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Sample records for p-type epitaxial silicon

  1. Piezoresistance in p-type silicon revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Jacob; Pedersen, Jesper; Brandbyge, Mads;

    2008-01-01

    We calculate the shear piezocoefficient pi44 in p-type Si with a 6×6 k·p Hamiltonian model using the Boltzmann transport equation in the relaxation-time approximation. Furthermore, we fabricate and characterize p-type silicon piezoresistors embedded in a (001) silicon substrate. We find that the ...

  2. Silicon Holder For Molecular-Beam Epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenk, Michael E.; Grunthaner, Paula J.; Grunthaner, Frank J.

    1993-01-01

    Simple assembly of silicon wafers holds silicon-based charge-coupled device (CCD) during postprocessing in which silicon deposited by molecular-beam epitaxy. Attains temperatures similar to CCD, so hotspots suppressed. Coefficients of thermal expansion of holder and CCD equal, so thermal stresses caused by differential thermal expansion and contraction do not develop. Holder readily fabricated, by standard silicon processing techniques, to accommodate various CCD geometries. Silicon does not contaminate CCD or molecular-beam-epitaxy vacuum chamber.

  3. P type porous silicon resistivity and carrier transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ménard, S., E-mail: samuel.menard@st.com [STMicroelectronics, 10, rue Thalès de Milet, 37071 Tours Cedex 2 (France); Fèvre, A. [STMicroelectronics, 10, rue Thalès de Milet, 37071 Tours Cedex 2 (France); Université François Rabelais de Tours, CNRS, CEA, INSA CVL, GREMAN UMR 7347, Tours (France); Billoué, J.; Gautier, G. [Université François Rabelais de Tours, CNRS, CEA, INSA CVL, GREMAN UMR 7347, Tours (France)

    2015-09-14

    The resistivity of p type porous silicon (PS) is reported on a wide range of PS physical properties. Al/PS/Si/Al structures were used and a rigorous experimental protocol was followed. The PS porosity (P{sub %}) was found to be the major contributor to the PS resistivity (ρ{sub PS}). ρ{sub PS} increases exponentially with P{sub %}. Values of ρ{sub PS} as high as 1 × 10{sup 9} Ω cm at room temperature were obtained once P{sub %} exceeds 60%. ρ{sub PS} was found to be thermally activated, in particular, when the temperature increases from 30 to 200 °C, a decrease of three decades is observed on ρ{sub PS}. Based on these results, it was also possible to deduce the carrier transport mechanisms in PS. For P{sub %} lower than 45%, the conduction occurs through band tails and deep levels in the tissue surrounding the crystallites. When P{sub %} overpasses 45%, electrons at energy levels close to the Fermi level allow a hopping conduction from crystallite to crystallite to appear. This study confirms the potential of PS as an insulating material for applications such as power electronic devices.

  4. Above bandgap luminescence of p-type GaAs epitaxial layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapriel, J.; Chavignon, J.; Alexandre, F.; Azoulay, R.; Sermage, B.; Rao, K.; Voos, M.

    1991-08-01

    New photoluminescence bands are observed in p-type GaAs epitaxial layers at 300 and 80 K, above the bandgap. These bands are independent of the nature of the dopant (Zn, Be, C) and of the growth technique (MBE or MOCVD). Their intensities increase as a function of the p doping (1 × 10 17 < p < 2 × 10 20cm-3) and peak at energies which correspond to transitions between the Γ 6, L 6 and X 6 minima of the conduction band and the Γ 8 and Γ 7 maxima of the valence band.

  5. The development of p-type silicon detectors for the high radiation regions of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Hanlon, M D L

    1998-01-01

    This thesis describes the production and characterisation of silicon microstrip detectors and test structures on p-type substrates. An account is given of the production and full parameterisation of a p-type microstrip detector, incorporating the ATLAS-A geometry in a beam test. This detector is an AC coupled device incorporating a continuous p-stop isolation frame and polysilicon biasing and is typical of n-strip devices proposed for operation at the LHC. It was successfully read out using the FELix-128 analogue pipeline chip and a signal to noise (s/n) of 17+-1 is reported, along with a spatial resolution of 14.6+-0.2 mu m. Diode test structures were fabricated on both high resistivity float zone material and on epitaxial material and subsequently irradiated with 24 GeV protons at the CERN PS up to a dose of (8.22+-0.23) x 10 sup 1 sup 4 per cm sup 2. An account of the measurement program is presented along with results on the changes in the effective doping concentration (N sub e sub f sub f) with irradiat...

  6. Application of neutron transmutation doping method to initially p-type silicon material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myong-Seop; Kang, Ki-Doo; Park, Sang-Jun

    2009-01-01

    The neutron transmutation doping (NTD) method was applied to the initially p-type silicon in order to extend the NTD applications at HANARO. The relationship between the irradiation neutron fluence and the final resistivity of the initially p-type silicon material was investigated. The proportional constant between the neutron fluence and the resistivity was determined to be 2.3473x10(19)nOmegacm(-1). The deviation of the final resistivity from the target for almost all the irradiation results of the initially p-type silicon ingots was at a range from -5% to 2%. In addition, the burn-up effect of the boron impurities, the residual (32)P activity and the effect of the compensation characteristics for the initially p-type silicon were studied. Conclusively, the practical methodology to perform the neutron transmutation doping of the initially p-type silicon ingot was established.

  7. Epitaxial silicon semiconductor detectors, past developments, future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruhn, C.R.

    1976-01-01

    A review of the main physical characteristics of epitaxial silicon as it relates to detector development is presented. As examples of applications results are presented on (1) epitaxial silicon avalanche diodes (ESAD); signal-to-noise, non-linear aspects of the avalanche gain mechanism, gain-bandwidth product, (2) ultrathin epitaxial silicon surface barrier (ESSB) detectors, response to heavy ions, (3) an all-epitaxial silicon diode (ESD), response to heavy ions, charge transport and charge defect. Future prospects of epitaxial silicon as it relates to new detector designs are summarized.

  8. Epitaxial silicon semiconductor detectors: past developments, future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruhn, C.R.

    1977-02-01

    A review of the main physical characteristics of epitaxial silicon as it relates to detector development is presented. As examples of applications results are presented on (1) epitaxial silicon avalanche diodes (ESAD); signal-to-noise, non-linear aspects of the avalanche gain mechanism, gain-bandwidth product, (2) ultrathin epitaxial silicon surface barrier (ESSB) detectors, response to heavy ions, (3) an all-epitaxial silicon diode (ESD), response to heavy ions, charge transport and charge defect. Future prospects of epitaxial silicon as it relates to new detector designs are summarized.

  9. Schottky Contact of Gallium on p-Type Silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.P. Modi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of barrier at Schottky contact and its stabilization to value characterized by the barrier height and unambiguous measurement is still being curiously perused as they hold the key control and manufacture of tailor made Schottky devices for a host of existing and potential for future applications in electronics, optoelectronics and microwave devices. In this context, gallium – silicon Schottky diode has been fabricated and analyzed.

  10. Epitaxial silicon and germanium on buried insulator heterostructures and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojarczuk, N. A.; Copel, M.; Guha, S.; Narayanan, V.; Preisler, E. J.; Ross, F. M.; Shang, H.

    2003-12-01

    Future microelectronics will be based upon silicon or germanium-on-insulator technologies and will require an ultrathin (<10 nm), flat silicon or germanium device layer to reside upon an insulating oxide grown on a silicon wafer. The most convenient means of accomplishing this is by epitaxially growing the entire structure on a silicon substrate. This requires a high quality crystalline oxide and the ability to epitaxially grow two dimensional, single crystal films of silicon or germanium on top of this oxide. We describe a method based upon molecular beam epitaxy and solid-phase epitaxy to make such structures and demonstrate working field-effect transistors on germanium-on-insulator layers.

  11. Porous silicon damage enhanced phosphorus and aluminium gettering of p-type Czochralski silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassen, M. [Institut National de Recherche Scientifique et Technique, Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et des Semiconducteurs, PB 95 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Ben Jaballah, A. [Institut National de Recherche Scientifique et Technique, Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et des Semiconducteurs, PB 95 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia)]. E-mail: gadour2003@yahoo.fr; Hajji, M. [Institut National de Recherche Scientifique et Technique, Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et des Semiconducteurs, PB 95 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Rahmouni, H. [Laboratoire de Physique des Semiconducteurs et des Composants Electroniques, Faculte des Sciences de Monastir, Rue de Kairouan, 5000 Monastir (Tunisia); Selmi, A. [Laboratoire de Physique des Semiconducteurs et des Composants Electroniques, Faculte des Sciences de Monastir, Rue de Kairouan, 5000 Monastir (Tunisia); Ezzaouia, H. [Institut National de Recherche Scientifique et Technique, Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et des Semiconducteurs, PB 95 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia)

    2005-12-05

    In this work, porous silicon damage (PSD) is presented as a simple sequence for efficient external purification techniques. The method consists of using thin nanoporous p-type silicon on both sides of the silicon substrates with randomly hemispherical voids. Then, two main sample types are processed. In the first type, thin aluminium layers ({>=}1 {mu}m) are thermally evaporated followed by photo-thermal annealing treatments in N{sub 2} atmosphere at one of several temperatures ranging between 600 and 800 deg. C. In the second type, phosphorus is continually diffused in N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} ambient in a solid phase from POCl{sub 3} solution during heating at one of several temperatures ranging between 750 and 1000 deg. C for 1 h. Hall Effect and Van Der Pauw methods prove the existence of an optimum temperature in the case of phosphorus gettering at 900 deg. C yielding a Hall mobility of about 982 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}. However, in the case of aluminium gettering, there is no gettering limit in the as mentioned temperature range. Metal/Si Schottky diodes are elaborated to clarify these improvements. In this study, we demonstrate that enhanced metal solubility model cannot explain the gettering effect. The solid solubility of aluminium is higher than that of P atoms in silicon; however, the device yield confirms the effectiveness of phosphorus as compared to aluminium.

  12. Comparing n- and p-type polycrystalline silicon absorbers in thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deckers, J. [imec, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); ESAT, KU Leuven, Kardinaal Mercierlaan 94, B-3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Bourgeois, E. [Institute for Materials Research (IMO), Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); IMOMEC, IMEC vzw, Wetenschapspark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Jivanescu, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Abass, A. [Photonics Research Group (INTEC), Ghent University-imec, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van Gestel, D.; Van Nieuwenhuysen, K.; Douhard, B. [imec, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); D' Haen, J.; Nesladek, M.; Manca, J. [Institute for Materials Research (IMO), Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); IMOMEC, IMEC vzw, Wetenschapspark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Gordon, I.; Bender, H. [imec, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Stesmans, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Mertens, R.; Poortmans, J. [imec, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); ESAT, KU Leuven, Kardinaal Mercierlaan 94, B-3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium)

    2015-03-31

    We have investigated fine grained polycrystalline silicon thin films grown by direct chemical vapor deposition on oxidized silicon substrates. More specifically, we analyze the influence of the doping type on the properties of this model polycrystalline silicon material. This includes an investigation of defect passivation and benchmarking of minority carrier properties. In our investigation, we use a variety of characterization techniques to probe the properties of the investigated polycrystalline silicon thin films, including Fourier Transform Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Electron Spin Resonance, Conductivity Activation, and Suns-Voc measurements. Amphoteric silicon dangling bond defects are identified as the most prominent defect type present in these layers. They are the primary recombination center in the relatively lowly doped polysilicon thin films at the heart of the current investigation. In contrast with the case of solar cells based on Czochralski silicon or multicrystalline silicon wafers, we conclude that no benefit is found to be associated with the use of n-type dopants over p-type dopants in the active absorber of the investigated polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells. - Highlights: • Comparison of n- and p-type absorbers for thin-film poly-Si solar cells • Extensive characterization of the investigated layers' characteristics • Literature review pertaining the use of n-type and p-type dopants in silicon.

  13. Silicon/Germanium Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) is a well-established method to grow low-dimensional structures for research applications. MBE has given many contributions to the rapid expanding research-area of nano-technology and will probably continuing doing so. The MBE equipment, dedicated for Silicon/Germanium (Si/Ge) systems, at Karlstads University (Kau) has been studied and started for the first time. In the work of starting the system, all the built in interlocks has been surveyed and connected, and t...

  14. Kinetics of self-interstitials reactions in p-type silicon irradiated with alpha particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarenko, L.F., E-mail: makarenko@bsu.by [Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Belarusian State University, Independence Ave. 4, 220030 Minsk (Belarus); Moll, M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Evans-Freeman, J.H. [University of Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand); Lastovski, S.B.; Murin, L.I.; Korshunov, F.P. [Scientific-Practical Materials Research Centre of NAS of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus)

    2012-08-01

    New findings on the self-interstitial migration in p-type silicon are presented. They are based on experimental studies of the formation kinetics of defects related to interstitial carbon after irradiation with alpha particles. The main parameters characterizing the interaction rate of silicon self-interstitials with substitutional carbon atoms have been determined. A preliminary interpretation of the experimental data is given. The interpretation takes into account different diffusivities of self-interstitials in their singly and doubly ionized states.

  15. P-Type Silicon Strip Sensors for the new CMS Tracker at HL-LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Hoch, M.; Hrubec, J.; König, A.; Steininger, H.; Waltenberger, W.; Alderweireldt, S.; Beaumont, W.; Janssen, X.; Lauwers, J.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Beghin, D.; Brun, H.; Clerbaux, B.; Delannoy, H.; De Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Goldouzian, R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, Th.; Léonard, A.; Luetic, J.; Postiau, N.; Seva, T.; Vanlaer, P.; Vannerom, D.; Wang, Q.; Zhang, F.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; De Bruyn, I.; De Clercq, J.; D'Hondt, J.; Deroover, K.; Lowette, S.; Moortgat, S.; Moreels, L.; Python, Q.; Skovpen, K.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Parijs, I.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Delaere, C.; Delcourt, M.; De Visscher, S.; Francois, B.; Giammanco, A.; Jafari, A.; Komm, M.; Krintiras, G.; Lemaitre, V.; Magitteri, A.; Mertens, A.; Michotte, D.; Musich, M.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Quertenmont, L.; Szilasi, N.; Vidal Marono, M.; Wertz, S.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Härkönen, J.; Lampén, T.; Luukka, P.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuovinen, E.; Eerola, P.; Tuuva, T.; Baulieu, G.; Boudoul, G.; Caponetto, L.; Combaret, C.; Contardo, D.; Dupasquier, T.; Gallbit, G.; Lumb, N.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Vander Donckt, M.; Viret, S.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bonnin, C.; Brom, J.-M.; Chabert, E.; Chanon, N.; Charles, L.; Conte, E.; Fontaine, J.-Ch.; Gross, L.; Hosselet, J.; Jansova, M.; Tromson, D.; Autermann, C.; Feld, L.; Karpinski, W.; Kiesel, K. M.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Ostapchuk, A.; Pierschel, G.; Preuten, M.; Rauch, M.; Schael, S.; Schomakers, C.; Schulz, J.; Schwering, G.; Wlochal, M.; Zhukov, V.; Pistone, C.; Fluegge, G.; Kuensken, A.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya, M.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Beernaert, K.; Bertsche, D.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Gallo, E.; Garay Garcia, J.; Hansen, K.; Haranko, M.; Harb, A.; Hauk, J.; Keaveney, J.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Kleinwort, C.; Lohmann, W.; Mankel, R.; Maser, H.; Mittag, G.; Muhl, C.; Mussgiller, A.; Pitzl, D.; Reichelt, O.; Savitskyi, M.; Schuetze, P.; Walsh, R.; Zuber, A.; Biskop, H.; Buhmann, P.; Centis-Vignali, M.; Garutti, E.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Lapsien, T.; Matysek, M.; Perieanu, A.; Scharf, Ch.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schwandt, J.; Sonneveld, J.; Steinbrück, G.; Vormwald, B.; Wellhausen, J.; Abbas, M.; Amstutz, C.; Barvich, T.; Barth, Ch.; Boegelspacher, F.; De Boer, W.; Butz, E.; Caselle, M.; Colombo, F.; Dierlamm, A.; Freund, B.; Hartmann, F.; Heindl, S.; Husemann, U.; Kornmayer, A.; Kudella, S.; Muller, Th.; Simonis, H. J.; Steck, P.; Weber, M.; Weiler, Th.; Anagnostou, G.; Asenov, P.; Assiouras, P.; Daskalakis, G.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Paspalaki, L.; Siklér, F.; Veszprémi, V.; Bhardwaj, A.; Dalal, R.; Jain, G.; Ranjan, K.; Bakhshiansohl, H.; Behnamian, H.; Khakzad, M.; Naseri, M.; Cariola, P.; Creanza, D.; De Palma, M.; De Robertis, G.; Fiore, L.; Franco, M.; Loddo, F.; Silvestris, L.; Maggi, G.; Martiradonna, S.; My, S.; Selvaggi, G.; Albergo, S.; Cappello, G.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Di Mattia, A.; Giordano, F.; Potenza, R.; Saizu, M. A.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Brianzi, M.; Ciaranfi, R.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Latino, G.; Lenzi, P.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Russo, L.; Scarlini, E.; Sguazzoni, G.; Strom, D.; Viliani, L.; Ferro, F.; Lo Vetere, M.; Robutti, E.; Dinardo, M. E.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Pedrini, D.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.; Dall'Osso, M.; Pozzobon, N.; Tosi, M.; De Canio, F.; Gaioni, L.; Manghisoni, M.; Nodari, B.; Riceputi, E.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; Comotti, D.; Ratti, L.; Alunni Solestizi, L.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Cecchi, C.; Checcucci, B.; Ciangottini, D.; Fanò, L.; Gentsos, C.; Ionica, M.; Leonardi, R.; Manoni, E.; Mantovani, G.; Marconi, S.; Mariani, V.; Menichelli, M.; Modak, A.; Morozzi, A.; Moscatelli, F.; Passeri, D.; Placidi, P.; Postolache, V.; Rossi, A.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Storchi, L.; Spiga, D.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Arezzini, S.; Bagliesi, G.; Basti, A.; Boccali, T.; Borrello, L.; Bosi, F.; Castaldi, R.; Ciampa, A.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Donato, S.; Fedi, G.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Magazzu, G.; Martini, L.; Mazzoni, E.; Messineo, A.; Moggi, A.; Morsani, F.; Palla, F.; Palmonari, F.; Raffaelli, F.; Rizzi, A.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Bellan, R.; Costa, M.; Covarelli, R.; Da Rocha Rolo, M.; Demaria, N.; Rivetti, A.; Dellacasa, G.; Mazza, G.; Migliore, E.; Monteil, E.; Pacher, L.; Ravera, F.; Solano, A.; Fernandez, M.; Gomez, G.; Jaramillo Echeverria, R.; Moya, D.; Gonzalez Sanchez, F. J.; Vila, I.; Virto, A. L.; Abbaneo, D.; Ahmed, I.; Albert, E.; Auzinger, G.; Berruti, G.; Bianchi, G.; Blanchot, G.; Bonnaud, J.; Caratelli, A.; Ceresa, D.; Christiansen, J.; Cichy, K.; Daguin, J.; D'Auria, A.; Detraz, S.; Deyrail, D.; Dondelewski, O.; Faccio, F.; Frank, N.; Gadek, T.; Gill, K.; Honma, A.; Hugo, G.; Jara Casas, L. M.; Kaplon, J.; Kornmayer, A.; Kottelat, L.; Kovacs, M.; Krammer, M.; Lenoir, P.; Mannelli, M.; Marchioro, A.; Marconi, S.; Mersi, S.; Martina, S.; Michelis, S.; Moll, M.; Onnela, A.; Orfanelli, S.; Pavis, S.; Peisert, A.; Pernot, J.-F.; Petagna, P.; Petrucciani, G.; Postema, H.; Rose, P.; Tropea, P.; Troska, J.; Tsirou, A.; Vasey, F.; Vichoudis, P.; Verlaat, B.; Zwalinski, L.; Bachmair, F.; Becker, R.; di Calafiori, D.; Casal, B.; Berger, P.; Djambazov, L.; Donega, M.; Grab, C.; Hits, D.; Hoss, J.; Kasieczka, G.; Lustermann, W.; Mangano, B.; Marionneau, M.; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P.; Masciovecchio, M.; Meinhard, M.; Perozzi, L.; Roeser, U.; Starodumov, A.; Tavolaro, V.; Wallny, R.; Zhu, D.; Amsler, C.; Bösiger, K.; Caminada, L.; Canelli, F.; Chiochia, V.; de Cosa, A.; Galloni, C.; Hreus, T.; Kilminster, B.; Lange, C.; Maier, R.; Ngadiuba, J.; Pinna, D.; Robmann, P.; Taroni, S.; Yang, Y.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Horisberger, R.; Kaestli, H.-C.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Meier, B.; Rohe, T.; Streuli, S.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Jacob, J.; Seif El Nasr-Storey, S.; Cole, J.; Hoad, C.; Hobson, P.; Morton, A.; Reid, I. D.; Auzinger, G.; Bainbridge, R.; Dauncey, P.; Hall, G.; James, T.; Magnan, A.-M.; Pesaresi, M.; Raymond, D. M.; Uchida, K.; Garabedian, A.; Heintz, U.; Narain, M.; Nelson, J.; Sagir, S.; Speer, T.; Swanson, J.; Tersegno, D.; Watson-Daniels, J.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Flores, C.; Lander, R.; Pellett, D.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Squires, M.; Thomson, J.; Yohay, R.; Burt, K.; Ellison, J.; Hanson, G.; Olmedo, M.; Si, W.; Yates, B. R.; Gerosa, R.; Sharma, V.; Vartak, A.; Yagil, A.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Dutta, V.; Gouskos, L.; Incandela, J.; Kyre, S.; Mullin, S.; Patterson, A.; Qu, H.; White, D.; Dominguez, A.; Bartek, R.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Jensen, F.; Johnson, A.; Krohn, M.; Leontsinis, S.; Mulholland, T.; Stenson, K.; Wagner, S. R.; Apresyan, A.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Canepa, A.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chramowicz, J.; Christian, D.; Cooper, W. E.; Deptuch, G.; Derylo, G.; Gingu, C.; Grünendahl, S.; Hasegawa, S.; Hoff, J.; Howell, J.; Hrycyk, M.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Kahlid, F.; Lei, C. M.; Lipton, R.; Lopes De Sá, R.; Liu, T.; Los, S.; Matulik, M.; Merkel, P.; Nahn, S.; Prosser, A.; Rivera, R.; Schneider, B.; Sellberg, G.; Shenai, A.; Spiegel, L.; Tran, N.; Uplegger, L.; Voirin, E.; Berry, D. R.; Chen, X.; Ennesser, L.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, O.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Makauda, S.; Mills, C.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Alimena, J.; Antonelli, L. J.; Francis, B.; Hart, A.; Hill, C. S.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Bortoletto, D.; Bubna, M.; Hinton, N.; Jones, M.; Miller, D. H.; Shi, X.; Tan, P.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Khalil, S.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Majumder, D.; Wilson, G.; Ivanov, A.; Mendis, R.; Mitchell, T.; Skhirtladze, N.; Taylor, R.; Anderson, I.; Fehling, D.; Gritsan, A.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Nash, K.; Osherson, M.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; Bloom, K.; Claes, D. R.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Monroy, J.; Siado, J.; Hahn, K.; Sevova, S.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Bartz, E.; Gershtein, Y.; Halkiadakis, E.; Kyriacou, S.; Lath, A.; Nash, K.; Osherson, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Stone, R.; Walker, M.; Malik, S.; Norberg, S.; Ramirez Vargas, J. E.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Kharchilava, A.; Nguyen, D.; Parker, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alexander, J.; Chaves, J.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; McDermott, K.; Mirman, N.; Rinkevicius, A.; Ryd, A.; Salvati, E.; Skinnari, L.; Soffi, L.; Tao, Z.; Thom, J.; Tucker, J.; Zientek, M.; Akgün, B.; Ecklund, K. M.; Kilpatrick, M.; Nussbaum, T.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Covarelli, R.; Demina, R.; Hindrichs, O.; Petrillo, G.; Eusebi, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Perloff, A.; Ulmer, K. A.

    2017-06-01

    The upgrade of the LHC to the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) is expected to increase the LHC design luminosity by an order of magnitude. This will require silicon tracking detectors with a significantly higher radiation hardness. The CMS Tracker Collaboration has conducted an irradiation and measurement campaign to identify suitable silicon sensor materials and strip designs for the future outer tracker at the CMS experiment. Based on these results, the collaboration has chosen to use n-in-p type silicon sensors and focus further investigations on the optimization of that sensor type. This paper describes the main measurement results and conclusions that motivated this decision.

  16. Microhardness of carbon-doped (111) p-type Czochralski silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danyluk, S.; Lim, D. S.; Kalejs, J.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of carbon on (111) p-type Czochralski silicon is examined. The preparation of the silicon and microhardness test procedures are described, and the equation used to determine microhardness from indentations in the silicon wafers is presented. The results indicate that as the carbon concentration in the silicon increases the microhardness increases. The linear increase in microhardness is the result of carbon hindering dislocation motion, and the effect of temperature on silicon deformation and dislocation mobility is explained. The measured microhardness was compared with an analysis which is based on dislocation pinning by carbon; a good correlation was observed. The Labusch model for the effect of pinning sites on dislocation motion is given.

  17. Epitaxial Growth of High-Quality Silicon Films on Double-Layer Porous Silicon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄宜平; 竺士炀; 李爱珍; 王瑾; 黄靖云; 叶志镇

    2001-01-01

    The epitaxial growth of a high-quality silicon layer on double-layer porous silicon by ultra-high vacuum/chemical vapour deposition has been reported. The two-step anodization process results in a double-layer porous silicon structure with a different porosity. This double-layer porous silicon structure and an extended low-temperature annealing in a vacuum system was found to be helpful in subsequent silicon epitaxial growth. X-ray diffraction,cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and spreading resistance testing were used in this work to study the properties of epitaxial silicon layers grown on the double-layer porous silicon. The results show that the epitaxial silicon layer is of good crystallinity and the same orientation with the silicon substrate and the porous silicon layer.

  18. Multifunctional epitaxial systems on silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singamaneni, Srinivasa Rao; Prater, John Thomas; Narayan, Jagdish

    2016-09-01

    Multifunctional heterostructures can exhibit a wide range of functional properties, including colossal magneto-resistance, magnetocaloric, and multiferroic behavior, and can display interesting physical phenomena including spin and charge ordering and strong spin-orbit coupling. However, putting this functionality to work remains a challenge. To date, most of the work reported in the literature has dealt with heterostructures deposited onto closely lattice matched insulating substrates such as DyScO3, SrTiO3 (STO), or STO buffered Si(100) using concepts of lattice matching epitaxy (LME). However, strain in heterostructures grown by LME is typically not fully relaxed and the layers contain detrimental defects such as threading dislocations that can significantly degrade the physical properties of the films and adversely affect the device characteristics. In addition, most of the substrates are incompatible with existing CMOS-based technology, where Si (100) substrates dominate. This review discusses recent advances in the integration of multifunctional oxide and non-oxide materials onto silicon substrates. An alternative thin film growth approach, called "domain matching epitaxy," is presented which identifies approaches for minimizing lattice strain and unwanted defects in large misfit systems (7%-25% and higher). This approach broadly allows for the integration of multifunctional materials onto silicon substrates, such that sensing, computation, and response functions can be combined to produce next generation "smart" devices. In general, pulsed laser deposition has been used to epitaxially grow these materials, although the concepts developed here can be extended to other deposition techniques, as well. It will be shown that TiN and yttria-stabilized zirconia template layers provide promising platforms for the integration of new functionality into silicon-based computer chips. This review paper reports on a number of thin-film heterostructure systems that span a

  19. Multifunctional epitaxial systems on silicon substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singamaneni, Srinivasa Rao, E-mail: ssingam@ncsu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Materials Science Division, Army Research Office, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709 (United States); Department of Physics, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States); Prater, John Thomas [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Materials Science Division, Army Research Office, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709 (United States); Narayan, Jagdish [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Multifunctional heterostructures can exhibit a wide range of functional properties, including colossal magneto-resistance, magnetocaloric, and multiferroic behavior, and can display interesting physical phenomena including spin and charge ordering and strong spin-orbit coupling. However, putting this functionality to work remains a challenge. To date, most of the work reported in the literature has dealt with heterostructures deposited onto closely lattice matched insulating substrates such as DyScO{sub 3}, SrTiO{sub 3} (STO), or STO buffered Si(100) using concepts of lattice matching epitaxy (LME). However, strain in heterostructures grown by LME is typically not fully relaxed and the layers contain detrimental defects such as threading dislocations that can significantly degrade the physical properties of the films and adversely affect the device characteristics. In addition, most of the substrates are incompatible with existing CMOS-based technology, where Si (100) substrates dominate. This review discusses recent advances in the integration of multifunctional oxide and non-oxide materials onto silicon substrates. An alternative thin film growth approach, called “domain matching epitaxy,” is presented which identifies approaches for minimizing lattice strain and unwanted defects in large misfit systems (7%–25% and higher). This approach broadly allows for the integration of multifunctional materials onto silicon substrates, such that sensing, computation, and response functions can be combined to produce next generation “smart” devices. In general, pulsed laser deposition has been used to epitaxially grow these materials, although the concepts developed here can be extended to other deposition techniques, as well. It will be shown that TiN and yttria-stabilized zirconia template layers provide promising platforms for the integration of new functionality into silicon-based computer chips. This review paper reports on a number of thin

  20. Dual ohmic contact to N- and P-type silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okojie, Robert S. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous formation of electrical ohmic contacts to silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor having donor and acceptor impurities (n- and p-type doping, respectively) is disclosed. The innovation provides for ohmic contacts formed on SiC layers having n- and p-doping at one process step during the fabrication of the semiconductor device. Further, the innovation provides a non-discriminatory, universal ohmic contact to both n- and p-type SiC, enhancing reliability of the specific contact resistivity when operated at temperatures in excess of 600.degree. C.

  1. Extraction of interface state density and resistivity of suspended p-type silicon nanobridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jiahong; Liu Qingquan; Ge Yixian; Gu Fang; Li Min; Mao Xiaoli; Cao Hongxia

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation of the influence of the bending deformation of silicon nanobridges on their electrical properties is crucial for sensing and actuating applications.A combined theory/experimental approach for determining the resistivity and the density of interface states of the bending silicon nanobridges is presented.The suspended p-type silicon nanobridge test structures were fabricated from silicon-on-insulator wafers by using a standard CMOS lithography and anisotropic wet etching release process.After that,we measured the resistance of a set of silicon nanobridges versus their length and width under different bias voltages.In conjunction with a theoretical model,we have finally extracted both the interface state density of and resistivity suspended silicon nanobridges under different bending deformations,and found that the resistivity of silicon nanobridges without bending was 9.45 mΩ·cm and the corresponding interface charge density was around 1.7445 × 1013 cm-2.The bending deformation due to the bias voltage slightly changed the resistivity of the silicon nanobridge,however,it significantly changed the distribution of interface state charges,which strongly depends on the intensity of the stress induced by bending deformation.

  2. Realization of Cu-Doped p-Type ZnO Thin Films by Molecular Beam Epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suja, Mohammad; Bashar, Sunayna B; Morshed, Muhammad M; Liu, Jianlin

    2015-04-29

    Cu-doped p-type ZnO films are grown on c-sapphire substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Photoluminescence (PL) experiments reveal a shallow acceptor state at 0.15 eV above the valence band edge. Hall effect results indicate that a growth condition window is found for the formation of p-type ZnO thin films, and the best conductivity is achieved with a high hole concentration of 1.54 × 10(18) cm(-3), a low resistivity of 0.6 Ω cm, and a moderate mobility of 6.65 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at room temperature. Metal oxide semiconductor capacitor devices have been fabricated on the Cu-doped ZnO films, and the characteristics of capacitance-voltage measurements demonstrate that the Cu-doped ZnO thin films under proper growth conditions are p-type. Seebeck measurements on these Cu-doped ZnO samples lead to positive Seebeck coefficients and further confirm the p-type conductivity. Other measurements such as X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron, Raman, and absorption spectroscopies are also performed to elucidate the structural and optical characteristics of the Cu-doped p-type ZnO films. The p-type conductivity is explained to originate from Cu substitution of Zn with a valency of +1 state. However, all p-type samples are converted to n-type over time, which is mostly due to the carrier compensation from extrinsic defects of ZnO.

  3. Junction Transport in Epitaxial Film Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, D. L.; Li, J. V.; Teplin, C. W.; Stradins, P.; Branz, H. M.

    2011-07-01

    We report our progress toward low-temperature HWCVD epitaxial film silicon solar cells on inexpensive seed layers, with a focus on the junction transport physics exhibited by our devices. Heterojunctions of i/p hydrogenated amorphous Si (a-Si) on our n-type epitaxial crystal Si on n++ Si wafers show space-charge-region recombination, tunneling or diffusive transport depending on both epitaxial Si quality and the applied forward voltage.

  4. Growth of nitrogen-doped p-type ZnO thin films prepared by atomic layer epitaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEE Chongmu; LIM Jongmin; PARK Suyoung; KIM Hyounwoo

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped, p-type ZnO thin films were grown successfully on sapphire (0001) substrates by using atomic layer epitaxy (ALE). Zn(C2H5)2[Diethylzinc,DEZn], H2O and NH3 were used as a zinc precursor, an oxidant and a doping source gas, respectively. The lowest electrical resistivity of the p-type ZnO films grown by ALE and annealed at 1000 ℃ in an oxygen atmosphere for 1 h was 18.3 Ω·m with a hole concentration of 3.71×1017cm-3 . Low temperature-photoluminescence analysis and time-dependent Hall measurement results support that the nitrogen-doped ZnO after annealing is ap-type semiconductor.

  5. CCE measurements and annealing studies on proton-irradiated p-type MCz silicon diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Hoedlmoser, H; Köhler, M; Nordlund, H

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic Czochralski (MCz) silicon has recently been investigated for the development of radiation tolerant detectors for future high-luminosity HEP experiments. A study of p-type MCz Silicon diodes irradiated with protons up to a fluence of has been performed by means of Charge Collection Efficiency (CCE) measurements as well as standard CV/IV characterizations. The changes of CCE, full depletion voltage and leakage current as a function of fluence are reported. A subsequent annealing study of the irradiated detectors shows an increase in effective doping concentration and a decrease in the leakage current, whereas the CCE remains basically unchanged. Two different series of detectors have been compared differing in the implantation dose of p-spray isolation as well as effective doping concentration (Neff) of the p-type bulk presumably due to a difference in thermal donor (TD) activation during processing. The series with the higher concentration of TDs shows a delayed reverse annealing of Neff after irradia...

  6. p-Type Quasi-Mono Silicon Solar Cell Fabricated by Ion Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ming Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The p-type quasi-mono wafer is a novel type of silicon material that is processed using a seed directional solidification technique. This material is a promising alternative to traditional high-cost Czochralski (CZ and float-zone (FZ material. Here, we evaluate the application of an advanced solar cell process featuring a novel method of ion implantation on p-type quasi-mono silicon wafer. The ion implantation process has simplified the normal industrial process flow by eliminating two process steps: the removal of phosphosilicate glass (PSG and the junction isolation process that is required after the conventional thermal POCl3 diffusion process. Moreover, the good passivation performance of the ion implantation process improves Voc. Our results show that, after metallization and cofiring, an average cell efficiency of 18.55% can be achieved using 156 × 156 mm p-type quasi-mono silicon wafer. Furthermore, the absolute cell efficiency obtained using this method is 0.47% higher than that for the traditional POCl3 diffusion process.

  7. Silicon epitaxy process recipe and tool configuration optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, W. H.; Cheong, K. Y.

    2017-07-01

    Silicon epitaxy is widely used in semiconductor fabrication due to its ability to produce high quality and low cost thin film. Epitaxy optimized process condition with respect to the process recipe and tool for the maximization of n-type epitaxial production has been investigated. For standard recipe of an epitaxy process, there are seven main steps, namely purge, ramp, bake, stab, deposition, post and cooling. This project focuses on the recipe optimization on ramp, bake and stab steps. For the tool configuration, cool-down step has been optimized. Impact on slip, haze, wafers warpage and crystal originated particles have been investigated.

  8. Empirical model predicting the layer thickness and porosity of p-type mesoporous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Sascha J.; Geisler, Dennis; Hensen, Jan; Köntges, Marc; Kajari-Schröder, Sarah; Bahnemann, Detlef W.; Brendel, Rolf

    2017-04-01

    Porous silicon is a promising material for a wide range of applications because of its versatile layer properties and the convenient preparation by electrochemical etching. Nevertheless, the quantitative dependency of the layer thickness and porosity on the etching process parameters is yet unknown. We have developed an empirical model to predict the porosity and layer thickness of p-type mesoporous silicon prepared by electrochemical etching. The impact of the process parameters such as current density, etching time and concentration of hydrogen fluoride is evaluated by ellipsometry. The main influences on the porosity of the porous silicon are the current density, the etching time and their product while the etch rate is dominated by the current density, the concentration of hydrogen fluoride and their product. The developed model predicts the resulting layer properties of a certain porosification process and can, for example be used to enhance the utilization of the employed chemicals.

  9. Double acceptor in p-type GaAsN grown by chemical beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleuch, Omar; Wang, Li; Lee, Kan-Hua; Ikeda, Kazuma; Kojima, Nobuaki; Ohshita, Yoshio; Yamaguchi, Masafumi

    2015-12-01

    The properties of the acceptor states in GaAsN grown by chemical beam epitaxy (CBE) are studied by analyzing their charges based on the Poole-Frenkel model. Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) shows two acceptor levels at 0.11 and 0.19 eV above the valence band maximum. The emission rates of carriers from these states are enhanced with increasing the electric field during the DLTS measurement, which indicates that the energies required for the emission are decreased. By analyzing this field-enhanced emission process, the polarizabilities of the levels at 0.11 and 0.19 eV are found to be -1 (±0.1) and -2 (±0.1), respectively. In addition, these states have almost the same concentration. Therefore, we conclude that they originate from the same defect, acting as a double acceptor in GaAsN film grown by CBE.

  10. Electronic and material characterization of silicon-germanium and silicon-germanium-carbon epitaxial layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jeffrey John

    This dissertation presents results of material and electronic characterization of strained SiGe and SiGeC epitaxial layers grown on (100) silicon using Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition and Reduced Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition. Fabrication techniques for SiGe and SiGeC are also presented. Materials characterization of epitaxial SiGe and SiGeC was done to characterize crystallinity using visual, microscopic, and Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) characterization. Surface roughness was characterized and found to correspond roughly with epitaxial crystal quality. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to study epitaxial layer composition and thickness, requiring development of models for nSiGe and nSiGeC versus composition (the first published for nSiGeC) and generation of ellipsometric nomograms. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements of epitaxial strain and relaxation showed Ge composition dominates the stress, although strain compensation due to C was observed. XRD, Raman, and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) characterization were done to characterize substitutional C in SiGeC epitaxial layers, finding that C incorporation into SiGeC saturates for C contents >1%. Fabrication techniques for SiGe and SiGeC were examined. Low thermal budget processing of strained layers were investigated as well as fabrication techniques using advantageous material properties of SiGe and SiGeC. Ti/Al contacts were developed and characterized for electrical contact to SiGe and SiGeC. Schottky contacts of Pt silicide on SiGe and SiGeC was done; formation and resistivity were characterized. Four separate resistivity characterization structures have been fabricated using mesa-etch and Si etch-stop techniques. A NPN Heterojunction Bipolar transistor has been fabricated using successive mesa-etches and SiGe (or SiGeC) etch-stops. Electronic characterization of in-situ doped SiGe and SiGeC epitaxial layers was done to determine resistivity, mobility, and bandgap. Resistivities

  11. Use of hexamethyldisiloxane for p-type microcrystalline silicon oxycarbide layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal Prabal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO as an oxygen source for the growth of p-type silicon-based layers deposited by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition is evaluated. The use of this source led to the incorporation of almost equivalent amounts of oxygen and carbon, resulting in microcrystalline silicon oxycarbide thin films. The layers were examined with characterisation techniques including Spectroscopic Ellipsometry, Dark Conductivity, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry and Transmission Electron Microscopy to check material composition and structure. Materials studies show that the refractive indices of the layers can be tuned over the range from 2.5 to 3.85 (measured at 600 nm and in-plane dark conductivities over the range from 10-8 S/cm to 1 S/cm, suggesting that these doped layers are suitable for solar cell applications. The p-type layers were tested in single junction amorphous silicon p-i-n type solar cells.

  12. About the Nature of Electroluminescence Centers in Plastically Deformed Crystals of p-type Silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.V. Pavlyk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes research of dislocation electroluminescence of single crystal p-type silicon with a high concentration of dislocations on the surface (111. It is shown the reaction of the luminescence spectra and capacitive-modulation spectra of samples after high-temperature annealing in an atmosphere of flowing oxygen. The analysis of the results lets us to establish the nature of recombination centers and their reorganization under high-temperature annealing. It is shown that deposition of Al film on the substrate p-Si leads to the formation of strain capacity and the localization of defects in the surface layer that corresponds to luminescence centers.

  13. Nanopore formation on low-doped p-type silicon under illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiboub, N. [UDTS, 02 Bd. Frantz Fanon, B.P. 140, Alger-7 Merveilles, 16200 Algiers (Algeria); Gabouze, N., E-mail: ngabouze@yahoo.fr [UDTS, 02 Bd. Frantz Fanon, B.P. 140, Alger-7 Merveilles, 16200 Algiers (Algeria); Chazalviel, J.-N.; Ozanam, F. [Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Moulay, S. [Universite Saad Dahleby, B.P. 270, Route de Soumaa, Blida (Algeria); Manseri, A. [UDTS, 02 Bd. Frantz Fanon, B.P. 140, Alger-7 Merveilles, 16200 Algiers (Algeria)

    2010-04-01

    Porous silicon layers were elaborated by anodization of highly resistive p-type silicon in HF/ethylene glycol solution under front side illumination, as a function of etching time, HF concentration and illumination intensity. The porous layer morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The illumination during anodization was provided by a tungsten lamp or lasers of different wavelengths. Under anodization, a microporous layer is formed up to a critical thickness above which macropores appear. Under illumination, the instability limiting the growth of the microporous layer occurs at a critical thickness much larger than in the dark. This critical thickness depends on HF concentration, illumination wavelength and intensity. These non-trivial dependencies are rationalized in a model in which photochemical etching in the electrochemically formed porous layer plays the central role.

  14. Improving the radiation hardness properties of silicon detectors using oxygenated n-type and p-type silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Casse, G L; Hanlon, M

    2000-01-01

    The degradation of the electrical properties of silicon detectors exposed to 24 GeV/c protons were studied using pad diodes made from different silicon materials. Standard high-grade p-type and n-type substrates and oxygenated n-type substrates have been used. The diodes were studied in terms of reverse current (I/sub r/) and full depletion voltage (V/sub fd/) as a function of fluence. The oxygenated devices from different suppliers with a variety of starting materials and techniques, all show a consistent improvement of the degradation rate of V/sub fd/ and CCE compared to un- oxygenated substrate devices. Radiation damage of n-type detectors introduces stable defects acting as effective p-type doping and leads to the change of the conductivity type of the silicon bulk (type inversion) at a neutron equivalent fluence of a few 10/sup 13/ cm/sup -2/. The diode junction after inversion migrates from the original side to the back plane of the detector. The migration of the junction is avoided using silicon detec...

  15. Lateral photovoltaic effect in p-type silicon induced by surface states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xu; Mei, Chunlian; Gan, Zhikai; Zhou, Peiqi; Wang, Hui

    2017-03-01

    A colossal lateral photovoltaic effect (LPE) was observed at the surface of p-type silicon, which differs from the conventional thought that a large LPE is only observed in Schottky junctions and PN junctions consisting of several layers with different conductivities. It shows a high sensitivity of 499.24 mV/mm and an ultra-broadband spectral responsivity (from 405 nm to 980 nm) at room temperature, which makes it an attractive candidate for near-infrared detection. We propose that this phenomenon can be understood by considering the surface band bending near the surface of p-Si induced by charged surface states. The energy band diagrams of the samples are shown based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggesting the correlation between the LPE and surface band bending. The conjectures are validated by changing the surface states of p-type silicon using Ni nano-films. These findings reveal a generation mechanism of the LPE and may lead to p-Si based, broadband-responsivity, low-cost, and high-precision optical and optoelectronic applications.

  16. Electrical band-gap narrowing in n- and p-type heavily doped silicon at 300 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cong, H.; Brunet, S.

    1986-09-01

    Based on previous results band-gap narrowing in heavily doped silicon at 300 K is investigated and expressed in terms of impurity size-and-doping effects. The results obtained for n- and p-type heavily doped silicon are compared with other theories and experiments.

  17. Studies of arsenic incorporation and P-type doping in epitaxial mercury cadmium telluride thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandian, Majid

    Doped layer semiconductor structures provide possibilities for novel electronic devices. Growth of Hg1-xCdxTe by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) allows precise control over the doping profile and position of heterojunctions as well as structural properties of this ternary alloy. Even though n-type doping using indium is well established, little is known about p-type doping in this material system by MBE. Several elements such as Ag, Au, Sb, Bi and P have been previously used, however high diffusion coefficient and amphoteric behavior of these atoms in HgCdTe has restricted their use in heterojunction devices where control over doping profiles and concentrations is needed. We investigated arsenic incorporation efficiency as a function of As 4 flux and growth temperature. The sticking coefficient of As is substantially higher at lower growth temperature compared to growth at 190°C. For samples grown at 170°C, the etch pit density (EPD) is higher compared to p-type As doped samples grown at 190°C. Higher EPD is associated with columnar twin defects observed in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies of low growth temperature samples. Growth at low temperature of 170°C causes Hg rich condition promoting twin formation. Therefore, growth of p-type layers doped with As at low temperatures require optimization of II/VI flux ratio to eliminate columnar twin defects. It is possible to incorporate As at normal MBE growth temperature of 190°C but very high flux of As has to used to overcome low sticking coefficient of As at these temperatures. We proposed a mechanism for the activation of As involving Hg vacancies (VHg··) where Te is moved to a Hg vacancy, leaving behind a Te vacancy, which is then filled by an As atom. The Te that is now on a Hg site (i.e., Te antisite) migrates to the surface and leaves the crystal.

  18. Implanted Bottom Gate for Epitaxial Graphene on Silicon Carbide

    OpenAIRE

    Waldmann, Daniel; Jobst, Johannes; Fromm, Felix; Speck, Florian; Seyller, Thomas; Krieger, Michael; Weber, Heiko B.

    2011-01-01

    We present a technique to tune the charge density of epitaxial graphene via an electrostatic gate that is buried in the silicon carbide substrate. The result is a device in which graphene remains accessible for further manipulation or investigation. Via nitrogen or phosphor implantation into a silicon carbide wafer and subsequent graphene growth, devices can routinely be fabricated using standard semiconductor technology. We have optimized samples for room temperature as well as for cryogenic...

  19. A re-examination of cobalt-related defects in n- and p-type silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffler, Leopold; Kolkovsky, Vladimir; Weber, Joerg [Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    In the present work cobalt-doped n- and p-type silicon samples were studied by means of deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and Laplace-DLTS (LDLTS). We demonstrate that two dominant DLTS peaks previously assigned to a substitutional Co defect have different annealing behaviour and therefore belong to different defects. After wet chemical etching three other peaks (E90, E140 and H160) were observed in the samples. The intensity of the peaks becomes larger in the H-plasma treated samples. This together with depth profiling demonstrates that the peaks are hydrogen-related defects. The origin of the peaks will be discussed. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Low-temperature TCT characterization of heavily proton irradiated p-type magnetic Czochralski silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Härkönen, J; Luukka, P; Kassamakov, I; Autioniemi, M; Tuominen, E; Sane, P; Pusa, P; Räisänen, J; Eremin, V; Verbitskaya, E; Li, Z

    2007-01-01

    n+/p−/p+ pad detectors processed at the Microelectronics Center of Helsinki University of Technology on boron-doped p-type high-resistivity magnetic Czochralski (MCz-Si) silicon substrates have been investigated by the transient current technique (TCT) measurements between 100 and 240 K. The detectors were irradiated by 9 MeV protons at the Accelerator Laboratory of University of Helsinki up to 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence of 2×1015 n/cm2. In some of the detectors the thermal donors (TD) were introduced by intentional heat treatment at 430 °C. Hole trapping time constants and full depletion voltage values were extracted from the TCT data. We observed that hole trapping times in the order of 10 ns were found in heavily (above 1×1015 neq/cm2) irradiated samples. These detectors could be fully depleted below 500 V in the temperature range of 140–180 K.

  1. Low specific contact resistance on epitaxial p-type 4H-SiC with a step-bunching surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩超; 张玉明; 宋庆文; 汤晓燕; 张义门; 郭辉; 王悦湖

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the performances of Ti/Al based ohmic contacts fabricated on highly doped p-type 4H-SiC epitaxial layer which has a severe step-bunching surface. Different contact schemes are investigated based on the Al:Ti composition with no more than 50 at.%Al. The specific contact resistance (SCR) is obtained to be as low as 2.6 × 10−6Ω·cm2 for the bilayered Ti(100 nm)/Al(100 nm) contact treated with 3 min rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 1000◦C. The microstructure analyses examined by physical and chemical characterization techniques reveal an alloy-assisted ohmic contact formation mechanism, i.e., a high degree of alloying plays a decisive role in forming the interfacial ternary Ti3SiC2 dominating the ohmic behavior of the Ti/Al based contact. Furthermore, a globally covered Ti3SiC2 layer with (0001)-oriented texture can be formed, regardless of the surface step bunching as well as its structural evolution during the metallization annealing.

  2. Evidence for an iron-hydrogen complex in p-type silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, S.; Markevich, V. P.; Peaker, A. R.; Hamilton, B.; Murphy, J. D.

    2015-07-01

    Interactions of hydrogen with iron have been studied in Fe contaminated p-type Czochralski silicon using capacitance-voltage profiling and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). Hydrogen has been introduced into the samples from a silicon nitride layer grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. After annealing of the Schottky diodes on Si:Fe + H samples under reverse bias in the temperature range of 90-120 °C, a trap has been observed in the DLTS spectra which we have assigned to a Fe-H complex. The trap is only observed when a high concentration of hydrogen is present in the near surface region. The trap concentration is higher in samples with a higher concentration of single interstitial Fe atoms. The defect has a deep donor level at Ev + 0.31 eV. Direct measurements of capture cross section of holes have shown that the capture cross section is not temperature dependent and its value is 5.2 × 10-17 cm2. It is found from an isochronal annealing study that the Fe-H complex is not very stable and can be eliminated completely by annealing for 30 min at 125 °C.

  3. RF performances of inductors integrated on localized p+-type porous silicon regions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Capelle, Marie; Billoué, Jérôme; Poveda, Patrick; Gautier, Gaël

    2012-01-01

    To study the influence of localized porous silicon regions on radiofrequency performances of passive devices, inductors were integrated on localized porous silicon regions, full porous silicon sheet...

  4. Catastrophic degradation of the interface of epitaxial silicon carbide on silicon at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeepkumar, Aiswarya; Mishra, Neeraj; Kermany, Atieh Ranjbar; Boeckl, John J.; Hellerstedt, Jack; Fuhrer, Michael S.; Iacopi, Francesca

    2016-07-01

    Epitaxial cubic silicon carbide on silicon is of high potential technological relevance for the integration of a wide range of applications and materials with silicon technologies, such as micro electro mechanical systems, wide-bandgap electronics, and graphene. The hetero-epitaxial system engenders mechanical stresses at least up to a GPa, pressures making it extremely challenging to maintain the integrity of the silicon carbide/silicon interface. In this work, we investigate the stability of said interface and we find that high temperature annealing leads to a loss of integrity. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis shows a morphologically degraded SiC/Si interface, while mechanical stress measurements indicate considerable relaxation of the interfacial stress. From an electrical point of view, the diode behaviour of the initial p-Si/n-SiC junction is catastrophically lost due to considerable inter-diffusion of atoms and charges across the interface upon annealing. Temperature dependent transport measurements confirm a severe electrical shorting of the epitaxial silicon carbide to the underlying substrate, indicating vast predominance of the silicon carriers in lateral transport above 25 K. This finding has crucial consequences on the integration of epitaxial silicon carbide on silicon and its potential applications.

  5. Effective surface passivation of p-type crystalline silicon with silicon oxides formed by light-induced anodisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Jie, E-mail: j.cui@unsw.edu.au [School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia); Grant, Nicholas [Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems, Australian National University, Canberra, A.C.T. 0200 (Australia); Lennon, Alison [School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia)

    2014-12-30

    Highlights: • The surface passivation by anodic SiO{sub 2} formed by light-induced anodisation is investigated. • The anodic SiO{sub 2} grows lower temperatures with shorter growth times. After annealing in oxygen and then forming gas the effective minority carrier lifetime is increased to 150 μs. • It shows a very low positive Q{sub eff} of 3.4 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −2}, a moderate D{sub it} of 6 × 10{sup 11} eV{sup −1} cm{sup −2}. • It has a very low leakage current density suggesting its application in solar cell as a functional dielectric. - Abstract: Electronic surface passivation of p-type crystalline silicon by anodic silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) was investigated. The anodic SiO{sub 2} was grown by light-induced anodisation (LIA) in diluted sulphuric acid at room temperature, a process that is significantly less-expensive than thermal oxidation which is widely-used in silicon solar cell fabrication. After annealing in oxygen and then forming gas at 400 °C for 30 min, the effective minority carrier lifetime of 3–5 Ω cm, boron-doped Czochralski silicon wafers with a phosphorus-doped 80 Ω/□ emitter and a LIA anodic SiO{sub 2} formed on the p-type surface was increased by two orders of magnitude to 150 μs. Capacitance–voltage measurements demonstrated a very low positive charge density of 3.4 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −2} and a moderate density of interface states of 6 × 10{sup 11} eV{sup −1} cm{sup −2}. This corresponded to a silicon surface recombination velocity of 62 cm s{sup −1}, which is comparable with values reported for other anodic SiO{sub 2} films, which required higher temperatures and longer growth times, and significantly lower than oxides grown by chemical vapour deposition techniques. Additionally, a very low leakage current density of 3.5 × 10{sup −10} and 1.6 × 10{sup −9} A cm{sup −2} at 1 and −1 V, respectively, was measured for LIA SiO{sub 2} suggesting its potential application as insulation layer in

  6. Wafer bonding solution to epitaxial graphene-silicon integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Rui; Guo, Zelei; Palmer, James; Hu, Yike; Ruan, Ming; Hankinson, John; Kunc, Jan; Bhattacharya, Swapan K.; Berger, Claire; de Heer, Walt A.

    2014-03-01

    A new strategy for the integration of graphene electronics with silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (Si-CMOS) technology is demonstrated that requires neither graphene transfer nor patterning. Inspired by silicon-on-insulator and three-dimensional device hyper-integration techniques, a thin monocrystalline silicon layer ready for CMOS processing is bonded to epitaxial graphene (EG) on SiC. The parallel Si and graphene electronic platforms are interconnected by metal vias. In this method, EG is grown prior to bonding so that the process is compatible with EG high temperature growth and preserves graphene integrity and nano-structuring.

  7. Growth and characterization of molecular beam epitaxial GaAs layers on porous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T. L.; Liu, J. K.; Sadwick, L.; Wang, K. L.; Kao, Y. C.

    1987-01-01

    GaAs layers have been grown on porous silicon (PS) substrates with good crystallinity by molecular beam epitaxy. In spite of the surface irregularity of PS substrates, no surface morphology deterioration was observed on epitaxial GaAs overlayers. A 10-percent Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy minimum channeling yield for GaAs-on-PS layers as compared to 16 percent for GaAs-on-Si layers grown under the same condition indicates a possible improvement of crystallinity when GaAs is grown on PS. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that the dominant defects in the GaAs-on-PS layers are microtwins and stacking faults, which originate from the GaAs/PS interface. GaAs is found to penetrate into the PS layers. n-type GaAs/p-type PS heterojunction diodes were fabricated with good rectifying characteristics.

  8. Low specific contact resistance on epitaxial p-type 4H-SiC with a step-bunching surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chao; Zhang, Yu-Ming; Song, Qing-Wen; Tang, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Yi-Men; Guo, Hui; Wang, Yue-Hu

    2015-11-01

    This paper reports the performances of Ti/Al based ohmic contacts fabricated on highly doped p-type 4H-SiC epitaxial layer which has a severe step-bunching surface. Different contact schemes are investigated based on the Al:Ti composition with no more than 50 at.% Al. The specific contact resistance (SCR) is obtained to be as low as 2.6 × 10-6 Ω·cm2 for the bilayered Ti(100 nm)/Al(100 nm) contact treated with 3 min rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 1000 °C. The microstructure analyses examined by physical and chemical characterization techniques reveal an alloy-assisted ohmic contact formation mechanism, i.e., a high degree of alloying plays a decisive role in forming the interfacial ternary Ti3SiC2 dominating the ohmic behavior of the Ti/Al based contact. Furthermore, a globally covered Ti3SiC2 layer with (0001)-oriented texture can be formed, regardless of the surface step bunching as well as its structural evolution during the metallization annealing. Project supported by the Key Specific Projects of Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. 625010101), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61234006), the Natural Science Foundation of ShaanXi Province, China (Grant No. 2013JQ8012), the Doctoral Fund of Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. 20130203120017), and the Specific Project of the Core Devices, China (Grant No. 2013ZX0100100-004).

  9. First results on charge collection efficiency of heavily irradiated microstrip sensors fabricated on oxygenated p-type silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casse, G. E-mail: gcasse@hep.ph.liv.ac.uk; Allport, P.P.; Marti i Garcia, S.; Lozano, M.; Turner, P.R

    2004-02-01

    Heavy hadron irradiation leads to type inversion of n-type silicon detectors. After type inversion, the charge collected at low bias voltages by silicon microstrip detectors is higher when read out from the n-side compared to p-side read out. The n-side read out has been successfully used in combination with oxygen-enriched n-type silicon substrate to maximise the radiation hardness of microstrip detectors. Alternatively, the n-side read out can be implemented on p-type substrates reducing the complexity of fabrication. Miniature silicon microstrip detectors made on standard and oxygen-enriched p-type substrate have been produced. The charge collection properties of such detectors with and without oxygenation are here compared for the first time after severe charged hadron irradiation.

  10. Investigations of nanoreactors on the basis of p-type porous silicon: Electron structure and phase composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenshin, A.S. [Voronezh State University, Solid State Physics and Nanostructures Department, Universitetskaya pl. 1, Voronezh 394006 (Russian Federation); Kashkarov, V.M., E-mail: kash@phys.vsu.ru [Voronezh State University, Solid State Physics and Nanostructures Department, Universitetskaya pl. 1, Voronezh 394006 (Russian Federation); Spivak, Yu. M. [SPbGETU ' LETI' , Department of Microelectronics (Russian Federation); Moshnikov, V.A., E-mail: vamoshnikov@mail.ru [SPbGETU ' LETI' , Department of Microelectronics (Russian Federation)

    2012-08-15

    Investigations of the electron structure and phase composition of the surface layers in porous silicon with a developed system of nanopores were made with the use of ultrasoft X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The samples of porous silicon were obtained on the substrates with p-type conductivity under different modes of electrochemical etching. Porous surface layer represents a system of weakly connected pores oriented mainly perpendicular to the surface of silicon wafer. The mean transverse pore dimension is of {approx}50 nm. Silicon dioxide and sub-oxide were found in porous layer. We assume that these phases cover pores surface thus providing a possibility of the use of the structures as nanoreactors. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoporous silicon layers were obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A system of weakly connected pores was detected. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron structure and phase composition of the surface layers in porous silicon were investigated.

  11. Dopant profile control of epitaxial emitter for silicon solar cells by low temperature epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Donny; Tan, Yew Heng; Gunawan, Oki; He, Lining; Seng Tan, Chuan

    2011-07-01

    We report an alternative approach to grow phosphorus-doped epitaxial silicon emitter by rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition at low temperature (T ≥ 700 °C). A power conversion efficiency (PCE) of (6.6 ± 0.3)% and a pseudo PCE of (10.2 ± 0.2)% has been achieved for the solar cell with epi-emitter grown at 700 °C, in the absence of surface texturization, antireflective coating, and back surface field enhancement, without considering front contact shading. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy revealed that lower temperature silicon epitaxy yields a more abrupt p-n junction, suggesting potential applications for radial p-n junction wire array solar cells.

  12. Precipitation of Cu and Ni in n- and p-type Czochralski-grown silicon characterized by photoluminescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chang; Nguyen, Hieu T.; Rougieux, Fiacre E.; Macdonald, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) images and micro-PL maps were taken on Cu- or Ni-doped monocrystalline silicon wafers, to investigate the distribution of the metal precipitates. Several n-type and p-type wafers were used in which Cu or Ni were introduced in the starting melt of the ingots and precipitated during the ingot cooling (as opposed to surface contamination). The micro-PL mapping allowed investigation of the metal precipitates with a higher spatial resolution. Markedly different precipitation patterns were observed in n- and p-type samples: in both Cu- and Ni-doped n-type samples, circular central regions and edge regions were observed. In these regions, particles were distributed randomly and homogeneously. In the p-type Cu-doped and Ni-doped samples, by contrast, the precipitates occurred in lines along orientations. The difference in the precipitation behaviour in n- and p-type samples is conjectured to be caused by different concentrations of self-interstitials and vacancies remaining in the crystal during the ingot cooling: there are more vacancies in the n-type ingots but more interstitials in the p-type ingots. The dopant effects on the intrinsic point defect concentrations in silicon crystals and possible precipitation mechanisms are discussed based on the findings in this work and the literature.

  13. Implanted bottom gate for epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann, D.; Jobst, J.; Fromm, F.; Speck, F.; Seyller, T.; Krieger, M.; Weber, H. B.

    2012-04-01

    We present a technique to tune the charge density of epitaxial graphene via an electrostatic gate that is buried in the silicon carbide substrate. The result is a device in which graphene remains accessible for further manipulation or investigation. Via nitrogen or phosphor implantation into a silicon carbide wafer and subsequent graphene growth, devices can routinely be fabricated using standard semiconductor technology. We have optimized samples for room temperature as well as for cryogenic temperature operation. Depending on implantation dose and temperature we operate in two gating regimes. In the first, the gating mechanism is similar to a MOSFET, the second is based on a tuned space charge region of the silicon carbide semiconductor. We present a detailed model that describes the two gating regimes and the transition in between.

  14. Ultrathin, epitaxial cerium dioxide on silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flege, Jan Ingo; Kaemena, Björn; Höcker, Jan; Bertram, Florian; Wollschläger, Joachim; Schmidt, Thomas; Falta, Jens

    2014-03-01

    It is shown that ultrathin, highly ordered, continuous films of cerium dioxide may be prepared on silicon following substrate prepassivation using an atomic layer of chlorine. The as-deposited, few-nanometer-thin Ce2O3 film may very effectively be converted at room temperature to almost fully oxidized CeO2 by simple exposure to air, as demonstrated by hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. This post-oxidation process essentially results in a negligible loss in film crystallinity and interface abruptness.

  15. Effect of Etching Time on Optical and Thermal Properties of p-Type Porous Silicon Prepared by Electrical Anodisation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasra Behzad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The porous silicon (PSi layers were formed on p-type silicon (Si wafer. The six samples were anodised electrically with 30 mA/cm2 fixed current density for different etching times. The structural, optical, and thermal properties of porous silicon on silicon substrates were investigated by photoluminescence (PL, photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS, and UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer. The thickness and porosity of the layers were measured using the gravimetric method. The band gap of the samples was measured through the photoluminescence (PL peak and absorption spectra, then they were compared. It shows that band gap value increases by raising the porosity. Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS was carried out for measuring the thermal diffusivity (TD of the samples.

  16. Thermal transport across metal silicide-silicon interfaces: An experimental comparison between epitaxial and nonepitaxial interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ning; Feser, Joseph P.; Sadasivam, Sridhar; Fisher, Timothy S.; Wang, Tianshi; Ni, Chaoying; Janotti, Anderson

    2017-02-01

    Silicides are used extensively in nano- and microdevices due to their low electrical resistivity, low contact resistance to silicon, and their process compatibility. In this work, the thermal interface conductance of TiSi2, CoSi2, NiSi, and PtSi are studied using time-domain thermoreflectance. Exploiting the fact that most silicides formed on Si(111) substrates grow epitaxially, while most silicides on Si(100) do not, we study the effect of epitaxy, and show that for a wide variety of interfaces there is no dependence of interface conductance on the detailed structure of the interface. In particular, there is no difference in the thermal interface conductance between epitaxial and nonepitaxial silicide/silicon interfaces, nor between epitaxial interfaces with different interface orientations. While these silicide-based interfaces yield the highest reported interface conductances of any known interface with silicon, none of the interfaces studied are found to operate close to the phonon radiation limit, indicating that phonon transmission coefficients are nonunity in all cases and yet remain insensitive to interfacial structure. In the case of CoSi2, a comparison is made with detailed computational models using (1) full-dispersion diffuse mismatch modeling (DMM) including the effect of near-interfacial strain, and (2) an atomistic Green' function (AGF) approach that integrates near-interface changes in the interatomic force constants obtained through density functional perturbation theory. Above 100 K, the AGF approach significantly underpredicts interface conductance suggesting that energy transport does not occur purely by coherent transmission of phonons, even for epitaxial interfaces. The full-dispersion DMM closely predicts the experimentally observed interface conductances for CoSi2, NiSi, and TiSi2 interfaces, while it remains an open question whether inelastic scattering, cross-interfacial electron-phonon coupling, or other mechanisms could also account for

  17. Role of silicon dangling bonds in the electronic properties of epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridene, Mohamed; Kha, Calvin S; Flipse, Cees F J

    2016-03-29

    In this paper, we study the electronic properties of epitaxial graphene (EG) on silicon carbide by means of ab initio calculations based on the local spin density approximation + U method taking into account the Coulomb interaction between Si localized electrons. We show that this interaction is not completely suppressed but is screened by carbon layers grown on-top of silicon carbide. This finding leads to a good qualitative understanding of the experimental results reported on EG on silicon carbide. Our results highlight the presence of the Si localized states and might explain the anomalous Hanle curve and the high values of spin relaxation time in EG.

  18. Effects of Germanium on Movement of Dislocations in p-Type Czochralski Silicon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    By indentation at room temperature followed by annealing at high temperatures, the pinning effect of germanium on dislocations in germanium-doped Czochralski silicon was investigated. Experimental results show that the dislocations in germanium-doped Czochralski silicon move shorter and slower than those in Czochralski silicon undoping with germanium when the concentration of germanium is over 1×1018 cm-3. The retarding velocity of dislocations is contributed to the dislocations pinning effect of the strain field introduced by the high concentration germanium, and the Ge4B cluster and the oxygen precipitation those are preferred to form at higher concentration germanium.

  19. Hot-wire chemical vapor deposition prepared aluminum doped p-type microcrystalline silicon carbide window layers for thin film silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Köhler, Florian; Heidt, Anna; Carius, Reinhard; Finger, Friedhelm

    2014-01-01

    Al-doped p-type microcrystalline silicon carbide (µc-SiC:H) thin films were deposited by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition at substrate temperatures below 400 °C. Monomethylsilane (MMS) highly diluted in hydrogen was used as the SiC source in favor of SiC deposition in a stoichiometric form. Aluminum (Al) introduced from trimethylaluminum (TMAl) was used as the p-type dopant. The material property of Al-doped p-type µc-SiC:H thin films deposited with different deposition pressure and filament temperature was investigated in this work. Such µc-SiC:H material is of mainly cubic (3C) SiC polytype. For certain conditions, like high deposition pressure and high filament temperature, additional hexagonal phase and/or stacking faults can be observed. P-type µc-SiC:H thin films with optical band gap E04 ranging from 2.0 to 2.8 eV and dark conductivity ranging from 10-5 to 0.1 S/cm can be prepared. Such transparent and conductive p-type µc-SiC:H thin films were applied in thin film silicon solar cells as the window layer, resulting in an improved quantum efficiency at wavelengths below 480 nm.

  20. Low temperature p-type doping of (Al)GaN layers using ammonia molecular beam epitaxy for InGaN laser diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinverni, M., E-mail: marco.malinverni@epfl.ch; Lamy, J.-M.; Martin, D.; Grandjean, N. [ICMP, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Feltin, E.; Dorsaz, J. [NOVAGAN AG, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Castiglia, A.; Rossetti, M.; Duelk, M.; Vélez, C. [EXALOS AG, CH-8952 Schlieren (Switzerland)

    2014-12-15

    We demonstrate state-of-the-art p-type (Al)GaN layers deposited at low temperature (740 °C) by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy (NH{sub 3}-MBE) to be used as top cladding of laser diodes (LDs) with the aim of further reducing the thermal budget on the InGaN quantum well active region. Typical p-type GaN resistivities and contact resistances are 0.4 Ω cm and 5 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm{sup 2}, respectively. As a test bed, we fabricated a hybrid laser structure emitting at 400 nm combining n-type AlGaN cladding and InGaN active region grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy, with the p-doped waveguide and cladding layers grown by NH{sub 3}-MBE. Single-mode ridge-waveguide LD exhibits a threshold voltage as low as 4.3 V for an 800 × 2 μm{sup 2} ridge dimension and a threshold current density of ∼5 kA cm{sup −2} in continuous wave operation. The series resistance of the device is 6 Ω and the resistivity is 1.5 Ω cm, confirming thereby the excellent electrical properties of p-type Al{sub 0.06}Ga{sub 0.94}N:Mg despite the low growth temperature.

  1. Primary defect transformations in high-resistivity p-type silicon irradiated with electrons at cryogenic temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Makarenko, L F; Korshunov, F P; Murin, L I; Moll, M

    2009-01-01

    It has been revealed that self-interstitials formed under low intensity electron irradiationin high resistivity p-type silicon can be retained frozen up to room temperature. Low thermal mobility of the self-interstitials suggests that Frenkelpair sinsilicon can be stable at temperatures of about or higher than 100K. A broad DLTS peak with activation energy of 0.14–0.17eV can be identified as related to Frenkel pairs. This peak anneals out at temperatures of 120 140K. Experimental evidences are presented that be coming more mobile under forwardcurrent injection the self-interstitials change their charge state to a less positive one.

  2. Method for rapid, controllable growth and thickness, of epitaxial silicon films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Stradins, Paul; Teplin, Charles; Branz, Howard M.

    2009-10-13

    A method of producing epitaxial silicon films on a c-Si wafer substrate using hot wire chemical vapor deposition by controlling the rate of silicon deposition in a temperature range that spans the transition from a monohydride to a hydrogen free silicon surface in a vacuum, to obtain phase-pure epitaxial silicon film of increased thickness is disclosed. The method includes placing a c-Si substrate in a HWCVD reactor chamber. The method also includes supplying a gas containing silicon at a sufficient rate into the reaction chamber to interact with the substrate to deposit a layer containing silicon thereon at a predefined growth rate to obtain phase-pure epitaxial silicon film of increased thickness.

  3. Epitaxial growth of cadmium telluride films on silicon with a buffer silicon carbide layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipov, V. V.; Kukushkin, S. A.; Osipov, A. V.

    2017-02-01

    An epitaxial 1-3-μm-thick cadmium telluride film has been grown on silicon with a buffer silicon carbide layer using the method of open thermal evaporation and condensation in vacuum for the first time. The optimum substrate temperature was 500°C at an evaporator temperature of 580°C, and the growth time was 4 s. In order to provide more qualitative growth of cadmium telluride, a high-quality 100-nm-thick buffer silicon carbide layer was previously synthesized on the silicon surface using the method of topochemical substitution of atoms. The ellipsometric, Raman, X-ray diffraction, and electron-diffraction analyses showed a high structural perfection of the CdTe layer in the absence of a polycrystalline phase.

  4. Primary defect transformations in high-resistivity p-type silicon irradiated with electrons at cryogenic temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarenko, L.F., E-mail: makarenko@bsu.b [Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Belarusian State University, Independence Ave. 4, 220030 Minsk (Belarus); Lastovski, S.B.; Korshunov, F.P.; Murin, L.I. [Scientific-Practical Materials Research Centre of NAS of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus); Moll, M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2009-12-15

    It has been revealed that self-interstitials formed under low intensity electron irradiation in high resistivity p-type silicon can be retained frozen up to room temperature. Low thermal mobility of the self-interstitials suggests that Frenkel pairs in silicon can be stable at temperatures of about or higher than 100 K. A broad DLTS peak with activation energy of 0.14-0.17 eV can be identified as related to Frenkel pairs. This peak anneals out at temperatures of 120-140 K. Experimental evidences are presented that becoming more mobile under forward current injection the self-interstitials change their charge state to a less positive one.

  5. Ultrasonic study of point defects in electron-irradiated p-type silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, W.L.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanisms of interaction of ultrasonic waves with point defects in crystals are reviewed, and a perturbation approach is introduced that leads to general expressions for the resonance and relaxation strengths in terms of matrix elements of the ultrasonic perturbation. These expressions provide the basis for a discussion of the polarization dependence of resonance and relaxation. Selection rules for cubic crystals are presented. An exploratory ultrasonic study is performed on electron-irradiated B-doped and Al-doped silicon. Neutral substitutional boron is detected before irradiation, as expected from previous ultrasonic studies on unirradiated silicon. This defect produces both resonance and relaxation. Similar effects are observed for substitutional aluminum. After irradiation, a relaxation is observed when the sample is exposed to 0.18-0.39 eV light. By comparison with previous EPR results, this relaxation is identified as the singly positively charged state of the vacancy, V/sup +/. Preliminary results on the relaxation time and strength of V/sup +/ suggest that it may have several populated vibronic levels. Another relaxation is observed in irradiated Al-doped silicon when the sample is exposed to white light. From its annealing behavior and dopant dependence, it is identified as a nonequilibrium charge state of interstitial aluminum.

  6. Epitaxial growth of CZT(S,Se) on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojarczuk, Nestor A.; Gershon, Talia S.; Guha, Supratik; Shin, Byungha; Zhu, Yu

    2016-03-15

    Techniques for epitaxial growth of CZT(S,Se) materials on Si are provided. In one aspect, a method of forming an epitaxial kesterite material is provided which includes the steps of: selecting a Si substrate based on a crystallographic orientation of the Si substrate; forming an epitaxial oxide interlayer on the Si substrate to enhance wettability of the epitaxial kesterite material on the Si substrate, wherein the epitaxial oxide interlayer is formed from a material that is lattice-matched to Si; and forming the epitaxial kesterite material on a side of the epitaxial oxide interlayer opposite the Si substrate, wherein the epitaxial kesterite material includes Cu, Zn, Sn, and at least one of S and Se, and wherein a crystallographic orientation of the epitaxial kesterite material is based on the crystallographic orientation of the Si substrate. A method of forming an epitaxial kesterite-based photovoltaic device and an epitaxial kesterite-based device are also provided.

  7. Photon-Enhanced Thermionic Emission in Cesiated p-Type and n-Type Silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reck, Kasper; Dionigi, Fabio; Hansen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    electrons. Efficiencies above 60% have been predicted theoretically for high solar concentration systems. Silicon is an interesting absorber material for high efficiency PETE solar cells, partly due to its mechanical and thermal properties and partly due to its electrical properties, including a close......Photon-enhanced thermionic emission (PETE) is a relatively new concept for high efficiency solar cells that utilize not only the energy of electrons excited across the band gap by photons, as in conventional photovoltaic solar cells, but also the energy usual lost to thermalization of the excited...

  8. P-stop isolation study of irradiated n-in-p type silicon strip sensors for harsh radiation environment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2084505

    2015-01-01

    In order to determine the most radiation hard silicon sensors for the CMS Experiment after the Phase II Upgrade in 2023 a comprehensive study of silicon sensors after a fluence of up to $1.5\\times10^{15} n_{eq}/cm^{2}$ corresponding to $3000 fb^{-1}$ after the HL-LHC era has been carried out. The results led to the decision that the future Outer Tracker (20~cm${<}R{<}$110~cm) of CMS will consist of n-in-p type sensors. This technology is more radiation hard but also the manufacturing is more challenging compared to p-in-n type sensors due to additional process steps in order to suppress the accumulation of electrons between the readout strips. One possible isolation technique of adjacent strips is the p-stop structure which is a p-type material implantation with a certain pattern for each individual strip. However, electrical breakdown and charge collection studies indicate that the process parameters of the p-stop structure have to be carefully calibrated in order to achieve a sufficient strip isolatio...

  9. Short p-type silicon microstrip detectors in 3D-stc technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, S. [Physikalisches Institut, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder Strasse 3b, D-79104 Freiburg i. Br. (Germany)], E-mail: simon.eckert@physik.uni-freiburg.de; Jakobs, K.; Kuehn, S.; Parzefall, U. [Physikalisches Institut, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder Strasse 3b, D-79104 Freiburg i. Br. (Germany); Dalla-Betta, G.-F.; Zoboli, A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Universita degli Studi di Trento, via Sommarive 14, I-38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Pozza, A.; Zorzi, N. [FBK-irst Trento, Microsystems Division, via Sommarive 18, I-38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2008-10-21

    The luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the sLHC, will constitute an extremely challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors. Significant improvements in radiation hardness are needed to cope with the increased radiation dose, requiring new tracking detectors. In the upgraded ATLAS detector the region from 20 to 50 cm distance to the beam will be covered by silicon strip detectors (SSD) with short strips. These will have to withstand a 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence of about 1x10{sup 15}n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, hence extreme radiation resistance is necessary. For the short strips, we propose to use SSD realised in the radiation tolerant 3D technology, where rows of columns-etched into the silicon bulk-are joined together to form strips. To demonstrate the feasibility of 3D SSD for the sLHC, we have built prototype modules using 3D-single-type-column (stc) SSD with short strips and front-end electronics from the present ATLAS SCT. The modules were read out with the SCT Data Acquisition system and tested with an IR-laser. We report on the performance of these 3D modules, in particular the noise at 40 MHz which constitutes a measurement of the effective detector capacitance. Conclusions about options for using 3D SSD detectors for tracking at the sLHC are drawn.

  10. Atomic Layer Deposition of p-Type Epitaxial Thin Films of Undoped and N-Doped Anatase TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasu, K; Sreedhara, M B; Ghatak, J; Rao, C N R

    2016-03-01

    Employing atomic layer deposition, we have grown p-type epitaxial undoped and N-doped anatase TiO2(001) thin films on c-axis Al2O3 substrate. From X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy studies, crystallographic relationships between the film and the substrate are found to be (001)TiO2//(0001)Al2O3 and [1̅10]TiO2//[011̅0]Al2O3. N-doping in TiO2 thin films enhances the hole concentration and mobility. The optical band gap of anatase TiO2 (3.23 eV) decreases to 3.07 eV upon N-doping. The epitaxial films exhibit room-temperature ferromagnetism and photoresponse. A TiO2-based homojunction diode was fabricated with rectification from the p-n junction formed between N-doped p-TiO2 and n-TiO2.

  11. Correlation Between the Raman Crystallinity of p-Type Micro-Crystalline Silicon Layer and Open Circuit Voltage of n-i-p Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Junhee; Kim, Sunbo; Park, Jinjoo; Shin, Chonghoon; Pham, Duy Phong; Kim, Jiwoong; Chung, Sungyoun; Lee, Youngseok; Yi, Junsin

    2015-10-01

    This article mainly discusses the difference between p-i-n and n-i-p type solar cells. Their structural difference has an effect on cell performance, such as open circuit voltage and fill factor. Although the deposition conditions are the same for both p-i-n and n-i-p cases, the substrate layers for depositing p-type microcrystalline silicon layers differ. In n-i-p cells, the substrate layer is p-type amorphous silicon oxide layer; whereas, in p-i-n cells, the substrate layer is ZnO:Al. The interfacial change leads to a 12% difference in the crystallinity of the p-type microcrystalline silicon layers. When the p-type microcrystalline silicon layer's crystallinity was not sufficient to activate an internal electric field, the open circuit voltage and fill factor decreased 0.075 V and 7.36%, respectively. We analyzed this problem by comparing the Raman spectra, electrical conductivity, activation energy and solar cell performance. By adjusting the thickness of the p-type microcrystalline silicon layer, we increased the open circuit voltage of the n-i-p cell from 0.835 to 0.91 V.

  12. Quantum transport in epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide (0001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jobst, Johannes

    2013-04-01

    Graphene - a two-dimensional allotrope of carbon - offers many opportunities for research in fundamental science, as well as for technological applications. First, for being a single layer of carbon atoms, which are bound in a honeycomb geometry, it represents a two-dimensional electron gas that is accessible for investigation and manipulation directly, in contrast to conventional semiconductor-based, two-dimensional systems. Second, it is chemically and mechanically robust and offers a high electrical and thermal conductivity, while being widely transparent for visible light. And third, charge carriers in graphene mimic massless Dirac fermions as graphene exhibits a linear energy dispersion. In the present thesis, epitaxial graphene that is grown by the thermal decomposition of silicon carbide (SiC) on its (0001) basal plane is investigated. Here, monolayer graphene (MLG) with reproducible properties is formed when silicon atoms sublime at high temperatures in a well-controlled manner. In addition to MLG, a carbon-rich interface layer is formed between graphene and the SiC surface. It is electrically insulating but has a strong impact on the properties of MLG. The buffer layer can be converted to a quasi-free-standing monolayer graphene (QFMLG) by intercalation of hydrogen between buffer layer and SiC surface. This treatment reduces the coupling between QFMLG and SiC. The graphene-substrate interaction can be further reduced when free-standing epitaxial graphene (FEG) is patterned. With this method, the SiC substrate is selectively etched away with a photo-electrochemical reaction, while suspended graphene devices remain. The main topics of the present thesis are the fabrication and the electrical characterization of these three materials MLG, QFMLG and FEG. In particular, classical and quantum corrections to resistivity and conductivity, as well as the interaction with the substrate are investigated with transport and magnetotransport measurements. We observe

  13. Interfacial oxide formation and oxygen diffusion in rare earth oxide-silicon epitaxial heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, V.; Guha, S.; Copel, M.; Bojarczuk, N. A.; Flaitz, P. L.; Gribelyuk, M.

    2002-11-01

    We report on controlled interfacial oxide formation within epitaxial (LaxY1-x)2O3/Si(111) heterostructures under UHV environments. Results indicate that exposure of these epitaxial films to molecular oxygen right after deposition results in the formation of an amorphous interfacial layer thicker than that expected when a bare silicon surface is exposed to molecular oxygen under the same conditions. The results imply significant oxygen diffusion through the epitaxial dielectric and reaction at the silicon-oxide interface. Arguments have been developed to explain these observations.

  14. Very low surface recombination velocities on p-type silicon wafers passivated with a dielectric with fixed negative charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostinelli, G.; Delabie, A.; Dekkers, H.F.W.; De Wolf, S.; Beaucarne, G. [IMEC vzw, Kapeldreef 75, Leuven (Belgium); Vitanov, P.; Alexieva, Z. [CL SENES, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2006-11-23

    Surface recombination velocities as low as 10cm/s have been obtained by treated atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers on p-type CZ silicon wafers. Low surface recombination is achieved by means of field induced surface passivation due to a high density of negative charges stored at the interface. In comparison to a diffused back surface field, an external field source allows for higher band bending, that is, a better performance. While this process yields state of the art results, it is not suited for large-scale production. Preliminary results on an industrially viable, alternative process based on a pseudo-binary system containing Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} are presented, too. With this process, surface recombination velocities of 500-1000cm/s have been attained on mc-Si wafers. (author)

  15. Characterization of micro-strip detectors made with high resistivity n- and p-type Czochralski silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macchiolo, A. [INFN and Universita degli Studi di Florence (Italy)]. E-mail: Anna.Macchiolo@fi.infn.it; Borrello, L. [INFN and Universita degli Studi di Pisa (Italy); Boscardin, M. [ITC-IRST Trento, Povo, Trento (Italy); Bruzzi, M. [INFN and Universita degli Studi di Florence (Italy); Creanza, D. [INFN and Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica, Bari (Italy); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [ITC-IRST Trento, Povo, Trento (Italy); DePalma, M. [INFN and Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica, Bari (Italy); Focardi, E. [INFN and Universita degli Studi di Florence (Italy); Manna, N. [INFN and Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica, Bari (Italy); Menichelli, D. [INFN and Universita degli Studi di Florence (Italy); Messineo, A. [INFN and Universita degli Studi di Pisa (Italy); Piemonte, C. [ITC-IRST Trento, Povo, Trento (Italy); Radicci, V. [INFN and Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica, Bari (Italy); Ronchin, S. [ITC-IRST Trento, Povo, Trento (Italy); Scaringella, M. [INFN and Universita degli Studi di Florence (Italy); Segneri, G. [INFN and Universita degli Studi di Pisa (Italy); Sentenac, D. [INFN and Universita degli Studi di Pisa (Italy); Zorzi, N. [ITC-IRST Trento, Povo, Trento (Italy)

    2007-04-01

    The results of the pre- and post-irradiation characterization of n- and p-type magnetic Czochralski silicon micro-strip sensors are reported. This work has been carried out within the INFN funded SMART project aimed at the development of radiation-hard semiconductor detectors for the luminosity upgrade of the large Hadron collider (LHC). The detectors have been fabricated at ITC-IRST (Trento, Italy) on 4 in wafers and the layout contains 10 mini-sensors. The devices have been irradiated with 24 GeV/c and 26 MeV protons in two different irradiation campaigns up to an equivalent fluence of 3.4x10{sup 15} 1-MeV n/cm{sup 2}. The post-irradiation results show an improved radiation hardness of the magnetic Czochralski mini-sensors with respect to the reference float-zone sample.

  16. Epitaxial growth of silicon nanowires using an aluminium catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yewu; Schmidt, Volker; Senz, Stephan; Gösele, Ulrich

    2006-12-01

    Silicon nanowires have been identified as important components for future electronic and sensor nanodevices. So far gold has dominated as the catalyst for growing Si nanowires via the vapour-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. Unfortunately, gold traps electrons and holes in Si and poses a serious contamination problem for Si complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) processing. Although there are some reports on the use of non-gold catalysts for Si nanowire growth, either the growth requires high temperatures and/or the catalysts are not compatible with CMOS requirements. From a technological standpoint, a much more attractive catalyst material would be aluminium, as it is a standard metal in Si process lines. Here we report for the first time the epitaxial growth of Al-catalysed Si nanowires and suggest that growth proceeds via a vapour-solid-solid (VSS) rather than a VLS mechanism. It is also found that the tapering of the nanowires can be strongly reduced by lowering the growth temperature.

  17. A novel method to enhance the gettering efficiency in p-type Czochralski silicon by a sacrificial porous silicon layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Caizhen; Wang Yongshun; Wang Zaixing

    2011-01-01

    A new two-step phosphorous diffusion gettering (TSPDG) process using a sacrificial porous silicon layer (PSL) is proposed.Due to a decrease in high temperature time,the TSPDG (PSL) process weakens the deterioration in performances of PSL,and increases the capability of impurity clusters to dissolve and diffuse to the gettering regions.By means of the TSPDG (PSL) process under conditions of 900 ℃/60 min + 700 ℃/30 min,the effective lifetime of minority carriers in solar-grade (SOG) Si is increased to 14.3 times its original value,and the short-circuit current density of solar cells is improved from 23.5 o 28.7 mA/cm2,and the open-circuit voltage from 0.534 to 0.596 V along with the transform efficiency from 8.1% to 11.8%,which are much superior to the results achieved by the PDG (PSL) process at 900 ℃ for 90 min.

  18. Hole traps associated with high-concentration residual carriers in p-type GaAsN grown by chemical beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elleuch, Omar, E-mail: mr.omar.elleuch@gmail.com; Wang, Li; Lee, Kan-Hua; Demizu, Koshiro; Ikeda, Kazuma; Kojima, Nobuaki; Ohshita, Yoshio; Yamaguchi, Masafumi [Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan)

    2015-01-28

    The hole traps associated with high background doping in p-type GaAsN grown by chemical beam epitaxy are studied based on the changes of carrier concentration, junction capacitance, and hole traps properties due to the annealing. The carrier concentration was increased dramatically with annealing time, based on capacitance–voltage (C–V) measurement. In addition, the temperature dependence of the junction capacitance (C–T) was increased rapidly two times. Such behavior is explained by the thermal ionization of two acceptor states. These acceptors are the main cause of high background doping in the film, since the estimated carrier concentration from C–T results explains the measured carrier concentration at room temperature using C–V method. The acceptor states became shallower after annealing, and hence their structures are thermally unstable. Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) showed that the HC2 hole trap was composed of two signals, labeled HC21 and HC22. These defects correspond to the acceptor levels, as their energy levels obtained from DLTS are similar to those deduced from C–T. The capture cross sections of HC21 and HC22 are larger than those of single acceptors. In addition, their energy levels and capture cross sections change in the same way due to the annealing. This tendency suggests that HC21 and HC22 signals originate from the same defect which acts as a double acceptor.

  19. Hadron-therapy beam monitoring: Towards a new generation of ultra-thin p-type silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouterfa, M.; Aouadi, K. [Inst. of Information and Communication Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics ICTEAM, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Bertrand, D. [Particle Therapy Dept., Ion Beam Application IBA, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Olbrechts, B.; Delamare, R. [Inst. of Information and Communication Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics ICTEAM, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Raskin, J. P.; Gil, E. C. [Institut de Recherche en Mathematique et Physique IRMP, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Flandre, D. [Inst. of Information and Communication Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics ICTEAM, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2011-07-01

    Hadron-therapy has gained increasing interest for cancer treatment especially within the last decade. System commissioning and quality assurance procedures impose to monitor the particle beam using 2D dose measurements. Nowadays, several monitoring systems exist for hadron-therapy but all show a relatively high influence on the beam properties: indeed, most devices consist of several layers of materials that degrade the beam through scattering and energy losses. For precise treatment purposes, ultra-thin silicon strip detectors are investigated in order to reduce this beam scattering. We assess the beam size increase provoked by the Multiple Coulomb Scattering when passing through Si, to derive a target thickness. Monte-Carlo based simulations show a characteristic scattering opening angle lower than 1 mrad for thicknesses below 20 {mu}m. We then evaluated the fabrication process feasibility. We successfully thinned down silicon wafers to thicknesses lower than 10 {mu}m over areas of several cm{sup 2}. Strip detectors are presently being processed and they will tentatively be thinned down to 20 {mu}m. Moreover, two-dimensional TCAD simulations were carried out to investigate the beam detector performances on p-type Si substrates. Additionally, thick and thin substrates have been compared thanks to electrical simulations. Reducing the pitch between the strips increases breakdown voltage, whereas leakage current is quite insensitive to strips geometrical configuration. The samples are to be characterized as soon as possible in one of the IBA hadron-therapy facilities. For hadron-therapy, this would represent a considerable step forward in terms of treatment precision. (authors)

  20. Photoluminescence Study of Low Thermal Budget III–V Nanostructures on Silicon by Droplet Epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isella G

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present of a detailed photoluminescence characterization of high efficiency GaAs/AlGaAs quantum nanostructures grown on silicon substrates. The whole process of formation of the GaAs/AlGaAs active layer was realized via droplet epitaxy and migration enhanced epitaxy maintaining the growth temperature ≤350°C, thus resulting in a low thermal budget procedure compatible with back-end integration of the fabricated materials on integrated circuits.

  1. Study of nanoparticles TiO2 thin films on p-type silicon substrate using different alcoholic solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muaz, A. K. M.; Hashim, U.; Arshad, M. K. Md.; Ruslinda, A. R.; Ayub, R. M.; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Voon, C. H.; Liu, Wei-Wen; Foo, K. L.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, sol-gel method spin coating technique is adopted to prepare nanoparticles titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films. The prepared TiO2 sol was synthesized using titanium butoxide act as a precursor and subjected to deposited on the p-type silicon oxide (p-SiO2) and glass slide substrates under room temperature. The effect of different alcoholic solvents of methanol and ethanol on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties were systematically investigated. The coated TiO2 thin films were annealed in furnace at 773 K for 1 h. The structural properties of the TiO2 films were examined with X-ray Diffraction (XRD). From the XRD analysis, both solvents showing good crystallinity with anatase phase were the predominant structure. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was employed to study the morphological of the thin films. The optical properties were investigated by Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy were found that ethanol as a solvent give a higher optical transmittance if compare to the methanol solvent. The electrical properties of the nanoparticles TiO2 thin films were measured using two-point-probe technique.

  2. Radiation damage in proton-irradiated epitaxial silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, Joern

    2009-07-15

    In this work radiation hardness of 75 {mu}m, 100 {mu}m and 150 {mu}m thick epitaxial silicon pad diodes of both standard and oxygenated material was investigated. Damage after 24 GeV/c proton irradiation in a 1MeV neutron equivalent fluence range between 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} and 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} was studied and isothermal annealing experiments at 80 C were carried out. Standard CV/IV measurements could be performed up to 4 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. The volume-normalised reverse current was found to increase linearly with fluence with a slope independent of the thickness and impurity concentration. However, due to large fluctuations the fluences had to be renormalised using the current-related damage parameter. Concerning the depletion voltage, nearly all materials remained at a moderate level up to 4 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. During short-term annealing acceptors annealed out, whereas others were introduced during the long-term annealing. The stable damage was characterised by donor removal at low fluences and fluence-proportional predominant donor introduction for highly irradiated diodes, depending on the oxygen level. No type inversion was observed. Time-resolved measurements with a new 670 nm laser-TCT setup made the determination of the trapping time constant with the charge correction method possible. The results agreed with expectations and showed a linear increase of trapping probability with fluence. The electric field exhibited a double peak structure in highly irradiated diodes. Charge collection efficiency measurements with {alpha}-particles were independent of oxygen concentration, but showed an improved efficiency for thinner diodes. A comparison to simulation revealed systematic discrepancies. A non-constant trapping time parameter was proposed as possible solution. (orig.)

  3. Hyperdoping silicon with selenium: solid vs. liquid phase epitaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Shengqiang; Liu, Fang; Prucnal, S.; Gao, Kun; Khalid, M.; Baehtz, C.; Posselt, M.; Skorupa, W.; Helm, M

    2015-01-01

    Chalcogen-hyperdoped silicon shows potential applications in silicon-based infrared photodetectors and intermediate band solar cells. Due to the low solid solubility limits of chalcogen elements in silicon, these materials were previously realized by femtosecond or nanosecond laser annealing of implanted silicon or bare silicon in certain background gases. The high energy density deposited on the silicon surface leads to a liquid phase and the fast recrystallization velocity allows trapping o...

  4. Optical and Electrical Effects of p-type μc-SiOx:H in Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells on Various Front Textures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available p-type hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon oxide (µc-SiOx:H was developed and implemented as a contact layer in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H single junction solar cells. Higher transparency, sufficient electrical conductivity, low ohmic contact to sputtered ZnO:Al, and tunable refractive index make p-type µc-SiOx:H a promising alternative to the commonly used p-type hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (µc-Si:H contact layers. In this work, p-type µc-SiOx:H layers were fabricated with a conductivity of up to 10−2 S/cm and a Raman crystallinity of above 60%. Furthermore, we present p-type µc-SiOx:H films with a broad range of optical properties (2.1 eV < band gap E04<2.8 eV and 1.6 < refractive index n<2.6. These properties can be tuned by adapting deposition parameters, for example, the CO2/SiH4 deposition gas ratio. A conversion efficiency improvement of a-Si:H solar cells is achieved by applying p-type µc-SiOx:H contact layer compared to the standard p-type µc-Si:H contact layer. As another aspect, the influence of the front side texture on a-Si:H p-i-n solar cells with different p-type contact layers, µc-Si:H and µc-SiOx:H, is investigated. Furthermore, we discuss the correlation between the decrease of Voc and the cell surface area derived from AFM measurements.

  5. Anisotropy of the solid-state epitaxy of silicon carbide in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukushkin, S. A., E-mail: kukushkin_s@yahoo.com; Osipov, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Problems of Machine Science (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-15

    A new method for the solid-state synthesis of epitaxial layers is developed, in which a substrate participates in the chemical reaction and the reaction product grows not on the substrate surface, as in traditional epitaxial methods, but inside the substrate. This method offers new opportunities for elastic-energy relaxation due to a mechanism operating only in anisotropic media, specifically, the attraction of point defects formed during the chemical reaction. The attracting point centers of dilatation form relatively stable objects, dilatation dipoles, which significantly reduce the total elastic energy. It is shown that, in crystals with cubic symmetry, the most favorable arrangement of dipoles is the 〈111〉 direction. The theory is tested by growing silicon carbide (SiC) films on Si (111) substrates by chemical reaction with carbon monoxide CO. High-quality single-crystal SiC-4H films with thicknesses of up to 100 nm are grown on Si (111). Ellipsometric analysis showed that the optical constants of the SiC-4H films are significantly anisotropic. This is caused not only by the lattice hexagonality but also by a small amount (about 2–6%) of carbon atoms remaining in the film due to dilatation dipoles. It is shown that the optical constants of the carbon impurity correspond to strongly anisotropic highly oriented pyrolytic graphite.

  6. Effects of heat treatment on epitaxial silicon solar cells on metallurgical silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, T. L.; Chu, S. S.; Kazmerski, L. L.; Whitney, R.; Lin, C. L.; Davis, R. M.

    1981-12-01

    A preparation of acid extracted metallurgical grade silicon as a large-grain substrate for solar cells is described. Metallic impurities which normally accumulate on the grain boundaries of pulverized Si were removed by 400 hr of aqua regia refluxing. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) revealed that aluminum and iron concentrations were significantly reduced, and the Si was made into sheets by unidirectional solidification on an RF-heated graphite plate. Solidification at 1-2 cm/min yielded a (110) crystallite orientation; SIMS determined that remaining impurities were uniformly diffuse, and heat treatment in He at 700 C resulted in precipitation of metallic impurities onto the grain boundaries. Trichlorosilane was thermally reduced to form an epitaxial film on the Si substrate, and 37 sq cm cells were fabricated with an efficiency of 8.95%.

  7. Growth of Gold-assisted Gallium Arsenide Nanowires on Silicon Substrates via Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon M. delos Santos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Gallium arsenide nanowires were grown on silicon (100 substrates by what is called the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS growth mechanism using a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE system. Good quality nanowires with surface density of approximately 108 nanowires per square centimeter were produced by utilizing gold nanoparticles, with density of 1011 nanoparticles per square centimeter, as catalysts for nanowire growth. X-ray diffraction measurements, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy revealed that the nanowires are epitaxially grown on the silicon substrates, are oriented along the [111] direction and have cubic zincblende structure.

  8. Substrate heater for the growth of epitaxial silicon films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Matthew; Varhue, Walter; Adams, Edward; Lavoie, Mark

    1999-03-01

    The single wafer processing of epitaxial Si films requires that special attention be paid to the design of the substrate heater assembly. This document describes the evolution and testing of an in situ heater used to deposit epitaxial Si films at temperatures as high as 700 °C. One problem encountered was the production of excessive levels of ultraviolet radiation which contributed to the desorption of water vapor from the vacuum chamber walls during the in situ cleaning process. A second problem involved the formation of a molybdenum containing film that poisoned epitaxial growth. A final proven in situ heater design is presented which avoids these problems.

  9. a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction front- and back contacts for silicon solar cells with p-type base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostan, Philipp Johannes

    2010-07-01

    This thesis reports on low temperature amorphous silicon back and front contacts for high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells with a p-type base. The back contact uses a sequence of intrinsic amorphous (i-a-Si:H) and boron doped microcrystalline (p-{mu}c-Si:H) silicon layers fabricated by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) and a magnetron sputtered ZnO:Al layer. The back contact is finished by evaporating Al onto the ZnO:Al and altogether prepared at a maximum temperature of 220 C. Analysis of the electronic transport of mobile charge carriers at the back contact shows that the two high-efficiency requirements low back contact series resistance and high quality c-Si surface passivation are in strong contradiction to each other, thus difficult to achieve at the same time. The preparation of resistance- and effective lifetime samples allows one to investigate both requirements independently. Analysis of the majority charge carrier transport on complete Al/ZnO:Al/a-Si:H/c-Si back contact structures derives the resistive properties. Measurements of the effective minority carrier lifetime on a-Si:H coated wafers determines the back contact surface passivation quality. Both high-efficiency solar cell requirements together are analyzed in complete photovoltaic devices where the back contact series resistance mainly affects the fill factor and the back contact passivation quality mainly affects the open circuit voltage. The best cell equipped with a diffused emitter with random texture and a full-area a-Si:H/c-Si back contact has an independently confirmed efficiency {eta} = 21.0 % with an open circuit voltage V{sub oc} = 681 mV and a fill factor FF = 78.7 % on an area of 1 cm{sup 2}. An alternative concept that uses a simplified a-Si:H layer sequence combined with Al-point contacts yields a confirmed efficiency {eta} = 19.3 % with an open circuit voltage V{sub oc} = 655 mV and a fill factor FF = 79.5 % on an area of 2 cm{sup 2}. Analysis of the

  10. a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction front- and back contacts for silicon solar cells with p-type base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostan, Philipp Johannes

    2010-07-01

    This thesis reports on low temperature amorphous silicon back and front contacts for high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells with a p-type base. The back contact uses a sequence of intrinsic amorphous (i-a-Si:H) and boron doped microcrystalline (p-{mu}c-Si:H) silicon layers fabricated by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) and a magnetron sputtered ZnO:Al layer. The back contact is finished by evaporating Al onto the ZnO:Al and altogether prepared at a maximum temperature of 220 C. Analysis of the electronic transport of mobile charge carriers at the back contact shows that the two high-efficiency requirements low back contact series resistance and high quality c-Si surface passivation are in strong contradiction to each other, thus difficult to achieve at the same time. The preparation of resistance- and effective lifetime samples allows one to investigate both requirements independently. Analysis of the majority charge carrier transport on complete Al/ZnO:Al/a-Si:H/c-Si back contact structures derives the resistive properties. Measurements of the effective minority carrier lifetime on a-Si:H coated wafers determines the back contact surface passivation quality. Both high-efficiency solar cell requirements together are analyzed in complete photovoltaic devices where the back contact series resistance mainly affects the fill factor and the back contact passivation quality mainly affects the open circuit voltage. The best cell equipped with a diffused emitter with random texture and a full-area a-Si:H/c-Si back contact has an independently confirmed efficiency {eta} = 21.0 % with an open circuit voltage V{sub oc} = 681 mV and a fill factor FF = 78.7 % on an area of 1 cm{sup 2}. An alternative concept that uses a simplified a-Si:H layer sequence combined with Al-point contacts yields a confirmed efficiency {eta} = 19.3 % with an open circuit voltage V{sub oc} = 655 mV and a fill factor FF = 79.5 % on an area of 2 cm{sup 2}. Analysis of the

  11. Gettering of transition metals by porous silicon in epitaxial silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, Hariharsudan Sivaramakrishnan; Mertens, Robert; Poortmans, Jef [IMEC vzw, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Department of Electrical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Ahn, Chihak; Cowern, Nick [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, NE1 7RU Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Van Hoeymissen, Jan; Dross, Frederic [IMEC vzw, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Van Nieuwenhuysen, Kris; Gordon, Ivan [Department of Electrical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

    2012-10-15

    Epitaxial silicon solar cells (''epicells'') are based on an epitaxial active layer (''epilayer'') grown on top of a low-cost, inactive p{sup +} silicon substrate. A key challenge is to mitigate transition metal out-diffusion from the low-purity substrate into the active layer. An embedded porous silicon (PSi) layer can be used to getter metals within the substrate. This was studied theoretically using density functional theory where large binding energies ({proportional_to}1.9-2.2 eV) for metal segregation to PSi void surface were calculated for Fe and Cu. Incorporating this in a diffusion model yielded large gettering coefficients of {proportional_to}10{sup 4} even at 1000 C. To verify this experimentally, a test structure consisting of a 2-{mu}m thick epilayer grown on top of an 8.5 x 8.5 cm{sup 2} area of re-organized PSi etched into the middle of an 8'' Cz, p{sup +} wafer was used. These wafers were surface-contaminated with metals (Fe, Ni, Cu) to {proportional_to}10{sup 14}-10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} and annealed at high temperatures (950-1000 C) for up to 15 min. This allowed the metals to distribute throughout the wafer and getter to preferential sites. Direct total reflection X-ray fluorescence mapping of Cu on the front side showed that the embedded PSi reduced the amount of Cu reaching the top surface by {proportional_to}10{sup 3} times, compared to the areas without PSi. Moreover, SIMS depth profiling revealed large metal concentrations (10{sup 18}-10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}) in the depth associated with PSi, while the metal concentrations were below detection limits in the surrounding area, suggesting a gettering coefficient of {proportional_to}10{sup 3}-10{sup 4}. A slow cooling rate and smaller pore radii were also found to be beneficial for gettering. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of epitaxial PZT films and devices on silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Minh Duc

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, the integration of lead zirconate titanate Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) thin films into piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based on silicon is studied. In these structures, all epitaxial oxide layers (thin film/electrode/buffer-layer(s)) were deposited by pulsed laser depositio

  13. Ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of epitaxial PZT films and devices on silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Duc Minh

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, the integration of lead zirconate titanate Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) thin films into piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based on silicon is studied. In these structures, all epitaxial oxide layers (thin film/electrode/buffer-layer(s)) were deposited by pulsed laser depositio

  14. Influence of deposition rate on the structural properties of plasma-enhanced CVD epitaxial silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wanghua; Cariou, Romain; Hamon, Gwenaëlle; Léal, Ronan; Maurice, Jean-Luc; Cabarrocas, Pere Roca i

    2017-01-01

    Solar cells based on epitaxial silicon layers as the absorber attract increasing attention because of the potential cost reduction. In this work, we studied the influence of the deposition rate on the structural properties of epitaxial silicon layers produced by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (epi-PECVD) using silane as a precursor and hydrogen as a carrier gas. We found that the crystalline quality of epi-PECVD layers depends on their thickness and deposition rate. Moreover, increasing the deposition rate may lead to epitaxy breakdown. In that case, we observe the formation of embedded amorphous silicon cones in the epi-PECVD layer. To explain this phenomenon, we develop a model based on the coupling of hydrogen and built-in strain. By optimizing the deposition conditions to avoid epitaxy breakdown, including substrate temperatures and plasma potential, we have been able to synthesize epi-PECVD layers up to a deposition rate of 8.3 Å/s. In such case, we found that the incorporation of hydrogen in the hydrogenated crystalline silicon can reach 4 at. % at a substrate temperature of 350 °C. PMID:28262840

  15. Porous silicon as an internal reflector in thin epitaxial solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzma-Filipek, I.; Duerinckx, F.; Nieuwenhuysen, K. van; Beaucarne, G.; Poortmans, J.; Mertens, R. [IMEC vzw, Leuven (Belgium)

    2007-05-15

    Thin film epitaxial silicon solar cells are considered a near future alternative to bulk silicon solar cells. However due to the limited thickness of the active layer they require efficient light trapping. Therefore we propose the development and implementation of such light confinement by means of a porous silicon (PS) intermediate reflector at the epi/substrate interface. The formation of the reflector is done by electrochemical etching of a highly doped Si substrate into a multilayer stack (Bragg-optical reflector), and is followed by epitaxial deposition of the active layer. The implementation of the PS reflector however requires detailed analysis of many problematic issues, foremost the optical optimisation of the stack for internal reflection at the Si/PS/Si interface. Other topics include the pore rearrangement during high-temperature CVD as well as the quality of the epitaxial layer grown on porous silicon. Another challenge is the resistance within the PS layers. For that purpose, SRP (Spreading Resistance Probe) and resistance measurements were performed to determine the conductive properties of rearranged PS. First cells with a 9-layer porous silicon reflector gave a very promising efficiency of 13.5% which is 1.5% higher compared to cells without internal reflector. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Effect of hydrogen on low temperature epitaxial growth of polycrystalline silicon by hot wire chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Cao; Hailong, Zhang; Fengzhen, Liu; Meifang, Zhu; Gangqiang, Dong

    2015-02-01

    Polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) films were prepared by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) at a low substrate temperature of 525 °C. The influence of hydrogen on the epitaxial growth of ploy-Si films was investigated. Raman spectra show that the poly-Si films are fully crystallized at 525 °C with a different hydrogen dilution ratio (50%-91.7%). X-ray diffraction, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and SEM images show that the poly-Si thin films present (100) preferred orientation on (100) c-Si substrate in the high hydrogen dilution condition. The P-type poly-Si film prepared with a hydrogen dilution ratio of 91.7% shows a hall mobility of 8.78 cm2/(V·s) with a carrier concentration of 1.3 × 1020 cm-3, which indicates that the epitaxial poly-Si film prepared by HWCVD has the possibility to be used in photovoltaic and TFT devices.

  17. Electron heat conductivity of epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alisultanov, Z. Z.; Meilanov, R. P.

    2016-08-01

    The diagonal component of the electron heat conductivity tensor of epitaxial graphene formed in a semiconductor has been investigated within a simple analytical model. It is shown that the heat conductivity sharply changes at a chemical potential close to the substrate band gap edge. Low-temperature expressions for the heat conductivity are derived.

  18. XANES and IR spectroscopy study of the electronic structure and chemical composition of porous silicon on n- and p-type substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenshin, A. S., E-mail: lenshinas@phys.vsu.ru; Kashkarov, V. M.; Seredin, P. V. [Voronezh State University (Russian Federation); Spivak, Yu. M.; Moshnikov, V. A. [LETI St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University (Russian Federation)

    2011-09-15

    The differences in the electronic structure and composition of porous silicon samples obtained under identical conditions of electrochemical etching on the most commonly used n- and p-type substrates with different conductivities are demonstrated by X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) and Fourier transform IR spectroscopy (FTIR) methods. It is shown that significantly higher oxidation and saturation with hydrogen is observed for the porous layer on n-type substrates.

  19. Study of an Amorphous Silicon Oxide Buffer Layer for p-Type Microcrystalline Silicon Oxide/n-Type Crystalline Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells and Their Temperature Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taweewat Krajangsang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxide (i-a-SiO:H films were used as front and rear buffer layers in crystalline silicon heterojunction (c-Si-HJ solar cells. The surface passivity and effective lifetime of these i-a-SiO:H films on an n-type silicon wafer were improved by increasing the CO2/SiH4 ratios in the films. Using i-a-SiO:H as the front and rear buffer layers in c-Si-HJ solar cells was investigated. The front i-a-SiO:H buffer layer thickness and the CO2/SiH4 ratio influenced the open-circuit voltage (Voc, fill factor (FF, and temperature coefficient (TC of the c-Si-HJ solar cells. The highest total area efficiency obtained was 18.5% (Voc=700 mV, Jsc=33.5 mA/cm2, and FF=0.79. The TC normalized for this c-Si-HJ solar cell efficiency was −0.301%/°C.

  20. Hyperdoping silicon with selenium: solid vs. liquid phase epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shengqiang; Liu, Fang; Prucnal, S; Gao, Kun; Khalid, M; Baehtz, C; Posselt, M; Skorupa, W; Helm, M

    2015-02-09

    Chalcogen-hyperdoped silicon shows potential applications in silicon-based infrared photodetectors and intermediate band solar cells. Due to the low solid solubility limits of chalcogen elements in silicon, these materials were previously realized by femtosecond or nanosecond laser annealing of implanted silicon or bare silicon in certain background gases. The high energy density deposited on the silicon surface leads to a liquid phase and the fast recrystallization velocity allows trapping of chalcogen into the silicon matrix. However, this method encounters the problem of surface segregation. In this paper, we propose a solid phase processing by flash-lamp annealing in the millisecond range, which is in between the conventional rapid thermal annealing and pulsed laser annealing. Flash lamp annealed selenium-implanted silicon shows a substitutional fraction of ~ 70% with an implanted concentration up to 2.3%. The resistivity is lower and the carrier mobility is higher than those of nanosecond pulsed laser annealed samples. Our results show that flash-lamp annealing is superior to laser annealing in preventing surface segregation and in allowing scalability.

  1. Iron-boron pairing kinetics in illuminated p-type and in boron/phosphorus co-doped n-type silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Möller, Christian, E-mail: cmoeller@cismst.de [CiS Forschungsinstitut für Mikrosensorik und Photovoltaik GmbH, Konrad-Zuse-Str. 14, 99099 Erfurt (Germany); TU Ilmenau, Institut für Physik, Weimarer Str. 32, 98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Bartel, Til; Gibaja, Fabien [Calisolar GmbH, Magnusstraße 11, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Lauer, Kevin [CiS Forschungsinstitut für Mikrosensorik und Photovoltaik GmbH, Konrad-Zuse-Str. 14, 99099 Erfurt (Germany)

    2014-07-14

    Iron-boron (FeB) pairing is observed in the n-type region of a boron and phosphorus co-doped silicon sample which is unexpected from the FeB pair model of Kimerling and Benton. To explain the experimental data, the existing FeB pair model is extended by taking into account the electronic capture and emission rates at the interstitial iron (Fe{sub i}) trap level as a function of the charge carrier densities. According to this model, the charge state of the Fe{sub i} may be charged in n-type making FeB association possible. Further, FeB pair formation during illumination in p-type silicon is investigated. This permits the determination of the charge carrier density dependent FeB dissociation rate and in consequence allows to determine the acceptor concentration in the co-doped n-type silicon by lifetime measurement.

  2. P-stop isolation study of irradiated n-in-p type silicon strip sensors for harsh radiation environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Printz, Martin

    2016-09-01

    In order to determine the most radiation hard silicon sensors for the CMS Experiment after the Phase II Upgrade in 2023 a comprehensive study of silicon sensors after a fluence of up to 1.5 ×1015neq /cm2 corresponding to 3000fb-1 after the HL-LHC era has been carried out. The results led to the decision that the future Outer Tracker (20 cm MIPs penetrating the sensor between two strips.

  3. Silicon epitaxy using tetrasilane at low temperatures in ultra-high vacuum chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazbun, Ramsey; Hart, John; Hickey, Ryan; Ghosh, Ayana; Fernando, Nalin; Zollner, Stefan; Adam, Thomas N.; Kolodzey, James

    2016-06-01

    The deposition of silicon using tetrasilane as a vapor precursor is described for an ultra-high vacuum chemical vapor deposition tool. The growth rates and morphology of the Si epitaxial layers over a range of temperatures and pressures are presented. The layers were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, spectroscopic ellipsometry, Atomic Force Microscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry. Based on this characterization, high quality single crystal silicon epitaxy was observed. Tetrasilane was found to produce higher growth rates relative to lower order silanes, with the ability to deposit crystalline Si at low temperatures (T=400 °C), with significant amorphous growth and reactivity measured as low as 325 °C, indicating the suitability of tetrasilane for low temperature chemical vapor deposition such as for SiGeSn alloys.

  4. Surface photovoltage method for the quality control of silicon epitaxial layers on sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaremchuk, A. F.; Starkov, A. V.; Zaikin, A. V., E-mail: lynch0000@gmail.com [National Rsearch University MIET (Russian Federation); Alekseev, A. V. [ZAO “Telekom-STV” (Russian Federation); Sokolov, E. M. [ZAO “Epiel” (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-15

    The surface photovoltage method is used to study “silicon-on-sapphire” epitaxial layers with a thickness of 0.3–0.6 μm, which are used to fabricate p-channel MOS (metal—oxide-semiconductor) transistors with improved radiation hardness. It is shown that the manner in which the photoconductivity of the epitaxial layer decays after the end of a light pulse generated by a light-emitting diode (wavelength ∼400 nm) strongly depends on the density of structural defects in the bulk of the structure. This enables control over how a “silicon-on-sapphire” structure is formed to provide the manufacturing of MOS structures with optimal operating characteristics.

  5. Solid phase epitaxy amorphous silicon re-growth: some insight from empirical molecular dynamics simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Krzeminski, Christophe; 10.1140/epjb/e2011-10958-7

    2011-01-01

    The modelling of interface migration and the associated diffusion mechanisms at the nanoscale level is a challenging issue. For many technological applications ranging from nanoelectronic devices to solar cells, more knowledge of the mechanisms governing the migration of the silicon amorphous/crystalline interface and dopant diffusion during solid phase epitaxy is needed. In this work, silicon recrystallisation in the framework of solid phase epitaxy and the influence on orientation effects have been investigated at the atomic level using empirical molecular dynamics simulations. The morphology and the migration process of the interface has been observed to be highly dependent on the original inter-facial atomic structure. The [100] interface migration is a quasi-planar ideal process whereas the cases [110] and [111] are much more complex with a more diffuse interface. For [110], the interface migration corresponds to the formation and dissolution of nanofacets whereas for [111] a defective based bilayer reor...

  6. Epitaxial Growth of Germanium on Silicon for Light Emitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengzhao Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the role of Ge as an enabler for light emitters on a Si platform. In spite of the large lattice mismatch of ~4.2% between Ge and Si, high-quality Ge layers can be epitaxially grown on Si by ultrahigh-vacuum chemical vapor deposition. Applications of the Ge layers to near-infrared light emitters with various structures are reviewed, including the tensile-strained Ge epilayer, the Ge epilayer with a delta-doping SiGe layer, and the Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells on Si. The fundamentals of photoluminescence physics in the different Ge structures are discussed briefly.

  7. Epitaxy of nanocrystalline silicon carbide on Si(111) at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verucchi, Roberto; Aversa, Lucrezia; Nardi, Marco V; Taioli, Simone; a Beccara, Silvio; Alfè, Dario; Nasi, Lucia; Rossi, Francesca; Salviati, Giancarlo; Iannotta, Salvatore

    2012-10-24

    Silicon carbide (SiC) has unique chemical, physical, and mechanical properties. A factor strongly limiting SiC-based technologies is the high-temperature synthesis. In this work, we provide unprecedented experimental and theoretical evidence of 3C-SiC epitaxy on silicon at room temperature by using a buckminsterfullerene (C(60)) supersonic beam. Chemical processes, such as C(60) rupture, are activated at a precursor kinetic energy of 30-35 eV, far from thermodynamic equilibrium. This result paves the way for SiC synthesis on polymers or plastics that cannot withstand high temperatures.

  8. Silicon sheet with molecular beam epitaxy for high efficiency solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, F. G.

    1983-01-01

    The capabilities of the new technique of Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) are applied to the growth of high efficiency silicon solar cells. Because MBE can provide well controlled doping profiles of any desired arbitrary design, including doping profiles of such complexity as built-in surface fields or tandem junction cells, it would appear to be the ideal method for development of high efficiency solar cells. It was proposed that UCLA grow and characterize silicon films and p-n junctions of MBE to determine whether the high crystal quality needed for solar cells could be achieved.

  9. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle attachment on array of micro test tubes and microbeakers formed on p-type silicon substrate for biosensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, Sarmishtha; Ansar, Abul Am; Raja, Sufi O.; Jana, Arpita; Bandyopadhyay, Nil R.; Dasgupta, Anjan K.; Ray, Mallar

    2011-10-01

    A uniformly distributed array of micro test tubes and microbeakers is formed on a p-type silicon substrate with tunable cross-section and distance of separation by anodic etching of the silicon wafer in N, N-dimethylformamide and hydrofluoric acid, which essentially leads to the formation of macroporous silicon templates. A reasonable control over the dimensions of the structures could be achieved by tailoring the formation parameters, primarily the wafer resistivity. For a micro test tube, the cross-section (i.e., the pore size) as well as the distance of separation between two adjacent test tubes (i.e., inter-pore distance) is typically approximately 1 μm, whereas, for a microbeaker the pore size exceeds 1.5 μm and the inter-pore distance could be less than 100 nm. We successfully synthesized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), with average particle size approximately 20 nm and attached them on the porous silicon chip surface as well as on the pore walls. Such SPION-coated arrays of micro test tubes and microbeakers are potential candidates for biosensors because of the biocompatibility of both silicon and SPIONs. As acquisition of data via microarray is an essential attribute of high throughput bio-sensing, the proposed nanostructured array may be a promising step in this direction.

  10. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle attachment on array of micro test tubes and microbeakers formed on p-type silicon substrate for biosensor applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Sufi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A uniformly distributed array of micro test tubes and microbeakers is formed on a p-type silicon substrate with tunable cross-section and distance of separation by anodic etching of the silicon wafer in N, N-dimethylformamide and hydrofluoric acid, which essentially leads to the formation of macroporous silicon templates. A reasonable control over the dimensions of the structures could be achieved by tailoring the formation parameters, primarily the wafer resistivity. For a micro test tube, the cross-section (i.e., the pore size as well as the distance of separation between two adjacent test tubes (i.e., inter-pore distance is typically approximately 1 μm, whereas, for a microbeaker the pore size exceeds 1.5 μm and the inter-pore distance could be less than 100 nm. We successfully synthesized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs, with average particle size approximately 20 nm and attached them on the porous silicon chip surface as well as on the pore walls. Such SPION-coated arrays of micro test tubes and microbeakers are potential candidates for biosensors because of the biocompatibility of both silicon and SPIONs. As acquisition of data via microarray is an essential attribute of high throughput bio-sensing, the proposed nanostructured array may be a promising step in this direction.

  11. Interface modification effect between p-type a-SiC:H and ZnO:Al in p-i-n amorphous silicon solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seungsin; Lee, Jeong Chul; Lee, Youn-Jung; Iftiquar, Sk Md; Kim, Youngkuk; Park, Jinjoo; Yi, Junsin

    2012-01-18

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) [AZO] is a good candidate to be used as a transparent conducting oxide [TCO]. For solar cells having a hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide [a-SiC:H] or hydrogenated amorphous silicon [a-Si:H] window layer, the use of the AZO as TCO results in a deterioration of fill factor [FF], so fluorine-doped tin oxide (Sn02:F) [FTO] is usually preferred as a TCO. In this study, interface engineering is carried out at the AZO and p-type a-SiC:H interface to obtain a better solar cell performance without loss in the FF. The abrupt potential barrier at the interface of AZO and p-type a-SiC:H is made gradual by inserting a buffer layer. A few-nanometer-thick nanocrystalline silicon buffer layer between the AZO and a-SiC:H enhances the FF from 67% to 73% and the efficiency from 7.30% to 8.18%. Further improvements in the solar cell performance are expected through optimization of cell structures and doping levels.

  12. Gas doping ratio effects on p-type hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon thin films grown by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, P.Q. [Solar Energy Institute, Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)], E-mail: robt@sjtu.edu.cn; Zhou, Z.B. [Solar Energy Institute, Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)], E-mail: zbzhou@sjtu.edu.cn; Chan, K.Y. [Thin Film Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Jalan Multimedia, Cyberjaya 63100, Selangor (Malaysia); Tang, D.Y.; Cui, R.Q.; Dou, X.M. [Solar Energy Institute, Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2008-12-30

    Hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) grown by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) has recently drawn significant attention in the area of thin-film large area optoelectronics due to possibility of high deposition rate. We report on the effects of diborane (B{sub 2}H{sub 6}) doping ratio on the microstructural and optoelectrical properties of the p-type nc-Si:H thin films grown by HWCVD at low substrate temperature of 200 deg. C and with high hydrogen dilution ratio of 98.8%. An attempt has been made to elucidate the boron doping mechanism of the p-type nc-Si:H thin films deposited by HWCVD and the correlation between the B{sub 2}H{sub 6} doping ratio, crystalline volume fraction, optical band gap and dark conductivity.

  13. Gallium nitride epitaxy on silicon: Importance of substrate preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, G.A.; Sverdlov, B.N.; Botchkarev, A.; Morkoc, H.; Thompson, W.H.; Nayfeh, M.H. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Smith, D.J.; Tsen, S.C.Y. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Hexagonal GaN films grown on non-isomorphic substrates are usually characterized by numerous threading defects which are essentially boundaries between wurtzite GaN domains where the stacking sequences do not align. One origin of these defects is irregularities on the substrate surface such as surface steps. Using Si <111> substrates and a substrate preparation procedure that makes wide atomically flat terraces, the authors demonstrate that reduction of these irregularities greatly improves the crystalline and luminescent quality of GaN films grown by plasma-enhanced molecular beam epitaxy. X-ray rocking curve width decreases from over 1 degree to less than 20 minutes, while PL halfwidth decreases from over 15 meV to less than 10 meV.

  14. Development of Edgeless Silicon Pixel Sensors on p-type substrate for the ATLAS High-Luminosity Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderini, G. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Dipartimento di Fisica E. Fermi, Universitá di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Bagolini, A. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Povo di Trento (Italy); Beccherle, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez. di Pisa (Italy); Bomben, M. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Povo di Trento (Italy); Bosisio, L. [Università degli studi di Trieste (Italy); INFN-Trieste (Italy); Chauveau, J. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Giacomini, G. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Povo di Trento (Italy); La Rosa, A. [Section de Physique (DPNC), Universitè de Geneve, Geneve (Switzerland); Marchiori, G. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2016-09-21

    In view of the LHC upgrade phases towards the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the ATLAS experiment plans to upgrade the Inner Detector with an all-silicon system. The n-on-p silicon technology is a promising candidate to achieve a large area instrumented with pixel sensors, since it is radiation hard and cost effective. The presentation describes the performance of novel n-in-p edgeless planar pixel sensors produced by FBK-CMM, making use of the active trench for the reduction of the dead area at the periphery of the device. After discussing the sensor technology, some feedback from preliminary results of the first beam test will be discussed.

  15. Development of Edgeless Silicon Pixel Sensors on p-type substrate for the ATLAS High-Luminosity Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderini, G.; Bagolini, A.; Beccherle, R.; Bomben, M.; Boscardin, M.; Bosisio, L.; Chauveau, J.; Giacomini, G.; La Rosa, A.; Marchiori, G.; Zorzi, N.

    2016-09-01

    In view of the LHC upgrade phases towards the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the ATLAS experiment plans to upgrade the Inner Detector with an all-silicon system. The n-on-p silicon technology is a promising candidate to achieve a large area instrumented with pixel sensors, since it is radiation hard and cost effective. The presentation describes the performance of novel n-in-p edgeless planar pixel sensors produced by FBK-CMM, making use of the active trench for the reduction of the dead area at the periphery of the device. After discussing the sensor technology, some feedback from preliminary results of the first beam test will be discussed.

  16. Performance of Edgeless Silicon Pixel Sensors on p-type substrate for the ATLAS High-Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00052711; Boscardin, Maurizio; Bosisio, Luciano; Calderini, Giovanni; Chauveau, Jacques; Ducourthial, Audrey; Giacomini, Gabriele; Marchiori, Giovanni; Zorzi, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    In view of the LHC upgrade phases towards the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the ATLAS experiment plans to upgrade the Inner Detector with an all-silicon system. The n-on-p silicon technology is a promising candidate to achieve a large area instrumented with pixel sensors, since it is radiation hard and cost effective. The paper reports on the performance of novel n-on-p edgeless planar pixel sensors produced by FBK-CMM, making use of the active trench for the reduction of the dead area at the periphery of the device. After discussing the sensor technology an overview of the first beam test results will be given.

  17. Growth of epitaxial silicon nanowires on a Si substrate by a metal-catalyst-free process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiyama, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Shuhei; Wakamatsu, Toshiki

    2016-07-28

    The growth of epitaxial Si nanowires by a metal-catalyst-free process has been investigated as an alternative to the more common metal-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid process. The well-aligned Si nanowires are successfully grown on a (111)-oriented Si substrate without any metal catalysts by a thermal treatment using silicon sulfide as a Si source at approximately 1200 °C. The needle-shaped Si nanowires, which have a core-shell structure that consists of a single-crystalline Si core along the direction consistent with the substrate direction and a surface coating of silicon oxide, are grown by a metal-catalyst-free process. In this process, the silicon sulfide in the liquid phase facilitates the nucleation and nanowire growth. In contrast, oxygen-rich nanowires that consist of crystalline Si at the tip and lumpy silicon oxide on the body are observed in a sample grown at 1300 °C, which disturbs the epitaxial growth of Si nanowires.

  18. Epitaxial integration of tetragonal BiFeO3 with silicon for nonvolatile memory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jingbin; Yin, Zhigang; Fu, Zhen; Zhao, Yajuan; Zhang, Xingwang; Liu, Xin; You, Jingbi; Li, Xingxing; Meng, Junhua; Liu, Heng; Wu, Jinliang

    2017-02-01

    Ferroelectric field-effect transistor has long been considered as a promising nonvolatile memory technology, but its application is limited by the poor scalability. Here we show that this problem can be solved by epitaxially integrating tetragonal BiFeO3, a stress-induced metastable phase which exhibits remarkably low dielectric permittivity and high coercive field, on the silicon platform. Tetragonal BiFeO3 was stabilized on (001)-oriented silicon by using Bi2SiO5, which is chemically and structurally compatible with both silicon and tetragonal BiFeO3, as the buffer layer. Unlike the commonly observed MC structure, the obtained BiFeO3 layer exhibits a true tetragonal symmetry. An unprecedented high memory window of 6.5 V was observed for the Au/BiFeO3/Bi2SiO5/Si capacitor with BiFeO3 thickness of 135 nm. The epitaxial integration of tetragonal BiFeO3 with silicon may pave a possible avenue for nanosized, power-efficient ferroelectric nonvolatile memories.

  19. Photoelectron yield spectroscopy and inverse photoemission spectroscopy evaluations of p-type amorphous silicon carbide films prepared using liquid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Tatsuya, E-mail: mtatsuya@jaist.ac.jp, E-mail: mtakashi@jaist.ac.jp [Center for Nano Materials and Technology, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (JAIST), 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan); Masuda, Takashi, E-mail: mtatsuya@jaist.ac.jp, E-mail: mtakashi@jaist.ac.jp; Inoue, Satoshi; Shimoda, Tatsuya [Green Device Research Center, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1211 (Japan); Yano, Hiroshi; Iwamuro, Noriyuki [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tennoudai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    Phosphorus-doped amorphous silicon carbide films were prepared using a polymeric precursor solution. Unlike conventional polymeric precursors, this polymer requires neither catalysts nor oxidation for its synthesis and cross-linkage, providing semiconducting properties in the films. The valence and conduction states of resultant films were determined directly through the combination of inverse photoemission spectroscopy and photoelectron yield spectroscopy. The incorporated carbon widened energy gap and optical gap comparably in the films with lower carbon concentrations. In contrast, a large deviation between the energy gap and the optical gap was observed at higher carbon contents because of exponential widening of the band tail.

  20. Design and analysis of nanowire p-type MOSFET coaxially having silicon core and germanium peripheral channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Eunseon; Cho, Seongjae

    2016-11-01

    In this work, a nanowire p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (PMOSFET) coaxially having a Si core and a Ge peripheral channel is designed and characterized by device simulations. Owing to the high hole mobility of Ge, the device can be utilized for high-speed CMOS integrated circuits, with the effective confinement of mobile holes in Ge by the large valence band offset between Si and Ge. Source/drain doping concentrations and the ratio between the Si core and Ge channel thicknesses are determined. On the basis of the design results, the channel length is aggressively scaled down by evaluating the primary DC parameters in order to confirm device scalability and low-power applicability in sub-10-nm technology nodes.

  1. Electrical properties and surface morphology of electron beam evaporated p-type silicon thin films on polyethylene terephthalate for solar cells applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ang, P. C.; Ibrahim, K.; Pakhuruddin, M. Z. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden 11800 Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    One way to realize low-cost thin film silicon (Si) solar cells fabrication is by depositing the films with high-deposition rate and manufacturing-compatible electron beam (e-beam) evaporation onto inexpensive foreign substrates such as glass or plastic. Most of the ongoing research is reported on e-beam evaporation of Si films on glass substrates to make polycrystalline solar cells but works combining both e-beam evaporation and plastic substrates are still scarce in the literature. This paper studies electrical properties and surface morphology of 1 µm electron beam evaporated Al-doped p-type silicon thin films on textured polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate for application as an absorber layer in solar cells. In this work, Si thin films with different doping concentrations (including an undoped reference) are prepared by e-beam evaporation. Energy dispersion X-ray (EDX) showed that the Si films are uniformly doped by Al dopant atoms. With increased Al/Si ratio, doping concentration increased while both resistivity and carrier mobility of the films showed opposite relationships. Root mean square (RMS) surface roughness increased. Overall, the Al-doped Si film with Al/Si ratio of 2% (doping concentration = 1.57×10{sup 16} atoms/cm{sup 3}) has been found to provide the optimum properties of a p-type absorber layer for fabrication of thin film Si solar cells on PET substrate.

  2. Study the Characteristic of P-Type Junction-Less Side Gate Silicon Nanowire Transistor Fabricated by Atomic Force Microscopy Lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Dehzangi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Nanotransistor now is one of the most promising fields in nanoelectronics in order to decrease the energy consuming and application to create developed programmable information processors. Most of Computing and communications companies invest hundreds of millions of dollars in research funds every year to develop smaller transistors. Approach: The Junction-less side gate silicon Nano-wire transistor has been fabricated by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM and wet etching on p-type Silicon On Insulator (SOI wafer. Then, we checked the characteristic and conductance trend in this device regarding to semi-classical approach by Semiconductor Probe Analyser (SPA. Results: We observed in characteristic of the device directly proportionality of the negative gate voltage and Source-Drain current. In semi classical approach, negative Gate voltage decreased the energy States of the Nano-wire between the source and the drain. The graph for positive gate voltage plotted as well to check. In other hand, the conductance will be following characteristic due to varying the gate voltage under the different drain-source voltage. Conclusion: The channel energy states are supposed to locate between two electrochemical potentials of the contacts in order to transform the charge. For the p-type channel the transform of the carriers is located in valence band and changing the positive or negative gate voltage, making the valence band energy states out of or in the area between the electrochemical potentials of the contacts causing the current reduced or increased.

  3. Preparation of Macroporous Epitaxial Quartz Films on Silicon by Chemical Solution Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretero-Genevrier, Adrián; Gich, Martí

    2015-12-21

    This work describes the detailed protocol for preparing piezoelectric macroporous epitaxial quartz films on silicon(100) substrates. This is a three-step process based on the preparation of a sol in a one-pot synthesis which is followed by the deposition of a gel film on Si(100) substrates by evaporation induced self-assembly using the dip-coating technique and ends with a thermal treatment of the material to induce the gel crystallization and the growth of the quartz film. The formation of a silica gel is based on the reaction of a tetraethyl orthosilicate and water, catalyzed by HCl, in ethanol. However, the solution contains two additional components that are essential for preparing mesoporous epitaxial quartz films from these silica gels dip-coated on Si. Alkaline earth ions, like Sr(2+) act as glass melting agents that facilitate the crystallization of silica and in combination with cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) amphiphilic template form a phase separation responsible of the macroporosity of the films. The good matching between the quartz and silicon cell parameters is also essential in the stabilization of quartz over other SiO2 polymorphs and is at the origin of the epitaxial growth.

  4. Direct ultrasensitive electrical detection of prostate cancer biomarkers with CMOS-compatible n- and p-type silicon nanowire sensor arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Anran; Lu, Na; Dai, Pengfei; Fan, Chunhai; Wang, Yuelin; Li, Tie

    2014-10-01

    Sensitive and quantitative analysis of proteins is central to disease diagnosis, drug screening, and proteomic studies. Here, a label-free, real-time, simultaneous and ultrasensitive prostate-specific antigen (PSA) sensor was developed using CMOS-compatible silicon nanowire field effect transistors (SiNW FET). Highly responsive n- and p-type SiNW arrays were fabricated and integrated on a single chip with a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible anisotropic self-stop etching technique which eliminated the need for a hybrid method. The incorporated n- and p-type nanowires revealed complementary electrical response upon PSA binding, providing a unique means of internal control for sensing signal verification. The highly selective, simultaneous and multiplexed detection of PSA marker at attomolar concentrations, a level useful for clinical diagnosis of prostate cancer, was demonstrated. The detection ability was corroborated to be effective by comparing the detection results at different pH values. Furthermore, the real-time measurement was also carried out in a clinically relevant sample of blood serum, indicating the practicable development of rapid, robust, high-performance, and low-cost diagnostic systems.Sensitive and quantitative analysis of proteins is central to disease diagnosis, drug screening, and proteomic studies. Here, a label-free, real-time, simultaneous and ultrasensitive prostate-specific antigen (PSA) sensor was developed using CMOS-compatible silicon nanowire field effect transistors (SiNW FET). Highly responsive n- and p-type SiNW arrays were fabricated and integrated on a single chip with a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible anisotropic self-stop etching technique which eliminated the need for a hybrid method. The incorporated n- and p-type nanowires revealed complementary electrical response upon PSA binding, providing a unique means of internal control for sensing signal verification. The highly

  5. Development of Edgeless Silicon Pixel Sensors on p-type substrate for the ATLAS High-Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Calderini, G; Bomben, M; Boscardin, M; Bosisio, L; Chauveau, J; Giacomini, G; La Rosa, A; Marchiori, G; Zorzi, N

    2014-01-01

    In view of the LHC upgrade for the high luminosity phase (HL-LHC), the ATLAS experiment is planning to replace the inner detector with an all-silicon system. The n-in-p bulk technology represents a valid solution for the modules of most of the layers, given the significant radiation hardness of this option and the reduced cost. The large area necessary to instrument the outer layers will demand to tile the sensors, a solution for which the inefficient region at the border of each sensor needs to be reduced to the minimum size. This paper reports on a joint R&D project by the ATLAS LPNHE Paris group and FBK Trento on a novel n-in-p edgeless planar pixel design, based on the deep-trench process available at FBK.

  6. Characterization of stain etched p-type silicon in aqueous HF solutions containing HNO{sub 3} or KMnO{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogoda, A.S., E-mail: awad_mogoda@hotmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Ahmad, Y.H.; Badawy, W.A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Stain etching of p-Si in aqueous HF solutions containing HNO{sub 3} or KMnO{sub 4} was investigated. {yields} The electrical conductivity of the etched Si surfaces was measured using impedance technique. {yields} Scanning electron microscope and energy disperse X-ray were used to analyze the etched surfaces. {yields} Etching in aqueous HF solution containing HNO{sub 3} led to formation of a porous silicon layer. {yields} The formation of the porous silicon layer in HF/KMnO{sub 4} was accompanied by deposition of K{sub 2}SiF{sub 6} on the pores surfaces. - Abstract: Stain etching of p-type silicon in hydrofluoric acid solutions containing nitric acid or potassium permanganate as an oxidizing agent has been examined. The effects of etching time, oxidizing agent and HF concentrations on the electrochemical behavior of etched silicon surfaces have been investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). An electrical equivalent circuit was used for fitting the impedance data. The morphology and the chemical composition of the etched Si surface were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) techniques, respectively. A porous silicon layer was formed on Si etched in HF solutions containing HNO{sub 3}, while etching in HF solutions containing KMnO{sub 4} led to the formation of a porous layer and simultaneous deposition of K{sub 2}SiF{sub 6} inside the pores. The thickness of K{sub 2}SiF{sub 6} layer increases with increasing the KMnO{sub 4} concentration and decreases as the concentration of HF increases.

  7. The electrical properties of photodiodes based on nanostructure gallium doped cadmium oxide/p-type silicon junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çavaş, M.; Yakuphanoğlu, F.; Karataş, Ş.

    2017-01-01

    Gallium doped cadmium-oxide (CdO: Ga) thin films were successfully deposited by sol-gel spin coating method on p-type Si substrate. The electrical properties of the photodiode based on nanostructure Ga doped n-CdO/p-Si junctions were investigated. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the structure were investigated under various light intensity and dark. It was observed that generated photocurrent of the Au/n-CdO/p-Si junctions depended on light intensity. The capacitance-voltage and conductance-voltage measurements were carried out for this diode in the frequency range between 100 and 1000 kHz at room temperature by steps of 100 kHz. The capacitance decreased with increasing frequency due to a continuous distribution of the interface states. These results suggested that the Au/n-CdO/p-Si Schottky junctions could be utilized as a photosensor. Furthermore, the voltage and frequency dependence of series resistance were calculated from the C-V and G/ω-V measurements and plotted as functions of voltage and frequency. The distribution profile of R S -V gave a peak in the depletion region at low frequencies and disappeared with increasing frequencies.

  8. Increasing the radiation resistance of single-crystal silicon epitaxial layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurmashev Sh. D.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigate the possibility of increasing the radiation resistance of silicon epitaxial layers by creating radiation defects sinks in the form of dislocation networks of the density of 109—1012 m–2. Such networks are created before the epitaxial layer is applied on the front surface of the silicon substrate by its preliminary oxidation and subsequent etching of the oxide layer. The substrates were silicon wafers KEF-4.5 and KDB-10 with a diameter of about 40 mm, grown by the Czochralski method. Irradiation of the samples was carried out using electron linear accelerator "Electronics" (ЭЛУ-4. Energy of the particles was 2,3—3,0 MeV, radiation dose 1015—1020 m–2, electron beam current 2 mA/m2. It is shown that in structures containing dislocation networks, irradiation results in reduction of the reverse currents by 5—8 times and of the density of defects by 5—10 times, while the mobility of the charge carriers is increased by 1,2 times. Wafer yield for operation under radiation exposure, when the semiconductor structures are formed in the optimal mode, is increased by 7—10% compared to the structures without dislocation networks. The results obtained can be used in manufacturing technology for radiation-resistant integrated circuits (bipolar, CMOS, BiCMOS, etc..

  9. Investigation of the silicon ion density during molecular beam epitaxy growth

    CERN Document Server

    Eifler, G; Ashurov, K; Morozov, S

    2002-01-01

    Ions impinging on a surface during molecular beam epitaxy influence the growth and the properties of the growing layer, for example, suppression of dopant segregation and the generation of crystal defects. The silicon electron gun in the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) equipment is used as a source for silicon ions. To use the effect of ion bombardment the mechanism of generation and distribution of ions was investigated. A monitoring system was developed and attached at the substrate position in the MBE growth chamber to measure the ion and electron densities towards the substrate. A negative voltage was applied to the substrate to modify the ion energy and density. Furthermore the current caused by charge carriers impinging on the substrate was measured and compared with the results of the monitoring system. The electron and ion densities were measured by varying the emission current of the e-gun achieving silicon growth rates between 0.07 and 0.45 nm/s and by changing the voltage applied to the substrate betw...

  10. Control growth of silicon nanocolumns' epitaxy on silicon nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, Su Kong, E-mail: sukong1985@yahoo.com.my [University of Malaya, Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre, Department of Physics (Malaysia); Dee, Chang Fu [Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics (IMEN) (Malaysia); Yahya, Noorhana [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Faculty of Science and Information Technology (Malaysia); Rahman, Saadah Abdul [University of Malaya, Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre, Department of Physics (Malaysia)

    2013-04-15

    The epitaxial growth of Si nanocolumns on Si nanowires was studied using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition. A single-crystalline and surface oxide-free Si nanowire core (core radius {approx}21 {+-} 5 nm) induced by indium crystal seed was used as a substance for the vapor phase epitaxial growth. The growth process is initiated by sidewall facets, which then nucleate upon certain thickness to form Si islands and further grow to form nanocolumns. The Si nanocolumns with diameter of 10-20 nm and aspect ratio up to 10 can be epitaxially grown on the surface of nanowires. The results showed that the radial growth rate of the Si nanocolumns remains constant with the increase of deposition time. Meanwhile, the radial growth rates are controllable by manipulating the hydrogen to silane gas flow rate ratio. The optical antireflection properties of the Si nanocolumns' decorated SiNW arrays are discussed in the text.

  11. Sub-band transport mechanism and switching properties for resistive switching nonvolatile memories with structure of silver/aluminum oxide/p-type silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yanhong; Li, La; Wang, Song; Gao, Ping; Pan, Lujun; Zhang, Jialiang [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, No. 2 Linggong Road, Ganjingzi District, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhou, Peng [Department of Microelectronics, State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Li, Jinhua; Weng, Zhankun [Center for Nano Metrology and Manufacturing Technologies and International Joint Research Center for Nanophotonics and Biophotonics, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2015-02-09

    In this paper, we discuss a model of sub-band in resistive switching nonvolatile memories with a structure of silver/aluminum oxide/p-type silicon (Ag/Al{sub x}O{sub y}/p-Si), in which the sub-band is formed by overlapping of wave functions of electron-occupied oxygen vacancies in Al{sub x}O{sub y} layer deposited by atomic layer deposition technology. The switching processes exhibit the characteristics of the bipolarity, discreteness, and no need of forming process, all of which are discussed deeply based on the model of sub-band. The relationships between the SET voltages and distribution of trap levels are analyzed qualitatively. The semiconductor-like behaviors of ON-state resistance affirm the sub-band transport mechanism instead of the metal filament mechanism.

  12. DLTS measurements of radiation induced defects in epitaxial and MCz silicon detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hönniger, F.; Fretwurst, E.; Lindström, G.; Kramberger, G.; Pintilie, I.; Röder, R.

    2007-12-01

    n-Type epitaxial silicon layers of different thickness and resistivity, grown on highly Sb doped CZ-substrate by ITME (Warsaw), and n-type MCz silicon supplied by Okmetic (Finland) were used for the processing of planar diodes at CiS (Erfurt). For the epi-diodes a standard as well as a diffusion oxygenation process was employed. Irradiations had been performed with 26 MeV protons at the cyclotron of the Karlsruhe University and with neutrons at the TRIGA reactor of the Ljubljana University. Microscopic investigations using the DLTS method were done. The correlation of the IO2i-defect and the oxygen concentration was studied by a depth-profile measurement. The annealing behavior of the IO2i-defect at different temperatures was investigated and the activation energy extracted.

  13. DLTS measurements of radiation induced defects in epitaxial and MCz silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenniger, F. [Institute for Experimental Physics, University of Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: frank.hoenniger@desy.de; Fretwurst, E.; Lindstroem, G. [Institute for Experimental Physics, University of Hamburg (Germany); Kramberger, G. [Josef Stefan Institute, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pintilie, I. [National Institute for Materials Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Roeder, R. [CiS Institut fuer Mikrosensorik gGmbH, Erfurt (Germany)

    2007-12-11

    n-Type epitaxial silicon layers of different thickness and resistivity, grown on highly Sb doped CZ-substrate by ITME (Warsaw), and n-type MCz silicon supplied by Okmetic (Finland) were used for the processing of planar diodes at CiS (Erfurt). For the epi-diodes a standard as well as a diffusion oxygenation process was employed. Irradiations had been performed with 26 MeV protons at the cyclotron of the Karlsruhe University and with neutrons at the TRIGA reactor of the Ljubljana University. Microscopic investigations using the DLTS method were done. The correlation of the IO{sub 2i}-defect and the oxygen concentration was studied by a depth-profile measurement. The annealing behavior of the IO{sub 2i}-defect at different temperatures was investigated and the activation energy extracted.

  14. Large area and structured epitaxial graphene produced by confinement controlled sublimation of silicon carbide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heer, Walt A; Berger, Claire; Ruan, Ming; Sprinkle, Mike; Li, Xuebin; Hu, Yike; Zhang, Baiqian; Hankinson, John; Conrad, Edward

    2011-10-11

    After the pioneering investigations into graphene-based electronics at Georgia Tech, great strides have been made developing epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide (EG) as a new electronic material. EG has not only demonstrated its potential for large scale applications, it also has become an important material for fundamental two-dimensional electron gas physics. It was long known that graphene mono and multilayers grow on SiC crystals at high temperatures in ultrahigh vacuum. At these temperatures, silicon sublimes from the surface and the carbon rich surface layer transforms to graphene. However the quality of the graphene produced in ultrahigh vacuum is poor due to the high sublimation rates at relatively low temperatures. The Georgia Tech team developed growth methods involving encapsulating the SiC crystals in graphite enclosures, thereby sequestering the evaporated silicon and bringing growth process closer to equilibrium. In this confinement controlled sublimation (CCS) process, very high-quality graphene is grown on both polar faces of the SiC crystals. Since 2003, over 50 publications used CCS grown graphene, where it is known as the "furnace grown" graphene. Graphene multilayers grown on the carbon-terminated face of SiC, using the CCS method, were shown to consist of decoupled high mobility graphene layers. The CCS method is now applied on structured silicon carbide surfaces to produce high mobility nano-patterned graphene structures thereby demonstrating that EG is a viable contender for next-generation electronics. Here we present for the first time the CCS method that outperforms other epitaxial graphene production methods.

  15. Electrochemical properties and applications of nanocrystalline, microcrystalline, and epitaxial cubic silicon carbide films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Hao; Yang, Nianjun; Zhang, Lei; Fuchs, Regina; Jiang, Xin

    2015-05-27

    Microstructures of the materials (e.g., crystallinitiy, defects, and composition, etc.) determine their properties, which eventually lead to their diverse applications. In this contribution, the properties, especially the electrochemical properties, of cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) films have been engineered by controlling their microstructures. By manipulating the deposition conditions, nanocrystalline, microcrystalline and epitaxial (001) 3C-SiC films are obtained with varied properties. The epitaxial 3C-SiC film presents the lowest double-layer capacitance and the highest reversibility of redox probes, because of its perfect (001) orientation and high phase purity. The highest double-layer capacitance and the lowest reversibility of redox probes have been realized on the nanocrystalline 3C-SiC film. Those are ascribed to its high amount of grain boundaries, amorphous phases and large diversity in its crystal size. Based on their diverse properties, the electrochemical performances of 3C-SiC films are evaluated in two kinds of potential applications, namely an electrochemical capacitor using a nanocrystalline film and an electrochemical dopamine sensor using the epitaxial 3C-SiC film. The nanocrystalline 3C-SiC film shows not only a high double layer capacitance (43-70 μF/cm(2)) but also a long-term stability of its capacitance. The epitaxial 3C-SiC film shows a low detection limit toward dopamine, which is one to 2 orders of magnitude lower than its normal concentration in tissue. Therefore, 3C-SiC film is a novel but designable material for different emerging electrochemical applications such as energy storage, biomedical/chemical sensors, environmental pollutant detectors, and so on.

  16. The fabrication of quantum wires in silicon utilising the characteristics of solid phase epitaxial regrowth of crystalline silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, A.C.Y.; McCallum, J.C. [Melbourne Univ. Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics, Microanalytical Research Centre

    1998-06-01

    The process of solid phase epitaxy (SPE) in semiconductor materials is one which has been intensively researched due to possible applications in the semiconductor industry. SPE is a solid phase transformation, in which an amorphous layer can be recrystallized either through heating or a combination of heating and ion bombardment. The transformation is believed to occur exclusively at the interface between the amorphous and crystalline layers, with individual atoms from the amorphous phase being incorporated into the crystalline phase by some point defect mechanism. The process has been observed to follow an Arrhenius temperature dependence. A wafer silicon was subjected to a multi-energy silicon implant through a fine nickel grid to amorphise region to a depth of 5{mu}m creating an array of amorphous wells. Metal impurity atoms were then implanted in this region at energy of 500 keV. Samples were examined using an optical microscope and the Alphastep profiler at RMIT. It was confirmed that burgeoning wells were about 2 {mu}m wide and rose about 0.01 {mu}m above the silicon substrate. Extended abstract. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Epitaxial diamond-hexagonal silicon nano-ribbon growth on (001) silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Y.; Bender, H.; Richard, O.; Kim, M.-S.; van Besien, E.; Vos, I.; de Potter de Ten Broeck, M.; Mocuta, D.; Vandervorst, W.

    2015-08-01

    Silicon crystallizes in the diamond-cubic phase and shows only a weak emission at 1.1 eV. Diamond-hexagonal silicon however has an indirect bandgap at 1.5 eV and has therefore potential for application in opto-electronic devices. Here we discuss a method based on advanced silicon device processing to form diamond-hexagonal silicon nano-ribbons. With an appropriate temperature anneal applied to densify the oxide fillings between silicon fins, the lateral outward stress exerted on fins sandwiched between wide and narrow oxide windows can result in a phase transition from diamond-cubic to diamond-hexagonal Si at the base of these fins. The diamond-hexagonal slabs are generally 5-8 nm thick and can extend over the full width and length of the fins, i.e. have a nano-ribbon shape along the fins. Although hexagonal silicon is a metastable phase, once formed it is found being stable during subsequent high temperature treatments even during process steps up to 1050 ºC.

  18. Observation of field emission from GeSn nanoparticles epitaxially grown on silicon nanopillar arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bartolomeo, Antonio; Passacantando, Maurizio; Niu, Gang; Schlykow, Viktoria; Lupina, Grzegorz; Giubileo, Filippo; Schroeder, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    We apply molecular beam epitaxy to grow GeSn-nanoparticles on top of Si-nanopillars patterned onto p-type Si wafers. We use x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to confirm a metallic behavior of the nanoparticle surface due to partial Sn segregation as well as the presence of a superficial Ge oxide. We report the observation of stable field emission (FE) current from the GeSn-nanoparticles, with turn on field of 65 {{V}} μ {{{m}}}-{{1}} and field enhancement factor β ˜ 100 at anode-cathode distance of ˜0.6 μm. We prove that FE can be enhanced by preventing GeSn nanoparticles oxidation or by breaking the oxide layer through electrical stress. Finally, we show that GeSn/p-Si junctions have a rectifying behavior.

  19. Investigation of the silicon ion density during molecular beam epitaxy growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eifler, G.; Kasper, E.; Ashurov, Kh.; Morozov, S.

    2002-05-01

    Ions impinging on a surface during molecular beam epitaxy influence the growth and the properties of the growing layer, for example, suppression of dopant segregation and the generation of crystal defects. The silicon electron gun in the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) equipment is used as a source for silicon ions. To use the effect of ion bombardment the mechanism of generation and distribution of ions was investigated. A monitoring system was developed and attached at the substrate position in the MBE growth chamber to measure the ion and electron densities towards the substrate. A negative voltage was applied to the substrate to modify the ion energy and density. Furthermore the current caused by charge carriers impinging on the substrate was measured and compared with the results of the monitoring system. The electron and ion densities were measured by varying the emission current of the e-gun achieving silicon growth rates between 0.07 and 0.45 nm/s and by changing the voltage applied to the substrate between 0 to -1000 V. The dependencies of ion and electron densities were shown and discussed within the framework of a simple model. The charged carrier densities measured with the monitoring system enable to separate the ion part of the substrate current and show its correlation to the generation rate. Comparing the ion density on the whole substrate and in the center gives a hint to the ion beam focusing effect. The maximum ion and electron current densities obtained were 0.40 and 0.61 μA/cm2, respectively.

  20. Epitaxy of silicon carbide on silicon: Micromorphological analysis of growth surface evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikhgasan, Ramazanov; Ştefan, Ţălu; Dinara, Sobola; Sebastian, Stach; Guseyn, Ramazanov

    2015-10-01

    The main purpose of our research was the study of evolution of silicon carbide films on silicon by micromorphological analysis. Surface micromorphologies of Silicon Carbide epilayers with two different thicknesses were compared by means of fractal geometry. Silicon Carbide films were prepared on Si substrates by magnetron sputtering of polycrystalline target SiC in Ar atmosphere (99.999% purity). Synthesis of qualitative SiC/Si templates solves the questions of large diameter SiC single-crystal wafers formation. This technology decreases financial expenditure and provides integration of SiC into silicon technology. These hybrid substrates with buffer layer of high oriented SiC are useful for growth of both wide band gap materials (SiC, AlN, GaN) and graphene. The main problem of SiC heteroepitaxy on Si (1 1 1) is the large difference (∼20%) of the lattice parameters. Fractal analysis of surface morphology of heteroepitaxial films could help to understand the films growth mechanisms. The 3D (three-dimensional) surfaces revealed a fractal structure at the nanometer scale. The fractal dimension (D) provided global quantitative values that characterize the scale properties of surface geometry.

  1. Systematic process development towards high performance transferred thin silicon solar cells based on epitaxially grown absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcia Salazar, Clara Paola

    The value of thin crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells is the potential for higher performance compared to conventional wafer approaches. Thin silicon solar cells can outperform thick cells with the same material properties because the smaller active volume causes a reduced bulk recombination leading to higher voltages while efficient light trapping structures ensure all photons are absorbed. Efficiencies above 20+% can be achieved with less than 20um of c-Si with current silicon solar cell processing technologies. In a thin solar cell, factors that will lead to high efficiency include high minority carrier lifetime, low surface recombination, and good optical confinement. Independently optimizing surface optical and electrical properties in a thin solar cell can achieve this higher performance. In addition, re-utilizing a c-Si wafer with a process that allows optimization of both surfaces is a path to higher performance at lower cost. The challenge in the fabrication of this high performance concept is to separately analyze critical parameters through fabrication and transfer and establish the design rules for high performance. This work contributes to the design and systematic fabrication approach of a 20 mum thick epitaxial silicon solar cell. State-of-the-art thin absorbers of less than 30um have reported 655mV (on a textured front surface with antireflection coating), and efficiencies near 17%. We report near 640mV (on a planar front surface with antireflection coating) for 20 mum thick absorbers. It is found that previously reported efficiencies are tightly related to solar cell's active thickness. In the case of transferred solar cells, the thinnest epitaxial transferred cell reported is near 24 mum thick with an efficiency of 15.4% (transparent front handle, textured with ARC and metallic back reflector). Recently, a c-Si transferred solar cell of 43 mum has reported 19.1% efficiency (with a front texture and ARC with localized back contact and reflector

  2. Continuum simulation of solid phase epitaxial regrowth of amorphized silicon including most advanced physical interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delalleau, Julien; Simola, Roberto [STMicroelectronics, ZI de Rousset, BP 2, 13106 Rousset (France); Pakfar, Ardechir; Tavernier, Clement [STMicroelectronics, 850 rue Jean Monnet, 38926 Crolles Cedex (France); Bazizi, El-Medhi [STMicroelectronics, 850 rue Jean Monnet, 38926 Crolles Cedex (France); LAAS/CNRS, University of Toulouse, 7 av. Col. Roche, 31077 Toulouse (France); CEMES/CNRS, 29 rue J. Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France)

    2011-03-15

    Solid-phase-epitaxial regrowth (SPER) of Si amorphized by ion implantation is considered as a potential solution for the fabrication of highly-activated ultra-shallow junctions for future technology nodes of Si CMOS devices. In the frame of 32 and 22 nm technologies node development, SPER occurs after amorphizing implantations used in source/drain regions. To get an accurate simulation of dopant activation and junction depth position, a suitable continuum SPER model, implemented into a commercial simulator, is now mandatory. This TCAD model must consider the different physical effects associated with SPER: silicon regrowth rate, dopants redistribution snow plough effect, and interaction with silicon point defects. In this work, using a previously established model, we have implemented an improved physically based model for SPER and, several formulations have been developed to enable a robust/accurate modeling of the recrystallization velocity. It takes into account the direct interaction between amorphous/crystalline interface kinetics and point defects, and a regrowth rate dependent on temperature. Simulation results of dopant concentration profiles are in good agreement with experimental data and can provide important insight for optimizing the bulk silicon process as well in one dimension as two dimensions. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. The performance of Y2O3 as interface layer between La2O3 and p-type silicon substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulong Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the performance of Y2O3 as interface layer between La2O3 and p-type silicon substrate is studied with the help of atomic layer deposition (ALD and magnetron sputtering technology. The surface morphology of the bilayer films with different structures are observed after rapid thermal annealing (RTA by atomic force microscopy (AFM. The results show that Y2O3/Al2O3/Si structure has a larger number of small spikes on the surface and its surface roughness is worse than Al2O3/Y2O3/Si structure. The reason is that the density of Si substrate surface is much higher than that of ALD growth Al2O3. With the help of high-frequency capacitance-voltage(C-V measurement and conductivity method, the density of interface traps can be calculated. After a high temperature annealing, the metal silicate will generate at the substrate interface and result in silicon dangling bond and interface trap charge, which has been improved by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and interface trap charge density calculation. The interface trapped charge density of La2O3/Al2O3/Si stacked gate structure is lower than that of La2O3/Y2O3/Si gate structure. If Y2O3 is used to replace Al2O3 as the interfacial layer, the accumulation capacitance will increase obviously, which means lower equivalent oxide thickness (EOT. Our results show that interface layer Y2O3 grown by magnetron sputtering can effectively ensure the interface traps near the substrate at relative small level while maintain a relative higher dielectric constant than Al2O3.

  4. Fabrication and characterization of silicon nanowire p-i-n MOS gated diode for use as p-type tunnel FET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouzet, V.; Salem, B.; Periwal, P.; Rosaz, G.; Baron, T.; Bassani, F.; Gentile, P.; Ghibaudo, G.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we present the fabrication and electrical characterization of a MOS gated diode based on axially doped silicon nanowire (NW) p-i-n junctions. These nanowires are grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) using the vapour-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. NWs have a length of about 7 \\upmu {m} with 3 \\upmu {m} of doped regions (p-type and n-type) and 1 \\upmu {m} of intrinsic region. The gate stack is composed of 15 nm of hafnium dioxide ({HfO}2), 80 nm of nickel and 120 nm of aluminium. At room temperature, I_{{on}} =-52 {nA}/\\upmu {m} (V_{{DS}}=-0.5 {V}, V_{{GS}}=-4 {V}), and an I_{{on}}/I_{{off}} ratio of about 104 with a very low I_{{off}} current has been obtained. Electrical measurements are carried out between 90 and 390 K, and we show that the I on current is less temperature dependent below 250 K. We also observe that the ON current is increasing between 250 and 390 K. These transfer characteristics at low and high temperature confirm the tunnelling transport mechanisms in our devices.

  5. Impact of strain on gate-induced floating body effect for partially depleted silicon-on-insulator p-type metal–oxide–semiconductor-field-effect-transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Wen-Hung [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Ting-Chang, E-mail: tcchang@mail.phys.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Dai, Chih-Hao [Department of Photonics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chung, Wan-Lin [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Ching-En; Ho, Szu-Han [Department of Electronics Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tsai, Jyun-Yu [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Hua-Mao [Department of Photonics and Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liu, Guan-Ru [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Cheng, Osbert; Huang, Cheng-Tung [Device Department, United Microelectronics Corporation, Tainan Science Park, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates impact of mechanical strain on gate-induced-floating-body-effect (GIFBE) for partially depleted silicon-on-insulator p-type metal–oxide–semiconductor field effect transistors (PD SOI p-MOSFETs). First part, the original mechanism of GIFBE on PD SOI p-MOSFETs is studied. The experimental results indicate that GIFBE causes a reduction in oxide electric field (E{sub ox}), resulting in an underestimate of negative-bias temperature instability (NBTI) degradation. This can be attributed to the electrons tunneling from the process-induced partial n{sup +} poly gate and anode electron injection (AEI) model, rather than the electron valence band tunneling (EVB) widely accepted as the mechanism for n-MOSFETs. And then, the second part shows that the strained FB device has less NBTI degradation than the unstrained devices. This behavior can be attributed to the fact that more electron accumulation was induced by strain-induced band gap narrowing, reducing NBTI significantly. - Highlights: ► This work investigates the impact of mechanical strain on GIFBE for PD SOI p-MOSFETs. ► FB device shows an insignificant NBTI due to GIFBE. ► GIFBE results from the partial n{sup +} poly gate and anode electron injection model. ► The strained FB device has less NBTI degradation than unstrained devices. ► We verify the band gap narrowing causes less NBTI on strained FB device.

  6. Effect of Rapid Thermal Processing on Light-Induced Degradation of Carrier Lifetime in Czochralski p-Type Silicon Bare Wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouhlane, Y.; Bouhafs, D.; Khelifati, N.; Belhousse, S.; Menari, H.; Guenda, A.; Khelfane, A.

    2016-11-01

    The electrical properties of Czochralski silicon (Cz-Si) p-type boron-doped bare wafers have been investigated after rapid thermal processing (RTP) with different peak temperatures. Treated wafers were exposed to light for various illumination times, and the effective carrier lifetime ( τ eff) measured using the quasi-steady-state photoconductance (QSSPC) technique. τ eff values dropped after prolonged illumination exposure due to light-induced degradation (LID) related to electrical activation of boron-oxygen (BO) complexes, except in the sample treated with peak temperature of 785°C, for which the τ eff degradation was less pronounced. Also, a reduction was observed when using the 830°C peak temperature, an effect that was enhanced by alteration of the wafer morphology (roughness). Furthermore, the electrical resistivity presented good stability under light exposure as a function of temperature compared with reference wafers. Additionally, the optical absorption edge shifted to higher wavelength, leading to increased free-carrier absorption by treated wafers. Moreover, a theoretical model is used to understand the lifetime degradation and regeneration behavior as a function of illumination time. We conclude that RTP plays an important role in carrier lifetime regeneration for Cz-Si wafers via modification of optoelectronic and structural properties. The balance between an optimized RTP cycle and the rest of the solar cell elaboration process can overcome the negative effect of LID and contribute to achievement of higher solar cell efficiency and module performance.

  7. A novel technique based on a plasma focus device for nano-porous gallium nitride formation on P-type silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi Malvajerdi, S.; Salar Elahi, A.; Habibi, M.

    2017-04-01

    A new deposition formation was observed with a Mather-type Plasma Focus Device (MPFD). MPFD was unitized to fabricate porous Gallium Nitride (GaN) on p-type Silicon (Si) substrate with a (100) crystal orientation for the first time in a deposition process. GaN was deposited on Si with 4 and 7 shots. The samples were subjected to a 3 phase annealing procedure. First, the semiconductors were annealed in the PFD with nitrogen plasma shots after their deposition. Second, a thermal chemical vapor deposition annealed the samples for 1 h at 1050 °C by nitrogen gas at a pressure of 1 Pa. Finally, an electric furnace annealed the samples for 1 h at 1150 °C with continuous flow of nitrogen. Porous GaN structures were observed by Field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Furthermore, X-Ray diffraction analysis was carried out to determine the crystallinity of GaN after the samples were annealed. Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy indicated the amount of gallium, nitrogen, and oxygen due to the self-oxidation of the samples. Photoluminescence spectroscopy revealed emissions at 2.94 eV and 3.39 eV, which shows that hexagonal wurtzite crystal structures were formed.

  8. Impact of mechanical stress on gate tunneling currents of germanium and silicon p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors and metal gate work function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youn Sung; Numata, Toshinori; Nishida, Toshikazu; Harris, Rusty; Thompson, Scott E.

    2008-03-01

    Uniaxial four-point wafer bending stress-altered gate tunneling currents are measured for germanium (Ge)/silicon (Si) channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) with HfO2/SiO2 gate dielectrics and TiN/P+ poly Si electrodes. Carrier separation is used to measure electron and hole currents. The strain-altered hole tunneling current from the p-type inversion layer of Ge is measured to be ˜4 times larger than that for the Si channel MOSFET, since the larger strain-induced valence band-edge splitting in Ge results in more hole repopulation into a subband with a smaller out-of-plane effective mass and a lower tunneling barrier height. The strain-altered electron tunneling current from the metal gate is measured and shown to change due to strain altering the metal work function as quantified by flatband voltage shift measurements of Si MOS capacitors with TaN electrodes.

  9. Defect structure of erbium-doped <1 1 1> silicon layers formed by solid phase epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyutt, R.N.; Sobolev, Nikolai A. E-mail: nick@sobolev.ioffe.rssi.ru; Nikolaev, Yu. A.; Vdovin, V.I

    2001-01-01

    Erbium-doped layers have been produced on <1 1 1>-oriented silicon wafers using high-energy amorphizing Er implants and solid phase epitaxy (SPE). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques, used to study the microstructure of these layers, revealed the presence of microtwins and dislocations. The twins were found to be platelets with lateral dimensions of 15-30 nm and a thickness of about 2-9 nm, and their density throughout the regrown layer was nonuniform. The dislocation densities observed in the regrown layers were very high with densities exceeding 10{sup 10} cm{sup -2}. Within the implant fluence range studied, between 1x10{sup 14} and 9x10{sup 14} Er cm{sup -2}, the twin and dislocation densities were observed to increase with fluence, while the twin dimensions were found to decrease.

  10. InAs/InP nanowires grown by catalyst assisted molecular beam epitaxy on silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khmissi, H.; Naji, K.; Hadj Alouane, M. H.; Chauvin, N.; Bru-Chevallier, C.; Ilahi, B.; Patriarche, G.; Gendry, M.

    2012-04-01

    InP nanowires (NWs) with an InAs insertion were grown on (001)- and (111)-oriented silicon substrates by catalyst assisted molecular beam epitaxy. To prevent the crystallization of the catalyst droplet we propose a procedure based on the realization of the switching of the elements V flux during a growth interruption. With this procedure and with the growth conditions we have used, the crystal structure of the NWs is purely wurtzite without any stacking faults. With these growth conditions, both radial and axial growths occur simultaneously and we show that the growth time of the InAs insertion could be adjusted to obtain radial quantum well emitting in the 1.3-1.6 μm telecom band at room temperature.

  11. Epitaxial Growth of beta-Silicon Carbide (SiC) on a Compliant Substrate via Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sharanda L.

    1996-01-01

    Many lattice defects have been attributed to the lattice mismatch and the difference in the thermal coefficient of expansion between SiC and silicon (Si). Stacking faults, twins and antiphase boundaries are some of the lattice defects found in these SiC films. These defects may be a partial cause of the disappointing performance reported for the prototype devices fabricated from beta-SiC films. The objective of this research is to relieve some of the thermal stress due to lattice mismatch when SiC is epitaxially grown on Si. The compliant substrate is a silicon membrane 2-4 microns thick. The CVD process includes the buffer layer which is grown at 1360 C followed by a very thin epitaxial growth of SiC. Then the temperature is raised to 1500 C for the subsequent growth of SiC. Since silicon melts at 1415 C, the SiC will be grown on molten Silicon which is absorbed by a porous graphite susceptor eliminating the SiC/Si interface. We suspect that this buffer layer will yield less stressed material to help in the epitaxial growth of SiC.

  12. Characterization of thin irradiated epitaxial silicon sensors for the CMS phase II pixel upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Centis Vignali, Matteo; Eichhorn, Thomas; Garutti, Erika; Junkes, Alexandra; Steinbrueck, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The high-luminosity upgrade fo the large hadron collider foreseen for 2023 resulted in the decision to replace the tracker system of the CMS experiment. The innermost layer of the new pixel detector will experience fluences in the order of $\\phi_{eq} \\approx 10^{16}$~cm$^{-2}$ and a dose of $\\approx 5$~MGy after an integrated luminosity of 3000~fb$^{-1}$. Several materials and designs are under investigation in order to build a detector that can withstand such high fluences. Thin planar silicon sensors are good canditates to achieve this goal since the degradation of the signal produced by traversing particles is less severe than for thicker devices. A study has been carried out in order to characterize highly irradiated planar epitaxial silicon sensors with an active thickness of 100~$\\mu$m. The investigation includes pad diodes and strip detectors irradiated up to a fluence of $\\phi_{eq} = 1.3 \\times 10^{16}$~cm$^{-2}$. The electrical properties of diodes have bee...

  13. Changing of micromorphology of silicon-on-sapphire epitaxial layer surface at irradiation by subthreshold energy X-radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselev, A N; Skupov, V D; Filatov, D O

    2001-01-01

    The morphology of silicon-on-sapphire epitaxial layer surface after pulse irradiation by the X-rays with the energy of <= 140 keV is studied. The study on the irradiated material surface is carried out by the methods of the atomic force microscopy and ellipsometry. The average roughness value after irradiation constitutes 7 nm. The change in the films surface microrelief occurs due to reconstruction of their dislocation structure under the action of elastic waves, originating in the X radiation

  14. High temperature furnace for liquid phase epitaxy of silicon carbide in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockowandt, Christian; Yakimova, Rositza; Syväjärvi and, Mikael; Janzén, Erik

    1999-04-01

    The high temperature furnace for Liquid Phase Epitaxy (LPE) was developed by Swedish Space Corporation. It was developed for a Silicon Carbide liquid phase epitaxy microgravity experiment performed by Linköping University, Sweden. The LPE is capable of processing materials up to 1900°C in ultra clean atmosphere or vacuum in accordance with requirements for semiconductor crystal growth. The LPE has the capability to heat and cool the samples rapidly due to a high power input and a cooling gas system, this makes it possible to utilise it for short duration microgravity flights. The samples can be processed in isothermal conditions or with a temperature gradient up to 5°C/mm. The two resistive heaters are controlled individually which makes it possible for the user to pre-program an optional temperature profile for the experiment. The LPE was launched on the European microgravity rocket MASER 7 at Esrange in May 1996. For the first time under microgravity conditions four SiC samples were processed successfully. SiC has in comparison with Si superior properties regarding power electronics [1]. However, the quality of the material needs to be improved considerably before commercial production. Growth from a solution may give rise to an impurity microsegregation and growth instabilities due to the gravitation-induced convection, presumably resulting in an alteration of the point defect assembly. Growth under microgravity is thus a key for a better understanding of the growth process and defect formation. The material grown in microgravity is improved compared with on-ground reference growth.

  15. Modified technique of using conventional slider boat for liquid phase epitaxy of silicon for solar cell application

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Majumdar; S Chatterjee; U Gangopadhyay; H Saha

    2003-10-01

    Epitaxial layers of silicon are grown on single crystal Si-substrate from a solution of silicon in indium using conventional graphite slider boat technique. The important problems of natural convection due to lower density of silicon compared to indium, poor wetting of substrate due to high angle of contact of indium solution on silicon substrate resulting in poor nucleation, melt removal from the growth substrate and saturation wafer associated with LPE in this technique are practically eliminated using sandwich method with simple modifications of the boat and the method of growth. Some experimental studies on the effect of different surface preparations of growth substrate are also reported. Growth results are shown and discussed. Further, improvization of slider boat to facilitate better study of growth parameters is suggested in the line of modification already carried out.

  16. Application of Silicon Selective Epitaxial Growth and Chemo-Mechanical Polishing to Bipolar and Soi Mosfet Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cuong Tan

    1994-01-01

    Polished Epitaxy, or the combination of silicon Selective Epitaxial Growth and Chemo-Mechanical Polishing, provides new flexibility in process and device design, including optimized isolation, planar active-area definition, low-capacitance contacts, and SOI thin films. In this work, Polished Epitaxy has been developed with particular effort on overcoming junction leakage problems widely reported in devices fabricated in similar processes. It was found that in addition to careful surface preparation and defect control in the selective epitaxy process, issues such as sidewall orientation, junction passivation, crystal annealing, and surface damage removal were equally important and needed to be addressed. Coupled with the proper processing steps, Polished Epitaxy was able to deliver material of comparable quality to bulk silicon, suitable for device applications. By growing epitaxy laterally over an oxide step followed by polishing, a pedestal structure was created in which a thin film of single-crystal silicon was formed over oxide. Serving as the extrinsic base contact to a T-Pedestal bipolar transistor device, this pedestal helped minimize the parasitic extrinsic-base-collector overlap capacitance. The cut-off frequency (f_ {T}) in a device with a 1.0-mu m wide emitter stripe was found to improve from 17GHz to 22GHz when the contact overlap was reduced from a more conventional, larger size of 1.0 mu m to 0.2 mum. It is expected that the high-frequency performance of this structure can still be improved further in an optimized process with reduced emitter and collector resistances. The same pedestal structure was applied to a Pedestal -SOI (Silicon-On-Insulator) MOSFET device concept. At one extreme, a conventional bulk MOSFET structure is obtained when the pedestal is not utilized; quasi-SOI occurs when the drain and part of the channel overlap with the pedestal over buried oxide; at the other extreme, complete-SOI behavior results when source, channel, and drain

  17. Integrated X-ray and charged particle active pixel CMOS sensor arrays using an epitaxial silicon sensitive region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinfelder, Stuart; Bichsel, Hans; Bieser, Fred; Matis, Howard S.; Rai, Gulshan; Retiere, Fabrice; Weiman, Howard; Yamamoto, Eugene

    2002-07-01

    Integrated CMOS Active Pixel Sensor (APS) arrays have been fabricated and tested using X-ray and electron sources. The 128 by 128 pixel arrays, designed in a standard 0.25 micron process, use a {approx}10 micron epitaxial silicon layer as a deep detection region. The epitaxial layer has a much greater thickness than the surface features used by standard CMOS APS, leading to stronger signals and potentially better signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). On the other hand, minority carriers confined within the epitaxial region may diffuse to neighboring pixels, blur images and reduce peak signal intensity. But for low-rate, sparse-event images, centroid analysis of this diffusion may be used to increase position resolution. Careful trade-offs involving pixel size and sense-node area verses capacitance must be made to optimize overall performance. The prototype sensor arrays, therefore, include a range of different pixel designs, including different APS circuits and a range of different epitaxial layer contact structures. The fabricated arrays were tested with 1.5 GeV electrons and Fe-55 X-ray sources, yielding a measured noise of 13 electrons RMS and an SNR for single Fe-55 X-rays of greater than 38.

  18. Ultra-thin crystalline silicon films produced by plasma assisted epitaxial growth on silicon wafers and their transfer to foreign substrates*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabarrocas P. Roca i

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new process to produce ultra-thin crystalline silicon films with thicknesses in the range of 0.1 − 1 μm on flexible substrates. A crystalline silicon wafer was cleaned by SiF4 plasma exposure and without breaking vacuum, an epitaxial film was grown from SiF4, H2 and Ar gas mixtures at low substrate temperature (Tsub ≈ 200 °C in a standard RF PECVD reactor. We found that H2 dilution is a key parameter for the growth of high quality epitaxial films and modification of the structural composition of the interface with the c-Si wafer, allowing one to switch from a smooth interface at low hydrogen flow rates to a fragile one, composed of hydrogen-rich micro-cavities, at high hydrogen flow rates. This feature can be advantageously used to separate the epitaxial film from the crystalline Si wafer. As a example demonstration, we show that by depositing a metal film followed by a spin-coated polyimide layer and applying a moderate thermal treatment to the stack, the fragile interface breaks down and allows one to obtain an ultrathin crystalline wafer on the flexible polyimide support.

  19. Polycrystalline indium phosphide on silicon by indium assisted growth in hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metaferia, Wondwosen; Sun, Yan-Ting, E-mail: yasun@kth.se; Lourdudoss, Sebastian [Laboratory of Semiconductor Materials, Department of Materials and Nano Physics, KTH—Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Pietralunga, Silvia M. [CNR-Institute for Photonics and Nanotechnologies, P. Leonardo da Vinci, 32 20133 Milano (Italy); Zani, Maurizio; Tagliaferri, Alberto [Department of Physics Politecnico di Milano, P. Leonardo da Vinci, 32 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2014-07-21

    Polycrystalline InP was grown on Si(001) and Si(111) substrates by using indium (In) metal as a starting material in hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) reactor. In metal was deposited on silicon substrates by thermal evaporation technique. The deposited In resulted in islands of different size and was found to be polycrystalline in nature. Different growth experiments of growing InP were performed, and the growth mechanism was investigated. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy for morphological investigation, Scanning Auger microscopy for surface and compositional analyses, powder X-ray diffraction for crystallinity, and micro photoluminescence for optical quality assessment were conducted. It is shown that the growth starts first by phosphidisation of the In islands to InP followed by subsequent selective deposition of InP in HVPE regardless of the Si substrate orientation. Polycrystalline InP of large grain size is achieved and the growth rate as high as 21 μm/h is obtained on both substrates. Sulfur doping of the polycrystalline InP was investigated by growing alternating layers of sulfur doped and unintentionally doped InP for equal interval of time. These layers could be delineated by stain etching showing that enough amount of sulfur can be incorporated. Grains of large lateral dimension up to 3 μm polycrystalline InP on Si with good morphological and optical quality is obtained. The process is generic and it can also be applied for the growth of other polycrystalline III–V semiconductor layers on low cost and flexible substrates for solar cell applications.

  20. Ultrafast carrier dynamics and the role of grain boundaries in polycrystalline silicon thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titova, Lyubov V.; Cocker, Tyler L.; Xu, Sijia; Baribeau, Jean-Marc; Wu, Xiaohua; Lockwood, David J.; Hegmann, Frank A.

    2016-10-01

    We have used time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy to study microscopic photoconductivity and ultrafast photoexcited carrier dynamics in thin, pure, non-hydrogenated silicon films grown by molecular beam epitaxy on quartz substrates at temperatures ranging from 335 °C to 572 °C. By controlling the growth temperature, thin silicon films ranging from completely amorphous to polycrystalline with minimal amorphous phase can be achieved. Film morphology, in turn, determines its photoconductive properties: in the amorphous phase, carriers are trapped in bandtail states on sub-picosecond time scales, while the carriers excited in crystalline grains remain free for tens of picoseconds. We also find that in polycrystalline silicon the photoexcited carrier mobility is carrier-density-dependent, with higher carrier densities mitigating the effects of grain boundaries on inter-grain transport. In a film grown at the highest temperature of 572 °C, the morphology changes along the growth direction from polycrystalline with needles of single crystals in the bulk of the film to small crystallites interspersed with amorphous silicon at the top of the film. Depth profiling using different excitation wavelengths shows corresponding differences in the photoconductivity: the photoexcited carrier lifetime and mobility are higher in the first 100-150 nm from the substrate, suggesting that thinner, low-temperature grown polycrystalline silicon films are preferable for photovoltaic applications.

  1. Non-adiabatic ab initio molecular dynamics of supersonic beam epitaxy of silicon carbide at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taioli, Simone; Garberoglio, Giovanni; Simonucci, Stefano; a Beccara, Silvio; Aversa, Lucrezia; Nardi, Marco; Verucchi, Roberto; Iannotta, Salvatore; Dapor, Maurizio; Alfè, Dario

    2013-01-28

    In this work, we investigate the processes leading to the room-temperature growth of silicon carbide thin films by supersonic molecular beam epitaxy technique. We present experimental data showing that the collision of fullerene on a silicon surface induces strong chemical-physical perturbations and, for sufficient velocity, disruption of molecular bonds, and cage breaking with formation of nanostructures with different stoichiometric character. We show that in these out-of-equilibrium conditions, it is necessary to go beyond the standard implementations of density functional theory, as ab initio methods based on the Born-Oppenheimer approximation fail to capture the excited-state dynamics. In particular, we analyse the Si-C(60) collision within the non-adiabatic nuclear dynamics framework, where stochastic hops occur between adiabatic surfaces calculated with time-dependent density functional theory. This theoretical description of the C(60) impact on the Si surface is in good agreement with our experimental findings.

  2. Self-catalyzed GaAsP nanowires grown on silicon substrates by solid-source molecular beam epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunyan; Aagesen, Martin; Holm, Jeppe V; Jørgensen, Henrik I; Wu, Jiang; Liu, Huiyun

    2013-08-14

    We realize the growth of self-catalyzed GaAsP nanowires (NWs) on silicon (111) substrates using solid-source molecular beam epitaxy. By optimizing the V/III and P/As flux ratios, as well as the Ga flux, high-crystal-quality GaAsP NWs have been demonstrated with almost pure zinc-blende phase. Comparing the growth of GaAsP NWs with that of the conventional GaAs NWs indicates that the incorporation of P has significant effects on catalyst nucleation energy, and hence the nanowire morphology and crystal quality. In addition, the incorporation ratio of P/As between vapor-liquid-solid NW growth and the vapor-solid thin film growth has been compared, and the difference between these two growth modes is explained through growth kinetics. The vapor-solid epitaxial growth of radial GaAsP shell on core GaAsP NWs is further demonstrated with room-temperature emission at ~710 nm. These results give valuable new information into the NW nucleation mechanisms and open up new perspectives for integrating III-V nanowire photovoltaics and visible light emitters on a silicon platform by using self-catalyzed GaAsP core-shell nanowires.

  3. Epitaxial Piezoelectric Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8O3 Thin Films on Silicon for Energy Harvesting Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sambri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the properties of ferroelectric Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8O3 (PZT thin films grown epitaxially on (001 silicon and on the performance of such heterostructures for microfabricated piezoelectric energy harvesters. In the first part of the paper, we investigate the epitaxial stacks through transmission electron microscopy and piezoelectric force microscopy studies to characterize in detail their crystalline structure. In the second part of the paper, we present the electrical characteristics of piezoelectric cantilevers based on these epitaxial PZT films. The performance of such cantilevers as vibration energy transducers is compared with other piezoelectric harvesters and indicates the potential of the epitaxial approach in the field of energy harvesting devices.

  4. Epitaxial and bulk growth of cubic silicon carbide on off-oriented 4H-silicon carbide substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Norén, Olof

    2015-01-01

    The growth of bulk cubic silicon carbide has for a long time seemed to be something for the future. However, in this thesis the initial steps towards bulk cubic silicon carbide have been taken. The achievement of producing bulk cubic silicon carbide will have a great impact in various fields of science and industry such as for example the fields of semiconductor technology within electronic- and optoelectronic devices and bio-medical applications. The process that has been used to grow the bu...

  5. On-line DLTS investigations of the mono- and di-vacancy in p-type silicon after low temperature electron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zangenberg, Nikolaj E-mail: nrz@ifa.au.dk; Goubet, Jean-Jacques; Nylandsted Larsen, Arne

    2002-01-01

    Using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and Laplace-DLTS, we have investigated vacancy-related defects created in boron-doped epitaxial Si by 2 MeV electron irradiations at low temperatures ({<=}40 K). The vacancy level is found at E{sub v}+0.12 eV together with a DLTS peak at E{sub v}+0.20 eV which anneals at {approx}140 K and is tentatively identified as a vacancy in a different configuration. The emission rate of the dominant vacancy-related deep level in the temperature range from 200 to 550 K, namely the (0/+) transition of the di-vacancy (V{sub 2}), displays a very large dependence of the emission rate on the electric field strength in the depletion region of the diodes. This dependence is unexpected in terms of the classical Poole-Frenkel effect, given the neutral charge state of V{sub 2} before hole capture. The effect of high fields appears to be caused by phonon assisted tunneling. When V anneals around 200 K, a new complex assigned to a vacancy-boron pair gives rise to two charge states. Quenching experiments with reverse bias show that the complex is bistable. It anneals at 260 K.

  6. Technology Development for High-Efficiency Solar Cells and Modules Using Thin (<80 um) Single-Crystal Silicon Wafers Produced by Epitaxy: June 11, 2011 - April 30, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravi, T. S.

    2013-05-01

    Final technical progress report of Crystal Solar subcontract NEU-31-40054-01. The objective of this 18-month program was to demonstrate the viability of high-efficiency thin (less than 80 um) monocrystalline silicon (Si) solar cells and modules with a low-cost epitaxial growth process.

  7. Technology Development for High-Efficiency Solar Cells and Modules Using Thin (<80 um) Single-Crystal Silicon Wafers Produced by Epitaxy: June 11, 2011 - April 30, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravi, T. S.

    2013-05-01

    Final technical progress report of Crystal Solar subcontract NEU-31-40054-01. The objective of this 18-month program was to demonstrate the viability of high-efficiency thin (less than 80 um) monocrystalline silicon (Si) solar cells and modules with a low-cost epitaxial growth process.

  8. Study of near-surface nanostructures in silicon systems after ion implantation and in the epitaxial growth by means of X-ray scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, U W L

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis sample systems on silicon base, the doped regions of which were fabricated by ion implantation respectively by epitaxial layer growth, were studied by means of surface-sensitive X-ray scattering. In the foreground thereby lies the identification and characterization of defects and real structures, which influence the electronic properties.

  9. Recombination activity of light-activated copper defects in p-type silicon studied by injection- and temperature-dependent lifetime spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglese, Alessandro; Lindroos, Jeanette; Vahlman, Henri; Savin, Hele

    2016-09-01

    The presence of copper contamination is known to cause strong light-induced degradation (Cu-LID) in silicon. In this paper, we parametrize the recombination activity of light-activated copper defects in terms of Shockley—Read—Hall recombination statistics through injection- and temperature dependent lifetime spectroscopy (TDLS) performed on deliberately contaminated float zone silicon wafers. We obtain an accurate fit of the experimental data via two non-interacting energy levels, i.e., a deep recombination center featuring an energy level at Ec-Et=0.48 -0.62 eV with a moderate donor-like capture asymmetry ( k =1.7 -2.6 ) and an additional shallow energy state located at Ec-Et=0.1 -0.2 eV , which mostly affects the carrier lifetime only at high-injection conditions. Besides confirming these defect parameters, TDLS measurements also indicate a power-law temperature dependence of the capture cross sections associated with the deep energy state. Eventually, we compare these results with the available literature data, and we find that the formation of copper precipitates is the probable root cause behind Cu-LID.

  10. The role of defects in fluorescent silicon carbide layers grown by sublimation epitaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schimmel, Saskia; Kaiser, Michl; Jokubavicius, Valdas;

    lifetimes, high nonradiative lifetimes are crucial for efficient light conversion. Despite the excellent crystalline quality that can generally be obtained by sublimation epitaxy according to XRD measurements, the role of defects in f-SiC is not yet well understood. Recent results from room temperature...... photoluminescence, charge carrier lifetime measurements by microwave detected photoconductivity and internal quantum efficiency measurements suggest that the internal quantum efficiency of f-SiC layers is significantly affected by the incorporation of defects during epitaxy. Defect formation seems to be related...

  11. Photovoltaic properties of Bi2FeCrO6 films epitaxially grown on (100)-oriented silicon substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechache, R; Huang, W; Li, S; Rosei, F

    2016-02-14

    We demonstrate the promising potential of using perovskite Bi2FeCrO6 (BFCO) for niche applications in photovoltaics (PV) (e.g. self-powered sensors that simultaneously exploit PV conversion and multiferroic properties) or as a complement to mature PV technologies like silicon. BFCO thin films were epitaxially grown on silicon substrates using an MgO buffer layer. Piezoresponse force microscopy measurements revealed that the tensile strained BFCO phase exhibits a polarization predominantly oriented through the in-plane direction. The semiconducting bandgap of the ordered BFCO phase combined with ferroelectric properties, opens the possibility of a ferroelectric PV efficiency above 2% in a thin film device and the use of ferroelectric materials simultaneously as solar absorber layers and carrier separators in PV devices. A large short circuit photocurrent density of 13.8 mA cm(-2) and a photovoltage output of 0.5 V are typically obtained at FF of 38% for BFCO devices fabricated on silicon. We believe that the reduced photovoltage is due to the low diffusion length of photogenerated charge carriers in the BFCO material where the ferroelectric domains are predominately oriented in-plane and thus do not contribute efficiently to the photocharge separation process.

  12. Characteristics of AlN/GaN nanowire Bragg mirror grown on (001) silicon by molecular beam epitaxy

    KAUST Repository

    Heo, Junseok

    2013-10-01

    GaN nanowires containing AlN/GaN distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) heterostructures have been grown on (001) silicon substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. A peak reflectance of 70% with normal incidence at 560 nm is derived from angle resolved reflectance measurements on the as-grown nanowire DBR array. The measured peak reflectance wavelength is significantly blue-shifted from the ideal calculated value. The discrepancy is explained by investigating the reflectance of the nanoscale DBRs with a finite difference time domain technique. Ensemble nanowire microcavities with In0.3Ga 0.7N nanowires clad by AlN/GaN DBRs have also been characterized. Room temperature emission from the microcavity exhibits considerable linewidth narrowing compared to that measured for unclad In0.3Ga0.7N nanowires. The resonant emission is characterized by a peak wavelength and linewidth of 575 nm and 39 nm, respectively. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

  13. Epitaxially grown polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on solid-phase crystallised seed layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wei, E-mail: weili.unsw@gmail.com; Varlamov, Sergey; Xue, Chaowei

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • Crystallisation kinetic is used to analyse seed layer surface cleanliness. • Simplified RCA cleaning for the seed layer can shorten the epitaxy annealing duration. • RTA for the seed layer can improve the quality for both seed layer and epi-layer. • Epitaxial poly-Si solar cell performance is improved by RTA treated seed layer. - Abstract: This paper presents the fabrication of poly-Si thin film solar cells on glass substrates using seed layer approach. The solid-phase crystallised P-doped seed layer is not only used as the crystalline template for the epitaxial growth but also as the emitter for the solar cell structure. This paper investigates two important factors, surface cleaning and intragrain defects elimination for the seed layer, which can greatly influence the epitaxial grown solar cell performance. Shorter incubation and crystallisation time is observed using a simplified RCA cleaning than the other two wet chemical cleaning methods, indicating a cleaner seed layer surface is achieved. Cross sectional transmission microscope images confirm a crystallographic transferal of information from the simplified RCA cleaned seed layer into the epi-layer. RTA for the SPC seed layer can effectively eliminate the intragrain defects in the seed layer and improve structural quality of both of the seed layer and the epi-layer. Consequently, epitaxial grown poly-Si solar cell on the RTA treated seed layer shows better solar cell efficiency, V{sub oc} and J{sub sc} than the one on the seed layer without RTA treatment.

  14. Large-area, wafer-scale epitaxial growth of germanium on silicon and integration of high-performance transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Swapnadip

    Building on a unique two-step, simple MBE growth technique, we have investigated possible dislocation locking mechanisms by dopant impurities, coupled with artificially introduced oxygen. In the case of n-type Ge grown on Si, our materials characterization indicates that the dislocation density (DD) can reach the ˜105 cm-2 level, compared to p-type and undoped Ge on Si (GoS). We note that our Ge film covers the entire underlying Si substrate at the wafer scale without mesas or limited-area growth. In this presentation, we will focus on the use of n-type impurity (phosphorus) diffusing from the Si substrate and the introduction of O at the Ge-Si interface. The O is introduced by growing a thin chemical SiO2 layer on top of the Si substrate before Ge epitaxy begins. Z-contrast cross-sectional TEM images suggest the presence of oxygen precipitates in n-type Ge, whereas these precipitates appear absent in p-type Ge. These oxygen precipitates are known to lock the dislocations. Supporting the argument of precipitate formation, the TEM shows fringes due to various phase boundaries that exist at the precipitate/Ge-crystal interface. We speculate that the formation of phosphorus (P) segregation resulting from slow diffusion of P through precipitates at the precipitate/Ge-crystal interface facilitates dislocation locking. Impurity segregations in turn suppress O concentration in n-type Ge indicating reduced magnitude of DD that appears on the top surface of n-Ge compared to p-Ge film. The O concentrations (1017 to 1018 cm-3) in the n- and p-type GoS films are measured using secondary ionization mass spectroscopy. We also demonstrate the technique to improve the Ge epitaxial quality by inserting air-gapped, SiO2-based nanoscale templates within epitaxially grown Ge on Si. We have shown that the template simultaneously filters threading dislocations propagating from Ge-Si interface and relieves the film stress caused by the TEC mismatch. The finite element modeling stress

  15. Epitaxially grown polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on solid-phase crystallised seed layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Varlamov, Sergey; Xue, Chaowei

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents the fabrication of poly-Si thin film solar cells on glass substrates using seed layer approach. The solid-phase crystallised P-doped seed layer is not only used as the crystalline template for the epitaxial growth but also as the emitter for the solar cell structure. This paper investigates two important factors, surface cleaning and intragrain defects elimination for the seed layer, which can greatly influence the epitaxial grown solar cell performance. Shorter incubation and crystallisation time is observed using a simplified RCA cleaning than the other two wet chemical cleaning methods, indicating a cleaner seed layer surface is achieved. Cross sectional transmission microscope images confirm a crystallographic transferal of information from the simplified RCA cleaned seed layer into the epi-layer. RTA for the SPC seed layer can effectively eliminate the intragrain defects in the seed layer and improve structural quality of both of the seed layer and the epi-layer. Consequently, epitaxial grown poly-Si solar cell on the RTA treated seed layer shows better solar cell efficiency, Voc and Jsc than the one on the seed layer without RTA treatment.

  16. Growth, structural, and electrical properties of germanium-on-silicon heterostructure by molecular beam epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aheli Ghosh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth, morphological, and electrical properties of thin-film Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si using a two-step growth process were investigated. High-resolution x-ray diffraction analysis demonstrated ∼0.10% tensile-strained Ge epilayer, owing to the thermal expansion coefficient mismatch between Ge and Si, and negligible epilayer lattice tilt. Micro-Raman spectroscopic analysis corroborated the strain-state of the Ge thin-film. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy revealed the formation of 90  ° Lomer dislocation network at Ge/Si heterointerface, suggesting the rapid and complete relaxation of Ge epilayer during growth. Atomic force micrographs exhibited smooth surface morphology with surface roughness < 2 nm. Temperature dependent Hall mobility measurements and the modelling thereof indicated that ionized impurity scattering limited carrier mobility in Ge layer. Capacitance- and conductance-voltage measurements were performed to determine the effect of epilayer dislocation density on interfacial defect states (Dit and their energy distribution. Finally, extracted Dit values were benchmarked against published Dit data for Ge MOS devices, as a function of threading dislocation density within the Ge layer. The results obtained were comparable with Ge MOS devices integrated on Si via alternative buffer schemes. This comprehensive study of directly-grown epitaxial Ge-on-Si provides a pathway for the development of Ge-based electronic devices on Si.

  17. Epitaxial growth and characterization of InN nanorods and compact layers on silicon substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Garcia, M.A.; Grandal, J.; Calleja, E. [ISOM and Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Lazic, S.; Calleja, J.M. [Dpt. Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Trampert, A. [Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoerperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    This work reports on the morphology and optical properties of wurtzite InN layers grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE) on Si(111) substrates. The layer morphology can be controlled by the effective indium to nitrogen molecular flux ratio, from N-rich conditions that lead to InN nanorods, to stoichiometric conditions leading to compact InN layers. The nanorods deliver a much higher intensity of the photoluminescence emission than compact layers, with a full width at half maximum down to 34 meV, indicative of a high crystal quality. Raman and X-ray measurements on the InN nanorods and compact layers confirm the practical full relaxation of both types of materials. TEM measurements reveal a perfect epitaxial alignment of Si substrate-AlN buffer and InN epilayer with clean AlN-InN interfaces when growth conditions are optimized. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Upconversion photoluminescence of epitaxial Yb{sup 3+}/Er{sup 3+} codoped ferroelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} films on silicon substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yang, E-mail: zhangy_acd@hotmail.com [IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Kämpfe, Thomas [Institut für Angewandte Physik, TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Bai, Gongxun [Department of Applied Physics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Mietschke, Michael; Yuan, Feifei; Zopf, Michael [IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Abel, Stefan [IBM Research GmbH, Saümerstrasse 4, 8803 Rüschlikon (Switzerland); Eng, Lukas M. [Institut für Angewandte Physik, TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Hühne, Ruben [IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Fompeyrine, Jean [IBM Research GmbH, Saümerstrasse 4, 8803 Rüschlikon (Switzerland); Ding, Fei, E-mail: f.ding@ifw-dresden.de [IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Schmidt, Oliver G. [IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Material Systems for Nanoelectronics, Chemnitz University of Technology, Reichenhainer strasse 70, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany)

    2016-05-31

    Thin films of Yb{sup 3+}/Er{sup 3+} codoped Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} (PZT:Yb/Er) have been epitaxially grown on the SrTiO{sub 3} buffered Si wafer by pulsed laser deposition. Strong upconversion photoluminescence was observed in the PZT:Yb/Er thin film. Using piezoresponse force microscopy, polar domains in the PZT:Yb/Er film can be reversibly switched with a phase change of 180°. Ferroelectric hysteresis loop shape with a well-saturated response was observed. The epitaxially grown lanthanide-doped PZT on silicon opens up a promising route to the integration of luminescent functional oxides on the silicon platform. - Highlights: • Epitaxial growth of Yb{sup 3+}/Er{sup 3+} codoped Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} films on SrTiO{sub 3} buffered silicon • Upconversion emissions were obtained from the lanthanide ion doped thin films. • Saturated ferroelectric hysteresis loops were observed. • Polar domains were switched by PFM with a phase change of 180°.

  19. SU-E-J-91: Novel Epitaxial Silicon Array for Quality Assurance in Photon and Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamonti, C; Zani, M; Scaringella, M; Bruzzi, M; Bucciolini, M [University of Florence, Firenze (Italy); Menichelli, D; Friedl, F [IBA Dosimetry, Schwarzenbruck, Bavaria (Germany)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: to demonstrate suitability of a novel silicon array for measuring the dose properties of highly conformal photon and proton beams. Methods: prototype under test is a 24cm long linear array prototype, although the underlying technology is suitable to construct 2D arrays as well. It is based on a 64pixels monolithic sensor with 1mm pixel pitch, made of epitaxial ptype silicon. Thanks to design modularity, more sensors can be placed side by side without breaking pixel pitch. Flattened and unflattened photon beams, as well as proton radiation from a cyclotron in pencil beam scanning mode, were considered. Measurements of beam characteristics as percentage depth doses, dose profiles, output factors and energy response, which are necessary to deliver radiation with high precision and reliability, were performed. Results: Dose rate independence with photons was verified in the dose per pulse range 0.03 to 2mGy. Results clearly indicate nondependence of the detector sensitivity both for flattened and unflattened beams, with a variation of at most 0.5percentage. OFs were obtained for field with a lateral size ranging from 0.8cm to 16cm and the results are in good agreement with ion chamber A1SL, max difference less than 1.5percentage. Field sizes and beam penumbra were measured and compared to EBT film results. Concerning proton beams, sensitivity independence on dose rate was verified by changing the beam current in the interval 2-130Gy/s. Field sizes and beam penumbra measurements are in agreement with data taken with a scintillating 2D array with 0.5mm resolution IBA Lynx, and a better penumbra definition than an array of ionization chambers IBA MatriXX is reached. Conclusion: The device is a novel and valuable tool for QA both for photon and proton dose delivery. All measurements demonstrated its capability to measure with high spatial resolution many crucial properties of the RT beam.

  20. 用稻壳硅源水热合成P型分子筛的研究%Study on the hydrothermal synthesis of P-type zeolite from rice husk silicon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨君; 马红超; 付颖寰; 宋宇; 王永为; 于春玲; 董晓丽

    2011-01-01

    利用稻壳中丰富的氧化硅为硅源,以Al(OH)3为外加铝源,采用水热法合成P型分子筛.通过实验得到制备P型分子筛的最佳条件:硅铝摩尔比(SiO2/A12O3)为5.6,钠硅摩尔比(Na2O/SiO2)为1.43,水钠摩尔比(H2O/Na2O)为18.3,反应温度为85℃,反应时间为24 h.X射线衍射(XRD)与扫描电镜分析表明,该条件下合成的P型分子筛具有较高的结晶度,无杂相,其Ca2+(以CaCO3计)交换容量可达320 mg/g.该方法为农业副产物的再利用提供了一条有效途径.%P-type zeolite was hydrothermal synthesized with rice husk as silicon source and A1(OH)3 as Al source. Results showed that the optimum composition for synthesis of P-type zeolite was SiO2/AlzO3 molar ratio of 5. 6, Na2O/SiO2 molar ratio of 1. 43, and H2O/Na2O molar ratio of 18. 3, which could give maximum calcium ionic exchange capacity of P-type zeolite for 320 mg/g (equivalent to CaCO3) when the crystallization temperature was 85 ℃ and reacted for 24 h. Analysis of XRD and SEM indicated that the P zeolite synthesized under optimum condition had pure form, single phase and high crystalline, it could be used as wash auxiliary. The method provided an effective way for the reuse of agricultural by-products.

  1. Hydrogen-terminated silicon substrates for low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunthaner, P. J.; Grunthaner, F. J.; Fathauer, R. W.; Lin, T. L.; Hecht, M. H.; Bell, L. D.; Kaiser, W. J.

    1989-01-01

    The preparation of hydrogen-terminated silicon surfaces for use as starting substrates for low-temperature MBE growth is examined in detail. The procedure involves the ex situ removal under nitrogen of residual oxide from a silicon substrate using a spin-clean with HF in ethanol, followed by the in situ low-temperature desorption (150 C) of physisorbed etch residues. The critical steps and the chemical basis for these steps are examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Impurity residues at the epilayer-substrate interface following subsequent homoepitaxial growth are studied using AES, SIMS and TEM. Finally, scanning tunneling microscopy is used to examine the effect of cleaning methods on substrate morphology.

  2. Epitaxial integration of a nanoscale BiFeO3 phase boundary with silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wen-I; Peng, Chun-Yen; Huang, Rong; Kuo, Wei-Cheng; Huang, Yen-Chin; Adamo, Carolina; Chen, Yi-Chun; Chang, Li; Juang, Jenh-Yih; Schlom, Darrel G; Chu, Ying-Hao

    2016-01-21

    The successful integration of the strain-driven nanoscale phase boundary of BiFeO3 onto a silicon substrate is demonstrated with extraordinary ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism. The detailed strain history is delineated through a reciprocal space mapping technique. We have found that a distorted monoclinic phase forms prior to a tetragonal-like phase, a phenomenon which may correlates with the thermal strain induced during the growth process.

  3. Arsenic-Doped High-Resistivity-Silicon Epitaxial Layers for Integrating Low-Capacitance Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaber Derakhshandeh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An arsenic doping technique for depositing up to 40-μm-thick high-resistivity layers is presented for fabricating diodes with low RC constants that can be integrated in closely-packed configurations. The doping of the as-grown epi-layers is controlled down to 5 × 1011 cm−3, a value that is solely limited by the cleanness of the epitaxial reactor chamber. To ensure such a low doping concentration, first an As-doped Si seed layer is grown with a concentration of 1016 to 1017 cm−3, after which the dopant gas arsine is turned off and a thick lightly-doped epi-layer is deposited. The final doping in the thick epi-layer relies on the segregation and incorporation of As from the seed layer, and it also depends on the final thickness of the layer, and the exact growth cycles. The obtained epi-layers exhibit a low density of stacking faults, an over-the-wafer doping uniformity of 3.6%, and a lifetime of generated carriers of more than 2.5 ms. Furthermore, the implementation of a segmented photodiode electron detector is demonstrated, featuring a 30 pF capacitance and a 90 Ω series resistance for a 7.6 mm2 anode area.

  4. Low-temperature technique of thin silicon ion implanted epitaxial detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordyasz, A. J.; Le Neindre, N.; Parlog, M.; Casini, G.; Bougault, R.; Poggi, G.; Bednarek, A.; Kowalczyk, M.; Lopez, O.; Merrer, Y.; Vient, E.; Frankland, J. D.; Bonnet, E.; Chbihi, A.; Gruyer, D.; Borderie, B.; Ademard, G.; Edelbruck, P.; Rivet, M. F.; Salomon, F.; Bini, M.; Valdré, S.; Scarlini, E.; Pasquali, G.; Pastore, G.; Piantelli, S.; Stefanini, A.; Olmi, A.; Barlini, S.; Boiano, A.; Rosato, E.; Meoli, A.; Ordine, A.; Spadaccini, G.; Tortone, G.; Vigilante, M.; Vanzanella, E.; Bruno, M.; Serra, S.; Morelli, L.; Guerzoni, M.; Alba, R.; Santonocito, D.; Maiolino, C.; Cinausero, M.; Gramegna, F.; Marchi, T.; Kozik, T.; Kulig, P.; Twaróg, T.; Sosin, Z.; Gaşior, K.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Zipper, W.; Sarnecki, J.; Lipiński, D.; Wodzińska, H.; Brzozowski, A.; Teodorczyk, M.; Gajewski, M.; Zagojski, A.; Krzyżak, K.; Tarasiuk, K. J.; Khabanowa, Z.; Kordyasz, Ł.

    2015-02-01

    A new technique of large-area thin ion implanted silicon detectors has been developed within the R&D performed by the FAZIA Collaboration. The essence of the technique is the application of a low-temperature baking process instead of high-temperature annealing. This thermal treatment is performed after B+ ion implantation and Al evaporation of detector contacts, made by using a single adjusted Al mask. Extremely thin silicon pads can be therefore obtained. The thickness distribution along the X and Y directions was measured for a prototype chip by the energy loss of α-particles from 241Am ( = 5.5 MeV). Preliminary tests on the first thin detector (area ≈ 20 × 20 mm2) were performed at the INFN-LNS cyclotron in Catania (Italy) using products emitted in the heavy-ion reaction 84Kr ( E = 35 A MeV) + 112Sn. The ΔE - E ion identification plot was obtained using a telescope consisting of our thin ΔE detector (21 μm thick) followed by a typical FAZIA 510 μm E detector of the same active area. The charge distribution of measured ions is presented together with a quantitative evaluation of the quality of the Z resolution. The threshold is lower than 2 A MeV depending on the ion charge.

  5. Low-temperature technique of thin silicon ion implanted epitaxial detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kordyasz, A.J.; Bednarek, A. [Warsaw University, Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw (Poland); Le Neindre, N.; Bougault, R.; Lopez, O.; Merrer, Y.; Vient, E. [Universite de Caen, LPC, IN2P3-CNRS, ENSICAEN, Caen-Cedex (France); Parlog, M. [Universite de Caen, LPC, IN2P3-CNRS, ENSICAEN, Caen-Cedex (France); ' ' Horia Hulubei' ' National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), Bucharest Magurele (Romania); Casini, G.; Poggi, G.; Bini, M.; Valdre, S.; Scarlini, E.; Pasquali, G.; Pastore, G.; Piantelli, S.; Stefanini, A.; Olmi, A.; Barlini, S. [INFN Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Universita di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Kowalczyk, M. [Warsaw University, Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw (Poland); University of Warsaw, Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Frankland, J.D.; Bonnet, E.; Chbihi, A.; Gruyer, D. [CEA et IN2P3-CNRS, GANIL, Caen-Cedex 05 (France); Borderie, B.; Ademard, G.; Edelbruck, P.; Rivet, M.F.; Salomon, F. [IN2P3-CNRS, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay-Cedex (France); Boiano, A.; Rosato, E.; Meoli, A.; Ordine, A.; Spadaccini, G.; Tortone, G.; Vigilante, M.; Vanzanella, E. [Universita di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Napoli (Italy); INFN, Napoli (Italy); Bruno, M.; Serra, S.; Morelli, L.; Guerzoni, M. [INFN, Bologna (Italy); Universita di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Alba, R.; Santonocito, D.; Maiolino, C. [INFN, Catania (Italy); Universita di Catania, LNS, Catania (Italy); Cinausero, M.; Gramegna, F.; Marchi, T. [INFN LNL Legnaro, Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Kozik, T.; Kulig, P.; Twarog, T.; Sosin, Z. [Jagiellonian University, Cracow (Poland); Gasior, K.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Zipper, W. [University of Silesia, Silesian University, Katowice (Poland); Sarnecki, J.; Lipinski, D.; Wodzinska, H.; Brzozowski, A.; Teodorczyk, M.; Gajewski, M.; Zagojski, A.; Krzyzak, K. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Tarasiuk, K.J. [University of Warsaw, Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Khabanowa, Z. [Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Kordyasz, L. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Mechatronics, Institute of Mikromechanics and Photonics, Department of Design of Precision Devices, Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-02-01

    A new technique of large-area thin ion implanted silicon detectors has been developed within the R and D performed by the FAZIA Collaboration. The essence of the technique is the application of a low-temperature baking process instead of high-temperature annealing. This thermal treatment is performed after B{sup +} ion implantation and Al evaporation of detector contacts, made by using a single adjusted Al mask. Extremely thin silicon pads can be therefore obtained. The thickness distribution along the X and Y directions was measured for a prototype chip by the energy loss of α-particles from {sup 241}Am (left angle E{sub α} right angle = 5.5 MeV). Preliminary tests on the first thin detector (area ∼ 20 x 20 mm{sup 2}) were performed at the INFN-LNS cyclotron in Catania (Italy) using products emitted in the heavy-ion reaction {sup 84}Kr (E = 35 A MeV) + {sup 112}Sn. The ΔE - E ion identification plot was obtained using a telescope consisting of our thin ΔE detector (21 μm thick) followed by a typical FAZIA 510 μm E detector of the same active area. The charge distribution of measured ions is presented together with a quantitative evaluation of the quality of the Z resolution. The threshold is lower than 2 A MeV depending on the ion charge. (orig.)

  6. Reaction path and crystallograpy of cobalt silicide formation on silicon(001) by reaction deposition epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chong Wee

    CaF2-structure CoSi2 layers were formed on Si(001) by reactive deposition epitaxy (RDE) and compared with CoSi2 layers obtained by conventional solid phase growth (SPG). In the case of RDE, CoSi 2 formation occurred during Co deposition at elevated temperature while for SPG, Co was deposited at 25°C and silicidation took place during subsequent annealing. My results demonstrate that RDE CoSi2 layers are epitaxial with a cube-on-cube relationship, 001CoSi2 ‖001Si and 100CoSi2 ‖100 Si . In contrast, SPG films are polycrystalline with a mixed 111/002/022/112 orientation. I attribute the striking difference to rapid Co diffusion during RDE for which the high Co/Si reactivity gives rise to a flux-limited reaction resulting in the direct formation of the disilicide phase. Initial formation of CoSi2(001) follows the Volmer-Weber mode with two families of island shapes: inverse pyramids and platelets. The rectangular-based pyramidal islands extend along orthogonal directions, bounded by four {111} CoSi2/Si interfaces, and grow with a cube-on-cube orientation with respect to Si(001). Platelet-shaped islands are bounded across their long directions by {111} twin planes and their narrow directions by 511CoSi2 ‖111Si interfaces. The top and bottom surfaces are {22¯1}, with 22¯1 CoSi2‖001 Si , and {1¯1¯1}, with 1¯1¯ 1CoSi2‖ 11¯1Si , respectively. The early stages of film growth (tCo ≤ 13 A) are dominated by the twinned platelets due to a combination of higher nucleation rates and rapid elongation along preferred directions. However, at tCo ≥ 13 A, island coalescence becomes significant as orthogonal platelets intersect and block elongation along fast growth directions. Further island growth becomes dominated by the untwinned islands. I show that high-flux low-energy Ar+ ion irradiation during RDE growth dramatically increases the area fraction of untwinned regions from 0.17 in films grown under standard magnetically balanced conditions in which the ratio

  7. Regulated self-assembly of epitaxial silicon-germanium quantum structures and their properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandervelde, Thomas Edwin

    Most proposed next generation architectures use quantum dots (QDs) in their design. Current lithography techniques either do not have the resolution required or are too time intensive for practical creation of these architectures. This has led many to suggest that the answer lies in self-assembly of QDs. Many unresolved issues, however, remain before we can implement this concept. The four areas of research discussed in this dissertation improve the fundamental understanding of processes involved in self-assembly. Once we had established that our system was producing the highest quality samples, we were able to say with confidence that the structures we observed were due to intrinsic phenomena, and not the result of contamination. In addition, because the existing standard curves lacked the sensitivity associated with modern analytical equipment, we employed more exploratory techniques (i.e. combinatorial epitaxy) to establish base growth conditions and define the evolution of structures. The examination of various growth conditions yielded the discovery of quantum fortresses (QFs), a novel, self-assembled, Quantum Cellular Automata (QCA)-like structure. We mapped the possible conditions under which these QFs form to gain a further understanding of their evolution. Additionally, we electrically tested their ability to act as SETs and quantum mechanically calculated growth conditions that result in those QFs that would best function as a QCA unit cell. To form a QCA circuit, QFs need to align in specific configurations. We investigated the fundamentals of a new technique to direct QF alignment. We demonstrated that FIB-mediated disruption of 1/10th ML or less is sufficient to guide island formation through the creation of preferential binding sites and denuded zones. In addition, we investigated the effect of altering growth conditions on the ability of large-scale features to align QDs. We also examined the ability of QDs to self-order into superlattice structures

  8. SIMULATION OF HETEROJUNCTION SOLAR CELLS BASED ON p-TYPE SILICON WAFER%p型晶体硅异质结太阳电池光电特性模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程雪梅; 孟凡英; 汪建强; 李祥; 黄建华

    2012-01-01

    利用AFORS-HET软件模拟以p型晶体硅为衬底的异质结太阳电池的特性.太阳电池的基本结构为:TCO/n-a-Si∶ H/i-a-Si∶ H/p-c-Si/Ag,通过改变电池材料的特征参量,分析电池输出特性随相关参量变化的规律.结果表明,与ITO相比,以ZnO为透明导电极的电池在短波光和可见光波段光谱响应更强,短路电流密度和电池效率更高.此外,在所建立的电池模型中,限定掺杂型非晶硅层的厚度为10nm,改变本征非晶硅层厚度,模拟研究找到了电池的短路电流、开路电压、填充因子及光电转换效率随本征层厚度变化的规律和最优值,通过模拟研究发现有背场的双面电池比无背场电池的开路电压增加4.8%,最高转换效率达21.25%.%The performance of heterojunction solar cells was investigated in p-type silicon crystalline by using AFORS-HET. From the simulation results, it is found that comparing with using ITO as TCO, the absorption of solar cell with ZnO as its TCO is much stronger in visible light, and the short current(Jsc) is bigger than the former, so the efficiency(Eff) increase. After inserting a thin intrinsic amorphous silicon (a-Si) between the n a-Si and c-Si, the short current and the fill factor both increased rapidly, and the Eff raised. However, the thickness of the intrinsic layer must be strict controlled within 0. 1-1. 0nm in this model. The bifacial heterojunction solar cells with the structure ZnO(80nm)/a-Si n(10nm)/a-Si i(lnm)/c-Si p(0. 3cm)/a-Si i(lnm)/a-Si p+(10nm) was simulated, and the best performance of Eff is 21. 25% .

  9. Growth and high rate reactive ion etching of epitaxially grown barium hexaferrite films on single crystal silicon carbide substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaohui

    Ferrites are an invaluable group of insulating magnetic materials used for high frequency microwave applications in such passive electronic devices as isolators, phase shifters, and circulators. Because of their high permeability, non-reciprocal electromagnetic properties, and low eddy current losses, there are no other materials that serve such a broad range of applications. Until recently, they have been widely employed in bulk form, with little success in thin film-based applications in commercial or military microwave technologies. In today's technology, emerging electronic systems, such as high frequency, high power wireless and satellite communications (GPS, Bluetooth, WLAN, commercial radar, etc) thin film materials are in high demand. It is widely recognized that as high frequency devices shift to microwave frequencies the integration of passive devices with semiconductor electronics holds significant advantages in the realization of miniaturization, broader bandwidths, higher performance, speed, power and lower production costs. Thus, the primary objective of this thesis is to explore the integration of ferrite films with wide band gap semiconductor substrates for the realization of monolithic integrated circuits (MICs). This thesis focuses on two key steps for the integration of barium hexaferrite (Ba M-type or BaM) devices on semiconductor substrates. First, the development of high crystal quality ferrite film growth via pulsed laser deposition on wide band gap silicon carbide semiconductor substrates, and second, the effective patterning of BaM films using dry etching techniques. To address part one, BaM films were deposited on 6H silicon carbide (0001) substrates by Pulsed Laser Deposition. X-ray diffraction showed strong crystallographic alignment while pole figures exhibited reflections consistent with epitaxial growth. After optimized annealing, BaM films have a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy field of 16,900 Oe, magnetization (4piMs) of 4.4 k

  10. Ultrathin Epitaxial Silicon Solar Cells with Inverted Nanopyramid Arrays for Efficient Light Trapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucher, Alexandre; Cattoni, Andrea; Dupuis, Christophe; Chen, Wanghua; Cariou, Romain; Foldyna, Martin; Lalouat, Loı̈c; Drouard, Emmanuel; Seassal, Christian; Roca I Cabarrocas, Pere; Collin, Stéphane

    2016-09-14

    Ultrathin c-Si solar cells have the potential to drastically reduce costs by saving raw material while maintaining good efficiencies thanks to the excellent quality of monocrystalline silicon. However, efficient light trapping strategies must be implemented to achieve high short-circuit currents. We report on the fabrication of both planar and patterned ultrathin c-Si solar cells on glass using low temperature (T anodic bonding and mechanical cleavage. A silver back mirror is combined with a front texturation based on an inverted nanopyramid array fabricated by nanoimprint lithography and wet etching. We demonstrate a short-circuit current density of 25.3 mA/cm(2) for an equivalent thickness of only 2.75 μm. External quantum efficiency (EQE) measurements are in very good agreement with FDTD simulations. We infer an optical path enhancement of 10 in the long wavelength range. A simple propagation model reveals that the low photon escape probability of 25% is the key factor in the light trapping mechanism. The main limitations of our current technology and the potential efficiencies achievable with contact optimization are discussed.

  11. Growth and characterization of germanium epitaxial film on silicon (001 with germane precursor in metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Hong Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The quality of germanium (Ge epitaxial film grown directly on a silicon (Si (001 substrate with 6° off-cut using conventional germane precursor in a metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD system is studied. The growth sequence consists of several steps at low temperature (LT at 400 °C, intermediate temperature ramp (LT-HT of ∼10 °C/min and high temperature (HT at 600 °C. This is followed by post-growth annealing in hydrogen at temperature ranging from 650 to 825 °C. The Ge epitaxial film of thickness ∼ 1 μm experiences thermally induced tensile strain of 0.11 % with a treading dislocation density (TDD of ∼107/cm2 and the root-mean-square (RMS roughness of ∼ 0.75 nm. The benefit of growing Ge epitaxial film using MOCVD is that the subsequent III-V materials can be grown in-situ without the need of breaking the vacuum hence it is manufacturing worthy.

  12. Epitaxial growth of zinc oxide by the method of atomic layer deposition on SiC/Si substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukushkin, S. A.; Osipov, A. V.; Romanychev, A. I.

    2016-07-01

    For the first time, zinc oxide epitaxial films on silicon were grown by the method of atomic layer deposition at a temperature T = 250°C. In order to avoid a chemical reaction between silicon and zinc oxide (at the growth temperature, the rate constant of the reaction is of the order of 1022), a high-quality silicon carbide buffer layer with a thickness of ~50 nm was preliminarily synthesized by the chemical substitution of atoms on the silicon surface. The zinc oxide films were grown on n- and p-type Si(100) wafers. The ellipsometric, Raman, electron diffraction, and trace element analyses showed that the ZnO films are epitaxial.

  13. P型硅衬底异质结太阳电池的优化设计%Design Optimization of Heterojunction Solar Cells on p-type Silicon Substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪骏康; 徐静平

    2012-01-01

    The performance of TCO/a-Si∶H(n)/a-Si∶H(i)/c-Si(p)/a-Si∶H(p+)/Ag heterojunction solar cells on p-type silicon substrates was simulated by Afors-het software.Optimal structural parameters of thickness,band gap,doping concentration and interface states density were obtained by the results of software optimization and theoretical analysis.The results indicate that well-performed heterojunction solar cells can be designed by using thin and high doping window layer,passivating the defect states of heterojunction interface with intrinsic layer,and making full use of the mirror effect of back surface field.The optimum performance parameters are Voc=678.9 mV,Jsc=38.33 mA/cm2,FF=84.05%,η=21.87%.%采用Afors-het软件模拟分析了结构为TCO/a-Si:H(n)/a-Si:H(i)/c-Si(p)/a-Si:H(p+)/Ag的p型硅衬底异质结太阳电池的性能,研究了各层厚度、带隙、掺杂浓度以及界面态密度等结构参数和物理参数对电池性能的影响。通过模拟优化,结合理论分析和实际工艺,得到合适的各结构参数取值。采用厚度薄且掺杂高的窗口层,嵌入本征层以钝化异质结界面缺陷,合理利用背场对于少子的背反作用,获得了较佳的太阳电池综合性能:开路电压Voc为678.9mV、短路电流密度Jsc为38.33mA/cm2、填充因子FF为84.05%、转换效率η为21.87%。

  14. A silicon-based photocathode for water reduction with an epitaxial SrTiO3 protection layer and a nanostructured catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Li; McDaniel, Martin D; Wang, Shijun; Posadas, Agham B; Li, Xiaohan; Huang, Haiyu; Lee, Jack C; Demkov, Alexander A; Bard, Allen J; Ekerdt, John G; Yu, Edward T

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly increasing global demand for energy combined with the environmental impact of fossil fuels has spurred the search for alternative sources of clean energy. One promising approach is to convert solar energy into hydrogen fuel using photoelectrochemical cells. However, the semiconducting photoelectrodes used in these cells typically have low efficiencies and/or stabilities. Here we show that a silicon-based photocathode with a capping epitaxial oxide layer can provide efficient and stable hydrogen production from water. In particular, a thin epitaxial layer of strontium titanate (SrTiO3) was grown directly on Si(001) by molecular beam epitaxy. Photogenerated electrons can be transported easily through this layer because of the conduction-band alignment and lattice match between single-crystalline SrTiO3 and silicon. The approach was used to create a metal-insulator-semiconductor photocathode that, under a broad-spectrum illumination at 100 mW cm(-2), exhibits a maximum photocurrent density of 35 mA cm(-2) and an open circuit potential of 450 mV; there was no observable decrease in performance after 35 hours of operation in 0.5 M H2SO4. The performance of the photocathode was also found to be highly dependent on the size and spacing of the structured metal catalyst. Therefore, mesh-like Ti/Pt nanostructured catalysts were created using a nanosphere lithography lift-off process and an applied-bias photon-to-current efficiency of 4.9% was achieved.

  15. Improvement of epitaxy and crystallinity in YBa2Cu3Oy thin films grown on silicon with double buffer of ECO/YSZ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ju; YANG Jian

    2006-01-01

    A novel double buffer of Eu2CuO4 (ECO)/YSZ (yttrium-stabilized zirconia) was developed for growing YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) thin films on Si substrates. In these films,the severe reaction between Si and YBCO is blocked by the first YSZ layer,whereas,the degradation of crystallinity and superconductivity in the grown YBCO is greatly improved by the second ECO layer. Such an ECO material possesses a very stable 214-T' structure and excellent compatibilities with YBCO and YSZ. The result shows that the epitaxy and crystallinity of YBCO deposited on Si could be considerably enhanced by using the ECO/YSZ double buffer. The grown films are characterized by high-resolution X-ray diffraction,grazing incidence X-ray reflection,and transmission electron microscopy (TEM),respectively. It is found that well defined interfaces are formed at YBCO/ECO/YSZ boundaries. No immediate layer could be seen. The defect density in all grown layers is kept at a lower level. The YBCO film surface turns out to be very smooth. These films have full superconducting transitions above 88 K and high current carrying capacity at 77 K. The successful growth of highly epitaxial YBCO thin films on silicon with ECO/YSZ buffer,demonstrate the advantages of such a double buffer structure.

  16. Electroless epitaxial etching for semiconductor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    2002-01-01

    A method for fabricating thin-film single-crystal silicon on insulator substrates using electroless etching for achieving efficient etch stopping on epitaxial silicon substrates. Microelectric circuits and devices are prepared on epitaxial silicon wafers in a standard fabrication facility. The wafers are bonded to a holding substrate. The silicon bulk is removed using electroless etching leaving the circuit contained within the epitaxial layer remaining on the holding substrate. A photolithographic operation is then performed to define streets and wire bond pad areas for electrical access to the circuit.

  17. Properties of epitaxial, (001)- and (110)-oriented (PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3)2/3-(PbTiO3)1/3 films on silicon described by polarization rotation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boota, M.; Houwman, E.P.; Dekkers, J.M.; Nguyen, M.D.; Vergeer, K.H.; Lanzara, G.; Koster, G.; Rijnders, A.J.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Epitaxial (PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3)2/3-(PbTiO3)1/3 (PMN-PT) films with different out-of-plane orientations were prepared using a CeO2/yttria stabilized ZrO2 bilayer buffer and symmetric SrRuO3 electrodes on silicon substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The orientation of the SrRuO3 bottom electrode, either

  18. Fast Homo-epitaxy Growth of 4-inch Silicon Carbide Wafer%4英寸碳化硅快速同质外延生长研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钮应喜; 杨霏; 温家良; 陈新

    2014-01-01

    Homo-epitaxial growth of 4H-SiC epi-layers are conducted on the 4-inch substrates by hot-wall chemical vapor deposition (CVD), the silicon precursor dependence of growth rate, the temperature dependences of surface morphology and surface defect are investigated. The high growth rate of 26.8 µm/h is achieved;the good layer with the mirror-like smooth surface is got on the growth rate of 22 µm/h after optimization. The layers are characterized by an atomic force microscope (AFM) and optical surface defect analyzer candela CS20, indicating an surface roughness of 0.12 nm and a total morphological defect density of 0.36 cm–2.It is found that the temperature could greatly influence the surface roughness and defects, while the good quality silicon carbide epitaxial materials without Si droplets and with low defect density could be obtained by increasing the temperature.%采用热壁化学气相沉积法在4英寸4H-SiC衬底上进行同质外延生长,研究硅烷流量、温度的变化对外延生长速率、表面形貌以及表面缺陷的影响。外延生长速率最高达到26.8µm/h,优化后在22µm/h的生长速率上获得表面光滑的外延层。通过原子力显微镜分析,优化后的外延层表面粗糙度达到0.12 nm;通过表面缺陷测试仪分析,优化后的外延层表面缺陷密度达到0.36 cm–2。研究发现,温度变化会对表面粗糙度以及表面缺陷有很大的影响,通过提高温度可获得无硅滴、低缺陷密度的高质量碳化硅外延材料。

  19. Methods for enhancing P-type doping in III-V semiconductor films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Feng; Stringfellow, Gerald; Zhu, Junyi

    2017-08-01

    Methods of doping a semiconductor film are provided. The methods comprise epitaxially growing the III-V semiconductor film in the presence of a dopant, a surfactant capable of acting as an electron reservoir, and hydrogen, under conditions that promote the formation of a III-V semiconductor film doped with the p-type dopant. In some embodiments of the methods, the epitaxial growth of the doped III-V semiconductor film is initiated at a first hydrogen partial pressure which is increased to a second hydrogen partial pressure during the epitaxial growth process.

  20. Realization of Ultraviolet Electroluminescence from ZnO Homo junction Fabricated on Silicon Substrate with p-Type ZnO:N Layer Formed by Radical N2O Doping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jing-Chang; LIANG Hong-Wei; ZHAO Jian-Ze; BIAN Ji-Ming; FENG Qiu-Ju; WANG Jing-Wei; ZHAO Zi-Wen; DU Guo-Tong

    2008-01-01

    @@ ZnO homojunction light-emitting diodes are fabricated on Si(100) substrates by plasma assisted metal organic chemical vapour deposition, A p-type layer of nitrogen-doped ZnO film is formed using radical N2O as the acceptor precursor.The n-type ZnO layer is composed of un-doped ZnO film.The device exhibits desirable rectifying behaviour with a turn-on voltage of 3.3 V and a reverse breakdown voltage higher than 6 V.Distinct electroluminescence emissions centred at 395nm and 49Ohm are detected from this device at forvcard current higher than 20mA at room temperature.

  1. Low-Programmable-Voltage Nonvolatile Memory Devices Based on Omega-shaped Gate Organic Ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) Field Effect Transistors Using p-type Silicon Nanowire Channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ngoc Huynh Van; Jae-Hyun Lee; Dongmok Whang; Dae Joon Kang

    2015-01-01

    A facile approach was demonstrated for fabricating high-performance nonvolatile memory devices based on ferroelectric-gate field effect transistors using a p-type Si nanowire coated with omega-shaped gate organic ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)). We overcame the interfacial layer problem by incorporating P(VDF-TrFE) as a ferroelectric gate using a low-temperature fabrication process. Our memory devices exhibited excellent memory characteristics with a low programming voltage of ±5 V, a large modulation in channel conductance between ON and OFF states exceeding 105, a long retention time greater than 3 9 104 s, and a high endurance of over 105 programming cycles while maintaining an ION/IOFF ratio higher than 102.

  2. Characterization of epitaxial Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition on silicon cantilevers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, M.D.; Nazeer, H.; Karakaya, K.; Pham, S.V.; Steenwelle, R.; Dekkers, M.; Abelmann, L.; Blank, D.H.A.; Rijnders, G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the piezoelectric-microelectromechanical system micro-fabrication process and the behavior of piezoelectric stacks actuated silicon cantilevers. All oxide layers in the piezoelectric stacks, such as buffer-layer/bottom-electrode/film/top-electrode: YSZ/SrRuO\\3/Pb(Zr, Ti)\\3/SrRu

  3. Characterization of epitaxial Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition on silicon cantilevers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, M.D.; Nazeer, H.; Karakaya, K.; Pham, S.V.; Steenwelle, R.; Dekkers, M.; Abelmann, L.; Blank, D.H.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the piezoelectric-microelectromechanical system micro-fabrication process and the behavior of piezoelectric stacks actuated silicon cantilevers. All oxide layers in the piezoelectric stacks, such as buffer-layer/bottom-electrode/film/top-electrode: YSZ/SrRuO3/Pb(Zr,Ti)3/SrRuO3,

  4. Ferroelectric properties of epitaxial Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 thin films on silicon by control of crystal orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, Jan M.; Nguyen, Duc Minh; Steenwelle, Ruud Johannes Antonius; te Riele, P.M.; Blank, David H.A.; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    Crystalline Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) thin films between metallic-oxide SrRuO3 (SRO) electrodes were prepared using pulsed laser deposition on CeO2/yttria-stabilized zirconia buffered silicon (001) substrates. Different deposition conditions for the initial layers of the bottom SRO electrode result in an or

  5. Characterization of epitaxial Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition on silicon cantilevers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, M.D.; Nazeer, H.; Karakaya, K.; Pham, S.V.; Steenwelle, R.; Dekkers, M.; Abelmann, L.; Blank, D.H.A.; Rijnders, G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the piezoelectric-microelectromechanical system micro-fabrication process and the behavior of piezoelectric stacks actuated silicon cantilevers. All oxide layers in the piezoelectric stacks, such as buffer-layer/bottom-electrode/film/top-electrode: YSZ/SrRuO\\3/Pb(Zr,

  6. Catalyst-free InGaN/GaN nanowire light emitting diodes grown on (001) silicon by molecular beam epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Zhang, Meng; Banerjee, Animesh; Bhattacharya, Pallab

    2010-09-08

    Catalyst-free growth of (In)GaN nanowires on (001) silicon substrate by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy is demonstrated. The nanowires with diameter ranging from 10 to 50 nm have a density of 1-2 x 10(11) cm(-2). P- and n-type doping of the nanowires is achieved with Mg and Si dopant species, respectively. Structural characterization by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) indicates that the nanowires are relatively defect-free. The peak emission wavelength of InGaN nanowires can be tuned from ultraviolet to red by varying the In composition in the alloy and "white" emission is obtained in nanowires where the In composition is varied continuously during growth. The internal quantum efficiency varies from 20-35%. Radiative and nonradiative lifetimes of 5.4 and 1.4 ns, respectively, are obtained from time-resolved photoluminescence measurements at room temperature for InGaN nanowires emitting at lambda = 490 nm. Green- and white-emitting planar LEDs have been fabricated and characterized. The electroluminescence from these devices exhibits negligible quantum confined Stark effect or band-tail filling effect.

  7. Surface segregation as a means of gettering Cu in liquid-phase-epitaxy silicon thin layers grown from Al-Cu-Si solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T.H.; Ciszek, T.F.; Reedy, R.; Asher, S.; King, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The authors demonstrate that, by using the natural surface segregation phenomenon, Cu can be gettered to the surface from the bulk of silicon layers so that its concentrations in the liquid-phase-epitaxy (LPE) layers are much lower than its solubility at the layer growth temperature and the reported 10{sup 17} cm{sup {minus}3} degradation threshold for solar-cell performance. Secondary-ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analysis indicates that, within a micron-deep sub-surface region, Cu accumulates even in as-grown LPE samples. Slower cooling after growth to room temperature enhances this Cu enrichment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurement shows as much as 3.2% Cu in a surface region of about 50 {Angstrom}. More surface-sensitive, ion-scattering spectroscopy (ISS) analysis further reveals about 7% of Cu at the top surface. These results translate to an areal gettering capacity of about 1.0 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup {minus}2}, which is higher than the available total-area density of Cu in the layer and substrate (3.6 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup {minus}2} for a uniform 1.2 x 10{sup 17}cm{sup {minus}3} Cu throughout the layer and substrate with a total thickness of 300 {mu}m).

  8. High-Performance Flexible Thin-Film Transistors Based on Single-Crystal-like Silicon Epitaxially Grown on Metal Tape by Roll-to-Roll Continuous Deposition Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ying; Asadirad, Mojtaba; Yao, Yao; Dutta, Pavel; Galstyan, Eduard; Shervin, Shahab; Lee, Keon-Hwa; Pouladi, Sara; Sun, Sicong; Li, Yongkuan; Rathi, Monika; Ryou, Jae-Hyun; Selvamanickam, Venkat

    2016-11-02

    Single-crystal-like silicon (Si) thin films on bendable and scalable substrates via direct deposition are a promising material platform for high-performance and cost-effective devices of flexible electronics. However, due to the thick and unintentionally highly doped semiconductor layer, the operation of transistors has been hampered. We report the first demonstration of high-performance flexible thin-film transistors (TFTs) using single-crystal-like Si thin films with a field-effect mobility of ∼200 cm(2)/V·s and saturation current, I/lW > 50 μA/μm, which are orders-of-magnitude higher than the device characteristics of conventional flexible TFTs. The Si thin films with a (001) plane grown on a metal tape by a "seed and epitaxy" technique show nearly single-crystalline properties characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, reflection high-energy electron diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The realization of flexible and high-performance Si TFTs can establish a new pathway for extended applications of flexible electronics such as amplification and digital circuits, more than currently dominant display switches.

  9. Fabrication and characterization of silicon nanowires by means of molecular beam epitaxy; Herstellung und Charakterisierung von Silizium-Nanodraehten mittels Molekularstrahlepitaxie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, Luise

    2007-06-19

    In this work, basic processes of silicon whisker growth were examined. For the first time, Si nanowhiskers were produced under UHV conditions by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) and characterized by different analysis methods afterwards. The existence of Au/Si droplets on a Si(111) substrate surface is a precondition of this growth method. Analyses of the temporal development of the Au/Si droplets during the whisker growth show a decrease of the number of small droplets resp. whiskers during the whisker growth with increasing growth time. This behaviour, i.e. the dissolution of smaller droplets/whiskers and the growth of larger ones in parallel can be explained by Ostwald ripenning. The diffusion-determined material transition of gold, which occurs during this process, is theoretically described by the Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner (LSW)-Theory. After this theory only whiskers grow which radii are larger than the critical radius. The whisker radii are temperature dependend whereas analogous whisker radii exist for identical growth times. Electron microscopy analysis show that all whiskers possess a hexagonal but no cylindrical habitus. The planes that form during the growth are crystallographic (111) planes. The growth of Si nanowhiskers under MBE conditions is determined by the Vapour Liquid Solid (VLS) mechanism and by surface diffusion of Si atoms. (orig.)

  10. Multiple EFG silicon ribbon technology as the basis for manufacturing low-cost terrestrial solar cells. [Epitaxial Film Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackintosh, B.; Kalejs, J. P.; Ho, C. T.; Wald, F. V.

    1981-01-01

    Mackintosh et al. (1978) have reported on the development of a multiple ribbon furnace based on the 'edge defined film fed growth' (EFG) process for the fabrication of silicon ribbon. It has been demonstrated that this technology can meet the requirements for a silicon substrate material to be used in the manufacture of solar panels which can meet requirements regarding a selling price of $0.70/Wp when certain goals in terms of throughput and quality are achieved. These goals for the multiple ribbon technology using 10 cm wide ribbon require simultaneous growth of 12 ribbons by one operator at average speeds of 4 to 4.5 cm/min, and 13% efficient solar cells. A description is presented of the progress made toward achieving these goals. It is concluded that the required performance levels have now been achieved. The separate aspects of technology must now be integrated into a single prototype furnace.

  11. GaAs microcrystals selectively grown on silicon: Intrinsic carbon doping during chemical beam epitaxy with trimethylgallium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molière, T.; Jaffré, A.; Alvarez, J.; Mencaraglia, D.; Connolly, J. P.; Vincent, L.; Hallais, G.; Mangelinck, D.; Descoins, M.; Bouchier, D.; Renard, C.

    2017-01-01

    The monolithic integration of III-V semiconductors on silicon and particularly of GaAs has aroused great interest since the 1980s. Potential applications are legion, ranging from photovoltaics to high mobility channel transistors. By using a novel integration method, we have shown that it is possible to achieve heteroepitaxial integration of GaAs crystals (typical size 1 μ m) on silicon without any structural defect such as antiphase domains, dislocations, or stress, usually reported for direct GaAs heteroepitaxy on silicon. However, concerning their electronic properties, conventional free carrier characterization methods are impractical due to the micrometric size of GaAs crystals. In order to evaluate the GaAs material quality for optoelectronic applications, a series of indirect analyses such as atom probe tomography, Raman spectroscopy, and micro-photoluminescence as a function of temperature were performed. These revealed a high content of partially electrically active carbon originating from the trimethylgallium used as the Ga precursor. Nevertheless, the very good homogeneity observed by this doping mechanism and the attractive properties of carbon as a dopant once controlled to a sufficient degree are a promising route to device doping.

  12. Morphology and optical properties of InN layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy on silicon substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandal, J.; Sanchez-Garcia, M.A.; Calle, F.; Calleja, E. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2005-05-01

    This work reports on the morphology and photoluminescence (PL) properties of wurtzite InN layers grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE) on AlN-buffered Si(111) substrates. The layer morphology can be controlled by the effective indium to nitrogen molecular flux ratio, from N-rich conditions that lead to columnar InN layers, to stoichiometric conditions leading to coalesced InN layers. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) rocking curves around the InN (002) reflection yield a minimum value of 682 arcsec full width at half maximum (FWHM) for a coalesced InN layer. PL intensity from columnar InN samples is two orders of magnitude stronger than that corresponding to coalesced material, pointing to a much higher crystalline quality of the former. PL spectra in columnar InN layers reveal an emission at 0.75 eV (16 K) that follows the typical band-gap temperature dependence and shows a linear trend with the excitation power, suggesting a band-edge recombination that yields an estimate of the energy gap for InN around 0.72 eV at room temperature. No other emissions are observed at higher energies. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Epitaxial graphene electronic structure and transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Heer, Walt A; Berger, Claire; Wu Xiaosong; Sprinkle, Mike; Hu Yike; Ruan Ming; First, Phillip N [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Stroscio, Joseph A [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, NIST, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Haddon, Robert [Center for Nanoscale Science and Engineering, Departments of Chemistry and Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Piot, Benjamin; Faugeras, Clement; Potemski, Marek [LNCMI -CNRS, Grenoble, 38042 Cedex 9 (France); Moon, Jeong-Sun, E-mail: walt.deheer@physics.gateh.ed [HRL Laboratories LLC, Malibu, CA 90265 (United States)

    2010-09-22

    Since its inception in 2001, the science and technology of epitaxial graphene on hexagonal silicon carbide has matured into a major international effort and is poised to become the first carbon electronics platform. A historical perspective is presented and the unique electronic properties of single and multilayered epitaxial graphenes on electronics grade silicon carbide are reviewed. Early results on transport and the field effect in Si-face grown graphene monolayers provided proof-of-principle demonstrations. Besides monolayer epitaxial graphene, attention is given to C-face grown multilayer graphene, which consists of electronically decoupled graphene sheets. Production, structure and electronic structure are reviewed. The electronic properties, interrogated using a wide variety of surface, electrical and optical probes, are discussed. An overview is given of recent developments of several device prototypes including resistance standards based on epitaxial graphene quantum Hall devices and new ultrahigh frequency analogue epitaxial graphene amplifiers.

  14. High quality boron-doped epitaxial layers grown at 200°C from SiF4/H2/Ar gas mixtures for emitter formation in crystalline silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léal, Ronan; Haddad, Farah; Poulain, Gilles; Maurice, Jean-Luc; Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere

    2017-02-01

    Controlling the doping profile in solar cells emitter and front/back surface field is mandatory to reach high efficiencies. In the current state of the art, these doped layers are made by dopant diffusion at around 900°C, which implies potential temperature induced damages in the c-Si absorber and for which a precise control of doping is difficult. An alternative solution based on boron-doped epitaxial silicon layers grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) from 200°C using SiF4/H2/Ar/B2H6 chemistry is reported. The structural properties of the doped and undoped epitaxial layers were assessed by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The incorporation of boron has been studied via plasma profiling time of flight mass spectrometry (PP-TOFMS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) measurements. The boron-doped epitaxial layers revealed excellent structural and electrical properties even for high carrier concentrations (>1019cm-3). Sheet resistances between 100 and 130 Ω/sq can been obtained depending on the thickness and the doping concentration, which is within the range of targeted values for emitters in c-Si solar cells. Electrochemical capacitance voltage (ECV) revealed a uniform doping profile around 3.1019 cm-3 and by comparing with SIMS measurement a doping efficiency around 50% has been found.

  15. High quality boron-doped epitaxial layers grown at 200°C from SiF4/H2/Ar gas mixtures for emitter formation in crystalline silicon solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Léal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Controlling the doping profile in solar cells emitter and front/back surface field is mandatory to reach high efficiencies. In the current state of the art, these doped layers are made by dopant diffusion at around 900°C, which implies potential temperature induced damages in the c-Si absorber and for which a precise control of doping is difficult. An alternative solution based on boron-doped epitaxial silicon layers grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD from 200°C using SiF4/H2/Ar/B2H6 chemistry is reported. The structural properties of the doped and undoped epitaxial layers were assessed by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The incorporation of boron has been studied via plasma profiling time of flight mass spectrometry (PP-TOFMS and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS measurements. The boron-doped epitaxial layers revealed excellent structural and electrical properties even for high carrier concentrations (>1019cm-3. Sheet resistances between 100 and 130 Ω/sq can been obtained depending on the thickness and the doping concentration, which is within the range of targeted values for emitters in c-Si solar cells. Electrochemical capacitance voltage (ECV revealed a uniform doping profile around 3.1019 cm-3 and by comparing with SIMS measurement a doping efficiency around 50% has been found.

  16. Growth of gallium nitride based devices on silicon(001) substrates by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy; Wachstum von Galliumnitrid-basierten Bauelementen auf Silizium(001)-Substraten mittels metallorganischer Gasphasenepitaxie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiher, Fabian

    2009-02-25

    The main topic of this thesis is to investigate GaN-based layer systems grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy on Si(001) substrates. A temperature shift up to 45 K is measured for a complete device structure on a 2-inch silicon substrate. By using a 40 nm thin LT-AlN-seed layer (680 C), the GaN crystallites on Si(001) substrates are almost oriented with their GaN(10 anti 12)-planes parallel to the Si(001)-plane. A four-fold azimuthal symmetry occurs for these layers, with the GaN[10 anti 11]-direction is aligned parallel to one of the four equivalent left angle 110 right angle -directions, respectively. However, a mono-crystalline and fully coalesced GaN-layer with this crystallographic orientation could not yet been obtained. If a deposition temperature of more than 1100 C is used for the AlN-seed layer, solely the GaN[0001]- growth direction of crystallites occurs in the main GaN layer on Si(001) substrates. These c-axis oriented GaN columns feature two opposite azimuthal alignments that are rotated by 90 with respect to each other and with GaN[11 anti 20] parallel Si[110] and GaN[10 anti 10] parallel Si[110], respectively. By using 4 off-oriented substrates towards the Si[110]-direction, one certain azimuthal texture component can be selected. The critical value of the miscut angle corresponds to theoretical calculations predicting the occurrence of atomic double steps on the Si(001) surface. The achieved crystallographic quality of the GaN layers on Si(001) is characterized by having a tilt of FWHM=0.27 and a twist of FWHM=0.8 of the crystallites, determined by X-ray diffraction. A completely crack-free, up to 2.5 {mu}m thick, and mono-crystalline GaN-template can be realized on Si(001), integrating 4 or 5 LT-AlN-interlayers in the GaN buffer structure. Based on this structure, the first successful implementation of an (InGaN/GaN)-LED on Si(001) is achieved. Furthermore, the possible fabrication of GaN-based FET-structures is demonstrated with a fully

  17. Evolution of plant P-type ATPases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian N.S. Pedersen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Five organisms having completely sequenced genomes and belonging to all major branches of green plants (Viridiplantae were analyzed with respect to their content of P-type ATPases encoding genes. These were the chlorophytes Ostreococcus tauria and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and the streptophytes Physcomitrella patens (a moss, Selaginella moellendorffii (a primitive vascular plant, and Arabidopsis thaliana (a model flowering plant. Each organism contained sequences for all five subfamilies of P-type ATPases. Our analysis demonstrates when specific subgroups of P-type ATPases disappeared in the evolution of Angiosperms. Na/K-pump related P2C ATPases were lost with the evolution of streptophytes whereas Na+ or K+ pumping P2D ATPases and secretory pathway Ca2+-ATPases remained until mosses. An N-terminally located calmodulin binding domain in P2B ATPases can only be detected in pumps from Streptophytae, whereas, like in animals, a C-terminally localized calmodulin binding domain might be present in chlorophyte P2B Ca2+-ATPases. Chlorophyte genomes encode P3A ATPases resembling protist plasma membrane H+-ATPases and a C-terminal regulatory domain is missing. The complete inventory of P-type ATPases in the major branches of Viridiplantae is an important starting point for elucidating the evolution in plants of these important pumps.

  18. Scanning proximal microscopy study of the thin layers of silicon carbide-aluminum nitride solid solution manufactured by fast sublimation epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tománek P.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is a growth of SiC/(SiC1−x(AlNx structures by fast sublimation epitaxy of the polycrystalline source of (SiC1−x(AlNx and their characterisation by proximal scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. For that purpose optimal conditions of sublimation process have been defined. Manufactured structures could be used as substrates for wide-band-gap semiconductor devices on the basis of nitrides, including gallium nitride, aluminum nitride and their alloys, as well as for the production of transistors with high mobility of electrons and also for creation of blue and ultraviolet light emitters (light-emitted diodes and laser diodes. The result of analysis shows that increasing of the growth temperature up to 2300 K allows carry out sublimation epitaxy of thin layers of aluminum nitride and its solid solution.

  19. (Ga,Fe)Sb: A p-type ferromagnetic semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Nguyen Thanh; Anh, Le Duc; Tanaka, Masaaki [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Hai, Pham Nam [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-0033 (Japan)

    2014-09-29

    A p-type ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga{sub 1−x},Fe{sub x})Sb (x = 3.9%–13.7%) has been grown by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on GaAs(001) substrates. Reflection high energy electron diffraction patterns during the MBE growth and X-ray diffraction spectra indicate that (Ga,Fe)Sb layers have the zinc-blende crystal structure without any other crystallographic phase of precipitates. Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy characterizations indicate that (Ga,Fe)Sb has the zinc-blende band structure with spin-splitting induced by s,p-d exchange interactions. The magnetic field dependence of the MCD intensity and anomalous Hall resistance of (Ga,Fe)Sb show clear hysteresis, demonstrating the presence of ferromagnetic order. The Curie temperature (T{sub C}) increases with increasing x and reaches 140 K at x = 13.7%. The crystal structure analyses, magneto-transport, and magneto-optical properties indicate that (Ga,Fe)Sb is an intrinsic ferromagnetic semiconductor.

  20. Nanometer-Thick Gold on Silicon as a Proxy for Single-Crystal Gold for the Electrodeposition of Epitaxial Cuprous Oxide Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Jay A; Hill, James C; Mahenderkar, Naveen K; Liu, Ying-Chau

    2016-06-22

    Single-crystal Au is an excellent substrate for electrochemical epitaxial growth due to its chemical inertness, but the high cost of bulk Au single crystals prohibits their use in practical applications. Here, we show that ultrathin epitaxial films of Au electrodeposited onto Si(111), Si(100), and Si(110) wafers can serve as an inexpensive proxy for bulk single-crystal Au for the deposition of epitaxial films of cuprous oxide (Cu2O). The Au films range in thickness from 7.7 nm for a film deposited for 5 min to 28.3 nm for a film deposited for 30 min. The film thicknesses are measured by low-angle X-ray reflectivity and X-ray Laue oscillations. High-resolution TEM shows that there is not an interfacial SiOx layer between the Si and Au. The Au films deposited on the Si(111) substrates are smoother and have lower mosaic spread than those deposited onto Si(100) and Si(110). The mosaic spread of the Au(111) layer on Si(111) is only 0.15° for a 28.3 nm thick film. Au films deposited onto degenerate Si(111) exhibit ohmic behavior, whereas Au films deposited onto n-type Si(111) with a resistivity of 1.15 Ω·cm are rectifying with a barrier height of 0.85 eV. The Au and the Cu2O follow the out-of-plane and in-plane orientations of the Si substrates, as determined by X-ray pole figures. The Au and Cu2O films deposited on Si(100) and Si(110) are both twinned. The films grown on Si(100) have twins with a [221] orientation, and the films grown on Si(110) have twins with a [411] orientation. An interface model is proposed for all Si orientations, in which the -24.9% mismatch for the Au/Si system is reduced to only +0.13% by a coincident site lattice in which 4 unit meshes of Au coincide with 3 unit meshes of Si. Although this study only considers the deposition of epitaxial Cu2O films on electrodeposited Au/Si, the thin Au films should serve as high-quality substrates for the deposition of a wide variety of epitaxial materials.

  1. Doping Silicon Wafers with Boron by Use of Silicon Paste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Gao; Shu Zhou; Yunfan Zhang; Chen Dong; Xiaodong Pi; Deren Yang

    2013-01-01

    In this work we introduce recently developed silicon-paste-enabled p-type doping for silicon.Boron-doped silicon nanoparticles are synthesized by a plasma approach.They are then dispersed in solvents to form silicon paste.Silicon paste is screen-printed at the surface of silicon wafers.By annealing,boron atoms in silicon paste diffuse into silicon wafers.Chemical analysis is employed to obtain the concentrations of boron in silicon nanoparticles.The successful doping of silicon wafers with boron is evidenced by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and sheet resistance measurements.

  2. Recycling of p-type mc-si Top Cuts into p-type mono c-Si Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronsveld, P.C.P.; Manshanden, P.; Lenzmann, F.O. [ECN Solar Energy, Westerduinweg 3, P.O. Box 1, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Gjerstad, O. [Si Pro Holding AS, Ornesveien 3, P.O. Box 37, 8161, Glomfjord (Norway); Oevrelid, E.J. [SINTEF, Alfred Getz Vei 2, 7465, Trondheim (Norway)

    2013-07-01

    Solar cell results and material analysis are presented of 2 p-type Czochralski (Cz) ingots pulled from a charge consisting of 100% and 50% recycled multicrystalline silicon top cuts. The top cuts were pre-cleaned with a dedicated low energy consuming technology. No structure loss was observed in the bodies of the ingots. The performance of solar cells made from the 100% recycled Si ingot decreases towards the seed end of the ingot, which could be related to a non-optimal pulling process. Solar cells from the tail end of this ingot and from the 50% recycled Si ingot demonstrated an average solar cell efficiency of 18.6%. This is only 0.1% absolute lower than the efficiency of higher resistivity reference solar cells from commercially available wafers that were co-processed.

  3. Novel Silicon Devices for Radiation Therapy Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruzzi, Mara, E-mail: mara.bruzzi@unifi.it

    2016-02-11

    Modern radiotherapy techniques pose specific constraints in radiation-monitoring and dosimetry due to the occurrence of small radiation fields with high dose gradients, variation in space and time of the dose rate, variation in space and time of the beam energy spectrum. Novel devices coping with these strict conditions are needed. This paper reviews the most advanced technologies developed with silicon-based materials for clinical radiotherapy. Novel Si diodes as Pt-doped Si, epitaxial Si as well as thin devices have optimized performance, their response being independent of the accumulated dose, thus ensuring radiation tolerance and no need of recalibration. Monolithic devices based on segmented Si detectors can be easily tailored to optimize spatial resolution in the large active areas required in clinical radiotherapy. In particular, a monolithic device based on epitaxial p-type silicon, characterized by high spatial resolution and ability to directly measure temporal variations in dose modulation proved to be best viable solution for pre-treatment verifications in IMRT fields.

  4. 用于先进CMOS电路的150mm硅外延片外延生长%Epitaxial Growth of 150mm Silicon Epi-Wafers for Advanced IC Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王启元; 蔡田海; 郁元桓; 林兰英

    2000-01-01

    With the device feature's size miniaturization in very large scale integrated circuit and ultralarge scale integrated circuit towards the sub-micron and beyond level, the next generation of IC device requires silicon wafers with more improved electrical characteristics and reliability as well as a high perfection of the wafer surface. Compared with the polished wafer with a relatively high density of crystal originated defects (e. g. COPs), silicon epi-wafers can meet such high requirements. The current development of researches on the 150mm-silicon epi-wafers for advanced IC applications is described. The P/P+ CMOS silicon epi-wafers were fabricated on a PE2061 Epitaxial Reactor (made by Italian LPE Company). The material parameters of epiwafers, such as epi-defects, uniformity of thickness and resistivity, transition width, and minority carrier generation lifetime for epi-layer were characterized in detail. It is demonstrated that the 150mm silicon epi-wafers on PE2061 can meet the stringent requirements for the advanced IC applications.%随着大规模和超大规模集成电路特征尺寸向亚微米、深亚微米发展,下一代集成电路对硅片的表面晶体完整性和电学性能提出了更高的要求.与含有高密度晶体原生缺陷的硅抛光片相比,硅外延片一般能满足这些要求.该文报道了应用于先进集成电路的150mm P/P+CMOS硅外延片研究进展.在PE2061硅外延炉上进行了P/P+硅外延生长.外延片特征参数,如外延层厚度、电阻率均匀性,过渡区宽度及少子产生寿命进行了详细表征.研究表明:150mm P/P+CMOS硅外延片能够满足先进集成电路对材料更高要求,

  5. Ferroelectric and piezoelectric responses of (110) and (001)-oriented epitaxial Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3} thin films on all-oxide layers buffered silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vu, Hien Thu [International Training Institute for Materials Science (ITIMS), Hanoi University of Science and Technology, No.1 Dai Co Viet Road, Hanoi 10000 (Viet Nam); Nguyen, Minh Duc, E-mail: minh.nguyen@itims.edu.vn [International Training Institute for Materials Science (ITIMS), Hanoi University of Science and Technology, No.1 Dai Co Viet Road, Hanoi 10000 (Viet Nam); Inorganic Materials Science (IMS), MESA + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); SolMateS B.V., Drienerlolaan 5, Building 6, 7522 NB Enschede (Netherlands); Houwman, Evert; Boota, Muhammad [Inorganic Materials Science (IMS), MESA + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Dekkers, Matthijn [SolMateS B.V., Drienerlolaan 5, Building 6, 7522 NB Enschede (Netherlands); Vu, Hung Ngoc [International Training Institute for Materials Science (ITIMS), Hanoi University of Science and Technology, No.1 Dai Co Viet Road, Hanoi 10000 (Viet Nam); Rijnders, Guus [Inorganic Materials Science (IMS), MESA + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2015-12-15

    Graphical abstract: The cross sections show a very dense structure in the (001)-oriented films (c,d), while an open columnar growth structure is observed in the case of the (110)-oriented films (a,b). The (110)-oriented PZT films show a significantly larger longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient (d33{sub ,f}), but smaller transverse piezoelectric coefficient (d31{sub ,f}) than the (001) oriented films. - Highlights: • We fabricate all-oxide, epitaxial piezoelectric PZT thin films on Si. • The orientation of the films can be controlled by changing the buffer layer stack. • The coherence of the in-plane orientation of the grains and grain boundaries affects the ferroelectric properties. • Good cycling stability of the ferroelectric properties of (001)-oriented PZT thin films. The (110)-oriented PZT thin films show a larger d33{sub ,f} but smaller d31{sub ,f} than the (001)-oriented films. - Abstract: Epitaxial ferroelectric Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3} (PZT) thin films were fabricated on silicon substrates using pulsed laser deposition. Depending on the buffer layers and perovskite oxide electrodes, epitaxial films with different orientations were grown. (110)-oriented PZT/SrRuO{sub 3} (and PZT/LaNiO{sub 3}) films were obtained on YSZ-buffered Si substrates, while (001)-oriented PZT/SrRuO{sub 3} (and PZT/LaNiO{sub 3}) were fabricated with an extra CeO{sub 2} buffer layer (CeO{sub 2}/YSZ/Si). There is no effect of the electrode material on the properties of the films. The initial remnant polarizations in the (001)-oriented films are higher than those of (110)-oriented films, but it increases to the value of the (001) films upon cycling. The longitudinal piezoelectric d33{sub ,f} coefficients of the (110) films are larger than those of the (001) films, whereas the transverse piezoelectric d31{sub ,f} coefficients in the (110)-films are less than those in the (001)-oriented films. The difference is ascribed to the lower density (connectivity between

  6. Structural and optical properties of self-catalytic GaAs:Mn nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy on silicon substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gas, Katarzyna; Sadowski, Janusz; Kasama, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Mn-doped GaAs nanowires were grown in the self-catalytic growth mode on the oxidized Si(100) surface by molecular beam epitaxy and characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, Raman scattering, photoluminescence, cathodoluminescence, and electron transport measurements. The tra......Mn-doped GaAs nanowires were grown in the self-catalytic growth mode on the oxidized Si(100) surface by molecular beam epitaxy and characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, Raman scattering, photoluminescence, cathodoluminescence, and electron transport measurements.......e., it is much lower than the Mn/Ga flux ratio (about 3%) used during the MBE growth. The resistivity measurements of individual nanowires confirmed that they are conductive, in accordance with the photoluminescence measurements which showed the presence of Mn2+ acceptors located at Ga sites of the GaAs host...... lattice of the nanowires. An anomalous temperature dependence of the photoluminescence related to excitons was demonstrated for Mn-doped GaAs nanowires....

  7. P-type transparent conducting oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kelvin H. L.; Xi, Kai; Blamire, Mark G.; Egdell, Russell G.

    2016-09-01

    Transparent conducting oxides constitute a unique class of materials combining properties of electrical conductivity and optical transparency in a single material. They are needed for a wide range of applications including solar cells, flat panel displays, touch screens, light emitting diodes and transparent electronics. Most of the commercially available TCOs are n-type, such as Sn doped In2O3, Al doped ZnO, and F doped SnO2. However, the development of efficient p-type TCOs remains an outstanding challenge. This challenge is thought to be due to the localized nature of the O 2p derived valence band which leads to difficulty in introducing shallow acceptors and large hole effective masses. In 1997 Hosono and co-workers (1997 Nature 389 939) proposed the concept of ‘chemical modulation of the valence band’ to mitigate this problem using hybridization of O 2p orbitals with close-shell Cu 3d 10 orbitals. This work has sparked tremendous interest in designing p-TCO materials together with deep understanding the underlying materials physics. In this article, we will provide a comprehensive review on traditional and recently emergent p-TCOs, including Cu+-based delafossites, layered oxychalcogenides, nd 6 spinel oxides, Cr3+-based oxides (3d 3) and post-transition metal oxides with lone pair state (ns 2). We will focus our discussions on the basic materials physics of these materials in terms of electronic structures, doping and defect properties for p-type conductivity and optical properties. Device applications based on p-TCOs for transparent p-n junctions will also be briefly discussed.

  8. Experiments and computer simulations of iron profiles in p/p + silicon: segregation and the position of the iron donor level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieslmair, H.; Istratov, A. A.; Flink, C.; McHugo, S. A.; Weber, E. R.

    1999-12-01

    The position of the iron donor trap level in the silicon band gap at processing temperatures determines numerous important properties of iron such as its solubility and effective diffusivity. Thus this position influences the time and efficiency of the widely used p/p+ segregation gettering, i.e. the removal of iron from an epitaxial p-type silicon layer (the device region) by a heavily p+-doped silicon substrate. In this work, the iron concentration profiles within a 70 μm p-type epitaxial layer on a p+-type substrate were quantitatively measured using deep level transient spectroscopy in order to determine the position of the iron donor level. The samples are first intentionally contaminated with iron at 920°C and then annealed at 472°C for various times. The measured iron profiles are fitted with computer simulations in order to determine the iron trap level and the segregation coefficient at 472°C. The results indicate that the iron trap level is at Ev +0.32 eV at 472°C. The results of this study and of previous studies indicate that the iron donor level decreases in proportion to the band-gap narrowing.

  9. Ultrafast Terahertz Conductivity of Photoexcited Nanocrystalline Silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, David; MacDonald, A. Nicole; Hryciw, Aaron;

    2007-01-01

    The ultrafast transient ac conductivity of nanocrystalline silicon films is investigated using time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy. While epitaxial silicon on sapphire exhibits a free carrier Drude response, silicon nanocrystals embedded in glass show a response that is best described by a class......The ultrafast transient ac conductivity of nanocrystalline silicon films is investigated using time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy. While epitaxial silicon on sapphire exhibits a free carrier Drude response, silicon nanocrystals embedded in glass show a response that is best described...

  10. Growth of silicon-doped Al0.6Ga0.4N with low carbon concentration at high growth rate using high-flow-rate metal organic vapor phase epitaxy reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenaga, Kazutada; Mishima, Akira; Yano, Yoshiki; Tabuchi, Toshiya; Matsumoto, Koh

    2016-05-01

    The relationship between the carbon concentration and electrical characteristics of silicon-doped AlGaN (Al > 0.5) was investigated using a high-flow-rate metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) reactor. The carbon concentration and electrical properties of AlGaN (Al > 0.5) were measured as a function of the growth rate, V/III ratio, and growth temperature. The growth rate of Al0.6Ga0.4N was linearly controlled up to 7.2 µm/h under a constant ammonia (NH3) flow rate. However, a decrease in V/III ratio resulted in an increase in carbon concentration to 8 × 1017 cm-3. With increased growth temperature, the carbon concentration decreased to less than 2 × 1017 cm-3 without showing any reduction in growth rate. As a result, n-type Al0.6Ga0.4N with a carrier concentration of 5.4 × 1018 cm-3 and a resistivity of 2.2 × 10-2 Ω·cm was obtained.

  11. Properties of epitaxial, (001)- and (110)-oriented (PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3)2/3-(PbTiO3)1/3 films on silicon described by polarization rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boota, Muhammad; Houwman, Evert P; Dekkers, Matthijn; Nguyen, Minh D; Vergeer, Kurt H; Lanzara, Giulia; Koster, Gertjan; Rijnders, Guus

    2016-01-01

    Epitaxial (PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3)2/3-(PbTiO3)1/3 (PMN-PT) films with different out-of-plane orientations were prepared using a CeO2/yttria stabilized ZrO2 bilayer buffer and symmetric SrRuO3 electrodes on silicon substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The orientation of the SrRuO3 bottom electrode, either (110) or (001), was controlled by the deposition conditions and the subsequent PMN-PT layer followed the orientation of the bottom electrode. The ferroelectric, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the (SrRuO3/PMN-PT/SrRuO3) ferroelectric capacitors exhibit orientation dependence. The properties of the films are explained in terms of a model based on polarization rotation. At low applied fields domain switching dominates the polarization change. The model indicates that polarization rotation is easier in the (110) film, which is ascribed to a smaller effect of the clamping on the shearing of the pseudo-cubic unit cell compared to the (001) case.

  12. Columnar growth of CoSi2 on Si(111), Si(100) and Si(110) by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathauer, R. W.; Nieh, C. W.; Xiao, Q. F.; Hashimoto, Shin

    1990-01-01

    Codeposition of silicon and cobalt on heated silicon substrates in ratios several times the silicide stoichiometry is found to result in epitaxial columns of CoSi2 surrounded by a matrix of epitaxial silicon. For (111)-oriented wafers, nearly cylindrical columns are formed, where both columns and surrounding silicon are defect free, as deduced from transmission electron microscopy. Independent control of the column diameter and separation is possible, and diameters of 27-135 nm have been demonstrated.

  13. Low temperature plasma deposition of silicon thin films: From amorphous to crystalline

    OpenAIRE

    Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere; Cariou, Romain; Labrune, Martin

    2012-01-01

    International audience; We report on the epitaxial growth of crystalline silicon films on (100) oriented crystalline silicon substrates by standard plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition at 175 °C. Such unexpected epitaxial growth is discussed in the context of deposition processes of silicon thin films, based on silicon radicals and nanocrystals. Our results are supported by previous studies on plasma synthesis of silicon nanocrystals and point toward silicon nanocrystals being the most p...

  14. Structural and optical properties of self-catalytic GaAs:Mn nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy on silicon substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gas, Katarzyna; Sadowski, Janusz; Kasama, Takeshi; Siusys, Aloyzas; Zaleszczyk, Wojciech; Wojciechowski, Tomasz; Morhange, Jean-François; Altintaş, Abdulmenaf; Xu, H Q; Szuszkiewicz, Wojciech

    2013-08-21

    Mn-doped GaAs nanowires were grown in the self-catalytic growth mode on the oxidized Si(100) surface by molecular beam epitaxy and characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, Raman scattering, photoluminescence, cathodoluminescence, and electron transport measurements. The transmission electron microscopy studies evidenced the substantial accumulation of Mn inside the catalyzing Ga droplets on the top of the nanowires. Optical and transport measurements revealed that the limit of the Mn content for self-catalysed growth of GaAs nanowires corresponds to the doping level, i.e., it is much lower than the Mn/Ga flux ratio (about 3%) used during the MBE growth. The resistivity measurements of individual nanowires confirmed that they are conductive, in accordance with the photoluminescence measurements which showed the presence of Mn(2+) acceptors located at Ga sites of the GaAs host lattice of the nanowires. An anomalous temperature dependence of the photoluminescence related to excitons was demonstrated for Mn-doped GaAs nanowires.

  15. Efficiency Improvement of HIT Solar Cells on p-Type Si Wafers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-You Wei

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Single crystal silicon solar cells are still predominant in the market due to the abundance of silicon on earth and their acceptable efficiency. Different solar-cell structures of single crystalline Si have been investigated to boost efficiency; the heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT structure is currently the leading technology. The record efficiency values of state-of-the art HIT solar cells have always been based on n-type single-crystalline Si wafers. Improving the efficiency of cells based on p-type single-crystalline Si wafers could provide broader options for the development of HIT solar cells. In this study, we varied the thickness of intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous Si layer to improve the efficiency of HIT solar cells on p-type Si wafers.

  16. Temperature dependence of the thickness and morphology of epitaxial graphene grown on SiC (0001) wafers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Xin; Li Yan-Rong; Chen Yuan-Fu; Li Ping-Jian; Wang Ze-Gao; Liu Jing-Bo; He Jia-Rui; Fan Rui; Sun Ji-Rong; Zhang Wan-Li

    2012-01-01

    Epitaxial graphene is synthesized by silicon sublimation from the Si-terminated 6H-SiC substrate.The effects of graphitization temperature on the thickness and surface morphology of epitaxial graphene are investigated.X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra and atomic force microscopy images reveal that the epitaxial graphene thickness increases and the epitaxial graphene roughness decreases with the increase in graphitization temperature.This means that the thickness and roughness of epitaxial graphene films can be modulated by varying the graphitization temperature.In addition,the electrical properties of epitaxial graphene film are also investigated by Hall effect measurement.

  17. Temperature characteristics of epitaxially grown InAs quantum dot micro-disk lasers on silicon for on-chip light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yating; Li, Qiang; Liu, Alan Y.; Gossard, Arthur C.; Bowers, John E.; Hu, Evelyn L.; Lau, Kei May

    2016-07-01

    Temperature characteristics of optically pumped micro-disk lasers (MDLs) incorporating InAs quantum dot active regions are investigated for on-chip light sources. The InAs quantum dot MDLs were grown on V-groove patterned (001) silicon, fully compatible with the prevailing complementary metal oxide-semiconductor technology. By combining the high-quality whispering gallery modes and 3D confinement of injected carriers in quantum dot micro-disk structures, we achieved lasing operation from 10 K up to room temperature under continuous optical pumping. Temperature dependences of the threshold, lasing wavelength, slope efficiency, and mode linewidth are examined. An excellent characteristic temperature To of 105 K has been extracted.

  18. Temperature characteristics of epitaxially grown InAs quantum dot micro-disk lasers on silicon for on-chip light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Yating; Li, Qiang; Lau, Kei May, E-mail: eekmlau@ust.hk [Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Liu, Alan Y. [Materials Department, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Gossard, Arthur C.; Bowers, John E. [Materials Department, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Hu, Evelyn L. [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2016-07-04

    Temperature characteristics of optically pumped micro-disk lasers (MDLs) incorporating InAs quantum dot active regions are investigated for on-chip light sources. The InAs quantum dot MDLs were grown on V-groove patterned (001) silicon, fully compatible with the prevailing complementary metal oxide-semiconductor technology. By combining the high-quality whispering gallery modes and 3D confinement of injected carriers in quantum dot micro-disk structures, we achieved lasing operation from 10 K up to room temperature under continuous optical pumping. Temperature dependences of the threshold, lasing wavelength, slope efficiency, and mode linewidth are examined. An excellent characteristic temperature T{sub o} of 105 K has been extracted.

  19. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1996-01-30

    A method is disclosed for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors. 10 figs.

  20. Epitaxial engineered solutions for ITRS scaling roadblocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, Robert [IQE Silicon Ltd., Beech House, Cardiff CF3 OLW (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: rharper@iqesilicon.com

    2006-10-15

    This paper reviews the current and future roles of epitaxy in providing both process and materials solutions to the scaling roadblocks identified by ITRS2005. It is now widely accepted that we are in an 'era of materials enabled device scaling' [International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, 2005 Edition, Front End Processing.] and that in addition to new materials for the gate stack, advanced substrates will also become increasingly important in the 21st Century. The Emerging Materials Committee has identified a range of issues such as mobility enhancement and thermal management [M. Bulsara, G. Celler, H. Huff, R. Standly, E. White, Solid State Technol. (2006).] which can be addressed by new 'engineered' substrates that are now manufacturable thanks to combinations of advanced layer transfer and epitaxy processes. Strained silicon has proved to be an invaluable performance booster due to the enhanced mobilities resulting from different forms of uniaxial and biaxial strain. SiGe epitaxy is the key process enabling technology for both process induced (local) strain and bulk (global) strain. Hybrid orientation technology (HOT), where (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) surfaces coexist on the same silicon substrate, is also an exciting development for boosting pMOS mobility. Several embodiments of this approach also exist and all require forms of epitaxial processing. Advanced layer transfer processes make it possible to engineer substrates in a variety of ways which were, until recently, unimaginable. Layer transfer is essential to hybrid orientation technology and also makes strained silicon extendable onto SOI to produce ultra thin body (UTB) strained SOI substrates suitable for fully depleted CMOS devices. In addition to its role in strain processes and engineered substrates, the number of 'in-process' epitaxy stages is also increasing. BiCMOS and HBT epitaxy are established technologies, however, the requirement to reduce source/drain series

  1. TiAl Ohmic contact on GaN, in situ high or low doped or Si implanted, epitaxially grown on sapphire or silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cayrel, F.; Menard, O.; Alquier, D. [Laboratoire de Microelectronique de Puissance, Universite de Tours (France); Yvon, A.; Collard, E. [STMicroelectronics, Tours (France); Thierry-Jebali, N.; Brylinsky, C. [Laboratoire des Multimateriaux et Interfaces, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon1, Lyon (France)

    2012-06-15

    In this work, the Ti/Al Ohmic contact quality on n-type gallium nitride (GaN) films has been studied as a function of different process parameters such as surface cleaning procedure, etching, thickness of the deposited layers or annealing conditions. GaN epilayers, with uniform doping concentration from 1 x 10{sup 16} to 5.8 x 10{sup 18} at./cm{sup 3} were grown on sapphire or silicon substrates using AlN and/or AlGaN buffer layers. Electrical characterizations were made using circular transfer length method (cTLM) patterns with a four-probe equipment. Specific contact resistance (SCR) was then extracted from current-voltage (I-V) characteristics, for all the process conditions. Contact structures depending on experiment parameters were studied by means of (scanning) transmission electronic microscopy (STEM-TEM). Our results reveal that process parameters such as surface treatment have a lower impact than annealing temperature or metal thickness and annealing duration. Finally, SCR values of 1 x 10{sup -6} {omega} cm{sup 2} can be reproducibly achieved. Moreover, good Ohmic contacts have been obtained on etched surfaces or on low-doped layers implanted with Si. This low value demonstrates a good Ohmic contact and this large parameter process window is of high interest for future device fabrication based on GaN (planar or mesa structures). (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Characterization of Silicon Carbide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The various electrical and structural measurement techniques for silicon carbide are described. The electrical measurements include conductivity, resistivity, carrier concentration, mobility, doping energy levels, and lifetime. The structural measurements include polytype determination and crystalline perfection. Both bulk and epitaxial films are included.

  3. Silicon technologies ion implantation and thermal treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Baudrant, Annie

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this book is to remind new engineers in silicon foundry, the fundamental physical and chemical rules in major Front end treatments: oxidation, epitaxy, ion implantation and impurities diffusion.

  4. Phonon bottleneck in p-type Ge/Si quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakimov, A. I., E-mail: yakimov@isp.nsc.ru [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Tomsk State University, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Kirienko, V. V.; Armbrister, V. A. [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Bloshkin, A. A.; Dvurechenskii, A. V. [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-23

    We study the effect of quantum dot size on the mid-infrared photo- and dark current, photoconductive gain, and hole capture probability in ten-period p-type Ge/Si quantum dot heterostructures. The dot dimensions are varied by changing the Ge coverage and the growth temperature during molecular beam epitaxy of Ge/Si(001) system in the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode. In all samples, we observed the general tendency: with decreasing the size of the dots, the dark current and hole capture probability are reduced, while the photoconductive gain and photoresponse are enhanced. Suppression of the hole capture probability in small-sized quantum dots is attributed to a quenched electron-phonon scattering due to phonon bottleneck.

  5. Porous silicon gettering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Menna, P.; Pitts, J.R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    The authors have studied a novel extrinsic gettering method that uses the large surface areas produced by a porous-silicon etch as gettering sites. The annealing step of the gettering used a high-flux solar furnace. They found that a high density of photons during annealing enhanced the impurity diffusion to the gettering sites. The authors used metallurgical-grade Si (MG-Si) prepared by directional solidification casing as the starting material. They propose to use porous-silicon-gettered MG-Si as a low-cost epitaxial substrate for polycrystalline silicon thin-film growth.

  6. Impact of common metallurgical impurities on ms-Si solar cell efficiency. P-type versus n-type doped ingots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geerligs, L.J.; Manshanden, P. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Solheim, I.; Ovrelid, E.J.; Waernes, A.N. [Sintef materials technology, Trondheim (Norway)

    2006-09-15

    Silicon solar cells based on n-type silicon wafers are less sensitive to carrier lifetime degradation due to several common metal impurities than p-base cells. The theoretical and experimental indications for this have recently received considerable attention. This paper compares p-type and n-type cells purposely contaminated with relatively high levels of impurities, processed by industrial techniques. The impurities considered are Al, Ti, and Fe, which are the dominant impurities in metallurgical silicon and natural quartz. The work also preliminary addresses the question whether the optimal wafer resistivity is the same for n-type as for p-type base mc-Si cells.

  7. An integrated driving circuit implemented with p-type LTPS TFTs for AMOLED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Li-qing; WU Chun-ya; HAO Da-shou; YAO Ying; MENG Zhi-guo; XIONG Shao-zhen

    2009-01-01

    Based on the technology of low temperature poly silicon thin film transistors (poly-Si-TFTs), a novel p-type TFT AMOLED panel with self-scanned driving circuit is introduced in this paper. A shift register formed with novel p-type TFTs is pro-posed to realize the gate driver. A flip-latch cooperated with the shift register is designed to conduct the data writing. In order to verify the validity of the proposed design, the circuits are simulated with SILVACO TCAD tools, using the MODEL in which the parameters of LTPS TFTs were extracted from the LTPS TFTs made in our lab. The simulation results indicate that the circuit can fulfill the driving function.

  8. Piezoelectric Nanogenerator Using p-Type ZnO Nanowire Arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Ming-Pei

    2009-03-11

    Using phosphorus-doped ZnO nanowire (NW) arrays grown on silicon substrate, energy conversion using the p-type ZnO NWs has been demonstrated for the first time. The p-type ZnO NWs produce positive output voltage pulses when scanned by a conductive atomic force microscope (AFM) in contact mode. The output voltage pulse is generated when the tip contacts the stretched side (positive piezoelectric potential side) of the NW. In contrast, the n-type ZnO NW produces negative output voltage when scanned by the AFM tip, and the output voltage pulse is generated when the tip contacts the compressed side (negative potential side) of the NW. In reference to theoretical simulation, these experimentally observed phenomena have been systematically explained based on the mechanism proposed for a nanogenerator. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  9. Photovoltaic properties of ZnO nanorods/p-type Si heterojunction structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Pietruszka

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Selected properties of photovoltaic (PV structures based on n-type zinc oxide nanorods grown by a low temperature hydrothermal method on p-type silicon substrates (100 are investigated. PV structures were covered with thin films of Al doped ZnO grown by atomic layer deposition acting as transparent electrodes. The investigated PV structures differ in terms of the shapes and densities of their nanorods. The best response is observed for the structure containing closely-spaced nanorods, which show light conversion efficiency of 3.6%.

  10. Characterization of electrical and optical properties of silicon based materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Guobin

    2009-12-04

    characteristic DRL lines D1 to D4 has been detected, indicating the dislocations in the Alile sample are relatively clean. Test p-n junction diodes with dislocation networks (DNs) produced by silicon wafer direct bonding have been investigated by EBIC technique. Charge carriers collection and electrical conduction phenomena by the DNs were observed. Inhomogeneities in the charge collection were detected in n- and p-type samples under appropriate beam energy. The diffusion lengths in the thin top layer of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) have been measured by EBIC with full suppression of the surface recombination at the buried oxide (BOX) layer and at surface of the top layer by biasing method. The measured diffusion length is several times larger than the layer thickness. Silicon nanostructures are another important subject of this work. Electrical and optical properties of various silicon based materials like silicon nanowires, silicon nano rods, porous silicon, and Si/SiO{sub 2} multi quantum wells (MQWs) samples were investigated in this work. Silicon sub-bandgap infrared (IR) luminescence around 1570 nm was found in silicon nanowires, nano rods and porous silicon. PL measurements with samples immersed in different liquid media, for example, in aqueous HF (50%), concentrated H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (98%) and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} established that the subbandgap IR luminescence originated from the Si/SiO{sub x} interface. EL in the sub-bandgap IR range has been observed in simple devices prepared on porous silicon and MQWs at room temperature. (orig.)

  11. 2D vibrational properties of epitaxial silicene on Ag(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solonenko, Dmytro; Gordan, Ovidiu D.; Le Lay, Guy; Sahin, Hasan; Cahangirov, Seymur; Zahn, Dietrich R. T.; Vogt, Patrick

    2017-03-01

    The two-dimensional silicon allotrope, silicene, could spur the development of new and original concepts in Si-based nanotechnology. Up to now silicene can only be epitaxially synthesized on a supporting substrate such as Ag(111). Even though the structural and electronic properties of these epitaxial silicene layers have been intensively studied, very little is known about its vibrational characteristics. Here, we present a detailed study of epitaxial silicene on Ag(111) using in situ Raman spectroscopy, which is one of the most extensively employed experimental techniques to characterize 2D materials, such as graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides, and black phosphorous. The vibrational fingerprint of epitaxial silicene, in contrast to all previous interpretations, is characterized by three distinct phonon modes with A and E symmetries. Both, energies and symmetries of theses modes are confirmed by ab initio theory calculations. The temperature dependent spectral evolution of these modes demonstrates unique thermal properties of epitaxial silicene and a significant electron-phonon coupling. These results unambiguously support the purely two-dimensional character of epitaxial silicene up to about 300 °C, whereupon a 2D-to-3D phase transition takes place. The detailed fingerprint of epitaxial silicene will allow us to identify it in different environments or to study its modifications.

  12. P-type electronic and thermal transport properties of Mg2Sn1-xSix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunphil; Wiendlocha, Bartlomiej; Heremans, Joseph P.

    2013-03-01

    P-type Mg2Sn doped with various acceptors(1)(2) has been studied as a potential thermoelectric material. Because of its narrow band gap and high lattice thermal conductivity, the zT values of the binary compound are limited: zTmax reported is 0.3(3). In this work, we synthesize and characterize p-type-doped Mg2Sn1-xSix with various acceptors. Silicon is added in order to widen the band gap and scatter the phonons. The conduction band degeneracy that yields excellent zT in n-type material in the Mg2Sn1-xSix alloy system unfortunately does not apply to p-type material. Thermomagnetic and galvanomagnetic properties (electrical resistivity, Seebeck, Hall, and Nernst coefficients) are measured, along with thermal conductivity and band gap measurements. Finally, zT values are reported. (1) H. Y. Chen et al. Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol. 38, No. 7, 2009 (2) S. Choi et al. Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol. 41, No. 6, 2012 (3) H. Y. Chen et al. Phys. Status Solidi A 207, No. 11, 2523-2531 (2010) The work is supported by the joint NSF/DOE program on thermoelectrics, NSF-CBET-1048622

  13. Performances of miniature microstrip detectors made on oxygen enriched p-type substrates after very high proton irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casse, G. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: gcasse@hep.ph.liv.ac.uk; Allport, P.P. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom); Marti i Garcia, S. [IFIC CSIC, Edificio Institutos de Investigacion Apartado de Correos 22085 E-46071, Valencia-Spain (Spain); Lozano, M. [IMB-CNM (CSIC), Campus Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Turner, P.R. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom)

    2004-12-11

    Silicon microstrip detectors with n-type implant read-out strips on FZ p-type bulk (n-in-p) show superior charge collection properties, after heavy irradiation, to the more standard p-strips in n-type silicon (p-in-n). It is also well established that oxygen-enriched n-type silicon substrates show better performance, in terms of degradation of the full depletion voltage after charged hadron irradiation, than the standard FZ silicon used for high energy physics detectors. Silicon microstrip detectors combining both the advantages of oxygenation and of n-strip read-out (n-in-n) have achieved high radiation tolerance to charged hadrons. The manufacturing of n-in-n detectors though requires double-sided processing, resulting in more complicated and expensive devices than standard p-in-n. A cheaper single-sided option, that still combines these advantages, is to use n-in-p devices. P-type FZ wafers have been oxygen-enriched by high temperature diffusion from an oxide layer and successfully used to process miniature (1x1 cm{sup 2}) microstrip detectors. These detectors have been irradiated with 24 GeV/c protons in the CERN/PS T7 irradiation area up to {approx}7.5x10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. We report results with these irradiated detectors in terms of the charge collection efficiency as a function of the applied bias voltage.

  14. Performances of miniature microstrip detectors made on oxygen enriched p-type substrates after very high proton irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casse, G.; Allport, P. P.; Martí i Garcia, S.; Lozano, M.; Turner, P. R.

    2004-12-01

    Silicon microstrip detectors with n-type implant read-out strips on FZ p-type bulk (n-in-p) show superior charge collection properties, after heavy irradiation, to the more standard p-strips in n-type silicon (p-in-n). It is also well established that oxygen-enriched n-type silicon substrates show better performance, in terms of degradation of the full depletion voltage after charged hadron irradiation, than the standard FZ silicon used for high energy physics detectors. Silicon microstrip detectors combining both the advantages of oxygenation and of n-strip read-out (n-in-n) have achieved high radiation tolerance to charged hadrons. The manufacturing of n-in-n detectors though requires double-sided processing, resulting in more complicated and expensive devices than standard p-in-n. A cheaper single-sided option, that still combines these advantages, is to use n-in-p devices. P-type FZ wafers have been oxygen-enriched by high temperature diffusion from an oxide layer and succesfully used to process miniature (1×1 cm 2) microstrip detectors. These detectors have been irradiated with 24 GeV/c protons in the CERN/PS T7 irradiation area up to ˜7.5×10 15 cm -2. We report results with these irradiated detectors in terms of the charge collection efficiency as a function of the applied bias voltage.

  15. Epitaxial integration of nanowires in microsystems by local micrometer-scale vapor-phase epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mølhave, Kristian; Wacaser, Brent A; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Wagner, Jakob B; Samuelson, Lars; Bøggild, Peter

    2008-10-01

    Free-standing epitaxially grown nanowires provide a controlled growth system and an optimal interface to the underlying substrate for advanced optical, electrical, and mechanical nanowire device connections. Nanowires can be grown by vapor-phase epitaxy (VPE) methods such as chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or metal organic VPE (MOVPE). However, VPE of semiconducting nanowires is not compatible with several microfabrication processes due to the high synthesis temperatures and issues such as cross-contamination interfering with the intended microsystem or the VPE process. By selectively heating a small microfabricated heater, growth of nanowires can be achieved locally without heating the entire microsystem, thereby reducing the compatibility problems. The first demonstration of epitaxial growth of silicon nanowires by this method is presented and shows that the microsystem can be used for rapid optimization of VPE conditions. The important issue of the cross-contamination of other parts of the microsystem caused by the local growth of nanowires is also investigated by growth of GaN near previously grown silicon nanowires. The design of the cantilever heaters makes it possible to study the grown nanowires with a transmission electron microscope without sample preparation.

  16. Radiation Hardening of Silicon Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Leroy, C; Glaser, M

    2002-01-01

    %RD48 %title\\\\ \\\\Silicon detectors will be widely used in experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider where high radiation levels will cause significant bulk damage. In addition to increased leakage current and charge collection losses worsening the signal to noise, the induced radiation damage changes the effective doping concentration and represents the limiting factor to long term operation of silicon detectors. The objectives are to develop radiation hard silicon detectors that can operate beyond the limits of the present devices and that ensure guaranteed operation for the whole lifetime of the LHC experimental programme. Radiation induced defect modelling and experimental results show that the silicon radiation hardness depends on the atomic impurities present in the initial monocrystalline material.\\\\ \\\\ Float zone (FZ) silicon materials with addition of oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, germanium and tin were produced as well as epitaxial silicon materials with epilayers up to 200 $\\mu$m thickness. Their im...

  17. Raman spectra of p-type transparent semiconducting Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Mg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischer, Karsten, E-mail: fleisck@tcd.ie; Caffrey, David; Farrell, Leo; Norton, Emma; Mullarkey, Daragh; Arca, Elisabetta; Shvets, Igor V.

    2015-11-02

    We present an analysis of the Raman spectra of p-type transparent conducting Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Mg grown by various techniques including spray pyrolysis, pulsed laser deposition, molecular beam epitaxy and reactive magnetron sputtering. The best performing films show a distinct broad range Raman signature related to defect-induced vibrational modes not seen in stoichiometric, undoped material. Our comparative study demonstrates that Raman spectroscopy can quantify unwanted dopant clustering in the material at high Mg concentrations, while also being sensitive to the Mg incorporation site. By correlating the Raman signature to the electrical properties of the films, growth processes can be optimised to give the best conducting films and the local defect structure for effective p-type doping can be studied. - Highlights: • Mg doping in Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} can lead to dopant clustering in MgCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} phase. • Post-annealing in oxygen can dissolve these clusters improving doping. • High oxygen pressures during growth can prevent dopant clustering. • Raman spectroscopy is a powerful tool to assist growth optimization in p-type oxides.

  18. Transfer-Free Electrical Insulation of Epitaxial Graphene from its Metal Substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lizzit, Silvano; Larciprete, Rosanna; Lacovig, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    High-quality, large-area epitaxial graphene can be grown on metal surfaces, but its transport properties cannot be exploited because the electrical conduction is dominated by the substrate. Here we insulate epitaxial graphene on Ru(0001) by a stepwise intercalation of silicon and oxygen, and the ......, and the eventual formation of a SiO2 layer between the graphene and the metal. We follow the reaction steps by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and demonstrate the electrical insulation using a nanoscale multipoint probe technique.......High-quality, large-area epitaxial graphene can be grown on metal surfaces, but its transport properties cannot be exploited because the electrical conduction is dominated by the substrate. Here we insulate epitaxial graphene on Ru(0001) by a stepwise intercalation of silicon and oxygen...

  19. DLTS of p-type Czochralski Si wafers containing processing-induced macropores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoen, E.; Depauw, V.; Gordon, I.; Poortmans, J.

    2012-01-01

    The deep levels present in p-type Czochralski silicon with processing-induced macropores in the depletion region have been studied by the deep-level transient (DLT) spectroscopy technique. It is shown that a broad band is present for a bias pulse close to the interface with the Al Schottky contact, which exhibits anomalously slow hole capture and is ascribed to the internal interface states of the macropores. For depths beyond the pore region, other deep levels, associated with point defects—possibly metal contamination during the high-temperature annealing step under H2 ambient--have been observed. The impact of the observed defects on the lifetime of thin-film solar cells, fabricated using macropore-based layer transfer is discussed. Finally, it is shown that the presence of pores in the depletion region, which also affects the DLT-spectrum, alters the capacitance-voltage characteristics.

  20. Molecular beam epitaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Pamplin, Brian R

    1980-01-01

    Molecular Beam Epitaxy introduces the reader to the use of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) in the generation of III-V and IV-VI compounds and alloys and describes the semiconductor and integrated optics reasons for using the technique. Topics covered include semiconductor superlattices by MBE; design considerations for MBE systems; periodic doping structure in gallium arsenide (GaAs); nonstoichiometry and carrier concentration control in MBE of compound semiconductors; and MBE techniques for IV-VI optoelectronic devices. The use of MBE to fabricate integrated optical devices and to study semicond

  1. Quasi-perpetual discharge behaviour in p-type Ge-air batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocon, Joey D; Kim, Jin Won; Abrenica, Graniel Harne A; Lee, Jae Kwang; Lee, Jaeyoung

    2014-11-07

    Metal-air batteries continue to become attractive energy storage and conversion systems due to their high energy and power densities, safer chemistries, and economic viability. Semiconductor-air batteries - a term we first define here as metal-air batteries that use semiconductor anodes such as silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge) - have been introduced in recent years as new high-energy battery chemistries. In this paper, we describe the excellent doping-dependent discharge kinetics of p-type Ge anodes in a semiconductor-air cell employing a gelled KOH electrolyte. Owing to its Fermi level, n-type Ge is expected to have lower redox potential and better electronic conductivity, which could potentially lead to a higher operating voltage and better discharge kinetics. Nonetheless, discharge measurements demonstrated that this prediction is only valid at the low current regime and breaks down at the high current density region. The p-type Ge behaves extremely better at elevated currents, evident from the higher voltage, more power available, and larger practical energy density from a very long discharge time, possibly arising from the high overpotential for surface passivation. A primary semiconductor-air battery, powered by a flat p-type Ge as a multi-electron anode, exhibited an unprecedented full discharge capacity of 1302.5 mA h gGe(-1) (88% anode utilization efficiency), the highest among semiconductor-air cells, notably better than new metal-air cells with three-dimensional and nanostructured anodes, and at least two folds higher than commercial Zn-air and Al-air cells. We therefore suggest that this study be extended to doped-Si anodes, in order to pave the way for a deeper understanding on the discharge phenomena in alkaline metal-air conversion cells with semiconductor anodes for specific niche applications in the future.

  2. Very low surface recombination velocity on p-type c-Si by high-rate plasma-deposited aluminum oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Cast, Pierre; Kania, Daniel; Hofmann, Marc; Benick, Jan; Rentsch, Jochen; Preu, Ralf

    2009-10-01

    Aluminum oxide layers can provide excellent passivation for lowly and highly doped p-type silicon surfaces. Fixed negative charges induce an accumulation layer at the p-type silicon interface, resulting in very effective field-effect passivation. This paper presents highly negatively charged (Qox=-2.1×1012 cm-2) aluminum oxide layers produced using an inline plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system, leading to very low effective recombination velocities (˜10 cm s-1) on low-resistivity p-type substrates. A minimum static deposition rate (100 nm min-1) at least one order of magnitude higher than atomic layer deposition was achieved on a large carrier surfaces (˜1 m2) without significantly reducing the resultant passivation quality.

  3. Ab initio electronic properties of dual phosphorus monolayers in silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drumm, Daniel W.; Per, Manolo C.; Budi, Akin

    2014-01-01

    In the midst of the epitaxial circuitry revolution in silicon technology, we look ahead to the next paradigm shift: effective use of the third dimension - in particular, its combination with epitaxial technology. We perform ab initio calculations of atomically thin epitaxial bilayers in silicon......, investigating the fundamental electronic properties of monolayer pairs. Quantitative band splittings and the electronic density are presented, along with effects of the layers’ relative alignment and comments on disordered systems, and for the first time, the effective electronic widths of such device...

  4. Development in p-type Doping of ZnO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Liping; ZHU Qiqiang; FAN Dayong; LAN Zili

    2012-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a wide band-gap material of the Ⅱ-Ⅵ group with excellent optical properties for optoelectronics applications,such as the flat panel displays and solar cells used in sports tournament.Despite its advantages,the application of ZnO is hampered by the lack of stable p-type doping.In this paper,the recent progress in this field was briefly reviewed,and a comprehensive summary of the research was carried out on ZnO fabrication methods and its electrical,optical,and magnetic properties were presented.

  5. P-type conductivity in annealed strontium titanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poole, Violet M.; Corolewski, Caleb D.; McCluskey, Matthew D., E-mail: mattmcc@wsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-2814 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Hall-effect measurements indicate p-type conductivity in bulk, single-crystal strontium titanate (SrTiO{sub 3}, or STO) samples that were annealed at 1200°C. Room-temperature mobilities above 100 cm{sup 2}/V s were measured, an order of magnitude higher than those for electrons (5-10 cm{sup 2}/V s). Average hole densities were in the 10{sup 9}-10{sup 10} cm{sup −3} range, consistent with a deep acceptor.

  6. Bi-Se doped with Cu, p-type semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Raghu Nath; Phok, Sovannary; Parilla, Philip Anthony

    2013-08-20

    A Bi--Se doped with Cu, p-type semiconductor, preferably used as an absorber material in a photovoltaic device. Preferably the semiconductor has at least 20 molar percent Cu. In a preferred embodiment, the semiconductor comprises at least 28 molar percent of Cu. In one embodiment, the semiconductor comprises a molar percentage of Cu and Bi whereby the molar percentage of Cu divided by the molar percentage of Bi is greater than 1.2. In a preferred embodiment, the semiconductor is manufactured as a thin film having a thickness less than 600 nm.

  7. Compensation of native donor doping in ScN: Carrier concentration control and p-type ScN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Bivas; Garbrecht, Magnus; Perez-Taborda, Jaime A.; Fawey, Mohammed H.; Koh, Yee Rui; Shakouri, Ali; Martin-Gonzalez, Marisol; Hultman, Lars; Sands, Timothy D.

    2017-06-01

    Scandium nitride (ScN) is an emerging indirect bandgap rocksalt semiconductor that has attracted significant attention in recent years for its potential applications in thermoelectric energy conversion devices, as a semiconducting component in epitaxial metal/semiconductor superlattices and as a substrate material for high quality GaN growth. Due to the presence of oxygen impurities and native defects such as nitrogen vacancies, sputter-deposited ScN thin-films are highly degenerate n-type semiconductors with carrier concentrations in the (1-6) × 1020 cm-3 range. In this letter, we show that magnesium nitride (MgxNy) acts as an efficient hole dopant in ScN and reduces the n-type carrier concentration, turning ScN into a p-type semiconductor at high doping levels. Employing a combination of high-resolution X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and room temperature optical and temperature dependent electrical measurements, we demonstrate that p-type Sc1-xMgxN thin-film alloys (a) are substitutional solid solutions without MgxNy precipitation, phase segregation, or secondary phase formation within the studied compositional region, (b) exhibit a maximum hole-concentration of 2.2 × 1020 cm-3 and a hole mobility of 21 cm2/Vs, (c) do not show any defect states inside the direct gap of ScN, thus retaining their basic electronic structure, and (d) exhibit alloy scattering dominating hole conduction at high temperatures. These results demonstrate MgxNy doped p-type ScN and compare well with our previous reports on p-type ScN with manganese nitride (MnxNy) doping.

  8. Low p-type contact resistance by field-emission tunneling in highly Mg-doped GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Hironori; Martin, Denis; Grandjean, Nicolas

    2016-12-01

    Mg-doped GaN with a net acceptor concentration (NA-ND) in the high 1019 cm-3 range was grown using ammonia molecular-beam epitaxy. Electrical properties of NiO contact on this heavily doped p-type GaN were investigated. A potential-barrier height of 0.24 eV was extracted from the relationship between NA-ND and the specific contact resistivity (ρc). We found that there is an optimum NA-ND value of 5 × 1019 cm-3 for which ρc is as low as 2 × 10-5 Ω cm2. This low ρc is ascribed to hole tunneling through the potential barrier at the NiO/p+-GaN interface, which is well accounted for by the field-emission model.

  9. Metal Fluoride Inhibition of a P-type H+ Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Jesper Torbøl; Falhof, Janus; Ekberg, Kira; Buch-Pedersen, Morten Jeppe; Palmgren, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The plasma membrane H+-ATPase is a P-type ATPase responsible for establishing electrochemical gradients across the plasma membrane in fungi and plants. This essential proton pump exists in two activity states: an autoinhibited basal state with a low turnover rate and a low H+/ATP coupling ratio and an activated state in which ATP hydrolysis is tightly coupled to proton transport. Here we characterize metal fluorides as inhibitors of the fungal enzyme in both states. In contrast to findings for other P-type ATPases, inhibition of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase by metal fluorides was partly reversible, and the stability of the inhibition varied with the activation state. Thus, the stability of the ATPase inhibitor complex decreased significantly when the pump transitioned from the activated to the basal state, particularly when using beryllium fluoride, which mimics the bound phosphate in the E2P conformational state. Taken together, our results indicate that the phosphate bond of the phosphoenzyme intermediate of H+-ATPases is labile in the basal state, which may provide an explanation for the low H+/ATP coupling ratio of these pumps in the basal state. PMID:26134563

  10. Intrinsic stability of ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of epitaxial PbZr0.45Ti0.55O3 thin films on silicon in relation to grain tilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houwman, Evert P; Nguyen, Minh D; Dekkers, Matthijn; Rijnders, Guus

    2013-08-01

    Piezoelectric thin films of PbZr0.45Ti0.55O3 were grown on Si substrates in four different ways, resulting in different crystalline structures, as determined by x-ray analysis. The crystalline structures were different in the spread in tilt angle and the in-plane alignment of the crystal planes between different grains. It is found that the deviations of the ferroelectric polarization loop from that of the ideal rectangular loop (reduction of the remanent polarization with respect to the saturation polarization, dielectric constant of the film, slanting of the loop, coercive field value) all scale with the average tilt angle. A model is derived based on the assumption that the tilted grain boundaries between grains affect the film properties locally. This model describes the observed trends. The effective piezoelectric coefficient d33,eff shows also a weak dependence on the average tilt angle for films grown in a single layer, whereas it is strongly reduced for the films deposited in multiple layers. The least affected properties are obtained for the most epitaxial films, i.e. grown on a SrTiO3 epitaxial seed layer, by pulsed laser deposition. These films are intrinsically stable and do not require poling to acquire these stable properties.

  11. Intrinsic stability of ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of epitaxial PbZr0.45Ti0.55O3 thin films on silicon in relation to grain tilt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evert P Houwman, Minh D Nguyen, Matthijn Dekkers and Guus Rijnders

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric thin films of PbZr0.45Ti0.55O3 were grown on Si substrates in four different ways, resulting in different crystalline structures, as determined by x-ray analysis. The crystalline structures were different in the spread in tilt angle and the in-plane alignment of the crystal planes between different grains. It is found that the deviations of the ferroelectric polarization loop from that of the ideal rectangular loop (reduction of the remanent polarization with respect to the saturation polarization, dielectric constant of the film, slanting of the loop, coercive field value all scale with the average tilt angle. A model is derived based on the assumption that the tilted grain boundaries between grains affect the film properties locally. This model describes the observed trends. The effective piezoelectric coefficient d33,eff shows also a weak dependence on the average tilt angle for films grown in a single layer, whereas it is strongly reduced for the films deposited in multiple layers. The least affected properties are obtained for the most epitaxial films, i.e. grown on a SrTiO3 epitaxial seed layer, by pulsed laser deposition. These films are intrinsically stable and do not require poling to acquire these stable properties.

  12. Single-photon emission from electrically driven InP quantum dots epitaxially grown on CMOS-compatible Si(001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, M.; Schulz, W.-M.; Kessler, C.; Reischle, M.; Metzner, S.; Bertram, F.; Christen, J.; Roßbach, R.; Jetter, M.; Michler, P.

    2012-08-01

    The heteroepitaxy of III-V semiconductors on silicon is a promising approach for making silicon a photonic platform. Mismatches in material properties, however, present a major challenge, leading to high defect densities in the epitaxial layers and adversely affecting radiative recombination processes. However, nanostructures, such as quantum dots, have been found to grow defect-free even in a suboptimal environment. Here we present the first realization of indium phosphide quantum dots on exactly oriented Si(001), grown by metal-organic vapour-phase epitaxy. We report electrically driven single-photon emission in the red spectral region, meeting the wavelength range of silicon avalanche photodiodes’ highest detection efficiency.

  13. Extrinsic doping in silicon revisited

    KAUST Repository

    Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2010-06-17

    Both n-type and p-type doping of silicon is at odds with the charge transfer predicted by Pauling electronegativities and can only be reconciled if we no longer regarding dopant species as isolated atoms but rather consider them as clusters consisting of the dopant and its four nearest neighbor silicon atoms. The process that gives rise to n-type and p-type effects is the charge redistribution that occurs between the dopant and its neighbors, as we illustrate here using electronic structure calculations. This view point is able to explain why conventional substitutional n-type doping of carbon has been so difficult.

  14. Extrinsic doping in silicon revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwingenschloegl, Udo [PSE Division, KAUST, Thuwal, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Saudi Arabia); Chroneos, Alexander; Grimes, Robin [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom); Schuster, Cosima [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, 86135 Augsburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Both n-type and p-type doping of silicon is at odds with the charge transfer predicted by Pauling electronegativities and can only be reconciled if we no longer regard dopant species as isolated atoms but rather consider them as clusters consisting of the dopant and its four nearest neighbor silicon atoms. The process that gives rise to n-type and p-type effects is the charge redistribution that occurs between the dopant and its neighbors, as we illustrate here using electronic structure calculations. This view point is able to explain why conventional substitutional n-type doping of carbon has been so difficult.

  15. p-Type NiO Hybrid Visible Photodetector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallows, John; Planells, Miquel; Thakare, Vishal; Bhosale, Reshma; Ogale, Satishchandra; Robertson, Neil

    2015-12-23

    A novel hybrid visible-light photodetector was created using a planar p-type inorganic NiO layer in a junction with an organic electron acceptor layer. The effect of different oxygen pressures on formation of the NiO layer by pulsed laser deposition shows that higher pressure increases the charge carrier density of the film and lowers the dark current in the device. The addition of a monolayer of small molecules containing conjugated π systems and carboxyl groups at the device interface was also investigated and with correct alignment of the energy levels improves the device performance with respect to the quantum efficiency, responsivity, and photogeneration. The thickness of the organic layer was also optimized for the device, giving a responsivity of 1.54 × 10(-2) A W(-1) in 460 nm light.

  16. Elucidating Functional Aspects of P-type ATPases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autzen, Henriette Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    similar to that of the wild type (WT) protein. The discrepancy between the newly determined crystal structure of LpCopA and the functional manifestations of the missense mutation in human CopA, could indicate that LpCopA is insufficient in structurally elucidating the effect of disease-causing mutations...... cancer and pathogenic microbes. The goal of this Ph.D. dissertation was to functionally characterize SERCA1a and CopA from Legionella pneumophila (LpCopA) through a range of different methods within structural biology. Crystallographic studies of SERCA1a led to a newly determined crystal structure......P-type ATPases are proteins that act to maintain ion homeostasis and electrochemical gradients through the translocation of cations across cell membranes. Underscoring their significance in humans, dysfunction of the ATPases can lead to crucial diseases. Dysfunction of the sarco...

  17. Study on the p-type QWIP-LED device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHEN; Honglou; XIONG; Dayuan; ZHOU; Xuchang; LI; Ning; SHAO; Jun; LU; Wei

    2006-01-01

    A p-type quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) integrated with a light-emitting diode (LED) (named QWIP-LED) was fabricated and studied. The infrared photo-response spectrum was obtained from the device resistance variation and the near-infrared photo-emission intensity variation. A good agreement between these two spectra was observed, which demonstrates that the long-wavelength infrared radiation around 7.5 μm has been transferred to the near-infrared light at 0.8 μm by the photo-electronic process in the QWIP-LED structure. Moreover, the experimentally observed infrared response wavelength is in good agreement with the theoretical calculation value of 7.7 μm. The results on the upconversion of the infrared radiation will be very useful for the new infrared focal plane array technology.

  18. Reactive ion etching (RIE) induced p- to n-type conversion in extrinsically doped p-type HgCdTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musca, C.A.; Smith, E.P.G.; Siliquini, J.F.; Dell, J.M.; Antoszewski, J.; Faraone, L. [Univ. of Western Australia, Nedlands, Western Australia (Australia). Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering; Piotrowski, J. [Vigo System Ltd., Warsaw (Poland)

    1998-12-31

    Mercury annealing of reactive ion etching (RIE) induced p- to n-type conversion in extrinsically doped p-type epitaxial layers of HgCdTe (x = 0.31) has been used to reconvert n-type conversion sustained during RIE processing. For the RIE processing conditions used (400 mT, CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}, 90 W) p- to n-type conversion was observed using laser beam induced current (LBIC) measurements. After a sealed tube mercury anneal at 200 C for 17 hours, LBIC measurements clearly indicated no n-type converted region remained. Subsequent Hall measurements confirmed that the material consisted of a p-type layer, with electrical properties equivalent to that of the initial as-grown wafer (N{sub A}-N{sub D} = 2 {times} 10{sup 16} cm{sup {minus}3}, {mu} = 350 cm{sup 2}.V{sup {minus}1}.s{sup {minus}1}).

  19. DLTS study of deep centers created by Ar-ion bombardment in n- and p-type MBE AlGaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniewska, M.; Sadowski, J.; Guziewicz, M.

    2004-07-01

    The thermal emission rate of dominant traps in molecular beam epitaxial n- and p-type AlGaAs subjected to Ar-ion beam etching has been studied by deep level transient spectroscopy. Emission signatures were determined and compared with results obtained by other authors for irradiation induced and grown-in defects in GaAs and AlGaAs. The most significant result of this study is the observation that the process-induced defects in n- as well as p-type AlGaAs exhibit emission signatures, which are characteristic of native defects found in GaAs. The effect is discussed in terms of a compensation effect and related band bending.

  20. Infrared Transparent Spinel Films with p -Type Conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windisch, Charles F.; Exarhos, Gregory J.; Ferris, Kim F.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Stewart, Donald C.

    2001-11-29

    Spinel oxide films containing at least two transition metal cations were found to exhibit p-type conductivity with high optical transparency from the visible to wavelengths near 15 micrometers. Resistivities as low as 0.003 ohm-cm were measured on 100 nm thick rf sputter deposited films that contained nickel and cobalt. Optical spectra, Raman scattering and XPS measurements indicated the valency of nickel localized on octahedral sites within the spinel lattice determines these properties. Electronic band structure calculations corroborated the experimental results. A resistivity minimum was found at the composition NiCo2O4 deposited from aqueous or alcoholic solutions followed by subsequent annealing at 400 degrees C in air. Solution deposited films richer in nickel than this stoichiometry always were found to phase separate into nickel oxide and a spinel phase with concomitant loss in conductivity. However, the phase stability region could be extended to higher nickel contents when rf-sputter deposition techniques were used. Sputter deposited spinel films having a nickel to cobalt ratio less than 2 were found to exhibit the highest conductivity. Results suggest that the phase stability region for these materials can be extended through appropriate choice of deposition conditions. A possible mechanism that promotes high conductivity in this system is thought to be charge transfer between the resident di- and trivalent cations that may be assisted by the magnetic nature of the oxide film.

  1. Electronic processes in uniaxially stressed p-type germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubon, Jr., Oscar Danilo [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Effect of uniaxial stress on acceptor-related electronic processes in Ge single crystals doped with Ga, Be, and Cu were studied by Hall and photo-Hall effect measurements in conjunction with infrared spectroscopy. Stress dependence of hole lifetime in p-type Ge single crystals is used as a test for competing models of non-radiative capture of holes by acceptors. Photo-Hall effect shows that hole lifetime in Ga- and Be-doped Ge increases by over one order of magnitude with uniaxial stress at liq. He temps. Photo-Hall of Ge:Be shows a stress-induced change in the temperature dependence of hole lifetime. This is consistent with observed increase of responsivity of Ge:Ga detectors with uniaxial stress. Electronic properties of Ge:Cu are shown to change dramatically with uniaxial stress; the results provide a first explanation for the performance of uniaxially stressed, Cu-diffused Ge:Ga detectors which display a high conductivity in absence of photon signal and therefore have poor sensitivity.

  2. Photoconduction spectroscopy of p-type GaSb films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shura, M.W., E-mail: Megersa.Shura@live.nmmu.ac.za [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Wagener, V.; Botha, J.R.; Wagener, M.C. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    Excess carrier lifetimes (77 K) have been measured as function of the absorbed flux density in undoped p-type gallium antimonide films (GaSb/GaAs) using steady state photoconductivity measurements with the illumination wavelength of 1.1 {mu}m. Using the results from Hall effect measurements along with the relations describing the lifetimes of the excess minority carriers in the bulk of the films and at the surface, the theoretical values of the effective excess carrier lifetime in the materials were also calculated. Discrepancies between the experimental and theoretical results were described using a two-layer model, by considering the variation in the charge distribution within the layer due to the presence of surface states, as well as the band offset between the layer and the substrate. Theoretical modeling of the experimental result yields values of different parameters such as band bending at the surface, minimum value of Shockley-Read-Hall lifetime and maximum value of the surface recombination velocity.

  3. Large-Area Dry Transfer of Single-Crystalline Epitaxial Bismuth Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Emily S; Na, Seung Ryul; Jung, Daehwan; March, Stephen D; Kim, Joon-Seok; Trivedi, Tanuj; Li, Wei; Tao, Li; Lee, Minjoo L; Liechti, Kenneth M; Akinwande, Deji; Bank, Seth R

    2016-11-09

    We report the first direct dry transfer of a single-crystalline thin film grown by molecular beam epitaxy. A double cantilever beam fracture technique was used to transfer epitaxial bismuth thin films grown on silicon (111) to silicon strips coated with epoxy. The transferred bismuth films retained electrical, optical, and structural properties comparable to the as-grown epitaxial films. Additionally, we isolated the bismuth thin films on freestanding flexible cured-epoxy post-transfer. The adhesion energy at the bismuth/silicon interface was measured to be ∼1 J/m(2), comparable to that of exfoliated and wet transferred graphene. This low adhesion energy and ease of transfer is unexpected for an epitaxially grown film and may enable the study of bismuth's unique electronic and spintronic properties on arbitrary substrates. Moreover, this method suggests a route to integrate other group-V epitaxial films (i.e., phosphorus) with arbitrary substrates, as well as potentially to isolate bismuthene, the atomic thin-film limit of bismuth.

  4. Epitaxial sic devices for radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruzzi, M; Menichelli, D.; Pini, S.; Sciortino, S. [INFN, Firenze (Italy); Firenze Univ., Firenze (Italy). Dipartimento di Energetica; Bucciolini, M. [INFN, Firenze (Italy); Firenze Univ., Firenze (Italy). Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica; Nava, F. [Modena Univ., Modena (Italy). Dipartimento di Fisica; INFN, Bologna (Italy)

    2002-07-01

    The current response of SiC on-line dosimeters to {gamma}-radiation from{sup 60}Co and {sup 167}Cs {gamma}-sources, X-photons and 22MeV electrons from linear accelerator has been investigated. The devices used are 4H-SiC epitaxial n-type layer deposited onto a 4H-SiC n{sup +} type substrate wafer doped with nitrogen. Single-pad Schottky contacts have been produced by deposition of a 1000A gold film on the epitaxial layer and ohmic contacts have been deposited on the rear substrate side. The detector has been then embedded in epoxy resin and studied in the dose and dose-rate ranges 0.1-1 Gy 0.1-10Gy/min. A signal response comparable to that of silicon standard dosimeters has been measured with the unbiased SiC device. The released charge and induced current have been observed to increase linearly respectively with the dose and dose-rate. A preliminary study on the changes in the sensibility of the device after a {gamma}-rays accumulated dose up to 10kGy is also presented.

  5. Room-temperature Domain-epitaxy of Copper Iodide Thin Films for Transparent CuI/ZnO Heterojunctions with High Rectification Ratios Larger than 10(9).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chang; Kneiß, Max; Schein, Friedrich-Leonhard; Lorenz, Michael; Grundmann, Marius

    2016-02-26

    CuI is a p-type transparent conductive semiconductor with unique optoelectronic properties, including wide band gap (3.1 eV), high hole mobility (>40 cm(2)V(-1)s(-1) in bulk), and large room-temperature exciton binding energy (62 meV). The difficulty in epitaxy of CuI is the main obstacle for its application in advanced solid-state electronic devices. Herein, room-temperature heteroepitaxial growth of CuI on various substrates with well-defined in-plane epitaxial relations is realized by reactive sputtering technique. In such heteroepitaxial growth the formation of rotation domains is observed and hereby systematically investigated in accordance with existing theoretical study of domain-epitaxy. The controllable epitaxy of CuI thin films allows for the combination of p-type CuI with suitable n-type semiconductors with the purpose to fabricate epitaxial thin film heterojunctions. Such heterostructures have superior properties to structures without or with weakly ordered in-plane orientation. The obtained epitaxial thin film heterojunction of p-CuI(111)/n-ZnO(00.1) exhibits a high rectification up to 2 × 10(9) (± 2 V), a 100-fold improvement compared to diodes with disordered interfaces. Also a low saturation current density down to 5 × 10(-9)Acm(-2) is formed. These results prove the great potential of epitaxial CuI as a promising p-type optoelectronic material.

  6. Growth of silicon sheets from metallurgical-grade silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciszek, T.; Schietzelt, M.; Kazmerski, L. L.; Hurd, J. L.; Fernelius, B.

    1981-05-01

    Impure silicon is difficult to solidify in sheet form because of morphological proturberances which may result from constitutional supercooling. Sheet growth methods which require a specific crystallographic orientation or which are characterized by a narrow melt meniscus are most affected by this problem. The edge-supported pulling technique was applied to sheet growth of metallurgical grade silicon and DAR (Direct Arc Reactor) silicon. The 7 mm meniscus height associated with this technique allowed the growth of 5 cm wide sheets from both materials. In each case, the sheets were p-type.

  7. Nano-Optoelectronic Integration on Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    Gustafsson, L. R. Wallenberg, and L. Samuelson , “Epitaxial III−V Nanowires on Silicon,” Nano Letters, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 1987–1990, Oct. 2004...Transactions on Electron Devices, vol. 47, no. 12, pp. 2320 – 2325, Dec. 2000. 108 [48] T. Bryllert, L.-E. Wernersson, L. E. Froberg, and L. Samuelson

  8. Epitaxial growth of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N alloy films on sapphire and silicon by reactive co-sputtering of GaAs and indium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, Shyam, E-mail: shyammohan@iitb.ac.in; Major, S. S. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai – 400076 (India); Srinivasa, R. S. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai – 400076 (India)

    2015-06-24

    In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N alloy films (0.2epitaxially grown on c-cut sapphire and Si (100) substrates by reactive co-sputtering of GaAs and indium with 100% nitrogen at a substrate temperature of 600 °C. X-ray diffraction studies show the formation of completely c-axis oriented, single phase alloy films over the studied range of composition. The crystallite size along the growth direction and surface morphology of alloy films, particularly those with higher indium fraction exhibit substantial improvement on Si (100) substrate, compared to the c-cut sapphire substrate. The electrical resistivity decreases monotonously with increase in indium fraction and the alloy films on Si (100) show substantially higher mobility, compared to those on sapphire. These features are attributed to superior crystallinity of alloy films on Si (100), which possibly arise from the formation of interfacial hexagonal α-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, owing to the interaction of nitrogen plasma with Si surface.

  9. Self-organization and FORC-based magnetic characterization of ultra-high aspect ratio epitaxial Co nanostrips produced by oblique deposition on an ordered step-bunched silicon surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ognev, A. V.; Ermakov, K. S.; Samardak, A. Yu; Kozlov, A. G.; Sukovatitsina, E. V.; Davydenko, A. V.; Chebotkevich, L. A.; Stancu, A.; Samardak, A. S.

    2017-03-01

    Further development of microelectronics requires novel or improved technological approaches for device nanofabrication and functional properties characterization. In this paper, we studied the crystal structure and magnetic properties of epitaxial Co nanostrips with the average width of 32.6, 45.3, and 62.6 nm grown on a step-bunched Si(111)5.55 × 5.55-Cu/Cu surface. Technological conditions, under which the ultra-high aspect ratio (˜104) structurally solid, straight nanostrips of hcp-Co with crystallographic axis [0001] oriented along their long side can be grown, were determined. The dependence of the coercive force on the width of the nanostrips was demonstrated. Magnetization reversal through the transverse domain-wall nucleation and propagation in a Co nanostrip was defined with an analytical approach based on the Stoner-Wohlfarth model. Using the first-order reversal curve method, we analyzed the effect of nanostrip uniformity degree on magnetic behavior and the influence of the magnetostatic interactions on the coercive force of individual nanostrips.

  10. Stacked Metal Silicide/Silicon Far-Infrared Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maserjian, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    Selective doping of silicon in proposed metal silicide/silicon Schottky-barrier infrared photodetector increases maximum detectable wavelength. Stacking layers to form multiple Schottky barriers increases quantum efficiency of detector. Detectors of new type enhance capabilities of far-infrared imaging arrays. Grows by molecular-beam epitaxy on silicon waferscontaining very-large-scale integrated circuits. Imaging arrays of detectors made in monolithic units with image-preprocessing circuitry.

  11. Core level excitations — A fingerprint of structural and electronic properties of epitaxial silicene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friedlein, R.; Fleurence, A.; Aoyagi, K.; Jong, de M.P.; Van Bui, H.; Wiggers, F.B.; Yoshimoto, S.; Koitaya, T.; Shimizu, S.; Noritake, H.; Mukai, K.; Yoshinobu, J.; Yamada-Takamura, Y.

    2014-01-01

    From the analysis of high-resolution Si 2p photoelectron and near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra, we show that core level excitations of epitaxial silicene on ZrB2(0001) thin films are characteristically different from those of sp 3-hybridized silicon. In particular, it is rev

  12. Piezoresistive effect in p-type 3C-SiC at high temperatures characterized using Joule heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Hoang-Phuong; Dinh, Toan; Kozeki, Takahiro; Qamar, Afzaal; Namazu, Takahiro; Dimitrijev, Sima; Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Dao, Dzung Viet

    2016-06-28

    Cubic silicon carbide is a promising material for Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) applications in harsh environ-ments and bioapplications thanks to its large band gap, chemical inertness, excellent corrosion tolerance and capability of growth on a Si substrate. This paper reports the piezoresistive effect of p-type single crystalline 3C-SiC characterized at high temperatures, using an in situ measurement method. The experimental results show that the highly doped p-type 3C-SiC possesses a relatively stable gauge factor of approximately 25 to 28 at temperatures varying from 300 K to 573 K. The in situ method proposed in this study also demonstrated that, the combination of the piezoresistive and thermoresistive effects can increase the gauge factor of p-type 3C-SiC to approximately 20% at 573 K. The increase in gauge factor based on the combination of these phenomena could enhance the sensitivity of SiC based MEMS mechanical sensors.

  13. Piezoresistive effect in p-type 3C-SiC at high temperatures characterized using Joule heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Hoang-Phuong; Dinh, Toan; Kozeki, Takahiro; Qamar, Afzaal; Namazu, Takahiro; Dimitrijev, Sima; Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Dao, Dzung Viet

    2016-06-01

    Cubic silicon carbide is a promising material for Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) applications in harsh environ-ments and bioapplications thanks to its large band gap, chemical inertness, excellent corrosion tolerance and capability of growth on a Si substrate. This paper reports the piezoresistive effect of p-type single crystalline 3C-SiC characterized at high temperatures, using an in situ measurement method. The experimental results show that the highly doped p-type 3C-SiC possesses a relatively stable gauge factor of approximately 25 to 28 at temperatures varying from 300 K to 573 K. The in situ method proposed in this study also demonstrated that, the combination of the piezoresistive and thermoresistive effects can increase the gauge factor of p-type 3C-SiC to approximately 20% at 573 K. The increase in gauge factor based on the combination of these phenomena could enhance the sensitivity of SiC based MEMS mechanical sensors.

  14. TSC measurements on proton-irradiated p-type Si-sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donegani, Elena; Fretwurst, Eckhart; Garutti, Erika; Junkes, Alexandra [University of Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Thin n{sup +}p Si sensors are potential candidates for coping with neutron equivalent fluences up to 2.10{sup 16} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2} and an ionizing dose in the order of a few MGy, which are expected e.g. for the HL-LHC upgrade. The aim of the present work is to provide experimental data on radiation-induced defects in order to: firstly, get a deeper understanding of the properties of hadron induced defects, and secondly develop a radiation damage model based on microscopic measurements. Therefore, the outcomes of Thermally Stimulated Current measurements on 200 μm thick Float-Zone (FZ) and Magnetic Czochralski (MCz) diodes will be shown, as a results of irradiation with 23 MeV protons and isothermal annealing. The samples were irradiated in the fluence range (0.3-1).10{sup 14} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, so that the maximal temperature at which the TSC signal is still sharply distinguishable from the dark current is 200 K. In particular, special focus will be given to the defect introduction rate and to the issue of boron removal in p-type silicon. Annealing studies allow to distinguish which defects mainly contribute to the leakage current and which to the space charge, and thus correlate microscopic defects properties with macroscopic sensor properties.

  15. Results with p-type pixel sensors with different geometries for the HL-LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allport, P.P. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford Road, Liverpool, L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Bates, R.; Butter, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Casse, G. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford Road, Liverpool, L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Dervan, P.J., E-mail: Paul.Dervan@cern.ch [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford Road, Liverpool, L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Forshaw, D.; Tsurin, I. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford Road, Liverpool, L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-11

    Pixel detectors will be extensively used for the four innermost layers of the upgraded ATLAS experiment at the future High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) at CERN. The total area of pixel sensors will be over 5 m{sup 2}. The silicon sensors that will instrument the pixel volume will have to face several technology challenges. They will have to withstand doses up to 2×10{sup 16} n{sub eq}cm{sup −2}, to have a reduced inactive area at the edge of the sensors still being able to hold 1000 V bias voltage and to be relatively low cost considering the large area to be covered. N-side readout on p-type bulk is the most promising technology for satisfying the various requirements. Several sensor types have been produced in the UK, conceived for various readout systems, for studying the properties of n-in-p and n-in-n sensors before and after irradiation with test beam and laboratory measurements. The status of these studies is presented here.

  16. Orientation Effects in Ballistic High-Strained P-type Si Nanowire FETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to design and optimize high-sensitivity silicon nanowire-field-effect transistor (SiNW FET pressure sensors, this paper investigates the effects of channel orientations and the uniaxial stress on the ballistic hole transport properties of a strongly quantized SiNW FET placed near the high stress regions of the pressure sensors. A discrete stress-dependent six-band k.p method is used for subband structure calculation, coupled to a two-dimensional Poisson solver for electrostatics. A semi-classical ballistic FET model is then used to evaluate the ballistic current-voltage characteristics of SiNW FETs with and without strain. Our results presented here indicate that [110] is the optimum orientation for the p-type SiNW FETs and sensors. For the ultra-scaled 2.2 nm square SiNW, due to the limit of strong quantum confinement, the effect of the uniaxial stress on the magnitude of ballistic drive current is too small to be considered, except for the [100] orientation. However, for larger 5 nm square SiNW transistors with various transport orientations, the uniaxial tensile stress obviously alters the ballistic performance, while the uniaxial compressive stress slightly changes the ballistic hole current. Furthermore, the competition of injection velocity and carrier density related to the effective hole masses is found to play a critical role in determining the performance of the nanotransistors.

  17. Epitaxy physical principles and technical implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Herman, Marian A; Sitter, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    Epitaxy provides readers with a comprehensive treatment of the modern models and modifications of epitaxy, together with the relevant experimental and technological framework. This advanced textbook describes all important aspects of the epitaxial growth processes of solid films on crystalline substrates, including a section on heteroepitaxy. It covers and discusses in details the most important epitaxial growth techniques, which are currently widely used in basic research as well as in manufacturing processes of devices, namely solid-phase epitaxy, liquid-phase epitaxy, vapor-phase epitaxy, including metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy and molecular-beam epitaxy. Epitaxy’s coverage of science and texhnology thin-film is intended to fill the need for a comprehensive reference and text examining the variety of problems related to the physical foundations and technical implementation of epitaxial crystallization. It is intended for undergraduate students, PhD students, research scientists, lecturers and practic...

  18. Silicon Sensor and Detector Developments for the CMS Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    D'Alessandro, Raffaello

    2011-01-01

    CMS started a campaign to identify the future silicon sensor technology baseline for a new Tracker for the high-luminosity phase of LHC, coupled to a new effective way of providing tracking information to the experiment trigger. To this end a large variety of 6'' wafers was acquired in different thicknesses and technologies at HPK and new detector module designs were investigated. Detector thicknesses ranging from 50$\\mu$m to 300$\\mu$m are under investigation on float zone, magnetic Czochralski and epitaxial material both in n-in-p and p-in-n versions. P-stop and p-spray are explored as isolation technology for the n-in-p type sensors as well as the feasibility of double metal routing on 6'' wafers. Each wafer contains different structures to answer different questions, e.g. influence of geometry, Lorentz angle, radiation tolerance, annealing behaviour, validation of read-out schemes. Dedicated process test-structures, as well as diodes, mini-sensors, long and very short strip sensors and real pixel sensors ...

  19. Quantum Hall effect in epitaxial graphene with permanent magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmentier, F. D.; Cazimajou, T.; Sekine, Y.; Hibino, H.; Irie, H.; Glattli, D. C.; Kumada, N.; Roulleau, P.

    2016-12-01

    We have observed the well-kown quantum Hall effect (QHE) in epitaxial graphene grown on silicon carbide (SiC) by using, for the first time, only commercial NdFeB permanent magnets at low temperature. The relatively large and homogeneous magnetic field generated by the magnets, together with the high quality of the epitaxial graphene films, enables the formation of well-developed quantum Hall states at Landau level filling factors v = ±2, commonly observed with superconducting electro-magnets. Furthermore, the chirality of the QHE edge channels can be changed by a top gate. These results demonstrate that basic QHE physics are experimentally accessible in graphene for a fraction of the price of conventional setups using superconducting magnets, which greatly increases the potential of the QHE in graphene for research and applications.

  20. Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with polarization-doped p-type layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenxiao; Qin, Ping; Song, Weidong; Zhang, Chongzhen; Wang, Rupeng; Zhao, Liangliang; Xia, Chao; Yuan, Songyang; Yin, Yian; Li, Shuti

    2016-09-01

    We report ultraviolet light emitting diode (LEDs) with polarization doped p-type layer. Fabricated LEDs with polarization doped p-type layer exhibited reduced forward voltage and enhanced light output power, compared to those with traditional p-type AlGaN layer. The improvement is attributed to improved hole concentration and the smooth valence band by the polarization enhanced p-type doping. Our simulated results reveal that this p-type layer can further enhance the performance of ultraviolet LEDs by removing the electron blocking layer (EBL).

  1. ZnS:N and ZnS:N,Ag grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichino, K.; Kotani, A.; Tanaka, H.; Kawai, T. [Department of Information and Electronics, Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama-minami, Tottori 680-8552 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    The N-doping conditions have been investigated in the growth of ZnS:N by molecular beam epitaxy using RF plasma of N{sub 2} gas. As a result, high growth temperatures are found to be suitable for the effective incorporation and the activation of N acceptors. The capacitance versus voltage data of the ZnS:N layers grown at around 350 C exhibit p-type behavior, while the undoped layers show an n-type characteristic due to residual donors. ZnS:N,Ag epitaxial layers were also grown to investigate the effect of Ag-co-doping. It is shown that the p-type behavior of the N-doped layers is enhanced by the Ag-co-doping. This suggests the formation of Ag-related complex centers compensating residual donors (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Monocrystalline silicon used for integrated circuits: still on the way

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-he CHEN; De-ren YANG; Duan-lin QUE

    2008-01-01

    With the rapid development of semiconductor technology, highly integrated circuits (ICs) and future nano-scale devices require large diameter and defect-free monocrystalline silicon wafers. The ongoing innovation from silicon materials is one of the driving forces in future micro and nano-technologies. In this work, the recent developments in the controlling of large diameter silicon crystal growth processes, the improvement of material features by co-doping with the intend-introduced impur-ities, and the progress of defect engineered silicon wafers (epitaxial silicon wafer, strained silicon, silicon on insu-lator) are reviewed. It is proposed that the silicon man-ufacturing infrastructure could still meet the increasingly stringent requirements arising from ULSI circuits and will expand Moore's law into a couple of decades.

  3. Engineering piezoresistivity using biaxially strained silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Richter, Jacob; Brandbyge, Mads;

    2008-01-01

    We calculate the shear piezocoefficient of p-type silicon with grown-in biaxial strain using a 66 k·p method. We find a significant increase in the value of the shear piezocoefficient for compressive grown-in biaxial strain, while tensile strain decreases the piezocoefficient. The dependence...... of the piezocoefficient on temperature and dopant density is altered qualitatively for strained silicon. In particular, we find that a vanishing temperature coefficient may result for silicon with grown-in biaxial tensile strain. These results suggest that strained silicon may be used to engineer the iezoresistivity...

  4. Large-area, laterally-grown epitaxial semiconductor layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jung; Song, Jie; Chen, Danti

    2017-07-18

    Structures and methods for confined lateral-guided growth of a large-area semiconductor layer on an insulating layer are described. The semiconductor layer may be formed by heteroepitaxial growth from a selective growth area in a vertically-confined, lateral-growth guiding structure. Lateral-growth guiding structures may be formed in arrays over a region of a substrate, so as to cover a majority of the substrate region with laterally-grown epitaxial semiconductor tiles. Quality regions of low-defect, stress-free GaN may be grown on silicon.

  5. Fabrication and simulation of single crystal p-type Si nanowire using SOI technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehzangi, Arash, E-mail: arashd53@hotmail.com [Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics (IMEN), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Larki, Farhad [Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics (IMEN), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Naseri, Mahmud G. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Malayer University, Malayer, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Navasery, Manizheh [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Majlis, Burhanuddin Y.; Razip Wee, Mohd F. [Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics (IMEN), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Halimah, M.K. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Islam, Md. Shabiul; Md Ali, Sawal H. [Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics (IMEN), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Saion, Elias [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Single crystal silicon nanowire is fabricated on Si on insulator substrate, using atomic force microscope (AFM) nanolithography and KOH + IPA chemical wet etching. • Some of major parameters in fabrication process, such as writing speed and applied voltage along with KOH etching depth are investigated, and then the I–V characteristic of Si nanowires is measured. • For better understanding of the charge transmission through the nanowire, 3D-TCAD simulation is performed to simulate the Si nanowires with the same size of the fabricated ones, and variation of majority and minority carriers, hole quasi-Fermi level and generation/recombination rate are investigated. - Abstract: Si nanowires (SiNWs) as building blocks for nanostructured materials and nanoelectronics have attracted much attention due to their major role in device fabrication. In the present work a top-down fabrication approach as atomic force microscope (AFM) nanolithography was performed on Si on insulator (SOI) substrate to fabricate a single crystal p-type SiNW. To draw oxide patterns on top of the SOI substrate local anodic oxidation was carried out by AFM in contact mode. After the oxidation procedure, an optimized solution of 30 wt.% KOH with 10 vol.% IPA for wet etching at 63 °C was applied to extract the nanostructure. The fabricated SiNW had 70–85 nm full width at half maximum width, 90 nm thickness and 4 μm length. The SiNW was simulated using Sentaurus 3D software with the exact same size of the fabricated device. I–V characterization of the SiNW was measured and compared with simulation results. Using simulation results variation of carrier's concentrations, valence band edge energy and recombination generation rate for different applied voltage were investigated.

  6. Enhanced emission from mid-infrared AlInSb light-emitting diodes with p-type contact grid geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meriggi, Laura, E-mail: l.meriggi.1@research.gla.ac.uk; Ding, Ying; Thayne, Iain G.; Sorel, Marc [Electronic and Nanoscale Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8LT (United Kingdom); Steer, Matthew J. [Electronic and Nanoscale Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8LT (United Kingdom); Quantum Device Solutions, The West of Scotland Science Park, Block 7 Kelvin Campus, Glasgow G20 0TH (United Kingdom); MacGregor, Calum [Quantum Device Solutions, The West of Scotland Science Park, Block 7 Kelvin Campus, Glasgow G20 0TH (United Kingdom); Ironside, Charles N. [Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia 6845 (Australia)

    2015-02-14

    We report on the impact of lateral current spreading on light emission from aluminium indium antimonide (AlInSb) mid-infrared p-i-n light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a GaAs substrate. Due to the high effective mass of holes in Al{sub x}In{sub 1−x}Sb, the resistivity of p-type material determines the 3-D distribution of current flow in the devices. This work shows that maximum light emission, as measured by electroluminescence, and 3-times wall-plug efficiency improvement were obtained at room temperature from devices with a p-type contact grid geometry with a spacing of twice the current spreading length in the p-type material, which was measured by spatially resolved photocurrent. The LED with the optimal contact geometry exhibits improved performance at high injection current levels thanks to the more uniform carrier distribution across the device area.

  7. P-type AlAs/[GaAs/AlAs] Semiconductor/Superlattice DBR Grown by MBE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A p-type AlAs(70.2 nm)/16.5 period [GaAs(3 nm)/AlAs(0.7 nm)] semiconductor/superlatice distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) has been grown on n+-GaAs(100) substrate by V80H molecular beam epitaxy system. Experimental reflection spectrum shows that its central wavelength is 820 nm, with the peak reflectivity for 10-pair DBR of as high as 96 %, and the reflection bandwidth of as wide as 90 nm. We formed a 20×20 μm2 square mesa to measure the series resistance using wet chemical etching. From the measurement result, the series resistance of about 50 Ω is obtained at a moderate doping (3×1018 cm-3). Finally, the dependence of the resistance of the DBR on the temperature is analyzed. From the experimental result, it is found that the mechanism of the low series resistance of this kind of DBR may increase the tunneling current in the semiconductor/superlattice mirror structure, which will result in a decrease in series resistance.

  8. Energy and angular anisotropy optimisation of a p-type diode for in vivo dosimetry in photon-beam radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Simon; Price, Robert A

    2005-01-01

    We present simulation work using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX that shows that there is a possibility of improving the silicon p-type diode as a radiation dosemeter, by altering the construction of the diode. Altering the diode die thickness can reduce the inherent angular anisotropy of the diode, with little effect on its energy response. Conversely, the contact material and geometry have a large impact on the energy response with little effect on the inherent angular anisotropy. By correct choice of contact material, the typical over-response -100 keV relative to the response at 60Co energy can be reduced from approximately 20 to 4. It is expected that further enhancements may be made with different geometries and materials.

  9. Silicon solar cells with low-cost substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotval, P.S.; Strock, H.B.

    1978-11-07

    Epitaxial and diffusion-type planar diodes and solar cells utilize low-cost refined metallurgical silicon substrates having a substantially higher impurity content than conventional high-cost, high purity semiconductor grade silicon. The epitaxial type products have an n-on-p-on-p substrate configuration, while the diffusion-type products have pentavalent impurities diffused therein to form a p-n junction in the low cost silicon substrate. One embodiment employs a multigrained refined metallurgical silicon (RMS) prepared by precipitating essentially iron-free silicon platelets from a solution of metallurgical grade silicon in molten aluminum, melting said refined platelets, in contact with a silica slag and pulling silicon boules from a melt of said refined metallurgical silicon (RMS). By directionally solidifying the refined silicon--slag melt, a multigrained, directionally solidified refined metallurgical silicon (DS/RMS) is obtained, with boules being pulled from a melt thereof for use as said low-cost substrate. The DS/RMS may also be re-melted and directionally solidified a second time with the boules being pulled from said twice directionally solidified material being a desirable, low-cost, single crystal material suitable for use as said substrate for planar diode and solar cell applications.

  10. Superhydrophobic Porous Silicon Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo NENZI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an inexpensive technique to produce superhydrophobic surfaces from porous silicon. Superhydrophobic surfaces are a key technology for their ability to reduce friction losses in microchannels and their self cleaning properties. The morphology of a p-type silicon wafer is modified by a electrochemical wet etch to produce pores with controlled size and distribution and coated with a silane hydrophobic layer. Surface morphology is characterized by means of scanning electron microscope images. Large contact angles are observed on such surfaces and the results are compared with classical wetting models (Cassie and Wenzel suggesting a mixed Wenzel-Cassie behavior. The presented technique represents a cost-effective means for friction reduction in microfluidic applications, such as lab-on-a-chip.

  11. Semiconductors and semimetals epitaxial microstructures

    CERN Document Server

    Willardson, Robert K; Beer, Albert C; Gossard, Arthur C

    1994-01-01

    Newly developed semiconductor microstructures can now guide light and electrons resulting in important consequences for state-of-the-art electronic and photonic devices. This volume introduces a new generation of epitaxial microstructures. Special emphasis has been given to atomic control during growth and the interrelationship between the atomic arrangements and the properties of the structures.Key Features* Atomic-level control of semiconductor microstructures* Molecular beam epitaxy, metal-organic chemical vapor deposition* Quantum wells and quantum wires* Lasers, photon(IR)detectors, heterostructure transistors

  12. Growth of GaN epitaxial films on polycrystalline diamond by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Quanzhong; Allsopp, Duncan W. E.; Bowen, Chris R.

    2017-04-01

    Heat extraction is often essential in ensuring efficient performance of semiconductor devices and requires minimising the thermal resistance between the functional semiconductor layers and any heat sink. This paper reports the epitaxial growth of N-polar GaN films on polycrystalline diamond substrates of high thermal conductivity with metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy, by using a Si x C layer formed during deposition of polycrystalline diamond on a silicon substrate. The Si x C layer acts to provide the necessary structure ordering information for the formation of a single crystal GaN film at the wafer scale. It is shown that a three-dimensional island (3D) growth process removes hexagonal defects that are induced by the non-single crystal nature of the Si x C layer. It is also shown that intensive 3D growth and the introduction of a convex curvature of the substrate can be deployed to reduce tensile stress in the GaN epitaxy to enable the growth of a crack-free layer up to a thickness of 1.1µm. The twist and tilt can be as low as 0.65° and 0.39° respectively, values broadly comparable with GaN grown on Si substrates with a similar structure.

  13. Method of forming crystalline silicon devices on glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1995-03-21

    A method is disclosed for fabricating single-crystal silicon microelectronic components on a silicon substrate and transferring same to a glass substrate. This is achieved by utilizing conventional silicon processing techniques for fabricating components of electronic circuits and devices on bulk silicon, wherein a bulk silicon surface is prepared with epitaxial layers prior to the conventional processing. The silicon substrate is bonded to a glass substrate and the bulk silicon is removed leaving the components intact on the glass substrate surface. Subsequent standard processing completes the device and circuit manufacturing. This invention is useful in applications requiring a transparent or insulating substrate, particularly for display manufacturing. Other applications include sensors, actuators, optoelectronics, radiation hard electronics, and high temperature electronics. 7 figures.

  14. Plasticity and Interfacial Dislocation Mechanisms in Epitaxial and Polycrystalline Al Films Constrained by Substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Stresses in epitaxial and textured Al films were determined by substrate-curvature measurements. It was found that in both cases the flow stresses increase with decreasing film thickness. The flow stresses in the epitaxial Al films are in agreement with a dislocation-based model, while the same model strongly underestimates the flow stresses of textured Al films. In-situ transmission electron microscopy studies indicate that dislocations channeling through epitaxial Al films on single-crystalline (0001) α-AI2O3 substrates frequently deposit dislocation segments adjacent to the interface. Furthermore, the AI/α-AI2O3 interface acted as a dislocation source. In this case, the interface is between two crystalline lattices. In contrast, the interface of textured Al films on oxidized silicon substrates is between the crystalline Al and the amorphous SiOx interlayer. It is speculated that the different nature of the interfaces changes dislocation mechanisms and thus influences the flow stresses.

  15. A novel mechanism of P-type ATPase autoinhibition involving both termini of the protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekberg, Kira; Palmgren, Michael; Veierskov, Bjarke;

    2010-01-01

    The activity of many P-type ATPases is found to be regulated by interacting proteins or autoinhibitory elements located in N- or C-terminal extensions. An extended C terminus of fungal and plant P-type plasma membrane H+-ATPases has long been recognized to be part of a regulatory apparatus...

  16. Demethoxycurcumin is a potent inhibitor of P-type ATPases from diverse kingdoms of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dao, Trong Tuan; Sehgal, Pankaj; Thanh Tung, Truong;

    2016-01-01

    P-type ATPases catalyze the active transport of cations and phospholipids across biological membranes. Members of this large family are involved in a range of fundamental cellular processes. To date, a substantial number of P-type ATPase inhibitors have been characterized, some of which are used ...

  17. Photonic Crystal Cavities in Cubic Polytype Silicon Carbide Films

    CERN Document Server

    Radulaski, Marina; Buckley, Sonia; Rundquist, Armand; Provine, J; Alassaad, Kassem; Ferro, Gabriel; Vučković, Jelena

    2013-01-01

    We present the design, fabrication, and characterization of high quality factor and small mode volume planar photonic crystal cavities from cubic (3C) thin films (thickness ~ 200 nm) of silicon carbide (SiC) grown epitaxially on a silicon substrate. We demonstrate cavity resonances across the telecommunications band, with wavelengths from 1250 - 1600 nm. Finally, we discuss possible applications in nonlinear optics, optical interconnects, and quantum information science.

  18. Controlled p-type to n-type conductivity transformation in NiO thin films by ultraviolet-laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Pranav; Dutta, Titas; Mal, Siddhartha; Narayan, Jagdish [Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27606 (United States)

    2012-01-01

    We report the systematic changes in structural, electrical, and optical properties of NiO thin films on c-sapphire introduced by nanosecond ultraviolet excimer laser pulses. Epitaxial nature of as deposited NiO was determined by x-ray diffraction phi scans and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and it was established that NiO film growth takes place with twin domains on sapphire where two types of domains have 60 deg. in-plane rotation with respect to each other about the [111] growth direction. We determined that at pulsed laser energy density of 0.275 J/cm{sup 2}, NiO films exhibited conversion from p-type semiconducting to n-type conductive behavior with three orders of magnitude decrease in resistivity, while maintaining its cubic crystal structure and good epitaxial relationship. Our TEM and electron-energy-loss spectroscopy studies conclusively ruled out the presence of any Ni clustering or precipitation due to the laser treatment. The laser-induced n-type carrier transport and conductivity enhancement were shown to be reversible through subsequent thermal annealing in oxygen. This change in conductivity behavior was correlated with the nonequilibrium concentration of laser induced Ni{sup 0}-like defect states.

  19. Luminance behavior of lithium-doped ZnO nanowires with p-type conduction characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Won Bae; Lee, Jun Seok; Lee, Sang Hyo; Cha, Seung Nam; Sohn, Jung Inn; Kim, Jong Min; Park, Young Jun; Kim, Hyun Jung; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2013-09-01

    The present study describes the room-temperature cathodeluminescence (CL) and temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) properties of p-type lithium (Li)-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires (NWs) grown by hydrothermal doping and post-annealing processes. A ZnO thin film was used as a seed layer in NW growth. The emission wavelengths and intensities of undoped ZnO NWs and p-type Li-doped ZnO NWs were analyzed for comparison. CL and PL observations of post-annealed p-type Li-doped ZnO NWs clearly exhibited a dominant sharp band-edge emission. Finally, a n-type ZnO thin film/p-type annealed Li-doped ZnO NW homojunction diode was prepared to confirm the p-type conduction of annealed Li-doped ZnO NWs as well as the structural properties measured by transmission electron microscopy.

  20. Investigation of L-cystine assisted Cu3BiS 3 synthesis for energetically and environmentally improved integration as thin-film solar cell p-type semiconductor absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viezbicke, Brian D.

    Solar photovoltaic energy technology is increasingly implemented in response to continuously growing global energy needs. While legacy technology utilizing silicon has captured much of the market, thin-film solar modules are projected to rise particularly in the U.S. production sector. Current materials utilized in production and deployment encounter resource and environmental impact constraints. This research investigates the viably controllable synthesis of multi-crystalline copper bismuth sulfide for potential use as an absorber layer in thin-film solar cells and early investigation of thin-film growth parameters which may enable a cost-effective route to full scale production of epitaxial copper bismuth sulfide films. The first step of this investigation has entailed a novel route for the solvo-thermally grown Cu3BiS 3 films facilitated by L-cystine as a sulfur donating and complexing agent. In the characterization of the nanoparticulate product UV-VIS spectra were analyzed via the Tauc method of bandgap interpolation. The validity of the Tauc method in application to polycrystalline films has been investigated and proven to be robust for the material class. This justifies the bandgap assessment of the subject material and provides support for wider use of the method. With the synthesis method established, the reaction was transferred to a custom built continuous flow reactor to explore this process and help understand its capabilities and limits with respect to producing single layers for an eventual photovoltaic cell stack. Though the published work has established novel chemistry, the need to deposit and/or grow a functional p-type layer for further characterization and eventual device incorporation is key to the material evolution. First evidence of continuous flow micro-reactor deposition of Cu3BiS3 has been shown with an array of resulting microstructures. The grown microstructures are evaluated with relevance to prior synthesis laboratory procedure and

  1. Metal contamination analysis of the epitaxial starting material for scientific CCDs

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, N; Hauff, D; Kemmer, J; Stoetter, D; Strüder, L; Weber, J

    2000-01-01

    Traces of unintentionally introduced titanium into a 3 k OMEGA cm float-zone epitaxial silicon at ultra low levels of 10 sup 1 sup 0 cm sup - sup 3 were found to be the origin of charge transfer loss in pn-CCDs. We identified and backtracked the titanium impurity. The full-depletion design of the pn-CCD, a thin entrance window at the back of the CCD and the low oxygen content of the float-zone material allow no common gettering step. Titanium is introduced into the wafer during the epitaxy process. This is independent of the reactor and the producer of the epitaxial silicon and seems to be a common epitaxy-related problem. To identify the impurity, electron emission rates of traps were measured by means of the CCD. The data were compared with emission rates of identical material obtained by standard-DLTS. The data agree well with literature data of the titanium acceptor level and the titanium donor level. An analysis of the capture cross section by means of the CCD gives a high electron capture cross section....

  2. Integration of functional complex oxide nanomaterials on silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Manuel eVila-Fungueiriño

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The combination of standard wafer-scale semiconductor processing with the properties of functional oxides opens up to innovative and more efficient devices with high value applications that can be produced at large scale. This review uncovers the main strategies that are successfully used to monolithically integrate functional complex oxide thin films and nanostructures on silicon: the chemical solution deposition approach (CSD and the advanced physical vapor deposition techniques such as oxide molecular beam epitaxy (MBE. Special emphasis will be placed on complex oxide nanostructures epitaxially grown on silicon using the combination of CSD and MBE. Several examples will be exposed, with a particular stress on the control of interfaces and crystallization mechanisms on epitaxial perovskite oxide thin films, nanostructured quartz thin films, and octahedral molecular sieve nanowires. This review enlightens on the potential of complex oxide nanostructures and the combination of both chemical and physical elaboration techniques for novel oxide-based integrated devices.

  3. Comparison of junctionless and inversion-mode p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors in presence of hole-phonon interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dib, E., E-mail: elias.dib@for.unipi.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Università di Pisa, 56122 Pisa (Italy); Carrillo-Nuñez, H. [Integrated Systems Laboratory ETH Zürich, Gloriastrasse 35, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Cavassilas, N.; Bescond, M. [IM2NP, UMR CNRS 6242, Bât. IRPHE, Technopôle de Château-Gombert, 13384 Marseille Cedex 13 (France)

    2016-01-28

    Junctionless transistors are being considered as one of the alternatives to conventional metal-oxide field-effect transistors. In this work, it is then presented a simulation study of silicon double-gated p-type junctionless transistors compared with its inversion-mode counterpart. The quantum transport problem is solved within the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, whereas hole-phonon interactions are tackled by means of the self-consistent Born approximation. Our findings show that junctionless transistors should perform as good as a conventional transistor only for ultra-thin channels, with the disadvantage of requiring higher supply voltages in thicker channel configurations.

  4. Laser characterisation of a 3D single-type column p-type prototype module read out with ATLAS SCT electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrich, T. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder Str. 3, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Kuehn, S. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder Str. 3, 79104 Freiburg (Germany)], E-mail: susanne.kuehn@physik.uni-freiburg.de; Boscardin, M.; Dalla Betta, G.-F. [ITC-irst Trento, Microsystems Division, via Sommarive, 18 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Eckert, S.; Jakobs, K.; Maassen, M.; Parzefall, U. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder Str. 3, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Piemonte, C.; Pozza, A.; Ronchin, S.; Zorzi, N. [ITC-irst Trento, Microsystems Division, via Sommarive, 18 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2007-12-11

    In this paper measurements of a 3D single-type column (3D-stc) microstrip silicon device are shown. The 3D-stc sensor has n-type columns in p-type substrate. It has been connected to an ATLAS SCT ABCD3T chip and is readout with ATLAS SCT electronics at 40 MHz. Spatial measurements were done with a laser setup to investigate the expected low field region in 3D devices. An influence of the p-stops on the collected charge has been observed.

  5. Light and current induced degradation in p-type multi-crystalline cells and development of an inspection method and a stabilization method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broek, K.M.; Bennett, I.J.; Jansen, M.J.; Borg, Van der N.J.C.M.; Eerenstein, W. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15

    Stable solar cells are needed for durability testing of different combinations of module materials. In such a test, significant power losses in full-size modules with multi-crystalline cells after thermal cycling have been observed. This has been related to degradation of the solar cells used and it appeared that this was caused by current induced degradation. This phenomenon is not limited to boron doped Cz-Si, but can also occur in p-type multi-crystalline silicon. Work was done to develop an incoming inspection method for new batches of cells. Also, stabilisation procedures for modules containing cells that are sensitive to degradation have been determined.

  6. The Fabrication, Microstructural Characterization, and Internal Photoresponse of Platinum Silicide/P-Type Silicon and Iridium Silicide/P-Type Silicon Schottky Barrier Photodetectors for Infrared Focal Plane Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-01

    34)H(hv-20)X (r(I)+J/~+/ ~ jh ) D ~ ~ k/ (d Id______jrh+ X si /Y Po(X cos(fTtx’)dX (3.46) sin rd) 0 Poe where Pog represents the total number of carriers...that Cd/D o 1, so that Ym will be well estimated by the formula jhv -2\\ 2d I(Crh)] 2 H(hv-20) (3.47) In contrast to the normal photoyield expressions, Eq

  7. Epitaxial growth of largely mismatched crystals on H-terminated Si(111) surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaoka, Hidehito

    2010-12-01

    A strontium or strontium oxide epitaxial layer was grown using a monoatomic buffer layer of hydrogen on silicon, in spite of a huge lattice mismatch. The onset of the initial growth stage of strontium crystals occur with only one atomic layer deposition. To investigate the growth mechanism in the highly mismatched system, combination analysis using neutron reflection, reflection high-energy electron diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectra, and stress measurements is employed. The interface structure has opened up a new way to fabricate novel heterostructures, consisting of various kinds of one-, two- or three-dimensional materials for future silicon-based technology.

  8. Thermal effect mechanism of magnetoresistance in p-type diamond films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Guo-Ping; Kong Chun-Yang; Ruan Hai-Bo; Huang Gui-Juan; Cui Yu-Ting; Fang Liang

    2010-01-01

    Based on the analysis and the discussion of the influence of thermal ionization energy and various scatterings on magnetoresistance(MR) of p-type diamond films, a revised model of valence band split-off over temperature is put forward, and a corresponding calculation formula is given for the MR of p-type diamond films (Corbino discs). It is shown that the theoretical calculation that the MR of diamond films changes with temperature is consistent with the experiment. The influence of Fermi energy level on MR of diamond films is discussed. Additionally, the thermal effect mechanism of MR in p-type diamond films is also explored.

  9. Characterization of plasma etching damage on p -type GaN using Schottky diodes

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The plasma etching damage in p-type GaN has been characterized. From current-voltage and capacitance-voltage characteristics of Schottky diodes, it was revealed that inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching causes an increase in series resistance of the Schottky diodes and compensation of acceptors in p-type GaN. We investigated deep levels near the valence band of p-type GaN using current deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), and no deep level originating from the ICP etching damage was ...

  10. Quantum conductance in silicon quantum wires

    CERN Document Server

    Bagraev, N T; Klyachkin, L E; Malyarenko, A M; Gehlhoff, W; Ivanov, V K; Shelykh, I A

    2002-01-01

    The results of investigations of electron and hole quantum conductance staircase in silicon quantum wires are presented. The characteristics of self-ordering quantum wells of n- and p-types, which from on the silicon (100) surface in the nonequilibrium boron diffusion process, are analyzed. The results of investigations of the quantum conductance as the function of temperature, carrier concentration and modulation degree of silicon quantum wires are given. It is found out, that the quantum conductance of the one-dimensional channels is observed, for the first time, at an elevated temperature (T >= 77 K)

  11. High mobility epitaxial graphene devices via aqueous-ozone processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Tom; Webb, Matthew J.; Grennberg, Helena; Yakimova, Rositsa; Lara-Avila, Samuel; Kubatkin, Sergey

    2015-02-01

    We find that monolayer epitaxial graphene devices exposed to aggressive aqueous-ozone processing and annealing became cleaner from post-fabrication organic resist residuals and, significantly, maintain their high carrier mobility. Additionally, we observe a decrease in carrier density from inherent strong n-type doping to extremely low p-type doping after processing. This transition is explained to be a consequence of the cleaning effect of aqueous-ozone processing and annealing, since the observed removal of resist residuals from SiC/G enables the exposure of the bare graphene to dopants present in ambient conditions. The resulting combination of charge neutrality, high mobility, large area clean surfaces, and susceptibility to environmental species suggest this processed graphene system as an ideal candidate for gas sensing applications.

  12. Patterned growth of InGaN/GaN quantum wells on freestanding GaN grating by molecular beam epitaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Yongjin; Hu Fangren; Hane Kazuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We report here the epitaxial growth of InGaN/GaN quantum wells on freestanding GaN gratings by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Various GaN gratings are defined by electron beam lithography and realized on GaN-on-silicon substrate by fast atom beam etching. Silicon substrate beneath GaN grating region is removed from the backside to form freestanding GaN gratings, and the patterned growth is subsequently performed on the prepared GaN template by MBE. The selective growth takes place wit...

  13. Electronic Band Structure and New Magneto-transport Properties in p-type Semiconductor Medium-infrared HgTe / CdTe Superlattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafidi, Ab.; EL Abidi, A.; El Kaaouachi, A.; Nafidi, Ah.

    2005-06-01

    We report here the band structure and new magneto-transport results for HgTe (56 Å) / CdTe (30 Å) superlattice grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The angular dependence of the transverse magnetoresistance follows the two-dimensional (2D) behaviour. At low temperature, the sample exhibits p type conductivity with a concentration of 1.84×1012 cm-2 and a Hall mobility of 8200 cm2/Vs. The observed Shubnikov-de Haas effect gives a carrier density of 1.80×1012 cm-2. The superlattice heavy holes dominate the conduction in plane with an effective mass of 0.297 m0 and Fermi energy (2D) of 14 meV. In intrinsic regime, the measured gap Eg = 190 meV agree well with calculated Eg(Γ, 300 K) =178 meV. The formalism used here predicts that the system is semiconductor, for our HgTe to CdTe thickness ratio d1/d2 = 1,87, when d2 < 140 Å. In our case, d2=30 Å and Eg (Γ, 4.2 K) = 111 meV. In spite of it, the sample exhibits the features typical of a p type semiconductor and is a medium-infrared detector (7 μm< λ< 11 μm).

  14. Increased p-type conductivity in GaN{sub x}Sb{sub 1−x}, experimental and theoretical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segercrantz, N., E-mail: natalie.segercrantz@aalto.fi; Makkonen, I.; Slotte, J.; Kujala, J.; Tuomisto, F. [Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University, P.O. Box 14100, FIN-00076 Aalto Espoo (Finland); Veal, T. D. [Department of Physics and Stephenson Institute for Renewable Energy, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZF (United Kingdom); Ashwin, M. J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-28

    The large increase in the p-type conductivity observed when nitrogen is added to GaSb has been studied using positron annihilation spectroscopy and ab initio calculations. Doppler broadening measurements have been conducted on samples of GaN{sub x}Sb{sub 1−x} layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy, and the results have been compared with calculated first-principle results corresponding to different defect structures. From the calculated data, binding energies for nitrogen-related defects have also been estimated. Based on the results, the increase in residual hole concentration is explained by an increase in the fraction of negative acceptor-type defects in the material. As the band gap decreases with increasing N concentration, the ionization levels of the defects move closer to the valence band. Ga vacancy-type defects are found to act as positron trapping defects in the material, and the ratio of Ga vacancy-type defects to Ga antisites is found to be higher than that of the p-type bulk GaSb substrate. Beside Ga vacancies, the calculated results imply that complexes of a Ga vacancy and nitrogen could be present in the material.

  15. Room-temperature Domain-epitaxy of Copper Iodide Thin Films for Transparent CuI/ZnO Heterojunctions with High Rectification Ratios Larger than 109

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chang; Kneiß, Max; Schein, Friedrich-Leonhard; Lorenz, Michael; Grundmann, Marius

    2016-02-01

    CuI is a p-type transparent conductive semiconductor with unique optoelectronic properties, including wide band gap (3.1 eV), high hole mobility (>40 cm2 V-1 s-1 in bulk), and large room-temperature exciton binding energy (62 meV). The difficulty in epitaxy of CuI is the main obstacle for its application in advanced solid-state electronic devices. Herein, room-temperature heteroepitaxial growth of CuI on various substrates with well-defined in-plane epitaxial relations is realized by reactive sputtering technique. In such heteroepitaxial growth the formation of rotation domains is observed and hereby systematically investigated in accordance with existing theoretical study of domain-epitaxy. The controllable epitaxy of CuI thin films allows for the combination of p-type CuI with suitable n-type semiconductors with the purpose to fabricate epitaxial thin film heterojunctions. Such heterostructures have superior properties to structures without or with weakly ordered in-plane orientation. The obtained epitaxial thin film heterojunction of p-CuI(111)/n-ZnO(00.1) exhibits a high rectification up to 2 × 109 (±2 V), a 100-fold improvement compared to diodes with disordered interfaces. Also a low saturation current density down to 5 × 10-9 Acm-2 is formed. These results prove the great potential of epitaxial CuI as a promising p-type optoelectronic material.

  16. Origin of Photovoltage Enhancement via Interfacial Modification with Silver Nanoparticles Embedded in an a-SiC:H p-Type Layer in a-Si:H Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiantian; Zhang, Qixing; Ni, Jian; Huang, Qian; Zhang, Dekun; Li, Baozhang; Wei, Changchun; Yan, Baojie; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Xiaodan

    2017-03-17

    We used silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) embedded in the p-type semiconductor layer of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells in the Schottky barrier contact design to modify the interface between aluminum-doped ZnO (ZnO:Al, AZO) and p-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide (p-a-SiC:H) without plasmonic absorption. The high work function of the Ag-NPs provided a good channel for the transport of photogenerated holes. A p-type nanocrystalline SiC:H layer was used to compensate for the real surface defects and voids on the surface of Ag-NPs to reduce recombination at the AZO/p-type layer interface, which then enhanced the photovoltage of single-junction a-Si:H solar cells to values as high as 1.01 V. The Ag-NPs were around 10 nm in diameter and thermally stable in the p-type a-SiC:H film at the solar-cell process temperature. We will also show that a wide range of photovoltages between 1.01 and 2.89 V could be obtained with single-, double-, and triple-junction solar cells based on the single-junction a-Si:H solar cells with tunable high photovoltage. These solar cells are suitable photocathodes for solar water-splitting applications.

  17. Laser process for extended silicon thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hessmann, M.T., E-mail: hessmann@zae.uni-erlangen.de [Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research, Am Weichselgarten 7, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Kunz, T.; Burkert, I.; Gawehns, N. [Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research, Am Weichselgarten 7, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Schaefer, L.; Frick, T.; Schmidt, M. [Bayerisches Laserzentrum, Konrad-Zuse-Str 2-6, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); Meidel, B. [Schott Solar AG, Carl-Zeiss-Strasse 4, 63755 Alzenau (Germany); Auer, R. [Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research, Am Weichselgarten 7, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Brabec, C.J. [Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research, Am Weichselgarten 7, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Chair VI - Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Martensstrasse 7, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-10-31

    We present a large area thin film base substrate for the epitaxy of crystalline silicon. The concept of epitaxial growth of silicon on large area thin film substrates overcomes the area restrictions of an ingot based monocrystalline silicon process. Further it opens the possibility for a roll to roll process for crystalline silicon production. This concept suggests a technical pathway to overcome the limitations of silicon ingot production in terms of costs, throughput and completely prevents any sawing losses. The core idea behind these thin film substrates is a laser welding process of individual, thin silicon wafers. In this manuscript we investigate the properties of laser welded monocrystalline silicon foils (100) by micro-Raman mapping and spectroscopy. It is shown that the laser beam changes the crystalline structure of float zone grown silicon along the welding seam. This is illustrated by Raman mapping which visualizes compressive stress as well as tensile stress in a range of - 147.5 to 32.5 MPa along the welding area.

  18. Origin of the p-type character of AuCl3 functionalized carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Murat, Altynbek

    2014-02-13

    The microscopic origin of the p-type character of AuCl3 functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is investigated using first-principles self-interaction corrected density functional theory (DFT). Recent DFT calculations suggest that the p-type character of AuCl3 functionalized CNTs is due to the Cl atoms adsorbed on the CNTs. We test this hypothesis and show that adsorbed Cl atoms only lead to a p-type character for very specific concentrations and arrangements of the Cl atoms, which furthermore are not the lowest energy configurations. We therefore investigate alternative mechanisms and conclude that the p-type character is due to the adsorption of AuCl4 molecules. The unraveling of the exact nature of the p-doping adsorbates is a key step for further development of AuCl3 functionalized CNTs in water sensor applications. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  19. Theoretical prediction of p-type transparent conductivity in Zn-doped TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaoping; Shao, Guosheng

    2013-06-28

    It is very difficult and yet extremely important to fill the wide technological gap in developing transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) that exhibit excellent p-type conducting characteristics. Here, on the basis of extensive first-principles calculations, we discover for the first time potentially promising p-type transparent conductivity in Zn-doped TiO2 under oxygen rich conditions. Efforts have been made to elaborate the effects of possible defects and their interaction with Zn doping on the p-type transparent conductivity. This work offers a fundamental road map for cost-effective development of p-type TCOs based on TiO2, which is a cheap and stable material system of large natural resources.

  20. Formation and annealing of metastable (interstitial oxygen)-(interstitial carbon) complexes in n- and p-type silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Makarenko, L F; Lastovskii, S B; Murin, L I; Moll, M; Pintilie, I

    2014-01-01

    It is shown experimentally that, in contrast to the stable configuration of (interstitial carbon)-(interstitial oxygen) complexes (CiOi), the corresponding metastable configuration (CiOi{*}) cannot be found in n-Si based structures by the method of capacitance spectroscopy. The rates of transformation CiOi{*} -> CiOi are practically the same for both n- and p-Si with a concentration of charge carriers of no higher than 10(13) cm(-3). It is established that the probabilities of the simultaneous formation of stable and metastable configurations of the complex under study in the case of the addition of an atom of interstitial carbon to an atom of interstitial oxygen is close to 50\\%. This is caused by the orientation dependence of the interaction potential of an atom of interstitial oxygen with an interstitial carbon atom, which diffuses to this oxygen atom.

  1. Photonic Integration on the Hybrid Silicon Evanescent Device Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyundai Park

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the recent progress of hybrid silicon evanescent devices. The hybrid silicon evanescent device structure consists of III-V epitaxial layers transferred to silicon waveguides through a low-temperature wafer bonding process to achieve optical gain, absorption, and modulation efficiently on a silicon photonics platform. The low-temperature wafer bonding process enables fusion of two different material systems without degradation of material quality and is scalable to wafer-level bonding. Lasers, amplifiers, photodetectors, and modulators have been demonstrated with this hybrid structure and integration of these individual components for improved optical functionality is also presented. This approach provides a unique way to build photonic active devices on silicon and should allow application of silicon photonic integrated circuits to optical telecommunication and optical interconnects.

  2. Origin and evolution of metal P-type ATPases in Plantae (Archaeplastida)

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Metal ATPases are a subfamily of P-type ATPases involved in the transport of metal cations across biological membranes. They all share an architecture featuring eight transmembrane domains in pairs of two and are found in prokaryotes as well as in a variety of Eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis thaliana, eight metal P-type ATPases have been described, four being specific to copper transport and four displaying a broader metal specificity, including zinc, cadmium and possibly copper and calcium. So fa...

  3. Epitaxy of Semiconductors Introduction to Physical Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Pohl, Udo W

    2013-01-01

    Introduction to Epitaxy provides the essential information for a comprehensive upper-level graduate course treating the crystalline growth of semiconductor heterostructures. Heteroepitaxy represents the basis of advanced electronic and optoelectronic devices today and is considered one of the top fields in materials research. The book covers the structural and electronic properties of strained epitaxial layers, the thermodynamics and kinetics of layer growth, and the description of the major growth techniques metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy, molecular beam epitaxy and liquid phase epitaxy. Cubic semiconductors, strain relaxation by misfit dislocations, strain and confinement effects on electronic states, surface structures and processes during nucleation and growth are treated in detail. The Introduction to Epitaxy requires only little knowledge on solid-state physics. Students of natural sciences, materials science and electrical engineering as well as their lecturers benefit from elementary introductions t...

  4. Convergence of valence bands for high thermoelectric performance for p-type InN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-Zhu; Li, Ruo-Ping; Liu, Jun-Hui; Huang, Ming-Ju

    2015-12-01

    Band engineering to converge the bands to achieve high valley degeneracy is one of effective approaches for designing ideal thermoelectric materials. Convergence of many valleys in the valence band may lead to a high Seebeck coefficient, and induce promising thermoelectric performance of p-type InN. In the current work, we have systematically investigated the electronic structure and thermoelectric performance of wurtzite InN by using the density functional theory combined with semiclassical Boltzmann transport theory. Form the results, it can be found that intrinsic InN has a large Seebeck coefficient (254 μV/K) and the largest value of ZeT is 0.77. The transport properties of p-type InN are better than that of n-type one at the optimum carrier concentration, which mainly due to the large Seebeck coefficient for p-type InN, although the electrical conductivity of n-type InN is larger than that of p-type one. We found that the larger Seebeck coefficient for p-type InN may originate from the large valley degeneracy in the valence band. Moreover, the low minimum lattice thermal conductivity for InN is one key factor to become a good thermoelectric material. Therefore, p-type InN could be a potential material for further applications in the thermoelectric area.

  5. Characterization of silicon photomultipliers at National Nano-Fab Center for PET-MR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoungtaek; Sul, Woo Suk; Cho, Gyuseong

    2014-10-01

    The silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) were fabricated for magnetic resonance compatible positron emission tomography (PET) applications using customized CMOS processes at National NanoFab Center. Each micro-cell consists of a shallow n+/p well junction on a p-type epitaxial wafer and passive quenching circuit was applied. The size of the SiPM is 3 × 3 mm(2) and the pitch of each micro-cell is 65 μm. In this work, several thousands of SiPMs were packaged and tested to build a PET ring detector which has a 60 mm axial and 390 mm radial field of view. I-V characteristics of the SiPMs are shown good uniformity and breakdown voltage is around 20 V. The photon detection efficiency was measured via photon counting method and the maximum value was recorded as 16% at 470 nm. The gamma ray spectrum of a Ge-68 isotope showed nearly 10% energy resolution at 511 keV with a 3 × 3 × 20 mm(3) LYSO crystal.

  6. Measurement of carrier transport and recombination parameter in heavily doped silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Richard M.

    1986-01-01

    The minority carrier transport and recombination parameters in heavily doped bulk silicon were measured. Both Si:P and Si:B with bulk dopings from 10 to the 17th and 10 to the 20th power/cu cm were studied. It is shown that three parameters characterize transport in bulk heavily doped Si: the minority carrier lifetime tau, the minority carrier mobility mu, and the equilibrium minority carrier density of n sub 0 and p sub 0 (in p-type and n-type Si respectively.) However, dc current-voltage measurements can never measure all three of these parameters, and some ac or time-transient experiment is required to obtain the values of these parameters as a function of dopant density. Using both dc electrical measurements on bipolar transitors with heavily doped base regions and transients optical measurements on heavily doped bulk and epitaxially grown samples, lifetime, mobility, and bandgap narrowing were measured as a function of both p and n type dopant densities. Best fits of minority carrier mobility, bandgap narrowing and lifetime as a function of doping density (in the heavily doped range) were constructed to allow accurate modeling of minority carrier transport in heavily doped Si.

  7. Characterization of silicon photomultipliers at National Nano-Fab Center for PET-MR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoungtaek; Sul, Woo Suk; Cho, Gyuseong

    2014-10-01

    The silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) were fabricated for magnetic resonance compatible positron emission tomography (PET) applications using customized CMOS processes at National NanoFab Center. Each micro-cell consists of a shallow n+/p well junction on a p-type epitaxial wafer and passive quenching circuit was applied. The size of the SiPM is 3 × 3 mm2 and the pitch of each micro-cell is 65 μm. In this work, several thousands of SiPMs were packaged and tested to build a PET ring detector which has a 60 mm axial and 390 mm radial field of view. I-V characteristics of the SiPMs are shown good uniformity and breakdown voltage is around 20 V. The photon detection efficiency was measured via photon counting method and the maximum value was recorded as 16% at 470 nm. The gamma ray spectrum of a Ge-68 isotope showed nearly 10% energy resolution at 511 keV with a 3 × 3 × 20 mm3 LYSO crystal.

  8. Emerging heterogeneous integrated photonic platforms on silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathpour Sasan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Silicon photonics has been established as a mature and promising technology for optoelectronic integrated circuits, mostly based on the silicon-on-insulator (SOI waveguide platform. However, not all optical functionalities can be satisfactorily achieved merely based on silicon, in general, and on the SOI platform, in particular. Long-known shortcomings of silicon-based integrated photonics are optical absorption (in the telecommunication wavelengths and feasibility of electrically-injected lasers (at least at room temperature. More recently, high two-photon and free-carrier absorptions required at high optical intensities for third-order optical nonlinear effects, inherent lack of second-order optical nonlinearity, low extinction ratio of modulators based on the free-carrier plasma effect, and the loss of the buried oxide layer of the SOI waveguides at mid-infrared wavelengths have been recognized as other shortcomings. Accordingly, several novel waveguide platforms have been developing to address these shortcomings of the SOI platform. Most of these emerging platforms are based on heterogeneous integration of other material systems on silicon substrates, and in some cases silicon is integrated on other substrates. Germanium and its binary alloys with silicon, III–V compound semiconductors, silicon nitride, tantalum pentoxide and other high-index dielectric or glass materials, as well as lithium niobate are some of the materials heterogeneously integrated on silicon substrates. The materials are typically integrated by a variety of epitaxial growth, bonding, ion implantation and slicing, etch back, spin-on-glass or other techniques. These wide range of efforts are reviewed here holistically to stress that there is no pure silicon or even group IV photonics per se. Rather, the future of the field of integrated photonics appears to be one of heterogenization, where a variety of different materials and waveguide platforms will be used for

  9. Hafnium nitride buffer layers for growth of GaN on silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Robert D.; Weber, Eicke R.

    2005-08-16

    Gallium nitride is grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy on (111) and (001) silicon substrates using hafnium nitride buffer layers. Wurtzite GaN epitaxial layers are obtained on both the (111) and (001) HfN/Si surfaces, with crack-free thickness up to 1.2 {character pullout}m. However, growth on the (001) surface results in nearly stress-free films, suggesting that much thicker crack-free layers could be obtained.

  10. Fabrication and electrical characterization of Al/DNA-CTMA/ p-type a-Si:H photodiode based on DNA-CTMA biomaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siva Pratap Reddy, M.; Puneetha, Peddathimula; Lee, Young-Woong; Jeong, Seong-Hoon; Park, Chinho

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a deoxyribonucleic acid-cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (DNA-CTMA) biomaterial based p-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon ( a-Si:H) photodiode (PD) is fabricated and its electrical characteristics are investigated. The Al/DNA-CTMA/ p-type a-Si:H PD parameters are studied using current-voltage ( I-V), capacitancevoltage-frequency ( C-V-f) and conductance-voltage-frequency ( G/ω-V-f) measurements. The barrier height and the ideality factor of the diode are found to be 0.78 eV and 1.9, respectively. The electrical and photoconductivity properties of the diode are analyzed by using dark I-V and transient photocurrent techniques. The C-V-f and G/ω-V-f measurements indicate that the capacitance and conductance of the diode depend on the voltage and frequency, respectively. The experimental results reveal that the decreases in capacitance and the increases in conductance with an increase in frequency can be explained on the basis of interface states ( N SS ). Series resistance ( R S ) measurements are performed on the diode and discussed here. The obtained electrical parameters confirm that the Al/DNA-CTMA/ p-type a-Si:H PD can be used as an optical sensor for the development of commercial applications that are environmentally benign. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  11. Improvement in thermoelectric power factor of mechanically alloyed p-type SiGe by incorporation of TiB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Sajid; Dubey, K.; Bhattacharya, Shovit; Basu, Ranita; Bhatt, Ranu; Bohra, A. K.; Singh, Ajay; Aswal, D. K.; Gupta, S. K.

    2016-05-01

    Nearly 60% of the world's useful energy is wasted as heat and recovering a fraction of this waste heat by converting it as useful electrical power is an important area of research[1]. Thermoelectric power generators (TEG) are solid state devices which converts heat into electricity. TEG consists of n and p-type thermoelements connected electrically in series and thermally in parallel[2]. Silicon germanium (SiGe) alloy is one of the conventional high temperature thermoelectric materials and is being used in radio-isotopes based thermoelectric power generators for deep space exploration programs.Temperature (T) dependence of thermoelectric (TE) properties of p-type SiGe and p-type SiGe-x wt.%TiB2 (x=6,8,10%) nanocomposite materials has been studied with in the temperature range of 300 K to 1100 K. It is observed that there is an improvement in the power factor (α2/ρ) of SiGe alloy on addition of TiB2 upto 8 wt.% that is mainly due to increase in the Seebeck coefficient (α) and electrical conductivity (σ) of the alloy.

  12. Improvement in thermoelectric power factor of mechanically alloyed p-type SiGe by incorporation of TiB{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Sajid, E-mail: sajidahmadiitkgp@gmail.com [Nuclear Research Laboratory, Astrophysical Sciences Division, B.A.R.C., Zakura, Srinagar, Kashmir-190024 (India); Dubey, K. [Barkatullah University, Bhopal–462026 (India); Bhattacharya, Shovit; Basu, Ranita; Bhatt, Ranu; Bohra, A. K.; Singh, Ajay; Aswal, D. K.; Gupta, S. K. [Technical Physics Division, B.A.R.C., Trombay, Mumbai – 400085 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Nearly 60% of the world’s useful energy is wasted as heat and recovering a fraction of this waste heat by converting it as useful electrical power is an important area of research{sup [1]}. Thermoelectric power generators (TEG) are solid state devices which converts heat into electricity. TEG consists of n and p-type thermoelements connected electrically in series and thermally in parallel{sup [2]}. Silicon germanium (SiGe) alloy is one of the conventional high temperature thermoelectric materials and is being used in radio-isotopes based thermoelectric power generators for deep space exploration programs.Temperature (T) dependence of thermoelectric (TE) properties of p-type SiGe and p-type SiGe-x wt.%TiB{sub 2} (x=6,8,10%) nanocomposite materials has been studied with in the temperature range of 300 K to 1100 K. It is observed that there is an improvement in the power factor (α{sup 2}/ρ) of SiGe alloy on addition of TiB{sub 2} upto 8 wt.% that is mainly due to increase in the Seebeck coefficient (α) and electrical conductivity (σ) of the alloy.

  13. Growth of CuInSe2 by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindle, S. P.; Clark, A. H.; Rezaie-Serej, S.; Falconer, E.; McNeily, J.; Kazmerski, L. L.

    1980-10-01

    Molecular beam epitaxy was used to grow CuInSe2 layers on CdS (001B) and other substrates. Epitaxial growth is obtained at a substrate temperature of 300 C. The ratio of the arrival rates of copper to indium is the key parameter governing layer stoichiometry. To produce low-resistivity p-type layers, the Cu/In arrival rate ratio must be slightly higher than that used to grow nominally stoichiometric layers. This suggests that a different defect is controlling electrical properties, rather than the copper vacancy complex which dominates bulk material. CuInSe2/CdS heterojunctions were fabricated which show a maximum solar conversion efficiency of about 5%.

  14. Ge nanopillar solar cells epitaxially grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngjo; Lam, Nguyen Dinh; Kim, Kangho; Park, Won-Kyu; Lee, Jaejin

    2017-02-01

    Radial junction solar cells with vertically aligned wire arrays have been widely studied to improve the power conversion efficiency. In this work, we report the first Ge nanopillar solar cell. Nanopillar arrays are selectively patterned on p-type Ge (100) substrates using nanosphere lithography and deep reactive ion etching processes. Nanoscale radial and planar junctions are realized by an n-type Ge emitter layer which is epitaxially grown by MOCVD using isobutylgermane. In situ epitaxial surface passivation is employed using an InGaP layer to avoid high surface recombination rates and Fermi level pinning. High quality n-ohmic contact is realized by protecting the top contact area during the nanopillar patterning. The short circuit current density and the power conversion efficiency of the Ge nanopillar solar cell are demonstrated to be improved up to 18 and 30%, respectively, compared to those of the Ge solar cell with a planar surface.

  15. Ge nanopillar solar cells epitaxially grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngjo; Lam, Nguyen Dinh; Kim, Kangho; Park, Won-Kyu; Lee, Jaejin

    2017-01-01

    Radial junction solar cells with vertically aligned wire arrays have been widely studied to improve the power conversion efficiency. In this work, we report the first Ge nanopillar solar cell. Nanopillar arrays are selectively patterned on p-type Ge (100) substrates using nanosphere lithography and deep reactive ion etching processes. Nanoscale radial and planar junctions are realized by an n-type Ge emitter layer which is epitaxially grown by MOCVD using isobutylgermane. In situ epitaxial surface passivation is employed using an InGaP layer to avoid high surface recombination rates and Fermi level pinning. High quality n-ohmic contact is realized by protecting the top contact area during the nanopillar patterning. The short circuit current density and the power conversion efficiency of the Ge nanopillar solar cell are demonstrated to be improved up to 18 and 30%, respectively, compared to those of the Ge solar cell with a planar surface. PMID:28209964

  16. Modulating doping and interface magnetism of epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhou; Da-Wei, He

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of first principles calculations, we report that the type and density of charge carriers of epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001) can be deliberately controlled by decorating the buffer layer with specific atoms (i.e., F, Cl, O, or N). More importantly, a fine tuning of the doping behavior from intrinsic n-type to charge neutrality to p-type and interface magnetism is achieved via increasing the doping concentration of F atoms on the buffer layer. Our results suggest an interesting avenue to the application of epitaxial graphene in nanoscale electronic and spintronic devices. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61335006, 61378073, and 61527817), the Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Committee, China (Grant No. Z151100003315006), and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of Beijing Jiaotong University, China (Grant No. 2012YJS123).

  17. Formation of p-type ZnO thin film through co-implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Yao-Teng; Liou, Jhe-Wei; Woon, Wei-Yen

    2017-01-01

    We present a study on the formation of p-type ZnO thin film through ion implantation. Group V dopants (N, P) with different ionic radii are implanted into chemical vapor deposition grown ZnO thin film on GaN/sapphire substrates prior to thermal activation. It is found that mono-doped ZnO by N+ implantation results in n-type conductivity under thermal activation. Dual-doped ZnO film with a N:P ion implantation dose ratio of 4:1 is found to be p-type under certain thermal activation conditions. Higher p-type activation levels (1019 cm-3) under a wider thermal activation range are found for the N/P dual-doped ZnO film co-implanted by additional oxygen ions. From high resolution x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy it is concluded that the observed p-type conductivities are a result of the promoted formation of PZn-4NO complex defects via the concurrent substitution of nitrogen at oxygen sites and phosphorus at zinc sites. The enhanced solubility and stability of acceptor defects in oxygen co-implanted dual-doped ZnO film are related to the reduction of oxygen vacancy defects at the surface. Our study demonstrates the prospect of the formation of stable p-type ZnO film through co-implantation.

  18. Nanostructured p-Type Semiconductor Electrodes and Photoelectrochemistry of Their Reduction Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Bonomo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This review reports the properties of p-type semiconductors with nanostructured features employed as photocathodes in photoelectrochemical cells (PECs. Light absorption is crucial for the activation of the reduction processes occurring at the p-type electrode either in the pristine or in a modified/sensitized state. Beside thermodynamics, the kinetics of the electron transfer (ET process from photocathode to a redox shuttle in the oxidized form are also crucial since the flow of electrons will take place correctly if the ET rate will overcome that one of recombination and trapping events which impede the charge separation produced by the absorption of light. Depending on the nature of the chromophore, i.e., if the semiconductor itself or the chemisorbed dye-sensitizer, different energy levels will be involved in the cathodic ET process. An analysis of the general properties and requirements of electrodic materials of p-type for being efficient photoelectrocatalysts of reduction processes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC will be given. The working principle of p-type DSCs will be described and extended to other p-type PECs conceived and developed for the conversion of the solar radiation into chemical products of energetic/chemical interest like non fossil fuels or derivatives of carbon dioxide.

  19. Recent Developments in p-Type Oxide Semiconductor Materials and Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhenwei

    2016-02-16

    The development of transparent p-type oxide semiconductors with good performance may be a true enabler for a variety of applications where transparency, power efficiency, and greater circuit complexity are needed. Such applications include transparent electronics, displays, sensors, photovoltaics, memristors, and electrochromics. Hence, here, recent developments in materials and devices based on p-type oxide semiconductors are reviewed, including ternary Cu-bearing oxides, binary copper oxides, tin monoxide, spinel oxides, and nickel oxides. The crystal and electronic structures of these materials are discussed, along with approaches to enhance valence-band dispersion to reduce effective mass and increase mobility. Strategies to reduce interfacial defects, off-state current, and material instability are suggested. Furthermore, it is shown that promising progress has been made in the performance of various types of devices based on p-type oxides. Several innovative approaches exist to fabricate transparent complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) devices, including novel device fabrication schemes and utilization of surface chemistry effects, resulting in good inverter gains. However, despite recent developments, p-type oxides still lag in performance behind their n-type counterparts, which have entered volume production in the display market. Recent successes along with the hurdles that stand in the way of commercial success of p-type oxide semiconductors are presented.

  20. CuNb3O8: A p-Type Semiconducting Metal Oxide Photoelectrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Upendra A; Maggard, Paul A

    2012-06-07

    A new p-type CuNb3O8 polycrystalline photoelectrode was investigated and was determined to have indirect and direct bandgap sizes of 1.26 and 1.47 eV, respectively. The p-type polycrystalline film could be prepared on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass and yielded a cathodic photocurrent under visible-light irradiation (λ > 420 nm) with incident photon-to-current efficiencies of up to ∼6-7% and concomitant hydrogen evolution. A Mott-Schottky analysis yielded a flat band potential of +0.35 V versus RHE (pH = 6.3) and a calculated p-type dopant concentration of ∼7.2 × 10(15) cm(-3). The conduction band energies are found to be negative enough for the reduction of water under visible light irradiation. A hole mobility of ∼145 cm(2)/V·s was obtained from J(I)-V(2) measurements using the Mott-Gurney relation, which is ∼50% higher than that typically found for p-type Cu2O. DFT-based electronic structure calculations were used to probe the atomic and structural origins of the band gap transitions and carrier mobility. Thus, a new p-type semiconductor is discovered for potential applications in solar energy conversion.

  1. Chemical-free n-type and p-type multilayer-graphene transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dissanayake, D. M. N. M., E-mail: nandithad@voxtel-inc.com [Voxtel Inc, Lockey Laboratories, University of Oregon, Eugene Oregon 97402 (United States); Eisaman, M. D. [Sustainable Energy Technologies Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    A single-step doping method to fabricate n- and p-type multilayer graphene (MG) top-gate field effect transistors (GFETs) is demonstrated. The transistors are fabricated on soda-lime glass substrates, with the n-type doping of MG caused by the sodium in the substrate without the addition of external chemicals. Placing a hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) barrier layer between the MG and the substrate blocks the n-doping, resulting in p-type doping of the MG above regions patterned with HSQ. The HSQ is deposited in a single fabrication step using electron beam lithography, allowing the patterning of arbitrary sub-micron spatial patterns of n- and p-type doping. When a MG channel is deposited partially on the barrier and partially on the glass substrate, a p-type and n-type doping profile is created, which is used for fabricating complementary transistors pairs. Unlike chemically doped GFETs in which the external dopants are typically introduced from the top, these substrate doped GFETs allow for a top gate which gives a stronger electrostatic coupling to the channel, reducing the operating gate bias. Overall, this method enables scalable fabrication of n- and p-type complementary top-gated GFETs with high spatial resolution for graphene microelectronic applications.

  2. Recent Developments in p-Type Oxide Semiconductor Materials and Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenwei; Nayak, Pradipta K; Caraveo-Frescas, Jesus A; Alshareef, Husam N

    2016-05-01

    The development of transparent p-type oxide semiconductors with good performance may be a true enabler for a variety of applications where transparency, power efficiency, and greater circuit complexity are needed. Such applications include transparent electronics, displays, sensors, photovoltaics, memristors, and electrochromics. Hence, here, recent developments in materials and devices based on p-type oxide semiconductors are reviewed, including ternary Cu-bearing oxides, binary copper oxides, tin monoxide, spinel oxides, and nickel oxides. The crystal and electronic structures of these materials are discussed, along with approaches to enhance valence-band dispersion to reduce effective mass and increase mobility. Strategies to reduce interfacial defects, off-state current, and material instability are suggested. Furthermore, it is shown that promising progress has been made in the performance of various types of devices based on p-type oxides. Several innovative approaches exist to fabricate transparent complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) devices, including novel device fabrication schemes and utilization of surface chemistry effects, resulting in good inverter gains. However, despite recent developments, p-type oxides still lag in performance behind their n-type counterparts, which have entered volume production in the display market. Recent successes along with the hurdles that stand in the way of commercial success of p-type oxide semiconductors are presented.

  3. Patterned growth of InGaN/GaN quantum wells on freestanding GaN grating by molecular beam epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yongjin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report here the epitaxial growth of InGaN/GaN quantum wells on freestanding GaN gratings by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE. Various GaN gratings are defined by electron beam lithography and realized on GaN-on-silicon substrate by fast atom beam etching. Silicon substrate beneath GaN grating region is removed from the backside to form freestanding GaN gratings, and the patterned growth is subsequently performed on the prepared GaN template by MBE. The selective growth takes place with the assistance of nanoscale GaN gratings and depends on the grating period P and the grating width W. Importantly, coalescences between two side facets are realized to generate epitaxial gratings with triangular section. Thin epitaxial gratings produce the promising photoluminescence performance. This work provides a feasible way for further GaN-based integrated optics devices by a combination of GaN micromachining and epitaxial growth on a GaN-on-silicon substrate. PACS 81.05.Ea; 81.65.Cf; 81.15.Hi.

  4. Effect of the annealing temperature on the low-temperature photoluminescence in Si:Er light-emitting structures grown by molecular-beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, B. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation); Sobolev, N. A., E-mail: nick@sobolev.ioffe.ru; Denisov, D. V.; Shek, E. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2013-10-15

    The photoluminescence spectra of light-emitting structures based on silicon doped with erbium during the course of molecular-beam epitaxy at a temperature of 500 Degree-Sign C are studied at 4.2 K on being annealed at 800-900 Degree-Sign C. Three sets of lines belonging to the emitting centers of erbium in silicon with a low oxygen-impurity concentration are revealed.

  5. Epitaxial hexagonal materials on IBAD-textured substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matias, Vladimir; Yung, Christopher

    2017-08-15

    A multilayer structure including a hexagonal epitaxial layer, such as GaN or other group III-nitride (III-N) semiconductors, a <111> oriented textured layer, and a non-single crystal substrate, and methods for making the same. The textured layer has a crystalline alignment preferably formed by the ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) texturing process and can be biaxially aligned. The in-plane crystalline texture of the textured layer is sufficiently low to allow growth of high quality hexagonal material, but can still be significantly greater than the required in-plane crystalline texture of the hexagonal material. The IBAD process enables low-cost, large-area, flexible metal foil substrates to be used as potential alternatives to single-crystal sapphire and silicon for manufacture of electronic devices, enabling scaled-up roll-to-roll, sheet-to-sheet, or similar fabrication processes to be used. The user is able to choose a substrate for its mechanical and thermal properties, such as how well its coefficient of thermal expansion matches that of the hexagonal epitaxial layer, while choosing a textured layer that more closely lattice matches that layer.

  6. Silicon-Rich Silicon Carbide Hole-Selective Rear Contacts for Crystalline-Silicon-Based Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogay, Gizem; Stuckelberger, Josua; Wyss, Philippe; Jeangros, Quentin; Allebé, Christophe; Niquille, Xavier; Debrot, Fabien; Despeisse, Matthieu; Haug, Franz-Josef; Löper, Philipp; Ballif, Christophe

    2016-12-28

    The use of passivating contacts compatible with typical homojunction thermal processes is one of the most promising approaches to realizing high-efficiency silicon solar cells. In this work, we investigate an alternative rear-passivating contact targeting facile implementation to industrial p-type solar cells. The contact structure consists of a chemically grown thin silicon oxide layer, which is capped with a boron-doped silicon-rich silicon carbide [SiCx(p)] layer and then annealed at 800-900 °C. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that the thin chemical oxide layer disappears upon thermal annealing up to 900 °C, leading to degraded surface passivation. We interpret this in terms of a chemical reaction between carbon atoms in the SiCx(p) layer and the adjacent chemical oxide layer. To prevent this reaction, an intrinsic silicon interlayer was introduced between the chemical oxide and the SiCx(p) layer. We show that this intrinsic silicon interlayer is beneficial for surface passivation. Optimized passivation is obtained with a 10-nm-thick intrinsic silicon interlayer, yielding an emitter saturation current density of 17 fA cm(-2) on p-type wafers, which translates into an implied open-circuit voltage of 708 mV. The potential of the developed contact at the rear side is further investigated by realizing a proof-of-concept hybrid solar cell, featuring a heterojunction front-side contact made of intrinsic amorphous silicon and phosphorus-doped amorphous silicon. Even though the presented cells are limited by front-side reflection and front-side parasitic absorption, the obtained cell with a Voc of 694.7 mV, a FF of 79.1%, and an efficiency of 20.44% demonstrates the potential of the p(+)/p-wafer full-side-passivated rear-side scheme shown here.

  7. Instrumentation for Epitaxial Growth of Complex Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-17

    P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 epitaxy, molecular beam epitaxy, oxide heterostructures REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR...The installation of this shielding was founded to dramatically increase the beam stability and mitigate intensity fluctuations. The RHEED source has

  8. Transparent p-type SnO nanowires with unprecedented hole mobility among oxide semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Caraveo-Frescas, J. A.

    2013-11-25

    p-type tin monoxide (SnO) nanowire field-effect transistors with stable enhancement mode behavior and record performance are demonstrated at 160 °C. The nanowire transistors exhibit the highest field-effect hole mobility (10.83 cm2 V−1 s−1) of any p-type oxide semiconductor processed at similar temperature. Compared to thin film transistors, the SnO nanowire transistors exhibit five times higher mobility and one order of magnitude lower subthreshold swing. The SnO nanowire transistors show three times lower threshold voltages (−1 V) than the best reported SnO thin film transistors and fifteen times smaller than p-type Cu 2O nanowire transistors. Gate dielectric and process temperature are critical to achieving such performance.

  9. DyP-type peroxidases comprise a novel heme peroxidase family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugano, Y

    2009-04-01

    Dye-decolorizing peroxidase (DyP) is produced by a basidiomycete (Thanatephorus cucumeris Dec 1) and is a member of a novel heme peroxidase family (DyP-type peroxidase family) that appears to be distinct from general peroxidases. Thus far, 80 putative members of this family have been registered in the PeroxiBase database (http://peroxibase.isbsib.ch/) and more than 400 homologous proteins have been detected via PSI-BLAST search. Although few studies have characterized the function and structure of these proteins, they appear to be bifunctional enzymes with hydrolase or oxygenase, as well as typical peroxidase activities. DyP-type peroxidase family suggests an ancient root compared with other general peroxidases because of their widespread distribution in the living world. In this review, firstly, an outline of the characteristics of DyP from T. cucumeris is presented and then interesting characteristics of the DyP-type peroxidase family are discussed.

  10. Demethoxycurcumin is a potent inhibitor of P-type ATPases from diverse kingdoms of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dao, Trong Tuan; Sehgal, Pankaj; Thanh Tung, Truong;

    2016-01-01

    the curcuminoids, demethoxycurcumin was the most potent inhibitor of all tested P-type ATPases from fungal (Pma1p; H+-ATPase), plant (AHA2; H+-ATPase) and animal (SERCA; Ca2+-ATPase) cells. All three curcuminoids acted as non-competitive antagonist to ATP and hence may bind to a highly conserved allosteric site......P-type ATPases catalyze the active transport of cations and phospholipids across biological membranes. Members of this large family are involved in a range of fundamental cellular processes. To date, a substantial number of P-type ATPase inhibitors have been characterized, some of which are used...... as drugs. In this work a library of natural compounds was screened and we first identified curcuminoids as plasma membrane H+-ATPases inhibitors in plant and fungal cells. We also found that some of the commercial curcumins contain several curcuminoids. Three of these were purified and, among...

  11. A simple model to estimate the optimal doping of p - Type oxide superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adir Moysés Luiz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen doping of superconductors is discussed. Doping high-Tc superconductors with oxygen seems to be more efficient than other doping procedures. Using the assumption of double valence fluctuations, we present a simple model to estimate the optimal doping of p-type oxide superconductors. The experimental values of oxygen content for optimal doping of the most important p-type oxide superconductors can be accounted for adequately using this simple model. We expect that our simple model will encourage further experimental and theoretical researches in superconducting materials.

  12. High surface hole concentration p-type GaN using Mg implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Long Tao; Zhang Guo Yi

    2001-01-01

    Mg ions were implanted on Mg-doped GaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The p-type GaN was achieved with high hole concentration (8.28 x 10 sup 1 sup 7 cm sup - sup 3) conformed by Van derpauw Hall measurement after annealing at 800 degree C for 1 h. this is the first experimental report of Mg implantation on Mg-doped GaN and achieving p-type GaN with high surface hole concentration

  13. Hall and thermoelectric evaluation of p-type InAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagener, M.C., E-mail: magnus.wagener@nmmu.ac.z [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Wagener, V.; Botha, J.R. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa)

    2009-12-15

    This paper compares the galvanometric and thermoelectric evaluation of the electrical characteristics of narrow gap semiconductors. In particular, the influence of a surface inversion layer is incorporated into the analysis of the temperature-dependent Hall and thermoelectric measurements of p-type InAs. The temperature at which the Seebeck coefficient of p-type material changes sign is shown to be unaffected by the presence of degenerate conduction paths. This finding consequently facilitated the direct determination of the acceptor density of lightly doped thin film InAs.

  14. Determination of Shear Deformation Potentials from the Free-Carrier Piezobirefringence in Germanium and Silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riskaer, Sven

    1966-01-01

    The present investigations of the free-carrier piezobirefringence phenomenon verify that in n-type germanium and silicon as well as in p-type silicon this effect can be ascribed to intraband transitions of the carriers. It is demonstrated how a combined investigation of the low-stress and high-st......, experimental evidence is given to support the assumption, that in p-type germanium intraband transitions alone cannot account for the free-carrier piezobirefringence....

  15. Efficiency Improvement of HIT Solar Cells on p-Type Si Wafers

    OpenAIRE

    Chun-You Wei; Chu-Hsuan Lin; Hao-Tse Hsiao; Po-Chuan Yang; Chih-Ming Wang; Yen-Chih Pan

    2013-01-01

    Single crystal silicon solar cells are still predominant in the market due to the abundance of silicon on earth and their acceptable efficiency. Different solar-cell structures of single crystalline Si have been investigated to boost efficiency; the heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT) structure is currently the leading technology. The record efficiency values of state-of-the art HIT solar cells have always been based on n-type single-crystalline Si wafers. Improving the efficiency ...

  16. Silicon spintronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Ron

    2012-04-23

    Worldwide efforts are underway to integrate semiconductors and magnetic materials, aiming to create a revolutionary and energy-efficient information technology in which digital data are encoded in the spin of electrons. Implementing spin functionality in silicon, the mainstream semiconductor, is vital to establish a spin-based electronics with potential to change information technology beyond imagination. Can silicon spintronics live up to the expectation? Remarkable advances in the creation and control of spin polarization in silicon suggest so. Here, I review the key developments and achievements, and describe the building blocks of silicon spintronics. Unexpected and puzzling results are discussed, and open issues and challenges identified. More surprises lie ahead as silicon spintronics comes of age.

  17. Platinum monolayer electrocatalyst on gold nanostructures on silicon for photoelectrochemical hydrogen evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kye, Joohong; Shin, Muncheol; Lim, Bora; Jang, Jae-Won; Oh, Ilwhan; Hwang, Seongpil

    2013-07-23

    Pt monolayer decorated gold nanostructured film on planar p-type silicon is utilized for photoelectrochemical H2 generation in this work. First, gold nanostructured film on silicon was spontaneously produced by galvanic displacement of the reduction of gold ion and the oxidation of silicon in the presence of fluoride anion. Second, underpotential deposition (UPD) of copper under illumination produced Cu monolayer on gold nanostructured film followed by galvanic exchange of less-noble Cu monolayer with more-noble PtCl6(2-). Pt(shell)/Au(core) on p-type silicon showed the similar activity with platinum nanoparticle on silicon for photoelectrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction in spite of low platinum loading. From Tafel analysis, Pt(shell)/Au(core) electrocatalyst shows the higher area-specific activity than platinum nanoparticle on silicon demonstrating the significant role of underlying gold for charge transfer reaction from silicon to H(+) through platinum catalyst.

  18. Thin-film monocrystalline-silicon solar cells based on a seed layer approach with 11% efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, I.; Qiu, Y.; Van Gestel, D.; Poortmans, J.

    2010-09-01

    Solar modules made from thin-film crystalline-silicon layers of high quality on glass substrates could lower the price of photovoltaic electricity substantially. Almost half of the price of wafer-based silicon solar modules is currently due to the cost of the silicon wafers themselves. Using crystalline-silicon thin-film as the active material would substantially reduce the silicon consumption while still ensuring a high cell-efficiency potential and a stable cell performance. One way to create a crystalline-silicon thin film on glass is by using a seed layer approach in which a thin crystalline-silicon layer is first created on a non-silicon substrate, followed by epitaxial thickening of this layer. In this paper, we present new solar cell results obtained on 10-micron thick monocrystalline-silicon layers, made by epitaxial thickening of thin seed layers on transparent glass-ceramic substrates. We used thin (001)-oriented silicon single-crystal seed layers on glass-ceramic substrates provided by Corning Inc. that are made by a process based on anodic bonding and implant-induced separation. Epitaxial thickening of these seed layers was realized in an atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition system. Simple solar cell structures in substrate configuration were made from the epitaxial mono-silicon layers. The Si surface was plasma-textured to reduce the front-side reflection. No other light trapping features were incorporated. Efficiencies of up to 11% were reached with Voc values above 600 mV indicating the good electronic quality of the material. We believe that by further optimizing the material quality and by integrating an efficient light trapping scheme, the efficiency potential of these single-crystal silicon thin films on glass-ceramics should be higher than 15%.

  19. Formation of the seed layers for layer-transfer process silicon solar cells by zone-heating recrystallization of porous silicon structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukianov, A.; Murakami, K.; Takazawa, C.; Ihara, M.

    2016-05-01

    Thin-film crystalline silicon is promising for photovoltaic application to reduce the cost of photovoltaic energy. Porous silicon structures have been intensively studied as a seed layer for epitaxial growth of thin Si film and layer-transfer process (LTP). In this article, another approach for LTP has been proposed. The seed layers for epitaxial silicon growth have been formed by zone-heating recrystallization of double-layer por-Si structures. The influence of annealing parameters on porous silicon structures was studied. The transformation of por-Si layer to crystalline Si was observed with the formation of smooth continuous surface with the roughness 0.3 nm, peak-to-valley distance around 3.5 nm, and reduced density of pores. The mechanism of the transformation of por-Si surface due to the action of hydrogen in the passivated pores with preventing surface oxidation was proposed.

  20. Photoluminescence spectroscopy investigation of epitaxial Si/GaSb nanocrystals/Si heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goroshko, Dmitry L.; Shevlyagin, Alexander V.; Chusovitin, Evgeniy A.; Dotsenko, Sergey A.; Gutakovskii, Anton K.; Iinuma, M.; Terai, Y.; Subbotin, Evgeniy Yu.; Galkin, Nikolay G.

    2017-09-01

    Two-layer heterostructure with GaSb nanocrystals formed by solid phase epitaxy and embedded into the silicon was investigated using low-temperature (10-140 K) photoluminescence and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopies. Two characteristic luminescence bands with a maximum of about 0.82 and 0.87 eV were observed. It was found that low-energy peak is associated with D1 dislocation-related luminescence in silicon. Analysis of the decay components together with temperature and power dependencies of the photoluminescence for the high-energy maximum revealed that emission is more likely originated from the combined D2 dislocation centers in silicon and radiative recombination in type-II band alignment Si/GaSb nanocrystals/Si heterostructure. A nonradiative recombination dominates in all temperature range studied.

  1. n- and p-type transport in (110) GaAs substrates, single- and double-cleave structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, S.F.

    2007-06-06

    In this work low-dimensional systems based on GaAs/AlGaAs are investigated with either holes (p-type) in two-dimensional (2D) systems or electrons (n-type) in one-dimensional (1D) systems as charge carriers. Two-dimensional hole systems (2DHS) are grown with molecular beam epitaxy both on (110) wafers and (1 anti 10) facets with the cleaved-edge overgrowth (CEO) method. We use Si as an acceptor by modulating the growth conditions to fabricate the 2DHS in single-interface heterojunction quantum wells. The mobility of the structures reaches up to 7.0 x 10{sup 5} cm{sup 2}/Vs along the [1 anti 10]-direction and 4.1 x 10{sup 5} cm{sup 2}/Vs along the [001]-direction at a hole density of 1.2 x 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}. Effective values for anisotropic effective hole masses and scattering times are obtained. Inversion asymmetry induced spin splitting results in different spin densities, which yield beatings of the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations at low temperatures. In a perpendicular magnetic field the 2DHS is quantized into Landau levels, which depend nonlinearly on B due to a strong mixing of light- and heavy-holes. When the Landau levels anticross on the (110) facet, additional peaks appear within minima of the quantum Hall effect. Thermal activation measurements demonstrate a B-dependent energy gap consistent with such an anticrossing. In the second part of the thesis an electron quantum wire is fabricated with twofold cleaved-edge overgrowth. A variation of the conduction band energy in the substrate layers can directly transfer a potential modulation to the adjacent quantum wire. The concept of a transfer potential applied to a narrow two-dimensional system is demonstrated as a first step. Finally, in narrow quantum well samples a simple vertical quantum wire is successfully demonstrated and contacted at each end with n{sup +}-GaAs layers via two-dimensional (2D) leads. We characterize the 2D lead density and mobility for both cleave facets with four

  2. Epitaxy, thin films and superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagd Christensen, Morten

    1997-05-01

    This report is the result of structural investigations of 3d transition metal superlattices consisting of Fe/V, Cr/Mn, V/Mn and Fe/Mn, and a structural and magnetic study of a series of Ho/Pr alloys. The work includes preparation and characterization of substrates as well as growth of thin films and Fe/V superlattices by molecular beam epitaxy, including in-situ characterization by reflection high energy electron diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy. Structural characterization has been done by x-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction. The x-ray diffraction experiments have been performed on the rotating copper anode at Risoe, and at synchrotron facilities in Hamburg and Brookhaven, and the neutron scattering was done at the Danish research reactor DR3 at Risoe. In addition to longitudinal scans, giving information about the structural parameters in the modulation direction, non-specular scans were also performed. This type of scans gives information about in-plane orientation and lattice parameters. From the analysis, structural information is obtained about lattice parameters, epitaxial strain, coherence lengths and crystallographic orientation for the superlattice systems, except Fe/Mn superlattices, which could not be modelled. For the Ho/Pr alloys, x-ray magnetic scattering was performed, and the crystal and magnetic structure was investigated. (au) 14 tabs.; 58 ills., 96 refs.

  3. Realization of Ag-S codoped p-type ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tian Ning, E-mail: xtn9886@zju.edu.cn [Department of Science, Zhijiang College of Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310024 (China); Department of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China); Li, Xiang; Lu, Zhong [Department of Science, Zhijiang College of Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310024 (China); Chen, Yong Yue [Department of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China); Sui, Cheng Hua [Department of Science, Zhijiang College of Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310024 (China); Wu, Hui Zhen [Department of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Ag-S codoped p-type ZnO thin films have been fabricated. • The films exhibit low resistivity and high Hall mobility and hole concentration. • A ZnO:(Ag, S)/i-ZnO/ZnO:Al homojunction has been fabricated and shows rectifying behaviors. - Abstract: Ag-S codoped ZnO films have been grown on quartz substrates by e-beam evaporation at low temperature (100 °C). The effects of Ag{sub 2}S content on the structural and electrical properties of the films were investigated. The results showed that 2 wt% Ag{sub 2}S doped films exhibited p-type conduction, with a resistivity of 0.0347 Ω cm, a Hall mobility of 9.53 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}, and a hole concentration of 1.89 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3} at room temperature. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements showed that Ag and S have been incorporated into the films. To further confirm the p-type conduction of Ag-S codoped ZnO films, a ZnO:(Ag, S)/i-ZnO/ZnO:Al homojunction was fabricated and rectifying behaviors of which was measured. High electrical performance and low growth temperature indicate that Ag{sub 2}S is a promising dopant to fabricate p-type Ag-S codoped ZnO films.

  4. Relative Frequencies of G and P Types among Rotaviruses from Indian Diarrheic Cow and Buffalo Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Baldev R.; Nakagomi, Osamu; Koshimura, Yumi; Nakagomi, Toyoko; Pandey, Ramayan

    1999-01-01

    While an increasing number of studies suggest that there is a high prevalence of rotaviruses with P8[11], a typical P type of bovine rotavirus (BRV), among human neonates or infants in India, no data are available on the distribution of G and P types of Indian BRVs. Thus, fecal specimens were collected from cow and buffalo calves under 1 month of age on organized dairy farms in India during the period between 1994 and 1997, and 36 rotavirus-positive specimens were used to determine the relative frequencies of the G and P types of Indian BRVs. As to the G type, G10 was predominant (83%), followed by G6 (6%). The majority (94%) of BRVs had P8[11], and only one isolate possessed P6[1]. The most common combination of G and P types was G10P8[11] (81%), followed by G6P6[1] (3%) and G6P8[11] (3%). The high prevalence of BRVs possessing P8[11] VP4s strongly supports the hypothesis that BRVs may cross the host species barrier and circulate among neonates in India. PMID:10325385

  5. Characterization of 3D-DDTC detectors on p-type substrates

    CERN Document Server

    Betta, G -F Dalla; Bosisio, Luciano; Darbo, Giovanni; Gabos, Paolo; Gemme, Claudia; Koehler, Michael; La Rosa, Alessandro; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pernegger, Heinz; Piemonte, Claudio; Povoli, Marco; Rachevskaia, Irina; Ronchin, Sabina; Wiik, Liv; Zoboli, Aanrea; Zorzi, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    We report on the electrical and functional characterization of 3D Double-side, Double-Type-Column (3D- DDTC) detectors fabricated on p-type substrates. Results relevant to detectors in the diode, strip and pixel configurations are presented, and demonstrate a clear improvement in the charge collection performance compared to the first prototypes of these detectors.

  6. Origin and evolution of metal p-Type ATPases in Plantae (Archaeplastida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc eHanikenne

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal ATPases are a subfamily of P-type ATPases involved in the transport of metal cations across biological membranes. They all share an architecture featuring eight transmembrane domains in pairs of two and are found in prokaryotes as well as in a variety of Eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis thaliana, eight metal P-type ATPases have been described, four being specific to copper transport and four displaying a broader metal specificity, including zinc, cadmium and possibly copper and calcium. So far, few efforts have been devoted to elucidating the origin and evolution of these proteins in Eukaryotes. In this work, we use large-scale phylogenetics to show that metal P-type ATPases form a homogenous group among P-type ATPases and that their specialisation into either monovalent (Cu or divalent (Zn, Cd… metal transport stems from a gene duplication that took place early in the evolution of Life. Then, we demonstrate that the four subgroups of plant metal ATPases all have a different evolutionary origin and a specific taxonomic distribution, only one tracing back to the cyanobacterial progenitor of the chloroplast. Finally, we examine the subsequent evolution of these proteins in green plants and conclude that the genes thoroughly characterised in model organisms are often the result of lineage-specific gene duplications, which calls for caution when attempting to infer function from sequence similarity alone in non-model organisms.

  7. Synthesis of p-type and n-type nickel ferrites and associated electrical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Šutka, Andris, E-mail: andris.sutka@rtu.lv [Faculty of Material Science and Applied Chemistry, Riga Technical University, Paula Valdena 3, Riga, LV-1048 (Latvia); Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14c, 50411, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Pärna, Rainer [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14c, 50411, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Estonian Nanotechnology Competence Centre, Ravila 14c, 50411, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Käämbre, Tanel [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14c, 50411, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Kisand, Vambola [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14c, 50411, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Estonian Nanotechnology Competence Centre, Ravila 14c, 50411, 51014 Tartu (Estonia)

    2015-01-01

    We used sol–gel auto combustion to synthesize nickel ferrites of p-type and n-type conductivity by controlling the relative amounts of nickel and iron during synthesis. The obtained samples have been characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, electrical measurements and XPS. We observe huge differences in the effect of grain size on the electrical resistivity between the p-type and the n-type material when the grain size increases from nano to micro scale during annealing at temperatures from 900 {sup o}C to 1300 {sup o}C. The observed resistivity decrease (due to grain size) is four orders of magnitude in the n-type nickel ferrite, whereas the p-type material remains virtually unaffected. We rationalize this drastic difference to stem from a reverse contrast of the surface (grain shell) versus bulk (grain core) conductivity between p- and n-type ferrite. With the grain shells in p-type the easier charge carrier path the effect of scatter at grain boundaries is accordingly diminished, whereas in the n-type charge transport properties are controlled by (the number of) grain boundaries in a conduction path.

  8. A structural and functional perspective of DyP-type peroxidase family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Toru; Sugano, Yasushi

    2015-05-15

    Dye-decolorizing peroxidase from the basidiomycete Bjerkandera adusta Dec 1 (DyP) is a heme peroxidase. This name reflects its ability to degrade several anthraquinone dyes. The substrate specificity, the amino acid sequence, and the tertiary structure of DyP are different from those of the other heme peroxidase (super)families. Therefore, many proteins showing the similar amino acid sequences to that of DyP are called DyP-type peroxidase which is a new family of heme peroxidase identified in 2007. In fact, all structures of this family show a similar structure fold. However, this family includes many proteins whose amino acid sequence identity to DyP is lower than 15% and/or whose catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) is a few orders of magnitude less than that of DyP. A protein showing an activity different from peroxidase activity (dechelatase activity) has been also reported. In addition, the precise physiological roles of DyP-type peroxidases are unknown. These facts raise a question of whether calling this family DyP-type peroxidase is suitable. Here, we review the differences and similarities of structure and function among this family and propose the reasonable new classification of DyP-type peroxidase family, that is, class P, I and V. In this contribution, we discuss the adequacy of this family name.

  9. Low-temperature strain gauges based on silicon whiskers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Druzhinin A. A.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available To create low-temperature strain gauges based on p-type silicon whiskers tensoresistive characteristics of these crystals in 4,2—300 K temperature range were studied. On the basis of p-type Si whiskers with different resistivity the strain gauges for different materials operating at cryogenic temperatures with extremely high gauge factor at 4,2 K were developed, as well as strain gauges operating at liquid helium temperatures in high magnetic fields.

  10. Structural characterisation of BaTiO{sub 3} thin films deposited on SrRuO{sub 3}/YSZ buffered silicon substrates and silicon microcantilevers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colder, H.; Jorel, C., E-mail: corentin.jorel@unicaen.fr; Méchin, L. [GREYC, UMR 6072, CNRS, ENSICAEN, UCBN, 6 bd du Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen Cedex (France); Domengès, B. [LAMIPS, CRISMAT-NXP Semiconductors-Presto Engineering laboratory, CNRS-UMR 6508, ENSICAEN, UCBN, 2 rue de la Girafe, 14 000 Caen (France); Marie, P.; Boisserie, M. [CIMAP, UMR 6252, CNRS, ENSICAEN, UCBN, CEA, 6 bd du Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen Cedex (France); Guillon, S.; Nicu, L. [LAAS, CNRS, Univ de Toulouse, 7 avenue du Colonel Roche, 31400 Toulouse (France); Galdi, A. [GREYC, UMR 6072, CNRS, ENSICAEN, UCBN, 6 bd du Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen Cedex (France); Department of Industrial Engineering, CNR-SPIN Salerno, Università di Salerno, 84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy)

    2014-02-07

    We report on the progress towards an all epitaxial oxide layer technology on silicon substrates for epitaxial piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems. (101)-oriented epitaxial tetragonal BaTiO{sub 3} (BTO) thin films were deposited at two different oxygen pressures, 5.10{sup −2} mbar and 5.10{sup −3} mbar, on SrRuO{sub 3}/Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) buffered silicon substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The YSZ layer full (001) orientation allowed the further growth of a fully (110)-oriented conductive SrRuO{sub 3} electrode as shown by X-ray diffraction. The tetragonal structure of the BTO films, which is a prerequisite for the piezoelectric effect, was identified by Raman spectroscopy. In the BTO film deposited at 5.10{sup −2} mbar strain was mostly localized inside the BTO grains whereas at 5.10{sup −3} mbar, it was localized at the grain boundaries. The BTO/SRO/YSZ layers were finally deposited on Si microcantilevers at an O{sub 2} pressure of 5.10{sup −3} mbar. The strain level was low enough to evaluate the BTO Young modulus. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to investigate the epitaxial quality of the layers and their epitaxial relationship on plain silicon wafers as well as on released microcantilevers, thanks to Focused-Ion-Beam TEM lamella preparation.

  11. Epitaxial Halide Perovskite Lateral Double Heterostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiping; Chen, Zhizhong; Deschler, Felix; Sun, Xin; Lu, Toh-Ming; Wertz, Esther A; Hu, Jia-Mian; Shi, Jian

    2017-03-28

    Epitaxial III-V semiconductor heterostructures are key components in modern microelectronics, electro-optics, and optoelectronics. With superior semiconducting properties, halide perovskite materials are rising as promising candidates for coherent heterostructure devices. In this report, spinodal decomposition is proposed and experimentally implemented to produce epitaxial double heterostructures in halide perovskite system. Pristine epitaxial mixed halide perovskites rods and films were synthesized via van der Waals epitaxy by chemical vapor deposition method. At room temperature, photon was applied as a knob to regulate the kinetics of spinodal decomposition and classic coarsening. By this approach, halide perovskite double heterostructures were created carrying epitaxial interfaces and outstanding optical properties. Reduced Fröhlich electron-phonon coupling was discovered in coherent halide double heterostructure, which is hypothetically attributed to the classic phonon confinement effect widely existing in III-V double heterostructures. As a proof-of-concept, our results suggest that halide perovskite-based epitaxial heterostructures may be promising for high-performance and low-cost optoelectronics, electro-optics, and microelectronics. Thus, ultimately, for practical device applications, it may be worthy to pursue these heterostructures via conventional vapor phase epitaxy approaches widely practised in III-V field.

  12. Thermal Oxidation of Silicon Carbide Substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiufang Chen; Li'na Ning; Yingmin Wang; Juan Li; Xiangang Xu; Xiaobo Hu; Minhua Jiang

    2009-01-01

    Thermal oxidation was used to remove the subsurface damage of silicon carbide (SiC) surfaces. The anisotrow of oxidation and the composition of oxide layers on Si and C faces were analyzed. Regular pits were observed on the surface after the removal of the oxide layers, which were detrimental to the growth of high quality epitaxial layers. The thickness and composition of the oxide layers were characterized by Rutherford backscat-tering spectrometry (RBS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. Epitaxial growth was performed in a metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system. The substrate surface morphol-ogy after removing the oxide layer and gallium nitride (GaN) epilayer surface were observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results showed that the GaN epilayer grown on the oxidized substrates was superior to that on the unoxidized substrates.

  13. Development of Production PVD-AIN Buffer Layer System and Processes to Reduce Epitaxy Costs and Increase LED Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerio, Frank

    2013-09-14

    The DOE has set aggressive goals for solid state lighting (SSL) adoption, which require manufacturing and quality improvements for virtually all process steps leading to an LED luminaire product. The goals pertinent to this proposed project are to reduce the cost and improve the quality of the epitaxial growth processes used to build LED structures. The objectives outlined in this proposal focus on achieving cost reduction and performance improvements over state-of-the-art, using technologies that are low in cost and amenable to high efficiency manufacturing. The objectives of the outlined proposal focus on cost reductions in epitaxial growth by reducing epitaxy layer thickness and hetero-epitaxial strain, and by enabling the use of larger, less expensive silicon substrates and would be accomplished through the introduction of a high productivity reactive sputtering system and an effective sputtered aluminum-nitride (AlN) buffer/nucleation layer process. Success of the proposed project could enable efficient adoption of GaN on-silicon (GaN/Si) epitaxial technology on 150mm silicon substrates. The reduction in epitaxy cost per cm{sup 2} using 150mm GaN-on-Si technology derives from (1) a reduction in cost of ownership and increase in throughput for the buffer deposition process via the elimination of MOCVD buffer layers and other throughput and CoO enhancements, (2) improvement in brightness through reductions in defect density, (3) reduction in substrate cost through the replacement of sapphire with silicon, and (4) reduction in non-ESD yield loss through reductions in wafer bow and temperature variation. The adoption of 150mm GaN/Si processing will also facilitate significant cost reductions in subsequent wafer fabrication manufacturing costs. There were three phases to this project. These three phases overlap in order to aggressively facilitate a commercially available production GaN/Si capability. In Phase I of the project, the repeatability of the performance

  14. Characterization of thermal, optical and carrier transport properties of porous silicon using the photoacoustic technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Chan Kok [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Mahmood Mat Yunus, W. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)], E-mail: mahmood@science.upm.edu.my; Yunus, Wan Md. Zin Wan [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang (Malaysia); Abidin Talib, Zainal [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Kassim, Anuar [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang (Malaysia)

    2008-08-01

    In this work, the porous silicon layer was prepared by the electrochemical anodization etching process on n-type and p-type silicon wafers. The formation of the porous layer has been identified by photoluminescence and SEM measurements. The optical absorption, energy gap, carrier transport and thermal properties of n-type and p-type porous silicon layers were investigated by analyzing the experimental data from photoacoustic measurements. The values of thermal diffusivity, energy gap and carrier transport properties have been found to be porosity-dependent. The energy band gap of n-type and p-type porous silicon layers was higher than the energy band gap obtained for silicon substrate (1.11 eV). In the range of porosity (50-76%) of the studies, our results found that the optical band-gap energy of p-type porous silicon (1.80-2.00 eV) was higher than that of the n-type porous silicon layer (1.70-1.86 eV). The thermal diffusivity value of the n-type porous layer was found to be higher than that of the p-type and both were observed to increase linearly with increasing layer porosity.

  15. Dielectric and Structural Properties of SrTiO_3 Thin Films Grown by Laser Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Dielectric and Structural Properties of SrTiO_3 Thin Films Grown by Laser Molecular Beam Epitaxy[1]Hao J H,Gao J,Wang Z,et al.Interface structure and phase of epitaxial SrTi O3(110)thin fil ms grown directly on silicon[J].Appl Phys Lett,2005,87:131908. [2]Hao J H,Gao J,Wang HK.SrTi O3(110)thin fil ms grown directly on different oriented silicon substrates[J].Appl Phys A,2005,81:1233. [3]Aki mov I A,Sirenko A A,Clark A M,et al.Electric-field-induced soft-mode hardening in SrTi O3fil ms[J].Phys Rev Lett...

  16. Submicron FETs Using Molecular Beam Epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    C NISMIMOTO N0001-77-C-0655 UNCLASSIFIED NLIiiII/mlum.. varian SUBMICRON FETs USING MOLECULAR BEAM EPITAXY 00 ANNUAL REPORT NO. 2 (August 1978...Ohmic Contacts to Highly Doped n-type GaAs Layers Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) for Field-Effect Trans- istors," J. Appl. Phys. 50, 951 (1979...36 ’A, References (Cont.) 8. D. M. Collins, "The Use of SnTe as the Source of Donor Impurities in GaAs Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy ," Appl. Phys

  17. Role of thermal processes in dewetting of epitaxial Ag(111) film on Si(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Charlotte E.; Zhang, Chendong; Kellogg, Gary L.; Shih, Chih-Kang

    2014-12-01

    Epitaxially grown silver (Ag) film on silicon (Si) is an optimal plasmonic device platform, but its technological utility has been limited by its tendency to dewet rapidly under ambient conditions (standard temperature and pressure). The mechanisms driving this dewetting have not heretofore been determined. In this study, scanning probe microscopy and low-energy electron microscopy are used to compare the morphological evolution of epitaxial Ag(111)/Si(111) under ambient conditions with that of similarly prepared films heated under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions. Dewetting in both cases is seen to be initiated with the formation of pinholes, which might function to relieve strain in the film. We find that in the UHV environment, dewetting is determined by thermal processes, while under ambient conditions, thermal processes are not required. We conclude that dewetting in ambient conditions is triggered by some chemical process, most likely oxidation.

  18. Epitaxially Grown Indium Phosphide Quantum Dots on a Virtual Ge Substrate Realized on Si(001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Michael; Bommer, Moritz; Schulz, Wolfgang-Michael; Etter, Martin; Werner, Jens; Oehme, Michael; Schulze, Jörg; Jetter, Michael; Michler, Peter

    2012-04-01

    An ultrathin virtual Ge substrate (GeVS) with low defect density was realized on CMOS-compatible Si(001) by molecular beam epitaxy. On top, III-V layers were deposited by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy, at which diffusion of Ge was successfully suppressed. Nonclassical light emitters, based on InP quantum dots (QDs), were realized on a thin GaAs buffer (thickness ≈ 1 µm). The quantum dots show emission in the red spectral region, meeting the range of the highest detection efficiency of silicon avalanche photodiodes. The decay dynamics and emission characteristics of single QDs were investigated. Autocorrelation measurements prove single-photon emission with a value of g(2)(0)=0.32.

  19. InAs nanowire growth modes on Si (111) by gas source molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, M. T.; LaPierre, R. R.

    2016-02-01

    InAs nanowires (NWs) were grown on silicon substrates by gas source molecular beam epitaxy using five different growth modes: (1) Au-assisted growth, (2) positioned (patterned) Au-assisted growth, (3) Au-free growth, (4) positioned Au-assisted growth using a patterned oxide mask, and (5) Au-free selective-area epitaxy (SAE) using a patterned oxide mask. Optimal growth conditions (temperature, V/III flux ratio) were identified for each growth mode for control of NW morphology and vertical NW yield. The highest yield (72%) was achieved with the SAE method at a growth temperature of 440 °C and a V/III flux ratio of 4. Growth mechanisms are discussed for each of the growth modes.

  20. Infrared absorption and visible transparency in heavily doped p-type BaSnO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuwei; Sun, Jifeng; Singh, David J.

    2017-01-01

    The recent experimental work shows that perovskite BaSnO3 can be heavily doped by K to become a stable p-type semiconductor. Here, we find that p-type perovskite BaSnO3 retains transparency for visible light while absorbing strongly in the infrared below 1.5 eV. The origin of the remarkable optical transparency even with heavy doping is that the interband transitions that are enabled by empty states at the top of the valence band are concentrated mainly in the energy range from 0.5 to 1.5 eV, i.e., not extending past the near IR. In contrast to n-type, the Burstein-Moss shift is slightly negative, but very small reflecting the heavier valence bands relative to the conduction bands.

  1. Fabrication of p-type lithium niobate crystals by molybdenum doping and polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tian; Kong, Yongfa; Liu, Hongde; Liu, Shiguo; Li, Wei; Chen, Shaolin; Xu, Jiayue

    2017-06-01

    The lack of p-type lithium niobate limits it serving as an active material. A series of Mo-doped and pure congruent lithium niobate crystals were grown by Czochralski method under different polarization conditions. Their dominant carrier species were characterized by holographic experiment. The results showed dominant charge carrier species may be changed from electrons to holes when lithium niobate crystal was doped with Mo ions and polarized under the current of 70mA for 30 minutes. It indicated that p-type lithium niobate crystal could be fabricated by Mo-doping and suitably controlling the polarization condition. Mo-doped lithium niobate crystals can be a promising candidate for active components.

  2. Enhancement of p-type mobility in tin monoxide by native defects

    KAUST Repository

    Granato, D. B.

    2013-05-31

    Transparent p-type materials with good mobility are needed to build completely transparent p-n junctions. Tin monoxide (SnO) is a promising candidate. A recent study indicates great enhancement of the hole mobility of SnO grown in Sn-rich environment [E. Fortunato et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 052105 (2010)]. Because such an environment makes the formation of defects very likely, we study defect effects on the electronic structure to explain the increased mobility. We find that Sn interstitials and O vacancies modify the valence band, inducing higher contributions of the delocalized Sn 5p orbitals as compared to the localized O 2p orbitals, thus increasing the mobility. This mechanism of valence band modification paves the way to a systematic improvement of transparent p-type semiconductors.

  3. A Density Functional Theory Study of Doped Tin Monoxide as a Transparent p-type Semiconductor

    KAUST Repository

    Bianchi Granato, Danilo

    2012-05-01

    In the pursuit of enhancing the electronic properties of transparent p-type semiconductors, this work uses density functional theory to study the effects of doping tin monoxide with nitrogen, antimony, yttrium and lanthanum. An overview of the theoretical concepts and a detailed description of the methods employed are given, including a discussion about the correction scheme for charged defects proposed by Freysoldt and others [Freysoldt 2009]. Analysis of the formation energies of the defects points out that nitrogen substitutes an oxygen atom and does not provide charge carriers. On the other hand, antimony, yttrium, and lanthanum substitute a tin atom and donate n-type carriers. Study of the band structure and density of states indicates that yttrium and lanthanum improves the hole mobility. Present results are in good agreement with available experimental works and help to improve the understanding on how to engineer transparent p-type materials with higher hole mobilities.

  4. Comment on 'Electronic Properties of Red P-Type T12S5 Single Crystals'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Cankurtaran; H. (C)elik

    2007-01-01

    Recently, Gamal et al. [Chin. Phys. Lett. 22 (2005) 1530] reported the results of electrical conductivity, Hall effect and thermoelectric measurements on p-type Th2S5 single crystals. From the experimental data for the temperature dependence of differential thermoelectric power, Gamal et al. determined the values of 2.66 × 10-41 kg and 2.50 × 10-41 kg, respectively, for the effective masses of electrons and holes in p-type Tl2S5, which are about ten orders of magnitude smaller than the free electron mass (9.11 × 10-31 kg). We argue that the anomalously small values obtained for the effective mass of charge carriers in Tl2S5 have no physical significance.

  5. Measurement of the dead layer thickness in a p-type point contact germanium detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Yue, Qian; Li, Yu-Lan; Kang, Ke-Jun; Li, Yuan-Jing; Li, Jin; Lin, Shin-Ted; Liu, Shu-Kui; Ma, Hao; Ma, Jing-Lu; Su, Jian; Tsz-King Wong, Henry; Yang, Li-Tao; Zhao, Wei; Zeng, Zhi

    2016-09-01

    A 994 g mass p-type PCGe detector has been deployed during the first phase of the China Dark matter EXperiment, aiming at direct searches for light weakly interacting massive particles. Measuring the thickness of the dead layer of a p-type germanium detector is an issue of major importance since it determines the fiducial mass of the detector. This work reports a method using an uncollimated 133Ba source to determine the dead layer thickness. The experimental design, data analysis and Monte Carlo simulation processes, as well as the statistical and systematic uncertainties are described. A dead layer thickness of 1.02 mm was obtained based on a comparison between the experimental data and the simulated results. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (10935005, 10945002, 11275107, 11175099)

  6. Preparation and Photovoltaic Properties of p-Type Nano-ZnFe2O4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zi-heng; ZOU Xu; LI Gen; ZOU Guang-tian

    2012-01-01

    p-Type nano-ZnFe2O4 semiconductors were gained by high-prssure treatment.Surface photovoltaic spectrum(SPS) and transient photovoltaic technology(TPV) were used for studying the photogenerated charge of nano-ZnFe2O4.Results show that the photovoltaic behavior of nano-ZnFe2O4 changed as the processing pressure increased.When the processing pressure was higher than 2 GPa,both SPS response interval and peak changed significantly.XPS results show that the non-lattice oxygen entered into the lattice and the content of lattice oxygen increased with the increase of processing pressure.The material changed from oxygen vacancy type to oxygen excess type and the photoelectric properties changed from n-type to p-type when the processing pressure is higher than 2GPa.

  7. In and out of the cation pumps: P-type ATPase structure revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bublitz, Maike; Poulsen, Hanne; Morth, Jens Preben

    2010-01-01

    Active transport across membranes is a crucial requirement for life. P-type ATPases build up electrochemical gradients at the expense of ATP by forming and splitting a covalent phosphoenzyme intermediate, coupled to conformational changes in the transmembrane section where the ions are translocated....... The marked increment during the last three years in the number of crystal structures of P-type ATPases has greatly improved our understanding of the similarities and differences of pumps with different ion specificities, since the structures of the Ca2+-ATPase, the Na+,K+-ATPase and the H+-ATPase can now...... be compared directly. Mechanisms for ion gating, charge neutralization and backflow prevention are starting to emerge from comparative structural analysis; and in combination with functional studies of mutated pumps this provides a framework for speculating on how the ions are bound and released as well...

  8. Perspectives of High-Temperature Thermoelectric Applications and p-type and n-type Aluminoborides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, T.

    2016-10-01

    A need exists to develop high-temperature thermoelectric materials which can utilize high-temperature unutilized/waste heat in thermal power plants, steelworks, factories, incinerators, etc., and also focused solar power. The thermal power plant topping application is of potential high impact since it can sizably increase the efficiency of power plants which are the major supply of electrical power for many countries. Higher borides are possible candidates for their particular high-temperature stability, generally large Seebeck coefficients, α, and intrinsic low thermal conductivity. Excellent (|α| > 200 μV/K) p-type or n-type behavior was recently achieved in the aluminoboride YAl x B14 by varying the occupancy of Al sites, x. Finding p-type and n-type counterparts has long been a difficulty of thermoelectric research not limited to borides. This paper reviews possible high-temperature thermoelectric applications, and recent developments and perspectives of thermoelectric aluminoborides.

  9. CALCULATING THE HABITABLE ZONE OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS. II. P-TYPE BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghighipour, Nader [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii-Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Kaltenegger, Lisa [MPIA, Koenigstuhl 17, Heidelberg, D-69117 (Germany)

    2013-11-10

    We have developed a comprehensive methodology for calculating the circumbinary habitable zone (HZ) in planet-hosting P-type binary star systems. We present a general formalism for determining the contribution of each star of the binary to the total flux received at the top of the atmosphere of an Earth-like planet and use the Sun's HZ to calculate the inner and outer boundaries of the HZ around a binary star system. We apply our calculations to the Kepler's currently known circumbinary planetary systems and show the combined stellar flux that determines the boundaries of their HZs. We also show that the HZ in P-type systems is dynamic and, depending on the luminosity of the binary stars, their spectral types, and the binary eccentricity, its boundaries vary as the stars of the binary undergo their orbital motion. We present the details of our calculations and discuss the implications of the results.

  10. Electrical properties of n-type GaSb substrates and p-type GaSb buffer layers for InAs/InGaSb superlattice infrared detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchel, W. C., E-mail: William.Mitchel.1@us.af.mil; Haugan, H. J.; Mou, Shin; Brown, G. J. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials & Manufacturing Directorate, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); Elhamri, S.; Berney, R. [University of Dayton, Department of Physics, Dayton, Ohio 45469 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Lightly doped n-type GaSb substrates with p-type GaSb buffer layers are the preferred templates for growth of InAs/InGaSb superlattices used in infrared detector applications because of relatively high infrared transmission and a close lattice match to the superlattices. We report here temperature dependent resistivity and Hall effect measurements of bare substrates and substrate-p-type buffer layer structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Multicarrier analysis of the resistivity and Hall coefficient data demonstrate that high temperature transport in the substrates is due to conduction in both the high mobility zone center Γ band and the low mobility off-center L band. High overall mobility values indicate the absence of close compensation and that improved infrared and transport properties were achieved by a reduction in intrinsic acceptor concentration. Standard transport measurements of the undoped buffer layers show p-type conduction up to 300 K indicating electrical isolation of the buffer layer from the lightly n-type GaSb substrate. However, the highest temperature data indicate the early stages of the expected p to n type conversion which leads to apparent anomalously high carrier concentrations and lower than expected mobilities. Data at 77 K indicate very high quality buffer layers.

  11. Electrical properties of n-type GaSb substrates and p-type GaSb buffer layers for InAs/InGaSb superlattice infrared detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. C. Mitchel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lightly doped n-type GaSb substrates with p-type GaSb buffer layers are the preferred templates for growth of InAs/InGaSb superlattices used in infrared detector applications because of relatively high infrared transmission and a close lattice match to the superlattices. We report here temperature dependent resistivity and Hall effect measurements of bare substrates and substrate-p-type buffer layer structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Multicarrier analysis of the resistivity and Hall coefficient data demonstrate that high temperature transport in the substrates is due to conduction in both the high mobility zone center Γ band and the low mobility off-center L band. High overall mobility values indicate the absence of close compensation and that improved infrared and transport properties were achieved by a reduction in intrinsic acceptor concentration. Standard transport measurements of the undoped buffer layers show p-type conduction up to 300 K indicating electrical isolation of the buffer layer from the lightly n-type GaSb substrate. However, the highest temperature data indicate the early stages of the expected p to n type conversion which leads to apparent anomalously high carrier concentrations and lower than expected mobilities. Data at 77 K indicate very high quality buffer layers.

  12. Sensitization of p-type NiO using n-type conducting polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavhan, S.D.; Abellon, R.D.; Breemen, A.J.J.M. van; Koetse, M.M.; Sweelssen, J.; Savenije, T.J.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the sensitization of a p-type inorganic semiconductor, NiO, by n-type conjugated polymers. NiO thin films were deposited using RF sputtering in pure Ar (NiO A) or in Ar + O2 (90% + 10%) (NiO B). XPS and Kelvin probe measurements indicate the incorporation of oxygen in NiO B

  13. Sensitization of p-type NiO using n-type conducting polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavhan, S.D.; Abellon, R.D.; Breemen, A.J.J.M. van; Koetse, M.M.; Sweelssen, J.; Savenije, T.J.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the sensitization of a p-type inorganic semiconductor, NiO, by n-type conjugated polymers. NiO thin films were deposited using RF sputtering in pure Ar (NiO A) or in Ar + O2 (90% + 10%) (NiO B). XPS and Kelvin probe measurements indicate the incorporation of oxygen in NiO B l

  14. Investigation of negative photoconductivity in p-type Pb1-xSnxTe film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, M. A. B.; da Silva, M. J.; Peres, M. L.; de Castro, S.; Soares, D. A. W.; Okazaki, A. K.; Fornari, C. I.; Rappl, P. H. O.; Abramof, E.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the negative photoconductivity (NPC) effect that was observed in a p-type Pb1-xSnxTe film for temperatures varying from 300 K down to 85 K. We found that this effect is a consequence of defect states located in the bandgap which act as trapping levels, changing the relation between generation and recombination rates. Theoretical calculations predict contributions to the NPC from both conduction and valence bands, which are in accordance with the experimental observations.

  15. Sensitization of p-type NiO using n-type conducting polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavhan, S.D.; Abellon, R.D.; Breemen, A.J.J.M. van; Koetse, M.M.; Sweelssen, J.; Savenije, T.J.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the sensitization of a p-type inorganic semiconductor, NiO, by n-type conjugated polymers. NiO thin films were deposited using RF sputtering in pure Ar (NiO A) or in Ar + O2 (90% + 10%) (NiO B). XPS and Kelvin probe measurements indicate the incorporation of oxygen in NiO B l

  16. Radiation damage studies of multi-guard ring p-type bulk diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Bortoletto, D; Günther, M; Grim, G P; Lander, R L; Willard, S; Li, Z

    1999-01-01

    Several diodes with different multi-guard ring structures were fabricated from 10 k OMEGA cm p-type bulk material. Studies on the performance of such devices are presented here. They include the measurement of the leakage current, breakdown voltage and charge collection efficiency before and after 2x10 sup 1 sup 4 p/cm sup 2 irradiation with 63.3 MeV kinetic protons. (author)

  17. Method for producing high carrier concentration p-Type transparent conducting oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaonan; Yan, Yanfa; Coutts, Timothy J.; Gessert, Timothy A.; Dehart, Clay M.

    2009-04-14

    A method for producing transparent p-type conducting oxide films without co-doping plasma enhancement or high temperature comprising: a) introducing a dialkyl metal at ambient temperature and a saturated pressure in a carrier gas into a low pressure deposition chamber, and b) introducing NO alone or with an oxidizer into the chamber under an environment sufficient to produce a metal-rich condition to enable NO decomposition and atomic nitrogen incorporation into the formed transparent metal conducting oxide.

  18. Obtaining of bilateral high voltage epitaxial p—i—n Si structures by LPE method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakiv N. M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Silicon p—i—n-structures are usually obtained using conventional diffusion method or liquid phase epitaxy (LPE. In both cases, the formation of p- and n-layers occurs in two stages. This technological approach is quite complex. Moreover, when forming bilateral high-voltage epitaxial layers, their parameters significantly deteriorate as a result of prolonged heat treatment of active high-resistivity layer. Besides, when using diffusion method, it is impossible to provide good reproducibility of the process. In this paper a technique of growing bilateral high-voltage silicon p—i—n-structures by LPE in a single process is proposed. The authors have obtained the optimum compounds of silicon-undersaturated molten solutions for highly doped (5•1018 cm–3 contact layers: 0.4—0.8 at. % aluminum in gallium melt for growing p-Si-layers and 0.03—0.15 at. % ytterbium in tin melt for n-Si-layers. Parameters of such structures provide for manufacturing of high-voltage diodes on their basis. Such diodes can be used in navigational equipment, communication systems for household and special purposes, on-board power supply systems, radar systems, medical equipment, etc.

  19. Record mobility in transparent p-type tin monoxide films and devices by phase engineering

    KAUST Repository

    Caraveo-Frescas, Jesus Alfonso

    2013-06-25

    Here, we report the fabrication of nanoscale (15 nm) fully transparent p-type SnO thin film transistors (TFT) at temperatures as low as 180 C with record device performance. Specifically, by carefully controlling the process conditions, we have developed SnO thin films with a Hall mobility of 18.71 cm2 V-1 s-1 and fabricated TFT devices with a linear field-effect mobility of 6.75 cm2 V-1 s -1 and 5.87 cm2 V-1 s-1 on transparent rigid and translucent flexible substrates, respectively. These values of mobility are the highest reported to date for any p-type oxide processed at this low temperature. We further demonstrate that this high mobility is realized by careful phase engineering. Specifically, we show that phase-pure SnO is not necessarily the highest mobility phase; instead, well-controlled amounts of residual metallic tin are shown to substantially increase the hole mobility. A detailed phase stability map for physical vapor deposition of nanoscale SnO is constructed for the first time for this p-type oxide. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  20. Electronic inhomogeneity in n- and p-type PbTe detected by 125Te NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, E. M.; Heremans, J. P.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; Schmidt-Rohr, K.

    2013-09-01

    125Te nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and spin-lattice relaxation of n- and p-type PbTe, self-doping narrow band-gap semiconductors, have been studied and compared to those of p-type GeTe. Spin-lattice relaxation in GeTe can be fit by one component, while that in both PbTe samples must be fit by at least two components, showing electronically homogeneous and inhomogeneous materials, respectively. For PbTe-based materials, the spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T1 increases linearly with carrier concentration. The data for GeTe fall on the same line and allow us to extend this plot to higher concentrations. Long and short T1 components in both PbTe samples reflect “low,” ˜1017 cm-3, and “high,” ˜1018 cm-3, carrier concentration components. Carrier concentrations in both n- and p-type PbTe samples obtained from the Hall and Seebeck effects generally match the “high” carrier concentration component, and to some extent, ignore the “low” one. This demonstrates that the Hall and Seebeck effects may have a limited ability for the determination of carrier concentration in complex thermoelectric PbTe-based and other multicomponent materials.

  1. Effective p-type N-doped WS{sub 2} monolayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xu, E-mail: zhaoxu@htu.cn; Xia, Congxin; Wang, Tianxing; Peng, Yuting; Dai, Xianqi

    2015-11-15

    Based on density functional theory, the characteristics of n- and p-type dopants are investigated by means of group V and VII atoms substituting sulfur in the WS{sub 2} monolayer. Numerical results show that for each doping case, the formation energy is lower under W-rich condition, which indicates that it is energy favorable to incorporate group V and VII atoms into WS{sub 2} under W-rich experimental conditions. Moreover, compared with other dopant cases, N-doped WS{sub 2} monolayer owns the lowest formation energy. In particular, the transition level of (−1/0) is only 75 meV in the N-doped case, which indicates that N impurities can offer effective p-type carriers in the WS{sub 2} monolayer. - Highlights: • The formation energy is lower under W-rich conditions. • N-doped system owns the lowest formation energy compared with other atoms. • The transition level of N-doping in WS{sub 2} is 75 meV. • N impurities can offer effective p-type carriers in the WS{sub 2}.

  2. Demethoxycurcumin Is A Potent Inhibitor of P-Type ATPases from Diverse Kingdoms of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Trong Tuan; Sehgal, Pankaj; Tung, Truong Thanh; Møller, Jesper Vuust; Nielsen, John; Palmgren, Michael; Christensen, Søren Brøgger; Fuglsang, Anja Thoe

    2016-01-01

    P-type ATPases catalyze the active transport of cations and phospholipids across biological membranes. Members of this large family are involved in a range of fundamental cellular processes. To date, a substantial number of P-type ATPase inhibitors have been characterized, some of which are used as drugs. In this work a library of natural compounds was screened and we first identified curcuminoids as plasma membrane H+-ATPases inhibitors in plant and fungal cells. We also found that some of the commercial curcumins contain several curcuminoids. Three of these were purified and, among the curcuminoids, demethoxycurcumin was the most potent inhibitor of all tested P-type ATPases from fungal (Pma1p; H+-ATPase), plant (AHA2; H+-ATPase) and animal (SERCA; Ca2+-ATPase) cells. All three curcuminoids acted as non-competitive antagonist to ATP and hence may bind to a highly conserved allosteric site of these pumps. Future research on biological effects of commercial preparations of curcumin should consider the heterogeneity of the material.

  3. Enhanced thermopower and low thermal conductivity in p-type polycrystalline ZrTe5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooda, M. K.; Yadav, C. S.

    2017-07-01

    Thermoelectric properties of polycrystalline p-type ZrTe5 are reported in the temperature (T) range of 2-340 K. Thermoelectric power (S) is positive and reaches up to 458 μV/K at 340 K on increasing T. The value of Fermi energy 16 meV suggests a low carrier density of ≈9.5 × 1018 cm-3. A sharp anomaly in S data is observed at 38 K, which seems intrinsic to p-type ZrTe5. The thermal conductivity (κ) value is low (2 W/m K at T = 300 K) with major contribution from the lattice part. Electrical resistivity data show the metal to semiconductor transition at T ˜ 150 K and non-Arrhenius behavior in the semiconducting region. The figure of merit zT (0.026 at T = 300 K) is ˜63% higher than that of HfTe5 (0.016) and better than those of the conventional SnTe, p-type PbTe, and bipolar pristine ZrTe5 compounds.

  4. Efficient synthesis of triarylamine-based dyes for p-type dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Martin; Griebel, Jan; Hajduk, Anna; Friedrich, Dirk; Stark, Annegret; Abel, Bernd; Siefermann, Katrin R.

    2016-05-01

    The class of triarylamine-based dyes has proven great potential as efficient light absorbers in inverse (p-type) dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). However, detailed investigation and further improvement of p-type DSSCs is strongly hindered by the fact that available synthesis routes of triarylamine-based dyes are inefficient and particularly demanding with regard to time and costs. Here, we report on an efficient synthesis strategy for triarylamine-based dyes for p-type DSSCs. A protocol for the synthesis of the dye-precursor (4-(bis(4-bromophenyl)amino)benzoic acid) is presented along with its X-ray crystal structure. The dye precursor is obtained from the commercially available 4(diphenylamino)benzaldehyde in a yield of 87% and serves as a starting point for the synthesis of various triarylamine-based dyes. Starting from the precursor we further describe a synthesis protocol for the dye 4-{bis[4‧-(2,2-dicyanovinyl)-[1,1‧-biphenyl]-4-yl]amino}benzoic acid (also known as dye P4) in a yield of 74%. All synthesis steps are characterized by high yields and high purities without the need for laborious purification steps and thus fulfill essential requirements for scale-up.

  5. Si-C Linked Organic Monolayers on Crystalline Silicon Surfaces as Alternative Gate Insulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, Erik J.; Smet, de Louis C.P.M.; Olthuis, Wouter; Zuilhof, Han; Sudhölter, Ernst J.R.; Bergveld, Piet; Berg, van den Albert

    2005-01-01

    Herein, the influence of silicon surface modification via Si-CnH2n+1 (n=10,12,16,22) monolayer-based devices on p-type (100) and n-type (100) silicon is studied by forming MIS (metal–insulator–semiconductor) diodes using a mercury probe. From current density–voltage (J–V) and capacitance–voltage (C–

  6. Low-Temperature Facile Synthesis of Sb-Doped p-Type ZnO Nanodisks and Its Application in Homojunction Light-Emitting Diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Sung-Doo; Biswas, Pranab; Kim, Jong-Woo; Kim, Yun Cheol; Lee, Tae Il; Myoung, Jae-Min

    2016-05-25

    This study explores low-temperature solution-process-based seed-layer-free ZnO p-n homojunction light-emitting diode (LED). In order to obtain p-type ZnO nanodisks (NDs), antimony (Sb) was doped into ZnO by using a facile chemical route at 120 °C. The X-ray photoelectron spectra indicated the presence of (SbZn-2VZn) acceptor complex in the Sb-doped ZnO NDs. Using these NDs as freestanding templates, undoped n-type ZnO nanorods (NRs) were epitaxially grown at 95 °C to form ZnO p-n homojunction. The homojunction with a turn-on voltage of 2.5 V was found to be significantly stable up to 100 s under a constant voltage stress of 5 V. A strong orange-red emission was observed by the naked eye under a forward bias of 5 V. The electroluminescence spectra revealed three major peaks at 400, 612, and 742 nm which were attributed to the transitions from Zni to VBM, from Zni to Oi, and from VO to VBM, respectively. The presence of these deep-level defects was confirmed by the photoluminescence of ZnO NRs. This study paves the way for future applications of ZnO homojunction LEDs using low-temperature and low-cost solution processes with the controlled use of native defects.

  7. Free-charge carrier parameters of n-type, p-type and compensated InN:Mg determined by Infrared Spectroscopic Ellipsometry

    CERN Document Server

    Schöche, S; Darakchieva, V; Wang, X; Yoshikawa, A; Wang, K; Araki, T; Nanishi, Y; Schubert, M

    2013-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry is applied to investigate the free-charge carrier properties of Mg-doped InN films. Two representative sets of In-polar InN grown by molecular beam epitaxy with Mg concentrations ranging from $1.2\\times10^{17}$ cm$^{-3}$ to $8\\times10^{20}$ cm$^{-3}$ are compared. P-type conductivity is indicated for the Mg concentration range of $1\\times10^{18}$ cm$^{-3}$ to $9\\times10^{19}$ cm$^{-3}$ from a systematic investigation of the longitudinal optical phonon plasmon broadening and the mobility parameter in dependence of the Mg concentration. A parameterized model that accounts for the phonon-plasmon coupling is applied to determine the free-charge carrier concentration and mobility parameters in the doped bulk InN layer as well as the GaN template and undoped InN buffer layer for each sample. The free-charge carrier properties in the second sample set are consistent with the results determined in a comprehensive analysis of the first sample set reported earlier [Sch\\"oche et al., ...

  8. Promoting oxygen vacancy formation and p-type conductivity in SrTiO3via alkali metal doping: a first principles study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triggiani, Leonardo; Muñoz-García, Ana B; Agostiano, Angela; Pavone, Michele

    2016-10-19

    Strontium titanate (SrTiO3, STO) is a prototypical perovskite oxide, widely exploited in many technological applications, from catalysis to energy conversion devices. In the context of solid-oxide fuel cells, STO has been recently applied as an epitaxial substrate for nano-sized layers of mixed ion-electron conductive catalysts with enhanced electrochemical performances. To extend the applications of such heterogeneous nano-cathodes in real devices, also the STO support should be active for both electron transport and oxide diffusion. To this end, we explored using first-principles calculations the strategy of doping of STO at the Sr site with sodium and potassium. These two ions fit in the perovskite structure and induce holes in the STO valence band, so as to obtain the desired p-type electronic conduction. At the same time, the doping with alkali ions also promotes the formation of oxygen vacancies in STO, a prerequisite for effective oxide diffusion. Analysis of electron density rearrangements upon defect formation allows relating the favorable vacancy formation energies to an improved electronic delocalization over the oxide sub-lattice, as observed in closely related materials (e.g. Sr2Fe1.5Mo0.5O6). Overall, our results suggest the alkali-doped STO as a new potential substrate material in nanoscale heterogeneous electrodes for solid oxide electrochemical cells.

  9. Hydrogen plasma treatment of very thin p-type nanocrystalline Si films grown by RF-PECVD in the presence of B(CH33

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergej Alexandrovich Filonovich, Hugo Águas, Tito Busani, António Vicente, Andreia Araújo, Diana Gaspar, Marcia Vilarigues, Joaquim Leitão, Elvira Fortunato and Rodrigo Martins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have characterized the structure and electrical properties of p-type nanocrystalline silicon films prepared by radio-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and explored optimization methods of such layers for potential applications in thin-film solar cells. Particular attention was paid to the characterization of very thin (~20 nm films. The cross-sectional morphology of the layers was studied by fitting the ellipsometry spectra using a multilayer model. The results suggest that the crystallization process in a high-pressure growth regime is mostly realized through a subsurface mechanism in the absence of the incubation layer at the substrate-film interface. Hydrogen plasma treatment of a 22-nm-thick film improved its electrical properties (conductivity increased more than ten times owing to hydrogen insertion and Si structure rearrangements throughout the entire thickness of the film.

  10. Molecular beam epitaxy a short history

    CERN Document Server

    Orton, J W

    2015-01-01

    This volume describes the development of molecular beam epitaxy from its origins in the 1960s through to the present day. It begins with a short historical account of other methods of crystal growth, both bulk and epitaxial, to set the subject in context, emphasising the wide range of semiconductor materials employed. This is followed by an introduction to molecular beams and their use in the Stern-Gerlach experiment and the development of the microwave MASER.

  11. Epitaxial Growth of Rhenium with Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-06

    match (a = 2.76 Å) to the oxygen sublattice (a = 2.77 Å) of α-Al2O3 (0001) [2]. Re also has a reasonably high superconducting critical temperature...to copyright. Keywords: Epitaxy, Rhenium, Sputtering 1. Introduction Epitaxial superconducting films of refractory metals are a promising new...than the RF sputtered films. These differences are most likely due to the fact that RF sputtering has more of an etching effect on the sample

  12. Microstructural analysis of lead telluride obtained by epitaxial grown; Analise microestrutural de telureto de chumbo obtido por crescimento epitaxial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Miriam Kasumi

    2000-07-01

    Lead telluride (PbTe) films applied in devices to detect infrared radiation, were grown on silicon (100) and barium fluoride (111) substrates by Hot Wall Epitaxy (HWE). The films were investigated by X ray diffraction, to verify the crystallinity and the growth planes; scanning electron microscopy, to observe the topography; transmission electron microscopy, to study the films microstructure in the cross section and selected-area electron diffraction to analyse the growth directions. PbTe films grown on barium fluoride (BaF{sub 2}) show good crystallinity and homogeneity, their growth is according to Frank-van der Merwe's Model. On the other hand, PbTe films grown on silicon (Si) substrate were not so crystalline and homogeneous owing to the impurities presence, great difference in the substrate and film lattice parameters and the thermal expansion coefficient mismatch. On Si substrate the growth follows the Volmer-Weber Model (Island). X ray diffraction provided enough data for testing the crystallography quality and the scanning and transmission electron microscopy analyses completed the study. (author)

  13. Surface property modification of silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danyluk, S.

    1984-01-01

    The main emphasis of this work has been to determine the wear rate of silicon in fluid environments and the parameters that influence wear. Three tests were carried out on single crystal Czochralski silicon wafers: circular and linear multiple-scratch tests in fluids by a pyramidal diamond simulated fixed-particle abrasion; microhardness and three-point bend tests were used to determine the hardness and fracture toughness of abraded silicon and the extent of damage induced by abrasion. The wear rate of (100) and (111) n and p-type single crystal Cz silicon abraded by a pyramidal diamond in ethanol, methanol, acetone and de-ionized water was determined by measuring the cross-sectional areas of grooves of the circular and linear multiple-scratch tests. The wear rate depends on the loads on the diamond and is highest for ethanol and lowest for de-ionized water. The surface morphology of the grooves showed lateral and median cracks as well as a plastically deformed region. The hardness and fracture toughness are critical parameters that influence the wear rate. Microhardness tests were conducted to determine the hardness as influenced by fluids. Median cracks and the damage zone surrounding the indentations were also related to the fluid properties.

  14. Changes of stress and luminescence prop erties in GaN-based LED films b efore and after transferring the films to a flexible layer on a submount from the silicon epitaxial substrate%硅衬底氮化镓基LED薄膜转移至柔性黏结层基板后其应力及发光性能变化的研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Due to the lack of GaN substrates, hetero-epitaxial growth of GaN thin films is usually carried out on a foreign substrate. There are three kinds of substrate for GaN:sapphire, silicon carbide, and silicon;the sapphire substrate is the chief one, currently. Due to the availability of large scale and low cost of Si substrates, in recent years, extensive research has been devoted to the development of gallium nitride (GaN) optoelectronic devices on silicon substrates. Because of the large lattice mismatch and thermal-expansion cofficient difference between Si and GaN, it is difficult to grow thick enough crack-free GaN LED film on Si substrates. The two main kinds of methods for overcoming the crack problem are using the patterned Si substate and the thick AlGaN buffer layer. Although the two techniques could solve the problem of crack by cooling after growth, they will lead to an increase in tensile stress for GaN on Si. When making vertical-structured LED devices by transferring the GaN-based LED thin films from Si substrate to a new submount, this tensile stress will be partially released;but few researches have been made about the stress change before and after the transfer of the film, although the stress in GaN is an important factor that alters the energy band structure and may influence the vibrational properties. In this paper, we grow the crack-free GaN-based LED films on patterned Si(111), then light-emitting diode (LED) thin films are successfully transferred from the original Si (111) substrate to the submount with a flexible layer, and then the LED films without the influence of the submount and substrate are fabricated. In the following experiments, the strain-stress variation of the LED film is determined by using nondestructive high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) in detail, and the variation of photoluminescence (PL) properties of the film is studied too. Results obtained are as follows: 1) When the LED film is transferred to the flexible

  15. Germanium silicon physics and materials

    CERN Document Server

    Willardson, R K; Bean, John C; Hull, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Since its inception in 1966, the series of numbered volumes known as Semiconductors and Semimetals has distinguished itself through the careful selection of well-known authors, editors, and contributors. The "Willardson and Beer" Series, as it is widely known, has succeeded in publishing numerous landmark volumes and chapters. Not only did many of these volumes make an impact at the time of their publication, but they continue to be well-cited years after their original release. Recently, Professor Eicke R. Weber of the University of California at Berkeley joined as a co-editor of the series. Professor Weber, a well-known expert in the field of semiconductor materials, will further contribute to continuing the series' tradition of publishing timely, highly relevant, and long-impacting volumes. Some of the recent volumes, such as Hydrogen in Semiconductors, Imperfections in III/V Materials, Epitaxial Microstructures, High-Speed Heterostructure Devices, Oxygen in Silicon, and others promise that this tradition ...

  16. Semiconductor to Metal Transition Characteristics of VO2/NiO Epitaxial Heterostructures Integrated with Si(100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaei, Roya

    The novel functionalities of Vanadium dioxide (VO2), such as, several orders of magnitude transition in resistivity and IR transmittance, provide the exciting opportunity for the development of next generation memory, sensor, and field-effect based devices. A critical issue in the development of practical devices based on metal oxides is the integration of high quality epitaxial oxide thin films with the existing silicon technology which is based on silicon (100) substrates. However, silicon is not suitable for epitaxial growth of oxides owing to its tendency to readily form an amorphous oxide layer or silicide at the film-substrate interface. The oxide films deposited directly on silicon exhibit poor crystallinity and are not suitable for device applications. To overcome this challenge, appropriate substrate templates must be developed for the growth of oxide thin films on silicon substrates. The primary objective of this dissertation was to develop an integration methodology of VO2 with Si (100) substrates so they could be used in "smart" sensor type of devices along with other multifunctional devices on the same silicon chip. This was achieved by using a NiO/c- YSZ template layer deposited in situ. It will be shown that if the deposition conditions are controlled properly. This approach was used to integrate VO 2 thin films with Si (100) substrates using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The deposition methodology of integrating VO2 thin films on silicon using various other template layers will also be discussed. Detailed epitaxial relationship of NiO/c-YSZ/Si(100) heterostructures as a template to growth of VO2 as well as were studied. We also were able to create a p-n junction within a single NiO epilayer through subsequent nanosecond laser annealing, as well as established a structure-property correlation in NiO/c-YSZ/Si(100) thin film epitaxial heterostructures with especial emphasis on the stoichiometry and crystallographic characteristics. Ni

  17. Field effect passivation of high efficiency silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aberle, A.G. (Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg (Germany)); Glunz, S. (Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg (Germany)); Warta, W. (Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg (Germany))

    1993-03-01

    In this paper effective surface recombination velocities S[sub eff] at the rear Si-SiO[sub 2] interface of the presently best one-sun silicon solar cell structure are calculated on the basis of measured oxide parameters. A new cell design is proposed allowing for a control of the surface space charge region by a gate voltage. It is shown that the electric field introduced by the positive fixed oxide charge density typically found at thermally oxidized silicon surfaces and the favorable work function difference between the gate metal aluminum and silicon leads to a reduction of S[sub eff] to values well below 1 cm/s at AM1.5 illumination for n-type as well as p-type silicon. At low illumination levels, however, oxidized n-type silicon has much better surface passivation properties than p-type silicon due to the small hole capture cross section ([sigma][sub n]/[sigma][sub p][approx]1000 at midgap). Only at small illumination intensities for p-type substrates or in the case of poor Si-SiO[sub 2] interface quality the incorporation of a gate electrode on the rear surface is a promising tool for further reducing surface recombination losses. (orig.)

  18. Porous silicon reorganization: Influence on the structure, surface roughness and strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenkovic, N.; Drießen, M.; Weiss, C.; Janz, S.

    2015-12-01

    Porous silicon and epitaxial thickening is a lift-off approach for silicon foil fabrication to avoid kerf losses and produce foils with thicknesses less than 50 μm. The crystal quality of the epitaxial silicon film strongly depends on the porous silicon template, which can be adapted through a reorganization process prior to epitaxy. In this work, we investigated the influence of reorganization on the structure of etched porous silicon layers. The reorganization processes were carried out in a quasi-inline Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition reactor. Variations on the temperatures and process durations for the reorganization step were examined. The cross-sections showed that porous silicon requires temperatures of approximately 1150 °C to produce an excellent template for epitaxy. Atomic Force Microscopy measurements on the samples annealed at different temperatures showed the evolution of the pores from as-etched to a closed surface. These measurements confirm that the surface is not yet closed after 30 min of reorganization at 1000 °C. Different durations of the reorganization step at a fixed temperature of 1150 °C all lead to a closed surface with a comparable roughness of less than 0.5 nm. X-ray diffraction measurements show a change in the strain in the porous layer from tensile to compressive when the reorganization temperature is increased from 800 °C to 1150 °C. A longer reorganization at a fixed temperature of 1150 °C leads to a reduction in the strain without reducing the quality of the surface roughness. Defect density measurements on silicon layers deposited on those templates confirm an improvement of the template for longer reorganization times. This study shows that our porous silicon templates achieve lower surface roughness and strain values than those reported in other publications.

  19. Highly sensitive wide bandwidth photodetector based on internal photoemission in CVD grown p-type MoS2/graphene Schottky junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vabbina, PhaniKiran; Choudhary, Nitin; Chowdhury, Al-Amin; Sinha, Raju; Karabiyik, Mustafa; Das, Santanu; Choi, Wonbong; Pala, Nezih

    2015-07-22

    Two dimensional (2D) Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has evolved as a promising material for next generation optoelectronic devices owing to its unique electrical and optical properties, such as band gap modulation, high optical absorption, and increased luminescence quantum yield. The 2D MoS2 photodetectors reported in the literature have presented low responsivity compared to silicon based photodetectors. In this study, we assembled atomically thin p-type MoS2 with graphene to form a MoS2/graphene Schottky photodetector where photo generated holes travel from graphene to MoS2 over the Schottky barrier under illumination. We found that the p-type MoS2 forms a Schottky junction with graphene with a barrier height of 139 meV, which results in high photocurrent and wide spectral range of detection with wavelength selectivity. The fabricated photodetector showed excellent photosensitivity with a maximum photo responsivity of 1.26 AW(-1) and a noise equivalent power of 7.8 × 10(-12) W/√Hz at 1440 nm.

  20. In-Situ Characterization of Potential-Induced Degradation in Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Modules Through Dark I–V Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Wei; Hacke, Peter; Singh, Jai Prakash; Chai, Jing; Wang, Yan; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Aberle, Armin G.; Khoo, Yong Sheng

    2017-01-01

    A temperature correction methodology for in-situ dark I-V(DIV) characterization of conventional p-type crystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) modules undergoing potential-induced degradation (PID) is proposed.

  1. Epitaxial Integration of Nanowires in Microsystems by Local Micrometer Scale Vapor Phase Epitaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Kristian; Wacaser, Brent A.; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth

    2008-01-01

    Free-standing epitaxially grown nanowires provide a controlled growth system and an optimal interface to the underlying substrate for advanced optical, electrical, and mechanical nanowire device connections. Nanowires can be grown by vapor-phase epitaxy (VPE) methods such as chemical vapor deposi...

  2. Photoenhanced atomic layer epitaxy. Hikari reiki genshiso epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashita, M.; Kawakyu, Y. (Toshiba corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-10-01

    The growth temperature range was greatly expanded of atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) expected as the growth process of ultra-thin stacks. Ga layers and As layers were formed one after the other on a GaAs substrate in the atmosphere of trimethylgallium (TMG) or AsH{sub 2} supplied alternately, by KrF excimer laser irradiation normal to the substrate. As a result, the growth temperature range was 460-540{degree}C nearly 10 times that of 500 {plus minus} several degrees centigrade in conventional thermal growth method. Based on the experimental result where light absorption of source molecules adsorbed on a substrate surface was larger than that under gaseous phase condition, new adsorbed layer enhancement model was proposed to explain above irradiation effect verifying it by experiments. As this photoenhancement technique is applied to other materials, possible fabrication of new crystal structures as a super lattice with ultra-thin stacks of single atomic layers is expected because of a larger freedom in material combination for hetero-ALE. 11 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Growth by atomic layer epitaxy and characterization of thin films of ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopalko, K.; Lusakowska, E.; Paszkowicz, W.; Domagala, J.Z.; Szczerbakow, A.; Swiatek, K.; Dybko, K. [Institute of Physics, Polish Acad. of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Wojcik, A.; Godlewski, M. [Institute of Physics, Polish Acad. of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Dep. of Mathem. and Natural Sci. College of Science, Cardinal S. Wyszynski Univ., Warsaw (Poland); Godlewski, M.M. [Dept. of Physiology, Biochem., Pharmacology and Toxicology, Fac. of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw Agriculture University, Warsaw (Poland)

    2005-02-01

    ABSTRACT Atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) was applied to grow thin films of monocrystalline and polycrystalline ZnO. Monocrystalline films were obtained only for GaN/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates, whereas use of sapphire, silicon or soda lime glass resulted in either 3D growth mode or in polycrystalline films showing preferential orientation along the c axis. Successful Mn doping of ZnO films is reported, when using organic Mn precursors. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Express optical analysis of epitaxial graphene on SiC: impact of morphology on quantum transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Tom; Lartsev, Arseniy; Mahashabde, Sumedh; Charpentier, Sophie; Davidovikj, Dejan; Danilov, Andrey; Yakimova, Rositza; Panchal, Vishal; Kazakova, Olga; Tzalenchuk, Alexander; Lara-Avila, Samuel; Kubatkin, Sergey

    2013-09-11

    We show that inspection with an optical microscope allows surprisingly simple and accurate identification of single and multilayer graphene domains in epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide (SiC/G) and is informative about nanoscopic details of the SiC topography, making it ideal for rapid and noninvasive quality control of as-grown SiC/G. As an illustration of the power of the method, we apply it to demonstrate the correlations between graphene morphology and its electronic properties by quantum magneto-transport.

  5. Insight into the mechanisms of chemical doping of graphene on silicon carbide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannazzo, Filippo

    2016-02-19

    Graphene (Gr) is currently the object of intense research investigations, owing to its rich physics and wide potential for applications. In particular, epitaxial Gr on silicon carbide (SiC) holds great promise for the development of new device concepts based on the vertical current transport at Gr/SiC heterointerface. Precise tailoring of Gr workfunction (WF) represents a key requirement for these device structures. In this context, Günes et al (2015 Nanotechnology 26 445702) recently reported a straightforward approach for WF modulation in epitaxial Gr on silicon carbide by using nitric acid solutions at different dilutions. This paper provides a deep insight on the peculiar mechanisms of chemical doping of epitaxial Gr on 4H-SiC(0001), using several characterization techniques (Raman, UPS, AFM) and density functional theory calculations. The relevance of these findings and their perspective applications in emerging device concepts based on monolithic integration of Gr and SiC will be discussed.

  6. Patterned growth of high aspect ratio silicon wire arrays at moderate temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Christine; Kohen, David; Tileli, Vasiliki; Faucherand, Pascal; Levis, Michel; Brioude, Arnaud; Salem, Bassem; Baron, Thierry; Perraud, Simon

    2011-04-01

    High aspect ratio silicon wire arrays with excellent pattern fidelity over wafer-scale area were grown by chemical vapor deposition at moderate temperature, using a gas mixture of silane and hydrogen chloride. An innovative two-step process was developed for in situ doping of silicon wires by diborane. This process led to high p-type doping levels, up to 10 18-10 19 cm -3, without degradation of the silicon wire array pattern fidelity.

  7. Electrochemical C-V Profiling of Silicon Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinder, R.

    1997-12-01

    The electrical behaviour of the 0.2 M solution of ammonium bifluoride (NH4F . HF) electrolyte-silicon interface has been investigated. Attention is focused to the properties of the electrolyte-silicon interface and to its influence on the determination of the carrier concentration profile N(x) via capacitance-voltage measurements. An optimized set of parameters for N(x) profiling has led to the choice of bias voltage and the determination of the effective dissolution valence of z = 3.3 for the boron implanted epitaxial layer.

  8. Solar cell fabricated on welded thin flexible silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hessmann Maik Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell with an AM1.5 efficiency of 11.5% fabricated on welded 50 μm thin silicon foils. The aperture area of the cell is 1.00 cm2. The cell has an open-circuit voltage of 570 mV, a short-circuit current density of 29.9 mA cm-2 and a fill factor of 67.6%. These are the first results ever presented for solar cells on welded silicon foils. The foils were welded together in order to create the first thin flexible monocrystalline band substrate. A flexible band substrate offers the possibility to overcome the area restriction of ingot-based monocrystalline silicon wafers and the feasibility of a roll-to-roll manufacturing. In combination with an epitaxial and layer transfer process a decrease in production costs can be achieved.

  9. Dielectric engineering: Characterization, development and process damage minimization of various silicon oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ackaert, Jan Germain Gabriel

    2004-01-01

    Over the various chapters, this thesis describes the characterization and development of a number of applications of silicon dioxides. An oxynitride is developed allowing a much higher SiGe epitaxial deposition rate in a bipolar process. Also a tunneloxide for non volatile memory application is

  10. Piezoresistance of Silicon and Strained Si0.9Ge0.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Jacob; Hansen, Ole; Larsen, A. Nylandsted;

    2005-01-01

    systems (MEMS) devices. The measurements are performed on microfabricated test chips where resistors are defined in layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy on (0 0 1) silicon substrates. A uniaxial stress along the [1 1 0] direction is applied to the chip, with the use of a four point bending fixture...

  11. CMOS-compatible dual-output silicon modulator for analog signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, S J; Geis, M W; Zhou, G-R; Grein, M E; Gan, F; Popovic, M A; Yoon, J U; Lennon, D M; Ippen, E P; Kärtner, F Z; Lyszczarz, T M

    2008-07-21

    A broadband, Mach-Zehnder-interferometer based silicon optical modulator is demonstrated, with an electrical bandwidth of 26 GHz and V(pi)L of 4 V.cm. The design of this modulator does not require epitaxial overgrowth and is therefore simpler to fabricate than previous devices with similar performance.

  12. Silicon doped InP as an alternative plasmonic material for mid-infrared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panah, Mohammad Esmail Aryaee; Han, Li; Christensen, Dennis Valbjørn;

    2016-01-01

    Silicon-doped InP is grown on top of semiinsulating iron-doped and sulfur-doped InP substrates by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE), and the growth parameters are adjusted to obtain various free carrier concentrations from 1.05×1019 cm-3 up to 3.28×1019 cm-3. Midinfrared (IR) reflection sp...

  13. Ivermectin is a nonselective inhibitor of mammalian P-type ATPases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Paulo Henrique Cotrim; Silva, Claudia Lucia Martins; Noël, François

    2010-02-01

    Ivermectin is a large spectrum antiparasitic drug that is very safe at the doses actually used. However, as it is being studied for new applications that would require higher doses, we should pay attention to its effects at high concentrations. As micromolar concentrations of ivermectin have been reported to inhibit the sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA), we decided to investigate its putative inhibitory effect on other two important P-type ATPases, namely the Na(+) , K(+)-ATPase and H(+)/K(+)-ATPase. We first extended the data on SERCA, using preparations from rat enriched in SERCA1a (extensor digitorum longus) and 1b (heart) isoforms. Secondly, we tested the effect of ivermectin in two preparations of rat Na(+), K(+)-ATPase in order to appreciate its putative selectivity towards the alpha(1) isoform (kidney) and the alpha(2)/alpha(3) isoforms (brain), and in an H(+)/K(+)-ATPase preparation from rat stomach. Ivermectin inhibited all these ATPases with similar IC(50) values (6-17 microM). With respect to the inhibition of the Na(+), K(+)-ATPase, ivermectin acts by a mechanism different from the classical cardiac glycosides, based on selectivity towards the isoforms, sensibility to the antagonistic effect of K(+) and to ionic conditions favoring different conformations of the enzyme. We conclude that ivermectin is a nonselective inhibitor of three important mammalian P-type ATPases, which is indicative of putative important adverse effects if this drug were used at high doses. As a consequence, we propose that novel analogs of ivermectin should be developed and tested both for their parasitic activity and in vitro effects on P-type ATPases.

  14. Enhanced photovoltaic effect of ruthenium complex-modified graphene oxide with P-type conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei, E-mail: jj_zw_js@sina.com.cn; Bai, Huicong; Zhang, Yu; Sun, Ying; Lin, Shen; Liu, Jian; Yang, Qi; Song, Xi-Ming, E-mail: songlab@lnu.edu.cn

    2014-10-15

    A graphene oxide nanocomposite with bis(1,10-phenanthroline)(N-(2-aminoethyl)-4-(4-methyl-2,2-bipyridine-4-yl) formamide) ruthenium (Ru(phen){sub 2}(bpy-NH{sub 2})(PF{sub 6}){sub 2}), a ruthenium complex, was synthesized by amidation reaction between amino group of the ruthenium complex and carboxyl group of GO. The as-prepared Ru(II)–GO composite was characterized by infrared (IR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra, surface photovoltage (SPV) spectrum and transient photovoltage (TPV) technology. This nanocomposite showed a typical p-type character and an enhanced photovoltaic effect at long timescale of about 3 × 10{sup −3} s compared to GO alone. A reversible rise/decay of the photocurrent in response to the on/off illumination step was also observed in a photoelectrochemical cell of the Ru(II)–GO composite. The photocurrent response of the Ru(II)–GO film was remarkably higher than that of GO film. Therefore, this Ru(II)–GO composite is believed to be a promising p-type photoelectric conversion material for further photovoltaic applications. - Highlights: • A new dye-sensitized graphene oxide nanocomposite was reported. • A photo-induced charge transfer process in this nanocomposite was confirmed. • This composite showed a typical p-type conductivity. • This composite showed an enhanced photovoltaic effect at a long timescale.

  15. Electroforming-free resistive switching memory effect in transparent p-type tin monoxide

    KAUST Repository

    Hota, M. K.

    2014-04-14

    We report reproducible low bias bipolar resistive switching behavior in p-type SnO thin film devices without extra electroforming steps. The experimental results show a stable resistance ratio of more than 100 times, switching cycling performance up to 180 cycles, and data retention of more than 103 s. The conduction mechanism varied depending on the applied voltage range and resistance state of the device. The memristive switching is shown to originate from a redox phenomenon at the Al/SnO interface, and subsequent formation/rupture of conducting filaments in the bulk of the SnO layer, likely involving oxygen vacancies and Sn interstitials.

  16. Does p-type ohmic contact exist in WSe2-metal interfaces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yangyang; Yang, Ruo Xi; Quhe, Ruge; Zhong, Hongxia; Cong, Linxiao; Ye, Meng; Ni, Zeyuan; Song, Zhigang; Yang, Jinbo; Shi, Junjie; Li, Ju; Lu, Jing

    2015-12-01

    Formation of low-resistance metal contacts is the biggest challenge that masks the intrinsic exceptional electronic properties of two dimensional WSe2 devices. We present the first comparative study of the interfacial properties between monolayer/bilayer (ML/BL) WSe2 and Sc, Al, Ag, Au, Pd, and Pt contacts by using ab initio energy band calculations with inclusion of the spin-orbital coupling (SOC) effects and quantum transport simulations. The interlayer coupling tends to reduce both the electron and hole Schottky barrier heights (SBHs) and alters the polarity for the WSe2-Au contact, while the SOC chiefly reduces the hole SBH. In the absence of the SOC, the Pd contact has the smallest hole SBH. Dramatically, the Pt contact surpasses the Pd contact and becomes the p-type ohmic or quasi-ohmic contact with inclusion of the SOC. Therefore, p-type ohmic or quasi-ohmic contact exists in WSe2-metal interfaces. Our study provides a theoretical foundation for the selection of favorable metal electrodes in ML/BL WSe2 devices.Formation of low-resistance metal contacts is the biggest challenge that masks the intrinsic exceptional electronic properties of two dimensional WSe2 devices. We present the first comparative study of the interfacial properties between monolayer/bilayer (ML/BL) WSe2 and Sc, Al, Ag, Au, Pd, and Pt contacts by using ab initio energy band calculations with inclusion of the spin-orbital coupling (SOC) effects and quantum transport simulations. The interlayer coupling tends to reduce both the electron and hole Schottky barrier heights (SBHs) and alters the polarity for the WSe2-Au contact, while the SOC chiefly reduces the hole SBH. In the absence of the SOC, the Pd contact has the smallest hole SBH. Dramatically, the Pt contact surpasses the Pd contact and becomes the p-type ohmic or quasi-ohmic contact with inclusion of the SOC. Therefore, p-type ohmic or quasi-ohmic contact exists in WSe2-metal interfaces. Our study provides a theoretical foundation for

  17. Initial results from 3D-DDTC detectors on p-type substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoboli, A., E-mail: zoboli@disi.unitn.i [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Universita di Trento, and INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento), Via Sommarive, 14, I-38100 Povo di Trento (Italy); Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi, Via Sommarive, 18, I-38100 Povo di Trento (Italy); Bosisio, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trieste, and INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Via A. Valerio, 2, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Universita di Trento, and INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento), Via Sommarive, 14, I-38100 Povo di Trento (Italy); Piemonte, C.; Ronchin, S.; Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi, Via Sommarive, 18, I-38100 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2010-01-11

    Owing to their superior radiation hardness compared to planar detectors, 3D detectors are one of the most promising technologies for the LHC upgrade foreseen in 2017. Fondazione Bruno Kessler has developed 3D Double-side Double-Type Column (3D-DDTC) detectors providing a technological simplifications with respect to a standard 3D process while aiming at comparable detector performance. We present selected results from the electrical characterization of 3D-DDTC structures from the second batch made on p-type substrates, supported also by TCAD simulations.

  18. Structure and mechanism of Zn2+-transporting P-type ATPases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Kaituo; Sitsel, Oleg; Meloni, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    Zinc is an essential micronutrient for all living organisms. It is required for signalling and proper functioning of a range of proteins involved in, for example, DNA binding and enzymatic catalysis1. In prokaryotes and photosynthetic eukaryotes, Zn2+-transporting P-type ATPases of class IB (Znt....... The structures reveal a similar fold to Cu+-ATPases, with an amphipathic helix at the membrane interface. A conserved electronegative funnel connects this region to the intramembranous high-affinity ion-binding site and may promote specific uptake of cellular Zn2+ ions by the transporter. The E2P structure...

  19. Elastic constants determined by nanoindentation for p-type thermoelectric half-Heusler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gahlawat, S.; Wheeler, L.; White, K. W., E-mail: zren@uh.edu, E-mail: kwwhite@uh.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States); He, R.; Chen, S.; Ren, Z. F., E-mail: zren@uh.edu, E-mail: kwwhite@uh.edu [Department of Physics and TcSUH, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States)

    2014-08-28

    This paper presents a study of the elastic properties of the p-type thermoelectric half-Heusler material, Hf{sub 0.44}Zr{sub 0.44}Ti{sub 0.12}CoSb{sub 0.8}Sn{sub 0.2}, using nanoindentation. Large grain-sized polycrystalline specimens were fabricated for these measurements, providing sufficient indentation targets within single grains. Electron Backscatter Diffraction methods indexed the target grains for the correlation needed for our elastic analysis of individual single crystals for this cubic thermoelectric material. Elastic properties, including the Zener ratio and the Poisson ratio, obtained from the elasticity tensor are also reported.

  20. Ferromagnetic-resonance induced electromotive forces in Ni81Fe19 | p-type diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Naoki; Morishita, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Miwa, Shinji; Mizuochi, Norikazu; Suzuki, Yoshishige

    2016-10-01

    We report on direct-current (DC) electromotive forces (emfs) in a nickel-iron alloy (Ni81 Fe19) | p-type diamond under the ferromagnetic resonance of the Ni81Fe19 layer at room temperature. The observed DC emfs take its maximum around the ferromagnetic resonant frequency of the Ni81Fe19, and their signs are reversed by reversing the direction of an externally-applied magnetic field; it shows that the observed DC emfs are spin-related emfs.

  1. Single-structure heater and temperature sensor using a p-type polycrystalline diamond resistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, G.S.; Aslam, D.M. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-05-01

    Heat generation and temperature sensing are required for heating applications and for liquid level sensors, mass flow meters, and vacuum and pressure gauges which are based on variations of heat dissipation. Heat generation and temperature sensing are reported in a single p-type diamond resistor fabricated on an oxidized Si substrate using diamond film technology compatible with integrated circuit (IC) processing. Power densities in excess of 600 W/in.{sup 2} are observed for the heaters. The temperature response of the sensor is characterized in the temperature range of 300--725 K. Such a diamond heater/sensor device is reported for the first time.

  2. P-Type Doping of GaN by Mg+ Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Shu-De; ZHAO Qiang; ZHOU Sheng-Qiang; YANG Zi-Jian; LU Yi-Hong; SUN Chang-Chun; SUN Chang; ZHANG Guo-Yi; VANTOMME Andre; PIPELEERS Bert

    2003-01-01

    Mg+ and Mg++P+ were introduced into GaN by ion implantation. The structure and crystalline quality of the GaN samples were analysed by Rutherford backscattering and channelling spectrometry before (xmin = 1.6%) and after implantation (Xmin = 4.1%). X-ray diffraction reveals the existence of implantation-induced damage in the case of post-implantation followed by rapid thermal annealing. The resistivity, average factor, carrier concentration and carrier mobility were measured by the Hall effect. The transformation from n-type to p-type for GaN was observed.

  3. Transient expression of P-type ATPases in tobacco epidermal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedas, Lisbeth Rosager; Palmgren, Michael Broberg; Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura

    2016-01-01

    Transient expression in tobacco cells is a convenient method for several purposes such as analysis of protein-protein interactions and the subcellular localization of plant proteins. A suspension of Agrobacterium tumefaciens cells carrying the plasmid of interest is injected into the intracellular...... for example protein-protein interaction studies. In this chapter, we describe the procedure to transiently express P-type ATPases in tobacco epidermal cells, with focus on subcellular localization of the protein complexes formed by P4-ATPases and their β-subunits....

  4. Research Update: Enhanced energy storage density and energy efficiency of epitaxial Pb0.9La0.1(Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 relaxor-ferroelectric thin-films deposited on silicon by pulsed laser deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh D. Nguyen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pb0.9La0.1(Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PLZT relaxor-ferroelectric thin films were grown on SrRuO3/SrTiO3/Si substrates by pulsed laser deposition. A large recoverable storage density (Ureco of 13.7 J/cm3 together with a high energy efficiency (η of 88.2% under an applied electric field of 1000 kV/cm and at 1 kHz frequency was obtained in 300-nm-thick epitaxial PLZT thin films. These high values are due to the slim and asymmetric hysteresis loop when compared to the values in the reference undoped epitaxial lead zirconate titanate Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 ferroelectric thin films (Ureco = 9.2 J/cm3 and η = 56.4% which have a high remanent polarization and a small shift in the hysteresis loop, under the same electric field.

  5. Optical properties of ZnO nanowire arrays electrodeposited on n- and p-type Si(1 1 1): Effects of thermal annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupan, O., E-mail: oleg-lupan@chimie-paristech.fr [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie, Chimie des Interfaces et Modelisation pour l' Energie (LECIME), UMR 7575 CNRS, Chimie ParisTech, 11 rue P. et M. Curie, 75231 Paris (France); Pauporte, Th., E-mail: thierry-pauporte@chimie-paristech.fr [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie, Chimie des Interfaces et Modelisation pour l' Energie (LECIME), UMR 7575 CNRS, Chimie ParisTech, 11 rue P. et M. Curie, 75231 Paris (France); Tiginyanu, I.M.; Ursaki, V.V. [Institute of Electronic Engineering and Nanotechnologies, Institute of Applied Physics, Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Chisinau MD-2028 (Moldova, Republic of); Heinrich, H.; Chow, L. [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, PO Box 162385 Orlando, FL 32816-2385 (United States)

    2011-09-25

    Highlights: > A new template-free electrochemical deposition method for the synthesis of ZnO nanorods/nanowires directly on n- and p-type silicon (Si) substrates. > Improved structural, electrical and optical properties of the ZnO nanowires/p-Si (1 1 1) heterojunction have been demonstrated. > Photodetectors have been fabricated based on the n-ZnO nanowires/p-Si heterojunction obtained by electrodeposition. - Abstract: Electrodeposition is a low temperature and low cost growth method of high quality nanostructured active materials for optoelectronic devices. We report the electrochemical preparation of ZnO nanorod/nanowire arrays on n-Si(1 1 1) and p-Si(1 1 1). The effects of thermal annealing and type of substrates on the optical properties of ZnO nanowires electroplated on silicon (1 1 1) substrate are reported. We fabricated ZnO nanowires/p-Si structure that exhibits a strong UV photoluminescence emission and a negligible visible emission. This UV photoluminescence emission proves to be strongly influenced by the thermal annealing at 150-800 deg. C. Photo-detectors have been fabricated based on the ZnO nanowires/p-Si heterojunction.

  6. High-field EPR spectroscopy of thermal donors in silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirksen, R.; Rasmussen, F.B.; Gregorkiewicz, T.

    1997-01-01

    Thermal donors generated in p-type boron-doped Czochralski-grown silicon by a 450 degrees C heat treatment have been studied by high-field magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In the experiments conducted at a microwave frequency of 140 GHz and in a magnetic field of approximately 5 T four individual...

  7. Porous silicon localization for implementation in matrix biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benilov, A. [Laboratoire d' Electronique, Optoelectronique et Microsystemes, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, BP 163-69131 Ecully Cedex (France) and Kyiv Taras Shevchenko National University, 64 Volodymyrska, 01033 Kiev (Ukraine)]. E-mail: arthur@univ.kiev.ua; Cabrera, M. [Laboratoire d' Electronique, Optoelectronique et Microsystemes, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, BP 163-69131 Ecully Cedex (France); Skryshevsky, V. [Kyiv Taras Shevchenko National University, 64 Volodymyrska, 01033 Kiev (Ukraine); Martin, J.-R. [Laboratoire d' Electronique, Optoelectronique et Microsystemes, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, BP 163-69131 Ecully Cedex (France)

    2007-05-15

    The search of appropriate substrates and methods of surface DNA functionalisation is one of the important tasks of semiconductor biosensors. In this work we develop a method of light-assisted porous silicon etching in order to localize porous silicon spots on silicon substrate for matrix fluorophore-labeled DNA sensors implementation. The principal difference of porous spots localization proposed is considered for n- and p-type Si substrates under the condition of supplementary illumination. The tuning of the porous profile via applying of lateral electric field is proposed and experimentally proved.

  8. Review. Industrial silicon wafer solar cells. Status and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aberle, Armin G.; Boreland, Matthew B.; Hoex, Bram; Mueller, Thomas [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore (SERIS)

    2012-11-01

    Crystalline silicon solar cells dominate today's global photovoltaic (PV) market. This paper presents the status and trends of the most important industrial silicon wafer solar cells, ranging from standard p-type homojunction cells to heterojunction cells on n-type wafers. Owing to ongoing technological innovations such as improved surface passivation and the use of increasingly thinner wafers, the trend towards higher cell efficiencies and lower dollar/watt costs is expected to continue during the next 10 years, making silicon wafer based PV modules a moving target for any competing PV technology. (orig.)

  9. A P-type ATPase importer that discriminates between essential and toxic transition metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinson, Oded; Lee, Allen T; Rees, Douglas C

    2009-03-24

    Transition metals, although being essential cofactors in many physiological processes, are toxic at elevated concentrations. Among the membrane-embedded transport proteins that maintain appropriate intracellular levels of transition metals are ATP-driven pumps belonging to the P-type ATPase superfamily. These metal transporters may be differentiated according to their substrate specificities, where the majority of pumps can extrude either silver and copper or zinc, cadmium, and lead. In the present report, we have established the substrate specificities of nine previously uncharacterized prokaryotic transition-metal P-type ATPases. We find that all of the newly identified exporters indeed fall into one of the two above-mentioned categories. In addition to these exporters, one importer, Pseudomonas aeruginosa Q9I147, was also identified. This protein, designated HmtA (heavy metal transporter A), exhibited a different substrate recognition profile from the exporters. In vivo metal susceptibility assays, intracellular metal measurements, and transport experiments all suggest that HmtA mediates the uptake of copper and zinc but not of silver, mercury, or cadmium. The substrate selectivity of this importer ensures the high-affinity uptake of essential metals, while avoiding intracellular contamination by their toxic counterparts.

  10. Thermal oxidation of Ni films for p-type thin-film transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    p-Type nanocrystal NiO-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) are fabricated by simply oxidizing thin Ni films at temperatures as low as 400 °C. The highest field-effect mobility in a linear region and the current on-off ratio are found to be 5.2 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 2.2 × 103, respectively. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and electrical performances of the TFTs with "top contact" and "bottom contact" channels suggest that the upper parts of the Ni films are clearly oxidized. In contrast, the lower parts in contact with the gate dielectric are partially oxidized to form a quasi-discontinuous Ni layer, which does not fully shield the gate electric field, but still conduct the source and drain current. This simple method for producing p-type TFTs may be promising for the next-generation oxide-based electronic applications. © 2013 the Owner Societies.

  11. Analysis of carrier concentration, lifetime, and electron mobility on p-type HgCdTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sang Dong; Kwack, Kae Dal

    1998-03-01

    Minority carrier transport characteristics of vacancy-doped p-type HgCdTe such as carrier concentration, lifetime, and mobility are investigated. In the calculation of the carrier concentration two acceptor levels—a donor level and a trap level—were taken into account. The acceptor levels have been described by two models—two independent singly ionized levels and a divalent level with two ionization energies. When each model was examined by calculating electron mobility as a function of temperature, the latter was found to be more accurate. Electron mobility as a function of majority carrier concentration was also presented for both n-type and p-type HgCdTe with 0.225 Cd mole fraction. Steady state electron lifetime was computed assuming the acceptor levels and the trap level would act as Schokley-Read-Hall type recombination centers. The calculated results using the divalent acceptor model were in good agreement with the experimental data.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of p-type boron-doped IIb diamond large single crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Shang-Sheng; Ma Hong-An; Li Xiao-Lei; Su Tai-Chao; Huang Guo-Feng; Li Yong; Jia Xiao-Peng

    2011-01-01

    High-quality p-type boron-doped II0b diamond large single crystals are successfully synthesized by the temperature gradient method in a china-type cubic anvil high-pressure apparatus at about 5.5 GPa and 1600 K. The morphologies and surface textures of the synthetic diamond crystals with different boron additive quantities are characterized by using an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope respectively. The impurities of nitrogen and boron in diamonds are detected by micro Fourier transform infrared technique. The electrical properties including resistivities, Hall coefficients, Hall mobilities and carrier densities of the synthesized samples are measured by a four-point probe and the Hall effect method. The results show that large p-type boron-doped diamond single crystals with few nitrogen impurities have been synthesized. With the increase of quantity of additive boron, some high-index crystal faces such as {113} gradually disappear, and some stripes and triangle pits occur on the crystal surface. This work is helpful for the further research and application of boron-doped semiconductor diamond.

  13. EEG/MEG forward simulation through h- and p-type finite elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pursiainen, S [Institute of Mathematics, Box 1100, FI-02015 Helsinki University of Technology (Finland)], E-mail: sampsa.pursiainen@tkk.fi

    2008-07-15

    Electro/Magnetoencephalography (EEG/MEG) is a non-invasive imaging modality, in which a primary current density generated by the neural activity in the brain is to be reconstructed from external electric potential/magnetic field measurements. This work focuses on effective and accurate simulation of the EEG/MEG forward model through the h- and p-versions of the finite element method (h- and p-FEM). The goal is to compare the effectiveness of these two versions in forward simulation. Both h- and p-type forward simulations are described and implemented, and the technical solutions found are discussed. These include, for example, suitable ways to generate a finite element mesh for a real head geometry through the use of different element types. Performances of the two implemented forward simulation types are compared by measuring directly the forward modeling error, as well as by computing reconstructions through a regularized FOCUSS (FOCal Underdetermined System Solver) algorithm. The results obtained suggest that the p-type performs better in terms of the forward modeling error. However, both types perform well in regularized FOCUSS reconstruction.

  14. Wide band gap p-type windows by CBD and SILAR methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankapal, B.R.; Goncalves, E.; Ennaoui, A.; Lux-Steiner, M.Ch

    2004-03-22

    Chemical deposition methods, namely, chemical bath deposition (CBD) and successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) have been used to deposit wide band gap p-type CuI and CuSCN thin films at room temperature (25 deg. C) in aqueous medium. Growth of these films requires the use of Cu (I) cations as a copper ions source. This is achieved by complexing Cu (II) ions using Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The anion sources are either KI as iodine or KSCN as thiocyanide ions for CuI and CuSCN films, respectively. The preparative parameters are optimized with the aim to use these p-type materials as windows for solar cells. Different substrates are used, namely: glass, fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass and CuInS{sub 2} (CIS). X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and optical absorption spectroscopy are used for structural, surface morphological and optical studies, and the results are discussed.

  15. Carrier induced local moment magnetization in p-type Sn1-xMnxTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Sashi S.; Tripathi, Pratibha; Nayak, Sanjeev K.; Tripathi, Gouri S.

    2017-08-01

    We derive a theory of carrier induced local moment magnetization of p-type Sn1-xMnxTe based on the Hubbard model, k → · π → electronic structure method (k → is the electronic wave vector and π → is the relativistic momentum operator) and the statistical paramagnetic approach for the localized moments. The Hubbard model is used to derive an internal exchange magnetic field. The difference in exchange self-energy is expressed in terms of an internal exchange field that is proportional to the parameter U, the onsite Coulomb repulsion, and the spin-density of carriers. In the present theory, the k → · π → + U model is integrated with the statistical paramagnetic theory for localized spins, which is then solved in a self-consistent manner by adding the exchange field to the applied field. The technique is applied to study the magnetic properties of p-type Sn1-xMnxTe, an important material for spintronics devices. The local moment magnetization calculated using the total magnetic field self-consistently agrees with the experimental observations. Magnetization and the exchange field studied as functions of the applied field, temperature and carrier concentration yield results on expected lines. Ours is a mechanism that is different from the RKKY interaction, normally invoked for carrier induced ferromagnetism and is thus a novelty.

  16. Anabaena sp. DyP-type peroxidase is a tetramer consisting of two asymmetric dimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Toru; Ogola, Henry Joseph Oduor; Amano, Yoshimi; Hisabori, Toru; Ashida, Hiroyuki; Sawa, Yoshihiro; Tsuge, Hideaki; Sugano, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    DyP-type peroxidases are a newly discovered family of heme peroxidases distributed from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Recently, using a structure-based sequence alignment, we proposed the new classes, P, I and V, as substitutes for classes A, B, C, and D [Arch Biochem Biophys 2015;574:49-55]. Although many class V enzymes from eukaryotes have been characterized, only two from prokaryotes have been reported. Here, we show the crystal structure of one of these two enzymes, Anabaena sp. DyP-type peroxidase (AnaPX). AnaPX is tetramer formed from Cys224-Cys224 disulfide-linked dimers. The tetramer of wild-type AnaPX was stable at all salt concentrations tested. In contrast, the C224A mutant showed salt concentration-dependent oligomeric states: in 600 mM NaCl, it maintained a tetrameric structure, whereas in the absence of salt, it dissociated into monomers, leading to a reduction in thermostability. Although the tetramer exhibits non-crystallographic, 2-fold symmetry in the asymmetric unit, two subunits forming the Cys224-Cys224 disulfide-linked dimer are related by 165° rotation. This asymmetry creates an opening to cavities facing the inside of the tetramer, providing a pathway for hydrogen peroxide access. Finally, a phylogenetic analysis using structure-based sequence alignments showed that class V enzymes from prokaryotes, including AnaPX, are phylogenetically closely related to class V enzymes from eukaryotes.

  17. Valence band states in Si-based p-type delta-doped field effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Orozco, J C; Vlaev, Stoyan J, E-mail: jcmover@correo.unam.m [Unidad Academica de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad esquina con Paseo la Bufa S/N, C.P. 98060, Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2009-05-01

    We present tight-binding calculations of the hole level structure of delta-doped Field Effect Transistor in a Si matrix within the first neighbors sp{sup 3}s* semi-empirical tight-binding model including spin. We employ analytical expressions for Schottky barrier potential and the p-type delta-doped well based on a Thomas-Fermi approximation, we consider these potentials as external ones, so in the computations they are added to the diagonal terms of the tight-binding Hamiltonian, by this way we have the possibility to study the energy levels behavior as we vary the backbone parameters in the system: the two-dimensional impurity density (p{sub 2d}) of the p-type delta-doped well and the contact voltage (V{sub c}). The aim of this calculation is to demonstrate that the tight-binding approximation is suitable for device characterization that permits us to propose optimal values for the input parameters involved in the device design.

  18. Atomic layer deposition of undoped TiO2 exhibiting p-type conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iancu, Andrei T; Logar, Manca; Park, Joonsuk; Prinz, Fritz B

    2015-03-11

    With prominent photocatalytic applications and widespread use in semiconductor devices, TiO2 is one of the most popular metal oxides. However, despite its popularity, it has yet to achieve its full potential due to a lack of effective methods for achieving p-type conductivity. Here, we show that undoped p-type TiO2 films can be fabricated by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and that their electrical properties can be controlled across a wide range using proper postprocessing anneals in various ambient environments. Hole mobilities larger than 400 cm(2)/(V·s) are accessible superseding the use of extrinsic doping, which generally produces orders of magnitude smaller values. Through a combination of analyses and experiments, we provide evidence that this behavior is primarily due to an excess of oxygen in the films. This discovery enables entirely new categories of TiO2 devices and applications, and unlocks the potential to improve existing ones. TiO2 homojunction diodes fabricated completely by ALD are developed as a demonstration of the utility of these techniques and shown to exhibit useful rectifying characteristics even with minimal processing refinement.

  19. Piezo-phototronic effect on electroluminescence properties of p-type GaN thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Youfan; Zhang, Yan; Lin, Long; Ding, Yong; Zhu, Guang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2012-07-11

    We present that the electroluminescence (EL) properties of Mg-doped p-type GaN thin films can be tuned by the piezo-phototronic effect via adjusting the minority carrier injection efficiency at the metal-semiconductor (M-S) interface by strain induced polarization charges. The device is a metal-semiconductor-metal structure of indium tin oxide (ITO)-GaN-ITO. Under different straining conditions, the changing trend of the transport properties of GaN films can be divided into two types, corresponding to the different c-axis orientations of the films. An extreme value was observed for the integral EL intensity under certain applied strain due to the adjusted minority carrier injection efficiency by piezoelectric charges introduced at the M-S interface. The external quantum efficiency of the blue EL at 430 nm was changed by 5.84% under different straining conditions, which is 1 order of magnitude larger than the change of the green peak at 540 nm. The results indicate that the piezo-phototronic effect has a larger impact on the shallow acceptor states related EL process than on the one related to the deep acceptor states in p-type GaN films. This study has great significance on the practical applications of GaN in optoelectronic devices under a working environment where mechanical deformation is unavoidable such as for flexible/printable light emitting diodes.

  20. Efficiency Enhancement of Nanoporous Silicon/Polycrystalline-Silicon Solar Cells by Application of Trenched Electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Kuen-Hsien Wu; Chia-Chun Tang

    2014-01-01

    Trenched electrodes were proposed to enhance the short-circuit current and conversion efficiency of polycrystalline-silicon (poly-Si) solar cells with nanoporous silicon (NPS) surface layers. NPS films that served as textured surface layers were firstly prepared on heavily doped p+-type (100) poly-Si wafers by anodic etching process. Interdigitated trenches were formed in the NPS layers by a reactive-ion-etch (RIE) process and Cr/Al double-layered metal was then deposited to fill the trenches...

  1. Effect of temperature and silicon resistivity on the elaboration of silicon nanowires by electroless etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellahi, Ouarda, E-mail: fellahi_warda@yahoo.fr [Silicon Technology Development Unit, 02 Bd Frantz Fanon, BP 140 Alger-7 Merveilles, Algiers (Algeria); Hadjersi, Toufik [Silicon Technology Development Unit, 02 Bd Frantz Fanon, BP 140 Alger-7 Merveilles, Algiers (Algeria); Maamache, Mustapha [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et Systemes Dynamiques, Universite Ferhat Abbas de Setif (Algeria); Bouanik, Sihem; Manseri, Amar [Silicon Technology Development Unit, 02 Bd Frantz Fanon, BP 140 Alger-7 Merveilles, Algiers (Algeria)

    2010-11-01

    The morphology of silicon nanowire (SiNW) layers formed by Ag-assisted electroless etching in HF/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} solution was studied. Prior to the etching, the Ag nanoparticles were deposited on p-type Si(1 0 0) wafers by electroless metal deposition (EMD) in HF/AgNO{sub 3} solution at room temperature. The effect of etching temperature and silicon resistivity on the formation process of nanowires was studied. The secondary ion mass spectra (SIMS) technique is used to study the penetration of silver in the etched layers. The morphology of etched layers was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM).

  2. Ordered arrays of multiferroic epitaxial nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela Vrejoiu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Epitaxial heterostructures combining ferroelectric (FE and ferromagnetic (FiM oxides are a possible route to explore coupling mechanisms between the two independent order parameters, polarization and magnetization of the component phases. We report on the fabrication and properties of arrays of hybrid epitaxial nanostructures of FiM NiFe2O4 (NFO and FE PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 or PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3, with large range order and lateral dimensions from 200 nm to 1 micron. Methods : The structures were fabricated by pulsed-laser deposition. High resolution transmission electron microscopy and high angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy were employed to investigate the microstructure and the epitaxial growth of the structures. Room temperature ferroelectric and ferrimagnetic domains of the heterostructures were imaged by piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM and magnetic force microscopy (MFM, respectively. Results : PFM and MFM investigations proved that the hybrid epitaxial nanostructures show ferroelectric and magnetic order at room temperature. Dielectric effects occurring after repeated switching of the polarization in large planar capacitors, comprising ferrimagnetic NiFe2O4 dots embedded in ferroelectric PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 matrix, were studied. Conclusion : These hybrid multiferroic structures with clean and well defined epitaxial interfaces hold promise for reliable investigations of magnetoelectric coupling between the ferrimagnetic / magnetostrictive and ferroelectric / piezoelectric phases.

  3. Silicon Spintronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.

    2008-01-01

    Integration of magnetism and mainstream semiconductor electronics could impact information technology in ways beyond imagination. A pivotal step is implementation of spin-based electronic functionality in silicon devices. Remarkable progress made during the last two years gives confidence that this

  4. New photovoltaic devices based on the sensitization of p-type semiconductors: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odobel, Fabrice; Le Pleux, Loïc; Pellegrin, Yann; Blart, Errol

    2010-08-17

    Because solar energy is the most abundant renewable energy resource, the clear connection between human activity and global warming has strengthened the interest in photovoltaic science. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) provide a promising low-cost technology for harnessing this energy source. Until recently, much of the research surrounding DSSCs had been focused on the sensitization of n-type semiconductors, such as titanium dioxide (Gratzel cells). In an n-type dye-sensitized solar cell (n-DSSC), an electron is injected into the conduction band of an n-type semiconductor (n-SC) from the excited state of the sensitizer. Comparatively few studies have examined the sensitization of wide bandgap p-type semiconductors. In a p-type DSSC (p-DSSC), the photoexcited sensitizer is reductively quenched by hole injection into the valence band of a p-type semiconductor (p-SC). The study of p-DSSCs is important both to understand the factors that control the rate of hole photoinjection and to aid the rational design of efficient p-DSSCs. In theory, p-DSSCs should be able to work as efficiently as n-DSSCs. In addition, this research provides a method for preparing tandem DSSCs consisting of a TiO(2)-photosensitized anode and a photosensitized p-type SC as a cathode. Tandem DSSCs are particularly important because they represent low-cost photovoltaic devices whose photoconversion efficiencies could exceed 15%. This Account describes recent research results on p-DSSCs. Because these photoelectrochemical devices are the mirror images of conventional n-DSSCs, they share some structural similarities, but they use different materials and have different charge transfer kinetics. In this technology, nickel oxide is the predominant p-SC material used, but much higher photoconversion efficiencies could be achieved with new p-SCs materials with deeper valence band potential. Currently, iodide/triiodide is the main redox mediator of electron transport within these devices, but we expect

  5. p-Type semiconducting nickel oxide as an efficiency-enhancing anodal interfacial layer in bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Michael D; Buchholz, Donald B; Marks, Tobin J; Chang, Robert P. H.

    2014-11-25

    The present invention, in one aspect, relates to a solar cell. In one embodiment, the solar cell includes an anode, a p-type semiconductor layer formed on the anode, and an active organic layer formed on the p-type semiconductor layer, where the active organic layer has an electron-donating organic material and an electron-accepting organic material.

  6. Hybrid silicon evanescent approach to optical interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Di; Fang, Alexander W.; Chen, Hui-Wen; Sysak, Matthew N.; Koch, Brian R.; Lively, Erica; Raday, Omri; Kuo, Ying-Hao; Jones, Richard; Bowers, John E.

    2009-06-01

    We discuss the recently developed hybrid silicon evanescent platform (HSEP), and its application as a promising candidate for optical interconnects in silicon. A number of key discrete components and a wafer-scale integration process are reviewed. The motivation behind this work is to realize silicon-based photonic integrated circuits possessing unique advantages of III-V materials and silicon-on-insulator waveguides simultaneously through a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor fabrication process. Electrically pumped hybrid silicon distributed feedback and distributed Bragg reflector lasers with integrated hybrid silicon photodetectors are demonstrated coupled to SOI waveguides, serving as the reliable on-chip single-frequency light sources. For the external signal processing, Mach-Zehnder interferometer modulators are demonstrated, showing a resistance-capacitance-limited, 3 dB electrical bandwidth up to 8 GHz and a modulation efficiency of 1.5 V mm. The successful implementation of quantum well intermixing technique opens up the possibility to realize multiple III-V bandgaps in this platform. Sampled grating DBR devices integrated with electroabsorption modulators (EAM) are fabricated, where the bandgaps in gain, mirror, and EAM regions are 1520, 1440 and 1480 nm, respectively. The high-temperature operation characteristics of the HSEP are studied experimentally and theoretically. An overall characteristic temperature ( T 0) of 51°C, an above threshold characteristic temperature ( T 1) of 100°C, and a thermal impedance ( Z T ) of 41.8°C/W, which agrees with the theoretical prediction of 43.5°C/W, are extracted from the Fabry-Perot devices. Scaling this platform to larger dimensions is demonstrated up to 150 mm wafer diameter. A vertical outgassing channel design is developed to accomplish high-quality III-V epitaxial transfer to silicon in a timely and dimension-independent fashion.

  7. Gate tunable graphene-silicon Ohmic/Schottky contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Chung; Chang, Chia-Chi; Li, Zhen; Levi, A. F. J.; Cronin, Stephen B.

    2012-11-01

    We show that the I-V characteristics of graphene-silicon junctions can be actively tuned from rectifying to Ohmic behavior by electrostatically doping the graphene with a polymer electrolyte gate. Under zero applied gate voltage, we observe rectifying I-V characteristics, demonstrating the formation of a Schottky junction at the graphene-silicon interface. Through appropriate gating, the Fermi energy of the graphene can be varied to match the conduction or valence band of silicon, thus forming Ohmic contacts with both n- and p-type silicon. Over the applied gate voltage range, the low bias conductance can be varied by more than three orders of magnitude. By varying the top gate voltage from -4 to +4 V, the Fermi energy of the graphene is shifted between -3.78 and -5.47 eV; a shift of ±0.85 eV from the charge neutrality point. Since the conduction and valence bands of the underlying silicon substrate lie within this range, at -4.01 and -5.13 eV, the Schottky barrier height and depletion width can be decreased to zero for both n- and p-type silicon under the appropriate top gating conditions. I-V characteristics taken under illumination show that the photo-induced current can be increased or decreased based on the graphene-silicon work function difference.

  8. Lithographically patterned silicon nanostructures on silicon substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megouda, Nacera [Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire (IRI, USR 3078), Universite Lille1, Parc de la Haute Borne, 50 Avenue de Halley-BP 70478, 59658 Villeneuve d' Ascq and Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN, CNRS-8520), Cite Scientifique, Avenue Poincare-B.P. 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Faculte des Sciences, Universite Mouloud Mammeri, Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); Unite de Developpement de la Technologie du Silicium (UDTS), 2 Bd. Frantz Fanon, B.P. 140 Alger-7 merveilles, Alger (Algeria); Piret, Gaeelle; Galopin, Elisabeth; Coffinier, Yannick [Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire (IRI, USR 3078), Universite Lille1, Parc de la Haute Borne, 50 Avenue de Halley-BP 70478, 59658 Villeneuve d' Ascq and Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN, CNRS-8520), Cite Scientifique, Avenue Poincare-B.P. 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Hadjersi, Toufik, E-mail: hadjersi@yahoo.com [Unite de Developpement de la Technologie du Silicium (UDTS), 2 Bd. Frantz Fanon, B.P. 140 Alger-7 merveilles, Alger (Algeria); Elkechai, Omar [Faculte des Sciences, Universite Mouloud Mammeri, Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); and others

    2012-06-01

    The paper reports on controlled formation of silicon nanostructures patterns by the combination of optical lithography and metal-assisted chemical dissolution of crystalline silicon. First, a 20 nm-thick gold film was deposited onto hydrogen-terminated silicon substrate by thermal evaporation. Gold patterns (50 {mu}m Multiplication-Sign 50 {mu}m spaced by 20 {mu}m) were transferred onto the silicon wafer by means of photolithography. The etching process of crystalline silicon in HF/AgNO{sub 3} aqueous solution was studied as a function of the silicon resistivity, etching time and temperature. Controlled formation of silicon nanowire arrays in the unprotected areas was demonstrated for highly resistive silicon substrate, while silicon etching was observed on both gold protected and unprotected areas for moderately doped silicon. The resulting layers were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  9. Materials fundamentals of molecular beam epitaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Tsao, Jeffrey Y

    1992-01-01

    The technology of crystal growth has advanced enormously during the past two decades. Among, these advances, the development and refinement of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) has been among the msot important. Crystals grown by MBE are more precisely controlled than those grown by any other method, and today they form the basis for the most advanced device structures in solid-state physics, electronics, and optoelectronics. As an example, Figure 0.1 shows a vertical-cavity surface emitting laser structure grown by MBE. * Provides comprehensive treatment of the basic materials and surface science principles that apply to molecular beam epitaxy * Thorough enough to benefit molecular beam epitaxy researchers * Broad enough to benefit materials, surface, and device researchers * Referenes articles at the forefront of modern research as well as those of historical interest.

  10. NbFeSb based p-type half-Heusler for power generation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Giri; He, Ran; Engber, Michael; Samsonidze, Georgy; Pantha, Tej; Dahal, Ekraj; Dahal, Keshab; Yang, Jian; Lan, Yucheng; Kozinsky, Boris; Ren, Zhifeng

    2015-03-01

    We report a peak dimensionless figure-of-merit (ZT) of ~1 at 700 oC in nanostructured p-type Nb0.6Ti0.4FeSb0.95Sn0.05composition. Even though the power factor of the Nb0.6Ti0.4FeSb0.95Sn0.05 composition is improved by 25% in comparison to the previously reported p-type Hf0.44Zr0.44Ti0.12CoSb0.8Sn0.2, the ZT value is not increased due to a higher thermal conductivity. However, the higher power factor of the Nb0.6Ti0.4FeSb0.95Sn0.05 composition led to a 15% increase in power output of a thermoelectric device in comparison to a device made from the previous best material Hf0.44Zr0.44Ti0.12CoSb0.8Sn0.2. The n-type material used to make the unicouple device is the best reported nanostructured Hf0.25Zr0.75NiSn0.99Sb0.01 composition with the lowest hafnium (Hf) content. Both the p- and n-type nanostructured samples are prepared by ball milling the arc melted ingot and hot pressing the finely ground powders. Moreover, the raw material cost of the Nb0.6Ti0.4FeSb0.95Sn0.05 composition is more than six times lower compared to the cost of the previous best p-type Hf0.44Zr0.44Ti0.12CoSb0.8Sn0.2. This cost reduction is crucial for these materials to be used in large-scale quantities for vehicle and industrial waste heat recovery applications. DOE:DE-EE0004840.

  11. Growth and characterization of Hg1–CdTe epitaxial films by isothermal vapour phase epitaxy (ISOVPE)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manju Malhotra; Madhukar Gautam; J K Radhakrishnan; Vinod Kapoor; Sudeep Verma; Upendra Kumar; Anand Kumar; Garima Gupta; Anshu Goyal; S Sitharaman

    2005-04-01

    Growth of Hg1–CdTe epitaxial films by a new technique called asymmetric vapour phase epitaxy (ASVPE) has been carried out on CdTe and CZT substrates. The critical problems faced in normal vapour phase epitaxy technique like poor surface morphology, composition gradient and dislocation multiplication have been successfully solved. The epitaxial films have been electrically characterized by using the Hall effect and capacitance–voltage (–) measurements.

  12. Electronic characteristics of p-type transparent SnO monolayer with high carrier mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; Xia, Congxin; Liu, Yaming; Li, Xueping; Peng, Yuting; Wei, Shuyi

    2017-04-01

    More recently, two-dimensional (2D) SnO nanosheets are attaching great attention due to its excellent carrier mobility and transparent characteristics. Here, the stability, electronic structures and carrier mobility of SnO monolayer are investigated by using first-principles calculations. The calculations of the phonon dispersion spectra indicate that SnO monolayer is dynamically stable. Moreover, the band gap values are decreased from 3.93 eV to 2.75 eV when the tensile strain is applied from 0% to 12%. Interestingly, SnO monolayer is a p-type transparent semiconducting oxide with hole mobility of 641 cm2 V-1 s-1, which is much higher than that of MoS2 monolayer. These findings make SnO monolayer becomes a promising 2D material for applications in nanoelectronic devices.

  13. Chemical synthesis of p-type nanocrystalline copper selenide thin films for heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambade, Swapnil B.; Mane, R. S.; Kale, S. S.; Sonawane, S. H.; Shaikh, Arif V.; Han, Sung-Hwan

    2006-12-01

    Nanocrystalline thin films of copper selenide have been grown on glass and tin doped-indium oxide substrates using chemical method. At ambient temperature, golden films have been synthesized and annealed at 200 °C for 1 h and were examined for their structural, surface morphological and optical properties by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and UV-vis spectrophotometry techniques, respectively. Cu 2- xSe phase was confirmed by XRD pattern and spherical grains of 30 ± 4 - 40 ± 4 nm in size aggregated over about 130 ± 10 nm islands were seen by SEM images. Effect of annealing on crystallinity improvement, band edge shift and photoelectrochemical performance (under 80 mW/cm 2 light intensity and in lithium iodide electrolyte) has been studied and reported. Observed p-type electrical conductivity in copper selenide thin films make it a suitable candidate for heterojunction solar cells.

  14. How thermoelectric properties of p-type Tl-filled skutterudites are improved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghun Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The high-temperature thermoelectric properties of p-type Tl-filled skutterudites TlxFe1Co3Sb12 (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 were examined. While samples with x ≤ 0.4 were single-phase Tl-filled skutterudite, samples with x = 0.6 and 0.8 were composed of two phases: TlxFe1Co3Sb12 (x ≈ 0.4 as the matrix phase and a Tl-Fe-Sb ternary alloy. The thermal conductivity (κ was reduced effectively by Tl addition, but the secondary phase increased κ slightly. The maximum value of the dimensionless figure of merit ZT (=S2T/ρ/κ, where T is the absolute temperature was 0.36 at 723 K for Tl0.2Fe1Co3Sb12.

  15. P-type calcium channels are blocked by the alkaloid daurisoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y M; Fröstl, W; Dreessen, J; Knöpfel, T

    1994-07-21

    IN looking for a structurally defined non-peptide P-channel blocker we have tested the alkaloid daurisoline which has been isolated from traditional Chinese medicinal herb (Menispermum dauricum) used for the treatment of epilepsy, hypertension and asthma. We have found that daurisoline is an inhibitor of omega-Aga-IVA sensitive barium currents in cerebellar Purkinje cells and of excitatory postsynaptic potentials evoked in Purkinje cells by stimulating parallel fibres in acutely prepared cerebellar slices. Daurisoline did not significantly affect omega-Aga-IVA-insensitive barium currents recorded from granule cells freshly isolated from rat cerebellum. Daurisoline passes the blood-brain barrier and will, therefore, facilitate the functional characterization of brain calcium channels as well as the exploration of P-type calcium channels as possible drug targets.

  16. Nanoscale Cross-Point Resistive Switching Memory Comprising p-Type SnO Bilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Hota, Mrinal Kanti

    2015-02-23

    Reproducible low-voltage bipolar resistive switching is reported in bilayer structures of p-type SnO films. Specifically, a bilayer homojunction comprising SnOx (oxygen-rich) and SnOy (oxygen-deficient) in nanoscale cross-point (300 × 300 nm2) architecture with self-compliance effect is demonstrated. By using two layers of SnO film, a good memory performance is obtained as compared to the individual oxide films. The memory devices show resistance ratio of 103 between the high resistance and low resistance states, and this difference can be maintained for up to 180 cycles. The devices also show good retention characteristics, where no significant degradation is observed for more than 103 s. Different charge transport mechanisms are found in both resistance states, depending on the applied voltage range and its polarity. The resistive switching is shown to originate from the oxygen ion migration and subsequent formation/rupture of conducting filaments.

  17. Improved thermoelectric efficiency in p-type ZnSb through Zn deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qilong; Luo, Sijun

    2015-12-01

    We herein report a feasible approach to improve the thermoelectric performance of p-type ZnSb compound by Zn content regulation. It is found that Zn vacancies formed by Zn deficiency not only efficiently enhance the electrical conductivity due to the improved hole concentration but also markedly lower the lattice thermal conductivity on account of the reinforced point defect scattering of phonons. The ZnSb compound with a nominal 3 mol.% Zn deficiency shows a maximum thermoelectric figure of merit ZT of 0.8 at 700 K which is a 60% improvement over the pristine sample. The strategies of further enhancing the performance of ZnSb-based material have been discussed.

  18. Origin of resistivity anomaly in p-type leads chalcogenide multiphase compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aminorroaya Yamini, Sima, E-mail: sima@uow.edu.au, E-mail: jsnyder@caltech.edu; Dou, Shi Xue [Australian Institute for Innovative Materials (AIIM), Innovation Campus, University of Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia); Mitchell, David R. G. [Electron Microscopy Centre (EMC), Australian Institute for Innovative Materials (AIIM), Innovation Campus, University of Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia); Wang, Heng [Materials Science, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gibbs, Zachary M. [Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Pei, Yanzhong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 4800 Caoan Road, Shanghai 201804 (China); Snyder, G. Jeffrey, E-mail: sima@uow.edu.au, E-mail: jsnyder@caltech.edu [Electron Microscopy Centre (EMC), Australian Institute for Innovative Materials (AIIM), Innovation Campus, University of Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia); ITMO University, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-15

    The electrical resistivity curves for binary phase compounds of p-type lead chalcogenide (PbTe){sub (0.9−x)}(PbSe){sub 0.1}(PbS){sub x,} (x = 0.15, 0.2, 0.25), which contain PbS-rich secondary phases, show different behaviour on heating and cooling between 500-700 K. This is contrast to single phase compounds which exhibit similar behaviour on heating and cooling. We correlate these anomalies in the electrical resistivities of multiphase compounds to the variation in phase composition at high temperatures. The inhomogeneous distribution of dopants between the matrix and secondary phase is found to be crucial in the electronic transport properties of the multiphase compounds. These results can lead to further advances in designing composite Pb-chalcogenides with high thermoelectric performance.

  19. Photostable p-type dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells for water reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhiqiang; He, Mingfu; Huang, Zhongjie; Ozkan, Umit; Wu, Yiying

    2013-08-14

    A photostable p-type NiO photocathode based on a bifunctional cyclometalated ruthenium sensitizer and a cobaloxime catalyst has been created for visible-light-driven water reduction to produce H2. The sensitizer is anchored firmly on the surface of NiO, and the binding is resistant to the hydrolytic cleavage. The bifunctional sensitizer can also immobilize the water reduction catalyst. The resultant photoelectrode exhibits superior stability in aqueous solutions. Stable photocurrents have been observed over a period of hours. This finding is useful for addressing the degradation issue in dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells caused by desorption of dyes and catalysts. The high stability of our photocathodes should be important for the practical application of these devices for solar fuel production.

  20. Improved performance of P-type DSCs with a compact blocking layer coated by different thicknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Phuong; Bao, Le Quoc; Cheruku, Rajesh; Kim, Jae Hong

    2016-09-01

    The introduction of different thicknesses of a compact NiO blocking layer coating with different spin speeds on FTO and followed by a coating of photoactive NiO electrode for p-type dye-sensitized solar cells ( p-DSCs). This study examined the fabrication of a compact NiO blocking layer by decomposing an ethanolic precursor solution of nickel acetate tetrahydrate. The DCBZ dye used as the photosensitizer for the NiO electrode in the p-DSCs device and their performances have been analyzed. The enhancement of photovoltaic performance and resulted from an increase in the power conversion efficiency ( η). The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurement demonstrated that charge recombination was suppressed when a compact NiO blocking layer was applied. The results showed that the best p-DSC was achieved by employing 3000 rpm spin-coated process for different times of blocking layer.