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Sample records for p1 mun offspring

  1. Vigencia de algunas de las ideas mercantilistas de Thomas Mun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Borgucci

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Generalmente cuando se aborda el mercantilismo se hace referencia a la acumulación de oro y plata, una balanza de pagos favorable o a la política económica de Jean Colbert. Pero poco se ha hablado del papel y condiciones necesarias del comerciante como agente que hizo posible que los primeros Estados-Nación se convirtieran en las futuras potencias económicas del mundo occidental. Thomas Mun fue uno de aquellos escritores mercantilistas que destacó el papel del comerciante en el auge del sistema mercantilista. El estudio de sus ideas permite concluir que sus recomendaciones acerca de lo que debería ser un comerciante de éxito siguen vigentes hoy en día. La razón de tal afirmación estriba en que sus recomendaciones eran adecuadas en un marco en que se estaba presentando una transformación significativa del sistema de organización comercial con la presencia de la Joint-Stock Company. Independientemente de que muchas de las funciones que Thomas Mun le atribuía al comerciante hoy en día son especializadas, su dominio sigue siendo la clave del éxito de una política comercial que emprenda cualquier nación.

  2. Conseiller des services de rémunération | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le conseiller des services de rémunération est responsable de la prestation ... le système total de rémunération en vigueur au CRDI, y compris le régime de .... de nouvelles politiques, procédures et pratiques, faire des recommandations et ...

  3. Study on the relationship between milk urea nitrogen (MUN and fertility in dairy cattle houses in Tabriz

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    S Mosaferi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between milk urea nitrogen (MUN level and reproductive performance in high yielding dairy cattle houses in Tabriz, Iran. Among 213 selected dairy cattle, 76 heads (35.7% have MUN 16 mg/dl (mean = 17.46 mg/dl. Our results indicated that MUN level in 81 heads of dairy cattle (total 124 heads with mastitis, dystocia, laminitis, uterine infections or placenta replacement was higher than 16 mg/dl. We only observed a significantly positive association between MUN levels and dystocia (p= 0.032, while the association between MUN levels and incidence of other diseases was not statistically significant. The results of this study indicated that MUN level significantly influences the reproductive parameters including days open, calving to first service, first service conception risk, and number of services per conception (p

  4. Study on the relationship between milk urea nitrogen (MUN) and fertility in dairy cattle houses in Tabriz

    OpenAIRE

    S Mosaferi; S Ettehad; H Kooshavar

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between milk urea nitrogen (MUN) level and reproductive performance in high yielding dairy cattle houses in Tabriz, Iran. Among 213 selected dairy cattle, 76 heads (35.7%) have MUN 16 mg/dl (mean = 17.46 mg/dl). Our results indicated that MUN level in 81 heads of dairy cattle (total 124 heads) with mastitis, dystocia, laminitis, uterine infections or placenta replacement was...

  5. Secretory Vesicle Priming by CAPS Is Independent of Its SNARE-Binding MUN Domain

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    Cuc Quynh Nguyen Truong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Priming of secretory vesicles is a prerequisite for their Ca2+-dependent fusion with the plasma membrane. The key vesicle priming proteins, Munc13s and CAPSs, are thought to mediate vesicle priming by regulating the conformation of the t-SNARE syntaxin, thereby facilitating SNARE complex assembly. Munc13s execute their priming function through their MUN domain. Given that the MUN domain of Ca2+-dependent activator protein for secretion (CAPS also binds syntaxin, it was assumed that CAPSs prime vesicles through the same mechanism as Munc13s. We studied naturally occurring splice variants of CAPS2 in CAPS1/CAPS2-deficient cells and found that CAPS2 primes vesicles independently of its MUN domain. Instead, the pleckstrin homology domain of CAPS2 seemingly is essential for its priming function. Our findings indicate a priming mode for secretory vesicles. This process apparently requires membrane phospholipids, does not involve the binding or direct conformational regulation of syntaxin by MUN domains of CAPSs, and is therefore not redundant with Munc13 action.

  6. How a MUN Experience Meshes with the Liberal Arts and Management Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampton, Jolene A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents the multiplicative benefits from an experiential extracurricular activity--i.e., participation in a Model United Nations (MUN) Club. Management instructors are encouraged to sponsor such activities to give leadership training to students. The benefits are especially rich in liberal-arts institutions, like Park University,…

  7. Structural health monitoring results on Tsing Ma, Kap Shui Mun, and Ting Kau bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kai-yuen; Chan, Wai-Yee K.; Man, King-Leung; Mak, W. L. N.; Lau, C. K.

    2000-06-01

    A structural health monitoring system has been installed in the cable-supported bridges located in the West of Hong Kong, i.e. the Tsing Ma Control Area. These cable-supported bridges are the Tsing Ma (Suspension) Bridge, the Kap Shu Mun (Cable- Stayed) Bridge and the Ting Kau (Cable-Stayed Bridge) Bridge. The monitoring system of Tsing Ma Bridge and Kap Shui Mun Bridge has been operated since May 1997, whereas the monitoring system of Ting Kau Bridge has been operated since November 1998. In past years, data received from the monitoring systems have been processed, and analyzed and archived. This paper first briefly outlines the operation of the data processing and analysis, and then presents: (1) the load effects monitoring results such as wind, temperature and traffic (highway and railway), and (2) the bridge responses monitoring results such as displacements, stresses/strains, accelerations and cables forces. Comparisons between monitoring results and design parameters and assumptions for the cable-supported bridges are also presented.

  8. Carl Rogers' Responses in the 17th Session with Miss Mun: Comments from a Process-Experiential and Psychoanalytic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundrum, Monica; Lietaer, Germain; Van Hees-Matthijssen, Christiane

    1999-01-01

    Reproduces the transcript of one of Carl Rogers' filmed therapeutic sessions with Miss Mun, followed by an empirical and clinical-qualitative analysis. Five task oriented processes are examined in detail: the evocative impact of reflections of feeling; empathic affirmation as a marker of intense vulnerability; focusing reflections; working with…

  9. Hydrologic parameters and land use reflection on water quality at Mun river, Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akter, A.; Babel, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    The 'River Basin' is the land area surrounding one river from its headwaters to its mouth whereas the area drained by a river and its tributaries. So that the land use changes and excessive application of nutrients (Nitrogen and Phosphorus) in predominant agricultural river basins may have a great influence on water quality. Here the study area Mun River Basin is approximately of 69,701 km/sup 2/ and in 1994, out of the total basin area 'about 80 percent was covered by agricultural purposes. Also one of the driest parts of Thailand as well as one of the industrialized provinces in Thailand, Nakhon Ratchasima is situated at the upstream of the river. Accordingly the downstream part Ubon Ratchathani seems totally agricultural based area. To get the water quality changing trends due to land use, there are around forty water quality parameters has considered for the last ten years along with the basins hydrological parameters. For this study based on the fifteen years rainfall data, the whole year divided into two seasons namely wet season (May to October) and dry season (November to April). The result shows: (1) most of the physicochemical parameters are high in wet season; (2) heavy metals moreover appear higher at wet season and (3) although the presences of pesticides are very nominal, the higher values are detected at wet season. The conclusion draws for the water quality by having wet season water sampling and then the testing of water samples for selected seven parameters whereas the water samples are collected at a duration of one-week to three-week from April to October 2004. And this short duration analysis shows that the mean value of the nutrient shows not only higher at wet season (May to October) than April's data also exceed the existing Thailand's surface water quality standard. (author)

  10. A population growth trend analysis for Neotricula aperta, the snail intermediate host of Schistosoma mekongi, after construction of the Pak-Mun dam.

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    Stephen W Attwood

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Pak-Mun dam is a controversial hydro-power project on the Mun River in Northeast Thailand. The dam is sited in a habitat of the freshwater snail Neotricula aperta, which is the intermediate host for the parasitic blood-fluke Schistosoma mekongi causing Mekong schistosomiasis in humans in Cambodia and Laos. Few data are available which can be used to assess the effects of water resource development on N. aperta. The aim of this study was to obtain data and to analyze the possible impact of the dam on N. aperta population growth.Estimated population densities were recorded for an N. aperta population in the Mun River 27 km upstream of Pak-Mun, from 1990 to 2011. The Pak-Mul dam began to operate in 1994. Population growth was modeled using a linear mixed model expression of a modified Gompertz stochastic state-space exponential growth model. The N. aperta population was found to be quite stable, with the estimated growth parameter not significantly different from zero. Nevertheless, some marked changes in snail population density were observed which were coincident with changes in dam operation policy.The study found that there has been no marked increase in N. aperta population growth following operation of the Pak-Mun dam. The analysis did indicate a large and statistically significant increase in population density immediately after the dam came into operation; however, this increase was not persistent. The study has provided the first vital baseline data on N. aperta population behavior near to the Pak-Mun dam and suggests that the operation policy of the dam may have an impact on snail population density. Nevertheless, additional studies are required for other N. aperta populations in the Mun River and for an extended time series, to confirm or refine the findings of this work.

  11. Offspring Protection

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    Eric T. Steiner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Parental aggression, that is, offspring protection aggression, can be viewed as a type of parental investment. Most mammalian males do not exhibit parental investment and therefore exhibit little, if any, parental aggression. Men demonstrate parental investment, and are typically more physically aggressive than women, but parental physical aggression in humans has been largely unexplored. The current study examined potential sex differences in estimates of parental physical aggression involving hypothetical situations, while controlling for general physical aggression. A self-report measure was administered to 217 students from a western U.S. university (55 male nonparents, 50 female nonparents, 54 fathers, and 58 mothers. Male nonparents reported higher parental physical aggression than female nonparents, but there was no difference between mothers and fathers. The results are interpreted in light of ancestral effects of sexual selection and proximal effects of sex differences in testosterone, risk taking, and fear aversion.

  12. Negotiating Culture, Economics and Community Politics: The Practice of Lei Yue Mun Tourism in Postcolonial Hong Kong

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    Shun-Hing Chan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on an on-going research project that examines how tourism is constructed in Hong Kong by using the specific tourist spot, Lei Yue Mun, as a case study. The article’s aim is to demonstrate how the local agents of a small, squatter-based community with a distinctive history and cultural traditions may, without making any claim to indigenousness or aboriginality, manage a local economy and engage in cultural negotiation at the metropolitan, national and global levels. Their economic practices lead the authors to enquire whether preservationism or invoking historical traditions from the margins is the most significant form or strategy of cultural tourism.

  13. Imaging and locating paleo-channels using geophysical data from meandering system of the Mun River, Khorat Plateau, Northeastern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimnate, P.; Thitimakorn, T.; Choowong, M.; Hisada, K.

    2017-12-01

    The Khorat Plateau from northeast Thailand, the upstream part of the Mun River flows through clastic sedimentary rocks. A massive amount of sand was transported. We aimed to understand the evolution of fluvial system and to discuss the advantages of two shallow geophysical methods for describing subsurface morphology of modern and paleo-channels. We applied Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) to characterize the lateral, vertical morphological and sedimentary structures of paleo-channels, floodplain and recent point bars. Both methods were interpreted together with on-sites boreholes to describe the physical properties of subsurface sediments. As a result, we concluded that four radar reflection patterns including reflection free, shingled, inclined and hummocky reflections were appropriated to apply as criteria to characterize lateral accretion, the meandering rivers with channel-filled sequence and floodplain were detected from ERT profiles. The changes in resistivity correspond well with differences in particle size and show relationship with ERT lithological classes. Clay, silt, sand, loam and bedrock were classified by the resistivity data. Geometry of paleo-channel embayment and lithological differences can be detected by ERT, whereas GPR provides detail subsurface facies for describing point bar sand deposit better than ERT.

  14. Imaging and locating paleo-channels using geophysical data from meandering system of the Mun River, Khorat Plateau, Northeastern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimnate P.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Khorat Plateau from northeast Thailand, the upstream part of the Mun River flows through clastic sedimentary rocks. A massive amount of sand was transported. We aimed to understand the evolution of fluvial system and to discuss the advantages of two shallow geophysical methods for describing subsurface morphology of modern and paleo-channels. We applied Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR to characterize the lateral, vertical morphological and sedimentary structures of paleo-channels, floodplain and recent point bars. Both methods were interpreted together with on-sites boreholes to describe the physical properties of subsurface sediments. As a result, we concluded that four radar reflection patterns including reflection free, shingled, inclined and hummocky reflections were appropriated to apply as criteria to characterize lateral accretion, the meandering rivers with channel-filled sequence and floodplain were detected from ERT profiles. The changes in resistivity correspond well with differences in particle size and show relationship with ERT lithological classes. Clay, silt, sand, loam and bedrock were classified by the resistivity data. Geometry of paleo-channel embayment and lithological differences can be detected by ERT, whereas GPR provides detail subsurface facies for describing point bar sand deposit better than ERT.

  15. User's manual for THYDE-P1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asahi, Yoshiro

    1982-04-01

    THYDE-P1 is a computer code applicable to LWR (light water reactor) plant dynamics in response to various disturbances. This work is the user's mannual of THYDE-P1 (version SV02L03). The input requirements, steady state adjustment, execution of runs and output specifications are described. (author)

  16. Alterações climáticas e a percepção dos munícipes de Rio Claro - SP

    OpenAIRE

    Pascoalino, Aline [UNESP

    2009-01-01

    O estudo objetivou verificar a percepção dos tipos de tempo, do ritmo climático e das alterações climáticas, sistematizando-se através de duas abordagens – uma climatológica e outra da percepção. Primeiramente, avaliou-se os tipos de tempo sucedidos no município de Rio Claro – SP, em um mês de inverno e um de verão, utilizando-se da técnica de análise rítmica. Posteriormente, no intuito de apreender a percepção climática dos munícipes aplicouse oitenta formulários distribuídos de forma equiva...

  17. [Applying the Methodology and Practice of Microhistory: The Diary of a Confucian Doctor, Yi Mun-gǒn (1495-1567)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dongwon

    2015-08-01

    Since microhistory's approach to the past is based on an understanding of and a sympathy for the concrete details of human lives, its area of interests overlaps with the history of medicine and medical humanities, which examine illness and health. If we put a specific region and society in a specific period under a microscope and increase the magnifying power, we can understand the numerous network connections among the body, illness management, and medicine and how multilayered were the knowledge and power applied to them. And this approach of using microhistory to illuminate medical history can be more effective than any other historical approach. This article focuses on Yi Mun-gǒn's extensive volumes of Mukchaeilgi (Mukchae's diary) in approaching medical history from the perspective of microhistory. Simply defined, this work is a Confucian scholar-doctor's diary. Its author, Yi Mun-gǒn, played the role of a Confucian doctor, although not professionally, during his 23-year exile, after serving in a high governmental office on the senior grade of the third court rank. Thanks to this extensive and detailed diary, we can now get adetailed andthorough picture of his medical practice in the Sǒngju region, 270 kilometers southeast of Seoul, where he was exiled. This article aims to understand the state of medical practice in the Sǒngju region in the 16thcentury through the"zoom-in" method adopted by microhistory. In particular, I will focus on the following three aspects:1) Yi Mun-gǒn's motivation for and method of medical study, 2)the character of Yi Mun-gǒn'spatient treatment as hwarin (the act of life-saving), and 3) the plural existence of various illness management methods, including pyǒngjǒm (divination of illness), sutra-chanting, exorcism, and ch'oje (ritual toward Heaven). All three aspects are closely related to Confucianism. First, Yi Mun-gǒn decided to acquire professional-level medical knowledge in order to practice the Confucian virtue of filial

  18. Arithmetically Cohen-Macaulay sets of points in P^1 x P^1

    CERN Document Server

    Guardo, Elena

    2015-01-01

    This brief presents a solution to the interpolation problem for arithmetically Cohen-Macaulay (ACM) sets of points in the multiprojective space P^1 x P^1.  It collects the various current threads in the literature on this topic with the aim of providing a self-contained, unified introduction while also advancing some new ideas.  The relevant constructions related to multiprojective spaces are reviewed first, followed by the basic properties of points in P^1 x P^1, the bigraded Hilbert function, and ACM sets of points.  The authors then show how, using a combinatorial description of ACM points in P^1 x P^1, the bigraded Hilbert function can be computed and, as a result, solve the interpolation problem.  In subsequent chapters, they consider fat points and double points in P^1 x P^1 and demonstrate how to use their results to answer questions and problems of interest in commutative algebra.  Throughout the book, chapters end with a brief historical overview, citations of related results, and, where relevan...

  19. Co-Higgs bundles on P^1

    OpenAIRE

    Rayan, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Co-Higgs bundles are Higgs bundles in the sense of Simpson, but with Higgs fields that take values in the tangent bundle instead of the cotangent bundle. Given a vector bundle on P^1, we find necessary and sufficient conditions on its Grothendieck splitting for it to admit a stable Higgs field. We characterize the rank-2, odd-degree moduli space as a universal elliptic curve with a globally-defined equation. For ranks r=2,3,4, we explicitly verify the conjectural Betti numbers emerging from t...

  20. Hunt for the 11P1 bound state of charmonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, F.C.

    1982-02-01

    Using the Crystal Ball detector at SPEAR, we have looked for evidence of the isospin-violating decay psi' → π 01 P 1 , where 1 P 1 is the predicted spin-singlet p-wave bound state of charmonium. For a 1 P 1 state at the predicted mass (approx. 3520 MeV), we obtain the 95% confidence level limits: BR(psi' → π 01 P 1 ) 01 P 1 )BR( 1 P 1 → γn/sub c/ < 0.14%. These limits are compared with simple theoretical predictions

  1. Qualidade e satisfação na administração local: avaliação da satisfação dos munícipes da Amave NUTIII/AVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostinho Cardoso

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente os cidadãos exigem e esperam mais e melhores serviços prestados pelo setor público, daí que a resposta deva ser rápida e eficiente, de modo a agilizar processos, facilitar seu acesso e proporcionar elevados padrões de qualidade. O presente estudo se centra na seguinte questão: Será que existem diferenças significativas ao nível dos antecedentes (imagem, expectativas, valor apercebido e, com destaque particular, a qualidade apercebida, e consequentes da satisfação (lealdade e reclamações dos munícipes? Para o efeito, concebemos uma estrutura de investigação alicerçada no modelo e nas variáveis latentes do ECSI, à qual adicionamos itens dos modelos SERVQUAL, CMT e CAF. O método utilizado foi uma pesquisa quantitativa, de caráter descritivo, sendo alvo de estudo os munícipes que utilizam os serviços prestados pelas câmaras municipais que integram a circunscrição geográfica da Associação de Municípios do Vale do Ave, NUTIII/Ave (Vieira do Minho, Póvoa de Lanhoso, Fafe, Guimarães, Vizela, Vila Nova de Famalicão, Cabeceiras de Basto e Mondim de Basto. Os resultados evidenciam que todos estes fatores têm um efeito positivo e significativo na satisfação global do munícipe e que há diferenças significativas entre as oito câmaras municipais.

  2. Formes du regroupement pluriprofessionnel en soins de premiers recours. Une typologie des maisons, pôles et centres de santé participant aux Expérimentations des nouveaux modes de rémunération (ENMR)

    OpenAIRE

    Anissa Afrite; Julien Mousques

    2014-01-01

    Dans le cadre d’un programme de recherche global sur le lien entre le regroupement pluriprofessionnel en soins de premiers recours dans les sites participant aux Expérimentations des nouveaux modes de rémunération (ENMR) et la performance des médecins généralistes en matière d’activité, de productivité, d’efficacité et d’efficience de leurs pratiques, cette recherche a pour objectif d’analyser la structure, l’organisation et le fonctionnement des maisons, pôles et centres de santé participant...

  3. Biochemical and immunological characterization of recombinant allergen Lol p 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborini, E; Faccini, S; Lidholm, J; Svensson, M; Brandazza, A; Longhi, R; Groenlund, H; Sidoli, A; Arosio, P

    1997-11-01

    Pollen from perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne), a major cause of type-I allergy worldwide, contains a complex mixture of allergenic proteins among which Lol p 1 is one of the most important. We describe the expression, purification and characterization of a recombinant Lol p 1 overproduced in Escherichia coli. The recombinant allergen, expressed in high yields and purified in milligram amounts, bound to specific IgE antibodies from human sera, induced histamine release from sensitized human basophils, and elicited rabbit antisera that recognize specifically recombinant Lol p 1 and natural Lol p 1 of pollen extract. Recombinant Lol p 1 was used to develop ImmunoCAP assays for analysis of 150 sera that were Radioallergosorbent test positive to L. perenne pollen. In 130 of them (87%) the assay detected a significant level of IgE antibodies to Lol p 1, reaching on average 37% of the level obtained with a test for IgE to the whole grass pollen extract. To map epitopes on Lol p 1, we produced three deletion mutants [des-(116-240)-Lol p 1, des-(1-88)-Lol p 1 and des-(133-189)-Lol p 1], which were efficiently expressed in bacteria. These all showed a strong reactivity with the specific rabbit IgG antibodies, but lacked most or all the allergenic properties of recombinant Lol p 1. A study of the antigenic structure of Lol p 1 was performed using the three deletion mutants and a set of 17-18-residue overlapping synthetic peptides covering the whole allergen sequence. The results indicate that human IgE and rabbit IgG antibodies bind to distinct regions of Lol p 1, and that at least some important IgE epitopes are mainly conformational. The findings suggest that recombinant allergens constitute useful reagents for further development of serological diagnosis of allergy, and that it should be possible to produce immunogenic fragments of allergenic proteins without allergenic properties.

  4. Immunological and biological properties of recombinant Lol p 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, Y; Lamontagne, P; Boulanger, J; Brunet, C; Hébert, J

    1997-03-01

    Current forms of allergy diagnosis and therapies are based on the use of natural allergenic extracts. Despite strong evidence that higher therapeutic efficacy may be achieved with purified allergens, the purification of multiple allergic components from extracts is a fastidious and sometimes an impossible task. However, the use of recombinant allergens may be an alternative to overcome this problem. In this study, we compared the immunological properties of recombinant (r) Lol p 1 with those of the natural protein. We cloned directly the gene encoding Lol p 1 from genomic DNA of ryegrass pollen. This gene was subcloned into the expression vector pMAL-c and expressed as fusion protein. Subsequently, rLol p 1 was cleaved from maltose-binding protein using factor Xa. Using binding inhibition and proliferative assays, we assessed the immunological properties of the recombinant allergens. The capacity of rLol p 1 to trigger basophil histamine release and to elicit a skin reaction was also assessed and compared to those of its natural counterpart. We found that the Lol p 1 gene has no introns since we amplified this gene directly from genomic DNA. We demonstrated that the binding sites of anti-Lol p 1 monoclonal antibody, specific human IgG and IgE antibody are well conserved on rLol p 1 as no difference in the binding inhibition profile was observed when using either natural or recombinant protein. At the T-cell level, rLol p 1 elicited a T-cell response in mice comparable to that observed with the natural protein. In addition, we demonstrated that the biological characteristics of rLol p 1 were comparable to those of the natural counterpart, in that rLol p 1 elicited a skin wheal reaction and induced basophil histamine release in grass-allergic patients only. The data indicate that natural Lol p 1 and rLol p 1 shared identical immunological and biological properties.

  5. Offspring sex and parental health and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Øyvind; Mortensen, Laust H.; Vikanes, Åse

    2017-01-01

    ) number of total boy and girl offspring, 2) sex of the first and second offspring and 3) proportion of boys to total number of offspring. A sub-cohort (n = 50,736 mothers, n = 44,794 fathers) from survey data was analysed for risk factors. Mothers had increased risk of total and cardiovascular mortality...... that was consistent across approaches: cardiovascular mortality of 1.07 (95% CI: 1.03-1.11) per boy (approach 2), 1.04 (1.01-1.07) if the first offspring was a boy, and 1.06 (1.01-1.10) if the first two offspring were boys (approach 3). We found that sex of offspring was not associated with total or cardiovascular...

  6. The offspring of epileptic mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamer, S K; Misra, S; Jaiswal, S

    1996-01-01

    The offspring of an epileptic mother is an issue-currently getting attention because of its several implications. A complex interaction between epilepsy during pregnancy and its adverse impact on foetus, labor, neonate, congenital malformation, psychosocial and medico-social concern and treatment challenges of such cases is increasingly being realised. Some of the significant observations has been reviewed extensively in this article. Maternal epilepsy is likely to adversely affect the off-spring at its various stages of development amounting to increased morbidity and mortality. Increased seizure frequency during pregnancy with resultant increased risk is well documented but its mechanism is poorly understood. Low apgar score, increased still birth rates (1.3 to 14%) in offspring of epileptic mother (OEM) is reported. So also, the neonatal and perinatal deaths are twice more common in OEMS than normal control. Small for dates, and prematurity in OEM is reported to be 7 to 10% and 4-11% respectively. Adverse impact on labor and delivery like preclampsia, abruptio placentae, polyhydramnios, assisted delivery, cesarean section and IUGR poses particular challenges to the obstetrician. Pediatrician's alertness is needed to anticipate and deal with the bleeding manifestation due to deficiency of Vit-K dependent clotting factors and various anticonvulsant drug (AED) withdrawal symptoms. Significant risk of developing congenital malformation is the result of epilepsy perse and the AED used during pregnancy. AED exposure leads to other distinct clinical syndromes, the orofacial clefts and cardiac anomalies being the commonest manifestation. Epilepsy in mother but not in father has significant adverse impact. Management strategies in the context of available observation has been discussed.

  7. Adjoint P1 equations solution for neutron slowing down

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Carlos Eduardo Santos; Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da

    2002-01-01

    In some applications of perturbation theory, it is necessary know the adjoint neutron flux, which is obtained by the solution of adjoint neutron diffusion equation. However, the multigroup constants used for this are weighted in only the direct neutron flux, from the solution of direct P1 equations. In this work, the adjoint P1 equations are derived by the neutron transport equation, the reversion operators rules and analogies between direct and adjoint parameters. The direct and adjoint neutron fluxes resulting from the solution of P 1 equations were used to three different weighting processes, to obtain the macrogroup macroscopic cross sections. It was found out noticeable differences among them. (author)

  8. System of adjoint P1 equations for neutron moderation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da; Cardoso, Carlos Eduardo Santos

    2000-01-01

    In some applications of perturbation theory, it is necessary know the adjoint neutron flux, which is obtained by the solution of adjoint neutron diffusion equation. However, the multigroup constants used for this are weighted in only the direct neutron flux, from the solution of direct P1 equations. In this work, this procedure is questioned and the adjoint P1 equations are derived by the neutron transport equation, the reversion operators rules and analogies between direct and adjoint parameters. (author)

  9. System of adjoint P1 equations for neutron moderation; Sistema de equacoes P1 adjuntas para a moderacao de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da; Cardoso, Carlos Eduardo Santos [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2000-07-01

    In some applications of perturbation theory, it is necessary know the adjoint neutron flux, which is obtained by the solution of adjoint neutron diffusion equation. However, the multigroup constants used for this are weighted in only the direct neutron flux, from the solution of direct P1 equations. In this work, this procedure is questioned and the adjoint P1 equations are derived by the neutron transport equation, the reversion operators rules and analogies between direct and adjoint parameters. (author)

  10. Conjugation of nitrated acetaminophen to Der p1 amplifies peripheral blood monocyte response to Der p1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan G Thomas

    Full Text Available An association of acetaminophen use and asthma was observed in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood study. However there are no clear mechanisms to explain an association between acetaminophen use and immunologic pathology. In acidic conditions like those in the stomach and inflamed airway, tyrosine residues are nitrated by nitrous and peroxynitrous acids. The resulting nitrotyrosine is structurally similar to 2,4-dinitrophenol and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene, known haptens that enhance immune responses by covalently binding proteins. Nitrated acetaminophen shares similar molecular structure.We hypothesized the acetaminophen phenol ring undergoes nitration under acidic conditions, producing 3-nitro-acetaminophen which augments allergic responses by acting as a hapten for environmental allergens.3-nitro-acetaminophen was formed from acetaminophen in the presence of acidified nitrite, purified by high performance liquid chromatography, and assayed by gas-chromatography mass spectrometry. Purified 3-nitro-acetaminophen was reacted with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p1 and analyzed by mass spectrometry to identify the modification site. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells proliferation response was measured in response to 3-nitro-acetaminophen and to 3-nitro-acetaminophen-modified Der p1.Acetaminophen was modified by nitrous acid forming 3-nitro-acetaminophen over a range of different acidic conditions consistent with airway inflammation and stomach acidity. The Der p1 protein-hapten adduct creation was confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry proteomics modifying cysteine 132. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells exposed to 3-nitro-acetaminophen-modified Der p1 had increased proliferation and cytokine production compared to acetaminophen and Der p1 alone (n = 7; p < 0.05.These data suggests 3-nitro-acetaminophen formation and reaction with Der p1 provides a mechanism by which stomach acid or infection

  11. Transmission/disequilibrium tests incorporating unaffected offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinyu Wei

    Full Text Available We propose a new method for family-based tests of association and linkage called transmission/disequilibrium tests incorporating unaffected offspring (TDTU. This new approach, constructed based on transmission/disequilibrium tests for quantitative traits (QTDT, provides a natural extension of the transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT to utilize transmission information from heterozygous parents to their unaffected offspring as well as the affected offspring from ascertained nuclear families. TDTU can be used in various study designs and can accommodate all types of independent nuclear families with at least one affected offspring. When the study sample contains only case-parent trios, the TDTU is equivalent to TDT. Informative-transmission disequilibrium test (i-TDT and generalized disequilibrium test(GDT are another two methods that can use information of both unaffected offspring and affected offspring. In contract to i-TDT and GDT, the test statistic of TDTU is simpler and more explicit, and can be implemented more easily. Through computer simulations, we demonstrate that power of the TDTU is slightly higher compared to i-TDT and GDT. All the three methods are more powerful than method that uses affected offspring only, suggesting that unaffected siblings also provide information about linkage and association.

  12. Antagonistic parent-offspring co-adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Kölliker

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In species across taxa, offspring have means to influence parental investment (PI. PI thus evolves as an interacting phenotype and indirect genetic effects may strongly affect the co-evolutionary dynamics of offspring and parental behaviors. Evolutionary theory focused on explaining how exaggerated offspring solicitation can be understood as resolution of parent-offspring conflict, but the evolutionary origin and diversification of different forms of family interactions remains unclear.In contrast to previous theory that largely uses a static approach to predict how "offspring individuals" and "parental individuals" should interact given conflict over PI, we present a dynamic theoretical framework of antagonistic selection on the PI individuals obtain/take as offspring and the PI they provide as parents to maximize individual lifetime reproductive success; we analyze a deterministic and a stochastic version of this dynamic framework. We show that a zone for equivalent co-adaptation outcomes exists in which stable levels of PI can evolve and be maintained despite fast strategy transitions and ongoing co-evolutionary dynamics. Under antagonistic co-adaptation, cost-free solicitation can evolve as an adaptation to emerging preferences in parents.We show that antagonistic selection across the offspring and parental life-stage of individuals favors co-adapted offspring and parental behavior within a zone of equivalent outcomes. This antagonistic parent-offspring co-adaptation does not require solicitation to be costly, allows for rapid divergence and evolutionary novelty and potentially explains the origin and diversification of the observed provisioning forms in family life.

  13. Adjoint P1 equations solution for neutron slowing down; Solucao das equacoes P1 adjuntas para moderacao de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Carlos Eduardo Santos; Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2002-07-01

    In some applications of perturbation theory, it is necessary know the adjoint neutron flux, which is obtained by the solution of adjoint neutron diffusion equation. However, the multigroup constants used for this are weighted in only the direct neutron flux, from the solution of direct P1 equations. In this work, the adjoint P1 equations are derived by the neutron transport equation, the reversion operators rules and analogies between direct and adjoint parameters. The direct and adjoint neutron fluxes resulting from the solution of P{sub 1} equations were used to three different weighting processes, to obtain the macrogroup macroscopic cross sections. It was found out noticeable differences among them. (author)

  14. Effects of Offspring and Parental Inbreeding on Parent-Offspring Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattey, Sarah N; Richardson, Jon; Ratz, Tom; Smiseth, Per T

    2018-06-01

    There is mounting evidence that inbreeding can have complex effects on social interactions among inbred and outbred individuals. Here, we investigate effects of offspring and maternal inbreeding on parent-offspring communication in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides. We find effects of the interaction between offspring and maternal inbreeding on maternal behavior. Outbred females provided more direct care toward inbred larvae, while inbred females provided similar levels of direct care toward inbred and outbred larvae. Furthermore, we find direct and indirect effects of offspring inbreeding on offspring begging and maternal behavior, respectively. Inbred larvae spent less time begging than outbred larvae, and (outbred) females provided more direct care and less indirect care toward inbred larvae. Finally, we find effects of the interaction between offspring and maternal inbreeding on larval body mass. Inbred and outbred offspring grew to a similar size when the female was outbred, while inbred offspring were of a smaller size when the female was inbred. Our results suggest that outbred females provided more care toward inbred offspring to compensate for their poor genetic quality. Our study advances our understanding of inbreeding by showing that inbreeding can have direct effects on the behavior of inbred individuals and indirect effects on the behavior of outbred individuals and that indirect effects on outbred individuals may in turn influence the fitness of inbred individuals.

  15. Teenage parents and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, J

    1996-06-18

    Teenage parents are cast into adult roles before the role experimentation and identity development tasks of middle adolescence can be completed. Understanding the etiology of this social problem requires an ecological perspective encompassing individual characteristics, person-context variables, and societal factors such as race and social class. Risk factors identified in the literature on adolescent pregnancy in the US include: absence of a future orientation or aspirations, lack of assertiveness and interpersonal skills to control physical intimacy, low socioeconomic status and minority group membership, growing up in a single-parent family, a history of sexual abuse, five or more siblings, a sister or friend who became a teenage mother, lax parental supervision of dating and free time, low self-esteem, and dropping out or failing in school. The limited data on adolescent fathers suggest they have histories of substance use, delinquency, failure to graduate from high school, financial difficulty, and exposure to family violence. The offspring of adolescent parents show a higher incidence of developmental delays and mild mental retardation than children of adults and are at increased risk of child abuse and neglect. Teen parents raised in dysfunctional families tend to perpetuate destructive methods of child rearing and have unrealistic, age-inappropriate expectations for infants and toddlers. Teenage parents' lack of competence can be mitigated, however, by positive living arrangements, a supportive family of origin, peer support groups, quality child care, school-based services, and accurate information about parenting and child development.

  16. Danish holsteins favor bull offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study from 2014 it was found that US Holstein cows that gave birth to heifer calves produced more milk than cows having bull calves. We wanted to assess whether this is also true for Danish cattle. Data from 578 Danish Holstein herds were analysed with a mixed effect model and contr......In a previous study from 2014 it was found that US Holstein cows that gave birth to heifer calves produced more milk than cows having bull calves. We wanted to assess whether this is also true for Danish cattle. Data from 578 Danish Holstein herds were analysed with a mixed effect model...... and contrary to the findings in the US, we found that cows produced higher volumes of milk if they had a bull calf compared to a heifer calf. We found a significantly higher milk production of 0.28% in the first lactation period for cows giving birth to a bull calf, compared to a heifer calf. This difference...... was even higher when cows gave birth to another bull calf, so having two bull calves resulted in a difference of 0.52% in milk production compared to any other combination of sex of the offspring. Furthermore, we found that farmer assisted calvings were associated with a higher milk yield. Cows...

  17. Parents bereaved by offspring suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolton, James M; Au, Wendy; Leslie, William D

    2013-01-01

    OUTCOME MEASURES Mental and physical disorders, social factors, and treatment use. RESULTS Suicide bereavement was associated with an increased rate of depression (ARR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.88-2.43), anxiety disorders (ARR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.24-1.60), and marital breakup (ARR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.13-1.23) in the 2...... years after the suicide of an offspring, as compared with the 2 years prior to the death. Suicide-bereaved and MVC-bereaved parents had very few differences on predeath to postdeath outcomes. Depression rate increases were greater for MVC-bereaved parents (19.9%) compared with suicide-bereaved parents...... (15.9%; P = .005), whereas suicide-bereaved parents had higher rate increases of hospitalization for mental illness (P = .049). Suicide-bereaved parents were more likely than their MVC-bereaved counterparts to have depression (ARR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.06-1.61), physical disorders (ARR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1...

  18. Observation of the 1P1 state of charmonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, T.A.; Bettoni, D.; Bharadwaj, V.; Biino, C.; Borreani, G.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Buzzo, A.; Calabrese, R.; Ceccucci, A.; Cester, R.; Church, M.; Dalpiaz, P.; Dalpiaz, P.F.; Dibenedetto, R.; Dimitroyannis, D.; Fabbri, M.G.; Fast, J.; Gianoli, A.; Ginsburg, C.M.; Gollwitzer, K.; Hahn, A.; Hasan, M.; Hsueh, S.; Lewis, R.; Luppi, E.; Macri, M.; Majewska, A.M.; Mandelkern, M.; Marchetto, F.; Marinelli, M.; Marques, J.; Marsh, W.; Martini, M.; Masuzawa, M.; Menichetti, E.; Migliori, A.; Mussa, R.; Palestini, S.; Pallavicini, M.; Pastrone, N.; Patrignani, C.; Peoples, J. Jr.; Pesando, L.; Petrucci, F.; Pia, M.G.; Pordes, S.; Rapidis, P.; Ray, R.; Reid, J.; Rinaudo, G.; Roccuzzo, B.; Rosen, J.; Santroni, A.; Sarmiento, M.; Savrie, M.; Scalisi, A.; Schultz, J.; Seth, K.K.; Smith, A.; Smith, G.A.; Sozzi, M.; Trokenheim, S.; Weber, M.F.; Werkema, S.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, J.; Zioulas, G.

    1992-01-01

    We have performed a search for the 1 P 1 state of charmonium resonantly formed in bar pp annihilations, close to the center of gravity of the 3 P J states. We report results from the study of the J/ψ+π 0 and J/ψ+2π final states. We have observed a statistically significant enhancement in the bar p+p→J/ψ+π 0 cross section at √s congruent 3526.2 MeV. This enhancement has the characteristics of a narrow resonance of mass, total width, and production cross section consistent with what is expected for the 1 P 1 state. In our search we have found no candidates for the reactions bar p+p→J/ψ+π 0 +π 0 and bar p+p→J/ψ+π + +π -

  19. The P1approximation in the transport of beta rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legarda, F.; Idoeta, R.; Herranz, M.

    1994-01-01

    A validation test for the p1 approximation to the linear transport of electrons in planar geometry has been performed. The p1 approximation is shown to be a good option for the description of the transport of beta rays with endpoint energies between 400kev and 3.5Mev through aluminium foils . This approximation together with the use of only elastic interactions of electrons with atoms has found good agreement with experimental results . A calculation has been made of the fraction of transmitted electrons through foils, solving the transport equation for planar geometry in the p1 approximation and assuming that only elastic scattering processes take place. The boundary condition at the entrance of the foil was a collimated beta source, while at the end of the foil has been adopted a vaccum boundary condition.Sources considered are those for which experimental and calculated spectrum shapes are known to agree. The calculated fractional transmission through different absorber thicknesses is found to have an exponential shape . Besides this fact the attenuation coefficients found ,when compared with those empirically obtained, agree to within 5%. 1 fig.; 4 refs. (author)

  20. The influence of parental history of diabetes and offspring birthweight on offspring glucose metabolism in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauenborg, Jeannet; Jørgensen, Mie Kw; Damm, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background. Links are well established between both family history of diabetes and reduced birthweight and increased risk of diabetes in adulthood. Objectives. 1) To investigate the influence of parental history of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) on offspring birthweight and adult offspring glucose tolera...

  1. Cues of maternal condition influence offspring selfishness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Janine W Y; Lucas, Christophe; Kölliker, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of parent-offspring communication was mostly studied from the perspective of parents responding to begging signals conveying information about offspring condition. Parents should respond to begging because of the differential fitness returns obtained from their investment in offspring that differ in condition. For analogous reasons, offspring should adjust their behavior to cues/signals of parental condition: parents that differ in condition pay differential costs of care and, hence, should provide different amounts of food. In this study, we experimentally tested in the European earwig (Forficula auricularia) if cues of maternal condition affect offspring behavior in terms of sibling cannibalism. We experimentally manipulated female condition by providing them with different amounts of food, kept nymph condition constant, allowed for nymph exposure to chemical maternal cues over extended time, quantified nymph survival (deaths being due to cannibalism) and extracted and analyzed the females' cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC). Nymph survival was significantly affected by chemical cues of maternal condition, and this effect depended on the timing of breeding. Cues of poor maternal condition enhanced nymph survival in early broods, but reduced nymph survival in late broods, and vice versa for cues of good condition. Furthermore, female condition affected the quantitative composition of their CHC profile which in turn predicted nymph survival patterns. Thus, earwig offspring are sensitive to chemical cues of maternal condition and nymphs from early and late broods show opposite reactions to the same chemical cues. Together with former evidence on maternal sensitivities to condition-dependent nymph chemical cues, our study shows context-dependent reciprocal information exchange about condition between earwig mothers and their offspring, potentially mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons.

  2. Cues of maternal condition influence offspring selfishness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine W Y Wong

    Full Text Available The evolution of parent-offspring communication was mostly studied from the perspective of parents responding to begging signals conveying information about offspring condition. Parents should respond to begging because of the differential fitness returns obtained from their investment in offspring that differ in condition. For analogous reasons, offspring should adjust their behavior to cues/signals of parental condition: parents that differ in condition pay differential costs of care and, hence, should provide different amounts of food. In this study, we experimentally tested in the European earwig (Forficula auricularia if cues of maternal condition affect offspring behavior in terms of sibling cannibalism. We experimentally manipulated female condition by providing them with different amounts of food, kept nymph condition constant, allowed for nymph exposure to chemical maternal cues over extended time, quantified nymph survival (deaths being due to cannibalism and extracted and analyzed the females' cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC. Nymph survival was significantly affected by chemical cues of maternal condition, and this effect depended on the timing of breeding. Cues of poor maternal condition enhanced nymph survival in early broods, but reduced nymph survival in late broods, and vice versa for cues of good condition. Furthermore, female condition affected the quantitative composition of their CHC profile which in turn predicted nymph survival patterns. Thus, earwig offspring are sensitive to chemical cues of maternal condition and nymphs from early and late broods show opposite reactions to the same chemical cues. Together with former evidence on maternal sensitivities to condition-dependent nymph chemical cues, our study shows context-dependent reciprocal information exchange about condition between earwig mothers and their offspring, potentially mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons.

  3. Plasmid P1 replication: negative control by repeated DNA sequences.

    OpenAIRE

    Chattoraj, D; Cordes, K; Abeles, A

    1984-01-01

    The incompatibility locus, incA, of the unit-copy plasmid P1 is contained within a fragment that is essentially a set of nine 19-base-pair repeats. One or more copies of the fragment destabilizes the plasmid when present in trans. Here we show that extra copies of incA interfere with plasmid DNA replication and that a deletion of most of incA increases plasmid copy number. Thus, incA is not essential for replication but is required for its control. When cloned in a high-copy-number vector, pi...

  4. Centenarian offspring: start healthier and stay healthier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Emily R; Nolan, Vikki G; Andersen, Stacy L; Perls, Thomas T; Terry, Dellara F

    2008-11-01

    To assess the relative incidence of age-related diseases in a group of centenarian offspring who have thus far been considered to be predisposed to "healthy" aging. Longitudinal study. Nationwide sample. Four hundred forty centenarian offspring and 192 referent cohort subjects who met inclusion criteria of having initial and follow-up health questionnaire data available. Median age of both cohorts was 72 at the initial health questionnaire. Initial health questionnaires were collected from 1997 to 2006. Follow-up questionnaires were collected from 2004 to 2007. The mean period of follow-up was 3.5+/-1.7 years for the centenarian offspring and 3.9+/-2.2 years for the referent cohort. During the follow-up period, centenarian offspring had a 78% lower risk of myocardial infarction (Padvantages over time over similarly aged referent cohort subjects. These findings reinforce the notion that there may be physiological reasons that longevity runs in families and that centenarian offspring are more likely to age in better cardiovascular health and with a lower mortality than their peers.

  5. Parental psychiatric hospitalisation and offspring schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Reinisch, June M

    2009-01-01

    The risk of schizophrenia has been linked with a family history of schizophrenia and less strongly with other psychiatric disorders in family members. Using data from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort and from the Danish Psychiatric Case Register, we studied the relationship between offspring risk...... of schizophrenia and a range of psychotic and non-psychotic psychiatric diagnoses in parents. Psychiatric admission data after 1969 were available for 7047 cohort members born between 1959 and 1961, and for 7006 mothers and 6993 fathers. Univariate analysis showed that neurosis, alcohol and substance dependence...... in both parents were associated with elevated risk of offspring schizophrenia; in addition, maternal schizophrenia, affective disorder and personality disorder were associated with elevated risk. Controlling for parental age, parental social status, and parental psychiatric co-diagnosis, offspring risk...

  6. The Dutch Bipolar Offspring Study: 12-Year Follow-Up

    OpenAIRE

    Mesman, Esther; Nolen, Willem A.; Reichart, Catrien G.; Wals, Marjolein; Hillegers, Manon N. J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Offspring of bipolar parents have a genetically increased risk of developing mood disorders. In a longitudinal study, the authors followed a bipolar offspring cohort from adolescence into adulthood to determine the onset, prevalence, and early course of mood disorders and other psychopathology. Method: The Dutch bipolar offspring cohort is a fixed cohort initiated in 1997 (N=140; age range at baseline, 12-21 years). Bipolar offspring were psychiatrically evaluated at baseline and a...

  7. Study of TiO2(1 1 0)-p(1x1), p(1x2) and p(1x3) surface structures by impact collision ion scattering spectroscopy (ICISS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asari, E.; Souda, R.

    2000-01-01

    The surface structure of TiO 2 (1 1 0)-p(1x1), p(1x2) and p(1x3) were studied using impact collision ion scattering spectroscopy (ICISS). We found that (i) the height of bridging oxygen for the p(1x1) is comparative to that of bulk structure, (ii) the p(1x2) surface has the added Ti 2 O 3 unit rows proposed by Onishi et al. and also the oxygen atoms rows between Ti 2 O 3 unit rows and (iii) the p(1x3) surface is constructed with the same added Ti 2 O 3 unit rows as that in the p(1x2) surface, but the bridging oxygen rows exist between the Ti 2 O 3 unit rows

  8. S-Nitrosation destabilizes glutathione transferase P1-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balchin, David; Stoychev, Stoyan H; Dirr, Heini W

    2013-12-23

    Protein S-nitrosation is a post-translational modification that regulates the function of more than 500 human proteins. Despite its apparent physiological significance, S-nitrosation is poorly understood at a molecular level. Here, we investigated the effect of S-nitrosation on the activity, structure, stability, and dynamics of human glutathione transferase P1-1 (GSTP1-1), an important detoxification enzyme ubiquitous in aerobes. S-Nitrosation at Cys47 and Cys101 reduces the activity of the enzyme by 94%. Circular dichroism spectroscopy, acrylamide quenching, and amide hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry experiments indicate that the loss of activity is caused by the introduction of local disorder at the active site of GSTP1-1. Furthermore, the modification destabilizes domain 1 of GSTP1-1 against denaturation, smoothing the unfolding energy landscape of the protein and introducing a refolding defect. In contrast, S-nitrosation at Cys101 alone introduces a refolding defect in domain 1 but compensates by stabilizing the domain kinetically. These data elucidate the physical basis for the regulation of GSTP1-1 by S-nitrosation and provide general insight into the consequences of S-nitrosation on protein stability and dynamics.

  9. Prenatal Maternal Substance Use and Offspring Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from both human and preclinical studies seems to indicate that maternal smoking, alcohol drinking, or other drug use during pregnancy can affect offspring outcomes. It also suggests that maternal substance use during pregnancy is a major preventable cause of adverse infant outcomes.

  10. Perceived parental rearing of bipolar offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichart, C. G.; van der Ende, J.; Hillegers, M. H. J.; Wals, M.; Bongers, I. L.; Nolen, W. A.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F. C.

    Objective: To explore the impact of growing up with a parent with a bipolar disorder. First, we compared parental rearing behavior perceived by young adult offspring of bipolar parents with parental rearing behavior perceived by same aged young adults from the general population. Secondly, we

  11. Arte, escola e museu: análise de uma experiência em arte/educação no Museu Universitário de Arte - MUnA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Cunha de Araújo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo A partir de uma perspectiva teórica e empírica, o artigo analisa uma experiência em arte/educação desenvolvida com estudantes da rede pública de ensino na cidade de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, no Museu Universitário de Arte - MUnA. De abordagem qualitativa e de caráter descritivo e interpretativo, a pesquisa constatou que o contato com museu de arte possibilita ao estudante não apenas ampliar o seu conhecimento de mundo, mas enriquecer sua formação cultural e melhorar a sua capacidade de expressão, além de possibilitar aos estudantes uma melhor interação com o meio social em que vivem. O conhecimento em arte é um aprendizado que começa na observação de uma obra de arte, da sua leitura e da prática artística. As leituras e comportamentos que cada estudante tem ao apreciar uma obra de arte estão relacionados à sua experiência com diferentes manifestações artísticas. É indispensável que escolas, professores de arte e ações educativas em museus sejam importantes mediadores para a produção do conhecimento em arte aos estudantes. Construir esse conhecimento a partir do acesso constante a esses espaços artísticos e educacionais, além do desenvolvimento de atividades artísticas nesses espaços, possibilita ao estudante elevar a sua compreensão da cultura nacional. Verificamos, ainda, que os estudantes produziram trabalhos artísticos significativos durante a ação educativa no museu, o que contribuiu para que ampliassem sua experiência com a arte.

  12. Pathways to suicide-related behavior in offspring of mothers with depression: the role of offspring psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerton, Gemma; Zammit, Stanley; Mahedy, Liam; Pearson, Rebecca M; Sellers, Ruth; Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan

    2015-05-01

    Offspring of mothers with depression are a high-risk group for the development of suicide-related behavior. These offspring are therefore a priority for preventive interventions; however, pathways contributing to risk, including specific aspects of offspring psychopathology, remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine whether offspring symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and alcohol abuse independently mediate the association between maternal depression and offspring suicide-related behavior. Data were used from a population-based birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Three distinct classes of depression symptoms across the mothers' first 11 years of their child's life were identified (minimal, moderate, chronic-severe). Offspring psychopathology was assessed at age 15 years and suicide-related behavior at age 16 years. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. There was evidence for increased risk of suicidal ideation in offspring of mothers with chronic-severe depression symptoms in comparison to offspring of mothers with minimal symptoms (odds ratio = 3.04, 95% CI = 2.19, 4.21). This association was independently mediated by offspring MDD, GAD, and DBD symptoms. The same mechanisms were found for offspring of mothers with moderate depression symptoms over time. Results were similar for offspring suicide attempt except for additional evidence of an indirect effect through offspring ADHD symptoms. Findings highlight that suicide prevention efforts in offspring of mothers with depression should not only be targeted at offspring with MDD; it is also important to consider offspring with other forms of psychopathology. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Pathways to Suicide-Related Behavior in Offspring of Mothers With Depression: The Role of Offspring Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerton, Gemma; Zammit, Stanley; Mahedy, Liam; Pearson, Rebecca M.; Sellers, Ruth; Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Offspring of mothers with depression are a high-risk group for the development of suicide-related behavior. These offspring are therefore a priority for preventive interventions; however, pathways contributing to risk, including specific aspects of offspring psychopathology, remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine whether offspring symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and alcohol abuse independently mediate the association between maternal depression and offspring suicide-related behavior. Method Data were used from a population-based birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Three distinct classes of depression symptoms across the mothers’ first 11 years of their child’s life were identified (minimal, moderate, chronic-severe). Offspring psychopathology was assessed at age 15 years and suicide-related behavior at age 16 years. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results There was evidence for increased risk of suicidal ideation in offspring of mothers with chronic-severe depression symptoms in comparison to offspring of mothers with minimal symptoms (odds ratio = 3.04, 95% CI = 2.19, 4.21). This association was independently mediated by offspring MDD, GAD, and DBD symptoms. The same mechanisms were found for offspring of mothers with moderate depression symptoms over time. Results were similar for offspring suicide attempt except for additional evidence of an indirect effect through offspring ADHD symptoms. Conclusion Findings highlight that suicide prevention efforts in offspring of mothers with depression should not only be targeted at offspring with MDD; it is also important to consider offspring with other forms of psychopathology. PMID:25901775

  14. Blocking S1P interaction with S1P1 receptor by a novel competitive S1P1-selective antagonist inhibits angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Yasuyuki; Ueda, Yasuji; Ohtake, Hidenori; Ono, Naoya; Takayama, Tetsuo; Nakazawa, Kiyoshi; Igarashi, Yasuyuki; Goitsuka, Ryo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The effect of a newly developed S1P 1 -selective antagonist on angiogenic responses. ► S1P 1 is a critical component of VEGF-related angiogenic responses. ► S1P 1 -selective antagonist showed in vitro activity to inhibit angiogenesis. ► S1P 1 -selective antagonist showed in vivo activity to inhibit angiogenesis. ► The efficacy of S1P 1 -selective antagonist for anti-cancer therapies. -- Abstract: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor type 1 (S1P 1 ) was shown to be essential for vascular maturation during embryonic development and it has been demonstrated that substantial crosstalk exists between S1P 1 and other pro-angiogenic growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor. We developed a novel S1P 1 -selective antagonist, TASP0277308, which is structurally unrelated to S1P as well as previously described S1P 1 antagonists. TASP0277308 inhibited S1P- as well as VEGF-induced cellular responses, including migration and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Furthermore, TASP0277308 effectively blocked a VEGF-induced tube formation in vitro and significantly suppressed tumor cell-induced angiogenesis in vivo. These findings revealed that S1P 1 is a critical component of VEGF-related angiogenic responses and also provide evidence for the efficacy of TASP0277308 for anti-cancer therapies.

  15. Why offspring in nonhuman families differ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Scott

    2013-07-18

    Offspring within families, both human and nonhuman, often differ. The obvious question is: Why? Work on psychological differences on children within human families has focused primarily on differences in the nonshared environment of contemporary siblings, though the precise location of this nonshared environment is still the subject of much debate. Here I explore the range of explanations for within-brood diversity from the perspective of nonhuman families, particularly birds that share certain key features with human families. I examine the role of social rank in creating a nonshared environment within the family, and present data from a model system (an altricial bird) to illustrate how different the effective environments experienced by offspring sitting side-by-side in the same confined physical space, tended by the same parents, and experiencing similar ecological variability, can be. These broodmates can effectively live in different worlds. I then briefly explore other sources of diversity among offspring in nonhuman families, including within brood genetic differences and non-genetic maternal (parental) effects that often covary with birth / hatching rank. Given the ubiquity and far-reaching consequences of maternal effects in nonhuman families, and some human data suggestive of similar patterns, it would seem worthwhile to explore the potential role of maternal effects in creating phenotypic diversity in psychological traits among children in human families.

  16. Características dos óbitos infantis em um munícipio de médio porte da região Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Nice Dutra de Oliveira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A mortalidade infantil é um importante indicador de saúde e desenvolvimento dos municípios, revelando importantes aspectos da organização da assistência à saúde. Objetivo: Descrever as características dos óbitos infantis em um munícipio de médio porte da região Nordeste do Brasil. Métodos: Estudo epidemiológico, descritivo, utilizando dados da Declaração de Óbito de crianças com idade de 0 a 364 dias, classificados segundo os critérios de evitabilidade, referentes ao município Jequié, Bahia, entre os anos 2007 a 2012. A análise estatística consistiu no cálculo de frequências absolutas e relativas. Resultados: Entre 2007 e 2012, foram notificados 286 óbitos infantis, dos quais 64,7% foram considerados evitáveis. Entre os 185 óbitos infantis evitáveis, 38,4% se caracterizavam como redutíveis por ações de prevenção, diagnóstico e tratamento precoce. As caraterísticas relacionadas aos óbitos infantis evidenciaram que, entre os óbitos, 53,6% nasceram com baixo peso, 42,1%, prematuros e 63,1% morreram no período neonatal precoce. Conclusões: Os óbitos infantis, especialmente aqueles considerados evitáveis, ainda representam um grave problema de saúde pública. Nesse contexto, analisar os óbitos, quanto aos critérios de evitabilidade, constituiu-se em um instrumento importante na avaliação da qualidade da atenção à saúde materno-infantil, colaborando na elaboração de estratégias de políticas públicas específicas regionais.

  17. Beneficial effects of co-treatment with dextromethorphan on prenatally methadone-exposed offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yao-Chang; Ye, Li-Ci; Hsu, Kuei-Ying; Liao, Chien-Wei; Hung, Tsai-Wei; Lo, Wan-Jou; Ho, Ing-Kang; Tao, Pao-Luh

    2015-03-20

    Heroin use among young women of reproductive age has drawn much attention around the world. Although methadone is widely used in maintenance therapy for heroin/morphine addiction, the long-term effects of prenatal exposure to methadone and preventative therapy remain unclear. For revealing this question, female pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were sub-grouped to receive (1) vehicle, (2) methadone 5 mg/kg at embryonic day 3 (E3) and then 7 mg/kg from E4 to E20, (3) dextromethorphan (DM) 3 mg/kg, and (4) methadone + DM (the rats received methadone followed by DM treatment), subcutaneously, twice a day from E3 to E20. The body weight, natural withdrawal, pain sensitivity, ED50, conditioned place preference and water maze were conducted at different postnatal stages (P1 to P79) of offspring. The quantitative real-time RT-PCR and electrophysiology were also used to measure the gene expression of opioid receptors in the spinal cord and changes of LTP/LTD in the hippocampus, separately. Prenatal exposure to methadone or DM did not affect survival rate, body weight, water maze and LTP or LTD of offspring. However, prenatal methadone significantly increased the withdrawal symptoms, pain sensitivity, addiction liability and decreased the mRNA expression of pain related opioid receptors. Co-administration of DM with methadone in the maternal rats effectively prevented these abnormalities of offspring induced by methadone. Our study clearly showed that co-administration of dextromethorphan with methadone in the maternal rats prevented the adverse effects induced by prenatal methadone exposure. It implies that dextromethorphan may have a potential to be used in combination with methadone for maintenance treatment in pregnant heroin-addicted women to prevent the adverse effects induced by methadone on offspring.

  18. A theoretical model of the evolution of maternal effects under parent-offspring conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uller, Tobias; Pen, Ido

    The evolution of maternal effects on offspring phenotype should depend on the extent of parent-offspring conflict and costs and constraints associated with maternal and offspring strategies. Here, we develop a model of maternal effects on offspring dispersal phenotype under parent-offspring conflict

  19. Computer program /P1-GAS/ calculates the P-0 and P-1 transfer matrices for neutron moderation in a monatomic gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, G.; Gibson, G.

    1968-01-01

    FORTRAN 4 program /P1-GAS/ calculates the P-O and P-1 transfer matrices for neutron moderation in a monatomic gas. The equations used are based on the conditions that there is isotropic scattering in the center-of-mass coordinate system, the scattering cross section is constant, and the target nuclear velocities satisfy a Maxwellian distribution.

  20. Specific binding of a naturally occurring amyloidogenic fragment of Streptococcus mutans adhesin P1 to intact P1 on the cell surface characterized by solid state NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Wenxing; Bhatt, Avni [University of Florida, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine (United States); Smith, Adam N. [University of Florida, Department of Chemistry, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences (United States); Crowley, Paula J.; Brady, L. Jeannine, E-mail: jbrady@dental.ufl.edu [University of Florida, Department of Oral Biology, College of Dentistry (United States); Long, Joanna R., E-mail: jrlong@ufl.edu [University of Florida, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The P1 adhesin (aka Antigen I/II or PAc) of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans is a cell surface-localized protein involved in sucrose-independent adhesion and colonization of the tooth surface. The immunoreactive and adhesive properties of S. mutans suggest an unusual functional quaternary ultrastructure comprised of intact P1 covalently attached to the cell wall and interacting with non-covalently associated proteolytic fragments thereof, particularly the ∼57-kDa C-terminal fragment C123 previously identified as Antigen II. S. mutans is capable of amyloid formation when grown in a biofilm and P1 is among its amyloidogenic proteins. The C123 fragment of P1 readily forms amyloid fibers in vitro suggesting it may play a role in the formation of functional amyloid during biofilm development. Using wild-type and P1-deficient strains of S. mutans, we demonstrate that solid state NMR (ssNMR) spectroscopy can be used to (1) globally characterize cell walls isolated from a Gram-positive bacterium and (2) characterize the specific binding of heterologously expressed, isotopically-enriched C123 to cell wall-anchored P1. Our results lay the groundwork for future high-resolution characterization of the C123/P1 ultrastructure and subsequent steps in biofilm formation via ssNMR spectroscopy, and they support an emerging model of S. mutans colonization whereby quaternary P1-C123 interactions confer adhesive properties important to binding to immobilized human salivary agglutinin.

  1. Specific binding of a naturally occurring amyloidogenic fragment of Streptococcus mutans adhesin P1 to intact P1 on the cell surface characterized by solid state NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Wenxing; Bhatt, Avni; Smith, Adam N.; Crowley, Paula J.; Brady, L. Jeannine; Long, Joanna R.

    2016-01-01

    The P1 adhesin (aka Antigen I/II or PAc) of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans is a cell surface-localized protein involved in sucrose-independent adhesion and colonization of the tooth surface. The immunoreactive and adhesive properties of S. mutans suggest an unusual functional quaternary ultrastructure comprised of intact P1 covalently attached to the cell wall and interacting with non-covalently associated proteolytic fragments thereof, particularly the ∼57-kDa C-terminal fragment C123 previously identified as Antigen II. S. mutans is capable of amyloid formation when grown in a biofilm and P1 is among its amyloidogenic proteins. The C123 fragment of P1 readily forms amyloid fibers in vitro suggesting it may play a role in the formation of functional amyloid during biofilm development. Using wild-type and P1-deficient strains of S. mutans, we demonstrate that solid state NMR (ssNMR) spectroscopy can be used to (1) globally characterize cell walls isolated from a Gram-positive bacterium and (2) characterize the specific binding of heterologously expressed, isotopically-enriched C123 to cell wall-anchored P1. Our results lay the groundwork for future high-resolution characterization of the C123/P1 ultrastructure and subsequent steps in biofilm formation via ssNMR spectroscopy, and they support an emerging model of S. mutans colonization whereby quaternary P1-C123 interactions confer adhesive properties important to binding to immobilized human salivary agglutinin

  2. Specific binding of a naturally occurring amyloidogenic fragment of Streptococcus mutans adhesin P1 to intact P1 on the cell surface characterized by solid state NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wenxing; Bhatt, Avni; Smith, Adam N; Crowley, Paula J; Brady, L Jeannine; Long, Joanna R

    2016-02-01

    The P1 adhesin (aka Antigen I/II or PAc) of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans is a cell surface-localized protein involved in sucrose-independent adhesion and colonization of the tooth surface. The immunoreactive and adhesive properties of S. mutans suggest an unusual functional quaternary ultrastructure comprised of intact P1 covalently attached to the cell wall and interacting with non-covalently associated proteolytic fragments thereof, particularly the ~57-kDa C-terminal fragment C123 previously identified as Antigen II. S. mutans is capable of amyloid formation when grown in a biofilm and P1 is among its amyloidogenic proteins. The C123 fragment of P1 readily forms amyloid fibers in vitro suggesting it may play a role in the formation of functional amyloid during biofilm development. Using wild-type and P1-deficient strains of S. mutans, we demonstrate that solid state NMR (ssNMR) spectroscopy can be used to (1) globally characterize cell walls isolated from a Gram-positive bacterium and (2) characterize the specific binding of heterologously expressed, isotopically-enriched C123 to cell wall-anchored P1. Our results lay the groundwork for future high-resolution characterization of the C123/P1 ultrastructure and subsequent steps in biofilm formation via ssNMR spectroscopy, and they support an emerging model of S. mutans colonization whereby quaternary P1-C123 interactions confer adhesive properties important to binding to immobilized human salivary agglutinin.

  3. Elevated paternal glucocorticoid exposure modifies memory retention in female offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshurun, Shlomo; Rogers, Jake; Short, Annabel K; Renoir, Thibault; Pang, Terence Y; Hannan, Anthony J

    2017-09-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that behavioral traits are subject to transgenerational modification by paternal environmental factors. We previously reported on the transgenerational influences of increased paternal stress hormone levels on offspring anxiety and depression-related behaviors. Here, we investigated whether offspring sociability and cognition are also influenced by paternal stress. Adult C57BL/6J male mice were treated with corticosterone (CORT; 25mg/L) for four weeks prior to paired-matings to generate F1 offspring. Paternal CORT treatment was associated with decreased body weights of female offspring and a marked reduction of the male offspring. There were no differences in social behavior of adult F1 offspring in the three-chamber social interaction test. Despite male offspring of CORT-treated fathers displaying hyperactivity in the Y-maze, there was no observable difference in short-term spatial working memory. Spatial learning and memory testing in the Morris water maze revealed that female, but not male, F1 offspring of CORT-treated fathers had impaired memory retention. We used our recently developed methodology to analyze the spatial search strategy of the mice during the learning trials and determined that the impairment could not be attributed to underlying differences in search strategy. These results provide evidence for the impact of paternal corticosterone administration on offspring cognition and complement the cumulative knowledge of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of acquired traits in rodents and humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Risks to the offspring from parental occupational exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, J.F.; Schottenfeld, D.

    1979-01-01

    Risks to the offspring of workers with occupational chemical exposures may derive from mutagenic, teratogenic or carcinogenic effects of industrial agents to which the parents are exposed. Evidence for impaired pregnancies and hazards to the offspring of working populations with chemical exposures is, however, very limited. Evidence is reviewed for hazards to the offspring resulting from parental occupational exposure to vinyl chloride, benzene, chloroprene, radiation and petroleum-derived hydrocarbons. Other environmental and behavioral factors with major effects on pregnancy outcome are considered. These include smoking, alcohol, and drug exposures. An approach to surveillance for chromosomal abnormalities in offspring of occupationally exposed parents is outlined

  5. Paternal Age Alters Social Development in Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecka, Magdalena; Haworth, Claire M A; Ronald, Angelica; Krapohl, Eva; Happé, Francesca; Mill, Jonathan; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Fernandes, Cathy; Reichenberg, Abraham; Rijsdijk, Frühling

    2017-05-01

    Advanced paternal age (APA) at conception has been linked with autism and schizophrenia in offspring, neurodevelopmental disorders that affect social functioning. The current study explored the effects of paternal age on social development in the general population. We used multilevel growth modeling to investigate APA effects on socioemotional development from early childhood until adolescence, as measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS) sample. We also investigated genetic and environmental underpinnings of the paternal age effects on development, using the Additive genetics, Common environment, unique Environment (ACE) and gene-environment (GxE) models. In the general population, both very young and advanced paternal ages were associated with altered trajectory of social development (intercept: p = .01; slope: p = .03). No other behavioral domain was affected by either young or advanced age at fatherhood, suggesting specificity of paternal age effects. Increased importance of genetic factors in social development was recorded in the offspring of older but not very young fathers, suggesting distinct underpinnings of the paternal age effects at these two extremes. Our findings highlight that the APA-related deficits that lead to autism and schizophrenia are likely continuously distributed in the population. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Preeclampsia and risk for epilepsy in offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Chunsen; Sun, Yuelian; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Eclampsia has been found to be a strong risk factor for epilepsy in the offspring, but it is unclear whether the risk also applies to the preceding condition, preeclampsia. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study of 1537860 singletons born in Denmark (1978-2004). Informat......OBJECTIVE: Eclampsia has been found to be a strong risk factor for epilepsy in the offspring, but it is unclear whether the risk also applies to the preceding condition, preeclampsia. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study of 1537860 singletons born in Denmark (1978......-2004). Information on preeclampsia (mild, severe, and unspecified), eclampsia, and epilepsy was obtained from the Danish National Hospital Register. Information on gestational age, birth weight, and Apgar score was obtained from the Danish Medical Birth Registry. We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate...... the incidence rate ratio of epilepsy for children who were exposed to preeclampsia or eclampsia in prenatal life. RESULTS: We identified 45288 (2.9%) children who were exposed to preeclampsia (34823 to mild, 7043 to severe, and 3422 to unspecified preeclampsia) and 654 (0.04%) to eclampsia during their prenatal...

  7. The calculation of oscillator strengths for the 5s21S0→5s5p1,3P1 transitions in Cd-like ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guangyuan

    1998-01-01

    The screened hydrogenic model is employed to calculate the oscillator strength of the 5s 2 1 S 0 -5s5p 1 P 1 resonance transition in Cd-like ions (Z = 48 -74). The expression for the oscillator strength of the 5s 2 1 S 0 -5s5p 3 P1 is given, with the introduction of the correctional coefficient K and the mixing angle in jj-coupling. The results are compared with that of other authors, and some discussions are also given

  8. The evolution of parent-offspring conflict over mate choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Pieter; Fawcett, Tim W.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Weissing, Franz J.

    2013-01-01

    In human societies, parents often have a strong influence on the mate choice of their offspring. Moreover, empirical studies show that conflict over mate choice between parents and offspring is widespread across human cultures. Here we provide the first theoretical investigation into this conflict,

  9. Environment of oocyte and embryo determines heath of IVP offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruip, T.A.M.; Bevers, M.M.; Kemp, B.

    2000-01-01

    In vitro embryo production (IVP) enhances the number of offspring from a single female and offers the possibility of accelerated genetic progress in animal husbandry. However, it also leads to a low but unacceptable percentage of anomalies in the offspring. The aim of this paper is to introduce the

  10. Aerobic exercise training performed by parents reduces mice offspring adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Paulo Vitor da Silva; Guariglia, Débora Alves; Da Rocha, Francielli Ferreira; Picoli, Caroline de Carvalho; Gilio, Gustavo Renan; Fabricio, Gabriel Sergio; Mathias, Paulo Cesar de Freitas; Moraes, Solange Marta Franzói de; Peres, Sidney Barnabé

    2018-07-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effects of physical training performed by parents on mice offspring adiposity. Male and female parents underwent an aerobic training protocol for 7 weeks. The trained and sedentary parents were allowed to mate and the resultant offspring divided in: S (Offspring from Sedentary Parents), T (Offspring from Trained Parents), ST (Offspring from Sedentary Father and Trained Mother) and TS (Offspring from Trained Father and Sedentary Mother). After weaning, offspring was euthanized, blood collected and samples of mesenteric and inguinal fat pads used to isolate adipocytes for morphologic and histological analyses. Lee index, mesenteric fat pad, sum of visceral fat and total fat weight of female T was reduced in comparison to the other groups (p < 0.05). Periepididymal and sum of visceral fat in male T group was also reduced when compared to the other groups (p < 0.05). The diameter of mesenteric and inguinal adipocytes of T group was smaller compared to all groups comparisons for both sexes (p < 0.05). In summary, exercise training performed by parents reduced visceral offspring adiposity, the diameter of subcutaneous adipocytes and improved metabolic parameters associated to metabolic syndrome.

  11. The Dutch Bipolar Offspring Study : 12-Year Follow-Up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesman, Esther; Nolen, Willem A.; Reichart, Catrien G.; Wals, Marjolein; Hillegers, Manon N. J.

    Objective: Offspring of bipolar parents have a genetically increased risk of developing mood disorders. In a longitudinal study, the authors followed a bipolar offspring cohort from adolescence into adulthood to determine the onset, prevalence, and early course of mood disorders and other

  12. Does brood size manipulation affect later competitive behaviour of offspring?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deKogel, CH

    Data from several field experiments support the existence of a trade-off between number and quality of offspring. However, long term effects of brood size on fitness related traits of offspring have been a relatively neglected area of research. In a laboratory experiment the effect of manipulated

  13. Parental Rheumatoid Arthritis and Autism Spectrum Disorders in Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom, Ane Lilleøre; Wu, Chunsen; Olsen, Jørn

    2018-01-01

    Objective Maternal rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been associated with an increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the offspring. We assessed the potential influence of both maternal and paternal RA on the risk of ASD in offspring to disentangle the influence of genetic inheritance from...

  14. Educational Attainments of Immigrant Offspring: Success or Segmented Assimilation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Monica

    2002-01-01

    Examined the educational attainments of adult offspring of immigrants age 20-64 years, analyzing data from Canada's 1996 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics. Contrary to second generation decline and segmented underclass assimilation found in the United States, Canadian adult visible-minority immigrant offspring did not have lower educational…

  15. Complex life cycles and offspring provisioning in marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Dustin J; Keough, Michael J

    2006-10-01

    Offspring size can have pervasive effects throughout an organism's life history. Mothers can make either a few large or many small offspring, and the balance between these extremes is determined by the relationship between offspring size and performance. This relationship in turn is thought to be determined by the offspring's environment. Recently, it has become clear that events in one life-history stage can strongly affect performance in another. Given these strong carryover effects, we asked whether events in the larval phase can change the relationship between offspring size and performance in the adult phase. We manipulated the length of the larval period in the bryozoan Bugula neritina and then examined the relationship between offspring size and various parameters of adult performance under field conditions. We found that despite the adult stage being outplanted into identical conditions, different offspring sizes were predicted to be optimal, depending on the experience of those adults as larvae. This work highlights the fact that the strong phenotypic links between life-history stages may result in optimal offspring size being highly unpredictable for organisms with complex life cycles.

  16. The study on the cephalometric similarity between parents and offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Woo Ghon; Ahn, Hyung Kyu [Department of Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1975-11-15

    The study was performed to investigate cephalometric similarity between parents and offspring of the Korean family by lateral cephalometric analysis. The lateral cephalograms consist of the 8 families comprising 16 parents, 5 sons and 7 daughters. In order to make an investigation of the similarity, 12 measuring points were set up, and 22 linear measurements on each depth, height and 5 angular measurements were made. The author drew up the profilograms to compare parents with offspring in each family group. The obtained results were as follows: 1. There was no common similarity on specific region between parents and offspring in each family group. 2. There was partial similarity between single parent and offspring. 3. The partial similarity between single parent and offspring was noted on the upper face in general.

  17. Female partner preferences enhance offspring ability to survive an infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveh, Shirley; Sutalo, Sanja; Thonhauser, Kerstin E; Thoß, Michaela; Hettyey, Attila; Winkelser, Friederike; Penn, Dustin J

    2014-01-23

    It is often suggested that mate choice enhances offspring immune resistance to infectious diseases. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a study with wild-derived house mice (Mus musculus musculus) in which females were experimentally mated either with their preferred or non-preferred male, and their offspring were infected with a mouse pathogen, Salmonella enterica (serovar Typhimurium). We found that offspring sired by preferred males were significantly more likely to survive the experimental infection compared to those sired by non-preferred males. We found no significant differences in the pathogen clearance or infection dynamics between the infected mice, suggesting that offspring from preferred males were better able to cope with infection and had improved tolerance rather than immune resistance. Our results provide the first direct experimental evidence within a single study that partner preferences enhance offspring resistance to infectious diseases.

  18. The study on the cephalometric similarity between parents and offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Woo Ghon; Ahn, Hyung Kyu

    1975-01-01

    The study was performed to investigate cephalometric similarity between parents and offspring of the Korean family by lateral cephalometric analysis. The lateral cephalograms consist of the 8 families comprising 16 parents, 5 sons and 7 daughters. In order to make an investigation of the similarity, 12 measuring points were set up, and 22 linear measurements on each depth, height and 5 angular measurements were made. The author drew up the profilograms to compare parents with offspring in each family group. The obtained results were as follows: 1. There was no common similarity on specific region between parents and offspring in each family group. 2. There was partial similarity between single parent and offspring. 3. The partial similarity between single parent and offspring was noted on the upper face in general.

  19. PATERNAL GENOTYPE INFLUENCES INCUBATION PERIOD, OFFSPRING SIZE, AND OFFSPRING SHAPE IN AN OVIPAROUS REPTILE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Mats; Gullberg, Annica; Shine, Richard; Madsen, Thomas; Tegelström, Håkan

    1996-06-01

    Theoretical models for the evolution of life-history traits assume a genetic basis for a significant proportion of the phenotypic variance observed in characteristics such as hatching date and offspring size. However, recent experimental work has shown that much of the phenotypic variance in hatchling reptiles is induced by nongenetic factors, such as maternal nutrition and thermoregulation, and the physical conditions experienced during embryogenesis. Thus, there is no unambiguous evidence for strictly genetic (intraspecific) influences on the phenotypes of hatchling reptiles. We report results from a technique that uses a genetic marker trait and DNA fingerprinting to determine paternity of offspring from multiply sired clutches of European sand lizards, Lacerta agilis. By focusing on paternal rather than maternal effects, we show that hatchling genotypes exert a direct influence on the duration of incubation, the size (mass, snout-vent length) and shape (relative tail length) of the hatchling, and subsequent growth rates of the lizard during the first 3 mo of life. Embryos with genes that code for a few days' delay in hatching are thereby larger when they hatch, having undergone further differentiation (and hence, have changed in bodily proportions), and are able to grow faster after hatching. Our data thus provide empirical support for a crucial but rarely tested assumption of life-history theory, and illuminate some of the proximate mechanisms that produce intraspecific variation in offspring phenotypes. © 1996 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. On the impact of second generation mating and offspring in multi-generation reproductive toxicity studies on classification and labelling of substances in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rorije, Emiel; Muller, André; Beekhuijzen, Manon E.W.

    2011-01-01

    The possible impact on classification and labelling decisions of effects observed in second generation parental (P1) and offspring (F2) parameters in multi-generation studies was investigated. This was done for 50 substances classified as reproductive toxicants in Europe, for which a multi-genera...... and reduced animal use, provide strong further support for replacement of the classical two-generation reproductive toxicity study by the EOGRTS in regulatory reproductive toxicity assessment....

  1. Porcine Circovirus-Like Virus P1 Inhibits Wnt Signaling Pathway in Vivo and in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuejiao; Wen, Libin; Sheng, Shaoyang; Wang, Wei; Xiao, Qi; Qu, Meng; Hu, Yiyi; Liu, Chuanmin; He, Kongwang

    2018-01-01

    Porcine circovirus-like virus P1 is an important pathogen of the current pig industry, the infection mechanism is not entirely clear. Wnt signaling pathway plays an important role in the growth of young animals and infection of some viruses. This study was designed to demonstrate the effects of P1 infection on the Wnt signaling pathway. In vivo experiments, we demonstrated the down-regulatory effects of P1 infection in piglets and mice on the downstream components expression levels of Wnt signaling pathway, and the effects of Wnt signaling pathway activation on the pathogenesis of P1. In vitro studies, we found P1 infection down-regulated protein level of β-catenin and mRNA level of mmp2, prevented the β-catenin from entering into nucleus, abolished the TCF/LEF promoter activity, proved that P1 could inhibit the activation of Wnt signaling pathway in vitro . Finally, we found that VP1 of P1 virus also had the inhibitory effects on Wnt signaling pathway in vitro , elucidated the mechanism of P1's inhibitory effects on the Wnt signaling pathway and offered the possibility that the suppression of Wnt signaling pathway was involved in the post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), laying a foundation for elucidating the pathogenesis of P1.

  2. Porcine Circovirus-Like Virus P1 Inhibits Wnt Signaling Pathway in Vivo and in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejiao Zhu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Porcine circovirus-like virus P1 is an important pathogen of the current pig industry, the infection mechanism is not entirely clear. Wnt signaling pathway plays an important role in the growth of young animals and infection of some viruses. This study was designed to demonstrate the effects of P1 infection on the Wnt signaling pathway. In vivo experiments, we demonstrated the down-regulatory effects of P1 infection in piglets and mice on the downstream components expression levels of Wnt signaling pathway, and the effects of Wnt signaling pathway activation on the pathogenesis of P1. In vitro studies, we found P1 infection down-regulated protein level of β-catenin and mRNA level of mmp2, prevented the β-catenin from entering into nucleus, abolished the TCF/LEF promoter activity, proved that P1 could inhibit the activation of Wnt signaling pathway in vitro. Finally, we found that VP1 of P1 virus also had the inhibitory effects on Wnt signaling pathway in vitro, elucidated the mechanism of P1’s inhibitory effects on the Wnt signaling pathway and offered the possibility that the suppression of Wnt signaling pathway was involved in the post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS, laying a foundation for elucidating the pathogenesis of P1.

  3. Altered Cortico-Striatal Connectivity in Offspring of Schizophrenia Patients Relative to Offspring of Bipolar Patients and Controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Solé-Padullés

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia (SZ and bipolar disorder (BD share clinical features, genetic risk factors and neuroimaging abnormalities. There is evidence of disrupted connectivity in resting state networks in patients with SZ and BD and their unaffected relatives. Resting state networks are known to undergo reorganization during youth coinciding with the period of increased incidence for both disorders. We therefore focused on characterizing resting state network connectivity in youth at familial risk for SZ or BD to identify alterations arising during this period. We measured resting-state functional connectivity in a sample of 106 youth, aged 7-19 years, comprising offspring of patients with SZ (N = 27, offspring of patients with BD (N = 39 and offspring of community control parents (N = 40. We used Independent Component Analysis to assess functional connectivity within the default mode, executive control, salience and basal ganglia networks and define their relationship to grey matter volume, clinical and cognitive measures. There was no difference in connectivity within any of the networks examined between offspring of patients with BD and offspring of community controls. In contrast, offspring of patients with SZ showed reduced connectivity within the left basal ganglia network compared to control offspring, and they showed a positive correlation between connectivity in this network and grey matter volume in the left caudate. Our findings suggest that dysconnectivity in the basal ganglia network is a robust correlate of familial risk for SZ and can be detected during childhood and adolescence.

  4. Clinical, Demographic, and Familial Correlates of Bipolar Spectrum Disorders among Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Shamseddeen, Wael; Axelson, David A.; Kalas, Cathy; Monk, Kelly; Brent, David A.; Kupfer, David J.; Birmaher, Boris

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Despite increased risk, most offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BP) do not manifest BP. The identification of risk factors for BP among offspring could improve preventive and treatment strategies. We examined this topic in the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study (BIOS). Method: Subjects included 388 offspring, ages 7-17 years,…

  5. Cognitive function in adult offspring of women with Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tine Dalsgaard; Mortensen, E L; Schmidt, L

    2011-01-01

    Maternal diabetes may affect offspring cognitive function. The objective of the study was to evaluate cognitive function and potential predictors hereof in adult offspring of women with Type 1 diabetes.......Maternal diabetes may affect offspring cognitive function. The objective of the study was to evaluate cognitive function and potential predictors hereof in adult offspring of women with Type 1 diabetes....

  6. Including an Exam P/1 Prep Course in a Growing Actuarial Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the actuarial science program at our university and the development of a course to enhance students' problem solving skills while preparing them for Exam P/1 of the Society of Actuaries (SOA) and the Casualty Actuary Society (CAS). The Exam P/1 prep course, formally titled Mathematical Foundations of…

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Methylobacterium populi P-1M, Isolated from Pink-Pigmented Household Biofilm

    OpenAIRE

    Morohoshi, Tomohiro; Ikeda, Tsukasa

    2016-01-01

    Methylobacterium populi P-1M is isolated from the pink-pigmented household biofilm. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of P-1M, consisting of one chromosome of 5,705,640?bp and five plasmids of 64,864?bp, 59,879?bp, 42,569?bp, 41,417?bp, and 29,506?bp.

  8. Maternal obesity and neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlow, Andrea G.

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence from both human epidemiologic and animal studies that prenatal and lactational exposure to maternal obesity and high-fat diet are associated with neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in offspring. These disorders include cognitive impairment, autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, cerebral palsy, anxiety and depression, schizophrenia, and eating disorders. This review synthesizes human and animal data linking maternal obesity and high-fat diet consumption to abnormal fetal brain development and neurodevelopmental and psychiatric morbidity in offspring. In addition, it highlights key mechanisms by which maternal obesity and maternal diet might impact fetal and offspring neurodevelopment, including neuroinflammation; increased oxidative stress, dysregulated insulin, glucose, and leptin signaling; dysregulated serotonergic and dopaminergic signaling; and perturbations in synaptic plasticity. Finally, the review summarizes available evidence regarding investigational therapeutic approaches to mitigate the harmful effects of maternal obesity on fetal and offspring neurodevelopment. PMID:27684946

  9. Micro-Albuminuria In Adolescent/Young Adult Offsprings Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    young adult offsprings of Nigeria hypertensive adults. Background: On the premise that micro-albuminuria is a predictor of early stage hypertensive disease and the fact that heredity plays an important role in the aetiology of essential hypertension, ...

  10. Parent-Offspring Conflict over Mating: The Case of Beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menelaos Apostolou

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In pre-industrial societies parents exercise a strong influence over the mating decisions of their offspring. As modern pre-industrial societies approximate the way of life in ancestral human societies, human mating behavior should be seen as the outcome of a co-evolutionary process between parental and offspring's mating choice. Both parents and offspring have evolved mating preferences, which enable them to select those mates and in-laws who maximize their inclusive fitness. Following Trivers' (1974 theory of parent-offspring conflict, it is hypothesized that in-law and mating preferences substantially overlap, but also differ with respect to the beauty trait of a mating candidate. This hypothesis is tested on a sample of 292 parents. It is found that the two sets of preferences are strongly correlated, while beauty is preferred significantly more in a mating partner than in an in-law.

  11. Risk of Suicide Attempt in Adopted and Nonadopted Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keyes, M. A.; Malone, S. M.; Sharma, A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We asked whether adoption status represented a risk of suicide attempt for adopted and nonadopted offspring living in the United States. We also examined whether factors known to be associated with suicidal behavior would mediate the relationship between adoption status and suicide att...... of the risk of suicide attempt in adopted offspring may inform the larger investigation of suicidality in all adolescents and young adults.......OBJECTIVE: We asked whether adoption status represented a risk of suicide attempt for adopted and nonadopted offspring living in the United States. We also examined whether factors known to be associated with suicidal behavior would mediate the relationship between adoption status and suicide...... attempt. METHODS: Participants were drawn from the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study, which included 692 adopted and 540 nonadopted offspring and was conducted at the University of Minnesota from 1998 to 2008. Adoptees were systematically ascertained from records of 3 large Minnesota adoption...

  12. Blood pressure pattern of adolescent offsprings of hypertensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood pressure pattern of adolescent offsprings of hypertensive fathers in Lagos ... in adults which emphasizes the need to track blood pressure in children. ... are hypertensive while among adolescents with normotensive parents, 11.0% for ...

  13. Interaction between the P1 protein of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and receptors on HEp-2 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drasbek, Mette; Christiansen, Gunna; Drasbek, Kim Ryun

    2007-01-01

    The human pathogen Mycoplasma pneumoniae can cause atypical pneumonia through adherence to epithelial cells in the respiratory tract. The major immunogenic protein, P1, participates in the attachment of the bacteria to the host cells. To investigate the adhesion properties of P1, a recombinant...... protein (rP1-II) covering amino acids 1107-1518 of the P1 protein was produced. This protein inhibited the adhesion of M. pneumoniae to human HEp-2 cells, as visualized in a competitive-binding assay using immunofluorescence microscopy. Previous studies have shown that mAbs that recognize two epitopes...... overlapping synthetic peptides covering the whole of rP1-II were evaluated in the competitive-binding assay using immunofluorescence microscopy. A reduction in the number of M. pneumoniae microcolonies was seen, which was confirmed for five peptides using a POLARstar OPTIMA reader to measure fluorescence...

  14. Pathophysiological Consequences of a Break in S1P1-Dependent Homeostasis of Vascular Permeability Revealed by S1P1 Competitive Antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigaud, Marc; Dincer, Zuhal; Bollbuck, Birgit; Dawson, Janet; Beckmann, Nicolau; Beerli, Christian; Fishli-Cavelti, Gina; Nahler, Michaela; Angst, Daniela; Janser, Philipp; Otto, Heike; Rosner, Elisabeth; Hersperger, Rene; Bruns, Christian; Quancard, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Homeostasis of vascular barriers depends upon sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) signaling via the S1P1 receptor. Accordingly, S1P1 competitive antagonism is known to reduce vascular barrier integrity with still unclear pathophysiological consequences. This was explored in the present study using NIBR-0213, a potent and selective S1P1 competitive antagonist. NIBR-0213 was tolerated at the efficacious oral dose of 30 mg/kg BID in the rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AiA) model, with no sign of labored breathing. However, it induced dose-dependent acute vascular pulmonary leakage and pleural effusion that fully resolved within 3-4 days, as evidenced by MRI monitoring. At the supra-maximal oral dose of 300 mg/kg QD, NIBR-0213 impaired lung function (with increased breathing rate and reduced tidal volume) within the first 24 hrs. Two weeks of NIBR-0213 oral dosing at 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg QD induced moderate pulmonary changes, characterized by alveolar wall thickening, macrophage accumulation, fibrosis, micro-hemorrhage, edema and necrosis. In addition to this picture of chronic inflammation, perivascular edema and myofiber degeneration observed in the heart were also indicative of vascular leakage and its consequences. Overall, these observations suggest that, in the rat, the lung is the main target organ for the S1P1 competitive antagonism-induced acute vascular leakage, which appears first as transient and asymptomatic but could lead, upon chronic dosing, to lung remodeling with functional impairments. Hence, this not only raises the question of organ specificity in the homeostasis of vascular barriers, but also provides insight into the pre-clinical evaluation of a potential safety window for S1P1 competitive antagonists as drug candidates.

  15. Anticipatory parental care: acquiring resources for offspring prior to conception.

    OpenAIRE

    Boutin, S; Larsen, K W; Berteaux, D

    2000-01-01

    Many organisms acquire and defend resources outside the breeding season and this is thought to be for immediate survival and reproductive benefits. Female red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) acquire traditional food cache sites up to four months prior to the presence of any physiological or behavioural cues associated with mating or offspring dependency. They subsequently relinquish these resources to one of their offspring at independence (ten months later). We experimentally show that a...

  16. Parental smoking during pregnancy shortens offspring's legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żądzińska, E; Kozieł, S; Borowska-Strugińska, B; Rosset, I; Sitek, A; Lorkiewicz, W

    2016-12-01

    One of the most severe detrimental environmental factors acting during pregnancy is foetal smoke exposure. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of maternal, paternal and parental smoking during pregnancy on relative leg length in 7- to 10-year-old children. The research conducted in the years 2001-2002 included 978 term-born children, 348 boys and 630 girls, at the age of 7-10 years. Information concerning the birth weight of a child was obtained from the health records of the women. Information about the mother's and the father's smoking habits during pregnancy and about the mothers' education level was obtained from a questionnaire. The influence of parental smoking on relative leg length, controlled for age, sex, birth weight and the mother's education, as a proxy measure of socioeconomic status, and controlled for an interaction between sex and birth weight, was assessed by an analysis of covariance, where relative leg length was the dependent variable, smoking and sex were the independent variables, and birth weight as well as the mother's education were the covariates. Three separate analyses were run for the three models of smoking habits during pregnancy: the mother's smoking, the father's smoking and both parents' smoking. Only both parents' smoking showed a significant effect on relative leg length of offspring. It is probable that foetal hypoxia caused by carbon monoxide contained in smoke decelerated the growth of the long bones of foetuses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Centenarian offspring: a model for understanding longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balistreri, Carmela Rita; Candore, Giuseppina; Accardi, Giulia; Buffa, Silvio; Bulati, Matteo; Martorana, Adriana; Colonna-Romano, Giuseppina; Lio, Domenico; Caruso, Calogero

    2014-01-01

    A main objective of current medical research is to improve the life quality of elderly people as priority of the continuous increase of ageing population. This phenomenon implies several medical, economic and social problems because of dramatic increase in number of non autonomous individuals affected by various pathologies. Accordingly, the research interest is focused on understanding the biological mechanisms involved in determining the positive ageing phenotype, i.e. the centenarian phenotype. In achieving this goal the choice of an appropriate study models is fundamental. Centenarians have been used as an optimal model for successful ageing. However, this model shows several limitations, i.e. the selection of appropriate controls and the use itself of the centenarians as a suitable model for healthy ageing. Thus, the interest has been centered on centenarian offspring, healthy elderly people. They may represent a model for understanding exceptional longevity for the following reasons: they exhibit a protective genetic background, cardiovascular and immunological profile, as well as a reduced rate of cognitive decline than age-matched people without centenarian relatives. Several of these aspects are summarized in this review based on the literature and the results of our studies.

  18. Mother-offspring associations in northern muriquis, Brachyteles hypoxanthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolentino, Karynna; Roper, James J; Passos, Fernando C; Strier, Karen B

    2008-03-01

    Maternal care of offspring is ubiquitous among primates, but its duration varies across species due to factors such as dispersal patterns and social dynamics, which influence opportunities for and potential benefits of maternal investment in older offspring, respectively. We examined mother-offspring associations in wild northern muriquis (Brachyteles hypoxanthus), in which males are philopatric, females typically disperse before puberty, and social relationships among and between males and females are egalitarian. Associations were systematically recorded between ten mothers, each with two-six offspring in the study group, and all group members from August 2003-May 2004 at the RPPN-Feliciano Miguel Abdala in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Infants of both sexes received similarly high percentages of their mothers' association time. Mothers without infants also maintained strong associations with their youngest juvenile sons. Mothers did not spend consistently more time associating with either juvenile or adult sons than daughters. Our finding of non-preferential associations between muriqui mothers and their older male offspring suggests that extended maternal investment in offspring may be of minimal value in their egalitarian society compared with its value for species living in hierarchical societies.

  19. [Psychopathological Profiles of Offspring of Subjects with Bipolar Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Esteban Uribe; Briceño, Paola Gutiérrez; Palacio, Juan David; García, Jenny

    2012-03-01

    Bipolar Disorder (BD) has a high heritability and is more prevalent in first-degree relatives with family history. This makes the bipolar offspring (BO) an ideal study group to evaluate the natural history and the prodromal symptoms of this disorder. The main psychopathological findings for this group in various studies are described in this review. Articles comparing the psychopathology of bipolar offspring to either the offspring of other psychiatric patients or the offspring of healthy controls were reviewed. The reviewed studies showed that the BO group had higher rates of affective disorders when compared to the offspring of other psychiatric patients or the offspring of healthy controls. The high prevalence of anxiety disorders, ADHD, and disruptive behavior disorders in this population suggest that such disorders could be considered prodromes of mood disorders. The group of BO had a significantly higher risk of developing a wide range of psychiatric disorders besides BD. More longitudinal studies are needed to characterize this population at risk for BD and to elucidate the risk factors in the progression of this disorder. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. The schooling of offspring and the survival of parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Esther M; Mare, Robert D

    2014-08-01

    Contemporary stratification research on developed societies usually views the intergenerational transmission of educational advantage as a one-way effect from parent to child. However, parents' investment in their offspring's schooling may yield significant returns for parents themselves in later life. For instance, well-educated offspring have greater knowledge of health and technology to share with their parents and more financial means to provide for them than do their less-educated counterparts. We use data from the 1992-2006 Health and Retirement Study (HRS) to examine whether adult offspring's educational attainments are associated with parents' survival in the United States. We show that adult offspring's educational attainments have independent effects on their parents' mortality, even after controlling for parents' own socioeconomic resources. This relationship is more pronounced for deaths that are linked to behavioral factors: most notably, chronic lower respiratory disease and lung cancer. Furthermore, at least part of the association between offspring's schooling and parents' survival may be explained by parents' health behaviors, including smoking and physical activity. These findings suggest that one way to influence the health of the elderly is through their offspring. To harness the full value of schooling for health, then, a family and multigenerational perspective is needed.

  1. Constraints on the adult-offspring size relationship in protists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caval-Holme, Franklin; Payne, Jonathan; Skotheim, Jan M

    2013-12-01

    The relationship between adult and offspring size is an important aspect of reproductive strategy. Although this filial relationship has been extensively examined in plants and animals, we currently lack comparable data for protists, whose strategies may differ due to the distinct ecological and physiological constraints on single-celled organisms. Here, we report measurements of adult and offspring sizes in 3888 species and subspecies of foraminifera, a class of large marine protists. Foraminifera exhibit a wide range of reproductive strategies; species of similar adult size may have offspring whose sizes vary 100-fold. Yet, a robust pattern emerges. The minimum (5th percentile), median, and maximum (95th percentile) offspring sizes exhibit a consistent pattern of increase with adult size independent of environmental change and taxonomic variation over the past 400 million years. The consistency of this pattern may arise from evolutionary optimization of the offspring size-fecundity trade-off and/or from cell-biological constraints that limit the range of reproductive strategies available to single-celled organisms. When compared with plants and animals, foraminifera extend the evidence that offspring size covaries with adult size across an additional five orders of magnitude in organism size. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  2. Helpers increase the reproductive potential of offspring in cooperative meerkats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, A.F; Young, A.J; Spong, G; Jordan, N.R; Clutton-Brock, T.H

    2006-01-01

    In both animal and human societies, individuals may forego personal reproduction and provide care to the offspring of others. Studies aimed at investigating the adaptive nature of such cooperative breeding systems in vertebrates typically calculate helper ‘fitness’ from relationships of helper numbers and offspring survival to independence. The aim of this study is to use observations and supplemental feeding experiments in cooperatively breeding meerkats, Suricata suricatta, to investigate whether helpers influence the long-term reproductive potential of offspring during adulthood. We show that helpers have a significant and positive influence on the probability that offspring gain direct reproductive success in their lifetimes. This effect arises because helpers both reduce the age at which offspring begin to reproduce as subordinates and increase the probability that they will compete successfully for alpha rank. Supplemental feeding experiments confirm the causality of these results. Our results suggest that one can neither discount the significance of helper effects when none is found nor necessarily estimate accurately the fitness benefit that helpers accrue, unless their effects on offspring are considered in the long term. PMID:17476771

  3. Isolation and Characterization of Pepper Genes Interacting with the CMV-P1 Helicase Domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoomi Choi

    Full Text Available Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV is a destructive pathogen affecting Capsicum annuum (pepper production. The pepper Cmr1 gene confers resistance to most CMV strains, but is overcome by CMV-P1 in a process dependent on the CMV-P1 RNA1 helicase domain (P1 helicase. Here, to identify host factors involved in CMV-P1 infection in pepper, a yeast two-hybrid library derived from a C. annuum 'Bukang' cDNA library was screened, producing a total of 76 potential clones interacting with the P1 helicase. Beta-galactosidase filter lift assay, PCR screening, and sequencing analysis narrowed the candidates to 10 genes putatively involved in virus infection. The candidate host genes were silenced in Nicotiana benthamiana plants that were then inoculated with CMV-P1 tagged with the green fluorescent protein (GFP. Plants silenced for seven of the genes showed development comparable to N. benthamiana wild type, whereas plants silenced for the other three genes showed developmental defects including stunting and severe distortion. Silencing formate dehydrogenase and calreticulin-3 precursor led to reduced virus accumulation. Formate dehydrogenase-silenced plants showed local infection in inoculated leaves, but not in upper (systemic leaves. In the calreticulin-3 precursor-silenced plants, infection was not observed in either the inoculated or the upper leaves. Our results demonstrate that formate dehydrogenase and calreticulin-3 precursor are required for CMV-P1 infection.

  4. Prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, adiposity, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR γ methylation in offspring, grand-offspring mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghai Yan

    Full Text Available Greater levels of prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH have been associated with childhood obesity in epidemiological studies. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear.We hypothesized that prenatal PAH over-exposure during gestation would lead to weight gain and increased fat mass in offspring and grand-offspring mice. Further, we hypothesized that altered adipose gene expression and DNA methylation in genes important to adipocyte differentiation would be affected.Pregnant dams were exposed to a nebulized PAH mixture versus negative control aerosol 5 days a week, for 3 weeks. Body weight was recorded from postnatal day (PND 21 through PND60. Body composition, adipose cell size, gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP α, cyclooxygenase (Cox-2, fatty acid synthase (FAS and adiponectin, and DNA methylation of PPAR γ, were assayed in both the offspring and grand-offspring adipose tissue.Offspring of dams exposed to greater PAH during gestation had increased weight, fat mass, as well as higher gene expression of PPAR γ, C/EBP α, Cox2, FAS and adiponectin and lower DNA methylation of PPAR γ. Similar differences in phenotype and DNA methylation extended through the grand-offspring mice.Greater prenatal PAH exposure was associated with increased weight, fat mass, adipose gene expression and epigenetic changes in progeny.

  5. Wavelengths of the Ni-like 4d1S0 - 4p1P1 x-ray laser line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.; Nilsen, J.; Dunn, J.; Osterheld, A.L.; Ryabtsev, A.; Churilov, S.

    1998-01-01

    We measure the wavelengths of the Ni-like 3d 9 4d 1 S 0 - 3d 9 4p 1 P 1 x-ray laser line in several low-Z Ni-like ions ranging from Y (Z=39) to Cd (Z=48). These wavelengths are compared with optimized level calculations using a multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock code. With the help of these results, we identify this line to very high accuracy in nonlasing plasmas from As (Z=33) to Mo (Z=42). Accurate values of these wavelengths are essential for performing plasma imaging and interferometry experiments with multilayer optics that use the x-ray laser to backlight other plasmas. These results also provide important atomic data that are currently missing about the energy of the 4d 1 S 0 level in the NiI sequence. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  6. Alignment creation in atomic ensembles by elastic electron scattering; the case of 138Ba(...6s6p 1P1) atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trajmar, S.; Kanik, I.; LeClair, L.R.; Khakoo, M.A.; Bray, I.; Fursa, D.; Csanak, G.

    1998-01-01

    We describe some of our results from a joint experimental and theoretical program concerning elastic electron scattering by 138 Ba(...6s6p 1 P 1 ) atoms. From the experimental results, we derived various scattering parameters and magnetic sublevel specific differential elastic scattering cross sections at impact energy (E 0 ) of 20.0 eV and at scattering angles (θ) of 10deg, 15deg, and 20deg. The same parameters and cross sections were calculated by the convergent close coupling (CCC) approximation and compared to the experimental results. An excellent agreement, found for the two sets of data, gave us confidence in the CCC method and allowed us to extend the angular and energy ranges for the purpose of generating integral elastic scattering cross sections needed for the deduction of the alignment creation cross sections. (J.P.N.)

  7. Solutions of system of P1 equations without use of auxiliary differential equations coupled

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da; Cardoso, Carlos Eduardo Santos

    2000-01-01

    The system of P1 equations is composed by two equations coupled itself one for the neutron flux and other for the current. Usually this system is solved by definitions of two integrals parameters, which are named slowing down densities of the flux and the current. Hence, the system P1 can be change from integral to only two differential equations. However, there are two new differentials equations that may be solved with the initial system. The present work analyzes this procedure and studies a method, which solve the P1 equations directly, without definitions of slowing down densities. (author)

  8. Phylogenetic and functional analysis of the bacteriophage P1 single-stranded DNA-binding protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jannick Dyrløv; Nilsson, A.S.; Lehnherr, H.

    2002-01-01

    and does not represent a recent acquirement of the phage. The P1 and E. coli SSB proteins are fully functionally interchangeable. SSB-P1 is nonessential for phage growth in an exponentially growing E. coli host, and it is sufficient to promote bacterial growth in the absence of the E. coli SSB protein....... Expression studies showed that the P1 ssb gene is transcribed only, in an rpoS-independent fashion, during stationary-phase growth in E. coli. Mixed infection experiments demonstrated that a wild-type phage has a selective advantage over an ssb-null mutant when exposed to a bacterial host in the stationary...

  9. Offspring psychopathology following preconception, prenatal, and postnatal maternal bereavement stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, Quetzal A.; Abel, Kathryn M.; Khashan, Ali S.; Rickert, Martin E.; Dalman, Christina; Larsson, Henrik; Hultman, Christina M.; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul; D’Onofrio, Brian M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Preconception, prenatal, and postnatal maternal stress are associated with increased offspring psychopathology, but findings are inconsistent and need replication. We estimated associations between maternal bereavement stress and offspring autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, suicide attempt, and completed suicide. Methods Using Swedish registers, we conducted the largest population-based study to date examining associations between stress exposure in 738,144 offspring born 1992–2000 for childhood outcomes and 2,155,221 offspring born 1973–1997 for adult outcomes with follow-up through 2009. Maternal stress was defined as death of a first degree relative during 6 months before conception, across pregnancy, or the first two postnatal years. Cox proportional survival analyses were used to obtain hazard ratios (HR) in unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Results Marginal increased risk of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia following preconception bereavement stress was not significant. Third trimester prenatal stress increased risk of ASD (adjusted HR=1.58, 95% CI: 1.15–2.17) and ADHD (adjusted HR=1.31, 95% CI: 1.04–1.66). First postnatal year stress increased risk for offspring suicide attempt (adjusted HR=1.13, 95% CI: 1.02–1.25) and completed suicide (adjusted HR=1.51, 95% CI: 1.08–2.11). Bereavement stress during the second postnatal year increased risk of ASD (adjusted HR=1.30, 95% CI: 1.09–1.55). Conclusions Further research is needed on associations between preconception stress and psychopathological outcomes. Prenatal bereavement stress increases risk of offspring ASD and ADHD. Postnatal bereavement stress moderately increases risk of offspring suicide attempt, completed suicide, and ASD. Smaller previous studies may have overestimated associations between early stress and psychopathological outcomes. PMID:23591021

  10. Cardiac Autonomic Dysfunction in Offspring of Hypertensive Parents During Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Leonardo Barbosa de; Peçanha, Tiago; Mira, Pedro Augusto de Carvalho; Souza, Livia Victorino de; da Silva, Lílian Pinto; Martinez, Daniel Godoy; Freitas, Isabelle Magalhães Guedes; Laterza, Mateus Camaroti

    2017-12-01

    Offspring of hypertensive parents present autonomic dysfunction at rest and during physiological maneuvers. However, the cardiac autonomic modulation during exercise remains unknown. This study tested whether the cardiac autonomic modulation would be reduced in offspring of hypertensive parents during exercise. Fourteen offspring of hypertensive and 14 offspring of normotensive individuals were evaluated. The groups were matched by age (24.5±1.0 vs. 26.6±1.5 years; p=0.25) and BMI (22.8±0.6 vs. 24.2±1.0 kg/m 2 ; p=0.30). Blood pressure and heart rate were assessed simultaneously during 3 min at baseline followed by 3-min isometric handgrip at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction. Cardiac autonomic modulation was evaluated using heart rate variability. Primary variables were subjected to two-way ANOVA (group vs. time). P valueexercise protocol. In contrast, offspring of hypertensive subjects showed a reduction of SDNN (Basal=34.8±3.5 vs. 45.2±3.7 ms; Exercise=30.8±3.3 vs. 41.5±3.9 ms; p group=0.01), RMSSD (Basal=37.1±3.7 vs. 52.0±6.0 ms; Exercise=28.6±3.4 vs. 41.9±5.3 ms; p group=0.02) and pNN50 (Basal=15.7±4.0 vs. 29.5±5.5%; Exercise=7.7±2.4 vs. 18.0±4.3%; p group=0.03) during the exercise protocol in comparison with offspring of normotensive parents. We concluded that normotensive offspring of hypertensive parents exhibit impaired cardiac autonomic modulation during exercise. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Continuous wave protocol for simultaneous polarization and optical detection of P1-center electron spin resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, E. J.; Carvajal, B.; Samarth, N.

    2018-01-01

    The ready optical detection and manipulation of bright nitrogen vacancy center spins in diamond plays a key role in contemporary quantum information science and quantum metrology. Other optically dark defects such as substitutional nitrogen atoms (`P1 centers') could also become potentially useful in this context if they could be as easily optically detected and manipulated. We develop a relatively straightforward continuous wave protocol that takes advantage of the dipolar coupling between nitrogen vacancy and P1 centers in type 1b diamond to detect and polarize the dark P1 spins. By combining mutual spin flip transitions with radio frequency driving, we demonstrate the simultaneous optical polarization and detection of the electron spin resonance of the P1 center. This technique should be applicable to detecting and manipulating a broad range of dark spin populations that couple to the nitrogen vacancy center via dipolar fields, allowing for quantum metrology using these spin populations.

  12. Suppression of Zeeman relaxation in cold collisions of 2P1/2 atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tscherbul, T. V.; Dalgarno, A.; Buchachenko, A. A.; Lu, M.-J.; Weinstein, J. D.

    2009-01-01

    We present a combined experimental and theoretical study of angular momentum depolarization in cold collisions of 2 P atoms in the presence of an external magnetic field. We show that collision-induced Zeeman relaxation of Ga( 2 P 1/2 ) and In( 2 P 1/2 ) atoms in cold 4 He gas is dramatically suppressed compared to atoms in 2 P 3/2 states. Using rigorous quantum-scattering calculations based on ab initio interaction potentials, we demonstrate that Zeeman transitions in collisions of atoms in 2 P 1/2 electronic states occur via couplings to the 2 P 3/2 state induced by the anisotropy of the interaction potential. Our results suggest the feasibility of sympathetic cooling and magnetic trapping of 2 P 1/2 -state atoms, such as halogens, thereby opening up exciting areas of research in precision spectroscopy and cold-controlled chemistry.

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Methylobacterium populi P-1M, Isolated from Pink-Pigmented Household Biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morohoshi, Tomohiro; Ikeda, Tsukasa

    2016-06-16

    Methylobacterium populi P-1M is isolated from the pink-pigmented household biofilm. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of P-1M, consisting of one chromosome of 5,705,640 bp and five plasmids of 64,864 bp, 59,879 bp, 42,569 bp, 41,417 bp, and 29,506 bp. Copyright © 2016 Morohoshi and Ikeda.

  14. Truncation of a P1 leader proteinase facilitates potyvirus replication in a non-permissive host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Hongying; Pasin, Fabio; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E; Simón-Mateo, Carmen; García, Juan Antonio; Rodamilans, Bernardo

    2017-11-08

    The Potyviridae family is a major group of plant viruses that includes c. 200 species, most of which have narrow host ranges. The potyvirid P1 leader proteinase self-cleaves from the remainder of the viral polyprotein and shows large sequence variability linked to host adaptation. P1 proteins can be classified as Type A or Type B on the basis, amongst other things, of their dependence or not on a host factor to develop their protease activity. In this work, we studied Type A proteases from the Potyviridae family, characterizing their host factor requirements. Our in vitro cleavage analyses of potyvirid P1 proteases showed that the N-terminal domain is relevant for host factor interaction and suggested that the C-terminal domain is also involved. In the absence of plant factors, the N-terminal end of Plum pox virus P1 antagonizes protease self-processing. We performed extended deletion mutagenesis analysis to define the N-terminal antagonistic domain of P1. In viral infections, removal of the P1 protease antagonistic domain led to a gain-of-function phenotype, strongly increasing local infection in a non-permissive host. Altogether, our results shed new insights into the adaptation and evolution of potyvirids. © 2017 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  15. Plant and Animal Reproductive Strategies: Lessons from Offspring Size and Number Tradeoffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Srikanta Dani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The tradeoff between offspring size and number is ubiquitous and manifestly similar in plants and animals despite fundamental differences between the evolutionary histories of these two major life forms. Fecundity (offspring number primarily affects parental fitness, while offspring size underpins the fitness of parents and offspring. We provide an overview of theoretical models dealing with offspring size and fitness relationships. We follow that with a detailed examination of life-history constraints and environmental effects on offspring size and number, separately in plants and animals. The emphasis is on seed plants, but we endeavor to also summarize information from distinct animal groups—insects, fishes, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Furthermore, we analyse genetic controls on offspring size and number in two model organisms—Arabidopsis and Drosophila. Despite the deep evolutionary divergence between plants and animals, we find four trends in reproductive strategy that are common to both lineages: (i offspring size is generally less variable than offspring number, (ii offspring size increases with increasing parent body size, (iii maternal genes restrict offspring size and increase offspring numbers, while zygotic genes act to increase offspring size; such parent-offspring conflicts are enhanced when there is sibling rivalry, and (iv variation in offspring size increases under sub-optimal (harsh environmental conditions. The most salient difference between plants and animals is that the latter tend to produce larger (fewer offspring under sub-optimal conditions while seed plants invest in smaller (many seeds, suggesting that maternal genetic control over offspring size increases in plants but decreases in animals with parental care. The time is ripe for greater experimental exploration of genetic controls on reproductive allocation and parent-offspring conflicts in plants and animals under sub-optimal (harsh environments.

  16. Offspring Size and Reproductive Allocation in Harvester Ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiernasz, Diane C; Cole, Blaine J

    2018-01-01

    A fundamental decision that an organism must make is how to allocate resources to offspring, with respect to both size and number. The two major theoretical approaches to this problem, optimal offspring size and optimistic brood size models, make different predictions that may be reconciled by including how offspring fitness is related to size. We extended the reasoning of Trivers and Willard (1973) to derive a general model of how parents should allocate additional resources with respect to the number of males and females produced, and among individuals of each sex, based on the fitness payoffs of each. We then predicted how harvester ant colonies should invest additional resources and tested three hypotheses derived from our model, using data from 3 years of food supplementation bracketed by 6 years without food addition. All major results were predicted by our model: food supplementation increased the number of reproductives produced. Male, but not female, size increased with food addition; the greatest increases in male size occurred in colonies that made small females. We discuss how use of a fitness landscape improves quantitative predictions about allocation decisions. When parents can invest differentially in offspring of different types, the best strategy will depend on parental state as well as the effect of investment on offspring fitness.

  17. Contextual risks linking parents' adolescent marijuana use to offspring onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, David C R; Tiberio, Stacey S; Capaldi, Deborah M

    2015-09-01

    We studied the extent to which parent marijuana use in adolescence is associated with marijuana use onset in offspring through contextual family and peer risks. Fathers assessed (n=93) since childhood, their 146 offspring (n=83 girls), and offspring's mothers (n=85) participated in a longitudinal study. Using discrete-time survival analysis, fathers' (prospectively measured) and mothers' (retrospective) adolescent marijuana use was used to predict offspring marijuana use onset through age 19 years. Parental monitoring, child exposure to marijuana use, peer deviance, peer marijuana use, and perceptions of parent disapproval of child use were measured before or concurrent with onset. Parents' adolescent marijuana use was significantly associated with less monitoring, offspring alcohol use, the peer behaviors, exposure to adult marijuana use, and perceptions of less parent disapproval. Male gender and the two peer behaviors were positively associated with children's marijuana use onset, controlling for their alcohol use. Parents' adolescent marijuana use had a significant indirect effect on child onset through children's deviant peer affiliations and a composite contextual risk score. Parents' histories of marijuana use may contribute indirectly to children's marijuana use onset through their influence on the social environments children encounter; specifically, those characterized by more liberal use norms, exposure to marijuana use and deviant and marijuana-using peers, and less adult supervision. Given that alcohol use onset was controlled, findings suggest that the contextual factors identified here confer unique risk for child marijuana use onset. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Glutamate neurotransmission is affected in prenatally stressed offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrover, Ezequiela; Pallarés, Maria Eugenia; Baier, Carlos Javier

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that male adult offspring of stressed mothers exhibited higher levels of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors than control rats. These offspring also showed long-lasting astroglial hypertrophy and a reduced dendritic arborization with syn......Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that male adult offspring of stressed mothers exhibited higher levels of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors than control rats. These offspring also showed long-lasting astroglial hypertrophy and a reduced dendritic arborization...... with synaptic loss. Since metabolism of glutamate is dependent on interactions between neurons and surrounding astroglia, our results suggest that glutamate neurotransmitter pathways might be impaired in the brain of prenatally stressed rats. To study the effect of prenatal stress on the metabolism...... was not affected it was found that prenatal stress (PS) changed the expression of the transporters, thus, producing a higher level of vesicular vGluT-1 in the frontal cortex (FCx) and elevated levels of GLT1 protein and messenger RNA in the hippocampus (HPC) of adult male PS offspring. We also observed increased...

  19. Maternal corticosterone exposure has transgenerational effects on grand-offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nicola; Peters, Richard A; Richardson, Emily; Robert, Kylie A

    2016-11-01

    The hormone fluctuations that an animal experiences during ovulation can have lifelong effects on developing offspring. These hormones may act as an adaptive mechanism, allowing offspring to be 'pre-programmed' to survive in an unstable environment. Here, we used a transgenerational approach to examine the effects of elevated maternal corticosterone (CORT) on the future reproductive success of female offspring. We show that female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) exposed to embryonic CORT produce daughters that have equal reproductive success (clutch sizes, fertility, hatching success) compared with the daughters produced from untreated mothers, but their offspring had accelerated post-hatching growth rates and were significantly heavier by nutritional independence. Although there was no significant effect on primary offspring sex ratio, females from CORT-treated mothers produced significantly female-biased clutches by nutritional independence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first record of a transgenerational sex ratio bias in response to elevated maternal CORT in any avian species. © 2016 The Author(s).

  20. Potential relationships between morphological differentiation and mutants with high nuclease P1 production of Penicillium citrinum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xinle, Liang; Qian, Shou; Hong, Zhang; Min, Chen [Department of Biotechnology, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Xuan, Liu [Beihai Institute of Environmental Science, Beihai, Guangxi (China)

    2009-08-15

    Diversification of colony characteristics of mutants derived from Penicillium citrinum CICC 4011 treated with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-irradiation and protoplast fusion were analyzed. There were distinct differences among mutants with different nuclease P1 activity, especially in pigment productivity. Color of colony was changed from the original green to white, grey-green, or yellow-green etc., while the nuclease P1 activity would be fluctuated with the color change. The hypothesis was suggested that there would be a relationship between pigments and nuclease P1 production. Mutants with grey-green colony would give out high nuclease P1 outputs in a high probability such as mutant J1Y6 (nuclease P1 activity, 167.3U/ml) and fusant F-13 (nuclease P1 activity, 568.7U/ml), while others with deep-green colony observed low nuclease outputs. Four variation strains didn't show any significant difference in growth rate. Broom branches of conidiophore stem in J1Y6 and F-13 were obviously reduced, conidiophores productivity reduced, but hyphae growth haled. These suggested that nuclease P1 production was associated with growth phase, but pigment synthesis course wasn't. RAPD from 6 randomly selected primers was used to analyze the polymorphic rich of the four strains, the results showed that there were 70 percent polymorphism detection rate among those. UPGMA cluster analysis and genetic map constructed by NTSYS-PC software, which showed that J1Y6 and F-14 were clustered as one group at similar coefficient 0.9, where there was an appear distance from the group of 4011 and F-R-33 strains (similar coefficient 0.8). (authors)

  1. Potential relationships between morphological differentiation and mutants with high nuclease P1 production of Penicillium citrinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Xinle; Shou Qian; Zhang Hong; Chen Min; Liu Xuan

    2009-01-01

    Diversification of colony characteristics of mutants derived from Penicillium citrinum CICC 4011 treated with 60 Co γ-irradiation and protoplast fusion were analyzed. There were distinct differences among mutants with different nuclease P1 activity, especially in pigment productivity. Color of colony was changed from the original green to white, grey-green, or yellow-green etc., while the nuclease P1 activity would be fluctuated with the color change. The hypothesis was suggested that there would be a relationship between pigments and nuclease P1 production. Mutants with grey-green colony would give out high nuclease P1 outputs in a high probability such as mutant J1Y6( nuclease P1 activity, 167.3U/ml) and fusant F-13 (nuclease P1 activity, 568.7U/ml), while others with deep-green colony observed low nuclease outputs. Four variation strains didn't show any significant difference in growth rate. Broom branches of conidiophore stem in J1Y6 and F-13 were obviously reduced, conidiophores productivity reduced, but hyphae growth haled. These suggested that nuclease P1 production was associated with growth phase, but pigment synthesis course wasn't. RAPD from 6 randomly selected primers was used to analyze the polymorphic rich of the four strains, the results showed that there were 70 percent polymorphism detection rate among those. UPGMA cluster analysis and genetic map constructed by NTSYS-PC software, which showed that J1Y6 and F-14 were clustered as one group at similar coefficient 0.9, where there was an appear distance from the group of 4011 and F-R-33 strains (similar coefficient 0.8). (authors)

  2. Only Acyl Carrier Protein 1 (AcpP1 Functions in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Fatty Acid Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Cheng Ma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa contains three open reading frames, PA2966, PA1869, and PA3334, which encode putative acyl carrier proteins, AcpP1, AcpP2, and AcpP3, respectively. In this study, we found that, although these apo-ACPs were successfully phosphopantetheinylated by P. aeruginosa phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PcpS and all holo-forms of these proteins could be acylated by Vibrio harveyi acyl-ACP synthetase (AasS, only AcpP1 could be used as a substrate for the synthesis of fatty acids, catalyzed by P. aeruginosa cell free extracts in vitro, and only acpP1 gene could restore growth in the Escherichia coliacpP mutant strain CY1877. And P. aeruginosaacpP1 could not be deleted, while disruption of acpP2 or acpP3 in the P. aeruginosa genome allowed mutant strains to grow as well as the wild type strain. These findings confirmed that only P. aeruginosa AcpP1 functions in fatty acid biosynthesis, and that acpP2 and acpP3 do not play roles in the fatty acid synthetic pathway. Moreover, disruption of acpP2 and acpP3 did not affect the ability of P. aeruginosa to produce N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHL, but replacement of P. aeruginosaacpP1 with E. coliacpP caused P. aeruginosa to reduce the production of AHL molecules, which indicated that neither P. aeruginosa AcpP2 nor AcpP3 can act as a substrate for synthesis of AHL molecules in vivo. Furthermore, replacement of acpP1 with E. coliacpP reduced the ability of P. aeruginosa to produce some exo-products and abolished swarming motility in P. aeruginosa.

  3. Alcohol during pregnancy and atopic dermatitis in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Petersen, Janne; Grønbaek, M

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence that antenatal factors play a role in the development of atopic dermatitis (AD). However, little is known about the effects of maternal lifestyle factors during pregnancy on the risk of AD in the offspring. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of alcohol consumption...... during pregnancy on the incidence of AD in the offspring. METHODS: A total of 24 341 mother-child pairs enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort were followed prospectively. Information about alcohol consumption was obtained by interview at 12 and 30 weeks of gestation. Information about symptoms......, time of onset, and doctor's diagnosis of AD in the offspring was obtained by interview at 18 months of age. The effect of alcohol consumption during pregnancy on the incidence of AD was analysed by Cox regression allowing for different effects of alcohol before (early infancy) and after 2 months (60...

  4. Alcohol during pregnacu and atopic dermatitis in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, a; Petersen, Janne; Grønbæk, M

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence that antenatal factors play a role in the development of atopic dermatitis (AD). However, little is known about the effects of maternal lifestyle factors during pregnancy on the risk of AD in the offspring. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of alcohol consumption...... during pregnancy on the incidence of AD in the offspring. METHODS: A total of 24 341 mother-child pairs enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort were followed prospectively. Information about alcohol consumption was obtained by interview at 12 and 30 weeks of gestation. Information about symptoms......, time of onset, and doctor's diagnosis of AD in the offspring was obtained by interview at 18 months of age. The effect of alcohol consumption during pregnancy on the incidence of AD was analysed by Cox regression allowing for different effects of alcohol before (early infancy) and after 2 months (60...

  5. Offspring fitness and individual optimization of clutch size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both, C.; Tinbergen, J. M.; Noordwijk, A. J. van

    1998-01-01

    Within-year variation in clutch size has been claimed to be an adaptation to variation in the individual capacity to raise offspring. We tested this hypothesis by manipulating brood size to one common size, and predicted that if clutch size is individually optimized, then birds with originally large clutches have a higher fitness than birds with originally small clutches. No evidence was found that fitness was related to the original clutch size, and in this population clutch size is thus not related to the parental capacity to raise offspring. However, offspring from larger original clutches recruited better than their nest mates that came from smaller original clutches. This suggests that early maternal or genetic variation in viability is related to clutch size.

  6. Kin competition within groups: the offspring depreciation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, J; Sutherland, W J

    2002-12-22

    Where relatives compete for the same resources (kin competition) and each obtains an equal share, this can favour the evolution of elevated dispersal rates, such that most resource competition is among non-relatives. We show that this effect evaporates as among-sibling dominance increases to the point where the allocation of resources is maximally unequal. We restore a kin-competition effect on emigration rates from dominance-ranked family groups by showing that where siblings form queues to inherit the breeding positions, the length of the queue affects the fitness of all individuals by depreciating the rank of subsequent offspring. Incorporating this 'offspring depreciation' effect decreases optimal queue lengths, increases dispersal rates and explains the otherwise paradoxical use of sinks by cooperatively breeding birds in stable environments. The offspring depreciation effect also favours the evolution of small, but consistent, clutch sizes and high reproductive skew, but constrains the evolution of alloparenting.

  7. P1 interneurons promote a persistent internal state that enhances inter-male aggression in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopfer, Eric D; Jung, Yonil; Inagaki, Hidehiko K; Rubin, Gerald M; Anderson, David J

    2015-01-01

    How brains are hardwired to produce aggressive behavior, and how aggression circuits are related to those that mediate courtship, is not well understood. A large-scale screen for aggression-promoting neurons in Drosophila identified several independent hits that enhanced both inter-male aggression and courtship. Genetic intersections revealed that 8-10 P1 interneurons, previously thought to exclusively control male courtship, were sufficient to promote fighting. Optogenetic experiments indicated that P1 activation could promote aggression at a threshold below that required for wing extension. P1 activation in the absence of wing extension triggered persistent aggression via an internal state that could endure for minutes. High-frequency P1 activation promoted wing extension and suppressed aggression during photostimulation, whereas aggression resumed and wing extension was inhibited following photostimulation offset. Thus, P1 neuron activation promotes a latent, internal state that facilitates aggression and courtship, and controls the overt expression of these social behaviors in a threshold-dependent, inverse manner. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11346.001 PMID:26714106

  8. House dust mite allergen Der p 1 effects on sinonasal epithelial tight junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriquez, Oswaldo A; Den Beste, Kyle; Hoddeson, Elizabeth K; Parkos, Charles A; Nusrat, Asma; Wise, Sarah K

    2013-08-01

    Epithelial permeability is highly dependent upon the integrity of tight junctions, which are cell-cell adhesion complexes located at the apical aspect of the lateral membrane of polarized epithelial cells. We hypothesize that sinonasal epithelial exposure to Der p 1 house dust mite antigen decreases expression of tight junction proteins (TJPs), representing a potential mechanism for increased permeability and presentation of antigens across the sinonasal epithelial layer. Confluent cultured primary human sinonasal epithelial cells were exposed to recombinant Der p 1 antigen vs control, and transepithelial resistance measurements were performed over 24 hours. Antibody staining for a panel of TJPs was examined with immunofluorescence/confocal microscopy and Western blotting. Tissue for these experiments was obtained from 4 patients total. Der p 1 exposed sinonasal cells showed a marked decrease in transepithelial resistance when compared to control cells. In addition, results of Western immunoblot and immunofluorescent labeling demonstrated decreased expression of TJPs claudin-1 and junction adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) in Der p 1-exposed cultured sinonasal cells vs controls. Der p 1 antigen exposure decreases sinonasal epithelium TJP expression, most notably seen in JAM-A and claudin-1 in these preliminary experiments. This decreased TJP expression likely contributes to increased epithelial permeability and represents a potential mechanism for transepithelial antigen exposure in allergic rhinitis. © 2013 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  9. House Dust Mite Der p 1 Effects on Sinonasal Epithelial Tight Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriquez, Oswaldo A.; Beste, Kyle Den; Hoddeson, Elizabeth K.; Parkos, Charles A.; Nusrat, Asma; Wise, Sarah K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Epithelial permeability is highly dependent upon the integrity of tight junctions, cell-cell adhesion complexes located at the apical aspect of the lateral membrane of polarized epithelial cells. We hypothesize that sinonasal epithelial exposure to Der p 1 house dust mite antigen decreases expression of tight junction proteins (TJPs), representing a potential mechanism for increased permeability and presentation of antigens across the sinonasal epithelial layer. Methods Confluent cultured primary human sinonasal epithelial cells were exposed to recombinant Der p 1 antigen versus control, and transepithelial resistance measurements were performed over 24 hours. Antibody staining for a panel of tight junction proteins was examined with immunofluorescence/confocal microscopy and Western blotting. Tissue for these experiments was obtained from 4 patients total. Results Der p 1 exposed sinonasal cells showed a marked decrease in transepithelial resistance when compared to control cells. In addition, results of Western immunoblot and immunofluorescent labeling demonstrated decreased expression of TJPs claudin-1 and junction adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) in Der p 1 exposed cultured sinonasal cells versus controls. Conclusion Der p 1 antigen exposure decreases sinonasal epithelium TJP expression, most notably seen in JAM-A and claudin-1 in these preliminary experiments. This decreased TJP expression likely contributes to increased epithelial permeability and represents a potential mechanism for transepithelial antigen exposure in allergic rhinitis. PMID:23592402

  10. A model for optimal offspring size in fish, including live-bearing and parental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Christian; Auer, Sonya K; Reznick, David N

    2011-05-01

    Since Smith and Fretwell's seminal article in 1974 on the optimal offspring size, most theory has assumed a trade-off between offspring number and offspring fitness, where larger offspring have better survival or fitness, but with diminishing returns. In this article, we use two ubiquitous biological mechanisms to derive the shape of this trade-off: the offspring's growth rate combined with its size-dependent mortality (predation). For a large parameter region, we obtain the same sigmoid relationship between offspring size and offspring survival as Smith and Fretwell, but we also identify parameter regions where the optimal offspring size is as small or as large as possible. With increasing growth rate, the optimal offspring size is smaller. We then integrate our model with strategies of parental care. Egg guarding that reduces egg mortality favors smaller or larger offspring, depending on how mortality scales with size. For live-bearers, the survival of offspring to birth is a function of maternal survival; if the mother's survival increases with her size, then the model predicts that larger mothers should produce larger offspring. When using parameters for Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata, differences in both growth and size-dependent predation are required to predict observed differences in offspring size between wild populations from high- and low-predation environments.

  11. Depressed parents' attachment: effects on offspring suicidal behavior in a longitudinal family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Erica K; Grunebaum, Michael F; Galfalvy, Hanga C; Melhem, Nadine; Burke, Ainsley K; Brent, David A; Oquendo, Maria A; Mann, J John

    2014-08-01

    To investigate relationships of depressed parents' attachment style to offspring suicidal behavior. 244 parents diagnosed with a DSM-IV depressive episode completed the Adult Attachment Questionnaire at study entry. Baseline and yearly follow-up interviews of their 488 offspring tracked suicidal behavior and psychopathology. Survival analysis and marginal regression models with correlated errors for siblings investigated the relationship between parent insecure attachment traits and offspring characteristics. Data analyzed were collected 1992-2008 during a longitudinal family study completed January 31, 2014. Parental avoidant attachment predicted offspring suicide attempts at a trend level (P = .083). Parental anxious attachment did not predict offspring attempts (P = .961). In secondary analyses, anxious attachment in parents was associated with offspring impulsivity (P = .034) and, in offspring suicide attempters, was associated with greater intent (P = .045) and lethality of attempts (P = .003). Avoidant attachment in parents was associated with offspring impulsivity (P = .025) and major depressive disorder (P = .012). Parental avoidant attachment predicted a greater number of suicide attempts (P = .048) and greater intent in offspring attempters (P = .003). Results were comparable after adjusting for parent diagnosis of borderline personality disorder. Insecure avoidant, but not anxious, attachment in depressed parents may predict offspring suicide attempt. Insecure parental attachment traits were associated with impulsivity and major depressive disorder in all offspring and with more severe suicidal behavior in offspring attempters. Insecure parental attachment merits further study as a potential target to reduce risk of offspring psychopathology and more severe suicidal behavior. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  12. Protein Nutrition of Southern Plains Small Mammals: Immune Response to Variation in Maternal and Offspring Dietary Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal nutrition during pregnancy and postnatal offspring nutrition may influence offspring traits. We investigated the effects of maternal and postweaning offspring dietary nitrogen on immune function and hematology in two species of rodent: the hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon his...

  13. Paternal age at birth is associated with offspring leukocyte telomere length in the nurses' health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, J; Du, M; Wong, J Y Y; Han, J; De Vivo, I

    2012-12-01

    current analysis was limited to healthy controls. We also included existing LTL data from a small random sample of women participating in a cognitive sub-study. LTL was measured using the quantitative PCR-based method. Exposure and covariate information are extracted from biennial questionnaires completed by the participants. We found a strong association between paternal age at birth and participant LTL (P = 1.6 × 10(-5)) that remained robust after controlling for indicators of early life SES. Maternal age at birth showed a weak inverse association with participant LTL after adjusting for age at blood collection and paternal age at birth (P = 0.01). We also noted a stronger association between paternal age at birth and participant LTL among premenopausal than among postmenopausal women (P(interaction) = 0.045). However, this observation may be due to chance as premenopausal women represented only 12.6% (N = 535) of the study population and LTL was not correlated with age at menopause, total or estrogen-only hormone therapy (HT) use suggesting that changes in in vivo estrogen exposure do not influence telomere length regulation. The women in our study are not representative of the general US female population, with an underrepresentation of non-white and low social class groups. Although the interaction was not significant, we noted that the paternal age at birth association with offspring LTL appeared weaker among women whose parents did not own their home at the time of the participant's birth. As telomere dynamics may differ among individuals who are most socioeconomically deprived, SES indicators may have more of an influence on the relationship between paternal age at birth and offspring LTL in such populations. As of yet, our and prior studies have not identified childhood or adult characteristics that confound the paternal age at birth association with offspring LTL, supporting the hypothesis that offspring may inherit the longer telomeres found in sperm of older

  14. Mammal Reproductive Strategies Driven by Offspring Mortality-Size Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sibly, Richard M.; Brown, James H.

    2009-01-01

    Trade-offs have long been a major theme in life-history theory, but they have been hard to document. We introduce a new method that reveals patterns of divergent trade-offs after adjusting for the pervasive variation in rate of resource allocation to offspring as a function of body size and lifes......Trade-offs have long been a major theme in life-history theory, but they have been hard to document. We introduce a new method that reveals patterns of divergent trade-offs after adjusting for the pervasive variation in rate of resource allocation to offspring as a function of body size...

  15. Maternal Body Mass Index during Pregnancy and Offspring Neurocognitive Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Wendy Y; Palomaki, Glenn E; Neveux, Louis M; Haddow, James E

    2013-03-01

    This hypothesis generating study explores second trimester maternal body mass index (BMI) during pregnancy and offspring neurocognitive development. Mothers and offspring served as controls in two earlier studies: 101 children at age two years and 118 children at age eight years. Frequency of maternal BMI ≥30 kg/m 2 increased from 10% in 1987-1990 to 30% in 2004-2006 ( P language scores and BMI ( P = 0.054). Among eight-year-olds, one or more WISC-III (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 3rd edition) scores children's neurocognitive development. Further study is indicated.

  16. P1 and N170 components distinguish human-like and animal-like makeup stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shuwei; Luo, Wenbo; He, Weiqi; Chen, Xu; Luo, Yuejia

    2013-06-19

    This study used event-related potentials to investigate the sensitivity of P1 and N170 components to human-like and animal-like makeup stimuli, which were derived from pictures of Peking opera characters. As predicted, human-like makeup stimuli elicited larger P1 and N170 amplitudes than did animal-like makeup stimuli. Interestingly, a right hemisphere advantage was observed for human-like but not for animal-like makeup stimuli. Dipole source analyses of 130-200-ms window showed that the bilateral fusiform face area may contribute to the differential sensitivity of the N170 component in response to human-like and animal-like makeup stimuli. The present study suggests that the amplitudes of both the P1 and the N170 are sensitive for the mouth component of face-like stimuli.

  17. Comparative analysis between P1 and B1 equations for neutron moderation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da; Cardoso, Carlos Eduardo Santos

    2000-01-01

    In order to calculate the neutron flux in nuclear reactors, B1 or P1 equations are solved by numerical methods for several groups of energy. The neutron fluxes obtained from the solutions of the B1 and P1 equations are similar when they are applied to large nuclear power reactors. However, an important difference between the two fluxes is that the system of P1 equations uses one more approximation than the B1 system and then, its flux is less precise. The present work shows the relations between both equations and analyzes for what conditions the two equations systems are equivalent. Furthermore, this equations are numerically solved in 54 groups of energy for a quadrangular arrange. (author)

  18. Nature of the fundamental band gap in GaNxP1-x alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, W.; Walukiewicz, W.; Yu, K. M.; Wu, J.; Ager, J. W. III; Haller, E. E.; Xin, H. P.; Tu, C. W.

    2000-01-01

    The optical properties of GaN x P 1-x alloys (0.007≤x≤0.031) grown by gas-source molecular-beam epitaxy have been studied. An absorption edge appears in GaN x P 1-x at energy below the indirect Γ V -X C transition in GaP, and the absorption edge shifts to lower energy with increasing N concentration. Strong photomodulation signals associated with the absorption edges in GaN x P 1-x indicate that a direct fundamental optical transition is taking place, revealing that the fundamental band gap has changed from indirect to direct. This N-induced transformation from indirect to direct band gap is explained in terms of an interaction between the highly localized nitrogen states and the extended states at the Γ conduction-band minimum. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  19. BEAM EXTRACTION FROM THE RECYCLER RING TO P1 LINE AT FERMILAB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, M. [Fermilab; Capista, D. [Fermilab; Adams, P. [Fermilab; Morris, D. [Fermilab; Yang, M. J. [Fermilab; Hazewood, K. [Fermilab

    2016-10-03

    The transfer line for beam extraction from the Recycler ring to P1 line provides a way to deliver 8 GeV kinetic energy protons from the Booster to the Delivery ring, via the Recycler, using existing beam transport lines, and without the need for new civil construction. It was designed in 2012. The kicker magnets at RR520 and the lambertson magnet at RR522 in the RR were installed in 2014 Summer Shutdown, the elements of RR to P1 Stub (permanent quads, trim quads, correctors, BPMs, the toroid at 703 and vertical bending dipole at V703 (ADCW) were installed in 2015 Summer Shutdown. On Tuesday, June 21, 2016, beam line from the Recycler Ring to P1 line was commissioned. The detailed results will be presented in this report.

  20. Fourier analysis of a new P1 synthetic acceleration for Sn transport equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcksin, B.; Ragusa, J. C.

    2010-10-01

    In this work, is derived a new P1 synthetic acceleration scheme (P1SA) for the S N transport equation and analyze its convergence properties through the means of a Fourier analysis. The Fourier analysis is carried out for both continuous (i.e., not spatially discretized) S N equations and linear discontinuous Fem discretization. We show, thanks to the continuous analysis, that the scheme is unstable when the anisotropy is important (μ - >0.5). However, the discrete analysis shows that when cells are large in comparison to the mean free path, the spectral radius decreases and the acceleration scheme becomes effective, even for highly anisotropic scattering. In charged particles transport, scattering is highly anisotropic and mean free paths are very small and, thus, this scheme could be of interest. To use the P1SA when cells are small and anisotropy is important, the scheme is modified by altering the update of the accelerated flux or by using either K transport sweeps before the application of P1SA. The update scheme performs well as long as μ - - ≥0.9, the modified update scheme is unstable. The multiple transport sweeps scheme is convergent with an arbitrary μ - but the spectral radius increases when scattering is isotropic. When anisotropic increases, the frequency of use of the acceleration scheme needs to be decreased. Even if the P1SA is used less often, the spectral radius is significantly smaller when compared with a method that does not use it for high anisotropy (μ - ≥0.5). It is interesting to notice that using P1SA every two iterations gives the same spectral radius than the update method when μ - ≥0.5 but it is much less efficient when μ - <0.5. (Author)

  1. Oceanographic Observations North Pacific Ocean Station VICTOR Standard Section P1 Terminal Report 1964-1972,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    temperature (*C) for occupation of P1-15, USCG4C MINNETONKA, 27-30 March 1971. 31 34. 8 STATION 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 * ~󈧦 7: 400 3: 27001 3a...Profile of sigma-t (g cm-2 ) for occupation of P1-16, USCGC TANEY, 16-21 April 1971. 36 142*W 144’ 146* 1480 ISO * 152’ 154* 1560 158’ 1600 162’ 164

  2. Transgenerational effects of stress exposure on offspring phenotypes in apomictic dandelion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, K.J.F.; Van Gurp, T.P.

    2012-01-01

    Heritable epigenetic modulation of gene expression is a candidate mechanism to explain parental environmental effects on offspring phenotypes, but current evidence for environment-induced epigenetic changes that persist in offspring generations is scarce. In apomictic dandelions, exposure to various

  3. Transgenerational Effects of Stress Exposure on Offspring Phenotypes in Apomictic Dandelion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, K.J.F.; Gurp, van T.P.

    2012-01-01

    Heritable epigenetic modulation of gene expression is a candidate mechanism to explain parental environmental effects on offspring phenotypes, but current evidence for environment-induced epigenetic changes that persist in offspring generations is scarce. In apomictic dandelions, exposure to various

  4. Does physical activity during pregnancy adversely influence markers of the metabolic syndrome in adult offspring?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Inge; Granström, Charlotta; Rytter, Dorte

    2013-01-01

    It is unknown whether physical activity during pregnancy (PA) has long-term impact on the metabolic profile of the offspring. We investigated associations of PA with markers of the metabolic syndrome (MS) in 20y old offspring.......It is unknown whether physical activity during pregnancy (PA) has long-term impact on the metabolic profile of the offspring. We investigated associations of PA with markers of the metabolic syndrome (MS) in 20y old offspring....

  5. Tracking the potyviral P1 protein in Nicotiana benthamiana plants during plum pox virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozárová, Z; Glasa, M; Šubr, Z W

    The P1 protein is derived from the N terminus of potyvirus-coded polyprotein. In addition to the proteolytic activity essential for its maturation, it probably participates in suppression of host defense and/or in virus replication. Clear validation of the P1 in vivo function(s), however, is not yet available. We applied an infectious cDNA clone of plum pox virus (PPV), where the P1 was N-fused with a hexahistidine tag, to trace this protein in Nicotiana benthamiana plants during the PPV infection. Immunoblot analysis with the anti-his antibody showed a diffuse band corresponding to the molecular weight about 70-80 kDa (about twice larger than expected) in the root samples from early stage of infection. This signal culminated on the sixth day post inoculation, later it rapidly disappeared. Sample denaturation by boiling in SDS before centrifugal clarification was essential, indicating strong affinity of P1-his to some plant compound sedimenting with the tissue and cell debris.

  6. Genotyping of Mycoplasma pneumoniae clinical isolates reveals eight P1 subtypes within two genomic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorigo-Zetsma, J. W.; Dankert, J.; Zaat, S. A.

    2000-01-01

    Three methods for genotyping of Mycoplasma pneumoniae clinical isolates were applied to 2 reference strains and 21 clinical isolates. By a modified restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of PCR products of the M. pneumoniae cytadhesin P1 gene, 5 subtypes were discriminated among 13

  7. Hilbert scheme of points on cyclic quotient singularities of type (p,1)

    OpenAIRE

    Gyenge, Ádám

    2016-01-01

    In this note we investigate the generating series of the Euler characteristics of Hilbert scheme of points on cyclic quotient singularities of type (p,1). We link the appearing combinatorics to p-fountains, a generalization of the notion of fountain of coins. We obtain a representation of the generating series as coefficient of a two variable generating series.

  8. Hydrothermal conversion of South African coal fly ash into pure phase Zeolite Na-P1

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gitari, MW

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available South African coal combustion power utilities generate huge amounts of coal fly ash that can be beneficiated into zeolitic products. This chapter reports on the optimization of the presynthesis and synthesis conditions for a pure-phase zeolite Na-P1...

  9. Choline Modulation of the Aβ P1-40 Channel Reconstituted into a Model Lipid Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Meleleo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs, implicated in memory and learning, in subjects affected by Alzheimer's disease result altered. Stimulation of α7-nAChRs inhibits amyloid plaques and increases ACh release. β-amyloid peptide (AβP forms ion channels in the cell and model phospholipid membranes that are retained responsible in Alzheimer disease. We tested if choline, precursor of ACh, could affect the AβP1-40 channels in oxidized cholesterol (OxCh and in palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC:Ch lipid bilayers. Choline concentrations of 5 × 10−11 M–1.5 × 10−8 M added to the cis- or trans-side of membrane quickly increased AβP1-40 ion channel frequency (events/min and ion conductance in OxCh membranes, but not in POPC:Ch membranes. Circular Dichroism (CD spectroscopy shows that after 24 and 48 hours of incubation with AβP1-40, choline stabilizes the random coil conformation of the peptide, making it less prone to fibrillate. These actions seem to be specific in that ACh is ineffective either in solution or on AβP1-40 channel incorporated into PLMs.

  10. Radiative E1-decay of charmonium 1P1 level within sum rules of quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynenko, A.P.

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of radiative decay of 1 P 1 → 1 S 0 + γ charmonium within sum rules of quantum chromodynamics was conducted. The sum rule, taking account of gluon exponential correction, was obtained, and width of Χ → η c + γ decay was calculated

  11. Airborne study of grass allergen (Lol p 1) in different-sized particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Linares, C; Díaz de la Guardia, C; Nieto Lugilde, D; Alba, F

    2010-01-01

    The Poaceae family is considered one of the main causes of pollen allergy in industrialized countries. The aim of this study is to establish the dynamics of the Poaceae allergens and determine their distribution in the different-sized particles in the atmosphere. The air of Granada (southern Spain) was sampled during the pollination period of Poaceae using a cascade impactor and a Hirst-type volumetric collector simultaneously. The sampled airborne allergens were analyzed by indirect ELISA and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Airborne pollen was evaluated with the Spanish Aerobiological Network methodology. Poaceae pollen and allergenic activity have parallel dynamics during the period of maximum pollination, which is reflected in the positive correlations between the 2 variables. In addition, the highest Lol p 1 concentrations were recorded in particle sizes lower than 3.3 mum (stage 4-F). The Spearman correlation test showed that airborne allergens are not dependent on meteorological factors, such as humidity, wind direction or sunshine, however, Lol p 1 allergen correlated positively with Poaceae pollen. The results of the present study confirm that the Lol p 1 allergen is detected more frequently with pollutants than with coarse particles with similar dynamics and a positive correlation between airborne pollen and aeroallergens. Moreover, Lol p 1 is released in stable weather conditions without large changes in humidity or temperature. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. LMFBR transducer performance in SLSF tests P1 and P2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, J.J.; Anderson, T.T.; Kuzay, T.M.; Wilson, R.E.; Pedersen, D.R.; Kaiser, W.C.; Klingler, W.B.

    1977-01-01

    The reliability and problem areas of sodium-immersed thermocouples, pressure transducers and flowmeters are presented for experiments P1 and P2 of the Sodium Loop Safety Facility (SLSF). The SLSF is a doubly-contained sodium loop situated in a core position of the Engineering Test Reactor at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

  13. Heterogeneity of Human Neutrophil CD177 Expression Results from CD177P1 Pseudogene Conversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuopeng Wu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Most humans harbor both CD177neg and CD177pos neutrophils but 1-10% of people are CD177null, placing them at risk for formation of anti-neutrophil antibodies that can cause transfusion-related acute lung injury and neonatal alloimmune neutropenia. By deep sequencing the CD177 locus, we catalogued CD177 single nucleotide variants and identified a novel stop codon in CD177null individuals arising from a single base substitution in exon 7. This is not a mutation in CD177 itself, rather the CD177null phenotype arises when exon 7 of CD177 is supplied entirely by the CD177 pseudogene (CD177P1, which appears to have resulted from allelic gene conversion. In CD177 expressing individuals the CD177 locus contains both CD177P1 and CD177 sequences. The proportion of CD177hi neutrophils in the blood is a heritable trait. Abundance of CD177hi neutrophils correlates with homozygosity for CD177 reference allele, while heterozygosity for ectopic CD177P1 gene conversion correlates with increased CD177neg neutrophils, in which both CD177P1 partially incorporated allele and paired intact CD177 allele are transcribed. Human neutrophil heterogeneity for CD177 expression arises by ectopic allelic conversion. Resolution of the genetic basis of CD177null phenotype identifies a method for screening for individuals at risk of CD177 isoimmunisation.

  14. 1P1 heavy quarkonia production in hadron-hadron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanakyan, R.A.; Dul'yan, L.S.; Grigoryan, S.G.; Matinyan, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    The production of 1 P 1 -quarkonia (charmonium, bottomonium and toponium) with large transverse momenta is studied in collisions of ultrahigh-energy pp and pp-bar beams. The analysis was carried out in the framework of gluon-gluon fusion mechanism and nonrelativistic quarkonium model

  15. Analysis of glutathione S-transferase (M1, T1 and P1) gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glutathione S-transferase enzymes are active in detoxifying a wide number of endogenous and exogenous chemical carcinogens and subsequently, are crucial in protecting the DNA. Several studies show some differences in association of glutathione S-transferase M1, T1 and P1 genetic polymorphisms with the risk of ...

  16. Mechanical response of FFTF reference and P1 cladding tubes under transient heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngahl, C.A.; Ariman, T.; Lepacek, B.E.

    1977-01-01

    Burst tests of Type 316 stainless steel cladding tube samples subjected to increasing temperature and relatively constant internal pressure were conducted to assist in the pretest analysis of the P1 experiment performed in the Sodium Loop Safety Facility. This paper reports and analyzes the burst test results and those of subsequent transient heating work. The use of a modified extensometer in obtaining mechanical response data for stainless steel in the high temperature range is illustrated, some of such data is provided, and the potential of further experiments and analysis is indicated. Tubing of the same design as Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) cladding (20% cold worked, 0.230 in. OD, 15 mil wall) was tested as-received and after annealing or electrolytic thinning. P1 tubing (38% cold worked, 0.230 in. OD, 10 mil wall) was tested before and after aging under conditions anticipated in the P1 reactor experiment. The P1 cladding was designed to simulate FFTF tubing that had experienced irradiation embrittlement and attack by cesium oxide and sodium impurities

  17. Association between Parental and Offspring's Alcohol Use--Population Data from India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Anita; Dhawan, Anju; Sethi, Hem; Mohan, Devinder

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Authors investigated the association between alcohol use of parents and offspring in data derived from a district based household survey on drug abuse. Methods: Data on 4411 fathers paired with 6884 offspring were available. Alcohol use disorders were diagnosed based on DSM-III-R criteria. Analyses was conducted to contrast 1979 offspring of…

  18. Paternal care in a fish: epigenetics and fitness enhancing effects on offspring anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, Katie E; Bell, Alison M

    2014-11-07

    In many animals, including humans, interactions with caring parents can have long-lasting effects on offspring sensitivity to stressors. However, whether these parental effects impact offspring fitness in nature is often unclear. In addition, despite evidence that maternal care can influence offspring behaviour via epigenetic alterations to the genome, it remains unclear whether paternal care has similar effects. Here, we show in three-spined sticklebacks, a fish in which fathers are the sole provider of offspring care, that the direct care provided by fathers affects offspring anxiety and the potential for epigenetic alterations to the offspring genome. We find that families are differentially vulnerable to early stress and fathers can compensate for this differential sensitivity with the quality of their care. This variation in paternal care is also linked to the expression in offspring brains of a DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt3a) responsible for de novo methylation. We show that these paternal effects are potentially adaptive and anxious offspring are unlikely to survive an encounter with a predator. By supplying offspring care, fathers reduce offspring anxiety thereby increasing the survival of their offspring-not in the traditional sense through resource provisioning but through an epigenetic effect on offspring behavioural development. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Risk for asthma in offspring of asthmatic mothers versus fathers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Robert H; Kobzik, Lester; Dahl, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Many human epidemiologic studies demonstrate that maternal asthma confers greater risk of asthma to offspring than does paternal disease. However, a handful have shown the opposite. Given this disparity, a meta-analysis is necessary to determine the veracity and magnitude of the "maternal effect."...

  20. Porcine induced pluripotent stem cells produce chimeric offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Franklin D; Terlouw, Steve L; Kwon, Dae Jin; Mumaw, Jennifer L; Dhara, Sujoy K; Hasneen, Kowser; Dobrinsky, John R; Stice, Steven L

    2010-08-01

    Ethical and moral issues rule out the use of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in chimera studies that would determine the full extent of their reprogrammed state, instead relying on less rigorous assays such as teratoma formation and differentiated cell types. To date, only mouse iPSC lines are known to be truly pluripotent. However, initial mouse iPSC lines failed to form chimeric offspring, but did generate teratomas and differentiated embryoid bodies, and thus these specific iPSC lines were not completely reprogrammed or truly pluripotent. Therefore, there is a need to address whether the reprogramming factors and process used eventually to generate chimeric mice are universal and sufficient to generate reprogrammed iPSC that contribute to chimeric offspring in additional species. Here we show that porcine mesenchymal stem cells transduced with 6 human reprogramming factors (POU5F1, SOX2, NANOG, KLF4, LIN28, and C-MYC) injected into preimplantation-stage embryos contributed to multiple tissue types spanning all 3 germ layers in 8 of 10 fetuses. The chimerism rate was high, 85.3% or 29 of 34 live offspring were chimeras based on skin and tail biopsies harvested from 2- to 5-day-old pigs. The creation of pluripotent porcine iPSCs capable of generating chimeric offspring introduces numerous opportunities to study the facets significantly affecting cell therapies, genetic engineering, and other aspects of stem cell and developmental biology.

  1. Association of Parental Hypertension With Arterial Stiffness in Nonhypertensive Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Charlotte; Quiroz, Rene; Enserro, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    High arterial stiffness seems to be causally involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that offspring of parents with hypertension may display higher arterial stiffness before clinically manifest hypertension, given that hypertension is a heritable condition. We compa......, in this community-based sample of young, nonhypertensive adults, we observed greater arterial stiffness in offspring of parents with hypertension. These observations are consistent with higher vascular stiffness at an early stage in the pathogenesis of hypertension.......High arterial stiffness seems to be causally involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that offspring of parents with hypertension may display higher arterial stiffness before clinically manifest hypertension, given that hypertension is a heritable condition. We...... compared arterial tonometry measures in a sample of 1564 nonhypertensive Framingham Heart Study third-generation cohort participants (mean age: 38 years; 55% women) whose parents were enrolled in the Framingham Offspring Study. A total of 468, 715, and 381 participants had 0 (referent), 1, and 2 parents...

  2. Evidence of Oxidative Shielding of Offspring in a Wild Mammal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma I. K. Vitikainen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative damage has been proposed as a potential mechanism underlying a life history tradeoff between survival and reproduction. However, evidence that reproduction is associated with increased oxidative damage is equivocal, and some studies have found that breeding females exhibit reduced, rather than elevated, levels of oxidative damage compared to equivalent non-breeders. Recently it was hypothesized that oxidative damage could have negative impacts on developing offspring, and that mothers might down-regulate oxidative damage during reproduction to shield their offspring from such damage. We tested this hypothesis through a longitudinal study of adult survival, reproduction, and oxidative damage in wild banded mongooses (Mungos mungo in Uganda. High levels of oxidative damage as measured by malondialdehyde (MDA were associated with reduced survival in both sexes. Levels of protein carbonyls were not linked to survival. Mothers showed reduced levels of MDA during pregnancy, and individuals with higher MDA levels gestated fewer offspring and had lower pup survival. These results suggest that maternal oxidative damage has transgenerational costs, and are consistent with the idea that mothers may attempt to shield their offspring from particularly harmful types of oxidative damage during pregnancy. We suggest that further advance in understanding of life history variation could benefit from theoretical and empirical exploration of the potential transgenerational costs of reproduction.

  3. Meiotic faults as a major cause of offspring inviability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levitis, Daniel; Zimmerman, Kolea; Pringle, Anne

    2014-01-01

    , this result demonstrates that failures associated with meiosis are a major cause of offspring inviability not only for meiotic parthenogenesis, but for sexual reproducers such as humans. Meiosis is necessary for genetic recombination in eukaryotes, but is vestigial, and costly, in parthenogens. The question...... range of organisms....

  4. Maternal education and intelligence predict offspring diet and nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachs, Theodore D; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Cueto, Santiago; Jacoby, Enrique

    2005-09-01

    The traditional assumption that children's nutritional deficiencies are essentially due either to overall food scarcity or to a lack of family resources to purchase available food has been increasingly questioned. Parental characteristics represent 1 type of noneconomic factor that may be related to variability in children's diets and nutritional status. We report evidence on the relation of 2 parental characteristics, maternal education level and maternal intelligence, to infant and toddler diet and nutritional status. Our sample consisted of 241 low-income Peruvian mothers and their infants assessed from 3 to 12 mo, with a further follow-up of 104 of these infants at 18 mo of age. Using a nonexperimental design, we related measures of level of maternal education, maternal intelligence, and family socioeconomic status to infant anthropometry, duration of exclusive breast-feeding, adequacy of dietary intake, and iron status. Results indicated unique positive relations between maternal education level and the extent of exclusive breast-feeding. Significant relations between maternal education and offspring length were partially mediated by maternal height. There also were unique positive relations between maternal intelligence and quality of offspring diet and hemoglobin level. All findings remained significant even after controlling for family socioeconomic characteristics. This pattern of results illustrates the importance of parental characteristics in structuring the adequacy of offspring diet. Maternal education and intelligence appear to have unique influences upon different aspects of the diet and nutritional status of offspring.

  5. Consequences on offspring of abnormal function in ageing gametes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarín, J J; Pérez-Albalá, S; Cano, A

    2000-01-01

    The present review aims to analyse (i) the molecular, biochemical and cellular changes that accompany oocyte and sperm ageing in any of the internal or external environments where they can reside, and (ii) the consequences of the abnormal function in ageing gametes on pre- and post-implantation development and later life of offspring. This review also aims to propose and discuss cellular/molecular mechanisms framed within the 'free radical theory of ageing'. It appears that the ageing of gametes prior to fertilization may affect many molecular, biochemical and cellular pathways that may jeopardize not only pre- and post-implantation embryo/fetal development but also later life of offspring. Consequences of gamete ageing range from decreased vigour (with the concomitant decrease in intelligence, reproductive fitness and longevity) of apparently normal-looking offspring to severe congenital, epigenetic and/or genetic anomalies. All these effects may be easily prevented by efficient diffusion of both the potential risks of gamete ageing and the steps that should be taken by couples wishing to achieve pregnancy to guarantee a correct maturational synchronization of gametes at fertilization. Although in-vitro antioxidant therapy appears to protect from or retard the ageing process of gametes, it may not assure the total absence of negative effects on the resulting offspring.

  6. Evolving minimum standards in responsible international sperm donor offspring quota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Pim M. W.; Thorn, Petra; Castilla, Jose A.; Frith, Lucy; Crawshaw, Marilyn; Mochtar, Monique; Bjorndahl, Lars; Kvist, Ulrik; Kirkman-Brown, Jackson C.

    2015-01-01

    An international working group was established with the aim of making recommendations on the number of offspring for a sperm donor that should be allowable in cases of international use of his sperm. Considerations from genetic, psychosocial, operational and ethical points of view were debated. For

  7. Alcohol during pregnancy and atopic dermatitis in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Petersen, Janne; Grønbaek, M

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence that antenatal factors play a role in the development of atopic dermatitis (AD). However, little is known about the effects of maternal lifestyle factors during pregnancy on the risk of AD in the offspring. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of alcohol consumption...

  8. Maternal Prepregnancy BMI and Risk of Cerebral Palsy in Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forthun, Ingeborg; Wilcox, Allen J; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and risk of cerebral palsy (CP) in offspring. METHODS: The study population consisted of 188 788 children in the Mothers and Babies in Norway and Denmark CP study, using data from 2 population-based, prospective birth...

  9. Psychosocial job strain and risk of congenital malformations in offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Allan Boye Vagn; Hannerz, H; Thulstrup, A M

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate if maternal exposure to psychosocial job strain at work (high demands and low control) measured by questionnaire early in pregnancy (median week 15) is associated with malformations in the offspring. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: The Danish National Bir...

  10. Neonatal neurological assessment of offspring in maternal phenylketonuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waisbren, SE; Chang, P; Levy, HL; Shifrin, H; Allred, E; Azen, C; de la Cruz, F; Hanley, W; Koch, R; Matalon, R; Rouse, B

    This study assesses the impact of prenatal and postnatal factors in maternal phenylketonuria (PKU). The Dubowitz Neurological Assessment of the Preterm and Full-term Newborn Infant was administered within the first 8 days of life to 56 offspring of women with PKU and 45 controls. Follow-up testing

  11. Maternal inflammatory bowel disease and offspring body size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajslev, Teresa Adeltoft; Sorensen, Thorkild I A; Jess, Tine

    2012-01-01

    Maternal inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may influence intrauterine growth and hence size at birth, but the consequences for offspring in later life remain uncertain. This study investigated the growth of children of mothers with Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC)....

  12. Paternal irradiation perturbs the expression of circadian genes in offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Andre M.G.F.; Barber, Ruth C.; Dubrova, Yuri E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We have analysed gene expression in the offspring of irradiated male mice. • CBA/Ca and BALB/c male mice were used in our study. • The pattern of gene expression was established in four tissues. • Expression of genes in involved in rhythmic process/circadian rhythm is compromised. • Our data may explain the phenomenon of transgenerational genomic instability. - Abstract: The circadian system represents a complex network which influences the timing of many biological processes. Recent studies have established that circadian alterations play an important role in the susceptibility to many human diseases, including cancer. Here we report that paternal irradiation in mice significantly affects the expression of genes involved in rhythmic processes in their first-generation offspring. Using microarrays, the patterns of gene expression were established for brain, kidney, liver and spleen samples from the non-exposed offspring of irradiated CBA/Ca and BALB/c male mice. The most over-represented categories among the genes differentially expressed in the offspring of control and irradiated males were those involved in rhythmic process, circadian rhythm and DNA-dependent regulation of transcription. The results of our study therefore provide a plausible explanation for the transgenerational effects of paternal irradiation, including increased transgenerational carcinogenesis described in other studies

  13. Parental Divorce and Interpersonal Trust in Adult Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Valarie

    2002-01-01

    Examines whether parental divorce is associated with offspring trust in parents, intimate partners, and others. Results reveal that although parental divorce is negatively associated with trust, these effects largely disappear once the quality of the past parent-teen relationship is taken into account. (Contains 48 references and 4 tables.) (GCP)

  14. Parent–offspring recognition in the Brown-headed Parrot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recognition by vocal characteristics between parents and their offspring is thought to be ubiquitous in colonially nesting avian species. The Brown-headed Parrot Poicephalus cryptoxanthus nests in hollows in trees. However, when the chicks fledge they leave the nest and for the following three weeks spend their time in a ...

  15. Paternal irradiation perturbs the expression of circadian genes in offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Andre M.G.F.; Barber, Ruth C.; Dubrova, Yuri E., E-mail: yed2@le.ac.uk

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • We have analysed gene expression in the offspring of irradiated male mice. • CBA/Ca and BALB/c male mice were used in our study. • The pattern of gene expression was established in four tissues. • Expression of genes in involved in rhythmic process/circadian rhythm is compromised. • Our data may explain the phenomenon of transgenerational genomic instability. - Abstract: The circadian system represents a complex network which influences the timing of many biological processes. Recent studies have established that circadian alterations play an important role in the susceptibility to many human diseases, including cancer. Here we report that paternal irradiation in mice significantly affects the expression of genes involved in rhythmic processes in their first-generation offspring. Using microarrays, the patterns of gene expression were established for brain, kidney, liver and spleen samples from the non-exposed offspring of irradiated CBA/Ca and BALB/c male mice. The most over-represented categories among the genes differentially expressed in the offspring of control and irradiated males were those involved in rhythmic process, circadian rhythm and DNA-dependent regulation of transcription. The results of our study therefore provide a plausible explanation for the transgenerational effects of paternal irradiation, including increased transgenerational carcinogenesis described in other studies.

  16. Maternal exposure to the holocaust and health complaints in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flory, Janine D; Bierer, Linda M; Yehuda, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Although the link between chronic stress and the development of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases of adulthood has been known for some time, there is growing recognition that early environmental influences may result in developmental programming via epigenetic mechanisms, thereby affecting the developmental trajectory of disease progression. Previous studies support the idea that offspring of Holocaust survivors may have been subjected to early developmental programming. We evaluated the relationship between parental exposure to the Holocaust and self-reported health ratings and disorders made by their adult offspring (i.e., second generation Holocaust survivors). A total of 137 subjects were evaluated. Regression analyses demonstrated that maternal but not paternal exposure to the Holocaust was related to poorer subjective impressions of emotional and physical health. This relationship was diminished when the offspring's own level of trait anxiety was considered. Offspring with maternal, but not paternal, Holocaust exposure also reported greater use of psychotropic and other medications, including medications for the treatment of hypertension and lipid disorders. The mechanism linking these health outcomes and maternal exposure deserves further investigation, including the possibility that fetal or early developmental programming is involved.

  17. Offspring of patients treated for cancer in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, F.P.; Fine, W.; Jaffe, N.; Holmes, G.E.; Holmes, F.F.

    1979-01-01

    Genetic effects of cancer in childhood were examined among offspring of patients enrolled in the tumor registries of the Sidney Farber Cancer Institute and the Kansas University Medical Center. For 146 patients, 84 women and 62 men, 293 pregnancies were reported after cessation of treatment of diverse neoplasms. The outcomes of 286 completed pregnancies were as follows: 242 live births (1 set of twins), 1 stillbirth, 25 spontaneous abortions, and 19 therapeutic abortions. Seven live-born infants died during the first 2 years of life, a frequency in accord with expectation. Two offspring have developed cancer. One girl and her father had bilateral hereditary retinoblastoma. A second girl developed acute myelocytic leukemia; her mother had received radiotherapy during childhood for a brain tumor. Compared with their cousins and with published figures for the general population, the study progeny had no excess of congenital anomalles or other diseases. Chromosome and immunoglobulin studies of a few offspring did not reveal damage from preconception exposure to cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Findings indicated that large collaborative studies are needed to monitor the offspring of childhood cancer survivors for inherited traits associated with the parental tumors and for mutagenic effects of therapy, particularly intense multimodality treatments

  18. Maternal lung cancer and testicular cancer risk in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaijser, Magnus; Akre, Olof; Cnattingius, Sven; Ekbom, Anders

    2003-07-01

    It has been hypothesized that smoking during pregnancy could increase the offspring's risk for testicular cancer. This hypothesis is indirectly supported by both ecological studies and studies of cancer aggregations within families. However, results from analytical epidemiological studies are not consistent, possibly due to methodological difficulties. To further study the association between smoking during pregnancy and testicular cancer, we did a population-based cohort study on cancer risk among offspring of women diagnosed with lung cancer. Through the use of the Swedish Cancer Register and the Swedish Second-Generation Register, we identified 8,430 women who developed lung cancer between 1958 and 1997 and delivered sons between 1941 and 1979. Cancer cases among the male offspring were then identified through the Swedish Cancer Register. Standardized incidence ratios were computed, using 95% confidence intervals. We identified 12,592 male offspring of mothers with a subsequent diagnosis of lung cancer, and there were 40 cases of testicular cancer (standardized incidence ratio, 1.90; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-2.58). The association was independent of maternal lung cancer subtype, and the risk of testicular cancer increased stepwise with decreasing time interval between birth and maternal lung cancer diagnosis. Our results support the hypothesis that exposure to cigarette smoking in utero increases the risk of testicular cancer.

  19. Altered morphology of liver and pancreas tissues of offsprings of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between consumption of charred meat, which is believed to be rich in nitrosamine by pregnant mothers and the adverse effects on the growth of their offsprings, alterations in morphology of tissues like liver and pancreas were studied. Meat was subjected to charcoal fire roasting without curing and was ...

  20. Maternal modulation of paternal effects on offspring development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashoodh, Rahia; Habrylo, Ireneusz B; Gudsnuk, Kathryn M; Pelle, Geralyn; Champagne, Frances A

    2018-03-14

    The paternal transmission of environmentally induced phenotypes across generations has been reported to occur following a number of qualitatively different exposures and appear to be driven, at least in part, by epigenetic factors that are inherited via the sperm. However, previous studies of paternal germline transmission have not addressed the role of mothers in the propagation of paternal effects to offspring. We hypothesized that paternal exposure to nutritional restriction would impact male mate quality and subsequent maternal reproductive investment with consequences for the transmission of paternal germline effects. In the current report, using embryo transfer in mice, we demonstrate that sperm factors in adult food restricted males can influence growth rate, hypothalamic gene expression and behaviour in female offspring. However, under natural mating conditions females mated with food restricted males show increased pre- and postnatal care, and phenotypic outcomes observed during embryo transfer conditions are absent or reversed. We demonstrate that these compensatory changes in maternal investment are associated with a reduced mate preference for food restricted males and elevated gene expression within the maternal hypothalamus. Therefore, paternal experience can influence offspring development via germline inheritance, but mothers can serve as a modulating factor in determining the impact of paternal influences on offspring development. © 2018 The Author(s).

  1. Prepregnancy Diabetes and Offspring Risk of Congenital Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øyen, Nina; Diaz, Lars Jorge; Leirgul, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of offspring congenital heart defects (CHD); however, the causal mechanism is poorly understood. We further investigated this association in a Danish nationwide cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a national cohort study, we...

  2. Hybrid marriages and phenotypic heterosis in offspring: Evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chen; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhao, Qiran; Chen, Qihui

    2018-02-19

    In genetics, heterosis refers to the phenomenon that cross-breeding within species leads to offspring that are genetically fitter than their parents and exhibit improved phenotypic characteristics. Based on the theory of heterosis and existing genetic evidence, offspring of "hybrid" marriages (spouses originating from different states/provinces/countries/areas), though relatively rare due to physical boundaries, may exhibit greater genetic fitness in terms of intelligence, height, or physical attractiveness (the "distance-performance" hypothesis). This study explores whether heterosis is a contributing factor to offspring's educational attainment in China by applying a high-dimensional fixed effects (HDFE) modelling framework to the unique 0.1% micro-sample of the 2000 Chinese Population Census data. Concerning potential endogeneity of hybrid marriages, we conduct a series of robustness checks. Reassuringly, the estimated heterosis effect remains significantly positive across various measurements, after controlling for parental educational attainments/height, environmental influences, and over a thousand region and region-by-year fixed effects. The effects in male and higher-educated offspring are found to be stronger. Results are replicated when analyzing body height using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey. Although endogeneity of "hybrid marriages" may not be completely ruled out, the current study sheds light on the potentially beneficial effects of interprovincial migration on population-level human capital accumulation, and we hope that this paper can intrigue future studies that further address endogeneity. The implied heterosis effect could, therefore, be profound for Homo sapiens as a species from an evolutionary point of view. An additional important implication is that the overall genetic influences of parents on offspring's performance may be further decomposed into a conventional heredity effect and a heterosis effect that has been

  3. Maternal age at Holocaust exposure and maternal PTSD independently influence urinary cortisol levels in adult offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather N Bader

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal PTSD appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: 95 Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 hour urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the Parental PTSD Questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusions: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased risk for stress

  4. Maternal Age at Holocaust Exposure and Maternal PTSD Independently Influence Urinary Cortisol Levels in Adult Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Heather N.; Bierer, Linda M.; Lehrner, Amy; Makotkine, Iouri; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: Ninety-five Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 h urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the parental PTSD questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusion: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased

  5. Product Plan of New Generation System Camera "OLYMPUS PEN E-P1"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Haruo

    "OLYMPUS PEN E-P1", which is new generation system camera, is the first product of Olympus which is new standard "Micro Four-thirds System" for high-resolution mirror-less cameras. It continues good sales by the concept of "small and stylish design, easy operation and SLR image quality" since release on July 3, 2009. On the other hand, the half-size film camera "OLYMPUS PEN" was popular by the concept "small and stylish design and original mechanism" since the first product in 1959 and recorded sale number more than 17 million with 17 models. By the 50th anniversary topic and emotional value of the Olympus pen, Olympus pen E-P1 became big sales. I would like to explain the way of thinking of the product plan that included not only the simple functional value but also emotional value on planning the first product of "Micro Four-thirds System".

  6. Development of Quasi-3DOF upper limb rehabilitation system using ER brake: PLEMO-P1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, T; Fukushima, K; Furusho, J; Ozawa, T

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, many researchers have studied the potential of using robotics technology to assist and quantify the motor functions for neuron-rehabilitation. Some kinds of haptic devices have been developed and evaluated its efficiency with clinical tests, for example, upper limb training for patients with spasticity after stroke. However, almost all the devices are active-type (motor-driven) haptic devices and they basically require high-cost safety system compared to passive-type (brake-based) devices. In this study, we developed a new practical haptic device 'PLEMO-P1'; this system adopted ER brakes as its force generators. In this paper, the mechanism of PLEMO-P1 and its software for a reaching rehabilitation are described.

  7. Development of Quasi-3DOF upper limb rehabilitation system using ER brake: PLEMO-P1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, T; Fukushima, K; Furusho, J; Ozawa, T [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)], E-mail: kikuchi@mech.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2009-02-01

    In recent years, many researchers have studied the potential of using robotics technology to assist and quantify the motor functions for neuron-rehabilitation. Some kinds of haptic devices have been developed and evaluated its efficiency with clinical tests, for example, upper limb training for patients with spasticity after stroke. However, almost all the devices are active-type (motor-driven) haptic devices and they basically require high-cost safety system compared to passive-type (brake-based) devices. In this study, we developed a new practical haptic device 'PLEMO-P1'; this system adopted ER brakes as its force generators. In this paper, the mechanism of PLEMO-P1 and its software for a reaching rehabilitation are described.

  8. Complexity and diversity of the NKR-P1:Clr (Klrb1:Clec2 recognition systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina L Kirkham

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The NKR-P1 receptors were identified as prototypical natural killer (NK cell surface antigens and later shown to be conserved from rodents to humans on NK cells and subsets of T cells. C-type lectin-like in nature, they were originally shown to be capable of activating NK cell function and to recognize ligands on tumour cells. However, certain family members have subsequently been shown to be capable of inhibiting NK cell activity, and to recognize proteins encoded by a family of genetically linked C-type lectin-related (Clr ligands. Some of these ligands are expressed by normal, healthy cells, and modulated during transformation, infection, and cellular stress, while other ligands are upregulated during the immune response and during pathological circumstances. Here, we discuss historical and recent developments in NKR-P1 biology that demonstrate this NK receptor-ligand system to be far more complex and diverse than originally anticipated.

  9. Structure of the conserved hypothetical protein MAL13P1.257 from Plasmodium falciparum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Margaret A.; Buckner, Frederick S.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Mehlin, Christopher; Boni, Erica; Earnest, Thomas N.; DeTitta, George; Luft, Joseph; Lauricella, Angela; Anderson, Lori; Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr; Zucker, Frank; Schoenfeld, Lori W.; Hol, Wim G. J.; Merritt, Ethan A.

    2006-01-01

    The crystal structure of a conserved hypothetical protein, MAL13P1.257 from P. falciparum, has been determined at 2.17 Å resolution. The structure represents a new protein fold and is the first structural representative for Pfam sequence family PF05907. The structure of a conserved hypothetical protein, PlasmoDB sequence MAL13P1.257 from Plasmodium falciparum, Pfam sequence family PF05907, has been determined as part of the structural genomics effort of the Structural Genomics of Pathogenic Protozoa consortium. The structure was determined by multiple-wavelength anomalous dispersion at 2.17 Å resolution. The structure is almost entirely β-sheet; it consists of 15 β-strands and one short 3 10 -helix and represents a new protein fold. The packing of the two monomers in the asymmetric unit indicates that the biological unit may be a dimer.

  10. TRIMARAN: a three dimensional multigroup P1 Monte Carlo code for criticality studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermumcu, G.; Gonnord, J.; Nimal, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    TRIMARAN is developed for safety analysis of nuclear components containing fissionable materials: shipping casks, storage and cooling pools, manufacture and reprocessing plants. It solves the transport equation by Monte Carlo method, in general three dimensional geometry with multigroup P1 approximation. A special representation of cross sections and numbers has been developed in order to reduce considerably the computing cost and allow this three dimensional code to compete with standard numerical program used in parametric studies

  11. TRIMARAN: a three dimensional multigroup P1 Monte Carlo code for criticallity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermuncu, G.; Gonnord, J.; Nimal, J.C.

    1980-04-01

    TRIMARAN is developed for safety analysis of nuclar components containing fissionnable materials: shipping casks, storage and cooling pools, manufacture and reprocessing plants. It solves the transport equation by Monte Carlo method in general three dimensional geometry with multigroup P1 approximation. A special representation of cross sections and numbers has been developed in order to reduce considerably the computing cost and allow this three dimensional code to compete with standard numerical program used in parametric studies

  12. Calculations of Edwards' pipe blowdown tests using the code TRAC P1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Mahoney, R.

    1979-05-01

    The paper describes the results obtained using the non-thermal equilibrium LOCA code TRAC-P1 for two of a series of Pipe Blowdown Tests. Comparisons are made with the experimental values and RELAP-UK Mark IV predictions. Some discrepancies between prediction and experiment are observed, and certain aspects of the model are considered to warrant possible further attention. (U.K.)

  13. Characterization of P1 promoter activity of the β-galactoside α2,6 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-04-05

    Apr 5, 2012 ... The level of β-galactoside α2,6-sialyltransferase I (ST6Gal I) mRNA, encoded by the gene siat1, is increased in malignant tissues. Expression is regulated by different promoters – P1, P2 and P3 – generating three mRNA isoforms. H, X and YZ. In cervical cancer tissue the mRNA isoform H, which results ...

  14. Electron-impact coherence parameters for 41 P 1 excitation of zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwiński, Mariusz; Kłosowski, Łukasz; Chwirot, Stanisław; Fursa, Dmitry V.; Bray, Igor; Das, Tapasi; Srivastava, Rajesh

    2018-04-01

    We present electron-impact coherence parameters (EICP) for electron-impact excitation of 41 P 1 state of zinc atoms for collision energies 40 eV and 60 eV. The experimental results are presented together with convergent close-coupling and relativistic distorted-wave approximation theoretical predictions. The results are compared and discussed with EICP data for collision energies 80 eV and 100 eV.

  15. Alfalfa mosaic virus replicase proteins P1 and P2 interact and colocalize at the vacuolar membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der M.W.; Carette, J.E.; Reinhoud, P.J.; Haegi, A.; Bol, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    Replication of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) RNAs depends on the virus-encoded proteins P1 and P2. P1 contains methyltransferase- and helicase-like domains, and P2 contains a polymerase-like domain. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed an interaction between in vitro translated-P1 and P2 and

  16. Lateral supraorbital approach to ipsilateral PCA-P1 and ICA-PCoA aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehre, Felix; Jahromi, Behnam Rezai; Elsharkawy, Ahmed; Lehto, Hanna; Shekhtman, Oleg; Andrade-Barazarte, Hugo; Munoz, Francisco; Hijazy, Ferzat; Makhkamov, Makhkam; Hernesniemi, Juha

    2015-01-01

    Aneurysms of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) are rare and often associated with anterior circulation aneurysms. The lateral supraorbital approach allows for a very fast and safe approach to the ipsilateral lesions Circle of Willis. A technical note on the successful clip occlusion of two aneurysms in the anterior and posterior Circle of Willis via this less invasive approach has not been published before. The objective of this technical note is to describe the simultaneous microsurgical clip occlusion of an ipsilateral PCA-P1 and an internal carotid artery - posterior communicating artery (ICA-PCoA) aneurysm via the lateral supraorbital approach. The authors present a technical report of successful clip occlusions of ipsilateral located PCA-P1 and ICA-PCoA aneurysms. A 59-year-old female patient was diagnosed with a PCA-P1 and an ipsilateral ICA-PCoA aneurysm by computed tomography angiography (CTA) after an ischemic stroke secondary to a contralateral ICA dissection. The patient underwent microsurgical clipping after a lateral supraorbital craniotomy. The intraoperative indocyanine green (ICG) videoangiography and the postoperative CTA showed a complete occlusion of both aneurysms; the parent vessels (ICA and PCA) were patent. The patient presents postoperative no new neurologic deficit. The lateral supraorbital approach is suitable for the simultaneous microsurgical treatment of proximal anterior circulation and ipsilateral proximal PCA aneurysms. Compared to endovascular treatment, direct visual control of brainstem perforators is possible.

  17. Sim@P1: Using Cloudscheduler for offline processing on the ATLAS HLT farm

    CERN Document Server

    Berghaus, Frank; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Simulation at Point1 (Sim@P1) project was built in 2013 to take advantage of the ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition High Level Trigger (HLT) farm. The HLT farm provides more than 2,000 compute nodes, which are critical to ATLAS during data taking. When ATLAS is not recording data, this large compute resource is used to generate and process simulation data for the experiment. The Sim@P1 system uses virtual machines, deployed by OpenStack, in order to isolate the resources from the ATLAS technical and control network. During the upcoming long shutdown in 2019 (LS2), the HLT farm including the Sim@P1 infrastructure will be upgraded. A previous paper on the project emphasized the need for “simple, reliable, and efficient tools” to quickly switch between data acquisition operation and offline processing.In this contribution we assess various options for updating and simplifying the provisional tools. Cloudscheduler is a tool for provisioning cloud resources for batch computing that has been managing cloud ...

  18. Working memory and attention deficits in adolescent offspring of schizophrenia or bipolar patients: comparing vulnerability markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwadkar, Vaibhav A; Goradia, Dhruman; Hosanagar, Avinash; Mermon, Diana; Montrose, Debra M; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Rajarathinem, R; Haddad, Luay; Amirsadri, Ali; Zajac-Benitez, Caroline; Rajan, Usha; Keshavan, Matcheri S

    2011-07-01

    Working memory deficits abound in schizophrenia and attention deficits have been documented in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Adolescent offspring of patients may inherit vulnerabilities in brain circuits that subserve these cognitive domains. Here we assess impairments in offspring of schizophrenia (SCZ-Offspring) or bipolar (BP-Offspring) patients compared to controls (HC) with no family history of mood or psychotic disorders to the second degree. Three groups (n=100 subjects; range: 10-20 yrs) of HC, SCZ-Offspring and BP-Offspring gave informed consent. Working memory was assessed using a delayed spatial memory paradigm with two levels of delay (2s & 12s); sustained attention processing was assessed using the Continuous Performance Task-Identical Pairs version. SCZ-Offspring (but not BP-Offspring) showed impairments in working memory (relative to HC) at the longer memory delay indicating a unique deficit. Both groups showed reduced sensitivity during attention but only BP-Offspring significantly differed from controls. These results suggest unique (working memory/dorsal frontal cortex) and potentially overlapping (attention/fronto-striatal cortex) vulnerability pathways in adolescent offspring of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Working memory and attention assessments in these offspring may assist in the clinical characterization of the adolescents vulnerable to SCZ or BP. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Family functioning in the context of parental bipolar disorder: associations with offspring age, sex, and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Rachel D; Tompson, Martha C; Wang, Christine H; Otto, Michael W; Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Henin, Aude

    2015-02-01

    Previous research has shown that families with a parent who has bipolar disorder (BD) may experience family functioning difficulties. However, the association between family functioning and psychopathology among offspring of parents with BD, and offspring characteristics that may moderate this association, remains poorly understood. This study examined the cross-sectional associations between family functioning (cohesion, expressiveness, and conflict) and psychopathology in 117 offspring (ages 5-18) of 75 parents with BD. We also examined whether age and sex differences moderated these associations. We measured offspring psychopathology by examining current dimensional symptoms and DSM-IV emotional and behavioral disorders. Correlational analyses indicated that higher family conflict and lower cohesion were associated with higher internalizing and externalizing symptoms in offspring. Lower family cohesion was also associated with current offspring mood disorders. Moderation analyses indicated, first, that the link between lower family cohesion and internalizing symptoms was stronger for younger offspring compared to older offspring. Second, higher family conflict and current mood disorder were associated in younger males but not in older males or in females. Results remained the same after controlling for parental anxiety or substance use disorder comorbidity. Our study highlights the importance of accounting for family functioning when working with offspring at risk for BD, while also recognizing that the connections between family functioning and offspring outcomes are complex and differ based on offspring sex and developmental stage. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Effect of parental morphine addiction on extracellular glutamate concentration of dentate gyrus in rat offsprings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rahele Assaee

    2004-01-01

    Findings: In male offsprings of sham control1, sham control2, test1 and test2 basal and electrical stimulated of extracellular glutamate concentration of dentate gyrus were: 0.67±0.04, 1.11±0.1, and in female offsprings were 0.47±0.06, 0.88±0.05 (n=5. The basal and stimulated extra cellular glutamate concentration of dentate gyrus was decreased in both test1 and test2 offsprings. It was less in test1 than test2 offsprings. The glutamate concentration of dentate gyrus in female offsprings of test1 group was less than that of the male offsprings. conclusion: The results suggest that parental morphine addiction may cause learning deficiency through reduction of extracellular glutamate concentration in dentate gyrus so the side effects of parental morphine addiction in offsprings must be considered.

  1. Parent-offspring correlations in pedometer-assessed physical activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jacobi

    Full Text Available Physical activity is a major component of a healthy lifestyle in youth and adults. To identify determinants of this complex behavior is an important research objective in the process of designing interventions to promote physical activity at population level. In addition to individual determinants, there is evidence documenting familial influences on physical activity. However, the few studies that have addressed this issue with objective measures did not provide data on parent-offspring physical activity relationships throughout childhood and adolescence. The purpose of this study was to assess familial correlations in pedometer-assessed physical activity.We measured ambulatory activity in 286 French nuclear families (283 mothers, 237 fathers, and 631 children aged 8-18 years by pedometer recordings (Yamax Digiwalker DW 450 over a week. Correlations were computed with their 95% confidence intervals (CI for spouse pairs, siblings, mother-offspring, and father-offspring. Data were expressed as steps per day and computed both for the full recording period and separately for weekdays and weekends.The correlations were the highest between siblings (r=0.28, 95%CI: 0.17-0.38. Parent-offspring correlations were significant in mothers (r=0.21, 95%CI: 0.12-0.30, especially between mothers and daughters (r=0.24, 95%CI: 0.12-0.36 vs. r=0.18, 95%CI: 0.05-0.31 for sons, but were almost nonexistent in fathers. Correlations were generally higher on weekend days compared to weekdays. Mother-offspring correlations did not decrease with increasing age of children (r=0.17, 95%CI: 0.00-0.34 in 8-11-year-olds, r=0.20, 95%CI: 0.07-0.33 in 12-15-year-olds, and r=0.25, 95%CI: 0.07-0.39 in ≥16-year-olds. Finally, between-spouse correlations were significant only during weekend days (r=0.14, 95%CI: 0.01-0.27.Ambulatory activity correlated within families, with a possible mother effect. Mother-offspring correlations remained significant through the transition from

  2. When parents disclose BRCA1/2 test results: their communication and perceptions of offspring response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Angela R; Patrick-Miller, Linda; Egleston, Brian L; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Daly, Mary B; Moore, Cynthia W; Sands, Colleen B; Schmidheiser, Helen; Kondamudi, Preethi K; Feigon, Maia; Ibe, Comfort N; Daugherty, Christopher K

    2012-07-01

    BRCA1/2 testing is not recommended for children, as risk reduction measures and screening are not generally recommended before 25 years old (YO). Little is known about the prevalence and predictors of parent communication to offspring and how offspring respond to this communication. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents who had BRCA1/2 testing and at least 1 child parents completed interviews (61% response rate), reporting on 505 offspring. Twenty-nine percent of parents were BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Three hundred thirty-four (66%) offspring learned of their parent's test result. Older offspring age (P ≤ .01), offspring gender (female, P = .05), parents' negative test result (P = .03), and parents' education (high school only, P = .02) were associated with communication to offspring. The most frequently reported initial offspring responses were neutral (41%) or relief (28%). Thirteen percent of offspring were reported to experience concern or distress (11%) in response to parental communication of their test results. Distress was more frequently perceived among offspring learning of their parent's BRCA1/2 positive or variant of uncertain significance result. Many parents communicate their BRCA1/2 test results to young offspring. Parents' perceptions of offspring responses appear to vary by offspring age and parent test result. A better understanding of how young offspring respond to information about hereditary risk for adult cancer could provide opportunities to optimize adaptive psychosocial responses to risk information and performance of health behaviors, in adolescence and throughout an at-risk life span. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society.

  3. Squamate hatchling size and the evolutionary causes of negative offspring size allometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiri, S; Feldman, A; Kratochvíl, L

    2015-02-01

    Although fecundity selection is ubiquitous, in an overwhelming majority of animal lineages, small species produce smaller number of offspring per clutch. In this context, egg, hatchling and neonate sizes are absolutely larger, but smaller relative to adult body size in larger species. The evolutionary causes of this widespread phenomenon are not fully explored. The negative offspring size allometry can result from processes limiting maximal egg/offspring size forcing larger species to produce relatively smaller offspring ('upper limit'), or from a limit on minimal egg/offspring size forcing smaller species to produce relatively larger offspring ('lower limit'). Several reptile lineages have invariant clutch sizes, where females always lay either one or two eggs per clutch. These lineages offer an interesting perspective on the general evolutionary forces driving negative offspring size allometry, because an important selective factor, fecundity selection in a single clutch, is eliminated here. Under the upper limit hypotheses, large offspring should be selected against in lineages with invariant clutch sizes as well, and these lineages should therefore exhibit the same, or shallower, offspring size allometry as lineages with variable clutch size. On the other hand, the lower limit hypotheses would allow lineages with invariant clutch sizes to have steeper offspring size allometries. Using an extensive data set on the hatchling and female sizes of > 1800 species of squamates, we document that negative offspring size allometry is widespread in lizards and snakes with variable clutch sizes and that some lineages with invariant clutch sizes have unusually steep offspring size allometries. These findings suggest that the negative offspring size allometry is driven by a constraint on minimal offspring size, which scales with a negative allometry. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary

  4. Maternal or paternal suicide and offspring's psychiatric and suicide-attempt hospitalization risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto, S Janet; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Runeson, Bo; Lichtenstein, Paul; Långström, Niklas; Wilcox, Holly C

    2010-11-01

    We examined whether the risk for psychiatric morbidity requiring inpatient care was higher for offspring who experienced parental suicide, compared with offspring of fatal accident decedents, and whether the association varied according to the deceased parent's gender. Children and adolescents (0-17 years of age) who experienced maternal (N = 5600) or paternal (N = 17,847) suicide in 1973-2003 in Sweden were identified by using national, longitudinal, population-based registries. Cox regression modeling was used to compare psychiatric hospitalization risks among offspring of suicide decedents and propensity score-matched offspring of accident decedents. Offspring of maternal suicide decedents had increased risk of suicide-attempt hospitalization, after controlling for psychiatric hospitalization for decedents and surviving parents, compared with offspring of maternal accidental decedents. Offspring of paternal suicide decedents had similar risk of suicide-attempt hospitalization, compared with offspring of accident decedents, but had increased risk of hospitalization attributable to depressive and anxiety disorders. The magnitude of risks for offspring suicide-attempt hospitalization was greater for those who experienced maternal versus paternal suicide, compared with their respective control offspring (interaction P = .05; offspring of maternal decedents, adjusted hazard ratio: 1.80 [95% confidence interval: 1.19-2.74]; offspring of paternal decedents, adjusted hazard ratio: 1.14 [95% confidence interval: 0.96-1.35]). Maternal suicide is associated with increased risk of suicide-attempt hospitalization for offspring, beyond the risk associated with maternal accidental death. However, paternal suicide is not associated with suicide-attempt hospitalization. Future studies should examine factors that might differ between offspring who experience maternal versus paternal suicide, including genetic or early environmental determinants.

  5. Risk of emotional disorder in offspring of depressed parents : Gender differences in the effect of a second emotionally affected parent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landman-Peeters, K.M.; Ormel, J.; van Sonderen, E.L.; den Boer, J.A.; Minderaa, R.B.; Hartman, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    In offspring of depressed parents a second parent with emotional problems is likely to increase risk of emotional disorder. This effect may however differ between sons and daughters and between offspring of depressed fathers and offspring of depressed mothers. In adolescent and young-adult offspring

  6. Maternal vitamin D status and offspring bone fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sesilje Bondo; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi; Mølgaard, Christian

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies investigating the association between maternal vitamin D status and offspring bone mass measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) during childhood have shown conflicting results. PURPOSE: We used occurrence of bone fractures up to the age of 18 as a measure reflecting...... offspring bone mass and related that to maternal vitamin D status. METHODS: The Danish Fetal Origins 1988 Cohort recruited 965 pregnant women during 1988-89 at their 30th gestation week antenatal midwife visit. A blood sample was drawn and serum was stored, which later was analyzed for the concentration...... percentile) 25(OH)D was 76.2 (23.0-152.1) nmol/l. During follow up 294 children were registered with at least one bone fracture diagnosis. Multivariable Cox regression models using age as the underlying time scale indicated no overall association between maternal vitamin D status and first time bone...

  7. Paternal programming of offspring cardiometabolic diseases in later life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Tsuprykov, Oleg; Yang, Xiaoping; Hocher, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Early – intrauterine – environmental factors are linked to the development of cardiovascular disease in later life. Traditionally, these factors are considered to be maternal factors such as maternal under and overnutrition, exposure to toxins, lack of micronutrients, and stress during pregnancy. However, in the recent years, it became obvious that also paternal environmental factors before conception and during sperm development determine the health of the offspring in later life. We will first describe clinical observational studies providing evidence for paternal programming of adulthood diseases in progeny. Next, we describe key animal studies proving this relationship, followed by a detailed analysis of our current understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of paternal programming. Alterations of noncoding sperm micro-RNAs, histone acetylation, and targeted as well as global DNA methylation seem to be in particular involved in paternal programming of offspring's diseases in later life. PMID:27457668

  8. Psychological distress during early gestation and offspring sex ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, C; Henriksen, TB; Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to severe stress in early pregnancy is associated with a lower male to female ratio (sex ratio), but whether more moderate levels of psychological discomfort have the same kind of effect is unknown. In a population based follow-up study, we aimed to test whether psychological...... suggest that not only severe stress, but also more moderate and common levels of psychological distress, may decrease the sex ratio in the offspring. Stress during pregnancy is a likely candidate involved in the decreasing sex ratio observed in many countries....... distress was associated with the sex ratio in the offspring. METHODS: From 1989 to 1992, a cohort of 8,719 Danish-speaking pregnant women were followed until delivery. Questionnaires were administered to the women in early pregnancy and 6,629 (76%) completed the 30-item version of the General Health...

  9. Psychological distress during early gestation and offspring sex ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Carsten; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to severe stress in early pregnancy is associated with a lower male to female ratio (sex ratio), but whether more moderate levels of psychological discomfort have the same kind of effect is unknown. In a population based follow-up study, we aimed to test whether psychological...... suggest that not only severe stress, but also more moderate and common levels of psychological distress, may decrease the sex ratio in the offspring. Stress during pregnancy is a likely candidate involved in the decreasing sex ratio observed in many countries. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Nov...... distress was associated with the sex ratio in the offspring. METHODS: From 1989 to 1992, a cohort of 8,719 Danish-speaking pregnant women were followed until delivery. Questionnaires were administered to the women in early pregnancy and 6,629 (76%) completed the 30-item version of the General Health...

  10. The impact of maternal obesity during pregnancy on offspring immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Randall M; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2015-12-15

    In the United States, approximately 64% of women of childbearing age are either overweight or obese. Maternal obesity during pregnancy is associated with a greater risk for adverse maternal-fetal outcomes. Adverse health outcomes for the offspring can persist into adulthood, increasing the incidence of several chronic conditions including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and asthma. Since these diseases have a significant inflammatory component, these observations are indicative of perturbation of the normal development and maturation of the immune system of the offspring in utero. This hypothesis is strongly supported by data from several rodent studies. Although the mechanisms of these perturbations are not fully understood, it is thought that increased placental inflammation due to obesity may directly affect neonatal development through alterations in nutrient transport. In this review we examine the impact of maternal obesity on the neonatal immune system, and potential mechanisms for the changes observed. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. [Psychomotor development in offspring of mothers with post partum depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podestá L, Loreto; Alarcón, Ana María; Muñoz, Sergio; Legüe C, Marcela; Bustos, Luis; Barría P, Mauricio

    2013-04-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) has adverse effects on psychomotor development of the offspring. To evaluate the relationship between PPD and psychomotor development in children aged 18 months, consulting in primary care. Cross-sectional study with 360 infants and their mothers. Children had their psychomotor evaluation at l8 months and mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at 4 and 12 weeks postpartum. The prevalence of both PPD and psychomotor alteration was estimated. The association between PPD and psychomotor alteration, including confounding variables, was estimated through logistic multiple regression analysis. The prevalence of PPD and psychomotor alteration was 29 and 16%, respectively Mothers with PPD had twice the probability of having an offspring with psychomotor alteration (Odds ratio = 2.0, confidence intervals = 1.07-3.68). This probability was significantly higher among single mothers or those with an unstable partner. PPD has a detrimental impact on psychomotor development of children.

  12. Polyandry promotes enhanced offspring survival in decorated crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, Tracie M; Sakaluk, Scott K

    2005-01-01

    Although female multiple mating is ubiquitous in insects, its adaptive significance remains poorly understood. Benefits to multiple mating can accrue via direct material benefits, indirect genetic benefits, or both. We investigated the effects of multiple mating in the decorated cricket, Gryllodes sigillatus, by simultaneously varying the number of times that females mated and the number of different males with which they mated, measuring aspects of female fecundity and elements of offspring performance and viability. Multiple matings resulted in enhanced female fitness relative to single matings when females mated with different partners, but not when females mated repeatedly with the same male. Specifically, polyandrous females produced significantly more offspring surviving to reproductive maturity than did monogamous females mating once or mating repeatedly with the same male. These results suggest that the benefit females gain from multiple mating is influenced primarily by genetic and not material benefits.

  13. Antidepressant use during pregnancy and asthma in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoqin; Olsen, Jørn; Pedersen, Lars Henning

    2015-01-01

    in the offspring. METHODS: A cohort study was performed among all live singletons born in Denmark between 1996 and 2007. Mothers who had a diagnosis of depressive disorder and/or who used antidepressants 1 year before or during the index pregnancy were identified. Using a Cox proportional hazards regression model...... or use of antidepressants 1 year before or during pregnancy). Prenatal maternal depression was associated with childhood asthma (HR: 1.25 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20–1.30]). Overall, 8895 children were exposed to antidepressants in utero. Compared with children born to mothers with prenatal......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It has been suggested that maternal depression during pregnancy is abstract associated with asthma in the offspring, but the role of medical treatment of depression is not known. Our goal was to examine whether prenatal antidepressant use increases the risk of asthma...

  14. Alterations in offspring behavior induced by chronic prenatal cocaine dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R F; Mattran, K M; Kurkjian, M F; Kurtz, S L

    1989-01-01

    Sperm-positive female Long-Evans hooded rats were dosed subcutaneously with 10 mg/kg/day cocaine or an equal volume of vehicle (0.9% sterile saline) from gestation day 4 (GD4) through GD18. Offspring were assessed for development of negative geotaxis, righting reflex, spontaneous alternation, and open field activity, and for adult behaviors including DRL-20 acquisition, water maze, visual discrimination, barbiturate sleep time, shuttlebox avoidance, footshock sensitivity, and tail flick latency. Cocaine dosing produced no significant effects on dam weight gain, any measure of litter size and weight, or early postnatal behavioral tests, but there were significant drug effects on development of spontaneous alternation, development of open field activity, DRL-20 acquisition, water maze performance, tail flick, and footshock sensitivity. These data suggest that chronic administration of a modest dose of cocaine during gestation in the rat alters a number of behaviors in the offspring.

  15. Sentinel and other mutational effects in offspring of cancer survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulvihill, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    To date, no agent has been documented to cause germ cell mutation in human beings, with the possible exception of radiation causing abnormal meiotic chromosomes in testes. For studies in humans, mutation epidemiologists prefer the cohort approach, starting with an exposed population and looking for mutations that may be expressed in offspring as variants in health, chromosomes, proteins, or nucleic acids. Currently patients with cancer are the cohort exposed to the largest doses of potential mutagens, i.e., radiotherapy and drugs. In 12 large studies with over 825 patients and 1573 pregnancies, 46 (4%) of 1240 liveborns had a major birth defect, a rate comparable to that in the general population. One of these was a classic sentinel phenotype, i.e., a new sporadic case of a dominant mendelian syndrome. In collaboration with 5 U.S. cancer registries, we interviewed a retrospective cohort of 2383 patients diagnosed with cancer under age 20 years, from 1945 through 1975. Records were sought to verify major genetic disease, defined as a cytogenetic or single gene disorder or 1 of 15 isolated birth defects. In 2308 offspring of survivors, 5 had a chromosomal syndrome, 11 had a single gene disorder, and 62 had at least one major malformation. Among 4722 offspring of sibling controls, the respective numbers were 7, 12, and 127, nonsignificant differences. 7% of the parents of the offspring with possibly new mutations received potentially mutagenic therapy, compared with 12% of parents of normal children. Since pregnancy in or by cancer survivors is still a rare event, future efforts to document germ cell mutation may be best studied through international cooperation coupled with diverse laboratory measures of mutation

  16. Maternal obesity surgery : effects in women, spouses and offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Berglind, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Bariatric surgery is an important treatment for the worldwide increasing epidemic of obesity. However, the effects of such surgery on offspring epigenetic profile and effects on objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior in women undergoing bariatric surgery and family members are essentially unknown. Aim: The aim of this thesis was to investigate possible effects of maternal weight loss after bariatric surgery and effects on differences in maternal gest...

  17. Exercise scintirenography in normotensive young offspring of essential hypertensives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Fanzhen; Zhang Chenggang; Zhao Deshan

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe whether there is potential renal function decline in normotensive young offspring of essential hypertensives and to probe into the possible mechanism giving rise to it, providing some clues to the study of the pathogenic and hereditary mechanism of essential hypertension. Methods: Using 99 Tc m -DTPA as the imaging agent, authors performed rest and exercise scintirenography in normotensive young offspring of essential hypertensives [NOH, 31 cases, 14 males, 17 females; mean age: (23.2 ± 4.1) years], normotensive young off-spring of non-hypertensives [NON, 31 cases, 20 males, 11 females; mean age: (23.1±3.6) years], some of the hypertensive parents [21 cases, 5 males, 16 females; mean age: (53.0 ± 5.61) years] and old non-hypertensive subjects [10 cases, 6 males, 4 females; mean age: (53.7 ± 5.2) years]. The results were analyzed with the software of SPSS 10.0 for Windows. Results: Though all of the rest renal function indexes from NOH were within the normal range, there were significant differences between most of those indexes from NOH and those from NON, e. g., t p and MTT from NOH were significantly delayed than those from NON; exercise made these differences more significant, and after exercise, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and RI were significantly lower, and 20/P was significantly higher. There were 4, 5, 2 cases showing abnormal exercise scintirenography in NOH, hypertensive parents and old non-hypertensive subjects, respectively, but none in NON group. Conclusions: There is potential renal function decline in normotensive young offspring of essential hypertensives. The kidney may play an important role in the pathogenic and hereditary mechanism of essential hypertension

  18. Parental mental illness and eating disorders in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bould, Helen; Koupil, Ilona; Dalman, Christina; DeStavola, Bianca; Lewis, Glyn; Magnusson, Cecilia

    2015-05-01

    To investigate which parental mental illnesses are associated with eating disorders in their offspring. We used data from a record-linkage cohort study of 158,679 children aged 12-24 years at the end of follow-up, resident in Stockholm County from 2001 to 2007, to investigate whether different parental mental illnesses are risk factors for eating disorders in their offspring. The outcome measure was diagnosis of any eating disorder, either from an ICD or DSM-IV code, or inferred from an appointment at a specialist eating disorder clinic. Mental illness in parents is a risk factor for eating disorders in female offspring (Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR) 1.57 (95% CI 1.42, 1.92), p eating disorders is increased if there is a parental diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder (AHR 2.28 (95% CI 1.39, 3.72), p = 0.004), personality disorder (AHR 1.57 (95% CI 1.01, 2.44), p = 0.043) or anxiety/depression (AHR 1.57 (95% CI 1.32, 1.86), p disorder (AHR 1.25 (95% CI 0.74, 2.13), p = 0.40). There is no support for a relationship between parental substance misuse and eating disorders in children (AHR 1.08 (95% CI 0.82, 1.43), p = 0.57). Parental mental illness, specifically parental anxiety, depression, bipolar affective disorder, and personality disorders, are risk factors for eating disorders in their offspring. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Levels of maternal care in dogs affect adult offspring temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Pernilla; Wilsson, Erik; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-13

    Dog puppies are born in a state of large neural immaturity; therefore, the nervous system is sensitive to environmental influences early in life. In primates and rodents, early experiences, such as maternal care, have been shown to have profound and lasting effects on the later behaviour and physiology of offspring. We hypothesised that this would also be the case for dogs with important implications for the breeding of working dogs. In the present study, variation in the mother-offspring interactions of German Shepherd dogs within the Swedish breeding program for military working dogs was studied by video recording 22 mothers with their litters during the first three weeks postpartum. The aim was to classify mothers with respect to their level of maternal care and to investigate the effect of this care on pup behaviour in a standardised temperament test carried out at approximately 18 months of age. The results show that females differed consistently in their level of maternal care, which significantly affected the adult behaviour of the offspring, mainly with respect to behaviours classified as Physical and Social Engagement, as well as Aggression. Taking maternal quality into account in breeding programs may therefore improve the process of selecting working dogs.

  20. Open Pollinated Offspring for Producing Potatoes from True Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golmirzaie, AM.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Open pollinated (OP offspring offers a cheap propagule for potato production from true seed (TPS. A series of trials in contrasting Peruvian locations including several generations derived by open pollination were carried out to determine the potential of OP for TPS. The results suggest that several generations of OP did not affect the performance of TPS for tuber characteristics. On average, F1 hybrids out-yielded first generation OP offspring, but tuber yield per plot of advanced OP generations (OP5 across locations did not differ significantly from that shown by F1 hybrids. It seems that the effect of potential inbreeding in early OP generations was absent in advanced OP generations, maybe due to selection of heterozygous parents in the preceding generations. Results from sequential harvests showed that initiation and bulking of tubers are slower in advanced generations of OP than in the first OP generation, particularly in the warm tropics. Nonetheless, some OP TPS did not differ significantly for tuber yield across generations, suggesting that farmers may grow commercially selected OP offspring.

  1. Acoustic detection of boiling in the Sodium Loop Safety Facility in-reactor experiment P1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, W.M.; Anderson, T.T.; Bobis, J.P.

    1976-06-01

    Acoustic data were obtained from two high-temperature lithium niobate microphones on the loop background noise and transient pressure pulses during the Sodium Loop Safety Facility (SLSF) P1 in-reactor experiment. This experiment simulated an LMFBR loss-of-piping-integrity (LOPI) transient on a nineteen element, end-of-life, enriched-UO 2 fuel assembly. The microphones were exposed to liquid sodium at a distance 4.85 meters above the reactor core at temperatures between 315 0 and 590 0 C. The distance and location of the microphones in the P1 Test Train provided an attenuative transmission path which was undesirable for optimum acoustic detection of sodium boiling and fuel failure. The data gathered on the loop background noise was observed to be dominated by pump and electrical noise at frequencies below 1.5 KHz and appeared to be dominated by flow induced local turbulence noise at higher frequencies. During the period of time that the sodium in the fuel assembly was at its saturation temperature 943 0 C (1730 0 F), as indicated by the wire wrap thermocouples, several discrete pulses were observed with peak-to-peak pressure between 3.3 kPa and 7.9 kPa and center frequencies between 360 and 550 Hz. The pulses occurred at two separate gradually increasing repetition rates. These observations appear to be consistent with the result of an impulsive forcing function interacting with a band passed Helmholtz resonator. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that sodium boiling occurred in the P1 fuel assembly, resulting in the formation of individual voids that collapsed upon reaching the subcooled sodium. These data provide pertinent information regarding the feasibility of sodium boiling detection and may provide additional insight into the dynamics of the void behavior

  2. P1 plasmid replication: initiator sequestration is inadequate to explain control by initiator-binding sites.

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, S K; Chattoraj, D K

    1988-01-01

    The unit-copy plasmid replicon mini-P1 consists of an origin, a gene for an initiator protein, RepA, and a control locus, incA. Both the origin and the incA locus contain repeat sequences that bind RepA. It has been proposed that the incA repeats control replication by sequestering the rate-limiting RepA initiator protein. Here we show that when the concentration of RepA was increased about fourfold beyond its normal physiological level from an inducible source in trans, the copy number of a ...

  3. Doc of prophage P1 is inhibited by its antitoxin partner Phd through fold complementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Pino, Abel; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Mikkel; Wyns, Lode

    2008-01-01

    Prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin modules are involved in major physiological events set in motion under stress conditions. The toxin Doc (death on curing) from the phd/doc module on phage P1 hosts the C-terminal domain of its antitoxin partner Phd (prevents host death) through fold complementation....... This Phd domain is intrinsically disordered in solution and folds into an alpha-helix upon binding to Doc. The details of the interactions reveal the molecular basis for the inhibitory action of the antitoxin. The complex resembles the Fic (filamentation induced by cAMP) proteins and suggests a possible......-antitoxin locus for its action in vivo....

  4. Electronic Structures of Strained InAs x P1-x by Density Functional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Mi; Kim, Min-Young; Kim, Young Heon

    2018-09-01

    We investigated the effects of strain on the electronic structures of InAsxP1-x using quantum mechanical density functional theory calculations. The electronic band gap and electron effective mass decreased with the increase of the uniaxial tensile strain along the [0001] direction of wurtzite InAs0.75P0.25. Therefore, faster electron movements are expected. These theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental measurements of InAs0.75P0.25 nanowire.

  5. U P1, an example for advanced techniques applied to high level activity dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel-Noel, M.; Calixte, O.; Blanchard, S.; Bani, J.; Girones, P.; Moitrier, C.; Terry, G.; Bourdy, R.

    2014-01-01

    The U P1 plant on the CEA Marcoule site was dedicated to the processing of spend fuels from the G1, G2 and G3 plutonium-producing reactors. This plant represents 20.000 m 2 of workshops housing about 1000 hot cells. In 1998, a huge program for the dismantling and cleaning-up of the UP1 plant was launched. CEA has developed new techniques to face the complexity of the dismantling operations. These techniques include immersive virtual reality, laser cutting, a specific manipulator arm called MAESTRO and remote handling. (A.C.)

  6. A theoretical model of the evolution of maternal effects under parent-offspring conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uller, Tobias; Pen, Ido

    2011-07-01

    The evolution of maternal effects on offspring phenotype should depend on the extent of parent-offspring conflict and costs and constraints associated with maternal and offspring strategies. Here, we develop a model of maternal effects on offspring dispersal phenotype under parent-offspring conflict to evaluate such dependence. In the absence of evolutionary constraints and costs, offspring evolve dispersal rates from different patch types that reflect their own, rather than the maternal, optima. This result also holds true when offspring are unable to assess their own environment because the maternal phenotype provides an additional source of information. Consequently, maternal effects on offspring diapause, dispersal, and other traits that do not necessarily represent costly resource investment are more likely to maximize offspring than maternal fitness. However, when trait expression was costly, the evolutionarily stable dispersal rates tended to deviate from those under both maternal and offspring control. We use our results to (re)interpret some recent work on maternal effects and their adaptive value and provide suggestions for future work. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Maternal depression during pregnancy and offspring depression in adulthood: role of child maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Dominic T.; Pariante, Carmine M.; Sharp, Deborah; Pawlby, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that maternal depression during pregnancy predicts offspring depression in adolescence. Child maltreatment is also a risk factor for depression. Aims To investigate (a) whether there is an association between offspring exposure to maternal depression in pregnancy and depression in early adulthood, and (b) whether offspring child maltreatment mediates this association. Method Prospectively collected data on maternal clinical depression in pregnancy, offspring child maltreatment and offspring adulthood (18–25 years) DSM-IV depression were analysed in 103 mother–offspring dyads of the South London Child Development Study. Results Adult offspring exposed to maternal depression in pregnancy were 3.4 times more likely to have a DSM-IV depressive disorder, and 2.4 times more likely to have experienced child maltreatment, compared with non-exposed offspring. Path analysis revealed that offspring experience of child maltreatment mediated the association between exposure to maternal depression in pregnancy and depression in adulthood. Conclusions Maternal depression in pregnancy is a key vulnerability factor for offspring depression in early adulthood. PMID:26045352

  8. Depressed parents' attachment: effects on offspring suicidal behavior in a longitudinal, family study

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Erica K.; Grunebaum, Michael F.; Galfalvy, Hanga C.; Melhem, Nadine; Burke, Ainsley K.; Brent, David A.; Oquendo, Maria A.; Mann, J. John

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate relationships of depressed parents' attachment style to offspring suicidal behavior. Method 244 parents diagnosed with a DSM-IV depressive episode completed the Adult Attachment Questionnaire at study entry. Baseline and yearly follow-up interviews of their 488 offspring tracked suicidal behavior and psychopathology. Survival analysis and marginal regression models with correlated errors for siblings investigated the relationship between parent insecure attachment traits and offspring characteristics. Data analyzed were collected 1992–2008 during a longitudinal family study completed January 31, 2014. Results Parent avoidant attachment predicted offspring suicide attempts at a trend level (p=0.083). Parent anxious attachment did not predict offspring attempts (p=0.961). In secondary analyses, anxious attachment in parents was associated with offspring impulsivity (p=0.034), and in offspring suicide attempters, was associated with greater intent (p=0.045) and lethality of attempts (p=0.003). Avoidant attachment in parents was associated with offspring impulsivity (p=0.025) and major depressive disorder (p=0.012). Parent avoidant attachment predicted a greater number of suicide attempts (p=0.048) and greater intent in offspring attempters (p=0.003). Results were comparable after adjusting for parent diagnosis of borderline personality disorder. Conclusion Insecure avoidant, but not anxious, attachment in depressed parents may predict offspring suicide attempt. Insecure parent attachment traits were associated with impulsivity and major depressive disorder in all offspring, and with more severe suicidal behavior in offspring attempters. Insecure parental attachment merits further study as a potential target to reduce risk of offspring psychopathology and more severe suicidal behavior. PMID:25098943

  9. FURTHER CONSTRAINTS ON THE OPTICAL TRANSMISSION SPECTRUM OF HAT-P-1b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montalto, M.; Santos, N. C.; Martins, J. H. C.; Figueira, P.; Alonso, R.; Iro, N.; Desidera, S.

    2015-01-01

    We report on novel observations of HAT-P-1 aimed at constraining the optical transmission spectrum of the atmosphere of its transiting hot-Jupiter exoplanet. Ground-based differential spectrophotometry was performed over two transit windows using the DOLORES spectrograph at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo. Our measurements imply an average planet to star radius ratio equal to R p /R * = (0.1159 ± 0.0005). This result is consistent with the value obtained from recent near-infrared measurements of this object, but differs from previously reported optical measurements, being lower by around 4.4 exoplanet scale heights. Analyzing the data over five different spectral bins of ∼600 Å wide, we observed a single peaked spectrum (3.7 σ level) with a blue cutoff corresponding to the blue edge of the broad absorption wing of sodium and an increased absorption in the region in-between 6180 and 7400 Å. We also infer that the width of the broad absorption wings due to alkali metals is likely narrower than the one implied by solar abundance clear atmospheric models. We interpret the result as evidence that HAT-P-1b has a partially clear atmosphere at optical wavelengths with a more modest contribution from an optical absorber than previously reported

  10. FURTHER CONSTRAINTS ON THE OPTICAL TRANSMISSION SPECTRUM OF HAT-P-1b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montalto, M.; Santos, N. C.; Martins, J. H. C.; Figueira, P.; Alonso, R. [Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, PT4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Iro, N. [Theoretical Meteorology Group Klimacampus, University of Hamburg Grindelberg 5, D-20144, Hamburg (Germany); Desidera, S., E-mail: Marco.Montalto@astro.up.pt [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dellOsservatorio 5, Padova, I-35122 (Italy)

    2015-09-20

    We report on novel observations of HAT-P-1 aimed at constraining the optical transmission spectrum of the atmosphere of its transiting hot-Jupiter exoplanet. Ground-based differential spectrophotometry was performed over two transit windows using the DOLORES spectrograph at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo. Our measurements imply an average planet to star radius ratio equal to R{sub p}/R{sub *} = (0.1159 ± 0.0005). This result is consistent with the value obtained from recent near-infrared measurements of this object, but differs from previously reported optical measurements, being lower by around 4.4 exoplanet scale heights. Analyzing the data over five different spectral bins of ∼600 Å wide, we observed a single peaked spectrum (3.7 σ level) with a blue cutoff corresponding to the blue edge of the broad absorption wing of sodium and an increased absorption in the region in-between 6180 and 7400 Å. We also infer that the width of the broad absorption wings due to alkali metals is likely narrower than the one implied by solar abundance clear atmospheric models. We interpret the result as evidence that HAT-P-1b has a partially clear atmosphere at optical wavelengths with a more modest contribution from an optical absorber than previously reported.

  11. Optimization of nonribosomal peptides production by a psychrotrophic fungus: Trichoderma velutinum ACR-P1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Richa; Singh, Varun P; Singh, Deepika; Yusuf, Farnaz; Kumar, Anil; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Chaubey, Asha

    2016-11-01

    Trichoderma is an anamorphic filamentous fungal genus with immense potential for production of small valuable secondary metabolites with indispensable biological activities. Microbial dynamics of a psychrotrophic strain Trichoderma velutinum ACR-P1, isolated from unexplored niches of the Shiwalik region, bestowed with rich biodiversity of microflora, was investigated for production of nonribosomal peptides (NRPs) by metabolite profiling by intact-cell mass spectrometry (ICMS) employing matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometer. Being the first report on NRPs production by T. velutinum, studies on optimization of growth conditions by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for production of NRPs by ACR-P1 was carried out strategically. Multifold enhancement in the yield of NRPs belonging to subfamily SF4 with medium chain of amino acid residues having m/z 1437.9, 1453.9, and 1452.0 at pH 5.9 at 20 °C and of subfamily SF1 with long-chain amino acid residues having m/z 1770.2, 1784.2, 1800.1, 1802.1, and 1815.1 was achieved at pH 7.0 at 25 °C. Complexities of natural mixtures were thus considerably reduced under respective optimized culture conditions accelerating the production of novel microbial natural products by saving time and resources.

  12. Quenching of I(2P1/2) by O3 and O(3P).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azyazov, Valeriy N; Antonov, Ivan O; Heaven, Michael C

    2007-04-26

    Oxygen-iodine lasers that utilize electrical or microwave discharges to produce singlet oxygen are currently being developed. The discharge generators differ from conventional chemical singlet oxygen generators in that they produce significant amounts of atomic oxygen. Post-discharge chemistry includes channels that lead to the formation of ozone. Consequently, removal of I(2P1/2) by O atoms and O3 may impact the efficiency of discharge driven iodine lasers. In the present study, we have measured the rate constants for quenching of I(2P1/2) by O(3P) atoms and O3 using pulsed laser photolysis techniques. The rate constant for quenching by O3, (1.8 +/- 0.4) x 10(-12) cm3 s-1, was found to be a factor of 5 smaller than the literature value. The rate constant for quenching by O(3P) was (1.2 +/- 0.2) x 10(-11) cm3 s-1.

  13. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain, offspring DNA methylation and later offspring adiposity: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Gemma C; Lawlor, Debbie A; Richmond, Rebecca C; Fraser, Abigail; Simpkin, Andrew; Suderman, Matthew; Shihab, Hashem A; Lyttleton, Oliver; McArdle, Wendy; Ring, Susan M; Gaunt, Tom R; Davey Smith, George; Relton, Caroline L

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that in utero exposure to undernutrition and overnutrition might affect adiposity in later life. Epigenetic modification is suggested as a plausible mediating mechanism. Methods: We used multivariable linear regression and a negative control design to examine offspring epigenome-wide DNA methylation in relation to maternal and offspring adiposity in 1018 participants. Results: Compared with neonatal offspring of normal weight mothers, 28 and 1621 CpG sites were differentially methylated in offspring of obese and underweight mothers, respectively [false discovert rate (FDR)-corrected P-value maternal obesity and underweight relate to. A positive association, where higher methylation is associated with a body mass index (BMI) outside the normal range, was seen at 78.6% of the sites associated with obesity and 87.9% of the sites associated with underweight. Associations of maternal obesity with offspring methylation were stronger than associations of paternal obesity, supporting an intrauterine mechanism. There were no consistent associations of gestational weight gain with offspring DNA methylation. In general, sites that were hypermethylated in association with maternal obesity or hypomethylated in association with maternal underweight tended to be positively associated with offspring adiposity, and sites hypomethylated in association with maternal obesity or hypermethylated in association with maternal underweight tended to be inversely associated with offspring adiposity. Conclusions: Our data suggest that both maternal obesity and, to a larger degree, underweight affect the neonatal epigenome via an intrauterine mechanism, but weight gain during pregnancy has little effect. We found some evidence that associations of maternal underweight with lower offspring adiposity and maternal obesity with greater offspring adiposity may be mediated via increased DNA methylation. PMID:25855720

  14. The Split Nucleus of Comet Wilson (C/1986 P1 = 1987 VII).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meech, Karen J.; Knopp, Graham P.; Farnham, Tony L.; Green, Daniel

    1995-07-01

    We present CCD observations of Comet Wilson (C/1986 P1 = 1987 VII) from 26 nights during the time period 1986 October to 1991 February, which brackets perihelion, During the observing run of 1988 February, the comet was observed to have split into two fragments. Our broadband CCD photometry, along with photometry from the International Cometary Quarterly, shows a steady decline in brightness of Comet Wilson post-perihelion, with an outburst between heliocentric distances r = 2.8 and 3.3 AU during 1987 October and November. By r ≈ 7 AU, the fragment had faded with respect to the parent and was no longer centrally condensed. A brightness limit of mR ≈ 25, when the comet was at r = 12.65 AU, constrains the primary nucleus to have a maximum radius between 5 and 7 km, assuming an albedo of 0.04. The accuracy of direct orbital solutions for the parent body and fragment to determine the time of splitting was limited by the presence of significant nongravitational forces and the limited fragment orbital coverage. We used the relative position of the fragment with respect to the parent to calculate a time of splitting which was consistent with the time of the observed outburst. We discuss the possible causes of the splitting. The coma of Comet Wilson was observed to have a surface-brightness profile which fell off as p-1 (characteristic of a canonical steady-state coma under the influence of radiation pressure) for all of the data with the exception of the data taken during 1987 November when the gradient was p-1.3 . This steeper slope was probably caused by the injection of new material into the coma during the outburst. During 1986 October, there was a break in the surface-brightness profile slope which may be interpreted as the distance at which grains are swept into the tail. The profiles suggested grain velocities of a few x 10 2 to 10 m sec -1 for grains between 1 and a few hundred micrometers. Finson-Probstein dust modeling showed that ejection of grains began

  15. Does major depressive disorder in parents predict specific fears and phobias in offspring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biel, Matthew G; Klein, Rachel G; Mannuzza, Salvatore; Roizen, Erica R; Truong, Nhan L; Roberson-Nay, Roxann; Pine, Daniel S

    2008-01-01

    Evidence suggests a relationship between parental depression and phobias in offspring as well as links between childhood fears and risk for major depression. This study examines the relationship between major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders in parents and specific fears and phobias in offspring. Three hundred and eighteen children of parents with lifetime MDD, anxiety disorder, MDD+anxiety disorder, or neither were psychiatrically assessed via parent interview. Rates of specific phobias in offspring did not differ significantly across parental groups. Specific fears were significantly elevated in offspring of parents with MDD+anxiety disorder relative to the other groups (MDD, anxiety disorder, and controls, which did not differ). We failed to find increased phobias in offspring of parents with MDD without anxiety disorder. Elevated rates of specific fears in offspring of parents with MDD+anxiety disorder may be a function of more severe parental psychopathology, increased genetic loading, or unmeasured environmental influences. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Total and Trimester-Specific Gestational Weight Gain and Offspring Birth and Early Childhood Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheers Andersson, Elina; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per

    2016-01-01

    Gestational weight gain (GWG) has in numerous studies been associated with offspring birth weight (BW) and childhood weight. However, these associations might be explained by genetic confounding as offspring inherit their mother's genetic potential to gain weight. Furthermore, little is known about...... whether particular periods of pregnancy could influence offspring body weight differently. We therefore aimed to explore total and trimester-specific effects of GWG in monozygotic (MZ) twin mother-pairs on their offspring's BW, weight at 1 year and body mass index (BMI) at 5 and 10 years. MZ twin mothers...... statistically weak, suggested no associations between GWG and offspring weight or BMI during infancy or childhood. Our study suggests that total, and possibly also second and third trimester, GWG are associated with offspring BW when taking shared genetic and environmental factors within twin pairs into account...

  17. Second order time evolution of the multigroup diffusion and P1 equations for radiation transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, Gordon L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → An existing multigroup transport algorithm is extended to be second-order in time. → A new algorithm is presented that does not require a grey acceleration solution. → The two algorithms are tested with 2D, multi-material problems. → The two algorithms have comparable computational requirements. - Abstract: An existing solution method for solving the multigroup radiation equations, linear multifrequency-grey acceleration, is here extended to be second order in time. This method works for simple diffusion and for flux-limited diffusion, with or without material conduction. A new method is developed that does not require the solution of an averaged grey transport equation. It is effective solving both the diffusion and P 1 forms of the transport equation. Two dimensional, multi-material test problems are used to compare the solution methods.

  18. The P1-approximation for the Distribution of Neutrons from a Pulsed Source in Hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claesson, A.

    1963-12-01

    The asymptotic distribution of neutrons from a pulsed, high energy source in an infinite moderator has been obtained earlier in a 'diffusion' approximation. In that paper the cross section was assumed to be constant over the whole energy region and the time derivative of the first moment was disregarded. Here, first, an analytic expression is obtained for the density in a P 1 -approximation. However, the result is very complicated, and it is shown that an asymptotic solution can be found in a simpler way. By taking into account the low hydrogen scattering cross section at the source energy it follows that the space dependence of the distribution is less than that obtained earlier. The importance of keeping the time derivative of the first moment is further shown in a perturbation approximation

  19. Neutron wave reflexions in interface media with transport equation P1 approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Vellozo, S. de.

    1977-01-01

    The propagation of neutron waves in non multiplying media is investigated employing the Telegrapher's equation obtained from the P 1 approximation of the time, space and energy dependent Boltzmann equation. Solution of the problem of propagation of sinusoidally modulated source incident on one face of the medium is obtained by analysing the Fourier component of a pulsed source introduced, for the corresponding frequency. The amplitude and the phase of the flux are computed as a function of frequency in media consisting of one, two and three regions in order to study the effects of reflection at the interfaces. The results are compared with those from the Diffusion approximation obtained by neglecting the term involving the second order time derivative. (author)

  20. Comment on the search for the charmonium 1P1 and its theoretical interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, F. C.

    1984-10-01

    We comment on a recent paper which discusses the theoretical implications of the Crystal Ball search for the 1P1 state of charmonium. On behalf of the Crystal Ball collaboration: California Institute of Technology - C. Edwards, R. Partridge, C. Peck, F. Porter; Harvard University - D. Antreasyan, Y.F. Gu, K. Strauch, K. Wacker, A. Weinstein; Princeton University - D. Aschman, M. Cavalli-Sforza, D. Coyne, C. Newman-Holmes, H. Sadrozinski; Stanford Linear Accelerator Center - E. Bloom, F. Bulos, G. Godfrey, C. Kiesling, W. Lockman, M. Oreglia; Stanford University - D. Gelphman, R. Hofstadter, R. Horisberger, I. Kirkbride, H. Kolanoski, K. Königsmann, R. Lee, A. Osterheld, B. Pollock and J. Tompkins.

  1. Maternal Rat Diabetes Mellitus Deleteriously Affects Insulin Sensitivity and Beta-Cell Function in the Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Baset M. Aref

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the effect of maternal diabetes in rats on serum glucose and insulin concentrations, insulin resistance, histological architecture of pancreas and glycogen content in liver of offspring. The pregnant rat females were allocated into two main groups: normal control group and streptozotocin-induced diabetic group. After birth, the surviving offspring were subjected to biochemical and histological examination immediately after delivery and at the end of the 1st and 2nd postnatal weeks. In comparison with the offspring of normal control dams, the fasting serum glucose level of offspring of diabetic mothers was significantly increased at the end of the 1st and 2nd postnatal weeks. Serum insulin level of offspring of diabetic dams was significantly higher at birth and decreased significantly during the following 2 postnatal weeks, while in normal rat offspring, it was significantly increased with progress of time. HOMA Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR was significantly increased in the offspring of diabetic dams at birth and after 1 week than in normal rat offspring, while HOMA insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS was significantly decreased. HOMA beta-cell function was significantly decreased at all-time intervals in offspring of diabetic dams. At birth, islets of Langerhans as well as beta cells in offspring of diabetic dams were hypertrophied. The cells constituting islets seemed to have a high division rate. However, beta-cells were degenerated during the following 2 post-natal weeks and smaller insulin secreting cells predominated. Vacuolation and necrosis of the islets of Langerhans were also observed throughout the experimental period. The carbohydrate content in liver of offspring of diabetic dams was at all-time intervals lower than that in control. The granule distribution was more random. Overall, the preexisting maternal diabetes leads to glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and impaired insulin sensitivity and

  2. Family environment and psychopathology in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Phoebe; Hawes, David J; Hunt, Caroline; Frankland, Andrew; Roberts, Gloria; Wright, Adam; Costa, Daniel S J; Mitchell, Philip B

    2018-01-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between family environment (cohesion and parental bonding), high-risk status, and psychopathology (internalizing and externalizing problems) among offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BD), from the perspective of both offspring and their parents. We further tested if family environment mediated the relationship between bipolar risk status and internalizing and externalizing problems. High-risk (n = 90) BD offspring and control (n = 56) offspring aged 12-21 years old, and their parents, completed questionnaires on family cohesion and offspring internalizing and externalizing problems. Offspring also completed a parental bonding questionnaire. Group differences were examined, followed by multi-level mediation analysis with maximum likelihood and robust standard errors. Both offspring and parents in the high-risk group reported higher levels of internalizing and externalizing problems than controls. According to offspring reports, high-risk status, lower maternal and paternal care in parental bonding, was independently associated with internalizing problems. Lower maternal care alone predicted externalizing problems. Family environment did not mediate the relationship between bipolar risk status, and offspring problems. Due to rates of missing data from parent reports of offspring psychopathology, mediation analysis was completed using offspring reports. The offspring-report data presented indicate that low parental warmth and connection were associated with internalizing and externalizing problems as an independent risk factor, in addition to bipolar risk status. The parent-child relationship therefore warrants attention as a potential target for prevention strategies with such families. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Paternal care in a fish: epigenetics and fitness enhancing effects on offspring anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    McGhee, Katie E.; Bell, Alison M.

    2014-01-01

    In many animals, including humans, interactions with caring parents can have long-lasting effects on offspring sensitivity to stressors. However, whether these parental effects impact offspring fitness in nature is often unclear. In addition, despite evidence that maternal care can influence offspring behaviour via epigenetic alterations to the genome, it remains unclear whether paternal care has similar effects. Here, we show in three-spined sticklebacks, a fish in which fathers are the sole...

  4. Animal models of maternal nutrition and altered offspring bone structure – Bone development across the lifecourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Lanham

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that the likelihood of offspring developing heart disease, stroke, or diabetes in later life, is influenced by the their in utero environment and maternal nutrition. There is increasing epidemiological evidence that osteoporosis in the offspring may also be influenced by the mother’s nutrition during pregnancy. This review provides evidence from a range of animal models that supports the epidemiological data; suggesting that lifelong bone development and growth in offspring is determined during gestation.

  5. Current Parental Depression and Offspring Perceived Self-Competence: A Quasi-Experimental Examination

    OpenAIRE

    Class, Quetzal A.; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Singh, Amber L.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Spotts, E. L.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2012-01-01

    A genetically-informed, quasi-experimental design was used to examine the genetic and environmental processes underlying associations between current parental depressive symptoms and offspring perceived self-competence. Participants, drawn from a population-based Swedish sample, were 852 twin pairs and their male (52%) and female offspring aged 15.7 ± 2.4 years. Parental depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Offspring perceived self-c...

  6. Paternal stress prior to conception alters DNA methylation and behaviour of developing rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mychasiuk, R; Harker, A; Ilnytskyy, S; Gibb, R

    2013-06-25

    Although there has been an abundance of research focused on offspring outcomes associated with maternal experiences, there has been limited examination of the relationship between paternal experiences and offspring brain development. As spermatogenesis is a continuous process, experiences that have the ability to alter epigenetic regulation in fathers may actually change developmental trajectories of offspring. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of paternal stress prior to conception on behaviour and the epigenome of both male and female developing rat offspring. Male Long-Evans rats were stressed for 27 consecutive days and then mated with control female rats. Early behaviour was tested in offspring using the negative geotaxis task and the open field. At P21 offspring were sacrificed and global DNA methylation levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex were analysed. Paternal stress prior to conception altered behaviour of all offspring on the negative geotaxis task, delaying acquisition of the task. In addition, male offspring demonstrated a reduction in stress reactivity in the open field paradigm spending more time than expected in the centre of the open field. Paternal stress also altered DNA methylation patterns in offspring at P21, global methylation was reduced in the frontal cortex of female offspring, but increased in the hippocampus of both male and female offspring. The results from this study clearly demonstrate that paternal stress during spermatogenesis can influence offspring behaviour and DNA methylation patterns, and these affects occur in a sex-dependent manner. Development takes place in the centre of a complex interaction between maternal, paternal, and environmental influences, which combine to produce the various phenotypes and individual differences that we perceive. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. SPITZER IRAC SECONDARY ECLIPSE PHOTOMETRY OF THE TRANSITING EXTRASOLAR PLANET HAT-P-1b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, Kamen; Deming, Drake; Harrington, Jospeph; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Bowman, William C.; Nymeyer, Sarah; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Bakos, Gaspar A.

    2010-01-01

    We report Spitzer/IRAC photometry of the transiting giant exoplanet HAT-P-1b during its secondary eclipse. This planet lies near the postulated boundary between the pM and pL-class of hot Jupiters, and is important as a test of models for temperature inversions in hot Jupiter atmospheres. We derive eclipse depths for HAT-P-1b, in units of the stellar flux, that are: 0.080% ± 0.008% [3.6 μm], 0.135% ± 0.022% [4.5 μm], 0.203% ± 0.031% [5.8 μm], and 0.238% ± 0.040% [8.0 μm]. These values are best fit using an atmosphere with a modest temperature inversion, intermediate between the archetype inverted atmosphere (HD 209458b) and a model without an inversion. The observations also suggest that this planet is radiating a large fraction of the available stellar irradiance on its dayside, with little available for redistribution by circulation. This planet has sometimes been speculated to be inflated by tidal dissipation, based on its large radius in discovery observations, and on a non-zero orbital eccentricity allowed by the radial velocity data. The timing of the secondary eclipse is very sensitive to orbital eccentricity, and we find that the central phase of the eclipse is 0.4999 ± 0.0005. The difference between the expected and observed phase indicates that the orbit is close to circular, with a 3σ limit of |e cos ω| < 0.002.

  8. Increased metabolic risk in adolescent offspring of mothers with type 1 diabetes: The EPICOM study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachová, Zuzana; Bytoft, Birgitte; Knorr, Sine

    2015-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We aimed to investigate metabolic risk factors, insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in adolescent offspring of mothers with type 1 diabetes compared with offspring of non-diabetic mothers. METHODS: During 1993-1999, pregnancies of women with type 1 diabetes in Denmark were...... with offspring metabolic outcomes. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Adolescent offspring of mothers with type 1 diabetes had a less favourable metabolic profile and higher frequency of prediabetes than the background population. Significant associations between these outcomes and maternal HbA1c levels in pregnancy...

  9. Gray Matter Volume Decrease Distinguishes Schizophrenia From Bipolar Offspring During Childhood and Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugranyes, Gisela; de la Serna, Elena; Romero, Soledad; Sanchez-Gistau, Vanessa; Calvo, Anna; Moreno, Dolores; Baeza, Inmaculada; Diaz-Caneja, Covadonga M; Sanchez-Gutierrez, Teresa; Janssen, Joost; Bargallo, Nuria; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2015-08-01

    There is increasing support toward the notion that schizophrenia and bipolar disorder share neurodevelopmental underpinnings, although areas of divergence remain. We set out to examine gray matter volume characteristics of child and adolescent offspring of patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder comparatively. In this 2-center study, magnetic resonance structural neuroimaging data were acquired in 198 children and adolescents (aged 6-17 years): 38 offspring of patients with schizophrenia, 77 offspring of patients with bipolar disorder, and 83 offspring of community controls. Analyses of global brain volumes and voxel-based morphometry (using familywise error correction) were conducted. There was an effect of group on total cerebral gray matter volume (F = 3.26, p = .041), driven by a decrease in offspring of patients with schizophrenia relative to offspring of controls (p = .035). At a voxel-based level, we observed an effect of group in the left inferior frontal cortex/anterior insula (F = 14.7, p bipolar disorder (p bipolar disorder and offspring of controls in either global or voxel-based gray matter volumes. This first comparative study between offspring of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder suggests that gray matter volume reduction in childhood and adolescence may be specific to offspring of patients with schizophrenia; this may index a greater neurodevelopmental impact of risk for schizophrenia relative to bipolar disorder during youth. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Habitat structure influences parent-offspring association in a social lizard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Botterill-James

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Parental care emerges as a result of an increase in the extent of interaction between parents and their offspring. These interactions can provide the foundation for the evolution of a range of complex parental behaviors. Therefore, fundamental to understanding the evolution of parental care is an understanding of the factors that promote this initial increase in parent-offspring association. Here, we used large outdoor enclosures to test how the spatial structure of high-quality habitat affects the occurrence of parent-offspring associations in a social lizard (Liopholis whitii. We found that the extent of parent-offspring association was higher when high-quality habitat was aggregated relative to when it was dispersed. This may be the result of greater competitive exclusion of adults and offspring from high quality crevices sites in the aggregated treatment compared to the dispersed treatment. Associating with parents had significant benefits for offspring growth and body condition but there were no concomitant effects on offspring survival. We did not find costs of parent-offspring association for parents in terms of increased harassment and loss of body condition. We discuss a number of potential mechanisms underlying these results. Regardless of mechanisms, our results suggest that habitat structure may shape the extent of parent-offspring association in L. whitti, and that highly aggregated habitats may set the stage for the diversification of more complex forms of care observed across closely related species.

  11. Parental and embryonic experiences with predation risk affect prey offspring behaviour and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donelan, Sarah C; Trussell, Geoffrey C

    2018-03-14

    Because phenotypic plasticity can operate both within and between generations, phenotypic outcomes are often shaped by a complex history of environmental signals. For example, parental and embryonic experiences with predation risk can both independently and interactively influence prey offspring traits early in their life. Parental and embryonic risk experiences can also independently shape offspring phenotypes throughout an offspring's ontogeny, but the persistence of their interactive effects throughout offspring ontogeny is unknown. We examined the effects of parental and embryonic experiences with predation risk on the response of 1-year-old prey (the carnivorous snail, Nucella lapillus ) offspring to current predation risk. We found that parental and embryonic risk experiences had largely independent effects on offspring performance and that these effects were context dependent. Parental experience with risk had strong impacts on multiple offspring traits in the presence of current risk that generally improved offspring performance under risk, but embryonic risk experience had relatively weaker effects and only operated in the absence of current risk to reduce offspring growth. These results illustrate that past environmental experiences can dynamically shape organism phenotypes across ontogeny and that attention to these effects is key to a better understanding of predator/prey dynamics in natural systems. © 2018 The Author(s).

  12. Maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy in relation to offspring forearm fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sesilje Elise Bondo; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Olsen, Sjurdur F

    2015-01-01

    Limited evidence exists for an association between maternal diet during pregnancy and offspring bone health. In a prospective study, we examined the association between dietary patterns in mid-pregnancy and offspring forearm fractures. In total, 101,042 pregnancies were recruited to the Danish...... associated with offspring forearm fractures (p = 0.02). In the large prospective DNBC high mid-pregnancy consumption of Western diet and artificially sweetened soft drinks, respectively, indicated positive associations with offspring forearm fractures, which provides interesting hypotheses for future...

  13. Adrenocortical responses to offspring-directed threats in two open-nesting birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Luke K; Bisson, Isabelle-Anne; Hayden, Timothy J; Wikelski, Martin; Romero, L Michael

    2009-07-01

    Dependent young are often easy targets for predators, so for many parent vertebrates, responding to offspring-directed threats is a fundamental part of reproduction. We tested the parental adrenocortical response of the endangered black-capped vireo (Vireo atricapilla) and the common white-eyed vireo (V. griseus) to acute and chronic threats to their offspring. Like many open-nesting birds, our study species experience high offspring mortality. Parents responded behaviorally to a predator decoy or human 1-2m from their nests, but, in contrast to similar studies of cavity-nesting birds, neither these acute threats nor chronic offspring-directed threats altered plasma corticosterone concentrations of parents. Although parents in this study showed no corticosterone response to offspring-directed threats, they always increased corticosterone concentrations in response to capture. To explain these results, we propose that parents perceive their risk of nest-associated death differently depending on nest type, with cavity-nesting adults perceiving greater risk to themselves than open-nesters that can readily detect and escape from offspring-directed threats. Our results agree with previous studies suggesting that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, a major physiological mechanism for coping with threats to survival, probably plays no role in coping with threats to offspring when risks to parents and offspring are not correlated. We extend that paradigm by demonstrating that nest style may influence how adults perceive the correlation between offspring-directed and self-directed threats.

  14. Gestational diabetes and offspring birth size at elevated environmental pollutant exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valvi, Damaskini; Oulhote, Youssef; Weihe, Pal

    2017-01-01

    examined whether GDM may mediate or modify the associations between maternal environmental pollutant exposures and offspring birth size measures. METHODS: We analyzed 604 Faroese pregnant women and their offsprings born in 1997-2000. Maternal pregnancy serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds (OCs...... circumference in boys, and positive or null associations in girls. None of the environmental pollutants was associated with offspring length. GDM neither modified nor mediated the associations with birth size measures. CONCLUSIONS: We found associations with GDM and offspring birth size to be specific...... to the environmental pollutant or pollutant group. Associations with birth size measures appear to be independent of GDM occurrence....

  15. Selective organ specific inflammation in offspring harbouring microchimerism from strongly alloreactive mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveque, Lucie; Hodgson, Samantha; Peyton, Stephen; Koyama, Motoko; MacDonald, Kelli P A; Khosrotehrani, Kiarash

    2014-05-01

    The origins of autoimmunity are not yet understood despite significant advances in immunology. The trafficking of maternal cells to the offspring represents the very first immunological event in foetal life and is reinforced during lactation. The persistence of maternal cells in offspring's tissues and circulation has been associated with several autoimmune disorders. However a direct causal effect has never been demonstrated. Maternal T cells specifically targeting foetal insulin producing cells have been shown to generate islet inflammation without directly participating in this process. Our objective was to evaluate if alloreactive maternal cells could directly trigger a graft-versus host like reaction or indirectly influence the development of the offspring's regulatory T cells favouring autoimmunity. We adopted a breeding strategy comparing genetically identical offspring from either strongly alloreactive transgenic mothers compared to immunodeficient mothers. We detected maternal alloreactive T cells in the offspring and early signs of inflammation in small intestine of 6 weeks old offspring. Interestingly, CD4(+) Foxp3(+) regulatory T cell frequency was diminished in mesenteric lymph nodes from eight months old offspring born of alloreactive mothers compared to offspring of immunodeficient mothers. Our study favours a hypothesis where highly alloreactive maternal cell microchimerism indirectly predisposes offspring to autoimmunity. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Parenting behaviours associated with the development of adaptive and maladaptive offspring personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey G; Liu, Lydia; Cohen, Patricia

    2011-08-01

    To investigate the associations of beneficial parenting behaviours with adaptive and maladaptive offspring personality traits that persist into adulthood among individuals in the community. Families (n = 669) participating in the Children in the Community Study were interviewed during the childhood, adolescence, emerging adulthood, and adulthood of the offspring at the mean ages of 6, 14, 16, 22, and 33 years. Twelve types of beneficial maternal and paternal child-rearing behaviour, reported by offspring at the mean age of 16 years, were associated with elevated offspring personality resiliency, at the mean ages of 22 and 33 years, and with low offspring personality disorder trait levels. These longitudinal associations remained significant when histories of childhood behaviour problems and parental psychiatric disorder were controlled statistically. Similar linear (that is, dose-dependent) associations were observed between the number of beneficial parenting behaviours during childhood and adaptive and maladaptive offspring traits at the mean ages of 22 and 33 years. Maternal and paternal behaviours were independently associated with both adaptive and maladaptive offspring traits. Beneficial maternal and paternal child-rearing behaviours may promote the development of adaptive offspring personality traits that endure into adulthood, and they may be prospectively associated with reduced levels of maladaptive offspring traits. These associations may not be attributable to childhood behaviour problems or parental psychiatric disorders, and they may be equally evident during early and middle adulthood.

  17. Comparison of iron status and insulin resistance between non-diabetic offspring of type 2 diabetics and non-diabetic offspring of non-diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, U.; Qureshi, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance is positively correlated with body iron. It is unclear whether iron is a cause or an outcome of insulin resistance. Insulin resistance precedes type 2 diabetes mellitus. Offspring of type 2 diabetics are insulin resistant as compared to those of the non-diabetics. The present study was designed to compare and correlate insulin resistance with iron parameters (including serum ferritin, transferrin saturation and blood haemoglobin) in non-diabetic offspring of type 2 diabetics and non-diabetic offspring of non-diabetics. Methods: It was a cross-sectional study, conducted on one hundred and twenty male subjects 20-40 years of age. They were divided into two groups, each group having 60 subjects. Group A included non-diabetic offspring of type 2 diabetics, while Group B included non-diabetic offspring of non-diabetics. Fasting blood sample was taken and examined for glucose, haemoglobin, insulin, iron, TIBC and ferritin. Data was analysed by SPSS-17. Results: Insulin resistance and iron parameters were significantly higher (p<0.05) in non-diabetic offspring of type 2 diabetics as compared to those of the non-diabetics. There was significant positive correlation (p=0.027) between insulin resistance and serum iron in non-diabetic offspring of type 2 diabetics. There was also significant positive correlation between insulin resistance and serum iron, transferrin saturation and haemoglobin in non-diabetic offspring of non-diabetics. Conclusion: Non-diabetic offspring of type 2 diabetics have iron load and insulin resistance, that predispose them to the development of type 2 diabetes. (author)

  18. Parent-offspring conflict over family size in current China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghua; Duan, Chongli; Lummaa, Virpi

    2017-05-06

    In China, the recent replacement of the one-child policy with a two-child policy could potentially change family ecology-parents may switch investment from exclusively one child to two. The parent-offspring conflict theory provides testable hypotheses concerning possible firstborn opposition toward further reproduction of their mother, and who wins the conflict. We tested the hypotheses that if there is any opposition, it will differ between sexes, weaken with offspring age and family resource availability, and affect maternal reproductive decision-making. Using survey data of 531 non-pregnant mothers of only one child from Xi'an (China), logistic regression was used to examine effects of age, family income, and sex on the attitudes of firstborn children toward having a sibling; ordinal regression was used to investigate how such attitudes affect maternal intention to reproduce again. Firstborns' unsupportive attitude toward their mothers' further reproduction weakened with age and was overall more frequent in low-income families. Sons' unsupportive tendency displayed a somewhat U-shaped relationship, whereas daughters' weakened with family income; consequently, sons were more likely than daughters to be unsupportive in high-income families, suggesting a tendency to be more demanding. Forty-nine percent of mothers supported by their firstborns intended to reproduce again, whilst only 9% of mothers not supported by firstborns had such an intention. Our study contributes to evolutionary literature on parent-offspring conflict and its influence on female reproductive strategy in modern human societies, and has also important implications for understanding fertility patterns and conducting interventions in family conflict in China. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The generation of live offspring from vitrified oocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Gabriel Sanchez-Partida

    Full Text Available Oocyte cryopreservation is extremely beneficial for assisted reproductive technologies, the treatment of infertility and biotechnology and offers a viable alternative to embryo freezing and ovarian grafting approaches for the generation of embryonic stem cells and live offspring. It also offers the potential to store oocytes to rescue endangered species by somatic cell nuclear transfer and for the generation of embryonic stem cells to study development in these species. We vitrified mouse oocytes using a range of concentrations of trehalose (0 to 0.3 M and demonstrated that 0.1 and 0.3 M trehalose had similar developmental rates, which were significantly different to the 0.2 M cohort (P<0.05. As mitochondria are important for fertilisation outcome, we observed that the clustering and distribution of mitochondria of the 0.2 M cohort were more affected by vitifrication than the other groups. Nevertheless, all 3 cohorts were able to develop to blastocyst, following in vitro fertilisation, although developmental rates were better for the 0.1 and 0.3 M cohorts than the 0.2 M cohort (P<0.05. Whilst blastocysts gave rise to embryonic stem-like cells, it was apparent from immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR that these cells did not demonstrate true pluripotency and exhibited abnormal karyotypes. However, they gave rise to teratomas following injection into SCID mice and differentiated into cells of each of the germinal layers following in vitro differentiation. The transfer of 2-cell embryos from the 0.1 and 0.3 M cohorts resulted in the birth of live offspring that had normal karyotypes (9/10. When 2-cell embryos from vitrified oocytes underwent vitrification, and were thawed and transferred, live offspring were obtained that exhibited normal karyotypes, with the exception of one offspring who was larger and died at 7 months. We conclude that these studies highlight the importance of the endometrial environment for the maintenance of genetic stability and

  20. Vitamin D status during Pregnancy and Aspects of Offspring Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Halliday

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Low maternal vitamin D levels during pregnancy have been linked to various health outcomes in the offspring, ranging from periconceptional effects to diseases of adult onset. Maternal and infant cord 25(OHD levels are highly correlated. Here, we review the available evidence for these adverse health effects. Most of the evidence has arisen from observational epidemiological studies, but randomized controlled trials are now underway. The evidence to date supports that women should be monitored and treated for vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy but optimal and upper limit serum 25(OHD levels during pregnancy are not known.

  1. Increasing synthetic serum substitute (SSS) concentrations in P1 glucose/phosphate-free medium improves implantation rate: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Yosef, D; Yovel, I; Schwartz, T; Azem, F; Lessing, J B; Amit, A

    2001-11-01

    To assess the comparative efficacy of IVF medium (MediCult, with 5.2 mM glucose) and a glucose/phosphate-free medium, P1 (Irvine Scientific), and to investigate the influence of increasing the serum supplementation (synthetic serum substitute; SSS; Irvine Scientific) to P1 on embryo development and implantation. Patients were randomly assigned to IVF medium (Group 1, cycles n = 172) or P1 supplemented with 10% SSS (Group 2, cycles n = 229) according to the medium scheduled for use on the day of oocyte retrieval. Another 555 IVF consequent cycles (Group 3) were performed using increased SSS concentrations (20%) in P1 medium. In this large series of IVF cycles, we herein demonstrate that significantly higher pregnancy and implantation rates were found when embryos were cultured in glucose/phosphate-free medium P1 supplemented with 20% SSS compared to supplementation with the lower SSS concentration and with IVF medium.

  2. Explaining risk for suicidal ideation in adolescent offspring of mothers with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerton, G; Zammit, S; Thapar, A; Collishaw, S

    2016-01-01

    It is well-established that offspring of depressed mothers are at increased risk for suicidal ideation. However, pathways involved in the transmission of risk for suicidal ideation from depressed mothers to offspring are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of potential mediators of this association, including maternal suicide attempt, offspring psychiatric disorder and the parent-child relationship. Data were utilized from a population-based birth cohort (ALSPAC). Three distinct classes of maternal depression symptoms across the first 11 years of the child's life had already been identified (minimal, moderate, chronic-severe). Offspring suicidal ideation was assessed at age 16 years. Data were analysed using structural equation modelling. There was evidence for increased risk of suicidal ideation in offspring of mothers with chronic-severe depression symptoms compared to offspring of mothers with minimal symptoms (odds ratio 3.04, 95% confidence interval 2.19-4.21). The majority of this association was explained through maternal suicide attempt and offspring psychiatric disorder. There was also evidence for an independent indirect effect via the parent-child relationship in middle childhood. There was no longer evidence of a direct effect of maternal depression on offspring suicidal ideation after accounting for all three mediators. The pattern of results was similar when examining mechanisms for maternal moderate depression symptoms. Findings highlight that suicide prevention efforts in offspring of depressed mothers should be particularly targeted at both offspring with a psychiatric disorder and offspring whose mothers have made a suicide attempt. Interventions aimed at improving the parent-child relationship may also be beneficial.

  3. Solutions of system of P1 equations without use of auxiliary differential equations coupled; Solucoes do sistema de equacoes P1 sem o uso de equacoes diferenciais auxiliares acopladas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da; Cardoso, Carlos Eduardo Santos [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2000-07-01

    The system of P1 equations is composed by two equations coupled itself one for the neutron flux and other for the current. Usually this system is solved by definitions of two integrals parameters, which are named slowing down densities of the flux and the current. Hence, the system P1 can be change from integral to only two differential equations. However, there are two new differentials equations that may be solved with the initial system. The present work analyzes this procedure and studies a method, which solve the P1 equations directly, without definitions of slowing down densities. (author)

  4. Space dependent neutron slowing and thermalization in monatomic hydrogen gas in the P-1 approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musazay, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    A solution to the space and energy dependent neutron transport equation in the framework of the consistent P-1 approximation is sought. The transport equation for thermal neutrons in a moderator of 1/v absorption and constant scattering cross section is changed into a set of coupled partial differential equations. The space dependent part is removed by assuming a cosine shaped flux due to a cosine shaped source at a very high energy. The resulting set of strongly coupled ordinary differential equations is decoupled by assuming expansion of collision density in the powers of a leakage parameter whose coefficients are energy and absorption dependent. These energy dependent coefficients are solutions of a set of weakly coupled differential equations. Series solutions to these differential equations in powers of epsilon and 1/epsilon, where epsilon = E/kT, E being the neutron energy and kT the moderator temperature in units of energy, are found. The properties of these solutions are studied extensively. Absorption appears as a parameter in the coefficients of the series. The difficulties arising in choosing the correct form of the asymptotic solutions are resolved by comparing slowing and thermalization. The limitations on the size of the slab and on the range of absorption are included in the analysis

  5. Variational P1 approximations of general-geometry multigroup transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rulko, R.P.; Tomasevic, D.; Larsen, E.W.

    1995-01-01

    A variational approximation is developed for general-geometry multigroup transport problems with arbitrary anisotropic scattering. The variational principle is based on a functional that approximates a reaction rate in a subdomain of the system. In principle, approximations that result from this functional ''optimally'' determine such reaction rates. The functional contains an arbitrary parameter α and requires the approximate solutions of a forward and an adjoint transport problem. If the basis functions for the forward and adjoint solutions are chosen to be linear functions of the angular variable Ω, the functional yields the familiar multigroup P 1 equations for all values of α. However, the boundary conditions that result from the functional depend on α. In particular, for problems with vacuum boundaries, one obtains the conventional mixed boundary condition, but with an extrapolation distance that depends continuously on α. The choice α = 0 yields a generalization of boundary conditions derived earlier by Federighi and Pomraning for a more limited class of problems. The choice α = 1 yields a generalization of boundary conditions derived previously by Davis for monoenergetic problems. Other boundary conditions are obtained by choosing different values of α. The authors discuss this indeterminancy of α in conjunction with numerical experiments

  6. The Properties of Sintered Calcium Phosphate with [Ca]/[P] = 1.50

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo-Chin Wang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain the properties of the sintered as-dried calcium phosphate with [Ca]/[P] = 1.50, the characteristics of sintered pellets have been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR spectra, Vickers hardness indentation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. When the pellet samples were sintered between 700 °C and 1200 °C for 4 h, the hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO46(OH2, HA still maintained the major phase, accompanied with the rhenanite (NaCaPO4 as the secondary phase and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-Ca3(PO42, β-TCP as the minor phases. In addition, the HA partially transformed to α-tricalcium phosphate (α-Ca3(PO42, α-TCP and tetracalcium phosphate (Ca4(PO42O, TTCP, when the pellet samples were sintered at 1300 °C and 1400 °C, respectively, for 4 h. The maximum density and Vickers Hardness (HV of sintered pellet samples were 2.85 g/cm3 (90.18% theoretical density (T.D. and 407, which appeared at 1200 °C and 900 °C, respectively.

  7. Pressure effects on the magnetocaloric properties of MnFeP1-x As x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueck, E.; Kamarad, J.; Sechovsky, V.; Arnold, Z.; Tegus, O.; Boer, F.R. de

    2007-01-01

    We studied the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of the potential magnetic-refrigerant materials MnFeP 1- x As x with x=0.35 and 0.55. While applied pressure reduces both the Curie temperature and magnetic moment of the former compound, the Curie temperature of the latter is increased whereas the moment is hardly affected by pressure. The same trends are seen in the magnetocaloric properties. These results indicate a different character of the magnetism in these two materials. While the compound with x=0.35 exhibits a volume instability like a weak itinerant ferromagnet, whereas the one with x=0.55 behaves as a strong itinerant ferromagnet. An alternative scenario may be formulated within the localized-moment picture. One may interpret the effect of pressure on the compound with x=0.35 as an indication of pressure-induced enhancement of antiferromagnetic interactions. This latter interpretation is offered by a pronounced enhancement of the high-field susceptibility under pressure

  8. Understanding the Biocompatibility of Sintered Calcium Phosphate with Ratio of [Ca]/[P] = 1.50

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Lin Yen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biocompatibility of sintered calcium phosphate pellets with [Ca]/[P] = 1.50 was determined in this study. Calcium pyrophosphate (CPP phase formed on the sintered pellets immersed in a normal saline solution for 14 d at 37∘C. The intensities of hydroxyapatite (HA reflections in the X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns of the pellets were retrieved to as-sintered state. The pellet surface morphology shows that CPP crystallites were clearly present and make an amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP to discriminate against become to the area of slice join together. In addition, the intensities of the CPP reflections in the XRD patterns were the highest when the pellets were immersed for 28 d. When the CPP powders were extracted from the pellets after immersion in the solution for 14 d, the viability of 3T3 cells remained above 90% for culture times from 1 to 4 d. The pellet surface morphology observed using optical microscopy showed that the cells did not adhere to the bottom of the sintered pellets when cultured for 4 d; however, some CPP phase precipitates were formed, as confirmed by XRD. In consequence, the results suggest that the sintered HA powders are good materials for use in biomedical applications because of their good biocompatibility.

  9. Population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ponesimod, a selective S1P1 receptor modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Andreas; Brossard, Patrick; D'Ambrosio, Daniele; Dingemanse, Jasper

    2014-06-01

    Ponesimod (ACT-128800), a reversible, orally active, selective S1P1 receptor modulator, prevents the egress of lymphocytes from the lymph node into the systemic circulation. It is currently in clinical development for the treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis. Modulation of circulating lymphocytes serves as biomarker of efficacy and safety, such that the quantitative characterization of the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationship guides the clinical development of the compound. The availability of a variety of doses, dosing regimens, and treatment durations permitted estimation of the pharmacokinetics characterized by an absorption lag time followed by a sequential zero/first-order absorption and two compartments with first-order elimination. The PD are modeled as an indirect-effect model with rates of appearance and disappearance of lymphocytes in blood with a circadian rhythm and a drug effect on the rate of appearance. The model suggests a circadian variation of 9% and a maximum inhibition of 86% of total lymphocyte count with high doses at steady state. It was instrumental for the selection of doses for subsequent studies that confirmed the effect plateau in total lymphocyte count at approximately 0.5 × 10(9) counts/L.

  10. 64Cu-Labeled LyP-1-Dendrimer for PET-CT Imaging of Atherosclerotic Plaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The ability to detect and quantify macrophage accumulation can provide important diagnostic and prognostic information for atherosclerotic plaque. We have previously shown that LyP-1, a cyclic 9-amino acid peptide, binds to p32 proteins on activated macrophages, facilitating the visualization of atherosclerotic plaque with PET. Yet, the in vivo plaque accumulation of monomeric [18F]FBA-LyP-1 was low (0.31 ± 0.05%ID/g). To increase the avidity of LyP-1 constructs to p32, we synthesized a dendritic form of LyP-1 on solid phase using lysine as the core structural element. Imaging probes (FAM or 6-BAT) were conjugated to a lysine or cysteine on the dendrimer for optical and PET studies. The N-terminus of the dendrimer was further modified with an aminooxy group in order to conjugate LyP-1 and ARAL peptides bearing a ketone. Oxime ligation of peptides to both dendrimers resulted in (LyP-1)4- and (ARAL)4-dendrimers with optical (FAM) and PET probes (6-BAT). For PET-CT studies, (LyP-1)4- and (ARAL)4-dendrimer-6-BAT were labeled with 64Cu (t1/2 = 12.7 h) and intravenously injected into the atherosclerotic (ApoE–/–) mice. After two hours of circulation, PET-CT coregistered images demonstrated greater uptake of the (LyP-1)4-dendrimer-64Cu than the (ARAL)4-dendrimer-64Cu in the aortic root and descending aorta. Ex vivo images and the biodistribution acquired at three hours after injection also demonstrated a significantly higher uptake of the (LyP-1)4-dendrimer-64Cu (1.1 ± 0.26%ID/g) than the (ARAL)4-dendrimer-64Cu (0.22 ± 0.05%ID/g) in the aorta. Similarly, subcutaneous injection of the LyP-1-dendrimeric carriers resulted in preferential accumulation in plaque-containing regions over 24 h. In the same model system, ex vivo fluorescence images within aortic plaque depict an increased accumulation and penetration of the (LyP-1)4-dendrimer-FAM as compared to the (ARAL)4-dendrimer-FAM. Taken together, the results suggest that the (LyP-1)4-dendrimer can be applied for in

  11. Maternal Methyl Supplemented Diets and Effects on Offspring Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel J. O'Neill

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Women seeking to become pregnant and pregnant women are currently advised to consume high amounts of folic acid and other methyl donors to prevent neural tube defects in their offspring. These diets can alter methylation patterns of several biomolecules, including nucleic acids and histone proteins. Limited animal model data suggests that developmental exposure to these maternal methyl supplemented (MS diets leads to beneficial epimutations. However, other rodent and humans studies have yielded opposing findings with such diets leading to promiscuous epimutations that are likely associated with negative health outcomes. Conflict exists to whether these maternal diets are preventative or exacerbate the risk for ASD in children. This review will discuss the findings to date on the potential beneficial and aversive effects of maternal MS diets. We will also consider how other factors might influence the effects of MS diets. Current data suggest that there is cause for concern as maternal MS diets may lead to epimutations that underpin various diseases, including neurobehavioral disorders. Further studies are needed to explore the comprehensive effects maternal MS diets have on the offspring epigenome and subsequent overall health.

  12. Polyandry in dragon lizards: inbred paternal genotypes sire fewer offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frère, Celine H; Chandrasoma, Dani; Whiting, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    Multiple mating in female animals is something of a paradox because it can either be risky (e.g., higher probability of disease transmission, social costs) or provide substantial fitness benefits (e.g., genetic bet hedging whereby the likelihood of reproductive failure is lowered). The genetic relatedness of parental units, particularly in lizards, has rarely been studied in the wild. Here, we examined levels of multiple paternity in Australia's largest agamid lizard, the eastern water dragon (Intellagama lesueurii), and determined whether male reproductive success is best explained by its heterozygosity coefficient or the extent to which it is related to the mother. Female polyandry was the norm: 2/22 clutches (9.2%) were sired by three or more fathers, 17/22 (77.2%) were sired by two fathers, and only 3/22 (13.6%) clutches were sired by one father. Moreover, we reconstructed the paternal genotypes for 18 known mother–offspring clutches and found no evidence that females were favoring less related males or that less related males had higher fitness. However, males with greater heterozygosity sired more offspring. While the postcopulatory mechanisms underlying this pattern are not understood, female water dragons likely represent another example of reproduction through cryptic means (sperm selection/sperm competition) in a lizard, and through which they may ameliorate the effects of male-driven precopulatory sexual selection. PMID:25937911

  13. Arranged marriages, unlikely partners. How will their offspring look?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, E J

    1995-05-01

    In the new era of managed care, many religious healthcare providers are making "arranged marriages"--permanent partnerships with secular organizations. As they do so, the religious partners naturally ponder how best to ensure that their values permeate the new entity and thus prevail in later organizational "offspring." The organizations most likely to perpetuate their values are those with ethical corporate cultures and climates. These include religiously based healthcare providers, but such providers seem to lack confidence today in their ability to maintain culture and climate in newly formed partnerships. That may be fortunate because it prevents them from trying to impose their values on secular partners. Nevertheless, such values are often attractive to a prospective partner. A religious healthcare provider will need market leverage, as well as attractive values, to make a good "marriage." Even so, religious providers and secular investor-owned organizations are unlikely partners, because their motives and incentives differ radically. But religious providers can form solid relationships with secular, not-for-profit healthcare organizations if they take care to negotiate a binding commitment to maintain an ethical culture and climate. However, Catholic providers are at a disadvantage in such negotiations because Catholic religious congregations are unlikely to continue as owner-sponsors much beyond another decade. It is crucial that a stable source of influence develop to ensure a religious presence in the offspring of new partnerships.

  14. Maternal Distress during Pregnancy and Offspring Childhood Overweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Glejsted Ingstrup

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To examine if distress as a combined measure of anxiety, depression, and stress of the mother during pregnancy was associated with offspring childhood overweight at age 7. Methods. We performed a cohort study using prospective data from 37,764 women and child dyads from the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996–2002. At a telephone interview at approximately 30 weeks gestation, the women reported whether they felt anxious, depressed, or stressed. The 95 percentile for body mass index in an international reference defined childhood overweight at any given age. Logistic regression was used for the analyses. Results. The prevalence of overweight children at 7 years of age was 9.9%. Prenatal exposure to maternal distress during pregnancy was not associated with childhood overweight at 7 years of age (adjusted OR 1.06 (95% CI 0.96; 1.18. In analyses stratified on sex, a small tendency of overweight was seen in boys (OR 1.15 (0.99; 1.33, but not in girls (OR 0.98 (0.85; 1.13. Conclusions. Maternal distress during pregnancy appeared to have limited, if any, influence on the risk of overweight in offspring at 7 years of age.

  15. Bactericide, Immunomodulating, and Wound Healing Properties of Transgenic Kalanchoe pinnata Synergize with Antimicrobial Peptide Cecropin P1 In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lebedeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Procedure of manufacturing K. pinnata water extracts containing cecropin P1 (CecP1 from the formerly described transgenic plants is established. It included incubation of leaves at +4°C for 7 days, mechanical homogenization of leaves using water as extraction solvent, and heating at +70°C for inactivating plant enzymes. Yield of CecP1 (after heating and sterilizing filtration was 0.3% of total protein in the extract. The water extract of K. pinnata + CecP1 exhibits favorable effect on healing of wounds infected with S. aureus (equal to Cefazolin and with a combination of S. aureus with P. aeruginosa (better than Cefazolin. Wild-type K. pinnata extract exhibited evident microbicide activity against S. aureus with P. aeruginosa but it was substantially strengthened in K. pinnata + CecP1 extract. K. pinnata extracts (both wild-type and transgenic did not exhibit general toxicity and accelerated wound recovery. Due to immunomodulating activity, wild-type K. pinnata extract accelerated granulation of the wound bed and marginal epithelialization even better than K. pinnata + CecP1 extract. Immunomodulating and microbicide activity of K. pinnata synergizes with microbicide activity of CecP1 accelerating elimination of bacteria.

  16. The amino terminal end determines the stability and assembling capacity of eukaryotic ribosomal stalk proteins P1 and P2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Hendricka; Nusspaumer, Gretel; Abia, David; Briceño, Verónica; Remacha, Miguel; Ballesta, Juan P G

    2011-05-01

    The eukaryotic ribosomal proteins P1 and P2 bind to protein P0 through their N-terminal domain to form the essential ribosomal stalk. A mutational analysis points to amino acids at positions 2 and 3 as determinants for the drastic difference of Saccharomyces cerevisiae P1 and P2 half-life, and suggest different degradation mechanisms for each protein type. Moreover, the capacity to form P1/P2 heterodimers is drastically affected by mutations in the P2β four initial amino acids, while these mutations have no effect on P1β. Binding of P2β and, to a lesser extent, P1β to the ribosome is also seriously affected showing the high relevance of the amino acids in the first turn of the NTD α-helix 1 for the stalk assembly. The negative effect of some mutations on ribosome binding can be reversed by the presence of the second P1/P2 couple in the ribosome, indicating a stabilizing structural influence between the two heterodimers. Unexpectedly, some mutations totally abolish heterodimer formation but allow significant ribosome binding and, therefore, a previous P1 and P2 association seems not to be an absolute requirement for stalk assembly. Homology modeling of the protein complexes suggests that the mutated residues can affect the overall protein conformation. © The Author(s) 2011. Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. Immunomodulating and Revascularizing Activity of Kalanchoe pinnata Synergize with Fungicide Activity of Biogenic Peptide Cecropin P1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Zakharchenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously transgenic Kalanchoe pinnata plants producing an antimicrobial peptide cecropin P1 (CecP1 have been reported. Now we report biological testing K. pinnata extracts containing CecP1 as a candidate drug for treatment of wounds infected with Candida albicans. The drug constitutes the whole juice from K. pinnata leaves (not ethanol extract sterilized with nanofiltration. A microbicide activity of CecP1 against an animal fungal pathogen in vivo was demonstrated for the first time. However, a favorable therapeutic effect of the transgenic K. pinnata extract was attributed to a synergism between the fungicide activity of CecP1 and wound healing (antiscar, revascularizing, and immunomodulating effect of natural biologically active components of K. pinnata. A commercial fungicide preparation clotrimazole eliminated C. albicans cells within infected wounds in rats with efficiency comparable to CecP1-enriched K. pinnata extract. But in contrast to K. pinnata extract, clotrimazole did not exhibit neither wound healing activity nor remodeling of the scar matrix. Taken together, our results allow assumption that CecP1-enriched K. pinnata extracts should be considered as a candidate drug for treatment of dermatomycoses, wounds infected with fungi, and bedsores.

  18. Bactericide, Immunomodulating, and Wound Healing Properties of Transgenic Kalanchoe pinnata Synergize with Antimicrobial Peptide Cecropin P1 In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedeva, A A; Zakharchenko, N S; Trubnikova, E V; Medvedeva, O A; Kuznetsova, T V; Masgutova, G A; Zylkova, M V; Buryanov, Y I; Belous, A S

    2017-01-01

    Procedure of manufacturing K. pinnata water extracts containing cecropin P1 (CecP1) from the formerly described transgenic plants is established. It included incubation of leaves at +4°C for 7 days, mechanical homogenization of leaves using water as extraction solvent, and heating at +70°C for inactivating plant enzymes. Yield of CecP1 (after heating and sterilizing filtration) was 0.3% of total protein in the extract. The water extract of K. pinnata + CecP1 exhibits favorable effect on healing of wounds infected with S. aureus (equal to Cefazolin) and with a combination of S. aureus with P. aeruginosa (better than Cefazolin). Wild-type K. pinnata extract exhibited evident microbicide activity against S. aureus with P. aeruginosa but it was substantially strengthened in K. pinnata + CecP1 extract. K. pinnata extracts (both wild-type and transgenic) did not exhibit general toxicity and accelerated wound recovery. Due to immunomodulating activity, wild-type K. pinnata extract accelerated granulation of the wound bed and marginal epithelialization even better than K. pinnata + CecP1 extract. Immunomodulating and microbicide activity of K. pinnata synergizes with microbicide activity of CecP1 accelerating elimination of bacteria.

  19. Immunomodulating and Revascularizing Activity of Kalanchoe pinnata Synergize with Fungicide Activity of Biogenic Peptide Cecropin P1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharchenko, N S; Belous, A S; Biryukova, Y K; Medvedeva, O A; Belyakova, A V; Masgutova, G A; Trubnikova, E V; Buryanov, Y I; Lebedeva, A A

    2017-01-01

    Previously transgenic Kalanchoe pinnata plants producing an antimicrobial peptide cecropin P1 (CecP1) have been reported. Now we report biological testing K. pinnata extracts containing CecP1 as a candidate drug for treatment of wounds infected with Candida albicans. The drug constitutes the whole juice from K. pinnata leaves (not ethanol extract) sterilized with nanofiltration. A microbicide activity of CecP1 against an animal fungal pathogen in vivo was demonstrated for the first time. However, a favorable therapeutic effect of the transgenic K. pinnata extract was attributed to a synergism between the fungicide activity of CecP1 and wound healing (antiscar), revascularizing, and immunomodulating effect of natural biologically active components of K. pinnata . A commercial fungicide preparation clotrimazole eliminated C. albicans cells within infected wounds in rats with efficiency comparable to CecP1-enriched K. pinnata extract. But in contrast to K. pinnata extract, clotrimazole did not exhibit neither wound healing activity nor remodeling of the scar matrix. Taken together, our results allow assumption that CecP1-enriched K. pinnata extracts should be considered as a candidate drug for treatment of dermatomycoses, wounds infected with fungi, and bedsores.

  20. Total and Trimester-Specific Gestational Weight Gain and Offspring Birth and Early Childhood Weight: A Prospective Cohort Study on Monozygotic Twin Mothers and Their Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheers Andersson, Elina; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per; Nohr, Ellen A; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Rasmussen, Finn

    2016-08-01

    Gestational weight gain (GWG) has in numerous studies been associated with offspring birth weight (BW) and childhood weight. However, these associations might be explained by genetic confounding as offspring inherit their mother's genetic potential to gain weight. Furthermore, little is known about whether particular periods of pregnancy could influence offspring body weight differently. We therefore aimed to explore total and trimester-specific effects of GWG in monozygotic (MZ) twin mother-pairs on their offspring's BW, weight at 1 year and body mass index (BMI) at 5 and 10 years. MZ twin mothers born 1962-1975 were identified in national Swedish registers, and data on exposure and outcome variables was collected from medical records. We analyzed associations within and between twin pairs. We had complete data on the mothers' GWG and offspring BW for 82 pairs. The results indicated that total, and possibly also second and third trimester GWG were associated with offspring BW within the twin pairs in the fully adjusted model (β = 0.08 z-score units, 95% CI: 0.001, 0.17; β = 1.32 z-score units, 95% CI: -0.29, 2.95; and β = 1.02 z-score units, 95% CI: -0.50, 2.54, respectively). Our findings, although statistically weak, suggested no associations between GWG and offspring weight or BMI during infancy or childhood. Our study suggests that total, and possibly also second and third trimester, GWG are associated with offspring BW when taking shared genetic and environmental factors within twin pairs into account. Larger family-based studies with long follow-up are needed to confirm our findings.

  1. Effect of Emotion Management Training to Mothers on the Behavioral Problems of Offspring: Parents’ View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Gowdini

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion We conclude that the training intervention (especially, emotion management training for mothers who have male offspring with behavioral problems is beneficial not only for strengthening the parents to manage their emotions effectively but also for reducing behavioral problems in their offspring.

  2. Moderate maternal food restriction in mice impairs physical growth, behavior, and neurodevelopment of offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akitake, Yoshiharu; Katsuragi, Shinji; Hosokawa, Masato; Mishima, Kenichi; Ikeda, Tomoaki; Miyazato, Mikiya; Hosoda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) occurs in 3% to 7% of all pregnancies. Recent human studies have indicated that neurodevelopmental disabilities, learning disorders, memory impairment, and mood disturbance are common in IUGR offspring. However, the interactions between IUGR and neurodevelopmental disorders are unclear because of the wide range of causes of IUGR, such as maternal malnutrition, placental insufficiency, pregnancy toxemia, and fetal malformations. Meanwhile, many studies have shown that moderate food restriction enhances spatial learning and improves mood disturbance in adult humans and animals. To date, the effects of maternal moderate food restriction on fetal brain remain largely unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that IUGR would be caused by even moderate food restriction in pregnant females and that the offspring would have neurodevelopmental disabilities. Mid-pregnant mice received moderate food restriction through the early lactation period. The offspring were tested for aspects of physical development, behavior, and neurodevelopment. The results showed that moderate maternal food restriction induced IUGR. Offspring had low birth weight and delayed development of physical and coordinated movement. Moreover, IUGR offspring exhibited mental disabilities such as anxiety and poor cognitive function. In particular, male offspring exhibited significantly impaired cognitive function at 3 weeks of age. These results suggested that a restricted maternal diet could be a risk factor for developmental disability in IUGR offspring and that male offspring might be especially susceptible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Maternal Postnatal Depression and the Development of Depression in Offspring up to 16 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Lynne; Arteche, Adriane; Fearon, Pasco; Halligan, Sarah; Goodyer, Ian; Cooper, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the developmental risk pathway to depression by 16 years in offspring of postnatally depressed mothers. Method: This was a prospective longitudinal study of offspring of postnatally depressed and nondepressed mothers; child and family assessments were made from infancy to 16 years. A total of 702…

  4. Effects of experimentally manipulated yolk thyroid hormone levels on offspring development in a wild bird species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruuskanen, Suvi; Darras, Veerle M; Visser, Marcel E; Groothuis, Antonius

    2016-01-01

    Maternal effects are a crucial mechanism in a wide array of taxa to generate phenotypic variation, thereby affecting offspring development and fitness. Maternally derived thyroid hormones (THs) are known to be essential for offspring development in mammalian and fish models, but have been largely

  5. Effects of experimentally manipulated yolk thyroid hormone levels on offspring development in a wild bird species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruuskanen, Suvi; Darras, Veerle M.; Visser, Marcel E.; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    Abstract Maternal effects are a crucial mechanism in a wide array of taxa to generate phenotypic variation, thereby affecting offspring development and fitness. Maternally derived thyroid hormones (THs) are known to be essential for offspring development in mammalian and fish models, but have been

  6. Surgically Induced Interpregnancy Weight Loss and Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willmer, Mikaela; Berglind, Daniel; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2013-01-01

    According to the fetal overnutrition hypothesis, obesity in pregnancy predisposes the offspring to obesity. Previous studies have suggested that after biliopancreatic surgery for obesity, the offspring is less likely to be obese. This study aims to further compare the BMI development of children...... born before and after maternal surgical weight loss....

  7. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and self-reported delinquency by offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Lee; Widmayer, Alan; Das, Shyamal

    2012-12-01

    Several studies have reported significant positive correlations between smoking during pregnancy by mothers and the involvement of their offspring in criminal/delinquent behaviour later in life, but these findings have been described as modest and the criminality based on official conviction statistics. We sought to verify this relationship and probe for more details on the basis of self-reported offending among college students. Independently completed questionnaires were collected from 6332 students and their mothers. The students provided information about their delinquent acts, if any, according to eight categories. Their mothers provided retrospective reports of their smoking habits, if any, during pregnancy. Mothers who recalled having smoked during pregnancy were significantly more likely than non-smoking mothers to have offspring who self-reported engaging in some types of delinquency. This relationship was more evident for female offspring than for male offspring and was most pronounced for illegal drug use by the offspring. There was, however, no relationship between offspring offending and estimated number of cigarettes smoked by mothers, month of pregnancy when smoked or consistency of smoking throughout pregnancy. Overall, our study confirms that maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with offspring involvement in delinquency, but the lack of critical timing or dose-response relationships between maternal smoking and later offspring delinquency cast doubt on the possibility that the associations are due to teratogenic effects of tobacco smoke. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Maternal Body Weight and Inflammation Among Offspring in Late Middle Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jolene Lee Masters; Budtz-Joergensen, Esben; Rod, Naja Hulvej

    Higher maternal body mass index (BMI) is associated with offspring adiposity; however the effect of maternal BMI on subsequent inflammatory concentrations among offspring is unexplored. The aim is to estimate the direct and indirect effects of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI on C-Reactive protein (CRP...

  9. Maternal effects alter the severity of inbreeding depression in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilakouta, Natalie; Smiseth, Per T

    2016-09-14

    A maternal effect is a causal influence of the maternal phenotype on the offspring phenotype over and above any direct effects of genes. There is abundant evidence that maternal effects can have a major impact on offspring fitness. Yet, no previous study has investigated the potential role of maternal effects in influencing the severity of inbreeding depression in the offspring. Inbreeding depression is a reduction in the fitness of inbred offspring relative to outbred offspring. Here, we tested whether maternal effects due to body size alter the magnitude of inbreeding depression in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides We found that inbreeding depression in larval survival was more severe for offspring of large females than offspring of small females. This might be due to differences in how small and large females invest in an inbred brood because of their different prospects for future breeding opportunities. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence for a causal effect of the maternal phenotype on the severity of inbreeding depression in the offspring. In natural populations that are subject to inbreeding, maternal effects may drive variation in inbreeding depression and therefore contribute to variation in the strength and direction of selection for inbreeding avoidance. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Impact of Maternal Exercise during Pregnancy on Offspring Chronic Disease Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaize, A Nicole; Pearson, Kevin J; Newcomer, Sean C

    2015-10-01

    Maternal behaviors during pregnancy have been reported to impact offspring health in adulthood. In this article we explore the novel hypothesis that exercise during pregnancy can protect against chronic disease susceptibility in the offspring. To date, research has demonstrated that improvements in metabolic outcomes, cardiovascular risk, and cancer can occur in response to maternal exercise during pregnancy.

  11. Socialization of Emotion and Offspring Internalizing Symptoms in Mothers with Childhood-Onset Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Jennifer S.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Prout, Joanna T.; O'Rourke, Flannery; Lane, Tonya J.; Kovacs, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how mothers with and without a history of childhood-onset depression respond to their 3-9 year-old children's emotions. Mother-child dyads included 55 offspring of mothers with a history of childhood-onset depressive disorders and 57 offspring of never-depressed mothers. Mothers with a history of childhood depression were less…

  12. Dam-to-offspring transmission and persistence of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius clones within dog families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Narayan Chandra; Damborg, Peter Panduro; Guardabassi, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is an opportunistic pathogen that causes mainly skin infections in dogs. Although vertical transmission of S. pseudintermedius strains from dam to offspring has been reported, the persistence of the dam's strains in offspring over long periods of time is virtually ...

  13. Expression of flavonoid 3’-hydroxylase is controlled by P1, the regulator of 3-deoxyflavonoid biosynthesis in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The maize (Zea mays) red aleurone1 (pr1) encodes a CYP450-dependent flavonoid 3’-hydroxylase (ZmF3’H1) required for the biosynthesis of purple and red anthocyanin pigments. We previously showed that Zmf3’h1 is regulated by C1 (Colorless1) and R1 (Red1) transcription factors. The current study demonstrates that, in addition to its role in anthocyanin biosynthesis, the Zmf3’h1 gene also participates in the biosynthesis of 3-deoxyflavonoids and phlobaphenes that accumulate in maize pericarps, cob glumes, and silks. Biosynthesis of 3-deoxyflavonoids is regulated by P1 (Pericarp color1) and is independent from the action of C1 and R1 transcription factors. Results In maize, apiforol and luteoforol are the precursors of condensed phlobaphenes. Maize lines with functional alleles of pr1 and p1 (Pr1;P1) accumulate luteoforol, while null pr1 lines with a functional or non-functional p1 allele (pr1;P1 or pr1;p1) accumulate apiforol. Apiforol lacks a hydroxyl group at the 3’-position of the flavylium B-ring, while luteoforol has this hydroxyl group. Our biochemical analysis of accumulated compounds in different pr1 genotypes showed that the pr1 encoded ZmF3’H1 has a role in the conversion of mono-hydroxylated to bi-hydroxylated compounds in the B-ring. Steady state RNA analyses demonstrated that Zmf3’h1 mRNA accumulation requires a functional p1 allele. Using a combination of EMSA and ChIP experiments, we established that the Zmf3’h1 gene is a direct target of P1. Highlighting the significance of the Zmf3’h1 gene for resistance against biotic stress, we also show here that the p1 controlled 3-deoxyanthocyanidin and C-glycosyl flavone (maysin) defence compounds accumulate at significantly higher levels in Pr1 silks as compared to pr1 silks. By virtue of increased maysin synthesis in Pr1 plants, corn ear worm larvae fed on Pr1; P1 silks showed slower growth as compared to pr1; P1 silks. Conclusions Our results show that the Zmf3’h1 gene

  14. Expression of flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase is controlled by P1, the regulator of 3-deoxyflavonoid biosynthesis in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mandeep; Chai, Chenglin; Morohashi, Kengo; Grotewold, Erich; Snook, Maurice E; Chopra, Surinder

    2012-11-01

    The maize (Zea mays) red aleurone1 (pr1) encodes a CYP450-dependent flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (ZmF3'H1) required for the biosynthesis of purple and red anthocyanin pigments. We previously showed that Zmf3'h1 is regulated by C1 (Colorless1) and R1 (Red1) transcription factors. The current study demonstrates that, in addition to its role in anthocyanin biosynthesis, the Zmf3'h1 gene also participates in the biosynthesis of 3-deoxyflavonoids and phlobaphenes that accumulate in maize pericarps, cob glumes, and silks. Biosynthesis of 3-deoxyflavonoids is regulated by P1 (Pericarp color1) and is independent from the action of C1 and R1 transcription factors. In maize, apiforol and luteoforol are the precursors of condensed phlobaphenes. Maize lines with functional alleles of pr1 and p1 (Pr1;P1) accumulate luteoforol, while null pr1 lines with a functional or non-functional p1 allele (pr1;P1 or pr1;p1) accumulate apiforol. Apiforol lacks a hydroxyl group at the 3'-position of the flavylium B-ring, while luteoforol has this hydroxyl group. Our biochemical analysis of accumulated compounds in different pr1 genotypes showed that the pr1 encoded ZmF3'H1 has a role in the conversion of mono-hydroxylated to bi-hydroxylated compounds in the B-ring. Steady state RNA analyses demonstrated that Zmf3'h1 mRNA accumulation requires a functional p1 allele. Using a combination of EMSA and ChIP experiments, we established that the Zmf3'h1 gene is a direct target of P1. Highlighting the significance of the Zmf3'h1 gene for resistance against biotic stress, we also show here that the p1 controlled 3-deoxyanthocyanidin and C-glycosyl flavone (maysin) defence compounds accumulate at significantly higher levels in Pr1 silks as compared to pr1 silks. By virtue of increased maysin synthesis in Pr1 plants, corn ear worm larvae fed on Pr1; P1 silks showed slower growth as compared to pr1; P1 silks. Our results show that the Zmf3'h1 gene participates in the biosynthesis of phlobaphenes and

  15. Expression of flavonoid 3’-hydroxylase is controlled by P1, the regulator of 3-deoxyflavonoid biosynthesis in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Mandeep

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maize (Zea mays red aleurone1 (pr1 encodes a CYP450-dependent flavonoid 3’-hydroxylase (ZmF3’H1 required for the biosynthesis of purple and red anthocyanin pigments. We previously showed that Zmf3’h1 is regulated by C1 (Colorless1 and R1 (Red1 transcription factors. The current study demonstrates that, in addition to its role in anthocyanin biosynthesis, the Zmf3’h1 gene also participates in the biosynthesis of 3-deoxyflavonoids and phlobaphenes that accumulate in maize pericarps, cob glumes, and silks. Biosynthesis of 3-deoxyflavonoids is regulated by P1 (Pericarp color1 and is independent from the action of C1 and R1 transcription factors. Results In maize, apiforol and luteoforol are the precursors of condensed phlobaphenes. Maize lines with functional alleles of pr1 and p1 (Pr1;P1 accumulate luteoforol, while null pr1 lines with a functional or non-functional p1 allele (pr1;P1 or pr1;p1 accumulate apiforol. Apiforol lacks a hydroxyl group at the 3’-position of the flavylium B-ring, while luteoforol has this hydroxyl group. Our biochemical analysis of accumulated compounds in different pr1 genotypes showed that the pr1 encoded ZmF3’H1 has a role in the conversion of mono-hydroxylated to bi-hydroxylated compounds in the B-ring. Steady state RNA analyses demonstrated that Zmf3’h1 mRNA accumulation requires a functional p1 allele. Using a combination of EMSA and ChIP experiments, we established that the Zmf3’h1 gene is a direct target of P1. Highlighting the significance of the Zmf3’h1 gene for resistance against biotic stress, we also show here that the p1 controlled 3-deoxyanthocyanidin and C-glycosyl flavone (maysin defence compounds accumulate at significantly higher levels in Pr1 silks as compared to pr1 silks. By virtue of increased maysin synthesis in Pr1 plants, corn ear worm larvae fed on Pr1; P1 silks showed slower growth as compared to pr1; P1 silks. Conclusions Our results show that the Zmf3

  16. Secreted Klotho Attenuates Inflammation-Associated Aortic Valve Fibrosis in Senescence-Accelerated Mice P1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianglei; Fan, Jun; Wang, Shirley; Sun, Zhongjie

    2018-05-01

    Senescence-accelerated mice P1 (SAMP1) is an aging model characterized by shortened lifespan and early signs of senescence. Klotho is an aging-suppressor gene. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether in vivo expression of secreted klotho ( Skl ) gene attenuates aortic valve fibrosis in SAMP1 mice. SAMP1 mice and age-matched (AKR/J) control mice were used. SAMP1 mice developed obvious fibrosis in aortic valves, namely fibrotic aortic valve disease. Serum level of Skl was decreased drastically in SAMP1 mice. Expression of MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein 1), ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule 1), F4/80, and CD68 was increased in aortic valves of SAMP1 mice, indicating inflammation. An increase in expression of α-smooth muscle actin (myofibroblast marker), transforming growth factorβ-1, and scleraxis (a transcription factor of collagen synthesis) was also found in aortic valves of SAMP1 mice, suggesting that accelerated aging is associated with myofibroblast transition and collagen gene activation. We constructed adeno-associated virus 2 carrying mouse Skl cDNA for in vivo expression of Skl. Skl gene delivery effectively increased serum Skl of SAMP1 mice to the control level. Skl gene delivery inhibited inflammation and myofibroblastic transition in aortic valves and attenuated fibrotic aortic valve disease in SAMP1 mice. It is concluded that senescence-related fibrotic aortic valve disease in SAMP1 mice is associated with a decrease in serum klotho leading to inflammation, including macrophage infiltration and transforming growth factorβ-1/scleraxis-driven myofibroblast differentiation in aortic valves. Restoration of serum Skl levels by adeno-associated virus 2 carrying mouse Skl cDNA effectively suppresses inflammation and myofibroblastic transition and attenuates aortic valve fibrosis. Skl may be a potential therapeutic target for fibrotic aortic valve disease. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. The effect of chemical carcinogenesis on rat glutathione S-transferase P1 gene transcriptional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D; Liao, M; Zuo, J; Henner, W D; Fan, F

    2001-03-01

    To investigate mechanisms of rat glutathione S-transferase P1 gene (rGSTP1) expression regulation during chemical carcinogenesis. we studied enhancer elements located in the region between -2.5 kb to -2.2 kb. The region was upstream from the start site of transcription and was divided into two major fragments, GPEI and GPEII. The GPEII fragment was further divided into two smaller fragments, GPEII- I and GPEII-2. Using a luciferase reporter system, we identified a strong enhancer of GPEI and a weak enhancer of GPEII in HeLa and a rat hepatoma cell line CBRH79 19 cell. The enhancer of GPEII was located within the GPEII-I region. Chemical stimulation by glycidyl methatylate (GMA) and phorbol 12-o-tetradecanoate 13-acetate (TPA) analysis revealed that induction of rGSTP1 expression was mainly through GPEI. Although H2O2 could enhance GPEII enhancer activity, the enhancement is not mediated by the NF-kappaB factor that bound the NF-kappaB site in GPEII. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) and the UV cross-linking assays, we found that HeLa and CBRH7919 cells had proteins that specifically bound GPEI core sequence and a 64 kDa protein that interacted with GPEII-1. The cells from normal rat liver did not express the binding proteins. Therefore, the trans-acting factors seem to be closely related to GPEI, GPEII enhancer activities and may play an important role in high expression of rGSTPI gene.

  18. Broad-Host-Range IncP-1 plasmids and their resistance potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena ePopowska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The plasmids of the incompatibility group IncP-1, also called IncP, as extrachromosomal genetic elements can transfer and replicate virtually in all Gram-negative bacteria. They are composed of backbone genes that encode a variety of essential functions and accessory genes that have implications for human health and environmental bioremediation. Broad-host-range IncP plasmids are known to spread genes between distinct phylogenetic groups of bacteria. These genes often code for resistances to a broad spectrum of antibiotics, heavy metals and quaternary ammonium compounds used as disinfectants. The backbone of these plasmids carries modules that enable them to effectively replicate, move to a new host via conjugative transfer and to be stably maintained in bacterial cells. The adaptive, resistance and virulence genes are mainly located on mobile genetic elements integrated between the functional plasmid backbone modules. Environmental studies have demonstrated the wide distribution of IncP-like replicons in manure, soils and wastewater treatment plants. They also are present in strains of pathogenic or opportunistic bacteria, which can be a cause for concern, because they may encode multiresistance. Their broad distribution suggests that IncP plasmids play a crucial role in bacterial adaptation by utilizing horizontal gene transfer. This review summarizes the variety of genetic information and physiological functions carried by IncP plasmids, which can contribute to the spread of antibiotic and heavy metal resistance while also mediating the process of bioremediation of pollutants. Due to the location of the resistance genes on plasmids with a broad host range and the presence of transposons carrying these genes it seems that the spread of these genes would be possible and quite hazardous in infection control. Future studies are required to determine the level of risk of the spread of resistance genes located on these plasmids.

  19. Subclinical inflammation during third trimester of pregnancy was not associated with markers of the metabolic syndrome in young adult offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Inge; Granström, Charlotta; Rytter, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    for maternal smoking during pregnancy, height, prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), education, and offspring's sex. Offspring MS markers included waist circumference, BMI, blood pressure, HOMA insulin resistance, and plasma levels of fasting glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol fractions, insulin, and leptin...

  20. Parent-offspring conflict and the genetic trade-offs shaping parental investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölliker, Mathias; Boos, Stefan; Wong, Janine W Y; Röllin, Lilian; Stucki, Dimitri; Raveh, Shirley; Wu, Min; Meunier, Joël

    2015-04-16

    The genetic conflict between parents and their offspring is a cornerstone of kin selection theory and the gene-centred view of evolution, but whether it actually occurs in natural systems remains an open question. Conflict operates only if parenting is driven by genetic trade-offs between offspring performance and the parent's ability to raise additional offspring, and its expression critically depends on the shape of these trade-offs. Here we investigate the occurrence and nature of genetic conflict in an insect with maternal care, the earwig Forficula auricularia. Specifically, we test for a direct response to experimental selection on female future reproduction and correlated responses in current offspring survival, developmental rate and growth. The results demonstrate genetic trade-offs that differ in shape before and after hatching. Our study not only provides direct evidence for parent-offspring conflict but also highlights that conflict is not inevitable and critically depends on the genetic trade-offs shaping parental investment.

  1. Maternal Obesity: Lifelong Metabolic Outcomes for Offspring from Poor Developmental Trajectories During the Perinatal Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Elena; Ibáñez, Carlos; Martínez-Samayoa, Paola M; Lomas-Soria, Consuelo; Durand-Carbajal, Marta; Rodríguez-González, Guadalupe L

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in women of reproductive age is increasing in developed and developing countries around the world. Human and animal studies indicate that maternal obesity adversely impacts both maternal health and offspring phenotype, predisposing them to chronic diseases later in life including obesity, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Several mechanisms act together to produce these adverse health effects including programming of hypothalamic appetite-regulating centers, increasing maternal, fetal and offspring glucocorticoid production, changes in maternal metabolism and increasing maternal oxidative stress. Effective interventions during human pregnancy are needed to prevent both maternal and offspring metabolic dysfunction due to maternal obesity. This review addresses the relationship between maternal obesity and its negative impact on offspring development and presents some maternal intervention studies that propose strategies to prevent adverse offspring metabolic outcomes. Copyright © 2016 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Chemical fingerprints encode mother–offspring similarity, colony membership, relatedness, and genetic quality in fur seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffel, Martin A.; Caspers, Barbara A.; Forcada, Jaume; Giannakara, Athina; Baier, Markus; Eberhart-Phillips, Luke; Müller, Caroline; Hoffman, Joseph I.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical communication underpins virtually all aspects of vertebrate social life, yet remains poorly understood because of its highly complex mechanistic basis. We therefore used chemical fingerprinting of skin swabs and genetic analysis to explore the chemical cues that may underlie mother–offspring recognition in colonially breeding Antarctic fur seals. By sampling mother–offspring pairs from two different colonies, using a variety of statistical approaches and genotyping a large panel of microsatellite loci, we show that colony membership, mother–offspring similarity, heterozygosity, and genetic relatedness are all chemically encoded. Moreover, chemical similarity between mothers and offspring reflects a combination of genetic and environmental influences, the former partly encoded by substances resembling known pheromones. Our findings reveal the diversity of information contained within chemical fingerprints and have implications for understanding mother–offspring communication, kin recognition, and mate choice. PMID:26261311

  3. Parental divorce, parental depression, and gender differences in adult offspring suicide attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizardi, Dana; Thompson, Ronald G; Keyes, Katherine; Hasin, Deborah

    2009-12-01

    Research suggests parental divorce during childhood increases risk of suicide attempt for male but not female offspring. The negative impact on offspring associated with parental divorce may be better explained by parental psychopathology, such as depression. We examined whether adult offspring of parental divorce experience elevated risk of suicide attempt, controlling for parental history of depression, and whether the risk varies by the gender of the offspring. Using the 2001 to 2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), the sample consists of respondents who experienced parental divorce (N = 4895). Multivariable regressions controlled for age, race/ethnicity, income, marital status, and parental history of depression. Females living with their fathers were significantly more likely to report lifetime suicide attempts than females living with their mothers, even after controlling for parental depression. Findings suggest that childhood/adolescent parental divorce may have a stronger impact on suicide attempt risk in female offspring than previously recognized.

  4. Maternal lipids in pregnancy are associated with increased offspring cortisol reactivity in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Theresia H; Lahti, Marius; Drake, Amanda J; Forbes, Shareen; Denison, Fiona C; Räikkönen, Katri; Norman, Jane E; Reynolds, Rebecca M

    2017-09-01

    Prenatal programming of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity has long term implications for offspring health. Biological mechanisms underlying programming of the offspring HPA axis are poorly understood. We hypothesised that altered maternal metabolism including higher maternal obesity, glucose and lipids are novel programming factors for altered offspring HPA axis activity. Salivary cortisol levels were measured in 54 children aged 3-5 years under experimental conditions (before and after a delay of self-gratification test). Associations of child cortisol responses with maternal obesity in early pregnancy and with fasting glucose, triglycerides, HDL and total cholesterol measured in each pregnancy trimester were tested. Higher levels of maternal triglycerides and total cholesterol throughout pregnancy were associated with increased offspring cortisol reactivity. The associations were independent of maternal obesity and other confounders, suggesting that exposure to maternal lipids could be a biological mechanism of in utero programming of the offspring's HPA axis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Toxic effects of irgarol and diuron on sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus early development, fertilization, and offspring quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, S; Buono, S; Cremisini, C

    2006-07-01

    Irgarol and Diuron are the most representative "organic booster biocides" that replaced organotin compounds in antifouling paints. It cannot be assumed beforehand that their use will have no environmental impact: more ecotoxicological data and a significant environmental monitoring are required. Spermio and embryotoxicities of the biocides Irgarol and Diuron were investigated on Paracentrotus lividus, the dominant echinoid species of the Mediterranean Sea. Spermiotoxicity was studied by assessing the effects of sperm exposure on fertilization rate as well as on the induction of transmissible damages to the offspring. Embryotoxicity was studied by assessing the developmental defects in the exposed larvae. The experimental results show a Diuron EC50 of 2.39 (+/- 0.21) mg/L with a NOEL of 0.25 mg/L for embryos, and of 5.09 (+/- 0.45) mg/L with a NOEL of 0.5 mg/L for sperms, respectively. Data obtained from the embryotoxicity test on Irgarol [EC50 0.99 (+/- 0.69) mg/L] are of the same order of magnitude as the literature data about Japanese urchins. Spermiotoxicity tests show an Irgarol EC50 of 9.04 (+/- 0.45) mg/L with a NOEL of 0.1 mg/L. These data show the different sensitivities of the two tests: embryos are more sensitive than sperms for both the tested chemicals and Diuron seems to be the less toxic one. Moreover, as a major output of the experimental work, tested herbicides exert transmissible damage to spermatozoa evidenced by larval malformations in the offspring, mainly P1 type (skeletal alterations). The comparison of the endpoints results offers an interesting indication of a probable different mode of action (Irgarol seems to interact with calcium homeostasis) of the two biocides.

  6. Psychiatric disorders in child and adolescent offspring of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: A controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Gistau, Vanessa; Romero, Soledad; Moreno, Dolores; de la Serna, Elena; Baeza, Inmaculada; Sugranyes, Gisela; Moreno, Carmen; Sanchez-Gutierrez, Teresa; Rodriguez-Toscano, Elisa; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2015-10-01

    Early clinical manifestations predating schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BP) have not been fully characterized. Child offspring studies are a valuable opportunity to study the natural history of the illness from its earliest stages. However, there is limited evidence assessing young offspring of SZ and BP simultaneously. We set out to assess rates of psychiatric disorders in child and adolescent offspring of SZ and BP, relative to offspring of community controls, so as to characterize the early phenotype of the disorders comparatively. SZ and BP parents with offspring aged 7-17years were recruited through adult mental health services of two tertiary hospitals. Community control (CC) parents were recruited from the same geographical area. Ninety BP-offspring, 41 SZ-offspring and 107 CC-offspring were assessed using the K-SADS-PL by child psychiatrists blinded to parental status. Differences in prevalence of psychiatric disorders between groups were adjusted for confounders and for sibling correlation using generalised estimating equations. We found a gradient of clinical severity and social disadvantage between SZ, BP and CC-offspring. After adjusting for socio-demographic confounders, SZ and BP-offspring presented higher rates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) than CC-offspring. ADHD was more prevalent in SZ-offspring than BP-offspring, and BP-offspring presented a higher prevalence of depression than CC-offspring. The higher rates of ADHD in SZ-offspring suggest that abnormal neurodevelopmental processes may exert a stronger influence in SZ than BP. Follow-up of these children will help elucidate the role of ADHD and depression phenotypes in predicting future transition to SZ or BP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Intrauterine growth restriction programs an accelerated age-related increase in cardiovascular risk in male offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira; Backstrom, Miles A.; Carter, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Placental insufficiency programs an increase in blood pressure associated with a twofold increase in serum testosterone in male growth-restricted offspring at 4 mo of age. Population studies indicate that the inverse relationship between birth weight and blood pressure is amplified with age. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that intrauterine growth restriction programs an age-related increase in blood pressure in male offspring. Growth-restricted offspring retained a significantly higher blood pressure at 12 but not at 18 mo of age compared with age-matched controls. Blood pressure was significantly increased in control offspring at 18 mo of age relative to control counterparts at 12 mo; however, blood pressure was not increased in growth-restricted at 18 mo relative to growth-restricted counterparts at 12 mo. Serum testosterone levels were not elevated in growth-restricted offspring relative to control at 12 mo of age. Thus, male growth-restricted offspring no longer exhibited a positive association between blood pressure and testosterone at 12 mo of age. Unlike hypertension in male growth-restricted offspring at 4 mo of age, inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system with enalapril (250 mg/l for 2 wk) did not abolish the difference in blood pressure in growth-restricted offspring relative to control counterparts at 12 mo of age. Therefore, these data suggest that intrauterine growth restriction programs an accelerated age-related increase in blood pressure in growth-restricted offspring. Furthermore, this study suggests that the etiology of increased blood pressure in male growth-restricted offspring at 12 mo of age differs from that at 4 mo of age. PMID:27147668

  8. A test of maternal programming of offspring stress response to predation risk in threespine sticklebacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommer, Brett C; Bell, Alison M

    2013-10-02

    Non-genetic maternal effects are widespread across taxa and challenge our traditional understanding of inheritance. Maternal experience with predators, for example, can have lifelong consequences for offspring traits, including fitness. Previous work in threespine sticklebacks showed that females exposed to simulated predation risk produced eggs with higher cortisol content and offspring with altered anti-predator behavior. However, it is unknown whether this maternal effect is mediated via the offspring glucocorticoid stress response and if it is retained over the entire lifetime of offspring. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that maternal exposure to simulated predation risk has long-lasting effects on the cortisol response to simulated predation risk in stickleback offspring. We measured circulating concentrations of cortisol before (baseline), 15 min after, and 60 min after exposure to a simulated predation risk. We compared adult offspring of predator-exposed mothers and control mothers in two different social environments (alone or in a group). Relative to baseline, offspring plasma cortisol was highest 15 min after exposure to simulated predation risk and decreased after 60 min. Offspring of predator-exposed mothers differed in the cortisol response to simulated predation risk compared to offspring of control mothers. In general, females had higher cortisol than males, and fish in a group had lower cortisol than fish that were by themselves. The buffering effect of the social environment did not differ between maternal treatments or between males and females. Altogether the results show that while a mother's experience with simulated predation risk might affect the physiological response of her adult offspring to a predator, sex and social isolation have much larger effects on the stress response to predation risk in sticklebacks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of maternal mild hyperglycemia on maternal care and offspring development and behavior of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Ana Carolina Inhasz; Woodside, Barbara; Felício, Luciano Freitas; Anselmo-Franci, Janete; Damasceno, Débora Cristina

    2012-10-10

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of maternal mild hyperglycemia on maternal behavior, as well as the development, behavior, reproductive function, and glucose tolerance of the offspring. At birth, litters were assigned either to Control (subcutaneous (sc)-citrate buffer) or STZ groups (streptozotocin (STZ)-100mg/kg-sc.). On PND 90 both STZ-treated and Control female rats were mated. Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) and insulin tolerance tests (ITT) were performed during pregnancy. Pregnancy duration, litter size and sex ratio were assessed. Newborns were classified according to birth weight as small (SPA), adequate (APA), or large for pregnancy age (LPA). Maternal behavior was analyzed on PND 5 and 10. Offspring body weight, length, and anogenital distance were measured and general activity was assessed in the open field. Sexual behavior was tested in both male and female offspring. Levels of reproductive hormones and estrous cycle duration were evaluated in female offspring. Female offspring were mated and both a GTT and ITT performed during pregnancy. Neonatal STZ administration caused mild hyperglycemia during pregnancy and changed some aspects of maternal care. The hyperglycemic intrauterine milieu impaired physical development and increased immobility in the open field in the offspring although the latter effect appeared at different ages for males (adulthood) and females (infancy). There was no impairment in the sexual behavior of either male or female offspring. As adults, female offspring of STZ-treated mothers did not show glucose intolerance during pregnancy. Thus, offspring of female rats that show mild hyperglycemia in pregnancy have fewer behavioral and developmental impairments than previously reported in the offspring of severely diabetic dams suggesting that the degree of impairment is directly related to the mother glycemic intensity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of paternal obesity on growth and adiposity of male rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, Virginie; Maloney, Christopher A; Wang, Kristy W; Morris, Margaret J

    2017-02-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that paternal obesity plays an important role in offspring health. Our previous work using a rodent model of diet-induced paternal obesity showed that female offspring from high-fat diet (HFD)-fed fathers develop glucose intolerance due to impairment of pancreatic insulin secretion. Here, we focused on the health outcomes of male offspring from HFD-fed fathers. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (3 wk old) were fed control (CD-F0) or HFD (HFD-F0) for 12 wk before mating with control-fed females. Male offspring were fed control diets for up to 8 wk or 6 mo. Although male offspring from HFD-F0 did not develop any obvious glucose metabolism defects in this study, surprisingly, a growth deficit phenotype was observed from birth to 6 mo of age. Male offspring from HFD-F0 had reduced birth weight compared with CD-F0, followed by reduced postweaning growth from 9 wk of age. This resulted in 10% reduction in body weight at 6 mo with significantly smaller fat pads and skeletal muscles. Reduced circulating levels of growth hormone (GH) and IGF-I were detected at 8 wk and 6 mo, respectively. Expression of adipogenesis markers was decreased in adipose tissue of HFD-F0 offspring at 8 wk and 6 mo, and expression of growth markers was decreased in muscle of HFD-F0 offspring at 8 wk. We propose that the reduced GH secretion at 8 wk of age altered the growth of male offspring from HFD-F0, resulting in smaller animals from 9 wk to 6 mo of age. Furthermore, increased muscle triglyceride content and expression of lipogenic genes were observed in HFD-F0 offspring, potentially increasing their metabolic risk. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  11. HY immune tolerance is common in women without male offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda P Dierselhuis

    Full Text Available Sex difference is an established risk factor for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT-related complications like graft versus host disease (GVHD. CD8pos cytotoxic T cells specific for Y chromosome-encoded minor Histocompatibility antigens (HY play an important role therein. Prior to HSC donation, female donors may encounter HY antigens through fetomaternal or transmaternal cell flow, potentially leading to the induction of HY-specific cytotoxic or regulatory immune responses. Whether HY priming occurs independent of parity, and whether HY priming is dependent on the presence of male microchimerism, is as yet unknown.We investigated the presence of HY-specific regulatory T cells (Treg and male microchimerism in 45 healthy women with a fully documented pregnancy and family history. HY peptide-induced linked suppression, a commonly reported functional feature of CD4pos and CD8pos Treg, was measured by trans vivo Delayed Type Hypersensitivity testing. As source of HY antigens, male microchimerism was analyzed by real-time PCR and defined by the presence of male DNA in at least one purified leukocyte cell type.HLA class I or class II restricted HY-specific Treg were detected in 26/42 (62% women eligible for analysis. The prevalence of HY-specific Treg was significantly higher in women who had never given birth to sons than in women with male offspring (p = 0.004. Male microchimerism could be detected in 24 out of 45 (53% women but did not correlate with the presence of HY specific Treg.HY-specific Treg in women with male offspring have been described previously. Here we show for the first time that, in fact, HY specific Treg are more common in nulliparous women and in parous women with female offspring. Their presence is independent of the presence of male microchimerism. Whether HY-specific Treg presence in female stem cell grafts might decrease the GVHD incidence in male HSCT recipients needs to be investigated.

  12. A computationally efficient P_1 radiation model for modern combustion systems utilizing pre-conditioned conjugate gradient methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamoorthy, Gautham

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The P_1 radiation model was interfaced with high performance linear solvers. • Pre-conditioned conjugate gradient (PC CG) method improved convergence by 50% • PC CG was more than 30 times faster than classical iterative methods. • The time to solution scaled linearly with increase in problem size employing PC CG. • Employing WSGGM with P_1 model compared reasonably well against benchmark data. - Abstract: The iterative convergence of the P_1 radiation model can be slow in optically thin scenarios when employing classical iterative methods. In order to remedy this shortcoming, an in-house P_1 radiation model was interfaced with high performance, scalable, linear solver libraries. Next, the accuracies of P_1 radiation model calculations was assessed by comparing its predictions against discrete ordinates (DO) model calculations for prototypical problems representative of modern combustion systems. Corresponding benchmark results were also included for comparison. Utilizing Pre-Conditioners (PC) to the Conjugate Gradients (CG) method, the convergence time of the P_1 radiation model reduced by a factor of 30 for modest problem sizes and a factor of 70 for larger sized problems when compared against classical Gauss Seidel sweeps. Further, PC provided 50% computational savings compared to employing CG in a standalone mode. The P_1 model calculation times were about 25–30% of the DO model calculation time. The time to solution also scaled linearly with an increase in problem size. The weighted sum of gray gases model employed in this study in conjunction with the P_1 model provided good agreement against benchmark data with L_2 error norms (defined relative to corresponding DO calculations) improving when isotropic intensities were prevalent.

  13. Closed expressions for $\\int_{0}^{1} t^{-1} log^{n-1}t log^{p}(1 - t) dt$

    CERN Document Server

    Kölbig, Kurt Siegfried

    1982-01-01

    Closed expressions for the integral integral /sub 0//sup 1/ t/sup -1/ log/sup n-1/t log/sup p/(1-t)dt, whose general form is given elsewhere, are listed for n=1(1)9, p=1(1)9. A formula is derived which allows an easy evaluation of these expressions by formula manipulation on a computer. The majority of the above expressions are given in a microfiche supplement to the paper.

  14. Stability of period-one (P1) oscillations generated by semiconductor lasers subject to optical injection or optical feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lyu-Chih; Liu, Ssu-Hsin; Lin, Fan-Yi

    2017-10-16

    We study the stability of period-one (P1) oscillations experimentally generated by semiconductor lasers subject to optical injection (OI) and by those subject to optical feedback (OF). With unique advantages of broad frequency tuning range and large sideband rejection ratio, P1 oscillations can be useful in applications such as photonic microwave generation, radio-over-fiber communication, and laser Doppler velocimeter. The stability of the P1 oscillations is critical for these applications, which can be affected by spontaneous emission and fluctuations in both temperature and injection current. Although linewidths of P1 oscillations generated by various schemes have been reported, the mechanisms and roles which each of the OI and the OF play have however not been investigated in detail. To characterize the stability of the P1 oscillations generated by the OI and the OF schemes, we measure the linewidths and linewidth reduction ratios (LRRs) of the P1 oscillations. The OF scheme has a narrowest linewidth of 0.21 ± 0.03 MHz compared to 4.7 ± 0.6 MHz in the OI scheme. In the OF scheme, a much larger region of LRRs higher than 90% is also found. The superior stability of the OF scheme is benefited by the fact that the P1 oscillations in the OF scheme are originated from the undamped relaxation oscillation of a single laser and can be phase-locked to one of its external cavity modes, whereas those in the OI scheme come from two independent lasers which bear no phase relation. Moreover, excess P1 linewidth broadening in the OI scheme caused by fluctuation in injection parameters associated with frequency jitter and relative intensity noise (RIN) is also minimized in the OF scheme.

  15. Direct regulatory immune activity of lactic acid bacteria on Der p 1-pulsed dendritic cells from allergic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochard, Pierre; Hammad, Hamida; Ratajczak, Céline; Charbonnier-Hatzfeld, Anne-Sophie; Just, Nicolas; Tonnel, André-Bernard; Pestel, Joël

    2005-07-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are suggested to play a regulatory role in the development of allergic reactions. However, their potential effects on dendritic cells (DCs) directing the immune polarization remain unclear. The immunologic effect of Lactobacillus plantarum NCIMB 8826 (LAB1) on monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MD-DCs) from patients allergic to house dust mite was evaluated. MD-DCs were stimulated for 24 hours with the related allergen Der p 1 in the presence or absence of LAB1. Cell-surface markers were assessed by means of FACS analysis, and the key polarizing cytokines IL-12 and IL-10 were quantified. The subsequent regulatory effect of pulsed MD-DCs on naive or memory T cells was evaluated by determining the T-cell cytokine profile. LAB1 induced the maturation of MD-DCs, even if pulsed with Der p 1. Interestingly, after incubation with LAB1 and Der p 1, MD-DCs produced higher amounts of IL-12 than Der p 1-pulsed DCs. Indeed, the T H 2 cytokine (IL-4 and IL-5) production observed when naive or memory autologous T cells were cocultured with Der p 1-pulsed MD-DCs was highly reduced in the presence of LAB1. Finally, in contrast to naive or memory T cells exposed once to Der p 1-pulsed DCs, T cells stimulated by MD-DCs pulsed with Der p 1 and LAB1 failed to produce T H 2 cytokines in response to a new stimulation with Der p 1-pulsed DCs. Thus in the presence of LAB1, MD-DCs from allergic patients tend to reorientate the T-cell response toward a beneficial T H 1 profile.

  16. Do Parental Stressors and Avoidance Coping Mediate between Parental Depression and Offspring Depression? A 23-Year Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timko, Christine; Cronkite, Ruth C.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether parents' stressors and avoidance coping when offspring were children helped to explain associations between parent depression at baseline and offspring's avoidance coping and depression in adulthood. Self-report data were collected at baseline and 1 year from parents (N = 326) and at 23 years from adult offspring (N = 326).…

  17. Alfalfa mosaic virus replicase proteins, P1 and P2, localize to the tonoplast in the presence of virus RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Amr; Hutchens, Heather M.; Howard Berg, R.; Sue Loesch-Fries, L.

    2012-01-01

    To identify the virus components important for assembly of the Alfalfa mosaic virus replicase complex, we used live cell imaging of Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts that expressed various virus cDNAs encoding native and GFP-fusion proteins of P1 and P2 replicase proteins and full-length virus RNAs. Expression of P1-GFP alone resulted in fluorescent vesicle-like bodies in the cytoplasm that colocalized with FM4-64, an endocytic marker, and RFP-AtVSR2, RabF2a/Rha1-mCherry, and RabF2b/Ara7-mCherry, all of which localize to multivesicular bodies (MVBs), which are also called prevacuolar compartments, that mediate traffic to the lytic vacuole. GFP-P2 was driven from the cytosol to MVBs when expressed with P1 indicating that P1 recruited GFP-P2. P1-GFP localized on the tonoplast, which surrounds the vacuole, in the presence of infectious virus RNA, replication competent RNA2, or P2 and replication competent RNA1 or RNA3. This suggests that a functional replication complex containing P1, P2, and a full-length AMV RNA assembles on MVBs to traffic to the tonoplast.

  18. Alfalfa mosaic virus replicase proteins, P1 and P2, localize to the tonoplast in the presence of virus RNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Amr [Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Present address: Genomics Facility, Agricultural Genetic Engineering Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza 12619 (Egypt); Hutchens, Heather M. [Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Howard Berg, R. [Integrated Microscopy Facility, Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, Saint Louis, MO 63132 (United States); Sue Loesch-Fries, L., E-mail: loeschfr@purdue.edu [Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2012-11-25

    To identify the virus components important for assembly of the Alfalfa mosaic virus replicase complex, we used live cell imaging of Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts that expressed various virus cDNAs encoding native and GFP-fusion proteins of P1 and P2 replicase proteins and full-length virus RNAs. Expression of P1-GFP alone resulted in fluorescent vesicle-like bodies in the cytoplasm that colocalized with FM4-64, an endocytic marker, and RFP-AtVSR2, RabF2a/Rha1-mCherry, and RabF2b/Ara7-mCherry, all of which localize to multivesicular bodies (MVBs), which are also called prevacuolar compartments, that mediate traffic to the lytic vacuole. GFP-P2 was driven from the cytosol to MVBs when expressed with P1 indicating that P1 recruited GFP-P2. P1-GFP localized on the tonoplast, which surrounds the vacuole, in the presence of infectious virus RNA, replication competent RNA2, or P2 and replication competent RNA1 or RNA3. This suggests that a functional replication complex containing P1, P2, and a full-length AMV RNA assembles on MVBs to traffic to the tonoplast.

  19. Interactions of Socioeconomic Determinants, Offspring Sex Preference and Fertility Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. Sharp

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Using path anaysis and the 5% PUMS data of the 1990 and 2000 censuses, this study examines 1 the correlation between Chinese-American sex preference for children and their fertility behavior, and 2 the interaction between the sex preference and its socioeconomic determinants. Of normative and non-normative factors investegated in this study, offspring sex preference is the greatest stimulus to Chinese fertility. Of socioeconomic variables, women’s educational attainment plays a primary role in depressing the impact of son preference in addition to their increasing stay in the host society. However, these two factors do not work on their husbands in the same way, demonstrating men’s inflexible attitudes toward gender roles in the family and in society. Son preference exerts positive impact on American-Chinese fertility and prevent from further decline. Yet, the influence has been diminishing since 1990 as observed in this study.

  20. The molecular mechanisms of offspring effects from obese pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dowling, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of obesity, increased weight gain and the popularity of high-fat \\/ high-sugar diets are seriously impacting upon the global population. Billions of individuals are affected, and although diet and lifestyle are of paramount importance to the development of adult obesity, compelling evidence is emerging which suggests that maternal obesity and related disorders may be passed on to the next generation by non-genetic means. The processes acting within the uteri of obese mothers may permanently predispose offspring to a diverse plethora of diseases ranging from obesity and diabetes to psychiatric disorders. This review aims to summarise some of the molecular mechanisms and active processes currently known about maternal obesity and its effect on foetal and neonatal physiology and metabolism. Complex and multifactorial networks of molecules are intertwined and culminate in a pathologically synergistic manner to cause disruption and disorganisation of foetal physiology. This altered phenotype may potentiate the cycle of intergenerational transmission of obesity and related disorders.

  1. Maternal Distress during Pregnancy and Offspring Childhood Overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingstrup, Katja Glejsted; Schou Andersen, Camilla; Adeltoft, Teresa Ajslev

    2012-01-01

    Background. Maternal distress during pregnancy increases the intrauterine level of glucocorticoids, which may have long-term health consequences for the child. Objective. To examine if distress as a combined measure of anxiety, depression, and stress of the mother during pregnancy was associated...... with offspring childhood overweight at age 7. Methods. We performed a cohort study using prospective data from 37,764 women and child dyads from the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996-2002). At a telephone interview at approximately 30 weeks gestation, the women reported whether they felt anxious, depressed......, or stressed. The 95 percentile for body mass index in an international reference defined childhood overweight at any given age. Logistic regression was used for the analyses. Results. The prevalence of overweight children at 7 years of age was 9.9%. Prenatal exposure to maternal distress during pregnancy...

  2. Parent-Offspring Conflict over Short-Term Mating Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyroulla Georgiou

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Individuals engage in short-term mating strategies that enable them to obtain fitness benefits from casual relationships. These benefits, however, count for less and cost more to their parents. On this basis three hypotheses are tested. First, parents and offspring are likely to disagree over short-term mating strategies, with the former considering these as less acceptable than the latter. Second, parents are more likely to disapprove of the short-term mating strategies of their daughters than of their sons. Finally, mothers and fathers are expected to agree on how much they disagree over the short-term mating strategies of their children. Evidence from a sample of 148 Greek-Cypriot families (140 mothers, 105 fathers, 119 daughters, 77 sons provides support for the first two hypotheses and partial support for the third hypothesis. The implications of these findings for understanding family dynamics are further discussed.

  3. Evolutionary pets: offspring numbers reveal speciation process in domesticated chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Tiemann

    Full Text Available Since Darwin, the nature of the relationship between evolution and domestication has been debated. Evolution offers different mechanisms of selection that lead to adaptation and may end in the origin of new species as defined by the biological species concept. Domestication has given rise to numerous breeds in almost every domesticated species, including chickens. At the same time, so-called artificial selection seems to exclude mechanisms of sexual selection by the animals themselves. We want to forward the question to the animal itself: With whom do you reproduce successfully? This study focused on the sexual behavior of the domestic chicken Gallus gallus f.dom., particularly the White Crested Polish breed. Experiments on mate choice and the observation of fertilization and hatching rates of mixed-breeding groups revealed breed-specific preferences. In breeding groups containing White Crested Polish and a comparative breed, more purebred chicks hatched than hybrids (number of eggs collected: 1059. Mating was possible in equal shares, but in relation to the number of eggs collected, purebred offspring (62.75% ± 7.10%, M ± SE hatched to a greater extend compared to hybrid offspring (28.75% ± 15.32%, M ± SE. These data demonstrate that the mechanism of sexual selection is still present in domestic chicken breeds, which includes the alteration of gene frequencies typical for domestication and evolutionary speciation. Due to selection and mate choice we state that breeding in principle can generate new species. Therefore, we see domestication as an evolutionary process that integrates human interests of animal breeding with innate mate choice by the animal.

  4. Early human pregnancy serum cytokine levels predict autoimmunity in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindehammer, Sabina Resic; Björck, Sara; Lynch, Kristian; Brundin, Charlotte; Marsal, Karel; Agardh, Daniel; Fex, Malin

    2011-09-01

    It is generally believed that pregnancy is mediated by a Th2 response, which includes cytokines that promote placental growth and are involved in inducing tolerance to the foetus. If the balance between Th1/and Th2-mediated cytokines is disrupted, systemic and local changes could predispose the foetus to future disease. Therefore, a shift in the Th1/Th2 balance during pregnancy, possibly caused by underlying environmental factors, could be associated with post-partum autoimmune disease in the offspring. Based on this presumption, we used celiac disease as a model to investigate whether autoimmunity is triggered in the foetus during early pregnancy, observed as changes in the mother's cytokine profile. Ten cytokines were measured by electro-chemi-luminescent multiplex ELISA in serum samples obtained from mothers during early pregnancy. Cases included women with children who had developed verified celiac disease before the age of 5, who were compared with other women as matched controls. We observed that 7 out of 10 cytokine levels were significantly increased in our case mothers when compared to controls. Five of these belonged to what is generally known as a Th1-mediated response (TNFα, IFNγ, IL-2, IL-1β and IL-12) and two were Th2 cytokines (IL-13 and IL-10). However, the IL-10 cytokine is known to have features from both arms of the immune system. These results were confirmed in a logistic regression model where five out of the initial seven cytokines remained. This study suggests that increase in Th1 serum cytokines may be associated with celiac disease in offspring.

  5. Fin Type Variation of Lionhead Strain Goldfish (Carassius auratus Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Syaifudin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available  Lionhead strain goldfish (Carassius auratus inheritance produce many variations in phenotype qualitative traits of their offspring that is not common with the parents. Lionhead is an ornamental freshwater fish, they do not have a dorsal fin, but it is a beauty finfish, is popular to the people and have a high economic value. Of the 846 offspring of lionhead is produced in this experiment, and 57,7% of them have dorsal fin (42,3% normal, 13,1% of them have anal fin which did not similar with their parents, 58,6% caudal fin of them did not have similar to their parents. It might be caused by incompletely segregation in meiosis and many gen responsible to certain phenotype trait. Another abnormalities such as no anal fin, blindness, stumped and no pigmen in their gill lamella also occurred. Key words: Inheritance, fin, phenotype, abnormality   ABSTRAK Ikan maskoki strain lionhead menghasilkan keturunan dengan fenotip yang sangat bervariasi dan berbeda dengan induknya. Ikan ini merupakan ikan hias air tawar yang tidak memiliki sirip punggung namun tetap memiliki keindahan, sehingga menjadi begitu populer di masyarakat dan memiliki nilai ekonomi yang tinggi. Sebanyak 846 keturunan (anakan telah dihasilkan dalam percobaan ini, dan sebanyak 57,7% dari populasi tersebut memiliki sirip punggung (berarti 42,3% merupakan keturunan normal, 13,1% memiliki sirip dubur yang tidak mirip dengan induknya. Variasi keturunan ikan maskoki strain lionhead ini disebabkan oleh segregasi yang tidak sempurna dalam proses meiosis dan banyaknya gen yang terlibat dalam pembentukan penotip tertentu. Abnormalitas lainnya juga terjadi pada keturunan ikan maskoki strain lionhead ini, seperti tidak adanya sirip dubur, mata buta, tubuh pendek dan tidak adanya pigmen pada lemela insang Kata kunci: Keturunan, sirip, fenotip, abnormalitas  

  6. P1 epigenetic regulation in leaves of high altitude maize landraces: effect of UV-B radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Pablo Rius

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available P1 is a R2R3-MYB transcription factor that regulates the accumulation of a specific group of flavonoids in maize floral tissues, such as flavones and phlobaphenes. P1 is also highly expressed in leaves of maize landraces adapted to high altitudes and higher levels of UV-B radiation. In this work, we analyzed the epigenetic regulation of the P1 gene by UV-B in leaves of different maize landraces. Our results demonstrate that DNA methylation in the P1 proximal promoter, intron1 and intron2 is decreased by UV-B in all lines analyzed; however, the basal DNA methylation levels are lower in the landraces than in B73, a low altitude inbred line. DNA demethylation by UV-B is accompanied by a decrease in H3 methylation at Lys 9 and 27, and by an increase in H3 acetylation. smRNAs complementary to specific regions of the proximal promoter and of intron 2 3' end are also decreased by UV-B; interestingly, P1 smRNA levels are lower in the landraces than in B73 both under control conditions and after UV-B exposure, suggesting that smRNAs regulate P1 expression by UV-B in maize leaves. Finally, we investigated if different P1 targets in flower tissues are also regulated by this transcription factor in response to UV-B. Some targets analyzed show an induction in maize landraces in response to UV-B, with higher basal expression levels in the landraces than in B73; however, not all the transcripts analyzed were found to be regulated by UV-B in leaves.

  7. Identification of a Supramolecular Functional Architecture of Streptococcus mutans Adhesin P1 on the Bacterial Cell Surface*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Kyle P.; Sullan, Ruby May A.; Crowley, Paula J.; El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Tang, Wenxing; Besingi, Richard; Dufrene, Yves F.; Brady, L. Jeannine

    2015-01-01

    P1 (antigen I/II) is a sucrose-independent adhesin of Streptococcus mutans whose functional architecture on the cell surface is not fully understood. S. mutans cells subjected to mechanical extraction were significantly diminished in adherence to immobilized salivary agglutinin but remained immunoreactive and were readily aggregated by fluid-phase salivary agglutinin. Bacterial adherence was restored by incubation of postextracted cells with P1 fragments that contain each of the two known adhesive domains. In contrast to untreated cells, glutaraldehyde-treated bacteria gained reactivity with anti-C-terminal monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), whereas epitopes recognized by mAbs against other portions of the molecule were masked. Surface plasmon resonance experiments demonstrated the ability of apical and C-terminal fragments of P1 to interact. Binding of several different anti-P1 mAbs to unfixed cells triggered release of a C-terminal fragment from the bacterial surface, suggesting a novel mechanism of action of certain adherence-inhibiting antibodies. We also used atomic force microscopy-based single molecule force spectroscopy with tips bearing various mAbs to elucidate the spatial organization and orientation of P1 on living bacteria. The similar rupture lengths detected using mAbs against the head and C-terminal regions, which are widely separated in the tertiary structure, suggest a higher order architecture in which these domains are in close proximity on the cell surface. Taken together, our results suggest a supramolecular organization in which additional P1 polypeptides, including the C-terminal segment originally identified as antigen II, associate with covalently attached P1 to form the functional adhesive layer. PMID:25666624

  8. Identification of a supramolecular functional architecture of Streptococcus mutans adhesin P1 on the bacterial cell surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Kyle P; Sullan, Ruby May A; Crowley, Paula J; El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Tang, Wenxing; Besingi, Richard; Dufrene, Yves F; Brady, L Jeannine

    2015-04-03

    P1 (antigen I/II) is a sucrose-independent adhesin of Streptococcus mutans whose functional architecture on the cell surface is not fully understood. S. mutans cells subjected to mechanical extraction were significantly diminished in adherence to immobilized salivary agglutinin but remained immunoreactive and were readily aggregated by fluid-phase salivary agglutinin. Bacterial adherence was restored by incubation of postextracted cells with P1 fragments that contain each of the two known adhesive domains. In contrast to untreated cells, glutaraldehyde-treated bacteria gained reactivity with anti-C-terminal monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), whereas epitopes recognized by mAbs against other portions of the molecule were masked. Surface plasmon resonance experiments demonstrated the ability of apical and C-terminal fragments of P1 to interact. Binding of several different anti-P1 mAbs to unfixed cells triggered release of a C-terminal fragment from the bacterial surface, suggesting a novel mechanism of action of certain adherence-inhibiting antibodies. We also used atomic force microscopy-based single molecule force spectroscopy with tips bearing various mAbs to elucidate the spatial organization and orientation of P1 on living bacteria. The similar rupture lengths detected using mAbs against the head and C-terminal regions, which are widely separated in the tertiary structure, suggest a higher order architecture in which these domains are in close proximity on the cell surface. Taken together, our results suggest a supramolecular organization in which additional P1 polypeptides, including the C-terminal segment originally identified as antigen II, associate with covalently attached P1 to form the functional adhesive layer. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Experiences of offspring searching for and contacting their donor siblings and donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadva, Vasanti; Freeman, Tabitha; Kramer, Wendy; Golombok, Susan

    2010-04-01

    This study investigates a new phenomenon whereby individuals conceived by donor insemination are searching for and contacting their donor and/or 'donor siblings' (i.e. donor offspring conceived by the same donor who are their genetic half siblings). On-line questionnaires were completed by members of the Donor Sibling Registry (DSR), a US-based registry that facilitates contact between donor conception families who share the same donor. Of the 165 donor offspring who completed the survey, 15% were searching for their donor siblings, 13% were searching for their donor, and 64% were searching for both. Differences were found according to family type and age of disclosure. Fewer offspring from heterosexual couple families had told their father about their search when compared with offspring from lesbian couple families who had told their co-parent. Offspring who had found out about their conception after age 18 were more likely to be searching for medical reasons, whereas those who had found out before age 18 tended to be searching out of curiosity. Some offspring had discovered large numbers of half siblings (maximum=13). The majority of offspring who had found their donor relations reported positive experiences and remained in regular contact with them. Copyright (c) 2010 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A model for estimating the minimum number of offspring to sample in studies of reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joseph H; Ward, Eric J; Carlson, Stephanie M

    2011-01-01

    Molecular parentage permits studies of selection and evolution in fecund species with cryptic mating systems, such as fish, amphibians, and insects. However, there exists no method for estimating the number of offspring that must be assigned parentage to achieve robust estimates of reproductive success when only a fraction of offspring can be sampled. We constructed a 2-stage model that first estimated the mean (μ) and variance (v) in reproductive success from published studies on salmonid fishes and then sampled offspring from reproductive success distributions simulated from the μ and v estimates. Results provided strong support for modeling salmonid reproductive success via the negative binomial distribution and suggested that few offspring samples are needed to reject the null hypothesis of uniform offspring production. However, the sampled reproductive success distributions deviated significantly (χ(2) goodness-of-fit test p value reproductive success distribution at rates often >0.05 and as high as 0.24, even when hundreds of offspring were assigned parentage. In general, reproductive success patterns were less accurate when offspring were sampled from cohorts with larger numbers of parents and greater variance in reproductive success. Our model can be reparameterized with data from other species and will aid researchers in planning reproductive success studies by providing explicit sampling targets required to accurately assess reproductive success.

  11. Maternal high fat diet alters skeletal muscle mitochondrial catalytic activity in adult male rat offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Anne Pileggi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A maternal high-fat (HF diet during pregnancy can lead to metabolic compromise such as insulin resistance in adult offspring. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction is one mechanism contributing to metabolic impairments in insulin resistant states. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether mitochondrial dysfunction is evident in metabolically compromised offspring born to HF-fed dams. Sprague-Dawley dams were randomly assigned to receive a purified control diet (CD; 10% kcal from fat or a high fat diet (HFD; 45% kcal from fat for 10 days prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and during lactation. From weaning, all male offspring received a standard chow diet and soleus muscle was collected at day 150. Expression of the mitochondrial transcription factors nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF1 and mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA were downregulated in HF offspring. Furthermore, genes encoding the mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS respiratory complex subunits were supressed in HF offspring. Moreover, protein expression of the complex I subunit, NDUFB8, was downregulated in HF offspring (36%, which was paralleled by decreased maximal catalytic linked activity of complex I and III (40%. Together, these results indicate that exposure to a maternal HF diet during development may elicit lifelong mitochondrial alterations in offspring skeletal muscle.

  12. Disruptive behavior disorders in offspring of parents with major depression: associations with parental behavior disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R; Petty, Carter; Micco, Jamie A; Henin, Aude; Park, Jennifer; Beilin, Ari; Rosenbaum, Jerrold F; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-12-01

    Although the offspring of parents with major depressive disorder (MDD) are at increased risk to develop disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) in addition to MDD, it remains unclear whether this heightened risk is due to MDD or to comorbid DBD in the parents. In a secondary analysis of longitudinal data from offspring at risk for MDD and panic disorder and comparison children, we stratified 169 children of parents who had been treated for MDD based upon presence (n=50) or absence (n=119) of parental history of DBD (ADHD, oppositional disorder, and conduct disorder) and contrasted them with children of parents with DBD but without MDD (n=19) and children whose parents had neither MDD nor DBD (n=106). The children had been assessed in middle childhood using structured diagnostic interviews. Offspring of parents with MDD + DBD had significantly higher rates of MDD, DBD in general, and ADHD in particular, compared with offspring of parents with MDD alone. Offspring of parents with MDD + DBD also had higher rates of mania than controls. Both parental MDD and DBD conferred independent risk for MDD and DBD in the offspring. However, only parental DBD conferred independent risk for conduct disorder and ADHD and only parental MDD conferred independent risk for oppositional defiant disorder. Elevated rates of DBD in the offspring of parents with MDD appear to be due in part to the presence of DBD in the parents. Further studies of samples not selected on the basis of parental panic disorder are needed to confirm these results.

  13. Maternal care, mother-offspring aggregation and age-dependent coadaptation in the European earwig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Y; Kölliker, M

    2013-09-01

    Benefits and costs of parental care are expected to change with offspring development and lead to age-dependent coadaptation expressed as phenotypic (behavioural) matches between offspring age and parental reproductive stage. Parents and offspring interact repeatedly over time for the provision of parental care. Their behaviours should be accordingly adjusted to each other dynamically and adaptively, and the phenotypic match between offspring age and parental stage should stabilize the repeated behavioural interactions. In the European earwig (Forficula auricularia), maternal care is beneficial for offspring survival, but not vital, allowing us to investigate the extent to which the stability of mother-offspring aggregation is shaped by age-dependent coadaptation. In this study, we experimentally cross-fostered nymphs of different age classes (younger or older) between females in early or late reproductive stage to disrupt age-dependent coadaptation, thereby generating female-nymph dyads that were phenotypically matched or mismatched. The results revealed a higher stability in aggregation during the first larval instar when care is most intense, a steeper decline in aggregation tendency over developmental time and a reduced developmental rate in matched compared with mismatched families. Furthermore, nymph survival was positively correlated with female-nymph aggregation stability during the early stages when maternal care is most prevalent. These results support the hypothesis that age-related phenotypically plastic coadaptation affects family dynamics and offspring developmental rate. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  14. The role of maternal behavior and offspring development in the survival of mountain goat kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Théoret-Gosselin, Rachel; Hamel, Sandra; Côté, Steeve D

    2015-05-01

    Studies on juvenile survival have mainly focused on the effects of environmental conditions and maternal traits. However, growing evidence indicates that the ability of parents to care for their young and the offspring developmental behaviors could be key determinants of their survival. We examined the relative influence of (1) environmental conditions, (2) offspring traits, (3) maternal traits, (4) maternal care behaviors, and (5) offspring developmental behaviors on kid survival to weaning and to 1 year old in mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus). Offspring development and maternal care directly affected offspring survival, and this more importantly than did environmental conditions and maternal traits. Frequency of play strongly increased survival before weaning. Greater maternal care increased offspring survival during winter, directly and indirectly through kid mass. Kid mass was also a major determinant of both summer and winter survival. Environmental conditions mainly influenced summer survival while maternal characteristics indirectly affected winter survival through an effect on kid mass. Behavioral adaptations of maternal care and offspring development to local selective pressures can lead to local adaptations and have greater implications in population dynamic studies than previously believed.

  15. Effects of augmented corticosterone in painted turtle eggs on offspring development and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polich, Rebecca L; Bodensteiner, Brooke L; Adams, Clare I M; Janzen, Fredric J

    2018-01-01

    Maternal stressors can play an integral role in offspring development and ultimate behaviors in many vertebrates. Increased circulating stress avoidance hormones can be reflected in elevated concentrations in ova, thus providing a potential mechanism for maternal stress to be transmitted to offspring even in taxa without parental care. In this study, we assessed the potential impacts of augmented stress avoidance hormones on offspring development and anti-predator behaviors in a freshwater turtle, Chrysemys picta. We exposed C. picta eggs to biologically relevant amounts of the stress avoidance hormone, corticosterone, as a proxy for maternal stressors. We allowed the eggs to incubate in the field, then measured offspring phenotypes, conducted performance trials, and simulated nest emergence in a field experiment. Exogenous corticosterone reduced survivorship to hatch, but did not affect incubation duration, offspring size, overwinter survival, or size after hibernation. In performance trials, this hormone treatment reduced the frequency of righting, yet enhanced the righting speed of neonates. Regardless, these performance differences did not detectably alter survivorship in the nest emergence experiment. These results lend insight into the potential effects of maternal stress levels on offspring phenotypes, as well as the robustness of offspring fitness to altered levels of maternal stress in freshwater turtles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Individual differences in maternal response to immune challenge predict offspring behavior: Contribution of environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronson, Stefanie L.; Ahlbrand, Rebecca; Horn, Paul S.; Kern, Joseph R.; Richtand, Neil M.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal infection during pregnancy elevates risk for schizophrenia and related disorders in offspring. Converging evidence suggests the maternal inflammatory response mediates the interaction between maternal infection, altered brain development, and behavioral outcome. The extent to which individual differences in the maternal response to immune challenge influence the development of these abnormalities is unknown. The present study investigated the impact of individual differences in maternal response to the viral mimic polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) on offspring behavior. We observed significant variability in body weight alterations of pregnant rats induced by administration of poly I:C on gestational day 14. Furthermore, the presence or absence of maternal weight loss predicted MK-801 and amphetamine stimulated locomotor abnormalities in offspring. MK-801 stimulated locomotion was altered in offspring of all poly I:C treated dams; however, the presence or absence of maternal weight loss resulted in decreased and modestly increased locomotion, respectively. Adult offspring of poly I:C treated dams that lost weight exhibited significantly decreased amphetamine stimulated locomotion, while offspring of poly I:C treated dams without weight loss performed similarly to vehicle controls. Social isolation and increased maternal age predicted weight loss in response to poly I:C but not vehicle injection. In combination, these data identify environmental factors associated with the maternal response to immune challenge and functional outcome of offspring exposed to maternal immune activation. PMID:21255612

  17. Transgenerational effects of stress exposure on offspring phenotypes in apomictic dandelion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen J F Verhoeven

    Full Text Available Heritable epigenetic modulation of gene expression is a candidate mechanism to explain parental environmental effects on offspring phenotypes, but current evidence for environment-induced epigenetic changes that persist in offspring generations is scarce. In apomictic dandelions, exposure to various stresses was previously shown to heritably alter DNA methylation patterns. In this study we explore whether these induced changes are accompanied by heritable effects on offspring phenotypes. We observed effects of parental jasmonic acid treatment on offspring specific leaf area and on offspring interaction with a generalist herbivore; and of parental nutrient stress on offspring root-shoot biomass ratio, tissue P-content and leaf morphology. Some of the effects appeared to enhance offspring ability to cope with the same stresses that their parents experienced. Effects differed between apomictic genotypes and were not always consistently observed between different experiments, especially in the case of parental nutrient stress. While this context-dependency of the effects remains to be further clarified, the total set of results provides evidence for the existence of transgenerational effects in apomictic dandelions. Zebularine treatment affected the within-generation response to nutrient stress, pointing at a role of DNA methylation in phenotypic plasticity to nutrient environments. This study shows that stress exposure in apomictic dandelions can cause transgenerational phenotypic effects, in addition to previously demonstrated transgenerational DNA methylation effects.

  18. Transgenerational effects of stress exposure on offspring phenotypes in apomictic dandelion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Koen J F; van Gurp, Thomas P

    2012-01-01

    Heritable epigenetic modulation of gene expression is a candidate mechanism to explain parental environmental effects on offspring phenotypes, but current evidence for environment-induced epigenetic changes that persist in offspring generations is scarce. In apomictic dandelions, exposure to various stresses was previously shown to heritably alter DNA methylation patterns. In this study we explore whether these induced changes are accompanied by heritable effects on offspring phenotypes. We observed effects of parental jasmonic acid treatment on offspring specific leaf area and on offspring interaction with a generalist herbivore; and of parental nutrient stress on offspring root-shoot biomass ratio, tissue P-content and leaf morphology. Some of the effects appeared to enhance offspring ability to cope with the same stresses that their parents experienced. Effects differed between apomictic genotypes and were not always consistently observed between different experiments, especially in the case of parental nutrient stress. While this context-dependency of the effects remains to be further clarified, the total set of results provides evidence for the existence of transgenerational effects in apomictic dandelions. Zebularine treatment affected the within-generation response to nutrient stress, pointing at a role of DNA methylation in phenotypic plasticity to nutrient environments. This study shows that stress exposure in apomictic dandelions can cause transgenerational phenotypic effects, in addition to previously demonstrated transgenerational DNA methylation effects.

  19. Exposure to sorbitol during lactation causes metabolic alterations and genotoxic effects in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Felipe S; Araujo-Lima, Carlos F; Aiub, Claudia A F; Felzenszwalb, Israel

    2016-10-17

    Sorbitol is a polyol used by the food industry as a sweetener. Women are consuming diet and light products containing sorbitol during pregnancy and in the postnatal period to prevent themselves from excessive weight gain and maintain a slim body. Although there is no evidence for the genotoxicity of sorbitol in the perinatal period, this study focused on evaluating the effects of the maternal intake of sorbitol on the biochemical and toxicological parameters of lactating Wistar rat offspring after 14days of mother-to-offspring exposure. A dose-dependent reduction of offspring length was observed. An increase in sorbitol levels determined in the milk was also observed. However, we detected an inverse relationship between the exposition dose in milk fructose and triacylglycerols concentrations. There was an increase in the plasmatic levels of ALT, AST and LDLc and a decrease in proteins, cholesterol and glucose levels in the offspring. Sorbitol exposure caused hepatocyte genotoxicity, including micronuclei induction. Maternal sorbitol intake induced myelotoxicity and myelosuppression in their offspring. The Comet assay of the blood cells detected a dose-dependent genotoxic response within the sorbitol-exposed offspring. According to our results, sorbitol is able to induce important metabolic alterations and genotoxic responses in the exposed offspring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Maternal PTSD associates with greater glucocorticoid sensitivity in offspring of Holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrner, Amy; Bierer, Linda M; Passarelli, Vincent; Pratchett, Laura C; Flory, Janine D; Bader, Heather N; Harris, Iris R; Bedi, Aarti; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P; Makotkine, Iouri; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-02-01

    Intergenerational effects of trauma have been observed clinically in a wide range of populations, and parental PTSD has been associated with an increased risk for psychopathology in offspring. In studies of Holocaust survivor offspring, parental PTSD, and particularly maternal PTSD, has been associated with increased risk for PTSD, low basal urinary cortisol excretion and enhanced cortisol suppression in response to dexamethasone. Such findings implicate maternally derived glucocorticoid programming in the intergenerational transmission of trauma-related consequences, potentially resulting from in utero influences or early life experiences. This study investigated the relative influence of Holocaust exposure and PTSD in mothers and fathers on glucocorticoid sensitivity in offspring. Eighty Holocaust offspring and 15 offspring of non-exposed Jewish parents completed evaluations and provided blood and urine samples. Glucocorticoid sensitivity was evaluated using the lysozyme suppression test (LST), an in vitro measure of glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity in a peripheral tissue, the dexamethasone suppression test (DST), and 24-h urinary cortisol excretion. Maternal PTSD was associated with greater glucocorticoid sensitivity in offspring across all three measures of glucocorticoid function. An interaction of maternal and paternal PTSD on the DST and 24-h urinary cortisol showed an effect of decreased glucocorticoid sensitivity in offspring with paternal, but not maternal, PTSD. Although indirect, these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that epigenetic programming may be involved in the intergenerational transmission of trauma-related effects on glucocorticoid regulation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Pre- and/or postnatal protein restriction in rats impairs learning and motivation in male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Castro, L A; Rodriguez, J S; Rodríguez-González, G L; Wimmer, R D; McDonald, T J; Larrea, F; Nathanielsz, P W; Zambrano, E

    2011-04-01

    Suboptimal developmental environments program offspring to lifelong health complications including affective and cognitive disorders. Little is known about the effects of suboptimal intra-uterine environments on associative learning and motivational behavior. We hypothesized that maternal isocaloric low protein diet during pregnancy and lactation would impair offspring associative learning and motivation as measured by operant conditioning and the progressive ratio task, respectively. Control mothers were fed 20% casein (C) and restricted mothers (R) 10% casein to provide four groups: CC, RR, CR, and RC (first letter pregnancy diet and second letter lactation diet), to evaluate effects of maternal diet on male offspring behavior. Impaired learning was observed during fixed ratio-1 operant conditioning in RC offspring that required more sessions to learn vs. the CC offspring (9.4±0.8 and 3.8±0.3 sessions, respectively, pmotivational effects during the progressive ratio test revealed less responding in the RR (48.1±17), CR (74.7±8.4), and RC (65.9±11.2) for positive reinforcement vs. the CC offspring (131.5±7.5, plearning and motivation behavior with the nutritional challenge in the prenatal period showing more vulnerability in offspring behavior. Copyright © 2010 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Maternal periodontal disease in rats decreases insulin sensitivity and insulin signaling in adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakashi, Daisy J; Leal, Rosana P; Colombo, Natalia H; Chiba, Fernando Y; Garbin, Cléa A S; Jardim, Elerson G; Antoniali, Cristina; Sumida, Doris H

    2013-03-01

    Periodontal disease during pregnancy has been recognized as one of the causes of preterm and low-birth-weight (PLBW) babies. Several studies have demonstrated that PLBW babies are prone to developing insulin resistance as adults. Although there is controversy over the association between periodontal disease and PLBW, the phenomenon known as programming can translate any stimulus or aggression experienced during intrauterine growth into physiologic and metabolic alterations in adulthood. The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether the offspring of rats with periodontal disease develop insulin resistance in adulthood. Ten female Wistar rats were divided into periodontal disease (PED) and control (CN) groups. All rats were mated at 7 days after induction of periodontal disease. Male offspring were divided into two groups: 1) periodontal disease offspring (PEDO; n = 24); and 2) control offspring (CNO; n = 24). Offspring body weight was measured from birth until 75 days. When the offspring reached 75 days old, the following parameters were measured: 1) plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, fructosamine, lipase, amylase, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α); 2) insulin sensitivity (IS); and 3) insulin signal transduction (IST) in insulin-sensitive tissues. Low birth weight was not detected in the PEDO group. However, plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, fructosamine, lipase, amylase, and TNF-α were increased and IS and IST were reduced (P PEDO group compared with the CNO group. Maternal periodontal disease may induce insulin resistance and reduce IST in adult offspring, but such alterations are not attributable to low birth weight.

  3. Risk/protective factors among addicted mothers' offspring: a replication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, M M; McAvay, G; Goldstein, R B; Nunes, E V; Verdeli, H; Wickramaratne, P J

    1999-11-01

    There are few systematic studies of the school-aged offspring of drug-dependent patients, although this information is useful for planning evidence-based prevention programs. We have completed such a study, which we compare to a similar study independently conducted in 1998. In both studies, both the parent and offspring were assessed blindly and independently by direct diagnostic interviews, and parental assessment of offspring was also obtained. The similarity in design and methods between studies provided an opportunity for replication by reanalysis of data. The major findings are a replication in two independently conducted studies of school-aged offspring of opiate- and/or cocaine-addicted mothers of the high rates of any psychiatric disorder (60% in both studies), major depression (20%, 26%), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) (18%, 23%), conduct disorder (17%, 9%), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (13%, 8%), and substance abuse (5%, 10%) among offspring. Both studies also found high rates of comorbid alcohol abuse, depression, and multiple drugs of abuse in the mothers. We conclude that efforts to replicate findings by analyses of independently conducted studies are an inexpensive way to test the sturdiness of findings that can provide the empirical basis for preventive efforts. Clinically, the data in both studies suggest that both drug dependence and associated psychopathology should be assessed and treated in opiate addicts with young offspring, and the offspring should be monitored for the development of conduct and mood disorders and substance use.

  4. Comparative analysis between P1 and B1 equations for neutron moderation; Analise comparativa entre os metodos de obtencao e das solucoes das equacoes P1 e B1 para moderacao de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da; Cardoso, Carlos Eduardo Santos [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2000-07-01

    In order to calculate the neutron flux in nuclear reactors, B1 or P1 equations are solved by numerical methods for several groups of energy. The neutron fluxes obtained from the solutions of the B1 and P1 equations are similar when they are applied to large nuclear power reactors. However, an important difference between the two fluxes is that the system of P1 equations uses one more approximation than the B1 system and then, its flux is less precise. The present work shows the relations between both equations and analyzes for what conditions the two equations systems are equivalent. Furthermore, this equations are numerically solved in 54 groups of energy for a quadrangular arrange. (author)

  5. Geographical differences in maternal basking behaviour and offspring growth rate in a climatically widespread viviparous reptile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadby, Chloé D; Jones, Susan M; Wapstra, Erik

    2014-04-01

    In reptiles, the thermal environment during embryonic development affects offspring phenotypic traits and potentially offspring fitness. In viviparous species, mothers can potentially manipulate the embryonic thermal environment through their basking behaviour and, thus, may be able to manipulate offspring phenotype and increase offspring fitness. One way in which mothers can maximise offspring phenotype (and thus potentially affect offspring fitness) is by fine-tuning their basking behaviour to the environment in order to buffer the embryo from deleterious developmental temperatures. In widespread species, it is unclear whether populations that have evolved under different climatic conditions will exhibit different maternal behaviours and/or thermal effects on offspring phenotype. To test this, we provided extended or reduced basking opportunity to gravid spotted skinks (Niveoscincus ocellatus) and their offspring from two populations at the climatic extremes of the species' distribution. Gravid females fine-tuned their basking behaviour to the basking opportunity, which allowed them to buffer their embryos from potentially negative thermal effects. This fine-tuning of female basking behaviour appears to have led to the expression of geographical differences in basking behaviour, with females from the cold alpine regions being more opportunistic in their basking behaviour than females from the warmer regions. However, those differences in maternal behaviour did not preclude the evolution of geographic differences in thermal effects: offspring growth varied between populations, potentially suggesting local adaptation to basking conditions. Our results demonstrate that maternal effects and phenotypic plasticity can play a significant role in allowing species to cope in changing environmental conditions, which is particularly relevant in the context of climate change.

  6. Maternal peanut exposure during pregnancy and lactation reduces peanut allergy risk in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Expósito, Iván; Song, Ying; Järvinen, Kirsi M; Srivastava, Kamal; Li, Xiu-Min

    2009-11-01

    Maternal allergy is believed to be a risk factor for peanut allergy (PNA) in children. However, there is no direct evidence of maternal transmission of PNA susceptibility, and it is unknown whether maternal peanut exposure affects the development of PNA in offspring. To investigate the influence of maternal PNA on offspring reactions to the first peanut exposure, and whether maternal low-dose peanut exposure during pregnancy and lactation influences these reactions and peanut sensitization in a murine model. Five-week-old offspring of PNA C3H/HeJ mothers (PNA-Ms) were challenged intragastrically with peanut (first exposure), and reactions were determined. In a subset of the experiment, PNA-Ms were fed a low dose of peanut (PNA-M/PN) or not fed peanut (PNA-M/none) during pregnancy and lactation. Their 5-week-old offspring were challenged intragastrically with peanut, and reactions were determined. In another subset of the experiment, offspring of PNA-M/PN or PNA-M/none were sensitized with peanut intragastrically for 6 weeks, and serum peanut-specific antibodies were determined. PNA-M offspring exhibited anaphylactic reactions at first exposure to peanut that were associated with peanut-specific IgG(1) levels and prevented by a platelet activation factor antagonist. In a subset experiment, PNA-M/PN offspring showed significantly reduced first-exposure peanut reactions, increased IgG(2a), and reduced mitogen-stimulated splenocyte cytokine production compared with PNA-M/none offspring. In an additional experiment, PNA-M/PN offspring showed reduction of peanut-specific IgE to active peanut sensitization. We show for the first time maternal transmission of susceptibility to first-exposure peanut reactions and active peanut sensitization. Low-dose peanut exposure during pregnancy and lactation reduced this risk.

  7. Parents' perceptions on offspring risk and prevention of anxiety and depression: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festen, Helma; Schipper, Karen; de Vries, Sybolt O; Reichart, Catrien G; Abma, Tineke A; Nauta, Maaike H

    2014-01-01

    Offspring of patients with anxiety or depression are at high risk for developing anxiety or depression. Despite the positive findings regarding effectiveness of prevention programs, recruitment for prevention activities and trials is notoriously difficult. Our randomized controlled prevention trial was terminated due to lack of patient inclusion. Research on mentally-ill parents' perceptions of offspring's risk and need for preventive intervention may shed light on this issue, and may enhance family participation in prevention activities and trials. Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 24 parents (patients with anxiety or depression, or their partners). An inductive content analysis of the data was performed. Five research questions were investigated regarding parents' perceptions of anxiety, depression, and offspring risk; anxiety, depression, and parenting; the need for offspring intervention and prevention; and barriers to and experiences with participation in preventive research. Parental perceptions of the impact of parental anxiety and depression on offspring greatly differed. Parents articulated concerns about children's symptomatology, however, most parents did not perceive a direct link between parent symptoms and offspring quality of life. They experienced an influence of parental symptoms on family quality of life, but chose not to discuss that with their children in order to protect them. Parents were not well aware of the possibilities regarding professional help for offspring and preferred parent-focused rather than offspring-focused interventions such as parent psycho-education. Important barriers to participation in preventive research included parental overburden, shame and stigma, and perceived lack of necessity for intervention. This study highlights the importance of educating parents in adult health care. Providing psycho-education regarding offspring risk, communication in the family, and parenting in order

  8. Maternal high-fat diet and offspring expression levels of vitamin K-dependent proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanham, S A; Cagampang, F R; Oreffo, R O C

    2014-12-01

    Studies suggest that bone growth and development and susceptibility to vascular disease in later life are influenced by maternal nutrition during intrauterine and early postnatal life. There is evidence for a role of vitamin K-dependent proteins (VKDPs) including osteocalcin, matrix Gla protein, periostin, and growth-arrest specific- protein 6, in both bone and vascular development. We have examined whether there are alterations in these VKDPs in bone and vascular tissue from offspring of mothers subjected to a nutritional challenge: a high-fat diet during pregnancy and postnatally, using 6-week-old mouse offspring. Bone site-specific and sex-specific differences across femoral and vertebral bone in male and female offspring were observed. Overall a high-fat maternal diet and offspring diet exacerbated the bone changes observed. Sex-specific differences and tissue-specific differences were observed in VKDP levels in aorta tissue from high-fat diet-fed female offspring from high-fat diet-fed mothers displaying increased levels of Gas6 and Ggcx compared with those of female controls. In contrast, differences were seen in VKDP levels in femoral bone of female offspring with lower expression levels of Mgp in offspring of mothers fed a high-fat diet compared with those of controls. We observed a significant correlation in Mgp expression levels within the femur to measures of bone structure of the femur and vertebra, particularly in the male offspring cohort. In summary, the current study has highlighted the importance of maternal nutrition on offspring bone development and the correlation of VKDPs to bone structure.

  9. Maternal androgen excess and obesity induce sexually dimorphic anxiety-like behavior in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manti, Maria; Fornes, Romina; Qi, Xiaojuan; Folmerz, Elin; Lindén Hirschberg, Angelica; de Castro Barbosa, Thais; Maliqueo, Manuel; Benrick, Anna; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

    2018-03-22

    Maternal polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a condition associated with hyperandrogenism, is suggested to increase anxiety-like behavior in the offspring. Because PCOS is closely linked to obesity, we investigated the impact of an adverse hormonal or metabolic maternal environment and offspring obesity on anxiety in the offspring. The obese PCOS phenotype was induced by chronic high-fat-high-sucrose (HFHS) consumption together with prenatal dihydrotestosterone exposure in mouse dams. Anxiety-like behavior was assessed in adult offspring with the elevated-plus maze and open-field tests. The influence of maternal androgens and maternal and offspring diet on genes implicated in anxiety were analyzed in the amygdala and hypothalamus with real-time PCR ( n = 47). Independent of diet, female offspring exposed to maternal androgens were more anxious and displayed up-regulation of adrenoceptor α 1B in the amygdala and up-regulation of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone ( Crh). By contrast, male offspring exposed to a HFHS maternal diet had increased anxiety-like behavior and showed up-regulation of epigenetic markers in the amygdala and up-regulation of hypothalamic Crh. Overall, there were substantial sex differences in gene expression in the brain. These findings provide novel insight into how maternal androgens and obesity exert sex-specific effects on behavior and gene expression in the offspring of a PCOS mouse model.-Manti, M., Fornes, R., Qi, X., Folmerz, E., Lindén Hirschberg, A., de Castro Barbosa, T., Maliqueo, M., Benrick, A., Stener-Victorin, E. Maternal androgen excess and obesity induce sexually dimorphic anxiety-like behavior in the offspring.

  10. A developmental approach to dimensional expression of psychopathology in child and adolescent offspring of parents with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morón-Nozaleda, María Goretti; Díaz-Caneja, Covadonga M; Rodríguez-Toscano, Elisa; Arango, Celso; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; de la Serna, Elena; Espliego, Ana; Sanchez-Gistau, Vanessa; Romero, Soledad; Baeza, Immaculada; Sugranyes, Gisela; Moreno, Carmen; Moreno, Dolores

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this is to describe psychopathology, functioning and symptom dimensions accounting for subthreshold manifestations and developmental status in child and adolescent offspring of parents with bipolar disorder ("high-risk offspring"). The study population comprised 90 high-risk offspring (HR-offspring) and 107 offspring of community control parents (CC-offspring). Direct clinical observations and parental and offspring reports based on selected standardized clinical scales were used to assess offspring threshold and subthreshold diagnoses, symptoms and functioning. All outcomes were compared between the whole HR-offspring and CC-offspring samples and then by developmental status. After controlling for potential confounders, HR-offspring showed significantly poorer adjustment for childhood (r = 0.18, p = 0.014) and adolescence (r = 0.21, p = 0.048) than CC-offspring, as well as more emotional problems (r = 0.24, p = 0.001) and higher depression scores (r = 0.16, p = 0.021). As for differences in lifetime categorical diagnoses (threshold and subthreshold) between HR-offspring and CC-offspring, the prevalence of disruptive disorders was higher in pre-pubertal HR-offspring (OR 12.78 [1.45-112.42]), while prevalence of mood disorders was higher in post-pubertal HR-offspring (OR 3.39 [1.14-10.06]). Post-pubertal HR-offspring presented more prodromal (r = 0.40, p = 0.001), negative (r = 0.38, p = 0.002), manic (r = 0.22, p = 0.035) and depressive (r = 0.23, p = 0.015) symptoms than pre-pubertal HR-offspring, as well as more peer relationship problems (r = 0.31, p = 0.004), poorer childhood adjustment (r = 0.22, p = 0.044) and worse current psychosocial functioning (r = 0.27, p = 0.04). Externalizing psychopathology is more prevalent in pre-pubertal HR-offspring, while depressive and prodromal symptoms leading to functional impairment are more prominent in post-pubertal HR-offspring. Developmental approaches and

  11. The deexcitation of the Ar (3P2, 3p1 and 1P1) states as measured by absorption both in pure argon and in the presence of additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutuit, Odile

    1974-01-01

    The de-excitation of the 3 P 2 , 3 p 1 and 1 P 1 states of argon was studied in pure argon between 10 and 200 torr and in Ar + CO and Ar + H 2 mixtures. These states are populated after excitation of the gas by a short (20 ns) pulse of 500 keV electrons (FEBETRON). Under our experimental conditions, the relation between the measured optical density of the lines studied and the concentration of absorbing species was found to be: DO = log I 0 /I ∝ (lC) n with n = 0,4. The three body rate constants k 2 were measured for the two resonant states 3 p 1 (k 2 = (1,65 ± 0,3) x 10 -32 cm 6 s -1 ) and 1 P 1 (k 2 = (1,0 ± 0,2) x 10 -32 cm 6 s -1 ); they had not been considered in previous low pressure studies. For the metastable state 3 P 2 , the measured value of k 2 ((1,6 ± 0,3) x 10 -32 cm 6 s -1 ) is in good agreement with those found in the literature. However, our two body rate constant k 1 is about ten times higher than that found in measurements at low pressure. This difference could be due to a collision-induced emission process at high pressure. The rate constants for the quenching by CO and H 2 were measured for the metastable state 3 P 2 (1,85 and 10,5 x 10 -11 cm 3 s -1 ) and for the resonant states 3 P 1 (4,5 and 20 x 10 -11 cm 3 s -1 ) and 1 P 1 (8,5 and 33 X 10 -11 cm 3 s -1 ). Comparison of the de-excitation cross sections of resonant and metastable states should lead to a better understanding of energy transfer processes from these latter. (author) [fr

  12. Energy-Transfer Kinetics for Xe (6p[1/2]0) Atoms in Kr, Ar, Ne, and He.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Liu, Dong; Li, Xueyang; Chu, Junzhi; Guo, Jingwei; Liu, Jinbo; Hu, Shu; Sang, Fengting; Jin, Yuqi

    2018-06-11

    The kinetic processes for the Xe (6p[1/2] 0 ) atoms in Kr, Ar, Ne, and He buffer gases were studied. We found that Kr, Ar, and Ne atoms can be used to switch the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) channel from 3408 nm (6p[1/2] 0 -6s'[1/2] 1 ) to 3680 nm (5d[1/2] 1 -6p[1/2] 1 ), while Xe and He atoms do not show such a phenomenon. This ASE channel switch is mainly ascribed to the fast transfer of 6p[1/2] 0 → 5d[1/2] 1 . On the basis of the rate equations for two-state coupling (energy-transfer processes between the two states are very rapid), the reason why the ASE channel switch effect normally coincides with a double exponential decay of the spontaneous emission at 828 nm (6p[1/2] 0 -6s[3/2] 1 ) is explained. The actual situations in Xe, Ar, Ne, and He follow this rule. However, the strictly single exponential decay of the spontaneous emission at 828 nm and strong ASE channel switch effect simultaneously emerge in Kr. This indicates that the transfer of 6p[1/2] 0 → 5d[1/2] 1 in Kr does not occur via two-state coupling, but via two steps of near-resonance collision through the 5s[3/2] 2 (Kr) state as the intermediate state (6p[1/2] 0 → 5s[3/2] 2 (Kr) → 5d[1/2] 1 ). In addition, we found Xe (6p[1/2] 0 ) atoms strongly tend to reach the 6p[3/2] 2 , 6p[3/2] 1 , and 6p[5/2] 2 states through the 5s[3/2] 2 (Kr) state as the intermediate state in Kr. The 5s[3/2] 2 (Kr) state plays a very important role in the energy-transfer kinetics for the Xe (6p[1/2] 0 ) atoms. Kr is probably an excellent buffer gas for laser systems based on Xe.

  13. Behavior of the P1.HTR mastocytoma cell line implanted in the chorioallantoic membrane of chick embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Avram

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The P1.HTR cell line includes highly transfectable cells derived from P815 mastocytoma cells originating from mouse breast tissue. Despite its widespread use in immunogenic studies, no data are available about the behavior of P1.HTR cells in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane model. The objective of the present investigation was to study the effects of P1.HTR cells implanted on the chorioallantoic membrane of chick embryos. We inoculated P1.HTR cells into the previously prepared chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane and observed the early and late effects of these cells by stereomicroscopy, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. A highly angiotropic and angiogenic effect occurred early after inoculation and a tumorigenic potential with the development of mastocytoma keeping well mast cells immunophenotype was detected later during the development. The P1.HTR mastocytoma cell line is a good tool for the development of the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane mastocytoma model and also for other studies concerning the involvement of blood vessels. The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane model of mastocytoma retains the mast cell immunophenotype under experimental conditions and could be used as an experimental tool for in vivo preliminary testing of antitumor and antivascular drugs.

  14. Egg size and offspring quality: a meta-analysis in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krist, Miloš

    2011-08-01

    Parents affect offspring fitness by propagule size and quality, selection of oviposition site, quality of incubation, feeding of dependent young, and their defence against predators and parasites. Despite many case studies on each of these topics, this knowledge has not been rigorously integrated into individual parental care traits for any taxon. Consequently, we lack a comprehensive, quantitative assessment of how parental care modifies offspring phenotypes. This meta-analysis of 283 studies with 1805 correlations between egg size and offspring quality in birds is intended to fill this gap. The large sample size enabled testing of how the magnitude of the relationship between egg size and offspring quality depends on a number of variables. Egg size was positively related to nearly all studied offspring traits across all stages of the offspring life cycle. Not surprisingly, the relationship was strongest at hatching but persisted until the post-fledging stage. Morphological traits were the most closely related to egg size but significant relationships were also found with hatching success, chick survival, and growth rate. Non-significant effect sizes were found for egg fertility, chick immunity, behaviour, and life-history or sexual traits. Effect size did not depend on whether chicks were raised by their natural parents or were cross-fostered to other territories. Effect size did not depend on species-specific traits such as developmental mode, clutch size, and relative size of the egg, but was larger if tested in captive compared to wild populations and between rather than within broods. In sum, published studies support the view that egg size affects juvenile survival. There are very few studies that tested the relationship between egg size and the fecundity component of offspring fitness, and no studies on offspring survival as adults or on global fitness. More data are also needed for the relationships between egg size and offspring behavioural and

  15. Parental Divorce, Maternal-Paternal Alcohol Problems, and Adult Offspring Lifetime Alcohol Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ronald G; Alonzo, Dana; Hasin, Deborah S

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influences of parental divorce and maternal-paternal histories of alcohol problems on adult offspring lifetime alcohol dependence using data from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Parental divorce and maternal-paternal alcohol problems interacted to differentially influence the likelihood of offspring lifetime alcohol dependence. Experiencing parental divorce and either maternal or paternal alcohol problems doubled the likelihood of alcohol dependence. Divorce and history of alcohol problems for both parents tripled the likelihood. Offspring of parental divorce may be more vulnerable to developing alcohol dependence, particularly when one or both parents have alcohol problems.

  16. The inhibitory NKR-P1B:Clr-b recognition axis facilitates detection of oncogenic transformation and cancer immunosurveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanaka, M; Fine, Jason; Kirkham, Christina

    2018-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells express receptors specific for MHC class I (MHC-I) molecules involved in "missing-self" recognition of cancer and virus-infected cells. Here we elucidate the role of MHC-I-independent NKR-P1B:Clr-b interactions in the detection of oncogenic transformation by NK cells. Ras......-b protein, in turn promoting missing-self recognition via the NKR-P1B inhibitory receptor. Both Ras- and c-Myc-mediated Clr-b loss selectively augmented cytotoxicity of oncogene-transformed leukemia cells by NKR-P1B+ NK cells in vitro and enhanced rejection by WT mice in vivo. Interestingly, genetic...

  17. First reported cases of human adenovirus serotype 14p1 infection, Ireland, October 2009 to July 2010.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Flanagan, D

    2011-02-01

    We report the first nine confirmed cases of human adenovirus 14p1 infection (HAdV-14p1), identified at different locations in Ireland between October 2009 and July 2010. These were the first notifications in Ireland and all were sporadic cases. Following these notifications, the Health Protection Surveillance Centre set up an enhanced surveillance system for HAdV-14p1 infection. Seven cases were male and five were aged less than one year. Three patients died, giving a case fatality rate of 33%. It should be noted that cases presented here were diagnosed on presentation to hospital and may represent the severe end of the spectrum of HAdV 14 disease in Ireland.

  18. Major grass pollen allergen Lol p 1 binds to diesel exhaust particles: implications for asthma and air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, R B; Suphioglu, C; Taylor, P; Desai, R; Watson, H C; Peng, J L; Bursill, L A

    1997-03-01

    Grass pollen allergens are known to be present in the atmosphere in a range of particle sizes from whole pollen grains (approx. 20 to 55 microns in diameter) to smaller size fractions Lol p 1, immunogold labelling with specific monoclonal antibodies and a high voltage transmission electron-microscopic imaging technique. DECP are visualized as small carbon spheres, each 30-60 nm in diameter, forming fractal aggregates about 1-2 microns in diameter. Here we test our hypothesis and show by in vitro experiments that the major grass pollen allergen, Lol p 1, binds to one defined class of fine particles, DECP. DECP are in the respirable size range, can bind to the major grass pollen allergen Lol p 1 under in vitro conditions and represent a possible mechanism by which allergens can become concentrated in polluted air and thus trigger attacks of asthma.

  19. Biotransformation of Pueraria lobata Extract with Lactobacillus rhamnosus vitaP1 Enhances Anti-Melanogenic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jeong Eun; Lee, Jin Woo; Park, Yuna; Sohn, Eun-Hwa; Choung, Eui Su; Jang, Seon-A; Kim, Inhye; Lee, Da Eun; Koo, Hyun Jung; Bak, Jong Phil; Lee, Sung Ryul; Kang, Se Chan

    2018-01-28

    Isoflavone itself is less available in the body without the aid of intestinal bacteria. In this study, we searched for isoflavone-transforming bacteria from human fecal specimens ( n = 14) using differential selection media. Isoflavone-transforming activity as the production of dihydrogenistein and dihydrodaidzein was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography and we found Lactobacillus rhamnosus , named L. rhamnosus vitaP1, through 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Extract from Pueraria lobata (EPL) and soy hypocotyl extract were fermented with L. rhamnosus vitaP1 for 24 and 48 h at 37°C. Fermented EPL (FEPL) showed enhanced anti-tyrosinase activity and antioxidant capacities, important suppressors of the pigmentation process, compared with that of EPL ( p Lactobacillus rhamnosus vitaP1 was found to be able to biotransform isoflavones in EPL. FEPL showed augmented anti-melanogenic potential.

  20. Magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effects in Mn1.2Fe0.8P1-xGex compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou, Z Q; Wang, G F; Lin Song; Tegus, O; Brueck, E; Buschow, K H J

    2006-01-01

    We have studied the magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effects in the Mn 1.2 Fe 0.8 P 1-x Ge x compounds with x = 0.2, 0.22, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5. X-ray diffraction patterns show that the Mn 1.2 Fe 0.8 P 1-x Ge x compounds crystallize in the hexagonal Fe 2 P-type crystal structure. The magnetic moments of the Mn 1.2 Fe 0.8 P 1-x Ge x compounds measured at 5 K and 5 T increase with increasing Ge content. The Curie temperature increases strongly and the magnetic entropy change has a maximum around 233 K for the compound with x = 0.22, which is about 19 and 31 J kg -1 K -1 for a field change of 2 and 5 T, respectively

  1. The Cucumber vein yellowing virus silencing suppressor P1b can functionally replace HCPro in Plum pox virus infection in a host-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Alberto; Dujovny, Gabriela; García, Juan Antonio; Valli, Adrian

    2012-02-01

    Plant viruses of the genera Potyvirus and Ipomovirus (Potyviridae family) use unrelated RNA silencing suppressors (RSS) to counteract antiviral RNA silencing responses. HCPro is the RSS of Potyvirus spp., and its activity is enhanced by the upstream P1 protein. Distinctively, the ipomovirus Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV) lacks HCPro but contains two P1 copies in tandem (P1aP1b), the second of which functions as RSS. Using chimeras based on the potyvirus Plum pox virus (PPV), we found that P1b can functionally replace HCPro in potyviral infections of Nicotiana plants. Interestingly, P1a, the CVYV protein homologous to potyviral P1, disrupted the silencing suppression activity of P1b and reduced the infection efficiency of PPV in Nicotiana benthamiana. Testing the influence of RSS in host specificity, we found that a P1b-expressing chimera poorly infected PPV's natural host, Prunus persica. Conversely, P1b conferred on PPV chimeras the ability to replicate locally in cucumber, CVYV's natural host. The deleterious effect of P1a on PPV infection is host dependent, because the P1aP1b-expressing PPV chimera accumulated in cucumber to higher levels than PPV expressing P1b alone. These results demonstrate that a potyvirus can use different RSS, and that particular RSS and upstream P1-like proteins contribute to defining the virus host range.

  2. Influence of paternal 252Cf neutron exposure on abnormal sperm, embryonal lethality, and liver tumorigenesis in the F1 offspring of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiromitsu; Takahashi, Tadateru; Lee, Juing-Yi

    1996-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine whether neutron-induced genetic damage in parental germline cells can lead to the development of cancer in the offspring. Seven-week-old C3H male mice were irradiated with 252 Cf neutrons at a dose of 0, 50, 100, or 200 cGy. Two weeks or 3 months after irradiation, the male mice were mated with virgin 9-week-old C57BL females. Two weeks after irradiation, the irradiated male mice showed an increased incidence of sperm abnormalities, which led to embryo lethalities in a dose-dependent manner when they were mated with unirradiated female mice. Furthermore, liver tumors in male offspring of male mice in the 50 cGy group were significantly increased in 19 of 44 (43.2%) animals, in clear contrast to the unirradiated group (1 of 31; 3.2%) (P 1 generation may be caused by genetic transmission of hepatoma-associated trait (s) induced by 252 Cf neutron irradiation. (author)

  3. Evaluation of the Eological Management and Enhancement Alernative for Remediation of the K1007-P1 Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, M.J.

    2005-10-31

    An evaluation of the human and ecological risks associated with the P1 Pond and surrounding environs was conducted as part of the ETTP Site-Wide Remedial Investigation. The RI provides the basis for the focus on PCBs as the most important unacceptable risk to human and ecological health in the pond. Other P1 contaminants, media, or pathways of risk to receptors are identified in the RI, but are not addressed as a major risk reduction goal for the ETTP Site-Wide Feasibility Study. Therefore, the goal of the Ecological Management alternative is to reduce unacceptable risks associated with PCBs in fish. Many of the actions proposed for this alternative, however, are likely to reduce risks associated with other contaminants and their pathways. The high PCB concentrations in fish from the P1 Pond are most certainly due in part to the current ecological condition of the pond that maximizes PCB biomagnification. This basic assumption and the factors contributing to it were evaluated by conducting an intensive field study of the P1 Pond in the summer of 2004 (for a thorough presentation of current P1 Pond biological conditions, see Peterson et al. 2005). Major hypotheses regarding the P1 Pond's current fish community, PCB fate and transport processes, pond vegetation, and limnological conditions that contribute to the high PCB levels in fish were validated by the study (Appendix A), The results of the 2004 ecological assessment, in concert with long-term datasets obtained as part of the ETTP Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) and recent abiotic sampling for the RI, provide the basis for the assessment of current conditions.

  4. Comparison of two automated assays of BTM (CTX and P1NP) and reference intervals in a Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N R; Møllehave, L T; Hansen, Y B L

    2017-01-01

    the agreement on the two platforms. METHODS: Fasting sera from 2308 individuals (1250 males and 1058 females, age range 24-76 years) participating in the Health2006 study were analyzed for CTX and P1NP using the automated IDS-iSYS analyzer and the automated Cobas e411 analyzer. Participants in anti......-osteoporotic treatment were excluded, while subjects on hormonal contraceptives were included. RESULTS: There was significant disagreement between both the two P1NP assays with a mean difference of -3 μg/L (LoA -19 to 14) (p

  5. Boro-norleucine as a P1 residue for the design of selective and potent DPP7 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreder, Kevin R; Wong, Melissa S; Corral, Sergio; Yu, Zhizhou; Winn, David T; Wu, Min; Hu, Yi; Nomanbhoy, Tyzoon; Alemayehu, Senaiet; Fuller, Stacy R; Rosenblum, Jonathan S; Kozarich, John W

    2005-10-01

    Dipeptide-based inhibitors with C-substituted (alkyl or aminoalkyl) alpha-amino acids in the P2 position and boro-norleucine (boro-Nle) in the P1 position were synthesized. Relative to boro-proline, boro-Nle as a P1 residue was shown able to significantly dial out DPP4, FAP, DPP8, and DPP9 activity. Dab-boro-Nle (4g) proved to be the most selective and potent DPP7 inhibitor with a DPP7 IC50 value of 480 pM.

  6. [The obtainment and characteristics of Kalanchoe pinnata L. plants expressing the artificial gene of the cecropin P1 antimicrobial peptide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharchenko, N S; Rukavtsova, E B; Shevchuk, T V; Furs, O V; Pigoleva, S V; Lebedeva, A A; Chulina, I A; Baidakova, L K; Bur'yanov, Ya I

    2016-01-01

    Kalanchoe pinnata L. plants bearing an artificial CP1 gene encoding the cecropin P1 antimicrobial peptide have been obtained. The presence of the CP1 gene in the plant genome has been confirmed by PCR. Cecropin P1 synthesis in transgenic plants has been shown by MALDI mass spectrometry and Western blotting. The obtained plants have been highly resistant to bacterial and fungal phytopathogens, and their extracts have demonstrated antimicrobial activity towards human and animal pathogens. It has been shown that transgenic plants bearing the CP1 gene can be colonized by the beneficial associative microorganisms Methylovorus mays.

  7. Effects of bromantan on offspring maturation and development of reflexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iezhitsa, I N; Spasov, A A; Bugaeva, L I

    2001-01-01

    Bromantan (N-[2-adamantil]-N-[para-bromphenyl]amine) is an "actoprotective" drug widely used in Russia as a muscle performance-enhancing agent for sportsmen and as an immunostimulator in medicine. Experiments were conducted to determine whether this compound has adverse effects on the reproduction and development of offspring. Sexually mature female rats, weighing 180-200 g, were orally given bromantan at doses of 30 mg/kg (30-mg/kg group), 150 mg/kg (150-mg/kg group) and 600 mg/kg (600-mg/kg group) daily for 16 days, while the controls received the vehicle, amylaceous solution. Afterwards, treated females were mated with untreated males. The body weight change of the pregnant rats was monitored, as well as the length of gestation, litter size, sex ratio and number of stillborn. The offsprings were weighed and observed for external malformations, abnormalities of conditioned and unconditioned reflexes and open-field behaviour. Observation of rat dams revealed that their general state and activity in all groups did not differ significantly both during and after bromantan treatment. Bromantan had no adverse effects on body weight and gestation length of dams. Number of dams delivered per group did not differ from controls. There were stillborn rat pups in all litters, but the control group had less. One dam in the first group delivered a rat pup with a head hematoma. Litter size of the 30- and 600-mg/kg groups was decreased (by 34.9% and 44.2%, respectively) and increased in the 150-mg/kg group (by 45.1%, POpen-field testing (PND 40) resulted in an insignificant decrease of exploratory and locomotor behaviors for the 30-, 150- and 600-mg/kg groups. The number of grooming episodes was insignificantly decreased for the 30-mg/kg group and insignificantly increased for the 600-mg/kg group. In the passive avoidance testing, on the retention day (72 h later), entry latency for rat pups in the 30-, 150- and 600-mg/kg groups increased by 259.0%, 175.3% and 160

  8. Lost P1 allele in sh2 sweet corn: quantitative effects of p1 and a1 genes on concentrations of maysin, apimaysin, methoxymaysin, and chlorogenic acid in maize silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, B Z; Zhang, Z J; Butrón, A; Widstrom, N W; Snook, M E; Lynch, R E; Plaisted, D

    2004-12-01

    In the United States, insecticide is used extensively in the production of sweet corn due to consumer demand for zero damage to ears and to a sweet corn genetic base with little or no resistance to ear-feeding insects. Growers in the southern United States depend on scheduled pesticide applications to control ear-feeding insects. In a study of quantitative genetic control over silk maysin, AM-maysin (apimaysin and methoxymaysin), and chlorogenic acid contents in an F2 population derived from GE37 (dent corn, P1A1) and 565 (sh2 sweet corn, p1a1), we demonstrate that the P1 allele from field corn, which was selected against in the development of sweet corn, has a strong epistatic interaction with the a1 allele in sh2 sweet corn. We detected that the p1 gene has significant effects (P silk maysin concentrations but also on AM-maysin, and chlorogenic acid concentrations. The a1 gene also has significant (P silk antibiotic chemicals. Successful selection from the fourth and fifth selfed backcrosses for high-maysin individuals of sweet corn homozygous for the recessive a1 allele (tightly linked to sh2) and the dominant P1 allele has been demonstrated. These selected lines have much higher (2 to 3 times) concentrations of silk maysin and other chemicals (AM-maysin and chlorogenic acid) than the donor parent GE37 and could enhance sweet corn resistance to corn earworm and reduce the number of applications of insecticide required to produce sweet corn.

  9. The effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence and personality when controlling for paternal trait level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Ruben C; Penke, Lars; Johnson, Wendy; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father's age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents' trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring's. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but not on other traits. Controlling for parental intelligence (IQ) had the effect of turning an initially positive association non-significantly negative. We found paternal age effects on offspring IQ and Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Absorption, but they were not robustly significant, nor replicable with additional covariates. No other noteworthy effects were found. Parents' intelligence and personality correlated with their ages at twin birth, which may have obscured a small negative effect of advanced paternal age (birth order and the Flynn effect.

  10. Thermoregulatory deficits in adult long evans rat offspring exposed perinatally to the antithyroidal drug, propylthiouracil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental exposure to endocrine disrupting toxicants has been shown to alter a variety of physiological processes in mature offspring. Body (core) temperature (Tc) is a tightly regulated homeostatic system but is susceptible to disruptors of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid...

  11. Parent-offspring conflict and the persistence of pregnancy-induced hypertension in modern humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartsteen, Birgitte Hollegaard; Byars, Sean Geoffrey; Lykke, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a major cause of perinatal mortality and disease affecting 5-10% of all pregnancies worldwide, but its etiology remains poorly understood despite considerable research effort. Parent-offspring conflict theory suggests that such hypertensive disorders of pregnancy may have evolved...... towards the end of pregnancy in order to explain why these disorders have not been removed by natural selection in our hunter-gatherer ancestors. We analyzed >750,000 live births in the Danish National Patient Registry and all registered medical diagnoses for up to 30 years after birth. We show...... that early PIH leading to improved postpartum survival and health represents a balanced compromise between the reproductive interests of parents and offspring, whereas later onset of PIH may reflect an unbalanced parent-offspring conflict at the detriment of maternal and offspring health....

  12. Assessment of Attention Deficits in Adolescent Offspring Exposed to Maternal Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bytoft, Birgitte; Knorr, Sine; Vlachova, Zuzana

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the potential association between intrauterine exposure to maternal diabetes and attention deficits in the offspring. Research design and methods: Adolescent offspring of a prospectively followed cohort of women with type 1 diabetes (n = 269......, vigilance, hyperactivity/impulsivity, sustained attention and response style. Results: A higher frequency of the exposed offspring had a parent/self-reported use of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) medication compared to the control group (2.2% vs. 0.0%, p = 0.01). Clinical significant...... deficits in the adolescent offspring. However, a higher self-reported use of ADHD medication in the exposed group could suggest a difference in attention not revealed by the applied test....

  13. Exposure of pregnant rats to diverse chemicals during pregnancy causes elevated blood pressure in offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Global undernutrition, low protein diet or dexamethasone treatment during pregnancy has been demonstrated in animal models to result in adverse health effects including hypertension and insulln resistance in adult offspring. Most protocols that produce these effects ca...

  14. Assessing Variations in Developmental Outcomes Among Teenage Offspring of Teen Mothers: Maternal Life Course Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Gilchrist, Lewayne D; Beadnell, Blair A; Lohr, Mary Jane; Yuan, Chaoyue; Hartigan, Lacey A; Morrison, Diane M

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated potential heterogeneity in development among offspring (age 17) of teen mothers and maternal life course as correlates of variation. Using latent class analysis, subgroups of developmental outcomes were identified. Maternal standing in two life course realms (i.e., socioeconomic and domestic) was considered as a potential explanation for heterogeneity in offspring's development. Offspring reported on measures assessing their psychological, academic, and behavioral development. Teen mothers reported on measures of life course realms. Three subgroups of developmental outcomes were identified: on track (52%), at risk (37%), and troubled (11%). Findings suggest that economic hardship and number of pregnancies among teen mothers distinguish developmental patterns among teenage offspring, whereas teen mothers' educational attainment and marital status do not. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2016 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  15. Maternal hypothyroxinaemia in early pregnancy and school performance in 5-year-old offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noten, Anna M. E.; Loomans, Eva M.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; van de Ven, Peter M.; van Trotsenburg, A. S. Paul; Rotteveel, Joost; van Eijsden, Manon; Finken, Martijn J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Overt hypothyroidism in pregnant women is associated with a lower intelligence quotient in their children. More recently, subtle decreases in maternal thyroid function have also been associated with neurodevelopmental impairment in offspring. We tested the effect of hypothyroxinaemia during early

  16. Maternal protein intake in pregnancy and offspring metabolic health at age 9-16 y

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maslova, Ekaterina; Hansen, Susanne; Grunnet, Louise Groth

    2017-01-01

    in free-living populations remains limited. Objective: We examined the association of protein intake in pregnancy with offspring metabolic health at age 9-16 y in a longitudinal cohort that oversampled pregnancies with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Design: Six hundred eight women with an index...... provide little support for an association of maternal protein intake in pregnancy with measures of offspring metabolic health. Further studies in larger cohorts are needed to determine whether low maternal protein intake in pregnancy may improve glucose homeostasis in GDM-exposed and male offspring....... pregnancy affected by gestational diabetes mellitus and 626 controls enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort were used for the analysis. Protein (total, animal, vegetable) intake was assessed by using a foodfrequency questionnaire in gestational week 25. The offspring underwent a clinical examination...

  17. A maternal "junk-food" diet reduces sensitivity to the opioid antagonist naloxone in offspring postweaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugusheff, Jessica R; Ong, Zhi Yi; Muhlhausler, Beverly S

    2013-03-01

    Perinatal exposure to a maternal "junk-food" diet has been demonstrated to increase the preference for palatable diets in adult offspring. We aimed to determine whether this increased preference could be attributed to changes in μ-opioid receptor expression within the mesolimbic reward pathway. We report here that mRNA expression of the μ-opioid receptor in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) at weaning was 1.4-fold (males) and 1.9-fold (females) lower in offspring of junk-food (JF)-fed rat dams than in offspring of dams fed a standard rodent diet (control) (Pjunk-food diet results in early desensitization of the opioid system which may explain the increased preference for junk food in these offspring.

  18. Parents’ perceptions on offspring risk and prevention of anxiety and depression: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Festen, Helma; Schipper, Karen; Vries, Sybolt O; Reichart, Catrien G.; Abma, Tineke A.; Nauta, Maaike H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Offspring of patients with anxiety or depression are at high risk for developing anxiety or depression. Despite the positive findings regarding effectiveness of prevention programs, recruitment for prevention activities and trials is notoriously difficult. Our randomized controlled

  19. Maternal Nutritional Status and the Risk for Orofacial Cleft Offspring in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krapels, I.P.C.; Rooij, van I.A.L.M.; Ocké, M.C.; West, C.E.; Horst, van der C.M.A.M.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.

    2004-01-01

    Periconceptional folate and folic acid intake prevents orofacial clefts (OFC) in the offspring. It has been suggested that other nutrients also play a role. We investigated the preconceptional intake of macronutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, and cholesterol), vitamins (vitamin A,

  20. Selection Component Analysis of Natural Polymorphisms using Population Samples Including Mother-Offspring Combinations, II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarmer, Hanne Østergaard; Christiansen, Freddy Bugge

    1981-01-01

    Population samples including mother-offspring combinations provide information on the selection components: zygotic selection, sexual selection, gametic seletion and fecundity selection, on the mating pattern, and on the deviation from linkage equilibrium among the loci studied. The theory...

  1. Masculinization in Parents of Offspring With Autism Spectrum Disorders Could Be Involved in Comorbid ADHD Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Polderman, Tinca J C; González-Bono, Esperanza; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2017-09-01

    People with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often have comorbid ADHD symptoms. ASD and ADHD are both associated with high intrauterine testosterone (T) levels. This study aims to investigate whether masculinization predicts inattention symptoms in parents, and in their ASD-affected offspring. The sample consisted of 32 parents with ASD-affected children (13 male, 19 female) and 32 offspring individuals (28 male, 4 female). Masculinization of parents was measured by 2D:4D finger ratio, and current T levels. Inattention in both parents and in their offspring was measured with behavior questionnaires. The results indicated that masculinized 2D:4D explains inattentive ADHD symptoms in ASD parents and in their offspring. These predictions are mediated by T and inattention symptoms of ASD parents, respectively. These findings suggest the existence of a masculinized endophenotype in ASD parents, which may be characterized by high attentional sensitivity to T effects.

  2. Power assessment for genetic association study of human longevity using offspring of long-lived subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Li, Shuxia

    2010-01-01

    and the proportional hazard model for generating individual lifespan. Family genotype data is generated using a genetic linkage program for given SNP allele frequency. Power is estimated by setting the type I error rate at 0.05 and by calculating the Armitage's chi-squared test statistic for 200 replicate samples...... the direct approach. It also has low power in detecting non-additive effect genes. Indirect genetic association using offspring from families with both parents as nonagenarians is nearly as powerful as using offspring from families with one centenarian parent. In conclusion, the indirect design can be a good......Recently, an indirect genetic association approach that compares genotype frequencies in offspring of long-lived subjects and offspring from random families has been introduced to study gene-longevity associations. Although the indirect genetic association has certain advantages over the direct...

  3. Maternal nutritional status and the risk for orofacial cleft offspring in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krapels, Ingrid P. C.; van Rooij, Iris A. L. M.; Ocké, Marga C.; West, Clive E.; van der Horst, Chantal M. A. M.; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P. M.

    2004-01-01

    Periconceptional folate and folic acid intake prevents orofacial clefts (OFC) in the offspring. It has been suggested that other nutrients also play a role. We investigated the preconceptional intake of macronutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, and cholesterol), vitamins (vitamin A,

  4. Maternal nutritional status and the risk for orofacial cleft offspring in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krapels, I.P.C.; Rooij, I.A.L.M. van; Ocke, M.C.; West, C.E.; Horst, C.M. van der; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.

    2004-01-01

    Periconceptional folate and folic acid intake prevents orofacial clefts (OFC) in the offspring. It has been suggested that other nutrients also play a role. We investigated the preconceptional intake of macronutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, and cholesterol), vitamins (vitamin A,

  5. Offspring's Leukocyte Telomere Length, Paternal Age, and Telomere Elongation in Sperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimura, Masayuki; Cherkas, Lynn F; Kato, Bernet S

    2008-01-01

    ), the NHLBI Family Heart Study (NHLBI-Heart), the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins (Danish Twins), and the UK Adult Twin Registry (UK Twins). Using Southern blots, Q-FISH, and flow-FISH, we also measured telomere parameters in sperm from 46 young (50 years) donors. Paternal age...... had an independent effect, expressed by a longer LTL in males of the Framingham Offspring and Danish Twins, males and females of the NHLBI-Heart, and females of UK Twins. For every additional year of paternal age, LTL in offspring increased at a magnitude ranging from half to more than twice......Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a complex genetic trait. It shortens with age and is associated with a host of aging-related disorders. Recent studies have observed that offspring of older fathers have longer LTLs. We explored the relation between paternal age and offspring's LTLs in 4 different...

  6. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring body composition in young adulthood: the modifying role of offspring sex and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, M Pia; Koupil, Ilona; Byberg, Liisa

    2017-12-01

    To investigate if the association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring's body composition in late adolescence and young adulthood varies by offspring birth order and sex. Family cohort study, with data from registers, questionnaires and physical examinations. The main outcome under study was offspring body composition (percentage fat mass (%FM), percentage lean mass (%LM)) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Uppsala, Sweden. Two hundred and twenty-six siblings (first-born v. second-born; average age 19 and 21 years) and their mothers. In multivariable linear regression models, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was positively associated with daughter's %FM, with stronger estimates for first-born (β=0·97, 95 % CI 0·14, 1·80) v. second-born daughters (β=0·64, 95 % CI 0·08, 1·20). Mother's BMI before her first pregnancy was associated with her second-born daughter's body composition (β=1·05, 95 % CI 0·31, 1·79 (%FM)) Similar results albeit in the opposite direction were observed for %LM. No significant associations were found between pre-pregnancy BMI and %FM (β=0·59, 95 % CI-0·27, 1·44 first-born; β=-0·13, 95 % CI-0·77, 0·52 second-born) or %LM (β=-0·54, 95 % CI-1·37, 0·28 first-born; β=0·11, 95 % CI-0·52, 0·74 second-born) for sons. A higher pre-pregnancy BMI was associated with higher offspring %FM and lower offspring %LM in late adolescence and young adulthood, with stronger associations for first-born daughters. Preventing obesity at the start of women's reproductive life might reduce the risk of obesity in her offspring, particularly for daughters.

  7. Time to hospitalization for suicide attempt by the timing of parental suicide during offspring early development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto, S. Janet; Runeson, Bo; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Wilcox, Holly C.

    2013-01-01

    Context Previous studies have suggested that children who experience parental suicide at earlier ages are at higher risk of future hospitalization for suicide attempt. However, how the trajectories of risk differ by offspring age at the time of parental suicide is currently unknown. Objective To study time at risk to hospitalization for suicide attempt among offspring after experiencing parental suicide or accidental death by offspring developmental period at the time of parental death. Design Population-based retrospective cohort study Setting Sweden Participants 26,096 offspring who experienced parental suicide and 32,395 offspring of accident decedents prior to age 25 from 1973-2003. Main Outcome Measures Hospitalization for suicide attempt. Parametric survival analysis was used to model the time to hospitalization for suicide attempt across offspring who lost a parent during early childhood (0-5 years old), later childhood (6-12), adolescence (13-17) and young adulthood (18-24). Results The risk in offspring who lost a parent during early or late childhood surpassed the other two age groups’ hazards approximately 5 years after the origin and, for the youngest group, continued to rise over the course of decades. Offspring who lost a parent during adolescence or young adulthood were at greatest risk within 1 to 2 years after parental suicide, and risk declined over time. The shape of hospitalization risk was similar among those who experienced parental fatal accident. When the shape of hospitalization for suicide attempt at each developmental period was fixed to be the same between the two groups, offspring who lost a parent to suicide had earlier risk to hospitalization for suicide attempt hospitalization than offspring who lost a parent to an accident. Conclusion The hospitalization risk for suicide attempt in offspring who lost a parent during their childhood is different from those who lost a parent during adolescence or young adulthood. The results suggest

  8. Altered reward sensitivity in female offspring of cocaine-exposed fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Delaney K; Rice, Richard C; Martinez Rivera, Arlene; Donohoe, Mary; Rajadhyaksha, Anjali M

    2017-08-14

    Recent rodent studies have demonstrated that parental cocaine exposure can influence offspring behavior, supporting the idea that environmental insults can impact subsequent generations. However, studies on the effects of paternal cocaine exposure are limited and multiple inconsistencies exist. In the current study, we behaviorally characterize the effects of paternal cocaine exposure in a C57BL/6J intergenerational mouse model. Male sires were administered cocaine hydrochloride (20mg/kg) or saline (0.01mL/g) once a day for 75days, and bred with drug naïve females twenty-four hours after the final injection. Offspring, separated by sex, were tested in a battery of behaviors. We found that paternal cocaine exposure altered sensitivity to the rewarding and stimulant effects of psychostimulants and natural reward (sucrose) in female offspring; female cocaine-sired offspring showed blunted cocaine preference using cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) at a low dose (5mg/kg), but displayed similar preference at a higher dose (10mg/kg) compared to saline-sired controls. Additionally, cocaine-sired female offspring exhibited higher psychomotor sensitivity to cocaine (10mg/kg) and amphetamine (2mg/kg) and consumed more sucrose. Cocaine-sired males exhibited increased psychomotor effects of cocaine and amphetamine. Male offspring also displayed an anxiety-like phenotype. No effect of paternal cocaine exposure was observed on depressive-like, learning and memory or social behavior in male or female offspring. Collectively, our findings show that paternal, chronic cocaine exposure induces intergenerational behavioral effects in male and female offspring with greatest impact on sensitivity to psychostimulants and sucrose in females. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Paternal body mass index (BMI is associated with offspring intrauterine growth in a gender dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Peng Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Environmental alternations leading to fetal programming of cardiovascular diseases in later life have been attributed to maternal factors. However, animal studies showed that paternal obesity may program cardio-metabolic diseases in the offspring. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that paternal BMI may be associated with fetal growth. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed the relationship between paternal body mass index (BMI and birth weight, ultrasound parameters describing the newborn's body shape as well as parameters describing the newborns endocrine system such as cortisol, aldosterone, renin activity and fetal glycated serum protein in a birth cohort of 899 father/mother/child triplets. Since fetal programming is an offspring sex specific process, male and female offspring were analyzed separately. Multivariable regression analyses considering maternal BMI, paternal and maternal age, hypertension during pregnancy, maternal total glycated serum protein, parity and either gestational age (for birth weight or time of ultrasound investigation (for ultrasound parameters as confounding showed that paternal BMI is associated with growth of the male but not female offspring. Paternal BMI correlated with birth parameters of male offspring only: birth weight; biparietal diameter, head circumference; abdominal diameter, abdominal circumference; and pectoral diameter. Cortisol was likewise significantly correlated with paternal BMI in male newborns only. CONCLUSIONS: Paternal BMI affects growth of the male but not female offspring. Paternal BMI may thus represent a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases of male offspring in later life. It remains to be demonstrated whether this is linked to an offspring sex specific paternal programming of cortisol secretion.

  10. The effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence and personality when controlling for paternal trait level

    OpenAIRE

    Arslan, Ruben C.; Penke, Lars; Johnson, Wendy; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father’s age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents’ trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring’s. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but n...

  11. Fetal Growth and Birth Anthropometrics in Metformin-Exposed Offspring Born to Mothers With PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth-Hansen, Anna; Salvesen, Øyvind; Engen Hanem, Liv Guro; Eggebø, Torbjørn; Salvesen, Kjell Å; Vanky, Eszter; Ødegård, Rønnaug

    2018-02-01

    Metformin is used in an attempt to reduce pregnancy complications associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Little is known about the effect of metformin on fetal development and growth. To compare the effect of metformin versus placebo on fetal growth and birth anthropometrics in PCOS offspring compared with a reference population in relation to maternal body mass index (BMI). Post hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study. 258 offspring born to mothers with PCOS. 2000 mg metformin (n = 131) or placebo (n = 121) from first trimester to delivery. Mean abdominal diameter and biparietal diameter (BPD) at gestational weeks 19 and 32. Head circumference (HC), birth length, and weight related to a reference population of healthy offspring, expressed as gestational age- and sex-adjusted z-scores. Metformin- versus placebo-exposed offspring had larger heads at gestational week 32 (BPD, 86.1 mm versus 85.2 mm; P = 0.03) and at birth (HC, 35.6 cm versus 35.1 cm; P mothers. Among normal-weight mothers, the effect of metformin compared with placebo was reduced length (z-score = -0.96 versus -0.42, P = 0.04) and weight (z-score = -0.44 versus 0.02; P = 0.03). Compared with the reference population, offspring born to PCOS mothers (placebo group) had reduced length (z-score = -0.40; 95% confidence interval, -0.60 to -0.40), but similar birth weight and HC. Metformin exposure resulted in larger head size in offspring of overweight mothers, traceable already in utero. Maternal prepregnancy BMI modified the effect of metformin on offspring anthropometrics. Anthropometrics of offspring born to PCOS mothers differed from those of the reference population. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  12. Maternal undernutrition significantly impacts ovarian follicle number and increases ovarian oxidative stress in adult rat offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica B Bernal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have shown recently that maternal undernutrition (UN advanced female pubertal onset in a manner that is dependent upon the timing of UN. The long-term consequence of this accelerated puberty on ovarian function is unknown. Recent findings suggest that oxidative stress may be one mechanism whereby early life events impact on later physiological functioning. Therefore, using an established rodent model of maternal UN at critical windows of development, we examined maternal UN-induced changes in offspring ovarian function and determined whether these changes were underpinned by ovarian oxidative stress. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our study is the first to show that maternal UN significantly reduced primordial and secondary follicle number in offspring in a manner that was dependent upon the timing of maternal UN. Specifically, a reduction in these early stage follicles was observed in offspring born to mothers undernourished throughout both pregnancy and lactation. Additionally, antral follicle number was reduced in offspring born to all mothers that were UN regardless of whether the period of UN was restricted to pregnancy or lactation or both. These reductions were associated with decreased mRNA levels of genes critical for follicle maturation and ovulation. Increased ovarian protein carbonyls were observed in offspring born to mothers UN during pregnancy and/or lactation and this was associated with peroxiredoxin 3 hyperoxidation and reduced mRNA levels; suggesting compromised antioxidant defence. This was not observed in offspring of mothers UN during lactation alone. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that maternal UN, particularly at a time-point that includes pregnancy, results in reduced offspring ovarian follicle numbers and mRNA levels of regulatory genes and may be mediated by increased ovarian oxidative stress coupled with a decreased ability to repair the resultant oxidative damage. Together these data are suggestive of

  13. Both high and low maternal salt intake in pregnancy alter kidney development in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleganova, Nadezda; Piecha, Grzegorz; Ritz, Eberhard; Becker, Luis Eduardo; Müller, Annett; Weckbach, Monika; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Schirmacher, Peter; Gross-Weissmann, Marie-Luise

    2011-08-01

    In humans, low glomerular numbers are related to hypertension, cardiovascular, and renal disease in adult life. The present study was designed 1) to explore whether above- or below-normal dietary salt intake during pregnancy influences nephron number and blood pressure in the offspring and 2) to identify potential mechanisms in kidney development modified by maternal sodium intake. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed low (0.07%)-, intermediate (0.51%)-, or high (3.0%)-sodium diets during pregnancy and lactation. The offspring were weaned at 4 wk and subsequently kept on a 0.51% sodium diet. The kidney structure was assessed at postnatal weeks 1 and 12 and the expression of proteins of interest at term and at week 1. Blood pressure was measured in male offspring by telemetry from postnatal month 2 to postnatal month 9. The numbers of glomeruli at weeks 1 and 12 were significantly lower and, in males, telemetrically measured mean arterial blood pressure after month 5 was higher in offspring of dams on a high- or low- compared with intermediate-sodium diet. A high-salt diet was paralleled by higher concentrations of marinobufagenin in the amniotic fluid and an increase in the expression of both sprouty-1 and glial cell-derived neutrophic factor in the offspring's kidney. The expression of FGF-10 was lower in offspring of dams on a low-sodium diet, and the expression of Pax-2 and FGF-2 was lower in offspring of dams on a high-sodium diet. Both excessively high and excessively low sodium intakes during pregnancy modify protein expression in offspring kidneys and reduce the final number of glomeruli, predisposing the risk of hypertension later in life.

  14. The causes of parent-offspring transmission of drug abuse: a Swedish population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K S; Ohlsson, H; Sundquist, K; Sundquist, J

    2015-01-01

    While drug abuse (DA) is strongly familial, we still have limited knowledge about the causes of its cross-generational transmission. We examined DA ascertained from national registers in offspring of three family types from the Swedish population [intact (n = 2,111,074), 'not-lived-with' (n = 165,315, where biological parents never lived with their offspring) and 'step' (n = 124,800 offspring)], which reflected, respectively, the effects of genes + rearing, genes only and rearing only. We replicated these results in three high-risk co-relative designs. Combined across mothers and fathers, the hazard ratio (HR) for DA in offspring given DA in parents was 3.52 in intact, 2.73 in 'not-lived-with' and 1.79 in stepfamilies. In 968 biological full or half-sibling pairs one of whom was reared by and the other never lived with their parent with DA, the HR for DA was greater in the reared than 'not-lived-with' child (HR 1.57). In 64 offspring pairs of a parent with DA, the HR for DA was greater in a reared biological v. step-parented non-biological child (HR 3.33). In 321 pairs of offspring of a parent with DA one of whom was a not-lived-with biological child and the second a step-parented non-biological child, the HR for DA was greater in the biological v. stepchild (HR 1.80). Both genetic and environmental factors contribute substantially to parent-offspring resemblance for DA. The general population contains informative family constellations that can complement more traditional adoption designs in clarifying the sources of parent-offspring resemblance.

  15. Cognitive-emotional hyperarousal in the offspring of parents vulnerable to insomnia: a nuclear family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Shaffer, Michele L; Olavarrieta-Bernardino, Sara; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Calhoun, Susan L; Bixler, Edward O; Vela-Bueno, Antonio

    2014-10-01

    Cognitive-emotional hyperarousal is believed to be a predisposing factor for insomnia; however, there is limited information on the association of familial vulnerability to insomnia and cognitive-emotional hyperarousal. The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability of stress-related insomnia and examine whether parental vulnerability to stress-related insomnia is associated with cognitive-emotional hyperarousal in their offspring. We studied a volunteer sample of 135 nuclear families comprised of 270 middle-aged (51.5 ± 5.4 years) fathers and mothers and one of their biological offspring (n = 135, 20.2 ± 1.1 years). We measured vulnerability to stress-related insomnia (i.e. Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test: FIRST), perceived stress, depression and anxiety in all participants, and arousability, presleep cognitive and somatic arousal, coping and personality in the offspring. We found a heritability estimate of 29% for FIRST scores. High FIRST parents had three to seven times the odds of having offspring highly vulnerable to stress-related insomnia. Offspring of high FIRST parents showed higher arousability, presleep cognitive arousal and emotion-oriented coping. Furthermore, high FIRST mothers contributed to offspring's higher anxiety and lower task-oriented coping, while high FIRST fathers contributed to offspring's higher presleep somatic arousal and conscientiousness. Vulnerability to stress-related insomnia is significantly heritable. Parents vulnerable to stress-related insomnia have offspring with cognitive-emotional hyperarousal who rely upon emotion-oriented coping. These data give support to the notion that arousability and maladaptive coping are key factors in the aetiology of insomnia. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  16. Effect of Maternal Obesity on Foetal Growth and Metabolic Health of the Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Maffeis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Maternal and placental conditions that are unfavourable for the embryo/foetus have long-lasting effects on different tissues and functions of the body, which may persist for life and, potentially, also be transmitted to the offspring. This review resumes current evidence on principle maternal and gestational conditions associated with unfavourable metabolic programming of the offspring, along with their mechanisms of action, either supposed or already proved.

  17. Intrauterine ethanol exposure results in hypothalamic oxidative stress and neuroendocrine alterations in adult rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembele, Korami; Yao, Xing-Hai; Chen, Li; Nyomba, B L Grégoire

    2006-09-01

    Prenatal ethanol (EtOH) exposure is associated with low birth weight, followed by increased appetite, catch-up growth, insulin resistance, and impaired glucose tolerance in the rat offspring. Because EtOH can induce oxidative stress, which is a putative mechanism of insulin resistance, and because of the central role of the hypothalamus in the regulation of energy homeostasis and insulin action, we investigated whether prenatal EtOH exposure causes oxidative damage to the hypothalamus, which may alter its function. Female rats were given EtOH by gavage throughout pregnancy. At birth, their offspring were smaller than those of non-EtOH rats. Markers of oxidative stress and expression of neuropeptide Y and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) were determined in hypothalami of postnatal day 7 (PD7) and 3-mo-old (adult) rat offspring. In both PD7 and adult rats, prenatal EtOH exposure was associated with decreased levels of glutathione and increased expression of MnSOD. The concentrations of lipid peroxides and protein carbonyls were normal in PD7 EtOH-exposed offspring, but were increased in adult EtOH-exposed offspring. Both PD7 and adult EtOH-exposed offspring had normal neuropeptide Y and POMC mRNA levels, but the adult offspring had reduced POMC protein concentration. Thus only adult offspring preexposed to EtOH had increased hypothalamic tissue damage and decreased levels of POMC, which could impair melanocortin signaling. We conclude that prenatal EtOH exposure causes hypothalamic oxidative stress, which persists into adult life and alters melanocortin action during adulthood. These neuroendocrine alterations may explain weight gain and insulin resistance in rats exposed to EtOH early in life.

  18. Transferable antibiotic resistance plasmids from biogas plant digestates often belong to the IncP-1 epsilon subgroup

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wolters, B.; Kyselková, Martina; Krögerrecklenfort, E.; Kreuzig, R.; Smalla, K.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, January (2015), Article 765 ISSN 1664-302X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : IncP-1 epsilon plasmid * class 1 integrons * biogas plant digestate * antibiotic resistance * exogenous plasmid isolation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.165, year: 2015

  19. The crystal structure of recombinant proDer p 1, a major house dust mite proteolytic allergen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meno, Kåre; Thorsted, Peter B; Ipsen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    Allergy to house dust mite is among the most prevalent allergic diseases worldwide. Most house dust mite allergic patients react to Der p 1 from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, which is a cysteine protease. To avoid heterogeneity in the sample used for crystallization, a modified recombinant...

  20. Immune response to Mycoplasma pneumoniae P1 and P116 in patients with atypical pneumonia analyzed by ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birkelund Svend

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serology is often used for the diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. It is important to identify specific antigens that can distinguish between the presence or absence of antibodies against M. pneumoniae. The two proteins, P116 and P1, are found to be immunogenic. By using these in ELISA it is possible to identify an immune response against M. pneumoniae in serum samples. Results A recombinant protein derived from the P116 protein and one from the P1 protein were used in two ELISA tests, rP116-ELISA and rP1-ELISA. Human serum samples from patients with atypical pneumonia were tested and compared to the results of the complement fixation test. There was a good agreement between the two tests but the rP1-ELISA showed the best discrimination between positive and negative samples. Conclusion Two ELISA tests based on recombinant proteins have been analysed and compared to the complement fixation test results. The two ELISA tests were found suitable for use in serodiagnostics of M. pneumoniae infections. The use of specific antigens eliminates the risk of cross reaction to an immune response against other bacteria.

  1. The subcellular distribution of the human ribosomal "stalk" components: P1, P2 and P0 proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tchórzewski, Marek; Krokowski, Dawid; Rzeski, Wojciech

    2003-01-01

    The ribosomal "stalk" structure is a distinct lateral protuberance located on the large ribosomal subunit in prokaryotic, as well as in eukaryotic cells. In eukaryotes, this ribosomal structure is composed of the acidic ribosomal P proteins, forming two hetero-dimers (P1/P2) attached...

  2. Wavelength tunable InAs/InP(1 0 0) quantum dots in 1.55-µm telecom devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anantathanasarn, S.; Barbarin, Y.; Cade, N.I.; Veldhoven, van P.J.; Bente, E.A.J.M.; Oei, Y.S.; Kamada, H.; Smit, M.K.; Nötzel, R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the growth, characterization and device applications of self-assembled InAs/InP(1 0 0) quantum dots (QDs) formed by MOVPE. The problematic As/P exchange reaction during QD growth is suppressed by the insertion of a GaAs interlayer together with optimum growth conditions. This

  3. Ba3(P1−xMnxO4)2 : Blue/green inorganic materials based on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ‡Chemical Science and Technology Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology ... We describe a blue/green inorganic material, Ba3(P1−xMnxO4)2 (I) based on tetrahedral MnO3−. 4 .... the synthesis at 600–950.

  4. Maternal nutritional manipulations program adipose tissue dysfunction in offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon eLecoutre

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on the concept of Developmental Origin of Health and Disease, both human and animal studies have demonstrated a close link between nutrient supply perturbations in the fetus or neonate (i.e., maternal undernutrition, obesity, gestational diabetes and/or rapid catch-up growth and increased risk of adult-onset obesity. Indeed, the adipose tissue has been recognized as a key target of developmental programming in a sex-and depot-specific manner. Despite different developmental time windows, similar mechanisms of adipose tissue programming have been described in rodents and in bigger mammals (sheep, primates. Maternal nutritional manipulations reprogram offspring’s adipose tissue resulting in series of alterations: enhanced adipogenesis and lipogenesis, impaired sympathetic activity with reduced noradrenergic innervations and thermogenesis as well as low-grade inflammation. These changes affect adipose tissue development, distribution and composition predisposing offspring to fat accumulation. Modifications of hormonal tissue sensitivity (i.e., leptin, insulin, glucocorticoids and/or epigenetic mechanisms leading to persistent changes in gene expression may account for long-lasting programming across generations.

  5. The Molecular Mechanisms of Offspring Effects from Obese Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Dowling

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of obesity, increased weight gain and the popularity of high-fat / high-sugar diets are seriously impacting upon the global population. Billions of individuals are affected, and although diet and lifestyle are of paramount importance to the development of adult obesity, compelling evidence is emerging which suggests that maternal obesity and related disorders may be passed on to the next generation by non-genetic means. The processes acting within the uteri of obese mothers may permanently predispose offspring to a diverse plethora of diseases ranging from obesity and diabetes to psychiatric disorders. This review aims to summarise some of the molecular mechanisms and active processes currently known about maternal obesity and its effect on foetal and neonatal physiology and metabolism. Complex and multifactorial networks of molecules are intertwined and culminate in a pathologically synergistic manner to cause disruption and disorganisation of foetal physiology. This altered phenotype may potentiate the cycle of intergenerational transmission of obesity and related disorders.

  6. Parental care improves offspring survival and growth in burying beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert; Reinking; MULLER

    1998-01-01

    Burying beetles (genus Nicrophorus) provide elaborate parental care to their offspring. Parental beetles defend a small vertebrate carcass, which constitutes the sole food source for the larvae. They also manipulate the carcass in various ways and directly regurgitate pre-digested carrion to the young. The benefits of carcass manipulation and regurgitation have been the subject of a few small-scale studies that have yielded conflicting results. In this study, we investigated the benefits of these behaviours and tested for possible beneficial effects on larval survival rates and final body mass in N. vespilloides. In this species: (1) larval survival and mass were significantly higher in broods receiving parental care throughout larval development on the carcass than in broods developing in the absence of adults; (2) parental presence immediately subsequent to larval hatching greatly improved larval survival rates; (3) continued parental presence for several days further improved larval growth, leading to a greater final mass of individual larvae; (4) larval survival and growth were improved by parental preparation of carcasses and by an excision made in the integument of the carcass surface by the parents that allows the larvae ready access to their food; (5) positive effects of parental feeding on larval survival and growth were not mediated by the transfer of symbionts. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  7. Regulation of placental calcium transport and offspring bone health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eGoodfellow

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis causes considerable morbidity and mortality in later life, and the risk of the disease is strongly determined by peak bone mass, which is achieved in early adulthood. Poor intrauterine and early childhood growth are associated with reduced peak bone mass, and increased risk of osteoporotic fracture in older age. In this review we describe the regulatory aspects of intrauterine bone development, and then summarise the evidence relating early growth to later fracture risk. Physiological systems include vitamin D, PTH; leptin; GH/ IGF-1; finally the potential role of epigenetic processes in the underlying mechanisms will be explored. Thus factors such as maternal lifestyle, diet, body build, physical activity and vitamin D status in pregnancy all appear to influence offspring bone mineral accrual. These data demonstrate a likely interaction between environmental factors and gene expression, a phenomenon ubiquitous in the natural world (developmental plasticity, as the potential key process. Intervention studies are now required to test the hypotheses generated by these epidemiological and physiological findings, to inform potential novel public health interventions aimed at improving childhood bone health and reducing the burden of osteoporotic fracture in future generations.

  8. Female bluethroats enhance offspring immunocompetence through extra-pair copulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, A; Andersen, V; Sunding, C; Lifjeld, J T

    2000-07-20

    Female birds frequently copulate with extra-pair males, but the adaptive value of this behaviour is poorly understood. Some studies have suggested that 'good genes' may be involved, where females seek to have their eggs fertilized by high-quality males without receiving any material benefits from them. Nevertheless, it remains to be shown that a genetic benefit is passed on to offspring. Here we report that nestling bluethroats, Luscinia svecica, sired by extra-pair males had a higher T-cell-mediated immune response than their maternal half-siblings raised in the same nest. The difference could not be attributed to nestling body mass, sex or hatching order, but may be an effect of paternal genotype. Extra-pair young were also more immunocompetent than their paternal half-sibs raised in the genetic father's own nest, which indicates an additional effect of maternal genotype. Our results are consistent with the idea that females engage in extra-pair copulations to obtain compatible viability genes, rather than 'good genes' per se.

  9. Current Parental Depression and Offspring Perceived Self-Competence: A Quasi-Experimental Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, Quetzal A.; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Singh, Amber L.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Spotts, E. L.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2013-01-01

    A genetically-informed, quasi-experimental design was used to examine the genetic and environmental processes underlying associations between current parental depressive symptoms and offspring perceived self-competence. Participants, drawn from a population-based Swedish sample, were 852 twin pairs and their male (52%) and female offspring aged 15.7 ± 2.4 years. Parental depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Offspring perceived self-competence was measured using a modified Harter Perceived Competence Scale. Cousin comparisons and Children of Twins (CoT) designs suggested that associations between maternal depressive symptoms and offspring perceived self-competence were due to shared genetic/environmental liability. The mechanism responsible for father-offspring associations, however, was independent of genetic factors and of extended-family environmental factors, supporting a causal inference. Thus, mothers and fathers may impact offspring perceived self-competence via different mechanisms and unmeasured genetic and environmental selection factors must be considered when studying the intergenerational transmission of cognitive vulnerabilities for depression. PMID:22692226

  10. Parent-offspring conflict and the persistence of pregnancy-induced hypertension in modern humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitte Hollegaard

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a major cause of perinatal mortality and disease affecting 5-10% of all pregnancies worldwide, but its etiology remains poorly understood despite considerable research effort. Parent-offspring conflict theory suggests that such hypertensive disorders of pregnancy may have evolved through the ability of fetal genes to increase maternal blood pressure as this enhances general nutrient supply. However, such mechanisms for inducing hypertension in pregnancy would need to incur sufficient offspring health benefits to compensate for the obvious risks for maternal and fetal health towards the end of pregnancy in order to explain why these disorders have not been removed by natural selection in our hunter-gatherer ancestors. We analyzed >750,000 live births in the Danish National Patient Registry and all registered medical diagnoses for up to 30 years after birth. We show that offspring exposed to pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH in trimester 1 had significantly reduced overall later-life disease risks, but increased risks when PIH exposure started or developed as preeclampsia in later trimesters. Similar patterns were found for first-year mortality. These results suggest that early PIH leading to improved postpartum survival and health represents a balanced compromise between the reproductive interests of parents and offspring, whereas later onset of PIH may reflect an unbalanced parent-offspring conflict at the detriment of maternal and offspring health.

  11. Parent-offspring conflict theory, signaling of need, and weight gain in early life.

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    Wells, Jonathan C

    2003-06-01

    Human growth in early life has major implications for fitness. During this period, the mother regulates the growth of her offspring through placental nutrition and lactation. However, parent-offspring conflict theory predicts that offspring are selected to demand more resources than the mother is selected to provide. This general issue has prompted the development of begging theory, which attempts to find the optimal levels of offspring demand and parental provisioning. Several models have been proposed to account for begging behavior, whether by biochemical or behavioral pathways, including: (1) blackmail of parents; (2) scramble competition between multiple offspring; (3) honest signaling of nutritional need; and (4) honest signaling of offspring worth. These models are all supported by data from nonhuman animals, with species varying according to which model is relevant. This paper examines the evidence that human suckling and crying signal nutritional demand, need, and worth to the mother. While suckling provides hormonal stimulation of breast milk production and signals hunger, crying fulfills a different role, with evidence suggesting that it signals both worth and need for resources (nutrition and thermoregulation). The role of signaling in nutritional demand is examined in the context of three common health problems that have traditionally been assumed to have physiological rather than behavioral causes: excess weight gain, failure to thrive, and colic. The value of such an evolutionary approach lies in its potential to enhance behavioral management of these conditions.

  12. Effects of prenatal caffeine exposure on glucose homeostasis of adult offspring rats

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    Kou, Hao; Wang, Gui-hua; Pei, Lin-guo; Zhang, Li; Shi, Chai; Guo, Yu; Wu, Dong-fang; Wang, Hui

    2017-12-01

    Epidemiological evidences show that prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) could induce intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). The IUGR offspring also present glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus after maturity. We have previously demonstrated that PCE induced IUGR and increased susceptibility to adult metabolic syndrome in rats. This study aimed to further investigate the effects of PCE on glucose homeostasis in adult offspring rats. Pregnant rats were administered caffeine (120 mg/kg/day, intragastrically) from gestational days 11 to 20. PCE offspring presented partial catch-up growth pattern after birth, characterizing by the increased body weight gain rates. Meanwhile, PCE had no significant influences on the basal blood glucose and insulin phenotypes of adult offspring but increased the glucose tolerance, glucose-stimulated insulin section and β cell sensitivity to glucose in female progeny. The insulin sensitivity of both male and female PCE offspring were enhanced accompanied with reduced β cell fraction and mass. Western blotting results revealed that significant augmentation in protein expression of hepatic insulin signaling elements of PCE females, including insulin receptor (INSR), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and the phosphorylation of serine-threonine protein kinase (Akt), was also potentiated. In conclusion, we demonstrated that PCE reduced the pancreatic β mass but increased the glucose tolerance in adult offspring rats, especially for females. The adaptive compensatory enhancement of β cell responsiveness to glucose and elevated insulin sensitivity mainly mediated by upregulated hepatic insulin signaling might coordinately contribute to the increased glucose tolerance.

  13. Mothers adjust offspring sex to match the quality of the rearing environment.

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    Pryke, Sarah R; Rollins, Lee A

    2012-10-07

    Theory predicts that mothers should adjust offspring sex ratios when the expected fitness gains or rearing costs differ between sons and daughters. Recent empirical work has linked biased offspring sex ratios to environmental quality via changes in relative maternal condition. It is unclear, however, whether females can manipulate offspring sex ratios in response to environmental quality alone (i.e. independent of maternal condition). We used a balanced within-female experimental design (i.e. females bred on both low- and high-quality diets) to show that female parrot finches (Erythrura trichroa) manipulate primary offspring sex ratios to the quality of the rearing environment, and not to their own body condition and health. Individual females produced an unbiased sex ratio on high-quality diets, but over-produced sons in poor dietary conditions, even though they maintained similar condition between diet treatments. Despite the lack of sexual size dimorphism, such sex ratio adjustment is in line with predictions from sex allocation theory because nutritionally stressed foster sons were healthier, grew faster and were more likely to survive than daughters. These findings suggest that mothers may adaptively adjust offspring sex ratios to optimally match their offspring to the expected quality of the rearing environment.

  14. Cytoplasmic inheritance of parent-offspring cell structure in the clonal diatom Cyclotella meneghiniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirokawa, Yuka; Shimada, Masakazu

    2016-11-16

    In cytoplasmic inheritance, structural states of a parent cell could be transmitted to offspring cells via two mechanisms. The first is referred to as the hangover of parent structure, where the structure itself remains and faithfully transmits within offspring cells; the second is structural inheritance, wherein the parent structure functions as a template for development of new offspring structure. We estimated to what extent the parent structure affects the development of offspring structure by structural inheritance, using a clone of the diatom Cyclotella meneghiniana The cell has two siliceous valves (a cell wall part at both cell poles): one is inherited from the parent and the other is newly formed. We estimated cytoplasmic heritability by comparing valve traits (central fultoportulae (CTFP), striae, central area, and cell diameter) of parent and new offspring valves, using single-cell isolation and valve labelling. Parent-offspring valve trait regressions showed that all traits, except CTFP, were significantly correlated. We formulated a quantitative genetic model considering the diatom inheritance system and revealed short-term rapid evolution compared with other inheritance systems. Diatom structural inheritance will have evolved to enable clonal populations to rapidly acquire and maintain suitable structures for temporal changes in environments and life-cycle stages. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Parents' contributions to the narrative identity of offspring of donor-assisted conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkman, Maggie

    2003-12-01

    Donated sperm, eggs, and embryos are an increasing feature of assisted reproduction; people conceived in this way have different genetic and social histories. Although most offspring of donor-assisted conception are ignorant of their genetic history, recipient parents must negotiate increasing demand for full disclosure to offspring. This paper illustrates some of the reasons parents give for not telling their children, underlines the experience of many parents of being uncertain of how to go about telling, presents information from some parents who have endeavoured to be open with their children about conception from very early childhood, and discusses implications for the narrative identity of offspring of donor-assisted conception. Recipient parents (n=55) and offspring (12) from Australia; Canada, US, England, and Argentina were interviewed and subsequently consulted about the development of their narrative accounts and the way in which these have been interpreted. Parental narratives were found to be located along a continuum, broadly encompassing: (1). Parents who intend to exclude donor-assisted conception from the narratives they construct for their children, (2). parents who are uncertain about what they want to do, or confused about the best way to disclose and discuss donor conception with their children and (3). those have incorporated the donor in their children's narratives from the beginning. From interviews with offspring and on the basis of human rights issues and the increasing salience of genetic knowledge, it is concluded that disclosure to offspring before adolescence should be encouraged.

  16. The renal consequences of maternal obesity in offspring are overwhelmed by postnatal high fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glastras, Sarah J.; Chen, Hui; Tsang, Michael; Teh, Rachel; McGrath, Rachel T.; Zaky, Amgad; Chen, Jason; Wong, Muh Geot; Pollock, Carol A.; Saad, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis Developmental programming induced by maternal obesity influences the development of chronic disease in offspring. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether maternal obesity exaggerates obesity-related kidney disease. Methods Female C57BL/6 mice were fed high-fat diet (HFD) for six weeks prior to mating, during gestation and lactation. Male offspring were weaned to normal chow or HFD. At postnatal Week 8, HFD-fed offspring were administered one dose streptozotocin (STZ, 100 mg/kg i.p.) or vehicle control. Metabolic parameters and renal functional and structural changes were observed at postnatal Week 32. Results HFD-fed offspring had increased adiposity, glucose intolerance and hyperlipidaemia, associated with increased albuminuria and serum creatinine levels. Their kidneys displayed structural changes with increased levels of fibrotic, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers. STZ administration did not potentiate the renal effects of HFD. Though maternal obesity had a sustained effect on serum creatinine and oxidative stress markers in lean offspring, the renal consequences of maternal obesity were overwhelmed by the powerful effect of diet-induced obesity. Conclusion Maternal obesity portends significant risks for metabolic and renal health in adult offspring. However, diet-induced obesity is an overwhelming and potent stimulus for the development of CKD that is not potentiated by maternal obesity. PMID:28225809

  17. Latent profiles of nonresidential father engagement six years after divorce predict long-term offspring outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modecki, Kathryn Lynn; Hagan, Melissa J; Sandler, Irwin; Wolchik, Sharlene A

    2015-01-01

    This study examined profiles of nonresidential father engagement (i.e., support to the adolescent, contact frequency, remarriage, relocation, and interparental conflict) with their adolescent children (N = 156) 6 to 8 years following divorce and the prospective relation between these profiles and the psychosocial functioning of their offspring, 9 years later. Parental divorce occurred during late childhood to early adolescence; indicators of nonresidential father engagement were assessed during adolescence, and mental health problems and academic achievement of offspring were assessed 9 years later in young adulthood. Three profiles of father engagement were identified in our sample of mainly White, non-Hispanic divorced fathers: Moderate Involvement/Low Conflict, Low Involvement/Moderate Conflict, and High Involvement/High Conflict. Profiles differentially predicted offspring outcomes 9 years later when they were young adults, controlling for quality of the mother-adolescent relationship, mother's remarriage, mother's income, and gender, age, and offspring mental health problems in adolescence. Offspring of fathers characterized as Moderate Involvement/Low Conflict had the highest academic achievement and the lowest number of externalizing problems 9 years later compared to offspring whose fathers had profiles indicating either the highest or lowest levels of involvement but higher levels of conflict. Results indicate that greater paternal psychosocial support and more frequent father-adolescent contact do not outweigh the negative impact of interparental conflict on youth outcomes in the long term. Implications of findings for policy and intervention are discussed.

  18. Photoperiodism of Male Offspring Production in the Water Flea Daphnia pulex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Kenji; Sato, Tomomi; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Iguchi, Taisen

    2017-08-01

    Photoperiodism is a biological seasonal timing system utilized to regulate development and reproduction in organisms. The freshwater micro-crustacean Daphnia pulex displays environmental sex determination, the precise physiological mechanisms of which are largely unknown due to the lack of an experimental system to induce female or male offspring production by alterations of the rearing environment. We recently found that D. pulex, WTN6 strain, produces female or male offspring in response to long-day or short-day conditions, respectively. Taking advantage of this system, here we report the photoperiodic response curve for male offspring production, showing 12 hours as natural critical daylength (50% incidence of male-producing mothers), and that male offspring inducibility is highly sensitive to photoperiodic alterations. By using monochromatic light emitting diode (LED) devices, we found that the effective wavelength is red-light (627 nm), which stably induces male offspring production. This suggests that the red-light photoreceptor may be decisive in the primary step of sex determination process in this strain. Our findings provide the first insights into photoperiodism and red-light as key factors in triggering male offspring production in daphnids.

  19. Family dissolution and offspring depression and depressive symptoms: A systematic review of moderation effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Manno, Laura; Macdonald, Jacqui A; Knight, Tess

    2015-12-01

    Parental separation is associated with increased risk for offspring depression; however, depression outcomes are divergent. Knowledge of moderators could assist in understanding idiosyncratic outcomes and developing appropriately targeted prevention programs for those at heightened risk of depression following parental separation. Therefore, the objective of the review was to identify and evaluate studies that examined moderators of the relationship between parental separation and offspring depression A search of scientific, medical and psychological databases was conducted in April 2015 for longitudinal research that had evaluated any moderator/s of the relationship between parental separation or divorce and offspring depression or depressive symptoms. Papers were assessed for quality by evaluating the study's sample, attrition rates, methodology and measurement characteristics. Fourteen quantitative studies from five countries assessed sixteen moderating factors of the relationship between parental separation and offspring depression or depressive symptoms. A number of factors were found to moderate this relationship, including offspring gender, age (at assessment and at depression onset), genotype, preadolescent temperament, IQ, emotional problems in childhood and maternal sensitivity. While robust longitudinal research was selected for inclusion, common issues with longitudinal studies such as low rates of participation and attrition were among the methodological concerns evident in some of the reviewed papers. The current review is the first to assess interaction effects of the relationship between parental separation and offspring depression or depressive symptoms. While further research is recommended, this assessment is critical in understanding variation in heterogeneous populations and can inform targeted policy and prevention.

  20. Current parental depression and offspring perceived self-competence: a quasi-experimental examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, Quetzal A; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Singh, Amber L; Ganiban, Jody M; Spotts, E L; Lichtenstein, Paul; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M

    2012-09-01

    A genetically-informed, quasi-experimental design was used to examine the genetic and environmental processes underlying associations between current parental depressive symptoms and offspring perceived self-competence. Participants, drawn from a population-based Swedish sample, were 852 twin pairs and their male (52 %) and female offspring aged 15.7 ± 2.4 years. Parental depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Offspring perceived self-competence was measured using a modified Harter Perceived Competence Scale. Cousin comparisons and Children of Twins designs suggested that associations between maternal depressive symptoms and offspring perceived self-competence were due to shared genetic/environmental liability. The mechanism responsible for father-offspring associations, however, was independent of genetic factors and of extended family environmental factors, supporting a causal inference. Thus, mothers and fathers may impact offspring perceived self-competence via different mechanisms and unmeasured genetic and environmental selection factors must be considered when studying the intergenerational transmission of cognitive vulnerabilities for depression.

  1. Propofol Exposure in Pregnant Rats Induces Neurotoxicity and Persistent Learning Deficit in the Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Xiong

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Propofol is a general anesthetic widely used in surgical procedures, including those in pregnant women. Preclinical studies suggest that propofol may cause neuronal injury to the offspring of primates if it is administered during pregnancy. However, it is unknown whether those neuronal changes would lead to long-term behavioral deficits in the offspring. In this study, propofol (0.4 mg/kg/min, IV, 2 h, saline, or intralipid solution was administered to pregnant rats on gestational day 18. We detected increased levels of cleaved caspase-3 in fetal brain at 6 h after propofol exposure. The neuronal density of the hippocampus of offspring was reduced significantly on postnatal day 10 (P10 and P28. Synaptophysin levels were also significantly reduced on P28. Furthermore, exploratory and learning behaviors of offspring rats (started at P28 were assessed in open-field trial and eight-arm radial maze. The offspring from propofol-treated dams showed significantly less exploratory activity in the open-field test and less spatial learning in the eight-arm radial maze. Thus, this study suggested that propofol exposure during pregnancy in rat increased cleaved caspsase-3 levels in fetal brain, deletion of neurons, reduced synaptophysin levels in the hippocampal region, and persistent learning deficits in the offspring.

  2. Coping strategies and self-esteem in the high-risk offspring of bipolar parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodday, Sarah M; Bentall, Richard; Jones, Steven; Weir, Arielle; Duffy, Anne

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated whether there were differences in coping strategies and self-esteem between offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (high-risk) and offspring of unaffected parents (control), and whether these psychological factors predicted the onset and recurrence of mood episodes. High-risk and control offspring were followed longitudinally as part of the Flourish Canadian high-risk bipolar offspring cohort study. Offspring were clinically assessed annually by a psychiatrist using semi-structured interviews and completed a measure of coping strategies and self-esteem. In high-risk offspring, avoidant coping strategies significantly increased the hazard of a new onset Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition twice revised mood episode or recurrence (hazard ratio: 1.89, p = 0.04), while higher self-esteem significantly decreased this hazard (hazard ratio: 2.50, p Self-esteem and avoidant coping significantly interacted with one another ( p self-esteem. A reduction of avoidant coping strategies in response to stress and improvement of self-esteem may be useful intervention targets for preventing the new onset or recurrence of a clinically significant mood disorder among individuals at high familial risk.

  3. Maternal omega-3 fatty acids regulate offspring obesity through persistent modulation of gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Ruairi C; Kaliannan, Kanakaraju; Strain, Conall R; Ross, R Paul; Stanton, Catherine; Kang, Jing X

    2018-05-24

    The early-life gut microbiota plays a critical role in host metabolism in later life. However, little is known about how the fatty acid profile of the maternal diet during gestation and lactation influences the development of the offspring gut microbiota and subsequent metabolic health outcomes. Here, using a unique transgenic model, we report that maternal endogenous n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) production during gestation or lactation significantly reduces weight gain and markers of metabolic disruption in male murine offspring fed a high-fat diet. However, maternal fatty acid status appeared to have no significant effect on weight gain in female offspring. The metabolic phenotypes in male offspring appeared to be mediated by comprehensive restructuring of gut microbiota composition. Reduced maternal n-3 PUFA exposure led to significantly depleted Epsilonproteobacteria, Bacteroides, and Akkermansia and higher relative abundance of Clostridia. Interestingly, offspring metabolism and microbiota composition were more profoundly influenced by the maternal fatty acid profile during lactation than in utero. Furthermore, the maternal fatty acid profile appeared to have a long-lasting effect on offspring microbiota composition and function that persisted into adulthood after life-long high-fat diet feeding. Our data provide novel evidence that weight gain and metabolic dysfunction in adulthood is mediated by maternal fatty acid status through long-lasting restructuring of the gut microbiota. These results have important implications for understanding the interaction between modern Western diets, metabolic health, and the intestinal microbiome.

  4. Filial anxiety and sense of obligation among offspring of Holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrira, Amit; Menashe, Ravit; Bensimon, Moshe

    2018-03-13

    Much is known about adult children caring for their aging parents, yet the potentially unique experience of offspring caring for traumatized parents is underexplored. Therefore, the current studies assessed filial anxiety and sense of obligation among offspring of Holocaust survivors (OHS) in caring for their parents. In Study 1, we interviewed 10 OHS (mean age = 61.0) in order to extract themes of filial anxiety. Based on Study 1's data, a newly constructed scale of filial anxiety was administered in Study 2 to 59 adult offspring (mean age = 56.4): 28 OHS and 31 comparisons. Study 3 included 143 dyads of parents and offspring (mean age = 55.4 and 81.7, respectively): 86 Holocaust dyads and 57 comparison dyads. Parents reported posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and offspring reported filial anxiety and sense of obligation. In Study 1, interviewees referred to concerns about parent experiencing decline alongside caregiving difficulties. In Study 2, OHS reported higher filial anxiety and sense of obligation relative to comparisons. This group difference was mediated by sense of obligation. In Study 3, OHS with parental PTSD reported higher filial anxiety and sense of obligation relative to comparisons. Once more, filial sense of obligation served as a mediator. In Studies 2-3, results remained significant after adjusting for offspring symptoms. Parental exposure to the Holocaust, and especially parental PTSD, related to higher filial obligation, which in turn was related to higher filial anxiety. These findings bear important implications for practitioners working with survivors' families.

  5. Indirect effects of human-induced environmental change on offspring production mediated by behavioural responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candolin, Ulrika; Nieminen, Anne; Nyman, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Human-induced rapid environmental changes often cause behavioural alterations in animals. The consequences that these alterations in turn have for the viability of populations are, however, poorly known. We used a population of threespine sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus in the Baltic Sea to investigate the consequences of behavioural responses to human-induced eutrophication for offspring production. The investigated population has been growing during the last decades, and one cause could be increased offspring production. We combined field-based surveys with laboratory-based experiments, and found that an enhanced growth of macroalgae relaxed agonistic interactions among males. This allowed more males to nest, improved hatching success, and increased the number of reproductive cycles that males completed. Thus, the behavioural responses were adaptive at the individual level and increased offspring production. However, a larger proportion of small males of low competitive ability reproduced in dense vegetation. As male size and dominance are heritable, this could influence the genetic composition of the offspring. Together with a higher number of offspring produced, this could influence natural selection and the rate of adaptation to the changing environment. Thus, behavioural responses to a rapid human-induced environmental change can influence offspring production, with potential consequences for population dynamics and evolutionary processes.

  6. Chronic prenatal ethanol exposure increases adiposity and disrupts pancreatic morphology in adult guinea pig offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, C C; Mongillo, D L; Brien, D C; Stepita, R; Poklewska-Koziell, M; Winterborn, A; Holloway, A C; Brien, J F; Reynolds, J N

    2012-12-17

    Ethanol consumption during pregnancy can lead to a range of adverse developmental outcomes in children, termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Central nervous system injury is a debilitating and widely studied manifestation of chronic prenatal ethanol exposure (CPEE). However, CPEE can also cause structural and functional deficits in metabolic pathways in offspring. This study tested the hypothesis that CPEE increases whole-body adiposity and disrupts pancreatic structure in guinea pig offspring. Pregnant guinea pigs received ethanol (4 g kg(-1) maternal body weight per day) or isocaloric-sucrose/pair-feeding (control) for 5 days per week throughout gestation. Male and female CPEE offspring demonstrated growth restriction at birth, followed by a rapid period of catch-up growth before weaning (postnatal day (PD) 1-7). Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in young adult offspring (PD100-140) revealed increased visceral and subcutaneous adiposity produced by CPEE. At the time of killing (PD150-200), CPEE offspring also had increased pancreatic adipocyte area and decreased β-cell insulin-like immunopositive area, suggesting reduced insulin production and/or secretion from pancreatic islets. CPEE causes increased adiposity and pancreatic dysmorphology in offspring, which may signify increased risk for the development of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  7. Parental care mitigates carry-over effects of poor early conditions on offspring growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Sonya K.; Martin, Thomas E.

    2017-01-01

    Poor developmental conditions can have long-lasting negative effects on offspring phenotypes, but impacts often differ among species. Contrasting responses may reflect disparities in experimental protocols among single-species studies or inherent differences among species in their sensitivity to early conditions and/or ability to mitigate negative impacts. We used a common experimental protocol to assess and compare the role of parental care in mitigating effects of poor early conditions on offspring among 4 sympatric bird species in the wild. We experimentally induced low incubation temperatures and examined effects on embryonic developmental rates, hatching success, nestling growth rates, and parental responses. We examined the generality of these effects across 4 species that differ in their phylogenetic history, breeding ecology, and life histories. We found that cooling led to delayed hatching in all species, but carry-over effects on offspring differed among species. Parents of some but not all species increased their offspring provisioning rates in response to experimental cooling with critical benefits for offspring growth rates. Our study shows for the first time that species exhibit clear differences in the degree to which they are affected by poor early conditions. Observed differences among species demonstrate that parental care is a critical mechanism for mitigating potential negative effects on offspring and suggest that parental responses may be constrained to varying degrees by ecology and life histories.

  8. Gestational Protein Restriction Increases Cardiac Connexin 43 mRNA levels in male adult rat offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, Kamila Fernanda; de Oliveira, Camila Andrea; Rebelato, Hércules Jonas; Esquisatto, Marcelo Augusto Marreto; Catisti, Rosana

    2017-01-01

    Background The dietary limitation during pregnancy influences the growth and development of the fetus and offspring and their health into adult life. The mechanisms underlying the adverse effects of gestational protein restriction (GPR) in the development of the offspring hearts are not well understood. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of GPR on cardiac structure in male rat offspring at day 60 after birth (d60). Methods Pregnant Wistar rats were fed a normal-protein (NP, 17% casein) or low-protein (LP, 6% casein) diet. Blood pressure (BP) values from 60-day-old male offspring were measured by an indirect tail-cuff method using an electro sphygmomanometer. Hearts (d60) were collected for assessment of connexin 43 (Cx43) mRNA expression and morphological and morphometric analysis. Results LP offspring showed no difference in body weight, although they were born lighter than NP offspring. BP levels were significantly higher in the LP group. We observed a significant increase in the area occupied by collagen fibers, a decrease in the number of cardiomyocytes by 104 µm2, and an increase in cardiomyocyte area associated with an increased Cx43 expression. Conclusion GPR changes myocardial levels of Cx43 mRNA in male young adult rats, suggesting that this mechanism aims to compensate the fibrotic process by the accumulation of collagen fibers in the heart interstitium. PMID:28678925

  9. The renal consequences of maternal obesity in offspring are overwhelmed by postnatal high fat diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Glastras

    Full Text Available Developmental programming induced by maternal obesity influences the development of chronic disease in offspring. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether maternal obesity exaggerates obesity-related kidney disease.Female C57BL/6 mice were fed high-fat diet (HFD for six weeks prior to mating, during gestation and lactation. Male offspring were weaned to normal chow or HFD. At postnatal Week 8, HFD-fed offspring were administered one dose streptozotocin (STZ, 100 mg/kg i.p. or vehicle control. Metabolic parameters and renal functional and structural changes were observed at postnatal Week 32.HFD-fed offspring had increased adiposity, glucose intolerance and hyperlipidaemia, associated with increased albuminuria and serum creatinine levels. Their kidneys displayed structural changes with increased levels of fibrotic, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers. STZ administration did not potentiate the renal effects of HFD. Though maternal obesity had a sustained effect on serum creatinine and oxidative stress markers in lean offspring, the renal consequences of maternal obesity were overwhelmed by the powerful effect of diet-induced obesity.Maternal obesity portends significant risks for metabolic and renal health in adult offspring. However, diet-induced obesity is an overwhelming and potent stimulus for the development of CKD that is not potentiated by maternal obesity.

  10. Offspring ADHD as a risk factor for parental marital problems: controls for genetic and environmental confounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermerhorn, Alice C; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Slutske, Wendy S; Emery, Robert E; Turkheimer, Eric; Harden, K Paige; Heath, Andrew C; Martin, Nicholas G

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have found that child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with more parental marital problems. However, the reasons for this association are unclear. The association might be due to genetic or environmental confounds that contribute to both marital problems and ADHD. Data were drawn from the Australian Twin Registry, including 1,296 individual twins, their spouses, and offspring. We studied adult twins who were discordant for offspring ADHD.Using a discordant twin pairs design, we examined the extent to which genetic and environmental confounds,as well as measured parental and offspring characteristics, explain the ADHD-marital problems association. Offspring ADHD predicted parental divorce and marital conflict. The associations were also robust when comparing differentially exposed identical twins to control for unmeasured genetic and environmental factors, when controlling for measured maternal and paternal psychopathology,when restricting the sample based on timing of parental divorce and ADHD onset, and when controlling for other forms of offspring psychopathology. Each of these controls rules out alternative explanations for the association. The results of the current study converge with those of prior research in suggesting that factors directly associated with offspring ADHD increase parental marital problems.

  11. Characterization of a broad host-spectrum virulent Salmonella bacteriophage fmb-p1 and its application on duck meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changbao; Chen, Qiming; Zhang, Chong; Yang, Jie; Lu, Zhaoxin; Lu, Fengxia; Bie, Xiaomei

    2017-05-15

    The aim of this study was to find a virulent bacteriophage for the biocontrol of Salmonella in duck meat. A broad host-spectrum virulent phage, fmb-p1, was isolated and purified from an duck farm, and its host range was determined to include S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, S. Saintpaul, S. Agona, S. Miami, S. Anatum, S. Heidelberg and S. Paratyphi-C. Electron microscopy and genome sequencing showed that fmb-p1 belongs to the family Siphoviridae. The genome of fmb-p1 is composed of a 43,327-bp double-stranded DNA molecule with 60 open reading frames and a total G+C content of 46.09%. There are no deleterious sequences or genes encoding known harmful products in the phage fmb-p1 genome. Phage fmb-p1 was stable under different temperature (40-75°C), pH (4-10) and NaCl solutions (1-11%). The phage treatment (9.9×10 9 PFU/cm 2 ) caused a peak reduction in S. Typhimurium of 4.52 log CFU/cm 2 in ready-to-eat (RTE) duck meat, whereas potassium sorbate treatment (PS, 2mg/cm 2 ) resulted in a 0.05-0.12 log reduction. Compared to PS treatment, there was significant difference in the S. Typhimurium reduction (P˂0.05) by phage treatment at both 4°C and 25°C. The results suggested that phage could be applied to reduce Salmonella, on commercial poultry products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of among-offspring relatedness on the origins and evolution of parental care and filial cannibalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsall, M B; Klug, H

    2011-06-01

    Parental care is expected to increase the likelihood of offspring survival at the cost of investment in future reproductive success. However, alternative parental behaviours, such as filial cannibalism, can decrease current reproductive success and consequently individual fitness. We evaluate the role of among-offspring relatedness on the evolution of parental care and filial cannibalism. Building on our previous work, we show how the evolution of care is influenced by the effect of among-offspring relatedness on both the strength of competition and filial cannibalism. When there is a positive relationship between among-offspring competition and relatedness, parental care will be favoured when among-offspring relatedness is relatively low, and the maintenance of both care and no-care strategies is expected. If the relationship between among-offspring competition and relatedness is negative, parental care is most strongly favoured when broods contain highly related offspring. Further, we highlight the range of conditions over which the level of this among-offspring relatedness can affect the co-occurrence of different care/no care and cannibalism/no cannibalism strategies. Coexistence of multiple strategies is independent of the effects of among-offspring relatedness on cannibalism but more likely when among-offspring relatedness and competition are positively associated. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  13. Spectroscopic constants and the potential energy curve of the iodine weakly bound 0+g state correlating with the I(2P1/2) + I(2P1/2) dissociation limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akopyan, M E; Baturo, V V; Lukashov, S S; Poretsky, S A; Pravilov, A M

    2013-01-01

    The stepwise three-step three-colour aser excitation scheme and rotational as well as rovibrational energy transfer processes in the 0 + g state induced by collisions with He and Ar atoms are used for determination of rovibronic level energies of the weakly bound 0 + g state correlating with the I( 2 P 1/2 ) + I( 2 P 1/2 ) dissociation limit. Dunham coefficients of the state, Y i0 (i = 0–3), Y i1 (i = 0–3) and Y 02 for the v 0 g + = 0–16 and J 0 g + ≈ 14–135 ranges as well as the dissociation energy of the state, D e , and equilibrium I–I distance of the state, R e , are determined. The potential energy curve of the state constructed using these constants is also reported. (paper)

  14. Photoluminescence of heterostructures with GaP1−xNx and GaP1−x−yNxAsy layers grown on GaP and Si substrates by molecular-beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarenko, A. A.; Nikitina, E. V.; Sobolev, M. S.; Pirogov, E. V.; Denisov, D. V.; Egorov, A. Yu.

    2015-01-01

    The structural and optical properties of heterostructures containing GaP 1−x N x ternary and GaP 1−x−y N x As y quaternary alloy layers are discussed. The heterostructures are grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on GaP and Si substrates. The structures are studied by the high-resolution X-ray diffraction technique and photoluminescence measurements in a wide temperature range from 10 to 300 K. In the low-temperature photoluminescence spectra of the alloys with a low nitrogen fraction (x < 0.007), two clearly resolved narrow lines attributed to the localized states of nitrogen pairs and the phonon replicas of these lines are observed

  15. Effect of orbital alignment on the forward and reverse electronic energy transfer Ca(4s5p 1P1)+Marrow-right-leftCa(4s5p 3P/sub J/)+M with rare gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussert, W.; Neuschaefer, D.; Leone, S.R.; Departments of Physics and Chemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0440)

    1987-01-01

    Effects of orbital alignment on the relative cross sections for electronic energy transfer are determined for the near resonant transfer between Ca(4s5p 1 P 1 ) and Ca(4s5p 3 P/sub J/) states with rare gas collision partners. The experiments are carried out by pulsed laser excitation in a crossed beam. The results for the forward direction, 1 P to 3 P, formulated in terms of the ratio of the maximum to minimum transfer probability are: 3 He 1.61 +- 0.05; He 1.60 +- 0.03; Ne 1.55 +- 0.10; Ar 1.52 +- 0.21; for Kr, transfer occurs, but no preference is distinguishable within 1 +- 0.2; Xe 1.44 +- 0.06. The results for He, Ne, and Ar indicate a clear preference in the transfer for the initially prepared molecular Pi state. For Xe the molecular Σ state is dominant. The energy transfer is also carried out in the reverse direction, 3 P 1 to 1 P, for He and Xe, obtaining 1.65 +- 0.10 and 1.94 +- 0.22, respectively. Analysis of the state preparation suggests that the reverse direction favors the asymptotic molecular Σ state for He and the molecular Pi state for Xe. These alignment results provide a first experimental determination of the dominant electronic states involved in a collisional energy transfer process

  16. Oxytocin Neurons Exhibit Extensive Functional Plasticity Due To Offspring Age in Mothers and Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Aubrey M; Hiura, Lisa C; Saunders, Alexander G; Ophir, Alexander G

    2017-09-01

    The needs of offspring change as they develop. Thus, parents should concomitantly change their investment based on the age-related needs of the offspring as they mature. Due to the high costs of parental care, it is optimal for parents to exhibit a shift from intense caregiving of young offspring to promoting independence in older offspring. Yet, the neural mechanisms that underlie shifts in parental behavior are poorly understood, and little is known about how the parental brain responds to offspring of different ages. To elucidate mechanisms that relate to shifts in parental behavior as offspring develop, we examined behavioral and neural responses of male and female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster), a biparental rodent, to interactions with offspring at different stages of development (ranging from neonatal to weaning age). Importantly, in biparental species, males and females may adjust their behavior differentially as offspring develop. Because the nonapeptides, vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT), are well known for modulating aspects of parental care, we focused on functional activity of distinct VP and OT cell groups within the maternal and paternal brain in response to separation from, reunion (after a brief period of separation) with, or no separation from offspring of different ages. We found several differences in the neural responses of individual VP and OT cell groups that varied based on the age of pups and sex of the parent. Hypothalamic VP neurons exhibit similar functional responses in both mothers and fathers. However, hypothalamic and amygdalar OT neurons exhibit differential functional responses to being separated from pups based on the sex of the parent. Our results also reveal that the developmental stage of offspring significantly impacts neural function within OT, but not VP, cell groups of both mothers and fathers. These findings provide insight into the functional plastic capabilities of the nonapeptide system, specifically in relation

  17. Validation of the Seven Up Seven Down Inventory in bipolar offspring : screening and prediction of mood disorders. Findings from the Dutch Bipolar Offspring Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesman, E; Youngstrom, E A; Juliana, N K; Nolen, W A; Hillegers, M H J

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate the Seven Up Seven Down (7U7D), an abbreviated version of the General Behavior Inventory (GBI), as screener for mood disorders and test its ability to predict mood disorders over time in individuals at risk for bipolar disorder (BD). METHODS: Bipolar offspring (n=108) were

  18. Validation of the Seven Up Seven Down Inventory in bipolar offspring : screening and prediction of mood disorders. Findings from the Dutch Bipolar Offspring Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesman, Esther; Youngstrom, E. A.; Juliana, N. K.; Nolen, W. A.; Hillegers, M. H. J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To validate the Seven Up Seven Down (7U7D), an abbreviated version of the General Behavior Inventory (GBI), as screener for mood disorders and test its ability to predict mood disorders over time in individuals at risk for bipolar disorder (BD). Methods: Bipolar offspring (n=108) were

  19. Fitness-valley crossing with generalized parent-offspring transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmond, Matthew M; Otto, Sarah P

    2015-11-01

    Simple and ubiquitous gene interactions create rugged fitness landscapes composed of coadapted gene complexes separated by "valleys" of low fitness. Crossing such fitness valleys allows a population to escape suboptimal local fitness peaks to become better adapted. This is the premise of Sewall Wright's shifting balance process. Here we generalize the theory of fitness-valley crossing in the two-locus, bi-allelic case by allowing bias in parent-offspring transmission. This generalization extends the existing mathematical framework to genetic systems with segregation distortion and uniparental inheritance. Our results are also flexible enough to provide insight into shifts between alternate stable states in cultural systems with "transmission valleys". Using a semi-deterministic analysis and a stochastic diffusion approximation, we focus on the limiting step in valley crossing: the first appearance of the genotype on the new fitness peak whose lineage will eventually fix. We then apply our results to specific cases of segregation distortion, uniparental inheritance, and cultural transmission. Segregation distortion favouring mutant alleles facilitates crossing most when recombination and mutation are rare, i.e., scenarios where crossing is otherwise unlikely. Interactions with more mutable genes (e.g., uniparental inherited cytoplasmic elements) substantially reduce crossing times. Despite component traits being passed on poorly in the previous cultural background, small advantages in the transmission of a new combination of cultural traits can greatly facilitate a cultural transition. While peak shifts are unlikely under many of the common assumptions of population genetic theory, relaxing some of these assumptions can promote fitness-valley crossing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Coalescent Processes with Skewed Offspring Distributions and Nonequilibrium Demography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszewski, Sebastian; Hildebrandt, Marcel E; Achaz, Guillaume; Jensen, Jeffrey D

    2018-01-01

    Nonequilibrium demography impacts coalescent genealogies leaving detectable, well-studied signatures of variation. However, similar genomic footprints are also expected under models of large reproductive skew, posing a serious problem when trying to make inference. Furthermore, current approaches consider only one of the two processes at a time, neglecting any genomic signal that could arise from their simultaneous effects, preventing the possibility of jointly inferring parameters relating to both offspring distribution and population history. Here, we develop an extended Moran model with exponential population growth, and demonstrate that the underlying ancestral process converges to a time-inhomogeneous psi-coalescent. However, by applying a nonlinear change of time scale-analogous to the Kingman coalescent-we find that the ancestral process can be rescaled to its time-homogeneous analog, allowing the process to be simulated quickly and efficiently. Furthermore, we derive analytical expressions for the expected site-frequency spectrum under the time-inhomogeneous psi-coalescent, and develop an approximate-likelihood framework for the joint estimation of the coalescent and growth parameters. By means of extensive simulation, we demonstrate that both can be estimated accurately from whole-genome data. In addition, not accounting for demography can lead to serious biases in the inferred coalescent model, with broad implications for genomic studies ranging from ecology to conservation biology. Finally, we use our method to analyze sequence data from Japanese sardine populations, and find evidence of high variation in individual reproductive success, but few signs of a recent demographic expansion. Copyright © 2018 by the Genetics Society of America.

  1. Melatonin prevents experimental preterm labor and increases offspring survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez Rubio, Ana P; Sordelli, Micaela S; Salazar, Ana I; Aisemberg, Julieta; Bariani, María V; Cella, Maximiliano; Rosenstein, Ruth E; Franchi, Ana M

    2014-03-01

    Preterm delivery is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and contributes to delayed physical and cognitive development in children. At present, there is no efficient therapy to prevent preterm labor. A large body of evidence suggests that intra-amniotic infections may be a significant and potentially preventable cause of preterm birth. This work assessed the effect of melatonin in a murine model of inflammation-associated preterm delivery which mimics central features of preterm infection in humans. For this purpose, preterm labor was induced in BALB/c mice by intraperitoneal injections of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at 10.00 hr (10 μg LPS) and 13.00 hr (20 μg LPS) on day 15 of pregnancy. On day 14 of pregnancy, a pellet of melatonin (25 mg) had been subcutaneously implanted into a group of animals. In the absence of melatonin, a 100% incidence of preterm birth was observed in LPS-treated animals, and the fetuses showed widespread damage. By comparison, treatment with melatonin prevented preterm birth in 50% of the cases, and all pups from melatonin-treated females were born alive and their body weight did not differ from control animals. Melatonin significantly prevented the LPS-induced rises in uterine prostaglandin (PG) E2 , PGF2α, and cyclooxygenase-2 protein levels. In addition, melatonin prevented the LPS-induced increase in uterine nitric oxide (NO) production, inducible NO synthase protein, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) levels. Collectively, our results suggest that melatonin could be a new therapeutic tool to prevent preterm labor and to increase offspring survival. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Maternal Obesity, Gestational Weight Gain, and Asthma in Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polinski, Kristen J; Liu, Jihong; Boghossian, Nansi S; McLain, Alexander C

    2017-11-09

    Obesity is common among women of childbearing age; intrauterine exposure to maternal obesity or gestational weight gain may influence the development of asthma in early childhood. We examined the relationships of maternal obesity and gestational weight gain with asthma in offspring. We used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, which has a nationally representative sample of children followed from birth in 2001 through age 4 (n = 6,450). Asthma was based on parental report of a medical professional's diagnosis. We used generalized estimating equation binomial models to compute adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of childhood asthma with maternal obesity and 4 measures of gestational weight gain. Compared with children of normal-weight mothers, children of obese mothers had increased risk of asthma (adjusted OR, 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26-2.12) by age 4, and children born to overweight mothers had similar risk (adjusted OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.99-1.59). Extreme-low weight gain (gain (≥25 kg) were associated with increased risk of asthma; however, the following measures were not significant predictors of asthma: meeting gestational weight gain recommendations of the Institute of Medicine, total gestational weight gain, and weekly rate of weight gain in the second and third trimesters. Extreme-low or extreme-high gestational weight gain and maternal obesity are risk factors for early childhood asthma, further evidence of the long-term impact of intrauterine exposure on children and the need to target preconception care to improve child health indicators.

  3. Congenital Malformations among the Offspring of Danish Survivors of Childhood Cancer and their Siblings-Interim Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binks, K.; Boice, J. D.; Winther, J. F.

    2004-01-01

    Survival is now the norm for children treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy for childhood cancers. These children are now living to have children of their own. A Danish study of adverse health outcomes in the offspring of childhood cancer survivors and the offspring of the cancer survivor's sibling is ongoing. The cumulative probability of congenital malformation is non significantly higher amongst the offspring of cancer survivors than amongst the offspring of cancer survivor's siblings; and non significantly higher amongst the offspring of cancer survivors who received radiotherapy treatment compared with those who did not. future analyses will incorporate radiation dose to the uterus and gonads of cancer survivors. To date, studies of childhood cancer survivors offspring have not indicated and excess of congenial malformation. (Author) 7 refs

  4. Is the association between offspring intelligence and parents' educational attainment influenced by schizophrenia or mood disorder in parents?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Aja Neergaard; Mors, Ole; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2017-01-01

    for developing schizophrenia. Based on these findings, we aim to investigate if the association between educational achievement in parents and intelligence in their offspring is influenced by schizophrenia or mood disorder in parents. In a large population-based sample of young adult male conscripts (n = 156......,531) the presence of a mental disorder in the parents were associated with significantly lower offspring scores on a test of general intelligence, the Børge Priens Prøve (BPP), and higher educational attainment in parents was significantly associated with higher BPP test scores in offspring. A significant...... interaction suggested that the positive association between maternal education and offspring intelligence was stronger in offspring of mothers with schizophrenia compared to the control group (p = 0.03). The associations between parental education and offspring intelligence are also observed when restricting...

  5. An interesting charmonium state formation and decay: p p-bar → 1 D2 → 1 P1γ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.; Caruso, F.; Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ; Murgia, F.; Negrao, M.R.

    1994-01-01

    Massless perturbative QCD forbids, at leading order, the exclusive annihilation of proton-antiproton into some charmonium states, which however, have been observed in the pp channel, indicating the significance of higher order and non perturbative effects in the few GeV energy region. The most well known cases are those of the 1 S 0 (η c ) and the 1 P 1 . The case of the 1 D 2 is considered here and a way of detecting such a state through its typical angular distribution in the radiative decay 1 D 2 -> 1 D 2 -> 1 P 1 γ is suggested. Estimates of the branching ratio BR( 1 D 2 ->pp), as given by a quark-diquark model of the nucleon, mass corrections and an instanton induced process are presented. (author). 15 refs

  6. The structure of the mite allergen Blo t 1 explains the limited antibody cross-reactivity to Der p 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meno, Kåre H; Kastrup, Jette S; Kuo, I-Chun

    2017-01-01

    , recombinant proBlo t 1 (rproBlo t 1), determined at 2.1 Å resolution. Overall, the fold of rproBlo t 1 is characteristic for the pro-form of cysteine proteases from the C1A class. Structural comparison of experimentally mapped Der f 1/Der p1 IgG epitopes to the same surface patch on Blo t 1, as well...... as of sequence identity of surface exposed residues, suggests limited cross-reactivity between these allergens and Blo t 1. This is in agreement with ELISA inhibition results showing that, although cross-reactive human IgE epitopes exist, there are unique IgE epitopes for both Blo t 1 and Der p 1. This article...

  7. The Level of Mite Dermatophagoides’ Allergens (Der-p 1 and Der-f 1 in Birjand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fereidouni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: House dust mite allergens especially pyroglyphid species are among the most important indoor allergens and have an important role in development of asthma and allergies. Materials and Methods: In current study, the level of two main allergens from mites including Der-p1 and Der-f 1 in dust of 28 homes in Birjand city was measured by ELISA method. Results: All samples were negative for Der-p1. Low leverl of Der-f 1 was detected in one sample. Prevalence of asthma, rhinitis and rhinoconjunctivitis was 2%, 28% and 15% respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that House dust mites could not grow in Birjand climate.

  8. Small organic compounds enhance antigen loading of class II major histocompatibility complex proteins by targeting the polymorphic P1 pocket

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höpner, Sabine; Dickhaut, Katharina; Hofstätter, Maria

    2006-01-01

    the peptide loading rate. The effect was evident only for an allelic subset and strictly correlated with the presence of glycine at the dimorphic position beta86 of the HLA-DR molecule. The residue forms the floor of the conserved pocket P1, located in the peptide binding site of MHC molecule. Apparently......, transient occupation of this pocket by the organic compound stabilizes the peptide-receptive conformation permitting rapid antigen loading. This interaction appeared restricted to the larger Gly(beta86) pocket and allowed striking enhancements of T cell responses for antigens presented by these "adamantyl......-susceptible" MHC molecules. As catalysts of antigen loading, compounds targeting P1 may be useful molecular tools to amplify the immune response. The observation, however, that the ligand repertoire can be affected through polymorphic sites form the outside may also imply that environmental factors could induce...

  9. Material properties and modeling characteristics for MnFeP1-xAsx materials for application in magnetic refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrecht, Kurt; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Bahl, Christian R.H.

    2013-01-01

    and thermal hysteresis, and it is not well understood how the hysteresis will affect performance in a practical AMR device. The amount of hysteresis shown by a material can be controlled to an extent by tuning the processing conditions used during material synthesis; therefore, knowledge of the practical......Compounds of MnFeP1-xAsx have received attention recently for their use in active magnetic regenerators (AMR) because of their relatively high isothermal entropy change and adiabatic temperature change with magnetization. However, the materials also generally exhibit a significant magnetic...... impact of hysteresis is a key element to guide successful material development and synthesis. The properties of a magnetocaloric MnFeP1-xAsx compound are characterized as a function of temperature and applied magnetic field, and the results are used to assess the effects of hysteresis on magnetocaloric...

  10. Autonomic and Renal Alterations in the Offspring of Sleep-Restricted Mothers During Late Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce R.S. Raimundo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Considering that changes in the maternal environment may result in changes in progeny, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of sleep restriction during the last week of pregnancy on renal function and autonomic responses in male descendants at an adult age. METHODS: After confirmation of pregnancy, female Wistar rats were randomly assigned to either a control or a sleep restriction group. The sleep-restricted rats were subjected to sleep restriction using the multiple platforms method for over 20 hours per day between the 14th and 20th day of pregnancy. After delivery, the litters were limited to 6 offspring that were designated as offspring from control and offspring from sleep-restricted mothers. Indirect measurements of systolic blood pressure (BPi, renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate, glomerular area and number of glomeruli per field were evaluated at three months of age. Direct measurements of cardiovascular function (heart rate and mean arterial pressure, cardiac sympathetic tone, cardiac parasympathetic tone, and baroreflex sensitivity were evaluated at four months of age. RESULTS: The sleep-restricted offspring presented increases in BPi, glomerular filtration rate and glomerular area compared with the control offspring. The sleep-restricted offspring also showed higher basal heart rate, increased mean arterial pressure, increased sympathetic cardiac tone, decreased parasympathetic cardiac tone and reduced baroreflex sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that reductions in sleep during the last week of pregnancy lead to alterations in cardiovascular autonomic regulation and renal morpho-functional changes in offspring, triggering increases in blood pressure.

  11. Mother knows best: dominant females determine offspring dispersal in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen M Whiteside

    Full Text Available Relatedness between group members is central to understanding the causes of animal dispersal. In many group-living mammals this can be complicated as extra-pair copulations result in offspring having varying levels of relatedness to the dominant animals, leading to a potential conflict between male and female dominants over offspring dispersal strategies. To avoid resource competition and inbreeding, dominant males might be expected to evict unrelated males and related females, whereas the reverse strategy would be expected for dominant females.We used microsatellites and long-term data from an urban fox (Vulpes vulpes population to compare dispersal strategies between offspring with intra- and extra-group fathers and mothers of differing social status in red foxes. Relatedness to the dominant male had no effect on dispersal in offspring of either sex, whereas there was a strong effect of relatedness to resident females on offspring dispersal independent of population density. Males with dominant mothers dispersed significantly more often than males with subordinate mothers, whereas dispersing females were significantly more likely to have subordinate mothers compared to philopatric females.This is the first study to demonstrate that relatedness to resident females is important in juvenile dispersal in group-living mammals. Male dispersal may be driven by inbreeding avoidance, whereas female dispersal appears to be influenced by the fitness advantages associated with residing with the same-sex dominant parent. Selection pressure for paternal influence on offspring dispersal is low due to the limited costs associated with retaining unrelated males and the need for alternative inbreeding avoidance mechanisms between the dominant male and his female offspring. These findings have important implications for the evolution of dispersal and group living in social mammals, and our understanding of a key biological process.

  12. Prevalence and predictors of overweight and insulin resistance in offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerschmann, Heike; Pflüger, Maren; Henneberger, Lydia; Ziegler, Anette-G; Hummel, Sandra

    2010-08-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with high birth weight in the offspring. This may lead to overweight and insulin resistance during childhood. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of GDM on overweight risk and insulin resistance in offspring. BMI measurements were collected at age 2, 8, and 11 years from 232 offspring of mothers with GDM (OGDM) and compared with those from 757 offspring of mothers with type 1 diabetes (OT1D) and 431 offspring of nondiabetic mothers (ONDM) born between 1989 and 2000. Insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) was determined at age 8 and 11 years in 751 children (74 OGDM). Overweight was defined as BMI percentile >or=90; insulin resistance was defined by HOMA-IR. Overweight prevalence was increased in OGDM compared with OT1D and to ONDM throughout childhood (age 11 years 31.1, 15.8, and 15.5%; P = 0.005). Maternal obesity was an important predictor of overweight risk in children (age 11 years odds ratio 7.0 [95% CI 1.8-27.7]; P = 0.006); birth size and maternal smoking during pregnancy were inconsistently associated with and treatment of GDM during pregnancy did not affect overweight risk. HOMA-IR was increased in OGDM compared with offspring of ONDM mothers (P = 0.01, adjusted for sex and age) and was associated with the child's BMI (P = 0.004). Overweight and insulin resistance in children is increased in OGDM compared with OT1D or ONDM. The finding that overweight risk is associated mainly with maternal obesity suggests that familial predisposition contributes to childhood growth in these offspring.

  13. The association between parental life history and offspring phenotype in Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, Travis E; McLennan, Darryl; McKelvey, Simon; Stewart, David C; Adams, Colin E; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2016-02-01

    In many taxa there is considerable intraspecific variation in life history strategies from within a single population, reflecting alternative routes through which organisms can achieve successful reproduction. Atlantic salmon Salmo salar (Linnaeus) show some of the greatest within-population variability in life history strategies amongst vertebrates, with multiple discrete male and female life histories co-existing and interbreeding on many spawning grounds, although the effect of the various combinations of life histories on offspring traits remains unknown. Using crosses of wild fish we show here that the life history strategy of both parents was significantly associated with a range of offspring traits. Mothers that had spent longer at sea (2 versus 1 year) produced offspring that were heavier, longer and in better condition at the time of first feeding. However, these relationships disappeared shortly after fry had begun feeding exogenously. At this stage, the juvenile rearing environment (i.e. time spent in fresh water as juveniles) of the mother was a better predictor of offspring traits, with mothers that were faster to develop in fresh water (migrating to sea after two rather than three years of age) producing offspring that had higher maximal metabolic rates, aerobic scopes, and that grew faster. Faster developing fathers (1 year old sneaker males) tended to produce offspring that had higher maximal metabolic rates, were in better body condition and grew faster. The results suggest that both genetic effects and those related to parental early and late life history contribute to offspring traits. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Decreasing maternal myostatin programs adult offspring bone strength in a mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestreich, Arin K; Kamp, William M; McCray, Marcus G; Carleton, Stephanie M; Karasseva, Natalia; Lenz, Kristin L; Jeong, Youngjae; Daghlas, Salah A; Yao, Xiaomei; Wang, Yong; Pfeiffer, Ferris M; Ellersieck, Mark R; Schulz, Laura C; Phillips, Charlotte L

    2016-11-22

    During fetal development, the uterine environment can have effects on offspring bone architecture and integrity that persist into adulthood; however, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Myostatin is a negative regulator of muscle mass. Parental myostatin deficiency (Mstn tm1Sjl/+ ) increases muscle mass in wild-type offspring, suggesting an intrauterine programming effect. Here, we hypothesized that Mstn tm1Sjl/+ dams would also confer increased bone strength. In wild-type offspring, maternal myostatin deficiency altered fetal growth and calvarial collagen content of newborn mice and conferred a lasting impact on bone geometry and biomechanical integrity of offspring at 4 mo of age, the age of peak bone mass. Second, we sought to apply maternal myostatin deficiency to a mouse model with osteogenesis imperfecta (Col1a2 oim ), a heritable connective tissue disorder caused by abnormalities in the structure and/or synthesis of type I collagen. Femora of male Col1a2 oim/+ offspring from natural mating of Mstn tm1Sjl/+ dams to Col1a2 oim/+ sires had a 15% increase in torsional ultimate strength, a 29% increase in tensile strength, and a 24% increase in energy to failure compared with age, sex, and genotype-matched offspring from natural mating of Col1a2 oim/+ dams to Col1a2 oim/+ sires. Finally, increased bone biomechanical strength of Col1a2 oim/+ offspring that had been transferred into Mstn tm1Sjl/+ dams as blastocysts demonstrated that the effects of maternal myostatin deficiency were conferred by the postimplantation environment. Thus, targeting the gestational environment, and specifically prenatal myostatin pathways, provides a potential therapeutic window and an approach for treating osteogenesis imperfecta.

  15. Parent-offspring transaction: Mechanisms and the value of within family designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jennifer M; McGowan, Patrick; Knafo-Noam, Ariel

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care". Parenting is best understood as a transactional process between parents and their offspring. Each responds to cues in the other, adapting their own behavior to that of their partner. One of the goals of parenting research in the past twenty years has been to untangle reciprocal processes between parents and children in order to specify what comes from the child (child effects) and what comes from the parent (parent effects). Child effects have been found to relate to genetic, pre and perinatal, family-wide, and child-specific environmental influences. Parent effects relate to stresses in the current context (e.g. financial strain, marital conflict), personality and ethnicity but also to adverse childhood experiences (e.g. parental mental health and substance abuse, poverty, divorce). Rodent models have allowed for the specification of biological mechanisms in parent and child effects, including neurobiological and genomic mechanisms, and of the causal role of environmental experience on outcomes for offspring through random assignment of offspring-mother groupings. One of the methods that have been developed in the human and animal models to differentiate between parent and child effects has been to study multiple offspring in the family. By holding the parent steady, and studying different offspring, we can examine the similarities and differences in how parents parent multiple offspring. Studies have distinguished between family average parenting, child-specific parenting and family-wide dispersion (the within family standard deviation). These different aspects of parenting have been differentially linked to offspring behavioral phenotypes. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mother knows best: dominant females determine offspring dispersal in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Helen M; Dawson, Deborah A; Soulsbury, Carl D; Harris, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Relatedness between group members is central to understanding the causes of animal dispersal. In many group-living mammals this can be complicated as extra-pair copulations result in offspring having varying levels of relatedness to the dominant animals, leading to a potential conflict between male and female dominants over offspring dispersal strategies. To avoid resource competition and inbreeding, dominant males might be expected to evict unrelated males and related females, whereas the reverse strategy would be expected for dominant females. We used microsatellites and long-term data from an urban fox (Vulpes vulpes) population to compare dispersal strategies between offspring with intra- and extra-group fathers and mothers of differing social status in red foxes. Relatedness to the dominant male had no effect on dispersal in offspring of either sex, whereas there was a strong effect of relatedness to resident females on offspring dispersal independent of population density. Males with dominant mothers dispersed significantly more often than males with subordinate mothers, whereas dispersing females were significantly more likely to have subordinate mothers compared to philopatric females. This is the first study to demonstrate that relatedness to resident females is important in juvenile dispersal in group-living mammals. Male dispersal may be driven by inbreeding avoidance, whereas female dispersal appears to be influenced by the fitness advantages associated with residing with the same-sex dominant parent. Selection pressure for paternal influence on offspring dispersal is low due to the limited costs associated with retaining unrelated males and the need for alternative inbreeding avoidance mechanisms between the dominant male and his female offspring. These findings have important implications for the evolution of dispersal and group living in social mammals, and our understanding of a key biological process.

  17. Nutritional Programming of Bone Structure in Male Offspring by Maternal Consumption of Citrus Flavanones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Sandra M; Saint, Caitlin; LeBlanc, Paul J; Ward, Wendy E

    2018-06-01

    Maternal exposure to hesperidin (HSP) and naringin (NAR) during pregnancy and lactation transiently compromised bone mineral density (BMD) and bone structure at the proximal tibia in female CD-1 offspring. We examined whether maternal consumption of HSP + NAR during pregnancy and lactation compromises BMD, bone structure, and bone strength in male CD-1 offspring. Male CD-1 offspring, from mothers fed a control diet (CON, n = 10) or a 0.5% HSP + 0.25% NAR diet (HSP + NAR, n = 8) for 5 weeks before mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation, were weaned and fed CON until 6 months of age. In vivo micro-computed tomography (µCT) measured tibia BMD and structure at 2, 4, and 6 months of age. Ex vivo µCT measured femur and lumbar vertebrae (LV) structure at age 6 months. Ex vivo BMD (femur, LV) and biomechanical strength (femur and tibia midpoint, femur neck) were assessed at age 6 months by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and strength testing, respectively. At all ages, HSP + NAR offspring had greater (p structure compared to CON offspring. At age 4 months, proximal tibia trabecular structure was greater (p structure were greater (p structure at the proximal tibia in male CD-1 offspring that persisted to 6 months of age. Thus, maternal programming of offspring BMD and bone structure from consumption of HSP + NAR occurred as a sex-specific response.

  18. Responsiveness of cerebral and hepatic cytochrome P450s in rat offspring prenatally exposed to lindane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johri, Ashu; Yadav, Sanjay; Dhawan, Alok; Parmar, Devendra

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Prenatal exposure to low doses of lindane has been shown to affect the ontogeny of xenobiotic metabolizing cytochrome P450s (CYPs), involved in the metabolism and neurobehavioral toxicity of lindane. Attempts were made in the present study to investigate the responsiveness of CYPs in offspring prenatally exposed to lindane (0.25 mg/kg b. wt.; 1/350th of LD 50 ; p. o. to mother) when challenged with 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) or phenobarbital (PB), inducers of CYP1A and 2B families or a sub-convulsant dose of lindane (30 mg/kg b. wt., p. o.) later in life. Prenatal exposure to lindane was found to produce an increase in the mRNA and protein expression of CYP1A1, 1A2, 2B1, 2B2 isoforms in brain and liver of the offspring at postnatal day 50. The increased expression of the CYPs in the offspring suggests the sensitivity of the CYPs during postnatal development, possibly, to low levels of lindane, which may partition into mother's milk. A higher increase in expression of CYP1A and 2B isoenzymes and their catalytic activity was observed in animals pretreated prenatally with lindane and challenged with MC (30 mg/kg, i. p. x 5 days) or PB (80 mg/kg, i. p. x 5 days) when young at age (approx. 7 weeks) compared to animals exposed to MC or PB alone. Further, challenge of the control and prenatally exposed offspring with a single sub-convulsant dose of lindane resulted in an earlier onset and increased incidence of convulsions in the offspring prenatally exposed to lindane have demonstrated sensitivity of the CYPs in the prenatally exposed offspring. Our data assume significance as the subtle changes in the expression profiles of hepatic and cerebral CYPs in rat offspring during postnatal development could modify the adult response to a later exposure to xenobiotics

  19. The effect of maternal and paternal immune challenge on offspring immunity and reproduction in a cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, K B; van Lieshout, E; Simmons, L W

    2014-06-01

    Trans-generational immune priming is the transmission of enhanced immunity to offspring following a parental immune challenge. Although within-generation increased investment into immunity demonstrates clear costs on reproductive investment in a number of taxa, the potential for immune priming to impact on offspring reproductive investment has not been thoroughly investigated. We explored the reproductive costs of immune priming in a field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus. To assess the relative importance of maternal and paternal immune status, mothers and fathers were immune-challenged with live bacteria or a control solution and assigned to one of four treatments in which one parent, neither or both parents were immune-challenged. Families of offspring were reared to adulthood under a food-restricted diet, and approximately 10 offspring in each family were assayed for two measures of immunocompetence. We additionally quantified offspring reproductive investment using sperm viability for males and ovary mass for females. We demonstrate that parental immune challenge has significant consequences for the immunocompetence and, in turn, reproductive investment of their male offspring. A complex interaction between maternal and paternal immune status increased the antibacterial immune response of male offspring. This increased immune response was associated with a reduction in son's sperm viability, implicating a trans-generational resource trade-off between investment into immunocompetence and reproduction. Our data also show that these costs are sexually dimorphic, as daughters did not demonstrate a similar increase in immunity, despite showing a reduction in ovary mass. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  20. Feeding a diet devoid of choline to lactating rodents restricts growth and lymphocyte development in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, E D; Goruk, S; Richard, C; Dellschaft, N S; Curtis, J M; Jacobs, R L; Field, C J

    2016-09-01

    The nutrient choline is necessary for membrane synthesis and methyl donation, with increased requirements during lactation. The majority of immune development occurs postnatally, but the importance of choline supply for immune development during this critical period is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the importance of maternal supply of choline during suckling on immune function in their offspring among rodents. At parturition, Sprague-Dawley dams were randomised to either a choline-devoid (ChD; n 7) or choline-sufficient (ChS, 1 g/kg choline; n 10) diet with their offspring euthanised at 3 weeks of age. In a second experiment, offspring were weaned to a ChS diet until 10 weeks of age (ChD-ChS, n 5 and ChS-ChS, n 9). Splenocytes were isolated, and parameters of immune function were measured. The ChD offspring received less choline in breast milk and had lower final body and organ weight compared with ChS offspring (P<0·05), but this effect disappeared by week 10 with choline supplementation from weaning. ChD offspring had a higher proportion of T cells expressing activation markers (CD71 or CD28) and a lower proportion of total B cells (CD45RA+) and responded less to T cell stimulation (lower stimulation index and less IFN-γ production) ex vivo (P<0·05). ChD-ChS offspring had a lower proportion of total and activated CD4+ T cells, and produced less IL-6 after mitogen stimulation compared with cells from ChS-ChS (P<0·05). Our study suggests that choline is required in the suckling diet to facilitate immune development, and choline deprivation during this critical period has lasting effects on T cell function later in life.

  1. Polyandry and fitness of offspring reared under varying nutritional stress in decorated crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaluk, Scott K; Schaus, Jennifer M; Eggert, Anne-Katrin; Snedden, W Andrew; Brady, Pamela L

    2002-10-01

    Females, by mating with more than one male in their lifetime, may reduce their risk of receiving sperm from genetically incompatible sires or increase their prospects of obtaining sperm from genetically superior sires. Although there is evidence of both kinds of genetic benefits in crickets, their relative importance remains unclear, and the extent to which experimentally manipulated levels of polyandry in the laboratory correspond to those that occur in nature remain unknown. We measured lifetime polyandry of free-living female decorated crickets, Gryllodes sigillatus, and conducted an experiment to determine whether polyandry leads to an increase in offspring viability. We experimentally manipulated both the levels of polyandry and opportunities for females to select among males, randomly allocating the offspring of experimental females to high-food-stress or low-food-stress regimes to complete their development. Females exhibited a high degree of polyandry, mating on average with more than seven different males during their lifetime and up to as many as 15. Polyandry had no effect on either the developmental time or survival of offspring. However, polyandrous females produced significantly heavier sons than those of monandrous females, although there was no difference in the adult mass of daughters. There was no significant interaction between mating treatment and offspring nutritional regimen in their effects on offspring mass, suggesting that benefits accruing to female polyandry are independent of the environment in which offspring develop. The sex difference in the extent to which male and female offspring benefit via their mother's polyandry may reflect possible differences in the fitness returns from sons and daughters. The larger mass gain shown by sons of polyandrous females probably leads to their increased reproductive success, either because of their increased success in sperm competition or because of their increased life span.

  2. A lifetime measurement of the 1s2p 3P1 level in helium-like Mg and Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour, I.A.; Silver, J.D.; Traebert, E.; Oxford Univ.

    1981-01-01

    The lifetimes of the 1s2p 3 P 1 levels of helium-like magnesium and aluminium have been measured by the beam-foil decay curve technique. The 1s 2 -1s2p transitions were observed with a curved-crystal x-ray spectrometer. Decay curves taken under systematically varied conditions have been evaluated using several techniques including a cascade model. The results are in agreement with most of the theoretical predictions. (author)

  3. Characterization of the human T cell response to rye grass pollen allergens Lol p 1 and Lol p 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, M D; Papalia, L; Eusebius, N P; O'Hehir, R E; Rolland, J M

    2002-12-01

    Knowledge of dominant T cell epitopes of major allergens recognized by allergic individuals is required to improve efficacy and safety of allergen immunotherapy. Rye grass pollen (RGP) is the most important source of seasonal aeroallergens in temperate climates and Lol p 1 and Lol p 5 are the two major IgE-reactive allergens. This study aimed to characterize the T cell response to these allergens using a large panel of RGP-sensitive individuals. Short-term RGP-specific T cell lines (TCL) were generated from 38 RGP-sensitive subjects and stimulated with Lol p 1 and/or Lol p 5 allergens and synthetic 20-mer peptides. Proliferative responses were determined by 3H-thymidine uptake and IL-5 and IFN-gamma in culture supernatants analysed by ELISA. Of 17 subjects tested for reactivity to both allergens 16 (94%) responded to Lol p 1 and/or Lol p 5, establishing these as major T cell-reactive allergens. Sites of T cell reactivity were spread throughout the allergen molecules but regions of high reactivity were found. For Lol p 1 these spanned residues 19-38, 109-128, 154-173, 190-209, and for Lol p 5 37-56, 100-119, 145-164, 154-173, 190-209, 217-236 and 226-245. IL-5 and IFN-gamma were produced by T cells cultured with proliferation-inducing peptides. T cell responses to RGP major allergens have been extensively characterized, providing fundamental information for developing T cell-targeted immunotherapy for RGP allergy.

  4. Filled and empty states of Zn-TPP films deposited on Fe(001-p(1×1O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianlorenzo Bussetti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Zn-tetraphenylporphyrin (Zn-TPP was deposited on a single layer of metal oxide, namely an Fe(001-p(1×1O surface. The filled and empty electronic states were measured by means of UV photoemission and inverse photoemission spectroscopy on a single monolayer and a 20 monolayer thick film. The ionization energy and the electron affinity of the organic film were deduced and the interface dipole was determined and compared with data available in the literature.

  5. Different Interfacial Behaviors of N- and C-Terminus Cysteine-Modified Cecropin P1 Chemically Immobilized onto Polymer Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    Anderson, G. P.; Ligler, F. S.; Shaffer, K. M.; Taitt, C. R. Antimicrobial peptides: New recognition molecules for detecting botulinum toxins ...as a biosensor for rapid detection of pathogens and toxins . Lab. Invest. 2007, 88 (2), 196−206. (20) Jonkheijm, P.; Weinrich, D.; Schröder, H...optics; Wiley-Interscience: New York, 1984; Vol. 575, p 1. (43) Shen, Y. R. Surface properties probed by second-harmonic and sum-frequency generation

  6. Crystal structure of an Anti-meningococcal subtype P1.4 PorA antibody provides basis for peptide-vaccine design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen, Clasien J.; Hoogerhout, Peter; Kuipers, Betsy; Vidarsson, Gestur; van Alphen, Loek; Gros, Piet

    2005-01-01

    In various western countries, subtype P1.4 of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B causes the greatest incidence of meningococcal disease. To investigate the molecular recognition of this subtype, we crystallised a peptide (P1HVVVNNKVATH(P11)), corresponding to the subtype P1.4 epitope sequence of

  7. The 2s1/2 → 2p1/2 + one photon transition in hydrogen and hydrogenlike ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelsey, E.J.

    1977-01-01

    The 2s 1 / 2 → 2p 1 / 2 + one photon transition rate is calculated and discussed for hydrogen and hydrogenlike ions. It is noted that the induced transition rather than the spontaneous transition is of primary importance since it is the basis of many of the precision Lamb-shift measurements. The lack of a calculation of the transition rate other than a heuristic nonrelativistic derivation which requires a nontrivial assumption motivates the calculation presented here based on the external field approximation to quantum electrodynamics. It is found that the heuristic answer is correct in lowest order. In this derivation we see that the 2s 1 / 2 → 2p 1 / 2 + one photon transition gives an apparent contradiction to the often-stated remark that for the electric dipole matrix element there exist three equivalent representations, the ''length,'' ''velocity,'' and ''acceleration'' forms. The difficulties of an experimental determination of this transition rate using induced transitions in hydrogenlike ions are briefly noted as well as the somewhat different case of heavy muonic atoms where the spontaneous 2s 1 / 2 → 2p 1 / 2 + one photon transition has been observed

  8. A through calculation of 1,100 MWe PWR large break LOCA by THYDE-P1 EM model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Masayuki; Asahi, Yoshiro; Hirano, Masashi

    1984-07-01

    THYDE-P1 is a code to analyze both the blowdown and refill-reflood phases of loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) of pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Up to now, THYDE-P1 has been applied to various experiment analyses, which show its high capability to analyze LOCAs as a best estimate (BE) calculation code. In this report, evaluation model (EM) calculation method, especialy in the blowdown and refill phases, is established equivalently to WREM/J2 which is regarded as appropriate for an EM calculation code, and the results of them are compared and discussed. The present calculation was the first executed by THYDE-P1-EM, and was performed as Sample Calculation Run 80 which was a part of a series of THYDE-P sample calculations. The calculation was carried out from the LOCA initiation till 400 seconds for a guillotine break at the cold leg of a commercial 1,100 MWe PWR plant. The calculated results agreed well to that of the WREM/J2 code. (author)

  9. Predictors of Positive Outcomes in Offspring of Depressed Parents and Non-depressed Parents Across 20 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdeli, Helen; Wickramaratne, Priya; Warner, Virginia; Mancini, Anthony; Weissman, Myrna

    2014-01-01

    Understanding differences in factors leading to positive outcomes in high-risk and low-risk offspring has important implications for preventive interventions. We identified variables predicting positive outcomes in a cohort of 235 offspring from 76 families in which one, both, or neither parent had major depressive disorder. Positive outcomes were termed resilient in offspring of depressed parents, and competent in offspring of non-depressed parents, and defined by two separate criteria: absence of psychiatric diagnosis and consistently high functioning at 2, 10, and 20 years follow-up. In offspring of depressed parents, easier temperament and higher self-esteem were associated with greater odds of resilient outcome defined by absence of diagnosis. Lower maternal overprotection, greater offspring self-esteem, and higher IQ were associated with greater odds of resilient outcome defined by consistently high functioning. Multivariate analysis indicated that resilient outcome defined by absence of diagnosis was best predicted by offspring self-esteem; resilient outcome defined by functioning was best predicted by maternal overprotection and self-esteem. Among offspring of non-depressed parents, greater family cohesion, easier temperament and higher self-esteem were associated with greater odds of offspring competent outcome defined by absence of diagnosis. Higher maternal affection and greater offspring self-esteem were associated with greater odds of competent outcome, defined by consistently high functioning. Multivariate analysis for each criterion indicated that competent outcome was best predicted by offspring self-esteem. As the most robust predictor of positive outcomes in offspring of depressed and non-depressed parents, self-esteem is an important target for youth preventive interventions. PMID:25374449

  10. Using Response Surface Analysis to Interpret the Impact of Parent?Offspring Personality Similarity on Adolescent Externalizing Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Franken, Aart; Laceulle, Odillia M.; Van Aken, Marcel A.G.; Ormel, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Personality similarity between parent and offspring has been suggested to play an important role in offspring's development of externalizing problems. Nonetheless, much remains unknown regarding the nature of this association. This study aimed to investigate the effects of parent?offspring similarity at different levels of personality traits, comparing expectations based on evolutionary and goodness?of?fit perspectives. Two waves of data from the TRAILS study (N?=?1587, 53% girls) we...

  11. High-fat diet reprograms the epigenome of rat spermatozoa and transgenerationally affects metabolism of the offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais de Castro Barbosa

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Our results provide insight into mechanisms by which HFD transgenerationally reprograms the epigenome of sperm cells, thereby affecting metabolic tissues of offspring throughout two generations.

  12. New insights into parental effects and toxicity: Mate availability and diet in the parental environment affect offspring responses to contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plautz, Stephanie C.; Funkhouser, Meghan A.; Salice, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Parental effects manifest as alterations in offspring phenotype resulting from the parental phenotype and/or parental environment. We evaluated the effects of parental diet quality and mating strategy on the toxicant tolerance of offspring in Biomphalaria glabrata snails. We raised snails either individually (self-fertilizing) or in groups of three (outcrossing) on a diet of uncooked lettuce, fish food, cooked lettuce, or cooked lettuce plus fish food. We then exposed their offspring to cadmium and malathion challenges. Cadmium tolerance varied with parental diet and was greater in the offspring of outcrossing snails than self-fertilizing snails. Malathion tolerance was not affected by parental diet but was greater in the offspring of outcrossing snails. These results indicate that offspring responses to stressors are heavily influenced by parental experience, but may depend on the specific stressor and the mechanism of action and/or detoxification. -- Highlights: •We reared parental snails either alone or in groups and fed them one of four diets. •We exposed their juvenile offspring to cadmium and malathion survival challenges. •Outcrossing increased toxicant tolerance of juveniles compared to self-fertilizing. •Parental diet affected juvenile offspring tolerance to cadmium but not malathion. •Toxicant characteristics likely influenced parental effects on toxicant tolerance. -- Both parental diet composition and mating strategy can significantly alter the toxicant tolerance of offspring, and toxicant characteristics likely influence the probability of parental effects

  13. High dietary fat intake during lactation promotes development of diet-induced obesity in male offspring of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuduki, Tsuyoshi; Kitano, Yasuna; Honma, Taro; Kijima, Ryo; Ikeda, Ikuo

    2013-01-01

    The maternal nutritional status during pregnancy and lactation influences the risk of obesity in offspring, but the details of this phenomenon are unclear. In particular, there is little information on the influence on the offspring of the maternal nutritional status during lactation only. Therefore, in this study, we examined the influence of high dietary fat intake in dams during lactation on the risk of obesity in offspring, using C57BL/6J mice. The mice were fed a control diet (CD) during pregnancy. After birth, dams were fed a CD or a high-fat diet (HD) during lactation (3 wk). Fat and energy were significantly increased in milk from dams fed a HD during lactation. Male offspring were weaned at 3 wk old and fed a CD for 4 wk, which resulted in no significant difference in their physique. Four weeks after weaning, the offspring (7 wk old) were fed a CD or HD for 4 wk to induce obesity. High dietary fat intake in dams and offspring promoted lipid accumulation in white adipose tissue and adipocyte hypertrophy in male offspring. The underlying mechanism may involve an increase in expression of Lpl and a decrease in expression of Hsl in white adipose tissue of offspring. In conclusion, our results show that high dietary fat intake during lactation promotes development of diet-induced obesity in male offspring.

  14. The impaired myocardial ischemic tolerance in adult offspring of diabetic pregnancy is restored by maternal melatonin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ling; Zhao, Yi-Chao; Liang, Yan; Lin, Xian-Hua; Tan, Ya-Jing; Wu, Dan-Dan; Li, Xin-Zhu; Ye, Bo-Zhi; Kong, Fan-Qi; Sheng, Jian-Zhong; Huang, He-Feng

    2016-10-01

    Diabetic pregnancy, with ever increasing prevalence, adversely affects embryogenesis and increases vasculometabolic disorder risks in adult offspring. However, it remains poorly understood whether maternal diabetes increases the offspring's susceptibility to heart injuries in adulthood. In this study, we observed that cardiac function and structure were comparable between adult offspring born to diabetic mice and their counterparts born to nondiabetic mice at baseline. However, in response to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MIR), diabetic mother offspring exhibited augmented infarct size, cardiac dysfunction, and myocardial apoptosis compared with control, in association with exaggerated activation of mitochondria- and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis pathways and oxidative stress. Molecular analysis showed that the impaired myocardial ischemic tolerance in diabetic mother offspring was mainly attributable to blunted cardiac insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1/Akt signaling. Furthermore, the effect of maternal melatonin administration on offspring's response to MIR was determined, and the results indicated that melatonin treatment in diabetic dams during pregnancy significantly improved the tolerance to MIR injury in their offspring, via restoring cardiac IRS-1/Akt signaling. Taken together, these data suggest that maternal diabetes predisposes offspring to augmented MIR injury in adulthood, and maternal melatonin supplementation during diabetic pregnancy may hold promise for improving myocardial ischemic tolerance in the offspring. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Oxidative stress in mouse sperm impairs embryo development, fetal growth and alters adiposity and glucose regulation in female offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Lane

    Full Text Available Paternal health cues are able to program the health of the next generation however the mechanism for this transmission is unknown. Reactive oxygen species (ROS are increased in many paternal pathologies, some of which program offspring health, and are known to induce DNA damage and alter the methylation pattern of chromatin. We therefore investigated whether a chemically induced increase of ROS in sperm impairs embryo, pregnancy and offspring health. Mouse sperm was exposed to 1500 µM of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, which induced oxidative damage, however did not affect sperm motility or the ability to bind and fertilize an oocyte. Sperm treated with H2O2 delayed on-time development of subsequent embryos, decreased the ratio of inner cell mass cells (ICM in the resulting blastocyst and reduced implantation rates. Crown-rump length at day 18 of gestation was also reduced in offspring produced by H2O2 treated sperm. Female offspring from H2O2 treated sperm were smaller, became glucose intolerant and accumulated increased levels of adipose tissue compared to control female offspring. Interestingly male offspring phenotype was less severe with increases in fat depots only seen at 4 weeks of age, which was restored to that of control offspring later in life, demonstrating sex-specific impacts on offspring. This study implicates elevated sperm ROS concentrations, which are common to many paternal health pathologies, as a mediator of programming offspring for metabolic syndrome and obesity.

  16. Late gestational intermittent hypoxia induces metabolic and epigenetic changes in male adult offspring mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Cortese, Rene; Qiao, Zhuanhong; Ye, Honggang; Bao, Riyue; Andrade, Jorge; Gozal, David

    2017-04-15

    Late gestation during pregnancy has been associated with a relatively high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Intermittent hypoxia, a hallmark of OSA, could impose significant long-term effects on somatic growth, energy homeostasis and metabolic function in offspring. Here we show that late gestation intermittent hypoxia induces metabolic dysfunction as reflected by increased body weight and adiposity index in adult male offspring that is paralleled by epigenomic alterations and inflammation in visceral white adipose tissue. Fetal perturbations by OSA during pregnancy impose long-term detrimental effects manifesting as metabolic dysfunction in adult male offspring. Pregnancy, particularly late gestation (LG), has been associated with a relatively high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Intermittent hypoxia (IH), a hallmark of OSA, could impose significant long-term effects on somatic growth, energy homeostasis, and metabolic function in offspring. We hypothesized that IH during late pregnancy (LG-IH) may increase the propensity for metabolic dysregulation and obesity in adult offspring via epigenetic modifications. Time-pregnant female C57BL/6 mice were exposed to LG-IH or room air (LG-RA) during days 13-18 of gestation. At 24 weeks, blood samples were collected from offspring mice for lipid profiles and insulin resistance, indirect calorimetry was performed and visceral white adipose tissues (VWAT) were assessed for inflammatory cells as well as for differentially methylated gene regions (DMRs) using a methylated DNA immunoprecipitation on chip (MeDIP-chip). Body weight, food intake, adiposity index, fasting insulin, triglycerides and cholesterol levels were all significantly higher in LG-IH male but not female offspring. LG-IH also altered metabolic expenditure and locomotor activities in male offspring, and increased number of pro-inflammatory macrophages emerged in VWAT along with 1520 DMRs (P < 0.0001), associated with 693

  17. Maternal obesity and offspring body composition by indirect methods: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Castillo-Laura

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study reviewed the evidence that assessed the association between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI and/or gestational weight gain and offspring body composition in childhood. A systematic review was conducted. Cohort studies, case-control studies and randomized controlled trials measuring offspring body composition by indirect methods were included. Meta-analyses of the effect of pre-pregnancy BMI on offspring fat-free mass, body fat percent, and fat mass were conducted through random-effects models. 20 studies were included, most of which reported a positive association of pre-pregnancy BMI with offspring body fat. Standardized mean differences in body fat percent, fat mass and fat-free mass between infants of women with normal pre-pregnancy BMI and those of overweight/obese women were 0.31 percent points (95%CI: 0.19; 0.42, 0.38kg (95%CI: 0.26; 0.50, and 0.18kg (95%CI: -0.07; 0.42, respectively. Evidence so far suggests that pre-pregnancy maternal overweight is associated with higher offspring adiposity.

  18. The impact of disclosure on donor gamete participants: donors, intended parents and offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfeld, Dorothy A

    2008-06-01

    The present review examines recent publications that provide insight into how the trend toward nonanonymity and disclosure in gamete donation impacts donors, intended parents, and their donor-conceived children. Recent findings show an increase in donor programs that offer open-identity between donors and offspring. The psychological needs of gamete donors and their attitudes toward disclosure are increasingly given consideration. Qualitative research on how parents of donor gamete offspring make decisions about disclosure reveals that even when couples initially disagree about disclosing to offspring, most ultimately come to a united disclosure decision. The literature on the impact of disclosure on donor gamete offspring has extended to include children conceived through embryo donation and children born as a result of surrogacy. The absence of genetic or gestational link between parents and their child does not have a negative impact on parent-child relationships. Parents through surrogacy tend to disclose the method of family creation to their child, whereas parents through embryo donation tend to be secretive about their child's origins. The trend toward greater openness in gamete donation has been accompanied by an increase in programs offering open-identity donation. In addition, the psychological needs of gamete donors and their attitudes toward disclosure are increasingly being given consideration. Parents of donor gamete offspring give careful thought to their disclosure decisions, and the psychological well being of donor-conceived children does not seem to be impacted by those decisions.

  19. Reproductive biology, family conflict, and size of offspring in marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Stephanie J; Oyarzun, Fernanda X; Grosberg, Richard K

    2010-10-01

    All organisms face two fundamental trade-offs in the allocation of energetic resources: one between many small versus a few large offspring, and the second between present and future reproduction. Nowhere are these trade-offs more apparent than in the vast range of variation in the sizes of eggs and offspring exhibited among species of marine invertebrates. It has become increasingly clear that, in many taxa of marine organisms, there is also substantial intraspecific variation in the size of eggs and hatchings. This variation has largely been attributed to adaptive maternal effects. In theory, however, the inevitable conflicts of interest that arise in families of sexually reproducing organisms over the optimal distribution of parental resources among siblings could also account for much of this variation in egg and offspring size. Here, we explore the potential impacts of family conflict on offspring traits by comparing the life histories of two exemplar species of marine organisms, the polychaete Boccardia proboscidea and the gastropod Solenosteira macrospira, emphasizing how differences in modes of fertilization and parental care might influence the phenotype and, consequently, the fitness of offspring. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved.

  20. Maternal chromium restriction modulates miRNA profiles related to lipid metabolism disorder in mice offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Xiao, Xinhua; Zheng, Jia; Li, Ming; Yu, Miao; Ping, Fan; Wang, Zhixin; Qi, Cuijuan; Wang, Tong; Wang, Xiaojing

    2017-08-01

    Increasing evidence shows that maternal nutrition status has a vital effect on offspring susceptibility to obesity. MicroRNAs are related to lipid metabolism processes. This study aimed to evaluate whether maternal chromium restriction could affect miRNA expression involved in lipid metabolism in offspring. Weaning C57BL/6J mice born from mothers fed with normal control diet or chromium-restricted diet were fed for 13 weeks. The adipose miRNA expression profile was analyzed by miRNA array analysis. At 16 weeks old, pups from dams fed with chromium-restricted diet exhibit higher body weight, fat weight, and serum TC, TG levels. Six miRNAs were identified as upregulated in the RC group compared with the CC group, whereas eight miRNAs were lower than the threshold level set in the RC group. In the validated target genes of these differentially expressed miRNA, the MAPK signaling pathway serves an important role in the influence of early life chromium-restricted diet on lipid metabolism through miRNA. Long-term programming on various specific miRNA and MAPK signaling pathway may be involved in maternal chromium restriction in the adipose of female offspring. Impact statement For the first time, our study demonstrates important miRNA differences in the effect of maternal chromium restriction in offspring. These miRNAs may serve as "bridges" between the mother and the offspring by affecting the MAPK pathway.

  1. Neuropsychological characteristics of child and adolescent offspring of patients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Serna, Elena; Vila, Monserrat; Sanchez-Gistau, Vanessa; Moreno, Dolores; Romero, Soledad; Sugranyes, Gisela; Baeza, Immaculada; Llorente, Cloe; Rodriguez-Toscano, Elisa; Sánchez-Gutierrez, Teresa; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2016-02-04

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe mental disorder with a strong genetic component. The assessment of child and adolescent offspring of patients diagnosed with BD (BDoff) provides an opportunity to investigate vulnerability factors and the first abnormalities associated with the disorder. Previous literature in child and adolescent BDoff is scarce and controversial. However, some studies concur in identifying significant impairment in executive functions, memory and attention. The present study aims to compare global neuropsychological characteristics of child and adolescent offspring of patients with bipolar disorder with a group of offspring of parentswith no history of psychotic disorder, and to assess the influence of psychopathology on neuropsychological performance. This research was part of The Bipolar and Schizophrenia Young Offspring Study (BASYS). A group of BDoff (N= 90) and a group of offspring of parents with no history of psychotic disorder (CC) (N = 107) were assessed with a complete neuropsychological battery. Intellectual quotient, working memory, processing speed, verbal memory and learning, visual memory, attention and executive functions were included in the cognitive assessment. BDoff showed significantly worse performance in processing speed and immediate recall of visual memory relative to CC. When the presence of any lifetime psychopathology was analysed, the results showed that belonging to the BDoff group was the main explicative factor for the scores obtained in both processing speed and visual memory immediate recall, regardless of the presence of psychopathology. These findings suggest that processing speed and visualmemory should be taken into consideration in future research on vulnerability markers of BD.

  2. Methylation and Expression of Immune and Inflammatory Genes in the Offspring of Bariatric Bypass Surgery Patients

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    Frédéric Guénard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Maternal obesity, excess weight gain and overnutrition during pregnancy increase risks of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease in the offspring. Maternal biliopancreatic diversion is an effective treatment for severe obesity and is beneficial for offspring born after maternal surgery (AMS. These offspring exhibit lower severe obesity prevalence and improved cardiometabolic risk factors including inflammatory marker compared to siblings born before maternal surgery (BMS. Objective. To assess relationships between maternal bariatric surgery and the methylation/expression of genes involved in the immune and inflammatory pathways. Methods. A differential gene methylation analysis was conducted in a sibling cohort of 25 BMS and 25 AMS offspring from 20 mothers. Following differential gene expression analysis (23 BMS and 23 AMS, pathway analysis was conducted. Correlations between gene methylation/expression and circulating inflammatory markers were computed. Results. Five immune and inflammatory pathways with significant overrepresentation of both differential gene methylation and expression were identified. In the IL-8 pathway, gene methylation correlated with both gene expression and plasma C-reactive protein levels. Conclusion. These results suggest that improvements in cardiometabolic risk markers in AMS compared to BMS offspring may be mediated through differential methylation of genes involved in immune and inflammatory pathways.

  3. Motorboat noise impacts parental behaviour and offspring survival in a reef fish.

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    Nedelec, Sophie L; Radford, Andrew N; Pearl, Leanne; Nedelec, Brendan; McCormick, Mark I; Meekan, Mark G; Simpson, Stephen D

    2017-06-14

    Anthropogenic noise is a pollutant of international concern, with mounting evidence of disturbance and impacts on animal behaviour and physiology. However, empirical studies measuring survival consequences are rare. We use a field experiment to investigate how repeated motorboat-noise playback affects parental behaviour and offspring survival in the spiny chromis ( Acanthochromis polyacanthus ), a brooding coral reef fish. Repeated observations were made for 12 days at 38 natural nests with broods of young. Exposure to motorboat-noise playback compared to ambient-sound playback increased defensive acts, and reduced both feeding and offspring interactions by brood-guarding males. Anthropogenic noise did not affect the growth of developing offspring, but reduced the likelihood of offspring survival; while offspring survived at all 19 nests exposed to ambient-sound playback, six of the 19 nests exposed to motorboat-noise playback suffered complete brood mortality. Our study, providing field-based experimental evidence of the consequences of anthropogenic noise, suggests potential fitness consequences of this global pollutant. © 2017 The Authors.

  4. Disentangling Genetic and Prenatal Maternal Effects on Offspring Size and Survival.

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    Pick, Joel L; Ebneter, Christina; Hutter, Pascale; Tschirren, Barbara

    2016-12-01

    Organizational processes during prenatal development can have long-term effects on an individual's phenotype. Because these early developmental stages are sensitive to environmental influences, mothers are in a unique position to alter their offspring's phenotype by differentially allocating resources to their developing young. However, such prenatal maternal effects are difficult to disentangle from other forms of parental care, additive genetic effects, and/or other forms of maternal inheritance, hampering our understanding of their evolutionary consequences. Here we used divergent selection lines for high and low prenatal maternal investment and their reciprocal line crosses in a precocial bird-the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)-to quantify the relative importance of genes and prenatal maternal effects in shaping offspring phenotype. Maternal but not paternal origin strongly affected offspring body size and survival throughout development. Although the effects of maternal egg investment faded over time, they were large at key life stages. Additionally, there was evidence for other forms of maternal inheritance affecting offspring phenotype at later stages of development. Our study is among the first to successfully disentangle prenatal maternal effects from all other sources of confounding variation and highlights the important role of prenatal maternal provisioning in shaping offspring traits closely linked to fitness.

  5. We were all young once: an intragenomic perspective on parent-offspring conflict.

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    Bossan, Benjamin; Hammerstein, Peter; Koehncke, Arnulf

    2013-03-07

    Parent-offspring conflict (POC) describes the evolutionary conflict between offspring and their parents over parental resource allocation. Offspring are expected to demand more resources than their parents are willing to supply because these offspring are more related to their own than to their siblings' offspring. Kin selection acts to limit these divergent interests. Our model departs from previous models by describing POC as an intragenomic conflict between genes determining life-history traits during infancy or parenthood. We explain why a direct fitness approach that measures the total fitness effect during exactly one generation is required to correctly assess POC in interbrood rivalry. We find that incorrect assumptions in previous models led to an overestimation of the scope of POC. Moreover, we show why the degree of monogamy is more important for POC than previously thought. Overall, we demonstrate that a life-history-centred intragenomic approach is necessary to correctly interpret POCs. We further discuss how our work relates to the current debate about the usefulness of inclusive fitness theory.

  6. Clutch frequency affects the offspring size-number trade-off in lizards.

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    Zheng Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of lizards have shown that offspring size cannot be altered by manipulating clutch size in species with a high clutch frequency. This raises a question of whether clutch frequency has a key role in influencing the offspring size-number trade-off in lizards.To test the hypothesis that females reproducing more frequently are less likely to tradeoff offspring size against offspring number, we applied the follicle ablation technique to female Eremias argus (Lacertidae from Handan (HD and Gonghe (GH, the two populations that differ in clutch frequency. Follicle ablation resulted in enlargement of egg size in GH females, but not in HD females. GH females switched from producing a larger number of smaller eggs in the first clutch to a smaller number of larger eggs in the second clutch; HD females showed a similar pattern of seasonal shifts in egg size, but kept clutch size constant between the first two clutches. Thus, the egg size-number trade-off was evident in GH females, but not in HD females.As HD females (mean  = 3.1 clutches per year reproduce more frequently than do GH females (mean  = 1.6 clutches per year, our data therefore validate the hypothesis tested. Our data also provide an inference that maximization of maternal fitness could be achieved in females by diverting a large enough, rather than a higher-than-usual, fraction of the available energy to individual offspring in a given reproductive episode.

  7. Long-Term Consequences for Offspring of Paternal Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome

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    Benigno Linares Segovia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent studies have reported an increase in the prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. However, few have focused how diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome together in parents can influence on obesity and metabolic disturbances in offspring. Objective. To know the risk obesity and metabolic disturbance in children, adolescents, and young adults whose parents have diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. Methods. A comparative survey was made in healthy children of parents with diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome compared with offspring of healthy parents. We performed anthropometry and evaluated blood pressure, glucose, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides levels in plasma. We registered parent antecedents to diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome and investigated the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and metabolic disturbances in offspring. Results. We studied 259 subjects of 7 to 20 years of age. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 27% and 37%, respectively. The highest proportion of BMI >95th of the entire group was found in offspring with both diabetic parents. Glucose and total cholesterol levels were lower in the group with healthy parents compared with the group with diabetic mother and metabolic syndrome but with healthy father. HDL cholesterol was higher in the group with both healthy parents than in the group with diabetic mother and metabolic syndrome but healthy father. Conclusions. The offspring of parents with diabetes plus metabolic syndrome showed higher proportion of variables related to metabolic syndrome compared with healthy parents.

  8. Exposure to a maternal cafeteria diet changes open-field behaviour in the developing offspring.

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    Speight, Abigail; Davey, William G; McKenna, Emily; Voigt, Jörg-Peter W

    2017-04-01

    The early postnatal period is a sensitive period in rodents as behavioural systems are developing and maturing during this time. However, little is currently known about the behavioural effects of feeding a hyper-energetic cafeteria diet (CD) during the lactational period when offspring behaviour is tested during early adolescence. To this end, 23days old offspring from dams (Wistar) fed on CD during lactation were tested in either the open-field or the elevated plus-maze for exploration and anxiety-related behaviour. On postnatal day 9, maternal behaviour and non-maternal behaviour of the dam was assessed. It was hypothesized that lactational CD feeding would reduce anxiety in the offspring. CD-fed dams had a higher energy intake, due to an overconsumption of sugars and fats. When offspring from these dams were exposed to the open field after weaning, their locomotor activity was increased. They entered the more aversive inner zone of the open-field after a shorter latency, made more entries into and spent more time in the inner zone. Anxiety-related behaviour was not affected upon exposure to the elevated plus maze, suggesting anxiolysis in the open-field only. Increased maternal licking/grooming behaviour could possibly contribute to the anxiolytic phenotype as observed in the offspring from the CD group. In conclusion, we demonstrate that lactational overfeeding impacts on the development of behaviour in the early adolescent rat. Copyright © 2016 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Maternal obesity and malnourishment exacerbate perinatal oxidative stress resulting in diabetogenic programming in F1 offspring.

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    Saad, M I; Abdelkhalek, T M; Haiba, M M; Saleh, M M; Hanafi, M Y; Tawfik, S H; Kamel, M A

    2016-06-01

    The effect of in-utero environment on fetal health and survival is long-lasting, and this is known as the fetal origin hypothesis. The oxidative stress state during gestation could play a pivotal role in fetal programming and development of diseases such as diabetes. In this study, we investigated the effect of intra-uterine obesity and malnutrition on oxidative stress markers in pancreatic and peripheral tissues of F1 offspring both prenatally and postnatally. Furthermore, the effect of postnatal diet on oxidative stress profile was evaluated. The results indicated that intra-uterine obesity and malnourishment significantly increased oxidative stress in F1 offspring. Moreover, the programming effect of obesity was more pronounced and protracted than malnutrition. The obesity-induced programming of offspring tissues was independent of high-caloric environment that the offspring endured; however, high-caloric diet potentiated its effect. In addition, pancreas and liver were the most affected tissues by fetal reprogramming both prenatally and postnatally. In conclusion, maternal obesity and malnutrition-induced oxidative stress could predispose offspring to insulin resistance and diabetes.

  10. Problem partners and parenting: exploring linkages with maternal insecure attachment style and adolescent offspring internalizing disorder.

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    Bifulco, Antonia; Moran, Patricia; Jacobs, Catherine; Bunn, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    An intergenerational study examined mothers' insecure attachment style using the Attachment Style Interview (ASI; Bifulco et al., 2002a) in relation to her history of partner relationships, her parenting competence, and depression or anxiety disorder in her offspring. The sample comprised 146 high-risk, mother-adolescent offspring pairs in London, who were recruited on the basis of the mothers' psychosocial vulnerability for depression. Retrospective, biographical, and clinical interviews were undertaken independently with mother and offspring. A path model was developed, which showed that mothers' insecure attachment style had no direct link to either recalled child neglect/abuse or currently assessed disorder in their adolescent and young adult offspring. The connections appeared to be indirect, through the quality of relationships in the family system: mothers' insecure attachment and their partners' problem behavior accounted for variance in mothers' incompetent parenting as rated by interviewers. These variables predicted her neglect/abuse of the child, which was the only variable directly associated with internalizing disorder in her offspring. Mother's lifetime depression did not add to the model. It is argued that an ecological approach (emphasizing social adversity and different role domains) and a lifespan approach (emphasizing a history of adverse relationships a different life stages) is important in understanding the mechanisms by which parental insecure attachment style influences transmission of risk to the next generation.

  11. Familial Depressive Symptoms and Delinquency: Separate Self-Reports From Mothers and Their Offspring.

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    Ellis, Lee; Hoskin, Anthony

    2018-04-01

    Research has documented that both unipolar and bipolar depression are positively correlated with involvement in delinquency and crime. The present study sought to broaden the understanding of these relationships by looking for links between offending and family histories of depressive symptoms in relationship to offspring delinquency. More than 6,000 college students and their mothers provided self-reported information regarding feelings of depression. Students provided self-reports of involvement in various categories of offending and drug use from ages 10 through 18. Numerous significant positive correlations were found between general feelings of depression and of manic depression and involvement in delinquency. The depression-delinquency relationships were strongest when considering offspring themselves, although maternal depression symptoms were also associated with various forms of offspring delinquency and drug use. To help assess the causal chains that might be involved, multiple regression and mediation analysis revealed that parental depression enhanced the probability of offspring feeling depressed and may have thereby contributed to offspring being delinquent, particularly in the case of manic depression. This study reconfirmed the well-established relationship between depression and involvement in delinquency and drug use, and suggests that it extends back to parental forms of depression, especially by the mother.

  12. Effect of honey on the reproductive system of male rat offspring exposed to prenatal restraint stress.

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    Haron, M N; Mohamed, M

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to prenatal stress is associated with impaired reproductive function in male rat offspring. Honey is traditionally used by the Malays for enhancement of fertility. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of honey on reproductive system of male rat offspring exposed to prenatal restraint stress. Dams were divided into four groups (n = 10/group): control, honey, stress and honey + stress groups. Dams from honey and honey + stress groups received oral honey (1.2 g kg(-1) body weight) daily from day 1 of pregnancy, meanwhile dams from stress and honey + stress groups were subjected to restraint stress (three times per day) from day 11 of pregnancy until delivery. At 10 weeks old, each male rat offspring was mated with a regular oestrus cycle female. Male sexual behaviour and reproductive performance were evaluated. Then, male rats were euthanised for assessment on reproductive parameters. Honey supplementation during prenatal restraint stress significantly increased testis and epididymis weights as well as improved the percentages of abnormal spermatozoa and sperm motility in male rat offspring. In conclusion, this study might suggest that supplementation of honey during pregnancy seems to reduce the adverse effects of restraint stress on reproductive organs weight and sperm parameters in male rat offspring. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Methyl donor supplementation blocks the adverse effects of maternal high fat diet on offspring physiology.

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    Jesselea Carlin

    Full Text Available Maternal consumption of a high fat diet during pregnancy increases the offspring risk for obesity. Using a mouse model, we have previously shown that maternal consumption of a high fat (60% diet leads to global and gene specific decreases in DNA methylation in the brain of the offspring. The present experiments were designed to attempt to reverse this DNA hypomethylation through supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors, and to determine whether methyl donor supplementation could block or attenuate phenotypes associated with maternal consumption of a HF diet. Metabolic and behavioral (fat preference outcomes were assessed in male and female adult offspring. Expression of the mu-opioid receptor and dopamine transporter mRNA, as well as global DNA methylation were measured in the brain. Supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors attenuated the development of some of the adverse effects seen in offspring from dams fed a high fat diet; including weight gain, increased fat preference (males, changes in CNS gene expression and global hypomethylation in the prefrontal cortex. Notable sex differences were observed. These findings identify the importance of balanced methylation status during pregnancy, particularly in the context of a maternal high fat diet, for optimal offspring outcome.

  14. Development of a nematode offspring counting assay for rapid and simple soil toxicity assessment.

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    Kim, Shin Woong; Moon, Jongmin; Jeong, Seung-Woo; An, Youn-Joo

    2018-05-01

    Since the introduction of standardized nematode toxicity assays by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and International Organization for Standardization (ISO), many studies have reported their use. Given that the currently used standardized nematode toxicity assays have certain limitations, in this study, we examined the use of a novel nematode offspring counting assay for evaluating soil ecotoxicity based on a previous soil-agar isolation method used to recover live adult nematodes. In this new assay, adult Caenorhabditis elegans were exposed to soil using a standardized toxicity assay procedure, and the resulting offspring in test soils attracted by a microbial food source in agar plates were counted. This method differs from previously used assays in terms of its endpoint, namely, the number of nematode offspring. The applicability of the bioassay was demonstrated using metal-spiked soils, which revealed metal concentration-dependent responses, and with 36 field soil samples characterized by different physicochemical properties and containing various metals. Principal component analysis revealed that texture fraction (clay, sand, and silt) and electrical conductivity values were the main factors influencing the nematode offspring counting assay, and these findings warrant further investigation. The nematode offspring counting assay is a rapid and simple process that can provide multi-directional toxicity assessment when used in conjunction with other standard methods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Embryonic IGF2 expression is not associated with offspring size among populations of a placental fish.

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    Matthew Schrader

    Full Text Available In organisms that provision young between fertilization and birth, mothers and their developing embryos are expected to be in conflict over embryonic growth. In mammalian embryos, the expression of Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF2 plays a key role in maternal-fetal interactions and is thought to be a focus of maternal-fetal conflict. Recent studies have suggested that IGF2 is also a focus of maternal-fetal conflict in placental fish in the family Poeciliidae. However, whether the expression of IGF2 influences offspring size, the trait over which mothers and embryos are likely to be in conflict, has not been assessed in a poeciliid. We tested whether embryonic IGF2 expression varied among four populations of a placental poeciliid that display large and consistent differences in offspring size at birth. We found that IGF2 expression varied significantly among embryonic stages with expression being 50% higher in early stage embryos than late stage embryos. There were no significant differences among populations in IGF2 expression; small differences in expression between population pairs with different offspring sizes were comparable in magnitude to those between population pairs with the same offspring sizes. Our results indicate that variation in IGF2 transcript abundance does not contribute to differences in offspring size among H. formosa populations.

  16. Interspecific Interactions and the Scope for Parent-Offspring Conflict: High Mite Density Temporarily Changes the Trade-Off between Offspring Size and Number in the Burying Beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides.

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    Ornela De Gasperin

    Full Text Available Parents have a limited amount of resources to invest in reproduction and commonly trade-off how much they invest in offspring size (or quality versus brood size. A negative relationship between offspring size and number has been shown in numerous taxa and it underpins evolutionary conflicts of interest between parents and their young. For example, previous work on vertebrates shows that selection favours mothers that produce more offspring, at the expense of individual offspring size, yet favours offspring that have relatively few siblings and therefore attain a greater size at independence. Here we analyse how this trade-off is temporarily affected by stochastic variation in the intensity of interspecific interactions. We examined the effect of the mite Poecilochirus carabi on the relationship between offspring size and number in the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides. We manipulated the initial number of mites in the reproductive event (by introducing either no mites, 4 mites, 10 mites, or 16 mites, and assessed the effect on the brood. We found a similar trade-off between offspring size and number in all treatments, except in the '16 mite' treatment where the correlation between offspring number and size flattened considerably. This effect arose because larvae in small broods failed to attain a high mass by dispersal. Our results show that variation in the intensity of interspecific interactions can temporarily change the strength of the trade-off between offspring size and number. In this study, high densities of mites prevented individual offspring from attaining their optimal weight, thus potentially temporarily biasing the outcome of parent-offspring conflict in favour of parents.

  17. Interspecific Interactions and the Scope for Parent-Offspring Conflict: High Mite Density Temporarily Changes the Trade-Off between Offspring Size and Number in the Burying Beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides.

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    De Gasperin, Ornela; Kilner, Rebecca M

    2016-01-01

    Parents have a limited amount of resources to invest in reproduction and commonly trade-off how much they invest in offspring size (or quality) versus brood size. A negative relationship between offspring size and number has been shown in numerous taxa and it underpins evolutionary conflicts of interest between parents and their young. For example, previous work on vertebrates shows that selection favours mothers that produce more offspring, at the expense of individual offspring size, yet favours offspring that have relatively few siblings and therefore attain a greater size at independence. Here we analyse how this trade-off is temporarily affected by stochastic variation in the intensity of interspecific interactions. We examined the effect of the mite Poecilochirus carabi on the relationship between offspring size and number in the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides. We manipulated the initial number of mites in the reproductive event (by introducing either no mites, 4 mites, 10 mites, or 16 mites), and assessed the effect on the brood. We found a similar trade-off between offspring size and number in all treatments, except in the '16 mite' treatment where the correlation between offspring number and size flattened considerably. This effect arose because larvae in small broods failed to attain a high mass by dispersal. Our results show that variation in the intensity of interspecific interactions can temporarily change the strength of the trade-off between offspring size and number. In this study, high densities of mites prevented individual offspring from attaining their optimal weight, thus potentially temporarily biasing the outcome of parent-offspring conflict in favour of parents.

  18. Alcohol Intake During Pregnancy and Offspring's Atopic Eczema Risk.

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    Wada, Keiko; Konishi, Kie; Tamura, Takashi; Shiraki, Makoto; Iwasa, Shinichi; Nagata, Chisato

    2016-05-01

    Although alcohol consumption has been suggested to have an effect on the immune system, it is unknown whether alcohol consumption has a role in developing allergic diseases. We aimed to examine the associations of total alcohol intake during pregnancy with the risks of childhood asthma and atopic eczema in a birth cohort in Japan. Pregnant women were recruited at a maternal clinic from May 2000 to October 2001. The children who were born to these mothers were followed until November 2007. Total alcohol intake, including alcohol as a cooking ingredient, was assessed using 5-day dietary records. Mother reports of physician-diagnosed asthma and atopic eczema were annually obtained from the questionnaires. Asthma assessed by the American Thoracic Society Division of Lung Diseases questionnaire and atopic eczema assessed by International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questions were also obtained in 2007. A total of 350 children participated in the follow-up survey. Maternal total alcohol intake during pregnancy was associated with increased risks of atopic eczema before age 3. The positive association with atopic eczema was also observed when it was defined as before age 5. In the high versus the low tertile of maternal total alcohol intake, the estimated hazard ratios (HRs) of child's eczema were 1.90 (95% CI: 0.96 to 3.76) before age 3 and 1.74 (95% CI: 0.93 to 3.24) before age 5, respectively. The estimated HRs of child's asthma before age 3 was 1.61 (95% CI: 0.70 to 3.69) in the high versus the low of maternal total alcohol intake and 2.11 (95% CI: 0.93 to 4.81) among children having drinking mothers versus nondrinking mothers in pregnancy, although maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy was not significantly associated with the risk of asthma before age 5. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy might have an effect on developing atopic eczema in offspring. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  19. Functional characterization of replication and stability factors of an incompatibility group P-1 plasmid from Xylella fastidiosa.

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    Lee, Min Woo; Rogers, Elizabeth E; Stenger, Drake C

    2010-12-01

    Xylella fastidiosa strain riv11 harbors a 25-kbp plasmid (pXF-RIV11) belonging to the IncP-1 incompatibility group. Replication and stability factors of pXF-RIV11 were identified and used to construct plasmids able to replicate in X. fastidiosa and Escherichia coli. Replication in X. fastidiosa required a 1.4-kbp region from pXF-RIV11 containing a replication initiation gene (trfA) and the adjacent origin of DNA replication (oriV). Constructs containing trfA and oriV from pVEIS01, a related IncP-1 plasmid of the earthworm symbiont Verminephrobacter eiseniae, also were competent for replication in X. fastidiosa. Constructs derived from pXF-RIV11 but not pVEIS01 replicated in Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Xanthomonas campestris, and Pseudomonas syringae. Although plasmids bearing replication elements from pXF-RIV11 or pVEIS01 could be maintained in X. fastidiosa under antibiotic selection, removal of selection resulted in plasmid extinction after 3 weekly passages. Addition of a toxin-antitoxin addiction system (pemI/pemK) from pXF-RIV11 improved plasmid stability such that >80 to 90% of X. fastidiosa cells retained plasmid after 5 weekly passages in the absence of antibiotic selection. Expression of PemK in E. coli was toxic for cell growth, but toxicity was nullified by coexpression of PemI antitoxin. Deletion of N-terminal sequences of PemK containing the conserved motif RGD abolished toxicity. In vitro assays revealed a direct interaction of PemI with PemK, suggesting that antitoxin activity of PemI is mediated by toxin sequestration. IncP-1 plasmid replication and stability factors were added to an E. coli cloning vector to co