrons we collected and by a sub-optimum choice of PMT. Analysis further suggests that increasing the sampling speed would further improve performance. We therefore conclude that DPP time-of-arrival resolution is already adequate to supplant analog processing in many applications and that further improvements could be achieved with only modest efforts

  10. AC loss time constant measurements on Nb3Al and NbTi multifilamentary superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Painter, T.A.

    1988-03-01

    The AC loss time constant is a previously univestigated property of Nb 3 Al, a superconductor which, with recent technological developments, shows some advantages over the more commonly used superconductors, NbTi and Nb 3 Sn. Four Nb 3 Al samples with varying twist pitches and one NbTi sample are inductively measured for their AC loss time constants. The measured time constants are compared to the theoretical time constant limits imposed by the limits of the transverse resistivity found by Carr [5] and to the theoretical time constants found using the Bean Model as well as to each other. The measured time constants of the Nb 3 Al samples fall approximately halfway between the theoretical time constant limits, and the measured time constants of the NbTi sample is close to the theoretical lower time constant limit. The Bean Model adequately accounts for the variance of the permeability of the Nb 3 Al superconductor in a background magnetic field. Finally, the measured time constant values of the Nb 3 Al samples vary approximately according to the square of their twist pitch. (author)

  11. Slab-diffusion approximation from time-constant-like calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.W.

    1976-12-01

    Two equations were derived which describe the quantity and any fluid diffused from a slab as a function of time. One equation is applicable to the initial stage of the process; the other to the final stage. Accuracy is 0.2 percent at the one point where both approximations apply and where accuracy of either approximation is the poorest. Characterizing other rate processes might be facilitated by the use of the concept of NOLOR (normal of the logarithm of the rate) and its time dependence

  12. Constant pressure and temperature discrete-time Langevin molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grønbech-Jensen, Niels [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Department of Mathematics, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Farago, Oded [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Be' er Sheva 84105 (Israel); Ilse Katz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Be' er Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2014-11-21

    We present a new and improved method for simultaneous control of temperature and pressure in molecular dynamics simulations with periodic boundary conditions. The thermostat-barostat equations are built on our previously developed stochastic thermostat, which has been shown to provide correct statistical configurational sampling for any time step that yields stable trajectories. Here, we extend the method and develop a set of discrete-time equations of motion for both particle dynamics and system volume in order to seek pressure control that is insensitive to the choice of the numerical time step. The resulting method is simple, practical, and efficient. The method is demonstrated through direct numerical simulations of two characteristic model systems—a one-dimensional particle chain for which exact statistical results can be obtained and used as benchmarks, and a three-dimensional system of Lennard-Jones interacting particles simulated in both solid and liquid phases. The results, which are compared against the method of Kolb and Dünweg [J. Chem. Phys. 111, 4453 (1999)], show that the new method behaves according to the objective, namely that acquired statistical averages and fluctuations of configurational measures are accurate and robust against the chosen time step applied to the simulation.

  13. On Throughput Maximization in Constant Travel-Time Robotic Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Milind Dawande; Chelliah Sriskandarajah; Suresh Sethi

    2002-01-01

    We consider the problem of scheduling operations in bufferless robotic cells that produce identical parts. The objective is to find a cyclic sequence of robot moves that minimizes the long-run average time to produce a part or, equivalently, maximizes the throughput rate. The robot can be moved in simple cycles that produce one unit or, in more complicated cycles, that produce multiple units. Because one-unit cycles are the easiest to understand, implement, and control, they are widely used i...

  14. Biological variation in tPA-induced plasma clot lysis time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talens, Simone; Malfliet, Joyce J M C; Rudež, Goran; Spronk, Henri M H; Janssen, Nicole A H; Meijer, Piet; Kluft, Cornelis; de Maat, Moniek P M; Rijken, Dingeman C

    2012-10-01

    Hypofibrinolysis is a risk factor for venous and arterial thrombosis, and can be assessed by using a turbidimetric tPA-induced clot lysis time (CLT) assay. Biological variation in clot lysis time may affect the interpretation and usefulness of CLT as a risk factor for thrombosis. Sufficient information about assay variation and biological variation in CLT is not yet available. Thus, this study aimed to determine the analytical, within-subject and between-subject variation in CLT. We collected blood samples from 40 healthy individuals throughout a period of one year (average 11.8 visits) and determined the CLT of each plasma sample in duplicate. The mean (± SD) CLT was 83.8 (± 11.1) minutes. The coefficients of variation for total variation, analytical variation, within-subject variation and between-subject variation were 13.4%, 2.6%, 8.2% and 10.2%, respectively. One measurement can estimate the CLT that does not deviate more than 20% from its true value. The contribution of analytical variation to the within-subject variation was 5.0%, the index of individuality was 0.84 and the reference change value was 23.8%. The CLT was longer in the morning compared to the afternoon and was slightly longer in older individuals (> 40 years) compared to younger (≤40 years) individuals. There was no seasonal variation in CLT and no association with air pollution. CLT correlated weakly with fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, prothrombin time and thrombin generation. This study provides insight into the biological variation of CLT, which can be used in future studies testing CLT as a potential risk factor for thrombosis.

  15. Determination of time constants of reactor pressure and temperature sensors: the dynamic data system method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, S.M.; Hsu, M.C.; Chow, M.C.

    1979-01-01

    A new modeling technique is introduced for on-line sensor time constant identification, both for the resistance temperature detector (RTD) and for the pressure sensor using power plant operational data. The sensor's time constant is estimated from a real characteristic root of the fitted autoregressive moving average model. The RTD's time constant values were identified to be 8.4 s, with a standard deviation of 1.2 s. The pressure sensor time constant was identified to be 28.6 ms, with a standard deviation of 3.5 ms

  16. Dependence of the time-constant of a fuel rod on different design and operational parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elenkov, D.; Lassmann, K.; Schubert, A.; Laar, J. van de

    2001-01-01

    The temperature response during a reactor shutdown has been measured for many years in the OECD-Halden Project. It has been shown that the complicated shutdown processes can be characterized by a time constant τ which depends on different fuel design and operational parameters, such as fuel geometry, gap size, fill gas pressure and composition, burnup and linear heat rate. In the paper the concept of a time constant is analyzed and the dependence of the time constant on various parameters is investigated analytically. Measured time constants for different designs and conditions are compared with those derived from calculations of the TRANSURANUS code. Employing standard models results in a systematic underprediction of the time constant, i.e. the heat transfer during shutdown is overestimated. (author)

  17. Delay of constant light-induced persistent vaginal estrus by 24-hour time cues in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, A L; Adler, N T

    1979-04-20

    The normal ovarian cycle of female rats is typically replaced by persistent estrus when these animals are housed under constant light. Evidence presented here shows that the maintenance of periodicity in the environment can at least delay (if not prevent) the photic induction of persistent vaginal estrus. Female rats in constant light were exposed to vaginal smearing at random times or at the same time every day. In another experiment, female rats were exposed to either constant bright light, constant dim light, or a 24-hour photic cycle of bright and dim light. The onset of persistent vaginal estrus was delayed in rats exposed to 24-hour time cues even though the light intensities were the same as or greater than those for the aperiodic control groups. The results suggest that the absence of 24-hour time cues in constant light contributes to the induction of persistent estrus.

  18. Time of flight and range of the motion of a projectile in a constant gravitational field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Karkantzakos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the classical problem of the motion of a projectile in a constant gravitational field under the influenceof a retarding force proportional to the velocity. Specifically, we express the time of flight, the time of fall and the range ofthe motion as a function of the constant of resistance per unit mass of the projectile. We also prove that the time of fall isgreater than the time of rise with the exception of the case of zero constant of resistance where we have equality. Finally weprove a formula from which we can compute the constant of resistance per unit mass of the projectile from time of flight andrange of the motion when the acceleration due to gravity and the initial velocity of the projectile are known.

  19. The time dependence of rate constants of esub(aq)sup(-) reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burcl, R.; Byakov, V.M.; Grafutin, V.I.

    1982-01-01

    Published data about the time dependence of rate constants k(esub(aq)sup(-)+Ac) of esub(aq)sup(-) reactions with the acceptor Ac are analyzed, using the results of rate constant k(Ps+Ac) measurements for positronium reactions. It is shown that neither esub(aq)sup(-) nor Ps reaction rate constants depend on time in the observable range. Experimentally found concentration dependence of k(esub(aq)sup(-)+Ac) is due to other factors, connected with the existence of electric charge of esub(aq)sup(-), e.g. ionic strength, tunnelling effect etc. (author)

  20. Time constants and feedback transfer functions of EBR-II subassembly types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, K.N.; Meneghetti, D.

    1986-01-01

    Time constants, feedback reactivity transfer functions and power coefficients are calculated for stereotypical subassemblies in the EBR-II reactor. These quantities are calculated from nodal reactivities obtained from a reactor kinetic code analysis for a step change in power. Due to the multiplicity of eigenvalues, there are several time constants for each nodal position in a subassembly. Compared with these calculated values are analytically derived values for the initial node of a given channel

  1. Time constants and feedback transfer functions of EBR-II [Experimental Breeder Reactor] subassembly types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, K.N.; Meneghetti, D.

    1986-09-01

    Time constants, feedback reactivity transfer functions and power coefficients are calculated for stereotypical subassemblies in the EBR-II reactor. These quantities are calculated from nodal reactivities obtained from a reactor kinetic code analysis for a step change in power. Due to the multiplicity of eigenvalues, there are several time constants for each nodal position in a subassembly. Compared with these calculated values are analytically derived values for the initial node of a given channel

  2. Time constants and feedback transfer functions of EBR-II subassembly types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, K.N.; Meneghetti, D.

    1987-01-01

    Time constants, feedback reactivity transfer functions and power coefficients are calculated for stereotypical subassemblies in the EBR-II reactor. These quantities are calculated from nodal reactivities obtained from a reactor kinetic code analysis for a step change in power. Due to the multiplicity of eigenvalues, there are several time constants for each nodal position in a subassembly. Compared with these calculated values are analytically derived values for the initial node of a given channel. (author)

  3. Running vacuum in the Universe and the time variation of the fundamental constants of Nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzsch, Harald [Nanyang Technological University, Institute for Advanced Study, Singapore (Singapore); Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department, Munich (Germany); Sola, Joan [Nanyang Technological University, Institute for Advanced Study, Singapore (Singapore); Universitat de Barcelona, Departament de Fisica Quantica i Astrofisica, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Universitat de Barcelona (ICCUB), Institute of Cosmos Sciences, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Nunes, Rafael C. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Dept. de Fisica, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)

    2017-03-15

    We compute the time variation of the fundamental constants (such as the ratio of the proton mass to the electron mass, the strong coupling constant, the fine-structure constant and Newton's constant) within the context of the so-called running vacuum models (RVMs) of the cosmic evolution. Recently, compelling evidence has been provided that these models are able to fit the main cosmological data (SNIa+BAO+H(z)+LSS+BBN+CMB) significantly better than the concordance ΛCDM model. Specifically, the vacuum parameters of the RVM (i.e. those responsible for the dynamics of the vacuum energy) prove to be nonzero at a confidence level >or similar 3σ. Here we use such remarkable status of the RVMs to make definite predictions on the cosmic time variation of the fundamental constants. It turns out that the predicted variations are close to the present observational limits. Furthermore, we find that the time evolution of the dark matter particle masses should be crucially involved in the total mass variation of our Universe. A positive measurement of this kind of effects could be interpreted as strong support to the ''micro-macro connection'' (viz. the dynamical feedback between the evolution of the cosmological parameters and the time variation of the fundamental constants of the microscopic world), previously proposed by two of us (HF and JS). (orig.)

  4. A new variable interval schedule with constant hazard rate and finite time range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugallo, Mehdi; Machado, Armando; Vasconcelos, Marco

    2018-05-27

    We propose a new variable interval (VI) schedule that achieves constant probability of reinforcement in time while using a bounded range of intervals. By sampling each trial duration from a uniform distribution ranging from 0 to 2 T seconds, and then applying a reinforcement rule that depends linearly on trial duration, the schedule alternates reinforced and unreinforced trials, each less than 2 T seconds, while preserving a constant hazard function. © 2018 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  5. Constant resolution of time-dependent Hartree--Fock phase ambiguity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtner, P.C.; Griffin, J.J.; Schultheis, H.; Schultheis, R.; Volkov, A.B.

    1978-01-01

    The customary time-dependent Hartree--Fock problem is shown to be ambiguous up to an arbitrary function of time additive to H/sub HF/, and, consequently, up to an arbitrary time-dependent phase for the solution, PHI(t). The ''constant'' (H)'' phase is proposed as the best resolution of this ambiguity. It leads to the following attractive features: (a) the time-dependent Hartree--Fock (TDHF) Hamiltonian, H/sub HF/, becomes a quantity whose expectation value is equal to the average energy and, hence, constant in time; (b) eigenstates described exactly by determinants, have time-dependent Hartree--Fock solutions identical with the exact time-dependent solutions; (c) among all possible TDHF solutions this choice minimizes the norm of the quantity (H--i dirac constant delta/delta t) operating on the ket PHI, and guarantees optimal time evolution over an infinitesimal period; (d) this choice corresponds both to the stationary value of the absolute difference between (H) and (i dirac constant delta/delta t) and simultaneously to its absolute minimal value with respect to choice of the time-dependent phase. The source of the ambiguity is discussed. It lies in the time-dependent generalization of the freedom to transform unitarily among the single-particle states of a determinant at the (physically irrelevant for stationary states) cost of altering only a factor of unit magnitude

  6. Use of thermal time constant concept in the analysis of reactivity induced accidents with feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narain, R.

    1981-01-01

    A simple heat transfer model based on the thermal time constant concept which leads to significant reduction in fuel temperature computing time and gives a physical insight of the phenomena is presented. The fuel temperatures can be used to estimate the reactivity feedback using the measured or calculated Doppler coefficients. (E.G.) [pt

  7. Queueing systems with constant service time and evaluation of M/D/1,k

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Villy Bæk

    1997-01-01

    Systems with constant service times have the particular property that the customers leave the servers in the same order in which they areaccepted for service. Probabilitites of integral waiting times can be expressed by the state probabilities, and non-integral waiting timescan be expressed...

  8. Technique for determination of the time constant for relay radioisotope instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gol'din, M.L.; Shestialtynov, V.K.

    1981-01-01

    A technique for calculating time constant of a gamma relay used in radio isotope automatics is suggested. It is shown that the time constant of a radioisotope relay device (RRD) mainly depends on parameters of the intergrating circuit ratemeter. Considering the ratemeter as a real communication channel with a limited transmission band, the equation for the active front duration at a ratemeter outlet when applying abrupt voltage to its inlet is obtained. From the complex transmission function of a ratemeter the upper boundary cyclic transmission frequency the substitution of which in the equation of the active front durationg ives the RRD time constant is determined. On the example of calculating the ratemeter for the GR-6 gamma relay a satisfactory coincidence of calculational results with the certificate data is shown [ru

  9. Methodology of measurement of thermal neutron time decay constant in Canberra 35+ MCA system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozdowicz, K.; Gabanska, B.; Igielski, A.; Krynicka, E.; Woznicka, U. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1993-12-31

    A method of the thermal neutron time decay constant measurement in small bounded media is presented. A 14 MeV pulsed neutron generator is the neutron source. The system of recording of a die-away curve of thermal neutrons consists of a {sup 3}He detector and of a multichannel time analyzer based on analyzer Canberra 35+ with multi scaler module MCS 7880 (microsecond range). Optimum parameters for the measuring system are considered. Experimental verification of a dead time of the instrumentation system is made and a count-loss correction is incorporated into the data treatment. An attention is paid to evaluate with a high accuracy the fundamental mode decay constant of the registered decaying curve. A new procedure of the determination of the decay constant by a multiple recording of the die-away curve is presented and results of test measurements are shown. (author). 11 refs, 12 figs, 4 tabs.

  10. Methodology of measurement of thermal neutron time decay constant in Canberra 35+ MCA system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdowicz, K.; Gabanska, B.; Igielski, A.; Krynicka, E.; Woznicka, U.

    1993-01-01

    A method of the thermal neutron time decay constant measurement in small bounded media is presented. A 14 MeV pulsed neutron generator is the neutron source. The system of recording of a die-away curve of thermal neutrons consists of a 3 He detector and of a multichannel time analyzer based on analyzer Canberra 35+ with multi scaler module MCS 7880 (microsecond range). Optimum parameters for the measuring system are considered. Experimental verification of a dead time of the instrumentation system is made and a count-loss correction is incorporated into the data treatment. An attention is paid to evaluate with a high accuracy the fundamental mode decay constant of the registered decaying curve. A new procedure of the determination of the decay constant by a multiple recording of the die-away curve is presented and results of test measurements are shown. (author). 11 refs, 12 figs, 4 tabs

  11. Methodology of measurement of thermal neutron time decay constant in Canberra 35+ MCA system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozdowicz, K; Gabanska, B; Igielski, A; Krynicka, E; Woznicka, U [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    A method of the thermal neutron time decay constant measurement in small bounded media is presented. A 14 MeV pulsed neutron generator is the neutron source. The system of recording of a die-away curve of thermal neutrons consists of a {sup 3}He detector and of a multichannel time analyzer based on analyzer Canberra 35+ with multi scaler module MCS 7880 (microsecond range). Optimum parameters for the measuring system are considered. Experimental verification of a dead time of the instrumentation system is made and a count-loss correction is incorporated into the data treatment. An attention is paid to evaluate with a high accuracy the fundamental mode decay constant of the registered decaying curve. A new procedure of the determination of the decay constant by a multiple recording of the die-away curve is presented and results of test measurements are shown. (author). 11 refs, 12 figs, 4 tabs.

  12. Helicopter TEM parameters analysis and system optimization based on time constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Pan; Wu, Xin; Shi, Zongyang; Li, Jutao; Liu, Lihua; Fang, Guangyou

    2018-03-01

    Helicopter transient electromagnetic (TEM) method is a kind of common geophysical prospecting method, widely used in mineral detection, underground water exploration and environment investigation. In order to develop an efficient helicopter TEM system, it is necessary to analyze and optimize the system parameters. In this paper, a simple and quantitative method is proposed to analyze the system parameters, such as waveform, power, base frequency, measured field and sampling time. A wire loop model is used to define a comprehensive 'time constant domain' that shows a range of time constant, analogous to a range of conductance, after which the characteristics of the system parameters in this domain is obtained. It is found that the distortion caused by the transmitting base frequency is less than 5% when the ratio of the transmitting period to the target time constant is greater than 6. When the sampling time window is less than the target time constant, the distortion caused by the sampling time window is less than 5%. According to this method, a helicopter TEM system, called CASHTEM, is designed, and flight test has been carried out in the known mining area. The test results show that the system has good detection performance, verifying the effectiveness of the method.

  13. Estimation of the Plant Time Constant of Current-Controlled Voltage Source Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Ana; Yepes, Alejandro G.; Malvar, Jano

    2014-01-01

    Precise knowledge of the plant time constant is essential to perform a thorough analysis of the current control loop in voltage source converters (VSCs). As the loop behavior can be significantly influenced by the VSC working conditions, the effects associated to converter losses should be included...... in the model, through an equivalent series resistance. In a recent work, an algorithm to identify this parameter was developed, considering the inductance value as known and practically constant. Nevertheless, the plant inductance can also present important uncertainties with respect to the inductance...... of the VSC interface filter measured at rated conditions. This paper extends that method so that both parameters of the plant time constant (resistance and inductance) are estimated. Such enhancement is achieved through the evaluation of the closed-loop transient responses of both axes of the synchronous...

  14. The ruin probability of a discrete time risk model under constant interest rate with heavy tails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Q.

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the ultimate ruin probability of a discrete time risk model with a positive constant interest rate. Under the assumption that the gross loss of the company within one year is subexponentially distributed, a simple asymptotic relation for the ruin probability is derived and

  15. Using a Constant Time Delay Procedure to Teach Foundational Swimming Skills to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Laura; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Wolery, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using a constant time delay procedure to teach foundational swimming skills to three children with autism. The skills included flutter kick, front-crawl arm strokes, and head turns to the side. A multiple-probe design across behaviors and replicated across participants was used.…

  16. Testing the time-invariance of fundamental constants using microwave spectroscopy on cold diatomic radicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bethlem, H.L.; Ubachs, W.M.G.

    2009-01-01

    The recently demonstrated methods to cool and manipulate neutral molecules offer new possibilities for precision tests of fundamental physics theories. We here discuss the possibility of testing the time-invariance of fundamental constants using near degeneracies between rotational levels in the

  17. A critical oscillation constant as a variable of time scales for half-linear dynamic equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řehák, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2010), s. 237-256 ISSN 0139-9918 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB100190701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : dynamic equation * time scale * half-linear equation * (non)oscillation criteria * Hille-Nehari criteria * Kneser criteria * critical constant * oscillation constant * Hardy inequality Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.316, year: 2010 http://link.springer.com/article/10.2478%2Fs12175-010-0009-7

  18. [Antimicrobial Effects of Iodine-Polyvinyl Alcohol Ophthalmic and Eye Washing Solution (PA * IODO) with Special Reference to its Temperature, Concentration and Time and its Preservation Stability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Masako; Hayashi, Kazuo; Kamiya, Seigo

    2015-08-01

    Temperature, concentration and time are the three factors that affect the inactivation capacity of iodine antiseptics. We investigated the effect of these factors on the microbe inactivation of Iodine-Polyvinyl Alcohol ophthalmic and eye washing solution (PA * IODO), and also investigated the preservation conditions on stability of the inactivation activity of the PA * IODO. Test microbes were mixed with PA * IODO, varying the three factors. The live microbes were counted after each reaction. The effects of plugging and preservation temperature were investigated to determine the preserving stability. The inactivation capacity of PA * IODO tended to decrease in almost all microbes tested at 4 degrees C. Twenty times or less diluted PA * IODO killed almost all microbes completely. The time effect was more marked in viruses. Plugging and low-temperature made iodine concentration in diluted PA * IODO remain relatively high. The concentration of PA * IODO affected the inactivation ability more than the temperature and time, although all the three factors correlated positively to the inactivation. For preservation the diluted PA * IODO needed plugging and low temperature.

  19. Acceleration-enlarged symmetries in nonrelativistic space-time with a cosmological constant TH1"-->

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukierski, J.; Stichel, P. C.; Zakrzewski, W. J.

    2008-05-01

    By considering the nonrelativistic limit of de Sitter geometry one obtains the nonrelativistic space-time with a cosmological constant and Newton Hooke (NH) symmetries. We show that the NH symmetry algebra can be enlarged by the addition of the constant acceleration generators and endowed with central extensions (one in any dimension (D) and three in D=(2+1)). We present a classical Lagrangian and Hamiltonian framework for constructing models quasi-invariant under enlarged NH symmetries that depend on three parameters described by three nonvanishing central charges. The Hamiltonian dynamics then splits into external and internal sectors with new noncommutative structures of external and internal phase spaces. We show that in the limit of vanishing cosmological constant the system reduces to the one, which possesses acceleration-enlarged Galilean symmetries.

  20. Consideration of demand rate in overall equipment effetiveness (OEE on equipment with constant process time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumal Puvanasvaran

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper is primarily done on the purpose of introducing new concept in defining the Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE with the consideration of both machine utilization and customer demand requested. Previous literature concerning the limitation and difficulty of OEE implementation has been investigated in order to track out the potential opportunities to be improved, since the OEE has been widely accepted by most of the industries regardless their manufacturing environment.Design/methodology/approach: The paper is conducting the study based on literature review and the computerized data collection. In details, the novel definition and method of processing the computerized data are all interpreted based on similar studies performed by others and supported by related journals in proving the validation of the output. Over the things, the computerized data are the product amount and total time elapsed on each production which is automatically recorded by the system at the manufacturing site.Findings: The finding of this paper is firstly the exposure and emphasis of limitation exists in current implementation of OEE, which showing that high utilization of the machine is encouraged regardless of the customer demand and is having conflict with the inventory handling cost. This is certainly obvious with overproduction issue especially during low customer demand period. The second limitation in general implementation of OEE is the difficulty in obtaining the ideal cycle time, especially those equipments with constant process time. The section of this paper afterward comes out with the proposed solution in fixing this problem through the definition of performance ratio and then usage of this definition in measuring the machine utilization from time to time. Before this, the time available for the production is calculated incorporating the availability of OEE, which is then used to get the Takt time.Research limitations/implications: Future

  1. Method for Determining the Time Constants Characterizing the Intensity of Steel Mixing in Continuous Casting Tundish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieprzyca J.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A common method used in identification of hydrodynamics phenomena occurring in Continuous Casting (CC device's tundish is to determine the RTD curves of time. These curves allows to determine the way of the liquid steel flowing and mixing in the tundish. These can be identified either as the result of numerical simulation or by the experiments - as the result of researching the physical models. Special problem is to objectify it while conducting physical research. It is necessary to precisely determine the time constants which characterize researched phenomena basing on the data acquired in the measured change of the concentration of the tracer in model liquid's volume. The mathematical description of determined curves is based on the approximate differential equations formulated in the theory of fluid mechanics. Solving these equations to calculate the time constants requires a special software and it is very time-consuming. To improve the process a method was created to calculate the time constants with use of automation elements. It allows to solve problems using algebraic method, which improves interpretation of the research results of physical modeling.

  2. Synaptic inhibition and excitation estimated via the time constant of membrane potential fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rune W.; Ditlevsen, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    When recording the membrane potential, V, of a neuron it is desirable to be able to extract the synaptic input. Critically, the synaptic input is stochastic and non-reproducible so one is therefore often restricted to single trial data. Here, we introduce means of estimating the inhibition and ex...... close to soma (recording site). Though our data is in current-clamp, the method also works in V-clamp recordings, with some minor adaptations. All custom made procedures are provided in Matlab....... and excitation and their confidence limits from single sweep trials. The estimates are based on the mean membrane potential, (V) , and the membrane time constant,τ. The time constant provides the total conductance (G = capacitance/τ) and is extracted from the autocorrelation of V. The synaptic conductances can....... The method gives best results if the synaptic input is large compared to other conductances, the intrinsic conductances have little or no time dependence or are comparably small, the ligand gated kinetics is faster than the membrane time constant, and the majority of synaptic contacts are electrotonically...

  3. Chemical exchange effects during refocusing pulses in constant-time CPMG relaxation dispersion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myint, Wazo; Ishima, Rieko

    2009-01-01

    In the analysis of the constant-time Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CT-CPMG) relaxation dispersion experiment, chemical exchange parameters, such as rate of exchange and population of the exchanging species, are typically optimized using equations that predict experimental relaxation rates recorded as a function of effective field strength. In this process, the effect of chemical exchange during the CPMG pulses is typically assumed to be the same as during the free-precession. This approximation may introduce systematic errors into the analysis of data because the number of CPMG pulses is incremented during the constant-time relaxation period, and the total pulse duration therefore varies as a function of the effective field strength. In order to estimate the size of such errors, we simulate the time-dependence of magnetization during the entire constant time period, explicitly taking into account the effect of the CPMG pulses on the spin relaxation rate. We show that in general the difference in the relaxation dispersion profile calculated using a practical pulse width from that calculated using an extremely short pulse width is small, but under certain circumstances can exceed 1 s -1 . The difference increases significantly when CPMG pulses are miscalibrated

  4. A constant travel time budget? In search for explanations for an increase in average travel time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, P.; Wee, van B.

    2002-01-01

    Recent research suggests that during the past decades the average travel time of the Dutch population has probably increased. However, different datasources show different levels of increase. Possible causes of the increase in average travel time are presented here. Increased incomes have

  5. On the thermal inertia and time constant of single-family houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedbrant, J.

    2001-08-01

    Since the 1970s, electricity has become a common heating source in Swedish single-family houses. About one million small houses can use electricity for heating, about 600.000 have electricity as the only heating source, A liberalised European electricity market would most likely raise the Swedish electricity prices during daytime on weekdays and lower it at other times. In the long run, electrical heating of houses would be replaced by fuels, but in the shorter perspective, other strategies may be considered. This report evaluates the use of electricity for heating a dwelling, or part of it, at night when both the demand and the price are low. The stored heat is utilised in the daytime some hours later, when the electricity price is high. Essential for heat storage is the thermal time constant. The report gives a simple theoretical framework for the calculation of the time constant for a single-family house with furniture. Furthermore the comfort time constant, that is, the time for a house to cool down from a maximum to a minimum acceptable temperature, is derived. Two theoretical model houses are calculated, and the results are compared to data from empirical studies in three inhabited test houses. The results show that it was possible to store about 8 kWh/K in a house from the seventies and about 5 kWh/K in a house from the eighties. The time constants were 34 h and 53 h, respectively. During winter conditions with 0 deg C outdoor, the 'comfort' time constants with maximum and minimum indoor temperatures of 23 and 20 deg C were 6 h and 10 h. The results indicate that the maximum load-shifting potential of an average single family house is about 1 kw during 16 daytime hours shifted into 2 kw during 8 night hours. Upscaled to the one million Swedish single-family houses that can use electricity as a heating source, the maximum potential is 1000 MW daytime time-shifted into 2000 MW at night.

  6. New constraints on time-dependent variations of fundamental constants using Planck data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Luke; Chluba, Jens

    2018-02-01

    Observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) today allow us to answer detailed questions about the properties of our Universe, targeting both standard and non-standard physics. In this paper, we study the effects of varying fundamental constants (i.e. the fine-structure constant, αEM, and electron rest mass, me) around last scattering using the recombination codes COSMOREC and RECFAST++. We approach the problem in a pedagogical manner, illustrating the importance of various effects on the free electron fraction, Thomson visibility function and CMB power spectra, highlighting various degeneracies. We demonstrate that the simpler RECFAST++ treatment (based on a three-level atom approach) can be used to accurately represent the full computation of COSMOREC. We also include explicit time-dependent variations using a phenomenological power-law description. We reproduce previous Planck 2013 results in our analysis. Assuming constant variations relative to the standard values, we find the improved constraints αEM/αEM, 0 = 0.9993 ± 0.0025 (CMB only) and me/me, 0 = 1.0039 ± 0.0074 (including BAO) using Planck 2015 data. For a redshift-dependent variation, αEM(z) = αEM(z0) [(1 + z)/1100]p with αEM(z0) ≡ αEM, 0 at z0 = 1100, we obtain p = 0.0008 ± 0.0025. Allowing simultaneous variations of αEM(z0) and p yields αEM(z0)/αEM, 0 = 0.9998 ± 0.0036 and p = 0.0006 ± 0.0036. We also discuss combined limits on αEM and me. Our analysis shows that existing data are not only sensitive to the value of the fundamental constants around recombination but also its first time derivative. This suggests that a wider class of varying fundamental constant models can be probed using the CMB.

  7. A simplified controller and detailed dynamics of constant off-time peak current control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bossche, Alex; Dimitrova, Ekaterina; Valchev, Vencislav; Feradov, Firgan

    2017-09-01

    A fast and reliable current control is often the base of power electronic converters. The traditional constant frequency peak control is unstable above 50 % duty ratio. In contrast, the constant off-time peak current control (COTCC) is unconditionally stable and fast, so it is worth analyzing it. Another feature of the COTCC is that one can combine a current control together with a current protection. The time dynamics show a zero-transient response, even when the inductor changes in a wide range. It can also be modeled as a special transfer function for all frequencies. The article shows also that it can be implemented in a simple analog circuit using a wide temperature range IC, such as the LM2903, which is compatible with PV conversion and automotive temperature range. Experiments are done using a 3 kW step-up converter. A drawback is still that the principle does not easily fit in usual digital controllers up to now.

  8. Most Probable Failures in LHC Magnets and Time Constants of their Effects on the Beam.

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez Alonso, Andres

    2006-01-01

    During the LHC operation, energies up to 360 MJ will be stored in each proton beam and over 10 GJ in the main electrical circuits. With such high energies, beam losses can quickly lead to important equipment damage. The Machine Protection Systems have been designed to provide reliable protection of the LHC through detection of the failures leading to beam losses and fast dumping of the beams. In order to determine the protection strategies, it is important to know the time constants of the failure effects on the beam. In this report, we give an estimation of the time constants of quenches and powering failures in LHC magnets. The most critical failures are powering failures in certain normal conducting circuits, leading to relevant effects on the beam in ~1 ms. The failures on super conducting magnets leading to fastest losses are quenches. In this case, the effects on the beam can be signficant ~10 ms after the quench occurs.

  9. Constant time distance queries in planar unweighted graphs with subquadratic preprocessing time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff-Nilsen, C.

    2013-01-01

    Let G be an n-vertex planar, undirected, and unweighted graph. It was stated as open problems whether the Wiener index, defined as the sum of all-pairs shortest path distances, and the diameter of G can be computed in o(n(2)) time. We show that both problems can be solved in O(n(2) log log n/log n......) time with O(n) space. The techniques that we apply allow us to build, within the same time bound, an oracle for exact distance queries in G. More generally, for any parameter S is an element of [(log n/log log n)(2), n(2/5)], distance queries can be answered in O (root S log S/log n) time per query...... with O(n(2)/root S) preprocessing time and space requirement. With respect to running time, this is better than previous algorithms when log S = o(log n). All algorithms have linear space requirement. Our results generalize to a larger class of graphs including those with a fixed excluded minor. (C) 2012...

  10. Thermal time constant: optimising the skin temperature predictive modelling in lower limb prostheses using Gaussian processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Neha; Glesk, Ivan; Buis, Arjan

    2016-06-01

    Elevated skin temperature at the body/device interface of lower-limb prostheses is one of the major factors that affect tissue health. The heat dissipation in prosthetic sockets is greatly influenced by the thermal conductive properties of the hard socket and liner material employed. However, monitoring of the interface temperature at skin level in lower-limb prosthesis is notoriously complicated. This is due to the flexible nature of the interface liners used which requires consistent positioning of sensors during donning and doffing. Predicting the residual limb temperature by monitoring the temperature between socket and liner rather than skin and liner could be an important step in alleviating complaints on increased temperature and perspiration in prosthetic sockets. To predict the residual limb temperature, a machine learning algorithm - Gaussian processes is employed, which utilizes the thermal time constant values of commonly used socket and liner materials. This Letter highlights the relevance of thermal time constant of prosthetic materials in Gaussian processes technique which would be useful in addressing the challenge of non-invasively monitoring the residual limb skin temperature. With the introduction of thermal time constant, the model can be optimised and generalised for a given prosthetic setup, thereby making the predictions more reliable.

  11. Near constant-time optimal piecewise LDR to HDR inverse tone mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Su, Guan-Ming; Yin, Peng

    2015-02-01

    In a backward compatible HDR image/video compression, it is a general approach to reconstruct HDR from compressed LDR as a prediction to original HDR, which is referred to as inverse tone mapping. Experimental results show that 2- piecewise 2nd order polynomial has the best mapping accuracy than 1 piece high order or 2-piecewise linear, but it is also the most time-consuming method because to find the optimal pivot point to split LDR range to 2 pieces requires exhaustive search. In this paper, we propose a fast algorithm that completes optimal 2-piecewise 2nd order polynomial inverse tone mapping in near constant time without quality degradation. We observe that in least square solution, each entry in the intermediate matrix can be written as the sum of some basic terms, which can be pre-calculated into look-up tables. Since solving the matrix becomes looking up values in tables, computation time barely differs regardless of the number of points searched. Hence, we can carry out the most thorough pivot point search to find the optimal pivot that minimizes MSE in near constant time. Experiment shows that our proposed method achieves the same PSNR performance while saving 60 times computation time compared to the traditional exhaustive search in 2-piecewise 2nd order polynomial inverse tone mapping with continuous constraint.

  12. Time-dependent leak behavior of flawed Alloy 600 tube specimens at constant pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahn, Chi Bum, E-mail: bahn@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Majumdar, Saurin [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Harris, Charles [United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Leak rate testing has been performed using Alloy 600 tube specimens with throughwall flaws. Some specimens have shown time-dependent leak behavior at constant pressure conditions. Fractographic characterization was performed to identify the time-dependent crack growth mechanism. The fracture surface of the specimens showed the typical features of ductile fracture, as well as the distinct crystallographic facets, typical of fatigue crack growth at low {Delta}K level. Structural vibration appears to have been caused by the oscillation of pressure, induced by a high-pressure pump used in a test facility, and by the water jet/tube structure interaction. Analyses of the leak behaviors and crack growth indicated that both the high-pressure pump and the water jet could significantly contribute to fatigue crack growth. To determine whether the fatigue crack growth during the leak testing can occur solely by the water jet effect, leak rate tests at constant pressure without the high-pressure pump need to be performed. - Highlights: > Leak rate of flawed Alloy 600 tubing increased at constant pressure condition. > Fractography revealed two cases: ductile tearing and crystallographic facets. > Crystallographic facets are typical features of fatigue crack growth at low {Delta}K. > Fatigue source could be water jet-induced vibration and/or high-pressure pump pulsation.

  13. Exponential stability of fuzzy cellular neural networks with constant and time-varying delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yanqing; Tang Wansheng

    2004-01-01

    In this Letter, the global stability of delayed fuzzy cellular neural networks (FCNN) with either constant delays or time varying delays is proposed. Firstly, we give the existence and uniqueness of the equilibrium point by using the theory of topological degree and the properties of nonsingular M-matrix and the sufficient conditions for ascertaining the global exponential stability by constructing a suitable Lyapunov functional. Secondly, the criteria for guaranteeing the global exponential stability of FCNN with time varying delays are given and the estimation of exponential convergence rate with regard to speed of vary of delays is presented by constructing a suitable Lyapunov functional

  14. Nature of tracing dimension, imaginary order of freedom and our observed time passing at constant speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, S

    2009-01-01

    Nature of the time and requirements to work as a time dimension are investigated. A potential scenario of the development of the universe is conceptually investigated starting from energy as vibration in multiple dimensions. A model is proposed, in which the Big Bang is a phase transition of energy from vibration in 4-dimensional space to energy distribution in 3-D surface of a 4-D sphere. The Time which we observe passing at a constant speed is not such a reference frame which we unintentionally believe to be the time, but the radius dimension of the 4-D sphere. The feature of the Dark Matter and the mystery of the Dark Energy are naturally explained from the model.

  15. Nature of tracing dimension, imaginary order of freedom and our observed time passing at constant speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, S, E-mail: snagao@lilac.plala.or.j [Business Development and Licensing Department, Nippon Boehringer Ingelheim Co., Ltd., ThinkPark Tower, 2-1-1, Osaki, Shinagawa, Tokyo 141-6017 (Japan)

    2009-06-01

    Nature of the time and requirements to work as a time dimension are investigated. A potential scenario of the development of the universe is conceptually investigated starting from energy as vibration in multiple dimensions. A model is proposed, in which the Big Bang is a phase transition of energy from vibration in 4-dimensional space to energy distribution in 3-D surface of a 4-D sphere. The Time which we observe passing at a constant speed is not such a reference frame which we unintentionally believe to be the time, but the radius dimension of the 4-D sphere. The feature of the Dark Matter and the mystery of the Dark Energy are naturally explained from the model.

  16. Influence of the Gilbert damping constant on the flux rise time of write head fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertl, Othmar; Schrefl, Thomas; Suess, Dieter; Schabes, Manfred E.

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic recording at fast data rates requires write heads with rapid rise times of the magnetic flux during the write process. We present three-dimensional (3D) micromagnetic finite element calculations of an entire ring head including 3D coil geometry during the writing of magnetic bits in granular media. The simulations demonstrate how input current profiles translate into magnetization processes in the head and which in turn generate the write head field. The flux rise time significantly depends on the Gilbert damping constant of the head material. Low damping causes incoherent magnetization processes, leading to long rise times and low head fields. High damping leads to coherent reversal of the magnetization in the head. As a consequence, the gap region can be quickly saturated which causes high head fields with short rise times

  17. Time constants and transfer functions for a homogeneous 900 MWt metallic fueled LMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, K.N.; Meneghetti, D.

    1988-01-01

    Nodal transfer functions are calculated for a 900 MWt U10Zr-fueled sodium cooled reactor. From the transfer functions the time constants, feedback reactivity transfer function coefficients, and power coefficients can be determined. These quantities are calculated for core fuel, upper and lower axial reflector steel, radial blanket fuel, radial reflector steel, and B 4 C rod shaft expansion effect. The quantities are compared to the analogous quantities of a 60 MWt metallic-fueled sodium cooled Experimental Breeder Reactor II configuration. 8 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  18. Developmental Times of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) at Constant Temperatures and Applications in Forensic Entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong-Qiang; Li, Xue-Bo; Shao, Ru-Yue; Lyu, Zhou; Li, Hong-Wei; Li, Gen-Ping; Xu, Lyu-Zi; Wan, Li-Hua

    2016-09-01

    The characteristic life stages of infesting blowflies (Calliphoridae) such as Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) are powerful evidence for estimating the death time of a corpse, but an established reference of developmental times for local blowfly species is required. We determined the developmental rates of C. megacephala from southwest China at seven constant temperatures (16-34°C). Isomegalen and isomorphen diagrams were constructed based on the larval length and time for each developmental event (first ecdysis, second ecdysis, wandering, pupariation, and eclosion), at each temperature. A thermal summation model was constructed by estimating the developmental threshold temperature D0 and the thermal summation constant K. The thermal summation model indicated that, for complete development from egg hatching to eclosion, D0 = 9.07 ± 0.54°C and K = 3991.07 ± 187.26 h °C. This reference can increase the accuracy of estimations of postmortem intervals in China by predicting the growth of C. megacephala. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Comparison of Cole-Cole and Constant Phase Angle modeling in time-domain induced polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lajaunie, Myriam; Maurya, Pradip Kumar; Fiandaca, Gianluca

    The Cole-Cole model and the constant phase angle (CPA) model are two prevailing phenomenological descriptions of the induced polarization (IP), used for both frequency domain (FD) and time domain (TD) modeling. The former one is a 4-parameter description, while the latest one involves only two......, forward modeling of quadrupolar sequences on 1D and 2D heterogeneous CPA models shows that the CPA decays differ among each other only by a multiplication factor. Consequently, the inspection of field data in log-log plots gives insight on the modeling needed for fitting them: the CPA inversion cannot...... is reflected in TDIP data, and therefore, at identifying (1) if and when it is possible to distinguish, in time domain, between a Cole-Cole description and a CPA one, and (2) if features of time domain data exist in order to know, from a simple data inspection, which model will be the most adapted to the data...

  20. Analysis of discrete and continuous distributions of ventilatory time constants from dynamic computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doebrich, Marcus; Markstaller, Klaus; Karmrodt, Jens; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Eberle, Balthasar; Weiler, Norbert; Thelen, Manfred; Schreiber, Wolfgang G

    2005-01-01

    In this study, an algorithm was developed to measure the distribution of pulmonary time constants (TCs) from dynamic computed tomography (CT) data sets during a sudden airway pressure step up. Simulations with synthetic data were performed to test the methodology as well as the influence of experimental noise. Furthermore the algorithm was applied to in vivo data. In five pigs sudden changes in airway pressure were imposed during dynamic CT acquisition in healthy lungs and in a saline lavage ARDS model. The fractional gas content in the imaged slice (FGC) was calculated by density measurements for each CT image. Temporal variations of the FGC were analysed assuming a model with a continuous distribution of exponentially decaying time constants. The simulations proved the feasibility of the method. The influence of experimental noise could be well evaluated. Analysis of the in vivo data showed that in healthy lungs ventilation processes can be more likely characterized by discrete TCs whereas in ARDS lungs continuous distributions of TCs are observed. The temporal behaviour of lung inflation and deflation can be characterized objectively using the described new methodology. This study indicates that continuous distributions of TCs reflect lung ventilation mechanics more accurately compared to discrete TCs

  1. Residual oxygen time model for oxygen partial pressure near 130 kPa (1.3 atm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shykoff, Barbara E

    2015-01-01

    A two-part residual oxygen time model predicts the probability of detectible pulmonary oxygen toxicity P(P[O2tox]) after dives with oxygen partial pressure (PO2) approximately 130 kPa, and provides a tool to plan dive series with selected risk of P[O2tox]. Data suggest that pulmonary oxygen injury at this PO2 is additive between dives. Recovery begins after a delay and continues during any following dive. A logistic relation expresses P(P[O2tox]) as a function of dive duration (T(dur)) [hours]: P(P[O2tox]) = 100/[1+exp (3.586-0.49 x T(dur))] This expression maps T(dur) to P(P[O2tox]) or, in the linear mid-portion of the curve, P(P[O2tox]) usefully to T(dur). For multiple dives or during recovery, it maps to an equivalent dive duration, T(eq). T(eq) was found after second dives of duration T(dur 2). Residual time from the first dive t(r) = T(eq) - T(dur2). With known t(r), t and T(dur) a recovery model was fitted. t(r) = T(dur) x exp [-k x((t-5)/T(dur)2], where t = t - 5 hours, k = 0.149 for resting, and 0.047 for exercising divers, and t represents time after surfacing. The fits were assessed for 1,352 man-dives. Standard deviations of the residuals were 8.5% and 18.3% probability for resting or exercise dives, respectively.

  2. Procedural Adaptations for Use of Constant Time Delay to Teach Highly Motivating Words to Beginning Braille Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, Sarah E.; Guerra, Jennifer A.; Hatton, Deborah D.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Constant time delay is an evidence-based practice to teach sight word recognition to students with a variety of disabilities. To date, two studies have documented its effectiveness for teaching braille. Methods: Using a multiple-baseline design, we evaluated the effectiveness of constant time delay to teach highly motivating words to…

  3. Vestibular Compensation in Unilateral Patients Often Causes Both Gain and Time Constant Asymmetries in The VOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina eRanjbaran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR is essential in our daily life to stabilize retinal images during head movements. Balanced vestibular functionality secures optimal reflex performance which can be distorted in case of peripheral vestibular lesions. Luckily, vestibular compensation in different neuronal sites restores VOR function to some extent over time. Studying vestibular compensation gives insight into the possible mechanisms for plasticity in the brain.In this work, novel experimental analysis tools are employed to reevaluate the VOR characteristics following unilateral vestibular lesions and compensation. Our results suggest that following vestibular lesions, asymmetric performance of the VOR is not only limited to its gain. Vestibular compensation also causes asymmetric dynamics, i.e. different time constants for the VOR during leftward or rightward passive head rotation. Potential mechanisms for these experimental observations are provided using simulation studies.

  4. Fourth-order constants of motion for time independent classical and quantum systems in three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chand, F.

    2010-01-01

    Exact fourth-order constants of motion are investigated for three-dimensional classical and quantum Hamiltonian systems. The rationalization method is utilized to obtain constants of motion for classical systems. Constants of motion for quantum systems are obtained by adding quantum correction terms, computed using Moyal's bracket, to the corresponding classical counterparts. (author)

  5. Spatial distribution of meteorological parameters around 900 hPa level over the Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean regions during the IFP-99 of the INDOEX programme as revealed from the constant altitude balloon experiments conducted from Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Appu, K.S.; Nair, S.M.; Kunhikrishnan, P.K.; Moorthy, K.K.; Sarode, P.R.; Rao, L.V.G.; Bajpai, S.R.; Prakash, L.H.; Viswanathan, G.; Mitra, A.P.; Sadourny, R.; Basdevant, C.; Ethe, C.; Ovarlez, H.; Chapuis, R.; Dartiguelongue, B.; Vianeys, P.

    of the payload Operational life Electric power Helium ~ 900 hPa 100?5hPa 1350?20g ~3kg ~3kg Several days to a week Lithium batteries INDIAN OCEAN EXPERIMENT duct such experiments as was demonstrated from the balloon flights carried out during the FFP-98...

  6. The response-time distribution in a real-time database with optimistic concurrency control and constant execution times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sassen, S.A.E.; Wal, van der J.

    1997-01-01

    For a real-time shared-memory database with optimistic concurrency control, an approximation for the transaction response-time distribution is obtained. The model assumes that transactions arrive at the database according to a Poisson process, that every transaction uses an equal number of

  7. Perspectives on Constraining a Cosmological Constant-Type Parameter with Pulsar Timing in the Galactic Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Iorio

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Independent tests aiming to constrain the value of the cosmological constant Λ are usually difficult because of its extreme smallness ( Λ ≃ 1 × 10 - 52 m - 2 , or 2 . 89 × 10 - 122 in Planck units . Bounds on it from Solar System orbital motions determined with spacecraft tracking are currently at the ≃ 10 - 43 – 10 - 44 m - 2 ( 5 – 1 × 10 - 113 in Planck units level, but they may turn out to be optimistic since Λ has not yet been explicitly modeled in the planetary data reductions. Accurate ( σ τ p ≃ 1 – 10 μ s timing of expected pulsars orbiting the Black Hole at the Galactic Center, preferably along highly eccentric and wide orbits, might, at least in principle, improve the planetary constraints by several orders of magnitude. By looking at the average time shift per orbit Δ δ τ ¯ p Λ , an S2-like orbital configuration with e = 0 . 8839 , P b = 16 yr would permit a preliminarily upper bound of the order of Λ ≲ 9 × 10 - 47 m - 2 ≲ 2 × 10 - 116 in Planck units if only σ τ p were to be considered. Our results can be easily extended to modified models of gravity using Λ -type parameters.

  8. Gauge theories, time-dependence of the gravitational constant and antigravity in the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, A.D.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that the interaction of the gravitational field with matter leads to a strong modification of the effective gravitational constant in the early universe. In certain cases this leads even to the change of sign of the gravitational constant, i.e. to antigravity in the early universe. (orig.)

  9. New determination of the gravitational constant G with time-of-swing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Liangcheng; Li Qing; Wang Qinglan; Shao Chenggang; Yang Shanqing; Liu Linxia; Liu Qi; Luo Jun

    2010-01-01

    A new determination of the Newtonian gravitational constant G is presented by using a torsion pendulum with the time-of-swing method. Compared with our previous measurement with the same method, several improvements greatly reduced the uncertainties as follows: (i) two stainless steel spheres with more homogeneous density are used as the source masses instead of the cylinders used in the previous experiment, and the offset of the mass center from the geometric center is measured and found to be much smaller than that of the cylinders; (ii) a rectangular glass block is used as the main body of the pendulum, which has fewer vibration modes and hence improves the stability of the period and reduces the uncertainty of the moment of inertia; (iii) both the pendulum and source masses are placed in the same vacuum chamber to reduce the error of measuring the relative positions; (iv) changing the configurations between the ''near'' and ''far'' positions is remotely operated by using a stepper motor to lower the environmental disturbances; and (v) the anelastic effect of the torsion fiber is first measured directly by using two disk pendulums with the help of a high-Q quartz fiber. We have performed two independent G measurements, and the two G values differ by only 9 ppm. The combined value of G is (6.673 49±0.000 18)x10 -11 m 3 kg -1 s -2 with a relative uncertainty of 26 ppm.

  10. Bilateral control of master-slave manipulators with constant time delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouzantabar, A; Talebi, H A; Sedigh, A K

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel teleoperation controller for a nonlinear master-slave robotic system with constant time delay in communication channel. The proposed controller enables the teleoperation system to compensate human and environmental disturbances, while achieving master and slave position coordination in both free motion and contact situation. The current work basically extends the passivity based architecture upon the earlier work of Lee and Spong (2006) [14] to improve position tracking and consequently transparency in the face of disturbances and environmental contacts. The proposed controller employs a PID controller in each side to overcome some limitations of a PD controller and guarantee an improved performance. Moreover, by using Fourier transform and Parseval's identity in the frequency domain, we demonstrate that this new PID controller preserves the passivity of the system. Simulation and semi-experimental results show that the PID controller tracking performance is superior to that of the PD controller tracking performance in slave/environmental contacts. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Are fundamental constants really constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, E.B.

    1986-01-01

    Reasons for suspecting that fundamental constants might change with time are reviewed. Possible consequences of such variations are examined. The present status of experimental tests of these ideas is discussed

  12. Constant versus variable response signal delays in speed accuracy trade-offs : Effects of advance preparation for processing time

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Jeff; Sproesser, Gudrun; Ulrich, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    In two experiments, we used response signals (RSs) to control processing time and trace out speed accuracy trade-off (SAT) functions in a difficult perceptual discrimination task. Each experiment compared performance in blocks of trials with constant and, hence, temporally predictable RS lags against performance in blocks with variable, unpredictable RS lags. In both experiments, essentially equivalent SAT functions were observed with constant and variable RS lags. We conclude that there is l...

  13. OPTIMAL TIME FOR SUBSTITUTION OF Eucalyptus spp POPULATIONS – THE CASE OF CONSTANT TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Nogueira de Souza1;

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The few studies on renewal of Eucalyptus spp populations done in Brazil consider constant technology. This is done this way for facilitating the modeling of how variables affect this activity, such as income, costs, rates of discount and yield. The reason for not considering the gains earned through technological progress is the lack of a specific dynamic model. This study was carried out aiming to get to know the forest rotation with values from the sixties (beginning of tax exemption programme and current values (nineties aiming to obtain wood for cellulose and charcoal production; to determine the moment of substitution of a population which presents the same yield and the same cost structure through time as well as to determine how many cuttings should be done until the final cycle; to determine how many cuttings should be done until substitution (substitution chain; to verify the sensitivity of the substitution time to variations in the discount rates, wood prices, yield, land costs, harvesting costs and coppice yield. The results were tested in a case study, employing the Gompertz Function to determine the population yield. The Current Net Value Method was used as a crieterion of economic decision. It has been concluded that: The forest rotation to produce charcoal in the sixties was at 13 years of age; the current rotation is at 7 years of age; the final cycle allows up to 13 cuttings, but considering the possibility of land leasing, the best alternative is to conduce the sproutings up to the third cutting; an increase in factors such as discount rates, wood prices and yield caused reduction of the cutting age; increase in land costs did not affect the cutting ages; increase in the logging cost increased the cutting ages; the substitution of population now a days happens after 3 cuttings, while in the sixties it happened after 2 cuttings due to the lesser loss; an increase in factors such as discount rates, wood prices, logging costs and

  14. Detecting electroporation by assessing the time constants in the exponential response of human skin to voltage controlled impulse electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bîrlea, Sinziana I; Corley, Gavin J; Bîrlea, Nicolae M; Breen, Paul P; Quondamatteo, Fabio; OLaighin, Gearóid

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new method for extracting the electrical properties of human skin based on the time constant analysis of its exponential response to impulse stimulation. As a result of this analysis an adjacent finding has arisen. We have found that stratum corneum electroporation can be detected using this analysis method. We have observed that a one time-constant model is appropriate for describing the electrical properties of human skin at low amplitude applied voltages (30V). Higher voltage amplitudes (>30V) have been proven to create pores in the skin's stratum corneum which offer a new, lower resistance, pathway for the passage of current through the skin. Our data shows that when pores are formed in the stratum corneum they can be detected, in-vivo, due to the fact that a second time constant describes current flow through them.

  15. Constant versus variable response signal delays in speed--accuracy trade-offs: effects of advance preparation for processing time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeff; Sproesser, Gudrun; Ulrich, Rolf

    2008-07-01

    In two experiments, we used response signals (RSs) to control processing time and trace out speed--accuracy trade-off(SAT) functions in a difficult perceptual discrimination task. Each experiment compared performance in blocks of trials with constant and, hence, temporally predictable RS lags against performance in blocks with variable, unpredictable RS lags. In both experiments, essentially equivalent SAT functions were observed with constant and variable RS lags. We conclude that there is little effect of advance preparation for a given processing time, suggesting that the discrimination mechanisms underlying SAT functions are driven solely by bottom-up information processing in perceptual discrimination tasks.

  16. Asymptotic structure of space-time with a positive cosmological constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavan, Aruna

    In general relativity a satisfactory framework for describing isolated systems exists when the cosmological constant Lambda is zero. The detailed analysis of the asymptotic structure of the gravitational field, which constitutes the framework of asymptotic flatness, lays the foundation for research in diverse areas in gravitational science. However, the framework is incomplete in two respects. First, asymptotic flatness provides well-defined expressions for physical observables such as energy and momentum as 'charges' of asymptotic symmetries at null infinity, [special character omitted] +. But the asymptotic symmetry group, called the Bondi-Metzner-Sachs group is infinite-dimensional and a tensorial expression for the 'charge' integral of an arbitrary BMS element is missing. We address this issue by providing a charge formula which is a 2-sphere integral over fields local to the 2-sphere and refers to no extraneous structure. The second, and more significant shortcoming is that observations have established that Lambda is not zero but positive in our universe. Can the framework describing isolated systems and their gravitational radiation be extended to incorporate this fact? In this dissertation we show that, unfortunately, the standard framework does not extend from the Lambda = 0 case to the Lambda > 0 case in a physically useful manner. In particular, we do not have an invariant notion of gravitational waves in the non-linear regime, nor an analog of the Bondi 'news tensor', nor positive energy theorems. In addition, we argue that the stronger boundary condition of conformal flatness of intrinsic metric on [special character omitted]+, which reduces the asymptotic symmetry group from Diff([special character omitted]) to the de Sitter group, is insufficient to characterize gravitational fluxes and is physically unreasonable. To obtain guidance for the full non-linear theory with Lambda > 0, linearized gravitational waves in de Sitter space-time are analyzed in

  17. Optical timing receiver for the NASA laser ranging system. Part I. Constant-fraction discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskovar, B.; Lo, C.C.

    1975-01-01

    Position-resolution capabilities of the NASA laser ranging system are essentially determined by time-resolution capabilities of its optical timing receiver. The optical timing receiver consists of a fast photoelectric device, primarily a standard of microchannel-plate-type photomultiplier or an avalanche photodiode detector, a timing discriminator, a high-precision time-interval digitizer, and a signal-processing system. The time-resolution capabilities of the receiver are determined by the photoelectron time spread of the photoelectric device, the time walk and resolution characteristics of the timing discriminator, and the time-interval digitizer. It is thus necessary to evaluate available fast photoelectronic devices with respect to their time-resolution capabilities, and to design a very low time walk timing discriminator and a high-precision time digitizer which will be used in the laser ranging system receiver. (auth)

  18. Teaching Generalized Reading of Product Warning Labels to Young Adults with Autism Using the Constant Time Delay Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogoe, Maud S.; Banda, Devender R.; Lock, Robin H.; Feinstein, Rita

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of the constant timed delay procedure for teaching two young adults with autism to read, define, and state the contextual meaning of keywords on product warning labels of common household products. Training sessions were conducted in the dyad format using flash cards. Results indicated that both participants…

  19. Characteristics of Viscoelastic Crustal Deformation Following a Megathrust Earthquake: Discrepancy Between the Apparent and Intrinsic Relaxation Time Constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukahata, Yukitoshi; Matsu'ura, Mitsuhiro

    2018-02-01

    The viscoelastic deformation of an elastic-viscoelastic composite system is significantly different from that of a simple viscoelastic medium. Here, we show that complicated transient deformation due to viscoelastic stress relaxation after a megathrust earthquake can occur even in a very simple situation, in which an elastic surface layer (lithosphere) is underlain by a viscoelastic substratum (asthenosphere) under gravity. Although the overall decay rate of the system is controlled by the intrinsic relaxation time constant of the asthenosphere, the apparent decay time constant at each observation point is significantly different from place to place and generally much longer than the intrinsic relaxation time constant of the asthenosphere. It is also not rare that the sense of displacement rate is reversed during the viscoelastic relaxation. If we do not bear these points in mind, we may draw false conclusions from observed deformation data. Such complicated transient behavior can be explained mathematically from the characteristics of viscoelastic solution: for an elastic-viscoelastic layered half-space, the viscoelastic solution is expressed as superposition of three decaying components with different relaxation time constants that depend on wavelength.

  20. An automatic device for refilling liquid nitrogen traps at constant time intervals; Dispositif automatique assurant le remplissage de pieces en azote liquide a intervales de temps constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourguillot, R; Lohez, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    We have been led to study the design of an automatic device for the filling of liquid nitrogen traps at constant time intervals in connection with the maintenance of a type MS 5 mass spectrometer; in the tube of this apparatus it is necessary to maintain a vacuum of about 10{sup -7} mm of mercury. The replenishing is done every four hours. The presence in the vacuum section of an electron multiplier has led us to provide a safety-device making it impossible for mercury vapour to come into contact with either the copper tube or the multiplier in the event of an incident leading to the warming up of the traps. In case of a breakdown, the vacuum section is therefore brought up to atmospheric pressure by the introduction of nitrogen. (author) [French] Nous avons ete conduits pour la maintenance d'un spectrometre de masse type MS 5, dans le tube duquel il faut entretenir un vide de quelques 10{sup -7} mm de mercure, a etudier un systeme de remplissage automatique a intervalle de temps fixe des pieges en azote liquide. Ce remplissage se fait toutes les quatre heures. La presence dans l'enceinte sous vide, d'un multiplicateur d'electrons, nous a amenes a prevoir un systeme de securite evitant de mettre le tube en cuivre et le multiplicateur en contact avec la vapeur de mercure en cas d'incident amenant le rechauffage des pieges. En cas de panne, l'enceinte sous vide est donc ramenee a la pression atmospherique par une introduction d'azote. (auteur)

  1. A new isotope of protactinium: 239Pa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, S.; Yang, W.; Mou, W.; Zhang, X.; Li, Z.; Yu, X.; Gu, J.; Guo, Y.; Gan, Z.; Liu, H.; Guo, J.

    1995-01-01

    A new nuclide 239 Pa was produced by 50MeV/u 18 O bombardment of uranium. A radiochemical separation method was employed for preparing sources of 239 Pa. The protactinium isotope 239 Pa has been identified for the first time by the results observed from the decay of the 239 Pa and its daughter 239 U. The half-life of 239 Pa has been determined to be 106±30min. (orig.)

  2. Search for time modulations in the decay constant of 40K and 226Ra at the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellotti, E.; Broggini, C.; Di Carlo, G.; Laubenstein, M.; Menegazzo, R.

    2018-05-01

    Time modulations at per mil level have been reported to take place in the decay constant of several nuclei with period of one year (most cases) but also of about one month or one day. On the other hand, experiments with similar or better sensitivity have been unable to detect any modulation. In this letter we give the results of the activity study of two different sources: 40K and 226Ra. The two gamma spectrometry experiments have been performed underground at the Gran Sasso Laboratory, this way suppressing the time dependent cosmic ray background. Briefly, our measurements reached the sensitivity of 3.4 and 3.5 parts over 106 for 40K and 226Ra, respectively (1 sigma) and they do not show any statistically significant evidence of time dependence in the decay constant. We also give the results of the activity measurement at the time of the two strong X-class solar flares which took place in September 2017. Our data do not show any unexpected time dependence in the decay rate of 40K in correspondence with the two flares. To the best of our knowledge, these are the most precise and accurate results on the stability of the decay constant as function of time.

  3. A novel method for in-situ estimation of time constant for core temperature monitoring thermocouples of operating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylvia, J.I.; Chandar, S. Clement Ravi; Velusamy, K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Core temperature sensor was mathematically modeled. • Ramp signal generated during reactor operating condition is used. • Procedure and methodology has been demonstrated by applying it to FBTR. • Same technique will be implemented for all fast reactors. - Abstract: Core temperature monitoring system is an important component of reactor protection system in the current generation fast reactors. In this system, multiple thermocouples are housed inside a thermowell of fuel subassemblies. Response time of the thermocouple assembly forms an important input for safety analysis of fast reactor and hence frequent calibration/time constant estimation is essential. In fast reactors the central fuel subassembly is provided with bare fast response thermocouples to detect under cooling events in reactor and take proper safety action. On the other hand, thermocouples in thermowell are mainly used for blockage detection in individual fuel subassemblies. The time constant of thermocouples in thermowell can drift due to creep, vibration and thermal fatigue of the thermowell assembly. A novel method for in-situ estimation of time constant is proposed. This method uses the Safety Control Rod Accelerated Mechanism (SCRAM) or lowering of control Rod (LOR) signals of the reactor along with response of the central subassembly thermocouples as reference data. Validation of the procedure has been demonstrated by applying it to FBTR

  4. Succinct Dynamic Cardinal Trees with Constant Time Operations for Small Alphabet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoodi, Pooya; Satti, Srinivasa Rao

    2011-01-01

    ) bits and performs the following operations in O(1) time: parent, child(i), label-child(alpha), degree, subtree-size, preorder, is-ancestor(x), insert-leaf (alpha), delete-leaf(alpha). The update times are amortized. The space is close to the information theoretic lower bound. The operations...

  5. One-machine job-scheduling with non-constant capacity - Minimizing weighted completion times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaddeo, H.F.; Amaddeo, H.F.; Nawijn, W.M.; van Harten, Aart

    1997-01-01

    In this paper an n-job one-machine scheduling problem is considered, in which the machine capacity is time-dependent and jobs are characterized by their work content. The objective is to minimize the sum of weighted completion times. A necessary optimality condition is presented and we discuss some

  6. Implementation of a two-qubit controlled-rotation gate based on unconventional geometric phase with a constant gating time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabu-uti, B.F.C.; Roversi, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    We propose an alternative scheme to implement a two-qubit controlled-R (rotation) gate in the hybrid atom-CCA (coupled cavities array) system. Our scheme results in a constant gating time and, with an adjustable qubit-bus coupling (atom-resonator), one can specify a particular rotation R on the target qubit. We believe that this proposal may open promising perspectives for networking quantum information processors and implementing distributed and scalable quantum computation. -- Highlights: → We propose an alternative two-qubit controlled-rotation gate implementation. → Our gate is realized in a constant gating time for any rotation. → A particular rotation on the target qubit can be specified by an adjustable qubit-bus coupling. → Our proposal may open promising perspectives for implementing distributed and scalable quantum computation.

  7. The effect of solvent relaxation time constants on free energy gap law for ultrafast charge recombination following photoinduced charge separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailova, Valentina A; Malykhin, Roman E; Ivanov, Anatoly I

    2018-05-16

    To elucidate the regularities inherent in the kinetics of ultrafast charge recombination following photoinduced charge separation in donor-acceptor dyads in solutions, the simulations of the kinetics have been performed within the stochastic multichannel point-transition model. Increasing the solvent relaxation time scales has been shown to strongly vary the dependence of the charge recombination rate constant on the free energy gap. In slow relaxing solvents the non-equilibrium charge recombination occurring in parallel with solvent relaxation is very effective so that the charge recombination terminates at the non-equilibrium stage. This results in a crucial difference between the free energy gap laws for the ultrafast charge recombination and the thermal charge transfer. For the thermal reactions the well-known Marcus bell-shaped dependence of the rate constant on the free energy gap is realized while for the ultrafast charge recombination only a descending branch is predicted in the whole area of the free energy gap exceeding 0.2 eV. From the available experimental data on the population kinetics of the second and first excited states for a series of Zn-porphyrin-imide dyads in toluene and tetrahydrofuran solutions, an effective rate constant of the charge recombination into the first excited state has been calculated. The obtained rate constant being very high is nearly invariable in the area of the charge recombination free energy gap from 0.2 to 0.6 eV that supports the theoretical prediction.

  8. Description of an identification method of thermocouple time constant based on application of recursive numerical filtering to temperature fluctuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardin, B.; Le Guillou, G.; Parcy, JP.

    1981-04-01

    Usual spectral methods, based on temperature fluctuation analysis, aiming at thermocouple time constant identification are using an equipment too much sophisticated for on-line application. It is shown that numerical filtering is optimal for this application, the equipment is simpler than for spectral methods and less samples of signals are needed for the same accuracy. The method is described and a parametric study was performed using a temperature noise simulator [fr

  9. Comparison of Real-Time Multiplex Human Papillomavirus (HPV) PCR Assays with INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra Assay▿

    OpenAIRE

    Else, Elizabeth A.; Swoyer, Ryan; Zhang, Yuhua; Taddeo, Frank J.; Bryan, Janine T.; Lawson, John; Van Hyfte, Inez; Roberts, Christine C.

    2011-01-01

    Real-time type-specific multiplex human papillomavirus (HPV) PCR assays were developed to detect HPV DNA in samples collected for the efficacy determination of the quadrivalent HPV (type 6, 11, 16, and 18) L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine (Gardasil). Additional multiplex (L1, E6, and E7 open reading frame [ORF]) or duplex (E6 and E7 ORF) HPV PCR assays were developed to detect high-risk HPV types, including HPV type 31 (HPV31), HPV33, HPV35, HPV39, HPV45, HPV51, HPV52, HPV56, HPV58, and H...

  10. Development and validation of a local time stepping-based PaSR solver for combustion and radiation modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Kar Mun; Ivarsson, Anders; Haider, Sajjad

    2013-01-01

    In the current work, a local time stepping (LTS) solver for the modeling of combustion, radiative heat transfer and soot formation is developed and validated. This is achieved using an open source computational fluid dynamics code, OpenFOAM. Akin to the solver provided in default assembly i...... library in the edcSimpleFoam solver which was introduced during the 6th OpenFOAM workshop is modified and coupled with the current solver. One of the main amendments made is the integration of soot radiation submodel since this is significant in rich flames where soot particles are formed. The new solver...

  11. Conformally invariant amplitudes and field theory in a space-time of constant curvature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drummond, I.T.

    1977-02-01

    The problem of calculating the ultra violet divergences of a field theory in a spherical space-time is reduced to analysing the pole structure of conformally invariant integrals which are analogous to amplitudes which occur in the theory of dual models. The calculations are illustrated with phi 3 -theory in six-dimensions. (author)

  12. How the constants in Hille-Nehari theorems depend on time scales

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řehák, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 2006, - (2006), s. 1-15 ISSN 1687-1839 R&D Pro jects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/01/0079; GA ČR(CZ) GP201/01/P041 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : dynamic equation * time scales * oscillation criteria Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  13. McBits: fast constant-time code-based cryptography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernstein, D.J.; Chou, T.; Schwabe, P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents extremely fast algorithms for code-based public-key cryptography, including full protection against timing attacks. For example, at a 2^128 security level, this paper achieves a reciprocal decryption throughput of just 60493 cycles (plus cipher cost etc.) on a single Ivy Bridge

  14. Off-line correction for excessive constant-fraction-discriminator walk in neutron time-of-flight experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilbronn, Lawrence; Iwata, Yoshiyuki; Iwase, H.

    2003-01-01

    A method for reducing excessive constant-fraction-discriminator walk that utilizes experimental data in the off-line analysis stage is introduced. Excessive walk is defined here as any walk that leads to an overall timing resolution that is much greater than the intrinsic timing resolution of the detection system. The method is able to reduce the contribution to the overall timing resolution from the walk that is equal to or less than the intrinsic timing resolution of the detectors. Although the method is explained in the context of a neutron time-of-flight experiment, it is applicable to any data set that satisfies two conditions. (1) A measure of the signal amplitude for each event must be recorded on an event-by-event basis; and (2) There must be a distinguishable class of events present where the timing information is known a priori

  15. Off-line correction for excessive constant-fraction-discriminator walk in neutron time-of-flight experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilbronn, L.; Iwata, Y.; Iwase, H.

    2004-01-01

    A method for reducing excessive constant-fraction-discriminator walk that utilizes experimental data in the off-line analysis stage is introduced. Excessive walk is defined here as any walk that leads to an overall timing resolution that is much greater than the intrinsic timing resolution of the detection system. The method is able to reduce the contribution to the overall timing resolution from the walk to a value that is equal to or less than the intrinsic timing resolution of the detectors. Although the method is explained in the context of a neutron time-of-flight experiment, it is applicable to any data set that satisfies two conditions: (1) a measure of the signal amplitude for each event must be recorded on an event-by-event basis; and (2) there must be a distinguishable class of events present where the timing information is known a priori

  16. A frequency-domain method for solving linear time delay systems with constant coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Mengshi; Chen, Wei; Song, Hanwen; Xu, Jian

    2018-03-01

    In an active control system, time delay will occur due to processes such as signal acquisition and transmission, calculation, and actuation. Time delay systems are usually described by delay differential equations (DDEs). Since it is hard to obtain an analytical solution to a DDE, numerical solution is of necessity. This paper presents a frequency-domain method that uses a truncated transfer function to solve a class of DDEs. The theoretical transfer function is the sum of infinite items expressed in terms of poles and residues. The basic idea is to select the dominant poles and residues to truncate the transfer function, thus ensuring the validity of the solution while improving the efficiency of calculation. Meanwhile, the guideline of selecting these poles and residues is provided. Numerical simulations of both stable and unstable delayed systems are given to verify the proposed method, and the results are presented and analysed in detail.

  17. Dynamical Solution to the Problem of a Small Cosmological Constant and Late-Time Cosmic Acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armendariz-Picon, C.; Mukhanov, V.; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2000-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that most of the energy density of the universe consists of a dark energy component with negative pressure that causes the cosmic expansion to accelerate. We address why this component comes to dominate the universe only recently. We present a class of theories based on an evolving scalar field where the explanation is based entirely on internal dynamical properties of the solutions. In the theories we consider, the dynamics causes the scalar field to lock automatically into a negative pressure state at the onset of matter domination such that the present epoch is the earliest possible time consistent with nucleosynthesis restrictions when it can start to dominate

  18. Discretization of space and time: mass-energy relation, accelerating expansion of the Universe, Hubble constant

    OpenAIRE

    Roatta , Luca

    2017-01-01

    Assuming that space and time can only have discrete values, we obtain the expression of the gravitational potential energy that at large distance coincides with the Newtonian. In very precise circumstances it coincides with the relativistic mass-energy relation: this shows that the Universe is a black hole in which all bodies are subjected to an acceleration toward the border of the Universe itself. Since the Universe is a black hole with a fixed radius, we can obtain the density of the Unive...

  19. An Efficient Format for Nearly Constant-Time Access to Arbitrary Time Intervals in Large Trace Files

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Chan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A powerful method to aid in understanding the performance of parallel applications uses log or trace files containing time-stamped events and states (pairs of events. These trace files can be very large, often hundreds or even thousands of megabytes. Because of the cost of accessing and displaying such files, other methods are often used that reduce the size of the tracefiles at the cost of sacrificing detail or other information. This paper describes a hierarchical trace file format that provides for display of an arbitrary time window in a time independent of the total size of the file and roughly proportional to the number of events within the time window. This format eliminates the need to sacrifice data to achieve a smaller trace file size (since storage is inexpensive, it is necessary only to make efficient use of bandwidth to that storage. The format can be used to organize a trace file or to create a separate file of annotations that may be used with conventional trace files. We present an analysis of the time to access all of the events relevant to an interval of time and we describe experiments demonstrating the performance of this file format.

  20. Path integration of head direction: updating a packet of neural activity at the correct speed using neuronal time constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, D M; Stringer, S M

    2010-07-01

    A key question in understanding the neural basis of path integration is how individual, spatially responsive, neurons may self-organize into networks that can, through learning, integrate velocity signals to update a continuous representation of location within an environment. It is of vital importance that this internal representation of position is updated at the correct speed, and in real time, to accurately reflect the motion of the animal. In this article, we present a biologically plausible model of velocity path integration of head direction that can solve this problem using neuronal time constants to effect natural time delays, over which associations can be learned through associative Hebbian learning rules. The model comprises a linked continuous attractor network and competitive network. In simulation, we show that the same model is able to learn two different speeds of rotation when implemented with two different values for the time constant, and without the need to alter any other model parameters. The proposed model could be extended to path integration of place in the environment, and path integration of spatial view.

  1. Light deflection, lensing, and time delays from gravitational potentials and Fermat's principle in the presence of a cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishak, Mustapha

    2008-01-01

    The contributions of the cosmological constant to the deflection angle and the time delays are derived from the integration of the gravitational potential as well as from Fermat's principle. The findings are in agreement with recent results using exact solutions to Einstein's equations and reproduce precisely the new Λ term in the bending angle and the lens equation. The consequences on time-delay expressions are explored. While it is known that Λ contributes to the gravitational time delay, it is shown here that a new Λ term appears in the geometrical time delay as well. Although these newly derived terms are perhaps small for current observations, they do not cancel out as previously claimed. Moreover, as shown before, at galaxy cluster scale, the Λ contribution can be larger than the second-order term in the Einstein deflection angle for several cluster lens systems.

  2. Initial Sensorimotor and Cardiovascular Data Acquired from Soyuz Landings: Establishing a Functional Performance Recovery Time Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, M. F.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Kofman, I. S.; Tomilovskaya, E. S.; Cerisano, J. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Stenger, M. B.; Platts, S. H.; Rukavishnikov, I. V.; Fomina, E. V.; hide

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Testing of crew responses following long-duration flights has not been previously possible until a minimum of more than 24 hours after landing. As a result, it has not been possible to determine the trend of the early recovery process, nor has it been possible to accurately assess the full impact of the decrements associated with long-duration flight. To overcome these limitations, both the Russian and U.S. programs have implemented joint testing at the Soyuz landing site. This International Space Station research effort has been identified as the functional Field Test, and represents data collect on NASA, Russian, European Space Agency, and Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency crews. RESEARCH The primary goal of this research is to determine functional abilities associated with long-duration space flight crews beginning as soon after landing as possible on the day of landing (typically within 1 to 1.5 hours). This goal has both sensorimotor and cardiovascular elements. To date, a total of 15 subjects have participated in a 'pilot' version of the full 'field test'. The full version of the 'field test' will assess functional sensorimotor measurements included hand/eye coordination, standing from a seated position (sit-to-stand), walking normally without falling, measurement of dynamic visual acuity, discriminating different forces generated with the hands (both strength and ability to judge just noticeable differences of force), standing from a prone position, coordinated walking involving tandem heel-to-toe placement (tested with eyes both closed and open), walking normally while avoiding obstacles of differing heights, and determining postural ataxia while standing (measurement of quiet stance). Sensorimotor performance has been obtained using video records, and data from body worn inertial sensors. The cardiovascular portion of the investigation has measured blood pressure and heart rate during a timed stand test in conjunction with postural ataxia

  3. Is average daily travel time expenditure constant? In search of explanations for an increase in average travel time.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wee, B.; Rietveld, P.; Meurs, H.

    2006-01-01

    Recent research suggests that the average time spent travelling by the Dutch population has increased over the past decades. However, different data sources show different levels of increase. This paper explores possible causes for this increase. They include a rise in incomes, which has probably

  4. Resimulation of noise: a precision estimator for least square error curve-fitting tested for axial strain time constant imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, S. P.; Righetti, R.

    2015-05-01

    Recent elastography techniques focus on imaging information on properties of materials which can be modeled as viscoelastic or poroelastic. These techniques often require the fitting of temporal strain data, acquired from either a creep or stress-relaxation experiment to a mathematical model using least square error (LSE) parameter estimation. It is known that the strain versus time relationships for tissues undergoing creep compression have a non-linear relationship. In non-linear cases, devising a measure of estimate reliability can be challenging. In this article, we have developed and tested a method to provide non linear LSE parameter estimate reliability: which we called Resimulation of Noise (RoN). RoN provides a measure of reliability by estimating the spread of parameter estimates from a single experiment realization. We have tested RoN specifically for the case of axial strain time constant parameter estimation in poroelastic media. Our tests show that the RoN estimated precision has a linear relationship to the actual precision of the LSE estimator. We have also compared results from the RoN derived measure of reliability against a commonly used reliability measure: the correlation coefficient (CorrCoeff). Our results show that CorrCoeff is a poor measure of estimate reliability for non-linear LSE parameter estimation. While the RoN is specifically tested only for axial strain time constant imaging, a general algorithm is provided for use in all LSE parameter estimation.

  5. Analytical Solution for Time-drawdown Response to Constant Pumping from a Homogeneous, Confined Horizontal Aquifer with Unidirectional Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, K. E.; Zhang, J.; Teasdale, E.

    2007-12-01

    An exact analytical solution to the ordinary one-dimensional partial differential equation is derived for transient groundwater flow in a homogeneous, confined, horizontal aquifer using Laplace transformation. The theoretical analysis is based on the assumption that the aquifer is homogeneous and one-dimensional (horizontal); confined between impermeable formations on top and bottom; and of infinite horizontal extent and constant thickness. It is also assumed that there is only a single pumping well penetrating the entire aquifer; flow is everywhere horizontal within the aquifer to the well; the well is pumping with a constant discharge rate; the well diameter is infinitesimally small; and the hydraulic head is uniform throughout the aquifer before pumping. Similar to the Theis solution, this solution is suited to determine transmissivity and storativity for a two- dimensional, vertically confined aquifer, such as a long vertically fractured zone of high permeability within low permeable rocks or a long, high-permeability trench inside a low-permeability porous media. In addition, it can be used to analyze time-drawdown responses to pumping and injection in similar settings. The solution can also be used to approximate the groundwater flow for unconfined conditions if (1) the variation of transmissivity is negligible (groundwater table variation is small in comparison to the saturated thickness); and (2) the unsaturated flow is negligible. The errors associated with the use of the solution to unconfined conditions depend on the accuracies of the above two assumptions. The solution can also be used to assess the impacts of recharge from a seasonal river or irrigation canal on the groundwater system by assuming uniform, time- constant recharge along the river or canal. This paper presents the details for derivation of the analytical solution. The analytical solution is compared to numerical simulation results with example cases. Its accuracy is also assessed and

  6. An optimal policy for deteriorating items with time-proportional deterioration rate and constant and time-dependent linear demand rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Trailokyanath; Mishra, Pandit Jagatananda; Pattanayak, Hadibandhu

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, an economic order quantity (EOQ) inventory model for a deteriorating item is developed with the following characteristics: (i) The demand rate is deterministic and two-staged, i.e., it is constant in first part of the cycle and linear function of time in the second part. (ii) Deterioration rate is time-proportional. (iii) Shortages are not allowed to occur. The optimal cycle time and the optimal order quantity have been derived by minimizing the total average cost. A simple solution procedure is provided to illustrate the proposed model. The article concludes with a numerical example and sensitivity analysis of various parameters as illustrations of the theoretical results.

  7. Equilibrium constants in aqueous lanthanide and actinide chemistry from time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy: The role of ground and excited state reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billard, I.; Luetzenkirchen, K.

    2003-01-01

    Equilibrium constants for aqueous reactions between lanthanide or actinide ions and (in-) organic ligands contain important information for various radiochemical problems, such as nuclear reprocessing or the migration of radioelements in the geosphere. We study the conditions required to determine equilibrium constants by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy measurements. Based on a simulation study it is shown that the possibility to determine equilibrium constants depends upon the reaction rates in the photoexcited states of the lanthanide or actinide ions. (orig.)

  8. PaTux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed; Shaker, Noor

    2014-01-01

    We present a demonstration of PaTux, an authoring tool for designing levels in SuperTux game through combining patterns. PaTux allows game designers to specify the design of their levels using patterns extracted from training level samples. The Non-negative Matrix Factorisation (NMF) method...

  9. A digital, constant-frequency pulsed phase-locked-loop instrument for real-time, absolute ultrasonic phase measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldren, H. A.; Perey, D. F.; Yost, W. T.; Cramer, K. E.; Gupta, M. C.

    2018-05-01

    A digitally controlled instrument for conducting single-frequency and swept-frequency ultrasonic phase measurements has been developed based on a constant-frequency pulsed phase-locked-loop (CFPPLL) design. This instrument uses a pair of direct digital synthesizers to generate an ultrasonically transceived tone-burst and an internal reference wave for phase comparison. Real-time, constant-frequency phase tracking in an interrogated specimen is possible with a resolution of 0.000 38 rad (0.022°), and swept-frequency phase measurements can be obtained. Using phase measurements, an absolute thickness in borosilicate glass is presented to show the instrument's efficacy, and these results are compared to conventional ultrasonic pulse-echo time-of-flight (ToF) measurements. The newly developed instrument predicted the thickness with a mean error of -0.04 μm and a standard deviation of error of 1.35 μm. Additionally, the CFPPLL instrument shows a lower measured phase error in the absence of changing temperature and couplant thickness than high-resolution cross-correlation ToF measurements at a similar signal-to-noise ratio. By showing higher accuracy and precision than conventional pulse-echo ToF measurements and lower phase errors than cross-correlation ToF measurements, the new digitally controlled CFPPLL instrument provides high-resolution absolute ultrasonic velocity or path-length measurements in solids or liquids, as well as tracking of material property changes with high sensitivity. The ability to obtain absolute phase measurements allows for many new applications than possible with previous ultrasonic pulsed phase-locked loop instruments. In addition to improved resolution, swept-frequency phase measurements add useful capability in measuring properties of layered structures, such as bonded joints, or materials which exhibit non-linear frequency-dependent behavior, such as dispersive media.

  10. Quantum supremacy in constant-time measurement-based computation: A unified architecture for sampling and verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jacob; Sanders, Stephen; Miyake, Akimasa

    2017-12-01

    While quantum speed-up in solving certain decision problems by a fault-tolerant universal quantum computer has been promised, a timely research interest includes how far one can reduce the resource requirement to demonstrate a provable advantage in quantum devices without demanding quantum error correction, which is crucial for prolonging the coherence time of qubits. We propose a model device made of locally interacting multiple qubits, designed such that simultaneous single-qubit measurements on it can output probability distributions whose average-case sampling is classically intractable, under similar assumptions as the sampling of noninteracting bosons and instantaneous quantum circuits. Notably, in contrast to these previous unitary-based realizations, our measurement-based implementation has two distinctive features. (i) Our implementation involves no adaptation of measurement bases, leading output probability distributions to be generated in constant time, independent of the system size. Thus, it could be implemented in principle without quantum error correction. (ii) Verifying the classical intractability of our sampling is done by changing the Pauli measurement bases only at certain output qubits. Our usage of random commuting quantum circuits in place of computationally universal circuits allows a unique unification of sampling and verification, so they require the same physical resource requirements in contrast to the more demanding verification protocols seen elsewhere in the literature.

  11. Calibration of the fine-structure constant of graphene by time-dependent density-functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindona, A.; Pisarra, M.; Vacacela Gomez, C.; Riccardi, P.; Falcone, G.; Bellucci, S.

    2017-11-01

    One of the amazing properties of graphene is the ultrarelativistic behavior of its loosely bound electrons, mimicking massless fermions that move with a constant velocity, inversely proportional to a fine-structure constant αg of the order of unity. The effective interaction between these quasiparticles is, however, better controlled by the coupling parameter αg*=αg/ɛ , which accounts for the dynamic screening due to the complex permittivity ɛ of the many-valence electron system. This concept was introduced in a couple of previous studies [Reed et al., Science 330, 805 (2010) and Gan et al., Phys. Rev. B 93, 195150 (2016)], where inelastic x-ray scattering measurements on crystal graphite were converted into an experimentally derived form of αg* for graphene, over an energy-momentum region on the eV Å -1 scale. Here, an accurate theoretical framework is provided for αg*, using time-dependent density-functional theory in the random-phase approximation, with a cutoff in the interaction between excited electrons in graphene, which translates to an effective interlayer interaction in graphite. The predictions of the approach are in excellent agreement with the above-mentioned measurements, suggesting a calibration method to substantially improve the experimental derivation of αg*, which tends to a static limiting value of ˜0.14 . Thus, the ab initio calibration procedure outlined demonstrates the accuracy of perturbation expansion treatments for the two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene, in parallel with quantum electrodynamics.

  12. Effective conductivity, dielectric constant, and diffusion coefficient of digitized composite media via first-passage-time equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torquato, S.; Kim, I.C.; Cule, D.

    1999-01-01

    We generalize the Brownian motion simulation method of Kim and Torquato [J. Appl. Phys. 68, 3892 (1990)] to compute the effective conductivity, dielectric constant and diffusion coefficient of digitized composite media. This is accomplished by first generalizing the first-passage-time equations to treat first-passage regions of arbitrary shape. We then develop the appropriate first-passage-time equations for digitized media: first-passage squares in two dimensions and first-passage cubes in three dimensions. A severe test case to prove the accuracy of the method is the two-phase periodic checkerboard in which conduction, for sufficiently large phase contrasts, is dominated by corners that join two conducting-phase pixels. Conventional numerical techniques (such as finite differences or elements) do not accurately capture the local fields here for reasonable grid resolution and hence lead to inaccurate estimates of the effective conductivity. By contrast, we show that our algorithm yields accurate estimates of the effective conductivity of the periodic checkerboard for widely different phase conductivities. Finally, we illustrate our method by computing the effective conductivity of the random checkerboard for a wide range of volume fractions and several phase contrast ratios. These results always lie within rigorous four-point bounds on the effective conductivity. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  13. SmB6 electron-phonon coupling constant from time- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterzi, A.; Crepaldi, A.; Cilento, F.; Manzoni, G.; Frantzeskakis, E.; Zacchigna, M.; van Heumen, E.; Huang, Y. K.; Golden, M. S.; Parmigiani, F.

    2016-08-01

    SmB6 is a mixed valence Kondo system resulting from the hybridization between localized f electrons and delocalized d electrons. We have investigated its out-of-equilibrium electron dynamics by means of time- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. The transient electronic population above the Fermi level can be described by a time-dependent Fermi-Dirac distribution. By solving a two-temperature model that well reproduces the relaxation dynamics of the effective electronic temperature, we estimate the electron-phonon coupling constant λ to range from 0.13 ±0.03 to 0.04 ±0.01 . These extremes are obtained assuming a coupling of the electrons with either a phonon mode at 10 or 19 meV. A realistic value of the average phonon energy will give an actual value of λ within this range. Our results provide an experimental report on the material electron-phonon coupling, contributing to both the electronic transport and the macroscopic thermodynamic properties of SmB6.

  14. Physician Assistant profession (PA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... training program was founded in 1965 at Duke University by Dr. Eugene Stead. Most programs require applicants ... year 2020. The first PA students were mostly military medics. They were able to expand on the ...

  15. PA strategies in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, J.K.

    1998-01-01

    The main purpose of promoting nuclear public acceptance in Korea is to secure necessary sites for construction of large nuclear facilities in a timely manner. Another important purpose is to maintain a good neighbor relationship between the operator of nuclear facilities and local population. To promote better understanding about the nation's peaceful nuclear programs to the general public is another facet of nuclear information activities. However, opposition by the local population living around the nuclear facilities has always been aggressive. The primary concern of the local population is basically focused on the financial issues. Professional nationwide anti-nuclear groups are abetting the local population directly but with fabricated information in order to increase psychological fears. In an effort to compensate for the psychological and sociological burdens of the local population, the Korean government arranged legal provisions. To this end, beginning in 1990, community support programs have been implemented. As the nation's nuclear power program expanded, anti-nuclear activities also became very active. Public information programs should be expanded. Some highlights of public acceptance programs of the nuclear industries are 'Go and Meet' rather than 'Come and See', 'Act rather than react', 'Proper messages to proper target groups', 'Maximum use of the third party communicators', and so on. An orchestrated effort among the nation's nuclear industries is essential to the successful implementation of the PA strategies. (author)

  16. Comparison of dual-time-constant and fast-acting automatic gain control (AGC) systems in cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Patrick J; Büchner, Andreas; Stone, Michael A; Lenarz, Thomas; Moore, Brian C J

    2009-04-01

    Cochlear implants usually employ an automatic gain control (AGC) system as a first stage of processing. AGC1 was a fast-acting (syllabic) compressor. AGC2 was a dual-time-constant system; it usually performed as a slow-acting compressor, but incorporated an additional fast-acting system to provide protection from sudden increases in sound level. Six experienced cochlear-implant users were tested in a counterbalanced order, receiving one-month of experience with a given AGC type before switching to the other type. Performance was evaluated shortly after provision of a given AGC type and after one-month of experience with that AGC type. Questionnaires, mainly relating to listening in quiet situations, did not reveal significant differences between the two AGC types. However, fixed-level and roving-level tests of sentence identification in noise both revealed significantly better performance for AGC2. It is suggested that the poorer performance for AGC1 occurred because AGC1 introduced cross-modulation between the target speech and background noise, which made perceptual separation of the target and background more difficult.

  17. Study on Relationship between Dielectric Constant and Water Content of Rock-Soil Mixture by Time Domain Reflectometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daosheng Ling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to test water content of rock-soil mixtures efficiently and accurately to ensure both the quality control of compaction and assessment of the geotechnical engineering properties. To overcome time and energy wastage and probe insertion problems when using the traditional calibration method, a TDR coaxial test tube calibration arrangement using an upward infiltration method was designed. This arrangement was then used to study the influence of dry density, pore fluid conductivity, and soil/rock ratio on the relationship between water content and the dielectric constant of rock-soil mixtures. The results show that the empirical calibration equation forms for rock-soil mixtures can be the same as for soil materials. The effect of dry density on the calibration equation has the most significance and the influence of pore fluid conductivity can be ignored. The impact of variation of the soil/rock ratio can be neutralized by considering the effect of dry density in the calibration equation for the same kind of soil and rock. The empirical equations proposed by Zhao et al. show a good accuracy for rock-soil mixtures, indicating that the TDR method can be used to test gravimetric water content conveniently and efficiently without calibration in the field.

  18. ESTIMATION OF CONSTANT AND TIME-VARYING DYNAMIC PARAMETERS OF HIV INFECTION IN A NONLINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION MODEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hua; Miao, Hongyu; Wu, Hulin

    2010-03-01

    Modeling viral dynamics in HIV/AIDS studies has resulted in deep understanding of pathogenesis of HIV infection from which novel antiviral treatment guidance and strategies have been derived. Viral dynamics models based on nonlinear differential equations have been proposed and well developed over the past few decades. However, it is quite challenging to use experimental or clinical data to estimate the unknown parameters (both constant and time-varying parameters) in complex nonlinear differential equation models. Therefore, investigators usually fix some parameter values, from the literature or by experience, to obtain only parameter estimates of interest from clinical or experimental data. However, when such prior information is not available, it is desirable to determine all the parameter estimates from data. In this paper, we intend to combine the newly developed approaches, a multi-stage smoothing-based (MSSB) method and the spline-enhanced nonlinear least squares (SNLS) approach, to estimate all HIV viral dynamic parameters in a nonlinear differential equation model. In particular, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to propose a comparatively thorough procedure, accounting for both efficiency and accuracy, to rigorously estimate all key kinetic parameters in a nonlinear differential equation model of HIV dynamics from clinical data. These parameters include the proliferation rate and death rate of uninfected HIV-targeted cells, the average number of virions produced by an infected cell, and the infection rate which is related to the antiviral treatment effect and is time-varying. To validate the estimation methods, we verified the identifiability of the HIV viral dynamic model and performed simulation studies. We applied the proposed techniques to estimate the key HIV viral dynamic parameters for two individual AIDS patients treated with antiretroviral therapies. We demonstrate that HIV viral dynamics can be well characterized and

  19. Solute concentration at a well in non-Gaussian aquifers under constant and time-varying pumping schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libera, Arianna; de Barros, Felipe P. J.; Riva, Monica; Guadagnini, Alberto

    2017-10-01

    Our study is keyed to the analysis of the interplay between engineering factors (i.e., transient pumping rates versus less realistic but commonly analyzed uniform extraction rates) and the heterogeneous structure of the aquifer (as expressed by the probability distribution characterizing transmissivity) on contaminant transport. We explore the joint influence of diverse (a) groundwater pumping schedules (constant and variable in time) and (b) representations of the stochastic heterogeneous transmissivity (T) field on temporal histories of solute concentrations observed at an extraction well. The stochastic nature of T is rendered by modeling its natural logarithm, Y = ln T, through a typical Gaussian representation and the recently introduced Generalized sub-Gaussian (GSG) model. The latter has the unique property to embed scale-dependent non-Gaussian features of the main statistics of Y and its (spatial) increments, which have been documented in a variety of studies. We rely on numerical Monte Carlo simulations and compute the temporal evolution at the well of low order moments of the solute concentration (C), as well as statistics of the peak concentration (Cp), identified as the environmental performance metric of interest in this study. We show that the pumping schedule strongly affects the pattern of the temporal evolution of the first two statistical moments of C, regardless the nature (Gaussian or non-Gaussian) of the underlying Y field, whereas the latter quantitatively influences their magnitude. Our results show that uncertainty associated with C and Cp estimates is larger when operating under a transient extraction scheme than under the action of a uniform withdrawal schedule. The probability density function (PDF) of Cp displays a long positive tail in the presence of time-varying pumping schedule. All these aspects are magnified in the presence of non-Gaussian Y fields. Additionally, the PDF of Cp displays a bimodal shape for all types of pumping

  20. Study comparing human papillomavirus (HPV) real-time multiplex PCR and Hybrid Capture II INNO-LiPA v2 HPV genotyping PCR assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftner, Thomas; Germ, Liesje; Swoyer, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    methods has not been well characterized. Clinically, cytology is used to establish possible HPV infection. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of HPV multiplex PCR assays compared to those of the testing scheme of the Hybrid Capture II (HCII) assay followed by an HPV PCR/line hybridization assay...... (HCII-LiPA v2). SurePath residual samples were split into two aliquots. One aliquot was subjected to HCII testing followed by DNA extraction and LiPA v2 genotyping. The second aliquot was shipped to a second laboratory, where DNA was extracted and HPV multiplex PCR testing was performed. Comparisons...... were evaluated for 15 HPV types common in both assays. A slightly higher proportion of samples tested positive by the HPV multiplex PCR than by the HCII-LiPA v2 assay. The sensitivities of the multiplex PCR assay relative to those of the HCII-LiPA v2 assay for HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18, for example...

  1. Nuclear constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is written in two tables. The first one describes the different particles (bosons and fermions). The second one gives the isotopes nuclear constants of the different elements, for Z = 1 to 56. (A.L.B.)

  2. Nuclear constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is written in two tables. The first one describes the different particles (bosons and fermions). The second one gives the isotopes nuclear constants of the different elements, for Z = 56 to 68. (A.L.B.)

  3. Nuclear constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper is made of two tables. The first table describes the different particles (bosons and fermions) while the second one gives the nuclear constants of isotopes from the different elements with Z = 1 to 25. (J.S.)

  4. Nuclear constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is written in two tables. The first one describes the different particles (bosons and fermions). The second one gives the isotopes nuclear constants of the different elements, for Z = 56 to 68. (A.L.B.)

  5. New Insight into Metal Ion-Driven Catalysis of Nucleic Acids by Influenza PA-Nter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Kotlarek

    Full Text Available PA subunit of influenza RNA-dependent RNA polymerase deserves constantly increasing attention due to its essential role in influenza life cycle. N-terminal domain of PA (PA-Nter harbors endonuclease activity, which is indispensable in viral transcription and replication. Interestingly, existing literature reports on in vitro ion preferences of the enzyme are contradictory. Some show PA-Nter activity exclusively with Mn2+, whereas others report Mg2+ as a natural cofactor. To clarify it, we performed a series of experiments with varied ion concentrations and substrate type. We observed cleavage in the presence of both ions, with a slight preference for manganese, however PA-Nter activity highly depended on the amount of residual, co-purified ions. Furthermore, to quantify cleavage reaction rate, we applied fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS, providing highly sensitive and real-time monitoring of single molecules. Using nanomolar ssDNA in the regime of enzyme excess, we estimated the maximum reaction rate at 0.81± 0.38 and 1.38± 0.34 nM/min for Mg2+ and Mn2+, respectively. However, our calculations of PA-Nter ion occupancy, based on thermodynamic data, suggest Mg2+ to be a canonical metal in PA-Nter processing of RNA in vivo. Presented studies constitute a step toward better understanding of PA-Nter ion-dependent activity, which will possibly contribute to new successful inhibitor design in the future.

  6. Investigation of Relative Time Constant Influence of Inertial Part of Superheater on Quality of Steam Temperature Control Behind Boiler in Broad Band of Loading Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. T. Kulakov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to computational investigation of influence relative time constant of an object which changes in broad band on quality of steam temperature control behind a boiler with due account of value of regulating action in the system with PI- and PID- regulator. The simulation has been based on a single-loop automatic control system (ACS. It has been revealed that the less value of the relative time constant of an object leads to more integral control error in system with PID- regulator while operating external ACS perturbation. Decrease of numerical value of relative time constant of an object while operating external perturbation causes decrease of relative time concerning appearance of maximum dynamic control error from common relative control time.

  7. pyPaSWAS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warris, Sven; Timal, N.R.N.; Kempenaar, Marcel; Poortinga, Arne M.; Geest, van de Henri; Varbanescu, Ana L.; Nap, Jan Peter

    2018-01-01

    Background Our previously published CUDA-only application PaSWAS for Smith-Waterman (SW) sequence alignment of any type of sequence on NVIDIA-based GPUs is platform-specific and therefore adopted less than could be. The OpenCL language is supported more widely and allows use on a variety of hardware

  8. Approximation for the Finite-Time Ruin Probability of a General Risk Model with Constant Interest Rate and Extended Negatively Dependent Heavy-Tailed Claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a general continuous-time risk model with a constant interest rate. In this model, claims arrive according to an arbitrary counting process, while their sizes have dominantly varying tails and fulfill an extended negative dependence structure. We obtain an asymptotic formula for the finite-time ruin probability, which extends a corresponding result of Wang (2008.

  9. Picada Pa'Cinco

    OpenAIRE

    Dunne, Dermot

    2007-01-01

    Picada Pa'Cinco is the first studio recording of the Dublin based South American group Lunfardia (Dermot Dunne-accordion, Ariel Hernandez-voice & guitar, Ioana Petcu Colan-violin, Malachy Robinson-double bass, Frank Vidal-percussion) and features both original compositions and arrangements of folk music from South America by Ariel Hernandez https://arrow.dit.ie/musrec/1019/thumbnail.jpg

  10. 231Pa and 230Th profiles in the open ocean water column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Yoshiyuki; Nakanishi, Takashi

    1985-01-01

    231 Pa and two Th isotopes ( 230 Th and 228 Th) were measured using large-volume water samples from the western North Pacific. Although 231 Pa and 230 Th have uniform source distributions (by decay of uranium) throughout the oceans, their vertical profiles are discernibly different from each other. The 231 Pa profile shows a mid-depth maximum around 2.5 km, while 230 Th increases monotonically with depth. This demonstrates that these nuclides follow different pathways for their transport and removal from seawater to depositional sinks. The activity ratio of 230 Th/ 231 Pa in seawater increases from one at the surface to four at a depth of 4 to 5 km, which is lower by a factor of 10 than the ratios published for open ocean particulate matter at the same depth horizon. The distribution coefficient, Ksub(D) for Pa, and the fractionation factor, Fsub(Th/Pa), between natural marine particulate matter and seawater are constant with depth at approx. 2 x 10 6 and 10, respectively. This implies that the adsorptive characteristics of deep open ocean particles are independent of particle composition or the content of manganese. The mean residence time of 231 Pa is estimated to be 200 years, which is considerably longer than that of 230 Th, but close to that of 210 Pb. (author)

  11. Appropriate control time constant in relation to characteristics of the baroreflex vascular system in 1/R control of the total artificial heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuta, Sora; Saito, Itsuro; Isoyama, Takashi; Hara, Shintaro; Yurimoto, Terumi; Li, Xinyang; Murakami, Haruka; Ono, Toshiya; Mabuchi, Kunihiko; Abe, Yusuke

    2017-09-01

    1/R control is a physiological control method of the total artificial heart (TAH) with which long-term survival was obtained with animal experiments. However, 1/R control occasionally diverged in the undulation pump TAH (UPTAH) animal experiment. To improve the control stability of the 1/R control, appropriate control time constant in relation to characteristics of the baroreflex vascular system was investigated with frequency analysis and numerical simulation. In the frequency analysis, data of five goats in which the UPTAH was implanted were analyzed with first Fourier transform technique to examine the vasomotion frequency. The numerical simulation was carried out repeatedly changing baroreflex parameters and control time constant using the elements-expanded Windkessel model. Results of the frequency analysis showed that the 1/R control tended to diverge when very low frequency band that was an indication of the vasomotion frequency was relative high. In numerical simulation, divergence of the 1/R control could be reproduced and the boundary curves between the divergence and convergence of the 1/R control varied depending on the control time constant. These results suggested that the 1/R control tended to be unstable when the TAH recipient had high reflex speed in the baroreflex vascular system. Therefore, the control time constant should be adjusted appropriately with the individual vasomotion frequency.

  12. Cosmological constants and variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, John D

    2005-01-01

    We review properties of theories for the variation of the gravitation and fine structure 'constants'. We highlight some general features of the cosmological models that exist in these theories with reference to recent quasar data that is consistent with time-variation in the fine structure 'constant' since a redshift of 3.5. The behaviour of a simple class of varying alpha cosmologies is outlined in the light of all the observational constraints. We also discuss some of the consequences of varying 'constants' for oscillating universes and show by means of exact solutions that they appear to evolve monotonically in time even though the scale factor of the universe oscillates

  13. Electronic setup for fluorescence emission measurements and long-time constant-temperature maintenance of Single-Walled Carbon Nano-Tubes in water solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Rosa Matteo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In our previous research we have observed that the fluorescence emission from water solutions of Single-Walled Carbon Nano-Tubes (SWCNT, excited by a laser with a wavelength of 830nm, diminishes with the time. We have already proved that such a fading is a function of the storage time and the storage temperature. In order to study the emission of the SWCNT as a function of these two parameters we have designed and realized a special measurement compartment with a cuvette holder where the SWCNT solutions can be measured and stored at a fixed constant temperature for periods of time as long as several weeks. To maintain the measurement setup under a constant temperature we have designed special experimental setup based on two Peltier cells with electronic temperature control.

  14. The Effect of Lactate, Albumin, C-reactive Protein, PaO2/FiO2 and Glucose Levels of Trauma Patients at the Time of Administration to Intensive Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Yılmaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Blood analyses are preferred in the observation of cases requiring intensive care unit (ICU following a trauma. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP, PaO2/FiO2 and glucose levels of trauma patients at time of admission with mortality. Material and Method: The patients who were admitted into ICU following a trauma between the years of 2010 and 2012 were retrospectively evaluated. 200 trauma cases were included in the study. Their demographic data, APACHE II scores, Glasgow Coma Scales (GCS, and arterial blood gas in the lactate and PaO2/FiO2 ratio, CRP, glucose and albumin levels in the first collected arterial blood gas, as well as, the presence of thoracic, cardiac, renal, abdominal and head trauma, length of ICU stay and mortality were recorded. Results: Of the patients included in the study 84% were male, with an average age of 38.3 and an average APACHE II score of 16.6. 64% suffered from head trauma and the average GCS was calculated to be 11.2. The patients were observed in the ICU for an average of 18.7 days and the rate of mortality was 33.5%. GCS, PaO2/FiO2, age and elevated lactate levels increased mortality as independent risk factors. Conclusion: It has been concluded that parameters like age and the first GCS, lactate, glucose, albumin and PaO2/FiO2 at time of acceptance into the ICU were found to be related with mortality.

  15. The determinants of response time in a repeated constant-sum game: A robust Bayesian hierarchical dual-process model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiliopoulos, Leonidas

    2018-03-01

    The investigation of response time and behavior has a long tradition in cognitive psychology, particularly for non-strategic decision-making. Recently, experimental economists have also studied response time in strategic interactions, but with an emphasis on either one-shot games or repeated social-dilemmas. I investigate the determinants of response time in a repeated (pure-conflict) game, admitting a unique mixed strategy Nash equilibrium, with fixed partner matching. Response times depend upon the interaction of two decision models embedded in a dual-process framework (Achtziger and Alós-Ferrer, 2014; Alós-Ferrer, 2016). The first decision model is the commonly used win-stay/lose-shift heuristic and the second the pattern-detecting reinforcement learning model in Spiliopoulos (2013b). The former is less complex and can be executed more quickly than the latter. As predicted, conflict between these two models (i.e., each one recommending a different course of action) led to longer response times than cases without conflict. The dual-process framework makes other qualitative response time predictions arising from the interaction between the existence (or not) of conflict and which one of the two decision models the chosen action is consistent with-these were broadly verified by the data. Other determinants of RT were hypothesized on the basis of existing theory and tested empirically. Response times were strongly dependent on the actions chosen by both players in the previous rounds and the resulting outcomes. Specifically, response time was shortest after a win in the previous round where the maximum possible payoff was obtained; response time after losses was significantly longer. Strongly auto-correlated behavior (regardless of its sign) was also associated with longer response times. I conclude that, similar to other tasks, there is a strong coupling in repeated games between behavior and RT, which can be exploited to further our understanding of decision

  16. Simultaneous measurement of the maximum oscillation amplitude and the transient decay time constant of the QCM reveals stiffness changes of the adlayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marxer, C Galli; Coen, M Collaud; Bissig, H; Greber, U F; Schlapbach, L

    2003-10-01

    Interpretation of adsorption kinetics measured with a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) can be difficult for adlayers undergoing modification of their mechanical properties. We have studied the behavior of the oscillation amplitude, A(0), and the decay time constant, tau, of quartz during adsorption of proteins and cells, by use of a home-made QCM. We are able to measure simultaneously the frequency, f, the dissipation factor, D, the maximum amplitude, A(0), and the transient decay time constant, tau, every 300 ms in liquid, gaseous, or vacuum environments. This analysis enables adsorption and modification of liquid/mass properties to be distinguished. Moreover the surface coverage and the stiffness of the adlayer can be estimated. These improvements promise to increase the appeal of QCM methodology for any applications measuring intimate contact of a dynamic material with a solid surface.

  17. Field and polarity dependence of time-to-resistance increase in Fe–O films studied by constant voltage stress method

    OpenAIRE

    Eriguchi, Koji; Wei, Zhiqiang; Takagi, Takeshi; Ohta, Hiroaki; Ono, Kouichi

    2009-01-01

    Constant voltage stress (CVS) was applied to Fe–O films prepared by a sputtering process to investigate a stress-induced resistance increase leading to a fundamental mechanism for switching behaviors. Under the CVS, an abrupt resistance increase was found for both stress polarities. A conduction mechanism after the resistance increase exhibited non-Ohmic transport. The time-to-resistance increase (tr) under the CVS was revealed to strongly depend on stress voltage as well as the polarity. Fro...

  18. 76 FR 29176 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. PA-23, PA-31, and PA-42 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ...-0218; Directorate Identifier 2009-CE-006-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft... (AD) that applies to Piper Aircraft, Inc. PA-23, PA-31, and PA-42 airplanes. The existing AD currently... Federal holidays. For service information identified in this AD, contact Piper Aircraft, Inc., 2926 Piper...

  19. The time-walk of analog constant fraction discriminators using very fast scintillator detectors with linear and non-linear energy response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regis, J.-M., E-mail: regis@ikp.uni-koeln.de [Institut fuer Kernphysik der Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany); Rudigier, M.; Jolie, J.; Blazhev, A.; Fransen, C.; Pascovici, G.; Warr, N. [Institut fuer Kernphysik der Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany)

    2012-08-21

    The electronic {gamma}-{gamma} fast timing technique allows for direct nuclear lifetime determination down to the few picoseconds region by measuring the time difference between two coincident {gamma}-ray transitions. Using high resolution ultra-fast LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) scintillator detectors in combination with the recently developed mirror symmetric centroid difference method, nuclear lifetimes are measured with a time resolving power of around 5 ps. The essence of the method is to calibrate the energy dependent position (centroid) of the prompt response function of the setup which is obtained for simultaneously occurring events. This time-walk of the prompt response function induced by the analog constant fraction discriminator has been determined by systematic measurements using different photomultiplier tubes and timing adjustments of the constant fraction discriminator. We propose a universal calibration function which describes the time-walk or the combined {gamma}-{gamma} time-walk characteristics, respectively, for either a linear or a non-linear amplitude versus energy dependency of the scintillator detector output pulses.

  20. Dynamical Constants and Time Universals: A First Step toward a Metrical Definition of Ordered and Abnormal Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Mark A; du Bois, Naomi

    2017-01-01

    From the point of view of the cognitive dynamicist the organization of brain circuitry into assemblies defined by their synchrony at particular (and precise) oscillation frequencies is important for the correct correlation of all independent cortical responses to the different aspects of a given complex thought or object. From the point of view of anyone operating complex mechanical systems, i.e., those comprising independent components that are required to interact precisely in time, it follows that the precise timing of such a system is essential - not only essential but measurable, and scalable. It must also be reliable over observations to bring about consistent behavior, whatever that behavior is. The catastrophic consequence of an absence of such precision, for instance that required to govern the interference engine in many automobiles, is indicative of how important timing is for the function of dynamical systems at all levels of operation. The dynamics and temporal considerations combined indicate that it is necessary to consider the operating characteristic of any dynamical, cognitive brain system in terms, superficially at least, of oscillation frequencies. These may, themselves, be forensic of an underlying time-related taxonomy. Currently there are only two sets of relevant and necessarily systematic observations in this field: one of these reports the precise dynamical structure of the perceptual systems engaged in dynamical binding across form and time; the second, derived both empirically from perceptual performance data, as well as obtained from theoretical models, demonstrates a timing taxonomy related to a fundamental operator referred to as the time quantum. In this contribution both sets of theory and observations are reviewed and compared for their predictive consistency. Conclusions about direct comparability are discussed for both theories of cognitive dynamics and time quantum models. Finally, a brief review of some experimental data

  1. In vivo estimation of transverse relaxation time constant (T2 ) of 17 human brain metabolites at 3T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, Patrik O; Bianchini, Claudio; Scheidegger, Milan; Giapitzakis, Ioannis A; Hock, Andreas; Fuchs, Alexander; Henning, Anke

    2018-08-01

    The transverse relaxation times T 2 of 17 metabolites in vivo at 3T is reported and region specific differences are addressed. An echo-time series protocol was applied to one, two, or three volumes of interest with different fraction of white and gray matter including a total number of 106 healthy volunteers and acquiring a total number of 128 spectra. The data were fitted with the 2D fitting tool ProFit2, which included individual line shape modeling for all metabolites and allowed the T 2 calculation of 28 moieties of 17 metabolites. The T 2 of 10 metabolites and their moieties have been reported for the first time. Region specific T 2 differences in white and gray matter enriched tissue occur in 16 of 17 metabolites examined including single resonance lines and coupled spin systems. The relaxation time T 2 is regions specific and has to be considered when applying tissue composition correction for internal water referencing. Magn Reson Med 80:452-461, 2018. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  2. Optimal planning of series resistor to control time constant of test circuit for high-voltage AC circuit-breakers

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon-Ho Kim; Jung-Hyeon Ryu; Jin-Hwan Kim; Kern-Joong Kim

    2016-01-01

    The equivalent test circuit that can deliver both short-circuit current and recovery voltage is used to verify the performance of high-voltage circuit breakers. Most of the parameters in this circuit can be obtained by using a simple calculation or a simulation program. The ratings of the circuit breaker include rated short-circuit breaking current, rated short-circuit making current, rated operating sequence of the circuit breaker and rated short-time current. Among these ratings, the short-...

  3. 32 CFR 701.120 - Processing requests that cite or imply PA, Freedom of Information (FOIA), or PA/FOIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Privacy Program § 701.120 Processing requests that cite or imply PA, Freedom of Information (FOIA), or PA... maximum release of information allowed under the Acts. (d) Processing time limits. DON activities shall... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Processing requests that cite or imply PA...

  4. Diferencias y analogías formales y estilísticas entre las crónicas musicales de "El País" Y "The Financial Times"

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Amate, Marta

    2013-01-01

    Este artículo recoge los resultados de un análisis piloto de las crónicas musicales publicadas en los diarios 'El País' y 'The Financial Times' con la intención de determinar de manera preliminar cuáles son los rasgos principales de estas piezas y las diferencias fundamentales de estilo y estructura que existen entre los textos publicados en ambos diarios. G.I. HUM 767 (ayudas a Grupos de Investigación de la Junta de Andalucía) / Editorial Comares (colección interlingua)

  5. INFLUENCE OF RESIDENCE-TIME DISTRIBUTION ON A SURFACE-RENEWAL MODEL OF CONSTANT-PRESSURE CROSS-FLOW MICROFILTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This work examines the influence of the residence-time distribution (RTD of surface elements on a model of cross-flow microfiltration that has been proposed recently (Hasan et al., 2013. Along with the RTD from the previous work (Case 1, two other RTD functions (Cases 2 and 3 are used to develop theoretical expressions for the permeate-flux decline and cake buildup in the filter as a function of process time. The three different RTDs correspond to three different startup conditions of the filtration process. The analytical expressions for the permeate flux, each of which contains three basic parameters (membrane resistance, specific cake resistance and rate of surface renewal, are fitted to experimental permeate flow rate data in the microfiltration of fermentation broths in laboratory- and pilot-scale units. All three expressions for the permeate flux fit the experimental data fairly well with average root-mean-square errors of 4.6% for Cases 1 and 2, and 4.2% for Case 3, respectively, which points towards the constructive nature of the model - a common feature of theoretical models used in science and engineering.

  6. Pulsed Electrochemical Mass Spectrometry for Operando Tracking of Interfacial Processes in Small-Time-Constant Electrochemical Devices such as Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batisse, Nicolas; Raymundo-Piñero, Encarnación

    2017-11-29

    A more detailed understanding of the electrode/electrolyte interface degradation during the charging cycle in supercapacitors is of great interest for exploring the voltage stability range and therefore the extractable energy. The evaluation of the gas evolution during the charging, discharging, and aging processes is a powerful tool toward determining the stability and energy capacity of supercapacitors. Here, we attempt to fit the gas analysis resolution to the time response of a low-gas-generation power device by adopting a modified pulsed electrochemical mass spectrometry (PEMS) method. The pertinence of the method is shown using a symmetric carbon/carbon supercapacitor operating in different aqueous electrolytes. The differences observed in the gas levels and compositions as a function of the cell voltage correlate to the evolution of the physicochemical characteristics of the carbon electrodes and to the electrochemical performance, giving a complete picture of the processes taking place at the electrode/electrolyte interface.

  7. Potential constants and centrifugal distortion constants of octahedral hexafluoride molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manivannan, G [Government Thirumagal Mill' s Coll., Gudiyattam, Tamil Nadu (India)

    1981-04-01

    The kinetic constants method outlined by Thirugnanasambandham (1964) based on Wilson's (1955) group theory has been adapted in evaluating the potential constants for SF/sub 6/, SeF/sub 6/, WF/sub 6/, IrF/sub 6/, UF/sub 6/, NpF/sub 6/, and PuF/sub 6/ using the experimentally observed vibrational frequency data. These constants are used to calculate the centrifugal distortion constants for the first time.

  8. Fit of experimental points to the sum of two (or one) exponentials with background. Program for ODRA 1305 computer. Part 2: for time analysers with constant dead time after each registered pulse (AC-256 type)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdowicz, K.; Krynicka-Drozdowicz, E.

    1979-01-01

    The LAMA program (in FORTRAN 1900 language), which fits the set of decaying experimental values to the sum of the two (or one) exponentials with background, is described. The method of calculation and its accuracy and the interpretation of the program results are given. The changes and the extensions of the calculation, referred to the dead time effect taken into account for time analysers having the constant dead time after each registered pulse, are described. (author)

  9. Quintessence and the cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, M.; Wetterich, C.

    2003-01-01

    Quintessence -- the energy density of a slowly evolving scalar field -- may constitute a dynamical form of the homogeneous dark energy in the universe. We review the basic idea in the light of the cosmological constant problem. Cosmological observations or a time variation of fundamental 'constants' can distinguish quintessence from a cosmological constant

  10. New definitions of pointing stability - ac and dc effects. [constant and time-dependent pointing error effects on image sensor performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucke, Robert L.; Sirlin, Samuel W.; San Martin, A. M.

    1992-01-01

    For most imaging sensors, a constant (dc) pointing error is unimportant (unless large), but time-dependent (ac) errors degrade performance by either distorting or smearing the image. When properly quantified, the separation of the root-mean-square effects of random line-of-sight motions into dc and ac components can be used to obtain the minimum necessary line-of-sight stability specifications. The relation between stability requirements and sensor resolution is discussed, with a view to improving communication between the data analyst and the control systems engineer.

  11. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Constant-time solution to the global optimization problem using Brüschweiler's ensemble search algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protopopescu, V.; D'Helon, C.; Barhen, J.

    2003-06-01

    A constant-time solution of the continuous global optimization problem (GOP) is obtained by using an ensemble algorithm. We show that under certain assumptions, the solution can be guaranteed by mapping the GOP onto a discrete unsorted search problem, whereupon Brüschweiler's ensemble search algorithm is applied. For adequate sensitivities of the measurement technique, the query complexity of the ensemble search algorithm depends linearly on the size of the function's domain. Advantages and limitations of an eventual NMR implementation are discussed.

  12. Digital Generation of Noise-Signals with Arbitrary Constant or Time-Varying Spectra (A noise generation software package and its application)

    CERN Document Server

    Tückmantel, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Artificial creation of arbitrary noise signals is used in accelerator physics to reproduce a measured perturbation spectrum for simulations but also to generate real-time shaped noise spectra for controlled emittance blow-up giving tailored properties to the final bunch shape. It is demonstrated here how one can produce numerically what is, for all practical purposes, an unlimited quantity of non-periodic noise data having any predefined spectral density. This spectral density may be constant or varying with time. The noise output never repeats and has excellent statistical properties, important for very long-term applications. It is difficult to obtain such flexibility and spectral cleanliness using analogue techniques. This algorithm was applied both in computer simulations of bunch behaviour in the presence of RF noise in the PS, SPS and LHC and also to generate real-time noise, tracking the synchrotron frequency change during the energy ramp of the SPS and producing controlled longitudinal emittance blow-...

  13. Analysis of the dual phase lag bio-heat transfer equation with constant and time-dependent heat flux conditions on skin surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziaei Poor Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on temperature response of skin tissue due to time-dependent surface heat fluxes. Analytical solution is constructed for DPL bio-heat transfer equation with constant, periodic and pulse train heat flux conditions on skin surface. Separation of variables and Duhamel’s theorem for a skin tissue as a finite domain are employed. The transient temperature responses for constant and time-dependent boundary conditions are obtained and discussed. The results show that there is major discrepancy between the predicted temperature of parabolic (Pennes bio-heat transfer, hyperbolic (thermal wave and DPL bio-heat transfer models when high heat flux accidents on the skin surface with a short duration or propagation speed of thermal wave is finite. The results illustrate that the DPL model reduces to the hyperbolic model when τT approaches zero and the classic Fourier model when both thermal relaxations approach zero. However for τq = τT the DPL model anticipates different temperature distribution with that predicted by the Pennes model. Such discrepancy is due to the blood perfusion term in energy equation. It is in contrast to results from the literature for pure conduction material, where the DPL model approaches the Fourier heat conduction model when τq = τT . The burn injury is also investigated.

  14. The Sun-Earth connect 2: Modelling patterns of a fractal Sun in time and space using the fine structure constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Robert G. V.

    2017-02-01

    Self-similar matrices of the fine structure constant of solar electromagnetic force and its inverse, multiplied by the Carrington synodic rotation, have been previously shown to account for at least 98% of the top one hundred significant frequencies and periodicities observed in the ACRIM composite irradiance satellite measurement and the terrestrial 10.7cm Penticton Adjusted Daily Flux data sets. This self-similarity allows for the development of a time-space differential equation (DE) where the solutions define a solar model for transmissions through the core, radiative, tachocline, convective and coronal zones with some encouraging empirical and theoretical results. The DE assumes a fundamental complex oscillation in the solar core and that time at the tachocline is smeared with real and imaginary constructs. The resulting solutions simulate for tachocline transmission, the solar cycle where time-line trajectories either 'loop' as Hermite polynomials for an active Sun or 'tail' as complementary error functions for a passive Sun. Further, a mechanism that allows for the stable energy transmission through the tachocline is explored and the model predicts the initial exponential coronal heating from nanoflare supercharging. The twisting of the field at the tachocline is then described as a quaternion within which neutrinos can oscillate. The resulting fractal bubbles are simulated as a Julia Set which can then aggregate from nanoflares into solar flares and prominences. Empirical examples demonstrate that time and space fractals are important constructs in understanding the behaviour of the Sun, from the impact on climate and biological histories on Earth, to the fractal influence on the spatial distributions of the solar system. The research suggests that there is a fractal clock underpinning solar frequencies in packages defined by the fine structure constant, where magnetic flipping and irradiance fluctuations at phase changes, have periodically impacted on the

  15. A Time Scheduling Model of Logistics Service Supply Chain Based on the Customer Order Decoupling Point: A Perspective from the Constant Service Operation Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Xu, Haitao; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yijia; Liang, Zhicheng

    2014-01-01

    In mass customization logistics service, reasonable scheduling of the logistics service supply chain (LSSC), especially time scheduling, is benefit to increase its competitiveness. Therefore, the effect of a customer order decoupling point (CODP) on the time scheduling performance should be considered. To minimize the total order operation cost of the LSSC, minimize the difference between the expected and actual time of completing the service orders, and maximize the satisfaction of functional logistics service providers, this study establishes an LSSC time scheduling model based on the CODP. Matlab 7.8 software is used in the numerical analysis for a specific example. Results show that the order completion time of the LSSC can be delayed or be ahead of schedule but cannot be infinitely advanced or infinitely delayed. Obtaining the optimal comprehensive performance can be effective if the expected order completion time is appropriately delayed. The increase in supply chain comprehensive performance caused by the increase in the relationship coefficient of logistics service integrator (LSI) is limited. The relative concern degree of LSI on cost and service delivery punctuality leads to not only changes in CODP but also to those in the scheduling performance of the LSSC. PMID:24715818

  16. A time scheduling model of logistics service supply chain based on the customer order decoupling point: a perspective from the constant service operation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weihua; Yang, Yi; Xu, Haitao; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yijia; Liang, Zhicheng

    2014-01-01

    In mass customization logistics service, reasonable scheduling of the logistics service supply chain (LSSC), especially time scheduling, is benefit to increase its competitiveness. Therefore, the effect of a customer order decoupling point (CODP) on the time scheduling performance should be considered. To minimize the total order operation cost of the LSSC, minimize the difference between the expected and actual time of completing the service orders, and maximize the satisfaction of functional logistics service providers, this study establishes an LSSC time scheduling model based on the CODP. Matlab 7.8 software is used in the numerical analysis for a specific example. Results show that the order completion time of the LSSC can be delayed or be ahead of schedule but cannot be infinitely advanced or infinitely delayed. Obtaining the optimal comprehensive performance can be effective if the expected order completion time is appropriately delayed. The increase in supply chain comprehensive performance caused by the increase in the relationship coefficient of logistics service integrator (LSI) is limited. The relative concern degree of LSI on cost and service delivery punctuality leads to not only changes in CODP but also to those in the scheduling performance of the LSSC.

  17. Field and polarity dependence of time-to-resistance increase in Fe-O films studied by constant voltage stress method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriguchi, Koji; Ohta, Hiroaki; Ono, Kouichi; Wei Zhiqiang; Takagi, Takeshi

    2009-01-01

    Constant voltage stress (CVS) was applied to Fe-O films prepared by a sputtering process to investigate a stress-induced resistance increase leading to a fundamental mechanism for switching behaviors. Under the CVS, an abrupt resistance increase was found for both stress polarities. A conduction mechanism after the resistance increase exhibited non-Ohmic transport. The time-to-resistance increase (t r ) under the CVS was revealed to strongly depend on stress voltage as well as the polarity. From a polarity-dependent resistance increase determined by a time-zero measurement, the voltage and polarity-dependent t r were discussed on the basis of field- and structure-enhanced thermochemical reaction mechanisms

  18. Time-Dependent Quantum Wave Packet Study of the Si + OH → SiO + H Reaction: Cross Sections and Rate Constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero Santamaría, Alejandro; Dayou, Fabrice; Rubayo-Soneira, Jesus; Monnerville, Maurice

    2017-03-02

    The dynamics of the Si( 3 P) + OH(X 2 Π) → SiO(X 1 Σ + ) + H( 2 S) reaction is investigated by means of the time-dependent wave packet (TDWP) approach using an ab initio potential energy surface recently developed by Dayou et al. ( J. Chem. Phys. 2013 , 139 , 204305 ) for the ground X 2 A' electronic state. Total reaction probabilities have been calculated for the first 15 rotational states j = 0-14 of OH(v=0,j) at a total angular momentum J = 0 up to a collision energy of 1 eV. Integral cross sections and state-selected rate constants for the temperature range 10-500 K were obtained within the J-shifting approximation. The reaction probabilities display highly oscillatory structures indicating the contribution of long-lived quasibound states supported by the deep SiOH/HSiO wells. The cross sections behave with collision energies as expected for a barrierless reaction and are slightly sensitive to the initial rotational excitation of OH. The thermal rate constants show a marked temperature dependence below 200 K with a maximum value around 15 K. The TDWP results globally agree with the results of earlier quasi-classical trajectory (QCT) calculations carried out by Rivero-Santamaria et al. ( Chem. Phys. Lett. 2014 , 610-611 , 335 - 340 ) with the same potential energy surface. In particular, the thermal rate constants display a similar temperature dependence, with TDWP values smaller than the QCT ones over the whole temperature range.

  19. Is the sun constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, J.B.; Dearborn, D.S.P.

    1979-01-01

    Small fluctuations in the solar constant can occur on timescales much shorter than the Kelvin time. Changes in the ability of convection to transmit energy through the superadiabatic and transition regions of the convection zone cause structure adjustments which can occur on a time scale of days. The bulk of the convection zone reacts to maintain hydrostatic equilibrium (though not thermal equilibrium) and causes a luminosity change. While small radius variations will occur, most of the change will be seen in temperature

  20. Time since death and decay rate constants of Norway spruce and European larch deadwood in subalpine forests determined using dendrochronology and radiocarbon dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrillo, M.; Cherubini, P.; Fravolini, G.; Ascher, J.; Schärer, M.; Synal, H.-A.; Bertoldi, D.; Camin, F.; Larcher, R.; Egli, M.

    2015-09-01

    Due to the large size and highly heterogeneous spatial distribution of deadwood, the time scales involved in the coarse woody debris (CWD) decay of Picea abies (L.) Karst. and Larix decidua Mill. in Alpine forests have been poorly investigated and are largely unknown. We investigated the CWD decay dynamics in an Alpine valley in Italy using the five-decay class system commonly employed for forest surveys, based on a macromorphological and visual assessment. For the decay classes 1 to 3, most of the dendrochronological samples were cross-dated to assess the time that had elapsed since tree death, but for decay classes 4 and 5 (poorly preserved tree rings) and some others not having enough tree rings, radiocarbon dating was used. In addition, density, cellulose and lignin data were measured for the dated CWD. The decay rate constants for spruce and larch were estimated on the basis of the density loss using a single negative exponential model. In the decay classes 1 to 3, the ages of the CWD were similar varying between 1 and 54 years for spruce and 3 and 40 years for larch with no significant differences between the classes; classes 1-3 are therefore not indicative for deadwood age. We found, however, distinct tree species-specific differences in decay classes 4 and 5, with larch CWD reaching an average age of 210 years in class 5 and spruce only 77 years. The mean CWD rate constants were 0.012 to 0.018 yr-1 for spruce and 0.005 to 0.012 yr-1 for larch. Cellulose and lignin time trends half-lives (using a multiple-exponential model) could be derived on the basis of the ages of the CWD. The half-lives for cellulose were 21 yr for spruce and 50 yr for larch. The half-life of lignin is considerably higher and may be more than 100 years in larch CWD.

  1. Analysis of time resolution in a dual head LSO+PSPMT PET system using low pass filter interpolation and digital constant fraction discriminator techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monzo, Jose M.; Lerche, Christoph W.; Martinez, Jorge D.; Esteve, Raul; Toledo, Jose; Gadea, Rafael; Colom, Ricardo J.; Herrero, Vicente; Ferrando, Nestor; Aliaga, Ramon J.; Mateo, Fernando; Sanchez, Filomeno; Mora, Francisco J.; Benlloch, Jose M.; Sebastia, Angel

    2009-01-01

    PET systems need good time resolution to improve the true event rate, random event rejection, and pile-up rejection. In this study we propose a digital procedure for this task using a low pass filter interpolation plus a Digital Constant Fraction Discriminator (DCFD). We analyzed the best way to implement this algorithm on our dual head PET system and how varying the quality of the acquired signal and electronic noise analytically affects timing resolution. Our detector uses two continuous LSO crystals with a position sensitive PMT. Six signals per detector are acquired using an analog electronics front-end and these signals are processed using an in-house digital acquisition board. The test bench developed simulates the electronics and digital algorithms using Matlab. Results show that electronic noise and other undesired effects have a significant effect on the timing resolution of the system. Interpolated DCFD gives better results than non-interpolated DCFD. In high noise environments, differences are reduced. An optimum delay selection, based on the environment noise, improves time resolution.

  2. Analysis of time resolution in a dual head LSO+PSPMT PET system using low pass filter interpolation and digital constant fraction discriminator techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monzo, Jose M. [Digital Systems Design (DSD) Group, ITACA Institute, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: jmonfer@aaa.upv.es; Lerche, Christoph W.; Martinez, Jorge D.; Esteve, Raul; Toledo, Jose; Gadea, Rafael; Colom, Ricardo J.; Herrero, Vicente; Ferrando, Nestor; Aliaga, Ramon J.; Mateo, Fernando [Digital Systems Design (DSD) Group, ITACA Institute, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Sanchez, Filomeno [Nuclear Medical Physics Group, IFIC Institute, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), 46980 Paterna (Spain); Mora, Francisco J. [Digital Systems Design (DSD) Group, ITACA Institute, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Benlloch, Jose M. [Nuclear Medical Physics Group, IFIC Institute, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), 46980 Paterna (Spain); Sebastia, Angel [Digital Systems Design (DSD) Group, ITACA Institute, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2009-06-01

    PET systems need good time resolution to improve the true event rate, random event rejection, and pile-up rejection. In this study we propose a digital procedure for this task using a low pass filter interpolation plus a Digital Constant Fraction Discriminator (DCFD). We analyzed the best way to implement this algorithm on our dual head PET system and how varying the quality of the acquired signal and electronic noise analytically affects timing resolution. Our detector uses two continuous LSO crystals with a position sensitive PMT. Six signals per detector are acquired using an analog electronics front-end and these signals are processed using an in-house digital acquisition board. The test bench developed simulates the electronics and digital algorithms using Matlab. Results show that electronic noise and other undesired effects have a significant effect on the timing resolution of the system. Interpolated DCFD gives better results than non-interpolated DCFD. In high noise environments, differences are reduced. An optimum delay selection, based on the environment noise, improves time resolution.

  3. Relationship between the reactivity of the modified Zoe pile and the time constant of a power rise; Liaison de la reactivite de la pile Zoe modifiee avec la constante de temps d'une montee en puissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipkin, H.

    1954-03-15

    The author reports the use of the Nordheim formula in the case of Zoe (a pile located in Chatillon), while considering the case bars in natural uranium (instead of UO{sub 2}), and while taking the effect of geometry on photo-neutron production into account. The Nordheim formula is calculated for two different experimental values of the constants of delayed neutrons. The author discusses the difference between the results obtained for reactivity with these new conditions and with the older ones. He reports the calculation of the geometrical factor.

  4. Connecting Fundamental Constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Mario, D.

    2008-01-01

    A model for a black hole electron is built from three basic constants only: h, c and G. The result is a description of the electron with its mass and charge. The nature of this black hole seems to fit the properties of the Planck particle and new relationships among basic constants are possible. The time dilation factor in a black hole associated with a variable gravitational field would appear to us as a charge; on the other hand the Planck time is acting as a time gap drastically limiting what we are able to measure and its dimension will appear in some quantities. This is why the Planck time is numerically very close to the gravitational/electric force ratio in an electron: its difference, disregarding a π√(2) factor, is only 0.2%. This is not a coincidence, it is always the same particle and the small difference is between a rotating and a non-rotating particle. The determination of its rotational speed yields accurate numbers for many quantities, including the fine structure constant and the electron magnetic moment

  5. Time since death and decay rate constants of Norway spruce and European larch deadwood in subalpine forests determined using dendrochronology and radiocarbon dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrillo, Marta; Cherubini, Paolo; Fravolini, Giulia; Marchetti, Marco; Ascher-Jenull, Judith; Schärer, Michael; Synal, Hans-Arno; Bertoldi, Daniela; Camin, Federica; Larcher, Roberto; Egli, Markus

    2016-03-01

    Due to the large size (e.g. sections of tree trunks) and highly heterogeneous spatial distribution of deadwood, the timescales involved in the coarse woody debris (CWD) decay of Picea abies (L.) Karst. and Larix decidua Mill. in Alpine forests are largely unknown. We investigated the CWD decay dynamics in an Alpine valley in Italy using the chronosequence approach and the five-decay class system that is based on a macromorphological assessment. For the decay classes 1-3, most of the dendrochronological samples were cross-dated to assess the time that had elapsed since tree death, but for decay classes 4 and 5 (poorly preserved tree rings) radiocarbon dating was used. In addition, density, cellulose, and lignin data were measured for the dated CWD. The decay rate constants for spruce and larch were estimated on the basis of the density loss using a single negative exponential model, a regression approach, and the stage-based matrix model. In the decay classes 1-3, the ages of the CWD were similar and varied between 1 and 54 years for spruce and 3 and 40 years for larch, with no significant differences between the classes; classes 1-3 are therefore not indicative of deadwood age. This seems to be due to a time lag between the death of a standing tree and its contact with the soil. We found distinct tree-species-specific differences in decay classes 4 and 5, with larch CWD reaching an average age of 210 years in class 5 and spruce only 77 years. The mean CWD rate constants were estimated to be in the range 0.018 to 0.022 y-1 for spruce and to about 0.012 y-1 for larch. Snapshot sampling (chronosequences) may overestimate the age and mean residence time of CWD. No sampling bias was, however, detectable using the stage-based matrix model. Cellulose and lignin time trends could be derived on the basis of the ages of the CWD. The half-lives for cellulose were 21 years for spruce and 50 years for larch. The half-life of lignin is considerably higher and may be more than

  6. Stabilized power constant alimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel, L.

    1968-06-01

    The study and realization of a stabilized power alimentation variable from 5 to 100 watts are described. In order to realize a constant power drift of Lithium compensated diodes, we have searched a 1 per cent precision of regulation and a response time minus than 1 sec. Recent components like Hall multiplicator and integrated amplifiers give this possibility and it is easy to use permutable circuits. (author) [fr

  7. Experimental investigation on tribological behaviours of PA6, PA6 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... wear resistance. Further, the thermal stability of Al2O3 and graphite particles was studied ... no significant improvement in wear resistance, the co-efficient of friction and heat generation. Keywords. ... wear tests for aramid, carbon and glass fibre composites run- ...... PA6/30wt% Al2O3 composites were determined from the.

  8. Structure of nitrogen-converting communities induced by hydraulic retention time and COD/N ratio in constantly aerated granular sludge reactors treating digester supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Rusanowska, Paulina; Zielińska, Magdalena; Bernat, Katarzyna; Wojnowska-Baryła, Irena

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated how hydraulic retention time (HRT) and COD/N ratio affect nitrogen-converting consortia in constantly aerated granules treating high-ammonium digester supernatant. Three HRTs (10, 13, 19 h) were tested at COD/N ratios of 4.5 and 2.3. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and relative real-time PCR were used to characterize the microbial communities. When changes in HRT and COD/N increased nitrogen loading, the ratio of the relative abundance of aerobic to anaerobic ammonium-oxidizers decreased. The COD/N ratio determined the species composition of the denitrifiers; however, Thiobacillus denitrificans, Pseudomonas denitrificans and Azoarcus sp. showed a high tolerance to the environmental conditions and occurred in the granules from all reactors. Denitrifier genera that support granule formation were identified, such as Pseudomonas, Shinella, and Flavobacterium. In aerated granules, nirK-possessing bacteria were more diverse than nirS-possessing bacteria. At a low COD/N ratio, N2O-reducer diversity increased because of the presence of bacteria known as aerobic denitrifiers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. T1 relaxation time constants, influence of oxygen, and the oxygen transfer function of the human lung at 1.5 T—A meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, Olaf, E-mail: od@dtrx.net [Josef Lissner Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Munich (Germany); Gaass, Thomas [Josef Lissner Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Munich (Germany); Comprehensive Pneumology Center, German Center for Lung Research, Munich (Germany); Reiser, Maximilian F. [Josef Lissner Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Munich (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    Purpose: To pool and summarize published data from magnetic resonance longitudinal relaxation measurements of the human lung at 1.5 T to provide a reliable basis of T{sub 1} relaxation time constants of healthy lung tissue both under respiration of room air and of pure oxygen. In particular, the oxygen-induced shortening of T{sub 1} was evaluated. Materials and methods: The PubMed database was comprehensively searched up to June 2016 for original publications in English containing quantitative T{sub 1} data (at least mean values and standard deviations) of the lung parenchyma of healthy subjects (minimum subject number: 3) at 1.5 T. From all included publications, T{sub 1} values of the lung of healthy subjects were extracted (inhaling room air and, if available, inhaling pure oxygen). Weighted mean values and standard deviations of all extracted data and the oxygen transfer function (OTF) were calculated. Results: 22 publications were included with a total number of 188 examined healthy subjects. 103 of these subjects (from 13 studies) were examined while breathing pure oxygen and room air; 85 subjects were examined only under room-air conditions. The weighted mean value (weighted sample standard deviation) of the room-air T{sub 1} values over all 22 studies was 1196 ms (152 ms). Based on studies with room-air and oxygen results, the mean T{sub 1} value at room-air conditions was 1172 ms (161 ms); breathing pure oxygen, the mean T{sub 1} value was reduced to 1054 ms (138 ms). This corresponds to a mean T{sub 1} reduction by 118 ms (35 ms) or 10.0 % (2.3 %) and to a mean OTF value of 1.22 (0.32) × 10{sup −3} s{sup −1}/(%O{sub 2}). Conclusion: This meta-analysis with data from 188 subjects indicates that the average T{sub 1} relaxation time constant of healthy lung tissue at 1.5 T is distributed around 1200 ms with a standard deviation of about 150 ms; breathing pure oxygen reduces this value significantly by 10 % to about 1050 ms.

  10. Constant physics and characteristics of fundamental constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarrach, R.

    1998-01-01

    We present some evidence which supports a surprising physical interpretation of the fundamental constants. First, we relate two of them through the renormalization group. This leaves as many fundamental constants as base units. Second, we introduce and a dimensional system of units without fundamental constants. Third, and most important, we find, while interpreting the units of the a dimensional system, that is all cases accessible to experimentation the fundamental constants indicate either discretization at small values or boundedness at large values of the corresponding physical quantity. (Author) 12 refs

  11. Feng shui pa-kua / Ann Tenno

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tenno, Ann, 1952-

    2003-01-01

    Pa-kua sümbol, kolmikmärkide Varane Taevane Järjestus - yin pa-kua ja Hilisem Taevane Järjestus - yang pa-kua. Inimeste kodude - majade ja aedade kujundamiseks kasutatakse Hilisema Taevase Järjestuse pa-kua'd. Pa-kua kolmikmärgid yang pa-kua järjestuses, soovitusi aia kujundamiseks. 8 ill

  12. Effect of input data variability on estimations of the equivalent constant temperature time for microbial inactivation by HTST and retort thermal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Diana; Torres, J Antonio; Welti-Chanes, Jorge; Velazquez, Gonzalo

    2011-08-01

    -processing and determine opportunities for improvement. This should include a systematic approach to consider variability in the parameters for the models used by food process engineers when designing a thermal process. The Monte Carlo procedure here presented is a tool to facilitate this task for the determination of process time at a constant lethal temperature. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Reduction of the hydraulic retention time at constant high organic loading rate to reach the microbial limits of anaerobic digestion in various reactor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziganshin, Ayrat M; Schmidt, Thomas; Lv, Zuopeng; Liebetrau, Jan; Richnow, Hans Hermann; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Nikolausz, Marcell

    2016-10-01

    The effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT) reduction at constant high organic loading rate on the activity of hydrogen-producing bacteria and methanogens were investigated in reactors digesting thin stillage. Stable isotope fingerprinting was additionally applied to assess methanogenic pathways. Based on hydA gene transcripts, Clostridiales was the most active hydrogen-producing order in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), fixed-bed reactor (FBR) and anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR), but shorter HRT stimulated the activity of Spirochaetales. Further decreasing HRT diminished Spirochaetales activity in systems with biomass retention. Based on mcrA gene transcripts, Methanoculleus and Methanosarcina were the predominantly active in CSTR and ASBR, whereas Methanosaeta and Methanospirillum activity was more significant in stably performing FBR. Isotope values indicated the predominance of aceticlastic pathway in FBR. Interestingly, an increased activity of Methanosaeta was observed during shortening HRT in CSTR and ASBR despite high organic acids concentrations, what was supported by stable isotope data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Green technology effect of injection pressure, timing and compression ratio in constant pressure heat addition cycle by an eco-friendly material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikayan, S; Sankaranarayanan, G; Karthikeyan, R

    2015-11-01

    Present energy strategies focus on environmental issues, especially environmental pollution prevention and control by eco-friendly green technologies. This includes, increase in the energy supplies, encouraging cleaner and more efficient energy management, addressing air pollution, greenhouse effect, global warming, and climate change. Biofuels provide the panorama of new fiscal opportunities for people in rural area for meeting their need and also the demand of the local market. Biofuels concern protection of the environment and job creation. Renewable energy sources are self-reliance resources, have the potential in energy management with less emissions of air pollutants. Biofuels are expected to reduce dependability on imported crude oil with connected economic susceptibility, reduce greenhouse gases, other pollutants and invigorate the economy by increasing demand and prices for agricultural products. The use of neat paradise tree oil and induction of eco-friendly material Hydrogen through inlet manifold in a constant pressure heat addition cycle engine (diesel engine) with optimized engine operating parameters such as injection timing, injection pressure and compression ratio. The results shows the heat utilization efficiency for neat vegetable oil is 29% and neat oil with 15% Hydrogen as 33%. The exhaust gas temperature (EGT) for 15% of H2 share as 450°C at full load and the heat release of 80J/deg. crank angle for 15% Hydrogen energy share. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Precision Timing of PSR J0437-4715: An Accurate Pulsar Distance, a High Pulsar Mass, and a Limit on the Variation of Newton's Gravitational Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbiest, J. P. W.; Bailes, M.; van Straten, W.; Hobbs, G. B.; Edwards, R. T.; Manchester, R. N.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Sarkissian, J. M.; Jacoby, B. A.; Kulkarni, S. R.

    2008-05-01

    Analysis of 10 years of high-precision timing data on the millisecond pulsar PSR J0437-4715 has resulted in a model-independent kinematic distance based on an apparent orbital period derivative, dot Pb , determined at the 1.5% level of precision (Dk = 157.0 +/- 2.4 pc), making it one of the most accurate stellar distance estimates published to date. The discrepancy between this measurement and a previously published parallax distance estimate is attributed to errors in the DE200 solar system ephemerides. The precise measurement of dot Pb allows a limit on the variation of Newton's gravitational constant, |Ġ/G| <= 23 × 10-12 yr-1. We also constrain any anomalous acceleration along the line of sight to the pulsar to |a⊙/c| <= 1.5 × 10-18 s-1 at 95% confidence, and derive a pulsar mass, mpsr = 1.76 +/- 0.20 M⊙, one of the highest estimates so far obtained.

  16. Excited levels of Pa-233; Niveles excitados del Pa-233

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vara Cuadrado, J M

    1969-07-01

    A study of Pa-233 excited levels from the alpha decay of Np-237 and from beta decay of Th-233 has been performed. The alpha decay spectrum was measured with a semiconductor spectrometer of 18 keV effective resolution (FWHM). Over 13 new lines were identified. The gamma ray spectra of Np-237 and Th-233 were obtained with a Ge-Li detector low and medium range energy lines, and with Si-Li detector for the low energy region. A continuous purification method of Np-237 from its comparatively short-lived daughter Pa-233 was applied. A high number of new lines were identified in both spectra. The gamma-gamma coincidence spectra were obtained with INa(T{sub 1}) detectors. (Author) 54 refs.

  17. Attenuation of nuclear orientation of .sup.127./sup.In in GD and the InGDKorringa spin-lattice relaxation time constant

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stone, J.; Ohya, S.; Rikovska, J.; Woehr, A.; Betts, P.; Dupák, Jan; Fogelberg, B.; Jacobsson, L.

    č. 133 (2001), s. 111 - 115 ISSN 0304-3843 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2065902 Keywords : nuclear orientation * Korringa constant Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.634, year: 2001

  18. Elongational flow of polymer melts at constant strain rate, constant stress and constant force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Manfred H.; Rolón-Garrido, Víctor H.

    2013-04-01

    Characterization of polymer melts in elongational flow is typically performed at constant elongational rate or rarely at constant tensile stress conditions. One of the disadvantages of these deformation modes is that they are hampered by the onset of "necking" instabilities according to the Considère criterion. Experiments at constant tensile force have been performed even more rarely, in spite of the fact that this deformation mode is free from necking instabilities and is of considerable industrial relevance as it is the correct analogue of steady fiber spinning. It is the objective of the present contribution to present for the first time a full experimental characterization of a long-chain branched polyethylene melt in elongational flow. Experiments were performed at constant elongation rate, constant tensile stress and constant tensile force by use of a Sentmanat Extensional Rheometer (SER) in combination with an Anton Paar MCR301 rotational rheometer. The accessible experimental window and experimental limitations are discussed. The experimental data are modelled by using the Wagner I model. Predictions of the steady-start elongational viscosity in constant strain rate and creep experiments are found to be identical, albeit only by extrapolation of the experimental data to Hencky strains of the order of 6. For constant stress experiments, a minimum in the strain rate and a corresponding maximum in the elongational viscosity is found at a Hencky strain of the order of 3, which, although larger than the steady-state value, follows roughly the general trend of the steady-state elongational viscosity. The constitutive analysis also reveals that constant tensile force experiments indicate a larger strain hardening potential than seen in constant elongation rate or constant tensile stress experiments. This may be indicative of the effect of necking under constant elongation rate or constant tensile stress conditions according to the Considère criterion.

  19. Cosmological Hubble constant and nuclear Hubble constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horbuniev, Amelia; Besliu, Calin; Jipa, Alexandru

    2005-01-01

    The evolution of the Universe after the Big Bang and the evolution of the dense and highly excited nuclear matter formed by relativistic nuclear collisions are investigated and compared. Values of the Hubble constants for cosmological and nuclear processes are obtained. For nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies the nuclear Hubble constant is obtained in the frame of different models involving the hydrodynamic flow of the nuclear matter. Significant difference in the values of the two Hubble constant - cosmological and nuclear - is observed

  20. Excited levels of Pa-233

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vara Cuadrado, J. M.

    1969-01-01

    A study of Pa-233 excited levels from the alpha decay of Np-237 and from beta decay of Th-233 has been performed. The alpha decay spectrum was measured with a semiconductor spectrometer of 18 keV effective resolution (FWHM). Over 13 new lines were identified. The gamma ray spectra of Np-237 and Th-233 were obtained with a Ge-Li detector low and medium range energy lines, and with Si-Li detector for the low energy region. A continuous purification method of Np-237 from its comparatively short-lived daughter Pa-233 was applied. A high number of new lines were identified in both spectra. The gamma-gamma coincidence spectra were obtained with INa(T 1 ) detectors. (Author) 54 refs

  1. The fundamental constants a mystery of physics

    CERN Document Server

    Fritzsch, Harald

    2009-01-01

    The speed of light, the fine structure constant, and Newton's constant of gravity — these are just three among the many physical constants that define our picture of the world. Where do they come from? Are they constant in time and across space? In this book, physicist and author Harald Fritzsch invites the reader to explore the mystery of the fundamental constants of physics in the company of Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein, and a modern-day physicist

  2. FORMATION CONSTANTS AND THERMODYNAMIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KEY WORDS: Metal complexes, Schiff base ligand, Formation constant, DFT calculation ... best values for the formation constants of the proposed equilibrium model by .... to its positive charge distribution and the ligand deformation geometry.

  3. Ion exchange equilibrium constants

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Y

    2013-01-01

    Ion Exchange Equilibrium Constants focuses on the test-compilation of equilibrium constants for ion exchange reactions. The book first underscores the scope of the compilation, equilibrium constants, symbols used, and arrangement of the table. The manuscript then presents the table of equilibrium constants, including polystyrene sulfonate cation exchanger, polyacrylate cation exchanger, polymethacrylate cation exchanger, polysterene phosphate cation exchanger, and zirconium phosphate cation exchanger. The text highlights zirconium oxide anion exchanger, zeolite type 13Y cation exchanger, and

  4. Varying Constants, Gravitation and Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Uzan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental constants are a cornerstone of our physical laws. Any constant varying in space and/or time would reflect the existence of an almost massless field that couples to matter. This will induce a violation of the universality of free fall. Thus, it is of utmost importance for our understanding of gravity and of the domain of validity of general relativity to test for their constancy. We detail the relations between the constants, the tests of the local position invariance and of the universality of free fall. We then review the main experimental and observational constraints that have been obtained from atomic clocks, the Oklo phenomenon, solar system observations, meteorite dating, quasar absorption spectra, stellar physics, pulsar timing, the cosmic microwave background and big bang nucleosynthesis. At each step we describe the basics of each system, its dependence with respect to the constants, the known systematic effects and the most recent constraints that have been obtained. We then describe the main theoretical frameworks in which the low-energy constants may actually be varying and we focus on the unification mechanisms and the relations between the variation of different constants. To finish, we discuss the more speculative possibility of understanding their numerical values and the apparent fine-tuning that they confront us with.

  5. Blood brain barrier permeability and tPA-mediated neurotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Taher; Yarovoi, Sergey; Rayan, Anwar; Lamensdorf, Itschak; Karakoveski, Michael; Vadim, Polianski; Fanne, Rami Abu; Jamal, Mahmud; Cines, Douglas B.; Higazi, Abd Al-Roof

    2015-01-01

    Tissue type plasminogen activator (tPA) induces neuronal apoptosis, disrupt the blood-brain-barrier (BBB), and promotes dilation of the cerebral vasculature. The timing, sequence and contributions of these and other deleterious effects of tPA and their contribution to post-ischemic brain damage after stroke, have not been fully elucidated. To dissociate the effects of tPA on BBB permeability, cerebral vasodilation and protease-dependent pathways, we developed several tPA mutants and PAI-1 derived peptides constructed by computerized homology modeling of tPA. Our data show that intravenous administration of human tPA to rats increases BBB permeability through a non-catalytic process, which is associated with reversible neurotoxicity, brain damage, edema, mortality and contributes significantly to its brief therapeutic window. Furthermore, our data show that inhibiting the effect of tPA on BBB function without affecting its catalytic activity, improves outcome and significantly extends its therapeutic window in mechanical as well as thromboembolic models of stroke. PMID:20060006

  6. 32 CFR 701.123 - PA fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PA fees. 701.123 Section 701.123 National... OFFICIAL RECORDS AVAILABILITY OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY RECORDS AND PUBLICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC DON Privacy Program § 701.123 PA fees. The PA fee schedule is only applicable...

  7. The Fine Structure Constant

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    The article discusses the importance of the fine structure constant in quantum mechanics, along with the brief history of how it emerged. Al- though Sommerfelds idea of elliptical orbits has been replaced by wave mechanics, the fine struc- ture constant he introduced has remained as an important parameter in the field of ...

  8. Enhanced sensitivity to the time variation of the fine-structure constant and mp/me in diatomic molecules: A closer examination of silicon monobromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beloy, K.; Borschevsky, A.; Schwerdtfeger, P.; Flambaum, V. V.

    2010-01-01

    Recently it was pointed out that transition frequencies in certain diatomic molecules have an enhanced sensitivity to variations in the fine-structure constant α and the proton-to-electron mass ratio m p /m e due to a near cancellation between the fine structure and vibrational interval in a ground electronic multiplet [V. V. Flambaum and M. G. Kozlov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 150801 (2007)]. One such molecule possessing this favorable quality is silicon monobromide. Here we take a closer examination of SiBr as a candidate for detecting variations in α and m p /m e . We analyze the rovibronic spectrum by employing the most accurate experimental data available in the literature and perform ab initio calculations to determine the precise dependence of the spectrum on variations in α. Furthermore, we calculate the natural linewidths of the rovibronic levels, which place a fundamental limit on the accuracy to which variations may be determined.

  9. Hyperthermic Fibrinolysis with rt-PA: In Vitro Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzenberg, Helmut; Mueller-Huelsbeck, Stefan; Brossman, Joachim; Christian Glueer, Claus; Bruhn, Hans Dieter; Heller, Martin

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the influence of hyperthermia up to 45 deg. C on fibrinolysis with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA). Methods: Standardized fibrin clots were incubated in a water bath for 5 hr with either rt-PA (test group) or 0.9% sodium chloride (control group) and blood plasma at temperatures of 30-45 deg. C. Concentrations of D-dimer and time to complete clot lysis were measured.Results: The activity of fibrinolysis with rt-PA rose with increasing temperature: time to lysis approximately halved from 30 deg. C to 40 deg. C and the concentration of D-dimer tripled. In the control group clot size did not change.Conclusions: Activity of rt-PA-induced fibrinolysis rises distinctly with higher temperatures. Since even healthy subjects show a physiologic decline in body temperature in the extremities, in patients with occlusive arterial disease decreased activity of fibrinolysis with rt-PA can be expected. Controlled hyperthermia may improve fibrinolysis with rt-PA and should be investigated in vivo

  10. Learning Read-constant Polynomials of Constant Degree modulo Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chattopadhyay, Arkadev; Gavaldá, Richard; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt

    2011-01-01

    Boolean functions that have constant degree polynomial representation over a fixed finite ring form a natural and strict subclass of the complexity class \\textACC0ACC0. They are also precisely the functions computable efficiently by programs over fixed and finite nilpotent groups. This class...... is not known to be learnable in any reasonable learning model. In this paper, we provide a deterministic polynomial time algorithm for learning Boolean functions represented by polynomials of constant degree over arbitrary finite rings from membership queries, with the additional constraint that each variable...

  11. Stabilized power constant alimentation; Alimentation regulee a puissance constante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-06-01

    The study and realization of a stabilized power alimentation variable from 5 to 100 watts are described. In order to realize a constant power drift of Lithium compensated diodes, we have searched a 1 per cent precision of regulation and a response time minus than 1 sec. Recent components like Hall multiplicator and integrated amplifiers give this possibility and it is easy to use permutable circuits. (author) [French] On decrit l'etude et la realisation d'une alimentation a puissance constante reglable dans une gamme de 5 a 100 watts. Prevue pour le drift a puissance constante des diodes compensees au lithium, l'etude a ete menee en vue d'obtenir une precision de regulation de 1 pour cent et un temps de reponse inferieur a la seconde. Des systemes recents tels que multiplicateurs a effet Hall et circuits integres ont permis d'atteindre ce but tout en facilitant l'emploi de modules interchangeables. (auteur)

  12. The cosmological constant problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgov, A.D.

    1989-05-01

    A review of the cosmological term problem is presented. Baby universe model and the compensating field model are discussed. The importance of more accurate data on the Hubble constant and the Universe age is stressed. 18 refs

  13. Evolution of the solar constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    The ultimate source of the energy utilized by life on Earth is the Sun, and the behavior of the Sun determines to a large extent the conditions under which life originated and continues to thrive. What can be said about the history of the Sun. Has the solar constant, the rate at which energy is received by the Earth from the Sun per unit area per unit time, been constant at its present level since Archean times. Three mechanisms by which it has been suggested that the solar energy output can vary with time are discussed, characterized by long (approx. 10 9 years), intermediate (approx. 10 8 years), and short (approx. years to decades) time scales

  14. On the gravitational constant change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milyukov, V.K.

    1986-01-01

    The nowadays viewpoint on the problem of G gravitational constant invariability is presented in brief. The methods and results of checking of the G dependence on the nature of substance (checking of the equivalence principle), G dependepce on distance (checking of Newton gravity law) and time (cosmological experiments) are presented. It is pointed out that all performed experiments don't give any reasons to have doubts in G constancy in space and time and G independence on the nature of the substance

  15. A quadri-constant fraction discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Gu Zhongdao

    1992-01-01

    A quad Constant Fraction (Amplitude and Rise Time Compensation) Discriminator Circuit is described, which is based on the ECL high-speed dual comparator AD 9687. The CFD (ARCD) is of the constant fraction timing type (the amplitude and rise time compensation timing type) employing a leading edge discriminator to eliminate error triggers caused by noises. A timing walk measurement indicates a timing walk of less than +- 150 ps from -50 mV to -5 V

  16. Beyond the Hubble Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    about the distances to galaxies and thereby about the expansion rate of the Universe. A simple way to determine the distance to a remote galaxy is by measuring its redshift, calculate its velocity from the redshift and divide this by the Hubble constant, H0. For instance, the measured redshift of the parent galaxy of SN 1995K (0.478) yields a velocity of 116,000 km/sec, somewhat more than one-third of the speed of light (300,000 km/sec). From the universal expansion rate, described by the Hubble constant (H0 = 20 km/sec per million lightyears as found by some studies), this velocity would indicate a distance to the supernova and its parent galaxy of about 5,800 million lightyears. The explosion of the supernova would thus have taken place 5,800 million years ago, i.e. about 1,000 million years before the solar system was formed. However, such a simple calculation works only for relatively ``nearby'' objects, perhaps out to some hundred million lightyears. When we look much further into space, we also look far back in time and it is not excluded that the universal expansion rate, i.e. the Hubble constant, may have been different at earlier epochs. This means that unless we know the change of the Hubble constant with time, we cannot determine reliable distances of distant galaxies from their measured redshifts and velocities. At the same time, knowledge about such change or lack of the same will provide unique information about the time elapsed since the Universe began to expand (the ``Big Bang''), that is, the age of the Universe and also its ultimate fate. The Deceleration Parameter q0 Cosmologists are therefore eager to determine not only the current expansion rate (i.e., the Hubble constant, H0) but also its possible change with time (known as the deceleration parameter, q0). Although a highly accurate value of H0 has still not become available, increasing attention is now given to the observational determination of the second parameter, cf. also the Appendix at the

  17. Real-Time Enzyme Kinetics by Quantitative NMR Spectroscopy and Determination of the Michaelis-Menten Constant Using the Lambert-W Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Her, Cheenou; Alonzo, Aaron P.; Vang, Justin Y.; Torres, Ernesto; Krishnan, V. V.

    2015-01-01

    Enzyme kinetics is an essential part of a chemistry curriculum, especially for students interested in biomedical research or in health care fields. Though the concept is routinely performed in undergraduate chemistry/biochemistry classrooms using other spectroscopic methods, we provide an optimized approach that uses a real-time monitoring of the…

  18. Plant PA signaling via diacylglycerol kinase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arisz, S.A.; Testerink, C.; Munnik, T.

    2009-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that phosphatidic acid (PA) plays a pivotal role in the plant's response to environmental signals. Besides phospholipase D (PLD) activity, PA can also be generated by diacylglycerol kinase (DGK). To establish which metabolic route is activated, a differential

  19. Radiographic constant exposure technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1985-01-01

    The constant exposure technique has been applied to assess various industrial radiographic systems. Different X-ray films and radiographic papers of two producers were compared. Special attention was given to fast film and paper used with fluorometallic screens. Radiographic image quality...... was tested by the use of ISO wire IQI's and ASTM penetrameters used on Al and Fe test plates. Relative speed and reduction of kilovoltage obtained with the constant exposure technique were calculated. The advantages of fast radiographic systems are pointed out...

  20. Examining the Abrasion Behaviour of PA 66 Gears in Different Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifat Yakut

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gears made of plastic-based materials are anticorrosive, resistant to magnetic environments, and light and have pulse decay, low noise, and self-lubrication properties, and therefore their usage areas are widening every single day. In this experiment, the working conditions of 30% fibreglass PA 66 (PA 66 GFR 30 plastic material with PA 66 (PA 66 GFR 30 plastic material and AISI 8620 couple gear are observed. Usage of PA 66 GFR 30 material as gear material at 56.75 Nm constant load and 750 rpm, 1000 rpm, and 1500 rpm was analysed. The load capacity damage formation of the material was also analysed. The tooth surface temperature, corrosion depth of the tooth profile, tooth damage, and the tooth surface were examined with an scanning electron microscopy (SEM and the corrosive behaviour of gears was analysed.

  1. On the cosmical constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, R.

    1977-01-01

    On the grounds of the two correspondence limits, the Newtonian limit and the special theory limit of Einstein field equations, a modification of the cosmical constant has been proposed which gives realistic results in the case of a homogeneous universe. Also, according to this modification an explanation for the negative pressure in the steady-state model of the universe has been given. (author)

  2. Cosmological constant problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, S.

    1989-01-01

    Cosmological constant problem is discussed. History of the problem is briefly considered. Five different approaches to solution of the problem are described: supersymmetry, supergravity, superstring; anthropic approach; mechamism of lagrangian alignment; modification of gravitation theory and quantum cosmology. It is noted that approach, based on quantum cosmology is the most promising one

  3. The Yamabe constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O Murchadha, N.

    1991-01-01

    The set of riemannian three-metrics with positive Yamabe constant defines the space of independent data for the gravitational field. The boundary of this set is investigated, and it is shown that metrics close to the boundary satisfy the positive-energy theorem. (Author) 18 refs

  4. Tachyon constant-roll inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, A.; Saaidi, Kh.; Golanbari, T.

    2018-04-01

    The constant-roll inflation is studied where the inflaton is taken as a tachyon field. Based on this approach, the second slow-roll parameter is taken as a constant which leads to a differential equation for the Hubble parameter. Finding an exact solution for the Hubble parameter is difficult and leads us to a numerical solution for the Hubble parameter. On the other hand, since in this formalism the slow-roll parameter η is constant and could not be assumed to be necessarily small, the perturbation parameters should be reconsidered again which, in turn, results in new terms appearing in the amplitude of scalar perturbations and the scalar spectral index. Utilizing the numerical solution for the Hubble parameter, we estimate the perturbation parameter at the horizon exit time and compare it with observational data. The results show that, for specific values of the constant parameter η , we could have an almost scale-invariant amplitude of scalar perturbations. Finally, the attractor behavior for the solution of the model is presented, and we determine that the feature could be properly satisfied.

  5. Prospection for natural 231Pa in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anupama, P.; Gantayet, L.M.; Verma, R.; Parthasarathy, R.; Anil Kumar, S.; Dingankar, M.V.; Ghosh, S.K.; Patra, R.N.

    2001-08-01

    Protactinium-231 ( 231 Pa) occurs in nature as a member of the decay chain of naturally occuring 235 U of the 4n+ 3 radioactive series. The expected protactinium concentration in the Jaduguda ore body (with uranium concentration of 0.03-0.06 %) is around 0.2 parts per billion (ppb) and that in monazite ore (uranium concentration 0.3%) is 0.9 ppb. The process at uranium ore processing plant at Jaduguda was studied. 231 Pa content in samples from the process streams of the plant was determined. The gamma ray spectrometry method was chosen and standardised in our laboratory to detect and measure 231 Pa in parts per billion levels in these samples. A concentrated source of protactinium could not be found among the assessed streams of Jaduguda uranium plant. The Monazite processing plant at IRE, Aluva was then studied. From the known chemistry of protactinium, the possible distribution of the 231 Pa was guessed at. Accordingly, the process streams of IRE process plant were selected to prospect for 231 Pa and determine the fractionation of protactinium. For analysis of 231 Pa, the thorium bearing samples were chemically treated to remove the thorium daughter products, which interfere in gamma spectrometry. This report describes the planning for prospecting, sample selection, the standardisation of the analysis procedure for determination of 231 Pa content, and the analysis results. The 231 Pa content in various streams of Indian Rare Earths plant was found in the range 0.2 -6.5 ppb. Some of the streams did not carry any protactinium. The fractionation of 231 Pa in the various streams of the plant and the selection of source for recovery of protactinium are discussed in detail. (author)

  6. Production in constant evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano, T.

    2009-01-01

    The Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant now has 25 years of operation behind it: a quarter century adding value and demonstrating the reasons why it is one of the most important energy producing facilities in the Spanish power market. Particularly noteworthy is the enterprising spirit of the plant, which has strived to continuously improve with the large number of modernization projects that it has undertaken over the past 25 years. The plant has constantly evolved thanks to the amount of investments made to improve safety and reliability and the perseverance to stay technologically up to date. Efficiency, training and teamwork have been key to the success of the plant over these 25 years of constant change and progress. (Author)

  7. Structure and activity of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa hotdog-fold thioesterases PA5202 and PA2801.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Claudio F; Tchigvintsev, Anatoli; Brown, Greg; Flick, Robert; Evdokimova, Elena; Xu, Xiaohui; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Cuff, Marianne E; Lynch, Susan; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Savchenko, Alexei; Yakunin, Alexander F

    2012-06-15

    The hotdog fold is one of the basic protein folds widely present in bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. Many of these proteins exhibit thioesterase activity against fatty acyl-CoAs and play important roles in lipid metabolism, cellular signalling and degradation of xenobiotics. The genome of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa contains over 20 genes encoding predicted hotdog-fold proteins, none of which have been experimentally characterized. We have found that two P. aeruginosa hotdog proteins display high thioesterase activity against 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA and glutaryl-CoA (PA5202), and octanoyl-CoA (PA2801). Crystal structures of these proteins were solved (at 1.70 and 1.75 Å for PA5202 and PA2801 respectively) and revealed a hotdog fold with a potential catalytic carboxylate residue located on the long α-helix (Asp(57) in PA5202 and Glu(35) in PA2801). Alanine residue replacement mutagenesis of PA5202 identified four residues (Asn(42), Arg(43), Asp(57) and Thr(76)) that are critical for its activity and are located in the active site. A P. aeruginosa PA5202 deletion strain showed an increased secretion of the antimicrobial pigment pyocyanine and an increased expression of genes involved in pyocyanin biosynthesis, suggesting a functional link between PA5202 activity and pyocyanin production. Thus the P. aeruginosa hotdog thioesterases PA5202 and PA2801 have similar structures, but exhibit different substrate preferences and functions.

  8. Universe of constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongquan, Han

    2016-10-01

    The ideal gas state equation is not applicable to ordinary gas, it should be applied to the Electromagnetic ``gas'' that is applied to the radiation, the radiation should be the ultimate state of matter changes or initial state, the universe is filled with radiation. That is, the ideal gas equation of state is suitable for the Singular point and the universe. Maybe someone consider that, there is no vessel can accommodate radiation, it is because the Ordinary container is too small to accommodate, if the radius of your container is the distance that Light through an hour, would you still think it can't accommodates radiation? Modern scientific determinate that the radius of the universe now is about 1027 m, assuming that the universe is a sphere whose volume is approximately: V = 4.19 × 1081 cubic meters, the temperature radiation of the universe (cosmic microwave background radiation temperature of the universe, should be the closest the average temperature of the universe) T = 3.15k, radiation pressure P = 5 × 10-6 N / m 2, according to the law of ideal gas state equation, PV / T = constant = 6 × 1075, the value of this constant is the universe, The singular point should also equal to the constant Author: hanyongquan

  9. 32 CFR 701.113 - PA exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... defense or foreign policy. Note: All DOD systems of records that contain classified information... source would be held in confidence. (f) Detailed analysis of PA exemptions. A detailed analysis of each...

  10. 77 FR 60004 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00053

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13307 and 13308] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 09/21/2012. Incident... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Centre. Contiguous Counties: Pennsylvania: Blair...

  11. 76 FR 58328 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00042

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12820 and 12821] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (FEMA-4025-DR), dated 09/ 12..., Philadelphia, Sullivan, Wyoming. Contiguous Counties (Economic Injury Loans Only): Pennsylvania: Berks...

  12. 76 FR 30749 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00038

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12594 and 12595] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 05/18/2011. Incident... disaster: Primary Counties: Cumberland. Contiguous Counties: Pennsylvania: Adams, Dauphin, Franklin, Perry...

  13. 78 FR 52600 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00063

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13722 and 13723] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 08/14/2013. Incident: Severe... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Lawrence. Contiguous Counties: Pennsylvania: Beaver...

  14. 77 FR 65044 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00054

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13346 and 13347] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 10/18/2012. Incident... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Montgomery. Contiguous Counties: Pennsylvania: Berks...

  15. 76 FR 5647 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00036

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12449 and 12450] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 01/25/2011. Incident... the disaster: Primary Counties: Philadelphia. Contiguous Counties: Pennsylvania: Bucks, Delaware...

  16. 75 FR 71486 - Pennsylvania Disaster # PA-00035

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12389 and 12390] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 11/15/2010. Incident: Severe... the disaster: Primary Counties: Delaware. Contiguous Counties: Pennsylvania: Chester, Montgomery...

  17. 75 FR 2165 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00030

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12002 and 12003] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 01/07/2010. Incident... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Centre. Contiguous Counties: Pennsylvania: Blair...

  18. 78 FR 45282 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00058

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13669 and 13670] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 07/16/2013. Incident: Severe...: Pennsylvania: Armstrong; Blair; Cambria; Cameron; Centre; Clarion; Clinton; Elk; Forest; Greene; Indiana...

  19. 76 FR 58327 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00044

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12822 and 12823] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (FEMA-4030-DR), dated 09/ 12.... Contiguous Counties (Economic Injury Loans Only): Pennsylvania: Berks, Carbon, Centre, Chester, Clinton...

  20. 78 FR 47814 - Pennsylvania Disaster # PA-00059

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13676 and 13677] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of PENNSYLVANIA dated 07/29/2013. Incident: Severe... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Allegheny. Contiguous Counties: Pennsylvania...

  1. 78 FR 60366 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00064

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13777 and 13778] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 09/24/2013. Incident: Storms... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Armstrong. Contiguous Counties: Pennsylvania...

  2. Stabilized power constant alimentation; Alimentation regulee a puissance constante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-06-01

    The study and realization of a stabilized power alimentation variable from 5 to 100 watts are described. In order to realize a constant power drift of Lithium compensated diodes, we have searched a 1 per cent precision of regulation and a response time minus than 1 sec. Recent components like Hall multiplicator and integrated amplifiers give this possibility and it is easy to use permutable circuits. (author) [French] On decrit l'etude et la realisation d'une alimentation a puissance constante reglable dans une gamme de 5 a 100 watts. Prevue pour le drift a puissance constante des diodes compensees au lithium, l'etude a ete menee en vue d'obtenir une precision de regulation de 1 pour cent et un temps de reponse inferieur a la seconde. Des systemes recents tels que multiplicateurs a effet Hall et circuits integres ont permis d'atteindre ce but tout en facilitant l'emploi de modules interchangeables. (auteur)

  3. CODATA recommended values of the fundamental constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, Peter J.; Taylor, Barry N.

    2000-01-01

    A review is given of the latest Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA) adjustment of the values of the fundamental constants. The new set of constants, referred to as the 1998 values, replaces the values recommended for international use by CODATA in 1986. The values of the constants, and particularly the Rydberg constant, are of relevance to the calculation of precise atomic spectra. The standard uncertainty (estimated standard deviation) of the new recommended value of the Rydberg constant, which is based on precision frequency metrology and a detailed analysis of the theory, is approximately 1/160 times the uncertainty of the 1986 value. The new set of recommended values as well as a searchable bibliographic database that gives citations to the relevant literature is available on the World Wide Web at physics.nist.gov/constants and physics.nist.gov/constantsbib, respectively

  4. The Turning Point for the Recent Acceleration of the Universe with a Cosmological Constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang T. X.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The turning point and acceleration expansion of the universe are investigated according to the standard cosmological theory with a non-zero cosmological constant. Choosing the Hubble constant H 0 , the radius of the present universe R 0 , and the density parameter in matter Ω M , 0 as three independent parameters, we have analytically examined the other properties of the universe such as the density parameter in dark energy, the cosmologi- cal constant, the mass of the universe, the turning point redshift, the age of the present universe, and the time-dependent radius, expansion rate, velocity, and acceleration pa- rameter of the universe. It is shown that the turning point redshift is only dependent of the density parameter in matter, not explicitly on the Hubble constant and the radius of the present universe. The universe turned its expansion from past deceleration to recent acceleration at the moment when its size was about 3 / 5 of the present size if the density parameter in matter is about 0.3 (or the turning point redshift is 0.67. The expansion rate is very large in the early period and decreases with time to approach the Hubble constant at the present time. The expansion velocity exceeds the light speed in the early period. It decreases to the minimum at the turning point and then increases with time. The minimum and present expansion velocities are determined with the independent parameters. The solution of time-dependent radius shows the universe expands all the time. The universe with a larger present radius, smaller Hubble constant, and / or smaller density parameter in matter is elder. The universe with smaller density parameter in matter accelerates recently in a larger rate but less than unity.

  5. The Hubble Constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal Jackson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available I review the current state of determinations of the Hubble constant, which gives the length scale of the Universe by relating the expansion velocity of objects to their distance. There are two broad categories of measurements. The first uses individual astrophysical objects which have some property that allows their intrinsic luminosity or size to be determined, or allows the determination of their distance by geometric means. The second category comprises the use of all-sky cosmic microwave background, or correlations between large samples of galaxies, to determine information about the geometry of the Universe and hence the Hubble constant, typically in a combination with other cosmological parameters. Many, but not all, object-based measurements give H_0 values of around 72–74 km s^–1 Mpc^–1, with typical errors of 2–3 km s^–1 Mpc^–1. This is in mild discrepancy with CMB-based measurements, in particular those from the Planck satellite, which give values of 67–68 km s^–1 Mpc^–1 and typical errors of 1–2 km s^–1 Mpc^–1. The size of the remaining systematics indicate that accuracy rather than precision is the remaining problem in a good determination of the Hubble constant. Whether a discrepancy exists, and whether new physics is needed to resolve it, depends on details of the systematics of the object-based methods, and also on the assumptions about other cosmological parameters and which datasets are combined in the case of the all-sky methods.

  6. The inconstant solar constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willson, R.C.; Hudson, H.

    1984-01-01

    The Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor (ACRIM) of the Solar Maximum Mission satellite measures the radiant power emitted by the sun in the direction of the earth and has worked flawlessly since 1980. The main motivation for ACRIM's use to measure the solar constant is the determination of the extent to which this quantity's variations affect earth weather and climate. Data from the solar minimum of 1986-1987 is eagerly anticipated, with a view to the possible presence of a solar cycle variation in addition to that caused directly by sunspots

  7. On the Action of the Radiation Field Generated by a Traveling-Wave Element and Its Connection to the Time Energy Uncertainty Principle, Elementary Charge and the Fine Structure Constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Cooray

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, we published two papers in this journal. One of the papers dealt with the action of the radiation fields generated by a traveling-wave element and the other dealt with the momentum transferred by the same radiation fields and their connection to the time energy uncertainty principle. The traveling-wave element is defined as a conductor through which a current pulse propagates with the speed of light in free space from one end of the conductor to the other without attenuation. The goal of this letter is to combine the information provided in these two papers together and make conclusive statements concerning the connection between the energy dissipated by the radiation fields, the time energy uncertainty principle and the elementary charge. As we will show here, the results presented in these two papers, when combined together, show that the time energy uncertainty principle can be applied to the classical radiation emitted by a traveling-wave element and it results in the prediction that the smallest charge associated with the current that can be detected using radiated energy as a vehicle is on the order of the elementary charge. Based on the results, an expression for the fine structure constant is obtained. This is the first time that an order of magnitude estimation of the elementary charge based on electromagnetic radiation fields is obtained. Even though the results obtained in this paper have to be considered as order of magnitude estimations, a strict interpretation of the derived equations shows that the fine structure constant or the elementary charge may change as the size or the age of the universe increases.

  8. Time-dependent 31P saturation transfer in the phosphoglucomutase reaction. Characterization of the spin system for the Cd(II) enzyme and evaluation of rate constants for the transfer process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, C.B.; Ray, W.J. Jr.; Gorenstein, D.G.

    1989-01-01

    Time-dependent 31 P saturation-transfer studies were conducted with the Cd 2+ -activated form of muscle phosphoglucomutase to probe the origin of the 100-fold difference between its catalytic efficiency (in terms of k cat ) and that of the more efficient Mg 2+ -activated enzyme. The present paper describes the equilibrium mixture of phosphoglucomutase and its substrate/product pair when the concentration of the Cd 2+ enzyme approaches that of the substrate and how the nine-spin 31 P NMR system provided by this mixture was treated. It shows that the presence of abortive complexes is not a significant factor in the reduced activity of the Cd 2+ enzyme since the complex of the dephosphoenzyme and glucose 1,6-bisphosphate, which accounts for a large majority of the enzyme present at equilibrium, is catalytically competent. It also shows that rate constants for saturation transfer obtained at three different ratios of enzyme to free substrate are mutually compatible. These constants, which were measured at chemical equilibrium, can be used to provide a quantitative kinetic rationale for the reduced steady-state activity elicited by Cd 2+ relative to Mg 2+ . They also provide minimal estimates of 350 and 150 s -1 for the rate constants describing (PO 3 - ) transfer from the Cd 2+ phosphoenzyme to the 6-position of bound glucose 1-phosphate and to the 1-position of bound glucose 6-phosphate, respectively. These minimal estimates are compared with analogous estimates for the Mg 2+ and Li + forms of the enzyme in the accompanying paper

  9. Japan's nuclear PA activity in local governments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Nobuyuki

    1995-01-01

    This presentation emphasises some points of PA activities, based on the experience of 'cooperation projects for local governments'. Local governments distribute the public information directly to the residents. This is very important because officers of the local government can be the opinion leaders of the region. Local government exist very close to the residents, while the central government is a distant and faceless existence for the local people. It is believed that the local governments play an imperative role in PA activities. In other words, we must further utilize the organizations and functions of the local governments to implement PA activities. In conclusion, three recommendations are offered. Firstly, enough budget and authority should be given to the local governments as far as PA activities in their areas are concerned, and most of such activities should be entrusted to the local governments. Local governments should place more public relations officers, and continue the manpower development. Second, with regard to highly technical or specialized issues which a local governments cannot treat alone, related organizations like JAERO should support their PA activities. Third, such related organizations should also cooperate with local government including assistance in providing know-how, when their public information activities focus on educators, journalists, or the women. These three points should be given due consideration in our cooperation projects for the local governments, and JAERO is doing its best every day

  10. Relaxing a large cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Florian; Sola, Joan; Stefancic, Hrvoje

    2009-01-01

    The cosmological constant (CC) problem is the biggest enigma of theoretical physics ever. In recent times, it has been rephrased as the dark energy (DE) problem in order to encompass a wider spectrum of possibilities. It is, in any case, a polyhedric puzzle with many faces, including the cosmic coincidence problem, i.e. why the density of matter ρ m is presently so close to the CC density ρ Λ . However, the oldest, toughest and most intriguing face of this polyhedron is the big CC problem, namely why the measured value of ρ Λ at present is so small as compared to any typical density scale existing in high energy physics, especially taking into account the many phase transitions that our Universe has undergone since the early times, including inflation. In this Letter, we propose to extend the field equations of General Relativity by including a class of invariant terms that automatically relax the value of the CC irrespective of the initial size of the vacuum energy in the early epochs. We show that, at late times, the Universe enters an eternal de Sitter stage mimicking a tiny positive cosmological constant. Thus, these models could be able to solve the big CC problem without fine-tuning and have also a bearing on the cosmic coincidence problem. Remarkably, they mimic the ΛCDM model to a large extent, but they still leave some characteristic imprints that should be testable in the next generation of experiments.

  11. Fine-structure constant: Is it really a constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekenstein, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    It is often claimed that the fine-structure ''constant'' α is shown to be strictly constant in time by a variety of astronomical and geophysical results. These constrain its fractional rate of change alpha-dot/α to at least some orders of magnitude below the Hubble rate H 0 . We argue that the conclusion is not as straightforward as claimed since there are good physical reasons to expect alpha-dot/α 0 . We propose to decide the issue by constructing a framework for a variability based on very general assumptions: covariance, gauge invariance, causality, and time-reversal invariance of electromagnetism, as well as the idea that the Planck-Wheeler length (10 -33 cm) is the shortest scale allowable in any theory. The framework endows α with well-defined dynamics, and entails a modification of Maxwell electrodynamics. It proves very difficult to rule it out with purely electromagnetic experiments. In a cosmological setting, the framework predicts an alpha-dot/α which can be compatible with the astronomical constraints; hence, these are too insensitive to rule out α variability. There is marginal conflict with the geophysical constraints: however, no firm decision is possible because of uncertainty about various cosmological parameters. By contrast the framework's predictions for spatial gradients of α are in fatal conflict with the results of the Eoetvoes-Dicke-Braginsky experiments. Hence these tests of the equivalence principle rule out with confidence spacetime variability of α at any level

  12. Asympotics with positive cosmological constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonga, Beatrice; Ashtekar, Abhay; Kesavan, Aruna

    2014-03-01

    Since observations to date imply that our universe has a positive cosmological constant, one needs an extension of the theory of isolated systems and gravitational radiation in full general relativity from the asymptotically flat to asymptotically de Sitter space-times. In current definitions, one mimics the boundary conditions used in asymptotically AdS context to conclude that the asymptotic symmetry group is the de Sitter group. However, these conditions severely restricts radiation and in fact rules out non-zero flux of energy, momentum and angular momentum carried by gravitational waves. Therefore, these formulations of asymptotically de Sitter space-times are uninteresting beyond non-radiative spacetimes. The situation is compared and contrasted with conserved charges and fluxes at null infinity in asymptotically flat space-times.

  13. Building evolutionary architectures support constant change

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, Neal; Kua, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The software development ecosystem is constantly changing, providing a constant stream of new tools, frameworks, techniques, and paradigms. Over the past few years, incremental developments in core engineering practices for software development have created the foundations for rethinking how architecture changes over time, along with ways to protect important architectural characteristics as it evolves. This practical guide ties those parts together with a new way to think about architecture and time.

  14. Expression of uPA, tPA, and PAI-1 in Calcified Aortic Valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najlah Kochtebane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Our physiopathological assumption is that u-PA, t-PA, and PAI-1 are released by calcified aortic valves and play a role in the calcification of these valves. Methods. Sixty-five calcified aortic valves were collected from patients suffering from aortic stenosis. Each valve was incubated for 24 hours in culture medium. The supernatants were used to measure u-PA, t-PA, and PAI-1 concentrations; the valve calcification was evaluated using biphotonic absorptiometry. Results. Aortic stenosis valves expressed normal plasminogen activators concentrations and overexpressed PAI-1 (u-PA, t-PA, and PAI-1 mean concentrations were, resp., 1.69 ng/mL ± 0.80, 2.76 ng/mL ± 1.33, and 53.27 ng/mL ± 36.39. There was no correlation between u-PA and PAI-1 (r=0.3 but t-PA and PAI-1 were strongly correlated with each other (r=0.6. Overexpression of PAI-1 was proportional to the calcium content of the AS valves. Conclusions. Our results demonstrate a consistent increase of PAI-1 proportional to the calcification. The overexpression of PAI-1 may be useful as a predictive indicator in patients with aortic stenosis.

  15. Zero cosmological constant from normalized general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, Aharon; Rubin, Shimon

    2009-01-01

    Normalizing the Einstein-Hilbert action by the volume functional makes the theory invariant under constant shifts in the Lagrangian. The associated field equations then resemble unimodular gravity whose otherwise arbitrary cosmological constant is now determined as a Machian universal average. We prove that an empty space-time is necessarily Ricci tensor flat, and demonstrate the vanishing of the cosmological constant within the scalar field paradigm. The cosmological analysis, carried out at the mini-superspace level, reveals a vanishing cosmological constant for a universe which cannot be closed as long as gravity is attractive. Finally, we give an example of a normalized theory of gravity which does give rise to a non-zero cosmological constant.

  16. Arrhenius Rate: constant volume burn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-12-06

    A constant volume burn occurs for an idealized initial state in which a large volume of reactants at rest is suddenly raised to a high temperature and begins to burn. Due to the uniform spatial state, there is no fluid motion and no heat conduction. This reduces the time evolu tion to an ODE for the reaction progress variable. With an Arrhenius reaction rate, two characteristics of thermal ignition are illustrated: induction time and thermal runaway. The Frank-Kamenetskii approximation then leads to a simple expression for the adiabatic induction time. For a first order reaction, the analytic solution is derived and used to illustrate the effect of varying the activation temperature; in particular, on the induction time. In general, the ODE can be solved numerically. This is used to illustrate the effect of varying the reaction order. We note that for a first order reaction, the time evolution of the reaction progress variable has an exponential tail. In contrast, for a reaction order less than one, the reaction completes in a nite time. The reaction order also affects the induction time.

  17. 75 FR 81417 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Model PA-28-161 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Model PA-28-161 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... new airworthiness directive (AD): 2010-26-04 Piper Aircraft, Inc: Amendment 39-16543; Docket No. FAA... times may be Airplane approved for this part. Maintenance Manual Piper PA28-161 TAE 125-01, Doc. No...

  18. 76 FR 64419 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00045

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12879 and 12880] Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00045 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania...

  19. 78 FR 4967 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00057

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13463 and 13464] Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00057 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Pennsylvania (FEMA...

  20. 76 FR 56861 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00043

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12807 and 12808] Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00043 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania...

  1. 76 FR 44646 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00040

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12697 and 12698] Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00040 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania...

  2. Filament instability under constant loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monastra, A. G.; Carusela, M. F.; D’Angelo, M. V.; Bruno, L.

    2018-04-01

    Buckling of semi-flexible filaments appears in different systems and scales. Some examples are: fibers in geophysical applications, microtubules in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells and deformation of polymers freely suspended in a flow. In these examples, instabilities arise when a system’s parameter exceeds a critical value, being the Euler force the most known. However, the complete time evolution and wavelength of buckling processes are not fully understood. In this work we solve analytically the time evolution of a filament under a constant compressive force in the small amplitude approximation. This gives an insight into the variable force scenario in terms of normal modes. The evolution is highly sensitive to the initial configuration and to the magnitude of the compressive load. This model can be a suitable approach to many different real situations.

  3. Seepage Model for PA Including Drift Collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, G.; Tsang, C.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the predictions and analysis performed using the Seepage Model for Performance Assessment (PA) and the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal and lower lithophysal lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain. These results will be used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into waste-emplacement drifts at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as part of the evaluation of the long term performance of the potential repository. This AMR is in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (CRWMS M andO 2000 [153447]). This purpose is accomplished by performing numerical simulations with stochastic representations of hydrological properties, using the Seepage Model for PA, and evaluating the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift using the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel. Seepage of water into waste-emplacement drifts is considered one of the principal factors having the greatest impact of long-term safety of the repository system (CRWMS M andO 2000 [153225], Table 4-1). This AMR supports the analysis and simulation that are used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into drift, and is therefore a model of primary (Level 1) importance (AP-3.15Q, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''). The intended purpose of the Seepage Model for PA is to support: (1) PA; (2) Abstraction of Drift-Scale Seepage; and (3) Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). Seepage into drifts is evaluated by applying numerical models with stochastic representations of hydrological properties and performing flow simulations with multiple realizations of the permeability field around the drift. The Seepage Model for PA uses the distribution of permeabilities derived from air injection testing in niches and in the cross drift to

  4. Seepage Model for PA Including Dift Collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Li; C. Tsang

    2000-12-20

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the predictions and analysis performed using the Seepage Model for Performance Assessment (PA) and the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal and lower lithophysal lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain. These results will be used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into waste-emplacement drifts at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as part of the evaluation of the long term performance of the potential repository. This AMR is in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (CRWMS M&O 2000 [153447]). This purpose is accomplished by performing numerical simulations with stochastic representations of hydrological properties, using the Seepage Model for PA, and evaluating the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift using the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel. Seepage of water into waste-emplacement drifts is considered one of the principal factors having the greatest impact of long-term safety of the repository system (CRWMS M&O 2000 [153225], Table 4-1). This AMR supports the analysis and simulation that are used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into drift, and is therefore a model of primary (Level 1) importance (AP-3.15Q, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''). The intended purpose of the Seepage Model for PA is to support: (1) PA; (2) Abstraction of Drift-Scale Seepage; and (3) Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). Seepage into drifts is evaluated by applying numerical models with stochastic representations of hydrological properties and performing flow simulations with multiple realizations of the permeability field around the drift. The Seepage Model for PA uses the distribution of permeabilities derived from air injection testing in

  5. Effect of low frequency ultrasound on combined rt-PA and eptifibatide thrombolysis in human clots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Jason M; Holland, Christy K; Pancioli, Arthur M; Lindsell, Christopher J; Shaw, George J

    2009-01-01

    Fibrinolytics such as recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) are used to treat thrombotic disease such as acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and ischemic stroke. Interest in increasing efficacy and reducing side effects has led to the study of adjuncts such as GP IIb-IIIa inhibitors and ultrasound (US) enhanced thrombolysis. Currently, GP IIb-IIIa inhibitor and fibrinolytic treatment are often used in AMI, and are under investigation for stroke treatment. However, little is known of the efficacy of combined GP IIb-IIIa inhibitor, fibrinolytic and ultrasound treatment. We measure the lytic efficacy of rt-PA, eptifibatide (Epf) and 120 kHz ultrasound treatment in an in-vitro human clot model. Blood was drawn from 15 subjects after IRB approval. Clots were made in 20 microL pipettes, and placed in a water tank for microscopic visualization during lytic treatment. Clots were exposed to control, rt-PA (rt-PA), eptifibatide (Epf), or rt-PA+eptifibatide (rt-PA + Epf), with (+US) or without (-US) ultrasound for 30 minutes at 37 degrees C in human plasma. Clot lysis was measured over time, using a microscopic imaging technique. The fractional clot loss (FCL) and initial lytic rate (LR) were used to quantify lytic efficacy. LR values for (- US) treated clots were 0.8+/-0.1(control), 1.8+/-0.3 (Epf), 1.5+/-0.2 (rt-PA), and 1.3+/-0.4 (rt-PA + Epf) (% clot width/minute) respectively. In comparison, the (+ US) group exhibited LR values of 1.6+/-0.2 (control), 4.3+/-0.4 (Epf), 6.3+/-0.4 (rt-PA), and 4.6+/-0.6 (rt-PA + Epf). For (- US) treated clots, FCL was 6.0+/-0.8 (control), 9.2+/-2.5 (Epf), 15.6+/-1.7 (rt-PA), and 28.0+/-2.2% (rt-PA + Epf) respectively. FCL for (+ US) clots was 13.5+/-2.4 (control), 20.7+/-6.4 (Epf), 44.4+/-3.6 (rt-PA) and 30.3+/-3.6% (rt-PA + Epf) respectively. Although the addition of eptifibatide enhances the in-vitro lytic efficacy of rt-PA in the absence of ultrasound, the efficacy of ultrasound and rt-PA is greater than that of combined

  6. Association constants of telluronium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovach, N.A.; Rivkin, B.B.; Sadekov, T.D.; Shvajka, O.P.

    1996-01-01

    Association constants in acetonitrile of triphenyl telluronium salts, which are dilute electrolytes, are determined through the conductometry method. Satisfactory correlation dependence of constants of interion association and threshold molar electroconductivity on the Litvinenko-Popov constants for depositing groups is identified. 6 refs

  7. Anisotropic constant-roll inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Asuka; Soda, Jiro [Kobe University, Department of Physics, Kobe (Japan)

    2018-01-15

    We study constant-roll inflation in the presence of a gauge field coupled to an inflaton. By imposing the constant anisotropy condition, we find new exact anisotropic constant-roll inflationary solutions which include anisotropic power-law inflation as a special case. We also numerically show that the new anisotropic solutions are attractors in the phase space. (orig.)

  8. Technical Insights for Saltstone PA Maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G.; Sarkar, S.; Mahadevan, S.; Kosson, D.

    2011-07-20

    The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) is a collaborative program sponsored by the US DOE Office of Waste Processing. The objective of the CBP is to develop a set of computational tools to improve understanding and prediction of the long-term structural, hydraulic, and chemical performance of cementitious barriers and waste forms used in nuclear applications. CBP tools are expected to better characterize and reduce the uncertainties of current methodologies for assessing cementitious barrier performance and increase the consistency and transparency of the assessment process, as the five-year program progresses. In September 2009, entering its second year of funded effort, the CBP sought opportunities to provide near-term tangible support to DOE Performance Assessments (PAs). The Savannah River Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) was selected for the initial PA support effort because (1) cementitious waste forms and barriers play a prominent role in the performance of the facility, (2) certain important long-term behaviors of cementitious materials composing the facility are uncertain, (3) review of the SDF PA by external stakeholders is ongoing, and (4) the DOE contractor responsible for the SDF PA is open to receiving technical assistance from the CBP. A review of the current (SRR Closure & Waste Disposal Authority 2009) and prior Saltstone PAs (e.g., Cook et al. 2005) suggested five potential opportunities for improving predictions. The candidate topics considered were (1) concrete degradation from external sulfate attack, (2) impact of atmospheric exposure to concrete and grout before closure, such as accelerated slag and Tc-99 oxidation, (3) mechanistic prediction of geochemical conditions, (4) concrete degradation from rebar corrosion due to carbonation, and (5) early age cracking from drying and/or thermal shrinkage. The candidate topics were down-selected considering the feasibility of addressing each issue within approximately six months, and

  9. Technical Insights for Saltstone PA Maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flach, G.; Sarkar, S.; Mahadevan, S.; Kosson, D.

    2011-01-01

    The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) is a collaborative program sponsored by the US DOE Office of Waste Processing. The objective of the CBP is to develop a set of computational tools to improve understanding and prediction of the long-term structural, hydraulic, and chemical performance of cementitious barriers and waste forms used in nuclear applications. CBP tools are expected to better characterize and reduce the uncertainties of current methodologies for assessing cementitious barrier performance and increase the consistency and transparency of the assessment process, as the five-year program progresses. In September 2009, entering its second year of funded effort, the CBP sought opportunities to provide near-term tangible support to DOE Performance Assessments (PAs). The Savannah River Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) was selected for the initial PA support effort because (1) cementitious waste forms and barriers play a prominent role in the performance of the facility, (2) certain important long-term behaviors of cementitious materials composing the facility are uncertain, (3) review of the SDF PA by external stakeholders is ongoing, and (4) the DOE contractor responsible for the SDF PA is open to receiving technical assistance from the CBP. A review of the current (SRR Closure and Waste Disposal Authority 2009) and prior Saltstone PAs (e.g., Cook et al. 2005) suggested five potential opportunities for improving predictions. The candidate topics considered were (1) concrete degradation from external sulfate attack, (2) impact of atmospheric exposure to concrete and grout before closure, such as accelerated slag and Tc-99 oxidation, (3) mechanistic prediction of geochemical conditions, (4) concrete degradation from rebar corrosion due to carbonation, and (5) early age cracking from drying and/or thermal shrinkage. The candidate topics were down-selected considering the feasibility of addressing each issue within approximately six months, and

  10. Th, Pa and U isotopes in an echinoderm, Encope grandis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omura, Akio; Ku, Teh-Lung.

    1979-01-01

    The application of 230 Th and 231 Pa growth methods to the hard tissues of living things, which are effective for the radiometric age measurement for latter Quaternary period, has been limited to certain corals, therefore it has been scarcely utilized in other areas than coral reefs. Reef coral fossils (Porites) were obtained from terrace deposits of Magdalena Island in Southern Baja California, and the methods were applied to them. At the time, the isotope compositions of Th, Pa and U in the shells of echinoderm Encope Grandis and of the living samples were examined. The estimated ages were in agreement with those of coral. It suggests that the reliable 230 Th and 231 Pa ages of sea-urchin fossils were presented for the first time and that the method is applicable to such fossils only if the conditions can be met. The results are highly significant, since the method may be used in other areas than coral reefs. (J.P.N.)

  11. AHP 47: UNCLE STON PA VISITS XI'AN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangs rgyas bkra shis སངས་རྒྱས་བཀྲ་ཤིས།

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Uncle Ston pa heard people talking about monks from his home community who visited such big cities as Beijing and Shanghai where they met many rich Chinese. They made a lot of money and then bought expensive cars and houses when they got back home. Uncle Ston pa thought about it and then decided to go to Zi ling by bus. When he arrived, he went to a store and bought an outfit of monk's clothes. By this time, he was very hungry and went to the area near the train station where many Tibetans operated businesses. He met a man he knew and said, "Hello! What are you doing here? Such a lucky coincidence to meet you here!"

  12. Evolution of the solar 'constant'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, M J

    1980-06-01

    Variations in solar luminosity over geological time are discussed in light of the effect of the solar constant on the evolution of life on earth. Consideration is given to long-term (5 - 7% in a billion years) increases in luminosity due to the conversion of hydrogen into helium in the solar interior, temporary enhancements to solar luminosity due to the accretion of matter from the interstellar medium at intervals on the order of 100 million years, and small-amplitude rapid fluctuations of luminosity due to the stochastic nature of convection on the solar surface. It is noted that encounters with dense interstellar clouds could have had serious consequences for life on earth due to the peaking of the accretion-induced luminosity variation at short wavelengths.

  13. Determination of the time to failure curve as a function of stress for a highly irradiated AISI 304 stainless steel after constant load tests in simulated PWR water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokor, C.; Massoud, J.P.; Wintergerst, M.; Toivonen, A.; Ehrnsten, U.; Karlsen, W.

    2011-01-01

    The structures of Reactor Pressure Vessel Internals are subjected to an intense neutron flux. Under these operating conditions, the microstructure and the mechanical properties of the austenitic stainless steel components change. In addition, these components are subjected to stress of either manufacturing origin or generated under operation. Cases of baffle bolts cracking have occurred in CP0 Nuclear Power Plant units. The mechanism of degradation of these bolts is Irradiation-Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking. In order to obtain a better understanding of this mechanism and its principal parameters of influence, a set of stress corrosion tests (mainly constant load tests) were launched within the framework of the EDF project 'PWR Internals' using materials from a Chooz A baffle corner (SA 304). These tests aim to quantify the influence on IASCC of the applied stress, temperature and environment (primary water, higher lithium concentration, inert environment) for an irradiation dose close to 30 dpa. A curve showing time to failure as a function of the stress was determined. The shape of this curve is consistent with the few data that are available in the literature. A stress threshold of about 50 % of the yield strength value at the test temperature has been determined, below which cracking in that environment seems impossible. After irradiation this material is sensitive to intergranular fracture in a primary environment, but also in an inert environment (argon) at 340 C. The tests also showed a negative effect of increased lithium concentration on the time to failure and on the stress threshold. (authors)

  14. Statistical Analysis of the Random Telegraph Noise in a 1.1 μm Pixel, 8.3 MP CMOS Image Sensor Using On-Chip Time Constant Extraction Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Calvin Yi-Ping; Tu, Honyih; Wu, Thomas Meng-Hsiu; Chou, Kuo-Yu; Yeh, Shang-Fu; Yin, Chin; Lee, Chih-Lin

    2017-11-23

    A study of the random telegraph noise (RTN) of a 1.1 μm pitch, 8.3 Mpixel CMOS image sensor (CIS) fabricated in a 45 nm backside-illumination (BSI) technology is presented in this paper. A noise decomposition scheme is used to pinpoint the noise source. The long tail of the random noise (RN) distribution is directly linked to the RTN from the pixel source follower (SF). The full 8.3 Mpixels are classified into four categories according to the observed RTN histogram peaks. A theoretical formula describing the RTN as a function of the time difference between the two phases of the correlated double sampling (CDS) is derived and validated by measured data. An on-chip time constant extraction method is developed and applied to the RTN analysis. The effects of readout circuit bandwidth on the settling ratios of the RTN histograms are investigated and successfully accounted for in a simulation using a RTN behavior model.

  15. Simplified operation manual PA-720 particle counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, V.F.

    1980-01-01

    The model PA-720 Automatic Particle Size Analyzer is a simple, relatively high speed device designed to provide accurate size distributions in both tabular and graphic forms. This model has two dynamic ranges; 50 to 2500 microns and 200 to 1600 microns. This is an abbreviated version of the manufacturer's operating manual. It provides all the necessary information for the novice and experienced user. For more detailed explanations and servicing procedures one should reference the full manual

  16. Characterization by EPR of radicals in HDPE, PA6 and HDPE/PA6 blend irradiated with gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, P. [Centro de Fisica, Instituto Venezolano de Investigacion Cientifica IVIC, Carretera Panamericana Km. 11, A.P. 21827, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela); Albano, C.; Lovera, D. [Centro de Quimica, IVIC (Venezuela); Perera, R. [Departamento de Mecanica, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela)

    2003-07-01

    Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), we studied the tree radical formation in high-density Polyethylene (HDPE), polyamide (PA6) and HDPE/PA6 (80/20)blend, irradiated with integral doses (D), 0 < D < 1000 KGy, with a dose rate of irradiation in air of 6.6 KGy/h. Typical spectra indicative of the formation of allyl, alkyl and poly enyl radicals were obtained. A decay in the total number of spins per gram (C/g), when the samples are aged by a period of time of 30 days, was found, which is typical of a recombination of radicals with their environment. Additionally, a different order fit for the C/g as a function of D was obtained, which is indicative of the complex behavior of the kinetics of the decomposition. (Author)

  17. Simplified PCR protocols for INNO-LiPA HBV Genotyping and INNO-LiPA HBV PreCore assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qutub, Mohammed O.; Germer, Jeffrey J.; Rebers, Sjoerd P. H.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Beld, Marcel G. H. M.; Yao, Joseph D. C.

    2006-01-01

    INNO-LiPA HBV Genotyping (LiPA HBV GT) and INNO-LiPA HBV PreCore (LiPA HBV PC) are commercially available assays for hepatitis B virus (HBV) characterization. These assays are labor-intensive and may be prone to exogenous DNA contamination due to their use of nested PCR amplification procedures and

  18. Kinetic characterization of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and t-PA deletion mutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, C. [=Carlie J. M.; Veerman, H.; Nesheim, M. E.; Pannekoek, H.

    1991-01-01

    The binding of t-PA to fibrin is mediated both by its "finger" (F) and its "kringle 2" (K2) domain. In addition, these domains are involved in the stimulation of t-PA activity by fibrin. We analyzed the kinetic characteristics of Glu-plasminogen activation by t-PA and a set of t-PA deletion mutants

  19. Plasminogen activation independent of uPA and tPA maintains wound healing in gene-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Leif R; Green, Kirsty A; Stoop, Allart A

    2006-01-01

    Simultaneous ablation of the two known activators of plasminogen (Plg), urokinase-type (uPA) and the tissue-type (tPA), results in a substantial delay in skin wound healing. However, wound closure and epidermal re-epithelialization are significantly less impaired in uPA;tPA double-deficient mice ...

  20. Spectrophotometric determination of association constant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Least-squares 'Systematic Trial-and-Error Procedure' (STEP) for spectrophotometric evaluation of association constant (equilibrium constant) K and molar absorption coefficient E for a 1:1 molecular complex, A + B = C, with error analysis according to Conrow et al. (1964). An analysis of the Charge...

  1. An innovative high-power constant-current pulsed-arc power-supply for a high-density pulsed-arc-plasma ion-source using a LaB6-filament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, A; Oguri, H; Ikegami, K; Namekawa, Y; Ohkoshi, K; Tokuchi, A

    2010-02-01

    An innovative high-power constant-current (CC) pulsed-arc (PA) power-supply (PS) indispensable for a high-density PA plasma ion-source using a lanthanum hexaboride (LaB(6)) filament was devised by combining a constant-voltage (CV) PA-PS, which is composed of an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) switch, a CV direct-current (dc) PS and a 270 mF capacitor with a CC-PA-PS, which is composed of an IGBT-switch, a CC-dc-PS and a 400 microH inductor, through the inductor. The hybrid-CC-PA-PS succeeded in producing a flat arc-pulse with a peak power of 56 kW (400 A x 140 V) and a duty factor of more than 1.5% (600 micros x 25 Hz) for Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) H(-) ion-source stably. It also succeeded in shortening the 99% rising-time of the arc-pulse-current to about 20 micros and tilting up or down the arc-pulse-current arbitrarily and almost linearly by changing the setting voltage of its CV-dc-PS.

  2. An innovative high-power constant-current pulsed-arc power-supply for a high-density pulsed-arc-plasma ion-source using a LaB6-filament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, A.; Oguri, H.; Ikegami, K.; Namekawa, Y.; Ohkoshi, K.; Tokuchi, A.

    2010-01-01

    An innovative high-power constant-current (CC) pulsed-arc (PA) power-supply (PS) indispensable for a high-density PA plasma ion-source using a lanthanum hexaboride (LaB 6 ) filament was devised by combining a constant-voltage (CV) PA-PS, which is composed of an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) switch, a CV direct-current (dc) PS and a 270 mF capacitor with a CC-PA-PS, which is composed of an IGBT-switch, a CC-dc-PS and a 400 μH inductor, through the inductor. The hybrid-CC-PA-PS succeeded in producing a flat arc-pulse with a peak power of 56 kW (400 Ax140 V) and a duty factor of more than 1.5%(600 μsx25 Hz) for Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) H - ion-source stably. It also succeeded in shortening the 99% rising-time of the arc-pulse-current to about 20 μs and tilting up or down the arc-pulse-current arbitrarily and almost linearly by changing the setting voltage of its CV-dc-PS.

  3. Four-dimensional dose distributions of step-and-shoot IMRT delivered with real-time tumor tracking for patients with irregular breathing: Constant dose rate vs dose rate regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaocheng; Han-Oh, Sarah; Gui Minzhi; Niu Ying; Yu, Cedric X.; Yi Byongyong

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Dose-rate-regulated tracking (DRRT) is a tumor tracking strategy that programs the MLC to track the tumor under regular breathing and adapts to breathing irregularities during delivery using dose rate regulation. Constant-dose-rate tracking (CDRT) is a strategy that dynamically repositions the beam to account for intrafractional 3D target motion according to real-time information of target location obtained from an independent position monitoring system. The purpose of this study is to illustrate the differences in the effectiveness and delivery accuracy between these two tracking methods in the presence of breathing irregularities. Methods: Step-and-shoot IMRT plans optimized at a reference phase were extended to remaining phases to generate 10-phased 4D-IMRT plans using segment aperture morphing (SAM) algorithm, where both tumor displacement and deformation were considered. A SAM-based 4D plan has been demonstrated to provide better plan quality than plans not considering target deformation. However, delivering such a plan requires preprogramming of the MLC aperture sequence. Deliveries of the 4D plans using DRRT and CDRT tracking approaches were simulated assuming the breathing period is either shorter or longer than the planning day, for 4 IMRT cases: two lung and two pancreatic cases with maximum GTV centroid motion greater than 1 cm were selected. In DRRT, dose rate was regulated to speed up or slow down delivery as needed such that each planned segment is delivered at the planned breathing phase. In CDRT, MLC is separately controlled to follow the tumor motion, but dose rate was kept constant. In addition to breathing period change, effect of breathing amplitude variation on target and critical tissue dose distribution is also evaluated. Results: Delivery of preprogrammed 4D plans by the CDRT method resulted in an average of 5% increase in target dose and noticeable increase in organs at risk (OAR) dose when patient breathing is either 10% faster or

  4. Effects of the reduction of the hydraulic retention time to 1.5 days at constant organic loading in CSTR, ASBR, and fixed-bed reactors – Performance and methanogenic community composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Thomas; Ziganshin, Ayrat M.; Nikolausz, Marcell; Scholwin, Frank; Nelles, Michael; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Pröter, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The hydraulic retention time (HRT) is one of the key parameters in biogas processes and often it is postulated that a minimum HRT of 10–25 days is obligatory in continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) to prevent a washout of slow growing methanogens. In this study the effects of the reduction of the HRT from 6 to 1.5 days on performance and methanogenic community composition in different systems with and without immobilization operated with simulated thin stillage (STS) at mesophilic conditions and constant organic loading rates (OLR) of 10 g L −1 d −1 of volatile solids were investigated. With the reduction of the HRT process instability was first observed in the anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) (at HRT of 3 days) followed by the CSTR (at HRT of 2 days). The fixed bed reactor (FBR) was stable until the end of the experiment, but the reduction of the HRT to 1.5 days caused a decrease of the specific biogas production to about 450 L kg −1 of VS compared to about 600 L kg −1 of VS at HRTs of 4–5 days. Methanoculleus and Methanosarcina were the dominant genera under stable process conditions in the CSTR and the ASBR and members of Methanosaeta and Methanospirillum were only present at HRT of 4 days and lower. In the effluent of the FBR Methanosarcina spp. were not detected and Methanosaeta spp. were more abundant then in the other reactors. - Highlights: • A CSTR was operated at high OLR of 10 (g L −1  d −1  VS) and low HRT of 3 days. • Exceeding washout of methanogenic archaea did not take place. • pH and nutrient concentrations influenced the reproduction rate more than HRT. • Methanoculleus and Methanosarcina were the dominant genera in the CSTR

  5. Comparison of the rate constants for energy transfer in the light-harvesting protein, C-phycocyanin, calculated from Foerster`s theory and experimentally measured by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debreczeny, Martin Paul [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    We have measured and assigned rate constants for energy transfer between chromophores in the light-harvesting protein C-phycocyanin (PC), in the monomeric and trimeric aggregation states, isolated from Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. In order to compare the measured rate constants with those predicted by Fdrster`s theory of inductive resonance in the weak coupling limit, we have experimentally resolved several properties of the three chromophore types ({beta}{sub 155} {alpha}{sub 84}, {beta}{sub 84}) found in PC monomers, including absorption and fluorescence spectra, extinction coefficients, fluorescence quantum yields, and fluorescence lifetimes. The cpcB/C155S mutant, whose PC is missing the {beta}{sub 155} chromophore, was, useful in effecting the resolution of the chromophore properties and in assigning the experimentally observed rate constants for energy transfer to specific pathways.

  6. Predicted formation constants using the unified theory of metal ion complexation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, P.L.; Wanner, H.

    1987-01-01

    Formation constants are listed for standard conditions, i.e., 298.15K (25 0 C), 10 5 Pa, and zero ionic strength for a number of species containing selected elements (Am, Cs, Np, Pa, Pb, Pd, Pu, Ra, Sn, Sr, Tc, Th, U) and ligands (hydroxide, fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, iodate, sulphate, ammonia, nitrate, hydrogen phosphate, dihydrogen phosphate, carbonate, bicarbonate, oxalate, formate, thiocyanate, acetate, benzoate, catecholate, ethylenediamine, glycinate, glycollate and phenolate) that have been considered important for nuclear technology. 16 refs

  7. Stent-retriever thrombectomy after intravenous t-PA vs. t-PA alone in stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saver, Jeffrey L; Goyal, Mayank; Bonafe, Alain

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Among patients with acute ischemic stroke due to occlusions in the proximal anterior intracranial circulation, less than 40% regain functional independence when treated with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) alone. Thrombectomy with the use of a stent retriever, in addit...

  8. Production and identification of an isomeric state in 217Pa and the new isotope 218Pa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, K.H.; Faust, W.; Muenzenberg, G.; Ewald, H.; Guettner, K.; Clerc, H.G.; Lang, W.; Wohlfarth, H.; Pielenz, K.

    1977-02-01

    Evaporation residues produced in the reaction 40Ar(176 MeV) + 181Ta were separated from the primary beam by the velocity filter SHIP and detected by a ΔE-E counter telescope. The technique of delayed coincidences was applied to individually identify the reaction products implanted into a Si-surface barrier detector by their subsequent alpha decays. The previously unknown nucleus 218Pa was identified by its known daughter decays. 218Pa was found to decay with Esub(α) = (9.614 +- 0.015) MeV, T(1/2) = (140 +- 50) μs and probably also with Esub(α) = (9.535 +- 0.020) MeV, T(1/2) = (150 + 100 - 50) μs. The half-life of the 8.33 MeV alpha decay of 217Pa was determined to be (o.2 +- 0.4) ms. Anew isomer in 217 Pa was found which decays with Esub(α) = (10.16 +- 0.02) MeV and T(1/2) = (1.8 +- 0.5) ms. (orig./BJ) [de

  9. Overexpression of PaFT gene in the wild orchid Phalaenopsis amabilis (L.) Blume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiarti, Endang; Mercuriani, Ixora S.; Rizal, Rinaldi; Slamet, Agus; Utami, Bekti S.; Bestari, Ida A.; Aziz-Purwantoro, Moeljopawiro, S.; Jang, Soenghoe; Machida, Y.; Machida, C.

    2015-09-01

    To shorten vegetative stage and induce transition from vegetative to reproductive stage in orchids, we overexpressed Phalaenopsis amabilis Flowering LocusT (PaFT) gene under the control of Ubiquitin promoter into protocorm of Indonesian Wild Orchid Phalaenopsis amabilis (L.) Blume. The dynamic expression of vegetative gene Phalaenopsis Homeobox1 (POH1) and flowering time gene PaFT has been analyzed. Accumulation of mRNA was detected in shoot and leaves of both transgenic and non transgenic plants by using Reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) with specific gene primers for POH1 and PaFT in 24 months old plants. To analyze the POH1 and PaFT genes, three pairs of degenerate primers PaFT degF1R1, F2R2 and F3R3 that amplified 531 bp PaFT cDNA were used. We detected 700 bp PaFTcDNA from leaves and shoots of transgenic plants, but not in NT plants. POH1 mRNA was detected in plants. PaFT protein consists of Phospatidyl Ethanolamine-Binding Protein (PEBP) in interval base 73-483 and CETS family protein at base 7-519, which are important motif for transmembrane protein. We inserted Ubipro::PaFT/pGAS101 into P. amabilis protocorm using Agrobacterium. Analysis of transgenic plants showed that PaFTmRNA was accumulated in leaves of 12 months after sowing, although it is not detected in non transgeic plants. Compare to the wild type (NT plants), ectopic expression of PaFT shows alter phenotype as follows: 31% normal, 19% with short-wavy leaves, 5% form rosette leaves and 45% produced multishoots. Analysis of protein profiles of trasgenic plants showed that a putative PaFT protein (MW 19,7 kDa) was produced in 1eaves and shoots.This means that at 12 months, POH1 gene expression gradually decreased/negatively regulated, the expression of PaFT gene was activated, although there is no flower initiation yet. Some environmental factors might play a role to induce inflorescens. This experiment is in progress.

  10. 76 FR 59503 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Lebanon, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ...-0558; Airspace Docket No. 11-AEA-13] Establishment of Class E Airspace; Lebanon, PA AGENCY: Federal... at Lebanon, PA, to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures that have been developed... amend Class E airspace 700 feet above the surface, at Lebanon, PA (76 FR 39038). Subsequent to...

  11. Fast optimization algorithms and the cosmological constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Ning; Bousso, Raphael; Jordan, Stephen; Lackey, Brad

    2017-11-01

    Denef and Douglas have observed that in certain landscape models the problem of finding small values of the cosmological constant is a large instance of a problem that is hard for the complexity class NP (Nondeterministic Polynomial-time). The number of elementary operations (quantum gates) needed to solve this problem by brute force search exceeds the estimated computational capacity of the observable Universe. Here we describe a way out of this puzzling circumstance: despite being NP-hard, the problem of finding a small cosmological constant can be attacked by more sophisticated algorithms whose performance vastly exceeds brute force search. In fact, in some parameter regimes the average-case complexity is polynomial. We demonstrate this by explicitly finding a cosmological constant of order 10-120 in a randomly generated 1 09-dimensional Arkani-Hamed-Dimopoulos-Kachru landscape.

  12. The Nature of the Cosmological Constant Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, M. D.; Capistrano, A. J. S.; Monte, E. M.

    General relativity postulates the Minkowski space-time as the standard (flat) geometry against which we compare all curved space-times and also as the gravitational ground state where particles, quantum fields and their vacua are defined. On the other hand, experimental evidences tell that there exists a non-zero cosmological constant, which implies in a deSitter ground state, which not compatible with the assumed Minkowski structure. Such inconsistency is an evidence of the missing standard of curvature in Riemann's geometry, which in general relativity manifests itself in the form of the cosmological constant problem. We show how the lack of a curvature standard in Riemann's geometry can be fixed by Nash's theorem on metric perturbations. The resulting higher dimensional gravitational theory is more general than general relativity, similar to brane-world gravity, but where the propagation of the gravitational field along the extra dimensions is a mathematical necessity, rather than a postulate. After a brief introduction to Nash's theorem, we show that the vacuum energy density must remain confined to four-dimensional space-times, but the cosmological constant resulting from the contracted Bianchi identity represents a gravitational term which is not confined. In this case, the comparison between the vacuum energy and the cosmological constant in general relativity does not make sense. Instead, the geometrical fix provided by Nash's theorem suggests that the vacuum energy density contributes to the perturbations of the gravitational field.

  13. Simulated annealing with constant thermodynamic speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamon, P.; Ruppeiner, G.; Liao, L.; Pedersen, J.

    1987-01-01

    Arguments are presented to the effect that the optimal annealing schedule for simulated annealing proceeds with constant thermodynamic speed, i.e., with dT/dt = -(v T)/(ε-√C), where T is the temperature, ε- is the relaxation time, C ist the heat capacity, t is the time, and v is the thermodynamic speed. Experimental results consistent with this conjecture are presented from simulated annealing on graph partitioning problems. (orig.)

  14. From the Rydberg constant to the fundamental constants metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nez, F.

    2005-06-01

    This document reviews the theoretical and experimental achievements of the author since the beginning of his scientific career. This document is dedicated to the spectroscopy of hydrogen, deuterium and helium atoms. The first part is divided into 6 sub-sections: 1) the principles of hydrogen spectroscopy, 2) the measurement of the 2S-nS/nD transitions, 3) other optical frequency measurements, 4) our contribution to the determination of the Rydberg constant, 5) our current experiment on the 1S-3S transition, 6) the spectroscopy of the muonic hydrogen. Our experiments have improved the accuracy of the Rydberg Constant by a factor 25 in 15 years and we have achieved the first absolute optical frequency measurement of a transition in hydrogen. The second part is dedicated to the measurement of the fine structure constant and the last part deals with helium spectroscopy and the search for optical references in the near infrared range. (A.C.)

  15. Temperature affects thrombolytic efficacy using rt-PA and eptifibatide, an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Jason M; Chang, Wan-Tsu W; Bluett, Brent; Wenker, Evan; Lindsell, Christopher J; Shaw, George J

    2012-09-01

    The potential for hypothermia as a neuroprotectant during stroke has led to its increase in clinical use. At the same time, combination pharmaceutical therapies for ischemic stroke using recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA), and GP IIb-IIIa inhibitors, such as Eptifibatide (Epf ), are under study. However, there is little data on how the reactions triggered by these agents are impacted by temperature. Here, clot lysis during exposure to the combination of rt-PA and Epf is measured in an in vitro human clot model at hypothermic temperatures. The hypothesis is that lytic efficacy of rt-PA and Epf decreases with decreasing temperature. Whole blood clots from 31 volunteers were exposed to rt-PA (0.5 μg/mL) and Epf (0.63 μg/mL) in human fresh-frozen plasma (rt-PA+Epf ), rt-PA alone in plasma (rt-PA Alone), or to plasma alone (Control), at temperatures from 30°C to 37°C, for 30 minutes. Clot lysis was measured using a microscopic imaging technique; the mean fractional clot loss (FCL) at 30 minutes was used to determine lytic efficacy. Temperature had a significant impact on FCL in clots exposed to rt-PA+Epf, with the FCL being lower at 30°C to 36°C than at 37°C. The FCL remained significantly higher for rt-PA+Epf–treated clots than Controls regardless of temperature, with the exception of measurements made at 30°C when no significant differences in the FCL were observed between groups. The use of hypothermia as a neuroprotectant may negatively impact the therapeutic benefit of thrombolytic agents.

  16. Barriers and Motives to PA in South Asian Indian Immigrant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Manju; Abendroth, Maryann; Erlen, Judith A

    2017-03-01

    The high prevalence of chronic illnesses in South Asian Indian immigrant women underscores the need for identifying factors that could influence their PA. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the perspectives of South Asian Indian immigrant women related to barriers to and motives for lifestyle PA within the PA Framework for South Asian Indian Immigrants. Forty women participated in focus groups that were conducted in English and Hindi. Focus group questions were open-ended and semistructured. Transcribed and de-identified audiotaped sessions were coded and analyzed using Atlas.ti software. Role expectation was a core theme for barriers with four subthemes: lack of time, loss of interest, diminished social support, and environmental constraints. Self-motivation was a core theme for motives with three subthemes: optimal physical and psychological health, emphasis on external beauty, and strong social support. Future PA interventions need to target these culturally sensitive factors.

  17. 76 FR 36395 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-24, PA-24-250, and PA-24-260 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ...-0639; Directorate Identifier 2011-CE-016-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft... identified in this proposed AD, contact Piper Aircraft, Inc., 2926 Piper Drive, Vero Beach, Florida 32960... September 15, 2004. This SAIB alerted owners and operators of Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Piper) Models PA-23, PA...

  18. From the Rydberg constant to the fundamental constants metrology; De la constante de Rydberg a la metrologie des constantes fondamentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nez, F

    2005-06-15

    This document reviews the theoretical and experimental achievements of the author since the beginning of his scientific career. This document is dedicated to the spectroscopy of hydrogen, deuterium and helium atoms. The first part is divided into 6 sub-sections: 1) the principles of hydrogen spectroscopy, 2) the measurement of the 2S-nS/nD transitions, 3) other optical frequency measurements, 4) our contribution to the determination of the Rydberg constant, 5) our current experiment on the 1S-3S transition, 6) the spectroscopy of the muonic hydrogen. Our experiments have improved the accuracy of the Rydberg Constant by a factor 25 in 15 years and we have achieved the first absolute optical frequency measurement of a transition in hydrogen. The second part is dedicated to the measurement of the fine structure constant and the last part deals with helium spectroscopy and the search for optical references in the near infrared range. (A.C.)

  19. Systematics of constant roll inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguelova, Lilia; Suranyi, Peter; Wijewardhana, L. C. R.

    2018-02-01

    We study constant roll inflation systematically. This is a regime, in which the slow roll approximation can be violated. It has long been thought that this approximation is necessary for agreement with observations. However, recently it was understood that there can be inflationary models with a constant, and not necessarily small, rate of roll that are both stable and compatible with the observational constraint ns ≈ 1. We investigate systematically the condition for such a constant-roll regime. In the process, we find a whole new class of inflationary models, in addition to the known solutions. We show that the new models are stable under scalar perturbations. Finally, we find a part of their parameter space, in which they produce a nearly scale-invariant scalar power spectrum, as needed for observational viability.

  20. The influence of nepheloid layers on global model simulations of 231Pa and 230Th.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, C.; Plancherel, Y.; Khatiwala, S.; Anderson, R. F.

    2016-12-01

    231Pa and 230Th in the ocean are produced at a constant ratio by Uranium decay but adsorption onto particles removes these tracers differentially. This fractionation process makes it possible to use the elemental 231Pa/230Th ratio as a paleoceanography proxy, frequently used for deriving the strength of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. The removal process, however, is further complicated by the abundance and composition of the available particle types. Understanding how dissolved tracers interact with the particle field in the ocean is key to better understand the biogeochemical cycling of these particle-reactive elements and their use as a flux tracer in present and past oceans. We here present simulations of the 231Pa/230Th ratio using the Transport Matrix Method (TMM, Khatiwala, 2007), focusing especially on the role of the nepheloid layer in controlling the distribution of these radiotracers. The model simulates each tracer separately, with advective-diffusive transport based on the ECCO ocean state estimate (Stammer et al., 2004). Sources include production by Uranium decay and dust dissolution. Radioactive decay and importantly, reversible scavenging and sedimentation are the main sinks that control the removal of the radiotracers. Similar to previous studies, we consider particle fields consisting of calcium carbonate, opal, particle organic matter, and dust. A novelty is that we explicitly consider the influence of an additional bottom particle layer (nepheloid). Simulations that include a nepheloid layer produce vertical profiles that better fit the observed distribution of 230Th and 231Pa. Specifically, observational data in the South Atlantic and eastern South Pacific indicate a mid-depth inflection (for both Pa and Th), a feature that can only be obtained if a nepheloid layer is included in the simulation. Our simulations reinforce the idea that nepheloid layers play an important role in Pa and Th cycling in the ocean (Deng et al., 2014

  1. Strain fluctuations and elastic constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrinello, M.; Rahman, A.

    1982-03-01

    It is shown that the elastic strain fluctuations are a direct measure of elastic compliances in a general anisotropic medium; depending on the ensemble in which the fluctuation is measured either the isothermal or the adiabatic compliances are obtained. These fluctuations can now be calculated in a constant enthalpy and pressure, and hence, constant entropy, ensemble due to recent develpments in the molecular dynamics techniques. A calculation for a Ni single crystal under uniform uniaxial 100 tensile or compressive load is presented as an illustration of the relationships derived between various strain fluctuations and the elastic modulii. The Born stability criteria and the behavior of strain fluctuations are shown to be related.

  2. Effect of oxygen plasma treatment on adhesion improvement of Au deposited on Pa-c substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Hoon; Hwang, Kyo Seon; Kim, Tae Song; Seong, Jin Wook; Yoon, Ki Hyun; Ahn, Sae Young

    2004-01-01

    Adhesion of gold on parylene C (Pa-c) is a major hurdle in achieving reliable and durable performance for biosensor application due to the hydrophobicity of Pa-c. It is, therefore, imperative to put efforts to improve adhesion between Au and Pa-c. In this reseach, oxygen plasma treatment for adhesion improvement was performed on Pa-c surfaces at various plasma powers and times. To analyze the relation of surface energy and roughness to adhesion promotion, we used several techniques such as contact-angle, surface-energy, surface-roughness, and adhesion analyses. As the oxygen plasma power and time were increased, the surface roughness of Pa-c increased. Also, Au films had larger and more uniform grain sizes as the oxygen plasma power and time were increased. Untreated surfaces revealed a contact angle of 108 .deg. , but the contact angle drastically decreased in the initial stage of oxygen plasma treatment and slowly decreased with increasing power and time to values of 27.3 and 34, respectively. From the adhesion analysis, adhesion was improved as the plasma power or time was increased. The improvement of adhesion is related to an increase in roughness as well as carbonyl groups.

  3. Universal relation between spectroscopic constants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (3) The author has used eq. (6) of his paper to calculate De. This relation leads to a large deviation from the correct value depending upon the extent to which experimental values are known. Guided by this fact, in our work, we used experimentally observed De values to derive the relation between spectroscopic constants.

  4. Constant displacement rate testing at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepe, J.J.; Gonyea, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    A short time test has been developed which is capable of determining the long time notch sensitivity tendencies of CrMoV rotor forging materials. This test is based on Constant Displacement Rate (CDR) testing of a specific notch bar specimen at 1200 0 F at 2 mils/in/hour displacement rate. These data were correlated to conventional smooth and notch bar rupture behavior for a series of CrMoV materials with varying long time ductility tendencies. The purpose of this paper is to describe the details of this new test procedure and some of the relevant mechanics of material information generated during its development

  5. Collective and single-particle excitations in the heavy deformable nuclei 234U, 233U, 231Th, 230Pa and 232Pa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotthaus, Tanja

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis five heavy deformed isotopes from the mass region A≥230, namely 234 U, 233 U, 231 Th, 230 Pa and 232 Pa, were investigated by means of deuteron-induced neutron transfer reactions. The even-even isotope 234 U has been studied with the 4π-γ-spectrometer MINIBALL at the Cologne Tandem accelerator. Excited nuclei in the isotope 234 U were produced using the reaction 235 U(d,t) at a beam energy of 11 MeV. The target thickness was 3.5 mg/cm 2 . The analysis of the γγ-coincidence data yielded a reinterpretation of the level scheme in 12 cases. Considering its decay characteristics, the 4 + state at an excitation energy of 1886.7 keV is a potential candidate for a two-phonon vibrational state. The isotopes 233 U, 231 Th, 230 Pa and 232 Pa were investigated at the Munich Q3D spectrometer. For each isotope an angular distribution with angles between 5 and 45 were measured. In all four cases the energy of the polarized deuteron beam (vector polarization of 80%) was 22 MeV. As targets 234 U (160 μg/cm 2 ), 230 Th (140 μg/cm 2 ) and 231 Pa (140 μg/cm 2 ) were used. The experimental angular distributions were compared to results of DWBA calculations. For the odd isotope 233 U spin and parity for 33 states are assigned and in the other odd isotope 231 Th 22 assignments are made. The excitation spectra of the two odd-odd isotopes 230 Pa and 232 Pa were investigated for the first time. For the isotope 230 Pa 63 states below an excitation energy of 1.5 MeV are identified. Based on the new experimental data the Nilsson configuration of the ground state is either 1/2[530] p -5/2[633] n or 1/2[530] p +3/2[631] n . In addition 12 rotational bands are proposed and from this six values for the GM splitting energy are deduced as well as two new values for the Newby shift. In the other odd-odd isotope 232 Pa 40 states below an excitation energy of 850 keV are observed and suggestions for the groundstate band and its GM partner are made. From this one GM splitting

  6. Cosmological Constant and the Final Anthropic Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Cirkovic, Milan M.; Bostrom, Nick

    1999-01-01

    The influence of recent detections of a finite vacuum energy ("cosmological constant") on our formulation of anthropic conjectures, particularly the so-called Final Anthropic Principle is investigated. It is shown that non-zero vacuum energy implies the onset of a quasi-exponential expansion of our causally connected domain ("the universe") at some point in the future, a stage similar to the inflationary expansion at the very beginning of time. The transition to this future inflationary phase...

  7. Differential expression of the lethal gene Luteus-Pa in cacao of the Parinari series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehem, B C; Almeida, A-A F; Figueiredo, G S F; Gesteira, A S; Santos, S C; Corrêa, R X; Yamada, M M; Valle, R R

    2016-02-22

    The recessive lethal character Luteus-Pa is found in cacao (Theobroma cacao) genotypes of the Parinari series (Pa) and is characterized by expression of leaf chlorosis and seedling death. Several genotypes of the Pa series are bearers of the gene responsible for the expression of the Luteus-Pa character, which can be used as a tool for determining relationships between genotypes of this group. To evaluate this phenomenon, we analyzed the differential expression of genes between mutant seedlings and wild-type hybrid Pa 30 x 169 seedlings, with the aim of elucidating the possible lethal mechanisms of the homozygous recessive character Luteus-Pa. Plant material was harvested from leaves of wild and mutant seedlings at different periods to construct a subtractive library and perform quantitative analysis using real-time PCR. The 649 sequences obtained from the subtractive library had an average length of 500 bp, forming 409 contigs. The probable proteins encoded were grouped into 10 functional categories. Data from ESTs identified genes associated with Rubisco, peroxidases, and other proteins and enzymes related to carbon assimilation, respiration, and photosystem 2. Mutant seedlings were characterized by synthesizing defective PsbO and PsbA proteins, which were overexpressed from 15 to 20 days after seedling emergence.

  8. Time required for partial pressure of arterial oxygen equilibration during mechanical ventilation after a step change in fractional inspired oxygen concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakar, N; Tuŏrul, M; Demirarslan, A; Nahum, A; Adams, A; Akýncý, O; Esen, F; Telci, L

    2001-04-01

    To determine the time required for the partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) to reach equilibrium after a 0.20 increment or decrement in fractional inspired oxygen concentration (FIO2) during mechanical ventilation. A multi-disciplinary ICU in a university hospital. Twenty-five adult, non-COPD patients with stable blood gas values (PaO2/FIO2 > or = 180 on the day of the study) on pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV). Following a baseline PaO2 (PaO2b) measurement at FIO2 = 0.35, the FIO2 was increased to 0.55 for 30 min and then decreased to 0.35 without any other change in ventilatory parameters. Sequential blood gas measurements were performed at 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 15, 20, 25 and 30 min in both periods. The PaO2 values measured at the 30th min after a step change in FIO2 (FIO2 = 0.55, PaO2[55] and FIO2 = 0.35, PaO2[35]) were accepted as representative of the equilibrium values for PaO2. Each patient's rise and fall in PaO2 over time, PaO2(t), were fitted to the following respective exponential equations: PaO2b + (PaO2[55]-PaO2b)(1-e-kt) and PaO2[55] + (PaO2[35]-PaO2[55])(e-kt) where "t" refers to time, PaO2[55] and PaO2[35] are the final PaO2 values obtained at a new FIO2 of 0.55 and 0.35, after a 0.20 increment and decrement in FIO2, respectively. Time constant "k" was determined by a non-linear fitting curve and 90% oxygenation times were defined as the time required to reach 90% of the final equilibrated PaO2 calculated by using the non-linear fitting curves. Time constant values for the rise and fall periods were 1.01 +/- 0.71 min-1, 0.69 +/- 0.42 min-1, respectively, and 90% oxygenation times for rises and falls in PaO2 periods were 4.2 +/- 4.1 min-1 and 5.5 +/- 4.8 min-1, respectively. There was no significant difference between the rise and fall periods for the two parameters (p > 0.05). We conclude that in stable patients ventilated with PCV, after a step change in FIO2 of 0.20, 5-10 min will be adequate for obtaining a blood gas sample to measure a Pa

  9. Comparison of the binding constant (Ksub(D)) of /sup 125/I-labelled 3-(4-iodophenoxy)-1-isopropylaminopropan-2-ol obtained on. beta. -adrenoceptors in guinea-pig myocardial membranes, with its dissociation constants (Ksub(B)) obtained on guinea-pig isolated atria and trachea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Donnell, S R [Queensland Univ., Brisbane (Australia). Dept. Of Physiology; Woodcock, E A

    1978-02-01

    The dissociation constant of binding (Ksub(D) of /sup 125/I-labelled 3-(4-iodophenoxy)-isopropylaminopropan-2-ol (IIP) to guinea pig myocardial membrane preparations was 2.2 x 10/sup -8/M. In pharmacological experiments with non-labelled material and 60 min contact time, IIP produced a parallel shift in the orciprenaline concentration-response line on guinea-pig isolated tracheal and atrial preparations. The dissociation constant (Ksub(B) of IIP was 2.9 x 10/sup -8/M on atria (pA/sub 2/ 7.54) and 3.3 x 10/sup -8/M on trachea (PA/sub 2/ 7.48). These values indicate that IIP is not a selective B-adrenoceptor blocking drug. In addition, agreement was found between the affinity constant of this antagonist for B-adrenoceptors as determined by a direct binding study and an indirect pharmacological study.

  10. Sample Scripts for Generating PaGE-OM XML [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Sample Scripts for Generating PaGE-OM XML This page is offering some sample scripts...on MySQL. Outline chart of procedure 6. Creating RDB tables for Generating PaGE-OM XML These scripts help yo...wnload: create_tables_sql2.zip 7. Generating PaGE-OM XML from phenotype data This sample Perl script helps y

  11. Temperature dependence of grain boundary free energy and elastic constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foiles, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    This work explores the suggestion that the temperature dependence of the grain boundary free energy can be estimated from the temperature dependence of the elastic constants. The temperature-dependent elastic constants and free energy of a symmetric Σ79 tilt boundary are computed for an embedded atom method model of Ni. The grain boundary free energy scales with the product of the shear modulus times the lattice constant for temperatures up to about 0.75 the melting temperature.

  12. Large numbers hypothesis. IV - The cosmological constant and quantum physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, P. J.

    1983-01-01

    In standard physics quantum field theory is based on a flat vacuum space-time. This quantum field theory predicts a nonzero cosmological constant. Hence the gravitational field equations do not admit a flat vacuum space-time. This dilemma is resolved using the units covariant gravitational field equations. This paper shows that the field equations admit a flat vacuum space-time with nonzero cosmological constant if and only if the canonical LNH is valid. This allows an interpretation of the LNH phenomena in terms of a time-dependent vacuum state. If this is correct then the cosmological constant must be positive.

  13. Calculation of magnetic hyperfine constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bufaical, R.F.; Maffeo, B.; Brandi, H.S.

    1975-01-01

    The magnetic hyperfine constants of the V sub(K) center in CaF 2 , SrF 2 and BaF 2 have been calculated assuming a phenomenological model, based on the F 2 - 'central molucule', to describe the wavefunction of the defect. Calculations have shown that introduction of a small degree of covalence, between this central molecule and neighboring ions, is necessary to improve the electronic structure description of the defect. It was also shown that the results for the hyperfine constants are strongly dependent on the relaxations of the ions neighboring the central molecule; these relaxations have been determined by fitting the experimental data. The present results are compared with other previous calculations where similar and different theoretical methods have been used

  14. Photodissociation constant of NO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nootebos, M.A.; Bange, P.

    1992-01-01

    The velocity of the dissociation of NO 2 into ozone and NO mainly depends on the ultraviolet sunlight quantity, and with that the cloudiness. A correct value for this reaction constant is important for the accurate modelling of O 3 - and NO 2 -concentrations in plumes of electric power plants, in particular in the case of determination of the amount of photochemical summer smog. An advanced signal processing method (deconvolution, correlation) was applied on the measurements. The measurements were carried out from aeroplanes

  15. Measuring stigma in children receiving mental health treatment: Validation of the Paediatric Self-Stigmatization Scale (PaedS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, A; Papachristou, E; Dima, D; Fewings, S; Kostaki, E; Ploubidis, G B; Kyriakopoulos, M

    2017-06-01

    Research on the impact of stigma associated with mental illness in children is scarce. Considering the known negative effects of stigma associated with mental illness in adults, it is crucial to explore the stigma experienced by children who access mental health treatment. However, no scale measuring self-stigmatization in younger children is available to date. This study aimed to develop and validate such a scale, the Paediatric Self-Stigmatization Scale (PaedS). A total of 156 children (119 receiving outpatient and 37 receiving inpatient treatment), aged 8-12 years, completed the PaedS, the Self-Perception Profile for Children and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL - Child Report, ages 8-12). In addition, parents completed the PedsQL (Parent Report for Children, ages 8-12), the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and a modified subscale of the PaedS measuring the children's rejection by others due to their mental health difficulties. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that a four-factor structure, comprising Societal Devaluation, Personal Rejection, Self-Stigma and Secrecy scales, had excellent fit to the data (CFI=0.95; TLI=0.95; RMSEA=0.05). Child-reported PaedS scores were positively correlated with parental-reported PaedS scores and negatively with PedsQL, the SDQ, and 5 out of 6 subscales of the Self-Perception Profile for Children, suggesting adequate convergent validity (all P-values<0.05). The PaedS is a valid instrument, which is hoped to advance the understanding of self-stigmatization in children with mental health difficulties and contribute to its prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantum black holes and Planck's constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, D.K.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that the Planck-scale black holes of quantum gravity must obey a consistency condition relating Planck's constant to the integral of the mass of the black holes over time, if the usual path integral formulation of quantum mechanics is to make sense on physical spacetime. It is also shown, using time-dependent perturbation theory in ordinary quantum mechanics, that a massless particle will not propagate on physical spacetime with the black holes present unless the same condition is met. (author)

  17. Varying constants, black holes, and quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlip, S.

    2003-01-01

    Tentative observations and theoretical considerations have recently led to renewed interest in models of fundamental physics in which certain 'constants' vary in time. Assuming fixed black hole mass and the standard form of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, Davies, Davis and Lineweaver have argued that the laws of black hole thermodynamics disfavor models in which the fundamental electric charge e changes. I show that with these assumptions, similar considerations severely constrain 'varying speed of light' models, unless we are prepared to abandon cherished assumptions about quantum gravity. Relaxation of these assumptions permits sensible theories of quantum gravity with ''varying constants,'' but also eliminates the thermodynamic constraints, though the black hole mass spectrum may still provide some restrictions on the range of allowable models

  18. Proteasome Activators, PA28α and PA28β, Govern Development of Microvascular Injury in Diabetic Nephropathy and Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Yadranji Aghdam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN and diabetic retinopathy (DR are major complications of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. DN and DR are mainly caused by injury to the perivascular supporting cells, the mesangial cells within the glomerulus, and the pericytes in the retina. The genes and molecular mechanisms predisposing retinal and glomerular pericytes to diabetic injury are poorly characterized. In this study, the genetic deletion of proteasome activator genes, PA28α and PA28β genes, protected the diabetic mice in the experimental STZ-induced diabetes model against renal injury and retinal microvascular injury and prolonged their survival compared with wild type STZ diabetic mice. The improved wellbeing and reduced renal damage was associated with diminished expression of Osteopontin (OPN and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1 in the glomeruli of STZ-injected PA28α/PA28β double knockout (Pa28αβDKO mice and also in cultured mesangial cells and retinal pericytes isolated from Pa28αβDKO mice that were grown in high glucose. The mesangial PA28-mediated expression of OPN under high glucose conditions was suppressed by peptides capable of inhibiting the binding of PA28 to the 20S proteasome. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that diabetic hyperglycemia promotes PA28-mediated alteration of proteasome activity in vulnerable perivascular cells resulting in microvascular injury and development of DN and DR.

  19. GRUCAL, a computer program for calculating macroscopic group constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woll, D.

    1975-06-01

    Nuclear reactor calculations require material- and composition-dependent, energy averaged nuclear data to describe the interaction of neutrons with individual isotopes in material compositions of reactor zones. The code GRUCAL calculates these macroscopic group constants for given compositions from the material-dependent data of the group constant library GRUBA. The instructions for calculating group constants are not fixed in the program, but will be read at the actual execution time from a separate instruction file. This allows to accomodate GRUCAL to various problems or different group constant concepts. (orig.) [de

  20. Suppression of endothelial t-PA expression by prolonged high laminar shear stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulfhammer, Erik; Carlstroem, Maria; Bergh, Niklas; Larsson, Pia; Karlsson, Lena; Jern, Sverker

    2009-01-01

    Primary hypertension is associated with an impaired capacity for acute release of endothelial tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), which is an important local protective response to prevent thrombus extension. As hypertensive vascular remodeling potentially results in increased vascular wall shear stress, we investigated the impact of shear on regulation of t-PA. Cultured human endothelial cells were exposed to low (≤1.5 dyn/cm 2 ) or high (25 dyn/cm 2 ) laminar shear stress for up to 48 h in two different experimental models. Using real-time RT-PCR and ELISA, shear stress was observed to time and magnitude-dependently suppress t-PA transcript and protein secretion to approximately 30% of basal levels. Mechanistic experiments revealed reduced nuclear protein binding to the t-PA specific CRE element (EMSA) and an almost completely abrogated shear response with pharmacologic JNK inhibition. We conclude that prolonged high laminar shear stress suppresses endothelial t-PA expression and may therefore contribute to the enhanced risk of arterial thrombosis in hypertensive disease.

  1. 32 CFR 701.109 - Privacy Act (PA) appeals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Privacy Act (PA) appeals. 701.109 Section 701... OF THE NAVY DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC DON Privacy Program § 701.109 Privacy Act (PA) appeals. (a... commence when the appeal reaches the office of the review authority having jurisdiction over the record...

  2. Evaluation of ID-PaGIA syphilis antibody test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naaber, Paul; Makoid, Ene; Aus, Anneli; Loivukene, Krista; Poder, Airi

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory diagnosis of syphilis is usually accomplished by serology. There are currently a large number of different commercial treponemal tests available that vary in format, sensitivity and specificity. To evaluate the ID-PaGIA Syphilis Antibody Test as an alternative to other specific treponemal tests for primary screening or confirmation of diagnosis. Serum samples from healthy adults (n = 100) were used for detection of specificity of ID-PaGIA. To evaluate sensitivity of ID-PaGIA serum samples (n = 101) from patients with confirmed or suspected syphilis were tested for syphilis antibodies with FTA-Abs IgM, ID-PaGIA, ELISA IgM and TPHA tests. No false-positive results were found with ID-PaGIA. Sensitivity of various treponemal tests was the following: FTA-Abs IgM: 95.5%, ID-PaGIA and ELISA IgM: 94%, and TPHA 75%. The positive and negative predictive values of ID-PaGIA were 100 and 89.5%, respectively. Compared with other treponemal tests ID-PaGIA has excellent sensitivity and specificity.

  3. [Construction of lentiviral mediated CyPA siRNA and its functions in non-small cell lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    FENG, Yan-ming; WU, Yi-ming; TU, Xin-ming; XU, Zheng-shun; WU, Wei-dong

    2010-02-01

    To construct a lentiviral-vector-mediated CyPA small interference RNA (siRNA) and study its function in non-small cell lung cancer. First, four target sequences were selected according to CyPA mRNA sequence, the complementary DNA contained both sense and antisense oligonucleotides were designed, synthesized and cloned into the pGCL-GFP vector, which contained U6 promoter and green fluorescent protein (GFP). The resulting lentiviral vector containing CyPA shRNA was named Lv-shCyPA, and it was confirmed by PCR and sequencing. Next, it was cotransfected by Lipofectamine 2000 along with pHelper1.0 and pHelper 2.0 into 293T cells to package lentivirus particles. At the same time, the packed virus infected non-small cell lung cancer cell (A549), the level of CyPA protein at 5 d after infection was detected by Western Blot to screen the target of CyPA. A549 were infected with Lv-shCyPA and grown as xenografts in severe combined immunodeficient mice. Cell cycle and apoptosis were measured by FCM. It was confirmed by PCR and DNA sequencing that lentiviral-vector-mediated CyPA siRNA (Lv-shCyPA) producing CyPA shRNA was constructed successfully. The titer of concentrated virus were 1 x 10(7) TU/ml. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated G2-M phase (11.40% +/- 0.68%) was decreased relatively in A549/LvshCyPA compared with control groups (14.52% +/- 1.19%) (Ppathways may lead to new targeted therapies for non-small cell lung cancer.

  4. Chandra Independently Determines Hubble Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    A critically important number that specifies the expansion rate of the Universe, the so-called Hubble constant, has been independently determined using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This new value matches recent measurements using other methods and extends their validity to greater distances, thus allowing astronomers to probe earlier epochs in the evolution of the Universe. "The reason this result is so significant is that we need the Hubble constant to tell us the size of the Universe, its age, and how much matter it contains," said Max Bonamente from the University of Alabama in Huntsville and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Ala., lead author on the paper describing the results. "Astronomers absolutely need to trust this number because we use it for countless calculations." Illustration of Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect Illustration of Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect The Hubble constant is calculated by measuring the speed at which objects are moving away from us and dividing by their distance. Most of the previous attempts to determine the Hubble constant have involved using a multi-step, or distance ladder, approach in which the distance to nearby galaxies is used as the basis for determining greater distances. The most common approach has been to use a well-studied type of pulsating star known as a Cepheid variable, in conjunction with more distant supernovae to trace distances across the Universe. Scientists using this method and observations from the Hubble Space Telescope were able to measure the Hubble constant to within 10%. However, only independent checks would give them the confidence they desired, considering that much of our understanding of the Universe hangs in the balance. Chandra X-ray Image of MACS J1149.5+223 Chandra X-ray Image of MACS J1149.5+223 By combining X-ray data from Chandra with radio observations of galaxy clusters, the team determined the distances to 38 galaxy clusters ranging from 1.4 billion to 9.3 billion

  5. Low power constant fraction discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, Shanti; Raut, S.M.; Mukhopadhyay, P.K.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a low power ultrafast constant fraction discriminator, which significantly reduces the power consumption. A conventional fast discriminator consumes about 1250 MW of power whereas this low power version consumes about 440 MW. In a multi detector system, where the number of discriminators is very large, reduction of power is of utmost importance. This low power discriminator is being designed for GRACE (Gamma Ray Atmospheric Cerenkov Experiments) telescope where 1000 channels of discriminators are required. A novel method of decreasing power consumption has been described. (author)

  6. Can coupling constants be related

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandi, Satyanarayan; Ng, Wing-Chiu.

    1978-06-01

    We analyze the conditions under which several coupling constants in field theory can be related to each other. When the relation is independent of the renormalization point, the relation between any g and g' must satisfy a differential equation as follows from the renormalization group equations. Using this differential equation, we investigate the criteria for the feasibility of a power-series relation for various theories, especially the Weinberg-Salam type (including Higgs bosons) with an arbitrary number of quark and lepton flavors. (orig./WL) [de

  7. Exact constants in approximation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Korneichuk, N

    1991-01-01

    This book is intended as a self-contained introduction for non-specialists, or as a reference work for experts, to the particular area of approximation theory that is concerned with exact constants. The results apply mainly to extremal problems in approximation theory, which in turn are closely related to numerical analysis and optimization. The book encompasses a wide range of questions and problems: best approximation by polynomials and splines; linear approximation methods, such as spline-approximation; optimal reconstruction of functions and linear functionals. Many of the results are base

  8. Hydrodynamic constants from cosmic censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Shin

    2008-01-01

    We study a gravity dual of Bjorken flow of N=4 SYM-theory plasma. We point out that the cosmic censorship hypothesis may explain why the regularity of the dual geometry constrains the hydrodynamic constants. We also investigate the apparent horizon of the dual geometry. We find that the dual geometry constructed on Fefferman-Graham (FG) coordinates is not appropriate for examination of the apparent horizon since the coordinates do not cover the trapped region. However, the preliminary analysis on FG coordinates suggests that the location of the apparent horizon is very sensitive to the hydrodynamic parameters. (author)

  9. Modification of HDPE by γ ray radiation in oxygen atmosphere and blend with PA6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Yunsheng; Shi Tiejun; Zhang Zhicheng; Hu Keliang

    2002-01-01

    A study on the oxidation of high density polyethylene (HDPE) by γ ray irradiation in oxygen atmosphere has been made. The influence of irradiated time on the oxidation has been investigated with the help of Fourier Transform Infrared-Photoacoustics Spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS). Results of FTIR-PAS show after irradiation groups like -C=O, -O-C-O-, O=C-O- were introduced into the HDPE. Although the γ ray has powerful penetrability, the oxidation mainly takes place on the surface of HDPE. after 4 h irradiation in oxygen (dose rate 66 Gy/min.), -C=O is the main group which was introduced into the surface of HDPE. Lengthening the irradiation process makes the pre-produced oxidized section in HDPE surface continue their reactions to yield some oxidation products with the structures of -O-C-O-, O=C-O- and so on. FTIR shows there are reactions or week interaction like hydrogen bond between the irradiated HDPE and PA6 in the binary blends, this is helpful to increase the compatibility of the phase of HDPE and polyamide-6 (PA6) in the blend. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) result shows that the interface between HDPE matrix and PA6 domains is much clear and smoother in 0γHDPE/PA6 blends than in 4γHDPE/PA6 and 7γHDPE/PA6 blends. These suggested the miscibility of PA6 and HDPE was improved after HDPE irradiating in oxygen by γ ray radiation

  10. Biodiesel production from esterification of free fatty acid over PA/NaY solid catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wei; Yin, Ping; Zhang, Jiang; Tang, Qinghua; Qu, Rongjun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Biodiesel production from esterification of oleic acid was catalyzed by PA/NaY. • The influences of the process operating parameters were studied. • RSM was employed to optimize the experimental conditions. • The kinetic equation of the esterification reaction was investigated. - Abstract: Because of the incitements from increasing petroleum prices, diminishing petroleum reserves and the environmental consequences of exhaust gases from petroleum fueled engines, biodiesel has been used as a substitute of the regular diesel in recent years. In this paper, biodiesel production from the esterification of the free fatty oil oleic acid with ethanol catalyzed by PA/NaY (PA = organic phosphonic acid) was investigated, and the effect of reaction conditions such as PA loading, catalyst amount, molar ratio of alcohol to acid, reaction temperature and reaction time on the esterification reaction was examined. The process optimization using response surface methodology (RSM) was performed and the interactions between the operational variables were elucidated. The optimum values for maximum conversion ratio of oleic acid could be obtained by using a Box–Behnken center-united design with a minimum of experimental work. The oleic acid conversion reached 79.51 ± 0.68% with the molar ratio of alcohol to oleic acid being 7:1 and 1.7 g PA/NaY catalyst (20 ml of PA loading) at 105 °C for 7 h. Moreover, a kinetic model for the esterification catalyzed by PA/NaY catalyst was established. By fitting the kinetic model with the experimental results, the reaction order n = 2, activation energy of the positive reaction Ea + = 43.41 kJ/mol and that of the reverse reaction Ea − = 59.74 kJ/mol were obtained

  11. Lepton Collider Operation with Constant Currents

    CERN Document Server

    Wienands, Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally, electron-positron colliders have been operating in a top-off-and-coast fashion with a cycle time depending on the beam life time, typically on the order of an hour. Each top-off involves ramping detector systems in addition to the actual filling time. The loss in accumulated luminosity is typically 20-50%. During the last year, both B-Factories have commissioned a continuous-injection mode of operation in which beam is injected without ramping the detector, thus raising luminosity integration by constant operation at peak luminosity. Constant beam currents reduce thermal drift and trips caused by change in beam loading. To achieve this level of operation, special efforts were made to reduce the injection losses and also to implement special gating procedures in the detectors, minimizing dead time. Bunch-injection control decides which bunch to inject into next while maintaining small charge variation between bunches. Beam collimation can reduce injection noise but also cause an increase in back...

  12. Lepton Collider Operation With Constant Currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienands, U.

    2006-01-01

    Electron-positron colliders have been operating in a top-up-and-coast fashion with a cycle time depending on the beam life time, typically one or more hours. Each top-up involves ramping detector systems in addition to the actual filling time. The loss in accumulated luminosity may be 20-50%. During the last year, both B-Factories have commissioned a continuous-injection mode of operation in which beam is injected without ramping the detector, thus raising luminosity integration by always operating at peak luminosity. Constant beam currents also reduce thermal drift and trips caused by change in beam loading. To achieve this level of operation, special efforts were made to reduce the injection losses and also to implement gating procedures in the detectors, minimizing dead time. Beam collimation can reduce injection noise but also cause an increase in background rates. A challenge can be determining beam lifetime, important to maintain tuning of the beams

  13. Closed form of optimal current waveform for class-F PA up to fourth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PA and its dual, usually referred as inverse class-F PA, current and voltage ... voltage waveforms provides a number of advantages in the process of PA design ... RF PA design approaches with waveform theory and experimental waveform.

  14. Associations of parental education and parental physical activity (PA) with children's PA: The ENERGY cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jimenez-Pavon, D.; Fernandez-Alvira, J.M.; te Velde, S.J.; Brug, J.; Bere, E.; Jan, N.; Kovacs, E.; Androutsos, O.; Manios, Y.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Moreno, L.A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study sought to examine the independent associations of parental education and physical activity (PA) with children's PA across Europe. Methods: A total of 7214 children (10-12. years) were recruited from a school-based cross-sectional survey during 2010 in seven European

  15. Formas estructurales de fuerza constante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zalewski, Waclaw

    1963-05-01

    Full Text Available The author seeks to prove the need to obtain the most essential form in the various types of structures by applying a number of rational principles, of which the constant stress principle is one of the most decisive. The structural form should be a logical consequence of all its functional circumstances, and this requires a clear understanding of the general behaviour of each part of the structure, and also of the main stresses which operate on it, considered as a unitary whole. To complete his theoretical argument, the author gives some examples, in the design of which the criterion of constant stress has been adopted. The author considers the various aspects which are involved in obtaining a structural design that satisfies given functional and aesthetic requirements. In doing so he refers to his personal experience within Poland, and infers technical principles of general validity which should determine the rational design of the form, as an integrated aspect of the structural pattern. The projects which illustrate this paper are Polish designs of undoubted constructive significance, in which the principle of constant stress has been applied. Finally the author condenses his whole theory in a simple and straightforward practical formula, which should be followed if a truly rational form is to be achieved: the constancy of stress in the various structural elements.El autor se esfuerza en mostrar la necesidad de llegar a la forma real en las distintas estructuras siguiendo una serie de principios racionales, entre los que domina el criterio de la fuerza constante. La forma ha de ser una consecuencia lógica en todos sus aspectos, y esto exige un claro conocimiento del comportamiento general de cada una de las partes de la estructura, y de los esfuerzos generales que dominan en la misma al considerarla como un todo. Para completar la exposición de orden teórico, el autor presenta algunos ejemplos en cuyo proyecto se ha seguido el criterio de

  16. Towards validation of the Canadian precipitation analysis (CaPA) for hydrologic modeling applications in the Canadian Prairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boluwade, Alaba; Zhao, K.-Y.; Stadnyk, T. A.; Rasmussen, P.

    2018-01-01

    This study presents a three-step validation technique to compare the performance of the Canadian Precipitation Analysis (CaPA) product relative to actual observation as a hydrologic forcing in regional watershed simulation. CaPA is an interpolated (6 h or 24 h accumulation) reanalysis precipitation product in near real time covering all of North America. The analysis procedure involves point-to-point (P2P) and map-to-map (M2M) comparisons, followed by proxy validation using an operational version of the WATFLOOD™ hydrologic model from 2002 to 2005 in the Lake Winnipeg Basin (LWB), Canada. The P2P technique using a Bayesian change point analysis shows that CaPA corresponds with actual observations (Canadian daily climate data, CDCD), on both an annual and seasonal basis. CaPA has the same spatial pattern, dependency and autocorrelation properties as CDCD pixel by pixel (M2M). When used as hydrologic forcing in WATFLOOD™, results indicate that CaPA is a reliable product for water resource modeling and predictions, but that the quality of CaPA data varies annually and seasonally, as does the quality of observations. CaPA proved most beneficial as a hydrologic forcing during winter seasons where observation quality is the lowest. Reanalysis products, such as CaPA, can be a reliable option in sparse network areas, and is beneficial for regional governments when the cost of new weather stations is prohibitive.

  17. Computing the Gromov hyperbolicity constant of a discrete metric space

    KAUST Repository

    Ismail, Anas

    2012-07-01

    Although it was invented by Mikhail Gromov, in 1987, to describe some family of groups[1], the notion of Gromov hyperbolicity has many applications and interpretations in different fields. It has applications in Biology, Networking, Graph Theory, and many other areas of research. The Gromov hyperbolicity constant of several families of graphs and geometric spaces has been determined. However, so far, the only known algorithm for calculating the Gromov hyperbolicity constant δ of a discrete metric space is the brute force algorithm with running time O (n4) using the four-point condition. In this thesis, we first introduce an approximation algorithm which calculates a O (log n)-approximation of the hyperbolicity constant δ, based on a layering approach, in time O(n2), where n is the number of points in the metric space. We also calculate the fixed base point hyperbolicity constant δr for a fixed point r using a (max, min)−matrix multiplication algorithm by Duan in time O(n2.688)[2]. We use this result to present a 2-approximation algorithm for calculating the hyper-bolicity constant in time O(n2.688). We also provide an exact algorithm to compute the hyperbolicity constant δ in time O(n3.688) for a discrete metric space. We then present some partial results we obtained for designing some approximation algorithms to compute the hyperbolicity constant δ.

  18. CiPA: Ongoing testing, future qualification procedures, and pending issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavero, Icilio; Holzgrefe, Henry

    2015-01-01

    The comprehensive in vitro proarrhythmia assay (CiPA) is a nonclinical, mechanism-based paradigm for assessing drug proarrhythmic liability. The first CiPA assay determines effects on cloned human cardiac ion channels. The second investigates whether the latter study-generated metrics engender proarrhythmic markers on a computationally reconstructed human ventricular action potential. The third evaluates conclusions from, and searches possibly missed effects by in silico analysis, in human stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hSC-CMs). CiPA ad hoc Expert-Working Groups have proposed patch clamp protocols for seven cardiac ion channels, a modified O'Hara-Rudy model for in silico analysis, detailed procedures for field (MEA) and action potential (VSD) measurements in hSC-CMs, and 29 reference drugs for CiPA assay testing and validation. CiPA adoption as drug development tool for identifying electrophysiological mechanisms conferring proarrhythmic liability to candidate drugs is a complex, multi-functional task requiring significant time, reflection, and efforts to be fully achieved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Radiation balances and the solar constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crommelynck, D.

    1981-01-01

    The radiometric concepts are defined in order to consider various types of radiation balances and relate them to the diabetic form of the energy balance. Variability in space and time of the components of the radiation field are presented. A specific concept for sweeping which is tailored to the requirements is proposed. Finally, after establishing the truncated character of the present knowledge of the radiation balance. The results of the last observations of the solar constant are given. Ground and satellite measurement techniques are discussed.

  20. Can the cosmological constant undergo abrupt changes?

    CERN Document Server

    Cabo-Montes de Oca, Alejandro; Rosabal, A; Cabo, Alejandro; Garcia-Chung, Alejandro; Rosabal, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    The existence of a simple spherically symmetric and static solution of the Einstein equations in the presence of a cosmological constant vanishing outside a definite value of the radial distance is investigated. A particular succession of field configurations, which are solutions of the Einstein equations in the presence of the considered cosmological term and auxiliary external sources, is constructed. Then, it is shown that the associated succession of external sources tend to zero in the sense of the generalized functions. The type of weak solution that is found becomes the deSitter homogeneous space-time for the interior region, and the Schwartzschild space in the outside zone.

  1. The Boltzmann constant from a snifter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyukodi, B; Sárközi, Zs; Néda, Z; Tunyagi, A; Györke, E

    2012-01-01

    Evaporation of a small glass of ethylic alcohol is studied both experimentally and through an elementary thermal physics approach. For a cylindrical beaker and no air flow in the room, a simple quadratic relation is found between the evaporation time and the mass of evaporated liquid. This problem and the obtained results offer excellent possibilities for simple student experiments and for testing basic principles of thermal physics. As an example, we use the obtained results for estimating the value of the Boltzmann constant from evaporation experiments. (paper)

  2. Closing the Gaps in Offshore P&A: Lessons Learned From the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torsater, M.

    2017-12-01

    This talk will give an overview of the major challenges related to offshore well plugging and abandonment (P&A) with examples from the North Sea. The talk will outline why today's P&A operations are so time consuming and expensive, and it will point out current technology gaps and issues related to standards and regulations in the North Sea countries. Emerging P&A solutions will be discussed, and results from large ongoing research projects in Norway will be shared. Special emphasis will be given to promising new concepts, such as using creeping shale formations as permanent well barriers, and using thermal methods for removal of tubing and casing. The long-term aspects of well plugging will also be discussed, together with methods available for minimizing leakage risk.

  3. Current radioactive waste utilization at PA 'MAYAK'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkushkin, A.O.

    2001-01-01

    The Production Association 'Mayak' is one of the largest production union of Nuclear Fuel Cycle (NFC) in Russia. In 1988 the last military reactor, which worked for making military plutonium was stopped. From this time civic history of 'Mayak' was began. Today 'Mayak' is the complex production union of NFC, which utilizes the Radiated Nuclear Fuel (RNF). The combine is dynamically develops, new technologies are domesticate and intrude, large works for liquidation of accidents and mistakes of lapsed years are in progress. The short review of radioactive waste utilization methods is present in this account. (author)

  4. Current radioactive waste utilization at PA 'MAYAK'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkushkin, A O [Ozyorsk Technological Institute of Moscow Physical Engineering Institute (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    The Production Association 'Mayak' is one of the largest production union of Nuclear Fuel Cycle (NFC) in Russia. In 1988 the last military reactor, which worked for making military plutonium was stopped. From this time civic history of 'Mayak' was began. Today 'Mayak' is the complex production union of NFC, which utilizes the Radiated Nuclear Fuel (RNF). The combine is dynamically develops, new technologies are domesticate and intrude, large works for liquidation of accidents and mistakes of lapsed years are in progress. The short review of radioactive waste utilization methods is present in this account. (author)

  5. Constant Proportion Debt Obligations (CPDOs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cont, Rama; Jessen, Cathrine

    2012-01-01

    be made arbitrarily small—and thus the credit rating arbitrarily high—by increasing leverage, but the ratings obtained strongly depend on assumptions on the credit environment (high spread or low spread). More importantly, CPDO loss distributions are found to exhibit a wide range of tail risk measures......Constant Proportion Debt Obligations (CPDOs) are structured credit derivatives that generate high coupon payments by dynamically leveraging a position in an underlying portfolio of investment-grade index default swaps. CPDO coupons and principal notes received high initial credit ratings from...... the major rating agencies, based on complex models for the joint transition of ratings and spreads for all names in the underlying portfolio. We propose a parsimonious model for analysing the performance of CPDO strategies using a top-down approach that captures the essential risk factors of the CPDO. Our...

  6. Energy, stability and cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deser, S.

    1982-01-01

    The definition of energy and its use in studying stability in general relativity are extended to the case when there is a nonvanishing cosmological constant Λ. Existence of energy is first demonstrated for any model (with arbitrary Λ). It is defined with respect to sets of solutions tending asymptotically to any background space possessing timelike Killing symmetry, and is both conserved and of flux integral form. When Λ O, small excitations about De Sitter space are stable inside the event horizon. Outside excitations can contribute negatively due to the Killing vector's flip at the horizon. This is a universal phenomenon associated with the possibility of Hawking radiation. Apart from this effect, the Λ>O theory appears to be stable, also at the semi-classical level. (author)

  7. The Study of Image Processing Method for AIDS PA Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H J; Wang, Q G

    2006-01-01

    At present, the main test technique of AIDS is PA in China. Because the judgment of PA test image is still depending on operator, the error ration is high. To resolve this problem, we present a new technique of image processing, which first process many samples and get the data including coordinate of center and the rang of kinds images; then we can segment the image with the data; at last, the result is exported after data was judgment. This technique is simple and veracious; and it also turns out to be suitable for the processing and analyzing of other infectious diseases' PA test image

  8. 75 FR 43397 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-32R-301T and PA-46-350P Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-32R-301T and PA-46-350P Airplanes AGENCY: Federal... applies to certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-32R-301T and PA-46- 350P airplanes. AD 2010-13-07... 23, 2010), which applies to certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-32R-301T and PA-46-350P airplanes...

  9. The Effect of Nanoclay on Dust Generation during Drilling of PA6 Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Sachse

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past decade, polymer nanocomposites have emerged as a novel and rapidly developing class of materials and attracted considerable investment in research and development worldwide. However, there is currently a lack of information available in the literature on the nano and ultrafine particle emission rates from these materials. In this paper, influence of nanoclay on mechanical drilling of PA6 composites, in terms of dust generation, has been reported. With the help of real-time characterization, submicrometer-sized particles (5.6–512 nm, size distribution, and number concentration emitted from polyamide 6/nanoclay composites during mechanical drilling are studied. Total particle concentration for the PA6/nanoclay composites was 20,000 cm−3, while unreinforced panel measured a total concentration of approximately 400,000 cm−3. While the airborne particle concentration for the PA6/nanoclay composites was 20 times lower than for the PA6 matrix, the concentration of deposited nanoparticles doubled for the nanocomposite. The results clearly show that more particles in the size range between 175 and 350 nm are generated, during drilling of the nanocomposites, and these particles deposit in a shorter time. It is likely that the presence of nanoclay in some way retains the formation of high quantity of airborne particles and promotes particle deposition.

  10. Undecidability of Weak Bisimilarity for PA-Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, J.

    2003-01-01

    We prove that the problem whether two PA-processes are weakly bisimilar is undecidable. We combine several proof techniques to provide a reduction from Post's correspondence problem to our problem: existential quantification technique, masking technique and deadlock elimination technique....

  11. 2010 Census Blocks with Geographic Codes Southwestern PA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This file can be used as a tool to append geographic codes to geocoded point data. The file was developed by Pitt's Center for Social and Urban Research and...

  12. Removal of 230Th and 231Pa at ocean margins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.F.; Bacon, M.P.; Brewer, P.G.

    1983-01-01

    Uranium, thorium and protactinium isotopes were measured in particulate matter collected by sediment traps deployed in the Panama Basin and by in-situ filtration of large volumes of seawater in the Panama and Guatemala Basins. Concentrations of dissolved Th and Pa isotopes were determined by extraction onto MnO 2 adsorbers placed in line behind the filters in the in-situ pumping systems. Concentrations of dissolved 230 Th and 231 Pa in the Panama and Guatemala Basins are lower than in the open ocean, whereas dissolved 230 Th/ 231 Pa ratios are equal to, or slightly greater than, ratios in the open ocean. Particulate 230 Th/ 231 Pa ratios in the sediment trap samples ranged from 4 to 8, in contrast to ratios of 30 or more at the open ocean sites previously studied. Particles collected by filtration in the Panama Basin and nearest to the continental margin in the Guatemala Basin contained 230 Th/ 231 Pa ratios similar to the ratios in the sediment trap samples. The ratios increased with distance away from the continent. Suspended particles near the margin show no preference for adsorption of Th or Pa and therefore must be chemically different from particles in the open ocean, which show a strong preference for adsorption of Th. Ocean margins, as typified by the Panama and Guatemala Basins, are preferential sinks for 231 Pa relative to 230 Th. Furthermore, the margins are sinks for 230 Th and, to a greater extent, 231 Pa transported by horizontal mixing from the open ocean. (orig.)

  13. Modified large number theory with constant G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recami, E.

    1983-01-01

    The inspiring ''numerology'' uncovered by Dirac, Eddington, Weyl, et al. can be explained and derived when it is slightly modified so to connect the ''gravitational world'' (cosmos) with the ''strong world'' (hadron), rather than with the electromagnetic one. The aim of this note is to show the following. In the present approach to the ''Large Number Theory,'' cosmos and hadrons are considered to be (finite) similar systems, so that the ratio R-bar/r-bar of the cosmos typical length R-bar to the hadron typical length r-bar is constant in time (for instance, if both cosmos and hadrons undergo an expansion/contraction cycle: according to the ''cyclical big-bang'' hypothesis: then R-bar and r-bar can be chosen to be the maximum radii, or the average radii). As a consequence, then gravitational constant G results to be independent of time. The present note is based on work done in collaboration with P.Caldirola, G. D. Maccarrone, and M. Pavsic

  14. Dynamics of the cosmological and Newton’s constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolin, Lee

    2016-01-01

    A modification of general relativity is presented in which Newton’s constant, G, and the cosmological constant, Λ, become a conjugate pair of dynamical variables. These are functions of a global time, hence the theory is presented in the framework of shape dynamics, which trades many-fingered time for a local scale invariance and an overall reparametrization of the global time. As a result, due to the fact that these global dynamical variables are canonically conjugate, the field equations are consistent. The theory predicts a relationship with no free parameters between the rates of change of Newton’s constant and the cosmological constant, in terms of the spatial average of the matter Lagrangian density. (paper)

  15. PASS: a component of Desk Top PA for the WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, M.B.; Wilmot, R.D.; Galson, D.A.; Swift, P.N.; Fewell, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    There is a growing recognition internationally of the need to demonstrate comprehensiveness in order to build confidence in performance assessments (PAs) for radioactive waste disposal projects. This has resulted in a number of methodologies being developed to formalize the process of defining and documenting the decision basis that underlies a PA. Such methodologies include process influence diagrams and the rock engineering system (RES) matrix. However, these methodologies focus mainly on the conceptualization of the disposal system and do not provide a ready framework to document the decisions behind the model development and parameterization of the PA system. The Performance Assessment Support System (PASS) is a flexible electronic tool designed to increase the transparency and traceability of decision making in the entire PA process. An application of PASS has been developed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) where it forms an important component of Desk Top PA, a PC-based PA computational environment under development at Sandia National Laboratories to document, plan, and support management decisions and to assess performance for the WIPP recertification process. This desk-top PA environment is also aimed at providing scientifically-based decision support for assessing the performance of nuclear and hazardous waste management and environmental clean-up systems

  16. Elastic constants of diamond from molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Guangtu; Van Workum, Kevin; Schall, J David; Harrison, Judith A

    2006-01-01

    The elastic constants of diamond between 100 and 1100 K have been calculated for the first time using molecular dynamics and the second-generation, reactive empirical bond-order potential (REBO). This version of the REBO potential was used because it was redesigned to be able to model the elastic properties of diamond and graphite at 0 K while maintaining its original capabilities. The independent elastic constants of diamond, C 11 , C 12 , and C 44 , and the bulk modulus were all calculated as a function of temperature, and the results from the three different methods are in excellent agreement. By extrapolating the elastic constant data to 0 K, it is clear that the values obtained here agree with the previously calculated 0 K elastic constants. Because the second-generation REBO potential was fit to obtain better solid-state force constants for diamond and graphite, the agreement with the 0 K elastic constants is not surprising. In addition, the functional form of the second-generation REBO potential is able to qualitatively model the functional dependence of the elastic constants and bulk modulus of diamond at non-zero temperatures. In contrast, reactive potentials based on other functional forms do not reproduce the correct temperature dependence of the elastic constants. The second-generation REBO potential also correctly predicts that diamond has a negative Cauchy pressure in the temperature range examined

  17. Determination of Henry's constant, the dissociation constant, and the buffer capacity of the bicarbonate system in ruminal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hille, Katharina T; Hetz, Stefan K; Rosendahl, Julia; Braun, Hannah-Sophie; Pieper, Robert; Stumpff, Friederike

    2016-01-01

    Despite the clinical importance of ruminal acidosis, ruminal buffering continues to be poorly understood. In particular, the constants for the dissociation of H2CO3 and the solubility of CO2 (Henry's constant) have never been stringently determined for ruminal fluid. The pH was measured in parallel directly in the rumen and the reticulum in vivo, and in samples obtained via aspiration from 10 fistulated cows on hay- or concentrate-based diets. The equilibrium constants of the bicarbonate system were measured at 38°C both using the Astrup technique and a newly developed method with titration at 2 levels of partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2; 4.75 and 94.98 kPa), yielding mean values of 0.234 ± 0.005 mmol ∙ L(-1) ∙ kPa(-1) and 6.11 ± 0.02 for Henry's constant and the dissociation constant, respectively (n/n = 31/10). Both reticular pH and the pH of samples measured after removal were more alkalic than those measured in vivo in the rumen (by ΔpH = 0.87 ± 0.04 and 0.26 ± 0.04). The amount of acid or base required to shift the pH of ruminal samples to 6.4 or 5.8 (base excess) differed between the 2 feeding groups. Experimental results are compared with the mathematical predictions of an open 2-buffer Henderson-Hasselbalch equilibrium model. Because pCO2 has pronounced effects on ruminal pH and can decrease rapidly in samples removed from the rumen, introduction of a generally accepted protocol for determining the acid-base status of ruminal fluid with standard levels of pCO2 and measurement of base excess in addition to pH should be considered. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Research of digital constant fraction discriminator in PET system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Yaoyao; Hu Xuanhou; Wu Jianping; Wang Peilin; Li Xiaohui; Li Daowu; Li Ke; Wei Long

    2012-01-01

    The research on digital constant fraction discriminator of spike pulse signal in PET detector is introduced. Based on FPGA technique, rapid signal's time information is extracted via DCFD algorithm after a high-speed ADC digitization. Experiment results show that time resolution of DCFD is 772 ps, which meets the requirement of time measurement in PET system well. (authors)

  19. Capacitive Cells for Dielectric Constant Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Horacio Munguía; Maldonado, Rigoberto Franco

    2015-01-01

    A simple capacitive cell for dielectric constant measurement in liquids is presented. As an illustrative application, the cell is used for measuring the degradation of overheated edible oil through the evaluation of their dielectric constant.

  20. The Dielectric Constant of Lubrication Oils

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carey, A

    1998-01-01

    The values of the dielectric constant of simple molecules is discussed first, along with the relationship between the dielectric constant and other physical properties such as boiling point, melting...

  1. Globally Coupled Chaotic Maps with Constant Force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinghui

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the motion of the globally coupled maps (logistic map) with a constant force. It is shown that the constant force can cause multi-synchronization for the globally coupled chaotic maps studied by us.

  2. STABILITY CONSTANT OF THE TRISGLYCINATO METAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    overall stability constants of the complexes were found to be similar. Keywords: Glycinato, titration ... +. −. = 1 where Ka = dissociation constant of the amino acid. [ ]+. H = concentration of the .... Synthesis and techniques in inorganic chemistry.

  3. Crystal structure of the flavoenzyme PA4991 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacewicz, Agata; Schnell, Robert; Lindqvist, Ylva; Schneider, Gunter, E-mail: gunter.schneider@ki.se [Karolinska Institutet, S-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-01-22

    PA4991 is a FAD-dependent oxidoreductase from the pathogen P. aeruginosa that is essential for virulence and survival in the infected host. The structure of this enzyme, determined to 2.4 Å resolution, reveals that PA4991 belongs to the GR{sub 2} family of flavoenzymes. The locus PA4991 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa encodes an open reading frame that has been identified as essential for the virulence and/or survival of this pathogenic organism in the infected host. Here, it is shown that this gene encodes a monomeric FAD-binding protein of molecular mass 42.2 kDa. The structure of PA4991 was determined by a combination of molecular replacement using a search model generated with Rosetta and phase improvement by a low-occupancy heavy-metal derivative. PA4991 belongs to the GR{sub 2} family of FAD-dependent oxidoreductases, comprising an FAD-binding domain typical of the glutathione reductase family and a second domain dominated by an eight-stranded mixed β-sheet. Most of the protein–FAD interactions are via the FAD-binding domain, but the isoalloxazine ring is located at the domain interface and interacts with residues from both domains. A comparison with the structurally related glycine oxidase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase shows that in spite of very low amino-acid sequence identity (<18%) several active-site residues involved in substrate binding in these enzymes are conserved in PA4991. However, enzymatic assays show that PA4991 does not display amino-acid oxidase or glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activities, suggesting that it requires different substrates for activity.

  4. Crystal structure of the flavoenzyme PA4991 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacewicz, Agata; Schnell, Robert; Lindqvist, Ylva; Schneider, Gunter

    2016-01-01

    PA4991 is a FAD-dependent oxidoreductase from the pathogen P. aeruginosa that is essential for virulence and survival in the infected host. The structure of this enzyme, determined to 2.4 Å resolution, reveals that PA4991 belongs to the GR 2 family of flavoenzymes. The locus PA4991 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa encodes an open reading frame that has been identified as essential for the virulence and/or survival of this pathogenic organism in the infected host. Here, it is shown that this gene encodes a monomeric FAD-binding protein of molecular mass 42.2 kDa. The structure of PA4991 was determined by a combination of molecular replacement using a search model generated with Rosetta and phase improvement by a low-occupancy heavy-metal derivative. PA4991 belongs to the GR 2 family of FAD-dependent oxidoreductases, comprising an FAD-binding domain typical of the glutathione reductase family and a second domain dominated by an eight-stranded mixed β-sheet. Most of the protein–FAD interactions are via the FAD-binding domain, but the isoalloxazine ring is located at the domain interface and interacts with residues from both domains. A comparison with the structurally related glycine oxidase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase shows that in spite of very low amino-acid sequence identity (<18%) several active-site residues involved in substrate binding in these enzymes are conserved in PA4991. However, enzymatic assays show that PA4991 does not display amino-acid oxidase or glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activities, suggesting that it requires different substrates for activity

  5. Advances in constant-velocity Moessbauer instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, A.; Martinez, N.; Zelis, P. Mendoza; Pasquevich, G. A.; Sanchez, F. H.

    2006-01-01

    A prototype of a programmable constant-velocity scaler is presented. This instrument allows the acquisition of partial Moessbauer spectra in selected energy regions using standard drivers and transducers. It can be fully operated by a remote application, thus data acquisition can be automated. The instrument consists of a programmable counter and a constant-velocity reference. The reference waveform generator is amplitude modulated with 13-bit resolution, and is programmable in a wide range of frequencies and waveforms in order to optimize the performance of the transducer. The counter is compatible with most standard SCA, and is configured as a rate-meter that provides counts per selectable time slice at the programmed velocity. As a demonstration of the instrument applications, a partial Moessbauer spectrum of a natural iron foil was taken. Only positive energies were studied in 512 channels, accumulating 20 s per channel. A line width of 0.20 mm/s was achieved, performing with an efficiency of 80%.

  6. Local Pain Dynamics during Constant Exhaustive Exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agne Slapsinskaite

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to delineate the topological dynamics of pain and discomfort during constant exercise performed until volitional exhaustion. Eleven physical education students were tested while cycling and running at a "hard" intensity level (e.g., corresponding to Borg's RPE (6-20 = 15. During the tests, participants reported their discomfort and pain on a body map every 15s. "Time on task" for each participant was divided into five equal non-overlapping temporal windows within which their ratings were considered for analysis. The analyses revealed that the number of body locations with perceived pain and discomfort increased throughout the five temporal windows until reaching the mean (± SE values of 4.2 ± 0.7 and 4.1 ± 0.6 in cycling and running, respectively. The dominant locations included the quadriceps and hamstrings during cycling and quadriceps and chest during running. In conclusion, pain seemed to spread throughout the body during constant cycling and running performed up to volitional exhaustion with differences between cycling and running in the upper body but not in the lower body dynamics.

  7. Search for a Variation of Fundamental Constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubachs, W.

    2013-06-01

    Since the days of Dirac scientists have speculated about the possibility that the laws of nature, and the fundamental constants appearing in those laws, are not rock-solid and eternal but may be subject to change in time or space. Such a scenario of evolving constants might provide an answer to the deepest puzzle of contemporary science, namely why the conditions in our local Universe allow for extreme complexity: the fine-tuning problem. In the past decade it has been established that spectral lines of atoms and molecules, which can currently be measured at ever-higher accuracies, form an ideal test ground for probing drifting constants. This has brought this subject from the realm of metaphysics to that of experimental science. In particular the spectra of molecules are sensitive for probing a variation of the proton-electron mass ratio μ, either on a cosmological time scale, or on a laboratory time scale. A comparison can be made between spectra of molecular hydrogen observed in the laboratory and at a high redshift (z=2-3), using the Very Large Telescope (Paranal, Chile) and the Keck telescope (Hawaii). This puts a constraint on a varying mass ratio Δμ/μ at the 10^{-5} level. The optical work can also be extended to include CO molecules. Further a novel direction will be discussed: it was discovered that molecules exhibiting hindered internal rotation have spectral lines in the radio-spectrum that are extremely sensitive to a varying proton-electron mass ratio. Such lines in the spectrum of methanol were recently observed with the radio-telescope in Effelsberg (Germany). F. van Weerdenburg, M.T. Murphy, A.L. Malec, L. Kaper, W. Ubachs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 180802 (2011). A. Malec, R. Buning, M.T. Murphy, N. Milutinovic, S.L. Ellison, J.X. Prochaska, L. Kaper, J. Tumlinson, R.F. Carswell, W. Ubachs, Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 403, 1541 (2010). E.J. Salumbides, M.L. Niu, J. Bagdonaite, N. de Oliveira, D. Joyeux, L. Nahon, W. Ubachs, Phys. Rev. A 86, 022510

  8. PaTrx1 and PaTrx3, Two Cytosolic Thioredoxins of the Filamentous Ascomycete Podospora anserina Involved in Sexual Development and Cell Degeneration▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Malagnac, Fabienne; Klapholz, Benjamin; Silar, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    In various organisms, thioredoxins are known to be involved in the reduction of protein disulfide bonds and in protecting the cell from oxidative stress. Genes encoding thioredoxins were found by searching the complete genome sequence of the filamentous ascomycete Podospora anserina. Among them, PaTrx1, PaTrx2, and PaTrx3 are predicted to be canonical cytosolic proteins without additional domains. Targeted disruption of PaTrx1, PaTrx2, and PaTrx3 shows that PaTrx1 is the major thioredoxin inv...

  9. PA positioning significantly reduces testicular dose during sacroiliac joint radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mekis, Nejc [Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mc Entee, Mark F., E-mail: mark.mcentee@ucd.i [School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin 4 (Ireland); Stegnar, Peter [Jozef Stefan International Postgraduate School, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2010-11-15

    Radiation dose to the testes in the antero-posterior (AP) and postero-anterior (PA) projection of the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) was measured with and without a scrotal shield. Entrance surface dose, the dose received by the testicles and the dose area product (DAP) was used. DAP measurements revealed the dose received by the phantom in the PA position is 12.6% lower than the AP (p {<=} 0.009) with no statistically significant reduction in image quality (p {<=} 0.483). The dose received by the testes in the PA projection in SIJ imaging is 93.1% lower than the AP projection when not using protection (p {<=} 0.020) and 94.9% lower with protection (p {<=} 0.019). The dose received by the testicles was not changed by the use of a scrotal shield in the AP position (p {<=} 0.559); but was lowered by its use in the PA (p {<=} 0.058). Use of the PA projection in SIJ imaging significantly lowers, the dose received by the testes compared to the AP projection without significant loss of image quality.

  10. Morphological studies on block copolymer modified PA 6 blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poindl, M., E-mail: marcus.poindl@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de; Bonten, C., E-mail: marcus.poindl@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut für Kunststofftechnik, University of Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Recent studies show that compounding polyamide 6 (PA 6) with a PA 6 polyether block copolymers made by reaction injection molding (RIM) or continuous anionic polymerization in a reactive extrusion process (REX) result in blends with high impact strength and high stiffness compared to conventional rubber blends. In this paper, different high impact PA 6 blends were prepared using a twin screw extruder. The different impact modifiers were an ethylene propylene copolymer, a PA PA 6 polyether block copolymer made by reaction injection molding and one made by reactive extrusion. To ensure good particle matrix bonding, the ethylene propylene copolymer was grafted with maleic anhydride (EPR-g-MA). Due to the molecular structure of the two block copolymers, a coupling agent was not necessary. The block copolymers are semi-crystalline and partially cross-linked in contrast to commonly used amorphous rubbers which are usually uncured. The combination of different analysis methods like atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gave a detailed view in the structure of the blends. Due to the partial cross-linking, the particles of the block copolymers in the blends are not spherical like the ones of ethylene propylene copolymer. The differences in molecular structure, miscibility and grafting of the impact modifiers result in different mechanical properties and different blend morphologies.

  11. PA positioning significantly reduces testicular dose during sacroiliac joint radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekis, Nejc; Mc Entee, Mark F.; Stegnar, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Radiation dose to the testes in the antero-posterior (AP) and postero-anterior (PA) projection of the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) was measured with and without a scrotal shield. Entrance surface dose, the dose received by the testicles and the dose area product (DAP) was used. DAP measurements revealed the dose received by the phantom in the PA position is 12.6% lower than the AP (p ≤ 0.009) with no statistically significant reduction in image quality (p ≤ 0.483). The dose received by the testes in the PA projection in SIJ imaging is 93.1% lower than the AP projection when not using protection (p ≤ 0.020) and 94.9% lower with protection (p ≤ 0.019). The dose received by the testicles was not changed by the use of a scrotal shield in the AP position (p ≤ 0.559); but was lowered by its use in the PA (p ≤ 0.058). Use of the PA projection in SIJ imaging significantly lowers, the dose received by the testes compared to the AP projection without significant loss of image quality.

  12. Ku-pa-ro en las tablillas de Cnoso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Melena

    1974-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is intended to be a comprehensive analysis of the evidence of ku-pa-ro in the Knossos Linear B tablets. Its main purpose is to set up the importance of such aromatic plant in the Mycenaean economy at Knossos and to identify what kind of sedge was concealed under the name ku-pa-ro and what part of the plant was used and for what purposes. What it is stressed is the usage of the Cyperus rotundus L. (i. e. the ku-pa-ro in the industry of perfumes and as a food additive as well. What is inferred from the discussion on the evidence of ku-pa-ro issues a series of valuable data concerning the localization of certain place-names in the map of Crete, and concerning the explanation of ideogram *171. The high qualities of ku-pa-ro preserved in the tablets lead the author to assume that such a plant was cultivated in Crete and was one of the main aromatic plants used by the Mycenaeans in the making of perfumes.

  13. Pa2 kinematic bond in translational parallel manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hernández

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pa2 pair is composed of two intertwined articulated parallelograms connecting in parallel two links of a kinematic chain. This pair has two translational degrees of freedom leading to a translational plane variable with the position. Currently, the Pa2 pair appears in conceptual designs presented in recent papers. However, its practical application is very limited. One of the reasons for this can be the high number of redundant constraints it has. But, it has to be considered that most of them can be eliminated by replacing wisely the revolute joints by spherical joints. On the other side, the structure of the Pa2 pair contributes to increase the global stiffness of the kinematic chain in which it is mounted. Also, its implementation is a promising alternative to the problematic passive prismatic joints. In this paper, the Pa2 pairs are used in the design of a 3 − P Pa2 parallel manipulator. The potentiality of this design is evaluated and proven after doing the following analyses: direct and inverse kinematics, singularity study, and workspace computation and assessment.

  14. Virtual Resting Pd/Pa From Coronary Angiography and Blood Flow Modelling: Diagnostic Performance Against Fractional Flow Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papafaklis, Michail I; Muramatsu, Takashi; Ishibashi, Yuki; Bourantas, Christos V; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I; Brilakis, Emmanouil S; Garcia-Garcia, Héctor M; Escaned, Javier; Serruys, Patrick W; Michalis, Lampros K

    2018-03-01

    Fractional flow reserve (FFR) has been established as a useful diagnostic tool. The distal coronary pressure to aortic pressure (Pd/Pa) ratio at rest is a simpler physiologic index but also requires the use of the pressure wire, whereas recently proposed virtual functional indices derived from coronary imaging require complex blood flow modelling and/or are time-consuming. Our aim was to test the diagnostic performance of virtual resting Pd/Pa using routine angiographic images and a simple flow model. Three-dimensional quantitative coronary angiography (3D-QCA) was performed in 139 vessels (120 patients) with intermediate lesions assessed by FFR. The resting Pd/Pa for each lesion was assessed by computational fluid dynamics. The discriminatory power of virtual resting Pd/Pa against FFR (reference: ≤0.80) was high (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve [AUC]: 90.5% [95% CI: 85.4-95.6%]). Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity for the optimal virtual resting Pd/Pa cut-off (≤0.94) were 84.9%, 90.4% and 81.6%, respectively. Virtual resting Pd/Pa demonstrated superior performance (pvirtual resting Pd/Pa and FFR (r=0.69, pVirtual resting Pd/Pa using routine angiographic data and a simple flow model provides fast functional assessment of coronary lesions without requiring the pressure-wire and hyperaemia induction. The high diagnostic performance of virtual resting Pd/Pa for predicting FFR shows promise for using this simple/fast virtual index in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cross-cultural adaptation of the assistive technology device - Predisposition assessment (ATD PA) for use in Brazil (ATD PA Br).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Ana Cristina de Jesus; Matsukura, Thelma Simões; Scherer, Marcia J

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to conduct a cross-cultural adaptation of the Assistive Technology Device Predisposition Assessment (ATD PA) for use in Brazil. The selection of the Assistive Technology Device Predisposition Assessment (ATD PA) was determined by previous literature reviews of articles published in 2014 and 2016 in six databases with the terms "assistive device" or "assistive technology" or "self-help device" combined with "evidence-based practice" or "framework" or "measurement scale" or "model and outcome assessment". This review indicated that the conceptual model of Assistive Technology (AT) most discussed in the literature was the Matching Person and Technology (MPT) model, and this finding determined the selection of ATD PA as an assessment within the MPT portfolio of measures. The procedures for cross-cultural adaptation were as follows: Equivalence of Concept, Semantic and Operational. Five experts were asked to translate 725 items and these translations were evaluated and a high level of agreement was demonstrated. The Portuguese version, Avaliação de Tecnologia Assistiva - Predisposição ao Uso - ATD PA Br, was derived from the original version in English (ATD PA). The ATD PA Br will support professionals and people with disabilities in Brazil to better select AT devices according to the clients' needs. Implications for rehabilitation Provides a systematic way of selecting assistive technology devices for the use of individuals with disabilities according to the Brazilian reality. A systematic way of selecting the assistive technology that can help decrease the abandonment of the assistive technology use. The use of the Matching Person and Technology theorical model and of the assessment ATD PA Br is essential to guide the researches and clinical practice in Brazil.

  16. Tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA) Mediates Neurotoxin-Induced Cell Death and Microglial Activation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tsirka, Styliani-Anna

    2000-01-01

    .... In mice lacking tPA (tPA-/-), neurons are resistant to neurotoxic death. Delivery of tPA into tPA mice restores susceptibility to neuronal death, indicating that tPA is neurotoxic in the context of excitotoxic injury...

  17. Constant-flow ventilation in canine experimental pulmonary emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachenberg, T; Wendt, M; Meyer, J; Struckmeier, O; Lawin, P

    1989-07-01

    The efficacy of constant-flow ventilation (CFV) was investigated in eight mongrel dogs before (control-phase) and after development of papain-induced panlobular emphysema (PLE-phase). For CFV, heated, humidified and oxygen-enriched air was continuously delivered via two catheters positioned within each mainstem bronchus at flow rates (V) of 0.33, 0.5 and 0.66 l/s. Data obtained during intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) served as reference. In the control-phase, Pao2 was lower (P less than or equal to 0.05) and alveolo-arterial O2 difference (P(A-a)O2) was higher (P less than or equal to 0.01) during CFV at all flow rates when compared with IPPV. This may be due to inhomogeneities of intrapulmonary gas distribution and increased ventilation-perfusion (VA/Q) mismatching. Paco2 and V showed a hyperbolic relationship; constant normocapnia (5.3 kPa) was achieved at 0.48 +/- 0.21 l/s (V53). Development of PLE resulted in an increase of functional residual capacity (FRC), residual volume (RV) and static compliance (Cstat) (P less than or equal to 0.05). PaO2 had decreased and P(A-a)O2 had increased (P less than or equal to 0.05), indicating moderate pulmonary dysfunction. Oxygenation during CFV was not significantly different in the PLE-phase when compared with the control-phase. Paco2 and V showed a hyperbolic relationship and V5.3 was even lower than in the control-group (0.42 +/- 0.13 l/s). In dogs with emphysematous lungs CFV maintains sufficient gas exchange. This may be due to preferential ventilation of basal lung units, thereby counterbalancing the effects of impaired lung morphometry and increased airtrapping. Conventional mechanical ventilation is more effective in terms of oxygenation and CO2-elimination.

  18. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 pathogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirienko, Natalia V; Cezairliyan, Brent O; Ausubel, Frederick M; Powell, Jennifer R

    2014-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a simple model host for studying the interaction between bacterial pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the metazoan innate immune system. Powerful genetic and molecular tools in both C. elegans and P. aeruginosa facilitate the identification and analysis of bacterial virulence factors as well as host defense factors. Here we describe three different assays that use the C. elegans-P. aeruginosa strain PA14 host-pathogen system. Fast Killing is a toxin-mediated death that depends on a diffusible toxin produced by PA14 but not on live bacteria. Slow Killing is due to an active infection in which bacteria colonize the C. elegans intestinal lumen. Liquid Killing is designed for high-throughput screening of chemical libraries for anti-infective compounds. Each assay has unique features and, interestingly, the PA14 virulence factors involved in killing are different in each assay.

  19. Hawking temperature of constant curvature black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Ronggen; Myung, Yun Soo

    2011-01-01

    The constant curvature (CC) black holes are higher dimensional generalizations of Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes. It is known that these black holes have the unusual topology of M D-1 xS 1 , where D is the spacetime dimension and M D-1 stands for a conformal Minkowski spacetime in D-1 dimensions. The unusual topology and time-dependence for the exterior of these black holes cause some difficulties to derive their thermodynamic quantities. In this work, by using a globally embedding approach, we obtain the Hawking temperature of the CC black holes. We find that the Hawking temperature takes the same form when using both the static and global coordinates. Also, it is identical to the Gibbons-Hawking temperature of the boundary de Sitter spaces of these CC black holes.

  20. Parallel computational in nuclear group constant calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su'ud, Zaki; Rustandi, Yaddi K.; Kurniadi, Rizal

    2002-01-01

    In this paper parallel computational method in nuclear group constant calculation using collision probability method will be discuss. The main focus is on the calculation of collision matrix which need large amount of computational time. The geometry treated here is concentric cylinder. The calculation of collision probability matrix is carried out using semi analytic method using Beckley Naylor Function. To accelerate computation speed some computer parallel used to solve the problem. We used LINUX based parallelization using PVM software with C or fortran language. While in windows based we used socket programming using DELPHI or C builder. The calculation results shows the important of optimal weight for each processor in case there area many type of processor speed

  1. Selective assay for CyPA and CyPB in human blood using highly specific anti-peptide antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, F; Boutillon, C; Mariller, C; Spik, G

    1995-01-13

    Cyclophilins A and B (CyPA and CyPB) are known to be the main binding proteins for cyclosporin A (CsA), a potent immunosuppressive drug. Due to the high homology between the two proteins, antibodies to CyPB were found to cross-react with CyPA. In order to avoid this phenomenon, we raised specific antibodies against peptides copying the most divergent parts of the two sequences. These antibodies allowed us to develop an ELISA capture assay selective for either isotype. Thus, we showed that leukocyte CyPB concentration was almost ten times lower than that of CyPA, and that in contrast to the results described in the literature, only CyPB was released in plasma. Moreover, CyPB levels in leukocytes and plasma were found to correlate for the same donor, but no relationship was found with CyPA level.

  2. Larson-Miller Constant of Heat-Resistant Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Manabu; Abe, Fujio; Shiba, Kiyoyuki; Sakasegawa, Hideo; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu

    2013-06-01

    Long-term rupture data for 79 types of heat-resistant steels including carbon steel, low-alloy steel, high-alloy steel, austenitic stainless steel, and superalloy were analyzed, and a constant for the Larson-Miller (LM) parameter was obtained in the current study for each material. The calculated LM constant, C, is approximately 20 for heat-resistant steels and alloys except for high-alloy martensitic steels with high creep resistance, for which C ≈ 30 . The apparent activation energy was also calculated, and the LM constant was found to be proportional to the apparent activation energy with a high correlation coefficient, which suggests that the LM constant is a material constant possessing intrinsic physical meaning. The contribution of the entropy change to the LM constant is not small, especially for several martensitic steels with large values of C. Deformation of such martensitic steels should accompany a large entropy change of 10 times the gas constant at least, besides the entropy change due to self-diffusion.

  3. Geochemical data package for the Hanford immobilized low-activity tank waste performance assessment (ILAW PA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DI Kaplan; RJ Serne

    2000-01-01

    solution concentration limit, a constant value. In future geochemical data packages, they will determine whether a more rigorous measure of solubility is necessary or warranted based on the dose predictions emanating from the ILAW 2001 PA and reviewers' comments. The K d s and solution concentration limits for each contaminant are direct inputs to subsurface flow and transport codes used to predict the performance of the ILAW system. In addition to the best-estimate K d s, a reasonable conservative value and a range are provided. They assume that K d values are log normally distributed over the cited ranges. Currently, they do not give estimates for the range in solubility limits or their uncertainty. However, they supply different values for both the K d s and solution concentration limits for different spatial zones in the ILAW system and supply time-varying K d s for the concrete zone, should the final repository design include concrete vaults or cement amendments to buffer the system pH

  4. Contribution of the nitroimidazoles PA-824 and TBA-354 to the activity of novel regimens in murine models of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasneen, Rokeya; Williams, Kathy; Amoabeng, Opokua; Minkowski, Austin; Mdluli, Khisimuzi E; Upton, Anna M; Nuermberger, Eric L

    2015-01-01

    New regimens based on two or more novel agents are sought in order to shorten or simplify the treatment of both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant forms of tuberculosis. PA-824 is a nitroimidazo-oxazine now in phase II trials and has shown significant early bactericidal activity alone and in combination with the newly approved agent bedaquiline or with pyrazinamide with or without moxifloxacin. While the development of PA-824 continues, a potential next-generation derivative, TBA-354, has been discovered to have in vitro potency superior to that of PA-824 and greater metabolic stability than that of the other nitroimidazole derivative in clinical development, delamanid. In the present study, we compared the activities of PA-824 and TBA-354 as monotherapies in murine models of the initial intensive and continuation phases of treatment, as well as in combination with bedaquiline plus pyrazinamide, sutezolid, and/or clofazimine. The monotherapy studies demonstrated that TBA-354 is 5 to 10 times more potent than PA-824, but selected mutants are cross-resistant to PA-824 and delamanid. The combination studies revealed that TBA-354 is 2 to 4 times more potent than PA-824 when combined with bedaquiline, and when administered at a dose equivalent to that of PA-824, TBA-354 demonstrated superior sterilizing efficacy. Perhaps most importantly, the addition of either nitroimidazole significantly improved the sterilizing activities of bedaquiline and sutezolid, with or without pyrazinamide, confirming the value of each agent in this potentially universally active short-course regimen. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. PREFACE: Fundamental Constants in Physics and Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Volkmar; Kramer, Bernhard

    1986-01-01

    /or a physical unit have their origin in the shortcomings of our understanding of the underlying physics rather than being due to the technical problems in the experiment. In this context, it is worth mentioning that the quantum Hall effect, the discovery of which by Klaus von Klitzing was rewarded only recently by the Nobel Prize for physics, still needs further attention. We are able to reproduce experimentally resistances with an extremely high precision using this effect. Nevertheless, we have severe difficulties in our present physical understanding of the mechanism which provides the plateaux in the Hall resistance. Lectures on "Quantum Non-Demolition" and "Determination of the Boltzmann Constant" have been included in order to show routes to "new frontiers" in metrology. Even the "conventional" metrological concepts, when combined with modern technology, can provide surprises: Although the Josephson effect is known since 1962, it was only recently that a quantized voltage in the 1-volt range could be experimentally realized. The experiment was performed by making use of modern thin-film technology. In addition to providing a simple and precise voltage standard in a practically important regime it also sets a new frontier in precision electrical metrology by demonstrating that, ultimately, the reproducibility of the unit of voltage is limited by that of the unit of time. We are indebted to a number of people who helped to organize the Seminar as well as to prepare this volume. Especially, we would like to mention Mrs Inge Bode. Without her continuous work the 70th PTB Seminar would not have been possible in the way we all have experienced it. We appreciate also the help of R P Hudson and H Lotsch in achieving a fast publication of this volume. Financial support from the Helmholtz-Fond is gratefully acknowledged.

  6. Superalgebras with Grassmann algebra-valued structure constants from superfields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azcarraga, J.A. de; Lukierski, J.

    1987-05-01

    We introduce generalized Lie algebras and superalgebras with generators and structure constants taking values in a Grassmann algebra. Such algebraic structures describe the equal time algebras in the superfield formalism. As an example we consider the equal time commutators and anticommutators among bilinears made out of the D=1 quantum superfields describing the supersymmetric harmonic oscillator. (author). 10 refs

  7. Dynamical black rings with a positive cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Masashi

    2009-01-01

    We construct dynamical black ring solutions in the five-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell system with a positive cosmological constant and investigate the geometrical structure. The solutions describe the physical process such that a thin black ring at early time shrinks and changes into a single black hole as time increases. We also discuss the multiblack rings and the coalescence of them.

  8. Planck intermediate results. XXIV. Constraints on variation of fundamental constants

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Clements, D.L.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Dore, O.; Dupac, X.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fabre, O.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Menegoni, E.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prunet, S.; Rachen, J.P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Roudier, G.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Sudiwala, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Uzan, J.P.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2015-01-01

    Any variation of the fundamental physical constants, and more particularly of the fine structure constant, $\\alpha$, or of the mass of the electron, $m_e$, would affect the recombination history of the Universe and cause an imprint on the cosmic microwave background angular power spectra. We show that the Planck data allow one to improve the constraint on the time variation of the fine structure constant at redshift $z\\sim 10^3$ by about a factor of 5 compared to WMAP data, as well as to break the degeneracy with the Hubble constant, $H_0$. In addition to $\\alpha$, we can set a constraint on the variation of the mass of the electron, $m_{\\rm e}$, and on the simultaneous variation of the two constants. We examine in detail the degeneracies between fundamental constants and the cosmological parameters, in order to compare the limits obtained from Planck and WMAP and to determine the constraining power gained by including other cosmological probes. We conclude that independent time variations of the fine structu...

  9. A Kalman-filter estimate of the tidal harmonic constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morsetti, R.

    1983-01-01

    A Kalman-filter estimate of the tidal harmonic constants is proposed in order to take into account their stochastic behaviour. The filter algorithm has been applied to a state-space model of a stochastic system in which the state is defined by the harmonic constants themselves. The results, analysing Trieste sea-level data, have demonstrated that this approach is very suitable for such a purpose, since good estimates and excellent resolution capabilities have been obtained. Furthermore, this method can be very useful also from a practical point of view because real-time computation of the harmonic constants can be developed where an opportune sea-level data acquisition system is available. In conclusion, this paper has emphasized that tidal harmonic constants have to be treated like random variables and, in consequence, new method of analysis can be used

  10. Thrombolysis by intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA). Current status and future direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanahashi, Norio

    2009-01-01

    In Japan, the intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) Alteplase (0.6 mg/kg) administration of the within 3 h of the onset of acute ischemic stroke was approved for therapeutic use in the year 2006. t-PA induces thrombolysis in patients with acute ischemic stroke, and this method has gradually gained recognition among physicians and the general population. However, the number of patients who were treated using Alteplase is low (4,000-5,000 patients/year), and this figure accounts for only 2-3% of the annual number of cases of ischemic stroke. There is little doubt that Alteplase treatment is a potentially effective modality for some patients with acute ischemic stroke. The post-marketing surveillance of 4,749 Japanese patients treated using Alteplase showed that 33% of the patients had modified Rankin scale (mRS) scores of 0-1, 17% of patients died and 4.5% presented with symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH); these results were comparable to those from other countries. The expansion of the therapeutic time window has been a matter of concern. The investigators of the European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study (ECASS) have reported that there was significant improvement in the clinical outcomes of patients with acute ischemie stroke when Alteplase was administered 3-4.5 h after the onset of the symptoms. Mismatches in perfusion- and diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images have been used for selecting patients 3 h after the onset of symptoms, and the findings from MRI, dwimages (DWI) and MR angiography are practical predictors of t-PA therapy within 3 h of onset. The Middle Cerebral Artery Embolism Local Fibrinolytic Intervention Trial (MELT) Japan study showed that local intra-arterial fibrinolysis is effective in patients with embolic MCA occlusion within 6 h of the onset of symptoms. Combining the initiation of intravenous t-PA administration with further intra-arterial fibrinolysis or mechanical thrombolectomy may improve the

  11. Thrombolysis by intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA). Current status and future direction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanahashi, Norio [Saitama Medical Univ., International Medical Center, Hidaka, Saitama (Japan)

    2009-01-15

    In Japan, the intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) Alteplase (0.6 mg/kg) administration of the within 3 h of the onset of acute ischemic stroke was approved for therapeutic use in the year 2006. t-PA induces thrombolysis in patients with acute ischemic stroke, and this method has gradually gained recognition among physicians and the general population. However, the number of patients who were treated using Alteplase is low (4,000-5,000 patients/year), and this figure accounts for only 2-3% of the annual number of cases of ischemic stroke. There is little doubt that Alteplase treatment is a potentially effective modality for some patients with acute ischemic stroke. The post-marketing surveillance of 4,749 Japanese patients treated using Alteplase showed that 33% of the patients had modified Rankin scale (mRS) scores of 0-1, 17% of patients died and 4.5% presented with symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH); these results were comparable to those from other countries. The expansion of the therapeutic time window has been a matter of concern. The investigators of the European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study (ECASS) have reported that there was significant improvement in the clinical outcomes of patients with acute ischemie stroke when Alteplase was administered 3-4.5 h after the onset of the symptoms. Mismatches in perfusion- and diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images have been used for selecting patients 3 h after the onset of symptoms, and the findings from MRI, dwimages (DWI) and MR angiography are practical predictors of t-PA therapy within 3 h of onset. The Middle Cerebral Artery Embolism Local Fibrinolytic Intervention Trial (MELT) Japan study showed that local intra-arterial fibrinolysis is effective in patients with embolic MCA occlusion within 6 h of the onset of symptoms. Combining the initiation of intravenous t-PA administration with further intra-arterial fibrinolysis or mechanical thrombolectomy may improve the

  12. The Canadian Precipitation Analysis (CaPA): Evaluation of the statistical interpolation scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Andrea; Rasmussen, Peter; Fortin, Vincent

    2013-04-01

    CaPA (Canadian Precipitation Analysis) is a data assimilation system which employs statistical interpolation to combine observed precipitation with gridded precipitation fields produced by Environment Canada's Global Environmental Multiscale (GEM) climate model into a final gridded precipitation analysis. Precipitation is important in many fields and applications, including agricultural water management projects, flood control programs, and hydroelectric power generation planning. Precipitation is a key input to hydrological models, and there is a desire to have access to the best available information about precipitation in time and space. The principal goal of CaPA is to produce this type of information. In order to perform the necessary statistical interpolation, CaPA requires the estimation of a semi-variogram. This semi-variogram is used to describe the spatial correlations between precipitation innovations, defined as the observed precipitation amounts minus the GEM forecasted amounts predicted at the observation locations. Currently, CaPA uses a single isotropic variogram across the entire analysis domain. The present project investigates the implications of this choice by first conducting a basic variographic analysis of precipitation innovation data across the Canadian prairies, with specific interest in identifying and quantifying potential anisotropy within the domain. This focus is further expanded by identifying the effect of storm type on the variogram. The ultimate goal of the variographic analysis is to develop improved semi-variograms for CaPA that better capture the spatial complexities of precipitation over the Canadian prairies. CaPA presently applies a Box-Cox data transformation to both the observations and the GEM data, prior to the calculation of the innovations. The data transformation is necessary to satisfy the normal distribution assumption, but introduces a significant bias. The second part of the investigation aims at devising a bias

  13. MOX-fuel inherent proliferation-protection due to {sup 231}Pa admixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryuchkov, E.F.; Glebov, V.B.; Apse, V.A.; Shmelev, A.N. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (State University), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2003-07-01

    The proliferation protection levels of MOX-fuel containing small additions of protactinium are evaluated for equilibrium closed and open cycles of a light-water reactor (LWR).Analysis of the ways to the proliferation protection of MOX-fuel by small {sup 231}Pa addition and comparison of this way with another options for giving MOX-fuel the proliferation self-protection property enable us to make the 3 following conclusions: -1) Unique nature of protactinium as a small addition to MOX-fuel is determined by the following properties: - Protactinium is available in the nature (uranium ore) as a long-lived mono-isotope {sup 231}Pa, - under neutron irradiation, {sup 231}Pa is converted into {sup 232}U, which is a long-term source of high energy gamma-radiation and practically non-separable from main fuel mass, - essentially, {sup 231}Pa is a high-quality burnable neutron absorber. -2) From the proliferation self-protection point of view, nuclear fuel cycle closure with fuel recycle is a preferable option because, under this condition, introduction of protactinium into MOX-fuel allows to create the inherent radiation barrier which is in action during full cycle of fuel management at the level corresponding to the accepted today criterion of the Spent Fuel Standard (SFS). In particular, the considered example of multiple MOX-fuel recycle with small addition of {sup 231}Pa (0.2% HM) at each cycle demonstrates a possibility to reach the proliferation protection level of fresh MOX-fuel corresponding to once irradiated fuel with the same cooling time. In this case, the lethal dose (at 30 cm distance from fuel assembly) is received within the minute range. -3) Introduction of {sup 231}Pa into MOX-fuel composition in amount of 0.5% HM allows to prolong action of the SFS from 100 to 200 years. If {sup 231}Pa content is increased up to 5% HM, then MOX-fuel conserves the proliferation self-protection property in respect to short-term unauthorized actions for 200-year period of its

  14. PaTrx1 and PaTrx3, Two Cytosolic Thioredoxins of the Filamentous Ascomycete Podospora anserina Involved in Sexual Development and Cell Degeneration▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagnac, Fabienne; Klapholz, Benjamin; Silar, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    In various organisms, thioredoxins are known to be involved in the reduction of protein disulfide bonds and in protecting the cell from oxidative stress. Genes encoding thioredoxins were found by searching the complete genome sequence of the filamentous ascomycete Podospora anserina. Among them, PaTrx1, PaTrx2, and PaTrx3 are predicted to be canonical cytosolic proteins without additional domains. Targeted disruption of PaTrx1, PaTrx2, and PaTrx3 shows that PaTrx1 is the major thioredoxin involved in sulfur metabolism. Deletions have no effect on peroxide resistance; however, data show that either PaTrx1 or PaTrx3 is necessary for sexual reproduction and for the development of the crippled growth cell degeneration (CG), processes that also required the PaMpk1 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Since PaTrx1 PaTrx3 mutants show not an enhancement but rather an impairment in CG, it seems unlikely that PaTrx1 and PaTrx3 thioredoxins participate in the inhibition of this MAPK pathway. Altogether, these results underscore a role for thioredoxins in fungal development. PMID:17933907

  15. PaTrx1 and PaTrx3, two cytosolic thioredoxins of the filamentous ascomycete Podospora anserina involved in sexual development and cell degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagnac, Fabienne; Klapholz, Benjamin; Silar, Philippe

    2007-12-01

    In various organisms, thioredoxins are known to be involved in the reduction of protein disulfide bonds and in protecting the cell from oxidative stress. Genes encoding thioredoxins were found by searching the complete genome sequence of the filamentous ascomycete Podospora anserina. Among them, PaTrx1, PaTrx2, and PaTrx3 are predicted to be canonical cytosolic proteins without additional domains. Targeted disruption of PaTrx1, PaTrx2, and PaTrx3 shows that PaTrx1 is the major thioredoxin involved in sulfur metabolism. Deletions have no effect on peroxide resistance; however, data show that either PaTrx1 or PaTrx3 is necessary for sexual reproduction and for the development of the crippled growth cell degeneration (CG), processes that also required the PaMpk1 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Since PaTrx1 PaTrx3 mutants show not an enhancement but rather an impairment in CG, it seems unlikely that PaTrx1 and PaTrx3 thioredoxins participate in the inhibition of this MAPK pathway. Altogether, these results underscore a role for thioredoxins in fungal development.

  16. 1 MJ condenser battery with small time constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtsev, V.A.; Litunovskij, V.N.; Prokopenko, V.F.; Makeev, G.M.

    1979-01-01

    A design of 1.1 MJ small-induction capacitor bank composed of 288 IM-50/3 capacitors is given. The capacitor bank has a module structure. Each module consists of 4 sections with 6 capacitors in each section. The module has a spark gap with solid dielectrics used as a commutating element. The spark gap is simple and reliable in operation. It is suitable for repeated commutations about 10 4 operatings of currents of the order of 1 MA in modules of 100 kJ energy capacity. The capacitor bank has the following parameters: capacity of 864 μF; intrinsic induction of 4 nH; intrinsic period of 12 μs; short-circuit current of 24 MA

  17. Electronic structure of Pa at sign C28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Ke; Pitzer, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    The electronic structure of the endohedral complex Pa at sign C 28 was studied using ab initio quantum chemical methods including relativistic core potentials, gaussian double zeta basis sets, and spin-orbit configuration interaction calculations. As in U at sign C 28 , the self consistent field population analysis shows extensive mixing of Pa 6d and 5f orbitals with C π orbitals, indicating strong binding. The energy of the C 28 cage π* orbitals (e symmetry) is lower than that of the Pa 5f orbitals. The ground state has an e 1 configuration at both the SCF and CI level calculations. The lowest f 1 state is 1.68 eV and 1.70 eV above the ground state from SCF and CI calculations respectively. Previous calculations on U at sign C 28 showed that the ground state of U at sign C 28 is a π*f state instead of an f 2 state. The results for Pa at sign C 28 support that finding

  18. Pirate Bay pa° vej mod virtuel statsdannelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Saugmann

    2010-01-01

    Twitter og andre digitale platforme spillede en essentiel rolle i konflikten i Iran ved at informer eomverdenen om de store demonstrationer og den iranske regerings ha°rdhændede metoder for at stoppe dem. Derved gav de befolkningen i den vestlige verden en plads pa° første række i konflikten...

  19. Modeling an impact control strategy using HyPA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.J.L.; Reniers, M.A.; Cassandras, C.G.; Giua, A.; Seatzu, C.; Zaytoon, J.

    2006-01-01

    We analyze a control strategy for the pick-and-place module of a component mounting device.We use a combination of techniques from bondgraph-theory, systems theory, process algebra and differential algebra to achieve this, and we show how the hybrid process algebra HyPA aides us in combining these

  20. Stroke, tPA, and Physician Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MD Steven Karceski, MD Stroke, tPA, and physician decision-making Dominic Hovsepian, BS Steven Karceski, MD WHAT DID ... has not been carefully studied is the physician ’ s decision-making process. It was because of this that Dr. ...

  1. Martin Luther King, Jr. East Busway in Pittsburgh, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    The Port Authority of Allegheny County (PAT), the primary public transit operator in Pittsburgh, PA, built an exclusive roadway for buses which opened for service in February 1983. The two-lane, 6.8-mile facility serves the eastern suburbs via a righ...

  2. The nuclear structure of [sup 229]Pa from the [sup 231]Pa(p,t)[sup 229]Pa and [sup 230]Th(p,2n[gamma])[sup 229]Pa reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levon, A.I. (Sektion Physik, University of Munich, D-85748 Garching (Germany)); De Boer, J. (Sektion Physik, University of Munich, D-85748 Garching (Germany)); Graw, G. (Sektion Physik, University of Munich, D-85748 Garching (Germany)); Hertenberger, R. (Sektion Physik, University of Munich, D-85748 Garching (Germany)); Hofer, D. (Sektion Physik, University of Munich, D-85748 Garching (Germany)); Kvasil, J. (Sektion Physik, University of Munich, D-85748 Garching (Germany)); Loesch, A. (Sektion Physik, University of Munich, D-85748 Garching (Germany)); Mueller-Zanotti, E. (Sektion Physik, University of Munich, D-85748 Garching (Germany)); Wuerkner, M. (Sektion Physik, University of Munich, D-85748 Garching (Germany)); Baltzer, H. (Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, University of Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)); Grafen, V. (Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, University of Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)); Guenther, C. (Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, University of

    1994-08-29

    The level structure of the [sup 229]Pa nucleus has been investigated by means of the [sup 231]Pa(p,t)[sup 229]Pa and [sup 230]Th(p,2n[gamma])[sup 229]Pa reactions. Triton angular-distribution measurements were subjected to a CCBA analysis and combined with the results of in-beam conversion electron and [gamma]-ray spectroscopy to establish a level scheme. Two low-lying bands of opposite parity were observed up to spins (23/2)[sup -] and (17/2)[sup +], respectively. Rotational bands built on some 0[sup +] excitations of the even-even core can be assigned. The lowest states of three further low-lying bands are observed. The level scheme is interpreted in terms of an octupole-deformed core with an unpaired proton. From the E1/E2 branching ratio the electric dipole moment can be deduced vertical stroke D[sub 0]vertical stroke =(0.09 [+-]0.04) e .fm. ((orig.))

  3. Anion exchange behaviour of Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta and Pa as homologues of RF and Db in fluoride medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroy G, F. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Trubert, D.; Brillard, L.; Hussonnois, M.; Constantinescu, O.; Le Naour, C., E-mail: fabiola.monroy@inin.gob.m [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, F-91406 Orsay, France (France)

    2010-07-01

    Studies of the chemical property of trans actinide elements are very difficult due to their short half-lives and extremely small production yields. However it is still possible to obtain considerable information about their chemical properties, such as the most stable oxidation states in aqueous solution, complexing ability, etc., comparing their behaviour with their lighter homologous in the periodic table. In order to obtain a better knowledge of the behaviour of rutherfordium, RF (element 104), dub nium, Db (element 105) in HF medium, the sorption properties of Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta an Pa, homologues of RF and Db, were studied in NH{sub 4}F/HClO{sub 4} medium in this work. Stability constants of the fluoride complexes of these elements were experimentally obtained from K{sub d} obtained at different F{sup -} and H{sup +} concentrations. The anionic complexes: [Zr(Hf)F{sub 5}]{sup -}, [Zr(Hf)F{sub 6}]{sup 2-}, [Zr(Hf)F{sub 7}]{sup 3-}, [Ta(Pa)F{sub 6}]{sup -}, [Ta(Pa)F{sub 7}]{sup 2-}, [Ta(Pa)F{sub 8}]{sup 3-}, [NbOF{sub 4}]{sup -} and [NbOF{sub 5}]{sup 2-} are present as predominant species in the HF range over investigation. (Author)

  4. Anion exchange behaviour of Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta and Pa as homologues of RF and Db in fluoride medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monroy G, F.; Trubert, D.; Brillard, L.; Hussonnois, M.; Constantinescu, O.; Le Naour, C.

    2010-01-01

    Studies of the chemical property of trans actinide elements are very difficult due to their short half-lives and extremely small production yields. However it is still possible to obtain considerable information about their chemical properties, such as the most stable oxidation states in aqueous solution, complexing ability, etc., comparing their behaviour with their lighter homologous in the periodic table. In order to obtain a better knowledge of the behaviour of rutherfordium, RF (element 104), dub nium, Db (element 105) in HF medium, the sorption properties of Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta an Pa, homologues of RF and Db, were studied in NH 4 F/HClO 4 medium in this work. Stability constants of the fluoride complexes of these elements were experimentally obtained from K d obtained at different F - and H + concentrations. The anionic complexes: [Zr(Hf)F 5 ] - , [Zr(Hf)F 6 ] 2- , [Zr(Hf)F 7 ] 3- , [Ta(Pa)F 6 ] - , [Ta(Pa)F 7 ] 2- , [Ta(Pa)F 8 ] 3- , [NbOF 4 ] - and [NbOF 5 ] 2- are present as predominant species in the HF range over investigation. (Author)

  5. Air and radon pathways screenings methodologies for the next revision of the E-area PA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, J. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-31

    The strategic plan for the next E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility Performance Assessment includes recommended changes to the screening criteria used to reduce the number of radioisotopes that are to be considered in the air and radon pathways incorporated into the GoldSim® atmospheric release model (ARM). For the air pathway, a revised screening methodology was developed based on refinement of previous E-Area PA screening approaches and consideration of the strategic plan recommendations. The revised methodology has three sequential screening steps for each radioisotope: (1) volatility test using the Periodic Table of the Elements, (2) stability test based on half-life, and (3) stability test based on volatility as measured by the Henry’s Law constant for the assumed dominant gaseous species or vapor pressure in the case of tritiated water. Of the 1252 radioisotopes listed in the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 107, only the 10 that satisfied all three steps of the revised screening methodology will be included in the ARM. They are: Ar-37, Ar-39, Ar-42, C-14, H-3, Hg-194, Hg-203, Kr-81, Kr-85, and Xe-127. For the radon pathway, a revised screening methodology was developed that also has three sequential steps: (1) identify all decay chains that terminate at Rn-222, (2) screen out parents that decay through U-238 because of its 4.5-billion-year primordial half-life, and (3) eliminate remaining parents whose half-life is shorter than one day. Of the 86 possible decay chains leading to Rn-222, six decay chains consist of 15 unique radioisotopes that will be incorporated into the ARM. The 15 radioisotopes are: U-238, Th-234, Pa-234m, Pu-238, U-234, Th-230, Ra-226, Cf-246, Cm-242, Am-242m, Am-242, Np-238, Np-234, Pa-230, and Rn-222.

  6. Stability constants of scandium complexes, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Hisako; Itoh, Naomi; Suzuki, Yasuo

    1984-01-01

    The stability constants of scandium complexes with some carboxylate ligands were determined potentiometrically at 25.0 and 40.0 0 C and at an ionic strength of 0.10 with potassium nitrate as supporting electrolyte. The constants of the scandium complexes were appreciably greater than those of the corresponding lanthanoid complexes, as expected. The changes in free energy, enthalpy, and entropy for the formation of the scandium complexes were calculated from the stability constants at two temperatures. (author)

  7. Constant exposure technique in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, J.C.

    1983-08-01

    The principles and advantages of the constant exposure technique are explained. Choice of exposure factors is analyzed. Film, paper and intensifying screens used throughout the investigation and film and paper processing are described. Exposure technique and the use of image quality indicators are given. Methods of determining of radiographic image quality are presented. Conclusions about the use of constant exposure vs. constant kilovoltage technique are formulated. (author)

  8. Dose rate constants for new dose quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschurlovits, M.; Daverda, G.; Leitner, A.

    1992-01-01

    Conceptual changes and new quantities made is necessary to reassess dose rate quantities. Calculations of the dose rate constant were done for air kerma, ambient dose equivalent and directional dose equivalent. The number of radionuclides is more than 200. The threshold energy is selected as 20 keV for the dose equivalent constants. The dose rate constant for the photon equivalent dose as used mainly in German speaking countries as a temporary quantity is also included. (Author)

  9. Constant-work-space algorithms for geometric problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuo Asano

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Constant-work-space algorithms may use only constantly many cells of storage in addition to their input, which is provided as a read-only array. We show how to construct several geometric structures efficiently in the constant-work-space model. Traditional algorithms process the input into a suitable data structure (like a doubly-connected edge list that allows efficient traversal of the structure at hand. In the constant-work-space setting, however, we cannot afford to do this. Instead, we provide operations that compute the desired features on the fly by accessing the input with no extra space. The whole geometric structure can be obtained by using these operations to enumerate all the features. Of course, we must pay for the space savings by slower running times. While the standard data structure allows us to implement traversal operations in constant time, our schemes typically take linear time to read the input data in each step.We begin with two simple problems: triangulating a planar point set and finding the trapezoidal decomposition of a simple polygon. In both cases adjacent features can be enumerated in linear time per step, resulting in total quadratic running time to output the whole structure. Actually, we show that the former result carries over to the Delaunay triangulation, and hence the Voronoi diagram. This also means that we can compute the largest empty circle of a planar point set in quadratic time and constant work-space. As another application, we demonstrate how to enumerate the features of an Euclidean minimum spanning tree (EMST in quadratic time per step, so that the whole EMST can be found in cubic time using constant work-space.Finally, we describe how to compute a shortest geodesic path between two points in a simple polygon. Although the shortest path problem in general graphs is NL-complete (Jakoby and Tantau 2003, this constrained problem can be solved in quadratic time using only constant work-space.

  10. A natural cosmological constant from chameleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nastase, Horatiu; Weltman, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    We present a simple model where the effective cosmological constant appears from chameleon scalar fields. For a Kachru–Kallosh–Linde–Trivedi (KKLT)-inspired form of the potential and a particular chameleon coupling to the local density, patches of approximately constant scalar field potential cluster around regions of matter with density above a certain value, generating the effect of a cosmological constant on large scales. This construction addresses both the cosmological constant problem (why Λ is so small, yet nonzero) and the coincidence problem (why Λ is comparable to the matter density now)

  11. A natural cosmological constant from chameleons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horatiu Nastase

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a simple model where the effective cosmological constant appears from chameleon scalar fields. For a Kachru–Kallosh–Linde–Trivedi (KKLT-inspired form of the potential and a particular chameleon coupling to the local density, patches of approximately constant scalar field potential cluster around regions of matter with density above a certain value, generating the effect of a cosmological constant on large scales. This construction addresses both the cosmological constant problem (why Λ is so small, yet nonzero and the coincidence problem (why Λ is comparable to the matter density now.

  12. A natural cosmological constant from chameleons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nastase, Horatiu, E-mail: nastase@ift.unesp.br [Instituto de Física Teórica, UNESP-Universidade Estadual Paulista, R. Dr. Bento T. Ferraz 271, Bl. II, Sao Paulo 01140-070, SP (Brazil); Weltman, Amanda, E-mail: amanda.weltman@uct.ac.za [Astrophysics, Cosmology & Gravity Center, Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7700 (South Africa)

    2015-07-30

    We present a simple model where the effective cosmological constant appears from chameleon scalar fields. For a Kachru–Kallosh–Linde–Trivedi (KKLT)-inspired form of the potential and a particular chameleon coupling to the local density, patches of approximately constant scalar field potential cluster around regions of matter with density above a certain value, generating the effect of a cosmological constant on large scales. This construction addresses both the cosmological constant problem (why Λ is so small, yet nonzero) and the coincidence problem (why Λ is comparable to the matter density now)

  13. The study of water + HCl + ethanol vapor-liquid equilibrium at 78 kPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojeda Toro, Juan Carlos; Dobrosz-Gómez, Izabela; Gómez García, Miguel Ángel

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Comparison between experimental and calculated saturation temperature of water + HCl + ethanol system using two rigorous electrolyte models. - Highlights: • Data for the water + HCl + ethanol VLE is reported at 78 kPa. • The VLE for the system water + HCl + ethanol was determined. • A new set of parameters for extended UNIQUAC model were correlated. • A new set of parameters for LIQUAC model were correlated. - Abstract: In this work, the isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data obtained for the ternary system water + HCl + ethanol at 78 kPa, using an Ellis still, were studied. Two rigorous electrolyte models (extended UNIQUAC and LIQUAC) were fitted to the experimental data. Ethanol-H + , water-H + , ethanol-Cl − , water-Cl − , and Cl − -H + interaction parameters were determined. Likewise, Henry’s law constants for the volatile electrolyte were defined. A high goodness of fit was obtained for both electrolyte models; however, the extended UNIQUAC one showed better performance (AAD = 0.1326%). Two azeotropes observed in the system were accurately predicted (ethanol + water: x EtOH = 0.86 at 344.6 K; and HCl + water: x HCl = 0.11 at 375.5 K).

  14. Functional Characterization of PaLAX1, a Putative Auxin Permease, in Heterologous Plant Systems1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyerová, Klára; Perry, Lucie; Hand, Paul; Laňková, Martina; Kocábek, Tomáš; May, Sean; Kottová, Jana; Pačes, Jan; Napier, Richard; Zažímalová, Eva

    2008-01-01

    We have isolated the cDNA of the gene PaLAX1 from a wild cherry tree (Prunus avium). The gene and its product are highly similar in sequences to both the cDNAs and the corresponding protein products of AUX/LAX-type genes, coding for putative auxin influx carriers. We have prepared and characterized transformed Nicotiana tabacum and Arabidopsis thaliana plants carrying the gene PaLAX1. We have proved that constitutive overexpression of PaLAX1 is accompanied by changes in the content and distribution of free indole-3-acetic acid, the major endogenous auxin. The increase in free indole-3-acetic acid content in transgenic plants resulted in various phenotype changes, typical for the auxin-overproducing plants. The uptake of synthetic auxin, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, was 3 times higher in transgenic lines compared to the wild-type lines and the treatment with the auxin uptake inhibitor 1-naphthoxyacetic acid reverted the changes caused by the expression of PaLAX1. Moreover, the agravitropic response could be restored by expression of PaLAX1 in the mutant aux1 plants, which are deficient in auxin influx carrier activity. Based on our data, we have concluded that the product of the gene PaLAX1 promotes the uptake of auxin into cells, and, as a putative auxin influx carrier, it affects the content and distribution of free endogenous auxin in transgenic plants. PMID:18184737

  15. Price of shifting the Hubble constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evslin, Jarah; Sen, Anjan A.; Ruchika

    2018-05-01

    An anisotropic measurement of the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) feature fixes the product of the Hubble constant and the acoustic scale H0rd. Therefore, regardless of the dark energy dynamics, to accommodate a higher value of H0 one needs a lower rd and so necessarily a modification of early time cosmology. One must either reduce the age of the Universe at the drag epoch or else the speed of sound in the primordial plasma. The first can be achieved, for example, with dark radiation or very early dark energy, automatically preserving the angular size of the acoustic scale in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) with no modifications to post-recombination dark energy. However, it is known that the simplest such modifications fall afoul of CMB constraints at higher multipoles. As an example, we combine anisotropic BAO with geometric measurements from strong lensing time delays from H0LiCOW and megamasers from the Megamaser Cosmology Project to measure rd, with and without the local distance ladder measurement of H0. We find that the best fit value of rd is indeed quite insensitive to the dark energy model and is also hardly affected by the inclusion of the local distance ladder data.

  16. The Mirror: Advice on Presence and Awareness (dran pa dang shes bzhin gyi gdams pa me long ma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chögyal Namkhai Norbu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available “The Mirror: Advice on the Presence of Awareness” (dran pa dang shes bzhin gyi gdams pa me long ma is a short text that describes the essence of the Dzogchen teaching (rdzogs chen, total perfection. Concerning the way to establish this point of view (lta ba, the main point is to have a direct understanding through the experience of our primordial state of pure presence, beyond any mental or intellectual construction. With regard to meditation (sgom pa, this involves practicing in order to be sure to understand our own true nature, the non-dual condition of the calm state (the essence of the mind and movement (its natural energy. Behavior (spyod pa is the integration of meditation in all our daily activities, continuing in the state of pure presence in every circumstance of life. This is the total realization.

  17. Equilibrium-constant expressions for aqueous plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    2010-01-01

    Equilibrium-constant expressions for Pu disproportionation reactions traditionally contain three or four terms representing the concentrations or fractions of the oxidation states. The expressions can be rewritten so that one of the oxidation states is replaced by a term containing the oxidation number of the plutonium. Experimental estimations of the numerical values of the constants can then be checked in several ways. (author)

  18. A null test of the cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Takeshi; Nakamura, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    We provide a consistency relation between cosmological observables in general relativity with the cosmological constant. Breaking of this relation at any redshift would imply the breakdown of the hypothesis of the cosmological constant as an explanation of the current acceleration of the universe. (author)

  19. A stringy nature needs just two constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veneziano, G.

    1986-01-01

    Dual string theories of everything, being purely geometrical, contain only two fundamental constants: c, for relativistic invariance, and a length lambda, for quantization. Planck's and Newton's constants appear only through Planck's length, a ''calculable'' fraction of lambda. Only the existence of a light sector breaks a ''reciprocity'' principle and unification at lambda, which is also the theory's cut-off

  20. On special relativity with cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Hanying; Huang Chaoguang; Xu Zhan; Zhou Bin

    2004-01-01

    Based on the principle of relativity and the postulate of invariant speed and length, we propose the theory of special relativity with cosmological constant SRc,R, in which the cosmological constant is linked with the invariant length. Its relation with the doubly special relativity is briefly mentioned

  1. DETERMINATION OF STABILITY CONSTANTS OF MANGANESE (II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Keywords: Amino acids, dissociation constant, potentiometry, stability constant. INTRODUCTION. Acids – base titration involves the gradual addition or removal of protons for example using the deprotic form of glycine. The plot has two distinct stages corresponding to the deprotonation of the two different groups on glycine.

  2. Shapley Value for Constant-sum Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khmelnitskaya, A.B.

    2002-01-01

    It is proved that Young's axiomatization for the Shapley value by marginalism, efficiency, and symmetry is still valid for the Shapley value defined on the class of nonnegative constant-sum games and on the entire class of constant-sum games as well. To support an interest to study the class of

  3. Constant Width Planar Computation Characterizes ACC0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt

    2006-01-01

    We obtain a characterization of ACC0 in terms of a natural class of constant width circuits, namely in terms of constant width polynomial size planar circuits. This is shown via a characterization of the class of acyclic digraphs which can be embedded on a cylinder surface in such a way that all...

  4. Experimental Determination of the Avogadro Constant

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mental physical constant such as charge of an electron or the. Boltzmann constant ... ideas was that the number of particles or molecules in a gas of given volume could not ... knowledge of at least one property of a single molecule. Loschmidt ...

  5. Effect of ph and temperature on the sorption of Np and Pa to mixed anaerobic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takayuki; Kauri, Tiit; Kudo, Akira

    2001-01-01

    While considering the geological disposal of radioactive wastes, the behaviour of the radionuclide Np and its daughter element Pa was investigated in the presence of a mixture of anaerobic bacteria (MAB). Originally, MAB were used for the treatment of pulp and paper wastewater. The interaction between radionuclides and bacteria was evaluated by determining distribution coefficients (K d ) over 10 days and at 5 deg. C and 35 deg. C. K d for Np at 35 deg. C after 5 days had a low value around 10 -2 . After 10 days, however, K d was >100-fold higher. On the other hand, K d at 5 deg. C was low (10 -2 ) throughout, without any significant increase over time. The interaction between Pa and MAB was found to be stronger than that for Np, with K d for Pa about 100 times higher. The K d was controlled by some basic factors; the activity of MAB, the complexing capacity of MAB, and the chemical conditions in the solution such as pH and Eh

  6. Graviton fluctuations erase the cosmological constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterich, C.

    2017-10-01

    Graviton fluctuations induce strong non-perturbative infrared renormalization effects for the cosmological constant. The functional renormalization flow drives a positive cosmological constant towards zero, solving the cosmological constant problem without the need to tune parameters. We propose a simple computation of the graviton contribution to the flow of the effective potential for scalar fields. Within variable gravity, with effective Planck mass proportional to the scalar field, we find that the potential increases asymptotically at most quadratically with the scalar field. The solutions of the derived cosmological equations lead to an asymptotically vanishing cosmological "constant" in the infinite future, providing for dynamical dark energy in the present cosmological epoch. Beyond a solution of the cosmological constant problem, our simplified computation also entails a sizeable positive graviton-induced anomalous dimension for the quartic Higgs coupling in the ultraviolet regime, substantiating the successful prediction of the Higgs boson mass within the asymptotic safety scenario for quantum gravity.

  7. Solar constant values for estimating solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huashan; Lian, Yongwang; Wang, Xianlong; Ma, Weibin; Zhao, Liang

    2011-01-01

    There are many solar constant values given and adopted by researchers, leading to confusion in estimating solar radiation. In this study, some solar constant values collected from literature for estimating solar radiation with the Angstroem-Prescott correlation are tested in China using the measured data between 1971 and 2000. According to the ranking method based on the t-statistic, a strategy to select the best solar constant value for estimating the monthly average daily global solar radiation with the Angstroem-Prescott correlation is proposed. -- Research highlights: → The effect of the solar constant on estimating solar radiation is investigated. → The investigation covers a diverse range of climate and geography in China. → A strategy to select the best solar constant for estimating radiation is proposed.

  8. Neutralisation of uPA with a monoclonal antibody reduces plasmin formation and delays skin wound healing in tPA-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jögi, Annika; Rønø, Birgitte; Lund, Ida K

    2010-01-01

    Proteolytic degradation by plasmin and metalloproteinases is essential for epidermal regeneration in skin wound healing. Plasminogen deficient mice have severely delayed wound closure as have mice simultaneously lacking the two plasminogen activators, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u......PA) and tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA). In contrast, individual genetic deficiencies in either uPA or tPA lead to wound healing kinetics with no or only slightly delayed closure of skin wounds....

  9. Structure of a putative acetyltransferase (PA1377) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, Anna M.; Tata, Renée; Chauviac, François-Xavier; Sutton, Brian J.; Brown, Paul R.

    2008-01-01

    The crystal structure of an acetyltransferase encoded by the gene PA1377 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been determined at 2.25 Å resolution. Comparison with a related acetyltransferase revealed a structural difference in the active site that was taken to reflect a difference in substrate binding and/or specificity between the two enzymes. Gene PA1377 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa encodes a 177-amino-acid conserved hypothetical protein of unknown function. The structure of this protein (termed pitax) has been solved in space group I222 to 2.25 Å resolution. Pitax belongs to the GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase family and contains all four sequence motifs conserved among family members. The β-strand structure in one of these motifs (motif A) is disrupted, which is believed to affect binding of the substrate that accepts the acetyl group from acetyl-CoA

  10. Nuclear suppression in p-A collisions from induced radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arleo, F.; Kolevatov, R.; Peigne, S.; Sami, T.

    2016-01-01

    The current status of coherent energy loss is reviewed, both in theory and in its phenomenological applications to p-A collisions. The induced energy loss is not bounded in general, but only in the specific situation where the energetic parton is suddenly accelerated (as in deep inelastic scattering) in the nuclear medium. In the situation where the parton is asymptotic, i.e. 'prepared' at t = -∞ and 'tagged' at t = +∞ after crossing a nuclear medium of thickness L (a situation relevant to forward hadron production in p-A collisions), ΔE appears to be proportional to E. Both situations are detailed in the article

  11. Process and Energy Optimization Assessment, Tobyhanna Army Depot, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-17

    assembly of electronic-communication components, different welding processes are performed at TYAD. It uses shielded arc, metal inert gas (MIG...tungsten inert gas ( TIG ), and silver braz- ing oxygen/acetylene cutting plasma arc methods to complete mission re- quirements. Major welding jobs are...ER D C/ CE R L TR -0 6 -1 1 Process and Energy Optimization Assessment Tobyhanna Army Depot, PA Mike C.J. Lin, Alexander M. Zhivov

  12. Phenomenological Evidence for Gluon Depletion in pA Collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Hwa, R. C.; Pisut, J.; Pisutova, N.

    2000-01-01

    The data of J/psi suppression at large x_F in pA collisions are used to infer the existence of gluon depletion as the projectile proton traverses the nucleus. The modification of the gluon distribution is studied by use of a convolution equation whose non-perturbative splitting function is determined phenomenologically. The depletion factor at x_1=0.8 is found to be about 25% at A=100.

  13. Demonstration Assessment of LED Roadway Lighting: Philadelphia, PA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, Michael P.; Tuenge, Jason R.; Poplawski, Michael E.

    2012-09-01

    For this demonstration assessment, 10 different groups of LED luminaires were installed at three sites in Philadelphia, PA. Each of the three sites represented a different set of conditions, most importantly with regard to the incumbent HPS luminaires, which were nominally 100 W, 150 W, and 250 W. The performance of each product was evaluated based on manufacturer data, illuminance calculations, field measurements of illuminance, and the subjective impressions of both regular and expert observers.

  14. Public acceptance (PA) of nuclear energy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Makoto

    1994-01-01

    Japan's nuclear development is carried out in the spirit of the Atomic Energy Basic Law that it adopted in 1955. The only nation in the world devastated by nuclear weapons, Japan strongly hopes for the abolishment of nuclear weapons and promotes the peaceful use of nuclear energy. Since Japan is in poor in natural resources nuclear power has now become a major foundation of our society and economy. As far as the Japanese people's awareness of nuclear power generation is concerned, 60% recognize it as necessary although 70% are concerned about its safety. The public acceptance (PA) of nuclear energy is facing a critical juncture at thus point due to such imminent issues as the use of plutonium and the disposal of high-level wastes. The entire Japanese government is currently striving to promote PA measures targeting various population groups. This paper reports on the peaceful use of nuclear energy and Japan's stance on this issue; people's awareness; and the current state of nuclear energy PA measures. 1 fig

  15. PA0148 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa Catalyzes the Deamination of Adenine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goble, A.M.; Swaminathan, S.; Zhang, Z.; Sauder, J. M.; Burley, S. K.; Raushel, F. M.

    2011-08-02

    Four proteins from NCBI cog1816, previously annotated as adenosine deaminases, have been subjected to structural and functional characterization. Pa0148 (Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1), AAur1117 (Arthrobacter aurescens TC1), Sgx9403e, and Sgx9403g have been purified and their substrate profiles determined. Adenosine is not a substrate for any of these enzymes. All of these proteins will deaminate adenine to produce hypoxanthine with k{sub cat}/K{sub m} values that exceed 10{sup 5} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}. These enzymes will also accept 6-chloropurine, 6-methoxypurine, N-6-methyladenine, and 2,6-diaminopurine as alternate substrates. X-ray structures of Pa0148 and AAur1117 have been determined and reveal nearly identical distorted ({beta}/{alpha}){sub 8} barrels with a single zinc ion that is characteristic of members of the amidohydrolase superfamily. Structures of Pa0148 with adenine, 6-chloropurine, and hypoxanthine were also determined, thereby permitting identification of the residues responsible for coordinating the substrate and product.

  16. Tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA) Mediates Neurotoxin-Induced Cell Death and Microglial Activation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tsirka, Styliani-Anna

    2001-01-01

    .... In mice lacking tPA (tPA-/1), neurons are resistant to neurotoxic death. Delivery of tPA into tpA-/- mice restores susceptibility to neuronal death, indicating that tPA is neurotoxic in the context of excitotoxic injury...

  17. Investigation of the mechanical properties of GNP/MWCNT reinforced PA66 hybrid nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doagou Rad, Saeed; Islam, Aminul; Søndergaard Jensen, Jacob

    nanocomposites reinforced with two prominent nanofillers namely Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT) and Graphene NanoPlatelets (GNP) manufactured through industrially viable methods. Three main groups of Polyamide (PA 66) based nano- and hybrid composite specimens namely PA 66/MWCNT, PA 66/GNP, and PA 66/MWCNT...

  18. 33 CFR 100.T05-0443 - Safety Zone; Fireworks Display, Delaware River, New Hope, PA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Delaware River, New Hope, PA. 100.T05-0443 Section 100.T05-0443 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Safety Zone; Fireworks Display, Delaware River, New Hope, PA. (a) Location. The safety zone will restrict.... Bridge located in New Hope, PA, and 400 ft east of the shoreline of New Hope, PA. (b) Regulations. (1) No...

  19. Thrombolysis with Intravenous Tissue Plasminogen Activator (rt-PA) Predicts Favorable Discharge Disposition in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifejika-Jones, Nneka L.; Harun, Nusrat; Mohammed-Rajput, Nareesa A.; Noser, Elizabeth A.; Grotta, James C.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose Acute ischemic stroke patients receiving IV tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) within 3 hours of symptom onset are 30% more likely to have minimal disability at three months. During hospitalization, short-term disability is subjectively measured by discharge disposition, whether to home, Inpatient Rehabilitation (IR), Skilled Nursing Facility (SNF) or Subacute Care (Sub). There are no studies assessing the role of rt-PA use as a predictor of post-stroke disposition. Methods Retrospective analysis of all ischemic stroke patients admitted to the University of Texas Houston Medical School (UTHMS) Stroke Service between Jan 2004 and Oct 2009. Baseline demographics and National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score were collected. Cerebrovascular disease risk factors were used for risk stratification. Results Home vs. IR, SNF, Sub Of 2225 acute ischemic stroke patients, 1019 were discharged home, 1206 to another level of care. Patients who received rt-PA therapy were 1.9 times more likely to be discharged home (P = stroke patients, 719 patients were discharged to acute IR, 371 were discharged to SNF, 116 to Sub. There were no differences in disposition between patients who received rt-PA therapy. Conclusions Stroke patients who receive IV rt-PA for acute ischemic stroke are more 1.9 times more likely to be discharged directly home after hospitalization. This study is limited by its retrospective nature and the undetermined role of psychosocial factors related to discharge. PMID:21293014

  20. Statistical orientation fluctuations: constant angular momentum versus constant rotational frequency constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, A L [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1992-08-01

    Statistical orientation fluctuations are calculated with two alternative assumptions: the rotational frequency remains constant as the shape orientation fluctuates; and, the average angular momentum remains constant as the shape orientation fluctuates. (author). 2 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Current-Mode CMOS A/D Converter for pA to nA Input Currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breten, Madalina; Lehmann, Torsten; Bruun, Erik

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a current mode A/D converter designed for a maximum input current range of 5nA and a resolution of the order of 1pA. The converter is designed for a potentiostat for amperometric chemical sensors and provides a constant polarization voltage for the measuring electrode....... A prototype chip using the dual slope conversion method has been fabricated in a 0.7micron CMOS process. Experimental results from this converter are reported. Design problems and limitations of the converter are discussed and a new conversion technique providing a larger dynamic range and easy calibration...

  2. Online feedback-controlled renal constant infusion clearances in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock-Kusch, Daniel; Shulhevich, Yury; Xie, Qing; Hesser, Juergen; Stsepankou, Dzmitry; Neudecker, Sabine; Friedemann, Jochen; Koenig, Stefan; Heinrich, Ralf; Hoecklin, Friederike; Pill, Johannes; Gretz, Norbert

    2012-08-01

    Constant infusion clearance techniques using exogenous renal markers are considered the gold standard for assessing the glomerular filtration rate. Here we describe a constant infusion clearance method in rats allowing the real-time monitoring of steady-state conditions using an automated closed-loop approach based on the transcutaneous measurement of the renal marker FITC-sinistrin. In order to optimize parameters to reach steady-state conditions as fast as possible, a Matlab-based simulation tool was established. Based on this, a real-time feedback-regulated approach for constant infusion clearance monitoring was developed. This was validated by determining hourly FITC-sinistrin plasma concentrations and the glomerular filtration rate in healthy and unilaterally nephrectomized rats. The transcutaneously assessed FITC-sinistrin fluorescence signal was found to reflect the plasma concentration. Our method allows the precise determination of the onset of steady-state marker concentration. Moreover, the steady state can be monitored and controlled in real time for several hours. This procedure is simple to perform since no urine samples and only one blood sample are required. Thus, we developed a real-time feedback-based system for optimal regulation and monitoring of a constant infusion clearance technique.

  3. On the constants for some Sobolev imbeddings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pizzocchero Livio

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the imbedding inequality is the Sobolev space (or Bessel potential space of type and (integer or fractional order . We write down upper bounds for the constants , using an argument previously applied in the literature in particular cases. We prove that the upper bounds computed in this way are in fact the sharp constants if , , and exhibit the maximising functions. Furthermore, using convenient trial functions, we derive lower bounds on for in many cases these are close to the previous upper bounds, as illustrated by a number of examples, thus characterizing the sharp constants with little uncertainty.

  4. On the constant-roll inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhu; Gong, Yungui

    2018-03-01

    The primordial power spectra of scalar and tensor perturbations during slow-roll inflation are usually calculated with the method of Bessel function approximation. For constant-roll or ultra slow-roll inflation, the method of Bessel function approximation may be invalid. We compare the numerical results with the analytical results derived from the Bessel function approximation, and we find that they differ significantly on super-horizon scales if the constant slow-roll parameter ηH is not small. More accurate method is needed for calculating the primordial power spectrum for constant-roll inflation.

  5. Scalar-tensor cosmology with cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslanka, K.

    1983-01-01

    The equations of scalar-tensor theory of gravitation with cosmological constant in the case of homogeneous and isotropic cosmological model can be reduced to dynamical system of three differential equations with unknown functions H=R/R, THETA=phi/phi, S=e/phi. When new variables are introduced the system becomes more symmetrical and cosmological solutions R(t), phi(t), e(t) are found. It is shown that when cosmological constant is introduced large class of solutions which depend also on Dicke-Brans parameter can be obtained. Investigations of these solutions give general limits for cosmological constant and mean density of matter in plane model. (author)

  6. Cosmological constant and advanced gravitational wave detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.; Turner, E.L.

    1997-01-01

    Interferometric gravitational wave detectors could measure the frequency sweep of a binary inspiral (characterized by its chirp mass) to high accuracy. The observed chirp mass is the intrinsic chirp mass of the binary source multiplied by (1+z), where z is the redshift of the source. Assuming a nonzero cosmological constant, we compute the expected redshift distribution of observed events for an advanced LIGO detector. We find that the redshift distribution has a robust and sizable dependence on the cosmological constant; the data from advanced LIGO detectors could provide an independent measurement of the cosmological constant. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  7. Constant strength fuel-fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaseen, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    A fuel cell is an electrochemical apparatus composed of both a nonconsumable anode and cathode; and electrolyte, fuel oxidant and controls. This invention guarantees the constant transfer of hydrogen atoms and their respective electrons, thus a constant flow of power by submergence of the negative electrode in a constant strength hydrogen furnishing fuel; when said fuel is an aqueous absorbed hydrocarbon, such as and similar to ethanol or methnol. The objective is accomplished by recirculation of the liquid fuel, as depleted in the cell through specific type membranes which pass water molecules and reject the fuel molecules; thus concentrating them for recycle use

  8. Reactor group constants and benchmark test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, Hideki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-08-01

    The evaluated nuclear data files such as JENDL, ENDF/B-VI and JEF-2 are validated by analyzing critical mock-up experiments for various type reactors and assessing applicability for nuclear characteristics such as criticality, reaction rates, reactivities, etc. This is called Benchmark Testing. In the nuclear calculations, the diffusion and transport codes use the group constant library which is generated by processing the nuclear data files. In this paper, the calculation methods of the reactor group constants and benchmark test are described. Finally, a new group constants scheme is proposed. (author)

  9. Shifting from constant-voltage to constant-current in Parkinson's disease patients with chronic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amami, P; Mascia, M M; Franzini, A; Saba, F; Albanese, A

    2017-08-01

    The study aimed to evaluate safety and efficacy of shifting stimulation settings from constant-voltage (CV) to constant-current (CC) programming in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and chronic subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS). Twenty PD patients with chronic STN DBS set in CV programming were shifted to CC and followed for 3 months; the other stimulation settings and the medication regimen remained unchanged. Side effects, motor, non-motor, executive functions, and impedance were assessed at baseline and during follow-up. No adverse events were observed at time of shifting or during CC stimulation. Motor and non-motor measures remained unchanged at follow-up despite impedance decreased. Compared to baseline, inhibition processes improved at follow-up. The shifting strategy was well tolerated and the clinical outcome was maintained with no need to adjust stimulation settings or medications notwithstanding a decrease of impedance. Improvement of inhibition processes is a finding which needed further investigation.

  10. Locus of the apices of projectile trajectories under constant drag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Saldaña, H.

    2017-11-01

    Using the hodograph method, we present an analytical solution for projectile coplanar motion under constant drag, parametrised by the velocity angle. We find the locus formed by the apices of the projectile trajectories, and discuss its implementation for the motion of a particle on an inclined plane in presence of Coulomb friction. The range and time of flight are obtained numerically, and we find that the optimal launching angle is smaller than in the drag-free case. This is a good example of a problem with constant dissipation of energy that includes curvature; it is appropriate for intermediate courses of mechanics.

  11. Determination of Peukert's Constant Using Impedance Spectroscopy: Application to Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Edmund Martin; Kim, Sangtae

    2016-12-15

    Peukert's equation is widely used to model the rate dependence of battery capacity, and has recently attracted attention for application to supercapacitors. Here we present a newly developed method to readily determine Peukert's constant using impedance spectroscopy. Impedance spectroscopy is ideal for this purpose as it has the capability of probing electrical performance of a device over a wide range of time-scales within a single measurement. We demonstrate that the new method yields consistent results with conventional galvanostatic measurements through applying it to commercially available supercapacitors. Additionally, the novel method is much simpler and more precise, making it an attractive alternative for the determination of Peukert's constant.

  12. Development of $Mathematica$ Package 'StandardPhysicalConstants'

    CERN Document Server

    Ezhela, Vladimir V

    2003-01-01

    Here we report on the further development of the 'StandardPhysicalConstants' package which was presented for the first time at the last IMS 2001 conference. We would like to dwell on the following issues: the package structure; current status of the physical constant database; data sourses, current data collection and data structure; the main modules of data management system; the first version of "error propagator"; usage examples of one in calculations for high precision tests of physics theories. The outlook of the future development of the package is also given.

  13. Heavy quarkonium production: Nontrivial transition from pA to AA collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan; Pirner, H. J.

    2011-01-01

    Two novel QCD effects, double-color filtering and mutual boosting of the saturation scales in colliding nuclei, affect the transparency of the nuclei for quark dipoles in comparison with proton-nucleus collisions. The former effect increases the survival probability of the dipoles, since color filtering in one nucleus makes the other one more transparent. The second effect acts in the opposite direction and is stronger; it makes the colliding nuclei more opaque than in the case of pA collisions. As a result of parton saturation in nuclei the effective scale is shifted upward, which leads to an increase of the gluon density at small x. This in turn leads to a stronger transverse momentum broadening in AA compared with pA collisions, i.e., to an additional growth of the saturation momentum. Such a mutual boosting leads to a system of reciprocity equations, which result in a saturation scale, a few times higher in AA than in pA collisions at the energies of the large hadron collider (LHC). Since the dipole cross section is proportional to the saturation momentum squared, the nuclei become much more opaque for dipoles in AA than in pA collisions. For the same reason gluon shadowing turns out to be boosted to a larger magnitude compared with the product of the gluon shadowing factors in each of the colliding nuclei. All these effects make it more difficult to establish a baseline for anomalous J/Ψ suppression in heavy ion collisions at high energies.

  14. 35% Good Outcome Rate in IV-tPA treated Patients with CTA Confirmed Severe Anterior Circulation Occlusive Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, R. Gilberto; Furie, Karen L.; Goldmacher, Gregory V.; Smith, Wade S.; Kamalian, Shervin; Payabvash, Seyedmehdi; Harris, Gordon J.; Halpern, Elkan F.; Koroshetz, Walter J.; Camargo, Erica C. S.; Dillon, William P.; Lev, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE To determine the effect of IV-tPA on outcomes in patients with severe major anterior circulation ischemic stroke. METHODS Prospectively, 649 acute stroke patients had admission NIH stroke scale scores (NIHSS), non-contrast CT, CT angiography (CTA), and 6-month outcome assessed using modified Rankin scale (mRS). IV-tPA treatment decisions were made prior to CTA, at the time of non-contrast CT scanning, as per routine clinical protocol. Severe symptoms were defined as NIHSS>10. Poor outcome was defined as mRS>2. Major occlusions were identified on CTA. Univariate and multivariate stepwise-forward logistic regression analyses of the full cohort were performed. RESULTS Of 649 patients, 188 (29%) presented with NIHSS>10, and 64/188 (34%) of these received IV-tPA. Admission NIHSS, large artery occlusion, and IV-tPA all independently predicted good outcomes, however a significant interaction existed between IV-tPA and occlusion (p10 patients with anterior circulation occlusion, twice the percentage had good outcomes if they received IV-tPA (17/49, 35%), than if they did not (13/77, 17%; p=0.031). The “number needed to treat” was 7 (95% CI = 3–60). CONCLUSIONS IV-tPA treatment resulted in significantly more good outcomes in severely symptomatic stroke patients with major anterior circulation occlusions. The 35% good outcome rate was similar to rates found in endovascular therapy trials. Vascular imaging may help in patient selection and stratification for trials of IV-thrombolytic and endovascular therapies. PMID:24003051

  15. Relationship between electrophilicity index, Hammett constant and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Inter-relationships between the electrophilicity index (ω), Hammett constant (óp) and nucleus- independent chemical ... cess of DFT is that it provides simple working equa- tions to elucidate ... compasses both the ability of an electrophile to ac-.

  16. Canonoid transformations and constants of motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negri, L.J.; Oliveira, L.C.; Teixeira, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The necessary and sufficient conditions for a canonoid transformation with respect to a given Hamiltonian are obtained in terms of the Lagrange brackets of the trasformation. The relation of these conditions with the constants of motion is discussed. (Author) [pt

  17. An improved dosimeter having constant flow pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, W.B.

    1980-01-01

    A dosemeter designed for individual use which can be used to monitor toxic radon gas and toxic related products of radon gas in mines and which incorporates a constant air stream flowing through the dosimeter is described. (U.K.)

  18. Interacting universes and the cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso-Serrano, A.; Bastos, C.; Bertolami, O.; Robles-Pérez, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this Letter it is studied the effects that an interaction scheme among universes can have in the values of their cosmological constants. In the case of two interacting universes, the value of the cosmological constant of one of the universes becomes very close to zero at the expense of an increasing value of the cosmological constant of the partner universe. In the more general case of a chain of N interacting universes with periodic boundary conditions, the spectrum of the Hamiltonian splits into a large number of levels, each of them associated with a particular value of the cosmological constant, that can be occupied by single universes revealing a collective behavior that plainly shows that the multiverse is much more than the mere sum of its parts

  19. Interacting universes and the cosmological constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso-Serrano, A. [Centro de Física “Miguel Catalán”, Instituto de Física Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Estación Ecológica de Biocosmología, Pedro de Alvarado 14, 06411 Medellín (Spain); Bastos, C. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Bertolami, O. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Departamento de Física e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Robles-Pérez, S., E-mail: salvarp@imaff.cfmac.csic.es [Centro de Física “Miguel Catalán”, Instituto de Física Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Estación Ecológica de Biocosmología, Pedro de Alvarado 14, 06411 Medellín (Spain); Física Teórica, Universidad del País Vasco, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2013-02-12

    In this Letter it is studied the effects that an interaction scheme among universes can have in the values of their cosmological constants. In the case of two interacting universes, the value of the cosmological constant of one of the universes becomes very close to zero at the expense of an increasing value of the cosmological constant of the partner universe. In the more general case of a chain of N interacting universes with periodic boundary conditions, the spectrum of the Hamiltonian splits into a large number of levels, each of them associated with a particular value of the cosmological constant, that can be occupied by single universes revealing a collective behavior that plainly shows that the multiverse is much more than the mere sum of its parts.

  20. Constant conditional entropy and related hypotheses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer-i-Cancho, Ramon; Dębowski, Łukasz; Moscoso del Prado Martín, Fermín

    2013-01-01

    Constant entropy rate (conditional entropies must remain constant as the sequence length increases) and uniform information density (conditional probabilities must remain constant as the sequence length increases) are two information theoretic principles that are argued to underlie a wide range of linguistic phenomena. Here we revise the predictions of these principles in the light of Hilberg’s law on the scaling of conditional entropy in language and related laws. We show that constant entropy rate (CER) and two interpretations for uniform information density (UID), full UID and strong UID, are inconsistent with these laws. Strong UID implies CER but the reverse is not true. Full UID, a particular case of UID, leads to costly uncorrelated sequences that are totally unrealistic. We conclude that CER and its particular cases are incomplete hypotheses about the scaling of conditional entropies. (letter)

  1. New perspectives on constant-roll inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicciarella, Francesco; Mabillard, Joel; Pieroni, Mauro

    2018-01-01

    We study constant-roll inflation using the β-function formalism. We show that the constant rate of the inflaton roll is translated into a first order differential equation for the β-function which can be solved easily. The solutions to this equation correspond to the usual constant-roll models. We then construct, by perturbing these exact solutions, more general classes of models that satisfy the constant-roll equation asymptotically. In the case of an asymptotic power law solution, these corrections naturally provide an end to the inflationary phase. Interestingly, while from a theoretical point of view (in particular in terms of the holographic interpretation) these models are intrinsically different from standard slow-roll inflation, they may have phenomenological predictions in good agreement with present cosmological data.

  2. Hydrolysis and formation constants at 250C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.L.

    1982-05-01

    A database consisting of hydrolysis and formation constants for about 20 metals associated with the disposal of nuclear waste is given. Complexing ligands for the various ionic species of these metals include OH, F, Cl, SO 4 , PO 4 and CO 3 . Table 1 consists of tabulated calculated and experimental values of log K/sub xy/, mainly at 25 0 C and various ionic strengths together with references to the origin of the data. Table 2 consists of a column of recommended stability constants at 25 0 C and zero ionic strength tabulated in the column headed log K/sub xy/(0); other columns contain coefficients for an extended Debye-Huckel equation to permit calculations of stability constants up to 3 ionic strength, and up to 0.7 ionic strength using the Davies equation. Selected stability constants calculated with these coefficients for various ionic strengths agree to an average of +- 2% when compared with published experimental and calculated values

  3. Wormholes and the cosmological constant problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebanov, I.

    The author reviews the cosmological constant problem and the recently proposed wormhole mechanism for its solution. Summation over wormholes in the Euclidean path integral for gravity turns all the coupling parameters into dynamical variables, sampled from a probability distribution. A formal saddle point analysis results in a distribution with a sharp peak at the cosmological constant equal to zero, which appears to solve the cosmological constant problem. He discusses the instabilities of the gravitational Euclidean path integral and the difficulties with its interpretation. He presents an alternate formalism for baby universes, based on the "third quantization" of the Wheeler-De Witt equation. This approach is analyzed in a minisuperspace model for quantum gravity, where it reduces to simple quantum mechanics. Once again, the coupling parameters become dynamical. Unfortunately, the a priori probability distribution for the cosmological constant and other parameters is typically a smooth function, with no sharp peaks.

  4. Nuclei quadrupole coupling constants in diatomic molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.I.; Rebane, T.K.

    1993-01-01

    An approximate relationship between the constants of quadrupole interaction of nuclei in a two-atom molecule is found. It enabled to establish proportionality of oscillatory-rotation corrections to these constants for both nuclei in the molecule. Similar results were obtained for the factors of electrical dipole-quadrupole screening of nuclei. Applicability of these relationships is proven by the example of lithium deuteride molecule. 4 refs., 1 tab

  5. Parametrised Constants and Replication for Spatial Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Haagensen, Bjørn

    2009-01-01

    Parametrised replication and replication are common ways of expressing infinite computation in process calculi. While parametrised constants can be encoded using replication in the π-calculus, this changes in the presence of spatial mobility as found in e.g. the distributed π- calculus...... of the distributed π-calculus with parametrised constants and replication are incomparable. On the other hand, we shall see that there exists a simple encoding of recursion in mobile ambients....

  6. A model for solar constant secular changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatten, Kenneth H.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, contrast models for solar active region and global photospheric features are used to reproduce the observed Active Cavity Radiometer and Earth Radiation Budget secular trends in reasonably good fashion. A prediction for the next decade of solar constant variations is made using the model. Secular trends in the solar constant obtained from the present model support the view that the Maunder Minimum may be related to the Little Ice Age of the 17th century.

  7. Renormalization group equations with multiple coupling constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghika, G.; Visinescu, M.

    1975-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to study the renormalization group equations of a renormalizable field theory with multiple coupling constants. A method for the investigation of the asymptotic stability is presented. This method is applied to a gauge theory with Yukawa and self-quartic couplings of scalar mesons in order to find the domains of asymptotic freedom. An asymptotic expansion for the solutions which tend to the origin of the coupling constants is given

  8. Biodegradation testing of chemicals with high Henry’s constants – separating mass and effective concentration reveals higher rate constants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Heidi; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Comber, Mike

    Microextraction (HS-SPME) was applied directly on the test systems to measure substrate depletion by biodegradation relative to abiotic controls. HS-SPME was also applied to determine air to water partitioning ratios. Water phase biodegradation rate constants, kwater, were up to 72 times higher than test system...

  9. Large Dielectric Constant Enhancement in MXene Percolative Polymer Composites

    KAUST Repository

    Tu, Shao Bo

    2018-04-06

    near the percolation limit of about 15.0 wt % MXene loading, which surpasses all previously reported composites made of carbon-based fillers in the same polymer. With up to 10 wt % MXene loading, the dielectric loss of the MXene/P(VDF-TrFE-CFE) composite indicates only an approximately 5-fold increase (from 0.06 to 0.35), while the dielectric constant increased by 25 times over the same composition range. Furthermore, the ratio of permittivity to loss factor of the MXene-polymer composite is superior to that of all previously reported fillers in this same polymer. The dielectric constant enhancement effect is demonstrated to exist in other polymers as well when loaded with MXene. We show that the dielectric constant enhancement is largely due to the charge accumulation caused by the formation of microscopic dipoles at the surfaces between the MXene sheets and the polymer matrix under an external applied electric field.

  10. Inflation with a constant rate of roll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motohashi, Hayato; Starobinsky, Alexei A.; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2015-01-01

    We consider an inflationary scenario where the rate of inflaton roll defined by ·· φ/H φ-dot remains constant. The rate of roll is small for slow-roll inflation, while a generic rate of roll leads to the interesting case of 'constant-roll' inflation. We find a general exact solution for the inflaton potential required for such inflaton behaviour. In this model, due to non-slow evolution of background, the would-be decaying mode of linear scalar (curvature) perturbations may not be neglected. It can even grow for some values of the model parameter, while the other mode always remains constant. However, this always occurs for unstable solutions which are not attractors for the given potential. The most interesting particular cases of constant-roll inflation remaining viable with the most recent observational data are quadratic hilltop inflation (with cutoff) and natural inflation (with an additional negative cosmological constant). In these cases even-order slow-roll parameters approach non-negligible constants while the odd ones are asymptotically vanishing in the quasi-de Sitter regime

  11. RNA structure and scalar coupling constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinoco, I. Jr.; Cai, Z.; Hines, J.V.; Landry, S.M.; SantaLucia, J. Jr.; Shen, L.X.; Varani, G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Signs and magnitudes of scalar coupling constants-spin-spin splittings-comprise a very large amount of data that can be used to establish the conformations of RNA molecules. Proton-proton and proton-phosphorus splittings have been used the most, but the availability of {sup 13}C-and {sup 15}N-labeled molecules allow many more coupling constants to be used for determining conformation. We will systematically consider the torsion angles that characterize a nucleotide unit and the coupling constants that depend on the values of these torsion angles. Karplus-type equations have been established relating many three-bond coupling constants to torsion angles. However, one- and two-bond coupling constants can also depend on conformation. Serianni and coworkers measured carbon-proton coupling constants in ribonucleosides and have calculated their values as a function of conformation. The signs of two-bond coupling can be very useful because it is easier to measure a sign than an accurate magnitude.

  12. Time matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gabbert, Silke; Hilber, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    <p>A core aim of the European chemicals legislation REACH is to ensure that the risks caused by substances of very high concern (SVHC) are adequately controlled. Authorisation – i.e. the formal approval of certain uses of SVHC for a limited time - is a key regulatory instrument in order to achieve

  13. Thermodynamic properties of CO2 absorption in hydroxyl ammonium ionic liquids at pressures of (100-1600) kPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurnia, K.A.; Harris, F.; Wilfred, C.D.; Abdul Mutalib, M.I.; Murugesan, T.

    2009-01-01

    Solubility of CO 2 in six hydroxyl ammonium ionic liquids 2-hydroxyethanaminium acetate [hea], bis(2-hydroxyethyl)ammonium acetate [bheaa], 2-hydroxy-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-N-methylethanaminium acetate [hhemea], 2-hydroxyethanaminium lactate [hel], bis(2-hydroxyethyl)ammonium lactate [bheal], 2-hydroxy-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-N-methylethanaminium lactate [hhemel] at temperatures (298.15, 313.15, and 328.16) K and pressures ranging from (100 to 1600) kPa was determined. From the experimental solubility data, the Henry's constant of CO 2 for each hydroxyl ammonium ionic liquids was estimated and reported as a function of temperature. Furthermore, enthalpy and entropy of absorption were obtained from estimated Henry's constant. The results showed that the solubility increase with increasing pressure and decrease with increasing temperature and the solubility of CO 2 in these six hydroxyl ammonium ionic liquids was in sequence: [hea] > [bheaa] > [hel] > [bheal] > [hhemel] > [hhemea].

  14. On the Luminosity Distance and the Hubble Constant

    OpenAIRE

    Yuri Heymann

    2013-01-01

    By differentiating luminosity distance with respect to time using its standard formula we find that the peculiar velocity is a time varying velocity of light. Therefore, a new definition of the luminosity distance is provided such that the peculiar velocity is equal to c. Using this definition a Hubble constant H0 = 67.3 km s−1 Mpc−1 is obtained from supernovae data.

  15. Determination of the fine-structure constant {alpha} by measuring the quotient of the Planck constant and the neutron mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, E; Nistler, W; Weirauch, W [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1997-04-01

    Using a special high-precision apparatus at ILL the quotient h/m{sub n} (h Planck constant, m{sub n} neutron mass) has been measured. The value measured for h/m{sub n} leads to {alpha}{sup -1} = 137.03601082(524) (relative uncertainty: 3.9{center_dot}10{sup -8}) It was the first time that this fundamental constant has been determined by means of neutrons. The experiment, which had been running since 1981 in a preliminary version and since 1987 in the final version, which was finished in December 1996, is described. (author).

  16. Effects of constant voltage and constant current stress in PCBM:P3HT solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cester, Andrea; Rizzo, Aldo; Bazzega, A.

    2015-01-01

    The aimof this work is the investigation of forward and reverse bias stress effects, cell self-heating and annealing in roll coated organic solar cells with PCBM:P3HT active layer. In reverse bias stress cells show a constant degradation over time. In forward current stress cells alternate...... mechanisms: the decrease of the net generation rate (due to formation of exciton quenching centres or the reduction of exciton separation rate); the formation of small leaky paths between anode and cathode, which reduces the total current extracted from the cell. The stress-induced damage can be recovered...... degradation and annealing phases, which are explained through the high power dissipation during the current stress, and the consequent self-heating. The high temperature is able to recover the cell performances at least until a critical temperature is reached. The degradation can be explained by the following...

  17. Study on Welding Mechanism Based on Modification of Polypropylene for Improving the Laser Transmission Weldability to PA66

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huixia; Jiang, Hairong; Guo, Dehui; Chen, Guochun; Yan, Zhang; Li, Pin; Zhu, Hejun; Chen, Jun; Wang, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Polypropylene and PA66 are widely used in our daily life, but they cannot be welded by laser transmission welding (LTW) because of polar differences and poor compatibility. In this paper, grafting modification technology is used to improve the welding performance between polypropylene and PA66. Firstly, the strong reactive and polar maleic-anhydride (MAH) is grafted to polypropylene and infrared spectrometer is used to prove that MAH has been grafted to polypropylene. At the same time, the mechanical and thermal properties of the graft modified polypropylene (TGMPP) are tested. The results prove that the grafting modification has little influence on them. Also, the optical properties of TGMPP are measured. Then, the high welding strength between TGMPP and PA66 is found and the mechanism of the weldability is researched, which shows that there are two reasons for the high welding strength. By observing the micro morphology of the welding zone, one reason found is that the modification of polypropylene can improve the compatibility between polypropylene and PA66 and make them easy to diffuse mutually, which causes many locking structures formed in the welding region. The other reason is that there are chemical reactions between TGMPP and PA66 proved by the X-ray photoelectron spectrometer. PMID:28793484

  18. Structure and properties of UV-irradiated LLDPE and alloy of PA66 and the irradiated LLDPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ran Qianping; Zou Hua; Wu Shishan; Shen Jian

    2006-01-01

    Some oxygen-containing groups such as C=O, C-O and -OH were introduced onto linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) chains by UV irradiation in air. Their concentration increased with the irradiation time. Crystal shape of the irradiated LLDPE remained an orthorhombic structure, while space of the crystalline plane kept unchanged. The melting temperature and crystallinity decreased due to the LLDPE chain scission into small molecules compound and crystalline defects caused by UV irradiation. Compared with pristine LLDPE, hydrophilicity of the irradiated LLDPE increased due to the introduction of polar oxygen-containing groups, but the tensile strength decreased due to the LLDPE chain degradation and reduction of crystallinity. The temperature of initial weight loss of the irradiated LLDPE was lower than that of pristine LLDPE. An alloy of PA66 and the irradiated LLDPE (irradiated PA66/LLDPE) was prepared by melting blend at 260-270 degree C. Compared to non-irradiated PA66/LLDPE alloy, dispersion of LLDPE particles in the irradiated PA66/LLDPE alloy and interfacial interactions between the components were markedly improved. Therefore, tensile strength and impact strength of the irradiated PA66/ LLDPE were higher than those of the control. (authors)

  19. Los países en desarrollo y el Gatt

    OpenAIRE

    Manero Salvador, Ana María

    2008-01-01

    Ejemplar monográfico: 60 años del sistema GATT-OMC La preocupación por el impacto de las reglas comerciales multilaterales en el desarrollo es muy anterior a la Ronda de Doha de la OMC pues se remonta a la Carta de la Habana, negociada y adoptada en los albores del GATT (pero que nunca entró en vigor, como es sabido). Al analizar la evolución de esas reglas en los últimos 60 años se muestra la utilidad del concepto genérico de «trato desigual» (hacia los países en desarrollo...

  20. Dominique Païni and Cinematography at the Museum

    OpenAIRE

    Di Bastiano, Malena

    2015-01-01

    Este breve análisis, introduce una reflexión acerca de cómo pensar al cine en el museo a partir de una redefinición de cada uno de estos campos, atendiendo a sus implicancias concretas que surgen de la revisión de la propuesta curatorial y las ideas de Dominique Païni, exdirector del Centre National d’Art et de Culture Georges-Pompidou. This brief article presents a reflection on how to see cinematography within the museum from a redefinition of each of these fields, paying attention to th...

  1. Pan Pa" Ya! : inédito caso de franquicias

    OpenAIRE

    Castaño Avila, David Leonardo; Paternina Diaz, Carlos Alberto

    2009-01-01

    El modelo de franquicia ha evolucionado desde su inicio en Estados Unidos, en 1862, por Singer Sewing Machine Company debido a la necesidad de superar los problemas de distribución y cobertura de sus productos. Diversas empresas decidieron seguir con este modelo ya que sus ventajas eran mayores para penetrar mercados nuevos. Un claro exponente de la optimización de este modelo es McDonald"s que tiene más de 25.4651 franquicias en 126 países, pero para que se diera esta expansión contaron con ...

  2. A consistent set of thermodynamic constants for americium (III) species with hydroxyl and carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerrisk, J.F.; Silva, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    A consistent set of thermodynamic constants for aqueous species, and compounds of Am(III) with hydroxyl and carbonate ligands has been developed. The procedure used to develop these constants involved establishing a value for one formation constant at a time in a sequential order, starting with the hydrolysis products and hydroxide solids, and then proceeding to carbonate species. The EQ3NR chemical-equilibrium model was used to test the constants developed. These constants are consistent with most of the experimental data that form their basis; however, considerable uncertainty still exists in some aspects of the Am(III) data

  3. TCP, quantum gravity, the cosmological constant and all that .

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, T.

    1985-01-01

    We study cosmology from the point of view of quantum gravity. Some light is thrown on the nature of time, and it is suggested that the cosmological arrow of time is generated by a spontaneous breakdown of TCP. Conventional cosmological models in which quantum fields interact with a time-dependent gravitational field are shown to describe an approximation to the quantum gravitational wave function which is valid in the long-wavelength limit. Two problems with initial conditions are resolved in models in which a negative bare cosmological constant is cancelled by the classical excitation of a Bose field eta with a very flat potential. These models can also give a natural explanation for the observed value of the cosmological constant. (orig.)

  4. Classically exact surface diffusion constants at arbitrary temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voter, A.F.; Cohen, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    An expression is presented for computing the classical diffusion constant of a point defect (e.g., an adatom) in an infinite lattice of binding sites at arbitrary temperature. The transition state theory diffusion constant is simply multiplied by a dynamical correction factor that is computed from short-time classical trajectories initiated at the site boundaries. The time scale limitations of direct molecular dynamics are thus avoided in the low- and middle-temperature regimes. The expression results from taking the time derivative of the particle mean-square displacement in the lattice-discretized coordinate system. Applications are presented for surface diffusion on fcc(100) and fcc(111) Lennard-Jones crystal faces

  5. Ginger Extract Inhibits Biofilm Formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han-Shin; Park, Hee-Deung

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial biofilm formation can cause serious problems in clinical and industrial settings, which drives the development or screening of biofilm inhibitors. Some biofilm inhibitors have been screened from natural products or modified from natural compounds. Ginger has been used as a medicinal herb to treat infectious diseases for thousands of years, which leads to the hypothesis that it may contain chemicals inhibiting biofilm formation. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated ginger’s ability to inhibit Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 biofilm formation. A static biofilm assay demonstrated that biofilm development was reduced by 39–56% when ginger extract was added to the culture. In addition, various phenotypes were altered after ginger addition of PA14. Ginger extract decreased production of extracellular polymeric substances. This finding was confirmed by chemical analysis and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Furthermore, ginger extract formed noticeably less rugose colonies on agar plates containing Congo red and facilitated swarming motility on soft agar plates. The inhibition of biofilm formation and the altered phenotypes appear to be linked to a reduced level of a second messenger, bis-(3′-5′)-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate. Importantly, ginger extract inhibited biofilm formation in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Also, surface biofilm cells formed with ginger extract detached more easily with surfactant than did those without ginger extract. Taken together, these findings provide a foundation for the possible discovery of a broad spectrum biofilm inhibitor. PMID:24086697

  6. Radiolabeling of HTE1PA: A new monopicolinate cyclam derivative for Cu-64 phenotypic imaging. In vitro and in vivo stability studies in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frindel, Mathieu; Camus, Nathalie; Rauscher, Aurore; Bourgeois, Mickaël; Alliot, Cyrille; Barré, Louisa; Gestin, Jean-François; Tripier, Raphaël; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: HTE1PA, a monopicolinate-N-alkylated cyclam-based ligand has previously demonstrated fast complexation process, high kinetic inertness and important thermodynamic and electrochemical stability with respect to natural copper. In this work we first developed a new synthetic route to obtain HTE1PA in good yields. Then, we investigated HTE1PA chelation properties towards copper-64 and assessed in vitro and in vivo stability of the resulting compound. Methods: Radiolabeling of HTE1PA with copper-64 was tested at different ligand concentrations in ammonium acetate medium. In vitro stability study was carried out by incubating [ 64 Cu]TE1PA complex in human serum at both 37 °C and 4 °C; chromatographic controls were performed over 24 h. Biodistribution, pharmacokinetic and hepatic metabolism of [ 64 Cu]TE1PA were conducted in BALC/c mice in comparison with [ 64 Cu]acetate and [ 64 Cu]DOTA, used as a reference ligand. Results: The promising results obtained for natural copper complexation were confirmed. HTE1PA was quantitatively radiolabeled in 15 min at room temperature. The resulting complex showed high serum stability. [ 64 Cu]TE1PA induced a significant uptake in the liver and kidneys at early biodistribution time point. Nevertheless, a high speed wash out was observed at 24 h leading to significantly lower uptake into the liver compared to [ 64 Cu]DOTA. The metabolism study was consistent with a high resistance to transchelation as the initial uptake into liver matches with the intact form of [ 64 Cu]TE1PA. Conclusion: Despite the partial elimination of HTE1PA – as copper-64 complex – through the hepatic route, its high selectivity for copper and its resistance to transchelation make it a promising ligand for antibody radiolabeling with either copper-64 or copper-67

  7. Effects of Constant Flow vs. Constant Pressure Perfusion on Fluid Filtration in Severe Hypothermic Isolated Blood-Perfused Rat Lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsøy, Kathrine; Kondratiev, Timofey; Tveita, Torkjel; Bjertnaes, Lars J

    2016-01-01

    Victims of severe accidental hypothermia are prone to fluid extravasation but rarely develop lung edema. We hypothesize that combined hypothermia-induced increase in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and a concomitant fall in cardiac output protect the lungs against edema development. Our aim was to explore in hypothermic-isolated blood-perfused rat lungs whether perfusion at constant pressure influences fluid filtration differently from perfusion at constant flow. Isolated blood-perfused rat lungs were hanging freely in a weight transducer for measuring weight changes (ΔW). Fluid filtration coefficient (Kfc), was determined by transiently elevating left atrial pressure (Pla) by 5.8 mmHg two times each during normothermia (37°C) and during hypothermia (15°C). The lung preparations were randomized to two groups. One group was perfused with constant flow (Constant flow group) and the other group with constant pulmonary artery pressure (Constant PPA group). Microvascular pressure (Pmv) was determined before and during elevation of Pla (ΔPmv) by means of the double occlusion technique. Kfc was calculated with the formula Kfc = ΔW/ΔPmv/min. All Kfc values were normalized to predicted lung weight (P LW ), which was based on body weight (BW) according to the formula: P LW  = 0.0053 BW - 0.48 and presented as Kfc PLW in mg/min/mmHg/g. At cessation, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid/perfusate protein concentration (B/P) ratio was determined photometrically. Data were analyzed with parametric or non-parametric tests as appropriate. p  Kfc PLW and B/P ratio increased significantly by more than 10-fold during hypothermia concerted by visible signs of edema in the trachea. Hemoglobin and hematocrit increased within the Constant flow group and between the groups at cessation of the experiments. In hypothermic rat lungs perfused at constant flow, fluid filtration coefficient per gram P LW and B/P ratio increased more than 10-fold concerted by increased

  8. Constant-roll (quasi-)linear inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, A.; Marzola, L.; Pappas, T.; Racioppi, A.; Tamvakis, K.

    2018-05-01

    In constant-roll inflation, the scalar field that drives the accelerated expansion of the Universe is rolling down its potential at a constant rate. Within this framework, we highlight the relations between the Hubble slow-roll parameters and the potential ones, studying in detail the case of a single-field Coleman-Weinberg model characterised by a non-minimal coupling of the inflaton to gravity. With respect to the exact constant-roll predictions, we find that assuming an approximate slow-roll behaviour yields a difference of Δ r = 0.001 in the tensor-to-scalar ratio prediction. Such a discrepancy is in principle testable by future satellite missions. As for the scalar spectral index ns, we find that the existing 2-σ bound constrains the value of the non-minimal coupling to ξphi ~ 0.29–0.31 in the model under consideration.

  9. Cosmological constant is a conserved charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyavsky, Dmitry; Hajian, Kamal

    2018-06-01

    Cosmological constant can always be considered as the on-shell value of a top form in gravitational theories. The top form is the field strength of a gauge field, and the theory enjoys a gauge symmetry. We show that cosmological constant is the charge of the global part of the gauge symmetry, and is conserved irrespective of the dynamics of the metric and other fields. In addition, we introduce its conjugate chemical potential, and prove the generalized first law of thermodynamics which includes variation of cosmological constant as a conserved charge. We discuss how our new term in the first law is related to the volume–pressure term. In parallel with the seminal Wald entropy, this analysis suggests that pressure can also be considered as a conserved charge.

  10. Conformally invariant braneworld and the cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guendelman, E.I.

    2004-01-01

    A six-dimensional braneworld scenario based on a model describing the interaction of gravity, gauge fields and 3+1 branes in a conformally invariant way is described. The action of the model is defined using a measure of integration built of degrees of freedom independent of the metric. There is no need to fine tune any bulk cosmological constant or the tension of the two (in the scenario described here) parallel branes to obtain zero cosmological constant, the only solutions are those with zero 4D cosmological constant. The two extra dimensions are compactified in a 'football' fashion and the branes lie on the two opposite poles of the compact 'football-shaped' sphere

  11. Vanishing cosmological constant in elementary particles theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisano, F.; Tonasse, M.D.

    1997-01-01

    The quest of a vanishing cosmological constant is considered in the simplest anomaly-free chiral gauge extension of the electroweak standard model where the new physics is limited to a well defined additional flavordynamics above the Fermi scale, namely up to a few TeVs by matching the gauge coupling constants at the electroweak scale, and with an extended Higgs structure. In contrast to the electroweak standard model, it is shown how the extended scalar sector of the theory allows a vanishing or a very small cosmological constant. the details of the cancellation mechanism are presented. At accessible energies the theory is indistinguishable from the standard model of elementary particles and it is in agreement with all existing data. (author). 32 refs

  12. Stability constants for silicate adsorbed to ferrihydrite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun; Wetche, T.P.; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    1994-01-01

    Intrinsic surface acidity constants (K(a1)intr, K(a2)intr) and surface complexation constant for adsorption of orthosilicate onto synthetic ferrihydrite (K(Si) for the complex = FeOSi(OH)3) have been determined from acid/base titrations in 0.001-0.1 m NaClO4 electrolytes and silicate adsorption...... experiments in 0.01 m NaNO3 electrolyte (pH 3-6). The surface equilibrium constants were calculated according to the two-layer model by Dzombak & Morel (1990). Near equilibrium between protons/hydroxyls in solution and the ferrihydrite surface was obtained within minutes while equilibration with silicate...

  13. Derivation of the optical constants of anisotropic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, J. R.; Emslie, A. G.; Smith, E. M.; Strong, P. F.

    1985-07-01

    This report concerns the development of methods for obtaining the optical constants of anisotropic crystals of the triclinic and monoclinic systems. The principal method used, classical dispersion theory, is adapted to these crystal systems by extending the Lorentz line parameters to include the angles characterizing the individual resonances, and by replacing the dielectric constant by a dielectric tensor. The sample crystals are gypsium, orthoclase and chalcanthite. The derived optical constants are shown to be suitable for modeling the optical properties of particulate media in the infrared spectral region. For those materials where suitable size single crystals are not available, an extension of a previously used method is applied to alabaster, a polycrystalline material of the monoclinic crystal system.

  14. Effects of quantum entropy on bag constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.E.; Tawfik, A.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of quantum entropy on the bag constant are studied at low temperatures and for small chemical potentials. The inclusion of the quantum entropy of the quarks in the equation of state provides the hadronic bag with an additional heat which causes a decrease in the effective latent heat inside the bag. We have considered two types of baryonic bags, Δ and Ω - . In both cases we have found that the bag constant without the quantum entropy almost does not change with temperature and quark chemical potential. The contribution from the quantum entropy to the equation of state clearly decreases the value of the bag constant. Furthermore, we construct states densities for quarks using the 'Thomas Fermi model' and take into consideration a thermal potential for the interaction. (author)

  15. The Cosmological Constant Problem (1/2)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    I will review the cosmological constant problem as a serious challenge to our notion of naturalness in Physics. Weinberg’s no go theorem is worked through in detail. I review a number of proposals possibly including Linde's universe multiplication, Coleman's wormholes, the fat graviton, and SLED, to name a few. Large distance modifications of gravity are also discussed, with causality considerations pointing towards a global modification as being the most sensible option. The global nature of the cosmological constant problem is also emphasized, and as a result, the sequestering scenario is reviewed in some detail, demonstrating the cancellation of the Standard Model vacuum energy through a global modification of General Relativity.

  16. The Cosmological Constant Problem (2/2)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    I will review the cosmological constant problem as a serious challenge to our notion of naturalness in Physics. Weinberg’s no go theorem is worked through in detail. I review a number of proposals possibly including Linde's universe multiplication, Coleman's wormholes, the fat graviton, and SLED, to name a few. Large distance modifications of gravity are also discussed, with causality considerations pointing towards a global modification as being the most sensible option. The global nature of the cosmological constant problem is also emphasized, and as a result, the sequestering scenario is reviewed in some detail, demonstrating the cancellation of the Standard Model vacuum energy through a global modification of General Relativity.

  17. Atomic weights: no longer constants of nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplen, Tyler B.; Holden, Norman E.

    2011-01-01

    Many of us were taught that the standard atomic weights we found in the back of our chemistry textbooks or on the Periodic Table of the Chemical Elements hanging on the wall of our chemistry classroom are constants of nature. This was common knowledge for more than a century and a half, but not anymore. The following text explains how advances in chemical instrumentation and isotopic analysis have changed the way we view atomic weights and why they are no longer constants of nature

  18. Estimating reaction rate constants: comparison between traditional curve fitting and curve resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, S.; Boelens, H. F. M.; Hoefsloot, H. C. J.; Smilde, A. K.

    2000-01-01

    A traditional curve fitting (TCF) algorithm is compared with a classical curve resolution (CCR) approach for estimating reaction rate constants from spectral data obtained in time of a chemical reaction. In the TCF algorithm, reaction rate constants an estimated from the absorbance versus time data

  19. Constant scalar curvature hypersurfaces in (3 + 1) -dimensional GHMC Minkowski spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Graham

    2018-06-01

    We prove that every (3 + 1) -dimensional flat GHMC Minkowski spacetime which is not a translation spacetime or a Misner spacetime carries a unique foliation by spacelike hypersurfaces of constant scalar curvature. In other words, we prove that every such spacetime carries a unique time function with isochrones of constant scalar curvature. Furthermore, this time function is a smooth submersion.

  20. Role of N-terminal His6-Tags in binding and efficient translocation of polypeptides into cells using anthrax protective antigen (PA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Beitzinger

    Full Text Available It is of interest to define bacterial toxin biochemical properties to use them as molecular-syringe devices in order to deliver enzymatic activities into host cells. Binary toxins of the AB(7/8-type are among the most potent and specialized bacterial protein toxins. The B subunits oligomerize to form a pore that binds with high affinity host cell receptors and the enzymatic A subunit. This allows the endocytosis of the complex and subsequent injection of the A subunit into the cytosol of the host cells. Here we report that the addition of an N-terminal His(6-tag to different proteins increased their binding affinity to the protective antigen (PA PA(63-channels, irrespective if they are related (C2I or unrelated (gpJ, EDIN to the AB(7/8-family of toxins. His(6-EDIN exhibited voltage-dependent increase of the stability constant for binding by a factor of about 25 when the trans-side corresponding to the cell interior was set to -70 mV. Surprisingly, the C. botulinum toxin C2II-channel did not share this feature of PA(63. Cell-based experiments demonstrated that addition of an N-terminal His(6-tag promoted also intoxication of endothelial cells by C2I or EDIN via PA(63. Our results revealed that addition of His(6-tags to several factors increase their binding properties to PA(63 and enhance the property to intoxicate cells.